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Sample records for prostate intrafraction motion

  1. Measurement of intrafractional prostate motion using magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mah, Dennis; Freedman, Gary; Milestone, Bart; Hanlon, Alexandra; Palacio, Elizabeth; Richardson, Theresa; Movsas, Benjamin; Mitra, Raj; Horwitz, Eric; Hanks, Gerald E.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the three-dimensional intrafractional prostate motion over typical treatment time intervals with cine-magnetic resonance imaging (cine MRI) studies. Methods and Materials: Forty-two patients with prostate cancer were scanned supine in an alpha cradle cast using cine MRI. Twenty sequential slices were acquired in the sagittal and axial planes through the center of the prostate. Each scan took ∼9 min. The posterior, lateral, and superior edges of the prostate were tracked on each frame relative to the initial prostate position, and the size and duration of each displacement was recorded. Results: The prostate displacements were (mean ± SD): 0.2 ± 2.9 mm, 0.0 ± 3.4 mm, and 0.0 ± 1.5 mm in the anterior-posterior, superior-inferior, and medial-lateral dimensions respectively. The prostate motion appeared to have been driven by peristalsis in the rectum. Large displacements of the prostate (up to 1.2 cm) moved the prostate both anteriorly and superiorly and in some cases compressed the organ. For such motions, the prostate did not stay displaced, but moved back to its original position. To account for the dosimetric consequences of the motion, we also calculated the time-averaged displacement to be ∼1 mm. Conclusions: Cine MRI can be used to measure intrafractional prostate motion. Although intrafractional prostate motions occur, their effects are negligible compared to interfractional motion and setup error. No adjustment in margin is necessary for three-dimensional conformal or intensity-modulated radiation therapy

  2. Simulating intrafraction prostate motion with a random walk model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommer, Tobias; Oh, Jung Hun; Munck Af Rosenschöld, Per; Deasy, Joseph O

    2017-01-01

    Prostate motion during radiation therapy (ie, intrafraction motion) can cause unwanted loss of radiation dose to the prostate and increased dose to the surrounding organs at risk. A compact but general statistical description of this motion could be useful for simulation of radiation therapy delivery or margin calculations. We investigated whether prostate motion could be modeled with a random walk model. Prostate motion recorded during 548 radiation therapy fractions in 17 patients was analyzed and used for input in a random walk prostate motion model. The recorded motion was categorized on the basis of whether any transient excursions (ie, rapid prostate motion in the anterior and superior direction followed by a return) occurred in the trace and transient motion. This was separately modeled as a large step in the anterior/superior direction followed by a returning large step. Random walk simulations were conducted with and without added artificial transient motion using either motion data from all observed traces or only traces without transient excursions as model input, respectively. A general estimate of motion was derived with reasonable agreement between simulated and observed traces, especially during the first 5 minutes of the excursion-free simulations. Simulated and observed diffusion coefficients agreed within 0.03, 0.2 and 0.3 mm 2 /min in the left/right, superior/inferior, and anterior/posterior directions, respectively. A rapid increase in variance at the start of observed traces was difficult to reproduce and seemed to represent the patient's need to adjust before treatment. This could be estimated somewhat using artificial transient motion. Random walk modeling is feasible and recreated the characteristics of the observed prostate motion. Introducing artificial transient motion did not improve the overall agreement, although the first 30 seconds of the traces were better reproduced. The model provides a simple estimate of prostate motion during

  3. Intrafractional prostate motion during online image guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budiharto, Tom; Slagmolen, Pieter; Haustermans, Karin; Maes, Frederik; Junius, Sara; Verstraete, Jan; Oyen, Raymond; Hermans, Jeroen; Van den Heuvel, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Intrafractional motion consists of two components: (1) the movement between the on-line repositioning procedure and the treatment start and (2) the movement during the treatment delivery. The goal of this study is to estimate this intrafractional movement of the prostate during prostate cancer radiotherapy. Material and methods: Twenty-seven patients with prostate cancer and implanted fiducials underwent a marker match procedure before a five-field IMRT treatment. For all fields, in-treatment images were obtained and then processed to enable automatic marker detection. Combining the subsequent projection images, five positions of each marker were determined using the shortest path approach. The residual set-up error (RSE) after kV-MV based prostate localization, the prostate position as a function of time during a radiotherapy session and the required margins to account for intrafractional motion were determined. Results: The mean RSE and standard deviation in the antero-posterior, cranio-caudal and left-right direction were 2.3 ± 1.5 mm, 0.2 ± 1.1 mm and -0.1 ± 1.1 mm, respectively. Almost all motions occurred in the posterior direction before the first treatment beam as the percentage of excursions >5 mm was reduced significantly when the RSE was not accounted for. The required margins for intrafractional motion increased with prolongation of the treatment. Application of a repositioning protocol after every beam could decrease the 1 cm margin from CTV to PTV by 2 mm. Conclusions: The RSE is the main contributor to intrafractional motion. This RSE after on-line prostate localization and patient repositioning in the posterior direction emphasizes the need to speed up the marker match procedure. Also, a prostate IMRT treatment should be administered as fast as possible, to ensure that the pre-treatment repositioning efforts are not erased by intrafractional prostate motion. This warrants an optimized workflow with the use of faster treatment

  4. Software-controlled, highly automated intrafraction prostate motion correction with intrafraction stereographic targeting: System description and clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutanga, Theodore F.; Boer, Hans C. J. de; Rajan, Vinayakrishnan; Dirkx, Maarten L. P.; Os, Marjolein J. H. van; Incrocci, Luca; Heijmen, Ben J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A new system for software-controlled, highly automated correction of intrafraction prostate motion,'' intrafraction stereographic targeting'' (iSGT), is described and evaluated. Methods: At our institute, daily prostate positioning is routinely performed at the start of treatment beam using stereographic targeting (SGT). iSGT was implemented by extension of the SGT software to facilitate fast and accurate intrafraction motion corrections with minimal user interaction. iSGT entails megavoltage (MV) image acquisitions with the first segment of selected IMRT beams, automatic registration of implanted markers, followed by remote couch repositioning to correct for intrafraction motion above a predefined threshold, prior to delivery of the remaining segments. For a group of 120 patients, iSGT with corrections for two nearly lateral beams was evaluated in terms of workload and impact on effective intrafraction displacements in the sagittal plane. Results: SDs of systematic (Σ) and random (σ) displacements relative to the planning CT measured directly after initial SGT setup correction were eff eff eff eff eff eff < 0.7 mm, requiring corrections in 82.4% of the fractions. Because iSGT is highly automated, the extra time added by iSGT is <30 s if a correction is required. Conclusions: Without increasing imaging dose, iSGT successfully reduces intrafraction prostate motion with minimal workload and increase in fraction time. An action level of 2 mm is recommended.

  5. Reduction of prostate intrafraction motion using gas-release rectal balloons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Zhong; Zhao Tianyu; Li Zuofeng; Hoppe, Brad; Henderson, Randy; Mendenhall, William; Nichols, R. Charles; Marcus, Robert; Mendenhall, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze prostate intrafraction motion using both non-gas-release (NGR) and gas-release (GR) rectal balloons and to evaluate the ability of GR rectal balloons to reduce prostate intrafraction motion. Methods: Twenty-nine patients with NGR rectal balloons and 29 patients with GR balloons were randomly selected from prostate patients treated with proton therapy at University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute (Jacksonville, FL). Their pretreatment and post-treatment orthogonal radiographs were analyzed, and both pretreatment setup residual error and intrafraction-motion data were obtained. Population histograms of intrafraction motion were plotted for both types of balloons. Population planning target-volume (PTV) margins were calculated with the van Herk formula of 2.5Σ+ 0.7σ to account for setup residual errors and intrafraction motion errors. Results: Pretreatment and post-treatment radiographs indicated that the use of gas-release rectal balloons reduced prostate intrafraction motion along superior–inferior (SI) and anterior–posterior (AP) directions. Similar patient setup residual errors were exhibited for both types of balloons. Gas-release rectal balloons resulted in PTV margin reductions from 3.9 to 2.8 mm in the SI direction, 3.1 to 1.8 mm in the AP direction, and an increase from 1.9 to 2.1 mm in the left–right direction. Conclusions: Prostate intrafraction motion is an important uncertainty source in radiotherapy after image-guided patient setup with online corrections. Compared to non-gas-release rectal balloons, gas-release balloons can reduce prostate intrafraction motion in the SI and AP directions caused by gas buildup.

  6. Reduction of prostate intrafraction motion using gas-release rectal balloons

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    Su Zhong; Zhao Tianyu; Li Zuofeng; Hoppe, Brad; Henderson, Randy; Mendenhall, William; Nichols, R. Charles; Marcus, Robert; Mendenhall, Nancy [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida 32206 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To analyze prostate intrafraction motion using both non-gas-release (NGR) and gas-release (GR) rectal balloons and to evaluate the ability of GR rectal balloons to reduce prostate intrafraction motion. Methods: Twenty-nine patients with NGR rectal balloons and 29 patients with GR balloons were randomly selected from prostate patients treated with proton therapy at University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute (Jacksonville, FL). Their pretreatment and post-treatment orthogonal radiographs were analyzed, and both pretreatment setup residual error and intrafraction-motion data were obtained. Population histograms of intrafraction motion were plotted for both types of balloons. Population planning target-volume (PTV) margins were calculated with the van Herk formula of 2.5{Sigma}+ 0.7{sigma} to account for setup residual errors and intrafraction motion errors. Results: Pretreatment and post-treatment radiographs indicated that the use of gas-release rectal balloons reduced prostate intrafraction motion along superior-inferior (SI) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions. Similar patient setup residual errors were exhibited for both types of balloons. Gas-release rectal balloons resulted in PTV margin reductions from 3.9 to 2.8 mm in the SI direction, 3.1 to 1.8 mm in the AP direction, and an increase from 1.9 to 2.1 mm in the left-right direction. Conclusions: Prostate intrafraction motion is an important uncertainty source in radiotherapy after image-guided patient setup with online corrections. Compared to non-gas-release rectal balloons, gas-release balloons can reduce prostate intrafraction motion in the SI and AP directions caused by gas buildup.

  7. Influence of Antiflatulent Dietary Advice on Intrafraction Motion for Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lips, Irene M.; Kotte, Alexis N.T.J.; Gils, Carla H. van; Leerdam, Monique E. van; Heide, Uulke A. van der; Vulpen, Marco van

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of an antiflatulent dietary advice on the intrafraction prostate motion in patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between February 2002 and December 2009, 977 patients received five-beam IMRT for prostate cancer to a dose of 76 Gy in 35 fractions combined with fiducial markers for position verification. In July 2008, the diet, consisting of dietary guidelines to obtain regular bowel movements and to reduce intestinal gas by avoiding certain foods and air swallowing, was introduced to reduce the prostate motion. The intrafraction prostate movement was determined from the portal images of the first segment of all five beams. Clinically relevant intrafraction motion was defined as ≥50% of the fractions with an intrafraction motion outside a range of 3 mm. Results: A total of 739 patients were treated without the diet and 105 patients were treated with radiotherapy after introduction of the diet. The median and interquartile range of the average intrafraction motion per patient was 2.53 mm (interquartile range, 2.2–3.0) without the diet and 3.00 mm (interquartile range, 2.4–3.5) with the diet (p < .0001). The percentage of patients with clinically relevant intrafraction motion increased statistically significant from 19.1% without diet to 42.9% with a diet (odds ratio, 3.18; 95% confidence interval, 2.07–4.88; p < .0001). Conclusions: The results of the present study suggest that antiflatulent dietary advice for patients undergoing IMRT for prostate cancer does not reduce the intrafraction movement of the prostate. Therefore, antiflatulent dietary advice is not recommended in clinical practice for this purpose.

  8. Real-Time Study of Prostate Intrafraction Motion During External Beam Radiotherapy With Daily Endorectal Balloon

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    Both, Stefan, E-mail: Stefan.Both@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Plastaras, John P.; Deville, Curtiland; Bar Ad, Voika; Tochner, Zelig; Vapiwala, Neha [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To prospectively investigate intrafraction prostate motion during radiofrequency-guided prostate radiotherapy with implanted electromagnetic transponders when daily endorectal balloon (ERB) is used. Methods and Materials: Intrafraction prostate motion from 24 patients in 787 treatment sessions was evaluated based on three-dimensional (3D), lateral, cranial-caudal (CC), and anterior-posterior (AP) displacements. The mean percentage of time with 3D, lateral, CC, and AP prostate displacements >2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 mm in 1 minute intervals was calculated for up to 6 minutes of treatment time. Correlation between the mean percentage time with 3D prostate displacement >3 mm vs. treatment week was investigated. Results: The percentage of time with 3D prostate movement >2, 3, and 4 mm increased with elapsed treatment time (p < 0.05). Prostate movement >5 mm was independent of elapsed treatment time (p = 0.11). The overall mean time with prostate excursions >3 mm was 5%. Directional analysis showed negligible lateral prostate motion; AP and CC motion were comparable. The fraction of time with 3D prostate movement >3 mm did not depend on treatment week of (p > 0.05) over a 4-minute mean treatment time. Conclusions: Daily endorectal balloon consistently stabilizes the prostate, preventing clinically significant displacement (>5 mm). A 3-mm internal margin may sufficiently account for 95% of intrafraction prostate movement for up to 6 minutes of treatment time. Directional analysis suggests that the lateral internal margin could be further reduced to 2 mm.

  9. Simulating intrafraction prostate motion with a random walk model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Pommer, PhD

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: Random walk modeling is feasible and recreated the characteristics of the observed prostate motion. Introducing artificial transient motion did not improve the overall agreement, although the first 30 seconds of the traces were better reproduced. The model provides a simple estimate of prostate motion during delivery of radiation therapy.

  10. Intra-fraction motion of the prostate is a random walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballhausen, H.; Li, M.; Hegemann, N.-S.; Ganswindt, U.; Belka, C.

    2015-01-01

    A random walk model for intra-fraction motion has been proposed, where at each step the prostate moves a small amount from its current position in a random direction. Online tracking data from perineal ultrasound is used to validate or reject this model against alternatives. Intra-fraction motion of a prostate was recorded by 4D ultrasound (Elekta Clarity system) during 84 fractions of external beam radiotherapy of six patients. In total, the center of the prostate was tracked for 8 h in intervals of 4 s. Maximum likelihood model parameters were fitted to the data. The null hypothesis of a random walk was tested with the Dickey-Fuller test. The null hypothesis of stationarity was tested by the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin test. The increase of variance in prostate position over time and the variability in motility between fractions were analyzed. Intra-fraction motion of the prostate was best described as a stochastic process with an auto-correlation coefficient of ρ = 0.92  ±  0.13. The random walk hypothesis (ρ = 1) could not be rejected (p = 0.27). The static noise hypothesis (ρ = 0) was rejected (p test rejected the null hypothesis ρ = 1 in 25% to 32% of cases. On average, the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin test rejected the null hypothesis ρ = 0 with a probability of 93% to 96%. The variance in prostate position increased linearly over time (r2 = 0.9  ±  0.1). Variance kept increasing and did not settle at a maximum as would be expected from a stationary process. There was substantial variability in motility between fractions and patients with maximum aberrations from isocenter ranging from 0.5 mm to over 10 mm in one patient alone. In conclusion, evidence strongly suggests that intra-fraction motion of the prostate is a random walk and neither static (like inter-fraction setup errors) nor stationary (like a cyclic motion such as breathing, for example). The prostate tends to drift away from the isocenter during a fraction, and

  11. Intra-fraction motion of the prostate is a random walk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballhausen, H; Li, M; Hegemann, N-S; Ganswindt, U; Belka, C

    2015-01-01

    A random walk model for intra-fraction motion has been proposed, where at each step the prostate moves a small amount from its current position in a random direction. Online tracking data from perineal ultrasound is used to validate or reject this model against alternatives. Intra-fraction motion of a prostate was recorded by 4D ultrasound (Elekta Clarity system) during 84 fractions of external beam radiotherapy of six patients. In total, the center of the prostate was tracked for 8 h in intervals of 4 s. Maximum likelihood model parameters were fitted to the data. The null hypothesis of a random walk was tested with the Dickey–Fuller test. The null hypothesis of stationarity was tested by the Kwiatkowski–Phillips–Schmidt–Shin test. The increase of variance in prostate position over time and the variability in motility between fractions were analyzed. Intra-fraction motion of the prostate was best described as a stochastic process with an auto-correlation coefficient of ρ = 0.92  ±  0.13. The random walk hypothesis (ρ = 1) could not be rejected (p = 0.27). The static noise hypothesis (ρ = 0) was rejected (p < 0.001). The Dickey–Fuller test rejected the null hypothesis ρ = 1 in 25% to 32% of cases. On average, the Kwiatkowski–Phillips–Schmidt–Shin test rejected the null hypothesis ρ = 0 with a probability of 93% to 96%. The variance in prostate position increased linearly over time (r 2 = 0.9  ±  0.1). Variance kept increasing and did not settle at a maximum as would be expected from a stationary process. There was substantial variability in motility between fractions and patients with maximum aberrations from isocenter ranging from 0.5 mm to over 10 mm in one patient alone. In conclusion, evidence strongly suggests that intra-fraction motion of the prostate is a random walk and neither static (like inter-fraction setup errors) nor stationary (like a cyclic motion such as breathing, for example). The prostate tends to

  12. Effect of Intrafraction Prostate Motion on Proton Pencil Beam Scanning Delivery: A Quantitative Assessment

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    Tang, Shikui, E-mail: TangS@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Deville, Curtiland; McDonough, James; Tochner, Zelig [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Vapiwala, Neha; Both, Stefan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To assess the dosimetric impact caused by the interplay between intrafraction prostate motion and the intermittent delivery of proton pencil beam scanning (PBS). Methods and Materials: A cohort of 10 prostate patients was treated with PBS using a bilateral single-field uniform dose (SFUD) modality. Bilateral intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plans were generated for comparison. Because beam-on time in PBS was intermittent, the actual beam-on time was determined from treatment logs. Prostate motion was generalized according to real-time Calypso tracking data from our previously reported prospective photon trial. We investigated potential dose deviations by considering the interplay effect resulting from the worst-case scenario motion and the PBS delivery sequence. Results: For both bilateral-field SFUD and IMPT plans, clinical target volume (CTV) D{sub 99}% coverage was degraded <2% owing to prostate intrafraction motion when averaged over the course of treatment, but was >10% for the worst fraction. The standard deviation of CTV D{sub 99}% distribution was approximately 1.2%. The CTV coverage of individual fields in SFUD plans degraded as time elapsed after the initial alignment, owing to prostate drift. Intensity-modulated proton therapy and SFUD demonstrated comparable results when bilateral opposed fields were used. Single-field SFUD plans that were repainted twice, which could reduce half of the treatment time, resulted in similar CTV coverage as bilateral-field plans. Conclusions: Intrafraction prostate motion affects the actual delivered dose to CTV; however, when averaged over the course of treatment, CTV D{sub 99}% coverage degraded only approximately 2% even for the worst-case scenario. The IMPT plan results are comparable to those of the SFUD plan, and similar coverage can be achieved if treated by SFUD 1 lateral field per day when rescanning the field twice to shorten the treatment time and mitigate intrafraction motion.

  13. A Study to Quantify the Effectiveness of Daily Endorectal Balloon for Prostate Intrafraction Motion Management

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    Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin, E-mail: wangken@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Vapiwala, Neha; Deville, Curtiland; Plastaras, John P.; Scheuermann, Ryan; Lin Haibo; Bar Ad, Voika; Tochner, Zelig; Both, Stefan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To quantify intrafraction prostate motion between patient groups treated with and without daily endorectal balloon (ERB) employed during prostate radiotherapy and establish the effectiveness of the ERB. Methods: Real-time intrafraction prostate motion from 29 non-ERB (1,061 sessions) and 30 ERB (1,008 sessions) patients was evaluated based on three-dimensional (3D), left, right, cranial, caudal, anterior, and posterior displacements. The average percentage of time with 3D and unidirectional prostate displacements >2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 mm in 1-min intervals was calculated for up to 6 min of treatment time. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov method was used to evaluate the intrafraction prostate motion pattern between both groups. Results: Large 3D motion (up to 1 cm or more) was only observed in the non-ERB group. The motion increased as a function of elapsed time for displacements >2-8 mm for the non-ERB group and >2-4 mm for the ERB group (p < 0.05). The percentage time distributions between the two groups were significantly different for motion >5 mm (p < 0.05). The 3D symmetrical internal margin (IM) can be reduced from 5 to 3 mm (40% reduction), whereas the asymmetrical IM can be reduced from 3 to 2 mm (33% reduction) in cranial, caudal, anterior, and posterior for 6 min of treatment, when ERB is used. Beyond 6 min, the symmetrical 3D and asymmetrical cranial, caudal, anterior, and posterior IMs can be reduced from 9, 4, 7, 7, and 8 to 5, 2, 5, 3, and 4 mm, respectively (up to 57% reduction). Conclusion: The percentage of time that the prostate was displaced in any direction was less in the ERB group for almost all magnitudes of motion considered. The directional analysis shows that the ERB reduced IMs in almost all directions, especially the anterior-posterior direction.

  14. A Prospective Study of Intrafraction Prostate Motion in the Prone vs. Supine Position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilder, Richard B.; Chittenden, Lucy; Mesa, Albert V.; Bunyapanasarn, Jane; Agustin, Jeff; Lizarde, Jessica; Ravera, John; Tokita, Kenneth M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively analyze prostate intrafraction motion in the prone vs. supine position and to assess patient satisfaction with these two positions. Methods and Materials: Fifteen prostate cancer patients underwent implantation of five fiducial gold seeds in their prostate for localization. Patients were treated with high-dose-rate brachytherapy to 2,200 cGy followed by intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to 5,040 cGy. Patients underwent computed tomography simulation and IMRT in the prone position. For the first five IMRT treatments, an electronic portal imaging system was used to acquire anteroposterior (AP) and lateral images pretreatment and posttreatment. We then repositioned each patient supine and repeated the process, resulting in 600 images. Results: Mean ± standard deviation intrafraction prostate motion was 2.1 ± 1.2 mm and 1.7 ± 1.4 mm (AP, p = 0.47), 2.2 ± 2.0 mm and 1.6 ± 1.8 mm (superoinferior, p = 0.16), and 1.0 ± 1.2 mm and 0.6 ± 0.9 mm (left-right, p = 0.03) in the prone and supine positions, respectively. Eighty percent of patients stated that they were more comfortable in the supine position (p = 0.02). Conclusions: Prone and supine positions resulted in a similar magnitude of AP and superoinferior intrafraction prostate motion (2 mm). Because there was no significant difference in the magnitude of AP and superoinferior prostate motion prone vs. supine and patients were more comfortable in the supine position, patients now undergo IMRT to the prostate and seminal vesicles at our center in the supine position.

  15. Intra-fraction motion of the prostate during treatment with helical tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Simon J.; Ashburner, Mark; Tudor, George Samuel J.; Treeby, Jo; Dean, June; Routsis, Donna; Rimmer, Yvonne L.; Russell, Simon G.; Burnet, Neil G.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: To measure the geometric uncertainty resulting from intra-fraction motion and intra-observer image matching, for patients having image-guided prostate radiotherapy on TomoTherapy. Material and methods: All patients had already been selected for prostate radiotherapy on TomoTherapy, with daily MV-CT imaging. The study involved performing an additional MV-CT image at the end of treatment, on 5 occasions during the course of 37 treatments. 54 patients were recruited to the study. A new formula was derived to calculate the PTV margin for intra-fraction motion. Results: The mean values of the intra-fraction differences were 0.0 mm, 0.5 mm, 0.5 mm and 0.0° for LR, SI, AP and roll, respectively. The corresponding standard deviations were 1.1 mm, 0.8 mm, 0.8 mm and 0.6° for systematic uncertainties (Σ), 1.3 mm, 2.0 mm, 2.2 mm and 0.3° for random uncertainties (σ). This intra-fraction motion requires margins of 2.2 mm in LR, 2.1 mm in SI and 2.1 mm in AP directions. Inclusion of estimates of the effect of rotations and matching errors increases these margins to approximately 4 mm in LR and 5 mm in SI and AP directions. Conclusions: A new margin recipe has been developed to calculate margins for intra-fraction motion. This recipe is applicable to any measurement technique that is based on the difference between images taken before and after treatment

  16. Determining intrafractional prostate motion using four dimensional ultrasound system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Mariwan; Behrens, Claus F.

    2016-01-01

    , LR, and AP directions, respectively. The mean of the maximal intrafractional Euclidean distance (3D vector) was 0.9 +/- 0.6 mm. For 12 % of the fractions the maximal 3D vector displacements were larger than 2.0 mm. At only two fractions (4 %) displacements larger than 3. 0 mm were observed...

  17. Optimizing monoscopic kV fluoro acquisition for prostate intrafraction motion evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, Justus; Wu Qiuwen

    2009-01-01

    Monoscopic kV imaging during radiotherapy has been recently implemented for prostate intrafraction motion evaluation. However, the accuracy of 3D localization techniques from monoscopic imaging of prostate and the effect of acquisition parameters on the 3D accuracy have not been studied in detail, with imaging dose remaining a concern. In this paper, we investigate methods to optimize the kV acquisition parameters and imaging protocol to achieve improved 3D localization and 2D image registration accuracy for minimal imaging dose. Prostate motion during radiotherapy was simulated using existing cine-MRI measurements, and was used to investigate the accuracy of various 3D localization techniques and the effect of the kV acquisition protocol. We also investigated the relationship between mAs and the accuracy of the 2D image registration for localization of fiducial markers and we measured imaging dose for a 30 cm diameter phantom to evaluate the necessary dose to achieve acceptable image registration accuracy. Simulations showed that the error in assuming the shortest path to localize the prostate in 3D using monoscopic imaging during a typical IMRT fraction will be less than ∼1.5 mm for 95% of localizations, and will also depend on prostate motion distribution, treatment duration and image acquisition and treatment protocol. Most uncertainty cannot be reduced from higher imaging frequency or acquiring during gantry rotation between beams. Measured maximum surface dose to the cylindrical phantom from monoscopic kV intrafraction acquisitions varied between 0.4 and 5.5 mGy, depending on the acquisition protocol, and was lower than the required dose for CBCT (21.1 mGy). Imaging dose can be lowered by ∼15-40% when mAs is optimized with acquisition angle. Images acquired during MV beam delivery require increased mAs to obtain the same level of registration accuracy, with mAs/registration increasing roughly linearly with field size and dose rate.

  18. Six-dimensional correction of intra-fractional prostate motion with CyberKnife stereotactic body radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean eCollins

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractLarge fraction radiation therapy offers a shorter course of treatment and radiobiological advantages for prostate cancer treatment. The CyberKnife is an attractive technology for delivering large fraction doses based on the ability to deliver highly conformal radiation therapy to moving targets. In addition to intra-fractional translational motion (left-right, superior-inferior and anterior-posterior, prostate rotation (pitch, roll and yaw can increase geographical miss risk. We describe our experience with six-dimensional (6D intrafraction prostate motion correction using CyberKnife stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT. Eighty-eight patients were treated by SBRT alone or with supplemental external radiation therapy. Trans-perineal placement of four gold fiducials within the prostate accommodated X-ray guided prostate localization and beam adjustment. Fiducial separation and non-overlapping positioning permitted the orthogonal imaging required for 6D tracking. Fiducial placement accuracy was assessed using the CyberKnife fiducial extraction algorithm. Acute toxicities were assessed using Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC v3. There were no Grade 3, or higher, complications and acute morbidity was minimal. Ninety-eight percent of patients completed treatment employing 6D prostate motion tracking with intrafractional beam correction. Suboptimal fiducial placement limited treatment to 3D tracking in 2 patients. Our experience may guide others in performing 6D correction of prostate motion with CyberKnife SBRT.

  19. Radiopaque marker motion during pre-treatment CBCT as a predictor of intra-fractional prostate movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernchou, Uffe; Brink, Carsten; Agergaard, Soeren N.

    2013-01-01

    The intra-fractional movement of the prostate constitutes a hindrance for the reduction of the planning target volume margin for prostate cancer patients. Monitoring the movement of the prostate during treatment is a promising but in most centres not feasible solution. However, the projection images of the pre-treatment cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) provide information about the motion of the target immediately preceding the treatment. This motion information can be extracted from any standard CBCT scan which is available in many institutions. In this study we measure the motion of the prostate during the pre-treatment CBCT and investigate whether this motion is correlated with the intra-fractional movement of the prostate. Material and methods: Pre- and post-treatment CBCT scans were made during a number of the fractions (average 11 range 8-12) for 13 prostate cancer patients during the radiation treatment course. The displacement of the post-treatment CBCT scans relative to the pre-treatment position was used to assess the intra-fractional motion. Automated image analysis was used to track the 2D position of radiopaque markers in the projection images of the scans. The most probable 3D trajectory of the markers during the CBCT scan was estimated based on a probability density function which was established for each individual scan. Results: The accuracy of the tracking algorithm was found satisfactory and the motion of the markers during the CBCT scans was successfully extracted from the projection images. This motion was generally small and uncorrelated with the subsequent intra-fractional movement of the prostate. The correlation coefficients were - 0.05, 0.07, and - 0.05 in the LR, AP, and CC direction, respectively. Conclusion: It is tempting to exploit the pre-treatment CBCT to predict the intra-fractional movement of the prostate but, unfortunately, we have found no correlation between the intra-fractional movement and the motion of the prostate

  20. A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Randomized Clinical Trial With Magnesium Oxide to Reduce Intrafraction Prostate Motion for Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lips, Irene M., E-mail: i.m.lips@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Gils, Carla H. van [Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kotte, Alexis N.T.J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Leerdam, Monique E. van [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Franken, Stefan P.G.; Heide, Uulke A. van der; Vulpen, Marco van [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether magnesium oxide during external-beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer reduces intrafraction prostate motion in a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial. Methods and Materials: At the Department of Radiotherapy, prostate cancer patients scheduled for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (77 Gy in 35 fractions) using fiducial marker-based position verification were randomly assigned to receive magnesium oxide (500 mg twice a day) or placebo during radiotherapy. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with clinically relevant intrafraction prostate motion, defined as the proportion of patients who demonstrated in {>=}50% of the fractions an intrafraction motion outside a range of 2 mm. Secondary outcome measures included quality of life and acute toxicity. Results: In total, 46 patients per treatment arm were enrolled. The primary endpoint did not show a statistically significant difference between the treatment arms with a percentage of patients with clinically relevant intrafraction motion of 83% in the magnesium oxide arm as compared with 80% in the placebo arm (p = 1.00). Concerning the secondary endpoints, exploratory analyses demonstrated a trend towards worsened quality of life and slightly more toxicity in the magnesium oxide arm than in the placebo arm; however, these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Magnesium oxide is not effective in reducing the intrafraction prostate motion during external-beam radiotherapy, and therefore there is no indication to use it in clinical practice for this purpose.

  1. Planning Target Margin Calculations for Prostate Radiotherapy Based on Intrafraction and Interfraction Motion Using Four Localization Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltran, Chris; Herman, Michael G.; Davis, Brian J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To determine planning target volume (PTV) margins for prostate radiotherapy based on the internal margin (IM) (intrafractional motion) and the setup margin (SM) (interfractional motion) for four daily localization methods: skin marks (tattoo), pelvic bony anatomy (bone), intraprostatic gold seeds using a 5-mm action threshold, and using no threshold. Methods and Materials: Forty prostate cancer patients were treated with external radiotherapy according to an online localization protocol using four intraprostatic gold seeds and electronic portal images (EPIs). Daily localization and treatment EPIs were obtained. These data allowed inter- and intrafractional analysis of prostate motion. The SM for the four daily localization methods and the IM were determined. Results: A total of 1532 fractions were analyzed. Tattoo localization requires a SM of 6.8 mm left-right (LR), 7.2 mm inferior-superior (IS), and 9.8 mm anterior-posterior (AP). Bone localization requires 3.1, 8.9, and 10.7 mm, respectively. The 5-mm threshold localization requires 4.0, 3.9, and 3.7 mm. No threshold localization requires 3.4, 3.2, and 3.2 mm. The intrafractional prostate motion requires an IM of 2.4 mm LR, 3.4 mm IS and AP. The PTV margin using the 5-mm threshold, including interobserver uncertainty, IM, and SM, is 4.8 mm LR, 5.4 mm IS, and 5.2 mm AP. Conclusions: Localization based on EPI with implanted gold seeds allows a large PTV margin reduction when compared with tattoo localization. Except for the LR direction, bony anatomy localization does not decrease the margins compared with tattoo localization. Intrafractional prostate motion is a limiting factor on margin reduction

  2. Relationship of Imaging Frequency and Planning Margin to Account for Intrafraction Prostate Motion: Analysis Based on Real-Time Monitoring Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, William; Khan, Mohammad; Magnelli, Anthony; Stephans, Kevin; Tendulkar, Rahul; Xia, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Correction for intrafraction prostate motion becomes important for hypofraction treatment of prostate cancer. The purpose of this study was to estimate an ideal planning margin to account for intrafraction prostate motion as a function of imaging and repositioning frequency in the absence of continuous prostate motion monitoring. Methods and Materials: For 31 patients receiving intensity modulated radiation therapy treatment, prostate positions sampled at 10 Hz during treatment using the Calypso system were analyzed. Using these data, we simulated multiple, less frequent imaging protocols, including intervals of every 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 seconds. For each imaging protocol, the prostate displacement at the imaging time was corrected by subtracting prostate shifts from the subsequent displacements in that fraction. Furthermore, we conducted a principal component analysis to quantify the direction of prostate motion. Results: Averaging histograms of every 240 and 60 seconds for all patients, vector displacements of the prostate were, respectively, within 3 and 2 mm for 95% of the treatment time. A vector margin of 1 mm achieved 91.2% coverage of the prostate with 30 second imaging. The principal component analysis for all fractions showed the largest variance in prostate position in the midsagittal plane at 54° from the anterior direction, indicating that anterosuperior to inferoposterior is the direction of greatest motion. The smallest prostate motion is in the left-right direction. Conclusions: The magnitudes of intrafraction prostate motion along the superior-inferior and anterior-posterior directions are comparable, and the smallest motion is in the left-right direction. In the absence of continuous prostate motion monitoring, and under ideal circumstances, 1-, 2-, and 3-mm vector planning margins require a respective imaging frequency of every 15, 60, and 240 to account for intrafraction prostate motion while achieving

  3. A Failure Detection Strategy for Intrafraction Prostate Motion Monitoring With On-Board Imagers for Fixed-Gantry IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wu; Luxton, Gary; Xing Lei

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To develop methods to monitor prostate intrafraction motion during fixed-gantry intensity-modulated radiotherapy using MV treatment beam imaging together with minimal kV imaging for a failure detection strategy that ensures prompt detection when target displacement exceeds a preset threshold. Methods and Materials: Real-time two-dimensional (2D) marker position in the MV image plane was obtained by analyzing cine-MV images. The marker's in-line movement, and thus its time-varying three-dimensional (3D) position, was estimated by combining the 2D projection data with a previously established correlative relationship between the directional components of prostate motion. A confirmation request for more accurate localization using MV-kV triangulation was triggered when the estimated prostate displacement based on the cine-MV data was greater than 3 mm. An interventional action alert followed on positive MV-kV confirmation. To demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed method, simulation studies of conventional-fraction intensity-modulated radiotherapy sessions were done using 536 Calypso-measured prostate trajectories from 17 radiotherapy patients. Results: A technique for intrafraction prostate motion management has been developed. The technique, using 'freely available' cine-MV images and minimum on-board kV imaging (on average 2.5 images/fraction), successfully limited 3D prostate movement to within a range of 3 mm relative to the MV beam for 99.4% of the total treatment time. On average, only approximately one intervention/fraction was needed to achieve this level of accuracy. Conclusion: Instead of seeking to accurately and continuously localize the prostate target as existing motion tracking systems do, the present technique effectively uses cine-MV data to provide a clinically valuable way to minimize kV usage, while maintaining high targeting accuracy.

  4. Individualized planning target volumes for intrafraction motion during hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy boost for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Patrick; Sixel, Katharina; Morton, Gerard; Loblaw, D. Andrew; Tirona, Romeo; Pang, Geordi; Choo, Richard; Szumacher, Ewa; DeBoer, Gerrit; Pignol, Jean-Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of the study was to access toxicities of delivering a hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) boost with individualized intrafraction planning target volume (PTV) margins and daily online correction for prostate position. Methods and materials: Phase I involved delivering 42 Gy in 21 fractions using three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, followed by a Phase II IMRT boost of 30 Gy in 10 fractions. Digital fluoroscopy was used to measure respiratory-induced motion of implanted fiducial markers within the prostate. Electronic portal images were taken of fiducial marker positions before and after each fraction of radiotherapy during the first 9 days of treatment to calculate intrafraction motion. A uniform 10-mm PTV margin was used for the first phase of treatment. PTV margins for Phase II were patient-specific and were calculated from the respiratory and intrafraction motion data obtained from Phase I. The IMRT boost was delivered with daily online correction of fiducial marker position. Acute toxicity was measured using National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria, version 2.0. Results: In 33 patients who had completed treatment, the average PTV margin used during the hypofractionated IMRT boost was 3 mm in the lateral direction, 3 mm in the superior-inferior direction, and 4 mm in the anteroposterior direction. No patients developed acute Grade 3 rectal toxicity. Three patients developed acute Grade 3 urinary frequency and urgency. Conclusions: PTV margins can be reduced significantly with daily online correction of prostate position. Delivering a hypofractionated boost with this high-precision IMRT technique resulted in acceptable acute toxicity

  5. A cinematic magnetic resonance imaging study of milk of magnesia laxative and an antiflatulent diet to reduce intrafraction prostate motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, Alan M; Warde, Padraig R; Lockwood, Gina A; Kirilova, Anna K; Bayley, Andrew; Bristow, Robert; Crook, Juanita; Gospodarowicz, Mary; McLean, Michael; Milosevic, Michael; Rosewall, Tara; Jaffray, David A; Catton, Charles N

    2010-07-15

    To determine the reduction of prostate motion during a typical radiotherapy (RT) fraction from a bowel regimen comprising an antiflatulent diet and daily milk of magnesia. Forty-two patients with T1c-T2c prostate cancer voided the bladder and rectum before three cinematic magnetic resonance imaging scans obtained every 9 s for 9 min in a vacuum immobilization device. The MRIs were at baseline without bowel regimen (MRI-BL), before CT planning with bowel regimen (MRI-CT), and before a randomly assigned RT fraction (1-42) with bowel regimen (MRI-RT). A single observer tracked displacement of the posterior midpoint (PM) of the prostate. The primary endpoints were comparisons of the proportion of time that the PM was displaced >3 mm (PTPM3) from its initial position, and the secondary endpoints were comparisons of the reduction of initial rectal area, with and without the bowel regimen. The mean rectal area was: 13.5 cm(2) at MRI-BL, 12.7 cm(2) at MRI-CT, and 12.3 cm(2) at MRI-RT (MRI-BL vs. MRI-CT, p = 0.11; MRI-BL vs. MRI-CT, p = 0.07). Moving rectal gas alone (56%) and moving gas and stool (18%) caused 74% of intrafraction prostate motion. The PTPM3 was 11.3% at MRI-BL, 4.8% at MRI-CT, and 12.0% at MRI-RT (MRI-BL vs. MRI-CT, p = 0.12; MRI-BL vs. MRI-RT, p = 0.89). For subjects voiding their rectum before imaging, an antiflatulent diet and milk of magnesia laxative did not significantly reduce initial rectal area or intrafraction prostate motion. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Cinematic Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Milk of Magnesia Laxative and an Antiflatulent Diet to Reduce Intrafraction Prostate Motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichol, Alan M.; Warde, Padraig R.; Lockwood, Gina A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the reduction of prostate motion during a typical radiotherapy (RT) fraction from a bowel regimen comprising an antiflatulent diet and daily milk of magnesia. Methods and Materials: Forty-two patients with T1c-T2c prostate cancer voided the bladder and rectum before three cinematic magnetic resonance imaging scans obtained every 9 s for 9 min in a vacuum immobilization device. The MRIs were at baseline without bowel regimen (MRI-BL), before CT planning with bowel regimen (MRI-CT), and before a randomly assigned RT fraction (1-42) with bowel regimen (MRI-RT). A single observer tracked displacement of the posterior midpoint (PM) of the prostate. The primary endpoints were comparisons of the proportion of time that the PM was displaced >3 mm (PTPM3) from its initial position, and the secondary endpoints were comparisons of the reduction of initial rectal area, with and without the bowel regimen. Results: The mean rectal area was: 13.5 cm 2 at MRI-BL, 12.7 cm 2 at MRI-CT, and 12.3 cm 2 at MRI-RT (MRI-BL vs. MRI-CT, p = 0.11; MRI-BL vs. MRI-CT, p = 0.07). Moving rectal gas alone (56%) and moving gas and stool (18%) caused 74% of intrafraction prostate motion. The PTPM3 was 11.3% at MRI-BL, 4.8% at MRI-CT, and 12.0% at MRI-RT (MRI-BL vs. MRI-CT, p = 0.12; MRI-BL vs. MRI-RT, p = 0.89). Conclusion: For subjects voiding their rectum before imaging, an antiflatulent diet and milk of magnesia laxative did not significantly reduce initial rectal area or intrafraction prostate motion.

  7. SU-E-J-150: Impact of Intrafractional Prostate Motion On the Accuracy and Efficiency of Prostate SBRT Delivery: A Retrospective Analysis of Prostate Tracking Log Files

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, H; Hirsch, A; Willins, J; Kachnic, J [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Boston Medical Center and Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Qureshi, M; Katz, M; Nicholas, B; Keohan, S [Boston Medical Center and Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); De Armas, R [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Lu, H; Efstathiou, J; Zietman, A [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To measure intrafractional prostate motion by time-based stereotactic x-ray imaging and investigate the impact on the accuracy and efficiency of prostate SBRT delivery. Methods: Prostate tracking log files with 1,892 x-ray image registrations from 18 SBRT fractions for 6 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Patient setup and beam delivery sessions were reviewed to identify extended periods of large prostate motion that caused delays in setup or interruptions in beam delivery. The 6D prostate motions were compared to the clinically used PTV margin of 3–5 mm (3 mm posterior, 5 mm all other directions), a hypothetical PTV margin of 2–3 mm (2 mm posterior, 3 mm all other directions), and the rotation correction limits (roll ±2°, pitch ±5° and yaw ±3°) of CyberKnife to quantify beam delivery accuracy. Results: Significant incidents of treatment start delay and beam delivery interruption were observed, mostly related to large pitch rotations of ≥±5°. Optimal setup time of 5–15 minutes was recorded in 61% of the fractions, and optimal beam delivery time of 30–40 minutes in 67% of the fractions. At a default imaging interval of 15 seconds, the percentage of prostate motion beyond PTV margin of 3–5 mm varied among patients, with a mean at 12.8% (range 0.0%–31.1%); and the percentage beyond PTV margin of 2–3 mm was at a mean of 36.0% (range 3.3%–83.1%). These timely detected offsets were all corrected real-time by the robotic manipulator or by operator intervention at the time of treatment interruptions. Conclusion: The durations of patient setup and beam delivery were directly affected by the occurrence of large prostate motion. Frequent imaging of down to 15 second interval is necessary for certain patients. Techniques for reducing prostate motion, such as using endorectal balloon, can be considered to assure consistently higher accuracy and efficiency of prostate SBRT delivery.

  8. SU-E-J-150: Impact of Intrafractional Prostate Motion On the Accuracy and Efficiency of Prostate SBRT Delivery: A Retrospective Analysis of Prostate Tracking Log Files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, H; Hirsch, A; Willins, J; Kachnic, J; Qureshi, M; Katz, M; Nicholas, B; Keohan, S; De Armas, R; Lu, H; Efstathiou, J; Zietman, A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To measure intrafractional prostate motion by time-based stereotactic x-ray imaging and investigate the impact on the accuracy and efficiency of prostate SBRT delivery. Methods: Prostate tracking log files with 1,892 x-ray image registrations from 18 SBRT fractions for 6 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Patient setup and beam delivery sessions were reviewed to identify extended periods of large prostate motion that caused delays in setup or interruptions in beam delivery. The 6D prostate motions were compared to the clinically used PTV margin of 3–5 mm (3 mm posterior, 5 mm all other directions), a hypothetical PTV margin of 2–3 mm (2 mm posterior, 3 mm all other directions), and the rotation correction limits (roll ±2°, pitch ±5° and yaw ±3°) of CyberKnife to quantify beam delivery accuracy. Results: Significant incidents of treatment start delay and beam delivery interruption were observed, mostly related to large pitch rotations of ≥±5°. Optimal setup time of 5–15 minutes was recorded in 61% of the fractions, and optimal beam delivery time of 30–40 minutes in 67% of the fractions. At a default imaging interval of 15 seconds, the percentage of prostate motion beyond PTV margin of 3–5 mm varied among patients, with a mean at 12.8% (range 0.0%–31.1%); and the percentage beyond PTV margin of 2–3 mm was at a mean of 36.0% (range 3.3%–83.1%). These timely detected offsets were all corrected real-time by the robotic manipulator or by operator intervention at the time of treatment interruptions. Conclusion: The durations of patient setup and beam delivery were directly affected by the occurrence of large prostate motion. Frequent imaging of down to 15 second interval is necessary for certain patients. Techniques for reducing prostate motion, such as using endorectal balloon, can be considered to assure consistently higher accuracy and efficiency of prostate SBRT delivery

  9. SU-E-J-135: An Investigation of Ultrasound Imaging for 3D Intra-Fraction Prostate Motion Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shea, T; Harris, E; Bamber, J [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton, Greater London (United Kingdom); Evans, P [Centre for Vision, Speech and Signal Processing, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: This study investigates the use of a mechanically swept 3D ultrasound (US) probe to estimate intra-fraction motion of the prostate during radiation therapy using an US phantom and simulated transperineal imaging. Methods: A 3D motion platform was used to translate an US speckle phantom while simulating transperineal US imaging. Motion patterns for five representative types of prostate motion, generated from patient data previously acquired with a Calypso system, were using to move the phantom in 3D. The phantom was also implanted with fiducial markers and subsequently tracked using the CyberKnife kV x-ray system for comparison. A normalised cross correlation block matching algorithm was used to track speckle patterns in 3D and 2D US data. Motion estimation results were compared with known phantom translations. Results: Transperineal 3D US could track superior-inferior (axial) and anterior-posterior (lateral) motion to better than 0.8 mm root-mean-square error (RMSE) at a volume rate of 1.7 Hz (comparable with kV x-ray tracking RMSE). Motion estimation accuracy was poorest along the US probe's swept axis (right-left; RL; RMSE < 4.2 mm) but simple regularisation methods could be used to improve RMSE (< 2 mm). 2D US was found to be feasible for slowly varying motion (RMSE < 0.5 mm). 3D US could also allow accurate radiation beam gating with displacement thresholds of 2 mm and 5 mm exhibiting a RMSE of less than 0.5 mm. Conclusion: 2D and 3D US speckle tracking is feasible for prostate motion estimation during radiation delivery. Since RL prostate motion is small in magnitude and frequency, 2D or a hybrid (2D/3D) US imaging approach which also accounts for potential prostate rotations could be used. Regularisation methods could be used to ensure the accuracy of tracking data, making US a feasible approach for gating or tracking in standard or hypo-fractionated prostate treatments.

  10. TU-F-CAMPUS-J-01: Inference of Prostate PTV Margins in VMAT Delivery From Intra-Fraction Prostate Motion During SBRT Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thind, K; Wong, R; Gerdes, C; Chow, T [Juravinski Cancer Centre, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Wong, D [McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively quantify the intra-fraction prostate motion during stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) treatment using CyberKnife’s target tracking system, which may provide insight into expansion margins from GTV to PTV used in gantry-based treatments. CyberKnife is equipped with an active tracking system (InTempo) that tracks the four fiducials placed in the prostate gland. The system acquires intra-fraction orthogonal kV images at 45° and 315° in a sequential fashion. Methods: A total of 38 patients treated with SBRT using CyberKnife between 2011 and 2013 were studied. Dose-regime was 36.25 Gy in 5 fractions (7.25 Gy/fraction, twice per week) as per RTOG 0938 guidelines. The CyberKnife image tracking logs for all SBRT treatments using InTempo were examined. A total of 13663 images were examined for the superior/inferior (SI), anterior/posterior (AP) and left/right (LR) translation as well as roll, pitch and yaw rotations for the target position relative to the last known model position. Results: The mean ± 2 SD of intra-fraction motion was contained within 3 mm for SI and LR and 4.5 mm for AP directions at 5 minutes into the treatment delivery. It was contained within 4 mm for SI and LR and 5 mm for AP at 10 minutes. At 15 minutes into delivery, all translations were contained within 5 mm. The mean ± 2 SD of prostate roll, pitch and yaw increased with time but were contained within 5 degree at 5, 10 and 15 minutes into treatment. Additionally, target translations and rotations were within ± 1 mm and ± 1 degree for 90% and 78% of the time. Conclusion: The organ motion component of PTV margin for 10 minute VMAT delivery is contained within 4 mm in SI and LR direction and within 5 mm in the AP direction.

  11. SU-E-J-57: First Development of Adapting to Intrafraction Relative Motion Between Prostate and Pelvic Lymph Nodes Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Y; Colvill, E; O’Brien, R; Keall, P [Radiation Physics Laboratory, University of Sydney, NSW (Australia); Booth, J [Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose Large intrafraction relative motion of multiple targets is common in advanced head and neck, lung, abdominal, gynaecological and urological cancer, jeopardizing the treatment outcomes. The objective of this study is to develop a real-time adaptation strategy, for the first time, to accurately correct for the relative motion of multiple targets by reshaping the treatment field using the multi-leaf collimator (MLC). Methods The principle of tracking the simultaneously treated but differentially moving tumor targets is to determine the new aperture shape that conforms to the shifted targets. Three dimensional volumes representing the individual targets are projected to the beam’s eye view. The leaf openings falling inside each 2D projection will be shifted according to the measured motion of each target to form the new aperture shape. Based on the updated beam shape, new leaf positions will be determined with optimized trade-off between the target underdose and healthy tissue overdose, and considerations of the physical constraints of the MLC. Taking a prostate cancer patient with pelvic lymph node involvement as an example, a preliminary dosimetric study was conducted to demonstrate the potential treatment improvement compared to the state-of- art adaptation technique which shifts the whole beam to track only one target. Results The world-first intrafraction adaptation system capable of reshaping the beam to correct for the relative motion of multiple targets has been developed. The dose in the static nodes and small bowel are closer to the planned distribution and the V45 of small bowel is decreased from 110cc to 75cc, corresponding to a 30% reduction by this technique compared to the state-of-art adaptation technique. Conclusion The developed adaptation system to correct for intrafraction relative motion of multiple targets will guarantee the tumour coverage and thus enable PTV margin reduction to minimize the high target dose to the adjacent organs

  12. Analysis of intra-fraction prostate motion and derivation of duration-dependent margins for radiotherapy using real-time 4D ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Pei Ping Pang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: During radiotherapy, prostate motion changes over time. Quantifying and accounting for this motion is essential. This study aimed to assess intra-fraction prostate motion and derive duration-dependent planning margins for two treatment techniques. Material and methods: A four-dimension (4D transperineal ultrasound Clarity® system was used to track prostate motion. We analysed 1913 fractions from 60 patients undergoing volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT to the prostate. The mean VMAT treatment duration was 3.4 min. Extended monitoring was conducted weekly to simulate motion during intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT treatment (an additional seven minutes. A motion-time trend analysis was conducted and the mean intra-fraction motion between VMAT and IMRT treatments compared. Duration-dependent margins were calculated and anisotropic margins for VMAT and IMRT treatments were derived. Results: There were statistically significant differences in the mean intra-fraction motion between VMAT and the simulated IMRT duration in the inferior (0.1 mm versus 0.3 mm and posterior (−0.2 versus −0.4 mm directions respectively (p ≪ 0.01. An intra-fraction motion trend inferiorly and posteriorly was observed. The recommended minimum anisotropic margins are 1.7 mm/2.7 mm (superior/inferior; 0.8 mm (left/right, 1.7 mm/2.9 mm (anterior/posterior for VMAT treatments and 2.9 mm/4.3 mm (superior/inferior, 1.5 mm (left/right, 2.8 mm/4.8 mm (anterior/posterior for IMRT treatments. Smaller anisotropic margins were required for VMAT compared to IMRT (differences ranging from 1.2 to 1.6 mm superiorly/inferiorly, 0.7 mm laterally and 1.1–1.9 mm anteriorly/posteriorly. Conclusions: VMAT treatment is preferred over IMRT as prostate motion increases with time. Larger margins should be employed in the inferior and posterior directions for both treatment durations. Duration-dependent margins should

  13. TU-AB-303-06: Does Online Adaptive Radiation Therapy Mean Zero Margin for Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer? An Intra-Fractional Seminal Vesicles Motion Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Y; Li, T; Lee, W; Yin, F; Wu, Q [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To provide benchmark for seminal vesicles (SVs) margin selection to account for intra-fractional motion; and to investigate the effectiveness of two motion surrogates in predicting intra-fractional SV underdosage. Methods: 9 prostate SBRT patients were studied; each has five pairs of pre-treatment and post-treatment cone-beam CTs (CBCTs). Each pair of CBCTs was registered based on fiducial markers in the prostate. To provide “ground truth” for coverage evaluation, all pre-treatment SVs were expanded with isotropic margin of 1,2,3,5 and 8mm, and their overlap with post-treatment SVs were used to quantify intra-fractional coverage. Two commonly used motion surrogates, the center-of-mass (COM) and the border of contour (the most distal points in SI/AP/LR directions) were evaluated using Receiver-Operating Characteristic (ROC) analyses for predicting SV underdosage due to intra-fractional motion. Action threshold of determining underdosage for each surrogate was calculated by selecting the optimal balancing between sensitivity and specificity. For comparison, margin for each surrogate was also calculated based on traditional margin recipe. Results: 90% post-treatment SV coverage can be achieved in 47%, 82%, 91%, 98% and 98% fractions for 1,2,3,5 and 8mm margins. 3mm margin ensured the 90% intra-fractional SV coverage in 90% fractions when prostate was aligned. The ROC analysis indicated the AUC for COM and border were 0.88 and 0.72. The underdosage threshold was 2.9mm for COM and 4.1mm for border. The Van Herk’s margin recipe recommended 0.5, 0 and 1.8mm margin in LR, AP and SI direction based on COM and for border, the corresponding margin was 2.1, 4.5 and 3mm. Conclusion: 3mm isotropic margin is the minimum required to mitigate the intra-fractional SV motion when prostate is aligned. ROC analysis reveals that both COM and border are acceptable predictors for SV underdosage with 2.9mm and 4.1mm action threshold. Traditional margin calculation is less

  14. TU-AB-303-06: Does Online Adaptive Radiation Therapy Mean Zero Margin for Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer? An Intra-Fractional Seminal Vesicles Motion Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, Y; Li, T; Lee, W; Yin, F; Wu, Q

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To provide benchmark for seminal vesicles (SVs) margin selection to account for intra-fractional motion; and to investigate the effectiveness of two motion surrogates in predicting intra-fractional SV underdosage. Methods: 9 prostate SBRT patients were studied; each has five pairs of pre-treatment and post-treatment cone-beam CTs (CBCTs). Each pair of CBCTs was registered based on fiducial markers in the prostate. To provide “ground truth” for coverage evaluation, all pre-treatment SVs were expanded with isotropic margin of 1,2,3,5 and 8mm, and their overlap with post-treatment SVs were used to quantify intra-fractional coverage. Two commonly used motion surrogates, the center-of-mass (COM) and the border of contour (the most distal points in SI/AP/LR directions) were evaluated using Receiver-Operating Characteristic (ROC) analyses for predicting SV underdosage due to intra-fractional motion. Action threshold of determining underdosage for each surrogate was calculated by selecting the optimal balancing between sensitivity and specificity. For comparison, margin for each surrogate was also calculated based on traditional margin recipe. Results: 90% post-treatment SV coverage can be achieved in 47%, 82%, 91%, 98% and 98% fractions for 1,2,3,5 and 8mm margins. 3mm margin ensured the 90% intra-fractional SV coverage in 90% fractions when prostate was aligned. The ROC analysis indicated the AUC for COM and border were 0.88 and 0.72. The underdosage threshold was 2.9mm for COM and 4.1mm for border. The Van Herk’s margin recipe recommended 0.5, 0 and 1.8mm margin in LR, AP and SI direction based on COM and for border, the corresponding margin was 2.1, 4.5 and 3mm. Conclusion: 3mm isotropic margin is the minimum required to mitigate the intra-fractional SV motion when prostate is aligned. ROC analysis reveals that both COM and border are acceptable predictors for SV underdosage with 2.9mm and 4.1mm action threshold. Traditional margin calculation is less

  15. TH-CD-207A-12: Impacts of Inter- and Intra-Fractional Organ Motion for High-Risk Prostate Cancer Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan Rezaeian, N; Chi, Y; Zhou, Y; Tian, Z; Jiang, S; Hannan, R; Jia, X [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: We are conducting a clinical trial on stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for high-risk prostate cancer. Doses to three targets, prostate, intra-prostatic lesion, and pelvic lymph node (PLN) region, are escalated to three different levels via simultaneous integrated boost technique. Inter-/intra-fractional organ motions deteriorate planned dose distribution. This study aims at developing a dose reconstruction system to comprehensively understand the impacts of organ motion in our clinical trial. Methods: A 4D dose reconstruction system has been developed for this study. Using a GPU-based Monte-Carlo dose engine and delivery log file, the system is able to reconstruct dose on static or dynamic anatomy. For prostate and intra-prostatic targets, intra-fractional motion is the main concern. Motion trajectory acquired from Calypso in previously treated SBRT patients were used to perform 4D dose reconstructions. For pelvic target, inter-fractional motion is one concern. Eight patients, each with four cone beam CTs, were used to derive fractional motion. The delivered dose was reconstructed on the deformed anatomy. Dosimetric parameters for delivered dose distributions of the three targets were extracted and compared with planned levels. Results: For prostate intra-fractional motion, the mean 3D motion amplitude during beam delivery ranged from 1.5mm to 5.0mm and the average among all patients was 2.61mm. Inter-fractional motion for the PLN target was more significant. The average amplitude among patients was 4mm with the largest amplitude up to 9.6mm. The D95% deviation from planned level for prostate PTVs and GTVs are on average less than<0.1% and this deviation for intra-prostatic lesion PTVs and GTVs were more prominent. The dose at PLN was significantly affected with D{sub 95}% reduced by up to 44%. Conclusion: Intra-/inter-fractional organ motion is a concern for high-risk prostate SBRT, particularly for the PLN target. Our dose reconstruction

  16. Exploring the Margin Recipe for Online Adaptive Radiation Therapy for Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer: An Intrafractional Seminal Vesicles Motion Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Yang, E-mail: Yang.Sheng@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Li, Taoran [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Lee, W. Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Yin, Fang-Fang; Wu, Q. Jackie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: To provide a benchmark for seminal vesicle (SV) margin selection to account for intrafractional motion and to investigate the effectiveness of 2 motion surrogates in predicting intrafractional SV coverage. Methods and Materials: Fifteen prostate patients were studied. Each patient had 5 pairs (1 patient had 4 pairs) of pretreatment and posttreatment cone beam CTs (CBCTs). Each pair of CBCTs was registered on the basis of prostate fiducial markers. All pretreatment SVs were expanded with 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, and 8-mm isotropic margins to form a series of planning target volumes, and their intrafractional coverage to the posttreatment SV determined the “ground truth” for exact coverage. Two motion surrogates, the center of mass (COM) and the border of contour, were evaluated by the use of Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient and exponential fitting for predicting SV underdosage. Action threshold of each surrogate was calculated. The margin for each surrogate was calculated according to a traditional margin recipe. Results: Ninety-five percent posttreatment SV coverage was achieved in 9%, 53%, 73%, 86%, 95%, and 97% of fractions with 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, and 8-mm margins, respectively. The 5-mm margins provided 95% intrafractional SV coverage in over 90% of fractions. The correlation between the COM and border was weak, moderate, and strong in the left-right (L-R), anterior-posterior (A-P), and superior-inferior (S-I) directions, respectively. Exponential fitting gave the underdosage threshold of 4.5 and 7.0 mm for the COM and border. The Van Herk margin recipe recommended 0-, 0.5-, and 0.8-mm margins in the L-R, A-P, and S-I directions based on the COM, and 1.2-, 3.9-, and 2.5-mm margins based on the border. Conclusions: Five-millimeter isotropic margins for the SV constitute the minimum required to mitigate the intrafractional motion. Both the COM and the border are acceptable predictors for SV underdosage with 4.5- and 7.0-mm action threshold

  17. An evaluation of intrafraction motion of the prostate in the prone and supine positions using electromagnetic tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Amish P.; Kupelian, Patrick A.; Willoughby, Twyla R.; Langen, Katja M.; Meeks, Sanford L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate differences in target motion during prostate irradiation in the prone versus supine position using electromagnetic tracking to measure prostate mobility. Materials/methods: Twenty patients received prostate radiotherapy in the supine position utilizing the Calypso Localization System (registered) for prostate positioning and monitoring. For each patient, 10 treatment fractions were followed by a session in which the patient was repositioned prone, and prostate mobility was tracked. The fraction of time that the prostate was displaced by >3, 5, 7, and 10 mm was calculated for each patient, for both positions (400 tracking sessions). Results: Clear patterns of respiratory motion were seen in the prone tracks due to the influence of increased abdominal motion. Averaged over all patients, the prostate was displaced >3 and 5 mm for 37.8% and 10.1% of the total tracking time in the prone position, respectively. In the supine position, the prostate was displaced >3 and 5 mm for 12.6% and 2.9%, respectively. With both patient setups, inferior and posterior drifts of the prostate position were observed. Averaged over all prone tracking sessions, the prostate was displaced >3 mm in the posterior and inferior directions for 11.7% and 9.5% of the total time, respectively. Conclusions: With real-time tracking of the prostate, it is possible to study the effects of different setup positions on the prostate mobility. The percentage of time the prostate moved >3 and 5 mm was increased by a factor of three in the prone versus supine position. For larger displacements (>7 mm) no difference in prostate mobility was observed between prone and supine positions. To reduce rectal toxicity, radiotherapy in the prone position may be a suitable alternative provided respiratory motion is accounted for during treatment. Acute and late toxicity results remain to be evaluated for both patient positions.

  18. Intra-fractional uncertainties in image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polat, Buelent; Guenther, Iris; Wilbert, Juergen; Goebel, Joachim; Sweeney, Reinhart A.; Flentje, Michael; Guckenberger, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate intra-fractional uncertainties during intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) of prostate cancer. During IMRT of 21 consecutive patients, kilovolt (kV) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were acquired prior to and immediately after treatment: a total of 252 treatment fractions with 504 CBCT studies were basis of this analysis. The prostate position in anterior-posterior (AP) direction was determined using contour matching; patient set-up based on the pelvic bony anatomy was evaluated using automatic image registration. Internal variability of the prostate position was the difference between absolute prostate and patient position errors. Intra-fractional changes of prostate position, patient position, rectal distension in AP direction and bladder volume were analyzed. With a median treatment time of 16 min, intra-fractional drifts of the prostate were > 5 mm in 12% of all fractions and a margin of 6 mm was calculated for compensation of this uncertainty. Mobility of the prostate was independent from the bony anatomy with poor correlation between absolute prostate motion and motion of the bony anatomy (R 2 = 0.24). A systematic increase of bladder filling by 41 ccm on average was observed; however, these changes did not influence the prostate position. Small variations of the prostate position occurred independently from intra-fractional changes of the rectal distension; a weak correlation between large internal prostate motion and changes of the rectal volume was observed (R 2 = 0.55). Clinically significant intra-fractional changes of the prostate position were observed and margins of 6 mm were calculated for this intra-fractional uncertainty. Repeated or continuous verification of the prostate position may allow further margin reduction. (orig.)

  19. Intra-fractional uncertainties in image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) of prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polat, Buelent; Guenther, Iris; Wilbert, Juergen; Goebel, Joachim; Sweeney, Reinhart A.; Flentje, Michael; Guckenberger, Matthias [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2008-12-15

    To evaluate intra-fractional uncertainties during intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) of prostate cancer. During IMRT of 21 consecutive patients, kilovolt (kV) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were acquired prior to and immediately after treatment: a total of 252 treatment fractions with 504 CBCT studies were basis of this analysis. The prostate position in anterior-posterior (AP) direction was determined using contour matching; patient set-up based on the pelvic bony anatomy was evaluated using automatic image registration. Internal variability of the prostate position was the difference between absolute prostate and patient position errors. Intra-fractional changes of prostate position, patient position, rectal distension in AP direction and bladder volume were analyzed. With a median treatment time of 16 min, intra-fractional drifts of the prostate were > 5 mm in 12% of all fractions and a margin of 6 mm was calculated for compensation of this uncertainty. Mobility of the prostate was independent from the bony anatomy with poor correlation between absolute prostate motion and motion of the bony anatomy (R{sup 2} = 0.24). A systematic increase of bladder filling by 41 ccm on average was observed; however, these changes did not influence the prostate position. Small variations of the prostate position occurred independently from intra-fractional changes of the rectal distension; a weak correlation between large internal prostate motion and changes of the rectal volume was observed (R{sup 2} = 0.55). Clinically significant intra-fractional changes of the prostate position were observed and margins of 6 mm were calculated for this intra-fractional uncertainty. Repeated or continuous verification of the prostate position may allow further margin reduction. (orig.)

  20. SU-G-JeP1-02: A New Intra-Fractional Prostate Motion Tracking Method in Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) Via 2D/3D Registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Y; Rezaeian, N Hassan; Hannan, R; Jia, X [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Intra-fractional prostate motion leads uncertainty on delivered dose in radiotherapy and may cause significant dose deviation from the planned dose distribution. This is especially a concern in scenarios with a high dose per fraction and hence a long delivery time, e.g. stereotactic body radiotherapy. Knowledge about intra-fractional prostate motion is valuable to address this problem, e.g. by reconstructing delivered dose and performing adaptation. This study proposes a new approach to determine intra-fractional prostate motion in VMAT via 2D/3D maker registration. Methods: At our institution, each patient has three markers implanted in the prostate. During treatment delivery, kV triggered images were taken every three seconds to acquire 2D projection of 3D anatomy at the direction orthogonal to the therapeutic beam. Projected marker locations were identified on each projection image using template matching with geometric constraints. 3D prostate translation and rotation for each triggered image were obtained by solving an optimization problem, such that the calculated marker locations match the measured ones. Inter-image motion smoothness was employed as a constraint. We tested this method in simulation studies with five realistic prostate motion trajectories acquired via Calypso and in real phantom experiments. Results: For the simulation case, the motion range for these patients was 0.5∼6.0 mm. Root mean square (RMS) error of calculated motion along left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP) and cranial-caudal (CC) directions were 0.26mm, 0.36mm, and 0.016mm, respectively. The motion range in the phantom study along LR, AP, and CC directions were 15mm, 20mm and 10mm. The mean RMS errors along these directions were 1.99mm, 1.37mm and 0.22mm. Conclusion: A new prostate motion tracking algorithm based on kV triggered images has been developed and validated. Clinically acceptable accuracy has been achieved.

  1. Intra-fraction motion of larynx radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmus, Ismail Faruk; Tas, Bora

    2018-02-01

    In early stage laryngeal radiotherapy, movement is an important factor. Thyroid cartilage can move from swallowing, breathing, sound and reflexes. The effects of this motion on the target volume (PTV) during treatment were examined. In our study, the target volume movement during the treatment for this purpose was examined. Thus, setup margins are re-evaluated and patient-based PTV margins are determined. Intrafraction CBCT was scanned in 246 fractions for 14 patients. During the treatment, the amount of deviation which could be lateral, vertical and longitudinal axis was determined. ≤ ± 0.1cm deviation; 237 fractions in the lateral direction, 202 fractions in the longitudinal direction, 185 fractions in the vertical direction. The maximum deviation values were found in the longitudinal direction. Intrafraction guide in laryngeal radiotherapy; we are sure of the correctness of the treatment, the target volume is to adjust the margin and dose more precisely, we control the maximum deviation of the target volume for each fraction. Although the image quality of intrafraction-CBCT scans was lower than the image quality of planning CT, they showed sufficient contrast for this work.

  2. Effect of rectal enema on intrafraction prostate movement during image-guided radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youngmin; Kwak, Dong-Won; Lee, Hyung-Sik; Hur, Won-Joo; Cho, Won-Yeol; Sung, Gyung Tak; Kim, Tae-Hyo; Kim, Soo-Dong; Yun, Seong-Guk

    2015-04-01

    Rectal volume and movement are major factors that influence prostate location. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a rectal enema on intrafraction prostate motion. The data from 12 patients with localised prostate cancer were analysed. Each patient underwent image-guided radiotherapy (RT), receiving a total dose of 70 Gy in 28 fractions. Rectal enemas were administered to all of the patients before each RT fraction. The location of the prostate was determined by implanting three fiducial markers under the guidance of transrectal ultrasound. Each patient underwent preparation for IGRT twice before an RT fraction and in the middle of the fraction. The intrafraction displacement of the prostate was calculated by comparing fiducial marker locations before and in the middle of an RT fraction. The rectal enemas were well tolerated by patients. The mean intrafraction prostate movement in 336 RT fractions was 1.11 ± 0.77 mm (range 0.08-7.20 mm). Intrafraction motions of 1, 2 and 3 mm were observed in 56.0%, 89.0% and 97.6% of all RT fractions, respectively. The intrafraction movements on supero-inferior and anteroposterior axes were larger than on the right-to-left axes (P movement, calculated using the van Herk formula (2.5Σ + 0.7σ), was 1.50 mm. A daily rectal enema before each RT fraction was tolerable and yielded little intrafraction prostate displacement. We think the use of rectal enemas is a feasible method to reduce prostate movement during RT. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  3. Effect of rectal enema on intrafraction prostate movement during image-guided radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Youngmin; Kwak, Dong-Won; Lee, Hyung-Sik; Hur, Won-Jooh; Cho, Won-Yeol; Sung, Gyung Tak; Kim, Tae-Hyo; Kim, Soo-Dong; Yun, Seong-Guk

    2015-01-01

    Rectal volume and movement are major factors that influence prostate location. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a rectal enema on intrafraction prostate motion. The data from 12 patients with localised prostate cancer were analysed. Each patient underwent image-guided radiotherapy (RT), receiving a total dose of 70 Gy in 28 fractions. Rectal enemas were administered to all of the patients before each RT fraction. The location of the prostate was determined by implanting three fiducial markers under the guidance of transrectal ultrasound. Each patient underwent preparation for IGRT twice before an RT fraction and in the middle of the fraction. The intrafraction displacement of the prostate was calculated by comparing fiducial marker locations before and in the middle of an RT fraction. The rectal enemas were well tolerated by patients. The mean intrafraction prostate movement in 336 RT fractions was 1.11 ± 0.77 mm (range 0.08–7.20 mm). Intrafraction motions of 1, 2 and 3 mm were observed in 56.0%, 89.0% and 97.6% of all RT fractions, respectively. The intrafraction movements on supero-inferior and anteroposterior axes were larger than on the right-to-left axes (P < 0.05). The CTV-to-PTV margin necessary to allow for movement, calculated using the van Herk formula (2.5Σ + 0.7σ), was 1.50 mm. A daily rectal enema before each RT fraction was tolerable and yielded little intrafraction prostate displacement. We think the use of rectal enemas is a feasible method to reduce prostate movement during RT.

  4. SU-G-BRA-12: Development of An Intra-Fractional Motion Tracking and Dose Reconstruction System for Adaptive Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezaeian, N Hassan; Chi, Y; Tian, Z; Jiang, S; Hannan, R; Jia, X [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: A clinical trial on stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for high-risk prostate cancer is undergoing at our institution. In addition to escalating dose to the prostate, we have increased dose to intra-prostatic lesions. Intra-fractional prostate motion deteriorates well planned radiation dose, especially for the small intra-prostatic lesions. To solve this problem, we have developed a motion tracking and 4D dose-reconstruction system to facilitate adaptive re-planning. Methods: Patients in the clinical trial were treated with VMAT using four arcs and 10 FFF beam. KV triggered x-ray projections were taken every 3 sec during delivery to acquire 2D projections of 3D anatomy at the direction orthogonal to the therapeutic beam. Each patient had three implanted prostate markers. Our developed system first determined 2D projection locations of these markers and then 3D prostate translation and rotation via 2D/3D registration of the markers. Using delivery log files, our GPU-based Monte Carlo tool (goMC) reconstructed dose corresponding to each triggered image. The calculated 4D dose distributions were further aggregated to yield the delivered dose. Results: We first tested each module in our system. MC dose engine were commissioned to our treatment planning system with dose difference of <0.5%. For motion tracking, 1789 kV projections from 7 patients were acquired. The 2D marker location error was <1 mm. For 3D motion tracking, root mean square (RMS) errors along LR, AP, and CC directions were 0.26mm, 0.36mm, and 0.01mm respectively in simulation studies and 1.99mm, 1.37mm, and 0.22mm in phantom studies. We also tested the entire system workflow. Our system was able to reconstruct delivered dose. Conclusion: We have developed a functional intra-fractional motion tracking and 4D dose re-construction system to support our clinical trial on adaptive high-risk prostate cancer SBRT. Comprehensive evaluations have shown the capability and accuracy of our system.

  5. Impact of Intrafraction and Residual Interfraction Effect on Prostate Proton Pencil Beam Scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Shikui; Deville, Curtiland; Tochner, Zelig; Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; McDonough, James; Vapiwala, Neha; Both, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate the impact of interplay effect and plan robustness associated with intrafraction and residual interfraction prostate motion for pencil beam scanning proton therapy. Methods and Materials: Ten prostate cancer patients with weekly verification CTs underwent pencil beam scanning with the bilateral single-field uniform dose (SFUD) modality. A typical field had 10-15 energy layers and 500-1000 spots. According to their treatment logs, each layer delivery time was <1 s, with average time to change layers of approximately 8 s. Real-time intrafraction prostate motion was determined from our previously reported prospective study using Calypso beacon transponders. Prostate motion and beam delivering sequence of the worst-case scenario patient were synchronized to calculate the “true” dose received by the prostate. The intrafraction effect was examined by applying the worst-case scenario prostate motion on the planning CT, and the residual interfraction effect was examined on the basis of weekly CT scans. The resultant dose variation of target and critical structures was examined to evaluate the interplay effect. Results: The clinical target volume (CTV) coverage was degraded because of both effects. The CTV D 99 (percentage dose to 99% of the CTV) varied up to 10% relative to the initial plan in individual fractions. However, over the entire course of treatment the total dose degradation of D 99 was 2%-3%, with a standard deviation of <2%. Absolute differences between SFUD, intensity modulate proton therapy, and one-field-per-day SFUD plans were small. The intrafraction effect dominated over the residual interfraction effect for CTV coverage. Mean dose to the anterior rectal wall increased approximately 10% because of combined residual interfraction and intrafraction effects, the interfraction effect being dominant. Conclusions: Both intrafraction and residual interfraction prostate motion degrade CTV coverage within a clinically

  6. Impact of Intrafraction and Residual Interfraction Effect on Prostate Proton Pencil Beam Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Shikui, E-mail: shktang@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); ProCure Proton Therapy Center, Somerset, New Jersey (United States); Deville, Curtiland; Tochner, Zelig [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); McDonough, James; Vapiwala, Neha; Both, Stefan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate the impact of interplay effect and plan robustness associated with intrafraction and residual interfraction prostate motion for pencil beam scanning proton therapy. Methods and Materials: Ten prostate cancer patients with weekly verification CTs underwent pencil beam scanning with the bilateral single-field uniform dose (SFUD) modality. A typical field had 10-15 energy layers and 500-1000 spots. According to their treatment logs, each layer delivery time was <1 s, with average time to change layers of approximately 8 s. Real-time intrafraction prostate motion was determined from our previously reported prospective study using Calypso beacon transponders. Prostate motion and beam delivering sequence of the worst-case scenario patient were synchronized to calculate the “true” dose received by the prostate. The intrafraction effect was examined by applying the worst-case scenario prostate motion on the planning CT, and the residual interfraction effect was examined on the basis of weekly CT scans. The resultant dose variation of target and critical structures was examined to evaluate the interplay effect. Results: The clinical target volume (CTV) coverage was degraded because of both effects. The CTV D{sub 99} (percentage dose to 99% of the CTV) varied up to 10% relative to the initial plan in individual fractions. However, over the entire course of treatment the total dose degradation of D{sub 99} was 2%-3%, with a standard deviation of <2%. Absolute differences between SFUD, intensity modulate proton therapy, and one-field-per-day SFUD plans were small. The intrafraction effect dominated over the residual interfraction effect for CTV coverage. Mean dose to the anterior rectal wall increased approximately 10% because of combined residual interfraction and intrafraction effects, the interfraction effect being dominant. Conclusions: Both intrafraction and residual interfraction prostate motion degrade CTV coverage within a

  7. Dosimetric Effect of Intrafraction Motion and Residual Setup Error for Hypofractionated Prostate Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy With Online Cone Beam Computed Tomography Image Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, Justus; Wu Qiuwen; Yan Di

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the dosimetric effect and margins required to account for prostate intrafractional translation and residual setup error in a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT)-guided hypofractionated radiotherapy protocol. Methods and Materials: Prostate position after online correction was measured during dose delivery using simultaneous kV fluoroscopy and posttreatment CBCT in 572 fractions to 30 patients. We reconstructed the dose distribution to the clinical tumor volume (CTV) using a convolution of the static dose with a probability density function (PDF) based on the kV fluoroscopy, and we calculated the minimum dose received by 99% of the CTV (D 99 ). We compared reconstructed doses when the convolution was performed per beam, per patient, and when the PDF was created using posttreatment CBCT. We determined the minimum axis-specific margins to limit CTV D 99 reduction to 1%. Results: For 3-mm margins, D 99 reduction was ≤5% for 29/30 patients. Using post-CBCT rather than localizations at treatment delivery exaggerated dosimetric effects by ∼47%, while there was no such bias between the dose convolved with a beam-specific and patient-specific PDF. After eight fractions, final cumulative D 99 could be predicted with a root mean square error of <1%. For 90% of patients, the required margins were ≤2, 4, and 3 mm, with 70%, 40%, and 33% of patients requiring no right-left (RL), anteroposterior (AP), and superoinferior margins, respectively. Conclusions: For protocols with CBCT guidance, RL, AP, and SI margins of 2, 4, and 3 mm are sufficient to account for translational errors; however, the large variation in patient-specific margins suggests that adaptive management may be beneficial.

  8. Dosimetric effect of intrafraction motion and residual setup error for hypofractionated prostate intensity-modulated radiotherapy with online cone beam computed tomography image guidance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Adamson, Justus

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To quantify the dosimetric effect and margins required to account for prostate intrafractional translation and residual setup error in a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT)-guided hypofractionated radiotherapy protocol. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Prostate position after online correction was measured during dose delivery using simultaneous kV fluoroscopy and posttreatment CBCT in 572 fractions to 30 patients. We reconstructed the dose distribution to the clinical tumor volume (CTV) using a convolution of the static dose with a probability density function (PDF) based on the kV fluoroscopy, and we calculated the minimum dose received by 99% of the CTV (D(99)). We compared reconstructed doses when the convolution was performed per beam, per patient, and when the PDF was created using posttreatment CBCT. We determined the minimum axis-specific margins to limit CTV D(99) reduction to 1%. RESULTS: For 3-mm margins, D(99) reduction was <\\/=5% for 29\\/30 patients. Using post-CBCT rather than localizations at treatment delivery exaggerated dosimetric effects by ~47%, while there was no such bias between the dose convolved with a beam-specific and patient-specific PDF. After eight fractions, final cumulative D(99) could be predicted with a root mean square error of <1%. For 90% of patients, the required margins were <\\/=2, 4, and 3 mm, with 70%, 40%, and 33% of patients requiring no right-left (RL), anteroposterior (AP), and superoinferior margins, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: For protocols with CBCT guidance, RL, AP, and SI margins of 2, 4, and 3 mm are sufficient to account for translational errors; however, the large variation in patient-specific margins suggests that adaptive management may be beneficial.

  9. MO-FG-BRA-07: Intrafractional Motion Effect Can Be Minimized in Tomotherapy Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, A; Chang, S; Matney, J; Wang, A; Lian, J [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Chao, E [Accuray Incorporated, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Tomotherapy has unique challenges in handling intrafractional motion compared to conventional LINAC. In this study, we analyzed the impact of intrafractional motion on cumulative dosimetry using actual patient motion data and investigated real time jaw/MLC compensation approaches to minimize the motion-induced dose discrepancy in Tomotherapy SBRT treatment. Methods: Intrafractional motion data recorded in two CyberKnife lung treatment cases through fiducial tracking and two LINAC prostate cases through Calypso tracking were used in this study. For each treatment site, one representative case has an average motion (6mm) and one has a large motion (10mm for lung and 15mm for prostate). The cases were re-planned on Tomotherapy for SBRT. Each case was planned with 3 different jaw settings: 1cm static, 2.5cm dynamic, and 5cm dynamic. 4D dose accumulation software was developed to compute dose with the recorded motions and theoretically compensate motions by modifying original jaw and MLC to track the trajectory of the tumor. Results: PTV coverage in Tomotherapy SBRT for patients with intrafractional motion depends on motion type, amplitude and plan settings. For the prostate patient with large motion, PTV coverage changed from 97.2% (motion-free) to 47.1% (target motion-included), 96.6% to 58.5% and 96.3% to 97.8% for the 1cm static jaw, 2.5cm dynamic jaw and 5cm dynamic jaw setting, respectively. For the lung patient with large motion, PTV coverage discrepancies showed a similar trend of change. When the jaw and MLC compensation program was engaged, the motion compromised PTV coverage was recovered back to >95% for all cases and plans. All organs at risk (OAR) were spared with < 5% increase from original motion-free plans. Conclusion: Tomotherapy SBRT is less motion-impacted when 5cm dynamic jaw is used. Once the motion pattern is known, the jaw and MLC compensation program can largely minimize the compromised target coverage and OAR sparing.

  10. MO-FG-BRA-07: Intrafractional Motion Effect Can Be Minimized in Tomotherapy Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, A; Chang, S; Matney, J; Wang, A; Lian, J; Chao, E

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Tomotherapy has unique challenges in handling intrafractional motion compared to conventional LINAC. In this study, we analyzed the impact of intrafractional motion on cumulative dosimetry using actual patient motion data and investigated real time jaw/MLC compensation approaches to minimize the motion-induced dose discrepancy in Tomotherapy SBRT treatment. Methods: Intrafractional motion data recorded in two CyberKnife lung treatment cases through fiducial tracking and two LINAC prostate cases through Calypso tracking were used in this study. For each treatment site, one representative case has an average motion (6mm) and one has a large motion (10mm for lung and 15mm for prostate). The cases were re-planned on Tomotherapy for SBRT. Each case was planned with 3 different jaw settings: 1cm static, 2.5cm dynamic, and 5cm dynamic. 4D dose accumulation software was developed to compute dose with the recorded motions and theoretically compensate motions by modifying original jaw and MLC to track the trajectory of the tumor. Results: PTV coverage in Tomotherapy SBRT for patients with intrafractional motion depends on motion type, amplitude and plan settings. For the prostate patient with large motion, PTV coverage changed from 97.2% (motion-free) to 47.1% (target motion-included), 96.6% to 58.5% and 96.3% to 97.8% for the 1cm static jaw, 2.5cm dynamic jaw and 5cm dynamic jaw setting, respectively. For the lung patient with large motion, PTV coverage discrepancies showed a similar trend of change. When the jaw and MLC compensation program was engaged, the motion compromised PTV coverage was recovered back to >95% for all cases and plans. All organs at risk (OAR) were spared with < 5% increase from original motion-free plans. Conclusion: Tomotherapy SBRT is less motion-impacted when 5cm dynamic jaw is used. Once the motion pattern is known, the jaw and MLC compensation program can largely minimize the compromised target coverage and OAR sparing.

  11. Electromagnetic Tracking of Intrafraction Prostate Displacement in Patients Externally Immobilized in the Prone Position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittner, Nathan; Butler, Wayne M.; Reed, Joshua L.; Murray, Brian C.; Kurko, Brian S.; Wallner, Kent E.; Merrick, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate intrafraction prostate displacement among patients immobilized in the prone position using real-time monitoring of implanted radiofrequency transponders. Methods and Materials: The Calypso localization system was used to track prostate motion in patients receiving external beam radiation therapy (XRT) for prostate cancer. All patients were treated in the prone position and immobilized with a thermoplastic immobilization device. Real-time measurement of prostate displacement was recorded for each treatment fraction. These measurements were used to determine the duration and magnitude of displacement along the three directional axes. Results: The calculated centroid of the implanted transponders was offset from the treatment isocenter by ≥2 mm, ≥3 mm, and ≥4 mm for 38.0%, 13.9%, and 4.5% of the time. In the lateral dimension, the centroid was offset from the treatment isocenter by ≥2 mm, ≥3 mm, and ≥4 mm for 2.7%, 0.4%, and 0.06% of the time. In the superior-inferior dimension, the centroid was offset from the treatment isocenter by ≥2 mm, ≥3 mm, and ≥4 mm for 16.1%, 4.7%, and 1.5% of the time, respectively. In the anterior-posterior dimension, the centroid was offset from the treatment isocenter by ≥2 mm, ≥3 mm, and ≥4 mm for 13.4%, 3.0%, and 0.5% of the time. Conclusions: Intrafraction prostate displacement in the prone position is comparable to that in the supine position. For patients with large girth, in whom the supine position may preclude accurate detection of implanted radiofrequency transponders, treatment in the prone position is a suitable alternative.

  12. Validation of a computational method for assessing the impact of intra-fraction motion on helical tomotherapy plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngwa, Wilfred; Meeks, Sanford L; Kupelian, Patrick A; Langen, Katja M [Department of Radiation Oncology, M D Anderson Cancer Center Orlando, 1400 South Orange Avenue, Orlando, FL 32806 (United States); Schnarr, Eric [TomoTherapy, Inc., 1240 Deming Way, Madison, WI 53717 (United States)], E-mail: wilfred.ngwa@orlandohealth.com

    2009-11-07

    In this work, a method for direct incorporation of patient motion into tomotherapy dose calculations is developed and validated. This computational method accounts for all treatment dynamics and can incorporate random as well as cyclical motion data. Hence, interplay effects between treatment dynamics and patient motion are taken into account during dose calculation. This allows for a realistic assessment of intra-fraction motion on the dose distribution. The specific approach entails modifying the position and velocity events in the tomotherapy delivery plan to accommodate any known motion. The computational method is verified through phantom and film measurements. Here, measured prostate motion and simulated respiratory motion tracks were incorporated in the dose calculation. The calculated motion-encoded dose profiles showed excellent agreement with the measurements. Gamma analysis using 3 mm and 3% tolerance criteria showed over 97% and 96% average of points passing for the prostate and breathing motion tracks, respectively. The profile and gamma analysis results validate the accuracy of this method for incorporating intra-fraction motion into the dose calculation engine for assessment of dosimetric effects on helical tomotherapy dose deliveries.

  13. Effect of Body Mass Index on Intrafraction Prostate Displacement Monitored by Real-Time Electromagnetic Tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, Wayne M.; Morris, Mallory N.; Merrick, Gregory S.; Kurko, Brian S.; Murray, Brian C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate, using real-time monitoring of implanted radiofrequency transponders, the intrafraction prostate displacement of patients as a function of body mass index (BMI). Methods and Materials: The motions of Beacon radiofrequency transponders (Calypso Medical Technologies, Seattle, WA) implanted in the prostate glands of 66 men were monitored throughout the course of intensity modulated radiation therapy. Data were acquired at 10 Hz from setup to the end of treatment, but only the 1.7 million data points with a “beam on” tag were used in the analysis. There were 21 obese patients, with BMI ≥30 and 45 nonobese patients in the study. Results: Mean displacements were least in the left-right lateral direction (0.56 ± 0.24 mm) and approximately twice that magnitude in the superior-inferior and anterior-posterior directions. The net vector displacement was larger still, 1.95 ± 0.47 mm. Stratified by BMI cohort, the mean displacements per patient in the 3 Cartesian axes as well as the net vector for patients with BMI ≥30 were slightly less (<0.2 mm) but not significantly different than the corresponding values for patients with lower BMIs. As a surrogate for the magnitude of oscillatory noise, the standard deviation for displacements in all measured planes showed no significant differences in the prostate positional variability between the lower and higher BMI groups. Histograms of prostate displacements showed a lower frequency of large displacements in obese patients, and there were no significant differences in short-term and long-term velocity distributions. Conclusions: After patients were positioned accurately using implanted radiofrequency transponders, the intrafractional displacements in the lateral, superior-inferior, and anterior-posterior directions as well as the net vector displacements were smaller, but not significantly so, for obese men than for those with lower BMI.

  14. Confirmation, refinement, and extension of a study in intrafraction motion interplay with sliding jaw motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kissick, Michael W.; Boswell, Sarah A.; Jeraj, Robert; Mackie, T. Rockwell

    2005-01-01

    The interplay between a constant scan speed and intrafraction oscillatory motion produces interesting fluence intensity modulations along the axis of motion that are sensitive to the motion function, as originally shown in a classic paper by Yu et al. [Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 91-104 (1998)]. The fluence intensity profiles are explored in this note for an intuitive understanding, then compared with Yu et al., and finally further explored for the effects of low scan speed and random components of both intrafraction and interfraction motion. At slow scan speeds typical of helical tomotherapy, these fluence intensity modulations are only a few percent. With the addition of only a small amount of cycle-to-cycle randomness in frequency and amplitude, the fluence intensity profiles change dramatically. It is further shown that after a typical 30-fraction treatment, the sensitivities displayed in the single fraction fluence intensity profiles greatly diminish

  15. Real-Time 3D Image Guidance Using a Standard LINAC: Measured Motion, Accuracy, and Precision of the First Prospective Clinical Trial of Kilovoltage Intrafraction Monitoring-Guided Gating for Prostate Cancer Radiation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keall, Paul J; Ng, Jin Aun; Juneja, Prabhjot

    2016-01-01

    for prostate cancer radiation therapy. In this paper we report on the measured motion accuracy and precision using real-time KIM-guided gating. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Imaging and motion information from the first 200 fractions from 6 patient prostate cancer radiation therapy volumetric modulated arc therapy...... treatments were analyzed. A 3-mm/5-second action threshold was used to trigger a gating event where the beam is paused and the couch position adjusted to realign the prostate to the treatment isocenter. To quantify the in vivo accuracy and precision, KIM was compared with simultaneously acquired k...

  16. Kilovoltage Intrafraction Monitoring for Prostate Intensity Modulated Arc Therapy: First Clinical Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Jin Aun; Booth, Jeremy T.; Poulsen, Per R.; Fledelius, Walther; Worm, Esben Schjødt; Eade, Thomas; Hegi, Fiona; Kneebone, Andrew; Kuncic, Zdenka; Keall, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Most linear accelerators purchased today are equipped with a gantry-mounted kilovoltage X-ray imager which is typically used for patient imaging prior to therapy. A novel application of the X-ray system is kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring (KIM), in which the 3-dimensional (3D) tumor position is determined during treatment. In this paper, we report on the first use of KIM in a prospective clinical study of prostate cancer patients undergoing intensity modulated arc therapy (IMAT). Methods and Materials: Ten prostate cancer patients with implanted fiducial markers undergoing conventionally fractionated IMAT (RapidArc) were enrolled in an ethics-approved study of KIM. KIM involves acquiring kV images as the gantry rotates around the patient during treatment. Post-treatment, markers in these images were segmented to obtain 2D positions. From the 2D positions, a maximum likelihood estimation of a probability density function was used to obtain 3D prostate trajectories. The trajectories were analyzed to determine the motion type and the percentage of time the prostate was displaced ≥3, 5, 7, and 10 mm. Independent verification of KIM positional accuracy was performed using kV/MV triangulation. Results: KIM was performed for 268 fractions. Various prostate trajectories were observed (ie, continuous target drift, transient excursion, stable target position, persistent excursion, high-frequency excursions, and erratic behavior). For all patients, 3D displacements of ≥3, 5, 7, and 10 mm were observed 5.6%, 2.2%, 0.7% and 0.4% of the time, respectively. The average systematic accuracy of KIM was measured at 0.46 mm. Conclusions: KIM for prostate IMAT was successfully implemented clinically for the first time. Key advantages of this method are (1) submillimeter accuracy, (2) widespread applicability, and (3) a low barrier to clinical implementation. A disadvantage is that KIM delivers additional imaging dose to the patient.

  17. Seminal vesicle intrafraction motion analysed with cinematic magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, Suki; Dang, Kim; Fox, Chris; Bressel, Mathias; Kron, Tomas; Bergen, Noelene; Ferris, Nick; Owen, Rebecca; Chander, Sarat; Tai, Keen Hun; Foroudi, Farshad

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses seminal vesicle displacement relative to the prostate and in relation to treatment time. A group of eleven patients undergoing prostate cancer radiotherapy were imaged with a continuous 3 T cine-MRI in the standard treatment setup position. Four images were recorded every 4 seconds for 15 minutes in the sagittal plane and every 6.5 seconds for 12 minutes in the coronal plane. The prostate gland and seminal vesicles were contoured on each MRI image. The coordinates of the centroid of the prostate and seminal vesicles on each image was analysed for displacement against time. Displacements between the 2.5 percentile and 97.5 percentile (i.e. the 2.5% trimmed range) for prostate and seminal vesicle centroid displacements were measured for 3, 5, 10 and 15 minutes time intervals in the anterior-posterior (AP), left-right (LR) and superior-inferior (SI) directions. Real time prostate and seminal vesicle displacement was compared for individual patients. The 2.5% trimmed range for 3, 5, 10 and 15 minutes for the seminal vesicle centroids in the SI direction measured 4.7 mm; 5.8 mm; 6.5 mm and 7.2 mm respectively. In the AP direction, it was 4.0 mm, 4.5 mm, 6.5 mm, and 7.0 mm. In the LR direction for 3, 5 and 10 minutes; for the left seminal vesicle, it was 2.7 mm, 2.8 mm, 3.4 mm and for the right seminal vesicle, it was 3.4 mm, 3.3 mm, and 3.4 mm. The correlation between the real-time prostate and seminal vesicle displacement varied substantially between patients indicating that the relationship between prostate displacement and seminal vesicles displacement is patient specific with the majority of the patients not having a strong relationship. Our study shows that seminal vesicle motion increases with treatment time, and that the prostate and seminal vesicle centroids do not move in unison in real time, and that an additional margin is required for independent seminal vesicle motion if treatment localisation is to the prostate

  18. Intrafraction Prostate Translations and Rotations During Hypofractionated Robotic Radiation Surgery: Dosimetric Impact of Correction Strategies and Margins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Water, Steven van de, E-mail: s.vandewater@erasmusmc.nl [Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Valli, Lorella [Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Alma Mater Studiorum, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bologna University, Bologna (Italy); Aluwini, Shafak [Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Lanconelli, Nico [Alma Mater Studiorum, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bologna University, Bologna (Italy); Heijmen, Ben; Hoogeman, Mischa [Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric impact of intrafraction prostate motion and the effect of robot correction strategies for hypofractionated CyberKnife treatments with a simultaneously integrated boost. Methods and Materials: A total of 548 real-time prostate motion tracks from 17 patients were available for dosimetric simulations of CyberKnife treatments, in which various correction strategies were included. Fixed time intervals between imaging/correction (15, 60, 180, and 360 seconds) were simulated, as well as adaptive timing (ie, the time interval reduced from 60 to 15 seconds in case prostate motion exceeded 3 mm or 2° in consecutive images). The simulated extent of robot corrections was also varied: no corrections, translational corrections only, and translational corrections combined with rotational corrections up to 5°, 10°, and perfect rotational correction. The correction strategies were evaluated for treatment plans with a 0-mm or 3-mm margin around the clinical target volume (CTV). We recorded CTV coverage (V{sub 100%}) and dose-volume parameters of the peripheral zone (boost), rectum, bladder, and urethra. Results: Planned dose parameters were increasingly preserved with larger extents of robot corrections. A time interval between corrections of 60 to 180 seconds provided optimal preservation of CTV coverage. To achieve 98% CTV coverage in 98% of the treatments, translational and rotational corrections up to 10° were required for the 0-mm margin plans, whereas translational and rotational corrections up to 5° were required for the 3-mm margin plans. Rectum and bladder were spared considerably better in the 0-mm margin plans. Adaptive timing did not improve delivered dose. Conclusions: Intrafraction prostate motion substantially affected the delivered dose but was compensated for effectively by robot corrections using a time interval of 60 to 180 seconds. A 0-mm margin required larger extents of additional rotational corrections than a 3

  19. Intrafraction Prostate Translations and Rotations During Hypofractionated Robotic Radiation Surgery: Dosimetric Impact of Correction Strategies and Margins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water, Steven van de; Valli, Lorella; Aluwini, Shafak; Lanconelli, Nico; Heijmen, Ben; Hoogeman, Mischa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric impact of intrafraction prostate motion and the effect of robot correction strategies for hypofractionated CyberKnife treatments with a simultaneously integrated boost. Methods and Materials: A total of 548 real-time prostate motion tracks from 17 patients were available for dosimetric simulations of CyberKnife treatments, in which various correction strategies were included. Fixed time intervals between imaging/correction (15, 60, 180, and 360 seconds) were simulated, as well as adaptive timing (ie, the time interval reduced from 60 to 15 seconds in case prostate motion exceeded 3 mm or 2° in consecutive images). The simulated extent of robot corrections was also varied: no corrections, translational corrections only, and translational corrections combined with rotational corrections up to 5°, 10°, and perfect rotational correction. The correction strategies were evaluated for treatment plans with a 0-mm or 3-mm margin around the clinical target volume (CTV). We recorded CTV coverage (V 100% ) and dose-volume parameters of the peripheral zone (boost), rectum, bladder, and urethra. Results: Planned dose parameters were increasingly preserved with larger extents of robot corrections. A time interval between corrections of 60 to 180 seconds provided optimal preservation of CTV coverage. To achieve 98% CTV coverage in 98% of the treatments, translational and rotational corrections up to 10° were required for the 0-mm margin plans, whereas translational and rotational corrections up to 5° were required for the 3-mm margin plans. Rectum and bladder were spared considerably better in the 0-mm margin plans. Adaptive timing did not improve delivered dose. Conclusions: Intrafraction prostate motion substantially affected the delivered dose but was compensated for effectively by robot corrections using a time interval of 60 to 180 seconds. A 0-mm margin required larger extents of additional rotational corrections than a 3-mm

  20. Impact of inter- and intrafraction deviations and residual set-up errors on PTV margins. Different alignment techniques in 3D conformal prostate cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langsenlehner, T.; Doeller, C.; Winkler, P.; Kapp, K.S.; Galle, G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze interfraction and intrafraction deviations and residual set-up errors (RSE) after online repositioning to determine PTV margins for 3 different alignment techniques in prostate cancer radiotherapy. The present prospective study included 44 prostate cancer patients with implanted fiducials treated with three-dimensional (3D) conformal radiotherapy. Daily localization was based on skin marks followed by marker detection using kilovoltage (kV) imaging and subsequent patient repositioning. Additionally, in-treatment megavoltage (MV) images were obtained for each treatment field. In an off-line analysis of 7,273 images, interfraction prostate motion, RSE after marker-based prostate localization, prostate position during each treatment session, and the effect of treatment time on intrafraction deviations were analyzed to evaluate PTV margins. Margins accounting for interfraction deviation, RSE and intrafraction motion were 14.1, 12.9, and 15.1 mm in anterior-posterior (AP), superior-inferior (SI), and left-right (LR) direction for skin mark alignment and 9.6, 8.7, and 2.6 mm for bony structure alignment, respectively. Alignment to implanted markers required margins of 4.6, 2.8, and 2.5 mm. As margins to account for intrafraction motion increased with treatment prolongation PTV margins could be reduced to 3.9, 2.6, and 2.4 mm if treatment time was ≤ 4 min. With daily online correction and repositioning based on implanted fiducials, a significant reduction of PTV margins can be achieved. The use of an optimized workflow with faster treatment techniques such as volumetric modulated arc techniques (VMAT) could allow for a further decrease. (orig.)

  1. Prefraction displacement and intrafraction drift of the prostate due to perineal ultrasound probe pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Minglun; Hegemann, Nina-Sophie; Manapov, Farkhad; Kolberg, Anne; Thum, Patrick Dominik; Ganswindt, Ute; Belka, Claus [LMU Munich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Ballhausen, Hendrik [LMU Munich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); University Hospital of LMU Munich, Munich (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    In image-guided EBRT of the prostate, transperineal ultrasound (US) probes exert pressure on the perineum both during planning and treatment. Through tissue deformation and relaxation, this causes target and risk organ displacement and drift. In this study, prefraction shift and intrafraction drift of the prostate are quantified during robotic transperineal 4DUS. The position of the prostate was recorded for different positions of the probe before treatment in 10 patients (16 series of measurements). During treatment (15 patients, 273 fractions), intrafraction motion of the prostate was tracked (total of 27 h and 24 min) with the transperineal probe in place. Per 1 mm shift of the US probe in the cranial direction, a displacement of the prostate by 0.42 ± 0.09 mm in the cranial direction was detected. The relationship was found to be linear (R{sup 2} = 0.97) and highly significant (p < 0.0001). After initial contact of the probe and the perineum (no pressure), a shift of the probe of about 5-10 mm was typically necessary to achieve good image quality, corresponding to a shift of the prostate of about 2-4 mm in the cranial direction. Tissue compression and prostate displacement were well visible. During treatment, the prostate drifted at an average rate of 0.075 mm/min in the cranial direction (p = 0.0014). The pressure applied by a perineal US probe has a quantitatively similar impact on prostate displacement as transabdominal pressure. Shifts are predominantly in the cranial direction (typically 2-4 mm) with some component in the anterior direction (typically <1 mm). Slight probe pressure can improve image quality, but excessive probe pressure can distort the surrounding anatomy and potentially move risk organs closer to the high-dose area. (orig.) [German] In der bildgefuehrten Strahlentherapie der Prostata ueben perineale Ultraschallkoepfe waehrend Planung und Behandlung Druck auf das Perineum aus. Durch Gewebedeformation verursacht dies Verschiebungen von

  2. Time Dependence of Intrafraction Patient Motion Assessed by Repeat Stereoscopic Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Nuyttens, Joost J.; Levendag, Peter C.; Heijmen, Ben J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify intrafraction patient motion and its time dependence in immobilized intracranial and extracranial patients. The data can be used to optimize the intrafraction imaging frequency and consequent patient setup correction with an image guidance and tracking system, and to establish the required safety margins in the absence of such a system. Method and Materials: The intrafraction motion of 32 intracranial patients, immobilized with a thermoplastic mask, and 11 supine- and 14 prone-treated extracranial spine patients, immobilized with a vacuum bag, were analyzed. The motion was recorded by an X-ray, stereoscopic, image-guidance system. For each group, we calculated separately the systematic (overall mean and SD) and the random displacement as a function of elapsed intrafraction time. Results: The SD of the systematic intrafraction displacements increased linearly over time for all three patient groups. For intracranial-, supine-, and prone-treated patients, the SD increased to 0.8, 1.2, and 2.2 mm, respectively, in a period of 15 min. The random displacements for the prone-treated patients were significantly higher than for the other groups, namely 1.6 mm (1 SD), probably caused by respiratory motion. Conclusions: Despite the applied immobilization devices, patients drift away from their initial position during a treatment fraction. These drifts are in general small if compared with conventional treatment margins, but will significantly contribute to the margin for high-precision radiation treatments with treatment times of 15 min or longer

  3. Intra-fraction prostate displacement in radiotherapy estimated from pre- and post-treatment imaging of patients with implanted fiducial markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kron, Tomas; Thomas, Jessica; Fox, Chris; Thompson, Ann; Owen, Rebecca; Herschtal, Alan; Haworth, Annette; Tai, Keen-Hun; Foroudi, Farshad

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine intra-fraction displacement of the prostate gland from imaging pre- and post-radiotherapy delivery of prostate cancer patients with three implanted fiducial markers. Methods and materials: Data were collected from 184 patients who had two orthogonal X-rays pre- and post-delivery on at least 20 occasions using a Varian On Board kV Imaging system. A total of 5778 image pairs covering time intervals between 3 and 30 min between pre- and post-imaging were evaluated for intra-fraction prostate displacement. Results: The mean three dimensional vector shift between images was 1.7 mm ranging from 0 to 25 mm. No preferential direction of displacement was found; however, there was an increase of prostate displacement with time between images. There was a large variation in typical shifts between patients (range 1 ± 1 to 6 ± 2 mm) with no apparent trends throughout the treatment course. Images acquired in the first five fractions of treatment could be used to predict displacement patterns for individual patients. Conclusion: Intra-fraction motion of the prostate gland appears to be a limiting factor when considering margins for radiotherapy. Given the variation between patients, a uniform set of margins for all patients may not be satisfactory when high target doses are to be delivered.

  4. A strategy to correct for intrafraction target translation in conformal prostate radiotherapy: Simulation results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keall, P. J.; Lauve, A. D.; Hagan, M. P.; Siebers, J. V.

    2007-01-01

    A strategy is proposed in which intrafraction internal target translation is corrected for by repositioning the multileaf collimator position aperture to conform to the new target pose in the beam projection, and the beam monitor units are adjusted to account for the change in the geometric relationship between the target and the beam. The purpose of this study was to investigate the dosimetric stability of the prostate and critical structures in the presence of internal target translation using the dynamic compensation strategy. Twenty-five previously treated prostate cancer patients were replanned using a four-field conformal technique to deliver 72 Gy to 95% of the planning target volume (PTV). Internal translation was introduced by displacing the prostate PTV (no rotation or deformation was considered). Thirty-six randomly selected isotropic displacements of magnitude 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 cm were sampled for each patient, for a total of 3600 errors. Due to their anatomic relation to the prostate, the rectum and bladder contours were also moved with the same magnitude and direction as the prostate. The dynamic compensation strategy was used to correct each of these errors by conforming the beam apertures to the new target pose and adjusting the monitor units using inverse-square and off-axis factor corrections. The dynamic compensation strategy plans were then compared to the original treatment plans via dose-volume histogram (DVH) analysis. Changes of more than 5% of the prescription dose (3.6 Gy) were deemed clinically significant. Compared to the original treatment plans, the dynamic compensation strategy produced small discrepancies in isodose distributions and DVH analyses for all structures considered apart from the femoral heads. These differences increased with the magnitude of the internal motion. Coverage of the PTV was excellent: D 5 , D 95 , and D mean were not increased or decreased by more than 5% of the prescription dose for any of the 3600

  5. Intrafractional Target Motions and Uncertainties of Treatment Setup Reference Systems in Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Ning J.; Goyal, Sharad; Zhou Jinghao; Khan, Atif J.; Haffty, Bruce G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the magnitude of intrafractional motion and level of accuracy of various setup strategies in accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: At lumpectomy, gold fiducial markers were strategically sutured to the surrounding walls of the cavity. Weekly fluoroscopy imaging was conducted at treatment to investigate the respiration-induced target motions. Daily pre- and post-RT kV imaging was performed, and images were matched to digitally reconstructed radiographs based on bony anatomy and fiducial markers, respectively, to determine the intrafractional motion magnitudes over the course of treatment. The positioning differences of the laser tattoo- and the bony anatomy-based setups compared with those of the marker-based setup (benchmark) were also determined. The study included 21 patients. Results: Although lung exhibited significant motion, the average marker motion amplitude on the fluoroscopic image was about 1 mm. Over a typical treatment time period, average intrafractional motion magnitude was 4.2 mm and 2.6 mm based on the marker and bony anatomy matching, respectively. The bony anatomy- and laser tattoo-based interfractional setup errors, with respect to the fiducial marker-based setup, were 7.1 and 9.0 mm, respectively. Conclusions: Respiration has limited effects on the target motion during APBI. Bony anatomy-based treatment setup improves the accuracy relative to that of the laser tattoo-based setup approach. Since fiducial markers are sutured directly to the surgical cavity, the marker-based approach can further improve the interfractional setup accuracy. On average, a seroma cavity exhibits intrafractional motion of more than 4 mm, a magnitude that is larger than that which is otherwise derived based on bony anatomy matching. A seroma-specific marker-based approach has the potential to improve treatment accuracy by taking the true inter

  6. Intra-fractional bladder motion and margins in adaptive radiotherapy for urinary bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Caroline; Vestergaard, Anne; Høyer, Morten

    2015-01-01

    and to estimate population-based and patient-specific intra-fractional margins, also relevant for a future re-optimisation strategy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Nine patients treated in a clinical phase II ART trial of daily plan selection for bladder cancer were included. In the library plans, 5 mm isotropic margins......BACKGROUND: The bladder is a tumour site well suited for adaptive radiotherapy (ART) due to large inter-fractional changes, but it also displays considerable intra-fractional motion. The aim of this study was to assess target coverage with a clinically applied method for plan selection ART...... were added to account for intra-fractional changes. Pre-treatment and weekly repeat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) series were acquired in which a full three-dimensional (3D) volume was scanned every second min for 10 min (a total of 366 scans in 61 series). Initially, the bladder clinical target...

  7. Quality assurance for the clinical implementation of kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring for prostate cancer VMAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, J. A.; Booth, J. T.; O’Brien, R. T.; Huang, C.-Y.; Keall, P. J.; Colvill, E.; Poulsen, P. R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring (KIM) is a real-time 3D tumor monitoring system for cancer radiotherapy. KIM uses the commonly available gantry-mounted x-ray imager as input, making this method potentially more widely available than dedicated real-time 3D tumor monitoring systems. KIM is being piloted in a clinical trial for prostate cancer patients treated with VMAT (NCT01742403). The purpose of this work was to develop clinical process and quality assurance (QA) practices for the clinical implementation of KIM. Methods: Informed by and adapting existing guideline documents from other real-time monitoring systems, KIM-specific QA practices were developed. The following five KIM-specific QA tests were included: (1) static localization accuracy, (2) dynamic localization accuracy, (3) treatment interruption accuracy, (4) latency measurement, and (5) clinical conditions accuracy. Tests (1)–(4) were performed using KIM to measure static and representative patient-derived prostate motion trajectories using a 3D programmable motion stage supporting an anthropomorphic phantom with implanted gold markers to represent the clinical treatment scenario. The threshold for system tolerable latency is <1 s. The tolerances for all other tests are that both the mean and standard deviation of the difference between the programmed trajectory and the measured data are <1 mm. The (5) clinical conditions accuracy test compared the KIM measured positions with those measured by kV/megavoltage (MV) triangulation from five treatment fractions acquired in a previous pilot study. Results: For the (1) static localization, (2) dynamic localization, and (3) treatment interruption accuracy tests, the mean and standard deviation of the difference are <1.0 mm. (4) The measured latency is 350 ms. (5) For the tests with previously acquired patient data, the mean and standard deviation of the difference between KIM and kV/MV triangulation are <1.0 mm. Conclusions: Clinical process and

  8. Intrafraction Bladder Motion in Radiation Therapy Estimated From Pretreatment and Posttreatment Volumetric Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foroudi, Farshad, E-mail: farshad.foroudi@petermac.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Pham, Daniel [Radiation Therapy Services, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Bressel, Mathias [Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Gill, Suki [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Kron, Tomas [Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: The use of image guidance protocols using soft tissue anatomy identification before treatment can reduce interfractional variation. This makes intrafraction clinical target volume (CTV) to planning target volume (PTV) changes more important, including those resulting from intrafraction bladder filling and motion. The purpose of this study was to investigate the required intrafraction margins for soft tissue image guidance from pretreatment and posttreatment volumetric imaging. Methods and Materials: Fifty patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (T2-T4) underwent an adaptive radiation therapy protocol using daily pretreatment cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) with weekly posttreatment CBCT. A total of 235 pairs of pretreatment and posttreatment CBCT images were retrospectively contoured by a single radiation oncologist (CBCT-CTV). The maximum bladder displacement was measured according to the patient's bony pelvis movement during treatment, intrafraction bladder filling, and bladder centroid motion. Results: The mean time between pretreatment and posttreatment CBCT was 13 minutes, 52 seconds (range, 7 min 52 sec to 30 min 56 sec). Taking into account patient motion, bladder centroid motion, and bladder filling, the required margins to cover intrafraction changes from pretreatment to posttreatment in the superior, inferior, right, left, anterior, and posterior were 1.25 cm (range, 1.19-1.50 cm), 0.67 cm (range, 0.58-1.12 cm), 0.74 cm (range, 0.59-0.94 cm), 0.73 cm (range, 0.51-1.00 cm), 1.20 cm (range, 0.85-1.32 cm), and 0.86 cm (range, 0.73-0.99), respectively. Small bladders on pretreatment imaging had relatively the largest increase in pretreatment to posttreatment volume. Conclusion: Intrafraction motion of the bladder based on pretreatment and posttreatment bladder imaging can be significant particularly in the anterior and superior directions. Patient motion, bladder centroid motion, and bladder filling all contribute to changes between

  9. Adapting IMRT delivery fraction-by-fraction to cater for variable intrafraction motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, S

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for coping with variable intrafraction organ motion when delivering intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The strategy is an adaptive delivery in which the fluence delivered up to a particular fraction is subtracted from the required total-course planned fluence to create an adapted residual fluence for the next fraction. This requires that the fluence already delivered can be computed, knowing the intrafraction motion during each fraction. If the adaptation is unconstrained, as would be required for perfect delivery of the planned fluence, then the individual fractional fluences would become unphysical, with both negative components and spikes. Hence it is argued that constraints must be applied; first, positivity constraints and second, constraints to limit fluence spikes. Additionally, it is shown to be helpful to constrain other quantities which are explained. The power of the strategy is that it adapts to the (potentially variable) moving geometry during each fraction. It is not a perfect delivery but it is always better than making no adaptation. The fractionated nature of radiation therapy is thus exploited to advantage. The fluence adaptation method does not require re-planning at each fraction but this imposes limitations which are stated. The fuller theory of dose adaptation is also developed for intrafraction motion. The method is complementary to other adaptive strategies recently discussed with respect to interfraction motion

  10. Nonrandom Intrafraction Target Motions and General Strategy for Correction of Spine Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Lijun; Sahgal, Arjun; Hossain, Sabbir; Chuang, Cynthia; Descovich, Martina; Huang, Kim; Gottschalk, Alex; Larson, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize nonrandom intrafraction target motions for spine stereotactic body radiotherapy and to develop a method of correction via image guidance. The dependence of target motions, as well as the effectiveness of the correction strategy for lesions of different locations within the spine, was analyzed. Methods and Materials: Intrafraction target motions for 64 targets in 64 patients treated with a total of 233 fractions were analyzed. Based on the target location, the cases were divided into three groups, i.e., cervical (n = 20 patients), thoracic (n = 20 patients), or lumbar-sacrum (n = 24 patients) lesions. For each case, time-lag autocorrelation analysis was performed for each degree of freedom of motion that included both translations (x, y, and z shifts) and rotations (roll, yaw, and pitch). A general correction strategy based on periodic interventions was derived to determine the time interval required between two adjacent interventions, to overcome the patient-specific target motions. Results: Nonrandom target motions were detected for 100% of cases regardless of target locations. Cervical spine targets were found to possess the highest incidence of nonrandom target motion compared with thoracic and lumbar-sacral lesions (p < 0.001). The average time needed to maintain the target motion to within 1 mm of translation or 1 deg. of rotational deviation was 5.5 min, 5.9 min, and 7.1 min for cervical, thoracic, and lumbar-sacrum locations, respectively (at 95% confidence level). Conclusions: A high incidence of nonrandom intrafraction target motions was found for spine stereotactic body radiotherapy treatments. Periodic interventions at approximately every 5 minutes or less were needed to overcome such motions.

  11. Dosimetric Impact of Intrafractional Patient Motion in Pediatric Brain Tumor Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltran, Chris; Trussell, John; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the dosimetric consequences of intrafractional patient motion on the clinical target volume (CTV), spinal cord, and optic nerves for non-sedated pediatric brain tumor patients. The patients were immobilized for treatment using a customized thermoplastic full-face mask and bite-block attached to an array of reflectors. The array was optically tracked by infra-red cameras at a frequency of 10 Hz. Patients were localized based on skin/mask marks and weekly films were taken to ensure proper setup. Before each noncoplanar field was delivered, the deviation from baseline of the array was recorded. The systematic error (SE) and random error (RE) were calculated. Direct simulation of the intrafractional motion was used to quantify the dosimetric changes to the targets and critical structures. Nine patients utilizing the optical tracking system were evaluated. The patient cohort had a mean of 31 ± 1.5 treatment fractions; motion data were acquired for a mean of 26 ± 6.2 fractions. The mean age was 15.6 ± 4.1 years. The SE and RE were 0.4 and 1.1 mm in the posterior-anterior, 0.5 and 1.0 mm in left-right, and 0.6 and 1.3 mm in superior-inferior directions, respectively. The dosimetric effects of the motion on the CTV were negligible; however, the dose to the critical structures was increased. Patient motion during treatment does affect the dose to critical structures, therefore, planning risk volumes are needed to properly assess the dose to normal tissues. Because the motion did not affect the dose to the CTV, the 3-mm PTV margin used is sufficient to account for intrafractional motion, given the patient is properly localized at the start of treatment.

  12. Dosimetric implications of inter- and intrafractional prostate positioning errors during tomotherapy : Comparison of gold marker-based registrations with native MVCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wust, Peter; Joswig, Marc; Graf, Reinhold; Böhmer, Dirk; Beck, Marcus; Barelkowski, Thomasz; Budach, Volker; Ghadjar, Pirus

    2017-09-01

    For high-dose radiation therapy (RT) of prostate cancer, image-guided (IGRT) and intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) approaches are standard. Less is known regarding comparisons of different IGRT techniques and the resulting residual errors, as well as regarding their influences on dose distributions. A total of 58 patients who received tomotherapy-based RT up to 84 Gy for high-risk prostate cancer underwent IGRT based either on daily megavoltage CT (MVCT) alone (n = 43) or the additional use of gold markers (n = 15) under routine conditions. Planned Adaptive (Accuray Inc., Madison, WI, USA) software was used for elaborated offline analysis to quantify residual interfractional prostate positioning errors, along with systematic and random errors and the resulting safety margins after both IGRT approaches. Dosimetric parameters for clinical target volume (CTV) coverage and exposition of organs at risk (OAR) were also analyzed and compared. Interfractional as well as intrafractional displacements were determined. Particularly in the vertical direction, residual interfractional positioning errors were reduced using the gold marker-based approach, but dosimetric differences were moderate and the clinical relevance relatively small. Intrafractional prostate motion proved to be quite high, with displacements of 1-3 mm; however, these did not result in additional dosimetric impairments. Residual interfractional positioning errors were reduced using gold marker-based IGRT; however, this resulted in only slightly different final dose distributions. Therefore, daily MVCT-based IGRT without markers might be a valid alternative.

  13. Impact of Immobilization on Intrafraction Motion for Spine Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Winnie; Sahgal, Arjun [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Foote, Matthew [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Millar, Barbara-Ann; Jaffray, David A. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Letourneau, Daniel, E-mail: Daniel.letourneau@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: Spine stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) involves tight planning margins and steep dose gradients to the surrounding organs at risk (OAR). This study aimed to assess intrafraction motion using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for spine SBRT patients treated using three immobilization devices. Methods and Materials: Setup accuracy using CBCT was retrospectively analyzed for 102 treated spinal metastases in 84 patients. Thoracic and lumbar spine patients were immobilized with either an evacuated cushion (EC, n = 24) or a semirigid vacuum body fixation (BF, n = 60). For cases treated at cervical/upper thoracic (thoracic [T]1-T3) vertebrae, a thermoplastic S-frame (SF) mask (n = 18) was used. Patient setup was corrected by using bony anatomy image registration and couch translations only (no rotation corrections) with shifts confirmed on verification CBCTs. Repeat imaging was performed mid- and post-treatment. Patient translational and rotational positioning data were recorded to calculate means, standard deviations (SD), and corresponding margins {+-} 2 SD for residual setup errors and intrafraction motion. Results: A total of 355 localizations, 333 verifications, and 248 mid- and 280 post-treatment CBCTs were analyzed. Residual translations and rotations after couch corrections (verification scans) were similar for all immobilization systems, with SDs of 0.6 to 0.9 mm in any direction and 0.9 Degree-Sign to 1.6 Degree-Sign , respectively. Margins to encompass residual setup errors after couch corrections were within 2 mm. Including intrafraction motion, as measured on post-treatment CBCTs, SDs for total setup error in the left-right, cranial-caudal, and anterior-posterior directions were 1.3, 1.2, and 1.0 mm for EC; 0.9, 0.7, and 0.9 mm for BF; and 1.3, 0.9, and 1.1 mm for SF, respectively. The calculated margins required to encompass total setup error increased to 3 mm for EC and SF and remained within 2 mm for BF. Conclusion: Following image

  14. Study of Inter- and Intra-fraction Motion in Brain Tumor Patients Undergoing VMAT Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascencion Ybarra, Y.; Alfonso Laguardia, R.; Yartsev, S.

    2015-01-01

    Conforming dose to the tumor and sparing normal tissue can be challenging for brain tumors with complex shapes in close proximity to critical structures. The goal of this study was to evaluate the inter- and intra-fraction motion in brain tumor patients undergoing volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). The image matching software was found to be very sensitive to the choice of the region of matching. It is recommended to use the same region of interest for comparing the image sets and perform the automatic matching based on bony landmarks in brain tumor cases. (Author)

  15. Impact of Immobilization on Intrafraction Motion for Spine Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Winnie; Sahgal, Arjun; Foote, Matthew; Millar, Barbara-Ann; Jaffray, David A.; Letourneau, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Spine stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) involves tight planning margins and steep dose gradients to the surrounding organs at risk (OAR). This study aimed to assess intrafraction motion using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for spine SBRT patients treated using three immobilization devices. Methods and Materials: Setup accuracy using CBCT was retrospectively analyzed for 102 treated spinal metastases in 84 patients. Thoracic and lumbar spine patients were immobilized with either an evacuated cushion (EC, n = 24) or a semirigid vacuum body fixation (BF, n = 60). For cases treated at cervical/upper thoracic (thoracic [T]1–T3) vertebrae, a thermoplastic S-frame (SF) mask (n = 18) was used. Patient setup was corrected by using bony anatomy image registration and couch translations only (no rotation corrections) with shifts confirmed on verification CBCTs. Repeat imaging was performed mid- and post-treatment. Patient translational and rotational positioning data were recorded to calculate means, standard deviations (SD), and corresponding margins ± 2 SD for residual setup errors and intrafraction motion. Results: A total of 355 localizations, 333 verifications, and 248 mid- and 280 post-treatment CBCTs were analyzed. Residual translations and rotations after couch corrections (verification scans) were similar for all immobilization systems, with SDs of 0.6 to 0.9 mm in any direction and 0.9° to 1.6°, respectively. Margins to encompass residual setup errors after couch corrections were within 2 mm. Including intrafraction motion, as measured on post-treatment CBCTs, SDs for total setup error in the left-right, cranial-caudal, and anterior-posterior directions were 1.3, 1.2, and 1.0 mm for EC; 0.9, 0.7, and 0.9 mm for BF; and 1.3, 0.9, and 1.1 mm for SF, respectively. The calculated margins required to encompass total setup error increased to 3 mm for EC and SF and remained within 2 mm for BF. Conclusion: Following image guidance, residual setup

  16. SU-E-J-133: Evaluation of Inter- and Intra-Fractional Pancreas Tumor Residual Motions with Abdominal Compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y; Shi, F; Tian, Z; Jia, X; Meyer, J; Jiang, S; Mao, W

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Abdominal compression (AC) has been widely used to reduce pancreas motion due to respiration for pancreatic cancer patients undergoing stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). However, the inter-fractional and intra-fractional patient motions may degrade the treatment. The purpose of this work is to study daily CBCT projections and 4DCT to evaluate the inter-fractional and intra-fractional pancreatic motions. Methods: As a standard of care at our institution, 4D CT scan was performed for treatment planning. At least two CBCT scans were performed for daily treatment. Retrospective studies were performed on patients with implanted internal fiducial markers or surgical clips. The initial motion pattern was obtained by extracting marker positions on every phase of 4D CT images. Daily motions were presented by marker positions on CBCT scan projection images. An adaptive threshold segmentation algorithm was used to extract maker positions. Both marker average positions and motion ranges were compared among three sets of scans, 4D CT, positioning CBCT, and conformal CBCT, for inter-fractional and intra-fractional motion variations. Results: Data from four pancreatic cancer patients were analyzed. These patients had three fiducial markers implanted. All patients were treated by an Elekta Synergy with single fraction SBRT. CBCT projections were acquired by XVI. Markers were successfully detected on most of the projection images. The inter-fractional changes were determined by 4D CT and the first CBCT while the intra-fractional changes were determined by multiple CBCT scans. It is found that the average motion range variations are within 2 mm, however, the average marker positions may drift by 6.5 mm. Conclusion: The patients respiratory motion variation for pancreas SBRT with AC was evaluated by detecting markers from CBCT projections and 4DCT, both the inter-fraction and intra-fraction motion range change is small but the drift of marker positions may be comparable

  17. Kilovoltage Imaging of Implanted Fiducials to Monitor Intrafraction Motion With Abdominal Compression During Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Gastrointestinal Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yorke, Ellen; Xiong, Ying; Han, Qian; Zhang, Pengpeng; Mageras, Gikas; Lovelock, Michael; Pham, Hai; Xiong, Jian-Ping; Goodman, Karyn A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To assess intrafraction respiratory motion using a commercial kilovoltage imaging system for abdominal tumor patients with implanted fiducials and breathing constrained by pneumatic compression during stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: A pneumatic compression belt limited respiratory motion in 19 patients with radiopaque fiducials in or near their tumor during SBRT for abdominal tumors. Kilovoltage images were acquired at 5- to 6-second intervals during treatment using a commercial system. Intrafractional fiducial displacements were measured using in-house software. The dosimetric effect of the observed displacements was calculated for 3 sessions for each patient. Results: Intrafraction displacement patterns varied between patients and between individual treatment sessions. Averaged over 19 patients, 73 sessions, 7.6% of craniocaudal displacements exceeded 0.5 cm, and 1.2% exceeded 0.75 cm. The calculated single-session dose to 95% of gross tumor volume differed from planned by an average of −1.2% (range, −11.1% to 4.8%) but only for 4 patients was the total 3-session calculated dose to 95% of gross tumor volume more than 3% different from planned. Conclusions: Our pneumatic compression limited intrafractional abdominal target motion, maintained target position established at setup, and was moderately effective in preserving coverage. Commercially available intrafractional imaging is useful for surveillance but can be made more effective and reliable.

  18. Kilovoltage Imaging of Implanted Fiducials to Monitor Intrafraction Motion With Abdominal Compression During Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Gastrointestinal Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yorke, Ellen, E-mail: yorke@mskcc.org [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Xiong, Ying [Department of Radiation Oncology, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing (China); Han, Qian [Department of Radiotherapy, Henan Provincial People' s Hospital, Zhengzhou (China); Zhang, Pengpeng; Mageras, Gikas; Lovelock, Michael; Pham, Hai; Xiong, Jian-Ping [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Goodman, Karyn A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: To assess intrafraction respiratory motion using a commercial kilovoltage imaging system for abdominal tumor patients with implanted fiducials and breathing constrained by pneumatic compression during stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: A pneumatic compression belt limited respiratory motion in 19 patients with radiopaque fiducials in or near their tumor during SBRT for abdominal tumors. Kilovoltage images were acquired at 5- to 6-second intervals during treatment using a commercial system. Intrafractional fiducial displacements were measured using in-house software. The dosimetric effect of the observed displacements was calculated for 3 sessions for each patient. Results: Intrafraction displacement patterns varied between patients and between individual treatment sessions. Averaged over 19 patients, 73 sessions, 7.6% of craniocaudal displacements exceeded 0.5 cm, and 1.2% exceeded 0.75 cm. The calculated single-session dose to 95% of gross tumor volume differed from planned by an average of −1.2% (range, −11.1% to 4.8%) but only for 4 patients was the total 3-session calculated dose to 95% of gross tumor volume more than 3% different from planned. Conclusions: Our pneumatic compression limited intrafractional abdominal target motion, maintained target position established at setup, and was moderately effective in preserving coverage. Commercially available intrafractional imaging is useful for surveillance but can be made more effective and reliable.

  19. Management of three-dimensional intrafraction motion through real-time DMLC tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawant, Amit; Venkat, Raghu; Srivastava, Vikram; Carlson, David; Povzner, Sergey; Cattell, Herb; Keall, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Tumor tracking using a dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) represents a promising approach for intrafraction motion management in thoracic and abdominal cancer radiotherapy. In this work, we develop, empirically demonstrate, and characterize a novel 3D tracking algorithm for real-time, conformal, intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT)-based radiation delivery to targets moving in three dimensions. The algorithm obtains real-time information of target location from an independent position monitoring system and dynamically calculates MLC leaf positions to account for changes in target position. Initial studies were performed to evaluate the geometric accuracy of DMLC tracking of 3D target motion. In addition, dosimetric studies were performed on a clinical linac to evaluate the impact of real-time DMLC tracking for conformal, step-and-shoot (S-IMRT), dynamic (D-IMRT), and VMAT deliveries to a moving target. The efficiency of conformal and IMRT delivery in the presence of tracking was determined. Results show that submillimeter geometric accuracy in all three dimensions is achievable with DMLC tracking. Significant dosimetric improvements were observed in the presence of tracking for conformal and IMRT deliveries to moving targets. A gamma index evaluation with a 3%-3 mm criterion showed that deliveries without DMLC tracking exhibit between 1.7 (S-IMRT) and 4.8 (D-IMRT) times more dose points that fail the evaluation compared to corresponding deliveries with tracking. The efficiency of IMRT delivery, as measured in the lab, was observed to be significantly lower in case of tracking target motion perpendicular to MLC leaf travel compared to motion parallel to leaf travel. Nevertheless, these early results indicate that accurate, real-time DMLC tracking of 3D tumor motion is feasible and can potentially result in significant geometric and dosimetric advantages leading to more effective management of intrafraction motion

  20. Volumetric modulated arc therapy for spine SBRT patients to reduce treatment time and intrafractional motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Amoush

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT is an efficient technique to reduce the treatment time and intrafractional motion to treat spine patients presented with severe back pain. Five patients treated with spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT using 9 beams intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT were retrospectively selected for this study. The patients were replanned using two arcs VMAT technique. The average mean dose was 104% ± 1.2% and 104.1% ± 1.0% in IMRT and VMAT, respectively (p = 0.9. Accordingly, the average conformal index (CI was 1.3 ± 0.1 and 1.5 ± 0.3, respectively (p = 0.5. The average dose gradient (DG distance was 1.5 ± 0.1 cm and 1.4 ± 0.1 cm, respectively (p = 0.3. The average spinal cord maximum dose was 11.6 ± 1.0 Gy and 11.8 ± 1.1 Gy (p = 0.8 and V10Gy was 7.4 ± 1.4 cc and 8.6 ± 1.7 cc (p = 0.4 for IMRT and VMAT, respectively. Accordingly, the average number of monitor units (MUs was 6771.7 ± 1323.3 MU and 3978 ± 576.7 MU respectively (p = 0.02. The use of VMAT for spine SBRT patients with severe back pain can reduce the treatment time and intrafractional motion.

  1. Feasibility of Electromagnetic Transponder Use to Monitor Inter- and Intrafractional Motion in Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinohara, Eric T., E-mail: eric.t.shinohara@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Vanderbilt Clinic, Nashville, TN (United States); Kassaee, Alireza [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Mitra, Nandita [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Vapiwala, Neha; Plastaras, John P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Drebin, Jeff [Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Wan, Fei [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Metz, James M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of electromagnetic transponder implantation in patients with locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer. Secondarily, the use of transponders to monitor inter- and intrafractional motion, and the efficacy of breath holding for limiting target motion, were examined. Methods and Materials: During routine screening laparoscopy, 5 patients without metastatic disease were implanted with transponders peri-tumorally. The Calypso System's localization and tracking modes were used to monitor inter- and intrafractional motion, respectively. Intrafractional motion, with and without breath holding, was also examined using Calypso tracking mode. Results: Transponder implantation was well tolerated in all patients, with minimal migration, aside from 1 patient who expulsed a single transponder. Interfractional motion based on mean shifts from setup using tattoos/orthogonal imaging to transponder based localization from 164 treatments was significant in all dimensions. Mean shift (in millimeters), followed by the standard deviation and p value, were as follows: X-axis: 4.5 mm (1.0, p = 0.01); Y axis: 6.4 mm (1.9, p = 0.03); and Z-axis 3.9 mm (0.6, p = 0.002). Mean intrafractional motion was also found to be significant in all directions: superior, 7.2 mm (0.9, p = 0.01); inferior, 11.9 mm (0.9, p < 0.01); anterior: 4.9 mm (0.5, p = 0.01); posterior, 2.9 mm (0.5, p = 0.02); left, 2.2 mm (0.4, p = 0.02); and right, 3.1 mm (0.6, p = 0.04). Breath holding during treatment significantly decreased tumor motion in all directions. Conclusions: Electromagnetic transponder implantation appears to be safe and effective for monitoring inter- and intrafractional motion. Based on these results a larger clinical trial is underway.

  2. Feasibility of Electromagnetic Transponder Use to Monitor Inter- and Intrafractional Motion in Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Eric T.; Kassaee, Alireza; Mitra, Nandita; Vapiwala, Neha; Plastaras, John P.; Drebin, Jeff; Wan, Fei; Metz, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of electromagnetic transponder implantation in patients with locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer. Secondarily, the use of transponders to monitor inter- and intrafractional motion, and the efficacy of breath holding for limiting target motion, were examined. Methods and Materials: During routine screening laparoscopy, 5 patients without metastatic disease were implanted with transponders peri-tumorally. The Calypso System’s localization and tracking modes were used to monitor inter- and intrafractional motion, respectively. Intrafractional motion, with and without breath holding, was also examined using Calypso tracking mode. Results: Transponder implantation was well tolerated in all patients, with minimal migration, aside from 1 patient who expulsed a single transponder. Interfractional motion based on mean shifts from setup using tattoos/orthogonal imaging to transponder based localization from 164 treatments was significant in all dimensions. Mean shift (in millimeters), followed by the standard deviation and p value, were as follows: X-axis: 4.5 mm (1.0, p = 0.01); Y axis: 6.4 mm (1.9, p = 0.03); and Z-axis 3.9 mm (0.6, p = 0.002). Mean intrafractional motion was also found to be significant in all directions: superior, 7.2 mm (0.9, p = 0.01); inferior, 11.9 mm (0.9, p < 0.01); anterior: 4.9 mm (0.5, p = 0.01); posterior, 2.9 mm (0.5, p = 0.02); left, 2.2 mm (0.4, p = 0.02); and right, 3.1 mm (0.6, p = 0.04). Breath holding during treatment significantly decreased tumor motion in all directions. Conclusions: Electromagnetic transponder implantation appears to be safe and effective for monitoring inter- and intrafractional motion. Based on these results a larger clinical trial is underway.

  3. Three-dimensional intrafractional internal target motions in accelerated partial breast irradiation using three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Kimiko; Yoshimura, Michio; Mukumoto, Nobutaka; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Inoue, Minoru; Sasaki, Makoto; Fujimoto, Takahiro; Yano, Shinsuke; Nakata, Manabu; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2017-07-01

    We evaluated three-dimensional intrafractional target motion, divided into respiratory-induced motion and baseline drift, in accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Paired fluoroscopic images were acquired simultaneously using orthogonal kV X-ray imaging systems at pre- and post-treatment for 23 patients who underwent APBI with external beam radiotherapy. The internal target motion was calculated from the surgical clips placed around the tumour cavity. The peak-to-peak respiratory-induced motions ranged from 0.6 to 1.5mm in all directions. A systematic baseline drift of 1.5mm towards the posterior direction and a random baseline drift of 0.3mm in the lateral-medial and cranial-caudal directions were observed. The baseline for an outer tumour cavity drifted towards the lateral and posterior directions, and that for an upper tumour cavity drifted towards the cranial direction. Moderate correlations were observed between the posterior baseline drift and the patients' physical characteristics. The posterior margin for intrafractional uncertainties was larger than 5mm in patients with greater fat thickness due to the baseline drift. The magnitude of the intrafractional motion was not uniform according to the direction, patients' physical characteristics, or tumour cavity location due to the baseline drift. Therefore, the intrafractional systematic movement should be properly managed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. SU-E-J-181: Effect of Prostate Motion On Combined Brachytherapy and External Beam Dose Based On Daily Motion of the Prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayana, V; McLaughlin, P [Providence Cancer Center, Southfield, MI (United States); University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ealbaj, J [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In this study, the adequacy of target expansions on the combined external beam and implant dose was examined based on the measured daily motion of the prostate. Methods: Thirty patients received an I–125 prostate implant prescribed to dose of 90Gy. This was followed by external beam to deliver a dose of 90Gyeq (external beam equivalent) to the prostate over 25 to 30 fractions. An ideal IMRT plan was developed by optimizing the external beam dose based on the delivered implant dose. The implant dose was converted to an equivalent external beam dose using the linear quadratic model. Patients were set up on the treatment table by daily orthogonal imaging and aligning the marker seeds in the prostate. Orthogonal images were obtained at the end of treatment to assess prostate intrafraction motion. Based on the observed motion of the markers between the initial and final images, 5 individual plans showing the actual dose delivered to the patient were calculated. A final true dose distribution was established based on summing the implant dose and the 5 external beam plans. Dose to the prostate, seminal vesicles, lymphnodes and normal tissues, rectal wall, urethra and lower sphincter were calculated and compared to ideal. On 18 patients who were sexually active, dose to the corpus cavernosum and internal pudendal artery was also calculated. Results: The average prostate motion in 3 orthogonal directions was less than 1 mm with a standard deviation of less than +2 mm. Dose and volume parameters showed that there was no decrease in dose to the targets and a marginal decrease in dose to in normal tissues. Conclusion: Dose delivered by seed implant moves with the prostate, decreasing the impact of intrafractions dose movement on actual dose delivered. Combined brachytherapy and external beam dose delivered to the prostate was not sensitive to prostate motion.

  5. Effect of immobilization and performance status on intrafraction motion for stereotactic lung radiotherapy: analysis of 133 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Winnie; Purdie, Thomas G; Taremi, Mojgan; Fung, Sharon; Brade, Anthony; Cho, B C John; Hope, Andrew; Sun, Alexander; Jaffray, David A; Bezjak, Andrea; Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre

    2011-12-01

    To assess intrafractional geometric accuracy of lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) patients treated with volumetric image guidance. Treatment setup accuracy was analyzed in 133 SBRT patients treated via research ethics board-approved protocols. For each fraction, a localization cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan was acquired for soft-tissue registration to the internal target volume, followed by a couch adjustment for positional discrepancies greater than 3 mm, verified with a second CBCT scan. CBCT scans were also performed at intrafraction and end fraction. Patient positioning data from 2047 CBCT scans were recorded to determine systematic (Σ) and random (σ) uncertainties, as well as planning target volume margins. Data were further stratified and analyzed by immobilization method (evacuated cushion [n=75], evacuated cushion plus abdominal compression [n=33], or chest board [n=25]) and by patients' Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (PS): 0 (n=31), 1 (n=70), or 2 (n=32). Using CBCT internal target volume was matched within ±3 mm in 16% of all fractions at localization, 89% at verification, 72% during treatment, and 69% after treatment. Planning target volume margins required to encompass residual setup errors after couch corrections (verification CBCT scans) were 4 mm, and they increased to 5 mm with target intrafraction motion (post-treatment CBCT scans). Small differences (position were observed between the immobilization cohorts in the localization, verification, intrafraction, and post-treatment CBCT scans (pPositional drift varied according to patient PS, with the PS 1 and 2 cohorts drifting out of position by mid treatment more than the PS 0 cohort in the cranial-caudal direction (p=0.04). Image guidance ensures high geometric accuracy for lung SBRT irrespective of immobilization method or PS. A 5-mm setup margin suffices to address intrafraction motion. This setup margin may be further reduced by strategies such as

  6. A 4D dose computation method to investigate motion interplay effects in scanned ion beam prostate therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammazzalorso, F; Jelen, U

    2014-01-01

    In particle therapy, the interplay between beam scanning and target motion during treatment delivery may result in dose deterioration. Interplay effects have been studied for targets exhibiting periodic respiratory motion, however, they are not well understood for irregular motion patterns, such as those exhibited by the prostate. In this note, we propose and validate a 4D dose computation method, which enables estimation of effective dose delivered to the prostate by scanning ion beams in presence of intrafraction motion, as well as facilitates investigation of various motion interplay countermeasures. (note)

  7. Effects of intra-fraction motion on IMRT dose delivery: statistical analysis and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortfeld, Thomas; Jokivarsi, Kimmo; Goitein, Michael; Kung, Jong; Jiang, Steve B.

    2002-01-01

    There has been some concern that organ motion, especially intra-fraction organ motion due to breathing, can negate the potential merit of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). We wanted to find out whether this concern is justified. Specifically, we wanted to investigate whether IMRT delivery techniques with moving parts, e.g., with a multileaf collimator (MLC), are particularly sensitive to organ motion due to the interplay between organ motion and leaf motion. We also wanted to know if, and by how much, fractionation of the treatment can reduce the effects. We performed a statistical analysis and calculated the expected dose values and dose variances for volume elements of organs that move during the delivery of the IMRT. We looked at the overall influence of organ motion during the course of a fractionated treatment. A linear-quadratic model was used to consider fractionation effects. Furthermore, we developed software to simulate motion effects for IMRT delivery with an MLC, with compensators, and with a scanning beam. For the simulation we assumed a sinusoidal motion in an isocentric plane. We found that the expected dose value is independent of the treatment technique. It is just a weighted average over the path of motion of the dose distribution without motion. If the treatment is delivered in several fractions, the distribution of the dose around the expected value is close to a Gaussian. For a typical treatment with 30 fractions, the standard deviation is generally within 1% of the expected value for MLC delivery if one assumes a typical motion amplitude of 5 mm (1 cm peak to peak). The standard deviation is generally even smaller for the compensator but bigger for scanning beam delivery. For the latter it can be reduced through multiple deliveries ('paintings') of the same field. In conclusion, the main effect of organ motion in IMRT is an averaging of the dose distribution without motion over the path of the motion. This is the same as for treatments

  8. Preliminary results on the feasibility of using ultrasound to monitor intrafractional motion during radiation therapy for pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omari, Eenas A.; Erickson, Beth; Noid, George; Li, X. Allen; Ehlers, Christopher; Quiroz, Francisco; Cooper, David T.; Lachaine, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Substantial intrafraction organ motion during radiation therapy (RT) for pancreatic cancer is well recognized as a major limiting factor for accurate delivery of RT. The aim of this work is to determine the feasibility of monitoring the intrafractional motion of the pancreas or surrounding structures using ultrasound for RT delivery. Methods: Transabdominal ultrasound (TAUS) and 4DCT data were acquired on ten pancreatic cancer patients during radiation therapy process in a prospective study. In addition, TAUS and MRI were collected for five healthy volunteers. The portal vein (PV) and the head of the pancreas (HP) along with other structures were contoured on these images. Volume changes, distance between the HP and PV, and motion difference between the HP and PV were measured to examine whether PV can be used as a motion surrogate for HP. TAUS images were acquired and processed using a research version of the Clarity autoscan ultrasound system (CAUS). Motion monitoring was performed with the ultrasound probe mounted on an arm fixed to the couch. Video segments of the monitoring sessions were captured. Results: On TAUS, PV is better visualized than HP. The measured mean volume deviation for all patients for the HP and PV was 1.4 and 0.6 ml, respectively. The distance between the HP and PV was close to a constant with 0.22 mm mean deviation throughout the ten breathing phases. The mean of the absolute motion difference for all patients was 1.7 ± 0.8 mm in LR, 1.5 ± 0.5 mm in AP, and 2.3 ± 0.7 mm in SI, suggesting that the PV is a good surrogate for HP motion estimation. By using this surrogate, the HP motion tracking using TAUS was demonstrated. Conclusions: Large intrafractional organ motion due to respiratory and/or bowel motion is a limiting factor in administering curative radiation doses to pancreatic tumors. The authors investigate the use of real-time ultrasound to track pancreas motion. Due to the poor visibility of the pancreas head on an

  9. Preliminary results on the feasibility of using ultrasound to monitor intrafractional motion during radiation therapy for pancreatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omari, Eenas A.; Erickson, Beth; Noid, George; Li, X. Allen, E-mail: ali@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 (United States); Ehlers, Christopher; Quiroz, Francisco [Department of Radiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 (United States); Cooper, David T.; Lachaine, Martin [Elekta Ltd., Montreal, Québec H3A 2J5 (Canada)

    2016-09-15

    Purpose: Substantial intrafraction organ motion during radiation therapy (RT) for pancreatic cancer is well recognized as a major limiting factor for accurate delivery of RT. The aim of this work is to determine the feasibility of monitoring the intrafractional motion of the pancreas or surrounding structures using ultrasound for RT delivery. Methods: Transabdominal ultrasound (TAUS) and 4DCT data were acquired on ten pancreatic cancer patients during radiation therapy process in a prospective study. In addition, TAUS and MRI were collected for five healthy volunteers. The portal vein (PV) and the head of the pancreas (HP) along with other structures were contoured on these images. Volume changes, distance between the HP and PV, and motion difference between the HP and PV were measured to examine whether PV can be used as a motion surrogate for HP. TAUS images were acquired and processed using a research version of the Clarity autoscan ultrasound system (CAUS). Motion monitoring was performed with the ultrasound probe mounted on an arm fixed to the couch. Video segments of the monitoring sessions were captured. Results: On TAUS, PV is better visualized than HP. The measured mean volume deviation for all patients for the HP and PV was 1.4 and 0.6 ml, respectively. The distance between the HP and PV was close to a constant with 0.22 mm mean deviation throughout the ten breathing phases. The mean of the absolute motion difference for all patients was 1.7 ± 0.8 mm in LR, 1.5 ± 0.5 mm in AP, and 2.3 ± 0.7 mm in SI, suggesting that the PV is a good surrogate for HP motion estimation. By using this surrogate, the HP motion tracking using TAUS was demonstrated. Conclusions: Large intrafractional organ motion due to respiratory and/or bowel motion is a limiting factor in administering curative radiation doses to pancreatic tumors. The authors investigate the use of real-time ultrasound to track pancreas motion. Due to the poor visibility of the pancreas head on an

  10. Determination of acquisition frequency for intrafractional motion of pancreas in CyberKnife radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huailing; Zhao, Guoru; Djajaputra, David; Xie, Yaoqin

    2014-01-01

    To report the characteristics of pancreas motion as tracked using implanted fiducials during radiotherapy treatments with CyberKnife. Twenty-nine patients with pancreas cancer treated using CyberKnife system were retrospectively selected for this study. During the treatment, the deviation is examined every 3-4 nodes (~45 s interval) and compensated by the robot. The pancreas displacement calculated from X-ray images acquired within the time interval between two consecutive couch motions constitute a data set. A total of 498 data sets and 4302 time stamps of X-ray images were analyzed in this study. The average duration for each data set is 634 s. The location of the pancreas becomes more dispersed as the time elapses. The acquisition frequency depends on the prespecified movement distance threshold of pancreas. If the threshold between two consecutive images is 1 mm, the acquisition frequency should be less than 30 s, while if the threshold is 2 mm, the acquisition frequency can be around 1 min. The pancreas target moves significantly and unpredictably during treatment. Effective means of compensating the intrafractional movement is critical to ensure adequate dose coverage of the tumor target.

  11. Determination of Acquisition Frequency for Intrafractional Motion of Pancreas in CyberKnife Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huailing Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report the characteristics of pancreas motion as tracked using implanted fiducials during radiotherapy treatments with CyberKnife. Methods and Materials. Twenty-nine patients with pancreas cancer treated using CyberKnife system were retrospectively selected for this study. During the treatment, the deviation is examined every 3-4 nodes (~45 s interval and compensated by the robot. The pancreas displacement calculated from X-ray images acquired within the time interval between two consecutive couch motions constitute a data set. Results. A total of 498 data sets and 4302 time stamps of X-ray images were analyzed in this study. The average duration for each data set is 634 s. The location of the pancreas becomes more dispersed as the time elapses. The acquisition frequency depends on the prespecified movement distance threshold of pancreas. If the threshold between two consecutive images is 1 mm, the acquisition frequency should be less than 30 s, while if the threshold is 2 mm, the acquisition frequency can be around 1 min. Conclusions. The pancreas target moves significantly and unpredictably during treatment. Effective means of compensating the intrafractional movement is critical to ensure adequate dose coverage of the tumor target.

  12. MO-FG-BRD-00: Real-Time Imaging and Tracking Techniques for Intrafractional Motion Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    Intrafraction target motion is a prominent complicating factor in the accurate targeting of radiation within the body. Methods compensating for target motion during treatment, such as gating and dynamic tumor tracking, depend on the delineation of target location as a function of time during delivery. A variety of techniques for target localization have been explored and are under active development; these include beam-level imaging of radio-opaque fiducials, fiducial-less tracking of anatomical landmarks, tracking of electromagnetic transponders, optical imaging of correlated surrogates, and volumetric imaging within treatment delivery. The Joint Imaging and Therapy Symposium will provide an overview of the techniques for real-time imaging and tracking, with special focus on emerging modes of implementation across different modalities. In particular, the symposium will explore developments in 1) Beam-level kilovoltage X-ray imaging techniques, 2) EPID-based megavoltage X-ray tracking, 3) Dynamic tracking using electromagnetic transponders, and 4) MRI-based soft-tissue tracking during radiation delivery. Learning Objectives: Understand the fundamentals of real-time imaging and tracking techniques Learn about emerging techniques in the field of real-time tracking Distinguish between the advantages and disadvantages of different tracking modalities Understand the role of real-time tracking techniques within the clinical delivery work-flow.

  13. MO-FG-BRD-00: Real-Time Imaging and Tracking Techniques for Intrafractional Motion Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Intrafraction target motion is a prominent complicating factor in the accurate targeting of radiation within the body. Methods compensating for target motion during treatment, such as gating and dynamic tumor tracking, depend on the delineation of target location as a function of time during delivery. A variety of techniques for target localization have been explored and are under active development; these include beam-level imaging of radio-opaque fiducials, fiducial-less tracking of anatomical landmarks, tracking of electromagnetic transponders, optical imaging of correlated surrogates, and volumetric imaging within treatment delivery. The Joint Imaging and Therapy Symposium will provide an overview of the techniques for real-time imaging and tracking, with special focus on emerging modes of implementation across different modalities. In particular, the symposium will explore developments in 1) Beam-level kilovoltage X-ray imaging techniques, 2) EPID-based megavoltage X-ray tracking, 3) Dynamic tracking using electromagnetic transponders, and 4) MRI-based soft-tissue tracking during radiation delivery. Learning Objectives: Understand the fundamentals of real-time imaging and tracking techniques Learn about emerging techniques in the field of real-time tracking Distinguish between the advantages and disadvantages of different tracking modalities Understand the role of real-time tracking techniques within the clinical delivery work-flow

  14. Dosimetric effect of intrafraction tumor motion in phase gated lung stereotactic body radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Bo; Yang Yong; Li Tianfang; Li Xiang; Heron, Dwight E.; Huq, M. Saiful

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A major concern for lung intensity modulated radiation therapy delivery is the deviation of actually delivered dose distribution from the planned one due to simultaneous movements of multileaf collimator (MLC) leaves and tumor. For gated lung stereotactic body radiotherapy treatment (SBRT), the situation becomes even more complicated because of SBRT's characteristics such as fewer fractions, smaller target volume, higher dose rate, and extended fractional treatment time. The purpose of this work is to investigate the dosimetric effect of intrafraction tumor motion during gated lung SBRT delivery by reconstructing the delivered dose distribution with real-time tumor motion considered. Methods: The tumor motion data were retrieved from six lung patients. Each of them received three fractions of stereotactic radiotherapy treatments with Cyberknife Synchrony (Accuray, Sunnyvale, CA). Phase gating through an external surrogate was simulated with a gating window of 5 mm. The resulting residual tumor motion curves during gating (beam-on) were retrieved. Planning target volume (PTV) was defined as physician-contoured clinical target volume (CTV) surrounded by an isotropic 5 mm margin. Each patient was prescribed with 60 Gy/3 fractions. The authors developed an algorithm to reconstruct the delivered dose with tumor motion. The DMLC segments, mainly leaf position and segment weighting factor, were recalculated according to the probability density function of tumor motion curve. The new DMLC sequence file was imported back to treatment planning system to reconstruct the dose distribution. Results: Half of the patients in the study group experienced PTV D95% deviation up to 26% for fractional dose and 14% for total dose. CTV mean dose dropped by 1% with tumor motion. Although CTV is almost covered by prescribed dose with 5 mm margin, qualitative comparison on the dose distributions reveals that CTV is on the verge of underdose. The discrepancy happens due to tumor

  15. Effect of Immobilization and Performance Status on Intrafraction Motion for Stereotactic Lung Radiotherapy: Analysis of 133 Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Winnie; Purdie, Thomas G.; Taremi, Mojgan; Fung, Sharon; Brade, Anthony; Cho, B.C. John; Hope, Andrew; Sun, Alexander; Jaffray, David A.; Bezjak, Andrea; Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess intrafractional geometric accuracy of lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) patients treated with volumetric image guidance. Methods and Materials: Treatment setup accuracy was analyzed in 133 SBRT patients treated via research ethics board–approved protocols. For each fraction, a localization cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan was acquired for soft-tissue registration to the internal target volume, followed by a couch adjustment for positional discrepancies greater than 3 mm, verified with a second CBCT scan. CBCT scans were also performed at intrafraction and end fraction. Patient positioning data from 2047 CBCT scans were recorded to determine systematic (Σ) and random (σ) uncertainties, as well as planning target volume margins. Data were further stratified and analyzed by immobilization method (evacuated cushion [n = 75], evacuated cushion plus abdominal compression [n = 33], or chest board [n = 25]) and by patients’ Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (PS): 0 (n = 31), 1 (n = 70), or 2 (n = 32). Results: Using CBCT internal target volume was matched within ±3 mm in 16% of all fractions at localization, 89% at verification, 72% during treatment, and 69% after treatment. Planning target volume margins required to encompass residual setup errors after couch corrections (verification CBCT scans) were 4 mm, and they increased to 5 mm with target intrafraction motion (post-treatment CBCT scans). Small differences (<1 mm) in the cranial–caudal direction of target position were observed between the immobilization cohorts in the localization, verification, intrafraction, and post-treatment CBCT scans (p < 0.01). Positional drift varied according to patient PS, with the PS 1 and 2 cohorts drifting out of position by mid treatment more than the PS 0 cohort in the cranial-caudal direction (p = 0.04). Conclusions: Image guidance ensures high geometric accuracy for lung SBRT irrespective of immobilization

  16. INTER- AND INTRAFRACTION MOTION FOR STEREOTACTIC RADIOSURGERY IN DOGS AND CATS USING A MODIFIED BRAINLAB FRAMELESS STEREOTACTIC MASK SYSTEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieterich, Sonja; Zwingenberger, Allison; Hansen, Katherine; Pfeiffer, Isabella; Théon, Alain; Kent, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Precise and accurate patient positioning is necessary when doing stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to ensure adequate dosing to the tumor and sparing of normal tissues. This prospective cross-sectional study aimed to assess feasibility of a commercially available modified frameless SRS positioning system for use in veterinary radiotherapy patients with brain tumors. Fifty-one dogs and 12 cats were enrolled. Baseline and verification CT images were acquired. The verification CT images from 32 dogs and five cats had sufficient images for fusion to baseline CT images. A rigid box-based fusion was performed to determine interfraction motion. Forty-eight dogs and 11 cats were assessed for intrafraction motion by cine CT. Seventy percent of dogs and 60% of cats had interfraction 3D vector translational shifts >1 mm, with mean values of 1.9 mm in dogs, and 1.8 mm in cats. In dogs muscle wasting was weakly correlated with translational shifts. The maximum angular interfraction motion observed was 6.3° (roll), 3.5° (pitch), and 3.3° (yaw). There was no correlation between angular interfraction motion and weight, brachycephaly, or muscle wasting. Fifty-seven percent of dogs and 50% of cats had respiration-related intrafraction motion. Of these, 4.5% of dogs and 10% of cats had intrafraction motion >1 mm. This study demonstrates the modified Brainlab system is feasible for SRS in dogs and cats. The smaller cranial size and difference in anatomy increases setup uncertainty in some animals beyond limits usually accepted in SRS. Image-guided positioning is recommended to achieve clinically acceptable setup accuracy (<1 mm) for SRS. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  17. Dosimetric implications of inter- and intrafractional prostate positioning errors during tomotherapy. Comparison of gold marker-based registrations with native MVCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wust, Peter; Joswig, Marc; Graf, Reinhold; Boehmer, Dirk; Beck, Marcus; Barelkowski, Thomasz; Budach, Volker; Ghadjar, Pirus [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiation Oncology and Radiotherapy, Berlin (Germany)

    2017-09-15

    For high-dose radiation therapy (RT) of prostate cancer, image-guided (IGRT) and intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) approaches are standard. Less is known regarding comparisons of different IGRT techniques and the resulting residual errors, as well as regarding their influences on dose distributions. A total of 58 patients who received tomotherapy-based RT up to 84 Gy for high-risk prostate cancer underwent IGRT based either on daily megavoltage CT (MVCT) alone (n = 43) or the additional use of gold markers (n = 15) under routine conditions. Planned Adaptive (Accuray Inc., Madison, WI, USA) software was used for elaborated offline analysis to quantify residual interfractional prostate positioning errors, along with systematic and random errors and the resulting safety margins after both IGRT approaches. Dosimetric parameters for clinical target volume (CTV) coverage and exposition of organs at risk (OAR) were also analyzed and compared. Interfractional as well as intrafractional displacements were determined. Particularly in the vertical direction, residual interfractional positioning errors were reduced using the gold marker-based approach, but dosimetric differences were moderate and the clinical relevance relatively small. Intrafractional prostate motion proved to be quite high, with displacements of 1-3 mm; however, these did not result in additional dosimetric impairments. Residual interfractional positioning errors were reduced using gold marker-based IGRT; however, this resulted in only slightly different final dose distributions. Therefore, daily MVCT-based IGRT without markers might be a valid alternative. (orig.) [German] Bei der hochdosierten Bestrahlung des Prostatakarzinoms sind die bildgesteuerte (IGRT) und die intensitaetsmodulierte Bestrahlung (IMRT) Standard. Offene Fragen gibt es beim Vergleich von IGRT-Techniken im Hinblick auf residuelle Fehler und Beeinflussungen der Dosisverteilung. Bei 58 Patienten, deren Hochrisiko-Prostatakarzinom am

  18. A strategy to minimize errors from differential intrafraction organ motion using a single configuration for a 'breathing' multileaf collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, S; Binnie, D M

    2006-01-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can be delivered by the 'sliding-leaves' dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) technique. Intrafraction organ motion can be accommodated by arranging an identical tracking motion for 'breathing leaves'. However, this is only possible for very specific circumstances such as regular, mathematically parameterizable, rigid-body, density-conserving, one-dimensional translations. In this paper, we investigate what happens when planes of tissue in the line of sight of the MLC have differential motion with respect to the moving leaves. In this situation, there is no solution to the problem and a perfect tracking motion cannot be arranged. However, an iterative minimization-of-errors 'solution' (or strategy) can be found and the technique is presented for this. From this, under certain mathematically simple differential motions it is possible to obtain some elegant algebraic solutions which are presented. In general, however, a lengthy computational minimization is required and results of examples of these are presented

  19. Quantifying Appropriate PTV Setup Margins: Analysis of Patient Setup Fidelity and Intrafraction Motion Using Post-Treatment Megavoltage Computed Tomography Scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabik, Donata M.; MacKenzie, Marc A.; Fallone, Gino B.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To present a technique that can be implemented in-house to evaluate the efficacy of immobilization and image-guided setup of patients with different treatment sites on helical tomotherapy. This technique uses an analysis of alignment shifts between kilovoltage computed tomography and post-treatment megavoltage computed tomography images. The determination of the shifts calculated by the helical tomotherapy software for a given site can then be used to define appropriate planning target volume internal margins. Methods and Materials: Twelve patients underwent post-treatment megavoltage computed tomography scans on a helical tomotherapy machine to assess patient setup fidelity and net intrafraction motion. Shifts were studied for the prostate, head and neck, and glioblastoma multiforme. Analysis of these data was performed using automatic and manual registration of the kilovoltage computed tomography and post-megavoltage computed tomography images. Results: The shifts were largest for the prostate, followed by the head and neck, with glioblastoma multiforme having the smallest shifts in general. It appears that it might be more appropriate to use asymmetric planning target volume margins. Each margin value reported is equal to two standard deviations of the average shift in the given direction. Conclusion: This method could be applied using individual patient post-image scanning and combined with adaptive planning to reduce or increase the margins as appropriate

  20. SU-E-J-171: Surface Imaging Based Intrafraction Motion Assessments for Whole Brain Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiant, D; Vanderstraeten, C; Maurer, J; Pursley, J; Terrell, J; Sintay, B

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify and characterize intrafraction motion for whole brain radiotherapy treatments in open face masks using 3D surface imaging. Methods: Fifteen whole brain patients were monitored with 3D surface imaging over a total of 202 monitoring sessions. Mean translations and rotations were calculated over each minute, each session, and over all sessions combined. The percentage of each session that the root mean square (RMS) of the linear translations were outside of 2 mm, 3 mm, 4 mm, and 5 mm were determined for each patient. Correlations between mean translations per minute and time and between standard deviation per minute and time were evaluated using Pearson's r value. Results: The mean RMS translation averaged over all patients was 1.45 mm +/− 1.52 mm. The patients spent an average of 18%, 10%, 6%, and 3% of the monitoring time outside of 2 mm, 3 mm, 4 mm, and 5 mm RMS tolerances, respectively. The RMS values averaged over all patients were 1.31 mm +/− 0.98 mm, 1.52 +/- 1.04, and 1.30 mm +/− 0.71 mm over the 1th, 5th, and 10th minutes of monitoring, respectively. Neither, the RMS values (p = 0.15) or the standard deviations of the RMS values (p = 0.16) showed significant correlations with time. Conclusion: The patients were positioned within 2 mm of isocenter, which was the initial set-up tolerance, for the majority of their treatments. The average position changed by < 0.3 mm over 10 minutes of monitoring. Short term movements, reflected by the standard deviations, where on the order of 1 mm. This immobilization system provides adequate immobilization over a course of treatment for whole brain radiotherapy. This system may also be suitable for head and neck or stereotactic radiosurgery treatments as well

  1. Quality assurance device for four-dimensional IMRT or SBRT and respiratory gating using patient-specific intrafraction motion kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, Benjamin E; Ehler, Eric; Bragg, Henry; Tomé, Wolfgang A

    2007-09-17

    Emerging technologies such as four-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT) and implanted beacons are expected to allow clinicians to accurately model intrafraction motion and to quantitatively estimate internal target volumes (ITVs) for radiation therapy involving moving targets. In the case of intensity-modulated (IMRT) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) delivery, clinicians must consider the interplay between the temporal nature of the modulation and the target motion within the ITV. A need exists for a 4D IMRT/SBRT quality assurance (QA) device that can incorporate and analyze customized intrafraction motion as it relates to dose delivery and respiratory gating. We built a 4D IMRT/SBRT prototype device and entered (X, Y, Z)(T) coordinates representing a motion kernel into a software application that 1. transformed the kernel into beam-specific two-dimensional (2D) motion "projections," 2. previewed the motion in real time, and 3. drove a recision X-Y motorized device that had, atop it, a mounted planar IMRT QA measurement device. The detectors that intersected the target in the beam's-eye-view of any single phase of the breathing cycle (a small subset of all the detectors) were defined as "target detectors" to be analyzed for dose uniformity between multiple fractions. Data regarding the use of this device to quantify dose variation fraction-to-fraction resulting from target motion (for several delivery modalities and with and without gating) have been recently published. A combined software and hardware solution for patient-customized 4D IMRT/SBRT QA is an effective tool for assessing IMRT delivery under conditions of intrafraction motion. The 4D IMRT QA device accurately reproduced the projected motion kernels for all beam's-eye-view motion kernels. This device has been proved to, effectively quantify the degradation in dose uniformity resulting from a moving target within a static planning target volume, and, integrate with a commercial

  2. Quality assurance device for four‐dimensional IMRT or SBRT and respiratory gating using patient‐specific intrafraction motion kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehler, Eric; Bragg, Henry; Tomé, Wolfgang A.

    2007-01-01

    Emerging technologies such as four‐dimensional computed tomography (4D CT) and implanted beacons are expected to allow clinicians to accurately model intrafraction motion and to quantitatively estimate internal target volumes (ITVs) for radiation therapy involving moving targets. In the case of intensity‐modulated (IMRT) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) delivery, clinicians must consider the interplay between the temporal nature of the modulation and the target motion within the ITV. A need exists for a 4D IMRT/SBRT quality assurance (QA) device that can incorporate and analyze customized intrafraction motion as it relates to dose delivery and respiratory gating. We built a 4D IMRT/SBRT prototype device and entered (X, Y, Z)(T) coordinates representing a motion kernel into a software application that transformed the kernel into beam‐specific two‐dimensional (2D) motion “projections,”previewed the motion in real time, anddrove a precision X–Y motorized device that had, atop it, a mounted planar IMRT QA measurement device. The detectors that intersected the target in the beam's‐eye‐view of any single phase of the breathing cycle (a small subset of all the detectors) were defined as “target detectors” to be analyzed for dose uniformity between multiple fractions. Data regarding the use of this device to quantify dose variation fraction‐to‐fraction resulting from target motion (for several delivery modalities and with and without gating) have been recently published. A combined software and hardware solution for patient‐customized 4D IMRT/ SBRT QA is an effective tool for assessing IMRT delivery under conditions of intrafraction motion. The 4D IMRT QA device accurately reproduced the projected motion kernels for all beam's‐eye‐view motion kernels. This device has been proved to • effectively quantify the degradation in dose uniformity resulting from a moving target within a static planning target volume, and • integrate

  3. Patterns of intrafractional motion and uncertainties of treatment setup reference systems in accelerated partial breast irradiation for right- and left-sided breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Ning J; Goyal, Sharad; Kim, Leonard H; Khan, Atif; Haffty, Bruce G

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the patterns of intrafractional motion and accuracy of treatment setup strategies in 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) for right- and left-sided breast cancers. Sixteen right-sided and 17 left-sided breast cancer patients were enrolled in an institutional APBI trial in which gold fiducial markers were strategically sutured to the surgical cavity walls. Daily pre- and postradiation therapy kV imaging were performed and were matched to digitally reconstructed radiographs based on bony anatomy and fiducial markers, respectively, to determine the intrafractional motion. The positioning differences of the laser-tattoo and the bony anatomy-based setups with respect to the marker-based setup (benchmark) were determined to evaluate their accuracy. Statistical differences were found between the right- and left-sided APBI treatments in vector directions of intrafractional motion and treatment setup errors in the reference systems, but less in their overall magnitudes. The directional difference was more pronounced in the lateral direction. It was found that the intrafractional motion and setup reference systems tended to deviate in the right direction for the right-sided breast treatments and in the left direction for the left-sided breast treatments. It appears that the fiducial markers placed in the seroma cavity exhibit side dependent directional intrafractional motion, although additional data may be needed to further validate the conclusion. The bony anatomy-based treatment setup improves the accuracy over laser-tattoo. But it is inadequate to rely on bony anatomy to assess intrafractional target motion in both magnitude and direction. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Motion and shape change when using an endorectal balloon during prostate radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Court, Laurence E.; D'Amico, Anthony V.; Kadam, Dnyanesh; Cormack, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate motion and shape change when using an endorectal balloon (ERB) in patients receiving radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods: In nine patients treated for prostate cancer using an ERB, the anterior wall of the ERB was contoured on right lateral images taken immediately before irradiation, and on left lateral images taken immediately after irradiation. Changes in the contours were used to calculate inter-fraction shape change and inter-imaging motion and shape change. Inter-imaging motion describes changes that occur after the right lateral image is taken that are seen in the left lateral image. Results: Eighty-six percent of all inter-imaging shifts of the anterior wall of the ERB were in the posterior direction (mean: 1.8 mm, 1 SD: 1.8 mm, maximum posterior shift: 2.8-7.2 mm). The inter-fraction shape change (1 SD) of the anterior wall was equivalent to a change in the angle of the balloon of 2.5-5.7 deg., with a range of 8-20 deg., depending on the patient. Inter-imaging shape changes were similar in size. Conclusions: The inter-imaging motion and shape changes may be explained by the patient relaxing some time after insertion of the ERB, indicating that it could be reduced by a waiting period after insertion before irradiation. Development of image-guided localization strategies should consider intra-fraction motion and also inter- and intra-fraction shape change

  5. Automatic Prostate Tracking and Motion Assessment in Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy With an Electronic Portal Imaging Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azcona, Juan Diego; Li, Ruijiang; Mok, Edward; Hancock, Steven; Xing, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the prostate intrafraction motion in volumetric modulated arc therapy treatments using cine megavoltage (MV) images acquired with an electronic portal imaging device (EPID). Methods and Materials: Ten prostate cancer patients were treated with volumetric modulated arc therapy using a Varian TrueBeam linear accelerator equipped with an EPID for acquiring cine MV images during treatment. Cine MV images acquisition was scheduled for single or multiple treatment fractions (between 1 and 8). A novel automatic fiducial detection algorithm that can handle irregular multileaf collimator apertures, field edges, fast leaf and gantry movement, and MV image noise and artifacts in patient anatomy was used. All sets of images (approximately 25,000 images in total) were analyzed to measure the positioning accuracy of implanted fiducial markers and assess the prostate movement. Results: Prostate motion can vary greatly in magnitude among different patients. Different motion patterns were identified, showing its unpredictability. The mean displacement and standard deviation of the intrafraction motion was generally less than 2.0 ± 2.0 mm in each of the spatial directions. In certain patients, however, the percentage of the treatment time in which the prostate is displaced more than 5 mm from its planned position in at least 1 spatial direction was 10% or more. The maximum prostate displacement observed was 13.3 mm. Conclusion: Prostate tracking and motion assessment was performed with MV imaging and an EPID. The amount of prostate motion observed suggests that patients will benefit from its real-time monitoring. Megavoltage imaging can provide the basis for real-time prostate tracking using conventional linear accelerators

  6. TH-A-BRF-04: Intra-Fraction Motion Characterization for Early Stage Rectal Cancer Using Cine-MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleijnen, J; Asselen, B; Burbach, M; Intven, M; Reerink, O; Philippens, M; Lagendijk, J; Raaymakers, B

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the intra-fraction motion in patients with early stage rectal cancer using cine-MRI. Methods: Sixteen patient diagnosed with early stage rectal cancer underwent 1.5 T MR imaging prior to each treatment fraction of their short course radiotherapy (n=76). During each scan session, three 2D sagittal cine-MRIs were performed: at the beginning (Start), after 9:30 minutes (Mid), and after 18 minutes (End). Each cine-MRI has a duration of one minute at 2Hz temporal resolution, resulting in a total of 3:48 hours of cine-MRI. Additionally, standard T2-weighted (T2w) imaging was performed. Clinical target volume (CTV) an tumor (GTV) were delineated on the T2w scan and transferred to the first time-point of each cine-MRI scan. Within each cine-MRI, the first frame was registered to the remaining frames of the scan, using a non-rigid B-spline registration. To investigate potential drifts, a similar registration was performed between the first frame of the Start and End scans.To evaluate the motion, the distances by which the edge pixels of the delineations move in anterior-posterior (AP) and cranial-caudal (CC) direction, were determined using the deformation field of the registrations. The distance which incorporated 95% of these edge pixels (dist95%) was determined within each cine-MRI, and between Start- End scans, respectively. Results: Within a cine-MRI, we observed an average dist95% for the CTV of 1.3mm/1.5mm (SD=0.7mm/0.6mm) and for the GTV of 1.2mm/1.5mm (SD=0.8mm/0.9mm), in respectively AP/CC. For the CTV motion between the Start and End scan, an average dist95% of 5.5mm/5.3mm (SD=3.1mm/2.5mm) was found, in respectively AP/CC. For the GTV motion, an average dist95% of 3.6mm/3.9mm (SD=2.2mm/2.5mm) was found in AP/CC, respectively. Conclusion: Although intra-fraction motion within a one minute cine-MRI is limited, substantial intra-fraction motion was observed within the 18 minute time period between the Start and End cine-MRI

  7. Sci-Fri PM: Radiation Therapy, Planning, Imaging, and Special Techniques - 04: Assessment of intra-fraction motion during lung SABR VMAT using a custom abdominal compression device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, Derek; Robinson, Mark; Araujo, Cynthia; Teke, Tony; Halperin, Ross; Petrik, David; Mou, Benjamin; Mohamed, Islam [BCCA - Centre for the Southern Interior (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: Lung SABR patients are treated using Volumetrically Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT), utilizing 2 arcs with Conebeam CT (CBCT) image-guidance prior to each arc. Intra-fraction imaging can prolong treatment time (up to 20%), and the aim of this study is to determine if it is necessary. Methods: We utilize an in-house abdominal compression device to minimize respiratory motion, 4DCT to define the ITV, a 5 mm PTV margin and a 2–3 mm PRV margin. We treated 23 patients with VMAT, fifteen were treated to 48 Gy in 4 fractions, while eight were treated with up to 60 Gy in 8 fractions. Intrafraction motion was assessed by the translational errors recorded for the second CBCT. Results: There was no significant difference (t-test, p=0.93) in the intra-fraction motion between the patients treated with 4 and 8 fractions, or between the absolute translations in each direction (ANOVA, p=0.17). All 124 intra-fraction CBCT images were analysed and 95% remained localized within the 5 mm PTV margin The mean magnitude of the vector displacement was 1.8 mm. Conclusions: For patients localized with an abdominal compression device, the intrafraction CBCT image may not be necessary, if it is only the tumor coverage that is of concern, as the patients are typically well within the 5 mm PTV margin. On the other hand, if there is a structure with a smaller PRV margin, an intrafraction CBCT is recommended to ensure that the dose limit for the organ at risk is not exceeded.

  8. Intrafraction Motion in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Versus Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Maddalena M.G.; Peulen, Heike M.U.; Belderbos, Josè S.A.; Sonke, Jan-Jakob, E-mail: j.sonke@nki.nl

    2016-06-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early-stage inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients delivers high doses that require high-precision treatment. Typically, image guidance is used to minimize day-to-day target displacement, but intrafraction position variability is often not corrected. Currently, volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is replacing intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in many departments because of its shorter delivery time. This study aimed to evaluate whether intrafraction variation in VMAT patients is reduced in comparison with patients treated with IMRT. Methods and Materials: NSCLC patients (197 IMRT and 112 VMAT) treated with a frameless SBRT technique to a prescribed dose of 3 × 18 Gy were evaluated. Image guidance for both techniques was identical: pretreatment cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) (CBCT{sub precorr}) for setup correction followed immediately before treatment by postcorrection CBCT (CBCT{sub postcorr}) for verification. Then, after either a noncoplanar IMRT technique or a VMAT technique, a posttreatment (CBCT{sub postRT}) scan was acquired. The CBCT{sub postRT} and CBCT{sub postcorr} scans were then used to evaluate intrafraction motion. Treatment delivery times, systematic (Σ) and random (σ) intrafraction variations, and associated planning target volume (PTV) margins were calculated. Results: The median treatment delivery time was significantly reduced by 20 minutes (range, 32-12 minutes) using VMAT compared with noncoplanar IMRT. Intrafraction tumor motion was significantly larger for IMRT in all directions up to 0.5 mm systematic (Σ) and 0.7 mm random (σ). The required PTV margins for IMRT and VMAT differed by less than 0.3 mm. Conclusion: VMAT-based SBRT for NSCLC was associated with significantly shorter delivery times and correspondingly smaller intrafraction motion compared with noncoplanar IMRT. However, the impact on the required PTV margin was small.

  9. SU-G-JeP4-13: Continuous Intra-Fractional Monitoring of the Prostate Using Dynamic KV Collimation and Tube Current Modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, D [Dalhousie Unviersity, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Robar, J [Dalhousie Unviersity, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Nova Scotia Health Authority, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The focus of this work is to improve the available kV image quality for continuous intra-fraction monitoring of the prostate. This is investigated using a novel blade collimation system enabling modulated volume-of-interest (VOI) imaging of prostate fiducial markers. Methods: A four-blade dynamic kV collimator was used to track a VOI during gantry rotation. Planar image quality was investigated as a function of collimator dimension, while maintaining the same dose to isocenter, for a 22.2 cm diameter cylindrical water phantom with a 9 mm diameter bone insert. A sample prostate anatomy was defined in the planning system, including three fiducial markers within the CTV. The VOI margin around each marker was set to be 2σ of the population covariance matrix characterizing prostate motion. DRRs were used to calculate the kV attenuation for each VOI as a function of angle. The optimal marker and tube current were determined using kV attenuation. Monte Carlo simulations were used to calculate the imaging dose to the phantom and MV scatter dose to the imaging panel. Results: Preliminary measurements show an increase in CNR by a factor of 1.3 with the VOI method, when decreasing from an 6×6 to 2×2 cm{sup 2} field. Attenuation calculations show a change in kV fluence at the detector by a factor of 21.6 with fiducial optimization; resultant tube current modulation increases maximum dose by a factor of 1.4 compared to no modulation. MV scatter contribution to the kV detector changes by approximately a factor of two over a complete gantry rotation. Conclusion: The dynamic collimation system allows single fiducial marker tracking at a very low dose, with reduction of scatter and improvement of image quality, compared to imaging the entire prostate. The approach is compatible with tube current modulation, which enables consistent image quality throughout the range of gantry rotation. This project was funded by Varian Medical Systems.

  10. A new way of adapting IMRT delivery fraction-by-fraction to cater for variable intrafraction motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, S; Bortfeld, T

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a technique is presented for adaptive therapy to compensate for variable intrafraction tissue motion. So long as the motion can be measured or deduced for each fraction the technique modifies the fluence profile for the subsequent fractions in a repeatable cyclic way. The fluence modification is based on projecting the dose discrepancies between the cumulative delivered dose after each fraction and the expected planned dose at the same stage. It was shown that, in general, it is best to adapt the fluence profile to moving leaves that also have been modified to 'breathe' according to some regular default motion. However, it is important to point out that, if this regular default motion were to differ too much from the variable motion at each fraction, then the result can be worse than adapting to non-breathing leaves in a dynamic MLC technique. Furthermore, in general it should always be possible to improve results by starting the adaptation process with a constrained deconvolution of the regular default motion

  11. First Clinical Release of an Online, Adaptive, Aperture-Based Image-Guided Radiotherapy Strategy in Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy to Correct for Inter- and Intrafractional Rotations of the Prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutschmann, Heinz; Kametriser, Gerhard; Steininger, Philipp; Scherer, Philipp; Schöller, Helmut; Gaisberger, Christoph; Mooslechner, Michaela; Mitterlechner, Bernhard; Weichenberger, Harald; Fastner, Gert; Wurstbauer, Karl; Jeschke, Stephan; Forstner, Rosemarie; Sedlmayer, Felix

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We developed and evaluated a correction strategy for prostate rotations using direct adaptation of segments in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Method and Materials: Implanted fiducials (four gold markers) were used to determine interfractional translations, rotations, and dilations of the prostate. We used hybrid imaging: The markers were automatically detected in two pretreatment planar X-ray projections; their actual position in three-dimensional space was reconstructed from these images at first. The structure set comprising prostate, seminal vesicles, and adjacent rectum wall was transformed accordingly in 6 degrees of freedom. Shapes of IMRT segments were geometrically adapted in a class solution forward-planning approach, derived within seconds on-site and treated immediately. Intrafractional movements were followed in MV electronic portal images captured on the fly. Results: In 31 of 39 patients, for 833 of 1013 fractions (supine, flat couch, knee support, comfortably full bladder, empty rectum, no intraprostatic marker migrations >2 mm of more than one marker), the online aperture adaptation allowed safe reduction of margins clinical target volume–planning target volume (prostate) down to 5 mm when only interfractional corrections were applied: Dominant L-R rotations were found to be 5.3° (mean of means), standard deviation of means ±4.9°, maximum at 30.7°. Three-dimensional vector translations relative to skin markings were 9.3 ± 4.4 mm (maximum, 23.6 mm). Intrafractional movements in 7.7 ± 1.5 min (maximum, 15.1 min) between kV imaging and last beam’s electronic portal images showed further L-R rotations of 2.5° ± 2.3° (maximum, 26.9°), and three-dimensional vector translations of 3.0 ±3.7 mm (maximum, 10.2 mm). Addressing intrafractional errors could further reduce margins to 3 mm. Conclusion: We demonstrated the clinical feasibility of an online adaptive image-guided, intensity-modulated prostate protocol on a standard

  12. First clinical release of an online, adaptive, aperture-based image-guided radiotherapy strategy in intensity-modulated radiotherapy to correct for inter- and intrafractional rotations of the prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutschmann, Heinz; Kametriser, Gerhard; Steininger, Philipp; Scherer, Philipp; Schöller, Helmut; Gaisberger, Christoph; Mooslechner, Michaela; Mitterlechner, Bernhard; Weichenberger, Harald; Fastner, Gert; Wurstbauer, Karl; Jeschke, Stephan; Forstner, Rosemarie; Sedlmayer, Felix

    2012-08-01

    We developed and evaluated a correction strategy for prostate rotations using direct adaptation of segments in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Implanted fiducials (four gold markers) were used to determine interfractional translations, rotations, and dilations of the prostate. We used hybrid imaging: The markers were automatically detected in two pretreatment planar X-ray projections; their actual position in three-dimensional space was reconstructed from these images at first. The structure set comprising prostate, seminal vesicles, and adjacent rectum wall was transformed accordingly in 6 degrees of freedom. Shapes of IMRT segments were geometrically adapted in a class solution forward-planning approach, derived within seconds on-site and treated immediately. Intrafractional movements were followed in MV electronic portal images captured on the fly. In 31 of 39 patients, for 833 of 1013 fractions (supine, flat couch, knee support, comfortably full bladder, empty rectum, no intraprostatic marker migrations >2 mm of more than one marker), the online aperture adaptation allowed safe reduction of margins clinical target volume-planning target volume (prostate) down to 5 mm when only interfractional corrections were applied: Dominant L-R rotations were found to be 5.3° (mean of means), standard deviation of means ±4.9°, maximum at 30.7°. Three-dimensional vector translations relative to skin markings were 9.3 ± 4.4 mm (maximum, 23.6 mm). Intrafractional movements in 7.7 ± 1.5 min (maximum, 15.1 min) between kV imaging and last beam's electronic portal images showed further L-R rotations of 2.5° ± 2.3° (maximum, 26.9°), and three-dimensional vector translations of 3.0 ±3.7 mm (maximum, 10.2 mm). Addressing intrafractional errors could further reduce margins to 3 mm. We demonstrated the clinical feasibility of an online adaptive image-guided, intensity-modulated prostate protocol on a standard linear accelerator to correct 6 degrees of freedom of

  13. Analysis of target volume motion followed by induced abdominal compression in tomotherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jeong Hun; Jung, Geon A; Jung, Won Seok; Jo, Jung Young; Kim, Gi Chul; Choi, Tae Kyu

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the changes of the motion of abdominal cavity between interfraction and intrafraction by using abdominal compression for reducing abdominal motion. 60 MVCT images were obtained before and after tomotherapy from 10 prostate cancer patients over the whole radiotherapy period. Shift values ( X -lateral Y -longitudinal Z -vertical and Roll ) were measured and from it, the correlation of between interfraction set up change and intrafraction target motion was analyzed when applying abdominal compression. The motion changes of interfraction were X- average 0.65±2.32mm, Y-average 1.41±4.83mm, Z-average 0.73± 0.52mm and Roll-average 0.96±0.21mm. The motion changes of intrafraction were X-average 0.15±0.44mm, Y-average 0.13 ±0.44mm, Z-average 0.24±0.64mm and Roll- average 0.1±0.9mm. The average PTV maximum dose difference was minimum for 10% phase and maximum for 70% phase. The average Spain cord maximum dose difference was minimum for 0% phase and maximum for 50% phase. The average difference of V 20 , V 10 , V 5 of Lung show bo certain trend. Abdominal compression can minimize the motion of internal organs and patients. So it is considered to be able to get more ideal dose volume without damage of normal structures from generating margin in small in producing PTV

  14. A method for selection of beam angles robust to intra-fractional motion in proton therapy of lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casares-Magaz, Oscar; Toftegaard, Jakob; Muren, Ludvig P.

    2014-01-01

    that are robust to patient-specific patterns of intra-fractional motion. Material and methods. Using four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) images of three lung cancer patients we evaluated the impact of the WEPL changes on target dose coverage for a series of coplanar single-beam plans. The plans were...... reduction was associated with the mean difference between the WEPL and the phase-averaged WEPL computed for all beam rays across all possible gantry-couch angle combinations. Results. The gantry-couch angle maps showed areas of both high and low WEPL variation, with overall quite similar patterns yet...... presented a 4DCT-based method to quantify WEPL changes during the breathing cycle. The method identified proton field gantry-couch angle combinations that were either sensitive or robust to WEPL changes. WEPL variations along the beam path were associated with target under-dosage....

  15. Effect of magnesium oxide on interfraction prostate motion and rectal filling in prostate cancer radiotherapy. Analysis of a randomized clinical trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, Annemarie M. den; Kotte, Alexis N.T.J.; Vulpen, Marco van; Lips, Irene M.; Gils, Carla H. van

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether magnesium oxide reduces the interfraction motion of the prostate and the amount of rectal filling and rectal gas, which influences prostate position during radiotherapy for prostate cancer. From December 2008 to February 2010, 92 prostate cancer patients scheduled for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (77 Gy in 35 fractions) using fiducial marker-based position verification were randomly assigned to receive magnesium oxide (500 mg twice a day) or placebo during radiotherapy. In a previous study, we investigated the effect on intrafraction motion and did not find a difference between the treatment arms. Here, we compared the interfraction prostate motion between the two treatment arms as well as the amount of rectal filling and rectal air pockets using pretreatment planning computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans. There was no statistically significant difference between the treatment arms in translation and rotation of the prostate between treatment fractions, except for the rotation around the cranial caudal axis. However, the difference was less than 1 and therefore considered not clinically relevant. There was no significant difference in the amount of rectal filling and rectal air pockets between the treatment arms. Magnesium oxide is not effective in reducing the interfraction prostate motion or the amount of rectal filling and rectal gas during external-beam radiotherapy. Therefore, magnesium oxide is not recommended in clinical practice for these purposes. (orig.) [de

  16. Prostate gland motion assessed with cine-magnetic resonance imaging (cine-MRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghilezan, Michel J.; Jaffray, David A.; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.; Herk, Marcel van; Shetty, Anil; Sharpe, Michael B.; Zafar Jafri, Syed; Vicini, Frank A.; Matter, Richard C.; Brabbins, Donald S.; Martinez, Alvaro A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify prostate motion during a radiation therapy treatment using cine-magnetic resonance imaging (cine-MRI) for time frames comparable to that expected in an image-guided radiation therapy treatment session (20-30 min). Materials and Methods: Six patients undergoing radiation therapy for prostate cancer were imaged on 3 days, over the course of therapy (Weeks 1, 3, and 5). Four hundred images were acquired during the 1-h MRI session in 3 sagittal planes through the prostate at 6-s intervals. Eleven anatomic points of interest (POIs) have been used to characterize prostate/bony pelvis/abdominal wall displacement. Motion traces and standard deviation for each of the 11 POIs have been determined. The probability of displacement over time has also been calculated. Results: Patients were divided into 2 groups according to rectal filling status: full vs. empty rectum. The displacement of POIs (standard deviation) ranged from 0.98 to 1.72 mm for the full-rectum group and from 0.68 to 1.04 mm for the empty-rectum group. The low standard deviations in position (2 mm or less) would suggest that these excursions have a low frequency of occurrence. The most sensitive prostate POI to rectal wall motion was the midposterior with a standard deviation of 1.72 mm in the full-rectum group vs. 0.79 mm in the empty-rectum group (p 0.0001). This POI has a 10% probability of moving more than 3 mm in a time frame of ∼1 min if the rectum is full vs. ∼20 min if the rectum is empty. Conclusion: Motion of the prostate and seminal vesicles during a time frame similar to a standard treatment session is reduced compared to that reported in interfraction studies. The most significant predictor for intrafraction prostate motion is the status of rectal filling. A prostate displacement of <3 mm (90%) can be expected for the 20 min after the moment of initial imaging for patients with an empty rectum. This is not the case for patients presenting with full rectum. The determination

  17. Six dimensional analysis with daily stereoscopic x-ray imaging of intrafraction patient motion in head and neck treatments using five points fixation masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linthout, Nadine; Verellen, Dirk; Tournel, Koen; Storme, Guy

    2006-01-01

    The safety margins used to define the Planning Target Volume (PTV) should reflect the accuracy of the target localization during treatment that comprises both the reproducibility of the patient positioning and the positional uncertainty of the target, so both the inter- and intrafraction motion of the target. Our first aim in this study was to determine the intrafraction motion of patients immobilized with a five-point thermoplastic mask for head and neck treatments. The five-point masks have the advantage that the patient's shoulders as well as the cranial part of the patient's head is covered with the thermoplastic material that improves the overall immobilization of the head and neck region of the patient. Thirteen patients were consecutively assigned to use a five-point thermoplastic mask. The patients were positioned by tracking of infrared markers (IR) fixed to the immobilization device and stereoscopic x-ray images were used for daily on-line setup verification. Repositioning was carried out prior to treatment as needed; rotations were not corrected. Movements during treatment were monitored by real-time IR tracking. Intrafraction motion and rotation was supplementary assessed by a six-degree-of-freedom (6-D) fusion of x-ray images, taken before and after all 385 treatments, with DRR images generated from the planning CT data. The latter evaluates the movement of the patient within the thermoplastic mask independent from the mask movement, where IR tracking evaluates the movement of the mask caused by patient movement in the mask. These two movements are not necessarily equal to each other. The maximum intrafraction movement detected by IR tracking showed a shift [mean (SD; range)] of -0.1(0.7; 6.0), 0.1(0.6; 3.6), -0.2(0.8;5.5) mm in the vertical, longitudinal, and lateral direction, respectively, and rotations of 0.0(0.2; 1.6), 0.0(0.2; 1.7) and 0.2(0.2; 2.4) degrees about the vertical, longitudinal, and lateral axis, respectively. The standard deviations

  18. Effect of intra-fraction motion on the accumulated dose for free-breathing MR-guided stereotactic body radiation therapy of renal-cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemkens, Bjorn; Glitzner, Markus; Kontaxis, Charis; de Senneville, Baudouin Denis; Prins, Fieke M.; Crijns, Sjoerd P. M.; Kerkmeijer, Linda G. W.; Lagendijk, Jan J. W.; van den Berg, Cornelis A. T.; Tijssen, Rob H. N.

    2017-09-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has shown great promise in increasing local control rates for renal-cell carcinoma (RCC). Characterized by steep dose gradients and high fraction doses, these hypo-fractionated treatments are, however, prone to dosimetric errors as a result of variations in intra-fraction respiratory-induced motion, such as drifts and amplitude alterations. This may lead to significant variations in the deposited dose. This study aims to develop a method for calculating the accumulated dose for MRI-guided SBRT of RCC in the presence of intra-fraction respiratory variations and determine the effect of such variations on the deposited dose. For this, RCC SBRT treatments were simulated while the underlying anatomy was moving, based on motion information from three motion models with increasing complexity: (1) STATIC, in which static anatomy was assumed, (2) AVG-RESP, in which 4D-MRI phase-volumes were time-weighted, and (3) PCA, a method that generates 3D volumes with sufficient spatio-temporal resolution to capture respiration and intra-fraction variations. Five RCC patients and two volunteers were included and treatments delivery was simulated, using motion derived from subject-specific MR imaging. Motion was most accurately estimated using the PCA method with root-mean-squared errors of 2.7, 2.4, 1.0 mm for STATIC, AVG-RESP and PCA, respectively. The heterogeneous patient group demonstrated relatively large dosimetric differences between the STATIC and AVG-RESP, and the PCA reconstructed dose maps, with hotspots up to 40% of the D99 and an underdosed GTV in three out of the five patients. This shows the potential importance of including intra-fraction motion variations in dose calculations.

  19. Motion monitoring during a course of lung radiotherapy with anchored electromagnetic transponders. Quantification of inter- and intrafraction motion and variability of relative transponder positions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Daniela [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Division of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology (NCRO), Heidelberg Institute for Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Nill, Simeon; Oelfke, Uwe [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Division of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology (NCRO), Heidelberg Institute for Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Heidelberg (Germany); The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Joint Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); Roeder, Falk [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Clinical Cooperation Unit Molecular Radiooncology, Heidelberg (Germany); University of Munich (LMU), Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Gompelmann, Daniela; Herth, Felix [University of Heidelberg, Pneumology and Critical Care Medicine, Thoraxklinik, Heidelberg (Germany); German Center for Lung Research, Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-10-15

    Anchored electromagnetic transponders for tumor motion monitoring during lung radiotherapy were clinically evaluated. First, intrafractional motion patterns were analyzed as well as their interfractional variations. Second, intra- and interfractional changes of the geometric transponder positions were investigated. Intrafractional motion data from 7 patients with an upper or middle lobe tumor and three implanted transponders each was used to calculate breathing amplitudes, overall motion amount and motion midlines in three mutual perpendicular directions and three-dimensionally (3D) for 162 fractions. For 6 patients intra- and interfractional variations in transponder distances and in the size of the triangle defined by the transponder locations over the treatment course were determined. Mean 3D values of all fractions were up to 4.0, 4.6 and 3.4 mm per patient for amplitude, overall motion amount and midline deviation, respectively. Intrafractional transponder distances varied with standard deviations up to 3.2 mm, while a maximal triangle shrinkage of 36.5% over 39 days was observed. Electromagnetic real-time motion monitoring was feasible for all patients. Detected respiratory motion was on average modest in this small cohort without lower lobe tumors, but changes in motion midline were of the same size as the amplitudes and greater midline motion can be observed in some fractions. Intra- and interfractional variations of the geometric transponder positions can be large, so for reliable motion management correlation between transponder and tumor motion needs to be evaluated per patient. (orig.) [German] Verankerte, elektromagnetische Transponder fuer die Bewegungserkennung des Tumors waehrend der Strahlentherapie der Lunge wurden klinisch evaluiert. Dafuer wurden intrafraktionelle Bewegungsmuster und ihre interfraktionellen Variationen analysiert und intra- und interfraktionelle Veraenderungen der geometrischen Transponderpositionen untersucht. Intrafraktionelle

  20. MO-FG-BRD-01: Real-Time Imaging and Tracking Techniques for Intrafractional Motion Management: Introduction and KV Tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahimian, B.

    2015-01-01

    Intrafraction target motion is a prominent complicating factor in the accurate targeting of radiation within the body. Methods compensating for target motion during treatment, such as gating and dynamic tumor tracking, depend on the delineation of target location as a function of time during delivery. A variety of techniques for target localization have been explored and are under active development; these include beam-level imaging of radio-opaque fiducials, fiducial-less tracking of anatomical landmarks, tracking of electromagnetic transponders, optical imaging of correlated surrogates, and volumetric imaging within treatment delivery. The Joint Imaging and Therapy Symposium will provide an overview of the techniques for real-time imaging and tracking, with special focus on emerging modes of implementation across different modalities. In particular, the symposium will explore developments in 1) Beam-level kilovoltage X-ray imaging techniques, 2) EPID-based megavoltage X-ray tracking, 3) Dynamic tracking using electromagnetic transponders, and 4) MRI-based soft-tissue tracking during radiation delivery. Learning Objectives: Understand the fundamentals of real-time imaging and tracking techniques Learn about emerging techniques in the field of real-time tracking Distinguish between the advantages and disadvantages of different tracking modalities Understand the role of real-time tracking techniques within the clinical delivery work-flow

  1. Four-dimensional measurement of intrafractional respiratory motion of pancreatic tumors using a 256 multi-slice CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Shinichiro; Hara, Ryusuke; Yanagi, Takeshi; Sharp, Gregory C.; Kumagai, Motoki; Asakura, Hiroshi; Kishimoto, Riwa; Yamada, Shigeru; Kandatsu, Susumu; Kamada, Tadashi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify pancreas and pancreatic tumor movement due to respiratory motion using volumetric cine CT images. Materials and methods: Six patients with pancreatic tumors were scanned in cine mode with a 256 multi-slice CT scanner under free breathing conditions. Gross tumor volume (GTV) and pancreas were manually contoured on the CT data set by a radiation oncologist. Intrafractional respiratory movement of the GTV and pancreas was calculated, and the results were compared between the respiratory ungated and gated phases, which is a 30% duty cycle around exhalation. Results: Respiratory-induced organ motion was observed mainly in the anterior abdominal side than the posterior side. Average GTV displacement (ungated/gated phases) was 0.7 mm/0.2 mm in both the left and right directions, and 2.5 mm/0.9 mm in the anterior, 0.1 mm/0 mm in the posterior, and 8.9 mm/2.6 mm in the inferior directions. Average pancreas center of mass displacement relative to that at peak exhalation was mainly in the inferior direction, at 9.6 mm in the ungated phase and 2.3 mm in the gated phase. Conclusions: By allowing accurate determination of the margin, quantitative analysis of tumor and pancreas displacement provides useful information in treatment planning in all radiation approaches for pancreatic tumors.

  2. MO-FG-BRD-02: Real-Time Imaging and Tracking Techniques for Intrafractional Motion Management: MV Tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berbeco, R. [Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Intrafraction target motion is a prominent complicating factor in the accurate targeting of radiation within the body. Methods compensating for target motion during treatment, such as gating and dynamic tumor tracking, depend on the delineation of target location as a function of time during delivery. A variety of techniques for target localization have been explored and are under active development; these include beam-level imaging of radio-opaque fiducials, fiducial-less tracking of anatomical landmarks, tracking of electromagnetic transponders, optical imaging of correlated surrogates, and volumetric imaging within treatment delivery. The Joint Imaging and Therapy Symposium will provide an overview of the techniques for real-time imaging and tracking, with special focus on emerging modes of implementation across different modalities. In particular, the symposium will explore developments in 1) Beam-level kilovoltage X-ray imaging techniques, 2) EPID-based megavoltage X-ray tracking, 3) Dynamic tracking using electromagnetic transponders, and 4) MRI-based soft-tissue tracking during radiation delivery. Learning Objectives: Understand the fundamentals of real-time imaging and tracking techniques Learn about emerging techniques in the field of real-time tracking Distinguish between the advantages and disadvantages of different tracking modalities Understand the role of real-time tracking techniques within the clinical delivery work-flow.

  3. MO-FG-BRD-04: Real-Time Imaging and Tracking Techniques for Intrafractional Motion Management: MR Tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, D. [University of California Los Angeles: Real-Time Imaging and Tracking Techniques for Intrafractional Motion Management: MR Tracking (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Intrafraction target motion is a prominent complicating factor in the accurate targeting of radiation within the body. Methods compensating for target motion during treatment, such as gating and dynamic tumor tracking, depend on the delineation of target location as a function of time during delivery. A variety of techniques for target localization have been explored and are under active development; these include beam-level imaging of radio-opaque fiducials, fiducial-less tracking of anatomical landmarks, tracking of electromagnetic transponders, optical imaging of correlated surrogates, and volumetric imaging within treatment delivery. The Joint Imaging and Therapy Symposium will provide an overview of the techniques for real-time imaging and tracking, with special focus on emerging modes of implementation across different modalities. In particular, the symposium will explore developments in 1) Beam-level kilovoltage X-ray imaging techniques, 2) EPID-based megavoltage X-ray tracking, 3) Dynamic tracking using electromagnetic transponders, and 4) MRI-based soft-tissue tracking during radiation delivery. Learning Objectives: Understand the fundamentals of real-time imaging and tracking techniques Learn about emerging techniques in the field of real-time tracking Distinguish between the advantages and disadvantages of different tracking modalities Understand the role of real-time tracking techniques within the clinical delivery work-flow.

  4. MO-FG-BRD-03: Real-Time Imaging and Tracking Techniques for Intrafractional Motion Management: EM Tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keall, P. [University of Sydney (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Intrafraction target motion is a prominent complicating factor in the accurate targeting of radiation within the body. Methods compensating for target motion during treatment, such as gating and dynamic tumor tracking, depend on the delineation of target location as a function of time during delivery. A variety of techniques for target localization have been explored and are under active development; these include beam-level imaging of radio-opaque fiducials, fiducial-less tracking of anatomical landmarks, tracking of electromagnetic transponders, optical imaging of correlated surrogates, and volumetric imaging within treatment delivery. The Joint Imaging and Therapy Symposium will provide an overview of the techniques for real-time imaging and tracking, with special focus on emerging modes of implementation across different modalities. In particular, the symposium will explore developments in 1) Beam-level kilovoltage X-ray imaging techniques, 2) EPID-based megavoltage X-ray tracking, 3) Dynamic tracking using electromagnetic transponders, and 4) MRI-based soft-tissue tracking during radiation delivery. Learning Objectives: Understand the fundamentals of real-time imaging and tracking techniques Learn about emerging techniques in the field of real-time tracking Distinguish between the advantages and disadvantages of different tracking modalities Understand the role of real-time tracking techniques within the clinical delivery work-flow.

  5. MO-FG-BRD-01: Real-Time Imaging and Tracking Techniques for Intrafractional Motion Management: Introduction and KV Tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahimian, B. [Stanford University (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Intrafraction target motion is a prominent complicating factor in the accurate targeting of radiation within the body. Methods compensating for target motion during treatment, such as gating and dynamic tumor tracking, depend on the delineation of target location as a function of time during delivery. A variety of techniques for target localization have been explored and are under active development; these include beam-level imaging of radio-opaque fiducials, fiducial-less tracking of anatomical landmarks, tracking of electromagnetic transponders, optical imaging of correlated surrogates, and volumetric imaging within treatment delivery. The Joint Imaging and Therapy Symposium will provide an overview of the techniques for real-time imaging and tracking, with special focus on emerging modes of implementation across different modalities. In particular, the symposium will explore developments in 1) Beam-level kilovoltage X-ray imaging techniques, 2) EPID-based megavoltage X-ray tracking, 3) Dynamic tracking using electromagnetic transponders, and 4) MRI-based soft-tissue tracking during radiation delivery. Learning Objectives: Understand the fundamentals of real-time imaging and tracking techniques Learn about emerging techniques in the field of real-time tracking Distinguish between the advantages and disadvantages of different tracking modalities Understand the role of real-time tracking techniques within the clinical delivery work-flow.

  6. MO-FG-BRD-04: Real-Time Imaging and Tracking Techniques for Intrafractional Motion Management: MR Tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, D.

    2015-01-01

    Intrafraction target motion is a prominent complicating factor in the accurate targeting of radiation within the body. Methods compensating for target motion during treatment, such as gating and dynamic tumor tracking, depend on the delineation of target location as a function of time during delivery. A variety of techniques for target localization have been explored and are under active development; these include beam-level imaging of radio-opaque fiducials, fiducial-less tracking of anatomical landmarks, tracking of electromagnetic transponders, optical imaging of correlated surrogates, and volumetric imaging within treatment delivery. The Joint Imaging and Therapy Symposium will provide an overview of the techniques for real-time imaging and tracking, with special focus on emerging modes of implementation across different modalities. In particular, the symposium will explore developments in 1) Beam-level kilovoltage X-ray imaging techniques, 2) EPID-based megavoltage X-ray tracking, 3) Dynamic tracking using electromagnetic transponders, and 4) MRI-based soft-tissue tracking during radiation delivery. Learning Objectives: Understand the fundamentals of real-time imaging and tracking techniques Learn about emerging techniques in the field of real-time tracking Distinguish between the advantages and disadvantages of different tracking modalities Understand the role of real-time tracking techniques within the clinical delivery work-flow

  7. MO-FG-BRD-03: Real-Time Imaging and Tracking Techniques for Intrafractional Motion Management: EM Tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keall, P.

    2015-01-01

    Intrafraction target motion is a prominent complicating factor in the accurate targeting of radiation within the body. Methods compensating for target motion during treatment, such as gating and dynamic tumor tracking, depend on the delineation of target location as a function of time during delivery. A variety of techniques for target localization have been explored and are under active development; these include beam-level imaging of radio-opaque fiducials, fiducial-less tracking of anatomical landmarks, tracking of electromagnetic transponders, optical imaging of correlated surrogates, and volumetric imaging within treatment delivery. The Joint Imaging and Therapy Symposium will provide an overview of the techniques for real-time imaging and tracking, with special focus on emerging modes of implementation across different modalities. In particular, the symposium will explore developments in 1) Beam-level kilovoltage X-ray imaging techniques, 2) EPID-based megavoltage X-ray tracking, 3) Dynamic tracking using electromagnetic transponders, and 4) MRI-based soft-tissue tracking during radiation delivery. Learning Objectives: Understand the fundamentals of real-time imaging and tracking techniques Learn about emerging techniques in the field of real-time tracking Distinguish between the advantages and disadvantages of different tracking modalities Understand the role of real-time tracking techniques within the clinical delivery work-flow

  8. MO-FG-BRD-02: Real-Time Imaging and Tracking Techniques for Intrafractional Motion Management: MV Tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berbeco, R.

    2015-01-01

    Intrafraction target motion is a prominent complicating factor in the accurate targeting of radiation within the body. Methods compensating for target motion during treatment, such as gating and dynamic tumor tracking, depend on the delineation of target location as a function of time during delivery. A variety of techniques for target localization have been explored and are under active development; these include beam-level imaging of radio-opaque fiducials, fiducial-less tracking of anatomical landmarks, tracking of electromagnetic transponders, optical imaging of correlated surrogates, and volumetric imaging within treatment delivery. The Joint Imaging and Therapy Symposium will provide an overview of the techniques for real-time imaging and tracking, with special focus on emerging modes of implementation across different modalities. In particular, the symposium will explore developments in 1) Beam-level kilovoltage X-ray imaging techniques, 2) EPID-based megavoltage X-ray tracking, 3) Dynamic tracking using electromagnetic transponders, and 4) MRI-based soft-tissue tracking during radiation delivery. Learning Objectives: Understand the fundamentals of real-time imaging and tracking techniques Learn about emerging techniques in the field of real-time tracking Distinguish between the advantages and disadvantages of different tracking modalities Understand the role of real-time tracking techniques within the clinical delivery work-flow

  9. Quality assurance for the clinical implementation of kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring for prostate cancer VMAT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ng, J. A.; Booth, J. T.; O'Brien, R. T.

    2014-01-01

    is being piloted in a clinical trial for prostate cancer patients treated with VMAT (NCT01742403). The purpose of this work was to develop clinical process and quality assurance (QA) practices for the clinical implementation of KIM. Methods: Informed by and adapting existing guideline documents from other...... real-time monitoring systems, KIM-specific QA practices were developed. The following five KIM-specific QA tests were included: (1) static localization accuracy, (2) dynamic localization accuracy, (3) treatment interruption accuracy, (4) latency measurement, and (5) clinical conditions accuracy. Tests...... developed and implemented for prostate cancer VMAT....

  10. Assessment of Intrafraction Breathing Motion on Left Anterior Descending Artery Dose During Left-Sided Breast Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sherif, Omar, E-mail: Omar.ElSherif@lhsc.on.ca [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Department of Physics, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Yu, Edward [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Xhaferllari, Ilma [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Department of Physics, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Gaede, Stewart [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Department of Physics, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: To use 4-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) imaging to predict the level of uncertainty in cardiac dose estimates of the left anterior descending artery that arises due to breathing motion during radiation therapy for left-sided breast cancer. Methods and Materials: The fast helical CT (FH-CT) and 4D-CT of 30 left-sided breast cancer patients were retrospectively analyzed. Treatment plans were created on the FH-CT. The original treatment plan was then superimposed onto all 10 phases of the 4D-CT to quantify the dosimetric impact of respiratory motion through 4D dose accumulation (4D-dose). Dose-volume histograms for the heart, left ventricle (LV), and left anterior descending (LAD) artery obtained from the FH-CT were compared with those obtained from the 4D-dose. Results: The 95% confidence interval of 4D-dose and FH-CT differences in mean dose estimates for the heart, LV, and LAD were ±0.5 Gy, ±1.0 Gy, and ±8.7 Gy, respectively. Conclusion: Fast helical CT is a good approximation for doses to the heart and LV; however, dose estimates for the LAD are susceptible to uncertainties that arise due to intrafraction breathing motion that cannot be ascertained without the additional information obtained from 4D-CT and dose accumulation. For future clinical studies, we suggest the use of 4D-CT–derived dose-volume histograms for estimating the dose to the LAD.

  11. Development of a real-time monitoring system for intra-fractional motion in intracranial treatment using pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inata, Hiroki; Araki, Fujio; Kuribayashi, Yuta; Hamamoto, Yasushi; Nakayama, Shigeki; Sodeoka, Noritaka; Kiriyama, Tetsukazu; Nishizaki, Osamu

    2015-09-21

    This study developed a dedicated real-time monitoring system to detect intra-fractional head motion in intracranial radiotherapy using pressure sensors. The dedicated real-time monitoring system consists of pressure sensors with a thickness of 0.6 mm and a radius of 9.1 mm, a thermoplastic mask, a vacuum pillow, and a baseplate. The four sensors were positioned at superior-inferior and right-left sides under the occipital area. The sampling rate of pressure sensors was set to 5 Hz. First, we confirmed that the relationship between the force and the displacement of the vacuum pillow follows Hook's law. Next, the spring constant for the vacuum pillow was determined from the relationship between the force given to the vacuum pillow and the displacement of the head, detected by Cyberknife target locating system (TLS) acquisitions in clinical application. Finally, the accuracy of our system was evaluated by using the 2  ×  2 confusion matrix. The regression lines between the force, y, and the displacement, x, of the vacuum pillow were given by y = 3.8x, y = 4.4x, and y = 5.0x when the degree of inner pressure was  -12 kPa,-20 kPa, and  -27 kPa, respectively. The spring constant of the vacuum pillow was 1.6 N mm(-1) from the 6D positioning data of a total of 2999 TLS acquisitions in 19 patients. Head motions of 1 mm, 1.5 mm, and 2 mm were detected in real-time with the accuracies of 67%, 84%, and 89%, respectively. Our system can detect displacement of the head continuously during every interval of TLS with a resolution of 1-2 mm without any radiation exposure.

  12. Tissue feature-based intra-fractional motion tracking for stereoscopic x-ray image guided radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yaoqin; Xing, Lei; Gu, Jia; Liu, Wu

    2013-06-01

    Real-time knowledge of tumor position during radiation therapy is essential to overcome the adverse effect of intra-fractional organ motion. The goal of this work is to develop a tumor tracking strategy by effectively utilizing the inherent image features of stereoscopic x-ray images acquired during dose delivery. In stereoscopic x-ray image guided radiation delivery, two orthogonal x-ray images are acquired either simultaneously or sequentially. The essence of markerless tumor tracking is the reliable identification of inherent points with distinct tissue features on each projection image and their association between two images. The identification of the feature points on a planar x-ray image is realized by searching for points with high intensity gradient. The feature points are associated by using the scale invariance features transform descriptor. The performance of the proposed technique is evaluated by using images of a motion phantom and four archived clinical cases acquired using either a CyberKnife equipped with a stereoscopic x-ray imaging system, or a LINAC equipped with an onboard kV imager and an electronic portal imaging device. In the phantom study, the results obtained using the proposed method agree with the measurements to within 2 mm in all three directions. In the clinical study, the mean error is 0.48 ± 0.46 mm for four patient data with 144 sequential images. In this work, a tissue feature-based tracking method for stereoscopic x-ray image guided radiation therapy is developed. The technique avoids the invasive procedure of fiducial implantation and may greatly facilitate the clinical workflow.

  13. Tissue feature-based intra-fractional motion tracking for stereoscopic x-ray image guided radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yaoqin; Gu Jia; Xing Lei; Liu Wu

    2013-01-01

    Real-time knowledge of tumor position during radiation therapy is essential to overcome the adverse effect of intra-fractional organ motion. The goal of this work is to develop a tumor tracking strategy by effectively utilizing the inherent image features of stereoscopic x-ray images acquired during dose delivery. In stereoscopic x-ray image guided radiation delivery, two orthogonal x-ray images are acquired either simultaneously or sequentially. The essence of markerless tumor tracking is the reliable identification of inherent points with distinct tissue features on each projection image and their association between two images. The identification of the feature points on a planar x-ray image is realized by searching for points with high intensity gradient. The feature points are associated by using the scale invariance features transform descriptor. The performance of the proposed technique is evaluated by using images of a motion phantom and four archived clinical cases acquired using either a CyberKnife equipped with a stereoscopic x-ray imaging system, or a LINAC equipped with an onboard kV imager and an electronic portal imaging device. In the phantom study, the results obtained using the proposed method agree with the measurements to within 2 mm in all three directions. In the clinical study, the mean error is 0.48 ± 0.46 mm for four patient data with 144 sequential images. In this work, a tissue feature-based tracking method for stereoscopic x-ray image guided radiation therapy is developed. The technique avoids the invasive procedure of fiducial implantation and may greatly facilitate the clinical workflow. (paper)

  14. Spine Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Utilizing Cone-Beam CT Image-Guidance With a Robotic Couch: Intrafraction Motion Analysis Accounting for all Six Degrees of Freedom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, Derek [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); British Columbia Cancer Agency, The Sindi Hawkins Cancer Centre for the Southern Interior, Kelowna (Canada); Lochray, Fiona; Korol, Renee; Davidson, Melanie; Wong, C. Shun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ma, Lijun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Sahgal, Arjun, E-mail: Arjun.sahgal@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the residual setup error and intrafraction motion following kilovoltage cone-beam CT (CBCT) image guidance, for immobilized spine stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) patients, with positioning corrected for in all six degrees of freedom. Methods and Materials: Analysis is based on 42 consecutive patients (48 thoracic and/or lumbar metastases) treated with a total of 106 fractions and 307 image registrations. Following initial setup, a CBCT was acquired for patient alignment and a pretreatment CBCT taken to verify shifts and determine the residual setup error, followed by a midtreatment and posttreatment CBCT image. For 13 single-fraction SBRT patients, two midtreatment CBCT images were obtained. Initially, a 1.5-mm and 1 Degree-Sign tolerance was used to reposition the patient following couch shifts which was subsequently reduced to 1 mm and 1 Degree-Sign degree after the first 10 patients. Results: Small positioning errors after the initial CBCT setup were observed, with 90% occurring within 1 mm and 97% within 1 Degree-Sign . In analyzing the impact of the time interval for verification imaging (10 {+-} 3 min) and subsequent image acquisitions (17 {+-} 4 min), the residual setup error was not significantly different (p > 0.05). A significant difference (p = 0.04) in the average three-dimensional intrafraction positional deviations favoring a more strict tolerance in translation (1 mm vs. 1.5 mm) was observed. The absolute intrafraction motion averaged over all patients and all directions along x, y, and z axis ({+-} SD) were 0.7 {+-} 0.5 mm and 0.5 {+-} 0.4 mm for the 1.5 mm and 1 mm tolerance, respectively. Based on a 1-mm and 1 Degree-Sign correction threshold, the target was localized to within 1.2 mm and 0.9 Degree-Sign with 95% confidence. Conclusion: Near-rigid body immobilization, intrafraction CBCT imaging approximately every 15-20 min, and strict repositioning thresholds in six degrees of freedom yields minimal intrafraction motion

  15. SU-G-JeP4-07: Evaluation of Intrafraction Motion Using 3D Surface Guided Radiation Therapy in Lung SBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jermoumi, M; Cao, D; Mehta, V; Shepard, D [Department of Radiation Oncology, Swedish Cancer Institute, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Surface guided radiation therapy (SGRT) uses stereoscopic video images in combination with patterns projected onto the patient’s surface to dynamically capture and reconstruct a 3D surface map. In this work, we used a C-RAD Catalyst HD system (C-RAD) to evaluate intrafraction motion in the delivery of lung SBRT. Methods: The surface acquired from the 4DCT images from our preliminary cohort of eight lung cancer patients treated with SBRT were matched to the surface images acquired prior to each treatment. Additionally, a CBCT image set was acquired. A linear regression model was established between the external and internal motion of tumor during pretreatment and used to predict the CBCT deviation during treatment. The shifts determined from CBCT and the shifts from surface map imaging were compared and assessed using Bland-Altman method. For intrafraction motion, we assessed the percentage of mean errors that fell outside of the threshold of 2 mm, 3 mm, and 5 mm along the translational directions. The required PTV margin was quantified over the course of treatment. The correlation between intrafraction treatment time and mean error of 3D displacement was evaluated using the Pearson coefficient, r Results: A total of 7971 data points were analyzed. Deviations of 2mm, 3mm, and 5mm were observed less than 7%, 2 %, and 0 % of the time along the translational direction. CBCT and Catalyst showed close agreement during patient positioning. Furthermore, the calculated PTV margins were less than our clinical tolerance of 5 mm. Using the Pearson coefficient r,the mean error of 3D displacement showed significant correlation with treatment time (r=0.69, p= 0.000002). Conclusion: SGRT can be used to ensure accurate patient positioning during treatment without an additional delivery of dose to the patient. This study shows that importance of treatment time as a consideration during the treatment planning process.

  16. SU-G-JeP4-07: Evaluation of Intrafraction Motion Using 3D Surface Guided Radiation Therapy in Lung SBRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jermoumi, M; Cao, D; Mehta, V; Shepard, D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Surface guided radiation therapy (SGRT) uses stereoscopic video images in combination with patterns projected onto the patient’s surface to dynamically capture and reconstruct a 3D surface map. In this work, we used a C-RAD Catalyst HD system (C-RAD) to evaluate intrafraction motion in the delivery of lung SBRT. Methods: The surface acquired from the 4DCT images from our preliminary cohort of eight lung cancer patients treated with SBRT were matched to the surface images acquired prior to each treatment. Additionally, a CBCT image set was acquired. A linear regression model was established between the external and internal motion of tumor during pretreatment and used to predict the CBCT deviation during treatment. The shifts determined from CBCT and the shifts from surface map imaging were compared and assessed using Bland-Altman method. For intrafraction motion, we assessed the percentage of mean errors that fell outside of the threshold of 2 mm, 3 mm, and 5 mm along the translational directions. The required PTV margin was quantified over the course of treatment. The correlation between intrafraction treatment time and mean error of 3D displacement was evaluated using the Pearson coefficient, r Results: A total of 7971 data points were analyzed. Deviations of 2mm, 3mm, and 5mm were observed less than 7%, 2 %, and 0 % of the time along the translational direction. CBCT and Catalyst showed close agreement during patient positioning. Furthermore, the calculated PTV margins were less than our clinical tolerance of 5 mm. Using the Pearson coefficient r,the mean error of 3D displacement showed significant correlation with treatment time (r=0.69, p= 0.000002). Conclusion: SGRT can be used to ensure accurate patient positioning during treatment without an additional delivery of dose to the patient. This study shows that importance of treatment time as a consideration during the treatment planning process.

  17. SU-G-JeP4-10: Measurement of Prostate Motion Trajectories During Prostate SBRT Boost Treatments with a Rectafix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legge, K; O’Connor, D J [University of Newcastle (Australia); Nguyen, D; Ng, J; Keall, P [University of Sydney (Australia); Wilton, L; Martin, J [Calvary Mater Newcastle (Australia); Booth, J [Royal North Shore Hospital (Australia); Greer, P [University of Newcastle (Australia); Calvary Mater Newcastle (Australia)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To determine prostate motion during SBRT boost treatments with a Rectafix rectal sparing device in place using kV imaging during treatment. Methods: Patients each had three gold fiducial markers inserted into the prostate and received two VMAT boost fractions of 9.5–10 Gy under the PROMETHEUS clinical trial protocol with a Rectafix rectal retractor in place. Two-dimensional kilovoltage images of fiducial markers were acquired continuously during delivery. Three patients were treated on a Varian Clinac iX linear accelerator (6X, 600 MU/min), where kV images were acquired at 5 Hz during treatment. Seven patients were treated on a Varian Truebeam linear accelerator (10XFFF, 2400 MU/min) where kV images were acquired every 3 seconds. Images were processed off-line using the Kilovoltage Intrafraction Monitoring (KIM) software after treatment. KIM determines prostate position in three dimensions from 2D kV projections using a probability density model and a pre-treatment kV arc. The 3D displacement of the prostate was quantified as a function of time throughout each fraction. Results: From all fractions analyzed, it was found that the prostate had moved less than 1 mm in any direction from its initial position 84.6% of the time. The prostate was between 1 and 2 mm from its initial position 14.2% of the time, between 2 and 3 mm of its initial position 0.8% of the time and was greater than 3 mm from its initial position only 0.4% of the time. Conclusion: The amount of prostate motion observed during prostate SBRT boost treatments with a Rectafix device in place was minimal and lower than that observed in non-Rectafix studies. The Rectafix device reduces rectal dose as well as immobilizing the prostate. Kimberley Legge is the recipient of an Australian Postgraduate Award.

  18. Real-Time Motion Management of Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommer, Tobias

    , and for prostate cancer treatments, the proximity of the bladder and rectum makes radiotherapy treatment of this site a challenging task. Furthermore, the prostate may move during the radiation delivery and treatment margins are necessary to ensure that it is still receiving the intended dose. The main aim...... of the MLC on the performance of DMLC tracking were investigated. We found that for prostate motion, the main tracking error arose from the finite leaf width affecting the MLCs ability to construct the desired shape. Furthermore, we also attempted to model prostate motion using a random walk model. We found...... that for the slow and drifting motion, the model could satisfactory replicate the motion of the prostate, while the rapid and transient prostate motion observed in some cases was challenging for the model. We therefore added simulated transient motion to the random walk model, which slightly improved the results...

  19. Three-Dimensional Intrafractional Motion of Breast During Tangential Breast Irradiation Monitored With High-Sampling Frequency Using a Real-Time Tumor-Tracking Radiotherapy System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Rumiko; Shimizu, Shinichi; Taguchi, Hiroshi; Katoh, Norio; Fujino, Masaharu; Onimaru, Rikiya; Aoyama, Hidefumi; Katoh, Fumi; Omatsu, Tokuhiko; Ishikawa, Masayori; Shirato, Hiroki

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the three-dimensional intrafraction motion of the breast during tangential breast irradiation using a real-time tracking radiotherapy (RT) system with a high-sampling frequency. Methods and Materials: A total of 17 patients with breast cancer who had received breast conservation RT were included in this study. A 2.0-mm gold marker was placed on the skin near the nipple of the breast for RT. A fluoroscopic real-time tumor-tracking RT system was used to monitor the marker. The range of motion of each patient was calculated in three directions. Results: The mean ± standard deviation of the range of respiratory motion was 1.0 ± 0.6 mm (median, 0.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] of the marker position, 0.4-2.6), 1.3 ± 0.5 mm (median, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.5-2.5), and 2.6 ± 1.4 (median, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.0-6.9) for the right-left, craniocaudal, and anteroposterior direction, respectively. No correlation was found between the range of motion and the body mass index or respiratory function. The mean ± standard deviation of the absolute value of the baseline shift in the right-left, craniocaudal, and anteroposterior direction was 0.2 ± 0.2 mm (range, 0.0-0.8 mm), 0.3 ± 0.2 mm (range, 0.0-0.7 mm), and 0.8 ± 0.7 mm (range, 0.1-1.8 mm), respectively. Conclusion: Both the range of motion and the baseline shift were within a few millimeters in each direction. As long as the conventional wedge-pair technique and the proper immobilization are used, the intrafraction three-dimensional change in the breast surface did not much influence the dose distribution

  20. Magnetic Resonance Image Guided Radiation Therapy for External Beam Accelerated Partial-Breast Irradiation: Evaluation of Delivered Dose and Intrafractional Cavity Motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acharya, Sahaja; Fischer-Valuck, Benjamin W.; Mazur, Thomas R.; Curcuru, Austen; Sona, Karl; Kashani, Rojano; Green, Olga; Ochoa, Laura; Mutic, Sasa; Zoberi, Imran; Li, H. Harold; Thomas, Maria A., E-mail: mthomas@radonc.wustl.edu

    2016-11-15

    Purpose: To use magnetic resonance image guided radiation therapy (MR-IGRT) for accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) to (1) determine intrafractional motion of the breast surgical cavity; and (2) assess delivered dose versus planned dose. Methods and Materials: Thirty women with breast cancer (stages 0-I) who underwent breast-conserving surgery were enrolled in a prospective registry evaluating APBI using a 0.35-T MR-IGRT system. Clinical target volume was defined as the surgical cavity plus a 1-cm margin (excluding chest wall, pectoral muscles, and 5 mm from skin). No additional margin was added for the planning target volume (PTV). A volumetric MR image was acquired before each fraction, and patients were set up to the surgical cavity as visualized on MR imaging. To determine the delivered dose for each fraction, the electron density map and contours from the computed tomography simulation were transferred to the pretreatment MR image via rigid registration. Intrafractional motion of the surgical cavity was determined by applying a tracking algorithm to the cavity contour as visualized on cine MR. Results: Median PTV volume was reduced by 52% when using no PTV margin compared with a 1-cm PTV margin used conventionally. The mean (± standard deviation) difference between planned and delivered dose to the PTV (V95) was 0.6% ± 0.1%. The mean cavity displacement in the anterior–posterior and superior–inferior directions was 0.6 ± 0.4 mm and 0.6 ± 0.3 mm, respectively. The mean margin required for at least 90% of the cavity to be contained by the margin for 90% of the time was 0.7 mm (5th-95th percentile: 0-2.7 mm). Conclusion: Minimal intrafractional motion was observed, and the mean difference between planned and delivered dose was less than 1%. Assessment of efficacy and cosmesis of this MR-guided APBI approach is under way.

  1. Prostate motion during standard radiotherapy as assessed by fiducial markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, Y.; Crook, J.M.; Salhani, D.; Yang, H.; Esche, B.

    1995-01-01

    From November 1993 to August 1994, 55 patients with localized prostate carcinoma had three gold seeds placed in the prostate under transrectal ultrasound guidance prior to the start of radiotherapy in order to track prostate motion. Patients had a planning CT scan before initial simulation and again at about 40 Gy, just prior to simulation of a field reduction. Seed position relative to fixed bony landmarks (pubic symphysis and both ischial tuberosities) was digitized from each pair of orthogonal films from the initial and boost simulation using the Nucletron brachytherapy planning system. Vector analysis was performed to rule out the possibility of independent seed migration within the prostate between the time of initial and boost simulation. Prostate motion was seen in the posterior (mean: 0.56 cm; SD: 0.41 cm) and inferior directions (mean: 0.59 cm; SD: 0.45 cm). The base of the prostate was displaced more than 1 cm posteriorly in 30% of patients and in 11% in the inferior direction. Prostate position is related to rectal and bladder filling. Distension of these organs displaces the prostate in an anterosuperior direction, with lesser degrees of filling allowing the prostate to move posteriorly and inferiorly. Conformal therapy planning must take this motion into consideration. Changes in prostate position of this magnitude preclude the use of standard margins

  2. SU-G-JeP4-06: Evaluation of Interfractional and Intrafractional Tumor Motion in Stereotactic Liver Radiotherapy, Based On Four-Dimensional Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Using Fiducial Markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimohigashi, Y; Araki, F; Toya, R; Maruyama, M; Nakaguchi, Y

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the interfractional and intrafractional motion of liver tumors in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), based on four-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography using fiducial markers. (4D-CBCT). Methods: Seven patients with liver tumors were treated by SBRT with abdominal compression (AC) in five fractions with image guidance based on 4D-CBCT. The 4D-CBCT studies were performed to determine the individualized internal margin for the planning simulation. The interfractional and intrafractional changes of liver tumor motion for all patients was measured, based on the planning simulation 4D-CBCT, pre-SBRT 4D-CBCT, and post-SBRT 4D-CBCT. The interfractional motion change was calculated from the difference in liver tumor amplitude on pre-SBRT 4D-CBCT relative to that of the planning simulation 4D-CBCT for each fraction. The intrafractional motion change was calculated from the difference between the liver tumor amplitudes of the pre- and post-SBRT 4D-CBCT for each fraction. Significant interfractional and intrafractional changes in liver tumor motion were defined as a change ≥3 mm. Statistical analysis was performed using the Pearson correlation. Results: The values of the mean amplitude of liver tumor, as indicated by planning simulation 4D-CBCT, were 1.6 ± 0.8 mm, 1.6 ± 0.9 mm, and 4.9 ± 2.2 mm in the left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP), and superior-inferior (SI) directions, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficients between the liver tumor amplitudes, based on planning simulation 4D-CBCT, and pre-SBRT 4D-CBCT during fraction treatment in the LR, AP, and SI directions were 0.6, 0.7, and 0.8, respectively. Interfractional and intrafractional motion changes of ≥3 mm occurred in 23% and 3% of treatment fractions, respectively. Conclusion: The interfractional and intrafractional changes of liver tumor motion were small in most patients who received liver SBRT with AC. In addition, planning

  3. SU-G-JeP4-06: Evaluation of Interfractional and Intrafractional Tumor Motion in Stereotactic Liver Radiotherapy, Based On Four-Dimensional Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Using Fiducial Markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimohigashi, Y [Department of Radiological Technology, Kumamoto University Hospital, Department of Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kumamoto University (Japan); Araki, F [Department of Health Sciences, Kumamoto University (Japan); Toya, R [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kumamoto University Hospital (Japan); Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health (United States); Maruyama, M; Nakaguchi, Y [Department of Radiological Technology, Kumamoto University Hospital (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the interfractional and intrafractional motion of liver tumors in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), based on four-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography using fiducial markers. (4D-CBCT). Methods: Seven patients with liver tumors were treated by SBRT with abdominal compression (AC) in five fractions with image guidance based on 4D-CBCT. The 4D-CBCT studies were performed to determine the individualized internal margin for the planning simulation. The interfractional and intrafractional changes of liver tumor motion for all patients was measured, based on the planning simulation 4D-CBCT, pre-SBRT 4D-CBCT, and post-SBRT 4D-CBCT. The interfractional motion change was calculated from the difference in liver tumor amplitude on pre-SBRT 4D-CBCT relative to that of the planning simulation 4D-CBCT for each fraction. The intrafractional motion change was calculated from the difference between the liver tumor amplitudes of the pre- and post-SBRT 4D-CBCT for each fraction. Significant interfractional and intrafractional changes in liver tumor motion were defined as a change ≥3 mm. Statistical analysis was performed using the Pearson correlation. Results: The values of the mean amplitude of liver tumor, as indicated by planning simulation 4D-CBCT, were 1.6 ± 0.8 mm, 1.6 ± 0.9 mm, and 4.9 ± 2.2 mm in the left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP), and superior-inferior (SI) directions, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficients between the liver tumor amplitudes, based on planning simulation 4D-CBCT, and pre-SBRT 4D-CBCT during fraction treatment in the LR, AP, and SI directions were 0.6, 0.7, and 0.8, respectively. Interfractional and intrafractional motion changes of ≥3 mm occurred in 23% and 3% of treatment fractions, respectively. Conclusion: The interfractional and intrafractional changes of liver tumor motion were small in most patients who received liver SBRT with AC. In addition, planning

  4. Real-Time Motion Management of Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommer, Tobias

    of this thesis is to manage prostate motion in real-time by aligning the radiation beam to the prostate using the novel dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) tracking method. Specifically, the delivered dose with tracking was compared to the planned dose, and the impact of treatment plan complexity and limitations...

  5. Effect of magnesium oxide on interfraction prostate motion and rectal filling in prostate cancer radiotherapy. Analysis of a randomized clinical trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harder, Annemarie M. den; Kotte, Alexis N.T.J.; Vulpen, Marco van; Lips, Irene M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiation Oncology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Gils, Carla H. van [University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-08-15

    To investigate whether magnesium oxide reduces the interfraction motion of the prostate and the amount of rectal filling and rectal gas, which influences prostate position during radiotherapy for prostate cancer. From December 2008 to February 2010, 92 prostate cancer patients scheduled for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (77 Gy in 35 fractions) using fiducial marker-based position verification were randomly assigned to receive magnesium oxide (500 mg twice a day) or placebo during radiotherapy. In a previous study, we investigated the effect on intrafraction motion and did not find a difference between the treatment arms. Here, we compared the interfraction prostate motion between the two treatment arms as well as the amount of rectal filling and rectal air pockets using pretreatment planning computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans. There was no statistically significant difference between the treatment arms in translation and rotation of the prostate between treatment fractions, except for the rotation around the cranial caudal axis. However, the difference was less than 1 and therefore considered not clinically relevant. There was no significant difference in the amount of rectal filling and rectal air pockets between the treatment arms. Magnesium oxide is not effective in reducing the interfraction prostate motion or the amount of rectal filling and rectal gas during external-beam radiotherapy. Therefore, magnesium oxide is not recommended in clinical practice for these purposes. (orig.) [German] Ziel der Studie war es, zu untersuchen, ob Magnesiumoxid die interfraktionaere Bewegung und die rektale Fuellung sowie rektales Gas reduziert, was die Position der Prostata waehrend der Strahlentherapie bei Prostatakrebs beeinflusst. Von Dezember 2008 bis Februar 2010 haben 92 Prostatakrebspatienten die intensitaetsmodulierte Strahlentherapie (IMRT) mit bezugsmarkenbasierter Positionsverifikation erhalten (77 Gy in 35 Fraktionen). Sie wurden waehrend

  6. SU-G-JeP4-14: Assessment of Inter- and Intra-Fractional Motion for Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcoma Patients by Using In-House Real-Time Optical Image-Based Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H [Interdisciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, I [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ye, S [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Program in Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: This study aimed to assess inter- and intra-fractional motion for extremity Soft Tissue Sarcoma (STS) patients, by using in-house real-time optical image-based monitoring system (ROIMS) with infra-red (IR) external markers. Methods: Inter- and intra-fractional motions for five extremity (1 upper, 4 lower) STS patients received postoperative 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) were measured by registering the image acquired by ROIMS with the planning CT image (REG-ROIMS). To compare with the X-ray image-based monitoring, pre- and post-treatment cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans were performed once per week and registered with planning CT image as well (REG-CBCT). If the CBCT scan is not feasible due to the large couch shift, AP and LR on-board imager (OBI) images were acquired. The comparison was done by calculating mutual information (MI) of those registered images. Results: The standard deviation (SD) of the inter-fractional motion was 2.6 mm LR, 2.8 mm SI, and 2.0 mm AP, and the SD of the intra-fractional motion was 1.4 mm, 2.1 mm, and 1.3 mm in each axis, respectively. The SD of rotational inter-fractional motion was 0.6° pitch, 0.9° yaw, and 0.8° roll and the SD of rotational intra-fractional motion was 0.4° pitch, 0.9° yaw, and 0.7° roll. The derived averaged MI values were 0.83, 0.92 for REG-CBCT without rotation and REG-ROIMS with rotation, respectively. Conclusion: The in-house real-time optical image-based monitoring system was implemented clinically and confirmed the feasibility to assess inter- and intra-fractional motion for extremity STS patients while the daily basis and real-time CBCT scan is not feasible in clinic.

  7. SU-G-JeP4-14: Assessment of Inter- and Intra-Fractional Motion for Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcoma Patients by Using In-House Real-Time Optical Image-Based Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H; Kim, I; Ye, S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to assess inter- and intra-fractional motion for extremity Soft Tissue Sarcoma (STS) patients, by using in-house real-time optical image-based monitoring system (ROIMS) with infra-red (IR) external markers. Methods: Inter- and intra-fractional motions for five extremity (1 upper, 4 lower) STS patients received postoperative 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) were measured by registering the image acquired by ROIMS with the planning CT image (REG-ROIMS). To compare with the X-ray image-based monitoring, pre- and post-treatment cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans were performed once per week and registered with planning CT image as well (REG-CBCT). If the CBCT scan is not feasible due to the large couch shift, AP and LR on-board imager (OBI) images were acquired. The comparison was done by calculating mutual information (MI) of those registered images. Results: The standard deviation (SD) of the inter-fractional motion was 2.6 mm LR, 2.8 mm SI, and 2.0 mm AP, and the SD of the intra-fractional motion was 1.4 mm, 2.1 mm, and 1.3 mm in each axis, respectively. The SD of rotational inter-fractional motion was 0.6° pitch, 0.9° yaw, and 0.8° roll and the SD of rotational intra-fractional motion was 0.4° pitch, 0.9° yaw, and 0.7° roll. The derived averaged MI values were 0.83, 0.92 for REG-CBCT without rotation and REG-ROIMS with rotation, respectively. Conclusion: The in-house real-time optical image-based monitoring system was implemented clinically and confirmed the feasibility to assess inter- and intra-fractional motion for extremity STS patients while the daily basis and real-time CBCT scan is not feasible in clinic.

  8. Rectal Balloon for the Immobilization of the Prostate Internal Motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Kyu; Beak, Jong Geal; Kim, Joo Ho; Jeon, Byong Chul; Cho, Jeong Hee; Kim, Dong Wook; Song, Tae Soo; Cho, Jae Ho; Na, Soo Kyong

    2005-01-01

    The using of endo-rectal balloon has proposed as optimal method that minimized the motion of prostate and the dose of rectum wall volume for treated prostate cancer patients, so we make the customized rectal balloon device. In this study, we analyzed the efficiency of the Self-customized rectal balloon in the aspects of its reproducibility. In 5 patients, for treatment planning, each patient was acquired CT slice images in state of with and without rectal balloon. Also they had CT scanning same repeated third times in during radiation treatment (IMRT). In each case, we analyzed the deviation of rectal balloon position and verified the isodose distribution of rectum wall at closed prostate. Using the rectal balloon, we minimized the planning target volume (PTV) by decreased the internal motion of prostate and overcome the dose limit of radiation therapy in prostate cancer by increased the gap between the rectum wall and high dose region. The using of rectal balloon, although, was reluctant to treat by patients. View a point of immobilization of prostate internal motion and dose escalation of GTV (gross tumor volume), its using consider large efficient for treated prostate cancer patients.

  9. Extension of the NCAT phantom for the investigation of intra-fraction respiratory motion in IMRT using 4D Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGurk, Ross; Seco, Joao; Wolfgang, John; Paganetti, Harald; Riboldi, Marco; Segars, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to create a computational platform for studying motion in intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Specifically, the non-uniform rational B-spline (NURB) cardiac and torso (NCAT) phantom was modified for use in a four-dimensional Monte Carlo (4D-MC) simulation system to investigate the effect of respiratory-induced intra-fraction organ motion on IMRT dose distributions as a function of diaphragm motion, lesion size and lung density. Treatment plans for four clinical scenarios were designed: diaphragm peak-to-peak amplitude of 1 cm and 3 cm, and two lesion sizes-2 cm and 4 cm diameter placed in the lower lobe of the right lung. Lung density was changed for each phase using a conservation of mass calculation. Further, a new heterogeneous lung model was implemented and tested. Each lesion had an internal target volume (ITV) subsequently expanded by 15 mm isotropically to give the planning target volume (PTV). The PTV was prescribed to receive 72 Gy in 40 fractions. The MLC leaf sequence defined by the planning system for each patient was exported and used as input into the MC system. MC simulations using the dose planning method (DPM) code together with deformable image registration based on the NCAT deformation field were used to find a composite dose distribution for each phantom. These composite distributions were subsequently analyzed using information from the dose volume histograms (DVH). Lesion motion amplitude has the largest effect on the dose distribution. Tumor size was found to have a smaller effect and can be mitigated by ensuring the planning constraints are optimized for the tumor size. The use of a dynamic or heterogeneous lung density model over a respiratory cycle does not appear to be an important factor with a ≤ 0.6% change in the mean dose received by the ITV, PTV and right lung. The heterogeneous model increases the realism of the NCAT phantom and may provide more accurate simulations in radiation therapy

  10. Strategies to evaluate the impact of rectal volume on prostate motion during three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poli, Ana Paula Diniz Fortuna, E-mail: anapaulafortuna@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (CAISM/UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Atencao Integrada a Saude da Mulher. Divisao de Radioterapia; Dias, Rodrigo Souza; Giordani, Adelmo Jose; Segreto, Helena Regina Comodo; Segreto, Roberto Araujo [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Divisao de Radioterapia

    2016-01-15

    Objective: To evaluate the rectal volume influence on prostate motion during three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Fifty-one patients with prostate cancer underwent a series of three computed tomography scans including an initial planning scan and two subsequent scans during 3D-CRT. The organs of interest were outlined. The prostate contour was compared with the initial CT images considering the anterior, posterior, superior, inferior and lateral edges of the organ. Variations in the anterior limits and volume of the rectum were assessed and correlated with prostate motion in the anteroposterior direction. Results: The maximum range of prostate motion was observed in the superoinferior direction, followed by the anteroposterior direction. A significant correlation was observed between prostate motion and rectal volume variation (p = 0.037). A baseline rectal volume superior to 70 cm{sup 3} had a significant influence on the prostate motion in the anteroposterior direction (p = 0.045). Conclusion: The present study showed a significant interfraction motion of the prostate during 3D-CRT with greatest variations in the superoinferior and anteroposterior directions, and that a large rectal volume influences the prostate motion with a cutoff value of 70 cm{sup 3}. Therefore, the treatment of patients with a rectal volume > 70 cm{sup 3} should be re-planned with appropriate rectal preparation. Keywords: Rectal volume; Prostate cancer; Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. (author)

  11. Strategies to evaluate the impact of rectal volume on prostate motion during three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Diniz Fortuna Poli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the rectal volume influence on prostate motion during three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT for prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Fifty-one patients with prostate cancer underwent a series of three computed tomography scans including an initial planning scan and two subsequent scans during 3D-CRT. The organs of interest were outlined. The prostate contour was compared with the initial CT images considering the anterior, posterior, superior, inferior and lateral edges of the organ. Variations in the anterior limits and volume of the rectum were assessed and correlated with prostate motion in the anteroposterior direction. Results: The maximum range of prostate motion was observed in the superoinferior direction, followed by the anteroposterior direction. A significant correlation was observed between prostate motion and rectal volume variation ( p = 0.037. A baseline rectal volume superior to 70 cm3 had a significant influence on the prostate motion in the anteroposterior direction ( p = 0.045. Conclusion: The present study showed a significant interfraction motion of the prostate during 3D-CRT with greatest variations in the superoinferior and anteroposterior directions, and that a large rectal volume influences the prostate motion with a cutoff value of 70 cm3. Therefore, the treatment of patients with a rectal volume > 70 cm3 should be re-planned with appropriate rectal preparation.

  12. Prostate Bed Motion During Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klayton, Tracy; Price, Robert; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Sobczak, Mark; Greenberg, Richard; Li, Jinsheng; Keller, Lanea; Sopka, Dennis; Kutikov, Alexander; Horwitz, Eric M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Conformal radiation therapy in the postprostatectomy setting requires accurate setup and localization of the prostatic fossa. In this series, we report prostate bed localization and motion characteristics, using data collected from implanted radiofrequency transponders. Methods and Materials: The Calypso four-dimensional localization system uses three implanted radiofrequency transponders for daily target localization and real-time tracking throughout a course of radiation therapy. We reviewed the localization and tracking reports for 20 patients who received ultrasonography-guided placement of Calypso transponders within the prostate bed prior to a course of intensity-modulated radiation therapy at Fox Chase Cancer Center. Results: At localization, prostate bed displacement relative to bony anatomy exceeded 5 mm in 9% of fractions in the anterior-posterior (A-P) direction and 21% of fractions in the superior-inferior (S-I) direction. The three-dimensional vector length from skin marks to Calypso alignment exceeded 1 cm in 24% of all 652 fractions with available setup data. During treatment, the target exceeded the 5-mm tracking limit for at least 30 sec in 11% of all fractions, generally in the A-P or S-I direction. In the A-P direction, target motion was twice as likely to move posteriorly, toward the rectum, than anteriorly. Fifteen percent of all treatments were interrupted for repositioning, and 70% of patients were repositioned at least once during their treatment course. Conclusion: Set-up errors and motion of the prostatic fossa during radiotherapy are nontrivial, leading to potential undertreatment of target and excess normal tissue toxicity if not taken into account during treatment planning. Localization and real-time tracking of the prostate bed via implanted Calypso transponders can be used to improve the accuracy of plan delivery.

  13. Intrafractional Baseline Shift or Drift of Lung Tumor Motion During Gated Radiation Therapy With a Real-Time Tumor-Tracking System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takao, Seishin; Miyamoto, Naoki; Matsuura, Taeko; Onimaru, Rikiya; Katoh, Norio; Inoue, Tetsuya; Sutherland, Kenneth Lee; Suzuki, Ryusuke; Shirato, Hiroki; Shimizu, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the frequency and amplitude of baseline shift or drift (shift/drift) of lung tumors in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), using a real-time tumor-tracking radiation therapy (RTRT) system. Methods and Materials: Sixty-eight patients with peripheral lung tumors were treated with SBRT using the RTRT system. One of the fiducial markers implanted near the tumor was used for the real-time monitoring of the intrafractional tumor motion every 0.033 seconds by the RTRT system. When baseline shift/drift is determined by the system, the position of the treatment couch is adjusted to compensate for the shift/drift. Therefore, the changes in the couch position correspond to the baseline shift/drift in the tumor motion. The frequency and amount of adjustment to the couch positions in the left-right (LR), cranio-caudal (CC), and antero-posterior (AP) directions have been analyzed for 335 fractions administered to 68 patients. Results: The average change in position of the treatment couch during the treatment time was 0.45 ± 2.23 mm (mean ± standard deviation), −1.65 ± 5.95 mm, and 1.50 ± 2.54 mm in the LR, CC, and AP directions, respectively. Overall the baseline shift/drift occurs toward the cranial and posterior directions. The incidence of baseline shift/drift exceeding 3 mm was 6.0%, 15.5%, 14.0%, and 42.1% for the LR, CC, AP, and for the square-root of sum of 3 directions, respectively, within 10 minutes of the start of treatment, and 23.0%, 37.6%, 32.5%, and 71.6% within 30 minutes. Conclusions: Real-time monitoring and frequent adjustments of the couch position and/or adding appropriate margins are suggested to be essential to compensate for possible underdosages due to baseline shift/drift in SBRT for lung cancers.

  14. A new robotic needle insertion method to minimise attendant prostate motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagerburg, Vera; Moerland, Marinus A.; Vulpen, Marco van; Lagendijk, Jan J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of a new needle insertion method (tapping instead of pushing) in reducing attendant tissue motion. This can be useful in applications where tissue motion due to needle insertion is problematic such as e.g. MRI-guided prostate brachytherapy and breast biopsies. In this study we will focus on prostate motion due to needle insertion. Material and methods: Prostate motion due to needle insertion was measured in 30 patients, who were transperineally implanted with fiducial gold markers for position verification in prostate intensity modulated radiotherapy. In total 32 needles were manually pushed into the prostate and 29 were tapped with a prototype robotic system. The prostate motion in the cranio-caudal direction was measured on the video record of the ultrasound images. Differences in prostate motion between the two needle insertion methods were analysed making use of SPSS. Results: The mean prostate motion was 5.6 mm (range 0.3-21.6) when the needle was pushed and 0.9 mm (range 0-2.0) when the needle was tapped into the prostate (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Prostate motion was significantly less when the needle was tapped into the prostate compared to when the needle was pushed. This result is important for the development of a tapping, MRI-guided, prostate implant robotic system

  15. WE-G-BRD-04: BEST IN PHYSICS (JOINT IMAGING-THERAPY): An Integrated Model-Based Intrafractional Organ Motion Tracking Approach with Dynamic MRI in Head and Neck Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H; Dolly, S; Anastasio, M; Li, H; Wooten, H; Gay, H; Mutic, S; Thorstad, W; Li, H [Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Victoria, J; Dempsey, J [ViewRay incorporated, Oakwood Village, Ohio (United States); Ruan, S [University of Rouen, QuantIF - EA 4108 LITIS, Rouen (France); Low, D [Deparment of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In-treatment dynamic cine images, provided by the first commercially available MRI-guided radiotherapy system, allow physicians to observe intrafractional motion of head and neck (H&N) internal structures. Nevertheless, high anatomical complexity and relatively poor cine image contrast/resolution have complicated automatic intrafractional motion evaluation. We proposed an integrated model-based approach to automatically delineate and analyze moving structures from on-board cine images. Methods: The H&N upper airway, a complex and highly deformable region wherein severe internal motion often occurs, was selected as the target-to-be-tracked. To reliably capture its motion, a hierarchical structure model containing three statistical shapes (face, face-jaw, and face-jaw-palate) was first built from a set of manually delineated shapes using principal component analysis. An integrated model-fitting algorithm was then employed to align the statistical shapes to the first to-be-detected cine frame, and multi-feature level-set contour propagation was performed to identify the airway shape change in the remaining frames. Ninety sagittal cine MR image sets, acquired from three H&N cancer patients, were utilized to demonstrate this approach. Results: The tracking accuracy was validated by comparing the results to the average of two manual delineations in 20 randomly selected images from each patient. The resulting dice similarity coefficient (93.28+/−1.46 %) and margin error (0.49+/−0.12 mm) showed good agreement with the manual results. Intrafractional displacements of anterior, posterior, inferior, and superior airway boundaries were observed, with values of 2.62+/−2.92, 1.78+/−1.43, 3.51+/−3.99, and 0.68+/−0.89 mm, respectively. The H&N airway motion was found to vary across directions, fractions, and patients, and highly correlated with patients’ respiratory frequency. Conclusion: We proposed the integrated computational approach, which for the first

  16. WE-G-BRD-04: BEST IN PHYSICS (JOINT IMAGING-THERAPY): An Integrated Model-Based Intrafractional Organ Motion Tracking Approach with Dynamic MRI in Head and Neck Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H; Dolly, S; Anastasio, M; Li, H; Wooten, H; Gay, H; Mutic, S; Thorstad, W; Li, H; Victoria, J; Dempsey, J; Ruan, S; Low, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In-treatment dynamic cine images, provided by the first commercially available MRI-guided radiotherapy system, allow physicians to observe intrafractional motion of head and neck (H&N) internal structures. Nevertheless, high anatomical complexity and relatively poor cine image contrast/resolution have complicated automatic intrafractional motion evaluation. We proposed an integrated model-based approach to automatically delineate and analyze moving structures from on-board cine images. Methods: The H&N upper airway, a complex and highly deformable region wherein severe internal motion often occurs, was selected as the target-to-be-tracked. To reliably capture its motion, a hierarchical structure model containing three statistical shapes (face, face-jaw, and face-jaw-palate) was first built from a set of manually delineated shapes using principal component analysis. An integrated model-fitting algorithm was then employed to align the statistical shapes to the first to-be-detected cine frame, and multi-feature level-set contour propagation was performed to identify the airway shape change in the remaining frames. Ninety sagittal cine MR image sets, acquired from three H&N cancer patients, were utilized to demonstrate this approach. Results: The tracking accuracy was validated by comparing the results to the average of two manual delineations in 20 randomly selected images from each patient. The resulting dice similarity coefficient (93.28+/−1.46 %) and margin error (0.49+/−0.12 mm) showed good agreement with the manual results. Intrafractional displacements of anterior, posterior, inferior, and superior airway boundaries were observed, with values of 2.62+/−2.92, 1.78+/−1.43, 3.51+/−3.99, and 0.68+/−0.89 mm, respectively. The H&N airway motion was found to vary across directions, fractions, and patients, and highly correlated with patients’ respiratory frequency. Conclusion: We proposed the integrated computational approach, which for the first

  17. Three-dimensional intrafractional movement of prostate measured during real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy in supine and prone treatment positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Kei; Shirato, Hiroki; Seppenwoolde, Yvette; Onimaru, Rikiya; Oda, Makoto; Fujita, Katsuhisa; Shimizu, Shinichi; Shinohara, Nobuo; Harabayashi, Toru; Miyasaka, Kazuo

    2002-01-01

    affected by the respiratory cycle and is influenced by bowel movement in the prone position. Conclusion: The results of this study have confirmed that internal organ motion is less frequent in the supine position than in the prone position in the treatment of prostate cancer. RTRT would be useful in reducing uncertainty due to the effects of the respiratory cycle, especially in the prone position

  18. Assessment of a daily online implanted fiducial marker-guided prostate radiotherapy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, P B; Dahl, K; Ebert, M A; White, M; Wratten, C; Ostwald, P; Pichler, P; Denham, J W

    2008-10-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate whether intrafraction prostate motion can affect the accuracy of online prostate positioning using implanted fiducial markers and to determine the effect of prostate rotations on the accuracy of the software-predicted set-up correction shifts. Eleven patients were treated with implanted prostate fiducial markers and online set-up corrections. Orthogonal electronic portal images were acquired to determine couch shifts before treatment. Verification images were also acquired during treatment to assess whether intrafraction motion had occurred. A limitation of the online image registration software is that it does not allow for in-plane prostate rotations (evident on lateral portal images) when aligning marker positions. The accuracy of couch shifts was assessed by repeating the registration measurements with separate software that incorporates full in-plane prostate rotations. Additional treatment time required for online positioning was also measured. For the patient group, the overall postalignment systematic prostate errors were less than 1.5 mm (1 standard deviation) in all directions (range 0.2-3.9 mm). The random prostate errors ranged from 0.8 to 3.3 mm (1 standard deviation). One patient exhibited intrafraction prostate motion, resulting in a postalignment prostate set-up error of more than 10 mm for one fraction. In 14 of 35 fractions, the postalignment prostate set-up error was greater than 5 mm in the anterior-posterior direction for this patient. Maximum prostate rotations measured from the lateral images varied from 2 degrees to 20 degrees for the patients. The differences between set-up shifts determined by the online software without in-plane rotations to align markers, and with rotations applied, was less than 1 mm (root mean square), with a maximum difference of 4.1 mm. Intrafraction prostate motion was found to reduce the effectiveness of the online set-up for one of the patients. A larger study is required

  19. To move or not to move: measurements of prostate motion by urethrography using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mah, Dennis; Freedman, Gary; Movsas, Benjamin; Hanlon, Alexandra; Mitra, Raj; Horwitz, Eric; Pinover, Wayne; Iyer, Rajesh; Hanks, G.E.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Urethrography is commonly used to aid in definition of the prostate apex during CT simulation for prostate cancer. If the position of the prostate were altered by the urethrogram itself, then systematic error could be introduced into the patient's treatment. Sagittal MRI scans were acquired immediately before and after a localization urethrogram to determine the extent of displacement. Methods and Materials: Thirteen patients underwent sagittal T2-weighted fast spin echo MRI scans. Patients were scanned supine in an alpha cradle cast in the treatment position. The prostate was contoured by 3 different observers to determine the apex location on the central sagittal MRI section and the center of mass relative to an immobile bony landmark. Statistical multivariate analysis was performed to establish if there was a net displacement of the prostate (systematic error), and to determine the margin required to cover the random prostate position within a 95% confidence interval. Results: There was no significant systematic motion of either the prostate nor its apex in either the anterior-posterior or superior-inferior directions. The average motion of the prostate center of mass was 0.04±0.40 cm (1 SD) and 0.01±0.33 cm in the anterior-posterior and superior-inferior direction, respectively. The corresponding figures for location of the apex were 0.05±0.30 cm and 0.01±0.33 cm, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed that a margin of 2 mm is sufficient to cover any random motion of the prostate that could occur as a result of the urethrogram 95% of the time. Conclusion: Urethrography during CT simulation for prostate cancer does not cause significant prostate displacement or systematic error in planning and delivering external-beam radiation

  20. Respiratory-induced prostate motion: quantification and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, Shawn; Crook, Juanita M.; Kendal, Wayne S.; Zanto, Janos S.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The precise localization of the prostate is critical for dose-escalated conformal radiotherapy. This study identifies and characterizes a potential cause of inaccurate prostatic localization--respiratory-induced movement. Methods and Materials: Prostate movement during respiration was measured fluoroscopically using implanted gold fiducial markers. Twenty sequential patients with CT 1 -T 3 N 0 M 0 prostate carcinoma were evaluated prone, immobilized in customized thermoplastic shells. A second 20 patients were evaluated both prone (with and without their thermoplastic shells) and supine (without their shells). Results: When the patients were immobilized prone in thermoplastic shells, the prostate moved synchronously with respiration. In the study the prostate was displaced a mean distance of 3.3 ± 1.8 (SD) mm (range, 1-10.2 mm), with 23% (9/40) of the displacements being 4 mm or greater. The respiratory-associated prostate movement decreased significantly when the thermoplastic shells were removed. Conclusion: Significant prostate movement can be induced by respiration when patients are immobilized in thermoplastic shells. This movement presumably is related to transmitted intraabdominal pressure within the confined space of the shells. Careful attention to the details of immobilization and to the possibility of respiratory-induced prostate movements is important when employing small field margins in prostatic radiotherapy

  1. Daily Prostate Volume and Position Monitoring Using Implanted Gold Markers and On-Board Imaging during Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Kašaová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate prostate volume changes and prostate motions during radiotherapy. Methods: In 2010, twenty-five patients were treated for prostate cancer by external beam radiotherapy with implanted fiducial markers. Coordinates of three gold markers on kilovoltage images were calculated daily. Volume changes in target structure were observed through changes in intermarker distances. Differences in patient position between laser-tattoo alignment and gold marker localization were evaluated. Intrafraction motion was assessed by measuring marker displacement on kilovoltage images acquired before and after fraction delivery. Results: Prostate shrinkage was observed in 60% of patients. The average shrinkage was 7% of the prostate’s initial volume. Corrections after laser-tattoo alignment remained mostly below 1 cm. The difference between marker centroid position on the actual images and the planning images was 2 ± 1 mm on average. The extension of intrafraction movements was 7.6 ± 0.2 mm on average. Conclusions: In our retrospective study, the possibility for prostate volume changes during radiotherapy was revealed. Intrafraction movements turned out to be the limiting factor in safety margin reduction.

  2. Strategies for Online Organ Motion Correction for Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy of Prostate Cancer: Prostate, Rectum, and Bladder Dose Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijkhorst, Erik-Jan; Lakeman, Annemarie; Nijkamp, Jasper; Bois, Josien de; Herk, Marcel van; Lebesque, Joos V.; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify and evaluate the accumulated prostate, rectum, and bladder dose for several strategies including rotational organ motion correction for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) of prostate cancer using realistic organ motion data. Methods and Materials: Repeat computed tomography (CT) scans of 19 prostate patients were used. Per patient, two IMRT plans with different uniform margins were created. To quantify prostate and seminal vesicle motion, repeat CT clinical target volumes (CTVs) were matched onto the planning CTV using deformable registration. Four different strategies, from online setup to full motion correction, were simulated. Rotations were corrected for using gantry and collimator angle adjustments. Prostate, rectum, and bladder doses were accumulated for each patient, plan, and strategy. Minimum CTV dose (D min ), rectum equivalent uniform dose (EUD, n = 0.13), and bladder surface receiving ≥78 Gy (S78), were calculated. Results: With online CTV translation correction, a 7-mm margin was sufficient (i.e., D min ≥ 95% of the prescribed dose for all patients). A 4-mm margin required additional rotational correction. Margin reduction lowered the rectum EUD(n = 0.13) by ∼2.6 Gy, and the bladder S78 by ∼1.9%. Conclusions: With online correction of both translations and rotations, a 4-mm margin was sufficient for 15 of 19 patients, whereas the remaining four patients had an underdosed CTV volume <1%. Margin reduction combined with online corrections resulted in a similar or lower dose to the rectum and bladder. The more advanced the correction strategy, the better the planned and accumulated dose agreed.

  3. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Stereotactic Body Frame in Reducing Respiratory Intrafractional Organ Motion Using the Real-Time Tumor-Tracking Radiotherapy System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengua, Gerard; Ishikawa, Masayori; Sutherland, Kenneth; Horita, Kenji; Yamazaki, Rie; Fujita, Katsuhisa; Onimaru, Rikiya; Katoh, Noriwo; Inoue, Tetsuya; Onodera, Shunsuke; Shirato, Hiroki

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of the stereotactic body frame (SBF), with or without a diaphragm press or a breathing cycle monitoring device (Abches), in controlling the range of lung tumor motion, by tracking the real-time position of fiducial markers. Methods and Materials: The trajectories of gold markers in the lung were tracked with the real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system. The SBF was used for patient immobilization and the diaphragm press and Abches were used to actively control breathing and for self-controlled respiration, respectively. Tracking was performed in five setups, with and without immobilization and respiration control. The results were evaluated using the effective range, which was defined as the range that includes 95% of all the recorded marker positions in each setup. Results: The SBF, with or without a diaphragm press or Abches, did not yield effective ranges of marker motion which were significantly different from setups that did not use these materials. The differences in the effective marker ranges in the upper lobes for all the patient setups were less than 1mm. Larger effective ranges were obtained for the markers in the middle or lower lobes. Conclusion: The effectiveness of controlling respiratory-induced organ motion by using the SBF+diaphragm press or SBF + Abches patient setups were highly dependent on the individual patient reaction to the use of these materials and the location of the markers. They may be considered for lung tumors in the lower lobes, but are not necessary for tumors in the upper lobes.

  4. Technical Note: Intrafractional changes in time lag relationship between anterior–posterior external and superior–inferior internal motion signals in abdominal tumor sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Rajesh; Lovelock, D. Michael; Zhang, Pengpeng; Pham, Hai; Xiong, Jianping; Yorke, Ellen D.; Goodman, Karyn A.; Wu, Abraham J.; Mageras, Gig S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate constancy, within a treatment session, of the time lag relationship between implanted markers in abdominal tumors and an external motion surrogate. Methods: Six gastroesophageal junction and three pancreatic cancer patients (IRB-approved protocol) received two cone-beam CTs (CBCT), one before and one after treatment. Time between scans was less than 30 min. Each patient had at least one implanted fiducial marker near the tumor. In all scans, abdominal displacement (Varian RPM) was recorded as the external motion signal. Purpose-built software tracked fiducials, representing internal signal, in CBCT projection images. Time lag between superior–inferior (SI) internal and anterior–posterior external signals was found by maximizing the correlation coefficient in each breathing cycle and averaging over all cycles. Time-lag-induced discrepancy between internal SI position and that predicted from the external signal (external prediction error) was also calculated. Results: Mean ± standard deviation time lag, over all scans and patients, was 0.10 ± 0.07 s (range 0.01–0.36 s). External signal lagged the internal in 17/18 scans. Change in time lag between pre- and post-treatment CBCT was 0.06 ± 0.07 s (range 0.01–0.22 s), corresponding to 3.1% ± 3.7% (range 0.6%–10.8%) of gate width (range 1.6–3.1 s). In only one patient, change in time lag exceeded 10% of the gate width. External prediction error over all scans of all patients varied from 0.1 ± 0.1 to 1.6 ± 0.4 mm. Conclusions: Time lag between internal motion along SI and external signals is small compared to the treatment gate width of abdominal patients examined in this study. Change in time lag within a treatment session, inferred from pre- to post-treatment measurements is also small, suggesting that a single measurement of time lag at the session start is adequate. These findings require confirmation in a larger number of patients. PMID:26127033

  5. Technical Note: Intrafractional changes in time lag relationship between anterior-posterior external and superior-inferior internal motion signals in abdominal tumor sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Rajesh; Lovelock, D Michael; Zhang, Pengpeng; Pham, Hai; Xiong, Jianping; Yorke, Ellen D; Goodman, Karyn A; Wu, Abraham J; Mageras, Gig S

    2015-06-01

    To investigate constancy, within a treatment session, of the time lag relationship between implanted markers in abdominal tumors and an external motion surrogate. Six gastroesophageal junction and three pancreatic cancer patients (IRB-approved protocol) received two cone-beam CTs (CBCT), one before and one after treatment. Time between scans was less than 30 min. Each patient had at least one implanted fiducial marker near the tumor. In all scans, abdominal displacement (Varian RPM) was recorded as the external motion signal. Purpose-built software tracked fiducials, representing internal signal, in CBCT projection images. Time lag between superior-inferior (SI) internal and anterior-posterior external signals was found by maximizing the correlation coefficient in each breathing cycle and averaging over all cycles. Time-lag-induced discrepancy between internal SI position and that predicted from the external signal (external prediction error) was also calculated. Mean ± standard deviation time lag, over all scans and patients, was 0.10 ± 0.07 s (range 0.01-0.36 s). External signal lagged the internal in 17/18 scans. Change in time lag between pre- and post-treatment CBCT was 0.06 ± 0.07 s (range 0.01-0.22 s), corresponding to 3.1% ± 3.7% (range 0.6%-10.8%) of gate width (range 1.6-3.1 s). In only one patient, change in time lag exceeded 10% of the gate width. External prediction error over all scans of all patients varied from 0.1 ± 0.1 to 1.6 ± 0.4 mm. Time lag between internal motion along SI and external signals is small compared to the treatment gate width of abdominal patients examined in this study. Change in time lag within a treatment session, inferred from pre- to post-treatment measurements is also small, suggesting that a single measurement of time lag at the session start is adequate. These findings require confirmation in a larger number of patients.

  6. Extreme Hypofractionated Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Greco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An emerging body of data suggests that hypofractionated radiation schedules, where a higher dose per fraction is delivered in a smaller number of sessions, may be superior to conventional fractionation schemes in terms of both tumour control and toxicity profile in the management of adenocarcinoma of the prostate. However, the optimal hypofractionation scheme is still the subject of scientific debate. Modern computer-driven technology enables the safe implementation of extreme hypo fractionation (often referred to as stereotactic body radiation therapy [SBRT]. Several studies are currently being conducted to clarify the yet unresolved issues regarding treatment techniques and fractionation regimens. Recently, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO issued a model policy indicating that data supporting the use of SBRT for prostate cancer have matured to a point where SBRT could be considered an appropriate alternative for select patients with low-to-intermediate risk disease. The present article reviews some of the currently available data and examines the impact of tracking technology to mitigate intra-fraction target motion, thus, potentially further improving the clinical outcomes of extreme hypofractionated radiation therapy in appropriately selected prostate cancer patients. The Champalimaud Centre for the Unknown (CCU’s currently ongoing Phase I feasibility study is described; it delivers 45 Gy in five fractions using prostate fixation via a rectal balloon, and urethral sparing via catheter placement with on-line intra-fractional motion tracking through beacon transponder technology.

  7. Prostate stereotactic body radiotherapy with simultaneous integrated boost: which is the best planning method?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tree, Alison; Jones, Caroline; Sohaib, Aslam; Khoo, Vincent; As, Nicholas van

    2013-01-01

    The delivery of a simultaneous integrated boost to the intra-prostatic tumour nodule may improve local control. The ability to deliver such treatments with hypofractionated SBRT was attempted using RapidArc (Varian Medical systems, Palo Alto, CA) and Multiplan (Accuray inc, Sunnyvale, CA). 15 patients with dominant prostate nodules had RapidArc and Multiplan plans created using a 5 mm isotropic margin, except 3 mm posteriorly, aiming to deliver 47.5 Gy in 5 fractions to the boost whilst treating the whole prostate to 36.25 Gy in 5 fractions. An additional RapidArc plan was created using an 8 mm isotropic margin, except 5 mm posteriorly, to account for lack of intrafraction tracking. Both RapidArc and Multiplan can produce clinically acceptable boost plans to a dose of 47.5 Gy in 5 fractions. The mean rectal doses were lower for RapidArc plans (D50 13.2 Gy vs 15.5 Gy) but the number of missed constraints was the same for both planning methods (11/75). When the margin was increased to 8 mm/5 mm for the RapidArc plans to account for intrafraction motion, 37/75 constraints were missed. RapidArc and Multiplan can produce clinically acceptable simultaneous integrated boost plans, but the mean rectal D50 and D20 with RapidArc are lower. If the margins are increased to account for intrafraction motion, the RapidArc plans exceed at least one dose constraint in 13/15 cases. Delivering a simultaneous boost with hypofractionation appears feasible, but requires small margins needing intrafraction motion tracking

  8. Analysis of Prostate Patient Setup and Tracking Data: Potential Intervention Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Zhong; Zhang Lisha; Murphy, Martin; Williamson, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the setup, interfraction, and intrafraction organ motion error distributions and simulate intrafraction intervention strategies for prostate radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 17 patients underwent treatment setup and were monitored using the Calypso system during radiotherapy. On average, the prostate tracking measurements were performed for 8 min/fraction for 28 fractions for each patient. For both patient couch shift data and intrafraction organ motion data, the systematic and random errors were obtained from the patient population. The planning target volume margins were calculated using the van Herk formula. Two intervention strategies were simulated using the tracking data: the deviation threshold and period. The related planning target volume margins, time costs, and prostate position 'fluctuation' were presented. Results: The required treatment margin for the left-right, superoinferior, and anteroposterior axes was 8.4, 10.8, and 14.7 mm for skin mark-only setup and 1.3, 2.3, and 2.8 mm using the on-line setup correction, respectively. Prostate motion significantly correlated among the superoinferior and anteroposterior directions. Of the 17 patients, 14 had prostate motion within 5 mm of the initial setup position for ≥91.6% of the total tracking time. The treatment margin decreased to 1.1, 1.8, and 2.3 mm with a 3-mm threshold correction and to 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mm with an every-2-min correction in the left-right, superoinferior, and anteroposterior directions, respectively. The periodic corrections significantly increase the treatment time and increased the number of instances when the setup correction was made during transient excursions. Conclusions: The residual systematic and random error due to intrafraction prostate motion is small after on-line setup correction. Threshold-based and time-based intervention strategies both reduced the planning target volume margins. The time-based strategies increased the

  9. The Role of Seminal Vesicle Motion in Target Margin Assessment for Online Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Jian; Wu Qiuwen; Yan Di

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: For patients with intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer, the seminal vesicles (SVs) are included in the clinical target volume (CTV). The purposes of this study are to investigate interfraction motion characteristics of the SVs and determine proper margins for online computed tomography image guidance. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four patients, each with 16 daily helical computed tomography scans, were included in this study. A binary image mask was used for image registration to determine daily organ motion. Two online image-guided radiotherapy strategies (prostate only and prostate + SVs) were simulated in a hypofractionated scheme. Three margin designs were studied for both three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). In prostate-only guidance, Margin A was uniformly applied to the whole CTV, and Margin B was applied to the SVs with a fixed 3-mm prostate margin. In prostate plus SV guidance, Margin C was uniformly applied to the CTV. The minimum margins were sought to satisfy the criterion that minimum cumulative CTV dose be more than those of the planning target volume in the plan for greater than 95% of patients. Results: The prostate and SVs move significantly more in the anterior-posterior and superior-inferior than right-left directions. The anterior-posterior motion of the prostate and SVs correlated (R 2 = 0.7). The SVs move significantly more than the prostate. The minimum margins found were 2.5 mm for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and 4.5, 4.5, and 3.0 mm for Margins A, B, and C for IMRT, respectively. Margins for IMRT were larger, but the irradiated volume and doses to critical structures were smaller. Minimum margins of 4.5 mm to the SVs and 3 mm to the prostate are recommended for IMRT with prostate-only guidance. Conclusions: The SVs move independently from the prostate gland, and additional margins are necessary for image-guided radiotherapy

  10. Interfraction patient motion and implant displacement in prostate high dose rate brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, C. D.; Kron, T.; Leahy, M.; Duchesne, G.; Williams, S.; Tai, K. H.; Haworth, A.; Herschtal, A.; Foroudi, F. [Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria 3002 (Australia); Nursing Service, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria 3002 (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre and University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3002 (Australia); Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre and Royal Melbourne Insititute of Technology, Melbourne, Victoria 3000 (Australia); Department of Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria 3002 (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre and University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To quantify movement of prostate cancer patients undergoing treatment, using an in-house developed motion sensor in order to determine a relationship between patient movement and high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy implant displacement. Methods: An electronic motion sensor was developed based on a three axis accelerometer. HDR brachytherapy treatment for prostate is delivered at this institution in two fractions 24 h apart and 22 patients were monitored for movement over the interval between fractions. The motion sensors functioned as inclinometers, monitoring inclination of both thighs, and the inclination and roll of the abdomen. The implanted HDR brachytherapy catheter set was assessed for displacement relative to fiducial markers in the prostate. Angle measurements and angle differences over a 2 s time base were binned, and the standard deviations of the resulting frequency distributions used as a metric for patient motion in each monitored axis. These parameters were correlated to measured catheter displacement using regression modeling. Results: The mean implant displacement was 12.6 mm in the caudal direction. A mean of 19.95 h data was recorded for the patient cohort. Patients generally moved through a limited range of angles with a mean of the exception of two patients who spent in excess of 2 h lying on their side. When tested for a relationship between movement in any of the four monitored axes and the implant displacement, none was significant. Conclusions: It is not likely that patient movement influences HDR prostate implant displacement. There may be benefits to patient comfort if nursing protocols were relaxed to allow patients greater freedom to move while the implant is in situ.

  11. Interfraction patient motion and implant displacement in prostate high dose rate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, C. D.; Kron, T.; Leahy, M.; Duchesne, G.; Williams, S.; Tai, K. H.; Haworth, A.; Herschtal, A.; Foroudi, F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify movement of prostate cancer patients undergoing treatment, using an in-house developed motion sensor in order to determine a relationship between patient movement and high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy implant displacement. Methods: An electronic motion sensor was developed based on a three axis accelerometer. HDR brachytherapy treatment for prostate is delivered at this institution in two fractions 24 h apart and 22 patients were monitored for movement over the interval between fractions. The motion sensors functioned as inclinometers, monitoring inclination of both thighs, and the inclination and roll of the abdomen. The implanted HDR brachytherapy catheter set was assessed for displacement relative to fiducial markers in the prostate. Angle measurements and angle differences over a 2 s time base were binned, and the standard deviations of the resulting frequency distributions used as a metric for patient motion in each monitored axis. These parameters were correlated to measured catheter displacement using regression modeling. Results: The mean implant displacement was 12.6 mm in the caudal direction. A mean of 19.95 h data was recorded for the patient cohort. Patients generally moved through a limited range of angles with a mean of the exception of two patients who spent in excess of 2 h lying on their side. When tested for a relationship between movement in any of the four monitored axes and the implant displacement, none was significant. Conclusions: It is not likely that patient movement influences HDR prostate implant displacement. There may be benefits to patient comfort if nursing protocols were relaxed to allow patients greater freedom to move while the implant is in situ.

  12. Assessment of prostate motion during radiotherapy using fiducial markers and CT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crook, J.; Salhani, D.; Yang, H.; Deshaies, Y.; Raymond, Y.; Malone, S.; Esche, B.

    1996-01-01

    reconstruction analysis has been completed on twenty (20) patients and is continuing. To date, these results confirm those obtained from the fiducial marker analysis in both magnitude and direction. Conclusion: Target organ motion must be taken into consideration in planning radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Since the range of motion is large, to avoid geographic miss, the ideal solution would appear to involve the routine use of fiducial markers and real-time portal imaging

  13. X-ray-assisted positioning of patients treated by conformal arc radiotherapy for prostate cancer: Comparison of setup accuracy using implanted markers versus bony structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soete, Guy; Cock, Mieke de; Verellen, Dirk; Michielsen, Dirk; Keuppens, Frans; Storme, Guy

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare setup accuracy of NovalisBody stereoscopic X-ray positioning using implanted markers in the prostate vs. bony structures in patients treated with dynamic conformal arc radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Random and systematic setup errors (RE and SE) of the isocenter with regard to the center of gravity of three fiducial markers were measured by means of orthogonal verification films in 120 treatment sessions in 12 patients. Positioning was performed using NovalisBody semiautomated marker fusion. The results were compared with a control group of 261 measurements in 15 patients who were positioned with NovalisBody automated bone fusion. In addition, interfraction and intrafraction prostate motion was registered in the patients with implanted markers. Results: Marker-based X-ray positioning resulted in a reduction of RE as well as SE in the anteroposterior, craniocaudal, and left-right directions compared with those in the control group. The interfraction prostate displacements with regard to the bony pelvis that could be avoided by marker positioning ranged between 1.6 and 2.8 mm for RE and between 1.3 and 4.3 mm for SE. Intrafraction random and systematic prostate movements ranged between 1.4 and 2.4 mm and between 0.8 and 1.3 mm, respectively. Conclusion: The problem of interfraction prostate motion can be solved by using implanted markers. In addition, the NovalisBody X-ray system performs more accurately with markers compared with bone fusion. Intrafraction organ motion has become the limiting factor for margin reduction around the clinical target volume

  14. Quantifying the interplay effect in prostate IMRT delivery using a convolution-based method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Haisen S.; Chetty, Indrin J.; Solberg, Timothy D.

    2008-01-01

    The authors present a segment-based convolution method to account for the interplay effect between intrafraction organ motion and the multileaf collimator position for each particular segment in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) delivered in a step-and-shoot manner. In this method, the static dose distribution attributed to each segment is convolved with the probability density function (PDF) of motion during delivery of the segment, whereas in the conventional convolution method (''average-based convolution''), the static dose distribution is convolved with the PDF averaged over an entire fraction, an entire treatment course, or even an entire patient population. In the case of IMRT delivered in a step-and-shoot manner, the average-based convolution method assumes that in each segment the target volume experiences the same motion pattern (PDF) as that of population. In the segment-based convolution method, the dose during each segment is calculated by convolving the static dose with the motion PDF specific to that segment, allowing both intrafraction motion and the interplay effect to be accounted for in the dose calculation. Intrafraction prostate motion data from a population of 35 patients tracked using the Calypso system (Calypso Medical Technologies, Inc., Seattle, WA) was used to generate motion PDFs. These were then convolved with dose distributions from clinical prostate IMRT plans. For a single segment with a small number of monitor units, the interplay effect introduced errors of up to 25.9% in the mean CTV dose compared against the planned dose evaluated by using the PDF of the entire fraction. In contrast, the interplay effect reduced the minimum CTV dose by 4.4%, and the CTV generalized equivalent uniform dose by 1.3%, in single fraction plans. For entire treatment courses delivered in either a hypofractionated (five fractions) or conventional (>30 fractions) regimen, the discrepancy in total dose due to interplay effect was negligible

  15. Intrafractional baseline drift during free breathing breast cancer radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Christer Andre; Acosta Roa, Ana María; Lund, Jo-Åsmund; Frengen, Jomar

    2017-06-01

    Intrafraction motion in breast cancer radiation therapy (BCRT) has not yet been thoroughly described in the literature. It has been observed that baseline drift occurs as part of the intrafraction motion. This study aims to measure baseline drift and its incidence in free-breathing BCRT patients using an in-house developed laser system for tracking the position of the sternum. Baseline drift was monitored in 20 right-sided breast cancer patients receiving free breathing 3D-conformal RT by using an in-house developed laser system which measures one-dimensional distance in the AP direction. A total of 357 patient respiratory traces from treatment sessions were logged and analysed. Baseline drift was compared to patient positioning error measured from in-field portal imaging. The mean overall baseline drift at end of treatment sessions was -1.3 mm for the patient population. Relatively small baseline drift was observed during the first fraction; however it was clearly detected already at the second fraction. Over 90% of the baseline drift occurs during the first 3 min of each treatment session. The baseline drift rate for the population was -0.5 ± 0.2 mm/min in the posterior direction the first minute after localization. Only 4% of the treatment sessions had a 5 mm or larger baseline drift at 5 min, all towards the posterior direction. Mean baseline drift in the posterior direction in free breathing BCRT was observed in 18 of 20 patients over all treatment sessions. This study shows that there is a substantial baseline drift in free breathing BCRT patients. No clear baseline drift was observed during the first treatment session; however, baseline drift was markedly present at the rest of the sessions. Intrafraction motion due to baseline drift should be accounted for in margin calculations.

  16. Determination of action thresholds for electromagnetic tracking system-guided hypofractionated prostate radiotherapy using volumetric modulated arc therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pengpeng; Mah, Dennis; Happersett, Laura; Cox, Brett; Hunt, Margie; Mageras, Gig [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York 10467 (United States); Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021 (United States); Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated prostate radiotherapy may benefit from both volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) due to shortened treatment time and intrafraction real-time monitoring provided by implanted radiofrequency(RF) transponders. The authors investigate dosimetrically driven action thresholds (whether treatment needs to be interrupted and patient repositioned) in VMAT treatment with electromagnetic (EM) tracking. Methods: VMAT plans for five patients are generated for prescription doses of 32.5 and 42.5 Gy in five fractions. Planning target volume (PTV) encloses the clinical target volume (CTV) with a 3 mm margin at the prostate-rectal interface and 5 mm elsewhere. The VMAT delivery is modeled using 180 equi-spaced static beams. Intrafraction prostate motion is simulated in the plan by displacing the beam isocenter at each beam assuming rigid organ motion according to a previously recorded trajectory of the transponder centroid. The cumulative dose delivered in each fraction is summed over all beams. Two sets of 57 prostate motion trajectories were randomly selected to form a learning and a testing dataset. Dosimetric end points including CTV D95%, rectum wall D1cc, bladder wall D1cc, and urethra Dmax, are analyzed against motion characteristics including the maximum amplitude of the anterior-posterior (AP), superior-inferior (SI), and left-right components. Action thresholds are triggered when intrafraction motion causes any violations of dose constraints to target and organs at risk (OAR), so that treatment is interrupted and patient is repositioned. Results: Intrafraction motion has a little effect on CTV D95%, indicating PTV margins are adequate. Tight posterior and inferior action thresholds around 1 mm need to be set in a patient specific manner to spare organs at risk, especially when the prescription dose is 42.5 Gy. Advantages of setting patient specific action thresholds are to reduce false positive alarms by 25% when prescription dose is low, and

  17. Determination of action thresholds for electromagnetic tracking system-guided hypofractionated prostate radiotherapy using volumetric modulated arc therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Pengpeng; Mah, Dennis; Happersett, Laura; Cox, Brett; Hunt, Margie; Mageras, Gig

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Hypofractionated prostate radiotherapy may benefit from both volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) due to shortened treatment time and intrafraction real-time monitoring provided by implanted radiofrequency(RF) transponders. The authors investigate dosimetrically driven action thresholds (whether treatment needs to be interrupted and patient repositioned) in VMAT treatment with electromagnetic (EM) tracking. Methods: VMAT plans for five patients are generated for prescription doses of 32.5 and 42.5 Gy in five fractions. Planning target volume (PTV) encloses the clinical target volume (CTV) with a 3 mm margin at the prostate-rectal interface and 5 mm elsewhere. The VMAT delivery is modeled using 180 equi-spaced static beams. Intrafraction prostate motion is simulated in the plan by displacing the beam isocenter at each beam assuming rigid organ motion according to a previously recorded trajectory of the transponder centroid. The cumulative dose delivered in each fraction is summed over all beams. Two sets of 57 prostate motion trajectories were randomly selected to form a learning and a testing dataset. Dosimetric end points including CTV D95%, rectum wall D1cc, bladder wall D1cc, and urethra Dmax, are analyzed against motion characteristics including the maximum amplitude of the anterior-posterior (AP), superior-inferior (SI), and left-right components. Action thresholds are triggered when intrafraction motion causes any violations of dose constraints to target and organs at risk (OAR), so that treatment is interrupted and patient is repositioned. Results: Intrafraction motion has a little effect on CTV D95%, indicating PTV margins are adequate. Tight posterior and inferior action thresholds around 1 mm need to be set in a patient specific manner to spare organs at risk, especially when the prescription dose is 42.5 Gy. Advantages of setting patient specific action thresholds are to reduce false positive alarms by 25% when prescription dose is low, and

  18. Prostatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostatitis Overview Prostatitis is swelling and inflammation of the prostate gland, a walnut-sized gland situated directly below the bladder in ... produces fluid (semen) that nourishes and transports sperm. Prostatitis often causes painful or difficult urination. Other symptoms ...

  19. Prostate implant reconstruction from C-arm images with motion-compensated tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehghan, Ehsan; Moradi, Mehdi; Wen, Xu; French, Danny; Lobo, Julio; Morris, W. James; Salcudean, Septimiu E.; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate localization of prostate implants from several C-arm images is necessary for ultrasound-fluoroscopy fusion and intraoperative dosimetry. The authors propose a computational motion compensation method for tomosynthesis-based reconstruction that enables 3D localization of prostate implants from C-arm images despite C-arm oscillation and sagging. Methods: Five C-arm images are captured by rotating the C-arm around its primary axis, while measuring its rotation angle using a protractor or the C-arm joint encoder. The C-arm images are processed to obtain binary seed-only images from which a volume of interest is reconstructed. The motion compensation algorithm, iteratively, compensates for 2D translational motion of the C-arm by maximizing the number of voxels that project on a seed projection in all of the images. This obviates the need for C-arm full pose tracking traditionally implemented using radio-opaque fiducials or external trackers. The proposed reconstruction method is tested in simulations, in a phantom study and on ten patient data sets. Results: In a phantom implanted with 136 dummy seeds, the seed detection rate was 100% with a localization error of 0.86 ± 0.44 mm (Mean ± STD) compared to CT. For patient data sets, a detection rate of 99.5% was achieved in approximately 1 min per patient. The reconstruction results for patient data sets were compared against an available matching-based reconstruction method and showed relative localization difference of 0.5 ± 0.4 mm. Conclusions: The motion compensation method can successfully compensate for large C-arm motion without using radio-opaque fiducial or external trackers. Considering the efficacy of the algorithm, its successful reconstruction rate and low computational burden, the algorithm is feasible for clinical use.

  20. Prostate implant reconstruction from C-arm images with motion-compensated tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehghan, Ehsan; Moradi, Mehdi; Wen, Xu; French, Danny; Lobo, Julio; Morris, W. James; Salcudean, Septimiu E.; Fichtinger, Gabor [School of Computing, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L-3N6 (Canada); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T-1Z4 (Canada); Vancouver Cancer Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z-1E6 (Canada); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T-1Z4 (Canada); School of Computing, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L-3N6 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: Accurate localization of prostate implants from several C-arm images is necessary for ultrasound-fluoroscopy fusion and intraoperative dosimetry. The authors propose a computational motion compensation method for tomosynthesis-based reconstruction that enables 3D localization of prostate implants from C-arm images despite C-arm oscillation and sagging. Methods: Five C-arm images are captured by rotating the C-arm around its primary axis, while measuring its rotation angle using a protractor or the C-arm joint encoder. The C-arm images are processed to obtain binary seed-only images from which a volume of interest is reconstructed. The motion compensation algorithm, iteratively, compensates for 2D translational motion of the C-arm by maximizing the number of voxels that project on a seed projection in all of the images. This obviates the need for C-arm full pose tracking traditionally implemented using radio-opaque fiducials or external trackers. The proposed reconstruction method is tested in simulations, in a phantom study and on ten patient data sets. Results: In a phantom implanted with 136 dummy seeds, the seed detection rate was 100% with a localization error of 0.86 {+-} 0.44 mm (Mean {+-} STD) compared to CT. For patient data sets, a detection rate of 99.5% was achieved in approximately 1 min per patient. The reconstruction results for patient data sets were compared against an available matching-based reconstruction method and showed relative localization difference of 0.5 {+-} 0.4 mm. Conclusions: The motion compensation method can successfully compensate for large C-arm motion without using radio-opaque fiducial or external trackers. Considering the efficacy of the algorithm, its successful reconstruction rate and low computational burden, the algorithm is feasible for clinical use.

  1. Finite element simulation of interactions between pelvic organs: predictive model of the prostate motion in the context of radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubaker, Mohamed Bader; Haboussi, Mohamed; Ganghoffer, Jean-François; Aletti, Pierre

    2009-08-25

    The setting up of predictive models of the pelvic organ motion and deformation may prove an efficient tool in the framework of prostate cancer radiotherapy, in order to deliver doses more accurately and efficiently to the clinical target volume (CTV). A finite element (FE) model of the prostate, rectum and bladder motion has been developed, investigating more specifically the influence of the rectum and bladder repletions on the gland motion. The required organ geometries are obtained after processing the computed tomography (CT) images, using specific softwares. Due to their structural characteristics, a 3D shell discretization is adopted for the rectum and the bladder, whereas a volume discretization is adopted for the prostate. As for the mechanical behavior modelling, first order Ogden hyperelastic constitutive laws for both the rectum and bladder are identified. The prostate is comparatively considered as more rigid and is accordingly modelled as an elastic tissue undergoing small strains. A FE model is then created, accounting for boundary and contact conditions, internal and applied loadings being selected as close as possible to available anatomic data. The order of magnitude of the prostate motion predicted by the FE simulations is similar to the measurements done on a deceased person, accounting for the delineation errors, with a relative error around 8%. Differences are essentially due to uncertainties in the constitutive parameters, pointing towards the need for the setting up of direct measurement of the organs mechanical behavior.

  2. Performance assessment of a programmable five degrees-of-freedom motion platform for quality assurance of motion management techniques in radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Yu; Keall, Paul; Rice, Adam; Colvill, Emma; Ng, Jin Aun; Booth, Jeremy T

    2017-09-01

    Inter-fraction and intra-fraction motion management methods are increasingly applied clinically and require the development of advanced motion platforms to facilitate testing and quality assurance program development. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of a 5 degrees-of-freedom (DoF) programmable motion platform HexaMotion (ScandiDos, Uppsala, Sweden) towards clinically observed tumor motion range, velocity, acceleration and the accuracy requirements of SABR prescribed in AAPM Task Group 142. Performance specifications for the motion platform were derived from literature regarding the motion characteristics of prostate and lung tumor targets required for real time motion management. The performance of the programmable motion platform was evaluated against (1) maximum range, velocity and acceleration (5 DoF), (2) static position accuracy (5 DoF) and (3) dynamic position accuracy using patient-derived prostate and lung tumor motion traces (3 DoF). Translational motion accuracy was compared against electromagnetic transponder measurements. Rotation was benchmarked with a digital inclinometer. The static accuracy and reproducibility for translation and rotation was quality assurance and commissioning of motion management systems in radiation oncology.

  3. In vivo motion and force measurement of surgical needle intervention during prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podder, Tarun; Clark, Douglas; Sherman, Jason; Fuller, Dave; Messing, Edward; Rubens, Deborah; Strang, John; Brasacchio, Ralph; Liao, Lydia; Ng, W.-S.; Yu Yan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present needle insertion forces and motion trajectories measured during actual brachytherapy needle insertion while implanting radioactive seeds in the prostate glands of 20 different patients. The needle motion was captured using ultrasound images and a 6 degree-of-freedom electromagnetic-based position sensor. Needle velocity was computed from the position information and the corresponding time stamps. From in vivo data we found the maximum needle insertion forces to be about 15.6 and 8.9 N for 17 gauge (1.47 mm) and 18 gauge (1.27 mm) needles, respectively. Part of this difference in insertion forces is due to the needle size difference (17G and 18G) and the other part is due to the difference in tissue properties that are specific to the individual patient. Some transverse forces were observed, which are attributed to several factors such as tissue heterogeneity, organ movement, human factors in surgery, and the interaction between the template and the needle. However, theses insertion forces are significantly responsible for needle deviation from the desired trajectory and target movement. Therefore, a proper selection of needle and modulated velocity (translational and rotational) may reduce the tissue deformation and target movement by reducing insertion forces and thereby improve the seed delivery accuracy. The knowledge gleaned from this study promises to be useful for not only designing mechanical/robotic systems but also developing a predictive deformation model of the prostate and real-time adaptive controlling of the needle

  4. Dosimetric implications of changes in patient repositioning and organ motion in conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miralbell, Raymond; Oezsoy, Orhan; Pugliesi, Angela; Carballo, Natalia; Arnalte, Raquel; Escude, Lluis; Jargy, Clara; Nouet, Philippe; Rouzaud, Michel

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the influence of patient repositioning and organ motion on dose distribution within the prostate and the seminal vesicles (clinical target volume, (CTV)). Material and methods: Nine patients were simulated and treated in the supine position, with an empty bladder, and without immobilization devices. While on treatment, patients underwent weekly pelvic computed tomography (CT) scans under conditions identical to those at simulation. Patients were aligned using lasers on anterior and lateral skin tattoos, onto which lead markers were placed. After each CT scan (n=53) the CTV was redefined by contouring, and a new isocenter was obtained. A six-field technique was used. The field margins around the CTV were 20 mm in the cranio-caudal axis, and 13 mm in the other axes, except in the lateral fields where a 10 mm posterior margin was used. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) for each organ were compared with those determined at simulation, using the notion of the proportional change in the area under the CTV-DVH curve resulting from a change in treatment plan (cDVH). Results: The reproducibility of the dose distribution was good for the prostate (%cDVH, mean±SD: -0.97±2.11%) and less than optimal for the seminal vesicles (%cDVH, mean±SD: -4.66±10.45%). When correlating prostate %cDVH variations with displacements of the isocenter in the Y axis (antero-posterior) the %cDVH exceeded (-)5% in only two dosimetries, both with an isocenter shift of >10 mm. For the seminal vesicles, however, ten out of 53 dosimetries showed a %cDVH exceeding (-) 5%. In nine of these ten dose distribution studies the posterior shift of the isocenter exceeded 8 mm. Conclusions: Precise targeting of prostate radiotherapy is primarily dependent on careful daily set-up and on random changes in rectal geometry. Margins no less than 10 mm around the prostate and at least 15 mm around the seminal vesicles are probably necessary to insure adequate target coverage with a six

  5. SU-E-J-164: Estimation of DVH Variation for PTV Due to Interfraction Organ Motion in Prostate VMAT Using Gaussian Error Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C; Jiang, R; Chow, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We developed a method to predict the change of DVH for PTV due to interfraction organ motion in prostate VMAT without repeating the CT scan and treatment planning. The method is based on a pre-calculated patient database with DVH curves of PTV modelled by the Gaussian error function (GEF). Methods: For a group of 30 patients with different prostate sizes, their VMAT plans were recalculated by shifting their PTVs 1 cm with 10 increments in the anterior-posterior, left-right and superior-inferior directions. The DVH curve of PTV in each replan was then fitted by the GEF to determine parameters describing the shape of curve. Information of parameters, varying with the DVH change due to prostate motion for different prostate sizes, was analyzed and stored in a database of a program written by MATLAB. Results: To predict a new DVH for PTV due to prostate interfraction motion, prostate size and shift distance with direction were input to the program. Parameters modelling the DVH for PTV were determined based on the pre-calculated patient dataset. From the new parameters, DVH curves of PTVs with and without considering the prostate motion were plotted for comparison. The program was verified with different prostate cases involving interfraction prostate shifts and replans. Conclusion: Variation of DVH for PTV in prostate VMAT can be predicted using a pre-calculated patient database with DVH curve fitting. The computing time is fast because CT rescan and replan are not required. This quick DVH estimation can help radiation staff to determine if the changed PTV coverage due to prostate shift is tolerable in the treatment. However, it should be noted that the program can only consider prostate interfraction motions along three axes, and is restricted to prostate VMAT plan using the same plan script in the treatment planning system

  6. Evaluating the influence of organ motion during photon vs. proton therapy for locally advanced prostate cancer using biological models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Kia; G Andersen, Andreas; Casares-Magaz, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    beam angles for pelvic irradiation, we aimed to evaluate the influence of organ motion for PT using biological models, and to compare this with contemporary photon-based RT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eight locally advanced prostate cancer patients with a planning CT (pCT) and 8-9 repeated CT scans (r...

  7. Assessment of residual error for online cone-beam CT-guided treatment of prostate cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letourneau, Daniel; Martinez, Alvaro A.; Lockman, David; Yan Di; Vargas, Carlos; Ivaldi, Giovanni; Wong, John

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Kilovoltage cone-beam CT (CBCT) implemented on board a medical accelerator is available for image-guidance applications in our clinic. The objective of this work was to assess the magnitude and stability of the residual setup error associated with CBCT online-guided prostate cancer patient setup. Residual error pertains to the uncertainty in image registration, the limited mechanical accuracy, and the intrafraction motion during imaging and treatment. Methods and Materials: The residual error for CBCT online-guided correction was first determined in a phantom study. After online correction, the phantom residual error was determined by comparing megavoltage portal images acquired every 90 deg. to the corresponding digitally reconstructed radiographs. In the clinical study, 8 prostate cancer patients were implanted with three radiopaque markers made of high-winding coils. After positioning the patient using the skin marks, a CBCT scan was acquired and the setup error determined by fusing the coils on the CBCT and planning CT scans. The patient setup was then corrected by moving the couch accordingly. A second CBCT scan was acquired immediately after the correction to evaluate the residual target setup error. Intrafraction motion was evaluated by tracking the coils and the bony landmarks on kilovoltage radiographs acquired every 30 s between the two CBCT scans. Corrections based on soft-tissue registration were evaluated offline by aligning the prostate contours defined on both planning CT and CBCT images. Results: For ideal rigid phantoms, CBCT image-guided treatment can usually achieve setup accuracy of 1 mm or better. For the patients, after CBCT correction, the target setup error was reduced in almost all cases and was generally within ±1.5 mm. The image guidance process took 23-35 min, dictated by the computer speed and network configuration. The contribution of the intrafraction motion to the residual setup error was small, with a standard deviation of

  8. Prostate bed motion may cause geographic miss in post-prostatectomy image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Linda J.; Cox, Jennifer; Eade, Thomas; Rinks, Marianne; Kneebone, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    There is little data to guide radiation oncologists on appropriate margin selection in the post-prostatectomy setting. The aim of this study was to quantify interfraction variation in motion of the prostate bed to determine these margins. The superior and inferior surgical clips in the prostate bed were tracked on pretreatment cone beam CT images (n=377) for 40 patients who had received post-prostatectomy radiotherapy. Prostate bed motion was calculated for the upper and lower segments by measuring the position of surgical clips located close to midline relative to bony anatomy in the axial (translational) and sagittal (tilt) planes. The frequency of potential geographic misses was calculated for either 1cm or 0.5cm posterior planning target volume margins. The mean magnitude of movement of the prostate bed in the anterior–posterior, superior–inferior and left–right planes, respectively, were as follows: upper portion, 0.50cm, 0.28cm, 0.10cm; lower portion, 0.18cm, 0.18cm, 0.08cm. The random and systematic errors, respectively, of the prostate bed motion in the anterior–posterior, superior–inferior and left–right planes, respectively, were as follows: upper portion, 0.47cm and 0.50cm, 0.28cm and 0.27cm, 0.11cm and 0.11cm; lower portion, 0.17cm and 18cm, 0.17cm and 0.19cm, 0.08cm and 0.10cm. Most geographic misses occurred in the upper prostate bed in the anterior–posterior plane. The median prostate bed tilt was 1.8° (range −23.4° to 42.3°). Variability was seen in all planes for the movement of both surgical clips. The greatest movement occurred in the anterior–posterior plane in the upper prostate bed, which could cause geographic miss of treatment delivery. The variability in the movement of the superior and inferior clips indicates a prostate bed tilt that would be difficult to correct with standard online matching techniques. This creates a strong argument for using anisotropic planning target volume margins in post

  9. Daily Setup Uncertainties and Organ Motion Based on the Tomoimages in Prostatic Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jeong Hee; Lee, Sang Kyu [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yensei Univesity Health System, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sei Joon [Dept. of Radiation Oncology,Yongdong Severance Hospital , Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Na, Soo Kyung [Dept. of Radiological Science, Gimcheon College, Gimcheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    The patient's position and anatomy during the treatment course little bit varies to some extend due to setup uncertainties and organ motions. These factors could affected to not only the dose coverage of the gross tumor but over dosage of normal tissue. Setup uncertainties and organ motions can be minimized by precise patient positioning and rigid immobilization device but some anatomical site such as prostate, the internal organ motion due to physiological processes are challenge. In planning procedure, the clinical target volume is a little bit enlarged to create a planning target volume that accounts for setup uncertainties and organ motion as well. These uncertainties lead to differences between the calculated dose by treatment planning system and the actually delivered dose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences of interfractional displacement of organ and GTV based on the tomoimages. Over the course of 3 months, 3 patients, those who has applied rectal balloon, treated for prostatic cancer patient's tomoimage were studied. During the treatment sessions 26 tomoimages per patient, Total 76 tomoimages were collected. Tomoimage had been taken everyday after initial setup with lead marker attached on the patient's skin center to comparing with C-T simulation images. Tomoimage was taken after rectal balloon inflated with 60 cc of air for prostate gland immobilization for daily treatment just before treatment and it was used routinely in each case. The intrarectal balloon was inserted to a depth of 6 cm from the anal verge. MVCT image was taken with 5 mm slice thickness after the intrarectal balloon in place and inflated. For this study, lead balls are used to guide the registration between the MVCT and CT simulation images. There are three image fusion methods in the tomotherapy, bone technique, bone/tissue technique, and full image technique. We used all this 3 methods to analysis the setup errors. Initially, image fusions were

  10. Daily Setup Uncertainties and Organ Motion Based on the Tomoimages in Prostatic Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jeong Hee; Lee, Sang Kyu; Kim, Sei Joon; Na, Soo Kyung

    2007-01-01

    The patient's position and anatomy during the treatment course little bit varies to some extend due to setup uncertainties and organ motions. These factors could affected to not only the dose coverage of the gross tumor but over dosage of normal tissue. Setup uncertainties and organ motions can be minimized by precise patient positioning and rigid immobilization device but some anatomical site such as prostate, the internal organ motion due to physiological processes are challenge. In planning procedure, the clinical target volume is a little bit enlarged to create a planning target volume that accounts for setup uncertainties and organ motion as well. These uncertainties lead to differences between the calculated dose by treatment planning system and the actually delivered dose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences of interfractional displacement of organ and GTV based on the tomoimages. Over the course of 3 months, 3 patients, those who has applied rectal balloon, treated for prostatic cancer patient's tomoimage were studied. During the treatment sessions 26 tomoimages per patient, Total 76 tomoimages were collected. Tomoimage had been taken everyday after initial setup with lead marker attached on the patient's skin center to comparing with C-T simulation images. Tomoimage was taken after rectal balloon inflated with 60 cc of air for prostate gland immobilization for daily treatment just before treatment and it was used routinely in each case. The intrarectal balloon was inserted to a depth of 6 cm from the anal verge. MVCT image was taken with 5 mm slice thickness after the intrarectal balloon in place and inflated. For this study, lead balls are used to guide the registration between the MVCT and CT simulation images. There are three image fusion methods in the tomotherapy, bone technique, bone/tissue technique, and full image technique. We used all this 3 methods to analysis the setup errors. Initially, image fusions were based on the

  11. Clinical Implementation of Intrafraction Cone Beam Computed Tomography Imaging During Lung Tumor Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ruijiang; Han, Bin; Meng, Bowen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Maxim, Peter G.; Xing, Lei; Koong, Albert C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Diehn, Maximilian, E-mail: Diehn@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Loo, Billy W., E-mail: BWLoo@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To develop and clinically evaluate a volumetric imaging technique for assessing intrafraction geometric and dosimetric accuracy of stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR). Methods and Materials: Twenty patients received SABR for lung tumors using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). At the beginning of each fraction, pretreatment cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was used to align the soft-tissue tumor position with that in the planning CT. Concurrent with dose delivery, we acquired fluoroscopic radiograph projections during VMAT using the Varian on-board imaging system. Those kilovolt projections acquired during millivolt beam-on were automatically extracted, and intrafraction CBCT images were reconstructed using the filtered backprojection technique. We determined the time-averaged target shift during VMAT by calculating the center of mass of the tumor target in the intrafraction CBCT relative to the planning CT. To estimate the dosimetric impact of the target shift during treatment, we recalculated the dose to the GTV after shifting the entire patient anatomy according to the time-averaged target shift determined earlier. Results: The mean target shift from intrafraction CBCT to planning CT was 1.6, 1.0, and 1.5 mm; the 95th percentile shift was 5.2, 3.1, 3.6 mm; and the maximum shift was 5.7, 3.6, and 4.9 mm along the anterior-posterior, left-right, and superior-inferior directions. Thus, the time-averaged intrafraction gross tumor volume (GTV) position was always within the planning target volume. We observed some degree of target blurring in the intrafraction CBCT, indicating imperfect breath-hold reproducibility or residual motion of the GTV during treatment. By our estimated dose recalculation, the GTV was consistently covered by the prescription dose (PD), that is, V100% above 0.97 for all patients, and minimum dose to GTV >100% PD for 18 patients and >95% PD for all patients. Conclusions: Intrafraction CBCT during VMAT can provide

  12. Strategies to reduce the systematic error due to tumor and rectum motion in radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Herk, Marcel van; Bois, Josien de; Lebesque, Joos V.

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: The goal of this work is to develop and evaluate strategies to reduce the uncertainty in the prostate position and rectum shape that arises in the preparation stage of the radiation treatment of prostate cancer. Patients and methods: Nineteen prostate cancer patients, who were treated with 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, received each a planning CT scan and 8-13 repeat CT scans during the treatment period. We quantified prostate motion relative to the pelvic bone by first matching the repeat CT scans on the planning CT scan using the bony anatomy. Subsequently, each contoured prostate, including seminal vesicles, was matched on the prostate in the planning CT scan to obtain the translations and rotations. The variation in prostate position was determined in terms of the systematic, random and group mean error. We tested the performance of two correction strategies to reduce the systematic error due to prostate motion. The first strategy, the pre-treatment strategy, used only the initial rectum volume in the planning CT scan to adjust the angle of the prostate with respect to the left-right (LR) axis and the shape and position of the rectum. The second strategy, the adaptive strategy, used the data of repeat CT scans to improve the estimate of the prostate position and rectum shape during the treatment. Results: The largest component of prostate motion was a rotation around the LR axis. The systematic error (1 SD) was 5.1 deg and the random error was 3.6 deg (1 SD). The average LR-axis rotation between the planning and the repeat CT scans correlated significantly with the rectum volume in the planning CT scan (r=0.86, P<0.0001). Correction of the rotational position on the basis of the planning rectum volume alone reduced the systematic error by 28%. A correction, based on the data of the planning CT scan and 4 repeat CT scans reduced the systematic error over the complete treatment period by a factor of 2. When the correction was

  13. Hyoscine butylbromide significantly decreases motion artefacts and allows better delineation of anatomic structures in mp-MRI of the prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, T.; Quentin, M.; Schmaltz, A.K.; Rubbert, C.; Blondin, D.; Antoch, G.; Schimmoeller, L. [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Dusseldorf (Germany); Arsov, C.; Rabenalt, R.; Albers, P. [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Urology, Dusseldorf (Germany)

    2018-01-15

    To prospectively evaluate the effect of hyoscine butylbromide (HBB) on visualisation of anatomical details and motion-related artefacts in mp-MRI of the prostate at 3.0 Tesla. One hundred and three consecutive patients (65 ± 10 years) were included in this trial, powered to demonstrate an improvement of image quality after HBB administration, assessed on a 5-point scale by two blinded readers. All patients received high-spatial resolution axial T2-weighted TSE sequences at 3.0 T without spasmolytic agent, repeated after application of 40 mg HBB and followed by routine mp-MRI. Secondary endpoints were (1) susceptibility to side effects, (2) dependence of spasmolytic effect on patients and acute; weight, and (3) prostate volume. In 68% of patients, HBB significantly improved the anatomic score (mean 3.4 ± 0.9 before and 4.4 ± 0.7 after HBB for both readers, p = <0.001). In 67%, HBB significantly enhanced the artefact score (mean 3.2 ± 1 before and 4.2 ± 0.8 after HBB for reader 1, p = <0.001; 3.2 ± 1 and 4.1 ± 0.8 for reader 2, p = <0.001). Subgroup analysis revealed no statistically significant difference between patients with different bodyweight or prostate volume. Inter-reader agreement was excellent (k = 0.95-0.98). Hyoscine butylbromide significantly improves image quality and reduces motion-related artefacts in mp-MRI of the prostate independent of bodyweight or prostate volume. No side effects were reported. (orig.)

  14. Hyoscine butylbromide significantly decreases motion artefacts and allows better delineation of anatomic structures in mp-MRI of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, T.; Quentin, M.; Schmaltz, A.K.; Rubbert, C.; Blondin, D.; Antoch, G.; Schimmoeller, L.; Arsov, C.; Rabenalt, R.; Albers, P.

    2018-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate the effect of hyoscine butylbromide (HBB) on visualisation of anatomical details and motion-related artefacts in mp-MRI of the prostate at 3.0 Tesla. One hundred and three consecutive patients (65 ± 10 years) were included in this trial, powered to demonstrate an improvement of image quality after HBB administration, assessed on a 5-point scale by two blinded readers. All patients received high-spatial resolution axial T2-weighted TSE sequences at 3.0 T without spasmolytic agent, repeated after application of 40 mg HBB and followed by routine mp-MRI. Secondary endpoints were (1) susceptibility to side effects, (2) dependence of spasmolytic effect on patients and acute; weight, and (3) prostate volume. In 68% of patients, HBB significantly improved the anatomic score (mean 3.4 ± 0.9 before and 4.4 ± 0.7 after HBB for both readers, p = <0.001). In 67%, HBB significantly enhanced the artefact score (mean 3.2 ± 1 before and 4.2 ± 0.8 after HBB for reader 1, p = <0.001; 3.2 ± 1 and 4.1 ± 0.8 for reader 2, p = <0.001). Subgroup analysis revealed no statistically significant difference between patients with different bodyweight or prostate volume. Inter-reader agreement was excellent (k = 0.95-0.98). Hyoscine butylbromide significantly improves image quality and reduces motion-related artefacts in mp-MRI of the prostate independent of bodyweight or prostate volume. No side effects were reported. (orig.)

  15. Fast cine-magnetic resonance imaging point tracking for prostate cancer radiation therapy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowling, J; Chandra, S; Dang, K; Fox, Chris D; Gill, Suki; Kron, T; Pham, D; Foroudi, F

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of intra-fraction organ motion is important for improving the precision of radiation therapy treatment delivery. One method to quantify this motion is for one or more observers to manually identify anatomic points of interest (POIs) on each slice of a cine-MRI sequence. However this is labour intensive and inter- and intra- observer variation can introduce uncertainty. In this paper a fast method for non-rigid registration based point tracking in cine-MRI sagittal and coronal series is described which identifies POIs in 0.98 seconds per sagittal slice and 1.35 seconds per coronal slice. The manual and automatic points were highly correlated (r>0.99, p<0.001) for all organs and the difference generally less than 1mm. For prostate planning peristalsis and rectal gas can result in unpredictable out of plane motion, suggesting the results may require manual verification.

  16. Accuracy of Real-time Couch Tracking During 3-dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy, Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy, and Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilbert, Juergen; Baier, Kurt; Hermann, Christian; Flentje, Michael; Guckenberger, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of real-time couch tracking for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Intrafractional motion trajectories of 15 prostate cancer patients were the basis for this phantom study; prostate motion had been monitored with the Calypso System. An industrial robot moved a phantom along these trajectories, motion was detected via an infrared camera system, and the robotic HexaPOD couch was used for real-time counter-steering. Residual phantom motion during real-time tracking was measured with the infrared camera system. Film dosimetry was performed during delivery of 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), step-and-shoot intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Results: Motion of the prostate was largest in the anterior–posterior direction, with systematic (∑) and random (σ) errors of 2.3 mm and 2.9 mm, respectively; the prostate was outside a threshold of 5 mm (3D vector) for 25.0%±19.8% of treatment time. Real-time tracking reduced prostate motion to ∑=0.01 mm and σ = 0.55 mm in the anterior–posterior direction; the prostate remained within a 1-mm and 5-mm threshold for 93.9%±4.6% and 99.7%±0.4% of the time, respectively. Without real-time tracking, pass rates based on a γ index of 2%/2 mm in film dosimetry ranged between 66% and 72% for 3D-CRT, IMRT, and VMAT, on average. Real-time tracking increased pass rates to minimum 98% on average for 3D-CRT, IMRT, and VMAT. Conclusions: Real-time couch tracking resulted in submillimeter accuracy for prostate cancer, which transferred into high dosimetric accuracy independently of whether 3D-CRT, IMRT, or VMAT was used.

  17. A study of the effects of internal organ motion on dose escalation in conformal prostate treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Happersett, Laura; Mageras, Gig S.; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Burman, Chandra M.; Leibel, Steven A.; Chui Chen; Fuks, Zvi; Bull, Sarah; Ling, C. Clifton; Kutcher, Gerald J.

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: To assess the effect of internal organ motion on the dose distributions and biological indices for the target and non-target organs for three different conformal prostate treatment techniques. Materials and methods: We examined three types of treatment plans in 20 patients: (1) a six field plan, with a prescribed dose of 75.6 Gy; (2) the same six field plan to 72 Gy followed by a boost to 81 Gy; and (3) a five field plan with intensity modulated beams delivering 81 Gy. Treatment plans were designed using an initial CT data set (planning) and applied to three subsequent CT scans (treatment). The treatment CT contours were used to represent patient specific organ displacement; in addition, the dose distribution was convolved with a Gaussian distribution to model random setup error. Dose-volume histograms were calculated using an organ deformation model in which the movement between scans of individual points interior to the organs was tracked and the dose accumulated. The tumor control probability (TCP) for the prostate and proximal half of seminal vesicles (clinical target volume, CTV), normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for the rectum and the percent volume of bladder wall receiving at least 75 Gy were calculated. Results: The patient averaged increase in the planned TCP between plan types 2 and 1 and types 3 and 1 was 9.8% (range 4.9-12.5%) for both, whereas the corresponding increases in treatment TCP were 9.0% (1.3-16%) and 8.1% (-1.3-13.8%). In all patients, plans 2 and 3 (81 Gy) exhibited equal or higher treatment TCP than plan 1 (75.6 Gy). The maximum treatment NTCP for rectum never exceeded the planning constraint and percent volume of bladder wall receiving at least 75 Gy was similar in the planning and treatment scans for all three plans. Conclusion: For plans that deliver a uniform prescribed dose to the planning target volume (PTV) (plan 1), current margins are adequate. In plans that further escalate the dose to part

  18. Application of a Novel Dose-Uncertainty Model for Dose-Uncertainty Analysis in Prostate Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Hosang; Palta, Jatinder R.; Kim, You-Hyun; Kim, Siyong

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze dose uncertainty using a previously published dose-uncertainty model, and to assess potential dosimetric risks existing in prostate intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: The dose-uncertainty model provides a three-dimensional (3D) dose-uncertainty distribution in a given confidence level. For 8 retrospectively selected patients, dose-uncertainty maps were constructed using the dose-uncertainty model at the 95% CL. In addition to uncertainties inherent to the radiation treatment planning system, four scenarios of spatial errors were considered: machine only (S1), S1 + intrafraction, S1 + interfraction, and S1 + both intrafraction and interfraction errors. To evaluate the potential risks of the IMRT plans, three dose-uncertainty-based plan evaluation tools were introduced: confidence-weighted dose-volume histogram, confidence-weighted dose distribution, and dose-uncertainty-volume histogram. Results: Dose uncertainty caused by interfraction setup error was more significant than that of intrafraction motion error. The maximum dose uncertainty (95% confidence) of the clinical target volume (CTV) was smaller than 5% of the prescribed dose in all but two cases (13.9% and 10.2%). The dose uncertainty for 95% of the CTV volume ranged from 1.3% to 2.9% of the prescribed dose. Conclusions: The dose uncertainty in prostate IMRT could be evaluated using the dose-uncertainty model. Prostate IMRT plans satisfying the same plan objectives could generate a significantly different dose uncertainty because a complex interplay of many uncertainty sources. The uncertainty-based plan evaluation contributes to generating reliable and error-resistant treatment plans.

  19. Prostate bed target interfractional motion using RTOG consensus definitions and daily CT on rails. Does target motion differ between superior and inferior portions of the clinical target volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Vivek; Zhou, Sumin; Enke, Charles A.; Wahl, Andrew O.; Chen, Shifeng

    2017-01-01

    Using high-quality CT-on-rails imaging, the daily motion of the prostate bed clinical target volume (PB-CTV) based on consensus Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) definitions (instead of surgical clips/fiducials) was studied. It was assessed whether PB motion in the superior portion of PB-CTV (SUP-CTV) differed from the inferior PB-CTV (INF-CTV). Eight pT2-3bN0-1M0 patients underwent postprostatectomy intensity-modulated radiotherapy, totaling 300 fractions. INF-CTV and SUP-CTV were defined as PB-CTV located inferior and superior to the superior border of the pubic symphysis, respectively. Daily pretreatment CT-on-rails images were compared to the planning CT in the left-right (LR), superoinferior (SI), and anteroposterior (AP) directions. Two parameters were defined: ''total PB-CTV motion'' represented total shifts from skin tattoos to RTOG-defined anatomic areas; ''PB-CTV target motion'' (performed for both SUP-CTV and INF-CTV) represented shifts from bone to RTOG-defined anatomic areas (i. e., subtracting shifts from skin tattoos to bone). Mean (± standard deviation, SD) total PB-CTV motion was -1.5 (± 6.0), 1.3 (± 4.5), and 3.7 (± 5.7) mm in LR, SI, and AP directions, respectively. Mean (± SD) PB-CTV target motion was 0.2 (±1.4), 0.3 (±2.4), and 0 (±3.1) mm in the LR, SI, and AP directions, respectively. Mean (± SD) INF-CTV target motion was 0.1 (± 2.8), 0.5 (± 2.2), and 0.2 (± 2.5) mm, and SUP-CTV target motion was 0.3 (± 1.8), 0.5 (± 2.3), and 0 (± 5.0) mm in LR, SI, and AP directions, respectively. No statistically significant differences between INF-CTV and SUP-CTV motion were present in any direction. There are no statistically apparent motion differences between SUP-CTV and INF-CTV. Current uniform planning target volume (PTV) margins are adequate to cover both portions of the CTV. (orig.) [de

  20. Impact of sampling interval in training data acquisition on intrafractional predictive accuracy of indirect dynamic tumor-tracking radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukumoto, Nobutaka; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Akimoto, Mami; Miyabe, Yuki; Yokota, Kenji; Matsuo, Yukinori; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2017-08-01

    To explore the effect of sampling interval of training data acquisition on the intrafractional prediction error of surrogate signal-based dynamic tumor-tracking using a gimbal-mounted linac. Twenty pairs of respiratory motions were acquired from 20 patients (ten lung, five liver, and five pancreatic cancer patients) who underwent dynamic tumor-tracking with the Vero4DRT. First, respiratory motions were acquired as training data for an initial construction of the prediction model before the irradiation. Next, additional respiratory motions were acquired for an update of the prediction model due to the change of the respiratory pattern during the irradiation. The time elapsed prior to the second acquisition of the respiratory motion was 12.6 ± 3.1 min. A four-axis moving phantom reproduced patients' three dimensional (3D) target motions and one dimensional surrogate motions. To predict the future internal target motion from the external surrogate motion, prediction models were constructed by minimizing residual prediction errors for training data acquired at 80 and 320 ms sampling intervals for 20 s, and at 500, 1,000, and 2,000 ms sampling intervals for 60 s using orthogonal kV x-ray imaging systems. The accuracies of prediction models trained with various sampling intervals were estimated based on training data with each sampling interval during the training process. The intrafractional prediction errors for various prediction models were then calculated on intrafractional monitoring images taken for 30 s at the constant sampling interval of a 500 ms fairly to evaluate the prediction accuracy for the same motion pattern. In addition, the first respiratory motion was used for the training and the second respiratory motion was used for the evaluation of the intrafractional prediction errors for the changed respiratory motion to evaluate the robustness of the prediction models. The training error of the prediction model was 1.7 ± 0.7 mm in 3D for all sampling

  1. Assessment of prostatic fiducial marker introduction: patient morbidity, staff satisfaction and improved treatment field placement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Simon; Lehman, Margot; Ferrari-Anderson, Janet; Glyde, Alan; Burmeister, Elizabeth; Nicol, David

    2011-01-01

    Increased accuracy when using fiducial markers for prostate localisation is well documented. This project aimed to establish the improvement in accuracy when using gold markers for daily prostate localisation, to assess patient satisfaction and morbidity from the transrectal implantation of gold seed markers and establish staff attitudes towards the newly introduced processes. Twenty patients with prostate cancer had three gold seeds implanted into the base, apex and central zone of the prostate transrectally using ultrasound guidance. Surveys were conducted to assess staff and patient satisfaction with the process of gold seed localisation. The gold markers were used to localise the prostate on a daily basis using megavoltage electronic portal imaging. Measurements were taken to establish the increase in accuracy when using gold fiducial markers compared with using the surrounding bony anatomy. Inter-fraction motion (1 standard deviation (SD)) of the fiducial markers was 2.20, 4.28 and 4.27 mm in the LR, SI and AP directions, respectively. Intra-fraction prostate motion (1 SD) was measured as 0.8 mm LR, 1.1 mm SI and 2.0 mm AP. The patient survey showed that the insertion and associated side effects were acceptable, with 5% of patients stating that the seed insertion was worse than the prostate biopsy, and 23.1% of patients experienced short duration (1–2 days) haematuria. The staff survey showed that daily online image guidance was achievable without affecting patient throughput. Thirty percent of treatment staff believed that performing online daily localisation did not add any extra time to a standard treatment, and the remaining 70% thought that the added time was minimal (2–4 min). Gold fiducial markers are an accurate, reliable and tolerable method of daily prostate localisation.

  2. 2D-3D rigid registration to compensate for prostate motion during 3D TRUS-guided biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Tharindu; Fenster, Aaron; Cool, Derek W; Gardi, Lori; Romagnoli, Cesare; Samarabandu, Jagath; Ward, Aaron D

    2013-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided systems have been developed to improve targeting accuracy during prostate biopsy. However, prostate motion during the procedure is a potential source of error that can cause target misalignments. The authors present an image-based registration technique to compensate for prostate motion by registering the live two-dimensional (2D) TRUS images acquired during the biopsy procedure to a preacquired 3D TRUS image. The registration must be performed both accurately and quickly in order to be useful during the clinical procedure. The authors implemented an intensity-based 2D-3D rigid registration algorithm optimizing the normalized cross-correlation (NCC) metric using Powell's method. The 2D TRUS images acquired during the procedure prior to biopsy gun firing were registered to the baseline 3D TRUS image acquired at the beginning of the procedure. The accuracy was measured by calculating the target registration error (TRE) using manually identified fiducials within the prostate; these fiducials were used for validation only and were not provided as inputs to the registration algorithm. They also evaluated the accuracy when the registrations were performed continuously throughout the biopsy by acquiring and registering live 2D TRUS images every second. This measured the improvement in accuracy resulting from performing the registration, continuously compensating for motion during the procedure. To further validate the method using a more challenging data set, registrations were performed using 3D TRUS images acquired by intentionally exerting different levels of ultrasound probe pressures in order to measure the performance of our algorithm when the prostate tissue was intentionally deformed. In this data set, biopsy scenarios were simulated by extracting 2D frames from the 3D TRUS images and registering them to the baseline 3D image. A graphics processing unit (GPU)-based implementation was used to improve the

  3. Inter- and Intrafraction Variability in Liver Position in Non-Breath-Hold Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, Robert B.; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Moseley, Douglas J.; Kim, John; Brock, Kristy K.; Dawson, Laura A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The inter- and intrafraction variability of liver position was assessed in patients with liver cancer treated with kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)-guided stereotactic body radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 314 CBCT scans obtained in the treatment position immediately before and after each fraction were evaluated from 29 patients undergoing six-fraction, non-breath-hold stereotactic body radiotherapy for unresectable liver cancer. Off-line, the CBCT scans were sorted into 10 bins, according to the phase of respiration. The liver position (relative to the vertebral bodies) was measured using rigid alignment of the exhale CBCT liver with the exhale planning CT liver, following the alignment of the vertebrae. The interfraction liver position change was measured by comparing the pretreatment CBCT scans, and the intrafraction change was measured from the CBCT scans obtained immediately before and after each fraction. Results: The mean amplitude of liver motion for all patients was 1.8 mm (range, 0.1-5.7), 8.0 mm (range, 0.1-18.8), and 4.3 mm (range 0.1-12.1) in the medial-lateral (ML), craniocaudal (CC), and anteroposterior (AP) directions, respectively. The mean absolute ML, CC, and AP interfraction changes in liver position were 2.0 mm (90th percentile, 4.2), 3.5 mm (90th percentile, 7.3), and 2.3 mm (90th percentile, 4.7). The mean absolute intrafraction ML, CC, and AP changes were 1.3 mm (90th percentile, 2.9), 1.6 mm (90th percentile, 3.6), and 1.5 mm (90th percentile, 3.1), respectively. The interfraction changes were significantly larger than the intrafraction changes, with a CC systematic error of 2.9 and 1.1 mm, respectively. The intraobserver reproducibility (σ, n = 29 fractions) was 1.3 mm in the ML, 1.4 mm in the CC, and 1.6 mm in the AP direction. Conclusion: Interfraction liver position changes relative to the vertebral bodies are an important source of geometric uncertainty, providing a rationale for prefraction

  4. Observations on Real-Time Prostate Gland Motion Using Electromagnetic Tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langen, Katja M.; Willoughby, Twyla R.; Meeks, Sanford L.; Santhanam, Anand; Cunningham, Alexis; Levine, Lisa; Kupelian, Patrick A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify and describe the real-time movement of the prostate gland in a large data set of patients treated with radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The Calypso four-dimensional localization system was used for target localization in 17 patients, with electromagnetic markers implanted in the prostate of each patient. We analyzed a total of 550 continuous tracking sessions. The fraction of time that the prostate was displaced by >3, >5, >7, and >10 mm was calculated for each session and patient. The frequencies of displacements after initial patient positioning were analyzed over time. Results: Averaged over all patients, the prostate was displaced >3 and >5 mm for 13.6% and 3.3% of the total treatment time, respectively. For individual patients, the corresponding maximal values were 36.2% and 10.9%. For individual fractions, the corresponding maximal values were 98.7% and 98.6%. Displacements >3 mm were observed at 5 min after initial alignment in about one-eighth of the observations, and increased to one-quarter by 10 min. For individual patients, the maximal value of the displacements >3 mm at 5 and 10 min after initial positioning was 43% and 75%, respectively. Conclusion: On average, the prostate was displaced by >3 mm and >5 mm approximately 14% and 3% of the time, respectively. For individual patients, these values were up to three times greater. After the initial positioning, the likelihood of displacement of the prostate gland increased with elapsed time. This highlights the importance of initiating treatment shortly after initially positioning the patient

  5. SU-E-T-41: Analysis of GI Dose Variability Due to Intrafraction Setup Variance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J; Wolfgang, J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Proton SBRT (stereotactic body radiation therapy) can be an effective modality for treatment of gastrointestinal tumors, but limited in practice due to sensitivity with respect to variation in the RPL (radiological path length). Small, intrafractional shifts in patient anatomy can lead to significant changes in the dose distribution. This study describes a tool designed to visualize uncertainties in radiological depth in patient CT's and aid in treatment plan design. Methods: This project utilizes the Shadie toolkit, a GPU-based framework that allows for real-time interactive calculations for volume visualization. Current SBRT simulation practice consists of a serial CT acquisition for the assessment of inter- and intra-fractional motion utilizing patient specific immobilization systems. Shadie was used to visualize potential uncertainties, including RPL variance and changes in gastric content. Input for this procedure consisted of two patient CT sets, contours of the desired organ, and a pre-calculated dose. In this study, we performed rigid registrations between sets of 4DCT's obtained from a patient with varying setup conditions. Custom visualizations are written by the user in Shadie, permitting one to create color-coded displays derived from a calculation along each ray. Results: Serial CT data acquired on subsequent days was analyzed for variation in RPB and gastric content. Specific shaders were created to visualize clinically relevant features, including RPL (radiological path length) integrated up to organs of interest. Using pre-calculated dose distributions and utilizing segmentation masks as additional input allowed us to further refine the display output from Shadie and create tools suitable for clinical usage. Conclusion: We have demonstrated a method to visualize potential uncertainty for intrafractional proton radiotherapy. We believe this software could prove a useful tool to guide those looking to design treatment plans least

  6. The random walk model of intrafraction movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballhausen, H; Reiner, M; Kantz, S; Belka, C; Söhn, M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to understand intrafraction movement as a stochastic process driven by random external forces. The hypothetically proposed three-dimensional random walk model has significant impact on optimal PTV margins and offers a quantitatively correct explanation of experimental findings. Properties of the random walk are calculated from first principles, in particular fraction-average population density distributions for displacements along the principal axes. When substituted into the established optimal margin recipes these fraction-average distributions yield safety margins about 30% smaller as compared to the suggested values from end-of-fraction Gaussian fits. Stylized facts of a random walk are identified in clinical data, such as the increase of the standard deviation of displacements with the square root of time. Least squares errors in the comparison to experimental results are reduced by about 50% when accounting for non-Gaussian corrections from the random walk model. (paper)

  7. The random walk model of intrafraction movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballhausen, H; Reiner, M; Kantz, S; Belka, C; Söhn, M

    2013-04-07

    The purpose of this paper is to understand intrafraction movement as a stochastic process driven by random external forces. The hypothetically proposed three-dimensional random walk model has significant impact on optimal PTV margins and offers a quantitatively correct explanation of experimental findings. Properties of the random walk are calculated from first principles, in particular fraction-average population density distributions for displacements along the principal axes. When substituted into the established optimal margin recipes these fraction-average distributions yield safety margins about 30% smaller as compared to the suggested values from end-of-fraction gaussian fits. Stylized facts of a random walk are identified in clinical data, such as the increase of the standard deviation of displacements with the square root of time. Least squares errors in the comparison to experimental results are reduced by about 50% when accounting for non-gaussian corrections from the random walk model.

  8. Prostate position relative to pelvic bony anatomy based on intraprostatic gold markers and electronic portal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schallenkamp, John M.; Herman, Michael G.; Kruse, Jon J.; Pisansky, Thomas M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the relative positions and motions of the prostate, pelvic bony anatomy, and intraprostatic gold fiducial markers during daily electronic portal localization of the prostate. Methods and Materials: Twenty prostate cancer patients were treated supine with definitive external radiotherapy according to an on-line target localization protocol using three or four intraprostatic gold fiducial markers and an electronic portal imaging device. Daily pretherapy and through-treatment electronic portal images (EPIs) were obtained for each of four treatment fields. The patients' pelvic bony anatomy, intraprostatic gold markers, and a best visual match to the target (i.e., prostate) were identified on simulation digitally reconstructed radiographs and during daily treatment setup and delivery. These data provided quantitative inter- and intrafractional analysis of prostate motion, its position relative to the bony anatomy, and the individual intraprostatic fiducial markers. Treatment planning margins, with and without on-line localization, were subsequently compared. Results: A total of 22,266 data points were obtained from daily pretherapy and through-treatment EPIs. The pretherapy three-dimensional (3D) average displacement of the fiducial markers, as a surrogate for the prostate, was 5.6 mm, which improved to 2.8 mm after use of the localization protocol. The bony anatomy 3D average displacement was 4.4 mm both before and after localization to the prostate (p = 0.46). Along the superior-inferior (SI), anterior-posterior (AP), and right-left (RL) axes, the average prostate displacement improved from 2.5, 3.7, and 1.9 mm, respectively, before localization to 1.4, 1.6, and 1.1 mm after (all p < 0.001). The pretherapy to through-treatment position of the bony landmarks worsened from 1.7 to 2.5 mm (p < 0.001) in the SI axis, remained statistically unchanged at 2.8 mm (p = 0.39) in the AP axis, and improved from 2.0 to 1.2 mm in the RL axis (p < 0.001). There

  9. TH-AB-202-10: Quantifying the Accuracy and Precision of Six Degree-Of-Freedom Motion Estimation for Use in Real-Time Tumor Motion Monitoring During Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J [The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Nguyen, D; O’Brien, R; Keall, P [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Huang, C [Sydney Medical School, Camperdown (Australia); Caillet, V [The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Poulsen, P [Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Booth, J [Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney (Australia)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring (KIM) scheme has been successfully used to simultaneously monitor 3D tumor motion during radiotherapy. Recently, an iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm was implemented in KIM to also measure rotations about three axes, enabling real-time tracking of tumor motion in six degrees-of-freedom (DoF). This study aims to evaluate the accuracy of the six DoF motion estimates of KIM by comparing it with the corresponding motion (i) measured by the Calypso; and (ii) derived from kV/MV triangulation. Methods: (i) Various motions (static and dynamic) were applied to a CIRS phantom with three embedded electromagnetic transponders (Calypso Medical) using a 5D motion platform (HexaMotion) and a rotating treatment couch while both KIM and Calypso were used to concurrently track the phantom motion in six DoF. (ii) KIM was also used to retrospectively estimate six DoF motion from continuous sets of kV projections of a prostate, implanted with three gold fiducial markers (2 patients with 80 fractions in total), acquired during the treatment. Corresponding motion was obtained from kV/MV triangulation using a closed form least squares method based on three markers’ positions. Only the frames where all three markers were present were used in the analysis. The mean differences between the corresponding motion estimates were calculated for each DoF. Results: Experimental results showed that the mean of absolute differences in six DoF phantom motion measured by Calypso and KIM were within 1.1° and 0.7 mm. kV/MV triangulation derived six DoF prostate tumor better agreed with KIM estimated motion with the mean (s.d.) difference of up to 0.2° (1.36°) and 0.2 (0.25) mm for rotation and translation, respectively. Conclusion: These results suggest that KIM can provide an accurate six DoF intrafraction tumor during radiotherapy.

  10. Cone beam computed tomography: An accurate imaging technique in comparison with orthogonal portal imaging in intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash Gurjar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Various factors cause geometric uncertainties during prostate radiotherapy, including interfractional and intrafractional patient motions, organ motion, and daily setup errors. This may lead to increased normal tissue complications when a high dose to the prostate is administered. More-accurate treatment delivery is possible with daily imaging and localization of the prostate. This study aims to measure the shift of the prostate by using kilovoltage (kV cone beam computed tomography (CBCT after position verification by kV orthogonal portal imaging (OPI.Methods: Position verification in 10 patients with prostate cancer was performed by using OPI followed by CBCT before treatment delivery in 25 sessions per patient. In each session, OPI was performed by using an on-board imaging (OBI system and pelvic bone-to-pelvic bone matching was performed. After applying the noted shift by using OPI, CBCT was performed by using the OBI system and prostate-to-prostate matching was performed. The isocenter shifts along all three translational directions in both techniques were combined into a three-dimensional (3-D iso-displacement vector (IDV.Results: The mean (SD IDV (in centimeters calculated during the 250 imaging sessions was 0.931 (0.598, median 0.825 for OPI and 0.515 (336, median 0.43 for CBCT, p-value was less than 0.0001 which shows extremely statistical significant difference.Conclusion: Even after bone-to-bone matching by using OPI, a significant shift in prostate was observed on CBCT. This study concludes that imaging with CBCT provides a more accurate prostate localization than the OPI technique. Hence, CBCT should be chosen as the preferred imaging technique.

  11. Evidence of Limited Motion of the Prostate by Carefully Emptying the Rectum as Assessed by Daily MVCT Image Guidance with Helical Tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorino, Claudio Ph.D.; Di Muzio, Nadia; Broggi, Sara; Cozzarini, Cesare; Maggiulli, Eleonora M.Sc.; Alongi, Filippo; Valdagni, Riccardo; Fazio, Ferruccio; Calandrino, Riccardo

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess setup and organ motion error by means of analysis of daily megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) of patients treated with hypofractionated helical tomotherapy (71.4-74.2 Gy in 28 fractions). Methods and Materials: Data from 21 patients were analyzed. Patients were instructed to empty the rectum carefully before planning CT and every morning before therapy by means of a self-applied rectal enema. The position of the prostate was assessed by means of automatic bone matching (BM) with the planning kilovoltage CT (BM, setup error) followed by a direct visualization (DV) match on the prostate. Deviations between planning and therapy positions referred to BM and BM + DV were registered for the three main axes. In case of a full rectum at MVCT with evident shift of the prostate, treatment was postponed until after additional rectal emptying procedures; in this case, additional MVCT was performed before delivering the treatment. Data for 522 fractions were available; the impact of post-MVCT procedure was investigated for 17 of 21 patients (410 fractions). Results: Prostate motion relative to bony anatomy was limited. Concerning posterior-anterior shifts, only 4.9% and 2.7% of fractions showed deviation of 3 mm or greater of the prostate relative to BM without and with consideration of post-MVCT procedures, respectively. Interobserver variability for BM + DV match was within 0.8 mm (1 SD). Conclusions: Daily MVCT-based correction is feasible. The BM + DV matching was found to be consistent between operators. Rectal emptying using a daily enema is an efficient tool to minimize prostate motion, even for centers that have not yet implemented image-guided radiotherapy

  12. Prostate bed target interfractional motion using RTOG consensus definitions and daily CT on rails. Does target motion differ between superior and inferior portions of the clinical target volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Vivek; Zhou, Sumin; Enke, Charles A.; Wahl, Andrew O. [University of Nebraska Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Omaha (United States); Chen, Shifeng [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Using high-quality CT-on-rails imaging, the daily motion of the prostate bed clinical target volume (PB-CTV) based on consensus Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) definitions (instead of surgical clips/fiducials) was studied. It was assessed whether PB motion in the superior portion of PB-CTV (SUP-CTV) differed from the inferior PB-CTV (INF-CTV). Eight pT2-3bN0-1M0 patients underwent postprostatectomy intensity-modulated radiotherapy, totaling 300 fractions. INF-CTV and SUP-CTV were defined as PB-CTV located inferior and superior to the superior border of the pubic symphysis, respectively. Daily pretreatment CT-on-rails images were compared to the planning CT in the left-right (LR), superoinferior (SI), and anteroposterior (AP) directions. Two parameters were defined: ''total PB-CTV motion'' represented total shifts from skin tattoos to RTOG-defined anatomic areas; ''PB-CTV target motion'' (performed for both SUP-CTV and INF-CTV) represented shifts from bone to RTOG-defined anatomic areas (i. e., subtracting shifts from skin tattoos to bone). Mean (± standard deviation, SD) total PB-CTV motion was -1.5 (± 6.0), 1.3 (± 4.5), and 3.7 (± 5.7) mm in LR, SI, and AP directions, respectively. Mean (± SD) PB-CTV target motion was 0.2 (±1.4), 0.3 (±2.4), and 0 (±3.1) mm in the LR, SI, and AP directions, respectively. Mean (± SD) INF-CTV target motion was 0.1 (± 2.8), 0.5 (± 2.2), and 0.2 (± 2.5) mm, and SUP-CTV target motion was 0.3 (± 1.8), 0.5 (± 2.3), and 0 (± 5.0) mm in LR, SI, and AP directions, respectively. No statistically significant differences between INF-CTV and SUP-CTV motion were present in any direction. There are no statistically apparent motion differences between SUP-CTV and INF-CTV. Current uniform planning target volume (PTV) margins are adequate to cover both portions of the CTV. (orig.) [German] Zur Evaluation der interfraktionellen Variabilitaet des klinischen Zielvolumens der Prostataloge

  13. Inter- and Intrafraction Patient Positioning Uncertainties for Intracranial Radiotherapy: A Study of Four Frameless, Thermoplastic Mask-Based Immobilization Strategies Using Daily Cone-Beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tryggestad, Erik; Christian, Matthew; Ford, Eric; Kut, Carmen; Le Yi; Sanguineti, Giuseppe; Song, Danny Y.; Kleinberg, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether frameless thermoplastic mask-based immobilization is adequate for image-guided cranial radiosurgery. Methods and Materials: Cone-beam CT localization data from patients with intracranial tumors were studied using daily pre- and posttreatment scans. The systems studied were (1) Type-S IMRT (head only) mask (Civco) with head cushion; (2) Uni-Frame mask (Civco) with head cushion, coupled with a BlueBag body immobilizer (Medical Intelligence); (3) Type-S head and shoulder mask with head and shoulder cushion (Civco); (4) same as previous, coupled with a mouthpiece. The comparative metrics were translational shift magnitude and average rotation angle; systematic inter-, random inter-, and random intrafraction positioning error was computed. For strategies 1-4, respectively, the analysis for interfraction variability included data from 20, 9, 81, and 11 patients, whereas that for intrafraction variability included a subset of 7, 9, 16, and 8 patients. The results were compared for statistical significance using an analysis of variance test. Results: Immobilization system 4 provided the best overall accuracy and stability. The mean interfraction translational shifts (± SD) were 2.3 (± 1.4), 2.2 (± 1.1), 2.7 (± 1.5), and 2.1 (± 1.0) mm whereas intrafraction motion was 1.1 (± 1.2), 1.1 (± 1.1), 0.7 (± 0.9), and 0.7 (± 0.8) mm for devices 1-4, respectively. No significant correlation between intrafraction motion and treatment time was evident, although intrafraction motion was not purely random. Conclusions: We find that all frameless thermoplastic mask systems studied are viable solutions for image-guided intracranial radiosurgery. With daily pretreatment corrections, symmetric PTV margins of 1 mm would likely be adequate if ideal radiation planning and targeting systems were available.

  14. Inter- and intrafraction patient positioning uncertainties for intracranial radiotherapy: a study of four frameless, thermoplastic mask-based immobilization strategies using daily cone-beam CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryggestad, Erik; Christian, Matthew; Ford, Eric; Kut, Carmen; Le, Yi; Sanguineti, Giuseppe; Song, Danny Y; Kleinberg, Lawrence

    2011-05-01

    To determine whether frameless thermoplastic mask-based immobilization is adequate for image-guided cranial radiosurgery. Cone-beam CT localization data from patients with intracranial tumors were studied using daily pre- and posttreatment scans. The systems studied were (1) Type-S IMRT (head only) mask (Civco) with head cushion; (2) Uni-Frame mask (Civco) with head cushion, coupled with a BlueBag body immobilizer (Medical Intelligence); (3) Type-S head and shoulder mask with head and shoulder cushion (Civco); (4) same as previous, coupled with a mouthpiece. The comparative metrics were translational shift magnitude and average rotation angle; systematic inter-, random inter-, and random intrafraction positioning error was computed. For strategies 1-4, respectively, the analysis for interfraction variability included data from 20, 9, 81, and 11 patients, whereas that for intrafraction variability included a subset of 7, 9, 16, and 8 patients. The results were compared for statistical significance using an analysis of variance test. Immobilization system 4 provided the best overall accuracy and stability. The mean interfraction translational shifts (± SD) were 2.3 (± 1.4), 2.2 (± 1.1), 2.7 (± 1.5), and 2.1 (± 1.0) mm whereas intrafraction motion was 1.1 (± 1.2), 1.1 (± 1.1), 0.7 (± 0.9), and 0.7 (± 0.8) mm for devices 1-4, respectively. No significant correlation between intrafraction motion and treatment time was evident, although intrafraction motion was not purely random. We find that all frameless thermoplastic mask systems studied are viable solutions for image-guided intracranial radiosurgery. With daily pretreatment corrections, symmetric PTV margins of 1 mm would likely be adequate if ideal radiation planning and targeting systems were available. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of treatment position and patient immobilization on the variability of patient motion in the treatment of prostate cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, A.; Washington, M.; Wyman, B.; Song, P.; Bauml, J.; Tobias, R.; Vaida, F.; Chen, G.; Vijayakumar, S.; Reese, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: As dose-escalation is being attempted in the treatment of prostate cancer, uncertainties in patient position due to day-to-day setup has become increasingly critical. We present results from an ongoing study of the variability of patient positioning in prone versus supine treatment positions, as well as with and without immobilization using an aquaplast cast. Materials and Methods: We compared the probability and the amount of day-to-day movement of patients with prostate cancer. Patients were divided into three groups: (a) those treated supine without immobilization, (b) those treated supine and immobilized with an aquaplast cast over the abdomen and pelvis, and (c) those treated prone and similarly immobilized in aquaplast. The three components of patient motion - cephalo-caudad, anterior-posterior, and lateral - were examined separately. Portal films, taken at least once a week during treatment, were compared to simulation films and appropriate changes were made on the next day before treatment. This film record was used in our retrospective analysis of patient motion. To study the probability of movement we carried out a Likelihood Ratio test (LR) on a sample of 43 patients (20, 15, and 8 in treatment positions (a), (b), and (c) respectively). To study the amount of movement, templates with outlines of bony landmarks were generated based on the simulation film and overlaid on the portal film to measure the displacement. Results: Our measurements are summarized in the table below, where the p values for the difference in probability of movement (leftmost three columns) comes from the LR test and the amount of movement (rightmost three columns) is expressed as an average accompanied by a root-mean-square, in millimeters. Conclusions: From the data so far analyzed, patients treated supine and immobilized in an aquaplast cast -- group (b) -- exhibit the lowest probability of cephalo-caudad and anterior-posterior movement. In addition, although

  16. An IGRT margin concept for pelvic lymph nodes in high-risk prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groher, M.; Kopp, P.; Deutschmann, H.; Sedlmayer, F.; Wolf, Frank; Drerup, M.

    2017-01-01

    Gold-marker-based image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) of the prostate allows to correct for inter- and intrafraction motion and therefore to safely reduce margins for the prostate planning target volume (PTV). However, pelvic PTVs, when coadministered in a single plan (registered to gold markers [GM]), require reassessment of the margin concept since prostate movement is independent from the pelvic bony anatomy to which the lymphatics are usually referenced to. We have therefore revisited prostate translational movement relative to the bony anatomy to obtain adequate margins for the pelvic PTVs compensating mismatch resulting from referencing pelvic target volumes to GMs in the prostate. Prostate movement was analyzed in a set of 28 patients (25 fractions each, totaling in 684 fractions) and the required margins calculated for the pelvic PTVs according to Van Herk's margin formula M = 2.5 Σ + 1.64 (σ ' -σ p ). The overall mean prostate movement relative to bony anatomy was 0.9 ± 3.1, 0.6 ± 3.4, and 0.0 ± 0.7 mm in anterior/posterior (A/P), inferior/superior (I/S) and left/right (L/R) direction, respectively. Calculated margins to compensate for the resulting mismatch to bony anatomy were 9/9/2 mm in A/P, I/S, and L/R direction and 10/11/6 mm if an additional residual error of 2 mm was assumed. GM-based IGRT for pelvic PTVs is feasible if margins are adapted accordingly. Margins could be reduced further if systematic errors which are introduced during the planning CT were eliminated. (orig.) [de

  17. Evaluation of intrafraction patient movement for CNS and head and neck IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Siyong; Akpati, Hilary C.; Kielbasa, Jerrold E.; Li, Jonathan G.; Liu, Chihray; Amdur, Robert J.; Palta, Jatinder R.

    2004-01-01

    Intrafraction patient motion is much more likely in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) than in conventional radiotherapy primarily due to longer beam delivery times in IMRT treatment. In this study, we evaluated the uncertainty of intrafraction patient displacement in CNS and head and neck IMRT patients. Immobilization is performed in three steps: (1) the patient is immobilized with thermoplastic facemask, (2) the patient displacement is monitored using a commercial stereotactic infrared IR camera (ExacTrac, BrainLab) during treatment, and (3) repositioning is carried out as needed. The displacement data were recorded during beam-on time for the entire treatment duration for 5 patients using the camera system. We used the concept of cumulative time versus patient position uncertainty, referred to as an uncertainty time histogram (UTH), to analyze the data. UTH is a plot of the accumulated time during which a patient stays within the corresponding movement uncertainty. The University of Florida immobilization procedure showed an effective immobilization capability for CNS and head and neck IMRT patients by keeping the patient displacement less than 1.5 mm for 95% of treatment time (1.43 mm for 1, and 1.02 mm for 1, and less than 1.0 mm for 3 patients). The maximum displacement was 2.0 mm

  18. A Javascript library that uses Windows Script Host (WSH) to analyze prostate motion data fragmented across a multitude of Excel files by the Calypso 4D Localization System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vali, Faisal S; Hsi, Alex; Cho, Paul; Parsai, Homayon; Garver, Elizabeth; Garza, Richard

    2008-11-06

    The Calypso 4D Localization System records prostate motion continuously during radiation treatment. It stores the data across thousands of Excel files. We developed Javascript (JScript) libraries for Windows Script Host (WSH) that use ActiveX Data Objects, OLE Automation and SQL to statistically analyze the data and display the results as a comprehensible Excel table. We then leveraged these libraries in other research to perform vector math on data spread across multiple access databases.

  19. An assessment of the magnitude of intra-fraction movement of head-and-neck IMRT cases and its implication on the action-level of the imaging protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Pei Ping Eric; Hendry, Julie; Cheah, Shie Lee; Soong, Yoke Lim; Fong, Kam Weng; Wee, Tien Seng Joseph; Tan, Wee Kiat Terence; Nei, Wen Long; Wang, Fuqiang; Wong, Ru Xin; Ng, Wee Loon; Chen, John

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: A planning margin ⩽3 mm is employed in some head-and-neck IMRT cases due to the proximity of critical structures. This study aims to explore the need to redefine the action-level in the head-and-neck imaging protocol in consideration of the intra-fraction movement. Material and methods: This is a local study of 18 patients treated using the same immobilisation system and setup protocol. Post-treatment orthogonal pair of kilovoltage X-ray images was acquired on the first three days of treatment. 106 sets of pre- and post-treatment kV X-ray images acquired over 53 fractions were analysed against the treatment planning DRR for calculation of intra-fraction movement. Results: Individual mean intra-fraction movement in all directions ranged from −1.8 to 1.1 mm. Population mean (median) intra-fraction movement in the x-, y-, and z-planes were −0.1 mm (0 mm), −0.3 mm (−0.3 mm) and −0.2 mm (−0.2 mm) respectively. Intra-fraction movement in all three dimensions, x-, y- and z-planes were considered statistically significant (p < 0.05). 7 out of 53 fractions (13.2%) were highlighted as the combined magnitude of the intra-fraction motion with the uncorrected pre-treatment setup errors had exceeded the boundaries of given margins. Conclusions: 3 mm-AL was not adequate to account for intra-fraction movement when the CTV–PTV margin was ⩽3 mm and should be excluded from the routine imaging protocol and daily image-guided radiotherapy should be employed. Adjusting the action-level to 2 mm would allow a more confident approach in delivery of the prescribed dose in head-and-neck IMRT cases

  20. A Comparison of the Use of Bony Anatomy and Internal Markers for Offline Verification and an Evaluation of the Potential Benefit of Online and Offline Verification Protocols for Prostate Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNair, Helen A.; Hansen, Vibeke N.; Parker, Christopher; Evans, Phil M.; Norman, Andrew; Miles, Elizabeth; Harris, Emma J.; Del-Acroix, Louise; Smith, Elizabeth; Keane, Richard; Khoo, Vincent S.; Thompson, Alan C.; Dearnaley, David P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the utility of intraprostatic markers in the treatment verification of prostate cancer radiotherapy. Specific aims were: to compare the effectiveness of offline correction protocols, either using gold markers or bony anatomy; to estimate the potential benefit of online correction protocol's using gold markers; to determine the presence and effect of intrafraction motion. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with three gold markers inserted had pretreatment and posttreatment images acquired and were treated using an offline correction protocol and gold markers. Retrospectively, an offline protocol was applied using bony anatomy and an online protocol using gold markers. Results: The systematic errors were reduced from 1.3, 1.9, and 2.5 mm to 1.1, 1.1, and 1.5 mm in the right-left (RL), superoinferior (SI), and anteroposterior (AP) directions, respectively, using the offline correction protocol and gold markers instead of bony anatomy. The subsequent decrease in margins was 1.7, 3.3, and 4 mm in the RL, SI, and AP directions, respectively. An offline correction protocol combined with an online correction protocol in the first four fractions reduced random errors further to 0.9, 1.1, and 1.0 mm in the RL, SI, and AP directions, respectively. A daily online protocol reduced all errors to <1 mm. Intrafraction motion had greater impact on the effectiveness of the online protocol than the offline protocols. Conclusions: An offline protocol using gold markers is effective in reducing the systematic error. The value of online protocols is reduced by intrafraction motion

  1. Treatment simulations with a statistical deformable motion model to evaluate margins for multiple targets in radiotherapy for high-risk prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thörnqvist, Sara; Hysing, Liv B.; Zolnay, Andras G.; Söhn, Matthias; Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Muren, Ludvig P.; Bentzen, Lise; Heijmen, Ben J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: Deformation and correlated target motion remain challenges for margin recipes in radiotherapy (RT). This study presents a statistical deformable motion model for multiple targets and applies it to margin evaluations for locally advanced prostate cancer i.e. RT of the prostate (CTV-p), seminal vesicles (CTV-sv) and pelvic lymph nodes (CTV-ln). Material and methods: The 19 patients included in this study, all had 7–10 repeat CT-scans available that were rigidly aligned with the planning CT-scan using intra-prostatic implanted markers, followed by deformable registrations. The displacement vectors from the deformable registrations were used to create patient-specific statistical motion models. The models were applied in treatment simulations to determine probabilities for adequate target coverage, e.g. by establishing distributions of the accumulated dose to 99% of the target volumes (D 99 ) for various CTV–PTV expansions in the planning-CTs. Results: The method allowed for estimation of the expected accumulated dose and its variance of different DVH parameters for each patient. Simulations of inter-fractional motion resulted in 7, 10, and 18 patients with an average D 99 >95% of the prescribed dose for CTV-p expansions of 3 mm, 4 mm and 5 mm, respectively. For CTV-sv and CTV-ln, expansions of 3 mm, 5 mm and 7 mm resulted in 1, 11 and 15 vs. 8, 18 and 18 patients respectively with an average D 99 >95% of the prescription. Conclusions: Treatment simulations of target motion revealed large individual differences in accumulated dose mainly for CTV-sv, demanding the largest margins whereas those required for CTV-p and CTV-ln were comparable

  2. Application of the No Action Level (NAL) protocol to correct for prostate motion based on electronic portal imaging of implanted markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, Hans C.J. de; Os, Marjolein J.H. van; Jansen, Peter P.; Heijmen, Ben J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of the No Action Level (NAL) off-line correction protocol in the reduction of systematic prostate displacements as determined from electronic portal images (EPI) using implanted markers. Methods and materials: Four platinum markers, two near the apex and two near the base of the prostate, were implanted for localization purposes in patients who received fractionated high dose rate brachytherapy. During the following course of 25 fractions of external beam radiotherapy, the position of each marker relative to the corresponding position in digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) was measured in EPI in 15 patients for on average 17 fractions per patient. These marker positions yield the composite displacements due to both setup error and internal prostate motion, relative to the planning computed tomography scan. As the NAL protocol is highly effective in reducing systematic errors (recurring each fraction) due to setup inaccuracy alone, we investigated its efficacy in reducing systematic composite displacements. The analysis was performed for the center of mass (COM) of the four markers, as well as for the cranial and caudal markers separately. Furthermore, the impact of prostate rotation on the achieved positioning accuracy was determined. Results: In case of no setup corrections, the standard deviations of the systematic composite displacements of the COM were 3-4 mm in the craniocaudal and anterior-posterior directions, and 2 mm in the left-right direction. The corresponding SDs of the random displacements (interfraction fluctuations) were 2-3 mm in each direction. When applying a NAL protocol based on three initial treatment fractions, the SDs of the systematic COM displacements were reduced to 1-2 mm. Displacements at the cranial end of the prostate were slightly larger than at the caudal end, and quantitative analysis showed this originates from left-right axis rotations about the prostate apex. Further analysis revealed

  3. Prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bey, P.; Beckendorf, V.; Stines, J.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation therapy of prostate carcinoma with a curative intent implies to treat the whole prostate at high dose (at least 66 Gy). According to clinical stage, PSA level, Gleason's score, the clinical target volume may include seminal vesicles and less often pelvic lymph nodes. Microscopic extra-capsular extension is found in 15 to 60% of T1-T2 operated on, specially in apex tumors. On contrary, cancers developing from the transitional zone may stay limited to the prostate even with a big volume and with a high PSA level. Zonal anatomy of the prostate identifies internal prostate, including the transitional zone (5% of the prostate in young people). External prostate includes central and peripheral zones. The inferior limit of the prostate is not lower than the inferior border of the pubic symphysis. Clinical and radiological examination: ultrasonography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), CT-scan identify prognostic factors as tumor volume, capsule effraction, seminal vesicles invasion and lymph node extension. The identification of the clinical target volume is now done mainly by CT-Scan which identifies prostate and seminal vesicles. NMR could be helpful to identify more precisely prostate apex. The definition of margins around the clinical target volume has to take in account daily reproducibility and organ motion and of course the maximum tolerable dose for organs at risk. (authors)

  4. WE-G-BRF-01: Adaptation to Intrafraction Tumor Deformation During Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy: First Proof-Of-Principle Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Y; OBrien, R; Shieh, C; Booth, J; Keall, P

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Intrafraction tumor deformation limits targeting accuracy in radiotherapy and cannot be adapted to by current motion management techniques. This study simulated intrafractional treatment adaptation to tumor deformations using a dynamic Multi-Leaf Collimator (DMLC) tracking system during Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment for the first time. Methods: The DMLC tracking system was developed to adapt to the intrafraction tumor deformation by warping the planned beam aperture guided by the calculated deformation vector field (DVF) obtained from deformable image registration (DIR) at the time of treatment delivery. Seven single phantom deformation images up to 10.4 mm deformation and eight tumor system phantom deformation images up to 21.5 mm deformation were acquired and used in tracking simulation. The intrafraction adaptation was simulated at the DMLC tracking software platform, which was able to communicate with the image registration software, reshape the instantaneous IMRT field aperture and log the delivered MLC fields.The deformation adaptation accuracy was evaluated by a geometric target coverage metric defined as the sum of the area incorrectly outside and inside the reference aperture. The incremental deformations were arbitrarily determined to take place equally over the delivery interval. The geometric target coverage of delivery with deformation adaptation was compared against the delivery without adaptation. Results: Intrafraction deformation adaptation during dynamic IMRT plan delivery was simulated for single and system deformable phantoms. For the two particular delivery situations, over the treatment course, deformation adaptation improved the target coverage by 89% for single target deformation and 79% for tumor system deformation compared with no-tracking delivery. Conclusion: This work demonstrated the principle of real-time tumor deformation tracking using a DMLC. This is the first step towards the development of an

  5. Clinical evaluation of an endorectal immobilization system for use in prostate hypofractionated Stereotactic Ablative Body Radiotherapy (SABR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolae, Alexandru; Davidson, Melanie; Easton, Harry; Helou, Joelle; Musunuru, Hima; Loblaw, Andrew; Ravi, Ananth

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a novel prostate endorectal immobilization system (EIS) for improving the delivery of hypofractionated Stereotactic Ablative Body Radiotherapy (SABR) for prostate cancer. Twenty patients (n = 20) with low- or intermediate-risk prostate cancer (T1-T2b, Gleason Score < 7, PSA ≤ 20 ng/mL), were treated with an EIS in place using Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT), to a prescription dose of 26 Gy delivered in 2 fractions once per week; the intent of the institutional clinical trial was an attempt to replicate brachytherapy-like dosimetry using SABR. EBT3 radiochromic film embedded within the EIS was used as a quality assurance measure of the delivered dose; additionally, prostate intrafraction motion captured using pre- and post-treatment conebeam computed tomography (CBCT) scans was evaluated. Treatment plans were generated for patients with- and without the EIS to evaluate its effects on target and rectal dosimetry. None of the observed 3-dimensional prostate displacements were ≥ 3 mm over the elapsed treatment time. A Gamma passing rate of 95.64 ± 4.28 % was observed between planned and delivered dose profiles on EBT3 film analysis in the low-dose region. No statistically significant differences between treatment plans with- and without-EIS were observed for rectal, bladder, clinical target volume (CTV), and PTV contours (p = 0.477, 0.484, 0.487, and 0.487, respectively). A mean rectal V80% of 1.07 cc was achieved for plans using the EIS. The EIS enables the safe delivery of brachytherapy-like SABR plans to the prostate while having minimal impact on treatment planning and rectal dosimetry. Consistent and reproducible immobilization of the prostate is possible throughout the duration of these treatments using such a device

  6. A new methodology for inter- and intrafraction plan adaptation for the MR-linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontaxis, C; Bol, G H; Lagendijk, J J W; Raaymakers, B W

    2015-01-01

    The new era of hybrid MRI and linear accelerator machines, including the MR-linac currently being installed in the University Medical Center Utrecht (Utrecht, The Netherlands), will be able to provide the actual anatomy and real-time anatomy changes of the patient’s target(s) and organ(s) at risk (OARs) during radiation delivery. In order to be able to take advantage of this input, a new generation of treatment planning systems is needed, that will allow plan adaptation to the latest anatomy state in an online regime. In this paper, we present a treatment planning algorithm for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), which is able to compensate for patient anatomy changes. The system consists of an iterative sequencing loop open to anatomy updates and an inter- and intrafraction adaptation scheme that enables convergence to the ideal dose distribution without the need of a final segment weight optimization (SWO). The ability of the system to take into account organ motion and adapt the plan to the latest anatomy state is illustrated using artificial baseline shifts created for three different kidney cases. Firstly, for two kidney cases of different target volumes, we show that the system can account for intrafraction motion, delivering the intended dose to the target with minimal dose deposition to the surroundings compared to conventional plans. Secondly, for a third kidney case we show that our algorithm combined with the interfraction scheme can be used to deliver the prescribed dose while adapting to the changing anatomy during multi-fraction treatments without performing a final SWO. (paper)

  7. A new methodology for inter- and intrafraction plan adaptation for the MR-linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontaxis, C.; Bol, G. H.; Lagendijk, J. J. W.; Raaymakers, B. W.

    2015-10-01

    The new era of hybrid MRI and linear accelerator machines, including the MR-linac currently being installed in the University Medical Center Utrecht (Utrecht, The Netherlands), will be able to provide the actual anatomy and real-time anatomy changes of the patient’s target(s) and organ(s) at risk (OARs) during radiation delivery. In order to be able to take advantage of this input, a new generation of treatment planning systems is needed, that will allow plan adaptation to the latest anatomy state in an online regime. In this paper, we present a treatment planning algorithm for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), which is able to compensate for patient anatomy changes. The system consists of an iterative sequencing loop open to anatomy updates and an inter- and intrafraction adaptation scheme that enables convergence to the ideal dose distribution without the need of a final segment weight optimization (SWO). The ability of the system to take into account organ motion and adapt the plan to the latest anatomy state is illustrated using artificial baseline shifts created for three different kidney cases. Firstly, for two kidney cases of different target volumes, we show that the system can account for intrafraction motion, delivering the intended dose to the target with minimal dose deposition to the surroundings compared to conventional plans. Secondly, for a third kidney case we show that our algorithm combined with the interfraction scheme can be used to deliver the prescribed dose while adapting to the changing anatomy during multi-fraction treatments without performing a final SWO.

  8. SU-G-JeP4-09: Impact of Interfractional Motion On Hypofractionated Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moteabbed, M; Trofimov, A; Sharp, G; Wang, Y; Zietman, A; Efstathiou, J; Lu, H [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    . Conclusion: Hypofractionation makes proton therapy of prostate more susceptible to interfractional motion-induced target dose degradation compared to the standard fractionation.

  9. The histogram analysis of diffusion-weighted intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) imaging for differentiating the gleason grade of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Dong; Wang, Qing; Wu, Chen-Jiang; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Hui; Liu, Xi-Sheng; Shi, Hai-Bin

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate histogram analysis of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) for discriminating the Gleason grade of prostate cancer (PCa). A total of 48 patients pathologically confirmed as having clinically significant PCa (size > 0.5 cm) underwent preoperative DW-MRI (b of 0-900 s/mm(2)). Data was post-processed by monoexponential and IVIM model for quantitation of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs), perfusion fraction f, diffusivity D and pseudo-diffusivity D*. Histogram analysis was performed by outlining entire-tumour regions of interest (ROIs) from histological-radiological correlation. The ability of imaging indices to differentiate low-grade (LG, Gleason score (GS) ≤6) from intermediate/high-grade (HG, GS > 6) PCa was analysed by ROC regression. Eleven patients had LG tumours (18 foci) and 37 patients had HG tumours (42 foci) on pathology examination. HG tumours had significantly lower ADCs and D in terms of mean, median, 10th and 75th percentiles, combined with higher histogram kurtosis and skewness for ADCs, D and f, than LG PCa (p Histogram D showed relatively higher correlations (ñ = 0.641-0.668 vs. ADCs: 0.544-0.574) with ordinal GS of PCa; and its mean, median and 10th percentile performed better than ADCs did in distinguishing LG from HG PCa. It is feasible to stratify the pathological grade of PCa by IVIM with histogram metrics. D performed better in distinguishing LG from HG tumour than conventional ADCs. • GS had relatively higher correlation with tumour D than ADCs. • Difference of histogram D among two-grade tumours was statistically significant. • D yielded better individual features in demonstrating tumour grade than ADC. • D* and f failed to determine tumour grade of PCa.

  10. Dosimetric implications of residual seminal vesicle motion in fiducial-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenmark, Matthew H.; Vineberg, Karen; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Hamstra, Daniel A.; Feng, Mary

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether residual interfraction seminal vesicle (SV) displacement necessitates specific planning target volume (PTV) margins during fiducial-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of the prostate. A planning computed tomography (CT) scan and 2 subsequent CT scans were prospectively obtained for 20 prostate cancer patients with intraprostatic fiducial markers. After CT registration, SV displacement relative to the prostate was quantified as a function of margin size for both the proximal (1 cm) SV (PSV) and the full SV (FSV). Two IMRT plans were simulated for each patient (prostate + PSV and prostate + FSV) both with a uniform 5-mm PTV margin. Minimum clinical target volume (CTV) dose (D min ) and the volume of SV receiving 95% of the prescription dose (V 95% ) were assessed during treatment and compared with the initial plan. In all cases, SV displacement with respect to the prostate was greater for the FSV compared with the PSV. To ensure at least 95% geometrical coverage of the CTV for 90% of patients, margins of 5 and 8 mm were required for the PSV and FSV, respectively. Dosimetrically, residual SV displacement had minimal impact on PSV coverage compared with FSV coverage. For the PSV D min was ≥95% of the prescribed dose in 90% of patients with an overall mean V 95% of 99.6 ± 0.8%; for the FSV D min was ≥95% of the prescribed dose in only 45% of patients with a mean V 95% of 97.9 ± 2.4%. The SVs move differentially from the prostate and exhibit greater variation with increasing distance from the prostate. For plans targeting just the prostate and PSVs, 5-mm PTV expansions are adequate. However, despite daily localization of the prostate, larger PTV margins are required for cases where the intent is to completely cover the FSV.

  11. A comparison of the use of bony anatomy and internal markers for offline verification and an evaluation of the potential benefit of online and offline verification protocols for prostate radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Helen A; Hansen, Vibeke N; Parker, Christopher C; Evans, Phil M; Norman, Andrew; Miles, Elizabeth; Harris, Emma J; Del-Acroix, Louise; Smith, Elizabeth; Keane, Richard; Khoo, Vincent S; Thompson, Alan C; Dearnaley, David P

    2008-05-01

    To evaluate the utility of intraprostatic markers in the treatment verification of prostate cancer radiotherapy. Specific aims were: to compare the effectiveness of offline correction protocols, either using gold markers or bony anatomy; to estimate the potential benefit of online correction protocol's using gold markers; to determine the presence and effect of intrafraction motion. Thirty patients with three gold markers inserted had pretreatment and posttreatment images acquired and were treated using an offline correction protocol and gold markers. Retrospectively, an offline protocol was applied using bony anatomy and an online protocol using gold markers. The systematic errors were reduced from 1.3, 1.9, and 2.5 mm to 1.1, 1.1, and 1.5 mm in the right-left (RL), superoinferior (SI), and anteroposterior (AP) directions, respectively, using the offline correction protocol and gold markers instead of bony anatomy. The subsequent decrease in margins was 1.7, 3.3, and 4 mm in the RL, SI, and AP directions, respectively. An offline correction protocol combined with an online correction protocol in the first four fractions reduced random errors further to 0.9, 1.1, and 1.0 mm in the RL, SI, and AP directions, respectively. A daily online protocol reduced all errors to markers is effective in reducing the systematic error. The value of online protocols is reduced by intrafraction motion.

  12. SU-F-J-124: Reduction in Dosimetric Impact of Motion Using VMAT Compared to IMRT in Hypofractionated Prostate Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravindranath, B; Xiong, J; Happersett, L; Mageras, G; Zhang, P; Hunt, M [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To quantify and compare the dosimetric impact of motion management correction strategies during VMAT and IMRT for hypofractionated prostate treatment. Methods: Two arc VMAT and 9 field IMRT plans were generated for two prostate cancer patients undergoing hypofractionated radiotherapy (7.5Gy × 5 and 8Gy × 5). 212 motion traces were retrospectively extracted from treatment records of prostate cancer patients with implanted Calypso beacons. Dose to the CTV and normal tissues was reconstructed for each trace and plan taking into account the actual treatment delivery time. Following motion correction scenarios were simulated: (1) VMAT plan – (a) No correction, (b) correction between arcs, (c) correction every 20 degrees of gantry rotation and (2) IMRT plan - (a) No correction,(b) correction between fields. Two mm action threshold for position correction was assumed. The 5–95% confidence interval (CI) range was extracted from the family of DVHs for each correction scenario. Results: Treatment duration for 8Gy plan (VMAT vs IMRT) was 3 vs 12 mins and for 7.5Gy plan was 3 vs 9 mins. In the absence of correction, the VMAT 5–−95% CI dose spread was, on average, less than the IMRT dose spread by 2% for CTVD95, 9% for rectalwall (RW) D1cc and 9% for bladderwall (BW) D53. Further, VMAT b/w arcs correction strategy reduced the spread about the planned value compared to IMRT b/w fields correction by: 1% for CTVD95, 2.6% for RW1cc and 2% for BWD53. VMAT 20 degree strategy led to greater reduction in dose spread compared to IMRT by: 2% for CTVD95, 4.5% for RW1cc and 6.7% for BWD53. Conclusion: In the absence of a correction strategy, the limited motion during VMAT’s shorter delivery times translates into less motion-induced dosimetric degradation than IMRT. Performing limited periodic motion correction during VMAT can yield excellent conformity to planned values that is superior to IMRT. This work was partially supported by Varian Medical Systems.

  13. Systematic errors in respiratory gating due to intrafraction deformations of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebenthal, Martin von; Szekely, Gabor; Lomax, Antony J.; Cattin, Philippe C.

    2007-01-01

    This article shows the limitations of respiratory gating due to intrafraction deformations of the right liver lobe. The variability of organ shape and motion over tens of minutes was taken into account for this evaluation, which closes the gap between short-term analysis of a few regular cycles, as it is possible with 4DCT, and long-term analysis of interfraction motion. Time resolved MR volumes (4D MR sequences) were reconstructed for 12 volunteers and subsequent non-rigid registration provided estimates of the 3D trajectories of points within the liver over time. The full motion during free breathing and its distribution over the liver were quantified and respiratory gating was simulated to determine the gating accuracy for different gating signals, duty cycles, and different intervals between patient setup and treatment. Gating effectively compensated for the respiratory motion within short sequences (3 min), but deformations, mainly in the anterior inferior part (Couinaud segments IVb and V), led to systematic deviations from the setup position of more than 5 mm in 7 of 12 subjects after 20 min. We conclude that measurements over a few breathing cycles should not be used as a proof of accurate reproducibility of motion, not even within the same fraction, if it is longer than a few minutes. Although the diaphragm shows the largest magnitude of motion, it should not be used to assess the gating accuracy over the entire liver because the reproducibility is typically much more limited in inferior parts. Simple gating signals, such as the trajectory of skin motion, can detect the exhalation phase, but do not allow for an absolute localization of the complete liver over longer periods because the drift of these signals does not necessarily correlate with the internal drift

  14. Evaluation of multiple image-based modalities for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) of prostate carcinoma: A prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayyas, Essa; Chetty, Indrin J.; Chetvertkov, Mikhail; Wen, Ning; Neicu, Toni; Nurushev, Teamor; Ren Lei; Pradhan, Deepak; Movsas, Benjamin; Elshaikh, Mohamed A.; Lu Mei; Stricker, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Setup errors and prostate intrafraction motion are main sources of localization uncertainty in prostate cancer radiation therapy. This study evaluates four different imaging modalities 3D ultrasound (US), kV planar images, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), and implanted electromagnetic transponders (Calypso/Varian) to assess inter- and intrafraction localization errors during intensity-modulated radiation therapy based treatment of prostate cancer. Methods: Twenty-seven prostate cancer patients were enrolled in a prospective IRB-approved study and treated to a total dose of 75.6 Gy (1.8 Gy/fraction). Overall, 1100 fractions were evaluated. For each fraction, treatment targets were localized using US, kV planar images, and CBCT in a sequence defined to determine setup offsets relative to the patient skin tattoos, intermodality differences, and residual errors for each patient and patient cohort. Planning margins, following van Herk's formalism, were estimated based on error distributions. Calypso-based localization was not available for the first eight patients, therefore centroid positions of implanted gold-seed markers imaged prior to and immediately following treatment were used as a motion surrogate during treatment. For the remaining 19 patients, Calypso transponders were used to assess prostate intrafraction motion. Results: The means (μ), and standard deviations (SD) of the systematic (Σ) and random errors (σ) of interfraction prostate shifts (relative to initial skin tattoo positioning), as evaluated using CBCT, kV, and US, averaged over all patients and fractions, were: [μ CBCT = (−1.2, 0.2, 1.1) mm, Σ CBCT = (3.0, 1.4, 2.4) mm, σ CBCT = (3.2, 2.2, 2.5) mm], [μ kV = (−2.9, −0.4, 0.5) mm, Σ kV = (3.4, 3.1, 2.6) mm, σ kV = (2.9, 2.0, 2.4) mm], and [μ US = (−3.6, −1.4, 0.0) mm, Σ US = (3.3, 3.5, 2.8) mm, σ US = (4.1, 3.8, 3.6) mm], in the anterior–posterior (A/P), superior–inferior (S/I), and the left–right (L

  15. Evaluation of multiple image-based modalities for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) of prostate carcinoma: A prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayyas, Essa; Chetty, Indrin J.; Chetvertkov, Mikhail; Wen, Ning; Neicu, Toni; Nurushev, Teamor; Ren Lei; Pradhan, Deepak; Movsas, Benjamin; Elshaikh, Mohamed A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, 2799 West Grand Boulevard, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Lu Mei [Department of Public Health Sciences, Henry Ford Health System, 2799 West Grand Boulevard, Detroit Michigan 48202 (United States); Stricker, Hans [Department of Urology, Henry Ford Health System, 2799 West Grand Boulevard, Detroit Michigan 48202 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Setup errors and prostate intrafraction motion are main sources of localization uncertainty in prostate cancer radiation therapy. This study evaluates four different imaging modalities 3D ultrasound (US), kV planar images, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), and implanted electromagnetic transponders (Calypso/Varian) to assess inter- and intrafraction localization errors during intensity-modulated radiation therapy based treatment of prostate cancer. Methods: Twenty-seven prostate cancer patients were enrolled in a prospective IRB-approved study and treated to a total dose of 75.6 Gy (1.8 Gy/fraction). Overall, 1100 fractions were evaluated. For each fraction, treatment targets were localized using US, kV planar images, and CBCT in a sequence defined to determine setup offsets relative to the patient skin tattoos, intermodality differences, and residual errors for each patient and patient cohort. Planning margins, following van Herk's formalism, were estimated based on error distributions. Calypso-based localization was not available for the first eight patients, therefore centroid positions of implanted gold-seed markers imaged prior to and immediately following treatment were used as a motion surrogate during treatment. For the remaining 19 patients, Calypso transponders were used to assess prostate intrafraction motion. Results: The means ({mu}), and standard deviations (SD) of the systematic ({Sigma}) and random errors ({sigma}) of interfraction prostate shifts (relative to initial skin tattoo positioning), as evaluated using CBCT, kV, and US, averaged over all patients and fractions, were: [{mu}{sub CBCT}= (-1.2, 0.2, 1.1) mm, {Sigma}{sub CBCT}= (3.0, 1.4, 2.4) mm, {sigma}{sub CBCT}= (3.2, 2.2, 2.5) mm], [{mu}{sub kV}= (-2.9, -0.4, 0.5) mm, {Sigma}{sub kV}= (3.4, 3.1, 2.6) mm, {sigma}{sub kV}= (2.9, 2.0, 2.4) mm], and [{mu}{sub US}= (-3.6, -1.4, 0.0) mm, {Sigma}{sub US}= (3.3, 3.5, 2.8) mm, {sigma}{sub US}= (4.1, 3.8, 3.6) mm], in the anterior

  16. Effects of organ motion on proton prostate treatments, as determined from analysis of daily CT imaging for patient positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yoshikazu; Sato, Yoshitaka; Shibata, Satoshi; Bou, Sayuri; Yamamoto, Kazutaka; Tamamura, Hiroyasu; Fuwa, Nobukazu; Takamatsu, Shigeyuki; Sasaki, Makoto; Tameshige, Yuji; Kume, Kyo; Minami, Hiroki; Saga, Yusuke; Saito, Makoto

    2018-05-01

    We quantified interfractional movements of the prostate, seminal vesicles (SVs), and rectum during computed tomography (CT) image-guided proton therapy for prostate cancer and studied the range variation in opposed lateral proton beams. We analyzed 375 sets of daily CT images acquired throughout the proton therapy treatment of ten patients. We analyzed daily movements of the prostate, SVs, and rectum by simulating three image-matching strategies: bone matching, prostate center (PC) matching, and prostate-rectum boundary (PRB) matching. In the PC matching, translational movements of the prostate center were corrected after bone matching. In the PRB matching, we performed PC matching and correction along the anterior-posterior direction to match the boundary between the prostate and the rectum's anterior region. In each strategy, we evaluated systematic errors (Σ) and random errors (σ) by measuring the daily movements of certain points on each anatomic structure. The average positional deviations in millimeter of each point were determined by the Van Herk formula of 2.5Σ + 0.7σ. Using these positional deviations, we created planning target volumes of the prostate and SVs and analyzed the daily variation in the water equivalent length (WEL) from the skin surface to the target along the lateral beam directions using the density converted from the daily CT number. Based on this analysis, we designed prostate cancer treatment planning and evaluated the dose volume histograms (DVHs) for these strategies. The SVs' daily movements showed large variations over the superior-inferior direction, as did the rectum's anterior region. The average positional deviations of the prostate in the anterior, posterior, superior, inferior, and lateral sides (mm) in bone matching, PC matching, and PRB matching were (8.9, 9.8, 7.5, 3.6, 1.6), (5.6, 6.1, 3.5, 4.5, 1.9), and (8.6, 3.2, 3.5, 4.5, 1.9) (mm), respectively. Moreover, the ones of the SV tip were similarly (22.5, 15.5, 11

  17. Real-time motion-adaptive-optimization (MAO) in TomoTherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Weiguo; Chen Mingli; Ruchala, Kenneth J; Chen Quan; Olivera, Gustavo H [TomoTherapy Inc., 1240 Deming Way, Madison, WI (United States); Langen, Katja M; Kupelian, Patrick A [MD Anderson Cancer Center-Orlando, Orlando, FL (United States)], E-mail: wlu@tomotherapy.com

    2009-07-21

    IMRT delivery follows a planned leaf sequence, which is optimized before treatment delivery. However, it is hard to model real-time variations, such as respiration, in the planning procedure. In this paper, we propose a negative feedback system of IMRT delivery that incorporates real-time optimization to account for intra-fraction motion. Specifically, we developed a feasible workflow of real-time motion-adaptive-optimization (MAO) for TomoTherapy delivery. TomoTherapy delivery is characterized by thousands of projections with a fast projection rate and ultra-fast binary leaf motion. The technique of MAO-guided delivery calculates (i) the motion-encoded dose that has been delivered up to any given projection during the delivery and (ii) the future dose that will be delivered based on the estimated motion probability and future fluence map. These two pieces of information are then used to optimize the leaf open time of the upcoming projection right before its delivery. It consists of several real-time procedures, including 'motion detection and prediction', 'delivered dose accumulation', 'future dose estimation' and 'projection optimization'. Real-time MAO requires that all procedures are executed in time less than the duration of a projection. We implemented and tested this technique using a TomoTherapy (registered) research system. The MAO calculation took about 100 ms per projection. We calculated and compared MAO-guided delivery with two other types of delivery, motion-without-compensation delivery (MD) and static delivery (SD), using simulated 1D cases, real TomoTherapy plans and the motion traces from clinical lung and prostate patients. The results showed that the proposed technique effectively compensated for motion errors of all test cases. Dose distributions and DVHs of MAO-guided delivery approached those of SD, for regular and irregular respiration with a peak-to-peak amplitude of 3 cm, and for medium and large

  18. Real-time motion-adaptive-optimization (MAO) in TomoTherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Weiguo; Chen Mingli; Ruchala, Kenneth J; Chen Quan; Olivera, Gustavo H; Langen, Katja M; Kupelian, Patrick A

    2009-01-01

    IMRT delivery follows a planned leaf sequence, which is optimized before treatment delivery. However, it is hard to model real-time variations, such as respiration, in the planning procedure. In this paper, we propose a negative feedback system of IMRT delivery that incorporates real-time optimization to account for intra-fraction motion. Specifically, we developed a feasible workflow of real-time motion-adaptive-optimization (MAO) for TomoTherapy delivery. TomoTherapy delivery is characterized by thousands of projections with a fast projection rate and ultra-fast binary leaf motion. The technique of MAO-guided delivery calculates (i) the motion-encoded dose that has been delivered up to any given projection during the delivery and (ii) the future dose that will be delivered based on the estimated motion probability and future fluence map. These two pieces of information are then used to optimize the leaf open time of the upcoming projection right before its delivery. It consists of several real-time procedures, including 'motion detection and prediction', 'delivered dose accumulation', 'future dose estimation' and 'projection optimization'. Real-time MAO requires that all procedures are executed in time less than the duration of a projection. We implemented and tested this technique using a TomoTherapy (registered) research system. The MAO calculation took about 100 ms per projection. We calculated and compared MAO-guided delivery with two other types of delivery, motion-without-compensation delivery (MD) and static delivery (SD), using simulated 1D cases, real TomoTherapy plans and the motion traces from clinical lung and prostate patients. The results showed that the proposed technique effectively compensated for motion errors of all test cases. Dose distributions and DVHs of MAO-guided delivery approached those of SD, for regular and irregular respiration with a peak-to-peak amplitude of 3 cm, and for medium and large prostate motions. The results conceptually

  19. SU-G-JeP1-09: Evaluation of Transperineal Ultrasound Imaging as a Potential Solution for Target Tracking During Ablative Body Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najafi, M; Han, B; Hancock, S; Hristov, D [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Cooper, D [Elekta Inc., Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Prostate SABR is emerging as a clinically viable, potentially cost effective alternative to prostate IMRT but its adoption is contingent on providing solutions for accurate tracking during beam delivery. Our goal is to evaluate the performance of the Clarity Autoscan ultrasound monitoring system for inter-fractional prostate motion tracking in both phantoms and in-vivo. Methods: In-vivo evaluation was performed under IRB protocol to allow data collection in prostate patients treated with VMAT whereby prostate was imaged through the acoustic window of the perineum. The probe was placed before KV imaging and real-time tracking was started and continued until the end of treatment. Initial absolute 3D positions of fiducials were estimated from KV images. Fiducial positions in MV images subsequently acquired during beam delivery were compared with predicted positions based on Clarity estimated motion. Results: Phantom studies with motion amplitudes of ±1.5, ±3, ±6 mm in lateral direction and ±2 mm in longitudinal direction resulted in tracking errors of −0.03 ± 0.3, −0.04 ± 0.6, −0.2 ± 0.9 mm, respectively, in lateral direction and −0.05 ± 0.30 mm in longitudinal direction. In phantom, measured and predicted fiducial positions in MV images were within 0.1 ± 0.6 mm. Four patients consented to participate in the study and data was acquired over a total of 140 fractions. MV imaging tracking was possible in about 75% of the time (due to occlusion of fiducials) compared to 100% with Clarity. Overall range of estimated motion by Clarity was 0 to 4.0 mm. In-vivo fiducial localization error was 1.2 ± 1.0 mm compared to 1.8 ± 1.9 mm if not taking Clarity estimated motion into account. Conclusion: Real-time transperineal ultrasound tracking reduces uncertainty in prostate position due to intrafractional motion. Research was supported by Elekta.

  20. Positron emission tomography for the dose monitoring of intra-fractionally moving targets in ion beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuetzer, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Ion beam therapy (IBT) is a promising treatment option in radiotherapy. The characteristic physical and biological properties of light ion beams allow for the delivery of highly tumor conformal dose distributions. Related to the sparing of surrounding healthy tissue and nearby organs at risk, it is feasible to escalate the dose in the tumor volume to reach higher tumor control and survival rates. Remarkable clinical outcome was achieved with IBT for radio-resistant, deep-seated, static and well fixated tumor entities. Presumably, more patients could benefit from the advantages of IBT if it would be available for more frequent tumor sites. Those located in the thorax and upper abdominal region are commonly subjected to intra-fractional, respiration related motion. Different motion-compensated dose delivery techniques have been developed for active field shaping with scanned pencil beams and are at least available under experimental conditions at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt, Germany. Since minor unexpected anatomical changes e.g. related to patient mispositioning, tumour shrinkage or tissue swelling could already lead to remarkable deviations between planned and delivered dose distribution, a valuable dose monitoring system is desired for IBT. So far, positron emission tomography (PET) is the only in vivo, in situ and non-invasive qualitative dose monitoring method applied under clinical conditions. Conclusions about the delivered dose distribution can be drawn indirectly from a comparison between two β + -activity distributions: the measured one and an expected one generated by a Monte-Carlo simulation. Dedicated phantoms mainly made up of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and a motion table for regular one-dimensional (1D) motion patterns have been designed and manufactured for the experiments. Furthermore, the general applicability of the 4D MLEM algorithm for more complex motion patterns has been demonstrated by the

  1. Clinical development of a failure detection-based online repositioning strategy for prostate IMRT--Experiments, simulation, and dosimetry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wu; Qian Jianguo; Hancock, Steven L.; Xing, Lei; Luxton, Gary

    2010-01-01

    information acquired for repositioning using combined MV-kV images was found to have submillimeter accuracy. Conclusions: This work demonstrated with a current clinical setup that substantial reduction of adverse targeting effects of intrafraction prostate motion can be realized. The proposed adaptive imaging strategy incurs minimal imaging dose to the patient as compared to other stereoscopic imaging techniques.

  2. Clinical development of a failure detection-based online repositioning strategy for prostate IMRT--experiments, simulation, and dosimetry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wu; Qian, Jianguo; Hancock, Steven L; Xing, Lei; Luxton, Gary

    2010-10-01

    acquired for repositioning using combined MV-kV images was found to have submillimeter accuracy. This work demonstrated with a current clinical setup that substantial reduction of adverse targeting effects of intrafraction prostate motion can be realized. The proposed adaptive imaging strategy incurs minimal imaging dose to the patient as compared to other stereoscopic imaging techniques.

  3. Clinical development of a failure detection-based online repositioning strategy for prostate IMRT--Experiments, simulation, and dosimetry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Wu; Qian Jianguo; Hancock, Steven L.; Xing, Lei; Luxton, Gary [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305-5847 (United States) and Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305-5847 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    relieved. The information acquired for repositioning using combined MV-kV images was found to have submillimeter accuracy. Conclusions: This work demonstrated with a current clinical setup that substantial reduction of adverse targeting effects of intrafraction prostate motion can be realized. The proposed adaptive imaging strategy incurs minimal imaging dose to the patient as compared to other stereoscopic imaging techniques.

  4. Intra- and interfractional patient motion for a variety of immobilization devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelsman, Martijn; Rosenthal, Stanley J.; Michaud, Susan L.; Adams, Judith A.; Schneider, Robert J.; Bradley, Stephen G.; Flanz, Jacob B.; Kooy, Hanne M.

    2005-01-01

    The magnitude of inter- and intrafractional patient motion has been assessed for a broad set of immobilization devices. Data was analyzed for the three ordinal directions - left-right (x), sup-inf (y), and ant-post (z) - and the combined spatial displacement. We have defined 'rigid' and 'nonrigid' immobilization devices depending on whether they could be rigidly and reproducibly connected to the treatment couch or not. The mean spatial displacement for intrafractional motion for rigid devices is 1.3 mm compared to 1.9 mm for nonrigid devices. The modified Gill-Thomas-Cosman frame performed best at controlling intrafractional patient motion, with a 95% probability of observing a three-dimensional (3D) vector length of motion (v 95 ) of less than 1.8 mm, but could not be evaluated for interfractional motion. All other rigid and nonrigid immobilization devices had a v 95 of more than 3 mm for intrafractional patient motion. Interfractional patient motion was only evaluated for the rigid devices. The mean total interfractional displacement was at least 3.0 mm for these devices while v 95 was at least 6.0 mm

  5. Toward the development of intrafraction tumor deformation tracking using a dynamic multi-leaf collimator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Yuanyuan; O’Brien, Ricky T.; Shieh, Chun-Chien; Keall, Paul J., E-mail: paul.keall@sydney.edu.au [Radiation Physics Laboratory, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Booth, Jeremy T. [Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2065 (Australia)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Intrafraction deformation limits targeting accuracy in radiotherapy. Studies show tumor deformation of over 10 mm for both single tumor deformation and system deformation (due to differential motion between primary tumors and involved lymph nodes). Such deformation cannot be adapted to with current radiotherapy methods. The objective of this study was to develop and experimentally investigate the ability of a dynamic multi-leaf collimator (DMLC) tracking system to account for tumor deformation. Methods: To compensate for tumor deformation, the DMLC tracking strategy is to warp the planned beam aperture directly to conform to the new tumor shape based on real time tumor deformation input. Two deformable phantoms that correspond to a single tumor and a tumor system were developed. The planar deformations derived from the phantom images in beam's eye view were used to guide the aperture warping. An in-house deformable image registration software was developed to automatically trigger the registration once new target image was acquired and send the computed deformation to the DMLC tracking software. Because the registration speed is not fast enough to implement the experiment in real-time manner, the phantom deformation only proceeded to the next position until registration of the current deformation position was completed. The deformation tracking accuracy was evaluated by a geometric target coverage metric defined as the sum of the area incorrectly outside and inside the ideal aperture. The individual contributions from the deformable registration algorithm and the finite leaf width to the tracking uncertainty were analyzed. Clinical proof-of-principle experiment of deformation tracking using previously acquired MR images of a lung cancer patient was implemented to represent the MRI-Linac environment. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment delivered with enabled deformation tracking was simulated and demonstrated. Results: The first

  6. Continuous monitoring of prostate position using stereoscopic and monoscopic kV image guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, M. Tynan R.; Parsons, Dave D.; Robar, James L. [Department of Medical Physics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2, Canada and Nova Scotia Cancer Centre, QEII Health Science Centre, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 2Y9 (Canada)

    2016-05-15

    -dimensional position estimation from monoscopic imaging permits continuous, uninterrupted intrafraction motion monitoring even in the presence of gantry rotation, which may block kV sources or imagers. This potentially allows for more accurate treatment delivery, by ensuring that the prostate does not deviate substantially from the initial setup position.

  7. Prostate Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... know the exact cause of your prostate problem. Prostatitis The cause of prostatitis depends on whether you ... prostate problem in men older than age 50. Prostatitis If you have a UTI, you may be ...

  8. Adaptive Radiation Therapy for Postprostatectomy Patients Using Real-Time Electromagnetic Target Motion Tracking During External Beam Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Mingyao [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri (United States); Bharat, Shyam [Philips Research North America, Briarcliff Manor, New York (United States); Michalski, Jeff M.; Gay, Hiram A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri (United States); Hou, Wei-Hsien [St Louis University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Parikh, Parag J., E-mail: pparikh@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Using real-time electromagnetic (EM) transponder tracking data recorded by the Calypso 4D Localization System, we report inter- and intrafractional target motion of the prostate bed, describe a strategy to evaluate treatment adequacy in postprostatectomy patients receiving intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and propose an adaptive workflow. Methods and Materials: Tracking data recorded by Calypso EM transponders was analyzed for postprostatectomy patients that underwent step-and-shoot IMRT. Rigid target motion parameters during beam delivery were calculated from recorded transponder positions in 16 patients with rigid transponder geometry. The delivered doses to the clinical target volume (CTV) were estimated from the planned dose matrix and the target motion for the first 3, 5, 10, and all fractions. Treatment adequacy was determined by comparing the delivered minimum dose (D{sub min}) with the planned D{sub min} to the CTV. Treatments were considered adequate if the delivered CTV D{sub min} is at least 95% of the planned CTV D{sub min}. Results: Translational target motion was minimal for all 16 patients (mean: 0.02 cm; range: −0.12 cm to 0.07 cm). Rotational motion was patient-specific, and maximum pitch, yaw, and roll were 12.2, 4.1, and 10.5°, respectively. We observed inadequate treatments in 5 patients. In these treatments, we observed greater target rotations along with large distances between the CTV centroid and transponder centroid. The treatment adequacy from the initial 10 fractions successfully predicted the overall adequacy in 4 of 5 inadequate treatments and 10 of 11 adequate treatments. Conclusion: Target rotational motion could cause underdosage to partial volume of the postprostatectomy targets. Our adaptive treatment strategy is applicable to post-prostatectomy patients receiving IMRT to evaluate and improve radiation therapy delivery.

  9. SU-F-J-11: Radiobiologically Optimized Patient Localization During Prostate External Beam Localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y; Gardner, S; Liu, C; Zhao, B; Wen, N; Brown, S; Chetty, I [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To present a novel positioning strategy which optimizes radiation delivery with radiobiological response knowledge, and to evaluate its application during prostate external beam radiotherapy. Methods: Ten patients with low or intermediate risk prostate cancer were evaluated retrospectively in this IRB-approved study. For each patient, a VMAT plan was generated on the planning CT (PCT) to deliver 78 Gy in 39 fractions with PTV = prostate + 7 mm margin, except for 5mm in the posterior direction. Five representative pretreatment CBCT images were selected for each patient, and prostate, rectum, and bladder were delineated on all CBCT images. Each CBCT was auto-registered to the corresponding PCT. Starting from this auto-matched position (AM-position), a search for optimal treatment position was performed utilizing a score function based on radiobiological and dosimetric indices (D98-DTV, NTCP-rectum, and NTCP-bladder) for the daily target volume (DTV), rectum, and bladder. DTV was defined as prostate + 4 mm margin to account for intra-fraction motion as well as contouring variability on CBCT. We termed the optimal treatment position the radiobiologically optimized couch shift position (ROCS-position). Results: The indices, averaged over the 10 patients’ treatment plans, were (mean±SD): 77.7±0.2 Gy (D98-PTV), 12.3±2.7% (NTCP-rectum), and 53.2±11.2% (NTCP-bladder). The corresponding values calculated on all 50 CBCT images at the AM-positions were 72.9±11.3 Gy (D98-DTV), 15.8±6.4% (NTCP-rectum), and 53.0±21.1% (NTCP-bladder), respectively. In comparison, calculated on CBCT at the ROCS-positions, the indices were 77.0±2.1 Gy (D98-DTV), 12.1±5.7% (NTCP-rectum), and 60.7±16.4% (NTCP-bladder). Compared to autoregistration, ROCS-optimization recovered dose coverage to target volume and lowered the risk to rectum. Moreover, NTCPrectum for one patient remained high after ROCS-optimization and therefore could potentially benefit from adaptive planning

  10. Margin Evaluation in the Presence of Deformation, Rotation, and Translation in Prostate and Entire Seminal Vesicle Irradiation With Daily Marker-Based Setup Corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutanga, Theodore F.; Boer, Hans C.J. de; Wielen, Gerard J. van der; Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Incrocci, Luca; Heijmen, Ben J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a method for margin evaluation accounting for all measured displacements during treatment of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: For 21 patients treated with stereographic targeting marker-based online translation corrections, dose distributions with varying margins and gradients were created. Sets of possible cumulative delivered dose distributions were simulated by moving voxels and accumulating dose per voxel. Voxel motion was simulated consistent with measured distributions of systematic and random displacements due to stereographic targeting inaccuracies, deformation, rotation, and intrafraction motion. The method of simulation maintained measured correlation of voxel motions due to organ deformation. Results: For the clinical target volume including prostate and seminal vesicles (SV), the probability that some part receives <95% of the prescribed dose, the changes in minimum dose, and volume receiving 95% of prescription dose compared with planning were 80.5% ± 19.2%, 9.0 ± 6.8 Gy, and 3.0% ± 3.7%, respectively, for the smallest studied margins (3 mm prostate, 5 mm SV) and steepest dose gradients. Corresponding values for largest margins (5 mm prostate, 8 mm SV) with a clinical intensity-modulated radiotherapy dose distribution were 46.5% ± 34.7%, 6.7 ± 5.8 Gy, and 1.6% ± 2.3%. For prostate-only clinical target volume, the values were 51.8% ± 17.7%, 3.3 ± 1.6 Gy, and 0.6% ± 0.5% with the smallest margins and 5.2% ± 7.4%, 1.8 ± 0.9 Gy, and 0.1% ± 0.1% for the largest margins. Addition of three-dimensional rotation corrections only improved these values slightly. All rectal planning constraints were met in the actual reconstructed doses for all studied margins. Conclusion: We developed a system for margin validation in the presence of deformations. In our population, a 5-mm margin provided sufficient dosimetric coverage for the prostate. In contrast, an 8-mm SV margin was still insufficient owing to deformations. Addition of

  11. Interfraction and intrafraction performance of the Gamma Knife Extend system for patient positioning and immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, David; Xu, Zhiyuan; Taylor, Frances; Yen, Chun-Po; Sheehan, Jason

    2012-12-01

    ; and anterior = 0.20 mm. The mean intrafractional positional difference across all treatments was 0.47 mm, with an SD of 0.30 mm. The distribution of systematic uncertainty was 0.18 mm, and the distribution of random uncertainty was 0.22 mm. The RMS differences for each plate of the RCT were 0.24 mm for the right plate, 0.22 mm for the left plate, 0.24 mm for the superior plate, and 0.34 mm for the anterior plate. Data from 1 fraction were excluded from the analysis because the vacuum-monitoring interlock detected patient motion, which in turn required repositioning in the middle of the fraction. The Extend system can be used to reposition and immobilize patients in a radiosurgical setting. However, care should be taken to acquire measurements that can implicitly account for rotations of the patient's head. Further work is required to determine the sensitivity of the vacuum interlock to detect patient motion.

  12. Fast, accurate, and robust automatic marker detection for motion correction based on oblique kV or MV projection image pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slagmolen, Pieter; Hermans, Jeroen; Maes, Frederik; Budiharto, Tom; Haustermans, Karin; Heuvel, Frank van den

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: A robust and accurate method that allows the automatic detection of fiducial markers in MV and kV projection image pairs is proposed. The method allows to automatically correct for inter or intrafraction motion. Methods: Intratreatment MV projection images are acquired during each of five treatment beams of prostate cancer patients with four implanted fiducial markers. The projection images are first preprocessed using a series of marker enhancing filters. 2D candidate marker locations are generated for each of the filtered projection images and 3D candidate marker locations are reconstructed by pairing candidates in subsequent projection images. The correct marker positions are retrieved in 3D by the minimization of a cost function that combines 2D image intensity and 3D geometric or shape information for the entire marker configuration simultaneously. This optimization problem is solved using dynamic programming such that the globally optimal configuration for all markers is always found. Translational interfraction and intrafraction prostate motion and the required patient repositioning is assessed from the position of the centroid of the detected markers in different MV image pairs. The method was validated on a phantom using CT as ground-truth and on clinical data sets of 16 patients using manual marker annotations as ground-truth. Results: The entire setup was confirmed to be accurate to around 1 mm by the phantom measurements. The reproducibility of the manual marker selection was less than 3.5 pixels in the MV images. In patient images, markers were correctly identified in at least 99% of the cases for anterior projection images and 96% of the cases for oblique projection images. The average marker detection accuracy was 1.4±1.8 pixels in the projection images. The centroid of all four reconstructed marker positions in 3D was positioned within 2 mm of the ground-truth position in 99.73% of all cases. Detecting four markers in a pair of MV images

  13. SU-E-T-250: New IMRT Sequencing Strategy: Towards Intra-Fraction Plan Adaptation for the MR-Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontaxis, C; Bol, G; Lagendijk, J; Raaymakers, B

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a new sequencer for IMRT planning that during treatment makes the inclusion of external factors possible and by doing so accounts for intra-fraction anatomy changes. Given a real-time imaging modality that will provide the updated patient anatomy during delivery, this sequencer is able to take these changes into account during the calculation of subsequent segments. Methods: Pencil beams are generated for each beam angle of the treatment and a fluence optimization is performed. The pencil beams, together with the patient anatomy and the above optimal fluence form the input of our algorithm. During each iteration the following steps are performed: A fluence optimization is done and each beam's fluence is then split to discrete intensity levels. Deliverable segments are calculated for each one of these. Each segment's area multiplied by its intensity describes its efficiency. The most efficient segment among all beams is then chosen to deliver a part of the calculated fluence and the dose that will be delivered by this segment is calculated. This delivered dose is then subtracted from the remaining dose. This loop is repeated until 90% of the dose has been delivered and a final segment weight optimization is performed to reach full convergence. Results: This algorithm was tested in several prostate cases yielding results that meet all clinical constraints. Quality assurance was performed on Delta4 and film phantoms for one of these prostate cases and received clinical acceptance after passing both gamma analyses with the 3%/3mm criteria. Conclusion: A new sequencing algorithm was developed to facilitate the needs of intensity modulated treatment. The first results on static anatomy confirm that it can calculate clinical plans equivalent to those of the commercially available planning systems. We are now working towards 100% dose convergence which will allow us to handle anatomy deformations. This work is financially supported by Elekta

  14. Three-dimensional MRI-linac intra-fraction guidance using multiple orthogonal cine-MRI planes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Troels; Crijns, Sjoerd; Rosenschöld, Per Munck af

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of integrated MRI-radiation therapy systems will offer live intra-fraction imaging. We propose a feasible low-latency multi-plane MRI-linac guidance strategy. In this work we demonstrate how interleaved acquired, orthogonal cine-MRI planes can be used for low-latency tracking...... of the 3D trajectory of a soft-tissue target structure. The proposed strategy relies on acquiring a pre-treatment 3D breath-hold scan, extracting a 3D target template and performing template matching between this 3D template and pairs of orthogonal 2D cine-MRI planes intersecting the target motion path....... For a 60 s free-breathing series of orthogonal cine-MRI planes, we demonstrate that the method was capable of accurately tracking the respiration related 3D motion of the left kidney. Quantitative evaluation of the method using a dataset designed for this purpose revealed a translational error of 1.15 mm...

  15. Three-dimensional MRI-linac intra-fraction guidance using multiple orthogonal cine-MRI planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerre, Troels; Crijns, Sjoerd; af Rosenschöld, Per Munck; Aznar, Marianne; Specht, Lena; Larsen, Rasmus; Keall, Paul

    2013-07-21

    The introduction of integrated MRI-radiation therapy systems will offer live intra-fraction imaging. We propose a feasible low-latency multi-plane MRI-linac guidance strategy. In this work we demonstrate how interleaved acquired, orthogonal cine-MRI planes can be used for low-latency tracking of the 3D trajectory of a soft-tissue target structure. The proposed strategy relies on acquiring a pre-treatment 3D breath-hold scan, extracting a 3D target template and performing template matching between this 3D template and pairs of orthogonal 2D cine-MRI planes intersecting the target motion path. For a 60 s free-breathing series of orthogonal cine-MRI planes, we demonstrate that the method was capable of accurately tracking the respiration related 3D motion of the left kidney. Quantitative evaluation of the method using a dataset designed for this purpose revealed a translational error of 1.15 mm for a translation of 39.9 mm. We have demonstrated how interleaved acquired, orthogonal cine-MRI planes can be used for online tracking of soft-tissue target volumes.

  16. Motion of the esophagus due to cardiac motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Palmer

    Full Text Available When imaging studies (e.g. CT are used to quantify morphological changes in an anatomical structure, it is necessary to understand the extent and source of motion which can give imaging artifacts (e.g. blurring or local distortion. The objective of this study was to assess the magnitude of esophageal motion due to cardiac motion. We used retrospective electrocardiogram-gated contrast-enhanced computed tomography angiography images for this study. The anatomic region from the carina to the bottom of the heart was taken at deep-inspiration breath hold with the patients' arms raised above their shoulders, in a position similar to that used for radiation therapy. The esophagus was delineated on the diastolic phase of cardiac motion, and deformable registration was used to sequentially deform the images in nearest-neighbor phases among the 10 cardiac phases, starting from the diastolic phase. Using the 10 deformation fields generated from the deformable registration, the magnitude of the extreme displacements was then calculated for each voxel, and the mean and maximum displacement was calculated for each computed tomography slice for each patient. The average maximum esophageal displacement due to cardiac motion for all patients was 5.8 mm (standard deviation: 1.6 mm, maximum: 10.0 mm in the transverse direction. For 21 of 26 patients, the largest esophageal motion was found in the inferior region of the heart; for the other patients, esophageal motion was approximately independent of superior-inferior position. The esophagus motion was larger at cardiac phases where the electrocardiogram R-wave occurs. In conclusion, the magnitude of esophageal motion near the heart due to cardiac motion is similar to that due to other sources of motion, including respiratory motion and intra-fraction motion. A larger cardiac motion will result into larger esophagus motion in a cardiac cycle.

  17. Automatic prostate localization on cone-beam CT scans for high precision image-guided radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smitsmans, Monique H.P.; Bois, Josien de; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Betgen, Anja; Zijp, Lambert J.; Jaffray, David A.; Lebesque, Joos V.; Herk, Marcel van

    2005-01-01

    registrations were difficult to assess) because of streaks in the CBCT scans caused by moving gas pockets in the rectum during CBCT image acquisition (i.e., intrafraction motion). The error in gray-value registration along the left-right, craniocaudal, and anteroposterior axes was 1.0, 2.4, and 2.3 mm (1 SD) for normal GR, and 1.0, 2.0, and 1.7 mm (1 SD) for fixed apex GR. The systematic and random components of these SDs contributed approximately equally to these SDs, for both registration methods. Conclusions: The feasibility of automatic prostate localization on CBCT scans acquired on the treatment machine using an adaptation of the previously developed three-dimensional gray-value registration algorithm, has been validated in this study. Collimating the FOV during CBCT image acquisition improved the CBCT image quality considerably. Artifacts in the CBCT images caused by large moving gas pockets during CBCT image acquisition were the main cause for unsuccessful registration. From this study, we can conclude that CBCT scans are suitable for online and offline position verification of the prostate, as long as the amount of nonstationary gas is limited

  18. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound or with a rectal examination, an ultrasound-guided biopsy can be performed. This procedure involves advancing ... of the Prostate) Prostate Cancer Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy Images related to Ultrasound - Prostate Sponsored ...

  19. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is enlarged, also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) , with measurements acquired as needed for any treatment ... caption Related Articles and Media Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) (Enlargement of the Prostate) Prostate Cancer Ultrasound- and ...

  20. SU-F-J-105: Towards a Novel Treatment Planning Pipeline Delivering Pareto- Optimal Plans While Enabling Inter- and Intrafraction Plan Adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontaxis, C; Bol, G; Lagendijk, J; Raaymakers, B [University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Breedveld, S; Sharfo, A; Heijmen, B [Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a new IMRT treatment planning methodology suitable for the new generation of MR-linear accelerator machines. The pipeline is able to deliver Pareto-optimal plans and can be utilized for conventional treatments as well as for inter- and intrafraction plan adaptation based on real-time MR-data. Methods: A Pareto-optimal plan is generated using the automated multicriterial optimization approach Erasmus-iCycle. The resulting dose distribution is used as input to the second part of the pipeline, an iterative process which generates deliverable segments that target the latest anatomical state and gradually converges to the prescribed dose. This process continues until a certain percentage of the dose has been delivered. Under a conventional treatment, a Segment Weight Optimization (SWO) is then performed to ensure convergence to the prescribed dose. In the case of inter- and intrafraction adaptation, post-processing steps like SWO cannot be employed due to the changing anatomy. This is instead addressed by transferring the missing/excess dose to the input of the subsequent fraction. In this work, the resulting plans were delivered on a Delta4 phantom as a final Quality Assurance test. Results: A conventional static SWO IMRT plan was generated for two prostate cases. The sequencer faithfully reproduced the input dose for all volumes of interest. For the two cases the mean relative dose difference of the PTV between the ideal input and sequenced dose was 0.1% and −0.02% respectively. Both plans were delivered on a Delta4 phantom and passed the clinical Quality Assurance procedures by achieving 100% pass rate at a 3%/3mm gamma analysis. Conclusion: We have developed a new sequencing methodology capable of online plan adaptation. In this work, we extended the pipeline to support Pareto-optimal input and clinically validated that it can accurately achieve these ideal distributions, while its flexible design enables inter- and intrafraction plan

  1. SU-F-J-105: Towards a Novel Treatment Planning Pipeline Delivering Pareto- Optimal Plans While Enabling Inter- and Intrafraction Plan Adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontaxis, C; Bol, G; Lagendijk, J; Raaymakers, B; Breedveld, S; Sharfo, A; Heijmen, B

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a new IMRT treatment planning methodology suitable for the new generation of MR-linear accelerator machines. The pipeline is able to deliver Pareto-optimal plans and can be utilized for conventional treatments as well as for inter- and intrafraction plan adaptation based on real-time MR-data. Methods: A Pareto-optimal plan is generated using the automated multicriterial optimization approach Erasmus-iCycle. The resulting dose distribution is used as input to the second part of the pipeline, an iterative process which generates deliverable segments that target the latest anatomical state and gradually converges to the prescribed dose. This process continues until a certain percentage of the dose has been delivered. Under a conventional treatment, a Segment Weight Optimization (SWO) is then performed to ensure convergence to the prescribed dose. In the case of inter- and intrafraction adaptation, post-processing steps like SWO cannot be employed due to the changing anatomy. This is instead addressed by transferring the missing/excess dose to the input of the subsequent fraction. In this work, the resulting plans were delivered on a Delta4 phantom as a final Quality Assurance test. Results: A conventional static SWO IMRT plan was generated for two prostate cases. The sequencer faithfully reproduced the input dose for all volumes of interest. For the two cases the mean relative dose difference of the PTV between the ideal input and sequenced dose was 0.1% and −0.02% respectively. Both plans were delivered on a Delta4 phantom and passed the clinical Quality Assurance procedures by achieving 100% pass rate at a 3%/3mm gamma analysis. Conclusion: We have developed a new sequencing methodology capable of online plan adaptation. In this work, we extended the pipeline to support Pareto-optimal input and clinically validated that it can accurately achieve these ideal distributions, while its flexible design enables inter- and intrafraction plan

  2. Evaluation of the 'dose of the day' for IMRT prostate cancer patients derived from portal dose measurements and cone-beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijtveld, Mathilda van; Dirkx, Maarten; Breuers, Marcel; Kuipers, Ruud; Heijmen, Ben

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: High geometrical and dosimetrical accuracies are required for radiotherapy treatments where IMRT is applied in combination with narrow treatment margins in order to minimize dose delivery to normal tissues. As an overall check, we implemented a method for reconstruction of the actually delivered 3D dose distribution to the patient during a treatment fraction, i.e., the 'dose of the day'. In this article results on the clinical evaluation of this concept for a group of IMRT prostate cancer patients are presented. Materials and methods: The actual IMRT fluence maps delivered to a patient were derived from measured EPID-images acquired during treatment using a previously described iterative method. In addition, the patient geometry was obtained from in-room acquired cone-beam CT images. For dose calculation, a mapping of the Hounsfield Units from the planning CT was applied. With the fluence maps and the modified cone-beam CT the 'dose of the day' was calculated. The method was validated using phantom measurements and evaluated clinically for 10 prostate cancer patients in 4 or 5 fractions. Results: The phantom measurements showed that the delivered dose could be reconstructed within 3%/3 mm accuracy. For prostate cancer patients, the isocenter dose agreed within -0.4 ± 1.0% (1 SD) with the planned value, while for on average 98.1% of the pixels within the 50% isodose surface the actually delivered dose agreed within 3% or 3 mm with the planned dose. For most fractions, the dose coverage of the prostate volume was slightly deteriorated which was caused by small prostate rotations and small inaccuracies in fluence delivery. The dose that was delivered to the rectum remained within the constraints used during planning. However, for two patients a large degrading of the dose delivery was observed in two fractions. For one patient this was related to changes in rectum filling with respect to the planning CT and for the other to large intra-fraction motion during

  3. The first clinical treatment with kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring (KIM): A real-time image guidance method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keall, Paul J.; Aun Ng, Jin; O'Brien, Ricky

    2015-01-01

    on September 16, 2014. Methods: KIM uses current and prior 2D x-ray images to estimate the 3D target position during cancer radiotherapy treatment delivery. KIM software was written to process kilovoltage (kV) images streamed from a standard C-arm linear accelerator with a gantry-mounted kV x-ray imaging...... system. A 120° pretreatment kV imaging arc was acquired to build the patient-specific 2D to 3D motion correlation. The kV imager was activated during the megavoltage (MV) treatment, a dual arc VMAT prostate treatment, to estimate the 3D prostate position in real-time. All necessary ethics, legal......, and regulatory requirements were met for this clinical study. The quality assurance processes were completed and peer reviewed. Results: During treatment, a prostate position offset of nearly 3 mm in the posterior direction was observed with KIM. This position offset did not trigger a gating event. After...

  4. Evaluation of the geometric accuracy of surrogate-based gated VMAT using intrafraction kilovoltage x-ray images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ruijiang; Mok, Edward; Han, Bin; Koong, Albert; Xing Lei

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the geometric accuracy of beam targeting in external surrogate-based gated volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using kilovoltage (kV) x-ray images acquired during dose delivery. Methods: Gated VMAT treatments were delivered using a Varian TrueBeam STx Linac for both physical phantoms and patients. Multiple gold fiducial markers were implanted near the target. The reference position was created for each implanted marker, representing its correct position at the gating threshold. The gating signal was generated from the RPM system. During the treatment, kV images were acquired immediately before MV beam-on at every breathing cycle, using the on-board imaging system. All implanted markers were detected and their 3D positions were estimated using in-house developed software. The positioning error of a marker is defined as the distance of the marker from its reference position for each frame of the images. The overall error of the system is defined as the average over all markers. For the phantom study, both sinusoidal motion (1D and 3D) and real human respiratory motion was simulated for the target and surrogate. In the baseline case, the two motions were synchronized for the first treatment fraction. To assess the effects of surrogate-target correlation on the geometric accuracy, a phase shift of 5% and 10% between the two motions was introduced. For the patient study, intrafraction kV images of five stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) patients were acquired for one or two fractions. Results: For the phantom study, a high geometric accuracy was achieved in the baseline case (average error: 0.8 mm in the superior-inferior or SI direction). However, the treatment delivery is prone to geometric errors if changes in the target-surrogate relation occur during the treatment: the average error was increased to 2.3 and 4.7 mm for the phase shift of 5% and 10%, respectively. Results obtained with real human respiratory curves show a similar trend

  5. MSPT: Motion Simulator for Proton Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In proton therapy, the delivery method named spot scanning, can provide a particularly efficient treatment in terms of tumor coverage and healthy tissues protection. The dosimetric benefits of proton therapy may be greatly degraded due to intra-fraction motions. Hence, the study of mitigation or adaptive methods is necessary. For this purpose, we developed an open-source 4D dose computation and evaluation software, MSPT (Motion Simulator for Proton Therapy), for the spot-scanning delivery technique. It aims at highlighting the impact of intra-fraction motions during a treatment delivery by computing the dose distribution in the moving patient. In addition, the use of MSPT allowed us to develop and propose a new motion mitigation strategy based on the adjustment of the beam's weight when the proton beam is scanning across the tumor. In photon therapy, a main concern for deliveries using a multi-leaf collimator (MLC) relies on finding a series of MLC configurations to deliver properly the treatment. The efficiency of such series is measured by the total beam-on time and the total setup time. In our work, we study the minimization of these efficiency criteria from an algorithmic point of view, for new variants of MLCs: the rotating MLC and the dual-layer MLC. In addition, we propose an approximation algorithm to find a series of configurations that minimizes the total beam-on time for the rotating MLC. (author) [fr

  6. The Prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Prostate Cancer This booklet is about prostate cancer. Learning about medical care for your cancer ... ePub This booklet covers: The anatomy of the prostate and basics about prostate cancer Treatments for prostate ...

  7. Assessment of Bladder Motion for Clinical Radiotherapy Practice Using Cine-Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBain, Catherine A.; Khoo, Vincent S.; Buckley, David L.; Sykes, Jonathan S.; Green, Melanie M.; Cowan, Richard A.; Hutchinson, Charles E.; Moore, Christopher J.; Price, Patricia M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Organ motion is recognized as the principal source of inaccuracy in bladder radiotherapy (RT), but there is currently little information on intrafraction bladder motion. Methods and Materials: We used cine-magnetic resonance imaging (cine-MRI) to study bladder motion relevant to intrafraction RT delivery. On two occasions, a 28 minute cine-MRI sequence was acquired from 10 bladder cancer patients and 5 control participants immediately after bladder emptying, after abstinence from drinking for the preceding hour. From the resulting cine sequences, bladder motion was subjectively assessed. To quantify bladder motion, the bladder was contoured in imaging volume sets at 0, 14, and 28 min to measure changes to bladder volumes, wall displacements, and center of gravity (COG) over time. Results: The dominant source of bladder motion during imaging was bladder filling (up to 101% volume increase); rectal and small bowel movements were transient, with minimal impact. Bladder volume changes were similar for all participants. However for bladder cancer patients, wall displacements were larger (up to 58 mm), less symmetrical, and more variable compared with nondiseased control bladders. Conclusions: Significant and individualized intrafraction bladder wall displacements may occur during bladder RT delivery. This important source of inaccuracy should be incorporated into treatment planning and verification.

  8. Prostate Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Prostate Diseases Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic ... body. Approximately 3 million American men have some type of prostate disease. The most common prostate diseases ...

  9. Prostate brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Implant therapy - prostate cancer; Radioactive seed placement; Internal radiation therapy - prostate; High dose radiation (HDR) ... place the seeds that deliver radiation into your prostate. The seeds are placed with needles or special ...

  10. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of the prostate uses sound waves to ... Ultrasound Imaging? What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Prostate? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces pictures ...

  11. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Z Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of the prostate uses sound waves to produce pictures of a man’s prostate ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  12. WE-DE-BRA-01: SCIENCE COUNCIL JUNIOR INVESTIGATOR COMPETITION WINNER: Acceleration of a Limited-Angle Intrafraction Verification (LIVE) System Using Adaptive Prior Knowledge Based Image Estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y; Yin, F; Ren, L; Zhang, Y

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an adaptive prior knowledge based image estimation method to reduce the scan angle needed in the LIVE system to reconstruct 4D-CBCT for intrafraction verification. Methods: The LIVE system has been previously proposed to reconstructs 4D volumetric images on-the-fly during arc treatment for intrafraction target verification and dose calculation. This system uses limited-angle beam’s eye view (BEV) MV cine images acquired from the treatment beam together with the orthogonally acquired limited-angle kV projections to reconstruct 4D-CBCT images for target verification during treatment. In this study, we developed an adaptive constrained free-form deformation reconstruction technique in LIVE to further reduce the scanning angle needed to reconstruct the CBCT images. This technique uses free form deformation with energy minimization to deform prior images to estimate 4D-CBCT based on projections acquired in limited angle (orthogonal 6°) during the treatment. Note that the prior images are adaptively updated using the latest CBCT images reconstructed by LIVE during treatment to utilize the continuity of patient motion.The 4D digital extended-cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom was used to evaluate the efficacy of this technique with LIVE system. A lung patient was simulated with different scenario, including baseline drifts, amplitude change and phase shift. Limited-angle orthogonal kV and beam’s eye view (BEV) MV projections were generated for each scenario. The CBCT reconstructed by these projections were compared with the ground-truth generated in XCAT.Volume-percentage-difference (VPD) and center-of-mass-shift (COMS) were calculated between the reconstructed and the ground-truth tumors to evaluate the reconstruction accuracy. Results: Using orthogonal-view of 6° kV and BEV- MV projections, the VPD/COMS values were 12.7±4.0%/0.7±0.5 mm, 13.0±5.1%/0.8±0.5 mm, and 11.4±5.4%/0.5±0.3 mm for the three scenarios, respectively. Conclusion: The

  13. WE-DE-BRA-01: SCIENCE COUNCIL JUNIOR INVESTIGATOR COMPETITION WINNER: Acceleration of a Limited-Angle Intrafraction Verification (LIVE) System Using Adaptive Prior Knowledge Based Image Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y; Yin, F; Ren, L [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Zhang, Y [UT Southwestern Medical Ctr at Dallas, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop an adaptive prior knowledge based image estimation method to reduce the scan angle needed in the LIVE system to reconstruct 4D-CBCT for intrafraction verification. Methods: The LIVE system has been previously proposed to reconstructs 4D volumetric images on-the-fly during arc treatment for intrafraction target verification and dose calculation. This system uses limited-angle beam’s eye view (BEV) MV cine images acquired from the treatment beam together with the orthogonally acquired limited-angle kV projections to reconstruct 4D-CBCT images for target verification during treatment. In this study, we developed an adaptive constrained free-form deformation reconstruction technique in LIVE to further reduce the scanning angle needed to reconstruct the CBCT images. This technique uses free form deformation with energy minimization to deform prior images to estimate 4D-CBCT based on projections acquired in limited angle (orthogonal 6°) during the treatment. Note that the prior images are adaptively updated using the latest CBCT images reconstructed by LIVE during treatment to utilize the continuity of patient motion.The 4D digital extended-cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom was used to evaluate the efficacy of this technique with LIVE system. A lung patient was simulated with different scenario, including baseline drifts, amplitude change and phase shift. Limited-angle orthogonal kV and beam’s eye view (BEV) MV projections were generated for each scenario. The CBCT reconstructed by these projections were compared with the ground-truth generated in XCAT.Volume-percentage-difference (VPD) and center-of-mass-shift (COMS) were calculated between the reconstructed and the ground-truth tumors to evaluate the reconstruction accuracy. Results: Using orthogonal-view of 6° kV and BEV- MV projections, the VPD/COMS values were 12.7±4.0%/0.7±0.5 mm, 13.0±5.1%/0.8±0.5 mm, and 11.4±5.4%/0.5±0.3 mm for the three scenarios, respectively. Conclusion: The

  14. A Comparison of In-Room Computerized Tomography Options for Detection of Fiducial Markers in Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, Rebecca; Foroudi, Farshad; Kron, Tomas; Milner, Alvin; Cox, Jennifer; Cramb, Jim; Zhu Li; Duchesne, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To compare volumetric in-room computed tomography (CT) and kilovoltage (kV) cone-beam CT (CBCT) to planar imaging with respect to their ability to localize fiducial markers (FMs) for radiotherapy of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Image guidance options from two linear accelerators were compared in terms of identifying the center of gravity (COG) of FMs from the isocenter: a Siemens Primatom, where the couch is rotated 180 degrees from the treatment isocenter to the in-room CT vs. electronic portal imaging (EPI); and a Varian OBI system, where kV CBCT, EPI, and planar kV radiographs were compared. In all, 387 image pairs (CBCT = 133; CT = 254) from 18 patients were analyzed. A clinical tolerance of 3 mm was predefined as the acceptable threshold for agreement. Results: COG location on in-room CT and EPI was in agreement 96.9%, 85.8%, and 89.0% of the time in the left-right (LR), superior-inferior (SI), and anterior-posterior (AP) directions, respectively, vs. 99.2%, 91.7%, and 93.2% for the CBCT and EPI analysis. The CBCT vs. kV radiographs were in agreement 100% (LR), 85.4% (SI), and 88.5% (AP), and EPI vs. kV radiographs were in agreement 100% (LR), 94.6% (SI), and 91.5% (AP) of the time. Conclusion: Identification of FMs on volumetric or planar images was found to be not equivalent (±3 mm) using either linear accelerator. Intrafraction prostate motion, interpretation of FM location, and spatial properties of images are contributing factors. Although in-room CT has superior image quality, the process of realigning the treatment couch to acquire a CT introduces an error, highlighting the benefits of a single isocentric system.

  15. Quantifying motion for pancreatic radiotherapy margin calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitfield, Gillian; Jain, Pooja; Green, Melanie; Watkins, Gillian; Henry, Ann; Stratford, Julie; Amer, Ali; Marchant, Thomas; Moore, Christopher; Price, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Pancreatic radiotherapy (RT) is limited by uncertain target motion. We quantified 3D patient/organ motion during pancreatic RT and calculated required treatment margins. Materials and methods: Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and orthogonal fluoroscopy images were acquired post-RT delivery from 13 patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Bony setup errors were calculated from CBCT. Inter- and intra-fraction fiducial (clip/seed/stent) motion was determined from CBCT projections and orthogonal fluoroscopy. Results: Using an off-line CBCT correction protocol, systematic (random) setup errors were 2.4 (3.2), 2.0 (1.7) and 3.2 (3.6) mm laterally (left–right), vertically (anterior–posterior) and longitudinally (cranio-caudal), respectively. Fiducial motion varied substantially. Random inter-fractional changes in mean fiducial position were 2.0, 1.6 and 2.6 mm; 95% of intra-fractional peak-to-peak fiducial motion was up to 6.7, 10.1 and 20.6 mm, respectively. Calculated clinical to planning target volume (CTV–PTV) margins were 1.4 cm laterally, 1.4 cm vertically and 3.0 cm longitudinally for 3D conformal RT, reduced to 0.9, 1.0 and 1.8 cm, respectively, if using 4D planning and online setup correction. Conclusions: Commonly used CTV–PTV margins may inadequately account for target motion during pancreatic RT. Our results indicate better immobilisation, individualised allowance for respiratory motion, online setup error correction and 4D planning would improve targeting.

  16. Gating treatment delivery QA based on a surrogate motion analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chojnowski, J.; Simpson, E.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: To develop a methodology to estimate intrafractional target position error during a phase-based gated treatment. Westmead Cancer Care Centre is using respiratory correlated phase-based gated beam delivery in the treatment of lung cancer. The gating technique is managed by the Varian Real-time Position Management (RPM) system, version 1.7.5. A 6-dot block is placed on the abdomen of the patient and acts as a surrogate for the target motion. During a treatment session, the motion of the surrogate can be recorded by RPM application. Analysis of the surrogate motion file by in-house developed software allows the intrafractional error of the treatment session to be computed. To validate the computed error, a simple test that involves the introduction of deliberate errors is performed. Errors of up to 1.1 cm are introduced to a metal marker placed on a surrogate using the Varian Breathing Phantom. The moving marker was scanned in prospective mode using a GE Lightspeed 16 CT scanner. Using the CT images, a difference of the marker position with and without introduced errors is compared to the calculated errors based on the surrogate motion. The average and standard deviation of a difference between calculated target position errors and measured introduced artificial errors of the marker position is 0.02 cm and 0.07 cm respectively. Conclusion The calculated target positional error based on surrogate motion analysis provides a quantitative measure of intrafractional target positional errors during treatment. Routine QA for gated treatment using surrogate motion analysis is relatively quick and simple.

  17. Isotoxic dose escalation in the treatment of lung cancer by means of heterogeneous dose distributions in the presence of respiratory motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Mariwan; Nielsen, Morten; Hansen, Olfred

    2011-01-01

    To test, in the presence of intrafractional respiration movement, a margin recipe valid for a homogeneous and conformal dose distribution and to test whether the use of smaller margins combined with heterogeneous dose distributions allows an isotoxic dose escalation when respiratory motion...

  18. Reducing scan angle using adaptive prior knowledge for a limited-angle intrafraction verification (LIVE) system for conformal arc radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yawei; Yin, Fang-Fang; Zhang, You; Ren, Lei

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an adaptive prior knowledge guided image estimation technique to reduce the scan angle needed in the limited-angle intrafraction verification (LIVE) system for 4D-CBCT reconstruction. The LIVE system has been previously developed to reconstruct 4D volumetric images on-the-fly during arc treatment for intrafraction target verification and dose calculation. In this study, we developed an adaptive constrained free-form deformation reconstruction technique in LIVE to further reduce the scanning angle needed to reconstruct the 4D-CBCT images for faster intrafraction verification. This technique uses free form deformation with energy minimization to deform prior images to estimate 4D-CBCT based on kV-MV projections acquired in extremely limited angle (orthogonal 3°) during the treatment. Note that the prior images are adaptively updated using the latest CBCT images reconstructed by LIVE during treatment to utilize the continuity of the respiratory motion. The 4D digital extended-cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom and a CIRS 008A dynamic thoracic phantom were used to evaluate the effectiveness of this technique. The reconstruction accuracy of the technique was evaluated by calculating both the center-of-mass-shift (COMS) and 3D volume-percentage-difference (VPD) of the tumor in reconstructed images and the true on-board images. The performance of the technique was also assessed with varied breathing signals against scanning angle, lesion size, lesion location, projection sampling interval, and scanning direction. In the XCAT study, using orthogonal-view of 3° kV and portal MV projections, this technique achieved an average tumor COMS/VPD of 0.4  ±  0.1 mm/5.5  ±  2.2%, 0.6  ±  0.3 mm/7.2  ±  2.8%, 0.5  ±  0.2 mm/7.1  ±  2.6%, 0.6  ±  0.2 mm/8.3  ±  2.4%, for baseline drift, amplitude variation, phase shift, and patient breathing signal variation

  19. Combined Inter- and Intrafractional Plan Adaptation Using Fraction Partitioning in Magnetic Resonance-guided Radiotherapy Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerwaard, Frank; Bohoudi, Omar; Tetar, Shyama; Admiraal, Marjan A; Rosario, Tezontl S; Bruynzeel, Anna

    2018-04-05

    Magnetic resonance-guided radiation therapy (MRgRT) not only allows for superior soft-tissue setup and online MR-guidance during delivery but also for inter-fractional plan re-optimization or adaptation. This plan adaptation involves repeat MR imaging, organs at risk (OARs) re-contouring, plan prediction (i.e., recalculating the baseline plan on the anatomy of that moment), plan re-optimization, and plan quality assurance. In contrast, intrafractional plan adaptation cannot be simply performed by pausing delivery at any given moment, adjusting contours, and re-optimization because of the complex and composite nature of deformable dose accumulation. To overcome this limitation, we applied a practical workaround by partitioning treatment fractions, each with half the original fraction dose. In between successive deliveries, the patient remained in the treatment position and all steps of the initial plan adaptation were repeated. Thus, this second re-optimization served as an intrafractional plan adaptation at 50% of the total delivery. The practical feasibility of this partitioning approach was evaluated in a patient treated with MRgRT for locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). MRgRT was delivered in 40Gy in 10 fractions, with two fractions scheduled successively on each treatment day. The contoured gross tumor volume (GTV) was expanded by 3 mm, excluding parts of the OARs within this expansion to derive the planning target volume for daily re-optimization (PTV OPT ). The baseline GTVV 95%  achieved in this patient was 80.0% to adhere to the high-dose constraints for the duodenum, stomach, and bowel (V 33 Gy ViewRay Inc, Mountain View, USA) using video-assisted breath-hold in shallow inspiration. The dual plan adaptation resulted, for each partitioned fraction, in the generation of Plan PREDICTED1 , Plan RE-OPTIMIZED1  (inter-fractional adaptation), Plan PREDICTED2 , and Plan RE-OPTIMIZED2  (intrafractional adaptation). An offline analysis was

  20. Prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R.; Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results

  1. Prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R., Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results.

  2. About the Prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PCF: Many vs Cancer Contact Us About the Prostate Prostate Cancer Basics Risk Factors Prostate Cancer Prevention ... that connects to the anus. Ultrasound of the prostate Prostate Zones The prostate is divided into several ...

  3. An IGRT margin concept for pelvic lymph nodes in high-risk prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groher, M.; Kopp, P.; Deutschmann, H.; Sedlmayer, F.; Wolf, Frank [Paracelsus Medical University of Salzburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Johanns-Spital, Salzburg (Austria); Drerup, M. [Paracelsus Medical University of Salzburg, Department of Urology, St. Johanns-Spital, Salzburg (Austria)

    2017-09-15

    Gold-marker-based image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) of the prostate allows to correct for inter- and intrafraction motion and therefore to safely reduce margins for the prostate planning target volume (PTV). However, pelvic PTVs, when coadministered in a single plan (registered to gold markers [GM]), require reassessment of the margin concept since prostate movement is independent from the pelvic bony anatomy to which the lymphatics are usually referenced to. We have therefore revisited prostate translational movement relative to the bony anatomy to obtain adequate margins for the pelvic PTVs compensating mismatch resulting from referencing pelvic target volumes to GMs in the prostate. Prostate movement was analyzed in a set of 28 patients (25 fractions each, totaling in 684 fractions) and the required margins calculated for the pelvic PTVs according to Van Herk's margin formula M = 2.5 Σ + 1.64 (σ{sup '}-σ{sub p}). The overall mean prostate movement relative to bony anatomy was 0.9 ± 3.1, 0.6 ± 3.4, and 0.0 ± 0.7 mm in anterior/posterior (A/P), inferior/superior (I/S) and left/right (L/R) direction, respectively. Calculated margins to compensate for the resulting mismatch to bony anatomy were 9/9/2 mm in A/P, I/S, and L/R direction and 10/11/6 mm if an additional residual error of 2 mm was assumed. GM-based IGRT for pelvic PTVs is feasible if margins are adapted accordingly. Margins could be reduced further if systematic errors which are introduced during the planning CT were eliminated. (orig.) [German] Eine Goldmarker-(GM-)basierte, bildgefuehrte Radiotherapie der Prostata ermoeglicht inter- und intrafraktionelle Bewegungen auszugleichen und somit Sicherheitsraender der Planungszielvolumina (PTV) zu minimieren. Dies gilt jedoch nicht fuer Zielvolumina des pelvinen Lymphabflusses, wenn diese im Rahmen eines simultan integrierten Boost-Konzepts im selben Plan verabreicht werden. Da Bewegungen der Prostata und des Lymphabflusses unabhaengig

  4. 'Compromise position' image alignment to accommodate independent motion of multiple clinical target volumes during radiotherapy: A high risk prostate cancer example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosewall, Tara; Alasti, Hamideh; Bayley, Andrew; Yan, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Inclusion of multiple independently moving clinical target volumes (CTVs) in the irradiated volume causes an image guidance conundrum. The purpose of this research was to use high risk prostate cancer as a clinical example to evaluate a 'compromise' image alignment strategy. The daily pre-treatment orthogonal EPI for 14 consecutive patients were included in this analysis. Image matching was performed by aligning to the prostate only, the bony pelvis only and using the 'compromise' strategy. Residual CTV surrogate displacements were quantified for each of the alignment strategies. Analysis of the 388 daily fractions indicated surrogate displacements were well-correlated in all directions (r 2 = 0.95 (LR), 0.67 (AP) and 0.59 (SI). Differences between the surrogates displacements (95% range) were −0.4 to 1.8 mm (LR), −1.2 to 5.2 mm (SI) and −1.2 to 5.2 mm (AP). The distribution of the residual displacements was significantly smaller using the 'compromise' strategy, compared to the other strategies (p 0.005). The 'compromise' strategy ensured the CTV was encompassed by the PTV in all fractions, compared to 47 PTV violations when aligned to prostate only. This study demonstrated the feasibility of a compromise position image guidance strategy to accommodate simultaneous displacements of two independently moving CTVs. Application of this strategy was facilitated by correlation between the CTV displacements and resulted in no geometric excursions of the CTVs beyond standard sized PTVs. This simple image guidance strategy may also be applicable to other disease sites that concurrently irradiate multiple CTVs, such as head and neck, lung and cervix cancer.

  5. 'Compromise position' image alignment to accommodate independent motion of multiple clinical target volumes during radiotherapy: A high risk prostate cancer example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosewall, Tara; Yan, Jing; Alasti, Hamideh; Cerase, Carla; Bayley, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Inclusion of multiple independently moving clinical target volumes (CTVs) in the irradiated volume causes an image guidance conundrum. The purpose of this research was to use high risk prostate cancer as a clinical example to evaluate a 'compromise' image alignment strategy. The daily pre-treatment orthogonal EPI for 14 consecutive patients were included in this analysis. Image matching was performed by aligning to the prostate only, the bony pelvis only and using the 'compromise' strategy. Residual CTV surrogate displacements were quantified for each of the alignment strategies. Analysis of the 388 daily fractions indicated surrogate displacements were well-correlated in all directions (r 2  = 0.95 (LR), 0.67 (AP) and 0.59 (SI). Differences between the surrogates displacements (95% range) were -0.4 to 1.8 mm (LR), -1.2 to 5.2 mm (SI) and -1.2 to 5.2 mm (AP). The distribution of the residual displacements was significantly smaller using the 'compromise' strategy, compared to the other strategies (p 0.005). The 'compromise' strategy ensured the CTV was encompassed by the PTV in all fractions, compared to 47 PTV violations when aligned to prostate only. This study demonstrated the feasibility of a compromise position image guidance strategy to accommodate simultaneous displacements of two independently moving CTVs. Application of this strategy was facilitated by correlation between the CTV displacements and resulted in no geometric excursions of the CTVs beyond standard sized PTVs. This simple image guidance strategy may also be applicable to other disease sites that concurrently irradiate multiple CTVs, such as head and neck, lung and cervix cancer. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  6. Fast online replanning for interfraction rotation correction in prostate radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontaxis, Charis; Bol, Gijsbert H; Kerkmeijer, Linda G W; Lagendijk, Jan J W; Raaymakers, Bas W

    2017-10-01

    quantified by the decreased NTID ranging from 12.6% at 6 mm to 32.9% at 0 mm. We demonstrate that fast daily replanning can be utilized to account for daily rotations and translations based on the daily positioning protocol. A daily plan can be generated from scratch in less than 2 min making it suitable for online application. Given the large magnitude of prostate rotation around the LR axis, online correction for daily rotations can be beneficial even for the clinical 8 mm margin and could be utilized for treatments with small margin reduction mainly limited then by anatomical deformations and intrafraction motion. Our online replanning pipeline can be used in future treatments with online MR guidance that can lead to further safe reduction of the planning margins. © 2017 The Authors. Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  7. SU-F-J-30: Application of Intra-Fractional Imaging for Pretreatment CBCT of Breath-Hold Lung SBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, D; Jermoumi, M; Mehta, V; Shepard, D [Swedish Cancer Institute, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Clinical implementation of gated lung SBRT requires tools to verify the accuracy of the target positioning on a daily basis. This is a particular challenge on Elekta linacs where the XVI imaging system does not interface directly to any commercial gating solution. In this study, we used the Elekta’s intra-fractional imaging functionality to perform the pretreatment CBCT verifications and evaluated both the image quality and gating accuracy. Methods: To use intrafraction imaging tools for pretreatment verifications, we planned a 360-degree arc with 1mmx5mm MLC opening. This beam was designed to drive the gantry during the gated CBCT data collection. A Catphan phantom was used to evaluate the image quality for the intra-fractional CBCT. A CIRS lung phantom with a 3cm sphereinsert and a moving chest plate were programmed with a simulated breathhold breathing pattern was used to check the gating accuracy. A C-Rad CatalystHD surface mapping system was used to provide the gating signal. Results: The total delivery time of the arc was 90 seconds. The uniformity and low contrast resolution for the intra-fractional CBCT was 1.5% and 3.6%, respectively. The values for the regular CBCT were 1.7% and 2.5%, respectively. The spatial resolution was 7 line-pairs/cm and the 3D spatial integrity was less than 1mm for the intra-fractional CBCT. The gated CBCT clearly demonstrated the accuracy of the gating image acquisition. Conclusion: The intra-fraction CBCT capabilities on an Elekta linac can be used to acquire pre-treatment gated images to verify the accuracy patient positioning. This imaging capability should provide for accurate patient alignments for the delivery of lung SBRT. This research was partially supported by Elekta.

  8. Residual translational and rotational errors after kV X-ray image-guided correction of prostate location using implanted fiducials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wust, Peter; Graf, Reinhold; Boehmer, Dirk; Budach, Volker

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the residual errors and required safety margins after stereoscopic kilovoltage (kV) X-ray target localization of the prostate in image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) using internal fiducials. Patients and Methods: Radiopaque fiducial markers (FMs) have been inserted into the prostate in a cohort of 33 patients. The ExacTrac/Novalis Body trademark X-ray 6d image acquisition system (BrainLAB AG, Feldkirchen, Germany) was used. Corrections were performed in left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP), and superior-inferior (SI) direction. Rotational errors around LR (x-axis), AP (y) and SI (z) have been recorded for the first series of nine patients, and since 2007 for the subsequent 24 patients in addition corrected in each fraction by using the Robotic Tilt Module trademark and Varian Exact Couch trademark. After positioning, a second set of X-ray images was acquired for verification purposes. Residual errors were registered and again corrected. Results: Standard deviations (SD) of residual translational random errors in LR, AP, and SI coordinates were 1.3, 1.7, and 2.2 mm. Residual random rotation errors were found for lateral (around x, tilt), vertical (around y, table), and longitudinal (around z, roll) and of 3.2 , 1.8 , and 1.5 . Planning target volume (PTV)-clinical target volume (CTV) margins were calculated in LR, AP, and SI direction to 2.3, 3.0, and 3.7 mm. After a second repositioning, the margins could be reduced to 1.8, 2.1, and 1.8 mm. Conclusion: On the basis of the residual setup error measurements, the margin required after one to two online X-ray corrections for the patients enrolled in this study would be at minimum 2 mm. The contribution of intrafractional motion to residual random errors has to be evaluated. (orig.)

  9. Residual translational and rotational errors after kV X-ray image-guided correction of prostate location using implanted fiducials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wust, Peter [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Charite - Univ. Medicine Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany); Graf, Reinhold; Boehmer, Dirk; Budach, Volker

    2010-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the residual errors and required safety margins after stereoscopic kilovoltage (kV) X-ray target localization of the prostate in image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) using internal fiducials. Patients and Methods: Radiopaque fiducial markers (FMs) have been inserted into the prostate in a cohort of 33 patients. The ExacTrac/Novalis Body trademark X-ray 6d image acquisition system (BrainLAB AG, Feldkirchen, Germany) was used. Corrections were performed in left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP), and superior-inferior (SI) direction. Rotational errors around LR (x-axis), AP (y) and SI (z) have been recorded for the first series of nine patients, and since 2007 for the subsequent 24 patients in addition corrected in each fraction by using the Robotic Tilt Module trademark and Varian Exact Couch trademark. After positioning, a second set of X-ray images was acquired for verification purposes. Residual errors were registered and again corrected. Results: Standard deviations (SD) of residual translational random errors in LR, AP, and SI coordinates were 1.3, 1.7, and 2.2 mm. Residual random rotation errors were found for lateral (around x, tilt), vertical (around y, table), and longitudinal (around z, roll) and of 3.2 , 1.8 , and 1.5 . Planning target volume (PTV)-clinical target volume (CTV) margins were calculated in LR, AP, and SI direction to 2.3, 3.0, and 3.7 mm. After a second repositioning, the margins could be reduced to 1.8, 2.1, and 1.8 mm. Conclusion: On the basis of the residual setup error measurements, the margin required after one to two online X-ray corrections for the patients enrolled in this study would be at minimum 2 mm. The contribution of intrafractional motion to residual random errors has to be evaluated. (orig.)

  10. A Prospective Cohort Study of Gated Stereotactic Liver Radiation Therapy Using Continuous Internal Electromagnetic Motion Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Esben S; Høyer, Morten; Hansen, Rune

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: Intrafraction motion can compromise the treatment accuracy in liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Respiratory gating can improve treatment delivery; however, gating based on external motion surrogates is inaccurate. The present study reports the use of Calypso-based internal...... electromagnetic motion monitoring for gated liver SBRT. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Fifteen patients were included in a study of 3-fraction respiratory gated liver SBRT guided by 3 implanted electromagnetic transponders. The planning target volume was created by a 5-mm axial and 7-mm (n = 12) or 10-mm (n = 3...

  11. SU-G-BRA-16: Target Dose Comparison for Dynamic MLC Tracking and Mid- Ventilation Planning in Lung Radiotherapy Subject to Intrafractional Baseline Drifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menten, MJ; Fast, MF; Nill, S; Oelfke, U [Joint Department of Physics at The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Lung tumor motion during radiotherapy can be accounted for by expanded treatment margins, for example using a mid-ventilation planning approach, or by localizing the tumor in real-time and adapting the treatment beam with multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking. This study evaluates the effect of intrafractional changes in the average tumor position (baseline drifts) on these two treatment techniques. Methods: Lung stereotactic treatment plans (9-beam IMRT, 54Gy/3 fractions, mean treatment time: 9.63min) were generated for three patients: either for delivery with MLC tracking (isotropic GTV-to-PTV margin: 2.6mm) or planned with a mid-ventilation approach and delivered without online motion compensation (GTV-to-PTV margin: 4.4-6.3mm). Delivery to a breathing patient was simulated using DynaTrack, our in-house tracking and delivery software. Baseline drifts in cranial and posterior direction were simulated at a rate of 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5mm/min. For dose reconstruction, the corresponding 4DCT phase was selected for each time point of the delivery. Baseline drifts were accounted for by rigidly shifting the CT to ensure correct relative beam-to-target positioning. Afterwards, the doses delivered to each 4DCT phase were accumulated deformably on the mid-ventilation phase using research RayStation v4.6 and dose coverage of the GTV was evaluated. Results: When using the mid-ventilation planning approach, dose coverage of the tumor deteriorated substantially in the presence of baseline drifts. The reduction in D98% coverage of the GTV in a single fraction ranged from 0.4-1.2, 0.6-3.3 and 4.5-6.2Gy, respectively, for the different drift rates. With MLC tracking the GTV D98% coverage remained unchanged (+/− 0.1Gy) regardless of drift. Conclusion: Intrafractional baseline drifts reduce the tumor dose in treatments based on mid-ventilation planning. In rare, large target baseline drifts tumor dose coverage may drop below the prescription, potentially affecting clinical

  12. Prostatitis - nonbacterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    NBP; Prostatodynia; Pelvic pain syndrome; CPPS; Chronic nonbacterial prostatitis; Chronic genitourinary pain ... Possible causes of nonbacterial prostatitis include: A past ... common types of bacteria Irritation caused by a backup of urine ...

  13. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty ... Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page This page was reviewed on ...

  14. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pictures of a man’s prostate gland and to help diagnose symptoms such as difficulty urinating or an ... Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Prostate ultrasound, ...

  15. Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  16. Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast cancer (BRCA1 or BRCA2) or a very strong family history of breast cancer, your risk of prostate cancer may be higher. Obesity. Obese men diagnosed with prostate cancer may be more likely ...

  17. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page ... to Ultrasound - Prostate Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ...

  18. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery Radiologist and patient consultation. View full size with caption Related Articles and Media Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) (Enlargement of the Prostate) ...

  19. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... uses sound waves to produce pictures of a man’s prostate gland and to help diagnose symptoms such ... also called transrectal ultrasound, provides images of a man's prostate gland and surrounding tissue. The exam typically ...

  20. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is used to guide the biopsy to specific regions of the prostate gland. When the examination is ... is relatively insensitive to the pain in the region of the prostate. A biopsy will add time ...

  1. Bacterial prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Bradley C; Shoskes, Daniel A

    2016-02-01

    The review provides the infectious disease community with a urologic perspective on bacterial prostatitis. Specifically, the article briefly reviews the categorization of prostatitis by type and provides a distillation of new findings published on bacterial prostatitis over the past year. It also highlights key points from the established literature. Cross-sectional prostate imaging is becoming more common and may lead to more incidental diagnoses of acute bacterial prostatitis. As drug resistance remains problematic in this condition, the reemergence of older antibiotics such as fosfomycin, has proven beneficial. With regard to chronic bacterial prostatitis, no clear clinical risk factors emerged in a large epidemiological study. However, bacterial biofilm formation has been associated with more severe cases. Surgery has a limited role in bacterial prostatitis and should be reserved for draining of a prostatic abscess or the removal of infected prostatic stones. Prostatitis remains a common and bothersome clinical condition. Antibiotic therapy remains the basis of treatment for both acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Further research into improving prostatitis treatment is indicated.

  2. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the prostate. help diagnose the cause of a man's infertility. A transrectal ultrasound of the prostate gland is typically used to help diagnose symptoms such as: a nodule felt by a physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated ...

  3. Prostate Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prostate is a gland in men. It helps make semen, the fluid that contains sperm. The prostate surrounds the tube that carries urine away from ... and out of the body. A young man's prostate is about the size of a walnut. It ...

  4. Stages of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Prostate Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Prostate ...

  5. Measuring interfraction and intrafraction lung function changes during radiation therapy using four-dimensional cone beam CT ventilation imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kipritidis, John; Keall, Paul J.; Hugo, Geoffrey; Weiss, Elisabeth; Williamson, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Adaptive ventilation guided radiation therapy could minimize the irradiation of healthy lung based on repeat lung ventilation imaging (VI) during treatment. However the efficacy of adaptive ventilation guidance requires that interfraction (e.g., week-to-week), ventilation changes are not washed out by intrafraction (e.g., pre- and postfraction) changes, for example, due to patient breathing variability. The authors hypothesize that patients undergoing lung cancer radiation therapy exhibit larger interfraction ventilation changes compared to intrafraction function changes. To test this, the authors perform the first comparison of interfraction and intrafraction lung VI pairs using four-dimensional cone beam CT ventilation imaging (4D-CBCT VI), a novel technique for functional lung imaging. Methods: The authors analyzed a total of 215 4D-CBCT scans acquired for 19 locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) patients over 4–6 weeks of radiation therapy. This set of 215 scans was sorted into 56 interfraction pairs (including first day scans and each of treatment weeks 2, 4, and 6) and 78 intrafraction pairs (including pre/postfraction scans on the same-day), with some scans appearing in both sets. VIs were obtained from the Jacobian determinant of the transform between the 4D-CBCT end-exhale and end-inhale images after deformable image registration. All VIs were deformably registered to their corresponding planning CT and normalized to account for differences in breathing effort, thus facilitating image comparison in terms of (i) voxelwise Spearman correlations, (ii) mean image differences, and (iii) gamma pass rates for all interfraction and intrafraction VI pairs. For the side of the lung ipsilateral to the tumor, we applied two-sided t-tests to determine whether interfraction VI pairs were more different than intrafraction VI pairs. Results: The (mean ± standard deviation) Spearman correlation for interfraction VI pairs was r - Inter =0.52±0

  6. Measuring interfraction and intrafraction lung function changes during radiation therapy using four-dimensional cone beam CT ventilation imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kipritidis, John, E-mail: john.kipritidis@sydney.edu.au; Keall, Paul J. [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006 (Australia); Hugo, Geoffrey; Weiss, Elisabeth; Williamson, Jeffrey [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Adaptive ventilation guided radiation therapy could minimize the irradiation of healthy lung based on repeat lung ventilation imaging (VI) during treatment. However the efficacy of adaptive ventilation guidance requires that interfraction (e.g., week-to-week), ventilation changes are not washed out by intrafraction (e.g., pre- and postfraction) changes, for example, due to patient breathing variability. The authors hypothesize that patients undergoing lung cancer radiation therapy exhibit larger interfraction ventilation changes compared to intrafraction function changes. To test this, the authors perform the first comparison of interfraction and intrafraction lung VI pairs using four-dimensional cone beam CT ventilation imaging (4D-CBCT VI), a novel technique for functional lung imaging. Methods: The authors analyzed a total of 215 4D-CBCT scans acquired for 19 locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) patients over 4–6 weeks of radiation therapy. This set of 215 scans was sorted into 56 interfraction pairs (including first day scans and each of treatment weeks 2, 4, and 6) and 78 intrafraction pairs (including pre/postfraction scans on the same-day), with some scans appearing in both sets. VIs were obtained from the Jacobian determinant of the transform between the 4D-CBCT end-exhale and end-inhale images after deformable image registration. All VIs were deformably registered to their corresponding planning CT and normalized to account for differences in breathing effort, thus facilitating image comparison in terms of (i) voxelwise Spearman correlations, (ii) mean image differences, and (iii) gamma pass rates for all interfraction and intrafraction VI pairs. For the side of the lung ipsilateral to the tumor, we applied two-sided t-tests to determine whether interfraction VI pairs were more different than intrafraction VI pairs. Results: The (mean ± standard deviation) Spearman correlation for interfraction VI pairs was r{sup -}{sub Inter

  7. Sci-Fri PM: Radiation Therapy, Planning, Imaging, and Special Techniques - 11: Quantification of chest wall motion during deep inspiration breast hold treatments using cine EPID images and a physics based algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alpuche Aviles, Jorge E.; VanBeek, Timothy [CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada); Sasaki, David; Rivest, Ryan; Akra, Mohamed [CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada); University of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: This work presents an algorithm used to quantify intra-fraction motion for patients treated using deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH). The algorithm quantifies the position of the chest wall in breast tangent fields using electronic portal images. Methods: The algorithm assumes that image profiles, taken along a direction perpendicular to the medial border of the field, follow a monotonically and smooth decreasing function. This assumption is invalid in the presence of lung and can be used to calculate chest wall position. The algorithm was validated by determining the position of the chest wall for varying field edge positions in portal images of a thoracic phantom. The algorithm was used to quantify intra-fraction motion in cine images for 7 patients treated with DIBH. Results: Phantom results show that changes in the distance between chest wall and field edge were accurate within 0.1 mm on average. For a fixed field edge, the algorithm calculates the position of the chest wall with a 0.2 mm standard deviation. Intra-fraction motion for DIBH patients was within 1 mm 91.4% of the time and within 1.5 mm 97.9% of the time. The maximum intra-fraction motion was 3.0 mm. Conclusions: A physics based algorithm was developed and can be used to quantify the position of chest wall irradiated in tangent portal images with an accuracy of 0.1 mm and precision of 0.6 mm. Intra-fraction motion for patients treated with DIBH at our clinic is less than 3 mm.

  8. Feasibility study of patient motion monitoring using tactile array sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Ho; Kang, Seong Hee; Kim, Dong Su; Cho, Min Seok; Kim, Kyeong Hyeon; Suh, Tae Suk; Kim, Si Yong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate patient pretreatment set-up error and intra-fraction motion using the tactile array sensors (Pressure Profile Systems Inc, Los Angeles, CA) which could measure distributed pressure profiles along the contacting surface and to check a feasibility of the sensor (tactile array sensor) in the patient motion monitoring. Laser alignment and optical camera based monitoring system are very useful for reduce patient set-up error but these systems could not monitor the blind area like patient's back position. Actually after patient alignment using laser or optical monitoring system, it was assumed that there is no error in the patient's back position (pressure profile distribution). But if an error occurs in the patient's back position, it will affect the radiation therapy accuracy. In spite of optical motion monitoring or using the immobilization tool, distributed pressure profiles of patient's back position was changed during inter and intra-fraction. For more accurate patient set-up, blind area (patient's back) monitoring was necessary. We expect that the proposed method will be very useful for make up for the weakness of optical monitoring method

  9. Feasibility study of patient motion monitoring using tactile array sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Ho; Kang, Seong Hee; Kim, Dong Su; Cho, Min Seok; Kim, Kyeong Hyeon; Suh, Tae Suk [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, the Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Si Yong [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond (United States)

    2014-11-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate patient pretreatment set-up error and intra-fraction motion using the tactile array sensors (Pressure Profile Systems Inc, Los Angeles, CA) which could measure distributed pressure profiles along the contacting surface and to check a feasibility of the sensor (tactile array sensor) in the patient motion monitoring. Laser alignment and optical camera based monitoring system are very useful for reduce patient set-up error but these systems could not monitor the blind area like patient's back position. Actually after patient alignment using laser or optical monitoring system, it was assumed that there is no error in the patient's back position (pressure profile distribution). But if an error occurs in the patient's back position, it will affect the radiation therapy accuracy. In spite of optical motion monitoring or using the immobilization tool, distributed pressure profiles of patient's back position was changed during inter and intra-fraction. For more accurate patient set-up, blind area (patient's back) monitoring was necessary. We expect that the proposed method will be very useful for make up for the weakness of optical monitoring method.

  10. Vacuum immobilisation reduces tumour excursion and minimises intrafraction error in a cohort study of stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy for pulmonary metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siva, Shankar; Devereux, Tomas; Kron, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of a vacuum immobilisation system on reproducibility of patient set-up, interfraction stability and tumour motion amplitude. From February 2010 to February 2012 as part of a prospective clinical trial 12 patients with solitary pulmonary metastases had consecutive four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) scans performed with and without vacuum immobilisation. The displacement of the tumour centroid position was recorded in each of the 10 phases of the 4DCT reconstruction. A further six patients with seven metastases underwent single fraction stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) during this period (a total of 19 targets) and were included in an analysis of positional reproducibility and intrafraction immobilisation. Couch shifts recorded in the medio-lateral (X), cranio-caudal (Y) and ventero-dorsal (Z) planes. For the 19 treatments delivered, the median (0–90% range) shift required immediately pretreatment was 1mm (0–3) in the X-plane, 2mm (0–6) in the Y-plane and 4mm (0–8) in the Z-plane, respectively. The mean (+/− standard deviation) of mid-treatment shifts were 0.3mm (+/− 0.7), 1.1mm (+/− 2) and 0.8mm (+/− 1.5) in the X, Y and Z planes, respectively. Mid-treatment shifts were <2mm in all directions (P=<0.001). The length of treatment time correlated to the required shifts in the Z plane (r2=0.377, P=0.005), but not in the X or Y planes (P=0.198 and P=0.653, respectively). In the subset of 12 patients who had two 4DCTs, the median (range) amplitude of tumour displacements in the X, Y and Z planes when immobilised were 0.9mm (0.3–2.9), 2.6mm (0.2–10.6) and 1.6mm (0.5–5.5), respectively. Immobilisation reduced the volume of tumour displacement during respiration by a median of 52.6% (P=0.021). Vacuum immobilisation reduces total tumour excursion, facilitates reproducible positioning and provides robust intrafractional immobilisation during SABR treatments for pulmonary metastases.

  11. Prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spera, G.

    2010-01-01

    This work is about diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of prostate cancer. The techniques used are: transrectal ultrasound, laparascopy, bone scan, chest x-ray, radiography, chemoterapy and radiotherapy

  12. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Prostate ultrasound, also called transrectal ultrasound, provides ...

  13. Field-In-Field Technique With Intrafractionally Modulated Junction Shifts for Craniospinal Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yom, Sue S.; Frija, Erik K. C.; Mahajan, Anita; Chang, Eric; Klein, Kelli C.; Shiu, Almon; Ohrt, Jared; Woo, Shiao

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To plan craniospinal irradiation with 'field-in-field' (FIF) homogenization in combination with daily, intrafractional modulation of the field junctions, to minimize the possibility of spinal cord overdose. Methods and Materials: Lateral cranial fields and posterior spinal fields were planned using a forward-planned, step-and-shoot FIF technique. Field junctions were automatically modulated and custom-weighted for maximal homogeneity within each treatment fraction. Dose-volume histogram analyses and film dosimetry were used to assess results. Results: Plan inhomogeneity improved with FIF. Planning with daily modulated junction shifts provided consistent dose delivery during each fraction of treatment across the junctions. Modulation minimized the impact of a 5-mm setup error at the junction. Film dosimetry confirmed that no point in the junction exceeded the anticipated dose. Conclusions: Field-in-field planning and modulated junction shifts improve the homogeneity and consistency of daily dose delivery, simplify treatment, and reduce the impact of setup errors

  14. A margin-based analysis of the dosimetric impact of motion on step-and-shoot IMRT lung plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waghorn, Benjamin J; Shah, Amish P; Rineer, Justin M; Langen, Katja M; Meeks, Sanford L

    2014-01-01

    Intrafraction motion during step-and-shoot (SNS) IMRT is known to affect the target dosimetry by a combination of dose blurring and interplay effects. These effects are typically managed by adding a margin around the target. A quantitative analysis was performed, assessing the relationship between target motion, margin size, and target dosimetry with the goal of introducing new margin recipes. A computational algorithm was used to calculate 1,174 motion-encoded dose distributions and DVHs within the patient’s CT dataset. Sinusoidal motion tracks were used simulating intrafraction motion for nine lung tumor patients, each with multiple margin sizes. D 95% decreased by less than 3% when the maximum target displacement beyond the margin experienced motion less than 5 mm in the superior-inferior direction and 15 mm in the anterior-posterior direction. For target displacements greater than this, D 95% decreased rapidly. Targets moving in excess of 5 mm outside the margin can cause significant changes to the target. D 95% decreased by up to 20% with target motion 10 mm outside the margin, with underdosing primarily limited to the target periphery. Multi-fractionated treatments were found to exacerbate target under-coverage. Margins several millimeters smaller than the maximum target displacement provided acceptable motion protection, while also allowing for reduced normal tissue morbidity

  15. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an example of a transrectal transducer (probe). A prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, which measures the amount of PSA in the blood, may be administered to determine if a patient is at high risk for ... of the prostate gland. When the examination is complete, you may ...

  16. First online real-time evaluation of motion-induced 4D dose errors during radiotherapy delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravkilde, Thomas; Skouboe, Simon; Hansen, Rune

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: In radiotherapy, dose deficits caused by tumor motion often far outweigh the discrepancies typically allowed in plan-specific quality assurance (QA). Yet, tumor motion is not usually included in present QA. We here present a novel method for online treatment verification by real......-time motion-including 4D dose reconstruction and dose evaluation and demonstrate its use during stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) delivery with and without MLC tracking. METHODS: Five volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans were delivered with and without MLC tracking to a motion stage carrying...... a Delta4 dosimeter. The VMAT plans have previously been used for (non-tracking) liver SBRT with intra-treatment tumor motion recorded by kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring (KIM). The motion stage reproduced the KIM-measured tumor motions in 3D while optical monitoring guided the MLC tracking. Linac...

  17. Cone-Beam CT Assessment of Interfraction and Intrafraction Setup Error of Two Head-and-Neck Cancer Thermoplastic Masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velec, Michael; Waldron, John N.; O'Sullivan, Brian; Bayley, Andrew; Cummings, Bernard; Kim, John J.; Ringash, Jolie; Breen, Stephen L.; Lockwood, Gina A.; Dawson, Laura A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively compare setup error in standard thermoplastic masks and skin-sparing masks (SSMs) modified with low neck cutouts for head-and-neck intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) patients. Methods and Materials: Twenty head-and-neck IMRT patients were randomized to be treated in a standard mask (SM) or SSM. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans, acquired daily after both initial setup and any repositioning, were used for initial and residual interfraction evaluation, respectively. Weekly, post-IMRT CBCT scans were acquired for intrafraction setup evaluation. The population random (σ) and systematic (Σ) errors were compared for SMs and SSMs. Skin toxicity was recorded weekly by use of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. Results: We evaluated 762 CBCT scans in 11 patients randomized to the SM and 9 to the SSM. Initial interfraction σ was 1.6 mm or less or 1.1 deg. or less for SM and 2.0 mm or less and 0.8 deg. for SSM. Initial interfraction Σ was 1.0 mm or less or 1.4 deg. or less for SM and 1.1 mm or less or 0.9 deg. or less for SSM. These errors were reduced before IMRT with CBCT image guidance with no significant differences in residual interfraction or intrafraction uncertainties between SMs and SSMs. Intrafraction σ and Σ were less than 1 mm and less than 1 deg. for both masks. Less severe skin reactions were observed in the cutout regions of the SSM compared with non-cutout regions. Conclusions: Interfraction and intrafraction setup error is not significantly different for SSMs and conventional masks in head-and-neck radiation therapy. Mask cutouts should be considered for these patients in an effort to reduce skin toxicity.

  18. Image acquisition optimization of a limited-angle intrafraction verification (LIVE) system for lung radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yawei; Deng, Xinchen; Yin, Fang-Fang; Ren, Lei

    2018-01-01

    Limited-angle intrafraction verification (LIVE) has been previously developed for four-dimensional (4D) intrafraction target verification either during arc delivery or between three-dimensional (3D)/IMRT beams. Preliminary studies showed that LIVE can accurately estimate the target volume using kV/MV projections acquired over orthogonal view 30° scan angles. Currently, the LIVE imaging acquisition requires slow gantry rotation and is not clinically optimized. The goal of this study is to optimize the image acquisition parameters of LIVE for different patient respiratory periods and gantry rotation speeds for the effective clinical implementation of the system. Limited-angle intrafraction verification imaging acquisition was optimized using a digital anthropomorphic phantom (XCAT) with simulated respiratory periods varying from 3 s to 6 s and gantry rotation speeds varying from 1°/s to 6°/s. LIVE scanning time was optimized by minimizing the number of respiratory cycles needed for the four-dimensional scan, and imaging dose was optimized by minimizing the number of kV and MV projections needed for four-dimensional estimation. The estimation accuracy was evaluated by calculating both the center-of-mass-shift (COMS) and three-dimensional volume-percentage-difference (VPD) between the tumor in estimated images and the ground truth images. The robustness of LIVE was evaluated with varied respiratory patterns, tumor sizes, and tumor locations in XCAT simulation. A dynamic thoracic phantom (CIRS) was used to further validate the optimized imaging schemes from XCAT study with changes of respiratory patterns, tumor sizes, and imaging scanning directions. Respiratory periods, gantry rotation speeds, number of respiratory cycles scanned and number of kV/MV projections acquired were all positively correlated with the estimation accuracy of LIVE. Faster gantry rotation speed or longer respiratory period allowed less respiratory cycles to be scanned and less kV/MV projections

  19. Design and study of ultrasound-based automatic patient movement monitoring device for quantifying the intrafraction motion during teletherapy treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, S; Vinothraj, R

    2012-11-08

    The aim of the present study is to fabricate indigenously ultrasonic-based automatic patient's movement monitoring device (UPMMD) that immediately halts teletherapy treatment if a patient moves, claiming accurate field treatment. The device consists of circuit board, magnetic attachment device, LED indicator, speaker, and ultrasonic emitter and receiver, which are placed on either side of the treatment table. The ultrasonic emitter produces the ultrasound waves and the receiver accepts the signal from the patient. When the patient moves, the receiver activates the circuit, an audible warning sound will be produced in the treatment console room alerting the technologist to stop treatment. Simultaneously, the electrical circuit to the teletherapy machine will be interrupted and radiation will be halted. The device and alarm system can detect patient movements with a sensitivity of about 1 mm. Our results indicate that, in spite of its low-cost, low-power, high-precision, nonintrusive, light weight, reusable and simplicity features, UPMMD is highly sensitive and offers accurate measurements. Furthermore, UPMMD is patient-friendly and requires minimal user training. This study revealed that the device can prevent the patient's normal tissues from unnecessary radiation exposure, and also it is helpful to deliver the radiation to the correct tumor location. Using this alarming system the patient can be repositioned after interrupting the treatment machine manually. It also enables the technologists to do their work more efficiently.

  20. Xanthogranulomatous Prostatitis, a Rare Prostatic Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Noyola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several benign prostatic pathologies that can clinically mimic a prostate adenocarcinoma. Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis is a benign inflammatory condition of the prostate and a rare entity. A 47-year old male, with 3 years of lower urinary tract symptoms, with a palpable hypogastric tumor, digital rectal examination: solid prostate, of approximately 60 g. Initial PSA was 0.90 ng/mL. He underwent surgical excision of the lower abdominal nodule and prostatectomy. Histopathology showed xanthogranulomatous prostatitis, without malignancy. Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis is an extremely rare entity that can simulate prostate adenocarcinoma, therefore having a correct histopathological diagnosis is essential.

  1. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This procedure requires little to no special preparation. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. ... BPH) , with measurements acquired as needed for any treatment planning. detect an abnormal growth within the prostate. ...

  2. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the rectum. The images are obtained from different angles to get the best view of the prostate ... RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your physician with specific medical questions or for ...

  3. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... nodule felt by a physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides real-time ...

  4. Enlarged prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for drugs that may make your symptoms worse : SAW PALMETTO Many herbs have been tried for treating an enlarged prostate. Many men use saw palmetto to ease symptoms. Some studies have shown that ...

  5. Prostate biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... give the cells a grade called a Gleason score . This helps predict how fast the cancer will ... TRUS); Stereotactic transperineal prostate biopsy (STPB) Images Male reproductive anatomy References Babayan RK, Katz MH. Biopsy prophylaxis, ...

  6. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... the rectal wall is relatively insensitive to the pain in the region of the prostate. A biopsy ... needle biopsies and fluid aspiration. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on ...

  7. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... diagnose symptoms such as difficulty urinating or an elevated blood test result. It’s also used to investigate ... physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides ...

  8. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... less than 20 minutes. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Ultrasound ... in the region of the prostate. A biopsy will add time to the procedure. Rarely, a small ...

  9. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... receiver coil. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top ... To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ACR- ...

  10. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... with measurements acquired as needed for any treatment planning. detect an abnormal growth within the prostate. help ... end of their bowel (rectum) removed during prior surgery are not good candidates for ultrasound of the ...

  11. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... prostate gland and to help diagnose symptoms such as difficulty urinating or an elevated blood test result. ... image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is no ...

  12. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... nodule felt by a physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated ... requested the exam. Usually, the referring physician or health care provider will share the results with you. ...

  13. Prostatitis - acute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tender scrotum The provider may perform a digital rectal exam to examine your prostate. During this exam, ... Copyright 1997-2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing ...

  14. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... receiver coil. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top ... here Images × Image Gallery Radiologist and patient consultation. View full size with caption Related Articles and Media ...

  15. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... needle biopsies and fluid aspiration. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on ... and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page This page was reviewed on ...

  16. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding minimally invasive procedures such as ... bowel (rectum) removed during prior surgery are not good candidates for ultrasound of the prostate gland because ...

  17. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Images related to Ultrasound - Prostate Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  18. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... phased array) receiver coil. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate ... Send us your feedback Did you find the information you were looking for? Yes No Please type ...

  19. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... in which a needle is used to sample cells (tissue) from an abnormal area in the prostate ... needle insertion) is usually minimal because the rectal wall is relatively insensitive to the pain in the ...

  20. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) , with measurements acquired as needed for any treatment planning. detect ... areas of the body while other areas, especially air-filled lungs, are poorly suited for ultrasound. For ...

  1. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty ... if a patient is at high risk for cancer. In this case, a biopsy is performed and ...

  2. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... rectum into the prostate gland which is situated right in front of the rectum. top of page ... creates a real-time picture on the monitor. One or more frames of the moving pictures are ...

  3. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... probe sends and receives sound waves through the wall of the rectum into the prostate gland which ... needle insertion) is usually minimal because the rectal wall is relatively insensitive to the pain in the ...

  4. Prostate carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledano, A.; Chauveinc, L.; Flam, T.; Thiounn, N.; Solignac, S.; Timbert, M.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Cosset, J.M.; Ammor, A.; Bonnetain, F.; Brenier, J.P.; Maingon, P.; Peignaux, K.; Truc, G.; Bosset, M.; Crevoisier, R. de; Tucker, S.; Dong, L.; Cheung, R.; Kuban, D.; Azria, D.; Llacer Moscardo, C.; Ailleres, N.; Allaw, A.; Serre, A.; Fenoglietto, P.; Hay, M.H.; Thezenas, S.; Dubois, J.B.; Pommier, P.; Perol, D.; Lagrange, J.L.; Richaud, P.; Brune, D.; Le Prise, E.; Azria, D.; Beckendorf, V.; Chabaud, S.; Carrie, C.; Bosset, M.; Bosset, J.F.; Maingon, P.; Ammor, A.; Crehangen, G.; Truc, G.; Peignaux, K.; Bonnetain, F.; Keros, L.; Bernier, V.; Aletti, P.; Wolf, D.; Marchesia, V.; Noel, A.; Artignan, X.; Fourneret, P.; Bacconier, M.; Shestaeva, O.; Pasquier, D.; Descotes, J.L.; Balosso, J.; Bolla, M.; Burette, R.; Corbusier, A.; Germeau, F.; Crevoisier, R. de; Dong, L.; Bonnen, M.; Cheung, R.; Tucker, S.; Kuban, D.; Crevoisier, R. de; Melancon, A.; Kuban, D.; Cheung, R.; Dong, L.; Peignaux, K.; Brenier, J.P.; Truc, G.; Bosset, M.; Ammor, A.; Barillot, I.; Maingon, P.; Molines, J.C.; Berland, E.; Cornulier, J. de; Coulet-Parpillon, A.; Cohard, C.; Picone, M.; Fourneret, P.; Artignan, X.; Daanen, V.; Gastaldo, J.; Bolla, M.; Collomb, D.; Dusserre, A.; Descotes, J.L.; Troccaz, J.; Giraud, J.Y.; Quero, L.; Hennequin, C.; Ravery, V.; Desgrandschamps, F.; Maylin, C.; Boccon-Gibod, L.; Salem, N.; Bladou, F.; Gravis, G.; Tallet, A.; Simonian, M.; Serment, G.; Salem, N.; Bladou, F.; Gravis, G.; Simonian, M.; Rosello, R.; Serment, G.

    2005-01-01

    Some short communications on the prostate carcinoma are given here. The impact of pelvic irradiation, conformation with intensity modulation, association of radiotherapy and chemotherapy reduction of side effects, imaging, doses escalation are such subjects studied and reported. (N.C.)

  5. SU-E-J-61: Monitoring Tumor Motion in Real-Time with EPID Imaging During Cervical Cancer Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, W; Hrycushko, B; Yan, Y; Foster, R; Albuquerque, K

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Traditional external beam radiotherapy for cervical cancer requires setup by external skin marks. In order to improve treatment accuracy and reduce planning margin for more conformal therapy, it is essential to monitor tumor positions interfractionally and intrafractionally. We demonstrate feasibility of monitoring cervical tumor motion online using EPID imaging from Beam’s Eye View. Methods: Prior to treatment, 1∼2 cylindrical radio opaque markers were implanted into inferior aspect of cervix tumor. During external beam treatments on a Varian 2100C by 4-field 3D plans, treatment beam images were acquired continuously by an EPID. A Matlab program was developed to locate internal markers on MV images. Based on 2D marker positions obtained from different treatment fields, their 3D positions were estimated for every treatment fraction. Results: There were 398 images acquired during different treatment fractions of three cervical cancer patients. Markers were successfully located on every frame of image at an analysis speed of about 1 second per frame. Intrafraction motions were evaluated by comparing marker positions relative to the position on the first frame of image. The maximum intrafraction motion of the markers was 1.6 mm. Interfraction motions were evaluated by comparing 3D marker positions at different treatment fractions. The maximum interfraction motion was up to 10 mm. Careful comparison found that this is due to patient positioning since the bony structures shifted with the markers. Conclusion: This method provides a cost-free and simple solution for online tumor tracking for cervical cancer treatment since it is feasible to acquire and export EPID images with fast analysis in real time. This method does not need any extra equipment or deliver extra dose to patients. The online tumor motion information will be very useful to reduce planning margins and improve treatment accuracy, which is particularly important for SBRT treatment with long

  6. SU-E-J-61: Monitoring Tumor Motion in Real-Time with EPID Imaging During Cervical Cancer Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, W; Hrycushko, B; Yan, Y; Foster, R; Albuquerque, K [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Traditional external beam radiotherapy for cervical cancer requires setup by external skin marks. In order to improve treatment accuracy and reduce planning margin for more conformal therapy, it is essential to monitor tumor positions interfractionally and intrafractionally. We demonstrate feasibility of monitoring cervical tumor motion online using EPID imaging from Beam’s Eye View. Methods: Prior to treatment, 1∼2 cylindrical radio opaque markers were implanted into inferior aspect of cervix tumor. During external beam treatments on a Varian 2100C by 4-field 3D plans, treatment beam images were acquired continuously by an EPID. A Matlab program was developed to locate internal markers on MV images. Based on 2D marker positions obtained from different treatment fields, their 3D positions were estimated for every treatment fraction. Results: There were 398 images acquired during different treatment fractions of three cervical cancer patients. Markers were successfully located on every frame of image at an analysis speed of about 1 second per frame. Intrafraction motions were evaluated by comparing marker positions relative to the position on the first frame of image. The maximum intrafraction motion of the markers was 1.6 mm. Interfraction motions were evaluated by comparing 3D marker positions at different treatment fractions. The maximum interfraction motion was up to 10 mm. Careful comparison found that this is due to patient positioning since the bony structures shifted with the markers. Conclusion: This method provides a cost-free and simple solution for online tumor tracking for cervical cancer treatment since it is feasible to acquire and export EPID images with fast analysis in real time. This method does not need any extra equipment or deliver extra dose to patients. The online tumor motion information will be very useful to reduce planning margins and improve treatment accuracy, which is particularly important for SBRT treatment with long

  7. Prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Balslev, Ingegerd; Logager, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data.......To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data....

  8. Setup error and motion during deep inspiration breath-hold breast radiotherapy measured with continuous portal imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Christina Maria; Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Fledelius, Walther

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The position and residual motion of the chest wall of breast cancer patients during treatment in deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) were investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 58 left-sided breast cancer patients treated with DIBH three-dimensional (3D) conformal......). At every third treatment fraction, continuous portal images were acquired. The time-resolved chest wall position during treatment was compared with the planned position to determine the inter-fraction setup errors and the intra-fraction motion of the chest wall. RESULTS: The DIBH compliance was 95% during...

  9. Quantifying intra- and inter-fractional motion in breast radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Scott, E-mail: scott.jones@health.qld.gov.au [Division of Cancer Services, Radiation Oncology Mater Centre, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Fitzgerald, Rhys [Division of Cancer Services, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Owen, Rebecca; Ramsay, Jonathan [Division of Cancer Services, Radiation Oncology Mater Centre, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane (Australia)

    2015-03-15

    The magnitude of intra- and inter-fractional variation in the set up of breast cancer patients treated with tangential megavoltage photon beams was investigated using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID). Daily cine-EPID images were captured during delivery of the tangential fields for ten breast cancer patients treated in the supine position. Measurements collected from each image included the central lung distance (CLD), central flash distance (CFD), superior axial measurement (SAM) and the inferior axial measurement (IAM). The variation of motion within a fraction (intra-fraction) and the variation between fractions (inter-fraction) was analysed to quantify set up variation and motion due to respiration. Altogether 3775 EPID images were collected from 10 patients. The effect of respiratory motion during treatment was <0.1 cm standard deviation (SD) in the anterior–posterior (AP) direction. The inter-fraction movement caused by variations in daily set up was larger at 0.28 cm SD in the AP direction. Superior–inferior (SI) variation was more difficult to summarise and proved unreliable as the measurements were taken to an ambiguous point on the images. It was difficult to discern true SI movement from that implicated by AP movement. There is minimal intra-fractional chest wall motion due to respiration during treatment. Inter-fractional variation was larger, however, on average it remained within departmental tolerance (0.5 cm) for set up variations. This review of our current breast technique provides confidence in the feasibility of utilising advanced treatment techniques (field-in-field, intensity modulated radiotherapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy) following a review of the current imaging protocol.

  10. Comparison of daily megavoltage electronic portal imaging or kilovoltage imaging with marker seeds to ultrasound imaging or skin marks for prostate localization and treatment positioning in patients with prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serago, Christopher F.; Buskirk, Steven J.; Igel, Todd C.; Gale, Ashley A.; Serago, Nicole E.; Earle, John D.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the accuracy of imaging modalities, immobilization, localization, and positioning techniques in patients with prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Thirty-five patients with prostate cancer had gold marker seeds implanted transrectally and were treated with fractionated radiotherapy. Twenty of the 35 patients had limited immobilization; the remaining had a vacuum-based immobilization. Patient positioning consisted of alignment with lasers to skin marks, ultrasound or kilovoltage X-ray imaging, optical guidance using infrared reflectors, and megavoltage electronic portal imaging (EPI). The variance of each positioning technique was compared to the patient position determined from the pretreatment EPI. Results: With limited immobilization, the average difference between the skin marks' laser position and EPI pretreatment position is 9.1 ± 5.3 mm, the average difference between the skin marks' infrared position and EPI pretreatment position is 11.8 ± 7.2 mm, the average difference between the ultrasound position and EPI pretreatment position is 7.0 ± 4.6 mm, the average difference between kV imaging and EPI pretreatment position is 3.5 ± 3.1 mm, and the average intrafraction movement during treatment is 3.4 ± 2.7 mm. For the patients with the vacuum-style immobilization, the average difference between the skin marks' laser position and EPI pretreatment position is 10.7 ± 4.6 mm, the average difference between kV imaging and EPI pretreatment position is 1.9 ± 1.5 mm, and the average intrafraction movement during treatment is 2.1 ± 1.5 mm. Conclusions: Compared with use of skin marks, ultrasound imaging for positioning provides an increased degree of agreement to EPI-based positioning, though not as favorable as kV imaging fiducial seeds. Intrafraction movement during treatment decreases with improved immobilization

  11. Prostatic paracoccidioidomycosis: differential diagnosis of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lima Lopes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Symptomatic prostatic paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is a very rare condition; however, it may express as a typical benign prostatic hyperplasia or a simulating prostatic adenocarcinoma. This case report presents PCM mimicking prostatic adenocarcinoma. The purpose of this paper is to call the general physician's attention to this important differential diagnosis.

  12. Fast motion-including dose error reconstruction for VMAT with and without MLC tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravkilde, Thomas; Keall, Paul J.; Grau, Cai

    2014-01-01

    of the algorithm for reconstruction of dose and motion-induced dose errors throughout the tracking and non-tracking beam deliveries was quantified. Doses were reconstructed with a mean dose difference relative to the measurements of -0.5% (5.5% standard deviation) for cumulative dose. More importantly, the root...... validate a simple model for fast motion-including dose error reconstruction applicable to intrafractional QA of MLC tracking treatments of moving targets. MLC tracking experiments were performed on a standard linear accelerator with prototype MLC tracking software guided by an electromagnetic transponder......-mean-square deviation between reconstructed and measured motion-induced 3%/3 mm γ failure rates (dose error) was 2.6%. The mean computation time for each calculation of dose and dose error was 295 ms. The motion-including dose reconstruction allows accurate temporal and spatial pinpointing of errors in absorbed dose...

  13. A completely calcified prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Priyadarshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostatic calcification and prostatic calculus formation is commonly seen in adult population with chronic prostatitis, however, gross prostatic calcification which involves more than 3 cm2 of the gland is quite rare. We are presenting here one such case in which almost whole glandular prostate was converted into stone which is never reported so far.

  14. Intrafractional tracking accuracy in infrared marker-based hybrid dynamic tumour-tracking irradiation with a gimballed linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukumoto, Nobutaka; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Yamada, Masahiro; Takahashi, Kunio; Tanabe, Hiroaki; Yano, Shinsuke; Miyabe, Yuki; Ueki, Nami; Kaneko, Shuji; Matsuo, Yukinori; Mizowaki, Takashi; Sawada, Akira; Kokubo, Masaki; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To verify the intrafractional tracking accuracy in infrared (IR) marker-based hybrid dynamic tumour tracking irradiation (“IR Tracking”) with the Vero4DRT. Materials and methods: The gimballed X-ray head tracks a moving target by predicting its future position from displacements of IR markers in real-time. Ten lung cancer patients who underwent IR Tracking were enrolled. The 95th percentiles of intrafractional mechanical (iE M 95 ), prediction (iE P 95 ), and overall targeting errors (iE T 95 ) were calculated from orthogonal fluoroscopy images acquired during tracking irradiation and from the synchronously acquired log files. Results: Averaged intrafractional errors were (left–right, cranio-caudal [CC], anterior–posterior [AP]) = (0.1 mm, 0.4 mm, 0.1 mm) for iE M 95 , (1.2 mm, 2.7 mm, 2.1 mm) for iE P 95 , and (1.3 mm, 2.4 mm, 1.4 mm) for iE T 95 . By correcting systematic prediction errors in the previous field, the iE P 95 was reduced significantly, by an average of 0.4 mm in the CC (p < 0.05) and by 0.3 mm in the AP (p < 0.01) directions. Conclusions: Prediction errors were the primary cause of overall targeting errors, whereas mechanical errors were negligible. Furthermore, improvement of the prediction accuracy could be achieved by correcting systematic prediction errors in the previous field

  15. Proton Therapy Coverage for Prostate Cancer Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Carlos; Wagner, Marcus; Mahajan, Chaitali; Indelicato, Daniel; Fryer, Amber; Falchook, Aaron; Horne, David C.; Chellini, Angela; McKenzie, Craig C.; Lawlor, Paula C.; Li Zuofeng; Lin Liyong; Keole, Sameer

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the impact of prostate motion on dose coverage in proton therapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 120 prostate positions were analyzed on 10 treatment plans for 10 prostate patients treated using our low-risk proton therapy prostate protocol (University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute 001). Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging T 2 -weighted turbo spin-echo scans were registered for all cases. The planning target volume included the prostate with a 5-mm axial and 8-mm superoinferior expansion. The prostate was repositioned using 5- and 10-mm one-dimensional vectors and 10-mm multidimensional vectors (Points A-D). The beam was realigned for the 5- and 10-mm displacements. The prescription dose was 78 Gy equivalent (GE). Results: The mean percentage of rectum receiving 70 Gy (V 70 ) was 7.9%, the bladder V 70 was 14.0%, and the femoral head/neck V 50 was 0.1%, and the mean pelvic dose was 4.6 GE. The percentage of prostate receiving 78 Gy (V 78 ) with the 5-mm movements changed by -0.2% (range, 0.006-0.5%, p > 0.7). However, the prostate V 78 after a 10-mm displacement changed significantly (p 78 coverage had a large and significant reduction of 17.4% (range, 13.5-17.4%, p 78 coverage of the clinical target volume. The minimal prostate dose was reduced 33% (25.8 GE), on average, for Points A-D. The prostate minimal dose improved from 69.3 GE to 78.2 GE (p < 0.001) with realignment for 10-mm movements. Conclusion: The good dose coverage and low normal doses achieved for the initial plan was maintained with movements of ≤5 mm. Beam realignment improved coverage for 10-mm displacements

  16. Prostate Cancer FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundraise for PCF: Many vs Cancer Contact Us Prostate Cancer FAQs Top 10 Things You Should Know About ... prostate cancer detected? What are the symptoms of prostate cancer? If the cancer is caught at its earliest ...

  17. Prostate Cancer Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundraise for PCF: Many vs Cancer Contact Us Prostate Cancer Symptoms and Signs Prostate Cancer Basics Risk Factors ... earlier. So what are the warning signs of prostate cancer? Unfortunately, there usually aren’t any early warning ...

  18. Prostate Cancer Foundation News

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Finding a Doctor Treatment Options Side Effects Managing Prostate Cancer Treatment Related Side Effects Clinical Trials Patient Resources Guides Videos Prostate Cancer FAQs Information by Stage Newly Diagnosed with Prostate ...

  19. Prostate cancer - treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000403.htm Prostate cancer - treatment To use the sharing features on this page, ... drugs is recommended. References National Cancer Institute. Prostate cancer treatment (PDQ): Stages of prostate cancer. Updated July 31, ...

  20. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prostate. The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system located just below the bladder (the organ that ... up part of semen . Enlarge Anatomy of the male reproductive and urinary systems, showing the prostate, testicles, bladder, and other organs. ...

  1. Advances in MRI diagnosis of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Longmin; Liu Ailian

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in the world, and the incidence of prostate cancer in China shows an upward trend. MRI has high soft tissue resolution and multi-dimensional imaging advantages, and it can better show the anatomy of the prostate and adjacent tissue structures. With the development of MR technique, it plays a more and more important role in prostate cancer diagnosis. This review starts from the imaging performance of routine MRI sequence of prostate cancer, and a variety of functional MRI applications in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of prostate cancer are described in detail, such as MR perfusion-weighted imaging, MR spectroscopy, MR diffusion-weighted imaging, MR diffusion tensor imaging, intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging, MR susceptibility-weighted imaging. Meanwhile this review introduces that functional MRI has more advantages and can provide more image information than routine MRI sequence. According to a series of semi-quantitative and quantitative data, functional MRI can further provide the blood perfusion of prostate cancer, water molecule diffusion and microcirculation state, metabolism and biochemical composition change information. (authors)

  2. Audiovisual biofeedback improves the correlation between internal/external surrogate motion and lung tumor motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Danny; Greer, Peter B; Paganelli, Chiara; Ludbrook, Joanna Jane; Kim, Taeho; Keall, Paul

    2018-03-01

    Breathing management can reduce breath-to-breath (intrafraction) and day-by-day (interfraction) variability in breathing motion while utilizing the respiratory motion of internal and external surrogates for respiratory guidance. Audiovisual (AV) biofeedback, an interactive personalized breathing motion management system, has been developed to improve reproducibility of intra- and interfraction breathing motion. However, the assumption of the correlation of respiratory motion between surrogates and tumors is not always verified during medical imaging and radiation treatment. Therefore, the aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that the correlation of respiratory motion between surrogates and tumors is the same under free breathing without guidance (FB) and with AV biofeedback guidance for voluntary motion management. For 13 lung cancer patients receiving radiotherapy, 2D coronal and sagittal cine-MR images were acquired across two MRI sessions (pre- and mid-treatment) with two breathing conditions: (a) FB and (b) AV biofeedback, totaling 88 patient measurements. Simultaneously, the external respiratory motion of the abdomen was measured. The internal respiratory motion of the diaphragm and lung tumor was retrospectively measured from 2D coronal and sagittal cine-MR images. The correlation of respiratory motion between surrogates and tumors was calculated using Pearson's correlation coefficient for: (a) abdomen to tumor (abdomen-tumor) and (b) diaphragm to tumor (diaphragm-tumor). The correlations were compared between FB and AV biofeedback using several metrics: abdomen-tumor and diaphragm-tumor correlations with/without ≥5 mm tumor motion range and with/without adjusting for phase shifts between the signals. Compared to FB, AV biofeedback improved abdomen-tumor correlation by 11% (p = 0.12) from 0.53 to 0.59 and diaphragm-tumor correlation by 13% (p = 0.02) from 0.55 to 0.62. Compared to FB, AV biofeedback improved abdomen-tumor correlation by 17% (p = 0

  3. Prostatitis and male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshahrani, Saad; McGill, John; Agarwal, Ashok

    2013-11-01

    The prostate gland plays an important role in male reproduction. Inflammation of the prostate gland (prostatitis) is a common health problem affecting many young and middle aged men. Prostatitis is considered a correctable cause of male infertility, but the pathophysiology and appropriate treatment options of prostatitis in male infertility remain unclear. This literature review will focus on current data regarding prostatitis and its impact on male infertility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Irradiation of the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes with an adaptive algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, A. B.; Chen, J.; Nguyen, T. B.; Gottschalk, A. G.; Roach, M. R. III; Pouliot, J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The simultaneous treatment of pelvic lymph nodes and the prostate in radiotherapy for prostate cancer is complicated by the independent motion of these two target volumes. In this work, the authors study a method to adapt intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans so as to compensate for this motion by adaptively morphing the multileaf collimator apertures and adjusting the segment weights. Methods: The study used CT images, tumor volumes, and normal tissue contours from patients treated in our institution. An IMRT treatment plan was then created using direct aperture optimization to deliver 45 Gy to the pelvic lymph nodes and 50 Gy to the prostate and seminal vesicles. The prostate target volume was then shifted in either the anterior-posterior direction or in the superior-inferior direction. The treatment plan was adapted by adjusting the aperture shapes with or without re-optimizing the segment weighting. The dose to the target volumes was then determined for the adapted plan. Results: Without compensation for prostate motion, 1 cm shifts of the prostate resulted in an average decrease of 14% in D-95%. If the isocenter is simply shifted to match the prostate motion, the prostate receives the correct dose but the pelvic lymph nodes are underdosed by 14% ± 6%. The use of adaptive morphing (with or without segment weight optimization) reduces the average change in D-95% to less than 5% for both the pelvic lymph nodes and the prostate. Conclusions: Adaptive morphing with and without segment weight optimization can be used to compensate for the independent motion of the prostate and lymph nodes when combined with daily imaging or other methods to track the prostate motion. This method allows the delivery of the correct dose to both the prostate and lymph nodes with only small changes to the dose delivered to the target volumes.

  5. Retrospective analysis of prostate cancer patients with implanted gold markers using off-line and adaptive therapy protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litzenberg, Dale W.; Balter, James M.; Lam, Kwok L.; Sandler, Howard M.; Ten Haken, Randall K.

    2005-01-01

    3 were significantly worse. The residual 3D error of the gold markers was 1.14 cm and 0.76 cm for the prone and supine patients, respectively. Application of the shrinking-action-level protocol to bony anatomy with an initial action level of 1.0 cm and N max = 5 days decreased the residual systematic offset of the gold markers in 2 of 10 patients. The residual average 3D setup error of the gold markers was 1.2 cm and 1.0 cm for the prone and supine patients, respectively. When applied directly to the gold markers with N max = 5 days, the residual systematic offset of the gold markers decreased in 6 of 10 patients (0.84 cm and 0.67 cm for the prone and supine patients, respectively). In general, between 3 and 5 of the 10 patients showed significant decreases in setup errors with the application of these off-line protocols, and the remaining patients showed no significant improvement or showed significantly larger setup errors, as determined by the residual error of the gold markers. Conclusion: Changes in a prostate cancer patient's systematic and random setup characteristics during the course of therapy often violate the gaussian assumptions of adaptive and off-line correction models. Thus, off-line setup correction procedures, especially those directed at prostate localization using markers, will result in limited benefit to a minority of patients. The relative benefit of on-line localization is still potentially significant if the intrafraction motion is relatively small

  6. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us ... in which a needle is used to sample cells (tissue) from an abnormal area in the prostate gland for later laboratory testing. ... Do you have a personal ...

  7. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... procedure work? How is the procedure performed? What will I experience during and after the procedure? Who interprets the results and how do I get them? What are the benefits vs. risks? What are the limitations of Prostate ...

  8. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of ...

  9. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... symptoms such as difficulty urinating or an elevated blood test result. It’s also used to investigate a nodule ... exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides real-time ...

  10. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides real-time images, it also can be used to guide procedures such as needle biopsies , in which a needle is used to sample cells (tissue) from an abnormal area in the ...

  11. Prostate brachytherapy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Implant therapy - prostate cancer - discharge; Radioactive seed placement - discharge ... You had a procedure called brachytherapy to treat prostate cancer. Your treatment lasted 30 minutes or more, ...

  12. Treatment planning aids in prostate cancer: friend or foe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, Shawn; Donker, Remco; Dahrouge, Simone; Eapen, Libni; Aref, Ibrahim; Perry, Gad; Szanto, Janos

    2001-01-01

    Background: Rectal barium is commonly used as a treatment planning aid for prostate cancer to delineate the anterior rectal wall. Previous research at the Ottawa Regional Cancer Centre demonstrated that retrograde urethrography results in a systematic shift of the prostate. We postulated that rectal barium could also cause prostate motion. Purpose: The study was designed to evaluate the effects of rectal barium on prostate position. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with cT1-T3 prostate cancer were evaluated. Three fiducial markers were placed in the prostate. During simulation, baseline posterior-anterior and lateral films were taken. Repeat films were taken after rectal barium opacification. The prostate position (identified by the fiducials) relative to bony landmarks was compared before and after rectal barium. Films were analyzed using PIPsPro software. Results: The rectal barium procedure resulted in a significant displacement of the prostate in the anterior and superior direction. The mean displacement of the prostate measured on the lateral films was 3.8 mm (SD: 4.4 mm) in the superior direction and 3.0 mm (SD: 3.1) in the anterior direction. Conclusions: Rectal barium opacification results in a systematic shift of the prostate. This error could result in a geographic miss of the target; therefore, alternate methods of normal tissue definition should be used

  13. Analysis of Lung Tumor Motion in a Large Sample: Patterns and Factors Influencing Precise Delineation of Internal Target Volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knybel, Lukas [Department of Oncology, University Hospital Ostrava, Ostrava (Czech Republic); VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, Ostrava (Czech Republic); Cvek, Jakub, E-mail: Jakub.cvek@fno.cz [Department of Oncology, University Hospital Ostrava, Ostrava (Czech Republic); Molenda, Lukas; Stieberova, Natalie; Feltl, David [Department of Oncology, University Hospital Ostrava, Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    2016-11-15

    Purpose/Objective: To evaluate lung tumor motion during respiration and to describe factors affecting the range and variability of motion in patients treated with stereotactic ablative radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Log file analysis from online respiratory tumor tracking was performed in 145 patients. Geometric tumor location in the lungs, tumor volume and origin (primary or metastatic), sex, and tumor motion amplitudes in the superior-inferior (SI), latero-lateral (LL), and anterior-posterior (AP) directions were recorded. Tumor motion variability during treatment was described using intrafraction/interfraction amplitude variability and tumor motion baseline changes. Tumor movement dependent on the tumor volume, position and origin, and sex were evaluated using statistical regression and correlation analysis. Results: After analysis of >500 hours of data, the highest rates of motion amplitudes, intrafraction/interfraction variation, and tumor baseline changes were in the SI direction (6.0 ± 2.2 mm, 2.2 ± 1.8 mm, 1.1 ± 0.9 mm, and −0.1 ± 2.6 mm). The mean motion amplitudes in the lower/upper geometric halves of the lungs were significantly different (P<.001). Motion amplitudes >15 mm were observed only in the lower geometric quarter of the lungs. Higher tumor motion amplitudes generated higher intrafraction variations (R=.86, P<.001). Interfraction variations and baseline changes >3 mm indicated tumors contacting mediastinal structures or parietal pleura. On univariate analysis, neither sex nor tumor origin (primary vs metastatic) was an independent predictive factor of different movement patterns. Metastatic lesions in women, but not men, showed significantly higher mean amplitudes (P=.03) and variability (primary, 2.7 mm; metastatic, 4.9 mm; P=.002) than primary tumors. Conclusion: Online tracking showed significant irregularities in lung tumor movement during respiration. Motion amplitude was significantly lower in upper lobe

  14. Relation of external surface to internal tumor motion studied with cine CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, P.-C.M.; Balter, Peter; Luo Dershan; Mohan, Radhe; Pan Tinsu

    2006-01-01

    The accuracy of delivering gated-radiation therapy to lung tumors using an external respiratory surrogate relies on not only interfractional and intrafractional reproducibility, but also a strong correlation between external motion and internal tumor motion. The purpose of this work was to use the cine images acquired by four-dimensional computed tomography acquisition protocol to study the relation between external surface motion and internal tumor motion. The respiratory phase information of tumor motion and chest wall motion was measured on the cine images using a proposed region-of-interest (ROI) method and compared to measurement of an external respiratory monitoring device. On eight lung patient data sets, the phase shifts were measured between (1) the signal of a real-time positioning-management (RPM) respiratory monitoring device placed in the abdominal region and four surface locations on the chest wall (2) the RPM signal in the abdominal region and tumor motions, and (3) chest wall surface motions and tumor motions. Respiratory waveforms measured at different surface locations during the same respiratory cycle often varied and had significant phase shifts. Seven of the 8 patients showed the abdominal motion leading chest wall motion. The best correlation (smallest phase shift) was found between the abdominal motion and the superior-inferior (S-I) tumor motion. A wide range of phase shifts was observed between external surface motion and tumor anterior-posterior (A-P)/lateral motion. The result supported the placement of the RPM block in the abdominal region and suggested that during a gated therapy utilizing the RPM system, it is necessary to place the RPM block at the same location as it is during treatment simulation in order to reduce potential errors introduced by the position of the RPM block. Correlations between external motions and lateral/A-P tumor motions were inconclusive due to a combination of patient selection and the limitation of the ROI

  15. Artificial neural network based gynaecological image-guided adaptive brachytherapy treatment planning correction of intra-fractional organs at risk dose variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Jaberi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Intra-fractional organs at risk (OARs deformations can lead to dose variation during image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT. The aim of this study was to modify the final accepted brachytherapy treatment plan to dosimetrically compensate for these intra-fractional organs-applicators position variations and, at the same time, fulfilling the dosimetric criteria. Material and methods : Thirty patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT of 45-50 Gy over five to six weeks with concomitant weekly chemotherapy, and qualified for intracavitary high-dose-rate (HDR brachytherapy with tandem-ovoid applicators were selected for this study. Second computed tomography scan was done for each patient after finishing brachytherapy treatment with applicators in situ. Artificial neural networks (ANNs based models were used to predict intra-fractional OARs dose-volume histogram parameters variations and propose a new final plan. Results : A model was developed to estimate the intra-fractional organs dose variations during gynaecological intracavitary brachytherapy. Also, ANNs were used to modify the final brachytherapy treatment plan to compensate dosimetrically for changes in ‘organs-applicators’, while maintaining target dose at the original level. Conclusions : There are semi-automatic and fast responding models that can be used in the routine clinical workflow to reduce individually IGABT uncertainties. These models can be more validated by more patients’ plans to be able to serve as a clinical tool.

  16. Artificial neural network based gynaecological image-guided adaptive brachytherapy treatment planning correction of intra-fractional organs at risk dose variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaberi, Ramin; Siavashpour, Zahra; Aghamiri, Mahmoud Reza; Kirisits, Christian; Ghaderi, Reza

    2017-12-01

    Intra-fractional organs at risk (OARs) deformations can lead to dose variation during image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT). The aim of this study was to modify the final accepted brachytherapy treatment plan to dosimetrically compensate for these intra-fractional organs-applicators position variations and, at the same time, fulfilling the dosimetric criteria. Thirty patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) of 45-50 Gy over five to six weeks with concomitant weekly chemotherapy, and qualified for intracavitary high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy with tandem-ovoid applicators were selected for this study. Second computed tomography scan was done for each patient after finishing brachytherapy treatment with applicators in situ. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) based models were used to predict intra-fractional OARs dose-volume histogram parameters variations and propose a new final plan. A model was developed to estimate the intra-fractional organs dose variations during gynaecological intracavitary brachytherapy. Also, ANNs were used to modify the final brachytherapy treatment plan to compensate dosimetrically for changes in 'organs-applicators', while maintaining target dose at the original level. There are semi-automatic and fast responding models that can be used in the routine clinical workflow to reduce individually IGABT uncertainties. These models can be more validated by more patients' plans to be able to serve as a clinical tool.

  17. Epidemiology of prostatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, John N.; Lee, Shaun Wen Huey; Jeon, Jeonseong; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Liong, Men Long; Riley, Donald E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Prostatitis describes a combination of infectious diseases (acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis), chronic pelvic pain syndrome, and asymptomatic inflammation. Materials and methods We employed evidence-based methods to review the epidemiology of prostatitis syndromes. Results The prevalence of prostatitis symptoms could be compared in five studies surveying 10 617 men. Overall, 873 participants met various criteria for prostatitis, representing an overall rate of 8.2%, with prevalence ranging from 2.2 to 9.7%. A history of sexually transmitted diseases was associated with an increased risk for prostatitis symptoms. Men reporting a history of prostatitis symptoms had a substantially increased rate of benign prostatic hyperplasia, lower urinary tract symptoms and prostate cancer. In one study, the incidence of physician-diagnosed prostatitis was 4.9 cases per 1000 person-years. Two studies suggest that about one-third of men reporting prostatitis symptoms had resolution after 1 year. Patients with previous episodes and more severe symptoms are at higher risk for chronic pelvic pain. Discussion The prevalence of prostatitis symptoms is high, comparable to rates of ischamic heart disease and diabetes. Clinical evaluation appears necessary to verify that prostatitis is responsible for patients’ symptoms. Prostatitis symptoms may increase a man’s risk for benign prostate hypertrophy, lower urinary tract symptoms and prostate cancer. We need to define natural history and consequences of prostatitis, develop better algorithms for diagnosis and treatment, and develop strategies for prevention. PMID:18164907

  18. Analysis of Lung Tumor Motion in a Large Sample: Patterns and Factors Influencing Precise Delineation of Internal Target Volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knybel, Lukas; Cvek, Jakub; Molenda, Lukas; Stieberova, Natalie; Feltl, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To evaluate lung tumor motion during respiration and to describe factors affecting the range and variability of motion in patients treated with stereotactic ablative radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Log file analysis from online respiratory tumor tracking was performed in 145 patients. Geometric tumor location in the lungs, tumor volume and origin (primary or metastatic), sex, and tumor motion amplitudes in the superior-inferior (SI), latero-lateral (LL), and anterior-posterior (AP) directions were recorded. Tumor motion variability during treatment was described using intrafraction/interfraction amplitude variability and tumor motion baseline changes. Tumor movement dependent on the tumor volume, position and origin, and sex were evaluated using statistical regression and correlation analysis. Results: After analysis of >500 hours of data, the highest rates of motion amplitudes, intrafraction/interfraction variation, and tumor baseline changes were in the SI direction (6.0 ± 2.2 mm, 2.2 ± 1.8 mm, 1.1 ± 0.9 mm, and −0.1 ± 2.6 mm). The mean motion amplitudes in the lower/upper geometric halves of the lungs were significantly different (P 15 mm were observed only in the lower geometric quarter of the lungs. Higher tumor motion amplitudes generated higher intrafraction variations (R=.86, P 3 mm indicated tumors contacting mediastinal structures or parietal pleura. On univariate analysis, neither sex nor tumor origin (primary vs metastatic) was an independent predictive factor of different movement patterns. Metastatic lesions in women, but not men, showed significantly higher mean amplitudes (P=.03) and variability (primary, 2.7 mm; metastatic, 4.9 mm; P=.002) than primary tumors. Conclusion: Online tracking showed significant irregularities in lung tumor movement during respiration. Motion amplitude was significantly lower in upper lobe tumors; higher interfraction amplitude variability indicated tumors in contact

  19. Significance of prostatic weight in prostatism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K M; Bruskewitz, R C; Iversen, P

    1983-01-01

    In addition to routine evaluation, 68 patients with prostatism underwent blinded urodynamic testing prior to transurethral prostatectomy and were reexamined symptomatologically and urodynamically at 3 and 12 months after surgery to determine if prostatic weight could predict postoperative outcome....... Resected prostatic weight correlated with estimated weight at cystoscopy and with obstructive symptoms, but not with urodynamic variables of infravesical obstruction. Patients with small prostates improved symptomatologically to the same degree as patients with larger glands, although they did not improve...... to the same degree urodynamically. Prostatic weight, therefore, could not be used to predict the outcome of transurethral surgery....

  20. Online Image-based Monitoring of Soft-tissue Displacements for Radiation Therapy of the Prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, Jeffrey; Salisbury, Kenneth; Hristov, Dimitre

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Emerging prolonged, hypofractionated radiotherapy regimens rely on high-dose conformality to minimize toxicity and thus can benefit from image guidance systems that continuously monitor target position during beam delivery. To address this need we previously developed, as a potential add-on device for existing linear accelerators, a novel telerobotic ultrasound system capable of real-time, soft-tissue imaging. Expanding on this capability, the aim of this work was to develop and characterize an image-based technique for real-time detection of prostate displacements. Methods and Materials: Image processing techniques were implemented on spatially localized ultrasound images to generate two parameters representing prostate displacements in real time. In a phantom and five volunteers, soft-tissue targets were continuously imaged with a customized robotic manipulator while recording the two tissue displacement parameters (TDPs). Variations of the TDPs in the absence of tissue displacements were evaluated, as was the sensitivity of the TDPs to prostate translations and rotations. Robustness of the approach to probe force was also investigated. Results: With 95% confidence, the proposed method detected in vivo prostate displacements before they exceeded 2.3, 2.5, and 2.8 mm in anteroposterior, superoinferior, and mediolateral directions. Prostate pitch was detected before exceeding 4.7° at 95% confidence. Total system time lag averaged 173 ms, mostly limited by ultrasound acquisition rate. False positives (FPs) (FP) in the absence of displacements did not exceed 1.5 FP events per 10 min of continuous in vivo imaging time. Conclusions: The feasibility of using telerobotic ultrasound for real-time, soft-tissue–based monitoring of target displacements was confirmed in vivo. Such monitoring has the potential to detect small clinically relevant intrafractional variations of the prostate position during beam delivery.

  1. Nonrigid Registration of Prostate Diffusion-Weighted MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Hao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Motion and deformation are common in prostate diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI during acquisition. These misalignments lead to errors in estimating an apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC map fitted with DWI. To address this problem, we propose an image registration algorithm to align the prostate DWI and improve ADC map. First, we apply affine transformation to DWI to correct intraslice motions. Then, nonrigid registration based on free-form deformation (FFD is used to compensate for intraimage deformations. To evaluate the influence of the proposed algorithm on ADC values, we perform statistical experiments in three schemes: no processing of the DWI, with the affine transform approach, and with FFD. The experimental results show that our proposed algorithm can correct the misalignment of prostate DWI and decrease the artifacts of ROI in the ADC maps. These ADC maps thus obtain sharper contours of lesions, which are helpful for improving the diagnosis and clinical staging of prostate cancer.

  2. A rectal balloon catheter as internal immobilization device for conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstner, N.; Wachter, S.; Dorner, D.; Goldner, G.; Colotto, A.; Poetter, R.

    1999-01-01

    Background: As known from the literature, prostate motion depends on different bladder and/or rectum fillings. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of a rectum balloon catheter, used as an internal immobilization device, on prostate and rectum motion during the treatment course. Moreover we have analysed if the balloon enables an increase of the distance between the prostate and the posterior rectum wall. Results: An increase of the distance between the prostate and the posterior rectal wall of 8 mm was observed at the base of the prostate when using the rectum balloon. Moreover prostate motion in the ventrodorsal direction ≥4 mm (1 SD) was reduced from 6/10 patients (60%) to 1/10 patients (10%) using the rectal balloon. In general, deviations in the latero-lateral and cranio-caudal directions were less (mean ≤ 2 mm, 1 SD), no difference between both examination series (with and without balloon) was observed. Conclusion: Rectal balloon catheter offers a possibility to reduce prostate motion and rectum filling variations during treatment course. In addition it enables an increase in the distance between prostate and posterior rectal wall, which could enable an improved protection of the posterior rectal wall. (orig./AJ) [de

  3. Granulomatous prostatitis - an infrequent diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RPS Punia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Granulomatous prostatitis is a rare disorder of pros-tate. We encountered 10 cases of′grmudomatous prosta-titis consisting of 5 cases of non-specific granulomatous prostatitis, 2 cases of xanthogranulomatous prostatitis, I case of tuberculous prostatitis, I case of malakoplakia prostate and I case of granulomatous prostatitis associ-ated with adenocarcinoma prostate. The diagnosis was made by histopathologic examination of trucut biopsy, TURP chips or retropubic prostatectomy specimen. In all the cases, granulomatous prostatitis was an incidental find-ing.

  4. The PROSPER robot for prostate brachytherapy: design, development and preclinical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: reporting the design, development and experiments of a new robotic system for prostate brachytherapy including prostate tracking and MRI to Ultrasound registration. Material and methods: a robot for trans-perineal needle insertion has been developed. It includes the ability to track the prostate position and shape. Experiments on 90 targets inside 9 deformable phantoms have been conducted. A feasibility on 2 cadavers has also been performed. The robot had to place glass seeds simulating brachytherapy seeds as close as possible to physical targets included into the phantom or inside the prostates. A post-operative CT scan of the phantom or prostate was performed in order to measure the accuracy of the system. Results: the median accuracy was 2.73 mm with a median prostate motion of 5.46 mm. The accuracy in the base region was superior to the accuracy in the apex region (2.28 mm vs 3.83 mm, p≤0.01) and was not significantly different for horizontal or oblique needles (2.7 vs 2.82 mm, p=0.18). Cadaver experiments demonstrated that the approach was feasible and that the robot could be used in a real clinical environment. Conclusion: the robot for prostate brachytherapy is the first system enabling prostate tracking. Targets can be accurately reached despite prostate motion and deformation. It could be applied to focal therapy for prostate cancer. (author)

  5. Quantification of prostate movements during radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artignana, X.; Rastkhah, M.; Balosso, J.; Bolla, M.; Fourneret, P.; Gilliot, O.

    2006-01-01

    Decrease treatment uncertainties is one of the most important challenge in radiation oncology. Numerous techniques are available to quantify prostate motion and visualize prostate location day after day before each irradiation: CT-scan, cone-beam-CT-Scan, ultrasound, prostatic markers... The knowledge of prostate motion is necessary to define the minimal margin around the target volume needed to avoid mis-positioning during treatment session. Different kind of prostate movement have been studied and are reported in the present work: namely, those having a large amplitude extending through out the whole treatment period on one hand; and those with a shorter amplitude happening during treatment session one the other hand. The long lasting movement are mostly anterior posterior (3 mm standard deviation), secondary in cranial-caudal (1-2 mm standard deviation) and lateral directions (0.5-1 mm standard deviation). They are mostly due to the rectal state of filling and mildly due to bladder filling or inferior limbs position. On the other hand the shorter movement that occurs during the treatment session is mostly variation of position around a steady point represented by the apex. Ones again, the rectal filling state is the principle cause. This way, during the 20 minutes of a treatment session, including the positioning of the patient, a movement of less than 3 mm could be expected when the rectum is empty. Ideally, real time imaging tools should allow an accurate localisation of the prostate and the adaptation of the dosimetry before each treatment session in a time envelope not exceeding 20 minutes. (author)

  6. Inter- and intrafractional localisation errors in cone-beam CT guided stereotactic radiation therapy of tumours in the liver and lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worm, Esben S.; Hansen, Anders T.; Petersen, Joergen B.; Muren, Ludvig P.; Praestegaard, Lars H.; Hoeyer, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Background. Localisation errors in cone-beam CT (CBCT) guided stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) were evaluated and compared to positioning using the external coordinates of a stereotactic body frame (SBF) alone. Possible correlations to patient- or treatment-specific factors such as body mass index (BMI), planning time, treatment delivery time, and distance between tumour and spinal cord were explored to determine whether they influenced on the benefit of image-guidance. Material and methods. A total of 34 patients received SBRT (3 fractions) for tumours in the liver (15 patients) or the lung (19 patients). Immobilisation and positioning was obtained with a SBF. Pre- and post-treatment CBCT scans were registered with the bony anatomy of the planning CT to find inter- and intrafractional patient positioning errors (PPE). For lung tumour patients, matching was also performed on the tumours to find the tumour positioning errors (TPE) and baseline shifts relative to bony anatomy. Results. The mean inter- and intrafractional 3D vector PPE was 4.5 ± 2.7 mm (average ± SD) and 1.5 ± 0.6 mm, respectively, for the combined group of patients. For lung tumours, the interfractional misalignment was 5.6 ± 1.8 mm. The baseline shift was 3.9 ± 2.0 mm. Intrafractional TPE and baseline shifts were 2.1 ± 0.7 mm and 1.9 ± 0.6 mm, respectively. The magnitude of interfractional baseline shift was closely correlated with the distance between the tumour and the spinal cord. Intrafractional errors were independent of patient BMI, age or gender. Conclusion. Image-guidance reduced setup errors considerably. The study demonstrated the benefit of CBCT-guidance regardless of patient specific factors such as BMI, age or gender. Protection of the spinal cord was facilitated by the correlation between the tumour position relative to the spinal cord and the magnitude of baseline shift.

  7. Motion management during IMAT treatment of mobile lung tumors-A comparison of MLC tracking and gated delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Marianne; Pommer, Tobias; Keall, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:To compare real-time dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking, respiratory amplitude and phase gating, and no compensation for intrafraction motion management during intensity modulated arc therapy (IMAT). Methods: Motion management with MLC tracking and gating was evaluated for four...... tracking reduced the effects of the target movements, although the gated delivery showed a better dosimetric accuracy and enabled a larger reduction of the margins in some cases. MLC tracking did not prolong the treatment time compared to delivery with no motion compensation while gating had a considerably...... of the dosimetric error contributions showed that the gated delivery mainly had errors in target localization, while MLC tracking also had contributions from MLC leaf fitting and leaf adjustment. The average treatment time was about three times longer with gating compared to delivery with MLC tracking (that did...

  8. Experimental investigation of irregular motion impact on 4D PET-based particle therapy monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Y; Stützer, K; Enghardt, W; Priegnitz, M; Helmbrecht, S; Fiedler, F; Bert, C

    2016-01-01

    Particle therapy positron emission tomography (PT-PET) is an in vivo and non-invasive imaging technique to monitor treatment delivery in particle therapy. The inevitable patient respiratory motion during irradiation causes artefacts and inaccurate activity distribution in PET images. Four-dimensional (4D) maximum likelihood expectation maximisation (4D MLEM) allows for a compensation of these effects, but has up to now been restricted to regular motion for PT-PET investigations. However, intra-fractional motion during treatment might differ from that during acquisition of the 4D-planning CT (e.g. amplitude variation, baseline drift) and therefore might induce inaccurate 4D PET reconstruction results. This study investigates the impact of different irregular analytical one-dimensional (1D) motion patterns on PT-PET imaging by means of experiments with a radioactive source and irradiated moving phantoms. Three sorting methods, namely phase sorting, equal amplitude sorting and event-based amplitude sorting, were applied to manage the PET list-mode data. The influence of these sorting methods on the motion compensating algorithm has been analysed. The event-based amplitude sorting showed a superior performance and it is applicable for irregular motions with  ⩽4 mm amplitude elongation and drift. For motion with 10 mm baseline drift, the normalised root mean square error was as high as 10.5% and a 10 mm range deviation was observed. (note)

  9. Experimental investigation of irregular motion impact on 4D PET-based particle therapy monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Y.; Stützer, K.; Enghardt, W.; Priegnitz, M.; Helmbrecht, S.; Bert, C.; Fiedler, F.

    2016-01-01

    Particle therapy positron emission tomography (PT-PET) is an in vivo and non-invasive imaging technique to monitor treatment delivery in particle therapy. The inevitable patient respiratory motion during irradiation causes artefacts and inaccurate activity distribution in PET images. Four-dimensional (4D) maximum likelihood expectation maximisation (4D MLEM) allows for a compensation of these effects, but has up to now been restricted to regular motion for PT-PET investigations. However, intra-fractional motion during treatment might differ from that during acquisition of the 4D-planning CT (e.g. amplitude variation, baseline drift) and therefore might induce inaccurate 4D PET reconstruction results. This study investigates the impact of different irregular analytical one-dimensional (1D) motion patterns on PT-PET imaging by means of experiments with a radioactive source and irradiated moving phantoms. Three sorting methods, namely phase sorting, equal amplitude sorting and event-based amplitude sorting, were applied to manage the PET list-mode data. The influence of these sorting methods on the motion compensating algorithm has been analysed. The event-based amplitude sorting showed a superior performance and it is applicable for irregular motions with  ⩽4 mm amplitude elongation and drift. For motion with 10 mm baseline drift, the normalised root mean square error was as high as 10.5% and a 10 mm range deviation was observed.

  10. Prostate cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000397.htm Prostate cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... trials you may be able to join How Prostate Cancer Staging is Done Initial staging is based on ...

  11. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different tests to find those ... PSA level may be high if you have prostate cancer. It can also be high if you have ...

  12. Prostate radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000399.htm Prostate radiation - discharge To use the sharing features on ... keeping or getting an erection may occur after prostate radiation therapy. You may not notice this problem ...

  13. Enlarged prostate - after care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000398.htm Enlarged prostate - after care To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The prostate is a gland that produces the fluid that ...

  14. Cryotherapy for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000907.htm Cryotherapy for prostate cancer To use the sharing features ... first treatment for prostate cancer. What Happens During Cryotherapy Before the procedure, you will be given medicine ...

  15. Prostate cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Friis, S; Kjaer, S K

    1998-01-01

    To review the trends in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality rates in Denmark during a 50-year period.......To review the trends in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality rates in Denmark during a 50-year period....

  16. Prostate resection - minimally invasive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thermotherapy; TUMT; Urolift; BPH - resection; Benign prostatic hyperplasia (hypertrophy) - resection; Prostate - enlarged - resection ... passing an instrument through the opening in your penis (meatus). You will be given general anesthesia (asleep ...

  17. Intrafractional setup errors in patients undergoing non-invasive fixation using an immobilization system during hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for lung tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Meguru; Onishi, Hiroshi; Kuriyama, Kengo

    2013-01-01

    Intrafractional setup errors during hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) were investigated on the patient under voluntary breath-holding conditions with non-invasive immobilization on the CT-linac treatment table. A total of 30 patients with primary and metastatic lung tumors were treated with the hypofractionated SRT with a total dose of 48-60 Gy with four treatment fractions. The patient was placed supine and stabilized on the table with non-invasive patient fixation. Intrafractional setup errors in Right/Left (R.L.), Posterior/Anterior (P.A.), and Inferior/Superior (I.S.) dimensions were analyzed with pre- and post-irradiation CT images. The means and one standard deviation of the intrafractional errors were 0.9±0.7 mm (R.L.), 0.9±0.7 mm (P.A.) and 0.5±1.0 mm (I.S.). Setup errors in each session of the treatment demonstrated no statistically significant difference in the mean value between any two sessions. The frequency within 3 mm displacement was 98% in R.L., 98% in P.A. and 97% in I.S. directions. SRT under the non-invasive patient fixation immobilization system with a comparatively loose vacuum pillow demonstrated satisfactory reproducibility of minimal setup errors with voluntary breath-holding conditions that required a small internal margin. (author)

  18. Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0185 TITLE: Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jonathan Melamed, MD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-2-0185 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...infrastructure and operations of the Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network (PCBN). The aim of the PCBN is to provide prostate researchers with high-quality

  19. Measurement of lung tumor motion using respiration-correlated CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mageras, Gig S.; Pevsner, Alex; Yorke, Ellen D.; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.; Ford, Eric C.; Hertanto, Agung; Larson, Steven M.; Lovelock, D. Michael; Erdi, Yusuf E.; Nehmeh, Sadek A.; Humm, John L.; Ling, C. Clifton

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: We investigate the characteristics of lung tumor motion measured with respiration-correlated computed tomography (RCCT) and examine the method's applicability to radiotherapy planning and treatment. Methods and materials: Six patients treated for non-small-cell lung carcinoma received a helical single-slice computed tomography (CT) scan with a slow couch movement (1 mm/s), while simultaneously respiration is recorded with an external position-sensitive monitor. Another 6 patients receive a 4-slice CT scan in a cine mode, in which sequential images are acquired for a complete respiratory cycle at each couch position while respiration is recorded. The images are retrospectively resorted into different respiration phases as measured with the external monitor (4-slice data) or patient surface displacement observed in the images (single-slice data). The gross tumor volume (GTV) in lung is delineated at one phase and serves as a visual guide for delineation at other phases. Interfractional GTV variation is estimated by scaling diaphragm position variations measured in gated radiographs at treatment with the ratio of GTV:diaphragm displacement observed in the RCCT data. Results: Seven out of 12 patients show GTV displacement with respiration of more than 1 cm, primarily in the superior-inferior (SI) direction; 2 patients show anterior-posterior displacement of more than 1 cm. In all cases, extremes in GTV position in the SI direction are consistent with externally measured extremes in respiration. Three patients show evidence of hysteresis in GTV motion, in which the tumor trajectory is displaced 0.2 to 0.5 cm anteriorly during expiration relative to inspiration. Significant (>1 cm) expansion of the GTV in the SI direction with respiration is observed in 1 patient. Estimated intrafractional GTV motion for gated treatment at end expiration is 0.6 cm or less in all cases; however; interfraction variation estimates (systematic plus random) are more than 1 cm in 3

  20. Comprehensive overview of prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farhan Ullah; Ihsan, Awais Ullah; Khan, Hidayat Ullah; Jana, Ruby; Wazir, Junaid; Khongorzul, Puregmaa; Waqar, Muhammad; Zhou, Xiaohui

    2017-10-01

    Prostatitis is a common urinary tract syndrome that many doctors find problematic to treat effectively. It is the third most commonly found urinary tract disease in men after prostate cancer and Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH). Prostatitis may account for 25% of all office visits made to the urological clinics complaining about the genital and urinary systems all over the world. In the present study, we classified prostatitis and comprehensively elaborated the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of acute bacterial prostatitis (category I), chronic bacterial prostatitis (category II), chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) (category III), and asymptomatic prostatitis (category IV). In addition, we also tried to get some insights about other types of prostatitis-like fungal, viral and gonococcal prostatitis. The aim of this review is to present the detail current perspective of prostatitis in a single review. To the best of our knowledge currently, there is not a single comprehensive review, which can completely elaborate this important topic in an effective way. Furthermore, this review will provide a solid platform to conduct future studies on different aspects such as risk factors, mechanism of pathogenesis, proper diagnosis, and rational treatment plans for fungal, viral, and gonococcal prostatitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Enlarged Prostate (BPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prostate is a gland in men. It helps make semen, the fluid that contains sperm. The prostate surrounds the tube that carries urine out of the body. As men age, their prostate grows bigger. If it gets too large, it ...

  2. Surrogate-driven deformable motion model for organ motion tracking in particle radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassi, Aurora; Seregni, Matteo; Riboldi, Marco; Cerveri, Pietro; Sarrut, David; Battista Ivaldi, Giovanni; Tabarelli de Fatis, Paola; Liotta, Marco; Baroni, Guido

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study is the development and experimental testing of a tumor tracking method for particle radiation therapy, providing the daily respiratory dynamics of the patient’s thoraco-abdominal anatomy as a function of an external surface surrogate combined with an a priori motion model. The proposed tracking approach is based on a patient-specific breathing motion model, estimated from the four-dimensional (4D) planning computed tomography (CT) through deformable image registration. The model is adapted to the interfraction baseline variations in the patient’s anatomical configuration. The driving amplitude and phase parameters are obtained intrafractionally from a respiratory surrogate signal derived from the external surface displacement. The developed technique was assessed on a dataset of seven lung cancer patients, who underwent two repeated 4D CT scans. The first 4D CT was used to build the respiratory motion model, which was tested on the second scan. The geometric accuracy in localizing lung lesions, mediated over all breathing phases, ranged between 0.6 and 1.7 mm across all patients. Errors in tracking the surrounding organs at risk, such as lungs, trachea and esophagus, were lower than 1.3 mm on average. The median absolute variation in water equivalent path length (WEL) within the target volume did not exceed 1.9 mm-WEL for simulated particle beams. A significant improvement was achieved compared with error compensation based on standard rigid alignment. The present work can be regarded as a feasibility study for the potential extension of tumor tracking techniques in particle treatments. Differently from current tracking methods applied in conventional radiotherapy, the proposed approach allows for the dynamic localization of all anatomical structures scanned in the planning CT, thus providing complete information on density and WEL variations required for particle beam range adaptation.

  3. Nonbacterial prostatitis: a comprehensive review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de la Rosette, J. J.; Debruyne, F. M.

    1991-01-01

    The term 'prostatitis' denotes a condition of inflammation of the prostate. Prostatitis is usually employed to describe any unexplained symptom or condition that might possibly emanate from a disorder of the prostate gland. The diagnosis of nonbacterial prostatitis is reserved for those patients

  4. Prostate-specific antigen density: correlation with histological diagnosis of prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Iersel, M. P.; Witjes, W. P.; de la Rosette, J. J.; Oosterhof, G. O.

    1995-01-01

    To assess the additional value of prostate-specific antigen density in the diagnosis of prostate cancer in patients who undergo prostate biopsies. The study comprised 376 patients with symptoms of prostatism who were undergoing prostate biopsy. Digital rectal examination (DRE) and transrectal

  5. urethral plasmakinetic resection of prostate on prostate- specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reduce blood flow in BPH, thereby preventing bleeding [6,7]. Thus ... urethra, prostate and surrounding tissue ... The peripheral blood and prostatic fluid of the patients ... Coronary heart ..... Length Density of Prostate Vessels, Intraoperative,.

  6. Prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Maria Carlsen; Andersen, Morten Heebøll; Høyer, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Background Active surveillance (AS) of low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) is an accepted alternative to active treatment. However, the conventional diagnostic trans-rectal ultrasound guided biopsies (TRUS-bx) underestimate PCa aggressiveness in almost half of the cases, when compared with the surgical...... lesions. Significant cancer was defined as GS > 6 or GS 6 (3 + 3) lesions with ≥ 6 mm maximal cancer core length (MCCL). Results A total of 78 patients were included and in 21 patients a total of 22 PIRADS-score 4 or 5 lesions were detected. MRGB pathology revealed that 17 (81%) of these and 22......% of the entire AS population harbored significant cancers at AS inclusion. In eight (38%) cases, the GS was upgraded. Also, nine patients (43%) had GS 6 (3 + 3) foci with MCCL ≥ 6 mm. Conclusion In an AS cohort based on TRUS and TRUS-bx diagnostic strategies, supplemental mpMRI and in-bore MRGB were able...

  7. Daily variations in the position of the prostate bed in patients with prostate cancer receiving postoperative external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupelian, Patrick A.; Langen, Katja M.; Willoughby, Twyla R.; Wagner, Thomas H.; Zeidan, Omar A.; Meeks, Sanford L.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of the variation in the position of the prostate bed with respect to the bony anatomy. Methods and Materials: Four patients were treated to 70 Gy in 35 fractions. Before each fraction, a megavoltage computed tomography (CT) of the prostate bed was obtained, resulting in a total of 140 CT studies. Retrospectively, each CT scan was aligned to the simulation kilovoltage scan based on bony anatomy and the prostate bed. The difference between the 2 alignments was calculated for each scan. Results: The average differences (±1 SD) between the two alignments were 0.06 ± 0.37, 0.10 ± 0.86, and 0.39 ± 1.27 mm in the lateral, longitudinal (SI), and vertical (AP) directions, respectively. Laterally, there was no difference ≥3 mm. The cumulative frequency of SI differences were as follows; ≥3 mm: 3%, ≥4 mm: 1%, and ≥5 mm: 1% (maximum: 5 mm). The cumulative frequency of AP differences were as follows; ≥3 mm: 7%, and ≥4 mm: 3% (maximum: 4 mm). Conclusion: In patients with prostate cancer receiving postoperative radiotherapy, the prostate bed motion relative to the pelvic bony anatomy is of a relatively small magnitude. Significant motion (≥3 mm) is infrequent. However, small differences between the prostate bed and the bony anatomy still exist. This might have implications on treatment margins when daily alignment on bony anatomy is performed

  8. Respiration Induced Heart Motion and Indications of Gated Delivery for Left-Sided Breast Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, X. Sharon; Hu, Angela; Wang Kai; Newman, Francis; Crosby, Marcus; Hu Bin; White, Julia; Li, X. Allen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate respiration-induced heart motion for left-sided breast irradiation using a four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) technique and to determine novel indications to assess heart motion and identify breast patients who may benefit from a gated treatment. Methods and Materials: Images of 4DCT acquired during free breathing for 20 left-sided breast cancer patients, who underwent whole breast irradiation with or without regional nodal irradiation, were analyzed retrospectively. Dose distributions were reconstructed in the phases of 0%, 20%, and 50%. The intrafractional heart displacement was measured in three selected transverse CT slices using D LAD (the distance from left ascending aorta to a fixed line [connecting middle point of sternum and the body] drawn on each slice) and maximum heart depth (MHD, the distance of the forefront of the heart to the line). Linear regression analysis was used to correlate these indices with mean heart dose and heart dose volume at different breathing phases. Results: Respiration-induced heart displacement resulted in observable variations in dose delivered to the heart. During a normal free-breathing cycle, heart-induced motion D LAD and MHD changed up to 9 and 11 mm respectively, resulting in up to 38% and 39% increases of mean doses and V 25.2 for the heart. MHD and D LAD were positively correlated with mean heart dose and heart dose volume. Respiratory-adapted gated treatment may better spare heart and ipsilateral-lung compared with the conventional non-gated plan in a subset of patients with large D LAD or MHD variations. Conclusion: Proposed indices offer novel assessment of heart displacement based on 4DCT images. MHD and D LAD can be used independently or jointly as selection criteria for respiratory gating procedure before treatment planning. Patients with great intrafractional MHD variations or tumor(s) close to the diaphragm may particularly benefit from the gated treatment.

  9. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSTICS OF PROSTATE TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Brizhatyuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate tuberculosis is difficult to be diagnosed, especially if lesions are limited only by this organ. The article analyses the experience of differential diagnostics of prostate tuberculosis based on the data of examination of 84 patients. 45 of them were diagnosed with prostate tuberculosis, and 39 patients were diagnosed with chronic bacterial prostatitis. Pathognomonic diagnostics criteria of prostate tuberculosis were the following: detection of tuberculous mycobacteria in the prostatic fluid or ejaculate, signs of granulomatous prostatitis with areas of cavernous necrosis in prostate biopsy samples, and prostate cavities visualized by X-ray or ultrasound examinations. Should the above criteria be absent, the disease can be diagnosed based on the combination of indirect signs: symptoms of prostate inflammation with active tuberculosis of the other localization; large prostate calcification, extensive hyperechoic area of the prostate, spermatocystic lesions, leucospermia and hemospermia, failure of the adequate non-specific anti-bacterial therapy.

  10. Estrogen receptors in the human male prostatic urethra and prostate in prostatic cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, A; Bruun, J; Balslev, E

    1999-01-01

    Estrogen receptors (ERs) in the prostate and prostatic urethra were examined in 33 men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and in 11 with prostate cancer (PC). The Abbot monoclonal ER-ICA assay was used for immunohistochemical investigation. In the BPH group, ERs were revealed in the prostatic...... demonstrated in the prostatic stroma and/or prostatic urethra in 6 out of 11 cases. In both BPH and PC patients, immunoreactivity was weak and confined to few cells, indicating low ER content in the prostate as well as in the prostatic urethra. Dextran-coated charcoal (DCC) analysis was used for detection...... and quanticization of cytosolic and nuclear ERs. In the BPH group, ERs were detected once in the prostate and prostatic urethra in the nuclear and cytosol, and additionally in the prostatic urethra in the cytosol fraction in three cases. In all cases, ER content was low, ranging from 10-15 fmol/mg protein. In the PC...

  11. Risks of Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prostate. The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system located just below the bladder (the organ that ... up part of semen . Enlarge Anatomy of the male reproductive and urinary systems, showing the prostate, testicles, bladder, and other organs. ...

  12. Prostatic specific antigen for prostate cancer detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Nogueira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Prostate-specific antigen (PSA has been used for prostate cancer detection since 1994. PSA testing has revolutionized our ability to diagnose, treat, and follow-up patients. In the last two decades, PSA screening has led to a substantial increase in the incidence of prostate cancer (PC. This increased detection caused the incidence of advanced-stage disease to decrease at a dramatic rate, and most newly diagnosed PC today are localized tumors with a high probability of cure. PSA screening is associated with a 75% reduction in the proportion of men who now present with metastatic disease and a 32.5% reduction in the age-adjusted prostate cancer mortality rate through 2003. Although PSA is not a perfect marker, PSA testing has limited specificity for prostate cancer detection, and its appropriate clinical application remains a topic of debate. Due to its widespread use and increased over-detection, the result has been the occurrence of over-treatment of indolent cancers. Accordingly, several variations as regards PSA measurement have emerged as useful adjuncts for prostate cancer screening. These procedures take into consideration additional factors, such as the proportion of different PSA isoforms (free PSA, complexed PSA, pro-PSA and B PSA, the prostate volume (PSA density, and the rate of change in PSA levels over time (PSA velocity or PSA doubling time. The history and evidence underlying each of these parameters are reviewed in the following article.

  13. Prostatic specific antigen for prostate cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Lucas; Corradi, Renato; Eastham, James A

    2009-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been used for prostate cancer detection since 1994. PSA testing has revolutionized our ability to diagnose, treat, and follow-up patients. In the last two decades, PSA screening has led to a substantial increase in the incidence of prostate cancer (PC). This increased detection caused the incidence of advanced-stage disease to decrease at a dramatic rate, and most newly diagnosed PC today are localized tumors with a high probability of cure. PSA screening is associated with a 75% reduction in the proportion of men who now present with metastatic disease and a 32.5% reduction in the age-adjusted prostate cancer mortality rate through 2003. Although PSA is not a perfect marker, PSA testing has limited specificity for prostate cancer detection, and its appropriate clinical application remains a topic of debate. Due to its widespread use and increased over-detection, the result has been the occurrence of over-treatment of indolent cancers. Accordingly, several variations as regards PSA measurement have emerged as useful adjuncts for prostate cancer screening. These procedures take into consideration additional factors, such as the proportion of different PSA isoforms (free PSA, complexed PSA, pro-PSA and B PSA), the prostate volume (PSA density), and the rate of change in PSA levels over time (PSA velocity or PSA doubling time). The history and evidence underlying each of these parameters are reviewed in the following article.

  14. Analysis of interfraction and intrafraction variation during tangential breast irradiation with an electronic portal imaging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Ryan P.; Bloch, Peter; Harris, Eleanor E.; McDonough, James; Sarkar, Abhirup; Kassaee, Alireza; Avery, Steven; Solin, Lawrence J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the daily setup variation and the anatomic movement of the heart and lungs during breast irradiation with tangential photon beams, as measured with an electronic portal imaging device. Methods and materials: Analysis of 1,709 portal images determined changes in the radiation field during a treatment course in 8 patients. Values obtained for every image included central lung distance (CLD) and area of lung and heart within the irradiated field. The data from these measurements were used to evaluate variation from setup between treatment days and motion due to respiration and/or patient movement during treatment delivery. Results: The effect of respiratory motion and movement during treatment was minimal: the maximum range in CLD for any patient on any day was 0.25 cm. The variation caused by day-to-day setup variation was greater, with CLD values for patients ranging from 0.59 cm to 2.94 cm. Similar findings were found for heart and lung areas. Conclusions: There is very little change in CLD and corresponding lung and heart area during individual radiation treatment fractions in breast tangential fields, compared with a relatively greater amount of variation that occurs between days

  15. TRP Channels in Human Prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Van Haute

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This review gives an overview of morphological and functional characteristics in the human prostate. It will focus on the current knowledge about transient receptor potential (TRP channels expressed in the human prostate, and their putative role in normal physiology and prostate carcinogenesis. Controversial data regarding the expression pattern and the potential impact of TRP channels in prostate function, and their involvement in prostate cancer and other prostate diseases, will be discussed.

  16. Initial clinical evaluation of PET-based ion beam therapy monitoring under consideration of organ motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Christopher; Bauer, Julia; Unholtz, Daniel; Richter, Daniel; Herfarth, Klaus; Debus, Jürgen; Parodi, Katia

    2016-02-01

    Intrafractional organ motion imposes considerable challenges to scanned ion beam therapy and demands for a thorough verification of the applied treatment. At the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT), the scanned ion beam delivery is verified by means of postirradiation positron-emission-tomography (PET) imaging. This work presents a first clinical evaluation of PET-based treatment monitoring in ion beam therapy under consideration of target motion. Three patients with mobile liver lesions underwent scanned carbon ion irradiation at HIT and postirradiation PET/CT (x-ray-computed-tomography) imaging with a commercial scanner. Respiratory motion was recorded during irradiation and subsequent image acquisition. This enabled a time-resolved (4D) calculation of the expected irradiation-induced activity pattern and, for one patient where an additional 4D CT was acquired at the PET/CT scanner after treatment, a motion-compensated PET image reconstruction. For the other patients, PET data were reconstructed statically. To verify the treatment, calculated prediction and reconstructed measurement were compared with a focus on the ion beam range. Results in the current three patients suggest that for motion amplitudes in the order of 2 mm there is no benefit from incorporating respiratory motion information into PET-based treatment monitoring. For a target motion in the order of 10 mm, motion-related effects become more severe and a time-resolved modeling of the expected activity distribution can lead to an improved data interpretation if a sufficient number of true coincidences is detected. Benefits from motion-compensated PET image reconstruction could not be shown conclusively at the current stage. The feasibility of clinical PET-based treatment verification under consideration of organ motion has been shown for the first time. Improvements in noise-robust 4D PET image reconstruction are deemed necessary to enhance the clinical potential.

  17. Initial clinical evaluation of PET-based ion beam therapy monitoring under consideration of organ motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurz, Christopher; Bauer, Julia; Unholtz, Daniel; Herfarth, Klaus; Debus, Jürgen; Richter, Daniel; Parodi, Katia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Intrafractional organ motion imposes considerable challenges to scanned ion beam therapy and demands for a thorough verification of the applied treatment. At the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT), the scanned ion beam delivery is verified by means of postirradiation positron-emission-tomography (PET) imaging. This work presents a first clinical evaluation of PET-based treatment monitoring in ion beam therapy under consideration of target motion. Methods: Three patients with mobile liver lesions underwent scanned carbon ion irradiation at HIT and postirradiation PET/CT (x-ray-computed-tomography) imaging with a commercial scanner. Respiratory motion was recorded during irradiation and subsequent image acquisition. This enabled a time-resolved (4D) calculation of the expected irradiation-induced activity pattern and, for one patient where an additional 4D CT was acquired at the PET/CT scanner after treatment, a motion-compensated PET image reconstruction. For the other patients, PET data were reconstructed statically. To verify the treatment, calculated prediction and reconstructed measurement were compared with a focus on the ion beam range. Results: Results in the current three patients suggest that for motion amplitudes in the order of 2 mm there is no benefit from incorporating respiratory motion information into PET-based treatment monitoring. For a target motion in the order of 10 mm, motion-related effects become more severe and a time-resolved modeling of the expected activity distribution can lead to an improved data interpretation if a sufficient number of true coincidences is detected. Benefits from motion-compensated PET image reconstruction could not be shown conclusively at the current stage. Conclusions: The feasibility of clinical PET-based treatment verification under consideration of organ motion has been shown for the first time. Improvements in noise-robust 4D PET image reconstruction are deemed necessary to enhance the

  18. Audiovisual Biofeedback Improves Cine–Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measured Lung Tumor Motion Consistency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Danny [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sidney, NSW (Australia); Greer, Peter B. [School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, The University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Ludbrook, Joanna; Arm, Jameen; Hunter, Perry [Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Pollock, Sean; Makhija, Kuldeep; O' brien, Ricky T. [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sidney, NSW (Australia); Kim, Taeho [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sidney, NSW (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Keall, Paul, E-mail: paul.keall@sydney.edu.au [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sidney, NSW (Australia)

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of an audiovisual (AV) biofeedback on intra- and interfraction tumor motion for lung cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Lung tumor motion was investigated in 9 lung cancer patients who underwent a breathing training session with AV biofeedback before 2 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sessions. The breathing training session was performed to allow patients to become familiar with AV biofeedback, which uses a guiding wave customized for each patient according to a reference breathing pattern. In the first MRI session (pretreatment), 2-dimensional cine-MR images with (1) free breathing (FB) and (2) AV biofeedback were obtained, and the second MRI session was repeated within 3-6 weeks (mid-treatment). Lung tumors were directly measured from cine-MR images using an auto-segmentation technique; the centroid and outlier motions of the lung tumors were measured from the segmented tumors. Free breathing and AV biofeedback were compared using several metrics: intra- and interfraction tumor motion consistency in displacement and period, and the outlier motion ratio. Results: Compared with FB, AV biofeedback improved intrafraction tumor motion consistency by 34% in displacement (P=.019) and by 73% in period (P<.001). Compared with FB, AV biofeedback improved interfraction tumor motion consistency by 42% in displacement (P<.046) and by 74% in period (P=.005). Compared with FB, AV biofeedback reduced the outlier motion ratio by 21% (P<.001). Conclusions: These results demonstrated that AV biofeedback significantly improved intra- and interfraction lung tumor motion consistency for lung cancer patients. These results demonstrate that AV biofeedback can facilitate consistent tumor motion, which is advantageous toward achieving more accurate medical imaging and radiation therapy procedures.

  19. Audiovisual Biofeedback Improves Cine–Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measured Lung Tumor Motion Consistency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Danny; Greer, Peter B.; Ludbrook, Joanna; Arm, Jameen; Hunter, Perry; Pollock, Sean; Makhija, Kuldeep; O'brien, Ricky T.; Kim, Taeho; Keall, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of an audiovisual (AV) biofeedback on intra- and interfraction tumor motion for lung cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Lung tumor motion was investigated in 9 lung cancer patients who underwent a breathing training session with AV biofeedback before 2 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sessions. The breathing training session was performed to allow patients to become familiar with AV biofeedback, which uses a guiding wave customized for each patient according to a reference breathing pattern. In the first MRI session (pretreatment), 2-dimensional cine-MR images with (1) free breathing (FB) and (2) AV biofeedback were obtained, and the second MRI session was repeated within 3-6 weeks (mid-treatment). Lung tumors were directly measured from cine-MR images using an auto-segmentation technique; the centroid and outlier motions of the lung tumors were measured from the segmented tumors. Free breathing and AV biofeedback were compared using several metrics: intra- and interfraction tumor motion consistency in displacement and period, and the outlier motion ratio. Results: Compared with FB, AV biofeedback improved intrafraction tumor motion consistency by 34% in displacement (P=.019) and by 73% in period (P<.001). Compared with FB, AV biofeedback improved interfraction tumor motion consistency by 42% in displacement (P<.046) and by 74% in period (P=.005). Compared with FB, AV biofeedback reduced the outlier motion ratio by 21% (P<.001). Conclusions: These results demonstrated that AV biofeedback significantly improved intra- and interfraction lung tumor motion consistency for lung cancer patients. These results demonstrate that AV biofeedback can facilitate consistent tumor motion, which is advantageous toward achieving more accurate medical imaging and radiation therapy procedures.

  20. [Large benign prostatic hiperplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria-Fernández, Guillermo René; Jungfermann-Guzman, José René; Lomelín-Ramos, José Pedro; Jaspersen-Gastelum, Jorge; Rosas-Nava, Jesús Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    the term prostatic hyperplasia is most frequently used to describe the benign prostatic growth, this being a widely prevalent disorder associated with age that affects most men as they age. The association between prostate growth and urinary obstruction in older adults is well documented. large benign prostatic hyperplasia is rare and few cases have been published and should be taken into account during the study of tumors of the pelvic cavity. we report the case of an 81-year-old who had significant symptoms relating to storage and bladder emptying, with no significant elevation of prostate specific antigen. this is a rare condition but it is still important to diagnose and treat as it may be related to severe obstructive uropathy and chronic renal failure. In our institution, cases of large prostatic hyperplasia that are solved by suprapubic adenomectomy are less than 3%.

  1. [Epigenetics of prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiao-Ming; Zhou, Wen-Quan

    2010-07-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in males, and its etiology and pathogenesis remain unclear. Epigenesis is involved in prostate cancer at all stages of the process, and closely related with its growth and metastasis. DNA methylation and histone modification are the most important manifestations of epigenetics in prostate cancer. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis of DNA methylation include whole-genome hypomethylation, aberrant local hypermethylation of promoters and genomic instability. DNA methylation is closely related to the process of prostate cancer, as in DNA damage repair, hormone response, tumor cell invasion/metastasis, cell cycle regulation, and so on. Histone modification causes corresponding changes in chromosome structure and the level of gene transcription, and it may affect the cycle, differentiation and apoptosis of cells, resulting in prostate cancer. Some therapies have been developed targeting the epigenetic changes in prostate cancer, including DNA methyltransferases and histone dea