Jensen, B L; Rasch, Ruth; Nyengaard, Jens Randel
The mutant beige mouse (C57BL/6 bg) has a disease characterised by abnormally enlarged cytoplasmic granules in a variety of cells. With the purpose of establishing a suitable cellular model for studying renin secretion, the present study was undertaken to compare renin granule morphology in beige...... (average granular volume 0.681 microm3), whereas 1-2 large granules were present per cell in beige mice. The volume of afferent arteriole that contained secretory granules was lower in the beige mice. We conclude that the beige mouse synthesizes, stores and releases active renin. Renin secretory granules...... in beige mice are grossly enlarged with 1-2 granules per juxtaglomerular cell. Compared with control mice, a similar amount of total renin granule volume per afferent arteriole is contained in a smaller part of beige mouse afferent arteriole. Granular cells from beige mice could therefore be a valuable...
Baconnais, S.; Delavoie, F.; Zahm, J.M.; Milliot, M.; Terryn, C.; Castillon, N.; Banchet, V.; Michel, J.; Danos, O.; Merten, M.; Chinet, T.; Zierold, K.; Bonnet, N.; Puchelle, E.; Balossier, G.
The absence or decreased expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) induces increased Na + absorption and hyperabsorption of the airway surface liquid (ASL) resulting in a dehydrated and hyperviscous ASL. Although the implication of abnormal airway submucosal gland function has been suggested, the ion and water content in the Cystic Fibrosis (CF) glandular secretory granules, before exocytosis, is unknown. We analyzed, in non-CF and CF human airway glandular cell lines (MM-39 and KM4, respectively), the ion content in the secretory granules by electron probe X-ray microanalysis and the water content by quantitative dark field imaging on freeze-dried cryosections. We demonstrated that the ion content (Na + , Mg 2+ , P, S and Cl - ) is significantly higher and the water content significantly lower in secretory granules from the CF cell line compared to the non-CF cell line. Using videomicroscopy, we observed that the secretory granule expansion was deficient in CF glandular cells. Transfection of CF cells with CFTR cDNA or inhibition of non-CF cells with CFTR inh -172, respectively restored or decreased the water content and granule expansion, in parallel with changes in ion content. We hypothesize that the decreased water and increased ion content in glandular secretory granules may contribute to the dehydration and increased viscosity of the ASL in CF
Conclusions: Together with our previous studies, the current data reveal a conserved role for BIG3 in regulating alpha- and beta-cell functions. We propose that BIG3 negatively regulates hormone production at the secretory granule biogenesis stage and that such regulatory mechanism may be used in secretory pathways of other endocrine cells.
Poulsen, Mona Dam; Hansen, Gert Helge; Dabelsteen, Erik
Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DP IV:EC 184.108.40.206) was localized in endocrine cells of pig pancreas by immunohistochemical and enzyme histochemical methods. Immunolight microscopy with both monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies demonstrated DP IV immunoreactivity in cells located in the peripheral part...... of the islets of Langerhans. The antigen is enzymatically active, as shown by enzyme histochemical analysis with a synthetic DP IV substrate. By immunoelectron microscopy (immunogold labeling), the labeling of DP IV in the islets was associated with the secretory granules of the A-cells, as identified by double...... labeling using a monoclonal glucagon antibody as the second primary antibody. These results show that DP IV is sorted to secretory granules in the pig pancreatic islet A-cells. Furthermore, this secretory granule enzyme, as opposed to intestinal brush border DP IV, is suggested to be a soluble protein...
Samuel B. Stephens
Full Text Available The prohormone VGF is expressed in neuroendocrine and endocrine tissues and regulates nutrient and energy status both centrally and peripherally. We and others have shown that VGF-derived peptides have direct action on the islet β cell as secretagogues and cytoprotective agents; however, the endogenous function of VGF in the β cell has not been described. Here, we demonstrate that VGF regulates secretory granule formation. VGF loss-of-function studies in both isolated islets and conditional knockout mice reveal a profound decrease in stimulus-coupled insulin secretion. Moreover, VGF is necessary to facilitate efficient exit of granule cargo from the trans-Golgi network and proinsulin processing. It also functions to replenish insulin granule stores following nutrient stimulation. Our data support a model in which VGF operates at a critical node of granule biogenesis in the islet β cell to coordinate insulin biosynthesis with β cell secretory capacity.
Somanath, Sangeeta [Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, E1 2AT (United Kingdom); Partridge, Christopher J. [Diabetes Research Laboratories, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Churchill Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 7LJ (United Kingdom); Marshall, Catriona [Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, E1 2AT (United Kingdom); Rowe, Tony [CSL Limited, 45 Poplar Road, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Turner, Mark D., E-mail: email@example.com [Interdisciplinary Biomedical Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, NG11 8NS (United Kingdom)
Secretory granule exocytosis is a tightly regulated process requiring granule targeting, tethering, priming, and membrane fusion. At the heart of this process is the SNARE complex, which drives fusion through a coiled-coil zippering effect mediated by the granule v-SNARE protein, VAMP2, and the plasma membrane t-SNAREs, SNAP-25 and syntaxin-1A. Here we demonstrate that in pancreatic β-cells the SNAP-25 accessory protein, snapin, C-terminal H2 domain binds SNAP-25 through its N-terminal Sn-1 domain. Interestingly whilst snapin binds SNAP-25, there is only modest binding of this complex with syntaxin-1A under resting conditions. Instead synataxin-1A appears to be recruited in response to secretory stimulation. These results indicate that snapin plays a role in tethering insulin granules to the plasma membrane through coiled coil interaction of snapin with SNAP-25, with full granule fusion competency only resulting after subsequent syntaxin-1A recruitment triggered by secretory stimulation. - Highlights: • Snapin mediates granule docking. • Snapin binds SNAP-25. • SNARE complex forms downstream.
Somanath, Sangeeta; Partridge, Christopher J.; Marshall, Catriona; Rowe, Tony; Turner, Mark D.
Secretory granule exocytosis is a tightly regulated process requiring granule targeting, tethering, priming, and membrane fusion. At the heart of this process is the SNARE complex, which drives fusion through a coiled-coil zippering effect mediated by the granule v-SNARE protein, VAMP2, and the plasma membrane t-SNAREs, SNAP-25 and syntaxin-1A. Here we demonstrate that in pancreatic β-cells the SNAP-25 accessory protein, snapin, C-terminal H2 domain binds SNAP-25 through its N-terminal Sn-1 domain. Interestingly whilst snapin binds SNAP-25, there is only modest binding of this complex with syntaxin-1A under resting conditions. Instead synataxin-1A appears to be recruited in response to secretory stimulation. These results indicate that snapin plays a role in tethering insulin granules to the plasma membrane through coiled coil interaction of snapin with SNAP-25, with full granule fusion competency only resulting after subsequent syntaxin-1A recruitment triggered by secretory stimulation. - Highlights: • Snapin mediates granule docking. • Snapin binds SNAP-25. • SNARE complex forms downstream.
Grujic, Mirjana; Calounova, Gabriela; Eriksson, Inger; Feyerabend, Thorsten; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Tchougounova, Elena; Kjellén, Lena; Pejler, Gunnar
Mast cells are characterized by an abundance of secretory granules densely packed with inflammatory mediators such as bioactive amines, cytokines, serglycin proteoglycans with negatively charged glycosaminoglycan side chains of either heparin or chondroitin sulfate type, and large amounts of positively charged proteases. Despite the large biological impact of mast cell granules and their contents on various pathologies, the mechanisms that regulate granule composition are incompletely understood. In this study, we hypothesized that granule composition is dependent on a dynamic electrostatic interrelationship between different granule compounds. As a tool to evaluate this possibility, we generated mice in which mast cells are multideficient in a panel of positively charged proteases: the chymase mouse mast cell protease-4, the tryptase mouse mast cell protease-6, and carboxypeptidase A3. Through a posttranslational effect, mast cells from these mice additionally lack mouse mast cell protease-5 protein. Mast cells from mice deficient in individual proteases showed normal morphology. In contrast, mast cells with combined protease deficiency displayed a profound distortion of granule integrity, as seen both by conventional morphological criteria and by transmission electron microscopy. An assessment of granule content revealed that the distorted granule integrity in multiprotease-deficient mast cells was associated with a profound reduction of highly negatively charged heparin, whereas no reduction in chondroitin sulfate storage was observed. Taken together with previous findings showing that the storage of basic proteases conversely is regulated by anionic proteoglycans, these data suggest that secretory granule composition in mast cells is dependent on a dynamic interrelationship between granule compounds of opposite electrical charge.
Harthoorn, L F; Diederen, J H; Oudejans, R C; Verstegen, M M; Vullings, H G; Van der Horst, D J
The intracisternal granules in locust adipokinetic cells appear to represent accumulations of secretory material within cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. An important question is whether these granules are destined for degradation or represent stores of (pro)hormones. Two strategies were used to answer this question. First, cytochemistry was applied to elucidate the properties of intracisternal granules. The endocytic tracers horseradish peroxidase and wheat-germ agglutinin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase were used to facilitate the identification of endocytic, autophagic, and lysosomal organelles, which may be involved in the degradation of intracisternal granules. No intracisternal granules could be found within autophagosomes, and granules fused with endocytic and lysosomal organelles were not observed, nor could tracer be found within the granules. The lysosomal enzyme acid phosphatase was absent from the granules. Second, biochemical analysis of the content of intracisternal granules revealed that these granules contain prohormones as well as hormones. Prohormones were present in relatively higher amounts compared with ordinary secretory granules. Since the intracisternal granules in locust adipokinetic cells are not degraded and contain intact (pro)hormones it is concluded that they function as supplementary stores of secretory material.
Hatanaka, Masayuki; Tanabe, Katsuya; Yanai, Akie; Ohta, Yasuharu; Kondo, Manabu; Akiyama, Masaru; Shinoda, Koh; Oka, Yoshitomo; Tanizawa, Yukio
Wolfram syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by juvenile-onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy. The gene responsible for the syndrome (WFS1) encodes an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident transmembrane protein. The Wfs1-null mouse exhibits progressive insulin deficiency causing diabetes. Previous work suggested that the function of the WFS1 protein is connected to unfolded protein response and to intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. However, its precise molecular function in pancreatic β-cells remains elusive. In our present study, immunofluorescent and electron-microscopic analyses revealed that WFS1 localizes not only to ER but also to secretory granules in pancreatic β-cells. Intragranular acidification was assessed by measuring intracellular fluorescence intensity raised by the acidotrophic agent, 3-[2,4-dinitroanilino]-3'-amino-N-methyldipropyramine. Compared with wild-type β-cells, there was a 32% reduction in the intensity in WFS1-deficient β-cells, indicating the impairment of granular acidification. This phenotype may, at least partly, account for the evidence that Wfs1-null islets have impaired proinsulin processing, resulting in an increased circulating proinsulin level. Morphometric analysis using electron microscopy evidenced that the density of secretory granules attached to the plasma membrane was significantly reduced in Wfs1-null β-cells relative to that in wild-type β-cells. This may be relevant to the recent finding that granular acidification is required for the priming of secretory granules preceding exocytosis and may partly explain the fact that glucose-induced insulin secretion is profoundly impaired in young prediabetic Wfs1-null mice. These results thus provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of β-cell dysfunction in patients with Wolfram syndrome.
Francone, Victor P; Ifrim, Marius F; Rajagopal, Chitra; Leddy, Christopher J; Wang, Yanping; Carson, John H; Mains, Richard E; Eipper, Betty A
Neurons and endocrine cells package peptides in secretory granules (large dense-core vesicles) for storage and stimulated release. Studies of peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), an essential secretory granule membrane enzyme, revealed a pathway that can relay information from secretory granules to the nucleus, resulting in alterations in gene expression. The cytosolic domain (CD) of PAM, a type 1 membrane enzyme essential for the production of amidated peptides, is basally phosphorylated by U2AF homology motif kinase 1 (Uhmk1) and other Ser/Thr kinases. Proopiomelanocortin processing in AtT-20 corticotrope tumor cells was increased when Uhmk1 expression was reduced. Uhmk1 was concentrated in the nucleus, but cycled rapidly between nucleus and cytosol. Endoproteolytic cleavage of PAM releases a soluble CD fragment that localizes to the nucleus. Localization of PAM-CD to the nucleus was decreased when PAM-CD with phosphomimetic mutations was examined and when active Uhmk1 was simultaneously overexpressed. Membrane-tethering Uhmk1 did not eliminate its ability to exclude PAM-CD from the nucleus, suggesting that cytosolic Uhmk1 could cause this response. Microarray analysis demonstrated the ability of PAM to increase expression of a small subset of genes, including aquaporin 1 (Aqp1) in AtT-20 cells. Aqp1 mRNA levels were higher in wild-type mice than in mice heterozygous for PAM, indicating that a similar relationship occurs in vivo. Expression of PAM-CD also increased Aqp1 levels whereas expression of Uhmk1 diminished Aqp1 expression. The outlines of a pathway that ties secretory granule metabolism to the transcriptome are thus apparent.
The effect of Ca2+ and calmodulin on phosphorylation of islet secretory granule proteins was studied. Secretory granules were incubated in a phosphorylation reaction mixture containing [32P]ATP and test reagents. The 32P-labeled proteins were resolved by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the 32P content was visualized by autoradiography, and the relative intensities of specific bands were quantitated. When the reaction mixture contained EGTA and no added Ca2+, 32P was incorporated into two proteins with molecular weights of 45,000 and 13,000. When 10(-4) M Ca2+ was added without EGTA, two additional proteins (58,000 and 48,000 Mr) were phosphorylated, and the 13,000-Mr protein was absent. The addition of 2.4 microM calmodulin markedly enhanced the phosphorylation of the 58,000- and 48,000-Mr proteins and resulted in the phosphorylation of a major protein whose molecular weight (64,000 Mr) is identical to that of one of the calmodulin binding proteins located on the granule surface. Calmodulin had no effect on phosphorylation in the absence of Ca2+ but was effective in the presence of calcium between 10 nM and 50 microM. Trifluoperazine and calmidazolium, calmodulin antagonists, produced a dose-dependent inhibition of the calmodulin effect. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate, a phorbol ester that activates protein kinase C, produced no increase in phosphorylation, and 1-(5-isoquinoline sulfonyl)-2-methyl piperazine dihydrochloride, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, had no effect. These results indicate that Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent protein kinases and endogenous substrates are present in islet secretory granules
Fujita-Yoshigaki, Junko; Katsumata, Osamu; Matsuki, Miwako; Yoshigaki, Tomoyoshi; Furuyama, Shunsuke; Sugiya, Hiroshi
Secretory granules (SGs) are considered to be generated as immature granules and to mature by condensation of their contents. In this study, SGs of parotid gland were separated into low-, medium-, and high-density granule fractions by Percoll-density gradient centrifugation, since it was proposed that the density corresponds to the degree of maturation. The observation with electron microscopy showed that granules in the three fractions were very similar. The average diameter of high-density granules was a little but significantly larger than that of low-density granules. Although the three fractions contained amylase, suggesting that they are all SGs, distribution of membrane proteins was markedly different. Syntaxin6 and VAMP4 were localized in the low-density granule fraction, while VAMP2 was concentrated in the high-density granule fraction. Immunoprecipitation with anti-syntaxin6 antibody caused coprecipitation of VAMP2 from the medium-density granule fraction without solubilization, but not from Triton X-100-solubilized fraction, while VAMP4 was coprecipitated from both fractions. Therefore, VAMP2 is present on the same granules, but is separated from syntaxin6 and VAMP4, which are expected to be removed from immature granules. These results suggest that the medium-density granules are intermediates from low- to high-density granules, and that the membrane components of SGs dynamically change by budding and fusion during maturation
Full Text Available Peptide/protein hormones could be stored as non-toxic amyloid-like structures in pituitary secretory granules. ACTH and β-endorphin are two of the important peptide hormones that get co-stored in the pituitary secretory granules. Here, we study molecular interactions between ACTH and β-endorphin and their colocalization in the form of amyloid aggregates. Although ACTH is known to be a part of ACTH-β-endorphin aggregate, ACTH alone cannot aggregate into amyloid under various plausible conditions. Using all atom molecular dynamics simulation we investigate the early molecular interaction events in the ACTH-β-endorphin system, β-endorphin-only system and ACTH-only system. We find that β-endorphin and ACTH formed an interacting unit, whereas negligible interactions were observed between ACTH molecules in ACTH-only system. Our data suggest that ACTH is not only involved in interaction with β-endorphin but also enhances the stability of mixed oligomers of the entire system.
Hansen, Gert H; Rasmussen, Karina; Niels-Christiansen, Lise-Lotte
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) is an acute-phase protein involved in the host's response to endotoxin and mainly synthesized and secreted to the blood by the liver. But in addition, LBP is also made by extrahepatic cells, including the enterocyte-like cell line Caco-2. To study...... in closer detail the synthesis and storage of LBP in the intestinal mucosal epithelium, we performed an immunolocalization of LBP in mouse small intestine. By immunofluorescence microscopy, an antibody recognizing the 58-60 kDa protein of LBP distinctly labeled a small population of cells located deep...... into the crypts. This cell population was also positive for lysozyme and alpha-defensin 4, identifying Paneth cells as the main intestinal LBP-producing cells. By immunogold electron microscopy, intense labeling was observed in the secretory granules of these cells. We conclude that Paneth cells express LBP...
Full Text Available The events involved in the maturation process of acinar secretory granules of rat parotid gland were investigated ultrastructurally and cytochemically by using a battery of four lectins [Triticum vulgaris agglutinin (WGA, Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I, Glycine max agglutinin (SBA, Arachys hypogaea agglutinin (PNA]. In order to facilitate the study, parotid glands were chronically stimulated with isoproterenol to induce secretion. Specimens were embedded in the Lowicryl K4M resin. The trans-Golgi network (TGN derived secretory granules, which we refer to as immature secretory granules, were found to be intermediate structures in the biogenesis process of the secretory granules in the rat parotid acinar cell. These early structures do not seem to be the immediate precursor of the mature secretory granules: in fact, a subsequent interaction process between these early immature granule forms and TGN elements seems to occur, leading, finally, to the mature granules. These findings could explain the origin of the polymorphic subpopulations of the secretory granules in the normal acinar cells of the rat parotid gland. The lectin staining patterns were characteristic of each lectin. Immature and mature secretory gran- ules were labelled with WGA, SBA, PNA, and lightly with UEA-I. Cis and intermediate cisternae of the Golgi apparatus were labelled with WGA, and trans cisternae with WGA and SBA.
Yoshitomi, Munetake; Ohta, Keisuke; Kanazawa, Tomonoshin; Togo, Akinobu; Hirashima, Shingo; Uemura, Kei-Ichiro; Okayama, Satoko; Morioka, Motohiro; Nakamura, Kei-Ichiro
Endocrine and endothelial cells of the anterior pituitary gland frequently make close appositions or contacts, and the secretory granules of each endocrine cell tend to accumulate at the perivascular regions, which is generally considered to facilitate secretory functions of these cells. However, three-dimensional relationships between the localization pattern of secretory granules and blood vessels are not fully understood. To define and characterize these spatial relationships, we used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) three-dimensional reconstruction method based on focused ion-beam slicing and scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM). Full three-dimensional cellular architectures of the anterior pituitary tissue at ultrastructural resolution revealed that about 70% of endocrine cells were in apposition to the endothelial cells, while almost 30% of endocrine cells were entirely isolated from perivascular space in the tissue. Our three-dimensional analyses also visualized the distribution pattern of secretory granules in individual endocrine cells, showing an accumulation of secretory granules in regions in close apposition to the blood vessels in many cases. However, secretory granules in cells isolated from the perivascular region tended to distribute uniformly in the cytoplasm of these cells. These data suggest that the cellular interactions between the endocrine and endothelial cells promote an uneven cytoplasmic distribution of the secretory granules.
Melo, Fabio Rabelo; Waern, Ida; Rönnberg, Elin; Åbrink, Magnus; Lee, David M.; Schlenner, Susan M.; Feyerabend, Thorsten B.; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Turk, Boris; Wernersson, Sara; Pejler, Gunnar
Mast cell secretory granules (secretory lysosomes) contain large amounts of fully active proteases bound to serglycin proteoglycan. Damage to the granule membrane will thus lead to the release of serglycin and serglycin-bound proteases into the cytosol, which potentially could lead to proteolytic activation of cytosolic pro-apoptotic compounds. We therefore hypothesized that mast cells are susceptible to apoptosis induced by permeabilization of the granule membrane and that this process is serglycin-dependent. Indeed, we show that wild-type mast cells are highly sensitive to apoptosis induced by granule permeabilization, whereas serglycin-deficient cells are largely resistant. The reduced sensitivity of serglycin−/− cells to apoptosis was accompanied by reduced granule damage, reduced release of proteases into the cytosol, and defective caspase-3 activation. Mechanistically, the apoptosis-promoting effect of serglycin involved serglycin-dependent proteases, as indicated by reduced sensitivity to apoptosis and reduced caspase-3 activation in cells lacking individual mast cell-specific proteases. Together, these findings implicate serglycin proteoglycan as a novel player in mast cell apoptosis. PMID:21123167
The amount of immunoassayable intracellular bovine (b) PRL and GH varies depending on treatment conditions. The present studies were designed to characterize the mechanisms involved and to compare immunoassayability of both hormones under similar conditions. Pituitary homogenate and secretory granule hormones displayed both time- and temperature-dependent increases when incubated at pH 10.5 with reduced glutathione. Changes in immunoassayability seem to reflect conversion from poorly immunoactive tissue hormone oligomers to monomeric hormone. The data indicate that oligomeric bPRL is stabilized primarily by intermolecular disulfide bonds, although it is also susceptible to urea, SDS, and EDTA; granule thiols may also influence the conversion to monomer. The storage form of bGH appears to be stabilized differently. Maneuvers demonstrated in these studies to influence immunoassayability correlate very well with their previously established effects on hormone release and secretion, strengthening the likelihood that a functional link exists between assayability and secretion
Diederen, J H; Vullings, H G
The influence of flight activity on the formation of secretory granules and the concomitant membrane recycling by the trans-Golgi network in the peptidergic neurosecretory adipokinetic cells of Locusta migratoria was investigated by means of ultrastructural morphometric methods. The patterns of labelling of the trans-Golgi network by the exogenous adsorptive endocytotic tracer wheat-germ agglutinin-conjugated horse-radish peroxidase and by the endogenous marker enzyme acid phosphatase were used as parameters and were measured by an automatic image analysis system. The results show that endocytosed fragments of plasma membrane with bound peroxidase label were transported to the trans-Golgi network and used to build new secretory granules. The amounts of peroxidase and especially of acid phosphatase within the trans-Golgi network showed a strong tendency to be smaller in flight-stimulated cells than in non-stimulated cells. The amounts of acid phosphatase in the immature secretory granules originating from the trans-Golgi network were significantly smaller in stimulated cells. The number of immature secretory granules positive for acid phosphatase tended to be higher in stimulated cells. Thus, flight stimulation of adipokinetic cells for 1 h influences the functioning of the trans-Golgi network; this most probably results in a slight enhancement of the production of secretory granules by the trans-Golgi network.
Fujita-Yoshigaki, Junko; Matsuki-Fukushima, Miwako; Yokoyama, Megumi; Katsumata-Kato, Osamu
The mechanism involved in the sorting and accumulation of secretory cargo proteins, such as amylase, into secretory granules of exocrine cells remains to be solved. To clarify that sorting mechanism, we expressed a reporter protein HaloTag fused with partial sequences of salivary amylase protein in primary cultured parotid acinar cells. We found that a HaloTag protein fused with only the signal peptide sequence (Met(1)-Ala(25)) of amylase, termed SS25H, colocalized well with endogenous amylase, which was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Percoll-density gradient centrifugation of secretory granule fractions shows that the distributions of amylase and SS25H were similar. These results suggest that SS25H is transported to secretory granules and is not discriminated from endogenous amylase by the machinery that functions to remove proteins other than granule cargo from immature granules. Another reporter protein, DsRed2, that has the same signal peptide sequence also colocalized with amylase, suggesting that the sorting to secretory granules is not dependent on a characteristic of the HaloTag protein. Whereas Blue Native PAGE demonstrates that endogenous amylase forms a high-molecular-weight complex, SS25H does not participate in the complex and does not form self-aggregates. Nevertheless, SS25H was released from cells by the addition of a β-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol, which also induces amylase secretion. These results indicate that addition of the signal peptide sequence, which is necessary for the translocation in the endoplasmic reticulum, is sufficient for the transportation and storage of cargo proteins in secretory granules of exocrine cells.
Distribution Profile of Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptor/Ca2+ Channels in α and β Cells of Pancreas: Dominant Localization in Secretory Granules and Common Error in Identification of Secretory Granule Membranes.
Hur, Yong Suk; Yoo, Seung Hyun
The α and β cells of pancreatic islet release important hormones in response to intracellular Ca increases that result from Ca releases through the inositol 1,4,5-trisphoshate receptor (IP3R)/Ca channels. Yet no systematic studies on distribution of IP3R/Ca channels have been done, prompting us to investigate the distribution of all 3 IP3R isoforms. Immunogold electron microscopy was performed to determine the presence and the relative concentrations of all 3 IP3R isoforms in 2 major organelles secretory granules (SGs) and the endoplasmic reticulum of α and β cells of rat pancreas. All 3 IP3R isoforms were present in SG membranes of both cells, and the IP3R concentrations in SGs were ∼2-fold higher than those in the endoplasmic reticulum. Moreover, large halos shown in the electron microscope images of insulin-containing SGs of β cells were gap spaces that resulted from separation of granule membranes from the surrounding cytoplasm. These results strongly suggest the important roles of SGs in IP3-induced, Ca-dependent regulatory secretory pathway in pancreas. Moreover, the accurate location of SG membranes of β cells was further confirmed by the location of another integral membrane protein synaptotagmin V and of membrane phospholipid PI(4,5)P2.
Rørvig, Sara; Østergaard, Ole; Heegaard, Niels Henrik Helweg
granules, SVs, and plasma membrane has been performed before. Here, we performed subcellular fractionation on freshly isolated human neutrophils by nitrogen cavitation and density centrifugation on a four-layer Percoll gradient. Granule subsets were pooled and subjected to SDS-PAGE, and gel pieces were in...... subcellular proteome profiles presented here may be used as a database in combination with the mRNA array database to predict and test the presence and localization of proteins in neutrophil granules and membranes....
Beinfeld, M. C.; Bourdais, J.; Kuks, P.; Morel, A.; Cohen, P.
We have extracted, characterized, and partially purified an enzyme from secretory granules from rat small intestinal mucosa which cleaves a synthetic prosomatostatin substrate on the carboxyl side of a single arginine residue. This substrate Leu-Gln-Arg-Ser-Ala-Asn-Ser-NH2 contains the monobasic
MacDonald, Michael J.; Ade, Lacmbouh; Ntambi, James M.; Ansari, Israr-Ul H.; Stoker, Scott W.
The lipid composition of insulin secretory granules (ISG) has never previously been thoroughly characterized. We characterized the phospholipid composition of ISG and mitochondria in pancreatic beta cells without and with glucose stimulation. The phospholipid/protein ratios of most phospholipids containing unsaturated fatty acids were higher in ISG than in whole cells and in mitochondria. The concentrations of negatively charged phospholipids, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylinositol in ISG were 5-fold higher than in the whole cell. In ISG phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and sphingomyelin, fatty acids 12:0 and 14:0 were high, as were phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol containing 18-carbon unsaturated FA. With glucose stimulation, the concentration of many ISG phosphatidylserines and phosphatidylinositols increased; unsaturated fatty acids in phosphatidylserine increased; and most phosphatidylethanolamines, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, and lysophosphatidylcholines were unchanged. Unsaturation and shorter fatty acid length in phospholipids facilitate curvature and fluidity of membranes, which favors fusion of membranes. Recent evidence suggests that negatively charged phospholipids, such as phosphatidylserine, act as coupling factors enhancing the interaction of positively charged regions in SNARE proteins in synaptic or secretory vesicle membrane lipid bilayers with positively charged regions in SNARE proteins in the plasma membrane lipid bilayer to facilitate docking of vesicles to the plasma membrane during exocytosis. The results indicate that ISG phospholipids are in a dynamic state and are consistent with the idea that changes in ISG phospholipids facilitate fusion of ISG with the plasma membrane-enhancing glucose-stimulated insulin exocytosis. PMID:25762724
MacDonald, Michael J; Ade, Lacmbouh; Ntambi, James M; Ansari, Israr-Ul H; Stoker, Scott W
The lipid composition of insulin secretory granules (ISG) has never previously been thoroughly characterized. We characterized the phospholipid composition of ISG and mitochondria in pancreatic beta cells without and with glucose stimulation. The phospholipid/protein ratios of most phospholipids containing unsaturated fatty acids were higher in ISG than in whole cells and in mitochondria. The concentrations of negatively charged phospholipids, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylinositol in ISG were 5-fold higher than in the whole cell. In ISG phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and sphingomyelin, fatty acids 12:0 and 14:0 were high, as were phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol containing 18-carbon unsaturated FA. With glucose stimulation, the concentration of many ISG phosphatidylserines and phosphatidylinositols increased; unsaturated fatty acids in phosphatidylserine increased; and most phosphatidylethanolamines, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, and lysophosphatidylcholines were unchanged. Unsaturation and shorter fatty acid length in phospholipids facilitate curvature and fluidity of membranes, which favors fusion of membranes. Recent evidence suggests that negatively charged phospholipids, such as phosphatidylserine, act as coupling factors enhancing the interaction of positively charged regions in SNARE proteins in synaptic or secretory vesicle membrane lipid bilayers with positively charged regions in SNARE proteins in the plasma membrane lipid bilayer to facilitate docking of vesicles to the plasma membrane during exocytosis. The results indicate that ISG phospholipids are in a dynamic state and are consistent with the idea that changes in ISG phospholipids facilitate fusion of ISG with the plasma membrane-enhancing glucose-stimulated insulin exocytosis. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Marečková, Lucie; Petroková, Hana; Osička, Radim; Kuchař, Milan; Malý, Petr
Roč. 6, č. 10 (2015), s. 774-779 ISSN 1674-800X Institutional support: RVO:86652036 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : prostate secretory protein * prostate cancer * oncomarker Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 3.817, year: 2015
Hildebrandt, E.; Albanesi, J.P.
Chromaffin granule membranes prepared from bovine adrenal medullae showed Ca 2+ -stimulated phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) activity when assayed at pH 9.0 with phosphatidylcholine containing an [ 14 C]-arachidonyl group in the 2-position. However, the activity occurred in both soluble and particulate subcellular fractions, and did not codistribute with markers for the secretory granule. PLA 2 activity in the granule membrane preparation was stimulated dramatically by addition of glycerol, ethylene glycole, or poly(ethylene glycol). This glycol-stimulated PLA 2 activity codistributed with membrane-bound dopamine β-hydroxylase, a marker for the granule membranes, through the sequence of differential centrifugation steps employed to prepare the granule membrane fraction, as well as on a sucrose density gradient which resolved the granules from mitochondria, lysosomes, and plasma membrane. The glycol-stimulated PLA 2 of the chromaffin granule was membrane-bound, exhibited a pH optimum of 7.8, retained activity in the presence of EDTA, and was inactivated by p-bromophenacyl bromide. When different 14 C-labeled phospholipids were incorporated into diarachidonylphosphatidylcholine liposomes, 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonylphosphatidylcholine was a better substrate for this enzyme than 1-palmitoyl-2-oleylphosphatidylcholine or 1-acyl-2-arachidonyl-phosphatidylethhanolamine, and distearoylphosphatidylcholine was not hydrolyzed
Stevens, R.L.; Austen, K.F.; Fox, C.C.; Lichtenstein, L.M.
The predominant subclasses of mast cells in both the rat and the mouse can be distinguished from one another by their preferential synthesis of 35 S-labeled proteoglycans that contain either heparin or oversulfated chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans. Although [ 35 S]heparin proteoglycans have been isolated from human lung mast cells of 40-70% purity and from a skin biopsy specimen of a patient with urticaria pigmentosa, no highly sulfated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan has been isolated from any enriched or highly purified population of human mast cells. The authors demonstrate that human lung mast cells of 96% purity incorporate [ 35 S]sulfate into separate heparin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in an ∼2:1 ratio. As assessed by HPLC of the chondroitinase ABC digests, the chondroitin [ 35 S]sulfate proteoglycans isolated from these human lung mast cells contain the same unusual chondroitin sulfate E disaccharide that is present in proteoglycans produced by interleukin 3-dependent mucosal-like mouse mast cells. Both the chondroitin [ 35 S]sulfate E proteoglycans and the [ 35 S]heparin proteoglycans were exocytosed from the [ 35 S]sulfate-labeled cells via perturbation of the IgE receptor, indicating that both types of 35 S-labeled proteoglycans reside in the secretory granules of these human lung mast cells
Nikhil R Gandasi
Full Text Available Fluorescent proteins (FPs have proven to be valuable tools for high-resolution imaging studies of vesicle transport processes, including exo- and endocytosis. Since the pH of the vesicle lumen changes between acidic and neutral during these events, pH-sensitive FPs with near neutral pKa, such as pHluorin, are particularly useful. FPs with pKa>6 are readily available in the green spectrum, while red-emitting pH-sensitive FPs are rare and often not well characterized as reporters of exo- or endocytosis. Here we tested a panel of ten orange/red and two green FPs in fusions with neuropeptide Y (NPY for use as secreted vesicle marker and reporter of dense core granule exocytosis and release. We report relative brightness, bleaching rate, targeting accuracy, sensitivity to vesicle pH, and their performance in detecting exocytosis in live cells. Tandem dimer (td-mOrange2 was identified as well-targeted, bright, slowly bleaching and pH-sensitive FP that performed similar to EGFP. Single exocytosis events were readily observed, which allowed measurements of fusion pore lifetime and the dynamics of the exocytosis protein syntaxin at the release site during membrane fusion and cargo release.
Rhodes, C.J.; Lucas, C.A.; Mutkoski, R.L.; Orci, L.; Halban, P.A.
Isolated rat pancreatic islets were pulse-labeled for 5 min with [ 3 H]leucine then chased for 25 min, during which time endogenously labeled [ 3 H]proinsulin becomes predominantly compartmented in immature secretory granules. The islets were then homogenized in isotonic sucrose (pH 7.4) and a beta-granule preparation obtained by differential centrifugation and discontinuous sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation. This preparation was enriched 8-fold in beta-granules. Aside from contamination with mitochondria and a limited number of lysosomes, the beta-granule preparation was essentially free of any other organelles involved in proinsulin synthesis and packaging (i.e. microsomal elements and, more particularly, Golgi complex). Conversion of endogenously labeled [ 3 H]proinsulin was followed in this beta-granule fraction for up to 2 h at 37 degrees C in a buffer (pH 7.3) that mimicked the cationic constituents of B-cell cytosol, during which time 92% of the beta-granules remained intact. Proinsulin conversion was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The rate of proinsulin conversion to insulin was stimulated by 2.2 +/- 0.1-fold (n = 6) (at a 60-min incubation) in the presence of ATP (2 mM) and an ATP regenerating system compared to beta-granule preparations incubated without ATP. This ATP stimulation was abolished in the presence of beta-granule proton pump ATPase inhibitors (tributyltin, 2.5 microM, or 1,3-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, 50 microM). Inhibitors of mitochondrial proton pump ATPases had no effect on the ATP stimulation of proinsulin conversion. When granules were incubated in a more acidic buffer, proinsulin conversion was increased relative to that at pH 7.3. At pH 5.5, ATP no longer stimulated conversion, and tributyltin and 1,3-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide had no effect
Bäck, Nils; Kanerva, Kristiina; Kurutihalli, Vishwanatha; Yanik, Andrew; Ikonen, Elina; Mains, Richard E; Eipper, Betty A
Peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) is highly expressed in neurons and endocrine cells, where it catalyzes one of the final steps in the biosynthesis of bioactive peptides. PAM is also expressed in unicellular organisms such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which do not store peptides in secretory granules. As for other granule membrane proteins, PAM is retrieved from the cell surface and returned to the trans-Golgi network. This pathway involves regulated entry of PAM into multivesicular body intralumenal vesicles (ILVs). The aim of this study was defining the endocytic pathways utilized by PAM in cells that do not store secretory products in granules. Using stably transfected HEK293 cells, endocytic trafficking of PAM was compared to that of the mannose 6-phosphate (MPR) and EGF (EGFR) receptors, established markers for the endosome to trans-Golgi network and degradative pathways, respectively. As in neuroendocrine cells, PAM internalized by HEK293 cells accumulated in the trans-Golgi network. Based on surface biotinylation, >70% of the PAM on the cell surface was recovered intact after a 4h chase and soluble, bifunctional PAM was produced. Endosomes containing PAM generally contained both EGFR and MPR and ultrastructural analysis confirmed that all three cargos accumulated in ILVs. PAM containing multivesicular bodies made frequent dynamic tubular contacts with younger and older multivesicular bodies. Frequent dynamic contacts were observed between lysosomes and PAM containing early endosomes and multivesicular bodies. The ancient ability of PAM to localize to ciliary membranes, which release bioactive ectosomes, may be related to its ability to accumulate in ILVs and exosomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Lad, P M; Cooper, J F; Learn, D B; Olson, C V
We have utilized the technique of lectin-loading of SDS gels with iodinated concanavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin to identify glycoproteins in prostatic and seminal fluids as well as in prostate tissue fractions. The following subunits which bound both lectins were detected: (a) 50, 43 and 38 kDa subunits common to prostatic and seminal fluids, and an additional 55 kDa subunit which predominates only in prostatic fluid; (b) 78, 55, 50 and 43 kDa subunits in prostatic tissue cytosol and (c) 195, 170, 135, 116 and 95 kDa subunits present in the particulate fractions of prostatic tissue. Immunoblotting using specific rabbit antibodies revealed the 50 kDa band to be prostatic acid phosphatase and the 38 kDa band to be prostate-specific antigen. Interestingly, antibodies directed toward prostatic acid phosphatase were found to cross-react with the 43 kDa band. Fractionation on sucrose gradients showed that several of these particulate glycoproteins were associated with a vesicle fraction enriched in adenylate cyclase activity, implying that they are plasma membrane glycoproteins. Comparison of soluble and particulate fractions of normal and cancerous tissue homogenates was made by densitometric scanning of autoradiograms of lectin-loaded gels. Similar relative intensities of lectin-binding were obtained for corresponding proteins in normal and cancerous tissue fractions. Also, immunoblotting showed no differences in prostatic acid phosphatase or prostate-specific antigen between normal and cancerous soluble homogenate fractions. Our results suggest that major lectin-binding proteins are conserved in the transition from normal to cancerous tissue. These results may be useful in developing a multiple-marker profile of metastatic prostate cancer and for the design of imaging agents, such as monoclonal antibodies, to prominent soluble and particulate prostate glycoproteins.
Albrethsen, Jakob; Goetze, Jens P; Johnsen, Anders H
Proteomics of secretory granules is an emerging strategy for identifying secreted proteins, including potentially novel candidate biomarkers and peptide hormones. In addition, proteomics can provide information about the abundance, localization and structure (post-translational modification) of g...
Kaur, J.; Cutler, D. F.
The biogenesis of secretory lysosomes, which combine characteristics of both lysosomes and secretory granules, is currently of high interest. In particular, it is not clear whether delivery of membrane proteins to the secretory lysosome requires lysosomal, secretory granule, or some novel targeting determinants. Heterologous expression of P-selectin has established that this membrane protein contains targeting signals for both secretory granules and lysosomes. P-selectin is therefore an ideal...
Schiller, L R
Diarrhea, defined as loose stools, occurs when the intestine does not complete absorption of electrolytes and water from luminal contents. This can happen when a nonabsorbable, osmotically active substance is ingested ("osmotic diarrhea") or when electrolyte absorption is impaired ("secretory diarrhea"). Most cases of acute and chronic diarrhea are due to the latter mechanism. Secretory diarrhea can result from bacterial toxins, reduced absorptive surface area caused by disease or resection, luminal secretagogues (such as bile acids or laxatives), circulating secretagogues (such as various hormones, drugs, and poisons), and medical problems that compromise regulation of intestinal function. Evaluation of patients with secretory diarrhea must be tailored to find the likely causes of this problem. Specific and nonspecific treatment can be valuable.
Sharda, Anish; Flaumenhaft, Robert
Platelet granules are unique among secretory vesicles in both their content and their life cycle. Platelets contain three major granule types-dense granules, α-granules, and lysosomes-although other granule types have been reported. Dense granules and α-granules are the most well-studied and the most physiologically important. Platelet granules are formed in large, multilobulated cells, termed megakaryocytes, prior to transport into platelets. The biogenesis of dense granules and α-granules involves common but also distinct pathways. Both are formed from the trans -Golgi network and early endosomes and mature in multivesicular bodies, but the formation of dense granules requires trafficking machinery different from that of α-granules. Following formation in the megakaryocyte body, both granule types are transported through and mature in long proplatelet extensions prior to the release of nascent platelets into the bloodstream. Granules remain stored in circulating platelets until platelet activation triggers the exocytosis of their contents. Soluble N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins, located on both the granules and target membranes, provide the mechanical energy that enables membrane fusion during both granulogenesis and exocytosis. The function of these core fusion engines is controlled by SNARE regulators, which direct the site, timing, and extent to which these SNAREs interact and consequently the resulting membrane fusion. In this review, we assess new developments in the study of platelet granules, from their generation to their exocytosis.
Patki, Mugdha; Huang, Yanfang; Ratnam, Manohar
It is believed that growth of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cells is enabled by sensitization to minimal residual post-castrate androgen due to overexpression of the androgen receptor (AR). Evidence is derived from androgen-induced colony formation in the absence of cell-secreted factors or from studies involving forced AR overexpression in hormone-dependent cells. On the other hand, standard cell line models established from CRPC patient tumors (e.g., LNCaP and VCaP) are hormone-dependent and require selection pressure in castrated mice to re-emerge as CRPC cells and the resulting tumors then tend to be insensitive to the androgen antagonist enzalutamide. Therefore, we examined established CRPC model cells produced by castration of mice bearing hormone-dependent cell line xenografts including CRPC cells overexpressing full-length AR (C4-2) or co-expressing wtAR and splice-variant AR-V7 that is incapable of ligand binding (22Rv1). In standard colony formation assays, C4-2 cells were shown to be androgen-dependent and sensitive to enzalutamide whereas 22Rv1 cells were incapable of colony formation under identical conditions. However, both C4-2 and 22Rv1 cells formed colonies in conditioned media derived from the same cells or from HEK293 fibroblasts that were proven to lack androgenic activity. This effect was (i) not enhanced by androgen, (ii) insensitive to enzalutamide, (iii) dependent on AR (in C4-2) and on AR-V7 and wtAR (in 22Rv1) and (iv) sensitive to inhibitors of several signaling pathways, similar to androgen-stimulation. Therefore, during progression to CRPC in vivo, coordinate cellular changes accompanying overexpression of AR may enable cooperation between hormone-independent activity of AR and actions of cellular secretory factors to completely override androgen-dependence and sensitivity to drugs targeting hormonal factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Prostatitis Overview Prostatitis is swelling and inflammation of the prostate gland, a walnut-sized gland situated directly below the bladder in ... produces fluid (semen) that nourishes and transports sperm. Prostatitis often causes painful or difficult urination. Other symptoms ...
, and only 20-45% increase in porosome diameter is demonstrated following the docking and fusion of 0.2-1.2 μm in diameter secretory vesicles, it is concluded that secretory vesicles ``transiently'' dock and fuse, rather than completely merge at the base of the porosome complex to release their contents to the outside. In agreement, it has been demonstrated that ``secretory granules are recaptured largely intact after stimulated exocytosis in cultured endocrine cells''; that ``single synaptic vesicles fuse transiently and successively without loss of identity''; and that``zymogen granule (the secretory vesicle in exocrine pancreas) exocytosis is characterized by long fusion pore openings and preservation of vesicle lipid identity.'' In this presentation, the discovery of the porosome, resulting in a paradigm shift in our understanding of cell secretion will be briefly discussed.
droplets, it had 10.4 ± 2.1 secretory cells of oil droplets per mm2. All of Zingiberaceae's root and leaves did not have secretory cells of protein. Zingiberaceae's rhizomes had amylum grain, protein granules, and oil droplets. Jahe merah's rhizomes had the greatest density of amylum grain, it had 198.3 ± 21.1 cells of amylum grain per mm2. Jahe emprit's rhizomes had the greatest density of protein granules, it had254.0 ± 90.0 cells of protein granules per mm². Kunyit putih's rhizomes had the greatest density of oil droplets, it had 254.0 ± 90.0 cells of oil droplets per mm².
Full Text Available Platelet granules are unique among secretory vesicles in both their content and their life cycle. Platelets contain three major granule types—dense granules, α-granules, and lysosomes—although other granule types have been reported. Dense granules and α-granules are the most well-studied and the most physiologically important. Platelet granules are formed in large, multilobulated cells, termed megakaryocytes, prior to transport into platelets. The biogenesis of dense granules and α-granules involves common but also distinct pathways. Both are formed from the trans-Golgi network and early endosomes and mature in multivesicular bodies, but the formation of dense granules requires trafficking machinery different from that of α-granules. Following formation in the megakaryocyte body, both granule types are transported through and mature in long proplatelet extensions prior to the release of nascent platelets into the bloodstream. Granules remain stored in circulating platelets until platelet activation triggers the exocytosis of their contents. Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE proteins, located on both the granules and target membranes, provide the mechanical energy that enables membrane fusion during both granulogenesis and exocytosis. The function of these core fusion engines is controlled by SNARE regulators, which direct the site, timing, and extent to which these SNAREs interact and consequently the resulting membrane fusion. In this review, we assess new developments in the study of platelet granules, from their generation to their exocytosis.
Full Text Available Abstract Cortical granules are membrane bound organelles located in the cortex of unfertilized oocytes. Following fertilization, cortical granules undergo exocytosis to release their contents into the perivitelline space. This secretory process, which is calcium dependent and SNARE protein-mediated pathway, is known as the cortical reaction. After exocytosis, the released cortical granule proteins are responsible for blocking polyspermy by modifying the oocytes' extracellular matrices, such as the zona pellucida in mammals. Mammalian cortical granules range in size from 0.2 um to 0.6 um in diameter and different from most other regulatory secretory organelles in that they are not renewed once released. These granules are only synthesized in female germ cells and transform an egg upon sperm entry; therefore, this unique cellular structure has inherent interest for our understanding of the biology of fertilization. Cortical granules are long thought to be static and awaiting in the cortex of unfertilized oocytes to be stimulated undergoing exocytosis upon gamete fusion. Not till recently, the dynamic nature of cortical granules is appreciated and understood. The latest studies of mammalian cortical granules document that this organelle is not only biochemically heterogeneous, but also displays complex distribution during oocyte development. Interestingly, some cortical granules undergo exocytosis prior to fertilization; and a number of granule components function beyond the time of fertilization in regulating embryonic cleavage and preimplantation development, demonstrating their functional significance in fertilization as well as early embryonic development. The following review will present studies that investigate the biology of cortical granules and will also discuss new findings that uncover the dynamic aspect of this organelle in mammals.
Bello, Oscar Daniel; Cappa, Andrea Isabel; Paola, Matilde de; Zanetti, María Natalia [Instituto de Histología y Embriología, CONICET – Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Av. Libertador 80, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Fukuda, Mitsunori [Department of Developmental Biology and Neurosciences, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Fissore, Rafael A. [Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 661 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Mayorga, Luis S. [Instituto de Histología y Embriología, CONICET – Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Av. Libertador 80, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Michaut, Marcela A., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Instituto de Histología y Embriología, CONICET – Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Av. Libertador 80, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo (Argentina)
Fusion of cortical granules with the oocyte plasma membrane is the most significant event to prevent polyspermy. This particular exocytosis, also known as cortical reaction, is regulated by calcium and its molecular mechanism is still not known. Rab3A, a member of the small GTP-binding protein superfamily, has been implicated in calcium-dependent exocytosis and is not yet clear whether Rab3A participates in cortical granules exocytosis. Here, we examine the involvement of Rab3A in the physiology of cortical granules, particularly, in their distribution during oocyte maturation and activation, and their participation in membrane fusion during cortical granule exocytosis. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis showed that Rab3A and cortical granules have a similar migration pattern during oocyte maturation, and that Rab3A is no longer detected after cortical granule exocytosis. These results suggested that Rab3A might be a marker of cortical granules. Overexpression of EGFP-Rab3A colocalized with cortical granules with a Pearson correlation coefficient of +0.967, indicating that Rab3A and cortical granules have almost a perfect colocalization in the egg cortical region. Using a functional assay, we demonstrated that microinjection of recombinant, prenylated and active GST-Rab3A triggered cortical granule exocytosis, indicating that Rab3A has an active role in this secretory pathway. To confirm this active role, we inhibited the function of endogenous Rab3A by microinjecting a polyclonal antibody raised against Rab3A prior to parthenogenetic activation. Our results showed that Rab3A antibody microinjection abolished cortical granule exocytosis in parthenogenetically activated oocytes. Altogether, our findings confirm that Rab3A might function as a marker of cortical granules and participates in cortical granule exocytosis in mouse eggs. - Highlights: • Rab3A has a similar migration pattern to cortical granules in mouse oocytes. • Rab3A can be a marker of
Full Text Available Maneerat Ekkapongpisit1,*, Antonino Giovia1,*, Giuseppina Nicotra1, Matteo Ozzano1, Giuseppe Caputo2,3, Ciro Isidoro1 1Laboratory of Molecular Pathology and Nanobioimaging, Department of Health Sciences, Università del Piemonte Orientale "A. Avogadro", Novara, Italy; 2Department of Chemistry, University of Turin, Turin, 3Cyanine Technology SpA, Torino, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: For a safe ‘in vivo’ biomedical utilization of nanoparticles, it is essential to assess not only biocompatibility, but also the potential to trigger unwanted side effects at both cellular and tissue levels. Mastocytes (cells having secretory granules containing cytokines, vasoactive amine, and proteases play a pivotal role in the immune and inflammatory responses against exogenous toxins. Mastocytes are also recruited in the tumor stroma and are involved in tumor vascularization and growth.Aim and methods: In this work, mastocyte-like rat basophilic leukemia (RBL cells were used to investigate whether carboxyl-modified 30 nm polystyrene (PS nanoparticles (NPs and naked mesoporous silica (MPS 10 nm NPs are able to label the secretory inflammatory granules, and possibly induce exocytosis of these granules. Uptake, cellular retention and localization of fluorescent NPs were analyzed by cytofluorometry and microscope imaging.Results: Our findings were that: (1 secretory granules of mastocytes are accessible by NPs via endocytosis; (2 PS and MPS silica NPs label two distinct subpopulations of inflammatory granules in RBL mastocytes; and (3 PS NPs induce calcium-dependent exocytosis of inflammatory granules.Conclusion: These findings highlight the value of NPs for live imaging of inflammatory processes, and also have important implications for the clinical use of PS-based NPs, due to their potential to trigger the unwanted activation of mastocytes.Keywords: secretory lysosomes, inflammation, nanoparticles, vesicular traffic
Cameron, R.S.; Cameron, P.L.; Castle, J.D.
A highly purified membrane preparation from rat parotid secretion granules has been used as a comparative probe to examine the extent of compositional overlap in granule membranes of three other exocrine secretory tissues - pancreatic, lacrimal, and submandibular - from several standpoints. First, indirect immunofluorescent studies using a polyclonal polyspecific anti-parotid granule membrane antiserum has indicated a selective staining of granule membrane profiles in all acinar cells of all tissues. Second, highly purified granule membrane subfractions have been isolated from each exocrine tissue; comparative two-dimensional (isoelectric focusing; SDS) PAGE of radioiodinated granule membranes has identified 10-15 polypeptides of identical pI and apparent molecular mass. These species are likely to be integral membrane components since they are not extracted by either saponin-sodium sulfate or sodium carbonate (pH 11.5) treatments, and they do not have counterparts in the granule content. Finally, the identity among selected parotid and pancreatic radioiodinated granule membrane polypeptides has been documented using two-dimensional peptide mapping of chymotryptic and tryptic digests. These findings clearly indicate that exocrine secretory granules, irrespective of the nature of stored secretion, comprise a type of vesicular carrier with a common (and probably refined) membrane composition. Conceivably, the polypeptides identified carry out general functions related to exocrine secretion
Weinstein, L.A.; Landis, D.M.; Sagar, S.M.; Millard, W.J.; Martin, J.B.
Cysteamine causes a profound depletion of PRL in the anterior pituitary and in the systemic circulation, as measured by RIA and bioassay. However, electron microscopic study of PRL-containing cells in rat anterior pituitary does not reveal changes in secretory granule or cytoplasmic structure during the interval of depressed PRL content and of subsequent recovery to normal levels. In contrast to the results obtained by RIA, PRL-like immunoreactivity as detected by immunocyto-chemistry is present and similar to that of control preparations after cysteamine administration. We suggest that cysteamine alters PRL structure in secretory granules, probably by interacting with the disulfide bonds of PRL, thereby altering bioactivity and immunoreactivity. The presence of cysteamine-altered PRL in secretory granules does not seem to trigger degradation of granules by the lysosomal system
Experimental animals were injected intraperitoneally with 100 mg/kg 5-fluorouracil for three days. The total volume, amylase and protein content of cannulated parotid saliva were determined following stimulation with either 5 mg/kg pilocarpine or 5 mg/kg isoproterenol in experimental, pair-fed , and control animals. Saliva from experimental animals was significantly lower in volume, amylase and protein content than both control groups. 5-fluorouracil treatment reduced the total glandular amylase per unit DNA in both unstimulated and isoproterenol-stimulated parotid glands. Decreased protein synthesis may be the mechanism underlying depleted secretory protein stores since the contents of isolated secretory granules from experimental parotid glands contained less radiolabelled protein than either control group and whole gland homogenates showed marked reductions in the activities of three lysosomal enzymes and total RNA content. Experimental animals contained less labelled protein in their secretory granules than controls, but secreted a greater proportion of their total glandular radiolabelled secretory protein into saliva relative to amylase suggesting that newly synthesized secretory proteins are preferentially secreted
Experimental animals were injected intraperitoneally with 100 mg/kg 5-fluorouracil for three days. The total volume, amylase and protein content of cannulated parotid saliva were determined following stimulation with either 5 mg/kg pilocarpine or 5 mg/kg isoproterenol in experimental, pair-fed , and control animals. Saliva from experimental animals was significantly lower in volume, amylase and protein content than both control groups. 5-fluorouracil treatment reduced the total glandular amylase per unit DNA in both unstimulated and isoproterenol-stimulated parotid glands. Decreased protein synthesis may be the mechanism underlying depleted secretory protein stores since the contents of isolated secretory granules from experimental parotid glands contained less radiolabelled protein than either control group and whole gland homogenates showed marked reductions in the activities of three lysosomal enzymes and total RNA content. Experimental animals contained less labelled protein in their secretory granules than controls, but secreted a greater proportion of their total glandular radiolabelled secretory protein into saliva relative to amylase suggesting that newly synthesized secretory proteins are preferentially secreted.
Kokkonen, J.O.; Kovanen, P.T.
The uptake of low density lipoprotein (LDL) by cultured mouse macrophages was markedly promoted by isolated rat mast cell granules present in the culture medium. The granule-mediated uptake of 125 I-LDL enhanced the rate of cholesteryl ester synthesis in the macrophages, the result being accumulation of cholesteryl esters in these cells. Binding of LDL to the granules was essential for the granule-mediated uptake of LDL by macrophages, for the uptake process was prevented by treating the granules with avidin or protamine chloride or by treating LDL with 1,2-cyclohexanedione, all of which inhibit the binding of LDL to the granules. Inhibition of granule phagocytosis by the macrophages with cytochalasin B also abolished the granule-mediated uptake of LDL. Finally, mouse macrophage monolayers and LDL were incubated in the presence of isolated rat serosal mast cells. Stimulation of the mast cells with compound 48/80, a degranulating agent, resulted in dose-dependent release of secretory granules from the mast cells and a parallel increase in 14 C cholesteryl ester synthesis in the macrophages. The results show that, in this in vitro model, the sequence of events leading to accumulation of cholesteryl esters in macrophages involves initial stimulation of mast cells, subsequent release of their secretory granules, binding of LDL to the exocytosed granules, and, finally, phagocytosis of the LDL-containing granules by macrophages
Full Text Available The rapid secretion of bioactive amines from chromaffin cells constitutes an important component of the fight or flight response of mammals to stress. Platelets respond to stresses within the vasculature by rapidly secreting cargo at sites of injury, inflammation, or infection. Although chromaffin cells derive from the neural crest and platelets from bone marrow megakaryocytes, both have evolved a heterogeneous assemblage of granule types and a mechanism for efficient release. This article will provide an overview of granule formation and exocytosis in platelets with an emphasis on areas in which the study of chromaffin cells has influenced that of platelets and on similarities between the two secretory systems. Commonalities include the use of transporters to concentrate bioactive amines and other cargos into granules, the role of cytoskeletal remodeling in granule exocytosis, and the use of granules to provide membrane for cytoplasmic projections. The SNAREs and SNARE accessory proteins used by each cell type will also be considered. Finally, we will discuss the newly appreciated role of dynamin family proteins in regulated fusion pore formation. This evaluation of the comparative cell biology of regulated exocytosis in platelets and chromaffin cells demonstrates a convergence of mechanisms between two disparate cell types both tasked with responding rapidly to physiological stimuli.
Full Text Available The prostate is a male accessory sex gland that produces secretions in seminal fluid to facilitate fertilization. Prostate secretory function is dependent on androgens, although the mechanism by which androgens exert their effects is still unclear. Polyamines are small cationic molecules that play pivotal roles in DNA transcription, translation and gene regulation. The rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis is ornithine decarboxylase, which is encoded by the gene Odc1. Ornithine decarboxylase mRNA decreases in the prostate upon castration and increases upon administration of androgens. Furthermore, testosterone administered to castrated male mice restores prostate secretory activity, whereas administering testosterone and the ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor D,L-α-difluromethylornithine (DFMO to castrated males does not restore prostate secretory activity, suggesting that polyamines are required for androgens to exert their effects. To date, no one has examined polyamines in prostate development, which is also androgen dependent. In this study, we showed that ornithine decarboxylase protein was expressed in the epithelium of the ventral, dorsolateral and anterior lobes of the adult mouse prostate. Ornithine decarboxylase protein was also expressed in the urogenital sinus (UGS epithelium of the male and female embryo prior to prostate development, and expression continued in prostatic epithelial buds as they emerged from the UGS. Inhibiting ornithine decarboxylase using DFMO in UGS organ culture blocked the induction of prostatic buds by androgens, and significantly decreased expression of key prostate transcription factor, Nkx3.1, by androgens. DFMO also significantly decreased the expression of developmental regulatory gene Notch1. Other genes implicated in prostatic development including Sox9, Wif1 and Srd5a2 were unaffected by DFMO. Together these results indicate that Odc1 and polyamines are required for androgens to exert their
German, G P; Chernokhvostova, E V; Gol'derman, S Ia
A method of obtaining monospecific antiserum to the human secretory IgA is described. Immunochemically pure secretory IgA (isolated from human colostrum by fractionation with ammonium sulfate and gel-filtration on Sephadex G-200) was used for immunization of rabbits or sheep. Heterologous antibodies were removed by adsorption with commercial gamma globulin, normal serum, the serum of a patient suffering from A-myeloma with the IgA polymere and purified lactoferrin. Monospecific antiserum to the secretory IgA gave a reaction of complete immunological identity with the secretory IgA and a free secretory component.
Klein, J.L.; Dawson, J.R.
A radioimmunoassay was designed for the detection of secretory protein, a component of secretory immunoglobulin A, in human serum. The assay uses free secretory protein isolated from human colostrum, and antisera raised in rabbits to be purified antigen. The mean level of secretory protein in the control group was 2.34+-0.41 μg/ml (mean+-S.E.M.). The level in cord blood was slightly lower (0.74+-0.26 μg/ml), while the level in patients with ovarian carcinoma was significantly increased (12.67+-1.43 μg/ml). Pregnant women have increasingly secretory protein levels with increasing length of gestation (5.86+-2.02, 11.55+-1.30 and 17.00+-1.16 μg/ml for the first, second and third trimesters, respectively. (Auth.)
Pedersen, Bente K
Skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the body. Skeletal muscles are primarily characterized by their mechanical activity required for posture, movement, and breathing, which depends on muscle fiber contractions. However, skeletal muscle is not just a component in our locomotor system. Recent e...... proteins produced by skeletal muscle are dependent upon contraction. Therefore, it is likely that myokines may contribute in the mediation of the health benefits of exercise.......Skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the body. Skeletal muscles are primarily characterized by their mechanical activity required for posture, movement, and breathing, which depends on muscle fiber contractions. However, skeletal muscle is not just a component in our locomotor system. Recent...... evidence has identified skeletal muscle as a secretory organ. We have suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced, expressed, and released by muscle fibers and exert either autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine effects should be classified as "myokines." The muscle secretome consists...
... know the exact cause of your prostate problem. Prostatitis The cause of prostatitis depends on whether you ... prostate problem in men older than age 50. Prostatitis If you have a UTI, you may be ...
.... The approach employs Cre-loxP mediated targeted genetic recombination of the Catnb+/lox(ex3) locus. Expression of Cre was targeted specifically to the prostate secretory epithelium using androgen responsive minimal probasin...
.... The approach employs Cre-loxP mediated targeted genetic recombination of the Catnb+lox(ex3) locus. Expression of Cre was targeted specifically to the prostate secretory epithelium using androgen responsive minimal probasin...
Dunn, R.B.; November, L.J.
This paper describes two small-area selection schemes that the authors have applied to CCD observations of solar granulation. The first scheme, which the authors call the ''mosaic,'' divides the 128 x 128 array into 64 subarrays each containing 16 x 16 pixels. On each picture in the burst the RMS contrast of the fine structure is measured in each subarray and compared to the corresponding value in a table that contains the highest previous RMS values. The second scheme, which the authors call a ''collage,'' is similar except the RMS value is calculated smoothly within a sliding Gaussian window over the entire scene and the value of an individual pixel is gated into the final collage whenever the RMS contrast at that pixel location exceeds that of all previous frames taken during the burst
Full Text Available ... ultrasound or with a rectal examination, an ultrasound-guided biopsy can be performed. This procedure involves advancing ... of the Prostate) Prostate Cancer Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy Images related to Ultrasound - Prostate Sponsored ...
Full Text Available ... is enlarged, also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) , with measurements acquired as needed for any treatment ... caption Related Articles and Media Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) (Enlargement of the Prostate) Prostate Cancer Ultrasound- and ...
Erlandson, O.D.; Winkler, E.O.; Maya, I.; Pitts, J.H.
A key feature of Cascade is the granular blanket. Of the many blanket material options open to Cascade, fabrication of Li 2 O granules was felt to offer the greatest challenge. The authors explored available methods for initial Li 2 O granule fabrication. They identified three cost-effective processes for fabricating Li 2 O granules: the VSM drop-melt furnace process, which is based on melting and spheroidizing irregularly shaped Li 2 O feed granules; the LiOH process, which spheroidizes liquefied LiOH and uses GA Technologies' sphere-forming procedures; and the Li 2 CO 3 sol-gel process, used for making spherical fuel particles for the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). Each process is described below
Dunn, R. B.; November, L. J.
Two small-area selection schemes are applied to CCD observations of solar granulation. One procedure, referred to as mosaic, divides a 128 x 128 array into 64 subarrays of 16 x 16 pixels; the rms contrast of the fine structure is measured and compared in order to develop a mosaic of the subarrays. The second technique, collage, involves calculating rms values within a sliding Gaussian window and gating the pixel into the final image. Methods for assessing seeing quality, which involve the calculation of rms after high-pass filtering, are examined; a simple high-pass filter or an edge-locating function can be utilized for filtering. The rms map is then formed from the convolution of a Gaussian with either the high-pass or the Laplacian filters. The usefulness of the two procedures is demonstrated by applying the mosaic and collage processes to data recorded on July 17, 1983 with a CCD device on the NSO/Sac Peak Vacuum Tower Telescope.
Tørring, N.; Møller-Ernst Jensen, K.; Lund, L.
To analyse the expression of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) system in prostate tissue and secretions obtained from patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) treated with or without finasteride (which primarily targets the androgen-sensitive secretory epithelial cells in the prostate......, with little effect on basal epithelial and stromal cells)....
Aumüller, G; Leonhardt, M; Renneberg, H; von Rahden, B; Bjartell, A; Abrahamsson, P A
The neuroendocrine cells of the human prostate have been related to proliferative disorders such as prostatic cancer. Their origin, distribution, and development have therefore been studied and discussed in terms of current stem cell concepts in the prostate. Prostatic tissue specimens (n = 20) from human fetuses (n = 8), prepubertal and pubertal children (n = 8) and mature men (n = 4) were studied immunohistochemically using antibodies directed against neuroendocrine, epithelial as well as secretory markers. Semiquantitative computer-assisted evaluation of different epithelial and stromal components based on stereological principles was performed on azan-stained sections representative of all developmental stages. By the end of gestational Week 9, neuroendocrine (NE) cells appear in the epithelium of the urogenital sinus and are subsequently closely associated with the formation of urethral prostatic buds. The fetal and postnatal distribution pattern of NE cells within the gland is characterized by a relatively constant number of cells per gland similar to prostatic smooth muscle cells. Likewise, a density gradient exists with the highest density in the large collicular ducts and almost no NE cells in subcapsular peripheral acini. In peripheral ducts, the distribution is random. Maturation of the NE cells precedes that of the secretory cells by about 10-16 years. A second prostatic stem cell lineage, different from the urogenital sinus (UGS)-lineage is hypothesized originating from immature neuroendocrine cells. Being morphologically indistinguishable from the UGS-derived prostatic secretory cell lineage, it gives rise to neuroendocrine cells. Their presence is apparently important for proliferation regulation of the UGS-derived lineage of the prostate. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Full Text Available Localized signaling in neuronal dendrites requires tight spatial control of membrane composition. Upon initial synthesis, nascent secretory cargo in dendrites exits the endoplasmic reticulum (ER from local zones of ER complexity that are spatially coupled to post-ER compartments. Although newly synthesized membrane proteins can be processed locally, the mechanisms that control the spatial range of secretory cargo transport in dendritic segments are unknown. Here, we monitored the dynamics of nascent membrane proteins in dendritic post-ER compartments under regimes of low or increased neuronal activity. In response to activity blockade, post-ER carriers are highly mobile and are transported over long distances. Conversely, increasing synaptic activity dramatically restricts the spatial scale of post-ER trafficking along dendrites. This activity-induced confinement of secretory cargo requires site-specific phosphorylation of the kinesin motor KIF17 by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMK. Thus, the length scales of early secretory trafficking in dendrites are tuned by activity-dependent regulation of microtubule-dependent transport.
Kelly, Orlaith B; Mroz, Magdalena S; Ward, Joseph B J; Colliva, Carolina; Scharl, Michael; Pellicciari, Roberto; Gilmer, John F; Fallon, Padraic G; Hofmann, Alan F; Roda, Aldo; Murray, Frank E; Keely, Stephen J
Dihydroxy bile acids, such as chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), are well known to promote colonic fluid and electrolyte secretion, thereby causing diarrhoea associated with bile acid malabsorption. However, CDCA is rapidly metabolised by colonic bacteria to ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), the effects of which on epithelial transport are poorly characterised. Here, we investigated the role of UDCA in the regulation of colonic epithelial secretion. Cl− secretion was measured across voltage-clamped monolayers of T84 cells and muscle-stripped sections of mouse or human colon. Cell surface biotinylation was used to assess abundance/surface expression of transport proteins. Acute (15 min) treatment of T84 cells with bilateral UDCA attenuated Cl− secretory responses to the Ca2+ and cAMP-dependent secretagogues carbachol (CCh) and forskolin (FSK) to 14.0 ± 3.8 and 40.2 ± 7.4% of controls, respectively (n= 18, P acid (LCA). Accordingly, LCA (50–200 μm) enhanced agonist-induced secretory responses in vitro and a metabolically stable UDCA analogue, 6α-methyl-UDCA, exerted anti-secretory actions in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, UDCA exerts direct anti-secretory actions on colonic epithelial cells and metabolically stable derivatives of the bile acid may offer a new approach for treating intestinal diseases associated with diarrhoea. PMID:23507881
SignalP is the currently most widely used program for prediction of signal peptides from amino acid sequences. Proteins with signal peptides are targeted to the secretory pathway, but are not necessarily secreted. After a brief introduction to the biology of signal peptides and the history...
Park, Soonhong; Ahuja, Malini; Kim, Min Seuk; Brailoiu, G Cristina; Jha, Archana; Zeng, Mei; Baydyuk, Maryna; Wu, Ling-Gang; Wassif, Christopher A; Porter, Forbes D; Zerfas, Patricia M; Eckhaus, Michael A; Brailoiu, Eugen; Shin, Dong Min; Muallem, Shmuel
Mutations in TRPML1 cause the lysosomal storage disease mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV). The role of TRPML1 in cell function and how the mutations cause the disease are not well understood. Most studies focus on the role of TRPML1 in constitutive membrane trafficking to and from the lysosomes. However, this cannot explain impaired neuromuscular and secretory cells' functions that mediate regulated exocytosis. Here, we analyzed several forms of regulated exocytosis in a mouse model of MLIV and, opposite to expectations, we found enhanced exocytosis in secretory glands due to enlargement of secretory granules in part due to fusion with lysosomes. Preliminary exploration of synaptic vesicle size, spontaneous mEPSCs, and glutamate secretion in neurons provided further evidence for enhanced exocytosis that was rescued by re-expression of TRPML1 in neurons. These features were not observed in Niemann-Pick type C1. These findings suggest that TRPML1 may guard against pathological fusion of lysosomes with secretory organelles and suggest a new approach toward developing treatment for MLIV. © 2015 The Authors.
... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Prostate Cancer This booklet is about prostate cancer. Learning about medical care for your cancer ... ePub This booklet covers: The anatomy of the prostate and basics about prostate cancer Treatments for prostate ...
Arvan, P.; Castle, J.D.
Secretion granules have been isolated from the parotid glands of rats that have been chronically stimulated with the β-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol. These granules are of interest because they package a quantitatively different set of secretory proteins in comparison with granules from the normal gland. Polypeptides enriched in proline, glycine, and glutamine, which are known to have pI's >10, replace α-amylase (pI's = 6.8) as the principal content species. The internal pH of granules from the treated rats changes from 7.8 in a potassium sulfate medium to 6.9 in a choline chloride medium. The increased pH over that of normal parotid granules (∼6.8) appears to protect the change in composition of the secretory contents. Whereas normal mature parotide granules have practically negligible levels of H + pumping ATPase activity, the isolated granules from isoproterenol-treated rats undergo a time-dependent internal acidification that requires the presence of ATP and is abolished by an H + ionophore. Additionally, an inside-positive granule transmembrane potential develops after ATP addition that depends upon ATP hydrolysis. Two independent methods have been used that exclude the possibility that contaminating organelles are the source of the H + -ATPase activity. Together these data provide clear evidence for the presence of an H + pump in the membranes of parotid granules from chronically stimulated rats. However, despite the presence of H + -pump activity, fluorescence microscopy with the weak base, acridine orange, reveals that the intragranular pH in live cells is greater than that of the cytoplasm
Kumar, Ashish; Alakarjula, Maija; Vanhoorne, Valérie
Twin-screw granulation is a promising wet granulation technique for the continuous manufacturing of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms. A twin screw granulator displays a short residence time. Thus, the solid-liquid mixing must be achieved quickly by appropriate arrangement of transport and kneading...
... Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Prostate Diseases Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic ... body. Approximately 3 million American men have some type of prostate disease. The most common prostate diseases ...
Implant therapy - prostate cancer; Radioactive seed placement; Internal radiation therapy - prostate; High dose radiation (HDR) ... place the seeds that deliver radiation into your prostate. The seeds are placed with needles or special ...
Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of the prostate uses sound waves to ... Ultrasound Imaging? What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Prostate? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces pictures ...
Full Text Available ... Z Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of the prostate uses sound waves to produce pictures of a man’s prostate ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...
Picioreanu, C.; Batstone, Damien J.; van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.
A multispecies, two- and three-dimensional model was developed, based on a previously published planar biofilm model, and the biochemical structure of the ADM1. Several soluble substrates diffuse and react in the granule. Local pH is calculated from acid-base equilibria and charge balance. The mo...
Han, Liyang; Zhao, Yanhua [State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhang, Xi; Peng, Jianxin [College of Life Sciences, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, Hubei (China); Xu, Pingyong, E-mail: email@example.com [Key Laboratory of Interdisciplinary Research, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Huan, Shuangyan, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhang, Mingshu, E-mail: email@example.com [Key Laboratory of Interdisciplinary Research, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)
Highlights: • Membrane protein Orai1 can be used to report the fusion properties of RFPs. • Artificial puncta are affected by dissociation constant as well as pKa of RFPs. • Among tested RFPs mOrange2 is the best choice for secretory protein labeling. - Abstract: Red fluorescent proteins (RFPs) are useful tools for live cell and multi-color imaging in biological studies. However, when labeling proteins in secretory pathway, many RFPs are prone to form artificial puncta, which may severely impede their further uses. Here we report a fast and easy method to evaluate RFPs fusion properties by attaching RFPs to an environment sensitive membrane protein Orai1. In addition, we revealed that intracellular artificial puncta are actually colocalized with lysosome, thus besides monomeric properties, pKa value of RFPs is also a key factor for forming intracellular artificial puncta. In summary, our current study provides a useful guide for choosing appropriate RFP for labeling secretory membrane proteins. Among RFPs tested, mOrange2 is highly recommended based on excellent monomeric property, appropriate pKa and high brightness.
Ileana B Quintero
Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms underlying prostate carcinogenesis are poorly understood. Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP, a prostatic epithelial secretion marker, has been linked to prostate cancer since the 1930's. However, the contribution of PAP to the disease remains controversial. We have previously cloned and described two isoforms of this protein, a secretory (sPAP and a transmembrane type-I (TMPAP. The goal in this work was to understand the physiological function of TMPAP in the prostate. We conducted histological, ultra-structural and genome-wide analyses of the prostate of our PAP-deficient mouse model (PAP(-/- with C57BL/6J background. The PAP(-/- mouse prostate showed the development of slow-growing non-metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma. In order to find out the mechanism behind, we identified PAP-interacting proteins byyeast two-hybrid assays and a clear result was obtained for the interaction of PAP with snapin, a SNARE-associated protein which binds Snap25 facilitating the vesicular membrane fusion process. We confirmed this interaction by co-localization studies in TMPAP-transfected LNCaP cells (TMPAP/LNCaP cells and in vivo FRET analyses in transient transfected LNCaP cells. The differential gene expression analyses revealed the dysregulation of the same genes known to be related to synaptic vesicular traffic. Both TMPAP and snapin were detected in isolated exosomes. Our results suggest that TMPAP is involved in endo-/exocytosis and disturbed vesicular traffic is a hallmark of prostate adenocarcinoma.
Asada, Takumi; Nishikawa, Mitsunori; Ochiai, Yasushi; Noguchi, Shuji; Kimura, Shin-Ichiro; Iwao, Yasunori; Itai, Shigeru
Recently, we have developed a novel granulation technology to manufacture hollow spherical granules (HSGs) for controlled-release formulations; however, the mechanism of the granulation is still unclear. The aim of this study is to determine the mechanism of the formation of the HSGs using a high shear granulator. Samples of granulated material were collected at various times during granulation and were investigated using scanning electron microscope and X-ray computed tomography. It was observed that the granulation proceeded by drug layering to the polymer, followed by formation of a hollow in the granule. In addition, it was also found that generation of a crack in the adhered drug layer and air flow into the granules might be involved in forming the hollow in the structure. Observation of the granulation of formulations with different types of drugs and polymers indicated that negative pressure in the granules occurred and the granules caved in when the hollow was formed. The hollow-forming speed and the shell density of the hollow granules depended on the particular drug and polymer. Taken together, the granulation mechanism of HSGs was determined and this information will be valuable for HSGs technology development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The regulated secretory pathway provides critical control of peptide, growth factor, and hormone release from neuroendocrine and endocrine cells, and neurons, maintaining physiological homeostasis. Propeptides and prohormones are packaged into dense core granules (DCGs, where they frequently undergo tissue-specific processing as the DCG matures. Proteins of the granin family are DCG components, and although their function is not fully understood, data suggest they are involved in DCG formation and regulated protein/peptide secretion, in addition to their role as precursors of bioactive peptides. Association of gene variation, including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, with neuropsychiatric, endocrine and metabolic diseases, has implicated specific secreted proteins and peptides in disease pathogenesis. For example, a SNP at position 196 (G/A of the human brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene dysregulates protein processing and secretion and leads to cognitive impairment. This suggests more generally that variants identified in genes encoding secreted growth factors, peptides, hormones, and proteins involved in DCG biogenesis, protein processing, and the secretory apparatus, could provide insight into the process of regulated secretion as well as disorders that result when it is impaired.
Yamauchi, Yumiko; Ueki, Shigeharu; Konno, Yasunori; Ito, Wataru; Takeda, Masahide; Nakamura, Yuka; Nishikawa, Junko; Moritoki, Yuki; Omokawa, Ayumi; Saga, Tomoo; Hirokawa, Makoto
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), originally identified as a potent mitogen for mature hepatocytes, is now recognized as a humoral mediator in inflammatory and immune responses. Previous studies indicated that HGF negatively regulated allergic airway inflammation. In view of eosinophils playing a role in the pathogenesis of asthma, especially in airway remodeling as a rich source of pro-fibrogenic mediators, the effects of HGF on the different types of eosinophil secretory functions were examined in this study. We found that HGF significantly inhibited IL-5-induced secretion of TGF-β and VEGF from human eosinophils. The inhibitory effect is not associated with TGF-β transcription; rather, it is associated with ultrastructural granule emptying and loss of intracellular TGF-β contents, indicating HGF inhibits the process of piecemeal degranulation. The effect of HGF on extracellular trap cell death (ETosis) that mediates cytolytic degranulation was also investigated; however, immobilized IgG- or phorbol myristate acetate-induced ETosis was only minimally attenuated by HGF. These results reveal the effect of HGF on the distinct pathways of eosinophil secretory functions and also provide novel insights into the role of HGF in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R.; Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.
This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results
Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R., Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.
This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results.
... PCF: Many vs Cancer Contact Us About the Prostate Prostate Cancer Basics Risk Factors Prostate Cancer Prevention ... that connects to the anus. Ultrasound of the prostate Prostate Zones The prostate is divided into several ...
Tanaka, Emi; Ral, Jean-Phillippe F.; Li, Sean; Gaire, Raj; Cavanagh, Colin R.; Cullis, Brian R.; Whan, Alex
Background The proportion of granule types in wheat starch is an important characteristic that can affect its functionality. It is widely accepted that granule types are either large, disc-shaped A-type granules or small, spherical B-type granules. Additionally, there are some reports of the tiny C-type granules. The differences between these granule types are due to its carbohydrate composition and crystallinity which is highly, but not perfectly, correlated with the granule size. A majority...
Yano, Akira; Kikuchi, Sayaka; Nakagawa, Yuko; Sakamoto, Yuichi; Sato, Toshitsugu
The shiitake mushroom, Lentinula edodes, has an extracelluar secretory-type laccase, Lcc1, and a fruiting-body-accumulation-type laccase, Lcc4. We previously reported the production of Lcc1 by plant cells, but had difficulty producing Lcc4. Here, we report the production of Lcc1 and Lcc4 by Aspergillus oryzae and the extracellular secretory production of Lcc4 using a modified secretion signal peptide (SP) from Lcc1. Sp-Lcc4 produced by A. oryzae had biochemical activities similar to Lcc4 produced by L. edodes. Lcc1 did not react with beta-(3,4-dihydroxyphenol) alanine (DOPA), but Lcc4 from L. edodes and A. oryzae could oxidize DOPA. K(M) values for the substrates 2,2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzthiazolinsulfonate), 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, guaiacol, pyrogallol, and catechol were similar for Lcc4 and Sp-Lcc4. In conclusion, a non-secretory-type fungal laccase is secreted into the culture media with its original enzymatic properties by exploiting modified secretory signal peptide. 2008 Elsevier GmbH.
Pahomova, A V; Borovskaja, T G; Fomina, T I; Ermolaeva, L A; Vychuzhanina, A V; Rumpel, O A; Granstrem, O K; Baranova, O V
Comparative experimental evaluation of the efficiency of prostatotropic drugs Prostamol Uno and Samprost on the model of the chronic aseptic prostate inflammation in rats was performed. It was established that peptide drug Samprost decelerates sclerotic processes in the prostate gland to a greater extent than herbal preparation Prostamol Uno. Both products equally stimulate secretory activity of the gland. Prostamol Uno, unlike Samprost, prevents the development of reduced sexual motivation, one of the complications of chronic prostatitis.
Gupta, R.P.; Patton, S.E.; Eddy, M.; Smits, H.L.; Jetten, A.M.; Nettesheim, P.; Hook, G.E.R.
The objective of this investigation was to identify proteins in the pulmonary extracellular lining (EL) that are secreted by cells of the pulmonary epithelium. Pulmonary lavage effluents from the lungs of rabbits were centrifuged to remove all cells and particulate materials. Serum proteins were removed by repeatedly passing concentrated lavage effluent fluid through an affinity column containing IgG fraction of goat anti-rabbit (whole serum) antiserum bound to Sepharose-4B. Nonserum proteins accounted for 21.3 +/- 10.3% of the total soluble proteins in pulmonary lavage effluents. Serum free lavage effluents (SFL) contained 25 identifiable proteins as determined by using SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions. Of these proteins approximately 73% was accounted for by a single protein with MW of 66 kd. The secretory nature of the proteins present in SFL was investigated by studying the incorporation of 35 S-methionine into proteins released by lung slices and trachea followed by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography. Many, but not all proteins present in SFL were identified as proteins secreted by pulmonary tissues. The major secretory proteins appeared to have MWs of 59, 53, 48, 43, 24, 14, and 6 kd under reducing conditions. These data demonstrate the presence of several proteins in the pulmonary extracellular lining that appear to be secreted by the pulmonary epithelium
French, M.B.; Vaitkus, P.; Cukerman, E.; Sirek, A.; Sirek, O.V.
The aim of this paper was to define the secretory pattern of growth hormone (GH) under basal conditions in fasted, conscious, male dogs accustomed to handling. Blood samples were withdrawn from a cephalic vein at 15-min intervals. In this way, any ultradian rhythms, if present, could be detected within the frequency range of 0.042-2 cycles/h. In addition, samples were drawn at either 1- or 2.5-min intervals for 2.5 or 5 h to determine whether frequency components greater than 2 cycles/h were present. GH was measured by radioimmunoassay and the raw data were submitted to time series analysis employing power spectral estimation by means of fast Fourier transformation techniques. Peak plasma levels were up to 12 times higher than the baseline concentration of ∼ 1 ng/ml. Spectral analysis revealed an endogenous frequency of 0.22 cycles/h, i.e., a periodicity of 4.5 h/cycle. The results indicate that under basal conditions the secretory bursts of canine GH are limited to one peak every 4.5 h
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Studies that compare the impact of different infectious entities of the male reproductive tract (MRT on the male accessory gland function are controversial. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Semen analyses of 71 patients with proven infections of the MRT were compared with the results of 40 healthy non-infected volunteers. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to their diagnosis: chronic prostatitis NIH type II (n = 38, chronic epididymitis (n = 12, and chronic urethritis (n = 21. RESULTS: The bacteriological analysis revealed 9 different types of microorganisms, considered to be the etiological agents, isolated in different secretions, including: urine, expressed prostatic secretions, semen and urethral smears: E. Coli (n = 20, Klebsiella (n = 2, Proteus spp. (n = 1, Enterococcus (n = 20, Staphylococcus spp. (n = 1, M. tuberculosis (n = 2, N. gonorrhea (n = 8, Chlamydia tr. (n = 16 and, Ureaplasma urealyticum (n = 1. The infection group had significantly (p < 0.05 lower: semen volume, alpha-glucosidase, fructose, and zinc in seminal plasma and, higher pH than the control group. None of these parameters was sufficiently accurate in the ROC analysis to discriminate between infected and non-infected men. CONCLUSION: Proven bacterial infections of the MRT impact negatively on all the accessory gland function parameters evaluated in semen, suggesting impairment of the secretory capacity of the epididymis, seminal vesicles and prostate. These findings were associated with an infectious related significant increase of semen pH. None of the semen parameters evaluated can be suggested as a diagnostic tool for infection.
Full Text Available A 57 year old woman presented with a tickling sensation in the back of throat and intermittent bleeding from the healing stoma one month after decannulation of her tracheostomy tube. On bronchoscopy a granuloma with surrounding granulation tissue was present in the subglottic space (Figure 1. Argon plasma coagulation (APC was performed to cauterize the granulation tissue (Figure 2. Formation of granulation tissue after tracheostomy is a common complication which can result in tracheal stenosis. APC and electrocautery using flexible bronchoscopy has been shown to safely and effectively remove the granulation tissue.
Fonteyne, Margot; Fussell, Andrew Luke; Vercruysse, Jurgen
According to the quality by design principle processes may not remain black-boxes and full process understanding is required. The granule size distribution of granules produced via twin screw granulation is often found to be bimodal. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding...
Dries, Kaspar van den
Wet granulation is a process used for the particle size enlargement of primary powders. The mixing of a liquid with the powder glues the primary particles together, which results in the formation of the granules. The mixing action can be performed in many ways, like tumbling (drum granulation),
Holmes, Michael V; Simon, Tabassome; Exeter, Holly J
This study sought to investigate the role of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-IIA in cardiovascular disease.......This study sought to investigate the role of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-IIA in cardiovascular disease....
Baneckova, Martina; Agaimy, Abbas; Andreasen, Simon
Secretory carcinoma, originally described as mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC), is a low-grade salivary gland tumor characterized by a t(12;15)(p13;q25) translocation, resulting in an ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion. Most MASCs are localized to the parotid gland and intraoral minor salivary glands...
Liebig, T.; Hoffmann, T.; Hosten, N.; Sander, B.; Lanksch, W.R.
Secretory meningioma is a rare entity which may be characterised by imaging features unusual for other subtypes of meningoma, such as low attenuation on CT, high (fat-tissue equivalent) signal intensity on T1-weighted MRI, marked surrounding oedema, and irregular contrast enhancement. We report a case of secretory meningioma and review the literature. (orig.) (orig.)
NBP; Prostatodynia; Pelvic pain syndrome; CPPS; Chronic nonbacterial prostatitis; Chronic genitourinary pain ... Possible causes of nonbacterial prostatitis include: A past ... common types of bacteria Irritation caused by a backup of urine ...
Full Text Available ... a physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty ... Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page This page was reviewed on ...
Full Text Available ... pictures of a man’s prostate gland and to help diagnose symptoms such as difficulty urinating or an ... Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Prostate ultrasound, ...
... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...
... breast cancer (BRCA1 or BRCA2) or a very strong family history of breast cancer, your risk of prostate cancer may be higher. Obesity. Obese men diagnosed with prostate cancer may be more likely ...
Full Text Available ... top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page ... to Ultrasound - Prostate Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ...
Full Text Available ... about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery Radiologist and patient consultation. View full size with caption Related Articles and Media Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) (Enlargement of the Prostate) ...
Full Text Available ... uses sound waves to produce pictures of a man’s prostate gland and to help diagnose symptoms such ... also called transrectal ultrasound, provides images of a man's prostate gland and surrounding tissue. The exam typically ...
Full Text Available ... is used to guide the biopsy to specific regions of the prostate gland. When the examination is ... is relatively insensitive to the pain in the region of the prostate. A biopsy will add time ...
Yu Yafeng; Zhou Weirong; Bao Xueping; Li Min; Hu Zhenmin
Objective: To study relationship between Eustachian tube and secretory otitis media and to explore the pathogeny of secretory otitis by three-dimensional reconstruction of Eustachian tube. Methods: Thirty cases of secretory otitis media (male 19, female 11) were selected randomly. Everyone was checked by otoscope and audiometry. Their bilateral Eustachian tubes were scanning by helix CT while making Valsalva's action. All images were passed on to work station to make three-dimensional reconstruction. Results: Four patients were found have Eustachian tube diseases, while most of patients' Eustachian tubes ventilated normally. Conclusions: Three-dimensional reconstruction of Eustachian tube can open out some pathogens of some secretory otitis medias. It will be helpful to diagnosis and therapy of secretory otitis media. (authors)
B. V. YEGOROV
Full Text Available Science and practice proved the high efficiency of granulated mixed fodders. This article presents an overview of granulation technologies for various industries. This article discusses the application of granulation technologies in various industries. The processes of granulation are mass technological processes currently used in a wide range of industries: feed industry, food industry, pharmaceutical industry, fertilizer production, polyethylene, metal production, mining, etc. A wide range of different materials are granulated, including chemicals, iron ore, mixed fodder, and much more. Granulation is a process of pressing or shaping a material in the form of granules. Granulation is widely used in the production of pigments, dyes, synthetic detergents, catalysts, plastics, soot, chemical reagents, etc. The use of granular raw materials in the metallurgical industry helps not only to mechanize processes, but also to increase their intensity by increasing the contact surface of interacting media. Granular fertilizers retain their properties for a long time. In the mining industry, granulation processes are used at the stage of preparation and enrichment of raw materials and release of the finished product. Particular attention is paid to the feed industry. Granulation allows to ensure stable homogeneity, to improve sanitary and hygienic parameters, to increase nutritional value, to increase the storage period, improve the physical properties. However, despite all the advantages, the existing granulation production lines have a relatively high productivity and, at the same time, a high energy intensity. In this regard, this article proposes a technology for improving the granulation of mixed fodders. According to a preliminary literary review, It should be concluded that improving the technology of the granulation process for feed production is a topical issue in the feed industry today. The development of technology for improving the
Gill, Bradley C; Shoskes, Daniel A
The review provides the infectious disease community with a urologic perspective on bacterial prostatitis. Specifically, the article briefly reviews the categorization of prostatitis by type and provides a distillation of new findings published on bacterial prostatitis over the past year. It also highlights key points from the established literature. Cross-sectional prostate imaging is becoming more common and may lead to more incidental diagnoses of acute bacterial prostatitis. As drug resistance remains problematic in this condition, the reemergence of older antibiotics such as fosfomycin, has proven beneficial. With regard to chronic bacterial prostatitis, no clear clinical risk factors emerged in a large epidemiological study. However, bacterial biofilm formation has been associated with more severe cases. Surgery has a limited role in bacterial prostatitis and should be reserved for draining of a prostatic abscess or the removal of infected prostatic stones. Prostatitis remains a common and bothersome clinical condition. Antibiotic therapy remains the basis of treatment for both acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Further research into improving prostatitis treatment is indicated.
Full Text Available ... the prostate. help diagnose the cause of a man's infertility. A transrectal ultrasound of the prostate gland is typically used to help diagnose symptoms such as: a nodule felt by a physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated ...
The prostate is a gland in men. It helps make semen, the fluid that contains sperm. The prostate surrounds the tube that carries urine away from ... and out of the body. A young man's prostate is about the size of a walnut. It ...
Neumann, W.; Kofler, O.
Simulated high-level waste granules produced by fluidized-bed calcination were overcoated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with pyrocarbon and nickel in laboratory-scale experiments. Successful development enables pyrocrbon deposition at temperatures of 600 to 800 0 K. The coated granules have excellent properties for long-term waste storage
Buijtenen, van M.S.
Spout fluidized beds are frequently used for the production of granules or particles through granulation, which are widely applied, for example, in the production of detergents, pharmaceuticals, food and fertilizers (M¨orl et al. 2007). Spout fluidized beds have a number of advantageous properties,
Saleh, Mohammed F; Dhenge, Ranjit M; Cartwright, James J; Hounslow, Michael J; Salman, Agba D
The effects of three ways of binder delivery into the twin screw granulator (TSG) on the residence time, torque, properties of granules (size, shape, strength) and binder distribution were studied. The binder distribution was visualised through the transparent barrel using high speed imaging as well as quantified using offline technique. Furthermore, the effect of binder delivery and the change of screw configuration (conveying elements only and conveying elements with kneading elements) on the surface velocity of granules across the screw channel were investigated using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The binder was delivered in three ways; all solid binder incorporated with powder mixture, 50% of solid binder mixed with powder mixture and 50% mixed with water, all the solid binder dissolved in water. Incorporation of all solid binder with powder mixture resulted in the relatively longer residence time and higher torque, narrower granule size distribution, more spherical granules, weaker big-sized granules, stronger small-sized granules and better binder distribution compared to that in other two ways. The surface velocity of granules showed variation from one screw to another as a result of uneven liquid distribution as well as shown a reduction while introducing the kneading elements into the screw configuration. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Jayabalan, Aravinth Kumar; Sanchez, Anthony; Park, Ra Young; Yoon, Sang Pil; Kang, Gum-Yong; Baek, Je-Hyun; Anderson, Paul; Kee, Younghoon; Ohn, Takbum
Stress granules (SGs) harbour translationally stalled messenger ribonucleoproteins and play important roles in regulating gene expression and cell fate. Here we show that neddylation promotes SG assembly in response to arsenite-induced oxidative stress. Inhibition or depletion of key components of the neddylation machinery concomitantly inhibits stress-induced polysome disassembly and SG assembly. Affinity purification and subsequent mass-spectrometric analysis of Nedd8-conjugated proteins from translationally stalled ribosomal fractions identified ribosomal proteins, translation factors and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), including SRSF3, a previously known SG regulator. We show that SRSF3 is selectively neddylated at Lys85 in response to arsenite. A non-neddylatable SRSF3 (K85R) mutant do not prevent arsenite-induced polysome disassembly, but fails to support the SG assembly, suggesting that the neddylation pathway plays an important role in SG assembly.
... Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Prostate Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Prostate ...
Full Text Available Introduction. Active substances and excipients used in the manufacture of medicines in tablet form, in most cases, have poor technological properties. This fact determines the need for prior granulation of mass before compression. Granulators of various sizes and designs, running on different modes, made the formation, growth and consolidation of the powder particles that lead to obtain pellets of different shapes and sizes. From the literature it is known that granulation leads to two forms of granules: isodiametric and nonisodiametric. The first group of particles forms has globular shape with a smooth surface and the proportion in which the length, thickness and height are about the same. They are usually made by fluidized bed granulation, spray drying, pelletizing and granulation in dragee pan. Granules of nonisodiametric form in which length is several times the width and height are made mostly by extrusion and compacting. The geometrical parameters of obtained granules are affected by the properties of raw materials, the granulation modes, type and amount of added humidifier and so on. The shape and size of granules, from a technological point of view, are the key factors that contribute, except organoleptic characteristics of the product, its technological properties such as particle size distribution, bulk volume, the ability of the material to shrinkage, porosity, fluidity, mechanical strength and so on. Properly selected for specific conditions granulation method is able to provide the finished product with the specified technological parameters depending on the needs. The aim of this work was to study the effect of granulation method and its conditions on the kinetics of growth of the natural zeolite granules and some quality characteristics of obtained granules. Material & methods. As objects of study served the natural zeolite pellets produced using 3%, 5%, 7% and 10% potato starch paste and solution of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP
Townes, Claire L; Ali, Ased; Gross, Naomi; Pal, Deepali; Williamson, Stuart; Heer, Rakesh; Robson, Craig N; Pickard, Robert S; Hall, Judith
This study investigated whether the increase in serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) typically seen during male urinary tract infection (UTI) is incidental or reflects an innate defence mechanism of the prostate. The protective roles of the whey-acid-motif-4-disulphide core (WFDC) proteins, secretory leukoproteinase inhibitor (SLPI) and WFDC2, in the prostate were also examined. UTI recurrence was assessed retrospectively in men following initial UTI by patient interview. PSA, SLPI, and WFDC2 gene expression were assessed using biopsy samples. LNCaP and DU145 in vitro prostate cell models were utilized to assess the effects of an Escherichia coli challenge on PSA and WFDC gene expression, and bacterial invasion of the prostate epithelium. The effects of PSA on WFDC antimicrobial properties were studied using recombinant peptides and time-kill assays. Men presenting with PSA >4 ng/ml at initial UTI were less likely to have recurrent (r) UTI than those with PSA prostatic epithelium, and the PSA and SLPI proteins co-localized in vivo. Challenging LNCaP (PSA-positive) cells with E. coli increased PSA, SLPI, and WFDC2 gene expression (P prostate innate defences. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Surma, Michal A; Klose, Christian; Klemm, Robin W
Previous work has showed that ergosterol and sphingolipids become sorted to secretory vesicles immunoisolated using a chimeric, artificial raft membrane protein as bait. In this study, we have extended this analysis to three populations of secretory vesicles isolated using natural yeast plasma...... a complete lipid overview of the yeast late secretory pathway. We could show that vesicles captured with different baits carry the same cargo and have almost identical lipid compositions; being highly enriched in ergosterol and sphingolipids. This finding indicates that lipid raft sorting is a generic...
with Dr. Matthew Breyer on a study utilizing bladder biopsy and cystectomy specimens and in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry which...Reduced in Prostate Adenocarcinoma Scott B. Shappell,* William E. Boeglin,t prostate adenocarcinomas. (Am J Patbol 1999, Sandy J. Olson,* Susan Kasper...this novel enzyme in secretory function. 33157-33160 5. Samuelsson B. Dahlen SE, Lindgren JA, Rouzer CA, Serhan CN: Reduced expression in atrophic
Bresan, Stephanie; Sznajder, Anna; Hauf, Waldemar; Forchhammer, Karl; Pfeiffer, Daniel; Jendrossek, Dieter
Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) granules, also designated as carbonosomes, are supra-molecular complexes in prokaryotes consisting of a PHB polymer core and a surface layer of structural and functional proteins. The presence of suspected phospholipids in the surface layer is based on in vitro data of isolated PHB granules and is often shown in cartoons of the PHB granule structure in reviews on PHB metabolism. However, the in vivo presence of a phospholipid layer has never been demonstrated. We addressed this topic by the expression of fusion proteins of DsRed2EC and other fluorescent proteins with the phospholipid-binding domain (LactC2) of lactadherin in three model organisms. The fusion proteins specifically localized at the cell membrane of Ralstonia eutropha but did not co-localize with PHB granules. The same result was obtained for Pseudomonas putida, a species that accumulates another type of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) granules related to PHB. Notably, DsRed2EC-LactC2 expressed in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense was detected at the position of membrane-enclosed magnetosome chains and at the cytoplasmic membrane but not at PHB granules. In conclusion, the carbonosomes of representatives of α-proteobacteria, β-proteobacteria and γ-proteobacteria have no phospholipids in vivo and we postulate that the PHB/PHA granule surface layers in natural producers generally are free of phospholipids and consist of proteins only. PMID:27222167
Kelbaliyev, G.I; Samedli, V.M.
Full text:Granulation of powdered materials in the presence of binding agent is widely used in the most multi-tankage productions of chemical, food, pharmaceutical, metallurgical and agrarian technology. Granulation of powdered materials with participation of liquid phase is carried out in screw, disk, plase-shaped and drum devices and also in devices with mixers. In all cases a formation and growth of granules takes place owing to wetting of separate particles of powder leading to agglomeration and coagulation of particles in their contact with each other. It is apparent that in early stage of granule formation a growth and formation of granules takes place owing to adherence of small particles and agglomerates to larger granules. The content of liquid phase owing to which are appeared adhesive, capillary and surface forces, keeping particles on surface of granule exerts an essential influence on process of granule formation. Besides composition of mixture, its moisture and physical-chemical properties of initial components a mixing frequency degree of filling and angle of inclination of the device, ratio of liquid and hard phases which defines finally qualitative characteristics of the process exert an essential influence on formation of granules as a result of agglomeration of particles of powder. Powder lamination on granule surface is as consequence of its consolidation whereas as a result of consolidation and compression, a binding agent containing in pores squeezed out to a surface, which increases a possibility and probability of further sticking of dry particles of powder. In all cases the further growth and completeness of form of granule is determined by distribution of concentration of binding agent in volume of granule, i.e. moisture content or moisture of granule surface
Bey, P.; Beckendorf, V.; Stines, J.
Radiation therapy of prostate carcinoma with a curative intent implies to treat the whole prostate at high dose (at least 66 Gy). According to clinical stage, PSA level, Gleason's score, the clinical target volume may include seminal vesicles and less often pelvic lymph nodes. Microscopic extra-capsular extension is found in 15 to 60% of T1-T2 operated on, specially in apex tumors. On contrary, cancers developing from the transitional zone may stay limited to the prostate even with a big volume and with a high PSA level. Zonal anatomy of the prostate identifies internal prostate, including the transitional zone (5% of the prostate in young people). External prostate includes central and peripheral zones. The inferior limit of the prostate is not lower than the inferior border of the pubic symphysis. Clinical and radiological examination: ultrasonography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), CT-scan identify prognostic factors as tumor volume, capsule effraction, seminal vesicles invasion and lymph node extension. The identification of the clinical target volume is now done mainly by CT-Scan which identifies prostate and seminal vesicles. NMR could be helpful to identify more precisely prostate apex. The definition of margins around the clinical target volume has to take in account daily reproducibility and organ motion and of course the maximum tolerable dose for organs at risk. (authors)
Parasitic helminths release molecules into their environment, which are generally referred to as excretory-secretory products or ES. ES derived from a wide range of nematodes, trematodes and cestodes have been studied during the past 30-40 years, their characterization evolving from simple biochemical procedures such as SDS-PAGE in the early days to sophisticated proteomics in the 21st century. Study has incorporated investigation of ES structure, potential as vaccines, immunodiagnostic utility, functional activities and immunomodulatory properties. Immunomodulation by ES is increasingly the area of most intensive research with a number of defined helminth products extensively analyzed with respect to the nature of their selective effects on cells of the immune system as well as the molecular mechanisms, which underlie these immunomodulatory effects. As a consequence, we are now beginning to learn the identities of the receptors that ES employ and are increasingly acquiring detailed knowledge of the signalling pathways that they interact with and subvert. Such information is contributing to the growing idea that the anti-inflammatory properties of a number of ES products makes them suitable starting points for the development of novel drugs for treating human inflammatory disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
[Ravi Ram K. and Ramesh S. R. 2007 Male accessory gland secretory protein polymorphism in natural ..... quence of species-specific genetic responses to variations in .... Eberhard W. G. 1996 Female control: sexual selection by cryptic.
Madsen, Jesper Jonasson; Linderoth, Lars; Subramanian, Arun Kumar
We have studied secretory phospholipase A(2)-IIA (sPLA(2)) activity toward different phospholipid analogues by performing biophysical 1 characterizations and molecular dynamics simulations. The phospholipids were natural substrates, triple alkyl phospholipids, a prodrug anticancer etherlipid, and...
rent phases of the secretory process were demonstrated. (Srivastava 1999). ..... in the pineal supportive cells of deep sea fish, Nezumia liolepis (McNulty 1976) and .... factors as light and temperature. Melatonin and ... Brain Res. 52 271–296.
Maejima, T; Kubo, M; Osawa, T; Nakajima, K; Kobayashi, M
The tumbling melt granulation (TMG) method was applied to prepare controlled-release fine granules of diltiazem hydrochloride (DH). The entire process, from the preparation of the cores by the adherence of DH to the sucrose crystal to the subsequent coating of the controlled-release layer, was performed without using any solvent. A mixture of meltable material, talc, and ethylcellulose was used for the controlled-release layer and controlled-release fine granules approximately 400 microns in diameter were obtained with excellent producibility. The dissolution rate of DH from these fine granules was similar to that of a once-a-day dosage form obtained in the market; further, the dependency of the dissolution profile on pH of the media was less. Thus, it was concluded that this TMG method was very useful for preparing not only controlled-release beads of granule size (usually 500 to 1400 microns) but also fine granules.
A time sequence of granulation images of 46 min long has allowed us to make a detailed study of the evolution of granules in an area of approximately 17 x 17 on the solar surface; It is found that the granules evolve by repeated fragmentation into smaller granules or merging with adjacent ones and that there are few granules which appear in the intergranular lanes as new granules (Table III). The statistical nature of granules is as follows: (1) A family of granules is defined as a group of granules produced from a single granule by fragmentation or merging. The lifetime is estimated for single granules and for families of granules. The lifetime shows a close correlation with the maximum size of a single granule or with that of the largest granule belonging to a family (Figures 5 and 7). (2) The smaller the size, the more probably a granule will disappear without further fragmentation or merging. The granule whose size is larger than 2 will certainly split or merge as the next evolutional step (Table IV.). (orig.)
Dec 29, 2006 ... morphometry and function. Eliane Florencio ... granules is greatest in the right atrium followed by the left atrium and left auricle and right auricle, in this order. ... family: Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), Urodilatin, Brain natriuretic ...
Cui, Dong; Han, GuangWei; Shang, YongGang; Mu, LiJun; Long, QingZhi; Du, YueFeng
Prostatitis is a common disease in urology departments. Prostatic zinc accumulation is connected with the secretory function of the prostate, and zinc concentrations present in prostatic diseases differ greatly from the normal level. Studies have investigated the effect of chronic prostatitis on zinc concentration of prostatic fluid and seminal plasma, but have shown inconsistent results. Hence, we performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to assess the effect of chronic prostatitis on the zinc concentration of prostatic fluid and seminal plasma. Systematic literature searches were conducted with PubMed, Embase, Science Direct/Elsevier, CNKI and the Cochrane Library up to March 2015 for case-control studies that involved the relationship between chronic prostatitis and zinc concentration of prostatic fluid and seminal plasma. Meta-analysis was performed with Review Manager and Stata software. Standard mean differences (SMDs) of zinc concentration were identified with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) in a random- or fixed-effects model. Our results illustrated that the zinc concentrations in prostatic fluid and seminal plasma from chronic prostatitis patients were significantly lower than normal controls (SMD [95% CI] -246.71 [-347.97, -145.44], -20.74 [-35.11, -6.37], respectively). The sample size of each study was relatively small, and a total of 731 chronic prostatitis patients and 574 normal controls were investigated in all fourteen studies. Several studies related to the subject were excluded due to lack of control data or means and standard deviations. The present study illustrates that there was a significant negative effect of chronic prostatitis on zinc concentrations of prostatic fluid and seminal plasma. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to better illuminate the negative impact of chronic prostatitis on zinc concentrations.
This work is about diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of prostate cancer. The techniques used are: transrectal ultrasound, laparascopy, bone scan, chest x-ray, radiography, chemoterapy and radiotherapy
Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Prostate ultrasound, also called transrectal ultrasound, provides ...
Wai, Clifford Y; Nihira, Mikio A; Drewes, Peter G; Chang, Joe S; Siddiqui, Momin T; Hemsell, David L
BACKGROUND: We report a case of symptomatic actinomycosis associated with vaginal suture erosion and granulation tissue refractory to conservative management, in an outpatient setting. CASE: Three months after total vaginal hysterectomy and uterosacral ligament vaginal vault suspension, a woman complained of painless, intermittent vaginal discharge and spotting. Despite cauterization of granulation tissue, vaginal spotting persisted for another month. On re-examination, braided polyester sutu...
A. A. Kiselev
Full Text Available Granulation of carbohydrate-vitamin-mineral supplements based on molasses is performed at a high humidity (26 %, so for a stable operation of granulator it is necessary to reveal its melt flow pattern. To describe melt non-isothermal flow in the granulator a mathematical model with following initial equations: continuity equation, motion equation and rheological equation – was developed. The following assumptions were adopted: the melt flow in the granulator is a steady laminar flow; inertial and gravity forces can be ignored; melt is an incompressible fluid; velocity gradient in the flow direction is much smaller than in the transverse direction; the pressure gradient over the cross section of the channel is constant; the flow is hydrodynamically fully developed; effects impact on the channel inlet and outlet may be neglected. Due to the assumptions adopted, it can be considered that in this granulator only velocity components in the x-direction are significant and all the members of the equation with the components and their derivatives with respect to the coordinates y and z can be neglected. The resulting solutions were obtained: the equation for the mean velocity, the equation for determining the volume flow, the formula for calculating of mean time of the melt being in the granulator, the equation for determining the shear stress, the equation for determining the shear rate and the equation for determining the pressure loss. The results of calculations of the equations obtained are in complete agreement with the experimental data; deviation range is 16–19 %. The findings about the melt movement pattern in granulator allowed developing a methodology for calculating a rational design of the granulator molding unit.
Sannino, Sara; Anelli, Tiziana; Cortini, Margherita; Masui, Shoji; Degano, Massimo; Fagioli, Claudio; Inaba, Kenji; Sitia, Roberto
ERp44 is a pH-regulated chaperone of the secretory pathway. In the acidic milieu of the Golgi, its C-terminal tail changes conformation, simultaneously exposing the substrate-binding site for cargo capture and the RDEL motif for ER retrieval through interactions with cognate receptors. Protonation of cysteine 29 in the active site allows tail movements in vitro and in vivo. Here, we show that conserved histidine residues in the C-terminal tail also regulate ERp44 in vivo. Mutants lacking these histidine residues retain substrates more efficiently. Surprisingly, they are also O-glycosylated and partially secreted. Co-expression of client proteins prevents secretion of the histidine mutants, forcing tail opening and RDEL accessibility. Client-induced RDEL exposure allows retrieval of proteins from distinct stations along the secretory pathway, as indicated by the changes in O-glycosylation patterns upon overexpression of different partners. The ensuing gradients might help to optimize folding and assembly of different cargoes. Endogenous ERp44 is O-glycosylated and secreted by human primary endometrial cells, suggesting possible pathophysiological roles of these processes. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Serrano-Arévalo, Mónica L; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Domínguez-Malagón, Hugo; Michal, Michal
The Clinco-pathological, immunohistochemical and molecular findings of four cases of Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma (MASC) of salivary glands found in Mexico are described. The cases were extracted from 253 salivary gland tumors from a single institution in Mexico City. The 85 Candidates for initial selection were: low grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) (N=70 ), Acinic cell cancinoma (AciCC) (N=14), papillary cystadenocarcinoma (N=1), and adenocarcinoma NOS (N=0). Tumors with some histological features consistent with MASC (N= 17, 6.7%) were studied by immunohistochemistry for mammaglobin, STAT5, and S-100 protein and four cases were positive (1.5%), thus the diagnosis of MASC was established, and these were submitted for molecular studies for ETV6-NTRK3. Fusion gene was demonstrated in three cases, two had been erroneously diagnosed as poorly granulated AciCC, and one as low grade MEC with microcystic pattern. Female gender predominated (3:1); one occurred in the parotid, two in minor salivary glands and one in the submaxillary gland; infiltrating borders, atypical mitosis and lymph node metastases were seen in the parotideal tumor. Two patients with major salivary gland tumors are alive and well at 10 and 20 months respectively, the two patients with minor salivary gland tumors are lost. It can be concluded that is important to think in MASC in poorly granulated AciCC and low grade MEC with microcystic pattern. Immunohistochemisty studies confirm the diagnosis, preferentially supported by molecular studies. MASC may follow aggressive behavior or transform into a high grade neoplasm.
Quintero, Ileana B.; Herrala, Annakaisa M.; Araujo, César L.; Pulkka, Anitta E.; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Ovaska, Kristian; Pryazhnikov, Evgeny; Kulesskiy, Evgeny; Ruuth, Maija K.; Soini, Ylermi; Sormunen, Raija T.; Khirug, Leonard; Vihko, Pirkko T.
The molecular mechanisms underlying prostate carcinogenesis are poorly understood. Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), a prostatic epithelial secretion marker, has been linked to prostate cancer since the 1930's. However, the contribution of PAP to the disease remains controversial. We have previously cloned and described two isoforms of this protein, a secretory (sPAP) and a transmembrane type-I (TMPAP). The goal in this work was to understand the physiological function of TMPAP in the prostate. We conducted histological, ultra-structural and genome-wide analyses of the prostate of our PAP-deficient mouse model (PAP−/−) with C57BL/6J background. The PAP−/− mouse prostate showed the development of slow-growing non-metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma. In order to find out the mechanism behind, we identified PAP-interacting proteins byyeast two-hybrid assays and a clear result was obtained for the interaction of PAP with snapin, a SNARE-associated protein which binds Snap25 facilitating the vesicular membrane fusion process. We confirmed this interaction by co-localization studies in TMPAP-transfected LNCaP cells (TMPAP/LNCaP cells) and in vivo FRET analyses in transient transfected LNCaP cells. The differential gene expression analyses revealed the dysregulation of the same genes known to be related to synaptic vesicular traffic. Both TMPAP and snapin were detected in isolated exosomes. Our results suggest that TMPAP is involved in endo-/exocytosis and disturbed vesicular traffic is a hallmark of prostate adenocarcinoma. PMID:24039861
Full Text Available ... an example of a transrectal transducer (probe). A prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, which measures the amount of PSA in the blood, may be administered to determine if a patient is at high risk for ... of the prostate gland. When the examination is complete, you may ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background 7B2 is a regulator/activator of the prohormone convertase 2 which is involved in the processing of numerous neuropeptides, including insulin, glucagon and pro-opiomelanocortin. We have previously described a suggestive genetic linkage peak with childhood obesity on chr15q12-q14, where the 7B2 encoding gene, SGNE1 is located. The aim of this study is to analyze associations of SGNE1 genetic variation with obesity and metabolism related quantitative traits. Methods We screened SGNE1 for genetic variants in obese children and genotyped 12 frequent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Case control analyses were performed in 1,229 obese (534 children and 695 adults, 1,535 individuals with type 2 diabetes and 1,363 controls, all French Caucasians. We also studied 4,922 participants from the D.E.S.I.R prospective population-based cohort. Results We did not find any association between SGNE1 SNPs and childhood or adult obesity. However, the 5' region SNP -1,701A>G associated with higher area under glucose curve after oral glucose tolerance test (p = 0.0005, higher HOMA-IR (p = 0.005 and lower insulinogenic index (p = 0.0003 in obese children. Similar trends were found in obese adults. SNP -1,701A>G did not associate with risk of T2D but tends to associate with incidence of type 2 diabetes (HR = 0.75 95%CI [0.55–1.01]; p = 0.06 in the prospective cohort. Conclusion SGNE1 genetic variation does not contribute to obesity and common forms of T2D but may worsen glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, especially in the background of severe and early onset obesity. Further molecular studies are required to understand the molecular bases involved in this process.
Zhou, A; Matsumoto, T; Farver, O
Mechanically isolated cells from the intermediate lobe of ox hypophyses contained 40.6 +/- 3.7 nmol mg-1 protein (mean +/- SE, n = 5) of ascorbic acid. They accumulated radioactivity time dependently, on incubation with L-[14C]ascorbic acid in ionic medium dominated by NaCl. No definite saturation...
Thorn, N A; Nielsen, F S; Jeppesen, C K
When uptake of L-[14C]ascorbic acid ([14C]AA) to various organs in guinea-pigs was studied after intracardiac injection, the adenohypophysis, pars intermedia, and the neurohypophysis had an uptake per milligramme protein which was about half of the uptake to the adrenals. Adrenal uptake was 20...
Ehlers, Henrik; Liu, Anchang; Räikkönen, Heikki; Hatara, Juha; Antikainen, Osmo; Airaksinen, Sari; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Lou, Honxiang; Yliruusi, Jouko
The primary aim of the study was to investigate the effects of pulsed liquid feed on granule size. The secondary aim was to increase knowledge of this technique in granule size targeting. Pulsed liquid feed refers to the pump changing between on- and off-positions in sequences, called duty cycles. One duty cycle consists of one on- and off-period. The study was performed with a laboratory-scale top-spray fluid bed granulator with duty cycle length and atomization pressure as studied variables. The liquid feed rate, amount and inlet air temperature were constant. The granules were small, indicating that the powder has only undergone ordered mixing, nucleation and early growth. The effect of atomizing pressure on granule size depends on inlet air relative humidity, with premature binder evaporation as a reason. The duty cycle length was of critical importance to the end product attributes, by defining the extent of intermittent drying and rewetting. By varying only the duty cycle length, it was possible to control granule nucleation and growth, with a wider granule size target range in increased relative humidity. The present study confirms that pulsed liquid feed in fluid bed granulation is a useful tool in end product particle size targeting.
Yurkin, M.A.; de Kanter, D.; Hoekstra, A.G.
We performed extensive simulations of light scattering by granulated coated sphere model using the discrete dipole approximation and varying model parameters in the ranges of sizes and refractive indices of granulated blood cells. We compared these results with predictions of Maxwell-Garnett
Mise, Ryohei; Iwao, Yasunori; Kimura, Shin-Ichiro; Osugi, Yukiko; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru
The effect of some drug properties (wettability and particle size distribution) on granule properties (mean particle size, particle size distribution, sphericity, and granule strength) were investigated in a high (>97%) drug-loading formulation using fluidized bed rotor granulation. Three drugs: acetaminophen (APAP); ibuprofen (IBU); and ethenzamide (ETZ) were used as model drugs based on their differences in wettability and particle size distribution. Granules with mean particle sizes of 100-200 µm and a narrow particle size distribution (PSD) could be prepared regardless of the drug used. IBU and ETZ granules showed a higher sphericity than APAP granules, while APAP and ETZ granules exhibited higher granule strength than IBU. The relationship between drug and granule properties suggested that the wettability and the PSD of the drugs were critical parameters affecting sphericity and granule strength, respectively. Furthermore, the dissolution profiles of granules prepared with poorly water-soluble drugs (IBU and ETZ) showed a rapid release (80% release in 20 min) because of the improved wettability with granulation. The present study demonstrated for the first time that fluidized bed rotor granulation can prepare high drug-loaded (>97%) globular granules with a mean particle size of less than 200 µm and the relationship between physicochemical drug properties and the properties of the granules obtained could be readily determined, indicating the potential for further application of this methodology to various drugs.
Full Text Available Platelets are not only central actors of hemostasis and thrombosis but also of other processes including inflammation, angiogenesis, and tissue regeneration. Accumulating evidence indicates that these "non classical" functions of platelets do not necessarily rely on their well-known ability to form thrombi upon activation. This suggests the existence of non-thrombotic alternative states of platelets activation. We investigated this possibility through dose-response analysis of thrombin- and collagen-induced changes in platelet phenotype, with regards to morphological and functional markers of platelet activation including shape change, aggregation, P-selectin and phosphatidylserine surface expression, integrin activation, and release of soluble factors. We show that collagen at low dose (0.25 µg/mL selectively triggers a platelet secretory phenotype characterized by the release of dense- and alpha granule-derived soluble factors without causing any of the other major platelet changes that usually accompany thrombus formation. Using a blocking antibody to glycoprotein VI (GPVI, we further show that this response is mediated by GPVI. Taken together, our results show that platelet activation goes beyond the mechanisms leading to platelet aggregation and also includes alternative platelet phenotypes that might contribute to their thrombus-independent functions.
Full Text Available This paper surveys the different theories developed on anaerobic sludge granulation. The theories are generally categorized as physical, microbial, and thermodynamic approaches. In the physical approach to the granulation process, granulation is described by such physical conditions of the reactor as upflow velocity of gas and liquid streams, suspended solids in the effluent flow, and excess sludge removal. Microbial theories are based on the properties of specific organisms and on granule properties (granule structure and its microbiology. The thermodynamic approach studies such factors as hydrophobia, electrophoretic mobility, effective energy in granule adhesion process, and effect of proton transferring activities on bacterial membrane surfaces.
Anoshkin, N.F.; Fatkullin, O.Kh.; Ermanok, M.Z.; Sharshagin, N.A.
Peculiarities of the structure and properties of compact material obtained from granules of the EhI 698 and ZhS6U alloys in the form of pressed rods are investigated. It is shown, that granule metallurgy is the most rational technology method, ensuring the receipt of stable fine-grained structure in the initial blank. After appropriate thermal treatment the products obtained by the method of granule metallyrgy have more high strength characteristics at the room temperature and heat resistance, than typical for the products produced by traditional technology. Creation of specialized vertical presses providing low rates of deformation as well as their equipment by vacuum mechanizms which permit to use a tool from molybdenum alloys is necessary for successful introduction into production of the processes of plastic metal working under conditions of superplasticity
Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.; Kliestik, Helen
Methods of preparing antimicrobialcoated granules for disinfecting flowing potable water have been developed. Like the methods reported in the immediately preceding article, these methods involve chemical preparation of substrate surfaces (in this case, the surfaces of granules) to enable attachment of antimicrobial molecules to the surfaces via covalent bonds. A variety of granular materials have been coated with a variety of antimicrobial agents that include antibiotics, bacteriocins, enzymes, bactericides, and fungicides. When employed in packed beds in flowing water, these antimicrobial-coated granules have been proven effective against gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Composite beds, consisting of multiple layers containing different granular antimicrobial media, have proven particularly effective against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. These media have also proven effective in enhancing or potentiating the biocidal effects of in-line iodinated resins and of very low levels of dissolved elemental iodine.
Ito, Sayaka; Kobayashi, Yoshihiko; Yamamoto, Yuki; Kimura, Koji; Okuda, Kiyoshi
Two types of oviductal epithelial cells, secretory and ciliated, play crucial roles in the first days after fertilization in mammals. Secretory cells produce various molecules promoting embryo development, while ciliated cells facilitate transport of oocytes and zygotes by ciliary beating. The proportions of the two cell types change during the estrous cycle. The proportion of ciliated cells on the oviductal luminal surface is abundant at the follicular phase, whereas the proportion of secretory cells gradually increases with the formation of the corpus luteum. In the present study, we hypothesize that the proportions of ciliated and secretory epithelial cells are regulated by mitosis. The proportion of the cells being positive for FOXJ1 (a ciliated cell marker) or Ki67 (a mitosis marker) in epithelial cells during the estrous cycle were immunohistochemically examined. Ki67 and FOXJ1 or PAX8 (a secretory cell marker), were double-stained to clarify which types of epithelial cells undergo mitosis. In the ampulla, the percentage of FOXJ1-positive cells was highest at the day of ovulation (Day 0) and decreased by about 50 % by Days 8-12, while in the isthmus it did not change during the estrous cycle. The proportion of Ki67-positive cells was highest at around the time of ovulation in both the ampulla and isthmus. All the Ki67-positive cells were PAX8-positive and FOXJ1-negative in both the ampulla and isthmus. These findings suggest that epithelial remodeling, which is regulated by differentiation and/or proliferation of secretory cells of the oviduct, provides the optimal environment for gamete transport, fertilization and embryonic development.
Moriyama, Y; Nelson, N
The proton-ATPase of chromaffin granules was purified so as to maintain its proton-pumping activity when reconstituted into phospholipid vesicles. The purification procedure involved solubilization with polyoxyethylene 9 lauryl ether, hydroxylapatite column, precipitation by ammonium sulfate, and glycerol gradient centrifugation. The protease inhibitor mixture used in previous studies inhibited the proton-pumping activity of the enzyme; therefore, the protein was stabilized by pepstatin A and leupeptin. The enzyme was purified at least 50-fold with respect to both ATPase and proton-pumping activity. The ATP-dependent proton uptake activity of the reconstituted enzyme was absolutely dependent on the presence of Cl- or Br- outside the vesicles, whereas sulfate, acetate, formate, nitrate, and thiocyanate were inhibitory. Sulfate inhibition seems to be due to competition with Cl- on the anion-binding site outside the vesicles, whereas nitrate and thiocyanate inhibited only from the internal side. As with the inhibition by N-ethylmaleimide, the proton-pumping activity was much more sensitive to nitrate than the ATPase activity. About 20 mM nitrate were sufficient for 90% inhibition of the proton-pumping activity while 100 mM inhibited only 50% of the ATPase activity both in situ and in the reconstituted enzyme. The possible regulatory effect of anions on the ATP-dependent proton uptake in secretory granules is discussed.
Fischer, C. E.; Bello González, N.; Rezaei, R.
Context. Observations of multi-wavelength and therefore height-dependent information following events throughout the solar atmosphere and unambiguously assigning a relation between these rapidly evolving layers are rare and difficult to obtain. Yet, they are crucial for our understanding of the physical processes that couple the different regimes in the solar atmosphere. Aims: We characterize the exploding granule event with simultaneous observations of Hinode spectroplarimetric data in the solar photosphere and Hinode broadband Ca II H images combined with Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) slit spectra. We follow the evolution of an exploding granule and its connectivity throughout the atmosphere and analyze the dynamics of a magnetic element that has been affected by the abnormal granule. Methods: In addition to magnetic flux maps we use a local correlation tracking method to infer the horizontal velocity flows in the photosphere and apply a wavelet analysis on several IRIS chromospheric emission features such as Mg II k2v and Mg II k3 to detect oscillatory phenomena indicating wave propagation. Results: During the vigorous expansion of the abnormal granule we detect radially outward horizontal flows, causing, together with the horizontal flows from the surrounding granules, the magnetic elements in the bordering intergranular lanes to be squeezed and elongated. In reaction to the squeezing, we detect a chromospheric intensity and velocity oscillation pulse which we identify as an upward traveling hot shock front propagating clearly through the IRIS spectral line diagnostics of Mg II h&k. Conclusions: Exploding granules can trigger upward-propagating shock fronts that dissipate in the chromosphere. Movies associated to Figs. A.1 and A.2 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
One way to prevent the spread of Haemorrhage Dengue Fever is the use of abate. The use of abate as larvicides often complained causing an unpleasant smell, and can cause resistance. Lemongrass oil is reported to have activity as larvicides, and this study aims to make granules of lemongrass oil preparation, as well as determining the value of LC50, LC90 against larvae of Ae. aegypti instar III. The granules of lemongrass oil preparation are made with lactose filler and binder CMC-Na. Larvicid...
For the production of granulated ceramic nuclear fuels with a grain size spectrum as narrow as possible it is proposed to suspend the nuclear fuel powder in a non-aqueous solvent with small content of hydrogen (e.g. chloridized hydrocarbons) while adding a binding agent and then dry it by means of rays. As binding agent polybutyl methane acrylate in dibutyl phthalate is proposed. The method is described by the example of UO 2 -powder in trichloroethylene. The dry granulated material is produced in one working step. (UWI) [de
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate using light microscopy the fibro-cellular components of arachnoid granulations affected by mild and severe subarachnoid hemorrage. The erythrocytes were in the channels delimitated by collagenous and elastic bundles and arachnoid cells, showing their tortuous and intercommunicating row from the pedicle to the fibrous capsule. The core portion of the pedicle and the center represented a principal route to the bulk outflow of cerebrospinal fluid and erythrocytes. In the severe hemorrhage, the fibrocellular components are desorganized, increasing the extracellular channels. We could see arachnoid granulations without erythrocytes, which cells showed big round nucleous suggesting their transformation into phagocytic cells.
Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn
This report presents a proposal for a standardised method for creep tests and the necessary theoretical framework that can be used to describe creep of a granulated loose-fill material. Furthermore results from a round robin test are shown. The round robin test was carried out in collaboration...... with SP-Building Physics in Sweden and VTT Building Technology in Finland. For the round robin test a cellulosic fibre insulation material was used. The proposed standardised method for creep tests and theories are limited to cases when the granulated loose-fill material is exposed to a constant...
Jønson, Lars; Vikesaa, Jonas; Krogh, Anders
Localized mRNAs are transported to sites of local protein synthesis in large ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules, but their molecular composition is incompletely understood. Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein (IMP) zip code-binding proteins participate in mRNA localization, and in mo......Localized mRNAs are transported to sites of local protein synthesis in large ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules, but their molecular composition is incompletely understood. Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein (IMP) zip code-binding proteins participate in mRNA localization...
Full Text Available There are several benign prostatic pathologies that can clinically mimic a prostate adenocarcinoma. Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis is a benign inflammatory condition of the prostate and a rare entity. A 47-year old male, with 3 years of lower urinary tract symptoms, with a palpable hypogastric tumor, digital rectal examination: solid prostate, of approximately 60 g. Initial PSA was 0.90 ng/mL. He underwent surgical excision of the lower abdominal nodule and prostatectomy. Histopathology showed xanthogranulomatous prostatitis, without malignancy. Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis is an extremely rare entity that can simulate prostate adenocarcinoma, therefore having a correct histopathological diagnosis is essential.
Full Text Available ... This procedure requires little to no special preparation. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. ... BPH) , with measurements acquired as needed for any treatment planning. detect an abnormal growth within the prostate. ...
Full Text Available ... the rectum. The images are obtained from different angles to get the best view of the prostate ... RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your physician with specific medical questions or for ...
Full Text Available ... nodule felt by a physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides real-time ...
... for drugs that may make your symptoms worse : SAW PALMETTO Many herbs have been tried for treating an enlarged prostate. Many men use saw palmetto to ease symptoms. Some studies have shown that ...
... give the cells a grade called a Gleason score . This helps predict how fast the cancer will ... TRUS); Stereotactic transperineal prostate biopsy (STPB) Images Male reproductive anatomy References Babayan RK, Katz MH. Biopsy prophylaxis, ...
Full Text Available ... the rectal wall is relatively insensitive to the pain in the region of the prostate. A biopsy ... needle biopsies and fluid aspiration. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on ...
Full Text Available ... diagnose symptoms such as difficulty urinating or an elevated blood test result. It’s also used to investigate ... physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides ...
Full Text Available ... less than 20 minutes. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Ultrasound ... in the region of the prostate. A biopsy will add time to the procedure. Rarely, a small ...
Full Text Available ... receiver coil. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top ... To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ACR- ...
Full Text Available ... with measurements acquired as needed for any treatment planning. detect an abnormal growth within the prostate. help ... end of their bowel (rectum) removed during prior surgery are not good candidates for ultrasound of the ...
Full Text Available ... prostate gland and to help diagnose symptoms such as difficulty urinating or an elevated blood test result. ... image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is no ...
Full Text Available ... nodule felt by a physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated ... requested the exam. Usually, the referring physician or health care provider will share the results with you. ...
... tender scrotum The provider may perform a digital rectal exam to examine your prostate. During this exam, ... Copyright 1997-2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing ...
Full Text Available ... receiver coil. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top ... here Images × Image Gallery Radiologist and patient consultation. View full size with caption Related Articles and Media ...
Full Text Available ... needle biopsies and fluid aspiration. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on ... and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page This page was reviewed on ...
Full Text Available ... Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding minimally invasive procedures such as ... bowel (rectum) removed during prior surgery are not good candidates for ultrasound of the prostate gland because ...
Full Text Available ... Images related to Ultrasound - Prostate Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...
Full Text Available ... phased array) receiver coil. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate ... Send us your feedback Did you find the information you were looking for? Yes No Please type ...
Full Text Available ... in which a needle is used to sample cells (tissue) from an abnormal area in the prostate ... needle insertion) is usually minimal because the rectal wall is relatively insensitive to the pain in the ...
Full Text Available ... also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) , with measurements acquired as needed for any treatment planning. detect ... areas of the body while other areas, especially air-filled lungs, are poorly suited for ultrasound. For ...
Full Text Available ... physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty ... if a patient is at high risk for cancer. In this case, a biopsy is performed and ...
Full Text Available ... rectum into the prostate gland which is situated right in front of the rectum. top of page ... creates a real-time picture on the monitor. One or more frames of the moving pictures are ...
Full Text Available ... probe sends and receives sound waves through the wall of the rectum into the prostate gland which ... needle insertion) is usually minimal because the rectal wall is relatively insensitive to the pain in the ...
Toledano, A.; Chauveinc, L.; Flam, T.; Thiounn, N.; Solignac, S.; Timbert, M.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Cosset, J.M.; Ammor, A.; Bonnetain, F.; Brenier, J.P.; Maingon, P.; Peignaux, K.; Truc, G.; Bosset, M.; Crevoisier, R. de; Tucker, S.; Dong, L.; Cheung, R.; Kuban, D.; Azria, D.; Llacer Moscardo, C.; Ailleres, N.; Allaw, A.; Serre, A.; Fenoglietto, P.; Hay, M.H.; Thezenas, S.; Dubois, J.B.; Pommier, P.; Perol, D.; Lagrange, J.L.; Richaud, P.; Brune, D.; Le Prise, E.; Azria, D.; Beckendorf, V.; Chabaud, S.; Carrie, C.; Bosset, M.; Bosset, J.F.; Maingon, P.; Ammor, A.; Crehangen, G.; Truc, G.; Peignaux, K.; Bonnetain, F.; Keros, L.; Bernier, V.; Aletti, P.; Wolf, D.; Marchesia, V.; Noel, A.; Artignan, X.; Fourneret, P.; Bacconier, M.; Shestaeva, O.; Pasquier, D.; Descotes, J.L.; Balosso, J.; Bolla, M.; Burette, R.; Corbusier, A.; Germeau, F.; Crevoisier, R. de; Dong, L.; Bonnen, M.; Cheung, R.; Tucker, S.; Kuban, D.; Crevoisier, R. de; Melancon, A.; Kuban, D.; Cheung, R.; Dong, L.; Peignaux, K.; Brenier, J.P.; Truc, G.; Bosset, M.; Ammor, A.; Barillot, I.; Maingon, P.; Molines, J.C.; Berland, E.; Cornulier, J. de; Coulet-Parpillon, A.; Cohard, C.; Picone, M.; Fourneret, P.; Artignan, X.; Daanen, V.; Gastaldo, J.; Bolla, M.; Collomb, D.; Dusserre, A.; Descotes, J.L.; Troccaz, J.; Giraud, J.Y.; Quero, L.; Hennequin, C.; Ravery, V.; Desgrandschamps, F.; Maylin, C.; Boccon-Gibod, L.; Salem, N.; Bladou, F.; Gravis, G.; Tallet, A.; Simonian, M.; Serment, G.; Salem, N.; Bladou, F.; Gravis, G.; Simonian, M.; Rosello, R.; Serment, G.
Some short communications on the prostate carcinoma are given here. The impact of pelvic irradiation, conformation with intensity modulation, association of radiotherapy and chemotherapy reduction of side effects, imaging, doses escalation are such subjects studied and reported. (N.C.)
Chabanova, Elizaveta; Balslev, Ingegerd; Logager, Vibeke
To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data.......To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data....
Mast cells induce protective immune responses through secretion of stimulatory granules. Microparticles modelled after mast-cell granules are now shown to replicate and enhance the functions of their natural counterparts and to direct the character of the resulting immunity.
De Leersnyder, F; Vanhoorne, V; Bekaert, H; Vercruysse, J; Ghijs, M; Bostijn, N; Verstraeten, M; Cappuyns, P; Van Assche, I; Vander Heyden, Y; Ziemons, E; Remon, J P; Nopens, I; Vervaet, C; De Beer, T
Although twin screw granulation has already been widely studied in recent years, only few studies addressed the subsequent continuous drying which is required after wet granulation and still suffers from a lack of detailed understanding. The latter is important for optimisation and control and, hence, a cost-effective practical implementation. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to increase understanding of the drying kinetics and the breakage and attrition phenomena during fluid bed drying after continuous twin screw granulation. Experiments were performed on a continuous manufacturing line consisting of a twin-screw granulator, a six-segmented fluid bed dryer, a mill, a lubricant blender and a tablet press. Granulation parameters were fixed in order to only examine the effect of drying parameters (filling time, drying time, air flow, drying air temperature) on the size distribution and moisture content of granules (both of the entire granulate and of size fractions). The wet granules were transferred either gravimetrically or pneumatically from the granulator exit to the fluid bed dryer. After a certain drying time, the moisture content reached an equilibrium. This drying time was found to depend on the applied airflow, drying air temperature and filling time. The moisture content of the granules decreased with an increasing drying time, airflow and drying temperature. Although smaller granules dried faster, the multimodal particle size distribution of the granules did not compromise uniform drying of the granules when the target moisture content was achieved. Extensive breakage of granules was observed during drying. Especially wet granules were prone to breakage and attrition during pneumatic transport, either in the wet transfer line or in the dry transfer line. Breakage and attrition of granules during transport and drying should be anticipated early on during process and formulation development by performing integrated experiments on the granulator
Full Text Available MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2, 5-dihphenyltetrazolium bromide assay is a widely used method to assess cell viability and proliferation. MTT is readily taken up by cells and enzymatically reduced to formazan, a dark compound which accumulates in cytoplasmic granules. Formazan is later eliminated by the cell by a mechanisms often indicated as exocytosis, that produces characteristic needle-like aggregates on the cell surface. The shape of formazan aggregates and the rate of exocytosis change in the presence of bioactive amyloid b peptides (Ab and cholesterol. Though the cellular mechanisms involved in MTT reduction have been extensively investigated, the exact nature of formazan granules and the process of exocytosis are still obscure. Using Nile Red, which stains differentially neutral and polar lipids, and a fluorescent analog of cholesterol (NBD-cholesterol, we found that formazan localized in lipid droplets, consistent with the lipophilic nature of formazan. However, formazan granules and aggregates were also found to form after killing cells with paraformaldehyde fixation. Moreover, formazan aggregates were also obtained in cell-free media, using ascorbic acid to reduce MTT. The density and shape of formazan aggregates obtained in cell-free media was sensitive to cholesterol and Ab. In cells, electron microscopy failed to detect the presence of secretory vesicles, but revealed unusual fibers of 50 nm of diameter extending throughout the cytoplasm. Taken together, these findings suggest that formazan efflux is driven by physico-chemical interactions at molecular level without involving higher cytological mechanisms.
Compared with Ammonaps granules, Pheburane coated granules mask the unpleasant taste of sodium phenylbutyrate. A more precise dosing device is provided with the coated granules than with the uncoated granules (Ammonaps).
Yu-bin, Ji; Xin, LI; Guo-song, Xin; Qin-bing, Xue
The Ibuprofen Granules comprehensive quality testing to ensure that it is in accordance with the provisions of Chinese pharmacopoeia. With reference of Chinese pharmacopoeia, the Ibuprofen Granules is tested by UV, HPLC, in terms of grain size checking, volume deviation, weight loss on drying detection, dissolution rate detection, and quality evaluation. Results indicated that Ibuprofen Granules conform to the standards. The Ibuprofen Granules are qualified and should be permitted to be marketed.
Background: Suprastomal granulation tissue is a complication of tracheostomy which may make decannulation difficult and presents a therapeutic challenge to the Otorhinolaryngologists. The aims of this study therefore were to evaluate tracheostomy in black African population, determine the prevalence of suprastomal ...
ANP) are present in the four regions of the atrial-auricular complex (two atria and two auricles). ANP-immunoreactivity was detected in all granules from the four regions. Ultrastructurally, atrial myocytes show the presence of very electron dense ...
... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1468 Naproxen granules. (a... musculoskeletal system of the horse. (2)(i) For oral maintenance therapy following initial intravenous dosage...
A. M. Krautsou
Full Text Available General relationship for calculation of water filtration through homogeneous granulated charge has been obtained. The obtained relationship has been compared with experimental data. Discrepancies between calculated and experimental values do not exceed 6 % throughout the entire investigated range.
Parang, Bobak; Rosenblatt, Daniel; Williams, Amanda D; Washington, Mary K; Revetta, Frank; Short, Sarah P; Reddy, Vishruth K; Hunt, Aubrey; Shroyer, Noah F; Engel, Michael E; Hiebert, Scott W; Williams, Christopher S
Notch signaling largely determines intestinal epithelial cell fate. High Notch activity drives progenitors toward absorptive enterocytes by repressing secretory differentiation programs, whereas low Notch permits secretory cell assignment. Myeloid translocation gene-related 1 (MTGR1) is a transcriptional corepressor in the myeloid translocation gene/Eight-Twenty-One family. Given that Mtgr1(-/-) mice have a dramatic reduction of intestinal epithelial secretory cells, we hypothesized that MTGR1 is a key repressor of Notch signaling. In support of this, transcriptome analysis of laser capture microdissected Mtgr1(-/-) intestinal crypts revealed Notch activation, and secretory markers Mucin2, Chromogranin A, and Growth factor-independent 1 (Gfi1) were down-regulated in Mtgr1(-/-) whole intestines and Mtgr1(-/-) enteroids. We demonstrate that MTGR1 is in a complex with Suppressor of Hairless Homolog, a key Notch effector, and represses Notch-induced Hairy/Enhancer of Split 1 activity. Moreover, pharmacologic Notch inhibition using a γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI) rescued the hyperproliferative baseline phenotype in the Mtgr1(-/-) intestine and increased production of goblet and enteroendocrine lineages in Mtgr1(-/-) mice. GSI increased Paneth cell production in wild-type mice but failed to do so in Mtgr1(-/-) mice. We determined that MTGR1 can interact with GFI1, a transcriptional corepressor required for Paneth cell differentiation, and repress GFI1 targets. Overall, the data suggest that MTGR1, a transcriptional corepressor well characterized in hematopoiesis, plays a critical role in intestinal lineage allocation. © FASEB.
Holmes, Michael V.; Simon, Tabassome; Exeter, Holly J.; Folkersen, Lasse; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Guardiola, Montse; Cooper, Jackie A.; Palmen, Jutta; Hubacek, Jaroslav A.; Carruthers, Kathryn F.; Horne, Benjamin D.; Brunisholz, Kimberly D.; Mega, Jessica L.; Van Iperen, Erik P. A.; Li, Mingyao; Leusink, Maarten; Trompet, Stella; Verschuren, Jeffrey J. W.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Dehghan, Abbas; Nelson, Christopher P.; Kotti, Salma; Danchin, Nicolas; Scholz, Markus; Haase, Christiane L.; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Swerdlow, Daniel I.; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Staines-Urias, Eleonora; Goel, Anuj; van 't Hooft, Ferdinand; Gertow, Karl; de Faire, Ulf; Panayiotou, Andrie G.; Tremoli, Elena; Baldassarre, Damiano; Veglia, Fabrizio; Holdt, Lesca M.; Beutner, Frank; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Navis, Gerjan J.; Mateo Leach, Irene; Breitling, Lutz P.; Brenner, Hermann; Thiery, Joachim; Dallmeier, Dhayana; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Stephens, Jeffrey W.; Hofker, Marten H.; Tedgui, Alain; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Adamkova, Vera; Pitha, Jan; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Cramer, Maarten J.; Nathoe, Hendrik M.; Spiering, Wilko; Klungel, Olaf H.; Kumari, Meena; Whincup, Peter H.; Morrow, David A.; Braund, Peter S.; Hall, Alistair S.; Olsson, Anders G.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Trip, Mieke D.; Tobin, Martin D.; Hamsten, Anders; Watkins, Hugh; Koenig, Wolfgang; Nicolaides, Andrew N.; Teupser, Daniel; Day, Ian N. M.; Carlquist, John F.; Gaunt, Tom R.; Ford, Ian; Sattar, Naveed; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Schwartz, Gregory G.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Morris, Richard W.; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Poledne, Rudolf; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Keating, Brendan J.; van der Harst, Pim; Price, Jackie F.; Mehta, Shamir R.; Yusuf, Salim; Witteman, Jaqueline C. M.; Franco, Oscar H.; Jukema, J. Wouter; de Knijff, Peter; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Rader, Daniel J.; Farrall, Martin; Samani, Nilesh J.; Kivimaki, Mika; Fox, Keith A. A.; Humphries, Steve E.; Anderson, Jeffrey L.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Palmer, Tom M.; Eriksson, Per; Pare, Guillaume; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Sabatine, Marc S.; Mallat, Ziad; Casas, Juan P.; Talmud, Philippa J.
Objectives This study sought to investigate the role of secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2))-IIA in cardiovascular disease. Background Higher circulating levels of sPLA(2)-IIA mass or sPLA(2) enzyme activity have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events. However, it is not
Salivary gland malignancy is rare, with a global annual incidence of. 3 per 100 000 people.[1,2] A rare salivary gland tumour, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC), has only recently been described. The few reports and studies concerning MASC have been published in several pathology journals. We report ...
The kunitz protease inhibitor form of the amyloid precursor protein (KPI/APP) inhibits the proneuropeptide processing enzyme prohormone thiol protease (PTP). Colocalization of KPI/APP and PTP in secretory vesicles.
Hook, V Y; Sei, C; Yasothornsrikul, S; Toneff, T; Kang, Y H; Efthimiopoulos, S; Robakis, N K; Van Nostrand, W
Proteolytic processing of proenkephalin and proneuropeptides is required for the production of active neurotransmitters and peptide hormones. Variations in the extent of proenkephalin processing in vivo suggest involvement of endogenous protease inhibitors. This study demonstrates that "protease nexin 2 (PN2)," the secreted form of the kunitz protease inhibitor (KPI) of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), potently inhibited the proenkephalin processing enzyme known as prohormone thiol protease (PTP), with a Ki,app of 400 nM. Moreover, PTP and PN2 formed SDS-stable complexes that are typical of kunitz protease inhibitor interactions with target proteases. In vivo, KPI/APP (120 kDa), as well as a truncated form of KPI/APP that resembles PN2 in apparent molecular mass (110 kDa), were colocalized with PTP and (Met)enkephalin in secretory vesicles of adrenal medulla (chromaffin granules). KPI/APP (110-120 kDa) was also detected in pituitary secretory vesicles that contain PTP. In chromaffin cells, calcium-dependent secretion of KPI/APP with PTP and (Met)enkephalin demonstrated the colocalization of these components in functional secretory vesicles. These results suggest a role for KPI/APP inhibition of PTP in regulated secretory vesicles. In addition, these results are the first to identify an endogenous protease target of KPI/APP, which is developmentally regulated in aging and Alzheimer's disease.
... significantly lower than the other wet granulated tablets, but higher than the matrix tablets. The granulating solvent influenced the release of drug which increased with increase in the water content. Key Words: Grewia gum: Granulating solvents; Release mechanisms. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioresources Vol.1(1) 2004: ...
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fenbendazole granules. 520.905b Section 520.905b... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.905b Fenbendazole granules. (a) Specifications. Each gram of granules contains 222 milligrams (mg) fenbendazole. (b) Sponsor. See...
Kim, J C; Kong, B W; Kim, M J; Lee, S H
Initial stage of hydrolysis of native starch granules with various amylolytic enzymes, alpha-amylase from Bacillus subtilis, glucoamylase I (GA-I) and II (GA-II) from Aspergillus niger, and beta-amylase from sweet potato showed that the reaction was apparently affected by a specific surface area of the starch granules. The ratios of the reciprocal of initial velocity of each amylolytic hydrolysis for native potato and maize starch to that for rice with the amylolytic enzymes were nearly equivalent to the ratio of surface area per mass of the 2 starch granules to that of rice, that is, 6.94 and 2.25, respectively. Thus, the reciprocal of initial velocity of each enzymatic hydrolysis as expressed in a Lineweaver-Burk plot was a linear function of the reciprocal of surface area for each starch granule. As a result, it is concluded that amylolytic hydrolysis of native starch granules is governed by the specific surface area, not by the mass concentration, of each granule.
Daniel Lima Lopes
Full Text Available Symptomatic prostatic paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is a very rare condition; however, it may express as a typical benign prostatic hyperplasia or a simulating prostatic adenocarcinoma. This case report presents PCM mimicking prostatic adenocarcinoma. The purpose of this paper is to call the general physician's attention to this important differential diagnosis.
Bjartell, Anders S.; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat; Serio, Angel M.; Eastham, James A.; Eggener, Scott E.; Fine, Samson W.; Udby, Lene; Gerald, William L.; Vickers, Andrew J.; Lilja, Hans; Reuter, Victor E.; Scardino, Peter T.
Purpose It has been suggested that cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 (CRISP-3) and β-microseminoprotein (MSP) are associated with outcome in prostate cancer. We investigated whether these markers are related to biochemical recurrence and whether addition of the markers improves prediction of recurring disease. Experimental Design Tissue microarrays of radical prostatectomy specimens were analyzed for CRISP-3 and MSP by immunohistochemistry. Associations between marker positivity and postprostatectomy biochemical recurrence [prostate-specific antigen (PSA) >0.2 ng/mL with a confirmatory level] were evaluated by univariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Multivariable analyses controlled for preoperative PSA and pathologic stage and grade. Results Among 945 patients, 224 had recurrence. Median follow-up for survivors was 6.0 years. Patients positive for CRISP-3 had smaller recurrence-free probabilities, whereas MSP-positive patients had larger recurrence-free probabilities. On univariate analysis, the hazard ratio for patients positive versus negative for CRISP-3 was1.53 (P = 0.010) and for MSP was 0.63 (P = 0.004). On multivariable analysis, both CRISP-3 (P = 0.007) and MSP (P = 0.002) were associated with recurrence. The hazard ratio among CRISP-3– positive/MSP-negative patients compared with CRISP-3– negative/MSP-positive patients was 2.38. Adding CRISP-3 to a base model that included PSA and pathologic stage and grade did not enhance the prediction of recurrence, but adding MSP increased the concordance index minimally from 0.778 to 0.781. Conclusion We report evidence that CRISP-3 and MSP are independent predictors of recurrence after radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer. However, addition of the markers does not importantly improve the performance of existing predictive models. Further research should aim to elucidate the functions of CRISP-3 and MSP in prostate cancer cells. PMID:17634540
Full Text Available Prostatic calcification and prostatic calculus formation is commonly seen in adult population with chronic prostatitis, however, gross prostatic calcification which involves more than 3 cm2 of the gland is quite rare. We are presenting here one such case in which almost whole glandular prostate was converted into stone which is never reported so far.
Steinkogler, Walter; Gaume, Johan; Löwe, Henning; Sovilla, Betty; Lehning, Michael
It is well known that snow avalanches exhibit granulation phenomena, i.e., the formation of large and apparently stable snow granules during the flow. The size distribution of the granules has an influence on flow behavior which, in turn, affects runout distances and avalanche velocities. The underlying mechanisms of granule formation are notoriously difficult to investigate within large-scale field experiments, due to limitations in the scope for measuring temperatures, velocities, and size distributions. To address this issue we present experiments with a concrete tumbler, which provide an appropriate means to investigate granule formation of snow. In a set of experiments at constant rotation velocity with varying temperatures and water content, we demonstrate that temperature has a major impact on the formation of granules. The experiments showed that granules only formed when the snow temperature exceeded -1∘C. No evolution in the granule size was observed at colder temperatures. Depending on the conditions, different granulation regimes are obtained, which are qualitatively classified according to their persistence and size distribution. The potential of granulation of snow in a tumbler is further demonstrated by showing that generic features of the experiments can be reproduced by cohesive discrete element simulations. The proposed discrete element model mimics the competition between cohesive forces, which promote aggregation, and impact forces, which induce fragmentation, and supports the interpretation of the granule regime classification obtained from the tumbler experiments. Generalizations, implications for flow dynamics, and experimental and model limitations as well as suggestions for future work are discussed.
Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of factors involved in sludge anaerobic granulation. Granulated sludge formation is the main parameter contributing to the success of UASB reactors. Anaerobic granulation leads to reduced reactor size, space requirement, and investment costs. Operation costs are also greatly reduced due to lack of aeration. An important parameter affecting process performance is the size of sludge granules; the factors involved in granule size will be investigated. Some of the important parameters of anaerobic sludge granulation are: existence of growth cores as inert particles or granulated sludge, process operational conditions (Sludge Loading Rate and Organic Loading Rate, Loading rate increase and …, and environment conditions (nutrients, temperature, pH, combination and ….
Tanaka, Emi; Ral, Jean-Phillippe F; Li, Sean; Gaire, Raj; Cavanagh, Colin R; Cullis, Brian R; Whan, Alex
The proportion of granule types in wheat starch is an important characteristic that can affect its functionality. It is widely accepted that granule types are either large, disc-shaped A-type granules or small, spherical B-type granules. Additionally, there are some reports of the tiny C-type granules. The differences between these granule types are due to its carbohydrate composition and crystallinity which is highly, but not perfectly, correlated with the granule size. A majority of the studies that have considered granule types analyse them based on a size threshold rather than chemical composition. This is understandable due to the expense of separating starch into different types. While the use of a size threshold to classify granule type is a low-cost measure, this results in misclassification. We present an alternative, statistical method to quantify the proportion of granule types by a fit of the mixture distribution, along with an R package, a web based app and a video tutorial for how to use the web app to enable its straightforward application. Our results show that the reliability of the genotypic effects increase approximately 60% using the proportions of the A-type and B-type granule estimated by the mixture distribution over the standard size-threshold measure. Although there was a marginal drop in reliability for C-type granules. The latter is likely due to the low observed genetic variance for C-type granules. The determination of the proportion of granule types from size-distribution is better achieved by using the mixing probabilities from the fit of the mixture distribution rather than using a size-threshold.
Kim, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Mo-Kwon; Hwang, Yuhoon
This work investigated the formation of microbial granules to boost the productivity of lactic acid (LA). The flocculated form of LA-producing microbial consortium, dominated by Lactobacillus sp. (91.5% of total sequence), was initially obtained in a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR), which...... increased, reaching 67 g L-fermenter−1h−1 at HRT 0.17 h. The size of LA-producing granules and hydrophobicity gradually increased with decrease in HRT, reaching 6.0 mm and 60%, respectively. These biogranules were also found to have high settling velocities and low porosities, ranging 2.69-4.73 cm s−1 and 0...
... Fundraise for PCF: Many vs Cancer Contact Us Prostate Cancer FAQs Top 10 Things You Should Know About ... prostate cancer detected? What are the symptoms of prostate cancer? If the cancer is caught at its earliest ...
... Fundraise for PCF: Many vs Cancer Contact Us Prostate Cancer Symptoms and Signs Prostate Cancer Basics Risk Factors ... earlier. So what are the warning signs of prostate cancer? Unfortunately, there usually aren’t any early warning ...
... Finding a Doctor Treatment Options Side Effects Managing Prostate Cancer Treatment Related Side Effects Clinical Trials Patient Resources Guides Videos Prostate Cancer FAQs Information by Stage Newly Diagnosed with Prostate ...
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000403.htm Prostate cancer - treatment To use the sharing features on this page, ... drugs is recommended. References National Cancer Institute. Prostate cancer treatment (PDQ): Stages of prostate cancer. Updated July 31, ...
... prostate. The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system located just below the bladder (the organ that ... up part of semen . Enlarge Anatomy of the male reproductive and urinary systems, showing the prostate, testicles, bladder, and other organs. ...
De Vargas, Wanderleia; Sartori, Ângela L B; Dias, Edna S
A comparative anatomical study was carried out on the secretory structures of leaflets from taxa belonging to the genus Rhynchosia - taxa difficult to delimit because of uncertain interspecific relations - in order to evaluate the potential diagnostic value of these anatomical traits for taxonomic assignment. A further objective was to establish consensual denomination for these secretory structures. The new anatomical features found in these taxa were sufficiently consistent to separate the species evaluated. The presence and localization of glandular-punctate structures bulbous-based trichomes, the number of layers in the palisade parenchyma and the arrangement of vascular units distinguish the taxa investigated and these characteristics can be extended to other species of Papilionoideae. The trichomes analyzed were described and classified into five types. Depicted in diagrams, photomicrographs, and by scanning electron microscopy, and listed for the first time at the genus and species levels. The information obtained served to effectively distinguish the taxa investigated among species of Papilonoideae.
Guo, Jinya; Miao, Yansong; Cai, Yi
Topology of membrane proteins provides important information for the understanding of protein function and intermolecular associations. Integrate membrane proteins are generally transported from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi and downstream compartments in the plant secretory pathway. Here, we describe a simple method to study membrane protein topology along the plant secretory pathway by transiently coexpressing a fluorescent protein (XFP)-tagged membrane protein and an ER export inhibitor protein, ARF1 (T31N), in tobacco BY-2 protoplast. By fractionation, microsome isolation, and trypsin digestion, membrane protein topology could be easily detected by either direct confocal microscopy imaging or western-blot analysis using specific XFP antibodies. A similar strategy in determining membrane protein topology could be widely adopted and applied to protein analysis in a broad range of eukaryotic systems, including yeast cells and mammalian cells.
Membrane fusion and secretory events play a key role in fertilization and early development in the sea urchin embryo. To investigate the mechanism of membrane fusion, the effect of inhibitors of metalloendoprotease activity was studied on two model systems of cell fusion; fertilization and spiculogenesis by primary mesenchyme cells in the embryo. Both the zinc chelator, 1,10-phenanthroline, and peptide metalloprotease substrates were found to inhibit both fertilization and gamete fusion, while peptides that are not substrates of metalloproteases did not affect either process. Primary mesenchyme cells form the larval skeleton in the embryo by deposition of mineral and an organic matrix into a syncytial cavity formed by fusion of filopodia of these cells. Metalloprotease inhibitors were found to inhibit spiculogenesis both in vivo and in cultures of isolated primary mesenchyme cells, and the activity of a metalloprotease of the appropriate specificity was found in the primary mesenchyme cells. These two studies implicate the activity of a metalloprotease in a necessary step in membrane fusion. Following fertilization, exocytosis of the cortical granules results in the formation of the fertilization envelope and the hyaline layer, that surround the developing embryo. The hatching enzyme is secreted by the blastula stage sea urchin embryo, which proteolyzes the fertilization envelope surrounding the embryo, allowing the embryo to hatch. Using an assay that measures 125 I-fertilization envelope degradation, the hatching enzyme was identified as a 33 kDa metalloprotease, and was purified by ion-exchange and affinity chromatography from the hatching media of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus embryos. The hatching enzyme showed a substrate preference for only a minor subset of fertilization envelope proteins
LaSarge, Candi L; Santos, Victor R; Danzer, Steve C
Dysregulation of the mTOR-signaling pathway is implicated in the development of temporal lobe epilepsy. In mice, deletion of PTEN from hippocampal dentate granule cells leads to mTOR hyperactivation and promotes the rapid onset of spontaneous seizures. The mechanism by which these abnormal cells initiate epileptogenesis, however, is unclear. PTEN-knockout granule cells develop abnormally, exhibiting morphological features indicative of increased excitatory input. If these cells are directly responsible for seizure genesis, it follows that they should also possess increased output. To test this prediction, dentate granule cell axon morphology was quantified in control and PTEN-knockout mice. Unexpectedly, PTEN deletion increased giant mossy fiber bouton spacing along the axon length, suggesting reduced innervation of CA3. Increased width of the mossy fiber axon pathway in stratum lucidum, however, which likely reflects an unusual increase in mossy fiber axon collateralization in this region, offsets the reduction in boutons per axon length. These morphological changes predict a net increase in granule cell innervation of CA3. Increased diameter of axons from PTEN-knockout cells would further enhance granule cell communication with CA3. Altogether, these findings suggest that amplified information flow through the hippocampal circuit contributes to seizure occurrence in the PTEN-knockout mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Goodger Jason QD
Full Text Available Abstract Background The biosynthesis of plant natural products in sub-dermal secretory cavities is poorly understood at the molecular level, largely due to the difficulty of physically isolating these structures for study. Our aim was to develop a protocol for isolating live and intact sub-dermal secretory cavities, and to do this, we used leaves from three species of Eucalyptus with cavities that are relatively large and rich in essential oils. Results Leaves were digested using a variety of commercially available enzymes. A pectinase from Aspergillus niger was found to allow isolation of intact cavities after a relatively short incubation (12 h, with no visible artifacts from digestion and no loss of cellular integrity or cavity contents. Several measurements indicated the potential of the isolated cavities for further functional studies. First, the cavities were found to consume oxygen at a rate that is comparable to that estimated from leaf respiratory rates. Second, mRNA was extracted from cavities, and it was used to amplify a cDNA fragment with high similarity to that of a monoterpene synthase. Third, the contents of the cavity lumen were extracted, showing an unexpectedly low abundance of volatile essential oils and a sizeable amount of non-volatile material, which is contrary to the widely accepted role of secretory cavities as predominantly essential oil repositories. Conclusions The protocol described herein is likely to be adaptable to a range of Eucalyptus species with sub-dermal secretory cavities, and should find wide application in studies of the developmental and functional biology of these structures, and the biosynthesis of the plant natural products they contain.
Current knowledge on milk formation is reviewed. Emphasis is given to sites of formation of protein, fat and lactose, and transfer of these compounds into the alveolar lumen. Further, the formation of the water phase of milk is thoroughly discussed, and evidence presented that milk formation includes both secretory and re-absorptive processes as well as diffusion. A short presentation of colostrum formation is included. Neither biochemical processes involved in synthesis of organic compounds nor mammary gland endocrinology are discussed. (author)
Alshahrani, Saad; McGill, John; Agarwal, Ashok
The prostate gland plays an important role in male reproduction. Inflammation of the prostate gland (prostatitis) is a common health problem affecting many young and middle aged men. Prostatitis is considered a correctable cause of male infertility, but the pathophysiology and appropriate treatment options of prostatitis in male infertility remain unclear. This literature review will focus on current data regarding prostatitis and its impact on male infertility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available ... Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us ... in which a needle is used to sample cells (tissue) from an abnormal area in the prostate gland for later laboratory testing. ... Do you have a personal ...
Full Text Available ... procedure work? How is the procedure performed? What will I experience during and after the procedure? Who interprets the results and how do I get them? What are the benefits vs. risks? What are the limitations of Prostate ...
Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of ...
Full Text Available ... symptoms such as difficulty urinating or an elevated blood test result. It’s also used to investigate a nodule ... exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides real-time ...
Full Text Available ... exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides real-time images, it also can be used to guide procedures such as needle biopsies , in which a needle is used to sample cells (tissue) from an abnormal area in the ...
Implant therapy - prostate cancer - discharge; Radioactive seed placement - discharge ... You had a procedure called brachytherapy to treat prostate cancer. Your treatment lasted 30 minutes or more, ...
Bacher, Charlotte; Olsen, P.M.; Bertelsen, P.
The granule fraction inhomogeneity of roller compacted granules was examined on mixtures of three different morphologic forms of calcium carbonate and three particle sizes of sorbitol. The granule fraction inhomogeneity was determined by the distribution of the calcium carbonate in each of the 10...... size fractions between 0 and 2000 µm and by calculating the demixing potential. Significant inhomogeneous occurrence of calcium carbonate in the size fractions was demonstrated, depending mostly on the particles sizes of sorbitol but also on the morphological forms of calcium carbonate......, the ability of the powder to agglomerate in the roller compactor was demonstrated to be related to the ability of the powder to be compacted into a tablet, thus the most compactable calcium carbonate and the smallest sized sorbitol improved the homogeneity by decreasing the demixing potential....
Morosky, Stefanie; Lennemann, Nicholas J; Coyne, Carolyn B
Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) fold-containing family B, member 3 (BPIFB3) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized host factor that negatively regulates coxsackievirus B (CVB) replication through its control of the autophagic pathway. Here, we show that another member of the BPIFB family, BPIFB6, functions as a positive regulator of CVB, and other enterovirus, replication by controlling secretory pathway trafficking and Golgi complex morphology. We show that similar to BPIFB3, BPIFB6 localizes exclusively to the ER, where it associates with other members of the BPIFB family. However, in contrast to our findings that RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of BPIFB3 greatly enhances CVB replication, we show that silencing of BPIFB6 expression dramatically suppresses enterovirus replication in a pan-viral manner. Mechanistically, we show that loss of BPIFB6 expression induces pronounced alterations in retrograde and anterograde trafficking, which correlate with dramatic fragmentation of the Golgi complex. Taken together, these data implicate BPIFB6 as a key regulator of secretory pathway trafficking and viral replication and suggest that members of the BPIFB family participate in diverse host cell functions to regulate virus infections. Enterovirus infections are associated with a number of severe pathologies, such as aseptic meningitis, dilated cardiomyopathy, type I diabetes, paralysis, and even death. These viruses, which include coxsackievirus B (CVB), poliovirus (PV), and enterovirus 71 (EV71), co-opt the host cell secretory pathway, which controls the transport of proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex, to facilitate their replication. Here we report on the identification of a novel regulator of the secretory pathway, bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) fold-containing family B, member 6 (BPIFB6), whose expression is required for enterovirus replication. We show that loss of BPIFB6 expression
Morosky, Stefanie; Lennemann, Nicholas J.
ABSTRACT Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) fold-containing family B, member 3 (BPIFB3) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized host factor that negatively regulates coxsackievirus B (CVB) replication through its control of the autophagic pathway. Here, we show that another member of the BPIFB family, BPIFB6, functions as a positive regulator of CVB, and other enterovirus, replication by controlling secretory pathway trafficking and Golgi complex morphology. We show that similar to BPIFB3, BPIFB6 localizes exclusively to the ER, where it associates with other members of the BPIFB family. However, in contrast to our findings that RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of BPIFB3 greatly enhances CVB replication, we show that silencing of BPIFB6 expression dramatically suppresses enterovirus replication in a pan-viral manner. Mechanistically, we show that loss of BPIFB6 expression induces pronounced alterations in retrograde and anterograde trafficking, which correlate with dramatic fragmentation of the Golgi complex. Taken together, these data implicate BPIFB6 as a key regulator of secretory pathway trafficking and viral replication and suggest that members of the BPIFB family participate in diverse host cell functions to regulate virus infections. IMPORTANCE Enterovirus infections are associated with a number of severe pathologies, such as aseptic meningitis, dilated cardiomyopathy, type I diabetes, paralysis, and even death. These viruses, which include coxsackievirus B (CVB), poliovirus (PV), and enterovirus 71 (EV71), co-opt the host cell secretory pathway, which controls the transport of proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex, to facilitate their replication. Here we report on the identification of a novel regulator of the secretory pathway, bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) fold-containing family B, member 6 (BPIFB6), whose expression is required for enterovirus replication. We show that loss of
Vercruysse, Jurgen; Toiviainen, Maunu; Fonteyne, Margot; Helkimo, Niko; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Juuti, Mikko; Delaet, Urbain; Van Assche, Ivo; Remon, Jean Paul; Vervaet, Chris; De Beer, Thomas
Over the last decade, there has been increased interest in the application of twin screw granulation as a continuous wet granulation technique for pharmaceutical drug formulations. However, the mixing of granulation liquid and powder material during the short residence time inside the screw chamber and the atypical particle size distribution (PSD) of granules produced by twin screw granulation is not yet fully understood. Therefore, this study aims at visualizing the granulation liquid mixing and distribution during continuous twin screw granulation using NIR chemical imaging. In first instance, the residence time of material inside the barrel was investigated as function of screw speed and moisture content followed by the visualization of the granulation liquid distribution as function of different formulation and process parameters (liquid feed rate, liquid addition method, screw configuration, moisture content and barrel filling degree). The link between moisture uniformity and granule size distributions was also studied. For residence time analysis, increased screw speed and lower moisture content resulted to a shorter mean residence time and narrower residence time distribution. Besides, the distribution of granulation liquid was more homogenous at higher moisture content and with more kneading zones on the granulator screws. After optimization of the screw configuration, a two-level full factorial experimental design was performed to evaluate the influence of moisture content, screw speed and powder feed rate on the mixing efficiency of the powder and liquid phase. From these results, it was concluded that only increasing the moisture content significantly improved the granulation liquid distribution. This study demonstrates that NIR chemical imaging is a fast and adequate measurement tool for allowing process visualization and hence for providing better process understanding of a continuous twin screw granulation system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All
Krieger, John N.; Lee, Shaun Wen Huey; Jeon, Jeonseong; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Liong, Men Long; Riley, Donald E.
Background Prostatitis describes a combination of infectious diseases (acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis), chronic pelvic pain syndrome, and asymptomatic inflammation. Materials and methods We employed evidence-based methods to review the epidemiology of prostatitis syndromes. Results The prevalence of prostatitis symptoms could be compared in five studies surveying 10 617 men. Overall, 873 participants met various criteria for prostatitis, representing an overall rate of 8.2%, with prevalence ranging from 2.2 to 9.7%. A history of sexually transmitted diseases was associated with an increased risk for prostatitis symptoms. Men reporting a history of prostatitis symptoms had a substantially increased rate of benign prostatic hyperplasia, lower urinary tract symptoms and prostate cancer. In one study, the incidence of physician-diagnosed prostatitis was 4.9 cases per 1000 person-years. Two studies suggest that about one-third of men reporting prostatitis symptoms had resolution after 1 year. Patients with previous episodes and more severe symptoms are at higher risk for chronic pelvic pain. Discussion The prevalence of prostatitis symptoms is high, comparable to rates of ischamic heart disease and diabetes. Clinical evaluation appears necessary to verify that prostatitis is responsible for patients’ symptoms. Prostatitis symptoms may increase a man’s risk for benign prostate hypertrophy, lower urinary tract symptoms and prostate cancer. We need to define natural history and consequences of prostatitis, develop better algorithms for diagnosis and treatment, and develop strategies for prevention. PMID:18164907
Kiroglu, Yilmaz; Yaqci, Baki; Cirak, Bayram; Karabulut, Nevzat
We report magnetic resonance (MR), computed tomography (CT) and angiographic imaging of an unusual giant arachnoid granulation in the superior sagittal sinus in a man with headache and vertigo. Intrasinus pressure measurements revealed a significant pressure gradient across the lesion. MR imaging is useful to identify giant arachnoid granulation and dural sinus thrombosis, whereas dural sinus pressure measurement in certain cases of giant arachnoid granulations can be used to evaluate the lesion as the cause of the patient's symptoms. (orig.)
Kiroglu, Yilmaz; Yaqci, Baki; Cirak, Bayram; Karabulut, Nevzat [Pamukkale University, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Denizli (Turkey)
We report magnetic resonance (MR), computed tomography (CT) and angiographic imaging of an unusual giant arachnoid granulation in the superior sagittal sinus in a man with headache and vertigo. Intrasinus pressure measurements revealed a significant pressure gradient across the lesion. MR imaging is useful to identify giant arachnoid granulation and dural sinus thrombosis, whereas dural sinus pressure measurement in certain cases of giant arachnoid granulations can be used to evaluate the lesion as the cause of the patient's symptoms. (orig.)
Kim, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Mo-Kwon; Hwang, Yuhoon; Im, Wan-Taek; Yun, Yeo-Myeong; Park, Chul; Kim, Mi-Sun
This work investigated the formation of microbial granules to boost the productivity of lactic acid (LA). The flocculated form of LA-producing microbial consortium, dominated by Lactobacillus sp. (91.5% of total sequence), was initially obtained in a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR), which was fed with 2% glucose and operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 12 h and pH 5.0 ± 0.1 under a thermophilic condition (50°C). The mixed liquor in the CSTR was then transferred to an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB). The fermentation performance and granulation process were monitored with a gradual decrease of HRT from 8.0 to 0.17 h, corresponding to an increase in the substrate loading from 60 to 2,880 g glucose L(-1) d(-1) . As the operation continued, the accumulation of biomass in the UASB was clearly observed, which changed from flocculent to granular form with decrease in HRT. Up to the HRT decrease to 0.5 h, the LA concentration was maintained at 19-20 g L(-1) with over 90% of substrate removal efficiency. However, further decrease of HRT resulted in a decrease of LA concentration with increase in residual glucose. Nevertheless, the volumetric LA productivity continuously increased, reaching 67 g L-fermenter (-1) h(-1) at HRT 0.17 h. The size of LA-producing granules and hydrophobicity gradually increased with decrease in HRT, reaching 6.0 mm and 60%, respectively. These biogranules were also found to have high settling velocities and low porosities, ranging 2.69-4.73 cm s(-1) and 0.39-0.92, respectively. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Cai, Pei-Jie; Xiao, Xiang; He, Yan-Rong; Li, Wen-Wei; Yu, Lei; Yu, Han-Qing
One current major hurdle to practical implementation of aerobic granule technology is the frequent occurrence of granule disintegration during long-term operation. However, the mechanism behind this is largely unclear today. Here, 2-decenoic acid, which has been previously demonstrated to be released by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and disperse biofilms, was found to also induce the disintegration of aerobic granules. A comparison of the solution compositions from samples of only trans-2-decenoic acid, only aerobic granules, and granules added with trans-2-decenoic acid shows that bacteria and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were stripped from granule surface upon trans-2-decenoic acid dosing. Due to the possible toxicity of trans-2-decenoic acid at a saturation concentration, the disintegrated granules and the milky suspension in the disintegration test showed a significantly lower oxygen uptake rate than the un-integrated granules. This work suggests that trans-2-decenoic acid released by microbes might play a critical role in regulating the disintegration of aerobic granules. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The two principal antibody classes present in saliva are secretory IgA (SIgA and IgG; the former is produced as dimeric IgA by local plasma cells (PCs in the stroma of salivary glands and is transported through secretory epithelia by the polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR, also named membrane secretory component (SC. Most IgG in saliva is derived from the blood circulation by passive leakage mainly via gingival crevicular epithelium, although some may be locally produced in the gingiva or salivary glands. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT and nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT do not contribute equally to the pool of memory/effector B cells differentiating to mucosal PCs throughout the body. Thus, enteric immunostimulation may not be the best way to activate the production of salivary IgA antibodies although the level of specific SIgA in saliva may still reflect an intestinal immune response after enteric immunization. It remains unknown whether the IgA response in submandibular/sublingual glands is better related to B-cell induction in GALT than the parotid response. Such disparity is suggested by the levels of IgA in submandibular secretions of AIDS patients, paralleling their highly upregulated intestinal IgA system, while the parotid IgA level is decreased. Parotid SIgA could more consistently be linked to immune induction in palatine tonsils/adenoids (human NALT and cervical lymph nodes, as supported by the homing molecule profile observed after immune induction at these sites. Several other variables influence the levels of antibodies in salivary secretions. These include difficulties with reproducibility and standardization of immunoassays, the impact of flow rate, acute or chronic stress, protein loss during sample handling, and uncontrolled admixture of serum-derived IgG and monomeric IgA. Despite these problems, saliva is an easily accessible biological fluid with interesting scientific and clinical potentials.
Guo, J; Lyaruu, D M; Takano, Y; Gibson, C W; DenBesten, P K; Bronckers, A L J J
Amelogenins are the most abundant protein species in forming dental enamel, taken to regulate crystal shape and crystal growth. Unprotonated amelogenins can bind protons, suggesting that amelogenins could regulate the pH in enamel in situ. We hypothesized that without amelogenins the enamel would acidify unless ameloblasts were buffered by alternative ways. To investigate this, we measured the mineral and chloride content in incisor enamel of amelogenin-knockout (AmelX(-/-)) mice and determined the pH of enamel by staining with methyl-red. Ameloblasts were immunostained for anion exchanger-2 (Ae2), a transmembrane pH regulator sensitive for acid that secretes bicarbonate in exchange for chloride. The enamel of AmelX(-/-) mice was 10-fold thinner, mineralized in the secretory stage 1.8-fold more than wild-type enamel and containing less chloride (suggesting more bicarbonate secretion). Enamel of AmelX(-/-) mice stained with methyl-red contained no acidic bands in the maturation stage as seen in wild-type enamel. Secretory ameloblasts of AmelX(-/-) mice, but not wild-type mice, were immunopositive for Ae2, and stained more intensely in the maturation stage compared with wild-type mice. Exposure of AmelX(-/-) mice to fluoride enhanced the mineral content in the secretory stage, lowered chloride, and intensified Ae2 immunostaining in the enamel organ in comparison with non-fluorotic mutant teeth. The results suggest that unprotonated amelogenins may regulate the pH of forming enamel in situ. Without amelogenins, Ae2 could compensate for the pH drop associated with crystal formation. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2014.
Cole, Lynette K
Primary secretory otitis media (PSOM) is a disease that has been described in the Cavalier King Charles spaniel (CKCS). A large, bulging pars flaccida identified on otoscopic examination confirms the diagnosis. However, in many CKCS with PSOM the pars flaccida is flat, and radiographic imaging is needed to confirm the diagnosis. Current treatment for PSOM includes performing a myringotomy into the caudal-ventral quadrant of the pars tensa with subsequent flushing of the mucus out of the bulla using a video otoscope. Repeat myringotomies and flushing of the middle ear are necessary to keep the middle ear free of mucus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Feizi, Amir; Österlund, Tobias; Petranovic, Dina
The protein secretory machinery in Eukarya is involved in post-translational modification (PTMs) and sorting of the secretory and many transmembrane proteins. While the secretory machinery has been well-studied using classic reductionist approaches, a holistic view of its complex nature is lacking....... Here, we present the first genome-scale model for the yeast secretory machinery which captures the knowledge generated through more than 50 years of research. The model is based on the concept of a Protein Specific Information Matrix (PSIM: characterized by seven PTMs features). An algorithm...
By raising slightly either the temperature or the magnetic field to above that of the critical temperature or the critical magnetic field, the type I superconducting granules would still remain in the superconducting state which becomes a metastable state and is called the superheated superconducting state. If a relativistic charged particle incident on such a granule which is located in a colloidal suspension has imported to it an energy that is above the threshold energy (for state flipping) of the granule then it would flip to the normal state. The threshold energy of a granule is a function of the square of its radius, whereas the energy loss of a charged particle due to ionization is linearly proportional to the radius. The size of the granule can be pre-determined to be such that its threshold energy is slightly above the ionization loss of a relativistic charged particle. Then the traversal of the charged particle through such a granule would not affect the superconducting state of the granule unless a transition x-ray radiation is emitted at the surface of the granule by the traversing particle and the x-ray transition radiation is immediately absorbed either in total or partially by the metallic granule causing it to flip to the normal state. The total intensity of the x-ray transition radiation is linearly proportional to the Lorentz factor γ of the traversing particle, and the number of granules flipped would also be a measure of γ. Three methods for detecting the flipping of granules from the superconducting state to the normal state are described. They include the frequency measuring method, the SQUID method, and the pulse method with low noise amplifier system
Jensen, K M; Bruskewitz, R C; Iversen, P
In addition to routine evaluation, 68 patients with prostatism underwent blinded urodynamic testing prior to transurethral prostatectomy and were reexamined symptomatologically and urodynamically at 3 and 12 months after surgery to determine if prostatic weight could predict postoperative outcome....... Resected prostatic weight correlated with estimated weight at cystoscopy and with obstructive symptoms, but not with urodynamic variables of infravesical obstruction. Patients with small prostates improved symptomatologically to the same degree as patients with larger glands, although they did not improve...... to the same degree urodynamically. Prostatic weight, therefore, could not be used to predict the outcome of transurethral surgery....
Bagchi, Samik; Lamendella, Regina; Strutt, Steven; Van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.; Saikaly, Pascal
to formation of large granules. Size distribution analysis revealed the spatial distribution of granules in which large granules having higher abundance of anammox bacteria (genus Brocadia) dominated the bottom biomass. Metatranscriptomics analysis detected all
Bombax ceiba gum was extracted from the calyx of the Bombax flower using both hot and cold water extraction method. The gum was used as binder to prepare paracetamol granules in concentrations of 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 %. Acacia gum was used to prepare the standard at the same concentrations. The granule properties of ...
Sweet potato is an important root crop in the food system of many African countries. The yield, nutrition and economic potential of sweet potato have been identified as very high. In this study, sweet potato was processed and toasted into granules. The proximate analysis performed on the toasted granules showed protein, ...
Jimenez Justicia, A.
At present, used tires are mainly used as fuel, retreading and granulating of tires. In this article. I will focus on the last option, talking about some of the multiple applications and going into detail of the making process of the granulation of used tires in a recycling plant. (Author)
Goldmann, L.H. Jr.; Holley, C.C.
A roll compaction and roll granulation system has been designed and fabricated to replace conventional preslugging and crushing operations typically used in the fabrication of mixed oxide nuclear fuel pellets. This equipment will be of maintenance advantage with only the compaction and granulation rolls inside containment. The prototype is being tested and the results will be reported within a year
The intracellular postexocytotic fate of the adrenal chromaffin granule membrane (reutilization vs. nonreutilization) was addressed through two experimental approaches. First, ( 3 H) leucine pulse-chase labeling experiments were conducted in two systems - the isolated retrograde perfused cat adrenal gland and cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells to compare chromaffin granule soluble dopamine-B-hydroxylase (DBH) turnover (marker for granule soluble content turnover) to that of membrane-bound DBH (marker for granule membrane turnover). Experiments in cat adrenal glands showed that at all chase periods the granule distribution of radiolabeled DBH was in agreement with the DBH activity distribution (73% membrane-bound/27% soluble) - a result consistent with parallel turnover of soluble and membrane-bound DBH. Experiments in cultured bovine cells showed that labeled soluble and membrane-bound DBH had parallel turnover patterns and at all chase period, the distribution of radiolabeled DBH between the soluble contents and membranes was similar to the DBH activity distribution (50% soluble/50% membrane-bound). The above experiments showed that the soluble contents and membranes turnover in parallel and are consistent with nonreutilization of chromaffin granule membranes following exocytosis. Isolated retrograde perfused bovine adrenal glands were subjected to repetitive acetylcholine stimulation to induce exocytosis and then the dense and less-dense chromaffin granule fractions were isolated. Since both approaches gave results consistent with membrane nonreutilization, the authors conclude that once a chromaffin granule is involved in exocytosis, its membrane is not reutilized for the further synthesis, storage, and secretion of catecholamines
Matus, Soledad; Bosco, Daryl A; Hetz, Claudio
Mutations in fused in sarcoma and/or translocated in liposarcoma (FUS, TLS or FUS) are linked to familial cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Mutant FUS selectively accumulates into discrete cytosolic structures known as stress granules under various stress conditions. In addition, mutant FUS expression can alter the dynamics and morphology of stress granules. Although the link between mutant FUS and stress granules is well established, the mechanisms modulating stress granule formation and disassembly in the context of ALS are poorly understood. In this issue of Neurobiology of Aging, Ryu et al. uncover the impact of autophagy on the potential toxicity of mutant FUS-positive stress granules. The authors provide evidence indicating that enhanced autophagy activity reduces the number of stress granules, which in the case of cells containing mutant FUS-positive stress granules, is neuroprotective. Overall, this study identifies an intersection between the proteostasis network and alterations in RNA metabolism in ALS through the dynamic assembly and disassembly of stress granules. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Resnik, C.S.; Reiner, B.I.; Diaconis, J.N.; Goldberg, N.H.
Skin grafting following extensive soft-tissue loss is often delayed until adequate granulation tissue can be generated. Surgical drill holes into the marrow cavity promote development of granulation tissue. This article illustrates the radiology appearance of these drill holes in four patients. (orig.)
Van Loosdrecht, M.C.; De Kreuk, M.K.
The invention relates to a method for the treatment of waste water comprising an organic nutrient. According to the invention, the waste water is in a first step fed to sludge granules, after the supply of the waste water to be treated the sludge granules are fluidised in the presence of an
Lindeloev, J S; Wahlberg, M
Suspensions of nanoparticles (SiO 2 , SiC, TiO2, CNT, Nanoclay and Hydroxyapatite) were spray dried to produce dry granulated products. The nanoparticles were consolidated in granules making them more convenient and safer to use in further processing compared to handling of nanopowders.
Full Text Available The aim of the research was to access clinical efficacy of oral rehydration therapy using III generation solutions in the treatment of secretory diarrhea in infants. To achieve this aim, on the basis of infectious box unit (enteric infections of regional clinical hospital (Chernivtsi we examined 116 infants, randomly selected, with acute gastroenteritis, who admitted to the hospital with signs of exycosis due to secretory diarrhea. Among examined patients, 73 (67.5 % children with the purpose of oral rehydration therapy received rehydration solutions, and 35 (32.4 % patients received other rehydration solutions. Monitoring of the dynamics of patients’ state enabled to state that, when we used III generation mixture as a main component of oral rehydration therapy, rate of positive dynamics in terms of clinical status of patients was significantly faster, in particular, body temperature, frequency and nature of bowel movements normalized significantly earlier, vomiting disappeared. In children treated with rehydration solutions, compared with patients receiving other rehydration solutions, odds ratio to confine only oral rehydration was 3.7 (95% CI 0.4–38.9 with an absolute risk to avoid the need for infusion therapy — 11 %.
Salathe, Matthias; Forteza, Rosanna; Conner, Gregory E
Airway mucus is a complex mixture of secretory products that provide a multifaceted defence against infection. Among many antimicrobial substances, mucus contains a peroxidase identical to milk lactoperoxidase (LPO) that is produced by goblet cells and submucosal glands. Airway secretions contain the substrates for LPO, namely thiocyanate and hydrogen peroxide, at concentrations sufficient for production of the biocidal compound hypothiocyanite, a fact confirmed by us in vitro. In vivo, inhibition of airway LPO in sheep significantly inhibits bacterial clearance, suggesting that the LPO system is a major contributor to host defences. Since secretory products including LPO are believed to be steadily removed by mucociliary clearance, their amount and availability on the surface is thought to be controlled solely by secretion. In contrast to this paradigm, new data suggest that LPO and other substances are retained at the ciliary border of the airway epithelium by binding to surface-associated hyaluronan, thereby providing an apical, fully active enzyme pool. Thus, hyaluronan, secreted from submucosal gland cells, plays a previously unrecognized pivotal role in mucosal host defence by retaining LPO and possibly other substances important for first line host defence at the apical surface 'ready for use' and protected from ciliary clearance.
Fabiano M. Martins
Full Text Available Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr. Roem. & Schult., Convolvulaceae, is a weed that infests agricultural areas and is toxic to cattle. In spite of its toxicity, the leaves of this plant are used in traditional remedies in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The present work describes the leaf anatomy of I. asarifolia and characterizes the exudates of its secretory structures. The leaves have a unistratified epidermis composed of ordinary cells with straight to slightly sinuous anticlinal walls and thin cuticles. Paracytic stomata are found on both surfaces of the leaves at the same level as the ordinary epidermal cells. Trichomes producing polysaccharide secretions occur on the petiole and leaf blade and are considered colleters. The mesophyll is dorsiventral and the vascular bundle of the central vein is bicollateral. Two opposed nectaries occur on the petiole near the leaf blade. Each nectary is composed of a small canal with internal ramifications and numerous secretory trichomes. The laticiferous glands are articulated, not anastomosed, and are composed of large diameter cells with thin cell walls. The secretions of the laticiferous glands are lipidic.
Balic, Anamaria; Mina, Mina
Terminal differentiation of odontoblasts from dental papilla is a long process involving several intermediate steps and changes in the transcriptional profile and expression of proteins secreted by cells in the odontoblast lineage. Transgenic mouse lines in which GFP expression is under the control of tissue-and stage specific promoters have provided powerful experimental tools for identification and isolation of cells at specific stages of differentiation along a lineage. Our previous studies showed utilization of pOBCol3.6GFP and pOBCol2.3GFP animals for identification of odontoblasts at early and late stages of polarization respectively. In the present study we used the DMP1-GFP transgenic animal as an experimental model to examine its expression during the differentiation of odontoblasts from progenitor cells in vivo and in vitro. Our observations showed that DMP1-GFP transgene is first activated in secretory/functional odontoblasts engaged in secretion of predentin and then transiently expressed at high levels in newly differentiated odontoblasts. Expression of DMP1-GFP was down-regulated in highly differentiated odontoblasts. The temporal and spatial pattern of expression of DMP1-GFP transgene closely mimics the expression of endogenous DMP1. This transgenic animal will facilitate studies of gene expression and biological functions in secretory/functional odontoblasts. PMID:21172466
Full Text Available Glutamatergic hilar mossy cells of the dentate gyrus can either excite or inhibit distant granule cells, depending on whether their direct excitatory projections to granule cells or their projections to local inhibitory interneurons dominate. However, it remains controversial whether the net effect of mossy cell loss is granule cell excitation or inhibition. Clarifying this controversy has particular relevance to temporal lobe epilepsy, which is marked by dentate granule cell hyperexcitability and extensive loss of dentate hilar mossy cells. Two diametrically opposed hypotheses have been advanced to explain this granule cell hyperexcitability – the dormant basket cell and the irritable mossy cell hypotheses. The dormant basket cell hypothesis proposes that mossy cells normally exert a net inhibitory effect on granule cells and therefore their loss causes dentate granule cell hyperexcitability. The irritable mossy cell hypothesis takes the opposite view that mossy cells normally excite granule cells and that the surviving mossy cells in epilepsy increase their activity, causing granule cell excitation. The inability to eliminate mossy cells selectively has made it difficult to test these two opposing hypotheses. To this end, we developed a transgenic toxin-mediated, mossy cell-ablation mouse line. Using these mutants, we demonstrated that the extensive elimination of hilar mossy cells causes granule cell hyperexcitability, although the mossy cell loss observed appeared insufficient to cause clinical epilepsy. In this review, we focus on this topic and also suggest that different interneuron populations may mediate mossy cell-induced translamellar lateral inhibition and intralamellar recurrent inhibition. These unique local circuits in the dentate hilar region may be centrally involved in the functional organization of the dentate gyrus.
Habeeb, S.A.; Latiff, Ab Aziz Bin Abdul; Daud, Zawawi Bin; Ahmad, Zulkifli Bin [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (Malaysia)
Decades of investigations and explorations in the field of anaerobic wastewater treatment have resulted in significant indications about the role importance of sludge granules in biodegradation anaerobic process. It is believed that the development of anaerobic granules is reflecting an important role on the performance of reactor. An overview on the concept of up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor operation as well as the main parts that reactor consists of is briefly explained in this paper, whereas the major theories of anaerobic granules formation are listed by related researchers. The correlations and compositions of such sludge granule have been specifically explained. It is believed that the extracellular polymer (ECP) is totally responsible of bacterial cell correlations and the formation of bacterial communities in the form of granules. In addition, the dependable factors for the performance of anaerobic granules formation process e.g. temperature, organic loading rate, pH, and alkalinity, nutrients, and cations and heavy metals have been discussed in this paper. Strong evidences proved that the process of gas production in the form of biogas is related to the methanogens activities, which are practically found in the core of granules. The aim of this review is to explore and assess the mechanisms of granules initiation and development inside UASB reactor.
Li, Jinfeng; Ye, Fayin; Lei, Lin; Zhou, Yun; Zhao, Guohua
The granules of sweet potato starch were size fractionated into three portions with significantly different median diameters ( D 50 ) of 6.67 (small-sized), 11.54 (medium-sized), and 16.96 μm (large-sized), respectively. Each portion was hydrophobized at the mass-based degrees of substitution (DS m ) of approximately 0.0095 (low), 0.0160 (medium), and 0.0230 (high). The Pickering emulsion-stabilizing capacities of modified granules were tested, and the resultant emulsions were characterized. The joint effects of granule size and DS m on emulsifying capacity (EC) were investigated by response surface methodology. For small-, medium-, and large-sized fractions, their highest emulsifying capacities are comparable but, respectively, encountered at high (0.0225), medium (0.0158), and low (0.0095) DS m levels. The emulsion droplet size increased with granule size, and the number of freely scattered granules in emulsions decreased with DS m . In addition, the term of surface density of the octenyl succinic group (SD -OSG ) was first proposed for modified starch granules, and it was proved better than DS m in interpreting the emulsifying capacities of starch granules with varying sizes. The present results implied that, as the particulate stabilizers, the optimal DS m of modified starch granules is size specific.
Rehder, Sönke; Christensen, Niels Peter Aae; Rantanen, Jukka
and the respective excipients). The drug release was slightly decreased by cocrystal formation, most likely due to the lower solubility of the cocrystal. In the presence of calcium hydrogenphosphate however, no influence of cocrystal formation on either compactability or on drug release were observed, compared...... with the reference tablets. It was concluded that high-shear wet granulation is a valuable, however complex, manufacturing method for cocrystals. Cocrystal formation may influence compactability and drug release and thus affect drug performance and should be investigated during pre-formulation.......Cocrystal formation allows the tailoring of physicochemical as well as of mechanical properties of an API. However, there is a lack of large-scale manufacturing methods of cocrystals. Therefore, the objective of this work was to examine the suitability of high-shear wet granulation...
Mahboubi, Hicham; Stochaj, Ursula
Nucleoli and cytoplasmic stress granules (SGs) are subcellular compartments that modulate the response to endogenous and environmental signals to control cell survival. In our opinion, nucleoli and SGs are functionally linked; they are distant relatives that combine forces when cellular homeostasis is threatened. Several lines of evidence support this idea; nucleoli and SGs share molecular building blocks, are regulated by common signaling pathways and communicate when vital cellular functions become compromised. Together, nucleoli and SGs orchestrate physiological responses that are directly relevant to stress and human health. As both compartments have established roles in neurodegenerative diseases, cancer and virus infections, we propose that these conditions will benefit from therapeutic interventions that target simultaneously nucleoli and SGs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gray, David F.; Oostra, Benjamin
The velocity shifts of spectral lines as a function of line strength, so-called the third signature of granulation, are investigated using three published solar-flux atlases. We use flux atlases because we wish to treat the Sun as a star, against which stellar observations can be compared and judged. The atlases are critiqued and compared to the lower-resolution observations taken with the Elginfield stellar spectrograph. Third-signature plots are constructed for the 6020–6340 Å region. No dependence on excitation potential or wavelength is found over this wavelength span. The shape of the plots from the three solar atlases is essentially the same, with rms line-core velocity differences of 30–35 m s‑1. High-resolution atlas data are degraded to the level of the Elginfield spectrograph and compared to direct observations taken with that spectrograph. The line-core velocities show good agreement, with rms differences of 38 m s‑1. A new standard curve is derived and compared with the previously published one. Only small differences in shape are found, but a significant (+97 m s‑1) change in the zero point is indicated. The bisector of the Fe I 6253 line is mapped onto the third-signature plots and flux deficits are derived, which measure the granule/lane flux imbalance. The lower spectral resolution lowers the flux deficit area slightly and moves the peak of the deficit 0.3–0.5 km s‑1 toward higher velocities. These differences, while significant, are not large compared to measurement errors for stellar data.
Full Text Available Purpose: We report a rare case of ocular injury due to potassium permanganate (KMnO4 granules in a child. Methods: This is a retrospective case report. Results: A 2-year-old boy was transferred to our emergency room with severe pain in his right eye, inflamed eyelids, and brownish stains on his fingers. Chemical injury was suspected. Copious eye irrigation was immediately performed. Diffuse brownish splotches were then observed at the inferior bulbar conjunctiva. Otherwise, systemic organs were intact. Complete eye exam under general anesthesia revealed a 5-mm epithelial defect at the central cornea, along with generalized conjunctival injection and limbal ischemia, inferiorly. Multiple semi-dissolved granules of KMnO4 trapped in the inferior fornix were identified. The chemical particles were gradually washed out and removed; however, the brownish stains remained. The patient received preservative-free steroid, antibiotic eye drops, and lubricants as regular management for mild to moderate degree of ocular burn. Pseudomembrane developed early and transformed into symblepharon within a few days after the injury. Membrane adhesion was lysed, and more aggressive medications were then substituted. Commercial amniotic membrane (PROKERA® was also applied to promote wound healing and to prevent recurrence of symblepharon. The ocular surface was eventually restored, and corneal transparency was preserved. Conclusion: Ocular injury with the granular form of KMnO4 is rare. Its toxicity is comparable to concentrated KMnO4 solution. However, the dissolved particles that had been absorbed in the stained conjunctiva were continuously released and damaged the ocular surface more than we primarily anticipated. Awareness of this condition and prompt management yield a good treatment outcome.
Holst, Birgitte; Madsen, Kenneth L; Jansen, Anna M
by electron microscopy showing prominent reduction in secretory vesicle number. Evidence was also obtained for impaired insulin secretion associated with decreased glucose tolerance. PICK1 localized in cells to immature secretory vesicles, and the PICK1 BAR domain was shown by live imaging to associate...
Nyegaard, Steffen; Novakovic, Valerie A.; Rasmussen, Jan Trige
Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) is a critical component of insect and snake venoms and is secreted by mammalian leukocytes during inflammation. Elevated secretory PLA2 concentrations are associated with autoimmune diseases and septic shock. Many sPLA2’s do not bind to plasma membranes of quies...
Full Text Available In forty-four patients with different prostatic lesions serum immunoglobulins and tissue deposited immunoglobulins were studied by single radial immunodiffusion technique, and direct immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase (PAP methods respectively. Serum IgM levels were found reduced only in patients with prostatic carcinomas (80% of cases as compared to controls. Serum IgA levels showed stage dependence in prostatic carcinoma being more raised in advanced malignancy (stage C and D than in localized ones (stage B. Localization of immunoglobulins particularly IgM, was characteristically found in stroma and lumen along with intracellular localization in prostatic carcinoma; while normal and benign lesions of prostate only showed characteristic ′necklace′ pattern. Also the intensity of deposits of immunoglobulins in poorly differentiated prostatic carcinomas was markedly low as compared to well differentiated carcinomas indicating lowered local immunological response in former. In prostatitis, IgA was also found localized in lumen indicating the immunological defence against infection by secretory antibody (IgA.
Lange, Bernd Markus
Secretory structures in terrestrial plants appear to have first emerged as intracellular oil bodies in liverworts. In vascular plants, internal secretory structures, such as resin ducts and laticifers, are usually found in conjunction with vascular bundles, whereas subepidermal secretory cavities and epidermal glandular trichomes generally have more complex tissue distribution patterns. The primary function of plant secretory structures is related to defense responses, both constitutive and induced, against herbivores and pathogens. The ability to sequester secondary (or specialized) metabolites and defense proteins in secretory structures was a critical adaptation that shaped plant-herbivore and plant-pathogen interactions. Although this review places particular emphasis on describing the evolution of pathways leading to terpenoids, it also assesses the emergence of other metabolite classes to outline the metabolic capabilities of different plant lineages.
Full Text Available ALL.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 All antigens Uterus Fallopian tube secret...hg19/assembled/ALL.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...
Full Text Available ALL.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 All antigens Uterus Fallopian tube secret...hg19/assembled/ALL.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...
Full Text Available ALL.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 All antigens Uterus Fallopian tube secret...hg19/assembled/ALL.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...
Full Text Available Granulomatous prostatitis is a rare disorder of pros-tate. We encountered 10 cases of′grmudomatous prosta-titis consisting of 5 cases of non-specific granulomatous prostatitis, 2 cases of xanthogranulomatous prostatitis, I case of tuberculous prostatitis, I case of malakoplakia prostate and I case of granulomatous prostatitis associ-ated with adenocarcinoma prostate. The diagnosis was made by histopathologic examination of trucut biopsy, TURP chips or retropubic prostatectomy specimen. In all the cases, granulomatous prostatitis was an incidental find-ing.
Full Text Available Uncertainty is one of the main concerns in geospatial data analysis. It affects different parts of decision making based on such data. In this paper, a new methodology to handle uncertainty for multi-criteria decision making problems is proposed. It integrates hierarchical rough granulation and rule extraction to build an accurate classifier. Rough granulation provides information granules with a detailed quality assessment. The granules are the basis for the rule extraction in granular computing, which applies quality measures on the rules to obtain the best set of classification rules. The proposed methodology is applied to assess seismic physical vulnerability in Tehran. Six effective criteria reflecting building age, height and material, topographic slope and earthquake intensity of the North Tehran fault have been tested. The criteria were discretized and the data set was granulated using a hierarchical rough method, where the best describing granules are determined according to the quality measures. The granules are fed into the granular computing algorithm resulting in classification rules that provide the highest prediction quality. This detailed uncertainty management resulted in 84% accuracy in prediction in a training data set. It was applied next to the whole study area to obtain the seismic vulnerability map of Tehran. A sensitivity analysis proved that earthquake intensity is the most effective criterion in the seismic vulnerability assessment of Tehran.
Full Text Available Caffeine increases the analgesic properties of acetaminophen and therefore it is reasonable to use both substances together in one drug form in stronger pain. Currently, there are no commercially available pharmaceutical combination products containing acetaminophen and caffeine, which is present as granules. The aim of the study was to obtain twelve different granules with these therapeutic substances and determine the effect of various excipients on the quality of the drug form. All the granules were made by wet granulation. Two types of binders were used: polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG and polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP as well as different types of fillers. The physical properties of granules were assessed in accordance to the requirements of the European Pharmacopoeia 8th ed. The highest apparent density was found in preparations containing calcium hydrophosphate (0.609 g/mL and the lowest – containing mannitol (0.353 g/mL as a filler. The Hausner ratio of most prepared granules ranged from 1.05 to 1.11, while the compressibility index ranged from 4.59 to 10.48%. The evaluation of properties of individual granules helped to indicate formulation with good features, which perhaps will be a good alternative to currently available painkillers with caffeine and acetaminophen.
Liang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Lixin; Zhong, Jin; Huan, Liandong
Nattokinase has been reported as an oral health product for the prevention of atherosclerosis. We developed a novel strategy to express a nattokinase from Bacillus subtilis in a live delivery vehicle, Lactococcus lactis. Promoter P( nisZ) and signal peptide SP(Usp) were used for inducible and secretory expression of nattokinase in L. lactis. Western blotting analysis demonstrated that nattokinase was successfully expressed, and about 94% of the enzyme was secreted to the culture. The recombinant nattokinase showed potent fibrinolytic activity, equivalent to 41.7 urokinase units per milliliter culture. Expression and delivery of such a fibrinolytic enzyme in the food-grade vehicle L. lactis would facilitate the widespread application of nattokinase in the control and prevention of thrombosis diseases.
Full Text Available During placenta development, a succession of complex molecular and cellular interactions between the maternal endometrium and the developing embryo ensures reproductive success. The precise mechanisms regulating this maternal-fetal crosstalk remain unknown. Our study revealed that the expression of Rac1, a member of the Rho family of GTPases, is markedly elevated in mouse decidua on days 7 and 8 of gestation. To investigate its function in the uterus, we created mice bearing a conditional deletion of the Rac1 gene in uterine stromal cells. Ablation of Rac1 did not affect the formation of the decidua but led to fetal loss in mid gestation accompanied by extensive hemorrhage. To gain insights into the molecular pathways affected by the loss of Rac1, we performed gene expression profiling which revealed that Rac1 signaling regulates the expression of Rab27b, another GTPase that plays a key role in targeting vesicular trafficking. Consequently, the Rac1-null decidual cells failed to secrete vascular endothelial growth factor A, which is a critical regulator of decidual angiogenesis, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4, which regulates the bioavailability of insulin-like growth factors that promote proliferation and differentiation of trophoblast cell lineages in the ectoplacental cone. The lack of secretion of these key factors by Rac1-null decidua gave rise to impaired angiogenesis and dysregulated proliferation of trophoblast cells, which in turn results in overexpansion of the trophoblast giant cell lineage and disorganized placenta development. Further experiments revealed that RAC1, the human ortholog of Rac1, regulates the secretory activity of human endometrial stromal cells during decidualization, supporting the concept that this signaling G protein plays a central and conserved role in controlling endometrial secretory function. This study provides unique insights into the molecular mechanisms regulating endometrial secretions
Davila, Juanmahel; Laws, Mary J.; Kannan, Athilakshmi; Li, Quanxi; Taylor, Robert N.; Bagchi, Milan K.; Bagchi, Indrani C.
During placenta development, a succession of complex molecular and cellular interactions between the maternal endometrium and the developing embryo ensures reproductive success. The precise mechanisms regulating this maternal-fetal crosstalk remain unknown. Our study revealed that the expression of Rac1, a member of the Rho family of GTPases, is markedly elevated in mouse decidua on days 7 and 8 of gestation. To investigate its function in the uterus, we created mice bearing a conditional deletion of the Rac1 gene in uterine stromal cells. Ablation of Rac1 did not affect the formation of the decidua but led to fetal loss in mid gestation accompanied by extensive hemorrhage. To gain insights into the molecular pathways affected by the loss of Rac1, we performed gene expression profiling which revealed that Rac1 signaling regulates the expression of Rab27b, another GTPase that plays a key role in targeting vesicular trafficking. Consequently, the Rac1-null decidual cells failed to secrete vascular endothelial growth factor A, which is a critical regulator of decidual angiogenesis, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4, which regulates the bioavailability of insulin-like growth factors that promote proliferation and differentiation of trophoblast cell lineages in the ectoplacental cone. The lack of secretion of these key factors by Rac1-null decidua gave rise to impaired angiogenesis and dysregulated proliferation of trophoblast cells, which in turn results in overexpansion of the trophoblast giant cell lineage and disorganized placenta development. Further experiments revealed that RAC1, the human ortholog of Rac1, regulates the secretory activity of human endometrial stromal cells during decidualization, supporting the concept that this signaling G protein plays a central and conserved role in controlling endometrial secretory function. This study provides unique insights into the molecular mechanisms regulating endometrial secretions that mediate stromal
Matlschweiger, Alexander; Engelmaier, Hannah; Himmler, Gottfried; Hahn, Rainer
Secretory immunoglobulins (SIg) are a major fraction of the mucosal immune system and represent potential drug candidates. So far, platform technologies for their purification do not exist. SIg from animal whey was used as a model to develop a simple, efficient and potentially generic chromatographic purification process. Several chromatographic stationary phases were tested. A combination of two anion-exchange steps resulted in the highest purity. The key step was the use of a small-porous anion exchanger operated in flow-through mode. Diffusion of SIg into the resin particles was significantly hindered, while the main impurities, IgG and serum albumin, were bound. In this step, initial purity was increased from 66% to 89% with a step yield of 88%. In a second anion-exchange step using giga-porous material, SIg was captured and purified by step or linear gradient elution to obtain fractions with purities >95%. For the step gradient elution step yield of highly pure SIg was 54%. Elution of SIgA and SIgM with a linear gradient resulted in a step yield of 56% and 35%, respectively. Overall yields for both anion exchange steps were 43% for the combination of flow-through and step elution mode. Combination of flow-through and linear gradient elution mode resulted in a yield of 44% for SIgA and 39% for SIgM. The proposed process allows the purification of biologically active SIg from animal whey in preparative scale. For future applications, the process can easily be adopted for purification of recombinant secretory immunoglobulin species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gianotti, A.J.; Clark, D.T.; Dash, J. (Portland State Univ., OR (USA))
A source of confusion has existed since the turn of the century about the reddish brown, weakly birefringent 'sphaerocrystals' located in the intestines of strongyle nematodes, Strongylus and Ancylostoma. X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectrometric analyses were used for accurate determination of the crystalline order and elemental composition of the granules in the canine hookworm Ancylostoma caninum. The composition of the intestinal pigmented granules was identified unequivocally as zinc sulfide. It seems most probable that the granules serve to detoxify high levels of metallic ions (specifically zinc) present due to the large intake of host blood.
Thérèse F.C. Mortier, Séverine; Beer, Thomas De; Gernaey, Krist
The trend to move towards continuous production processes in pharmaceutical applications enhances the necessity to develop mechanistic models to understand and control these processes. This work focuses on the drying behaviour of a single wet granule before tabletting, using a six...... phase (submodel 2), the water inside the granule evaporates. The second submodel contains an empirical power coefficient, b. A sensitivity analysis was performed to study the influence of parameters on the moisture content of single pharmaceutical granules, which clearly points towards the importance...
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000397.htm Prostate cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... trials you may be able to join How Prostate Cancer Staging is Done Initial staging is based on ...
... treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different tests to find those ... PSA level may be high if you have prostate cancer. It can also be high if you have ...
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000399.htm Prostate radiation - discharge To use the sharing features on ... keeping or getting an erection may occur after prostate radiation therapy. You may not notice this problem ...
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000907.htm Cryotherapy for prostate cancer To use the sharing features ... first treatment for prostate cancer. What Happens During Cryotherapy Before the procedure, you will be given medicine ...
Brasso, K; Friis, S; Kjaer, S K
To review the trends in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality rates in Denmark during a 50-year period.......To review the trends in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality rates in Denmark during a 50-year period....
... thermotherapy; TUMT; Urolift; BPH - resection; Benign prostatic hyperplasia (hypertrophy) - resection; Prostate - enlarged - resection ... passing an instrument through the opening in your penis (meatus). You will be given general anesthesia (asleep ...
Full Text Available Pol.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 RNA polymerase Uterus Fallopian tube secret...ory epithelial cell http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...
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AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0185 TITLE: Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jonathan Melamed, MD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-2-0185 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...infrastructure and operations of the Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network (PCBN). The aim of the PCBN is to provide prostate researchers with high-quality
White, J. D.; Zimanowski, B.; Buettner, R.; Sonder, I.; Dellino, P.
Surtseyan tephra jets, also called cypressoid or cock's tail plumes, comprise a characteristic mixture of ash with bombs travelling roughly ballistic paths that tip the individual fingers of the projecting jet. Jets of similar form but smaller scale are generated by littoral magma-water interactions, confirming the general inference that surtseyan tephra jets are a characteristic product of explosive magma-water interaction, and suggesting that magmatic volatiles play a subsidiary role, if any, in their formation. Surtseyan jets have been inferred to result from both intense fuel-coolant interactions, and from simple boiling of water entrained into rising magma, and little new information has become available to test these two positions since they were clearly developed in the 1980s. Recent experiments in which magma is poured into standing water have produced vigorous jetting of hot water as melt solidifies and undergoes extensive thermal granulation. We present high-resolution hi-speed video of these jets, which we see as having the following origin. As thermal granulation takes place, a fracture network advances into the melt/glass body, and water invading the cracks at the rate of propagation is heated nearly instantaneously. Vapor produced at the contact expands and drives outward through cooled cracks, condensing as it moves to the exterior of the magma body where it is emitted as a jet of hot water. In ocean ridge hydrothermal systems a diffuse crack network inducts cold water, which is heated and expelled in focused jets. Focusing of hot outflow in experiments is inferred to result, as suggested for ridge hydrothermal systems, from thermoelastic closure of cracks near the one(s) feeding the jet. From the cooled products of our experimental runs, we know that thermal contraction produces a network of curved cracks with modal spacing of 1-2 mm, which separate domains of unbroken glass. It is during growth of this crack network that cold water enters, is
Khan, Farhan Ullah; Ihsan, Awais Ullah; Khan, Hidayat Ullah; Jana, Ruby; Wazir, Junaid; Khongorzul, Puregmaa; Waqar, Muhammad; Zhou, Xiaohui
Prostatitis is a common urinary tract syndrome that many doctors find problematic to treat effectively. It is the third most commonly found urinary tract disease in men after prostate cancer and Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH). Prostatitis may account for 25% of all office visits made to the urological clinics complaining about the genital and urinary systems all over the world. In the present study, we classified prostatitis and comprehensively elaborated the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of acute bacterial prostatitis (category I), chronic bacterial prostatitis (category II), chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) (category III), and asymptomatic prostatitis (category IV). In addition, we also tried to get some insights about other types of prostatitis-like fungal, viral and gonococcal prostatitis. The aim of this review is to present the detail current perspective of prostatitis in a single review. To the best of our knowledge currently, there is not a single comprehensive review, which can completely elaborate this important topic in an effective way. Furthermore, this review will provide a solid platform to conduct future studies on different aspects such as risk factors, mechanism of pathogenesis, proper diagnosis, and rational treatment plans for fungal, viral, and gonococcal prostatitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
The prostate is a gland in men. It helps make semen, the fluid that contains sperm. The prostate surrounds the tube that carries urine out of the body. As men age, their prostate grows bigger. If it gets too large, it ...
Hansuld, E M; Briens, L
High-shear wet granulation is commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry to improve powder properties for downstream processes such as tabletting. Granule growth, however, is difficult to predict because the process is sensitive to raw material properties and operating conditions. Development of process analytical technologies is encouraged by regulatory bodies to improve process understanding and monitor quality online. The primary technologies investigated for high-shear wet granulation monitoring include power consumption, near-infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, capacitance measurements, microwave measurements, imaging, focused beam reflectance measurements, spatial filter velocimetry, stress and vibration measurements, as well as acoustic emissions. This review summarizes relevant research related to each of these technologies and discusses the challenges associated with each approach as a possible process analytical technology tool for high-shear wet granulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This study evaluates Grade 120 Granulated Ground Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS) and its effect on the properties of hydraulic cement concretes used in structural and pavement construction. Several mix designs, structural and pavement, were used for this ...
O. A. Bader
Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the different methods of treating hyper granulation tissue on experimentally induced wounds in equine limbs. Wounds were induced by removal of a skin patch and subcutaneous tissue for about 5-7 cm width and 6-8 cm in length from the dorsal and lateral aspect of the fore and hind limbs below the carpal and tarsal joints. The wounds were left open without treatment and the animals were trained 2-2.5 hours every day for about 3-5 weeks until hyper granulation tissue was developed. The schedule for the treatment of hyper granulation was divided into five groups each contained eight wounds of hyper granulation tissue; each main group was divided into two subgroups. The subgroups of first, second, third, fourth and fifth groups were treated by the following schedules: bandage alone; copper sulphate ointment 10%; silver nitrate ointment 2%; red mercury ointment 11%; and laser therapy (at a total dose of 9.72 Joule / cm2 respectively. While the second subgroups were treated by surgical resection of the hyper granulation tissue, followed by the same treatments applied on the first subgroup. The bandage for all experimental groups was changed every 48 hours until healing was occurred. The clinical and histological observation of the first group revealed that the healing take long period comparing with other groups. The mean of wound healing were 65 days in non surgical removal of hyper granulation tissue subgroup, while 57 days in surgical removed of hyper granulation tissue subgroup. The results of the second, third, fourth groups revealed that the caustic material especially red mercury has a role in healing processes through depressing the hyper granulation tissue. The mean of wound healing of the second group was 42.25 days in non surgical removal of hyper granulation tissue subgroup while 37.25 days in surgically removed hyper granulation tissue subgroup. In the third group the mean of wound healing was 45
Sørensen, Helle Aagaard; Darlington, H.F.; Shewry, P.R.
Puroindoline (pin) preparations made from flours of hard and soft wheats contained a mixture of pin-a, 0.19/0.53 alpha -amylase inhibitor, and purothionins. Starch granule preparations from the same cultivars were treated with proteinase to remove surface proteins and incubated with solutions...... of the pin preparations. Binding of pin-a and purothionins but not the 0.19/0.53 inhibitor was observed with no apparent differences between the behavior of the pin preparations or starch granule preparations from hard or soft types. No binding was observed when several other proteins (bovine serum albumin......, total albumins, a commercial preparation of wheat alpha -amylase inhibitors, and barley beta -amylase) were incubated with the starch granules under the same conditions, indicating that in vitro binding can be used to study specific starch granule and protein interactions....
Full Text Available Molten slags of blast furnace is a second resources with great value of 1600~1 800 MJ sensible heat per ton. At present, water-quenching process plays a leading role in recovering waste heat of the molten slags. However, this method not only cost lots of water, but also recover little sensible heat and can pollute the surrounding environment. Dry granulation process, as an environmentally friendly method with high-efficiency heat recovery, have attracted widespread attentions. In this paper, the water quenching and dry granulation processes were discussed in detail. After a thorough comparative analysis of various treatment technologies, it can be concluded that centrifugal granulation affiliated with dry granulation is the optimum process, with smaller slag particle size (about 2mm, more glassy phase and higher recovery rate.
Tucker, Mark D.
A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a sorbent additive, and water. A highly adsorbent sorbent additive (e.g., amorphous silica, sorbitol, mannitol, etc.) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field. The formulation can be pre-mixed and pre-packaged as a multi-part kit system, where one or more of the parts are packaged in a powdered, granulated form for ease of handling and mixing in the field.
Copp& #233; , Jean-Philippe; Patil, Christopher; Rodier, Francis; Sun, Yu; Munoz, Denise; Goldstein, Joshua; Nelson, Peter; Desprez, Pierre-Yves; Campisi, Judith
Cellular senescence suppresses cancer by arresting cell proliferation, essentially permanently, in response to oncogenic stimuli, including genotoxic stress. We modified the use of antibody arrays to provide a quantitative assessment of factors secreted by senescent cells. We show that human cells induced to senesce by genotoxic stress secrete myriad factors associated with inflammation and malignancy. This senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) developed slowly over several days and only after DNA damage of sufficient magnitude to induce senescence. Remarkably similar SASPs developed in normal fibroblasts, normal epithelial cells, and epithelial tumor cells after genotoxic stress in culture, and in epithelial tumor cells in vivo after treatment of prostate cancer patients with DNA-damaging chemotherapy. In cultured premalignant epithelial cells, SASPs induced an epithelial-mesenchyme transition and invasiveness, hallmarks of malignancy, by a paracrine mechanism that depended largely on the SASP factors interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. Strikingly, two manipulations markedly amplified, and accelerated development of, the SASPs: oncogenic RAS expression, which causes genotoxic stress and senescence in normal cells, and functional loss of the p53 tumor suppressor protein. Both loss of p53 and gain of oncogenic RAS also exacerbated the promalignant paracrine activities of the SASPs. Our findings define a central feature of genotoxic stress-induced senescence. Moreover, they suggest a cell-nonautonomous mechanism by which p53 can restrain, and oncogenic RAS can promote, the development of age-related cancer by altering the tissue microenvironment.
Tatiane Pereira de Souza
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop granules from Phyllanthus niruri spray-dried extract using dry and wet granulation and to assess techniques to enable the production of granules with improved technological characteristics and yields. Granules were characterized by granulometry, reological parameters, compression and hygroscopic behavior. Independent of the granulation technique, technologically developed granules presented particle diameter, bulk and tapped densities and compressibility indexes suitable for a solid dosage form. The compression behavior showed plastic and fragmentary deformation for granules produced by the dry granulation technique and predominantly plastic deformation for wet granulation. Concerning the humidity sorption, the study showed that granules absorb less humidity than the spray-dried extract. However, granules with Eudragit® E 100 were the least hygroscopic.O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver grânulos de extrato Phyllantus niruri seco por aspersão e por granulação úmida e avaliar técnicas que possibilitem a produção de grânulos com características tecnológicas e rendimentos aperfeiçoados. Os grânulos foram caracterizados por granulometria, parâmetros reológicos, compressão e comportamento higroscópico. Independentemente da técnica de granulação, os grânulos tecnologicamente desenvolvidos apresentaram diâmetro de partículas, densidades aparente e compactada e índices de compressibilidade adequados para a formulação sólida. O comportamento de compressão mostrou deformação plástica e elástica para os grânulos produzidos por técnicas de granulação seca e, predominantemente, deformação plástica para a granulação úmida. Com relação à absorção da umidade, o estudo mostrou que os grânulos absorvem menos umidade do que o extrato seco por aspersão. Entretanto, os grânulos com Eudragit E 100 foram os menos higroscópicos.
An upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) digester was operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRT) ranging from 26.7 h to 2.2 h, while the organic load rate (OLR) ranged from 0.9 to 7.3 kgCOD/m3·d. Sludge granulation was observed after day 150 of operation, at an HRT of 3.4 h, when small granules of less than 2 ...
Gonzalez-Mestres, L.; Perret-Gallix, D.
A general introduction to superheated superconducting granules (SSG) detectors is given and some recent results on their basic properties are presented. Granules recently made by industrial producers exhibit good metastability properties and show sensitivity, better than naively expected, to photons and ionizing particles. The behaviour of SSG detectors at very low temperatures is also discussed. We finally sketch a critical review of proposed applications to the cross-disciplinary frontier between particle physics and astrophysics
Tao, Jia; Qin, Lian; Liu, Xiaoying; Li, Bolin; Chen, Junnan; You, Juan; Shen, Yitian; Chen, Xiaoguo
The granulation of activated sludge and effect of granular activated carbon (GAC) was investigated under the alternative anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The results showed that GAC accelerated the granulation, but had no obvious effect on the bacterial community structure of granules. The whole granulation process could be categorized into three phases, i.e. lag, granulation and granule maturation phase. During lag period GAC provided nuclei for sludge to attach, and thus enhanced the morphological regularization of sludge. During granulation period the granule size increased significantly due to the growth of bacteria in granules. GAC reduced the compression caused by the inter-particle collisions and thus accelerate the granulation. GAC has no negative effect on the performance of SBR, and thus efficient simultaneous removal of COD, nitrogen and phosphorus were obtained during most of the operating time. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Handagama, P. J.; George, J. N.; Shuman, M. A.; McEver, R. P.; Bainton, D. F.
To determine whether or not proteins circulating in plasma can be incorporated into megakaryocytes and platelets, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was injected intravenously into guinea pigs and these cells were examined for its uptake by electron microscopy and cytochemistry. Enriched samples of megakaryocytes enabled ultrastructural analysis of large numbers of these rare cells. In megakaryocytes, 50% of alpha granules contained HRP between 75 min and 7 hr after injection. At 24 hr, 25% of the megakaryocyte granules were peroxidase-positive, less were positive by 48 hr, and there were none at 4 days. Thus, the findings demonstrate that a circulating protein can be endocytosed by megakaryocytes and rapidly packaged into alpha granules. Platelet granules also contain HRP by 7 hr after injection, and they can secrete it in response to thrombin. Unfortunately, our present studies do not allow us to distinguish between direct endocytosis by the platelet and/or shedding of new platelets from recently labeled megakaryocytes. It is concluded that while some alpha granule proteins are synthesized by megakaryocytes, others may be acquired from plasma by endocytosis. In addition to providing evidence that some of the proteins of alpha granules may be of exogenous origin, this study has allowed the definition of a pathway whereby plasma proteins may be temporarily sequestered in megakaryocytes before reentering the circulation in platelets.
A. I. Rudenko
Full Text Available It was fixed, that development of atophanum-carbacholimun ulcer of the gastroduodenal zone invoked various changes of secretory activity of the stomach. The changes directly depend on a progress of pathological process. As this takes place the reaction of stomach secretory glands varies under the stimulation with histamine: the decrease of stomach secretory glands’ work capacity till 10th day and its increase after 10–15th day were observed. Disorders of the glands’ ultradian rhythms at initial stages of modeling of gastrointestinal nervous regulation disturbances testify to dependence of periodic activity of gastrointestinal tract on resistance of regulatory mechanisms correlation.
de la Rosette, J. J.; Debruyne, F. M.
The term 'prostatitis' denotes a condition of inflammation of the prostate. Prostatitis is usually employed to describe any unexplained symptom or condition that might possibly emanate from a disorder of the prostate gland. The diagnosis of nonbacterial prostatitis is reserved for those patients
van Iersel, M. P.; Witjes, W. P.; de la Rosette, J. J.; Oosterhof, G. O.
To assess the additional value of prostate-specific antigen density in the diagnosis of prostate cancer in patients who undergo prostate biopsies. The study comprised 376 patients with symptoms of prostatism who were undergoing prostate biopsy. Digital rectal examination (DRE) and transrectal
Yu Daren; Xie Zongxia; Hu Qinghua [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Yang Shuhong; Zhang Jun; Wang Jingxiu, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, E-mail: email@example.com [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)
The normal mode observations of seven quiet regions obtained by the Hinode spacecraft are analyzed to study the physical properties of granules. An artificial intelligence technique is introduced to automatically find the spatial distribution of granules in feature spaces. In this work, we investigate the dependence of granular continuum intensity, mean Doppler velocity, and magnetic fields on granular diameter. We recognized 71,538 granules by an automatic segmentation technique and then extracted five properties: diameter, continuum intensity, Doppler velocity, and longitudinal and transverse magnetic flux density to describe the granules. To automatically explore the intrinsic structures of the granules in the five-dimensional parameter space, the X-means clustering algorithm and one-rule classifier are introduced to define the rules for classifying the granules. It is found that diameter is a dominating parameter in classifying the granules and two families of granules are derived: small granules with diameters smaller than 1.''44, and large granules with diameters larger than 1.''44. Based on statistical analysis of the detected granules, the following results are derived: (1) the averages of diameter, continuum intensity, and Doppler velocity in the upward direction of large granules are larger than those of small granules; (2) the averages of absolute longitudinal, transverse, and unsigned flux density of large granules are smaller than those of small granules; (3) for small granules, the average of continuum intensity increases with their diameters, while the averages of Doppler velocity, transverse, absolute longitudinal, and unsigned magnetic flux density decrease with their diameters. However, the mean properties of large granules are stable; (4) the intensity distributions of all granules and small granules do not satisfy Gaussian distribution, while that of large granules almost agrees with normal distribution with a peak at 1.04 I
reduce blood flow in BPH, thereby preventing bleeding [6,7]. Thus ... urethra, prostate and surrounding tissue ... The peripheral blood and prostatic fluid of the patients ... Coronary heart ..... Length Density of Prostate Vessels, Intraoperative,.
Elkjær, Maria Carlsen; Andersen, Morten Heebøll; Høyer, Søren
Background Active surveillance (AS) of low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) is an accepted alternative to active treatment. However, the conventional diagnostic trans-rectal ultrasound guided biopsies (TRUS-bx) underestimate PCa aggressiveness in almost half of the cases, when compared with the surgical...... lesions. Significant cancer was defined as GS > 6 or GS 6 (3 + 3) lesions with ≥ 6 mm maximal cancer core length (MCCL). Results A total of 78 patients were included and in 21 patients a total of 22 PIRADS-score 4 or 5 lesions were detected. MRGB pathology revealed that 17 (81%) of these and 22......% of the entire AS population harbored significant cancers at AS inclusion. In eight (38%) cases, the GS was upgraded. Also, nine patients (43%) had GS 6 (3 + 3) foci with MCCL ≥ 6 mm. Conclusion In an AS cohort based on TRUS and TRUS-bx diagnostic strategies, supplemental mpMRI and in-bore MRGB were able...
Full Text Available Regulation of post-transcriptional gene expression on mRNA level in eukaryotic cells includes translocation, translation, translational repression, storage, mRNA decay, RNA silencing, and nonsense-mediated decay. These processes are associated with various RNA-binding proteins and cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complexes many of which are conserved across eukaryotes. Microscopically visible aggregations formed by ribonucleoprotein complexes are termed RNA granules. Stress granules where the translationally inactive mRNAs are stored and processing bodies where mRNA decay may occur present the most studied RNA granule types. Diverse RNP-granules are increasingly being assigned important roles in viral infections. Although the majority of the molecular level studies on the role of RNA granules in viral translation and replication have been conducted in mammalian systems, some studies link also plant virus infection to RNA granules. An increasing body of evidence indicates that plant viruses require components of stress granules and processing bodies for their replication and translation, but how extensively the cellular mRNA regulatory network is utilized by plant viruses has remained largely enigmatic. Antiviral RNA silencing, which is an important regulator of viral RNA stability and expression in plants, is commonly counteracted by viral suppressors of RNA silencing. Some of the RNA silencing suppressors localize to cellular RNA granules and have been proposed to carry out their suppression functions there. Moreover, plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat protein-mediated virus resistance has been linked to enhanced processing body formation and translational repression of viral RNA. Many interesting questions relate to how the pathways of antiviral RNA silencing leading to viral RNA degradation and/or repression of translation, suppression of RNA silencing and viral RNA translation converge in plants and how different RNA granules and
Mäkinen, Kristiina; Lõhmus, Andres; Pollari, Maija
Regulation of post-transcriptional gene expression on mRNA level in eukaryotic cells includes translocation, translation, translational repression, storage, mRNA decay, RNA silencing, and nonsense-mediated decay. These processes are associated with various RNA-binding proteins and cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complexes many of which are conserved across eukaryotes. Microscopically visible aggregations formed by ribonucleoprotein complexes are termed RNA granules. Stress granules where the translationally inactive mRNAs are stored and processing bodies where mRNA decay may occur present the most studied RNA granule types. Diverse RNP-granules are increasingly being assigned important roles in viral infections. Although the majority of the molecular level studies on the role of RNA granules in viral translation and replication have been conducted in mammalian systems, some studies link also plant virus infection to RNA granules. An increasing body of evidence indicates that plant viruses require components of stress granules and processing bodies for their replication and translation, but how extensively the cellular mRNA regulatory network is utilized by plant viruses has remained largely enigmatic. Antiviral RNA silencing, which is an important regulator of viral RNA stability and expression in plants, is commonly counteracted by viral suppressors of RNA silencing. Some of the RNA silencing suppressors localize to cellular RNA granules and have been proposed to carry out their suppression functions there. Moreover, plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat protein-mediated virus resistance has been linked to enhanced processing body formation and translational repression of viral RNA. Many interesting questions relate to how the pathways of antiviral RNA silencing leading to viral RNA degradation and/or repression of translation, suppression of RNA silencing and viral RNA translation converge in plants and how different RNA granules and their individual
Saha, Indraneel; Chatterjee, Aniruddha; Mondal, Anushree; Maiti, Bishwa Ranjan; Chatterji, Urmi
Areca nut chewing is the fourth most popular habit in the world due to its effects as a mild stimulant, causing a feeling of euphoria and slightly heightened alertness. Areca nuts contain several alkaloids and tannins, of which arecoline is the most abundant and known to have several adverse effects in humans, specially an increased risk of oral cancer. On evaluating the effects of arecoline on the male endocrine physiology in Wistar rats, it was found that arecoline treatment led to an overall enlargement and increase in the wet weight of the prostate gland, and a two-fold increase in serum gonadotropin and testosterone levels. Since the prostate is a major target for testosterone, the consequences of arecoline consumption were studied specifically in the prostate gland. Arecoline treatment led to an increase in the number of rough endoplasmic reticulum and reduction of secretory vesicles, signifying a hyperactive state of the prostate. Increased expression of androgen receptors in response to arecoline allowed for enhanced effect of testosterone in the prostate of treated animals, which augmented cell proliferation, subsequently confirmed by an increase in the expression of Ki-67 protein. Cellular proliferation was also the outcome of concomitant over expression of the G 1 -to-S cell cycle regulatory proteins, cyclin D1 and CDK4, both at the transcriptional and translational levels. Taken together, the findings provide the first evidence that regular use of arecoline may lead to prostatic hyperplasia and hypertrophy, and eventually to disorders associated with prostate enlargement. - Highlights: → Effect of arecoline was investigated on the endocrine physiology of male Wistar rats. → Increase observed in prostate size, wet weight, serum testosterone and gonadotropins. → Arecoline increased RER, expression of androgen receptor and cellular proliferation. → Upregulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4 seen at transcriptional and translational levels. → It may cause
Full Text Available RCAS1 expression is related to the regulation of activated immune cells and to connective tissue remodeling within the endometrium. DFF45 seems to play an important role in the apoptotic process, most likely by acting through the regulation of DNA fragmentation. Its expression changes within the endometrium seem to be related to the resistance of endometrial cells to apoptosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate RCAS1 and DFF45 endometrial expressions during ovulation and the implantation period. RCAS1 and DFF45 expression was assessed by the Western-blot method in endometrial tissue samples obtained from 20 patients. The tissue samples were classified according to the menstrual cycle phases in which they were collected, with a division into three phases: late proliferative, early secretory, and mid-secretory. The lowest level of RCAS1 and the highest level of DFF45 endometrial expression was found during the early secretory cycle phase. Statistically significantly higher RCAS1 and statistically significantly lower DFF45 endometrial expression was identified in the endometrium during the late proliferative as compared to the early secretory cycle phase. Moreover, statistically significantly higher RCAS1 and statistically significantly lower DFF45 expression was found in the endometrium during the mid-secretory as compared to the early secretory cycle phase. The preparation for implantation process in the endometrium is preceded by dynamic changes in endometrial ECM and results from the proper interaction between endometrial and immune cells. The course of this process is conditioned by the immunomodulating activity of endometrial cells and their resistance to immune-mediated apoptosis. These dynamic changes are closely related to RCAS1 and DFF45 expression alterations.
Beyenbach, K W
This review attempts to give a retrospective survey of the available evidence concerning the secretion of NaCl and fluid in renal tubules of the vertebrate kidney. In the absence of glomerular filtration, epithelial secretory mechanisms, which to this date have not been elucidated, are responsible for the renal excretion of NaCl and water in aglomerular fish. However, proximal tubules isolated from glomerular fish kidneys of the flounder, killifish, and the shark also have the capacity to secrete NaCl and fluid. In shark proximal tubules, fluid secretion appears to be driven via secondary active transport of Cl. In another marine vertebrate, the sea snake, secretion of Na (presumably NaCl) and fluid is observed in freshwater-adapted and water-loaded animals. Proximal tubules of mammals can be made to secrete NaCl in vitro together with secretion of aryl acids. An epithelial cell line derived from dog kidney exhibits secondary active secretion of Cl when stimulated with catecholamines. Tubular secretion of NaCl and fluid may serve a variety of renal functions, all of which are considered here. The occurrence of NaCl and fluid secretion in glomerular proximal tubules of teleosts, elasmobranchs, and reptiles and in mammalian renal tissue cultures suggests that the genetic potential for NaCl secretion is present in every vertebrate kidney.
Brooks, J.C.; Brooks, M.
Permeabilized cells treated with the adenosine triphosphate analog, ( 35 S)adenosine-5'-0-3(3-thiotriphosphate) ((γ- 35 S)ATP), showed thiophosphorylation of a small number of cellular proteins. A 54 kilodalton (kDa) protein was heavily thiophosphorylated in unstimulated control cells and a 43 kilodalton protein was more heavily thiophosphorylated in calcium stimulated cells. Intact cells incorporated 35 S into a series of higher molecular weight proteins. Stimulation of prelabelled, permeabilized cells resulted in a loss of 35 S from the cells over a 20 min period. Treatment of permeabilized cells with ATPγS inhibited secretion and 35 S incorporation into the cells. Pretreatment with ATPγS resulted in subsequent inhibition of both secretion and the ability of the cells to incorporate 35 S from (γ- 35 S)ATP. These results indicate that the sites normally available for phosphorylation were inactivated by thiophosphorylation and were unavailable to participate in the secretory process. The inhibition of secretion associated with thiophosphorylation of these proteins suggests that they may play a role in the control of secretion by chromaffin cells. 15 references, 1 figure, 3 tables
Kobayashi, Toshimitsu; Sakurai, Tokio; Taniguchi, Kazuhiko; Takahashi, Kuniaki; Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Kawamoto, Kazutomo.
In an attempt to evaluate the feasibility of the tympanometry in detecting the middle ear effusion (MEE) in secretory otitis media (SOM) in childhood, the findings of the computed tomography (CT) were evaluated whether they were compatible with that of tympanometry in 27 cases (51 ears) of SOM. Tympanometry (tympanogram, static compliance measurement and stapedial reflex test), pure tone audiometry and high resolution CT were performed sequentially, and the CT findings were compared with the results of the other tests. The conclusions obtained were summarized as follows. 1. Among the tests performed, tympanogram appeared to be the most reliable measure in detection of MEE. 2. Fifteen ears out of 16 with type B tympanograms and 6 ears out of 15 with type C 2 tympanograms, were diagnosed by CT as having MEE. MEE occupied the entire middile ear space in most ears with type B tympanograms. By contrast, in the ears with type C 2 tympanograms, air containing space of varying size were always observed even in the ears with MEE. (author)
Glaeser, Kathrin; Urban, Manuela; Fenech, Emma; Voloshanenko, Oksana; Kranz, Dominique; Lari, Federica; Christianson, John C; Boutros, Michael
Active regulation of protein abundance is an essential strategy to modulate cellular signaling pathways. Within the Wnt signaling cascade, regulated degradation of β-catenin by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) affects the outcome of canonical Wnt signaling. Here, we found that abundance of the Wnt cargo receptor Evi (Wls/GPR177), which is required for Wnt protein secretion, is also regulated by the UPS through endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD). In the absence of Wnt ligands, Evi is ubiquitinated and targeted for ERAD in a VCP-dependent manner. Ubiquitination of Evi involves the E2-conjugating enzyme UBE2J2 and the E3-ligase CGRRF1. Furthermore, we show that a triaging complex of Porcn and VCP determines whether Evi enters the secretory or the ERAD pathway. In this way, ERAD-dependent control of Evi availability impacts the scale of Wnt protein secretion by adjusting the amount of Evi to meet the requirement of Wnt protein export. As Wnt and Evi protein levels are often dysregulated in cancer, targeting regulatory ERAD components might be a useful approach for therapeutic interventions. © 2018 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.
Stolk, J.; Camps, J.; Feitsma, H. I.; Hermans, J.; Dijkman, J. H.; Pauwels, E. K.
BACKGROUND--The neutrophil elastase inhibitor, secretory leucocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), is a potential therapeutic tool in inflammatory lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis and pulmonary emphysema. The distribution and disappearance in the lung of aerosolised recombinant SLPI (rSLPI) was investigated in healthy humans and in patients with cystic fibrosis or alpha 1-antitrypsin-associated emphysema. METHODS--To distinguish aerosolised rSLPI from endogenous SLPI the recombinant inhibitor was radiolabelled with 99m-technetium (99mTc) pertechnetate. Distribution and disappearance of aerosolised 99mTc-rSLPI in the lungs were studied by gamma radiation imaging. RESULTS--The deposition of 99mTc-rSLPI in normal volunteers was homogeneous in all lung lobes, while in patients with cystic fibrosis or emphysema only well ventilated areas showed deposition of the aerosol. The disappearance rate of 99mTc-rSLPI was biexponential. The half life of the rapid phase was 0.2-2.8 hours, while that of the slow phase was more than 24 hours. CONCLUSIONS--Future aerosol therapy with rSLPI will be most beneficial for well ventilated lung tissue that needs protection against neutrophil derived elastase. It may be more difficult to neutralise the burden of elastase in poorly ventilated, highly inflamed areas as are seen in cystic fibrosis. Images PMID:7638807
Francavilla, S; Martini, M; Properzi, G; Cordeschi, G
Testicular biopsy specimens from infertile men (sperm count, less than 10(6)/ml) were evaluated on 1-micron thick sections, and counts of stem cells and differentiated spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes, early and late spermatids, and Sertoli cells were compared to counts in six fertile men. Biopsy specimens were also compared for the appearance of seminiferous tubule wall, blood vessels, and interstitium. Infertile men were grouped according to the following diagnoses: hypospermatogenesis (n = 5), spermatocyte arrest of spermatogenesis (n = 5), and obstruction of the genital tract (n = 7). A low productivity of spermatogenesis in cases of hypospermatogenesis appeared to be due to an exaggerated degeneration of primary spermatocytes and to a yield of abnormal spermatids. A block of meiosis in spermatocyte arrest was associated with a degeneration of primary spermatocytes and with a reduced number of staminal spermatogonia. Abnormal spermiogenesis was observed in cases of obstruction of the genital tract and was associated with an increase in stem cell spermatogonia. A thickening of seminiferous tubule and blood vessel walls could be responsible for the limited functional capacity of Sertoli cells, causing altered spermiogenesis in cases of excretory azoospermia. A severe primitive failure of Sertoli cells in secretory oligoazoospermia could account for a deranged maturation and degeneration of premeiotic and postmeiotic germ cells.
Maucort, Guillaume; Kasula, Ravikiran; Papadopulos, Andreas; Nieminen, Timo A; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina; Meunier, Frederic A
How neurosecretory cells spatially adjust their secretory vesicle pools to replenish those that have fused and released their hormonal content is currently unknown. Here we designed a novel set of image analyses to map the probability of tracked organelles undergoing a specific type of movement (free, caged or directed). We then applied our analysis to time-lapse z-stack confocal imaging of secretory vesicles from bovine Chromaffin cells to map the global changes in vesicle motion and directionality occurring upon secretagogue stimulation. We report a defined region abutting the cortical actin network that actively transports secretory vesicles and is dissipated by actin and microtubule depolymerizing drugs. The directionality of this "conveyor belt" towards the cell surface is activated by stimulation. Actin and microtubule networks therefore cooperatively probe the microenvironment to transport secretory vesicles to the periphery, providing a mechanism whereby cells globally adjust their vesicle pools in response to secretagogue stimulation.
Wynne, E; Slocombe, J O; Wilkie, B N
Rabbit antisera were prepared against veronal buffered saline extracts of L4 and L5 Strongylus vulgaris, adult S. vulgaris and adult Strongylus equinus retrieved from naturally infected horses. In agar gel diffusion with these antisera, adult S vulgaris and S. equinus each appeared to have at least one unique antigen; larval S. vulgaris appeared to have two species-specific and two stage-specific antigens. There were several common antigens. Excretory and secretory products were collected also from L4 and L5 an maintained over several days in tissue culture fluid. In agar gel diffusion against the above rabbit antisera, a stage-specific antigen was found also in excretory and secretory products. In addition, excretory and secretory products had three antigens in common with adult and larval S. vulgaris, but only one of these was common to adult S. equinus. The excretory and secretory products appear, therefore, to have two species-specific and one stage-specific antigens.
Enteric neurotransmitters that act at G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are well known to acutely promote epithelial Cl(-) and fluid secretion. Here we examined if acute GPCR activation might have more long-term consequences for epithelial secretory function.
E. V. Brizhatyuk
Full Text Available Prostate tuberculosis is difficult to be diagnosed, especially if lesions are limited only by this organ. The article analyses the experience of differential diagnostics of prostate tuberculosis based on the data of examination of 84 patients. 45 of them were diagnosed with prostate tuberculosis, and 39 patients were diagnosed with chronic bacterial prostatitis. Pathognomonic diagnostics criteria of prostate tuberculosis were the following: detection of tuberculous mycobacteria in the prostatic fluid or ejaculate, signs of granulomatous prostatitis with areas of cavernous necrosis in prostate biopsy samples, and prostate cavities visualized by X-ray or ultrasound examinations. Should the above criteria be absent, the disease can be diagnosed based on the combination of indirect signs: symptoms of prostate inflammation with active tuberculosis of the other localization; large prostate calcification, extensive hyperechoic area of the prostate, spermatocystic lesions, leucospermia and hemospermia, failure of the adequate non-specific anti-bacterial therapy.
Bødker, A; Bruun, J; Balslev, E
Estrogen receptors (ERs) in the prostate and prostatic urethra were examined in 33 men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and in 11 with prostate cancer (PC). The Abbot monoclonal ER-ICA assay was used for immunohistochemical investigation. In the BPH group, ERs were revealed in the prostatic...... demonstrated in the prostatic stroma and/or prostatic urethra in 6 out of 11 cases. In both BPH and PC patients, immunoreactivity was weak and confined to few cells, indicating low ER content in the prostate as well as in the prostatic urethra. Dextran-coated charcoal (DCC) analysis was used for detection...... and quanticization of cytosolic and nuclear ERs. In the BPH group, ERs were detected once in the prostate and prostatic urethra in the nuclear and cytosol, and additionally in the prostatic urethra in the cytosol fraction in three cases. In all cases, ER content was low, ranging from 10-15 fmol/mg protein. In the PC...
... prostate. The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system located just below the bladder (the organ that ... up part of semen . Enlarge Anatomy of the male reproductive and urinary systems, showing the prostate, testicles, bladder, and other organs. ...
Matsuo, S.; Takano, Y.; Wakisaka, S.; Ichikawa, H.; Nishikawa, S.; Akai, M.
The incorporation of 3H-proline into the secretory ameloblasts of rat molar tooth germs cultured with or without colchicine was studied by light and electron microscope radioautography to determine the function of microtubules in the transport of precursor enamel protein from the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum (rER) to the Golgi cisternae. The grain counts over the transitional vesicles, which accumulated in various cellular regions with colchicine treatment, continued to increase with chase time, unlike in controls. At 30 and 90 min chase, these counts were significantly higher than in controls. Moreover, the total grain count over the organelles (rER, pale granules, and transitional vesicles), which are positioned before the Golgi cisternae in the synthetic pathway, maintained a significantly higher level at 90 min chase in colchicine-treated tooth germs than in controls. The transport of synthesized protein to the Golgi cisternae via transitional vesicles was suppressed in colchicine-treated tooth germs. Some grains appeared with time over pale granular materials that appeared in the intercellular spaces of secretory ameloblasts with colchicine treatment. However, at each chase period, the grain count over pale granular materials was not so high as the count over the enamel in control. The present results indicate that colchicine affects the transport of newly synthesized protein from the rER to the Golgi cisterna via transitional vesicles, probably by interfering with the oriented transport related to microtubular function. It is suggested that the microtubular system may be concerned with the movement of the transitional vesicles
Balletta, Andrea; Lorenz, Dorothea; Rummel, Andreas; Gerhard, Ralf; Bigalke, Hans; Wegner, Florian
Clostridium difficile toxins A and B (TcdA and TcdB) belong to the class of large clostridial cytotoxins and inactivate by glucosylation some low molecular mass GTPases of the Rho-family (predominantly Rho, Rac and Cdc42), known as regulators of the actin cytoskeleton. TcdA and B also represent the main virulence factors of the anaerobic gram-positive bacterium that is the causal agent of pseudomembranous colitis. In our study, TcdB was chosen instead of TcdA for the well-known higher cytotoxic potency. Inactivation of Rho-family GTPases by this toxin in our experimental conditions induced morphological changes and reduction of electron-dense mast cell-specific granules in human mast cell line-1 (HMC-1) cells, but not cell death or permeabilisation of plasma-membranes. Previously reported patch-clamp dialysis experiments revealed that high intracellular free-Ca 2+ and GTPγS concentrations are capable of inducing exocytosis as indicated by significant membrane capacitance (C m ) increases in HMC-1 cells. In this study, we investigated the direct effects of TcdB upon HMC-1 cell “stimulated” C m increase, as well as on “constitutive” secretion of hexosaminidase and interleukin-16 (IL-16). Compared to untreated control cells, HMC-1 cells incubated with TcdB for 3–24 h exhibited a significant reduction of the mean absolute and relative C m increase in response to free-Ca 2+ and GTPγS suggesting an inhibition of secretory processes by TcdB. In conclusion, the HMC-1 cell line represents a suitable model for the study of direct effects of C. difficile toxins on human mast cell secretory activity
Full Text Available Prostate-specific antigen (PSA has been used for prostate cancer detection since 1994. PSA testing has revolutionized our ability to diagnose, treat, and follow-up patients. In the last two decades, PSA screening has led to a substantial increase in the incidence of prostate cancer (PC. This increased detection caused the incidence of advanced-stage disease to decrease at a dramatic rate, and most newly diagnosed PC today are localized tumors with a high probability of cure. PSA screening is associated with a 75% reduction in the proportion of men who now present with metastatic disease and a 32.5% reduction in the age-adjusted prostate cancer mortality rate through 2003. Although PSA is not a perfect marker, PSA testing has limited specificity for prostate cancer detection, and its appropriate clinical application remains a topic of debate. Due to its widespread use and increased over-detection, the result has been the occurrence of over-treatment of indolent cancers. Accordingly, several variations as regards PSA measurement have emerged as useful adjuncts for prostate cancer screening. These procedures take into consideration additional factors, such as the proportion of different PSA isoforms (free PSA, complexed PSA, pro-PSA and B PSA, the prostate volume (PSA density, and the rate of change in PSA levels over time (PSA velocity or PSA doubling time. The history and evidence underlying each of these parameters are reviewed in the following article.
Nogueira, Lucas; Corradi, Renato; Eastham, James A
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been used for prostate cancer detection since 1994. PSA testing has revolutionized our ability to diagnose, treat, and follow-up patients. In the last two decades, PSA screening has led to a substantial increase in the incidence of prostate cancer (PC). This increased detection caused the incidence of advanced-stage disease to decrease at a dramatic rate, and most newly diagnosed PC today are localized tumors with a high probability of cure. PSA screening is associated with a 75% reduction in the proportion of men who now present with metastatic disease and a 32.5% reduction in the age-adjusted prostate cancer mortality rate through 2003. Although PSA is not a perfect marker, PSA testing has limited specificity for prostate cancer detection, and its appropriate clinical application remains a topic of debate. Due to its widespread use and increased over-detection, the result has been the occurrence of over-treatment of indolent cancers. Accordingly, several variations as regards PSA measurement have emerged as useful adjuncts for prostate cancer screening. These procedures take into consideration additional factors, such as the proportion of different PSA isoforms (free PSA, complexed PSA, pro-PSA and B PSA), the prostate volume (PSA density), and the rate of change in PSA levels over time (PSA velocity or PSA doubling time). The history and evidence underlying each of these parameters are reviewed in the following article.
Lee, Yu-Jen; Wei, Hung-Ming; Chen, Ling-Yun; Li, Chuan
SERPINE1 mRNA-binding protein 1 (SERBP1) is an arginine-methylated RNA-binding protein whose modification affects protein interaction and intracellular localization. In the present study, we show that, under normal growth conditions without stress, SERBP1 interacts with arginine-methylated and stress granule-associated proteins such as heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1, fragile X mental retardation protein and fragile X mental retardation syndrome-related protein 1 in an RNA-dependent manner. We also show that, after arsenite treatment, a proportion of full-length SERBP1 protein co-localizes with the typical stress granule marker T-cell intracellular antigen-1 in the cytoplasmic stress granules. Truncated SERBP1 with an N-terminal, central RG or C-terminal deletion, or single-domain segments comprising the N-terminal, central or C-terminal region, were recruited to stress granules upon arsenite treatment but with reduced efficiency. In addition, upon arsenite treatment, the localization of SERBP1 changed from a diffuse cytoplasmic localization to nuclear-dominant (concentrated in the nucleolus) A similar distribution was observed when cells were treated with the methylation inhibitor adenosine periodate, and was also detected for N- or C-terminal domain deletions and all three single-domain fragments even without stress induction. We further demonstrate that adenosine periodate treatment delays the association/dissociation of SERBP1 with stress granules. Hypomethylation retains SERBP1 in the nucleus/nucleolus regardless of arsenite treatment. Our study indicates that arginine methylation is correlated with recruitment of SERBP to stress granules and nucleoli and its retention therein. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an RNA-binding protein that is shifted simultaneously to cytoplasmic stress granules and nucleoli, two ribonucleoprotein-enriched subcellular compartments, upon stress. © 2013 FEBS.
Gonzalez-Mestres, L.; Perret-Gallix, D.
The basic properties of superheated superconducting granules (SSG) detectors are reviewed. Recent results are presented and discussed. Granule samples of different sizes (10 μm -8 Ω.cm -6 Ω.cm) exhibit encouraging sensitivity to low energy β and γ sources (down to 55 Fe 6 KeV γ'S). All tests were performed with real-time read-out electronics, detecting single granule flips under the action of individual particles. Sensitivity is shown to depend on normal state resistivity. Irradiation of very large tin granules (45 μm ≤ Φ ≤ 400 μm) with α particles ( 241 Am, E ≅ 5.5 MeV) shows evidence for local heating, where the observed energy threshold is far below the one predicted by equilibrium thermodynamical calculations. Tests made at lower temperatures (T ≥ 450 mK) show the absence of avalanche effect (seen by other authors in different conditions) for several samples of tin granules. A theoretical discussion of the avalanche effect is presented. The understanding of the role of heat exchanges in the composite medium leads to the concept of 'localized micro-avalanche' and opens the way to drastic improvements of SSG performance for particle detection. Such a phenomenon should be obtained by a better thermal matching between dielectric and granules, working at temperatures where the released latent heat is slightly positive. Estimates of the behavior of the detector at very low T are also given, where a thin layer of normal electrons near the surface is shown to contribute to the heat capacity of a superheated granule. We discuss the main points to be studied in the near future, and give a brief evaluation of the present status of feasibility investigation for several proposed experiments (solar neutrinos, monopoles, dark matter, double β,...). An updated working program for SSG development is proposed
de Ruiter, Anne J H; Koolhaas, Jaap M; van Oortmerssen, Geert A; Bohus, Bela
In this study, testosterone secretory capacity of testicular Leydig cells during ontogeny was determined in males of an aggressive and a nonaggressive genetic selection line of wild house mice. Neonates, 23-day-old prepubertals, and adult male mice were studied. A morphometric method was used to quantify 3-beta-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase (3-beta-HSD)-stained Leydig cells in testicular sections to determine testosterone secretory capacity. We consider this parameter to reflect circulating t...
Vilsbøll, Tina; Nielsen, Mette Toft; Krarup, T
Beta-cell secretory capacity is often evaluated with a glucagon test or a meal test. However, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is the most insulinotropic hormone known, and the effect is preserved in type 2 diabetic patients.......Beta-cell secretory capacity is often evaluated with a glucagon test or a meal test. However, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is the most insulinotropic hormone known, and the effect is preserved in type 2 diabetic patients....
Carl Van Haute
Full Text Available This review gives an overview of morphological and functional characteristics in the human prostate. It will focus on the current knowledge about transient receptor potential (TRP channels expressed in the human prostate, and their putative role in normal physiology and prostate carcinogenesis. Controversial data regarding the expression pattern and the potential impact of TRP channels in prostate function, and their involvement in prostate cancer and other prostate diseases, will be discussed.
Kambe, Taiho; Matsunaga, Mayu; Takeda, Taka-Aki
More than one-third of newly synthesized proteins are targeted to the early secretory pathway, which is comprised of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus, and other intermediate compartments. The early secretory pathway plays a key role in controlling the folding, assembly, maturation, modification, trafficking, and degradation of such proteins. A considerable proportion of the secretome requires zinc as an essential factor for its structural and catalytic functions, and recent findings reveal that zinc plays a pivotal role in the function of the early secretory pathway. Hence, a disruption of zinc homeostasis and metabolism involving the early secretory pathway will lead to pathway dysregulation, resulting in various defects, including an exacerbation of homeostatic ER stress. The accumulated evidence indicates that specific members of the family of Zn transporters (ZNTs) and Zrt- and Irt-like proteins (ZIPs), which operate in the early secretory pathway, play indispensable roles in maintaining zinc homeostasis by regulating the influx and efflux of zinc. In this review, the biological functions of these transporters are discussed, focusing on recent aspects of their roles. In particular, we discuss in depth how specific ZNT transporters are employed in the activation of zinc-requiring ectoenzymes. The means by which early secretory pathway functions are controlled by zinc, mediated by specific ZNT and ZIP transporters, are also subjects of this review.
Alphenaar, P.A. (Agricultural Univ., Wageningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Environmental Technology); Perez, M.C. (Agricultural Univ., Wageningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Environmental Technology); Lettinga, G. (Agricultural Univ., Wageningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Environmental Technology)
The relationship between porosity, diameter and methanogenic activity of anaerobic granules has been investigated. Experiments with different granular sludges revealed that substrate transport limitations increase with the diameter of the granules. As a consequence, autolysis can occur in the core of the granule, producing hollow granules. The porosity measurements revealed that the hollow centre is not available for substrate transport. Possibly as an effect of bacterial lysis, the porosity decreases in the more interior layers of the granules. This results in a inactive inner part of the large granules, which is not involved in the treatment process; the specific methanogenic activity decreases with granule size. No marked difference in substrate affinity is observed between granules of different sizes, which probably indicates that for large granules only the exterior is biological active. (orig.)
Shrestha, Pravin; Malvankar, Nikhil S.; Werner, Jeffrey
Prior investigation of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating brewery wastes suggested that direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) significantly contributed to interspecies electron transfer to methanogens. To investigate DIET in granules further, the electrical conducti......Prior investigation of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating brewery wastes suggested that direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) significantly contributed to interspecies electron transfer to methanogens. To investigate DIET in granules further, the electrical...... conductivity and bacterial community composition of granules in fourteen samples from four different UASB reactors treating brewery wastes were investigated. All of the UASB granules were electrically conductive whereas control granules from ANAMMOX (ANaerobic AMMonium OXidation) reactors and microbial...... granules from an aerobic bioreactor designed for phosphate removal were not. There was a moderate correlation (r = 0.67) between the abundance of Geobacter species in the UASB granules and granule conductivity, suggesting that Geobacter contributed to granule conductivity. These results, coupled...
Full Text Available Objective: Insulin release from pancreatic islet β cells should be tightly controlled to avoid hypoglycemia and insulin resistance. The cortical actin cytoskeleton is a gate for regulated exocytosis of insulin secretory granules (SGs by restricting their mobility and access to the plasma membrane. Prior studies suggest that SGs interact with F-actin through their transmembrane cargo islet cell autoantigen 512 (Ica512 (also known as islet antigen 2/Ptprn. Here we investigated how Ica512 modulates SG trafficking and exocytosis. Methods: Transcriptomic changes in Ica512−/− mouse islets were analyzed. Imaging as well as biophysical and biochemical methods were used to validate if and how the Ica512-regulated gene villin modulates insulin secretion in mouse islets and insulinoma cells. Results: The F-actin modifier villin was consistently downregulated in Ica512−/− mouse islets and in Ica512-depleted insulinoma cells. Villin was enriched at the cell cortex of β cells and dispersed villin−/− islet cells were less round and less deformable. Basal mobility of SGs in villin-depleted cells was enhanced. Moreover, in cells depleted either of villin or Ica512 F-actin cages restraining cortical SGs were enlarged, basal secretion was increased while glucose-stimulated insulin release was blunted. The latter changes were reverted by overexpressing villin in Ica512-depleted cells, but not vice versa. Conclusion: Our findings show that villin controls the size of the F-actin cages restricting SGs and, thus, regulates their dynamics and availability for exocytosis. Evidence that villin acts downstream of Ica512 also indicates that SGs directly influence the remodeling properties of the cortical actin cytoskeleton for tight control of insulin secretion. Keywords: F-actin, Granules, Ica512, Insulin, Secretion, Villin
Full Text Available With the increase in wall thickness of the casting of iron-nickel-aluminium-bronze, by the reduction of the cooling rate the size of κII phase precipitates increases. This process, in the case of complex aluminium bronzes with additions of Cr, Mo and W is increased. Crystallization of big κII phase, during slow cooling of the casting, reduces the concentration of additives introduced to the bronze matrix and hardness. Undertaken research to develop technology of thick-walled products (g> 6 mm of complex aluminium bronzes. Particular attention was paid to the metallurgy of granules. As a result, a large cooling speed of the alloy, and also high-speed solidification casting a light weight of the granules allows: to avoid micro-and macrosegregation, decreasing the particle size, increase the dispersion of phases in multiphase alloys. Depending on the size granules as possible is to provide finished products with a wall thickness greater than 6 mm by infiltration of liquid alloy of granules (composites. Preliminary studies was conducted using drip method granulate of CuAl10Fe5Ni5 bronze melted in a INDUTHERM-VC 500 D Vacuum Pressure Casting Machine. This bronze is a starting alloy for the preparation of the complex aluminium bronzes with additions of Cr, Mo, W and C or Si. Optimizations of granulation process was carried out. As the process control parameters taken a casting temperature t (°C and the path h (mm of free-fall of the metal droplets in the surrounding atmosphere before it is intensively cooled in a container of water. The granulate was subjected to a sieve analysis. For the objective function was assume maximize of the product of Um*n, the percentage weight “Um” and the quantity of granules ‘n’ in the mesh fraction. The maximum value of the ratio obtained for mesh fraction a sieve with a mesh aperture of 6.3 mm. In the intensively cooled granule of bronze was identified microstructure composed of phases: β and fine bainite
Kimura, Syojiro; Tsutsui, Tenson; Kanagawa, Akira.
The pelletizing of NaF granules on laboratory scale used for recovery and purification of fluorides of nuclear fuel materials are investigated, particularity experimental studies on how to pelletize, fluidity of granules and flow rate of the granules in mortar of tablet machine are carried out. As result, added quantity of H 2 O as binder at granulation process of spherical NaF granule influence to yield of NaF granules. The proper quantity of H 2 O to NaF powder is about 18--19%. Friction coefficient of unfixed shape NaF granule is higher than that of spherical granule, in opposition, density of the former granule is lower. So fluidity of unfixed shape NaF granule is low, flow rate of the granules through feeder of tablet machine is slow, and arching on mortar of the tablet machine occurs. Then, some further operation for getting better fluidity needs for pelletizing of NaF granules using unfixed shape granule. The other hand, using spherical NaF granule, continuous pelletizing by commercial tablet machine can be carried out. (auth.)
Full Text Available 800x600 Banyak pertanian di Indonesia yang masih bergantung pada penggunaan pupuk kimia. Padahal penggunaan pupuk kimia yang berlebihan dapat menyebabkan penurunan bahan organik tanah. Untuk menyeimbangkannnya saat ini petani juga sedang menggalakkan penggunaan pupuk organik. Sehingga membuat kebutuhan pupuk organik meningkat setiap tahunnya. Pendirian pabrik pupuk organik granul ini dapat memenuhi kebutuhan pupuk organik untuk petani. Prosess pembuatan pupuk organik granul terdiri dari pencampuran bahan baku, yakni sampah organik, kotoran sapi, kotoran domba, dan dipotong dengan rotary knife cutter. Tahap berikutnya adalah proses fermentasi, dengan penambahan bioactivator agar meningkatkan kandungan C-organik, phosphor, dan kalium. Selanjutnya adalah proses granulasi, pembesaran dari partikel dengan proses aglomerasi. Ukuran yang diharapkan pada proses granulasi ini adalah 2-4 mm sehingga produk undersize maupun oversize akan dikembalikan ke dalam granulator setelah melewati screener. Selanjutnya pupuk organik granul dikeringkan. Selanjutnya produk dipisahkan berdasarkan ukurannya lalu didinginkan di Rotary cooler. Setelah keluar dari Rotary Cooler suhu keluaran sekitar 40 oC dan masih mengandung kadar air sebesar 13,7%. Produk dari rotary cooler siap untuk di packaging dan masuk ke dalam pupuk organik granul storage. Dari analisa ekonomi didapatkan BEP sebesar 45% dengan POT sesudah pajak sebesar 4,8 tahun. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
Gil, C.; Silvestre, D.; Piquer, J.; Garcia-Ten, J.; Quereda, E.; Vicente, M. J.
This study examines the feasibility of manufacturing glazed porcelain tiles with a more environmentally friendly manufacturing process, by reducing water and thermal energy consumption. The process studied in this paper is dry milling in a pendulum mill, with subsequent granulation (in order to obtain a press powder with similar flow ability to that of spray dried powders). The different morphology of the new granulate with respect to the standard spray-dried granulate modifies the microstructure of the green compacts and thus, their behaviour and fired tile properties. In order to obtain porcelain tiles with the required properties (water absorption, mechanical strength,) changes have been made in the raw materials mixture and in the processing variables. Finally, porcelain tiles measuring 50x50 cm have been manufactured at industrial scale with the new granulate using a conventional firing cycle, obtaining quality levels identical to those provided by the spray-dried granulate. These results open the possibility of preparing porcelain tile body compositions through a manufacturing process alternative to the standard one, more environmentally friendly and with lower costs. (Author)
Paramakrishnan, N; Jha, S; Kumar, K Jayaram
The starch extracted from rhizomes of Cyperus alulatus (CA) was characterized for its physicochemical, morphological and tableting properties. Rhizomes of CA yield a significant quantity of starch granules (CASG) i.e., 11.93%. CASG was characterized in terms of moisture, ash and amylose contents, solubility and swelling power, paste clarity and water retention capacity. The swelling power was found to be significantly improved with the increase in temperature. Scanning electron micrographs revealed that the granule's surface was smooth, the granules were spherical, mostly round, disc like, and the size range was 6.65-12.13 μm. Finger print region in FTIR spectra confirmed its carbohydrate nature. The evaluated micromeritic properties of extracted granule's bulk density, tapped density, Carr's index, Hausner ratio, true density and porosity render unique practicability of CASG being used as an adjuvant in pharmaceutical solid dosage forms. Tablets prepared by using CASG showed higher mechanical strength and more disintegration time, which depicted the characteristic binding nature of the starch granules. As CASG is imparting better binding properties in less concentration and also it can be used in combination with the established starches to get the synergistic effect; this starch can be used commercially in the tablet preparation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Soria-Fernández, Guillermo René; Jungfermann-Guzman, José René; Lomelín-Ramos, José Pedro; Jaspersen-Gastelum, Jorge; Rosas-Nava, Jesús Emmanuel
the term prostatic hyperplasia is most frequently used to describe the benign prostatic growth, this being a widely prevalent disorder associated with age that affects most men as they age. The association between prostate growth and urinary obstruction in older adults is well documented. large benign prostatic hyperplasia is rare and few cases have been published and should be taken into account during the study of tumors of the pelvic cavity. we report the case of an 81-year-old who had significant symptoms relating to storage and bladder emptying, with no significant elevation of prostate specific antigen. this is a rare condition but it is still important to diagnose and treat as it may be related to severe obstructive uropathy and chronic renal failure. In our institution, cases of large prostatic hyperplasia that are solved by suprapubic adenomectomy are less than 3%.
Yi, Xiao-Ming; Zhou, Wen-Quan
Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in males, and its etiology and pathogenesis remain unclear. Epigenesis is involved in prostate cancer at all stages of the process, and closely related with its growth and metastasis. DNA methylation and histone modification are the most important manifestations of epigenetics in prostate cancer. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis of DNA methylation include whole-genome hypomethylation, aberrant local hypermethylation of promoters and genomic instability. DNA methylation is closely related to the process of prostate cancer, as in DNA damage repair, hormone response, tumor cell invasion/metastasis, cell cycle regulation, and so on. Histone modification causes corresponding changes in chromosome structure and the level of gene transcription, and it may affect the cycle, differentiation and apoptosis of cells, resulting in prostate cancer. Some therapies have been developed targeting the epigenetic changes in prostate cancer, including DNA methyltransferases and histone deacetylase inhibitors, and have achieved certain desirable results.
... of substances that promote prostate cell growth. Another theory focuses on dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a male hormone that ... physical exam medical tests Personal and Family Medical History Taking a personal and family medical history is ...
Toledano, A.; Chauveinc, L.; Flam, T.; Thiounn, N.; Solignac, S.; Timbert, M.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Cosset, J.M.; Ammor, A.; Bonnetain, F.; Brenier, J.P.; Maingon, P.; Peignaux, K.; Truc, G.; Bosset, M.; Crevoisier, R. de; Tucker, S.; Dong, L.; Cheung, R.; Kuban, D.; Azria, D.; Llacer Moscardo, C.; Ailleres, N.; Allaw, A.; Serre, A.; Fenoglietto, P.; Hay, M.H.; Thezenas, S.; Dubois, J.B.; Pommier, P.; Perol, D.; Lagrange, J.L.; Richaud, P.; Brune, D.; Le Prise, E.; Azria, D.; Beckendorf, V.; Chabaud, S.; Carrie, C.; Bosset, M.; Bosset, J.F.; Maingon, P.; Ammor, A.; Crehangen, G.; Truc, G.; Peignaux, K.; Bonnetain, F.; Keros, L.; Bernier, V.; Aletti, P.; Wolf, D.; Marchesia, V.; Noel, A.; Artignan, X.; Fourneret, P.; Bacconier, M.; Shestaeva, O.; Pasquier, D.; Descotes, J.L.; Balosso, J.; Bolla, M.; Burette, R.; Corbusier, A.; Germeau, F.; Crevoisier, R. de; Dong, L.; Bonnen, M.; Cheung, R.; Tucker, S.; Kuban, D.; Crevoisier, R. de; Melancon, A.; Kuban, D.; Cheung, R.; Dong, L.; Peignaux, K.; Brenier, J.P.; Truc, G.; Bosset, M.; Ammor, A.; Barillot, I.; Maingon, P.; Molines, J.C.; Berland, E.; Cornulier, J. de; Coulet-Parpillon, A.; Cohard, C.; Picone, M.; Fourneret, P.; Artignan, X.; Daanen, V.; Gastaldo, J.; Bolla, M.; Collomb, D.; Dusserre, A.; Descotes, J.L.; Troccaz, J.; Giraud, J.Y.; Quero, L.; Hennequin, C.; Ravery, V.; Desgrandschamps, F.; Maylin, C.; Boccon-Gibod, L.; Salem, N.; Bladou, F.; Gravis, G.; Tallet, A.; Simonian, M.; Serment, G.; Salem, N.; Bladou, F.; Gravis, G.; Simonian, M.; Rosello, R.; Serment, G
Some short communications on the prostate carcinoma are given here. The impact of pelvic irradiation, conformation with intensity modulation, association of radiotherapy and chemotherapy reduction of side effects, imaging, doses escalation are such subjects studied and reported. (N.C.)
Chandler, Jenalle D; Williams, Elizabeth D; Slavin, John L; Best, James D; Rogers, Suzanne
association is that it may supply glucose to the Golgi for byproduct incorporation into the prostatic secretory fluid. Further work will investigate the importance of glucose transport and GLUT1 and GLUT12 in prostate carcinoma cell growth. Copyright 2003 American Cancer Society.
markdownabstractThis general aim of the thesis is to study the clinical relevance, interobserver reproducibility, and genetics of cribriform growth in prostate cancer. More specifically, the aims and outline of this thesis are • To study the metastatic potential of modified Gleason score 3+3 prostate cancer in radical prostatectomies. (Chapter 2) • To examine the prognostic value of individual Gleason grade 4 patterns in prostate cancer in radical prostatectomy and diagnostic biopsy specimens...
Lynn, Christopher D; Dominguez, Johnna T; DeCaro, Jason A
A costly signaling model suggests tattooing inoculates the immune system to heightened vigilance against stressors associated with soft tissue damage. We sought to investigate this "inoculation hypothesis" of tattooing as a costly honest signal of fitness. We hypothesized that the immune system habituates to the tattooing stressor in repeatedly tattooed individuals and that immune response to the stress of the tattooing process would correlate with lifetime tattoo experience. Participants were 24 women and 5 men (aged 18-47). We measured immune function using secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) and cortisol (sCORT) in saliva collected before and after tattoo sessions. We measured tattoo experience as a sum of number of tattoos, lifetime hours tattooed, years since first tattoo, percent of body covered, and number of tattoo sessions. We predicted an inverse relationship between SIgA and sCORT and less SIgA immunosuppression among those with more tattoo experience. We used hierarchical multiple regression to test for a main effect of tattoo experience on post-tattoo SIgA, controlling for pretest SIgA, tattoo session duration, body mass, and the interaction between tattoo experience and test session duration. The regression model was significant (P = 0.006) with a large effect size (r(2) = 0.711) and significant and positive main (P = 0.03) and interaction effects (P = 0.014). Our data suggest that the body habituates over time to the tattooing stressor. It is possible that individuals with healthy immune systems heal faster, making them more likely to get multiple tattoos. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:603-609, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available We studied the secretory IgA (sIgA response of the mucosal urinary tract of malnourished children before and after nutritional rehabilitation. sIgA concentration (mg/l was determined by ELISA in 187 children aged 3 months to 5 years. The children, who frequented a day care center, were divided into four groups, according to nutritional status: 57 were eutrophic, 49 were undergrown, 57 were moderately malnourished and 24 were severely malnourished. In addition, dip slide (Urotube, Roche and dip-stick (Combur 9-Boehringer tests showed that children had no bacteriuria or any other urinary abnormalities. Plasma albumin concentration (g/dl was significantly lower (P<0.005 in the severely malnourished group (mean 3.0 ± 0.3 SD than in the eutrophic group (mean 4.0 ± 0.5 SD. When each nutritional state was analyzed, no significant differences in the sIgA were found between the 0 |-| 1 and 1 -| 5 year age range. In the moderately and severely malnourished groups, sIgA (0.36 and 0.45, respectively was significantly lower than in the eutrophic (0.69 and undergrown (0.75 groups. Ninety-five children were included in the 8-month follow-up study; 30 children were excluded from the follow-up because 4 had bacteriuria, 11 had leukocyturia, 8 had proteinuria and 7 had hematuria. Among the malnourished children, 40% showed nutritional improvement (P<0.05 and significantly increased sIgA as compared to reference values for the eutrophic and undergrown groups. These data suggest that malnourished children have a significantly lower urinary sIgA than eutrophic children. After nutritional rehabilitation, they develop local immunity with a significant increase in sIgA.
Tavoloni, N.; Jones, M.J.; Berk, P.D.
To determine whether bile formation in the dog is an immature process at birth, several determinants of bile secretion were studied in anesthetized, bile duct-cannulated puppies of 0-42 days of age and adult dogs. Basal canalicular bile flow rate, estimated by 14 C-erythritol biliary clearance, averaged 0.182 microliter/min/g liver in 0-3 day-old puppies and increased to 0.324 and 0.461 microliter/min/g in puppies 7-21 and 28-42 days of age, respectively. Calculated ductular bile water reabsorption ( 14 C-erythritol biliary clearance-bile flow) was virtually absent in 0-3 day-old puppies, and averaged 0.017 and 0.092 microliter/min/g in puppies of 7-21 and 28-42 days of age, respectively. In adult dogs, ductular bile water reabsorption was 0.132 microliter/min/g. These functional deficiencies of the newborn dog were associated with an increased biliary permeability to 3 H-inulin which could not be accounted for solely by an increased solute diffusion due to the lower rate of canalicular bile flow. Administration of taurocholate up to 2000 nmol/min/kg produced in all animals a similar increase in canalicular bile flow and bile acid excretion, and was not associated with changes in ductular bile water reabsorption rate. These findings are interpreted to indicate that, in the dog, bile secretory function is immature at birth and develops during postnatal life
Bødker, A; Bruun, J; Balslev, E
Estrogen receptors (ERs) in the prostate and prostatic urethra were examined in 33 men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and in 11 with prostate cancer (PC). The Abbot monoclonal ER-ICA assay was used for immunohistochemical investigation. In the BPH group, ERs were revealed in the prostatic...... stroma in eight cases and in the glandular epithelium in one. In four cases ERs were seen in the prostatic stroma and in the glandular epithelium. In the prostatic urethra, ERs were found in 19 cases located in the urothelium, lamina propria and/or periurethral glands. In the PC group, ERs were...... demonstrated in the prostatic stroma and/or prostatic urethra in 6 out of 11 cases. In both BPH and PC patients, immunoreactivity was weak and confined to few cells, indicating low ER content in the prostate as well as in the prostatic urethra. Dextran-coated charcoal (DCC) analysis was used for detection...
Faddy, Helen M.; Smart, Chanel E.; Xu, Ren; Lee, Genee Y.; Kenny, Paraic A.; Feng, Mingye; Rao, Rajini; Brown, Melissa A.; Bissell, Mina J.; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J.; Monteith, Gregory R.
The supply of calcium to the developing neonate via milk is an important physiological process. Until recently the mechanism for the enrichment of milk with calcium was thought to be almost entirely mediated via the secretory pathway. However, recent studies suggest that a specific isoform of the plasma membrane calcium ATPase, PMCA2, is the primary mechanism for calcium transport into milk, highlighting a major role for apical calcium transport. We compared the expression of the recently identified secretory calcium ATPase, SPCA2, and SPCA1, in the mouse mammary gland during different stages of development. SPCA2 levels increased over 35 fold during lactation, while SPCA1 increased only a modest two fold. The potential importance of SPCA2 in lactation was also highlighted by its localization to luminal secretory cells of the mammary gland during lactation, while SPCA1 was expressed throughout the cells of the mammary gland. We also observed major differences in the localization of PMCA2 and PMCA1 during lactation. Using the SCp2 mouse mammary epithelial cell 3D culture model, differences in the sub-cellular distribution of PMCA2 and PMCA1 were clear. These studies highlight the likely specific roles of PMCA2 and SPCA2 in lactation, and link the recently characterized SPCA2 calcium pump to the supply of calcium into milk and the regulation of Golgi resident enzymes important in lactation. They also indicate that calcium transport into milk is a complex interplay between apical and secretory pathways.
Franiel, T.; Teichgraeber, U.; Asbach, P.; Hamm, B.; Foller, S.
New technical and clinical developments of sonography and magnetic resonance imaging include improved detection, localization and staging as well as active surveillance of prostate cancer. Multiparametric MRI can best answer these typical clinical questions. However, ultrasound elastography seems to be suitable for the detection of significant prostate cancer as well. The structured reporting system for multiparametric MRI of the prostate according to PI-RADS Version 1 led to improved and reproducible diagnosis of prostate cancer. The new PI-RADS Version 2 aims to minimize the limitations of Version 1 and make PI-RADS standardization more globally acceptable.
Bronic, J.; Subotic, B.
The ion-exchange process on columns filled with granulated zeolites is determined by several physico-chemical parameters. The influence of these parameters (zeolite type, concentration of exchangeable ions in solution, temperature, flow rate, etc.) on the kinetics of ion-exchange process was studied by measuring the Sr 2+ ion concentration in solution before and after passing through a column filled with various granulated zeolites (zeolite 13X, zeolite A and synthetic mordenite). Using the experimental technique of radioactive labeling by 89 Sr, the distribution of Sr 2+ ions in column fillings were also determined. From the results obtained, the optimal conditions for the most efficient removal of strontium ions from solutions using granulated zeolites can be defined. (author) 24 refs.; 9 figs
Lloyd, Richard E
Enteroviruses such as poliovirus (PV) and coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) have evolved several parallel strategies to regulate cellular gene expression and stress responses to ensure efficient expression of the viral genome. Enteroviruses utilize their encoded proteinases to take over the cellular translation apparatus and direct ribosomes to viral mRNAs. In addition, viral proteinases are used to control and repress the two main types of cytoplasmic RNA granules, stress granules (SGs) and processing bodies (P-bodies, PBs), which are stress-responsive dynamic structures involved in repression of gene expression. This review discusses these processes and the current understanding of the underlying mechanisms with respect to enterovirus infections. In addition, the review discusses accumulating data suggesting linkage exists between RNA granule formation and innate immune sensing and activation.
Berger, C.; Czapek, G.; Diggelmann, U.; Flammer, I.; Frei, D.; Furlan, M.; Gabutti, A.; Janos, S.; Moser, U.; Pretzl, K.; Schmiemann, K.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Brandt, B. van den; Konter, J.A.; Mango, S.
The presented results are part of a superheated superconducting granule (SSG) detector development for neutrino and dark matter. The aim of the experiment was to measure the sensitivity of the detector to nuclear recoil energies when exposed to a 70 MeV neutron beam. The detector consists of a small readout coil (diameter 5 mm, length 10 mm) filled with aluminum granules of average diameter 23 μm embedded in an Al 2 O 3 granulate with a 6% volume filling factor. The neutron scattering angles were determined using a scintillator hodoscope. Coincidences between the SSG and the hodoscope signals have been clearly established. Data were taken at an operating temperature of 120 mK for different SSG intrinsic thresholds. The results prove the sensitivity of the detector to nuclear recoils around 10 keV. (orig.)
Korenev, S V; Garsheva, G B; Nesterova, L Ia; Grakovskaia, L K; Tentsova, A I
Pharmaceutical availability of erythromycin granules with polymeric coating of different composition+ was studied. With an account of the ++anatomo-physiological features of a child organism and the properties of the antibiotic, acetylphthalyl cellulose in combination with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose or methyl cellulose was used as a film forming agent. The coated granules were estimated by such parameters as the time of disintegration and the rate of dissolution in various media. The results of the study showed that coating of the erythromycin granules with the film composed of acetylphthalyl cellulose and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose in the ratio of 8 to 2 provided the required protection of the antibiotic in acid media and high pharmaceutical availability of the drug.
Brunjes, P C; Schwark, H D; Greenough, W T
Dendritic development was examined in olfactory bulbs of both normal 7-, 14-, 21- and 60-day-old rats and littermates treated on postnatal days 1-4 with 1 microgram/g body weight of L-thyroxine sodium. Tissue was processed via the Golgi-Cox technique and subjected to quantitative analyses of mitral and internal layer granule cell development. These populations of granule cells were selected because their pattern of late proliferation suggested potentially greater susceptibility to postnatal hormonal alterations. Although neonatal hyperthyroidism induces widespread acceleration of maturation, including precocious chemosensitivity, granule cell development was unaffected relative to littermate controls. Both normal and hyperthyroid groups exhibited an inverted U-shaped pattern of cellular development, with rapid dendritic dendritic growth and expansion occurring during the earliest ages tested, but with loss of processes and dendritic field size occurring after day 21.
Mohamed Taha Moutaoufik
Full Text Available Stress granules (SGs are well characterized cytoplasmic RNA bodies that form under various stress conditions. We have observed that exposure of mammalian cells in culture to low doses of UVC induces the formation of discrete cytoplasmic RNA granules that were detected by immunofluorescence staining using antibodies to RNA-binding proteins. UVC-induced cytoplasmic granules are not Processing Bodies (P-bodies and are bone fide SGs as they contain TIA-1, TIA-1/R, Caprin1, FMRP, G3BP1, PABP1, well known markers, and mRNA. Concomitant with the accumulation of the granules in the cytoplasm, cells enter a quiescent state, as they are arrested in G1 phase of the cell cycle in order to repair DNA damages induced by UVC irradiation. This blockage persists as long as the granules are present. A tight correlation between their decay and re-entry into S-phase was observed. However the kinetics of their formation, their low number per cell, their absence of fusion into larger granules, their persistence over 48 hours and their slow decay, all differ from classical SGs induced by arsenite or heat treatment. The induction of these SGs does not correlate with major translation inhibition nor with phosphorylation of the α subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α. We propose that a restricted subset of mRNAs coding for proteins implicated in cell cycling are removed from the translational apparatus and are sequestered in a repressed form in SGs.
Background: Prostate cancer is the commonest cancer among men in Nigeria and early detection is key to cure and survival but its screening through prostate specific antigen (PSA) has remain controversial in literature. Screening with prostate specific antigen (PSA) has led to more men diagnosed with prostate cancer than ...
Peters, S.A.; Heyer, C.M.; Frombach, E.
Full text: We present a case of intense, rapidly evolving headache clinically mimicking meningitis, subarachnoid haemorrhage or venous sinus thrombosis. Clinical examination, standard blood work and central nervous system studies were non-contributory and effectively ruled out these diagnoses. Cranial multidetector CT studies before and after application of intravenous contrast medium performed prior to lumbar tap disclosed a non-enhancing ovoid mass filling the superior sagittal sinus. This lesion posed a differential to venous sinus thrombosis, but ultimately fulfilled the criteria of a giant arachnoid granulation. The imaging characteristics and differential diagnosis of giant arachnoid granulations are discussed
Gilmer, Jesse I; Person, Abigail L
Combinatorial expansion by the cerebellar granule cell layer (GCL) is fundamental to theories of cerebellar contributions to motor control and learning. Granule cells (GrCs) sample approximately four mossy fiber inputs and are thought to form a combinatorial code useful for pattern separation and learning. We constructed a spatially realistic model of the cerebellar GCL and examined how GCL architecture contributes to GrC combinatorial diversity. We found that GrC combinatorial diversity saturates quickly as mossy fiber input diversity increases, and that this saturation is in part a consequence of short dendrites, which limit access to diverse inputs and favor dense sampling of local inputs. This local sampling also produced GrCs that were combinatorially redundant, even when input diversity was extremely high. In addition, we found that mossy fiber clustering, which is a common anatomical pattern, also led to increased redundancy of GrC input combinations. We related this redundancy to hypothesized roles of temporal expansion of GrC information encoding in service of learned timing, and we show that GCL architecture produces GrC populations that support both temporal and combinatorial expansion. Finally, we used novel anatomical measurements from mice of either sex to inform modeling of sparse and filopodia-bearing mossy fibers, finding that these circuit features uniquely contribute to enhancing GrC diversification and redundancy. Our results complement information theoretic studies of granule layer structure and provide insight into the contributions of granule layer anatomical features to afferent mixing. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Cerebellar granule cells are among the simplest neurons, with tiny somata and, on average, just four dendrites. These characteristics, along with their dense organization, inspired influential theoretical work on the granule cell layer as a combinatorial expander, where each granule cell represents a unique combination of inputs
To obtain a classified granulate of ceramic nuclear fuels with narrow grain size spectrum, the nuclear fuel powder is made into a slurry in a non-aqueous solvent with a water content as low as possible (e.g. chlorated hydrocarbon), a binder added to it, and spray-dried. The dry granulate desired is already obtained by this working stage. Polybutyl methacrylate in dibutylphthalate is proposed as binder. An example in which uranium dioxide powder is slurried in trichloro-ethylene is described in detail. (UWI/LH) [de
Bronic, J.; Subotic, B.
The influence of type of zeolite and the flow rate of solution through the column on the removal efficiency of radioactive cesium ions from solution has been investigated. The analysis of the change in the concentration of cesium ions in the solutions and distribution of cesium ions in the column fillings (granulated zeolites), after passing the solutions through the columns filled with various granulated zeolites (zeolite 4A, zeolite 13X, synthetic mordenite) was performed. On the basis of the results of this study, the conditions for the most efficient removal of cesium ions from solutions have been discussed. (author) 35 refs.; 9 figs.; 1 tab
Bahl, Surbhi; Parashar, Smriti; Malhotra, Himanshu; Raje, Manoj; Mukhopadhyay, Amitabha
Leishmania secretes a large number of its effectors to the extracellular milieu. However, regulation of the secretory pathway in Leishmania is not well characterized. Here, we report the cloning, expression, and characterization of the Rab1 homologue from Leishmania. We have found that LdRab1 localizes in Golgi in Leishmania. To understand the role of LdRab1 in the secretory pathway of Leishmania, we have generated transgenic parasites overexpressing GFP-LdRab1:WT, GFP-LdRab1:Q67L (a GTPase-deficient dominant positive mutant of Rab1), and GFP-LdRab1:S22N (a GDP-locked dominant negative mutant of Rab1). Surprisingly, our results have shown that overexpression of GFP-LdRab1:Q67L or GFP-LdRab1:S22N does not disrupt the trafficking and localization of hemoglobin receptor in Leishmania. To determine whether the Rab1-dependent secretory pathway is conserved in parasites, we have analyzed the role of LdRab1 in the secretion of secretory acid phosphatase and Ldgp63 in Leishmania. Our results have shown that overexpression of GFP-LdRab1:Q67L or GFP-LdRab1:S22N significantly inhibits the secretion of secretory acid phosphatase by Leishmania. We have also found that overexpression of GFP-LdRab1:Q67L or GFP-LdRab1:S22N retains RFP-Ldgp63 in Golgi and blocks the secretion of Ldgp63, whereas the trafficking of RFP-Ldgp63 in GFP-LdRab1:WT-expressing cells is unaltered in comparison with control cells. Taken together, our results have shown that the Rab1-regulated secretory pathway is well conserved, and hemoglobin receptor trafficking follows an Rab1-independent secretory pathway in Leishmania. PMID:26499792
Bahl, Surbhi; Parashar, Smriti; Malhotra, Himanshu; Raje, Manoj; Mukhopadhyay, Amitabha
Leishmania secretes a large number of its effectors to the extracellular milieu. However, regulation of the secretory pathway in Leishmania is not well characterized. Here, we report the cloning, expression, and characterization of the Rab1 homologue from Leishmania. We have found that LdRab1 localizes in Golgi in Leishmania. To understand the role of LdRab1 in the secretory pathway of Leishmania, we have generated transgenic parasites overexpressing GFP-LdRab1:WT, GFP-LdRab1:Q67L (a GTPase-deficient dominant positive mutant of Rab1), and GFP-LdRab1:S22N (a GDP-locked dominant negative mutant of Rab1). Surprisingly, our results have shown that overexpression of GFP-LdRab1:Q67L or GFP-LdRab1:S22N does not disrupt the trafficking and localization of hemoglobin receptor in Leishmania. To determine whether the Rab1-dependent secretory pathway is conserved in parasites, we have analyzed the role of LdRab1 in the secretion of secretory acid phosphatase and Ldgp63 in Leishmania. Our results have shown that overexpression of GFP-LdRab1:Q67L or GFP-LdRab1:S22N significantly inhibits the secretion of secretory acid phosphatase by Leishmania. We have also found that overexpression of GFP-LdRab1:Q67L or GFP-LdRab1:S22N retains RFP-Ldgp63 in Golgi and blocks the secretion of Ldgp63, whereas the trafficking of RFP-Ldgp63 in GFP-LdRab1:WT-expressing cells is unaltered in comparison with control cells. Taken together, our results have shown that the Rab1-regulated secretory pathway is well conserved, and hemoglobin receptor trafficking follows an Rab1-independent secretory pathway in Leishmania. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Chang Gang; Yang Zhigang; Meng Fanzhe; Zhang Yingguang; Chen Zhiqiang; Yang Ming
Objective: To study the methods of prostatic arteriography and evaluate the arteriographic appearance of prostatic blood supply. Methods: Selective and super-selective prostatic arteriographies were performed in 62 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic cancer. Results: The prostatic blood supply originated mainly from inferior vesical artery or internal pudendal artery or prostatic artery (80%). Prostatic arteriography could be performed successfully with skillful catheterization and high resolution DSA. Conclusions: Prostatic arteriography is helpful for evaluating the origin and quantity of prostate vasculature and important to differentiate benign prostatic hyperplasia from prostatic cancer
Wahl, Andreas; Schuth, Nora; Pfeiffer, Daniel; Nussberger, Stephan; Jendrossek, Dieter
Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) granules are important storage compounds of carbon and energy in many prokaryotes which allow survival of the cells in the absence of suitable carbon sources. Formation and subcellular localization of PHB granules was previously assumed to occur randomly in the cytoplasm of PHB accumulating bacteria. However, contradictionary results on subcellular localization of PHB granules in Ralstonia eutropha were published, recently. Here, we provide evidence by transmission electron microscopy that PHB granules are localized in close contact to the nucleoid region in R. eutropha during growth on nutrient broth. Binding of PHB granules to the nucleoid is mediated by PhaM, a PHB granule associated protein with phasin-like properties that is also able to bind to DNA and to phasin PhaP5. Over-expression of PhaM resulted in formation of many small PHB granules that were always attached to the nucleoid region. In contrast, PHB granules of ∆phaM strains became very large and distribution of granules to daughter cells was impaired. Association of PHB granules to the nucleoid region was prevented by over-expression of PhaP5 and clusters of several PHB granules were mainly localized near the cell poles. Subcellular localization of PHB granules is controlled in R. eutropha and depends on the presence and concentrations of at least two PHB granule associated proteins, PhaM and PhaP5.
Diaz, E.E.; Stams, A.J.M.; Amils, R.; Sanz, J.L.
Methanogenic granules from an anaerobic bioreactor that treated wastewater of a beer brewery consisted of different morphological types of granules. In this study, the microbial compositions of the different granules were analyzed by molecular microbiological techniques: cloning, denaturing gradient
Full text: The main role of imaging in prostatic diseases is for prostate cancer. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the most commonly used imaging tools used for the diagnosis of the diseases of the prostate gland. The main indications for TRUS is the evaluation for prostate cancer and guidance for prostate biopsy. On TRUS, the transition zone with a hypoechoic appearance can be differentiated from the peripheral zone, which appears relatively echogenic and homogenous in echotexture. Prostate cancer mainly involves the peripheral zone, though one fifth of the disease can be detected in the transition zone, which is the major site for hyperplastic changes in older men. Color Doppler ultrasound may be helpful for the differentiation of low-risk, hypovascular tumors from high-risk, hypervascular tumors, as the latter group is associated with higher Gleason tumor grades consistent with higher risk for extraprostatic spread. Nevertheless, targeted prostate biopsy solely based on high-frequency color or power Doppler imaging is not recommended, as the technique has inherent risk of missing a significant number of cancers. Although power Doppler ultrasound can enable the operator to perform more accurate sampling of the prostate by determining sites of focal hypervascularity, it has not been found to be superior to color Doppler ultrasound. It has been reported to be useful only for targeted biopsies with limited number of biopsy cores. Microbubble contrast agents may enable better visualization of prostatic microvasculature and cancerous prostate tissue. By means of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), the number of cores may be decreased by performing targeted biopsies. Importantly, the detection of the signals reflected by the microbubbles can be enhanced by the phase inversion (pulse-inversion) technology. Prostate cancer appears as a dark zone on elastography representing limited elasticity or compressibility. By means of the
Full Text Available PURPOSE: Dry eye syndrome is a multifactorial chronic disabling disease mainly caused by the functional disruptions in the lacrimal gland. The treatment involves palliation like ocular surface lubrication and rehydration. Cell therapy involving replacement of the gland is a promising alternative for providing long-term relief to patients. This study aimed to establish functionally competent lacrimal gland cultures in-vitro and explore the presence of stem cells in the native gland and the established in-vitro cultures. METHODS: Fresh human lacrimal gland from patients undergoing exenteration was harvested for cultures after IRB approval. The freshly isolated cells were evaluated by flow cytometry for expression of stem cell markers ABCG2, high ALDH1 levels and c-kit. Cultures were established on Matrigel, collagen and HAM and the cultured cells evaluated for the presence of stem cell markers and differentiating markers of epithelial (E-cadherin, EpCAM, mesenchymal (Vimentin, CD90 and myofibroblastic (α-SMA, S-100 origin by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. The conditioned media was tested for secretory proteins (scIgA, lactoferrin, lysozyme post carbachol (100 µM stimulation by ELISA. RESULTS: Native human lacrimal gland expressed ABCG2 (mean±SEM: 3.1±0.61%, high ALDH1 (3.8±1.26% and c-kit (6.7±2.0%. Lacrimal gland cultures formed a monolayer, in order of preference on Matrigel, collagen and HAM within 15-20 days, containing a heterogeneous population of stem-like and differentiated cells. The epithelial cells formed 'spherules' with duct like connections, suggestive of ductal origin. The levels of scIgA (47.43 to 61.56 ng/ml, lysozyme (24.36 to 144.74 ng/ml and lactoferrin (32.45 to 40.31 ng/ml in the conditioned media were significantly higher than the negative controls (p<0.05 for all comparisons. CONCLUSION: The study reports the novel finding of establishing functionally competent human lacrimal gland cultures in-vitro. It also
disintegrating) granules consisting of paracetamol (drug) and acrylatemethacrylate copolymer, a matrix forming material. The effect of coating the matrix granules with wax on the drug release profiles was also investigated. The objective was to ...
Nov 2, 2009 ... granules on some tablet mechanical properties of paracetamol tablets. Granules ... massing paracetamol powder (200 g) with 20% (w/w) of maize starch mucilage as binder. .... The resulting tablets were stored overnight in a.
Romero, Frederico R.; Romero, Antonio W.; Filho, Thadeu Brenny; Kulysz, David; Oliveira, Fernando C., Jr.; Filho, Renato Tambara
Objective: To help students, residents, and general practitioners to improve the technique, skills, and reproducibility of their prostate examination. Methods: We developed a comprehensive guideline outlining prostate anatomy, indications, patient preparation, positioning, technique, findings, and limitations of this ancient art of urological…
Calvo, Víctor; Izquierdo, Manuel
Immune synapse (IS) formation by T lymphocytes constitutes a crucial event involved in antigen-specific, cellular and humoral immune responses. After IS formation by T lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells, the convergence of secretory vesicles toward the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) and MTOC polarization to the IS are involved in polarized secretion at the synaptic cleft. This specialized mechanism appears to specifically provide the immune system with a fine strategy to increase the efficiency of crucial secretory effector functions of T lymphocytes, while minimizing non-specific, cytokine-mediated stimulation of bystander cells, target cell killing and activation-induced cell death. The molecular bases involved in the polarized secretory traffic toward the IS in T lymphocytes have been the focus of interest, thus different models and several imaging strategies have been developed to gain insights into the mechanisms governing directional secretory traffic. In this review, we deal with the most widely used, state-of-the-art approaches to address the molecular mechanisms underlying this crucial, immune secretory response.
Tanegashima, Kosuke; Zhao, Hui; Rebbert, Martha L; Dawid, Igor B
We compared the transcriptome in the developing notochord of Xenopus laevis embryos with that of other embryonic regions. A coordinated and intense activation of a large set of secretory pathway genes was observed in the notochord, but not in notochord precursors in the axial mesoderm at early gastrula stage. The genes encoding Xbp1 and Creb3l2 were also activated in the notochord. These two transcription factors are implicated in the activation of secretory pathway genes during the unfolded protein response, where cells react to the stress of a build-up of unfolded proteins in their endoplasmic reticulum. Xbp1 and Creb3l2 are differentially expressed but not differentially activated in the notochord. Reduction of expression of Xbp1 or Creb3l2 by injection of antisense morpholinos led to strong deficits in notochord but not somitic muscle development. In addition, the expression of some, but not all, genes encoding secretory proteins was inhibited by injection of xbp1 morpholinos. Furthermore, expression of activated forms of Xbp1 or Creb3l2 in animal explants could activate a similar subset of secretory pathway genes. We conclude that coordinated activation of a battery of secretory pathway genes mediated by Xbp1 and Creb/ATF factors is a characteristic and necessary feature of notochord formation.
Aziz, El Majdoub; Abdelhak, Khallouk; Hassan, Farih Moulay
Genitourinary tuberculosis is a common type of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis . The kidneys, ureter, bladder or genital organs are usually involved. Tuberculosis of the prostate has mainly been described in immune-compromised patients. However, it can exceptionally be found as an isolated lesion in immune-competent patients. Tuberculosis of the prostate may be difficult to differentiate from carcinoma of the prostate and the chronic prostatitis when the prostate is hard and nodular on digital rectal examination and the urine is negative for tuberculosis bacilli. In many cases, a diagnosis of tuberculous prostatitis is made by the pathologist, or the disease is found incidentally after transurethral resection. Therefore, suspicion of tuberculous prostatitis requires a confirmatory biopsy of the prostate. We report the case of 60-year-old man who presented a low urinary tract syndrome. After clinical and biological examination, and imaging, prostate cancer was highly suspected. Transrectal needle biopsy of the prostate was performed and histological examination showed tuberculosis lesions.
Asada, Takumi; Yoshihara, Naoki; Ochiai, Yasushi; Kimura, Shin-Ichiro; Iwao, Yasunori; Itai, Shigeru
Water-soluble polymers with high viscosity are frequently used in the design of sustained-release formulations of poorly water-soluble drugs to enable complete release of the drug in the gastrointestinal tract. Tablets containing matrix granules with a water-soluble polymer are preferred because tablets are easier to handle and the multiple drug-release units of the matrix granules decreases the influences of the physiological environment on the drug. However, matrix granules with a particle size of over 800 μm sometimes cause a content uniformity problem in the tableting process because of the large particle size. An effective method of manufacturing controlled-release matrix granules with a smaller particle size is desired. The aim of this study was to develop tablets containing matrix granules with a smaller size and good controlled-release properties, using phenytoin as a model poorly water-soluble drug. We adapted the recently developed hollow spherical granule granulation technology, using water-soluble polymers with different viscosities. The prepared granules had an average particle size of 300 μm and sharp particle size distribution (relative width: 0.52-0.64). The values for the particle strength of the granules were 1.86-1.97 N/mm 2 , and the dissolution profiles of the granules were not affected by the tableting process. The dissolution profiles and the blood concentration levels of drug released from the granules depended on the viscosity of the polymer contained in the granules. We succeeded in developing the desired controlled-release granules, and this study should be valuable in the development of sustained-release formulations of poorly water-soluble drugs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chinaranagari, Swathi; Sharma, Pankaj; Bowen, Nathan J; Chaudhary, Jaideep
Prostate cancer is a major health burden within the ever-increasingly aging US population. The molecular mechanisms involved in prostate cancer are diverse and heterogeneous. In this context, epigenetic changes, both global and gene specific, are now an emerging alternate mechanism in disease initiation and progression. The three major risk factors in prostate cancer: age, geographic ancestry, and environment are all influenced by epigenetics and additional significant insight is required to gain an understanding of the underlying mechanisms. The androgen receptor and its downstream effector pathways, central to prostate cancer initiation and progression, are subject to a multitude of epigenetic alterations. In this review we focus on the global perspective of epigenetics and the use of recent next-generation sequencing platforms to interrogate epigenetic changes in the prostate cancer genome.
Suck, Garnet; Branch, Donald R; Aravena, Paola; Mathieson, Mark; Helke, Simone; Keating, Armand
The major mechanism for NK cell lysis of tumor cells is granule-mediated cytotoxicity. Polarization of granules is a prelude to the release of their cytotoxic contents in response to target-cell binding. We describe the novel observation of constitutive granule polarization in the cytotoxic NK cell line, KHYG-1. Continuous degranulation of KHYG-1 cells, however, does not occur and still requires target-cell contact. Disruption of microtubules with colcemid is sufficient to disperse the granules in KHYG-1 and significantly decreases cytotoxicity. A similar effect is not obtained by inhibiting extracellular signal-related kinase 2 (ERK2), the most distal kinase investigated in the cytolytic pathway. Disruption of microtubules significantly down-regulates activation receptors, NKp44 and NKG2D, implicating them as potential microtubule-trafficking receptors. Such changes in upstream receptor expression may have caused deactivation of ERK2, since NKG2D cross-linking also leads to receptor down-regulation and diminished ERK phosphorylation. Thus, a functional role for NKG2D in KHYG-1 cytotoxicity is demonstrated. Moreover, the novel primed state may contribute to the high cytotoxicity exhibited by KHYG-1.
Aug 4, 2009 ... DEA. UAA. Abidjan. Côte d'Ivoire, pp. 25-28. Larrigue S, Alvarez G, Cuvelier G, Flick D (2008). Swelling kinetics of waxy maize and starches at high temperatures and heating rates. Carbohydr. Polym. 73: 148-155. Leach HW, MC Cowen LD, Schoch JJ (1959). Structure of the starch granule swelling and ...
Knowledge about the stimulus for the release of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) from human atria is incomplete. Atrial stretch is known to be a stimulus and atrial tachyarrhythmias are thought to be another. The effects of atrial size (by twodimensional echocardiography) and atrial fibrillation on the atrial specific granule ...
Blok, C.; Winkel, van A.; Chizhmak, S.
Glass foam granulate was evaluated for use as a horticultural rooting medium with laboratory tests and cultivation experiments. The laboratory tests included moisture characteristics, rehydration rate and pH buffering analyses. Cucumbers and later on tomatoes were propagated in rockwool propagation
Haanes, Kristian Agmund; Novak, Ivana
ATP is released from pancreatic acini in response to cholinergic and hormonal stimulation. The same stimuli cause exocytosis of ZG (zymogen granules) and release of digestive enzymes. The aim of the present study was to determine whether ZG stored ATP and to characterize the uptake mechanism for ...
Bělohlav, Z.; Břenková, L.; Hanika, Jiří; Durdil, P.; Rapek, P.; Tomášek, V.
Roč. 85, A7 (2007) , s. 974-980 ISSN 0263-8762 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : wet granulation * control * active substance Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.837, year: 2007
Jan 18, 2007 ... The moisture content of granulated sugar is a critical parameter for its transformation into cubes. To the best of our ... resolve this, a new method using infrared transphotometry technique based on the attenuation of an infrared ... contribution of other interactions to the attenuation of the incident wave, i.e. ...
Full Text Available During the past few years, we have studied the granulated silica method as a versatile and cost effective way of fiber preform production and the sol-gel method. Until now, we have used the sol-gel technology together with an iterative re-melting and milling step in order to produce rare earth or transition metal doped granular material for the granulated silica method. Here, we present that the iterative re-melting (laser-assisted and milling step is no longer needed to reach a high homogeneity. The sol-gel method also offers a high degree of compositional flexibility with respect to dopants; it further facilitates achieving high concentrations, even in cases when several dopants are used. We employed optical active doped sol-gel derived granulate for the fiber core, whereas pure or index-raised granulated silica has been employed for the cladding. Based on the powder-in-tube technique, where silica glass tubes are appropriately filled with these granular materials, fibers has been directly drawn (“fiber rapid prototyping”, or eventually after an additional optional quality enhancing vitrification step. The powder-in-tube technique is also ideally suited for the preparation of microstructured optical fibers.
Jandacka, P.; Kasparova, B.; Jirásková, Yvonna; Dedkova, K.; Mamulová-Kutláková, K.; Kukutschová, J.
Roč. 28, č. 1 (2015), s. 89-99 ISSN 0966-0844 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1350 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Magnetoreception * Bumblebee * Biomineralisation * Iron granules Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.134, year: 2015
Swaminathan, N.; Setty, C.R.P.; Banerjee, P.K.; Husnain, G.; Rao, K.C.M.; Satyanarayana, A.
Precompaction of UO 2 powder into slugs and granulation of the slugs were used to be carried out in two different work centres involving manual loading/handling of powder and compacts which resulted in a very high level of air-borne activity. This has been simplified by integrating both the operations into one work centre on both the precompaction presses. In the present system, UO 2 powder is transferred to feed hopper through the use of high vac. feeder. The powder in metered quantities is fed into the shoe by deploying screw feeder driven by a compact hydraulic motor. The die cavity is filled with just the right quantity of powder to prevent spillage. The compacts are pushed on to the granulator through a set of guides mounted on the die platform. The granulated powder is made to pass through Vibro screen for separating the fines before collecting in a replaceable S.S. Container. This container is mounted on the final compacting press by using job crane installed on the press. The replaceable container handling facility drastically cuts down the manual handling of UO 2 granules and also eliminates spillage, air borne activity. The development and fabrication of hydraulically operated screw feeder, feed shoe, replaceable container and the job crane structure etc., were completely carried out at Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad. Paper deals in detail the design of the system developed, present operational experiences and further improvements planned. (author). 6 figs
The role of gbssI and gbssII genes, encoding granule bound starch synthase enzyme I and II, respectively, in quality protein maize (QPM) were studied at different days after pollination (DAP). Total RNA was used for first strand cDNA synthesis using the ImpromIISriptTM reverse transcriptase. No detectable levels of gbssI ...
Tan, H.S.; Goldschmidt, M.J.V.; Boerefijn, R.; Hounslow, M.J.; Salman, A.; Kuipers, J.A.M.
This paper presents an overview of the work undertaken by our group to identify and quantify the rates processes active in fluidized bed melt granulation (FBMG). The process involves the identification and development of physically representative models to mechanistically describe FBMG using both
The moisture content of granulated sugar is a critical parameter for its transformation into cubes. To the best of our knowledge there is no easy-to-use method for the determination of this parameter. To resolve this, a new method using infrared transphotometry technique based on the attenuation of an infrared radiation ...
Background: Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease, while its mechanism is still unclear. Long-term levodopa-based treatment leads to decreased response or loss of response, as well as severe side effects. Our previous study has proved that Bushenhuoxue Granules have effects on Parkinson's disease, but ...
Kallinger, Thomas; Matthews, Jaymie M.
Stars with spectral types earlier than about F0 on (or close) to the main sequence have long been believed to lack observable surface convection, although evolutionary models of A-type stars do predict very thin surface convective zones. We present evidence for granulation in two δ Scuti stars of spectral type A2: HD 174936 and HD 50844. Recent analyses of space-based CoRoT data revealed up to some 1000 frequencies in the photometry of these stars. The frequencies were interpreted as individual pulsation modes. If true, there must be large numbers of nonradial modes of very high degree l which should suffer cancellation effects in disk-integrated photometry (even of high space-based precision). The p-mode interpretation of all the frequencies in HD 174936 and HD 50844 depends on the assumption of white (frequency-independent) noise. Our independent analyses of the data provide an alternative explanation: most of the peaks in the Fourier spectra are the signature of non-white granulation background noise, and less than about 100 of the frequencies are actual stellar p-modes in each star. We find granulation timescales which are consistent with scaling relations that describe cooler stars with known surface convection. If the granulation interpretation is correct, the hundreds of low-amplitude Fourier peaks reported in recent studies are falsely interpreted as independent pulsation modes and a significantly lower number of frequencies are associated with pulsation, consistent with only modes of low degree.
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trichlorfon granules. 520.2520f Section 520.2520f Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL.... Do not fast horses before or after treatment. Treatment of mares in late pregnancy is not recommended...
Mayadev, Jyoti; Merrick, Gregory S.; Reed, Joshua R.; Butler, Wayne M.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Allen, Zachariah A.; Wallner, Kent E.
Purpose: To investigate the dosimetry, treatment-related morbidity, and biochemical outcomes for brachytherapy in patients with prostate glands 3 . Methods and Materials: From November 1996 to October 2006, 104 patients with prostate glands 3 underwent brachytherapy. Multiple prostate, urethral, and rectal dosimetric parameters were evaluated. Treatment-related urinary and rectal morbidity were assessed from patient questionnaires. Cause-specific survival, biochemical progression-free survival, and overall survival were recorded. Results: The median patient age, follow up, and pre-treatment ultrasound volume was 64 years, 5.0 years and 17.6cm 3 , respectively. Median day 0 dosimetry was significant for the following: V100 98.5%, D90 126.1% and R100 <0.5% of prescription dose. The mean urethral and maximum urethral doses were 119.6% and 133.8% of prescription. The median time to International Prostate Symptom Score resolution was 4 months. There were no RTOG grade III or IV rectal complications. The cause-specific survival, biochemical progression-free survival, and overall survival rates were 100%, 92.5%, and 77.8% at 9 years. For biochemically disease-free patients, the median most recent postbrachytherapy PSA value was 0.02 ng/mL. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that brachytherapy for small prostate glands is highly effective, with an acceptable morbidity profile, excellent postimplant dosimetry, acceptable treatment-related morbidity, and favorable biochemical outcomes.
Seidler, G. T.; Martinez, G.; Seeley, L. H.; Kim, K. H.; Behne, E. A.; Zaranek, S.; Chapman, B. D.; Heald, S. M.; Brewe, D. L.
Mesoscale disordered materials are ubiquitous in industry and in the environment. Any fundamental understanding of the transport and mechanical properties of such materials must follow from a thorough understanding of their structure. However, in the overwhelming majority of cases, experimental characterization of such materials has been limited to first- and second-order structural correlation functions, i.e., the mean filling fraction and the structural autocorrelation function. We report here the successful combination of synchrotron x-ray microtomography and image processing to determine the full three-dimensional real-space structure of a model disordered material, a granular bed of relatively monodisperse glass spheres. Specifically, we determine the center location and the local connectivity of each granule. This complete knowledge of structure can be used to calculate otherwise inaccessible high-order correlation functions. We analyze nematic order parameters for contact bonds to characterize the geometric anisotropy or fabric induced by the sample boundary conditions. Away from the boundaries we find short-range bond orientational order exhibiting characteristics of the underlying polytetrahedral structure
RIEPMA, KA; VROMANS, H; ZUURMAN, K; LERK, CF
The consolidation and compaction properties of granule fractions prepared by dry granulation (slugging) of alpha-lactose monohydrate and roller dried beta-lactose, respectively, were studied. The results showed that the compactibility of the granule fractions was determined by the type of lactose
ZUURMAN, K; RIEPMA, KA; BOLHUIS, GK; VROMANS, H; LERK, CF
The relationship between the bulk density and the compactibility of lactose granulations was studied. The granulations were prepared from different alpha-lactose monohydrate and roller dried beta-lactose powders by wet granulation, using different techniques with only water as a binder, or by
Nieuwmeyer, Florentine; Maarschalk, Kees van der Voort; Vromans, Herman
High-shear granulated lactose granulates were dried in it fluid-bed dryer at various conditions. Granules were characterized by water content and size analysis. It is shown that the drying process is very dynamic in terms of growth and breakage phenomena. Granular size heterogeneity, composition and
BOLHUIS, GK; ZUURMAN, K
Lactose granulations (125-250 mu m) were prepared from two different alpha-lactose monohydrate powders and one roller dried beta-lactose powder respectively, by wet granulation with only water as a binder. As an effect of the granulation process, the flow properties improved, but the compactibility
Full Text Available DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 DNase-seq Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... SRX685885,SRX685882,SRX685880 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...
Full Text Available Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...
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Full Text Available His.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 Histone Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...
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Full Text Available Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...
Full Text Available Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 TFs and others Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...
Full Text Available ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 All antigens Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... SRX685885,SRX685882,SRX685880 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...
Full Text Available Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 TFs and others Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...
Full Text Available Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 Unclassified Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...
Full Text Available Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 Unclassified Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...
Full Text Available ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 All antigens Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... SRX685885,SRX685882,SRX685880 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...
Full Text Available His.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 Histone Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...
Full Text Available DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 DNase-seq Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... SRX685885,SRX685882,SRX685880 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...
Full Text Available Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 TFs and others Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...
Full Text Available ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 All antigens Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... SRX685885,SRX685878,SRX685882,SRX685877,SRX685880,SRX685883 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...
Full Text Available ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 All antigens Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... SRX685882,SRX685880,SRX685883,SRX685885,SRX685877,SRX685878 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...
Full Text Available DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 DNase-seq Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... SRX685882,SRX685880,SRX685883,SRX685885,SRX685877,SRX685878 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...
Prostate cancers are often adenocarcinomas. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia is often present in association with prostatic adenocarcinoma. Find evidence-based information on prostate cancer including treatment, causes and prevention, screening, research, genetics, and statistics.
de la Rosette, J. J.; Karthaus, H. F.; Debruyne, F. M.
The potential value of prostatic imaging in the diagnosis of inflammatory disorders of the prostate is largely unexplored. In several studies, specific ultrasonographic characteristics in patients with prostatitis have been described. Also nonspecific echogenic qualities in prostatitis have been
Karaji, Zahra Gorgin; Houshmand, Behzad; Faghihi, Shahab
The highly porous titanium granules are currently being used as bone substitute material and for bone tissue augmentation. However, they suffer from weak bone bonding ability. The aim of this study was to create a nanostructured surface oxide layer on irregularly shaped titanium granules to improve their bioactivity. This could be achieved using optimized electrochemical anodic oxidation (anodizing) and heat treatment processes. The anodizing process was done in an ethylene glycol-based electrolyte at an optimized condition of 60 V for 3 hours. The anodized granules were subsequently annealed at 450°C for 1 hour. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the surface structure and morphology of the granules. The in vitro bioactivity of the samples was evaluated by immersion of specimens in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 1, 2, and 3 weeks. The human osteoblastic sarcoma cell line, MG63, was used to evaluate cell viability on the samples using dimethylthiazol-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results demonstrated the formation of amorphous nanostructured titanium oxide after anodizing, which transformed to crystalline anatase and rutile phases upon heat treatment. After immersion in SBF, spherical aggregates of amorphous calcium phosphate were formed on the surface of the anodized sample, which turned into crystalline hydroxyapatite on the surface of the anodized annealed sample. No cytotoxicity was detected among the samples. It is suggested that anodic oxidation followed by heat treatment could be used as an effective surface treatment procedure to improve bioactivity of titanium granules implemented for bone tissue repair and augmentation.
Bartacek, Jan; Vergeldt, Frank J.; Gerkema, Edo; Jenicek, Pavel; Lens, Piet N. L.; Van As, Henk
Interactions between anaerobic biofilms and heavy metals such as iron, cobalt or nickel are largely unknown. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive method that allows in situ studies of metal transport within biofilm matrixes. The present study investigates quantitatively the penetration of iron (1.75 mM) bound to ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) into the methanogenic granules (spherical biofilm). A spatial resolution of 109 × 109 × 218 μm 3 and a temporal resolution of 11 min are achieved with 3D Turbo Spin Echo (TSE) measurements. The longitudinal relaxivity, i.e. the slope the dependence of the relaxation rate (1/ T1) on the concentration of paramagnetic metal ions, was used to measure temporal changes in iron concentration in the methanogenic granules. It took up to 300 min for the iron-EDTA complex ([FeEDTA] 2-) to penetrate into the methanogenic granules (3-4 mm in diameter). The diffusion was equally fast in all directions with irregularities such as diffusion-facilitating channels and diffusion-resistant zones. Despite these irregularities, the overall process could be modeled using Fick's equations for diffusion in a sphere, because immobilization of [FeEDTA] 2- in the granular matrix (or the presence of a reactive barrier) was not observed. The effective diffusion coefficient ( D ejf) of [FeEDTA] 2- was found to be 2.8 × 10 -11 m 2 s -1, i.e. approximately 4% of D ejf of [FeEDTA] 2- in water. The Fickian model did not correspond to the processes taking place in the core of the granule (3-5% of the total volume of the granule), where up to 25% over-saturation by iron (compare to the concentration in the bulk solution) occurred.
Jan J. Hycnar
Full Text Available Most flue gas desulfurization products can be characterized by significant solubility in water and dusting in dry state. These characteristics can cause a considerable pollution of air, water, and soil. Among many approaches to utilization of this waste, the process of agglomeration using granulation or briquetting has proved very effective. Using desulfurization products a new material of aggregate characteristics has been acquired, and this material is resistant to water and wind erosion as well as to the conditions of transportation and storage. The paper presents the results of industrial trials granulation and briquetting of calcium desulphurization products. The granulation of a mixture of phosphogypsum used with fly ash (in the share 1:5. The resulting granules characterized by a compressive strength of 41.6 MPa, the damping resistance of 70% and 14.2% abrasion. The granulate was used for the production of cement mix. The produced concrete mortar have a longer setting and hardening time, as compared to the traditional ash and gypsum mortar, and have a higher or comparable flexural and compressive strength during hardening. Briquetting trials made of a product called synthetic gypsum or rea-gypsum both in pure form and with the addition of 5% and 10% of the limestone dust. Briquettes have a high initial strength and resistance to abrasion. The values of these parameters increased after 72 hours of seasoning. It was found that higher hardiness of briquettes with rea-gypsum was obtained with the impact of atmospheric conditions and higher resistance to elution of water-soluble components in comparison to ash briquettes.
Liu Junxiang; Yu Qingbo; Li Peng; Du Wenya
Rotary cup atomization for molten slag granulation is an attractive alternative to water quenching. However, the mechanism of disintegration of molten slag must be assessed. In the present study, a glycerol/water mixture was substituted for molten slag, and the mechanism of ligament formation in a rotary cup was investigated using photos taken by a high-speed camera. The effects of the angular speed and inner depth of the rotary cup on ligament disintegration was investigated. The results showed that one state of disintegration may transform into another state as the angular speed of the rotary cup increases at a given liquid flow rate. During ligament formation, the number of ligaments increased with an increase in the angular speed of the rotary cup, and a decrease in the diameter of ligament and liquid drop was observed. Moreover, the initial point of disintegration of the ligament moved to the lip of the rotary cup as the angular speed increased. An equation describing the relationship between the diameter of the liquid drop and various factors was used to predict the diameter of the liquid drop. A rotary cup with an inner depth of 30 mm was the best choice for granulation. The results of the present study will be useful for designing devices used in molten slag granulation. - Highlights: ►The results can be used in the granulation of molten blast furnace slag. ► The three different states of disintegration occur as the angular speed of rotary cup increases. ► The mechanism of ligament disintegration is analyzed. ► Eq. can be used to predict the diameter of liquid drop. ► A rotary cup with an inner depth of 30 mm is optimal for granulation.
Kathy J. Agnew
Methods: 138 pregnant women had vaginal fluid collected for Gram stain, acid phosphatase detection by colorimetric assay, and interleukin 1-Beta, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor measurement by enzyme immunoassay. Results for women with and without acid phosphatase were compared by Mann-Whitney test. Results: of 138 subjects, 28 (20% had acid phosphatase detected; of these, only 19 (68% reported recent intercourse and 3 (11% had sperm seen on Gram stain. There were no significant differences in proinflammatory cytokine concentrations; however, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor concentrations were significantly higher among women with acid phosphatase. Conclusions: proinflammatory cytokine measurement does not appear to be affected by the presence of semen, but secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor is significantly higher when semen is present. Detection of semen by acid phosphatase was associated with higher vaginal SLPI concentrations, however, the presence of semen did not appear to influence vaginal proinflammatory cytokine concentrations.
Murthy, U K; Levine, R A
The morphological response of rabbit parietal cells to aspirin was evaluated by grading several ultra-structural features including the extent of the tubulovesicular system, intracellular secretory canaliculi, and microvilli. After exposure of isolated parietal cells and gastric glands to aspirin or histamine, there was an approximately twofold increase in the ratio of secretory to nonsecretory parietal cells, and depletion of extracellular Ca2+ abolished the aspirin-induced morphological changes. Morphometry in parietal cells showed that aspirin induced a sixfold increase in secretory canalicular membrane elaboration. Aspirin potentiated histamine-induced parietal cell respiration and aminopyrine uptake ratio but did not increase basal respiration or aminopyrine uptake, suggesting an apparent dissociation from aspirin-induced morphological changes.
Troll, Joshua V; Hamilton, M Kristina; Abel, Melissa L; Ganz, Julia; Bates, Jennifer M; Stephens, W Zac; Melancon, Ellie; van der Vaart, Michiel; Meijer, Annemarie H; Distel, Martin; Eisen, Judith S; Guillemin, Karen
Resident microbes promote many aspects of host development, although the mechanisms by which microbiota influence host tissues remain unclear. We showed previously that the microbiota is required for allocation of appropriate numbers of secretory cells in the zebrafish intestinal epithelium. Because Notch signaling is crucial for secretory fate determination, we conducted epistasis experiments to establish whether the microbiota modulates host Notch signaling. We also investigated whether innate immune signaling transduces microbiota cues via the Myd88 adaptor protein. We provide the first evidence that microbiota-induced, Myd88-dependent signaling inhibits host Notch signaling in the intestinal epithelium, thereby promoting secretory cell fate determination. These results connect microbiota activity via innate immune signaling to the Notch pathway, which also plays crucial roles in intestinal homeostasis throughout life and when impaired can result in chronic inflammation and cancer. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Rice, W G; Kinkade, J M; Parmley, R T
Previous studies on the fractionation of human neutrophil granules have identified two major populations: myeloperoxidase (MPO)-containing azurophil, or primary, granules and MPO-deficient specific, or secondary, granules. Peripheral blood neutrophils from individual donors were lysed in sucrose-free media by either hypotonic shock or nitrogen cavitation. Using a novel two-gradient Percoll density centrifugation system, the granule-rich postnuclear supernatant was rapidly (ten minutes) and reproducibly resolved into 13 granule fractions (L1 through L8 and H1 through H5). Granule flotation and recentrifugation experiments on both continuous, self-generated and multiple-step gradients using individual and mixed isolated fractions demonstrated that the banding patterns were isopycnic and nonartifactual. Isolated granules were intact based on the findings that biochemical latency of several granule enzymes was greater than 95%, and thin-sectioned electron micrographs demonstrated intact granule profiles. Biochemical analyses of the granule marker proteins MPO, beta-glucuronidase, lysozyme, and lactoferrin indicated that a number of the fractions were related to the major azurophil and specific granule populations. Lactoferrin was found in ten of 13 fractions (L1 through L8, H1 to H2), whereas MPO was found in every fraction. Consistent with these biochemical data, all fractions exhibited varying degrees of heterogeneity based on ultrastructural morphology and cytochemistry, including diaminobenzidine (DAB) reactivity for peroxidase and periodate-thiocarbohydrazide-silver proteinate (PA-TCH-SP) staining for complex glycoconjugates. A variable but significant percentage (23% to 70%) of the granules in fractions L1 through L8 and H1 and H2 showed DAB reactivity, while about 90% of the granules in fractions H3 through H5 were peroxidase positive. These results demonstrated that DAB-reactive granules spanned the entire range of granule size and density. Ultrastructural PA
Aoki, Hajime; Iwao, Yasunori; Mizoguchi, Midori; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru
In an effort to develop a new gastro-retentive drug delivery system (GRDDS) without a large amount of additives, 75% clarithromycin (CAM) loaded fine granules were prepared with three different hydrophobic binders by high-shear melt granulation and their properties were evaluated. Granules containing the higher hydrophobic binder showed sustained drug release and were able to float over 24h. The synchrotron X-ray CT measurement indicated that both the high hydrophobicity of the binder and the void space inside the granules might be involved in their buoyancy. In an in vivo experiment, the floating granules more effectively eradicated Helicobacter pylori than a CAM suspension by remaining in the stomach for a longer period. In short, CAM highly-loaded gastro-floating fine granules can enhance the eradication efficiency of H. pylori compared with CAM alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the structure and topography of endogenous secretory tissues of Inula helenium L. By using light and electron microscopy, morphological and anatomical observations of stems, leaves and rhizomes were made. It was shown that in the stems secretory cavities were situated in the vicinity of phloem and xylem bundles. The number of the reservoirs reached its maximum value (34 at shoot flowerig termination, whereas the cavities with the largest diameter were observed at full flowering stage (44.6 µm. In the leaf petioles and midribs, the reservoirs also accompanied the vascular bundles, and their number and size increased along with the growth of the assimilation organs. Observations of the cross sections of the rhizomes revealed the presence of several rings of secretory reservoirs. The measurements of the cavities showed that as a rule the reservoirs with a larger dimension were located in the phelloderm, whereas the smallest ones in the xylem area. The secretory cavities located in the stems and leaves developed by schizogenesis, whereas the rhizome reservoirs were probably formed schizolisygenously. The cells lining the reservoirs formed a one - four-layered epithelium. Observed in TEM, the secretory cells of the mature cavities located in the rhizomes were characterised by the presence of a large central vacuole, whereas the protoplast was largely degraded. Fibrous elements of osmophilic secretion and numerous different coloured vesicles could be distinguished in it. The cell walls formed, from the side of the reservoir lumen, ingrowths into the interior of the epithelial cells. Between the cell wall and the plasmalemma of the glandular cells, a brighter periplasmatic zone with secretory vesicles was observed.
Joshi, Sangeeta; Nair, Neena; Bedwal, R S
Zinc deficiency has become a global problem affecting the developed and developing countries due to inhibitors in the diet which prevents its absorption or due to a very low concentration of bioavailable zinc in the diet. Being present in high concentration in the prostate and having diverse biological function, we investigated the effects of dietary zinc deficiency for 2 and 4 weeks on dorso-lateral and ventral prostate. Sixty prepubertal rats were divided into three groups: zinc control (ZC), pair fed (PF) and zinc deficient (ZD) and fed on 100 μg/g (zinc control and pair fed groups) and 1 μg/g (zinc deficient) diet. Zinc deficiency was associated with degenerative changes in dorso-lateral and ventral prostate as made evident by karyolysis, karyorhexis, cytoplasmolysis, loss of cellularisation, decreased intraluminar secretion and degeneration of fibromuscular stroma. In response, protein carbonyl, nitric oxide, acid phosphatase, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase increased, exhibiting variable level of significance. Total protein and total zinc concentration in dorso-lateral and ventral prostate as well as in serum decreased (P dorso-lateral and ventral prostate after dietary zinc deficiency as well as impairment of metabolic and secretory activity, reduced gonadotropin levels by hypothalamus -hypophysial system which is indicative of a critical role of zinc in maintaining the prostate integrity.
Full Text Available Transcriptome analyses indicate that a core 10%-15% of the yeast genome is modulated by a variety of different stresses. However, not all the induced genes undergo translation, and null mutants of many induced genes do not show elevated sensitivity to the particular stress. Elucidation of the RNA lifecycle reveals accumulation of non-translating mRNAs in cytoplasmic granules, P-bodies, and stress granules for future regulation. P-bodies contain enzymes for mRNA degradation; under stress conditions mRNAs may be transferred to stress granules for storage and return to translation. Protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system is elevated by stress; and here we analyzed the steady state levels, decay, and subcellular localization of the mRNA of the gene encoding the F-box protein, UFO1, that is induced by stress. Using the MS2L mRNA reporter system UFO1 mRNA was observed in granules that colocalized with P-bodies and stress granules. These P-bodies stored diverse mRNAs. Granules of two mRNAs transported prior to translation, ASH1-MS2L and OXA1-MS2L, docked with P-bodies. HSP12 mRNA that gave rise to highly elevated protein levels was not observed in granules under these stress conditions. ecd3, pat1 double mutants that are defective in P-body formation were sensitive to mRNAs expressed ectopically from strong promoters. These highly expressed mRNAs showed elevated translation compared with wild-type cells, and the viability of the mutants was strongly reduced. ecd3, pat1 mutants also exhibited increased sensitivity to different stresses. Our interpretation is that sequestration of highly expressed mRNAs in P-bodies is essential for viability. Storage of mRNAs for future regulation may contribute to the discrepancy between the steady state levels of many stress-induced mRNAs and their proteins. Sorting of mRNAs for future translation or decay by individual cells could generate potentially different phenotypes in a genetically identical
Meier, Robin; Moll, Klaus-Peter; Krumme, Markus; Kleinebudde, Peter
In a previous study a change of the fill-level in the barrel exerted a huge influence on the twin-screw granulation (TSG) process of a high drug loaded, simplified formulation. The present work investigated this influence systematically. The specific feed load (SFL) indicating the mass per revolution as surrogate parameter for the fill-level was applied and the correlation to the real volumetric fill level of an extruder could be demonstrated by a newly developed method. A design of experiments was conducted to examine the combined influence of SFL and screw speed on the process and on critical quality attributes of granules and tablets. The same formulation was granulated at constant liquid level with the same screw configuration and led to distinctively different results by only changing the fill-level and the screw speed. The power consumption of the extruder increased at higher SFLs with hardly any influence of screw speed. At low SFL the median residence time was mainly fill-level dependent and at higher SFL mainly screw speed dependent. Optimal values for the product characteristics were found at medium values for the SFL. Granule size distributions shifted from mono-modal and narrow shape to broader and even bimodal distributions of larger median granule sizes, when exceeding or falling below a certain fill-level. Deviating from the optimum fill-level, tensile strength of tablets decreased by about 25% and disintegration times of tablets increased for more than one third. At low fill-levels, material accumulation in front of the kneading zone was detected by pressure measurements and was assumed to be responsible for the unfavored product performance. At high fill-levels, granule consolidation due to higher propensity of contact with the result of higher material temperature was accounted for inferior product performance. The fill-level was found to be an important factor in assessment and development of twin-screw granulation processes as it impacted
Carnes, M.; Lent, S.J.; Erisman, S.; Feyzi, J.
ACTH is secreted in an episodic manner from the anterior pituitary. Unanesthetized rats with indwelling jugular and femoral venous cannulae were continuously bled and simultaneously infused with isotonic fluid by peristaltic pump. Two-minute blood samples were collected for up to five hours in 8 male rats. ACTH was measured by radioimmunoassay. The resulting time series were analyzed for significant secretory pulses with the PULSAR program. Elevations or declines in mean plasma ACTH levels were associated with significant changes in amplitude and frequency of secretory pulses
Mayayo, Emilio; Fernández-Silva, Fabiola
Prostate pathology is a daily occurrence in urological and general medical consultations. Besides hyperplasia and neoplastic pathology, other processes, such as infectious ones, are also documented. Their etiology is diverse and varied. Within the infectious prostatic processes, fungi can also be a specific cause of prostatitis. Fungal prostatitis often appears in patients with impaired immunity and can also be rarely found in healthy patients. It can result from a disseminated infection, but it can also be localized. Fungal prostatitis is a nonspecific and harmless process. Diagnosis is commonly made by fine needle aspiration cytology or by biopsy. A number of fungi can be involved. Although there are not many reported cases, they are becoming more frequent, in particular in patients with some degree of immunodeficiency or those who live in areas where specific fungi are endemic or in visitors of those areas. We present a comprehensive review of the various forms of fungal prostatitis, and we describe the morphological characteristics of the fungi more frequently reported as causes of fungal prostatitis. We also report our own experience, aiming to alert physicians, urologists and pathologists of these particular infections.
Schwartz, Lawrence H.
The use of imaging in evaluating patients with prostate cancer is highly dependent upon the purpose of the evaluation. Ultrasound, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, TC-99m Bone Scanning, and Positron Emission Tomography may all be utilized for imaging in prostate cancer. The utility of each of these modalities depends upon the intended purpose: for instance, screening, staging, or evaluating for progression of disease in patients with prostate cancer. Transrectal ultrasound is performed by placing a 5MHz to 7.5 MHz transducer in the rectum and imaging the prostate in the coronal and sagittal planes. Prostate cancer generally appears as an area of diminished echogenocity in the peripheral zone of the prostate gland. However, up to 24% of prostate cancers are isoechoic and cannot be well distinguished from the remainder of the peripheral zone. In addition, the incidence of malignancy in a lesion judged to be suspicious on ultrasound is between 20% and 25%. Therefore, while ultrasound is the least expensive of the three cross sectional imaging modalities, its relatively low specificity precludes it from being used as a screening examination. Investigators have also looked at the ability of ultrasound to evaluate the presence and extent of extracapsular spread of prostate cancer. The RDOG (Radiology Diagnostic Oncology Group) multi-institutional cooperative trial reported a disappointing overall accuracy of ultrasound of 58% for staging prostate cancer. The accuracy was somewhat higher 63%, for patients with advanced disease. The other cross-sectional imaging modalities available for imaging the prostate include Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Computed Tomography is useful as an 'anatomic' imaging technique to detect lymph node enlargement. It is not sensitive in detecting microscopic nodal involvement with tumor, or tumor in non-enlarged pelvic lymph nodes. The primary prostate neoplasm is generally the same attenuation as the normal
Machida, T.; Miki, M.; Ohishi, Y.; Kido, A.; Morikawa, J.; Ogawa, Y.
As a marker for prostatic cancer, a prostate-specific antigen was purified from human prostatic tissues. Double antibody radioimmunoassay utilizing immune reaction was developed on the basis of the purified prostatic antigen (PA). Measurement results have revealed that PA radioimmunoassay is much better than prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) radioimmunoassay in the diagnosis of prostatic cancer
Vines, Anissa I.; Hunter, Jaimie C.; Carlisle, Veronica A.; Richmond, Alan N.
African American men bear a higher burden of prostate cancer than Caucasian men, but knowledge about how to make an informed decision about prostate cancer screening is limited. A lay health advisor model was used to train “Prostate Cancer Ambassadors” on prostate cancer risk and symptoms, how to make an informed decision for prostate-specific antigen screening, and how to deliver the information to members of their community. Training consisted of two, 6-hour interactive sessions and was implemented in three predominantly African American communities over an 8-month period between 2013 and 2014. Following training, Ambassadors committed to contacting at least 10 people within 3 months using a toolkit composed of wallet-sized informational cards for distribution, a slide presentation, and a flip chart. Thirty-two Ambassadors were trained, with more than half being females (59%) and half reporting a family history of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer knowledge improved significantly among Ambassadors (p ≤ .0001). Self-efficacy improved significantly for performing outreach tasks (p < .0001), and among women in helping a loved one with making an informed decision (p = .005). There was also an improvement in collective efficacy in team members (p = .0003). Twenty-nine of the Ambassadors fulfilled their commitment to reach at least 10 people (average number of contacts per Ambassador was 11). In total, 355 individuals were reached with the prostate cancer information. The Ambassador training program proved successful in training Ambassadors to reach communities about prostate cancer and how to make an informed decision about screening. PMID:27099348
Full Text Available InP.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 Input control Uterus Fallopian tube secret...iencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...
Full Text Available InP.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 Input control Uterus Fallopian tube secret...iencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...
Full Text Available InP.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 Input control Uterus Fallopian tube secret...iencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...
Full Text Available InP.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 Input control Uterus Fallopian tube secret...iencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...
Full Text Available His.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 Histone Uterus Fallopian tube secret...2681,SRX1002688 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...
Full Text Available His.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 Histone Uterus Fallopian tube secret...2688,SRX1002689 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...
Full Text Available His.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 Histone Uterus Fallopian tube secret...2680,SRX1002681 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...
Full Text Available His.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 Histone Uterus Fallopian tube secret...2689,SRX1002688 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...
Hjelm, Anna; Karyolaimos, Alexandros; Zhang, Zhe; Rujas, Edurne; Vikström, David; Slotboom, Dirk Jan; de Gier, Jan-Willem
Membrane and secretory protein production in Escherichia coli requires precisely controlled production rates to avoid the deleterious saturation of their biogenesis pathways. Based on this requirement, the E. coli L-rhamnose PBAD promoter (PrhaBAD) is often used for membrane and secretory protein
Geert J L H van Leenders
Full Text Available Prostate cancer consists of secretory cells and a population of immature cells. The function of immature cells and their mutual relation with secretory cells are still poorly understood. Immature cells either have a hierarchical relation to secretory cells (stem cell model or represent an inducible population emerging upon appropriate stimulation of differentiated cells. Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF receptor c-MET is specifically expressed in immature prostate cells. Our objective is to determine the role of immature cells in prostate cancer by analysis of the HGF/c-MET pathway.Gene-expression profiling of DU145 prostate cancer cells stimulated with HGF revealed induction of a molecular signature associated with stem cells, characterized by up-regulation of CD49b, CD49f, CD44 and SOX9, and down-regulation of CD24 ('stem-like signature'. We confirmed the acquisition of a stem-like phenotype by quantitative PCR, FACS analysis and Western blotting. Further, HGF led to activation of the stem cell related Notch pathway by up-regulation of its ligands Jagged-1 and Delta-like 4. Small molecules SU11274 and PHA665752 targeting c-MET activity were both able to block the molecular and biologic effects of HGF. Knock-down of c-MET by shRNA infection resulted in significant reduction and delay of orthotopic tumour-formation in male NMRI mice. Immunohistochemical analysis in prostatectomies revealed significant enrichment of c-MET positive cells at the invasive front, and demonstrated co-expression of c-MET with stem-like markers CD49b and CD49f.In conclusion, activation of c-MET in prostate cancer cells induced a stem-like phenotype, indicating a dynamic relation between differentiated and stem-like cells in this malignancy. Its mediation of efficient tumour-formation in vivo and predominant receptor expression at the invasive front implicate that c-MET regulates tumour infiltration in surrounding tissues putatively by acquisition of a stem-like phenotype.
Topka, K.; Title, A.; Tarbell, T.; Ferguson, S.; Shine, R.
The Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) on Spacelab 2 collected movies of solar granulation completely free from atmospheric blurring, and are not degraded by pointint jitter (the pointing stability was 0.003 sec root mean square). The movies illustrate that the solar five minute oscillation has a major role in the appearance of solar granulation and that exploding granules are a common feature of the granule evolution. Using 3-D Fourier filtering techniques the oscillations were removed and it was demonstrated that the autocorrelation lifetime of granulation is a factor of two greater in magnetic field regions than in field-free quiet sun. Horizontal velocities were measured and flow patterns were observed on the scale of meso- and super granulation. In quiet regions the mean flow velocity is 370 m/s while in the magnetic regions it is about 125 m/s. It was also found that the root mean square (RMS) fluctuating horizonal velocity field is substantially greater in quiet sun than in strong magnetic field regions. By superimposing the location of exploding granules on the average flow maps it was found that they appear almost exclusively in the center of mesogranulation size flow cells. Because of the nonuniformity of the distribution of exploding granules, the evolution of the granulation pattern in mesogranule cell centers and boundaries differs fundamentally. It is clear from this study there is neither a typical granule nor a typical granule evolution
Topka, K.; Title, A.; Tarbell, T.; Ferguson, S.; Shine, R.
The Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) on Spacelab 2 collected movies of solar granulation completely free from atmospheric blurring, and are not degraded by pointint jitter (the pointing stability was 0.003 sec root mean square). The movies illustrate that the solar five minute oscillation has a major role in the appearance of solar granulation and that exploding granules are a common feature of the granule evolution. Using 3-D Fourier filtering techniques the oscillations were removed and it was demonstrated that the autocorrelation lifetime of granulation is a factor of two greater in magnetic field regions than in field-free quiet sun. Horizontal velocities were measured and flow patterns were observed on the scale of meso- and super granulation. In quiet regions the mean flow velocity is 370 m/s while in the magnetic regions it is about 125 m/s. It was also found that the root mean square (RMS) fluctuating horizonal velocity field is substantially greater in quiet sun than in strong magnetic field regions. By superimposing the location of exploding granules on the average flow maps it was found that they appear almost exclusively in the center of mesogranulation size flow cells. Because of the nonuniformity of the distribution of exploding granules, the evolution of the granulation pattern in mesogranule cell centers and boundaries differs fundamentally. It is clear from this study there is neither a typical granule nor a typical granule evolution.
Hu, Min; Mu, Qing-song; Luo, Ning; Li, Gang; Peng, Ning-bo
An experimental study of the behavior of hollow balls filled with some granules (mung beans or millets) bouncing repeatedly off a static flat horizontal surface is presented. We observed that the bounce number of the ball is limited and decreases regularly with an increasing number of granules. Moreover, for two balls containing a different kind of granules, their bounce numbers are basically equal when the two balls have the same mass of granules. While there is no clear relationship between the first rebound height of one ball and the number of granules, there appears an exponential decay of the second rebound height with an increase of the granule number. Furthermore, a two-dimensional numerical model has been created to find out the law of the ball's rebound height and the dissipation law of the granule nested system. A generalized prediction equation to reasonably explain the law of the bounce number has also been proposed.
Chen, Bo; Su, Ning-Ning; Cui, Wen-Li; Yan, Shi-Nong
In this work, a type of asymmetric granule/matrix composite film is designed, where the Ni granule is dispersed in PZT matrix, meanwhile the top and bottom electrode is constituted by Au and SRO respectively. Predicted through the electrostatic screening model and mean field approximation, considerable electrostatic charge is induced on Ni granule surface by ferroelectric PZT polarization. Predicted through the spin splitting model and spherical shell approximation, both the magnetization and magnetic anisotropy of Ni granule are modulated by ferroelectric PZT polarization. As the volume fraction of Ni granule is increased, the electric modulation of magnetization and magnetic anisotropy is reduced and enhanced respectively. As the dimension of granule/matrix composite is varied, such modulation is retained. Due to the large area-volume ratio of nano-granule, this work benefits to realize the converse magnetoelectric coupling in nanoscale.
Adeniyi A. JAYEOLA
Full Text Available Starch granules of yam stem tubers, plantain fruits and cassava root tubers were studied using the light microscope and then compared. Yam and plantain, both monocotyledons, had morphologically similar granules between locations, being mostly oval in shape while the granules of cassava, a dicot, were predominantly globular but varied between locations. Differences in processing methods between locations might be responsible for the observed variation in cassava granules. There is a suggestion that starch granule morphology might follow lineages in a broad sense. The unique micromorphology of cassava starch granule could make it easily detectable when adulterated, substituted or contaminated with yam or plantain granules and this could provide a cost effective clue in forensic determination.
Full Text Available The article presents the results of laboratory granulation tests of dust silicon carbide and the results of research on the selection of the binder and the properties of the granules obtained. The research material was a waste of the silicon carbide powder with a high fragmentation, mixed with a cement or an organic modified starch specimen. Six tests were performed in a disc granulator with 100 cm in diameter. In each series of trial specified: the type and share of the binder, the diameter of the granules, tenderness, type of structure and mechanical properties. Good granules of silicon carbide obtained with the addition of cement binder with 4% of the mass fraction and at least 24 hours of seasoning. The binder should be added twice by powdering, first in a stirred granulator, and again after manufacture. It was found that the resulting granules may be used as a replacement of ferrosilicon in the process of steelmaking.
Hung, S-C; Lai, S-W; Tsai, P-Y; Chen, P-C; Wu, H-C; Lin, W-H; Sung, F-C
Background: The incidence of prostate cancer is much lower in Asian men than in Western men. This study investigated whether prostate cancer is associated with prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and other medical conditions in the low-incidence population. Methods: From the claims data obtained from the universal National Health Insurance of Taiwan, we identified 1184 patients with prostate cancer diagnosed from 1997 to 2008. Controls comprised 4736 men randomly selected from a cancer-free population. Both groups were 50 years of age or above. Medical histories between the two groups were compared. Results: Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that prostatitis and BPH had stronger association with prostate cancer than the other medical conditions tested. Compared with men without prostatitis and BPH, a higher odds ratio (OR) for prostate cancer was associated with BPH (26.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 20.8–33.0) than with prostatitis (10.5, 95% CI=3.36–32.7). Men with both conditions had an OR of 49.2 (95% CI=34.7–69.9). Conclusion: Men with prostate cancer have strong association with prostatitis and/or BPH. Prostatitis interacts with BPH, resulting in higher estimated relative risk of prostate cancer in men suffering from both conditions. PMID:23612451
Clavijo Jordan, M Veronica; Lo, Su-Tang; Chen, Shiuhwei; Preihs, Christian; Chirayil, Sara; Zhang, Shanrong; Kapur, Payal; Li, Wen-Hong; De Leon-Rodriguez, Luis M; Lubag, Angelo J M; Rofsky, Neil M; Sherry, A Dean
Many secretory tissues release Zn(II) ions along with other molecules in response to external stimuli. Here we demonstrate that secretion of Zn(II) ions from normal, healthy prostate tissue is stimulated by glucose in fasted mice and that release of Zn(II) can be monitored by MRI. An ∼50% increase in water proton signal enhancement is observed in T1-weighted images of the healthy mouse prostate after infusion of a Gd-based Zn(II) sensor and an i.p. bolus of glucose. Release of Zn(II) from intracellular stores was validated in human epithelial prostate cells in vitro and in surgically exposed prostate tissue in vivo using a Zn(II)-sensitive fluorescent probe known to bind to the extracellular surface of cells. Given the known differences in intracellular Zn(II) stores in healthy versus malignant prostate tissues, the Zn(II) sensor was then evaluated in a transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model in vivo. The agent proved successful in detecting small malignant lesions as early as 11 wk of age, making this noninvasive MR imaging method potentially useful for identifying prostate cancer in situations where it may be difficult to detect using current multiparametric MRI protocols.
Ginzburg, S.L.; Savitskaya, N.E.
Critical state in granulated superconductors was studied on the basis of two mathematical models - the system of differential equations for calibration and invariant difference of phases and a simplified model describing the system of associated images and equivalent to the standard models to study self-organizing criticality. The critical state of granulated superconductors in all studied cases was shown to be self-organized. Besides, it is shown that the applied models are practically equivalent ones, that is they both show similar critical behavior and lead to coincidence of noncritical phenomena. For the first time one showed that the occurrence of self-organized critically within the system of nonlinear differential equations and its equivalence to self-organized critically in the standard models [ru
Kohonen, J.; Reinikainen, S. P.; Høskuldsson, Agnar
be defined through testing the flow rate with, e.g., seed drill. Besides the chemical composition, flowability can be considered as one of the most important characteristics. There are numerous factors affecting the flowability of a granulated fertilizer, several of them related to the particle size......Fertilizer manufacturing is a customer-driven industry, where the quality of a product is a key factor in order to survive the competition. However, measuring the most important feature with granulated fertilizers, flowability, is tedious, time-consuming and thus expensive. Flowability can...... size distribution. The goals are to find a reliable model for flowability using this data and to find the most important variables and to identify the effect of blocks to the quality....
Mondragon, R.; Julia, J. E.; Barba, A.; Jarque, J. C.
Spray drying is a unit operation very common in many industrial processes. For each particular application, the resulting granulated material must possess determined properties that depend on the conditions in which the spray drying processing has been carried out, and whose dependence must be known in order to optimize the quality of the material obtained. The large number of variables that influence on the processes of matter and energy transfer and on the formation of granular material has required a detailed analysis of the drying process. Over the years there have been many studies on the spray drying processing of all kind of materials and the influence of process variables on the drying kinetics of the granulated material properties obtained. This article lists the most important works published for both the spray drying processing and the drying of individual droplets, as well as studies aimed at modeling the drying kinetics of drops. (Author)
Lucas, J.-C.; Messirejean, Pierre.
This invention concerns a plant for the filtration of a contaminated fluid flow using a granulated material capable of absorbing or adsorbing the contaminants. This plant includes a filtration box within which there is at least one appreciably vertical filtering bed filled with the material and crossed by the fluid flow, loading and discharge compartments respectively located at the top and bottom of the box, each in communication with the filtering bed and an air-actuated transfer system for loading and discharging this bed through these compartments. Facilities of this kind are used mainly in the nuclear and chemical engineering industries to rid their waste of radio-iodines, generally constituted by elementary iodine and methyl iodide, or of toxic gases that contaminate them. The granulated material, whose job it is to trap these contaminants by adsorption or absorption, is generally composed of active carbon or zeolites whose utilisation time is limited [fr
Guro, Vitaliy P.; Ibragimova, Matluba A.; Safarov, Edgorjon T.
Process of pyrite cinders production from Mo middlings consists of molybdenite concentrate granulation, firing to oxidize sulfide minerals and to recover Re-oxide. If kaolin binder is used a pyrite cinders dilution with Mo takes place. So, the development of organic binding agents, alternative to kaolin, is an actual issue. The approach is based on the comparison of the hydrophilic, strength and technological features of the hydrometallurgical processing of pellets. The new batch is developed. It differs from the traditional mixture by polymer burning and minimizing Mo dilution, thus aiming to maximize Re, Au, Ag recovery. The composition of the new organic-mineral batch is as follows: 97.3 % of molybdenite concentrate, 2 % of kaolin and 0.7 % of SK polymer. Keywords: molybdenum middlings, binder, organic additive, batch, granulation.
Albany, Costantine; Alva, Ajjai S; Aparicio, Ana M; Singal, Rakesh; Yellapragada, Sarvari; Sonpavde, Guru; Hahn, Noah M
Prostate cancer (PC) is the most commonly diagnosed nonskin malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer death among men in the United States. Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequences. Two common epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation and histone modification, have demonstrated critical roles in prostate cancer growth and metastasis. DNA hypermethylation of cytosine-guanine (CpG) rich sequence islands within gene promoter regions is widespread during neoplastic transformation of prostate cells, suggesting that treatment-induced restoration of a "normal" epigenome could be clinically beneficial. Histone modification leads to altered tumor gene function by changing chromosome structure and the level of gene transcription. The reversibility of epigenetic aberrations and restoration of tumor suppression gene function have made them attractive targets for prostate cancer treatment with modulators that demethylate DNA and inhibit histone deacetylases.
Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the most commonly diagnosed nonskin malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer death among men in the United States. Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequences. Two common epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation and histone modification, have demonstrated critical roles in prostate cancer growth and metastasis. DNA hypermethylation of cytosine-guanine (CpG rich sequence islands within gene promoter regions is widespread during neoplastic transformation of prostate cells, suggesting that treatment-induced restoration of a “normal” epigenome could be clinically beneficial. Histone modification leads to altered tumor gene function by changing chromosome structure and the level of gene transcription. The reversibility of epigenetic aberrations and restoration of tumor suppression gene function have made them attractive targets for prostate cancer treatment with modulators that demethylate DNA and inhibit histone deacetylases.
Huckleberry, Kylie A.; Kane, Gary A.; Mathis, Rita J.; Cook, Sarah G.; Clutton, Jonathan E.; Drew, Michael R.
Thousands of neurons are born each day in the dentate gyrus (DG), but many of these cells die before reaching maturity. Both death and survival of adult-born neurons are regulated by neuronal activity in the DG. The immediate-early gene (IEG) zif268 appears to be an important mediator of these effects, as its expression can be induced by neural activity and knockout of zif268 impairs survival of adult-born neurons (Richardson et al., 1992; Veyrac et al., 2013). Despite the apparent importance of zif268 for adult neurogenesis, its behavior-induced expression has not been fully characterized in adult-born neurons. Here we characterize behavior-evoked expression of zif268 in mature and newborn dentate granule cells (DGCs). We first quantified zif268 expression in doublecortin-positive (DCX+) immature neurons and in the general granule cell population after brief exposure to a novel environment (NE). In the general granule cell population, zif268 expression peaked 1 h after NE exposure and returned to baseline by 8 h post-exposure. However, in the DCX+ cells, zif268 expression was suppressed relative to home cage for at least 8 h post-exposure. We next asked whether suppression of zif268 in DCX+ immature cells occurs in other behavioral paradigms that recruit the hippocampus. Exposure to Morris water maze (MWM) training, an enriched environment, or a NE caused approximately equal suppression of zif268 expression in DCX+ cells and approximately equal activation of zif268 expression among the general granule cell population. The same behavioral procedures activated zif268 expression in 6-week-old BrdU-labeled adult-born neurons, indicating that zif268 suppression is specific to immature neurons. Finally, we asked whether zif268 suppression varied as a function of age within the DCX+ population, which ranges in age from 0 to approximately 4 weeks. NE exposure had no significant effect on zif268 expression in 2- or 4-week-old BrdU-labeled neurons, but it significantly
Westerhuis, J.A; Coenegracht, P.M J; Lerk, C.F
The process of tablet manufacturing with granulation is described as a two-step process. The first step comprises wet granulation of the powder mixture, and in the second step the granules are compressed into tablets. For the modelling of the pharmaceutical process of wet granulation and tableting,
Boucher, R C; Larsen, Erik Hviid
The use of primary cell culture techniques to predict the function of native respiratory epithelia was tested in studies of dog airway epithelia. Epithelial cells from Cl- secretory (tracheal) and Na+ absorptive (bronchial) airway regions were isolated by enzymatic digestion, plated on collagen...
Jeroen R P M Strating
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The p24 family is thought to be somehow involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER-to-Golgi protein transport. A subset of the p24 proteins (p24alpha(3, -beta(1, -gamma(3 and -delta(2 is upregulated when Xenopus laevis intermediate pituitary melanotrope cells are physiologically activated to produce vast amounts of their major secretory cargo, the prohormone proopiomelanocortin (POMC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we find that transgene expression of p24alpha(3 or p24delta(2 specifically in the Xenopus melanotrope cells in both cases causes an effective displacement of the endogenous p24 proteins, resulting in severely distorted p24 systems and disparate melanotrope cell phenotypes. Transgene expression of p24alpha(3 greatly reduces POMC transport and leads to accumulation of the prohormone in large, ER-localized electron-dense structures, whereas p24delta(2-transgenesis does not influence the overall ultrastructure of the cells nor POMC transport and cleavage, but affects the Golgi-based processes of POMC glycomaturation and sulfation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Transgenic expression of two distinct p24 family members has disparate effects on secretory pathway functioning, illustrating the specificity and non-redundancy of our transgenic approach. We conclude that members of the p24 family furnish subcompartments of the secretory pathway with specific sets of machinery cargo to provide the proper microenvironments for efficient and correct secretory protein transport and processing.
Meijer, Berrie; Hoskin, Teagan; Ashcroft, Anna; Burgess, Laura; Keenan, Jacqueline I.; Falvey, James; Gearry, Richard B.; Day, Andrew S.
Recruitment and activation of neutrophils, with release of specific proteins such as S100 proteins, is a feature of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Soluble forms of the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (sRAGE), and variants such as endogenous secretory (esRAGE), can act as decoy
Vester-Christensen, Malene Bech; Abou Hachem, Maher; Næsted, Henrik
biosynthesis by trimming of intermediate branched alpha-glucan structures. Highly active barley LD is obtained by secretory expression during high cell-density fermentation of Pichia pastoris. The LD encoding gene fragment without signal peptide was subcloned in-frame with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha...
The isolation and characterization of mutants has been crucial in understanding a number of processes in the field of cell biology. In this exercise, students examine the effects of mutations in the secretory pathway on protein localization. Yeast strains deficient for synthesis of histidinol dehydrogenase are transformed with a plasmid encoding a…
Holmes, Michael V.; Simon, Tabassome; Exeter, Holly J.; Folkersen, Lasse; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Guardiola, Montse; Cooper, Jackie A.; Palmen, Jutta; Hubacek, Jaroslav A.; Carruthers, Kathryn F.; Horne, Benjamin D.; Brunisholz, Kimberly D.; Mega, Jessica L.; van Iperen, Erik P. A.; Li, Mingyao; Leusink, Maarten; Trompet, Stella; Verschuren, Jeffrey J. W.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Dehghan, Abbas; Nelson, Christopher P.; Kotti, Salma; Danchin, Nicolas; Scholz, Markus; Haase, Christiane L.; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Swerdlow, Daniel I.; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Staines-Urias, Eleonora; Goel, Anuj; van 't Hooft, Ferdinand; Gertow, Karl; de Faire, Ulf; Panayiotou, Andrie G.; Tremoli, Elena; Baldassarre, Damiano; Veglia, Fabrizio; Holdt, Lesca M.; Beutner, Frank; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Navis, Gerjan J.; Mateo Leach, Irene; Breitling, Lutz P.; Brenner, Hermann; Thiery, Joachim; Dallmeier, Dhayana; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Stephens, Jeffrey W.; Hofker, Marten H.; Tedgui, Alain; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G.; Adamkova, Vera; Pitha, Jan; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Cramer, Maarten J.; Nathoe, Hendrik M.; Spiering, Wilko; Klungel, Olaf H.; Kumari, Meena; Whincup, Peter H.; Morrow, David A.; Braund, Peter S.; Hall, Alistair S.; Olsson, Anders G.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Trip, Mieke D.; Tobin, Martin D.; Hamsten, Anders; Watkins, Hugh; Koenig, Wolfgang; Nicolaides, Andrew N.; Teupser, Daniel; Day, Ian N. M.; Carlquist, John F.; Gaunt, Tom R.; Ford, Ian; Sattar, Naveed; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Schwartz, Gregory G.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Morris, Richard W.; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Poledne, Rudolf; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Keating, Brendan J.; van der Harst, Pim; Price, Jackie F.; Mehta, Shamir R.; Yusuf, Salim; Witteman, Jaqueline C. M.; Franco, Oscar H.; Jukema, J. Wouter; de Knijff, Peter; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Rader, Daniel J.; Farrall, Martin; Samani, Nilesh J.; Kivimaki, Mika; Fox, Keith A. A.; Humphries, Steve E.; Anderson, Jeffrey L.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Palmer, Tom M.; Eriksson, Per; Paré, Guillaume; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Sabatine, Marc S.; Mallat, Ziad; Casas, Juan P.; Talmud, Philippa J.
This study sought to investigate the role of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-IIA in cardiovascular disease. Higher circulating levels of sPLA2-IIA mass or sPLA2 enzyme activity have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events. However, it is not clear if this association is
Full Text Available Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2 is a critical component of insect and snake venoms and is secreted by mammalian leukocytes during inflammation. Elevated secretory PLA2 concentrations are associated with autoimmune diseases and septic shock. Many sPLA2's do not bind to plasma membranes of quiescent cells but bind and digest phospholipids on the membranes of stimulated or apoptotic cells. The capacity of these phospholipases to digest membranes of stimulated or apoptotic cells correlates to the exposure of phosphatidylserine. In the present study, the ability of the phosphatidyl-L-serine-binding protein, lactadherin to inhibit phospholipase enzyme activity has been assessed. Inhibition of human secretory phospholipase A2-V on phospholipid vesicles exceeded 90%, whereas inhibition of Naja mossambica sPLA2 plateaued at 50-60%. Lactadherin inhibited 45% of activity of Naja mossambica sPLA2 and >70% of human secretory phospholipase A2-V on the membranes of human NB4 leukemia cells treated with calcium ionophore A23187. The data indicate that lactadherin may decrease inflammation by inhibiting sPLA2.
M. Faruk Oktay
Full Text Available To investigate the possible role of adenoid mast cells in the etiology of secretory otitis media. Between 2001-2002, 25 patients with chronic adenoitis and chronic secretory otitis media and 25 patients with isolated adenoid hypertrophy were included to the study. Adenoidectomy performed to the all patients under general anesthesia. Adenoidectomy specimens were evaluated under the light microscopy and the number of mast cells were calculated for each patient. The number of mast cells were compared between two groups. The number of mast cells were between 4-84 in the otitis media with effusion and adenoid hypertrophy group (median:52, however it was between 2-63 (median: 23 in the isolated adenoid hypertrophy group. When comparing the two groups using Mann-Withney U test, the number of mast cells found to be significantly higher in the chronic secretory otitis media group (p<0.001.Based on our findings there is a relationship between increased adenoid mast cells and otitis media with effusion and these cells may have a possible role in the etiology of chronic secretory otitis media.
Full Text Available Melanins are biopolymers that confer coloration and protection to the host organism against biotic or abiotic insults. The level of protection offered by melanin depends on its biosynthesis and its subcellular localization. Previously, we discovered that Aspergillus fumigatus compartmentalizes melanization in endosomes by recruiting all melanin enzymes to the secretory pathway. Surprisingly, although two laccases involved in the late steps of melanization are conventional secretory proteins, the four enzymes involved in the early steps of melanization lack a signal peptide or a transmembrane domain and are thus considered “atypical” secretory proteins. In this work, we found interactions among melanin enzymes and all melanin enzymes formed protein complexes. Surprisingly, the formation of protein complexes by melanin enzymes was not critical for their trafficking to the endosomal system. By palmitoylation profiling and biochemical analyses, we discovered that all four early melanin enzymes were strongly palmitoylated during conidiation. However, only the polyketide synthase (PKS Alb1 was strongly palmitoylated during both vegetative hyphal growth and conidiation when constitutively expressed alone. This posttranslational lipid modification correlates the endosomal localization of all early melanin enzymes. Intriguingly, bioinformatic analyses predict that palmitoylation is a common mechanism for potential membrane association of polyketide synthases (PKSs and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs in A. fumigatus. Our findings indicate that protein-protein interactions facilitate melanization by metabolic channeling, while posttranslational lipid modifications help recruit the atypical enzymes to the secretory pathway, which is critical for compartmentalization of secondary metabolism.
Cutler, L S; Christian, C P; Rendell, J K
The synthesis of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) by a preparation of purified, functional submandibular-gland secretory units (acini and intercalated ducts) was examined. Such units were isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats by digestion of minced gland with hyaluronidase and collagenase followed by gentle sieving of the digest through a graded series of Teflon screens. They incorporated amino acids into exocrine proteins which could be released by stimulation with isoproterenol as in vivo, indicating their functional integrity. Secretory units, incubated for 2 h in medium containing [35S]-sodium sulphate alone or in combination with [3H]-glucosamine, were then washed, homogenized and digested in pronase. The resulting material was then sequentially digested by specific enzymic and chemical procedures and analysed by chromatography on Sephadex G-50 columns to identify the various GAG synthesized. Secretory units synthesized a GAG mixture which was 20-25 per cent hyaluronic acid, 70-75 per cent heparan sulphate, and only 3-5 per cent chondroitin or dermatan sulphates, similar to that synthesized in vivo. No GAG was present in the secretory material, suggesting that all the GAG synthesized was destined for the basement membrane or cell surface.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intestinal epithelial cells express the Sonic and Indian hedgehog ligands. Despite the strong interest in gut hedgehog signaling in GI diseases, no studies have specifically addressed the singular role of intestinal epithelial cell Sonic hedgehog signaling. The aim of this study was to investigate the specific role of Sonic hedgehog in adult ileal epithelial homeostasis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A Sonic hedgehog intestinal epithelial conditional knockout mouse model was generated. Assessment of ileal histological abnormalities, crypt epithelial cell proliferation, epithelial cell fate, junctional proteins, signaling pathways, as well as ultrastructural analysis of intracellular organelles were performed in control and mutant mice. Mice lacking intestinal epithelial Sonic Hedgehog displayed decreased ileal crypt/villus length, decreased crypt proliferation as well as a decrease in the number of ileal mucin-secreting goblet cells and antimicrobial peptide-secreting Paneth cells during adult life. These secretory cells also exhibited disruption of their secretory products in mutant mice. Ultrastructural microscopy analysis revealed a dilated ER lumen in secretory cells. This phenotype was also associated with a decrease in autophagy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Altogether, these findings indicate that the loss of Sonic hedgehog can lead to ileal secretory cell modifications indicative of endoplasmic reticulum stress, accompanied by a significant reduction in autophagy.
Apuschkin, Mia; Ougaard, Maria; Rekling, Jens C
Multiple regions in the CNS display propagating correlated activity during embryonic and postnatal development. This activity can be recorded as waves of increased calcium concentrations in spiking neurons or glia cells, and have been suggested to be involved in patterning, axonal guidance and es......, that the propagating wave activity is carried through the tissue by axonal collaterals formed by neighboring granule cells, and further suggest that the correlated activity may be related to processes that ensure correct postnatal wiring of the cerebellar circuits....
Harvey, J. W.; Briggs, John W.; Prosser, Sian
A major astronomical controversy of the mid-19th century was discordant descriptions of the small scale structure of the solar surface. Visual observers contradicted each other by describing the surface as consisting of “corrugations”, “willow leaves”, “rice grains”, “cumuli”, “thatch”, “granules”, etc. Early photographs of the solar surface were not good enough to settle the controversy. The French astronomer Jules Janssen is credited with the first 1876 photographs that clearly showed what we now call solar granulation (1876, CRAS 82, 1363). Upon seeing these images, New Yorker Lewis M. Rutherfurd (1878, MNRAS 38, 410) praised the high quality of Janssen’s images but asserted that he had also photographed granulation as early as 1871 using collodion wet plates. He sent copies of his best photograph to the Royal Astronomical Society to support his assertion. Curious about his claim, Briggs and Harvey set up Rutherfurd’s 13-inch achromatic refractor on Kitt Peak and found that it easily showed well-resolved solar granulation, so his claim might well have been justified. But without his plates we could not confirm the claim. For 140 years the copies of Rutherfurd’s best solar photograph remained in the archives of the Royal Astronomical Society and were recently discovered by Prosser (RAS Photographs A3/001B and A3/002). By coincidence a few days later, Briggs found the original August 11, 1871 plate. Despite poor condition these photographs show solar granulation. There are at least two other possible early claimants (Reade; Vogel) but their plates are almost certainly lost. Rutherfurd was a master of astronomical instrumentation and photography. He was reticent about his work, letting results speak for themselves, so it is satisfying to find that he was justified in making his claim of priority.
Full Text Available Aktuelle epidemiologische Daten aus den USA zeigen, daß der urogenitale Symptomenkomplex, der langläufig als "Prostatitis" bezeichnet wird, ein nicht unbeträchtliches volksgesundheitliches und volkswirtschaftliches Problem darstellt: dieses Krankheitsbild ist jährlich für 2 Millionen Arztbesuche und für 8% aller urologischen Konsulationen in den USA verantwortlich. Umgekehrt sieht jeder Urologe im Jahr zwischen 150 und 250 Patienten mit "Prostatitis".