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Sample records for prostate carcinoma cells

  1. Spindle-cell carcinoma of the prostate

    Carlos Hirokatsu Watanabe Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoma of the prostate and sarcomatoid carcinoma of the prostate are rareconditions, both characterized by a poor prognosis. Sarcomatoid carcinoma ofthe prostate typically arises from the evolution of an underlying adenocarcinoma,occasionally featuring heterologous elements, bulky disease being possiblebut rare. In contrast, sarcoma of the prostate derives from non-epithelialmesenchymal components of the prostatic stroma, shows rapid growth, andfrequently presents as massive pelvic tumors obstructing the urinary tractat the time of diagnosis. We report the case of a 55-year-old patient with atwo-month history of symptoms of urinary obstruction. The patient presentedwith an extremely enlarged heterogeneous prostate, although his prostatespecificantigen level was low. The lack of a history of prostatic neoplasia ledus to suspect sarcoma, and a transrectal prostate biopsy was carried out. Animmunohistochemical study of the biopsy specimen did not confirm the clinicalsuspicion. However, in view of the clinical features, we believe that sarcoma ofthe prostate was the most likely diagnosis. The patient received neoadjuvantchemotherapy followed by radiation therapy. At this writing, surgical resectionhad yet to be scheduled.

  2. Preferential radiosensitization of human prostatic carcinoma cells by mild hyperthermia

    Ryu, Samuel; Brown, Stephen L.; Kim, Sang-Hie; Khil, Mark S.; Kim, Jae Ho

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Recent cell culture studies by us and others suggest that some human carcinoma cells are more sensitive to heat than are rodent cells following mild hyperthermia. In studying the cellular mechanism of enhanced thermosensitivity of human tumor cells to hyperthermia, prostatic carcinoma cells of human origin were found to be more sensitive to mild hyperthermia than other human cancer cells. The present study was designed to determine the magnitude of radiosensitization of human prostatic carcinoma cells by mild hyperthermia and to examine whether the thermal radiosensitization is related to the intrinsic thermosensitivity of cancer cells. Methods and Materials: Two human prostatic carcinoma cell lines (DU-145 and PC-3) and other carcinoma cells of human origin, in particular, colon (HT-29), breast (MCF-7), lung (A-549), and brain (U-251) were exposed to temperatures of 40-41 deg. C. Single acute dose rate radiation and fractionated radiation were combined with mild hyperthermia to determine thermal radiosensitization. The end point of the study was the colony-forming ability of single-plated cells. Results: DU-145 and PC-3 cells were found to be exceedingly thermosensitive to 41 deg. C for 24 h, relative to other cancer cell lines. Ninety percent of the prostatic cancer cells were killed by a 24 h heat exposure. Prostatic carcinoma cells exposed to a short duration of heating at 41 deg. C for 2 h resulted in a substantial enhancement of radiation-induced cytotoxicity. The thermal enhancement ratios (TERs) of single acute dose radiation following heat treatment 41 deg. C for 2 h were 2.0 in DU-145 cells and 1.4 in PC-3 cells. The TERs of fractionated irradiation combined with continuous heating at 40 deg. C were similarly in the range of 2.1 to 1.4 in prostate carcinoma cells. No significant radiosensitization was observed in MCF-7 and HT-29 cells under the same conditions. Conclusion: The present data suggest that a significant radiosensitization of

  3. Prostate carcinomas

    Toledano, A.; Chauveinc, L.; Flam, T.; Thiounn, N.; Solignac, S.; Timbert, M.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Cosset, J.M.; Ammor, A.; Bonnetain, F.; Brenier, J.P.; Maingon, P.; Peignaux, K.; Truc, G.; Bosset, M.; Crevoisier, R. de; Tucker, S.; Dong, L.; Cheung, R.; Kuban, D.; Azria, D.; Llacer Moscardo, C.; Ailleres, N.; Allaw, A.; Serre, A.; Fenoglietto, P.; Hay, M.H.; Thezenas, S.; Dubois, J.B.; Pommier, P.; Perol, D.; Lagrange, J.L.; Richaud, P.; Brune, D.; Le Prise, E.; Azria, D.; Beckendorf, V.; Chabaud, S.; Carrie, C.; Bosset, M.; Bosset, J.F.; Maingon, P.; Ammor, A.; Crehangen, G.; Truc, G.; Peignaux, K.; Bonnetain, F.; Keros, L.; Bernier, V.; Aletti, P.; Wolf, D.; Marchesia, V.; Noel, A.; Artignan, X.; Fourneret, P.; Bacconier, M.; Shestaeva, O.; Pasquier, D.; Descotes, J.L.; Balosso, J.; Bolla, M.; Burette, R.; Corbusier, A.; Germeau, F.; Crevoisier, R. de; Dong, L.; Bonnen, M.; Cheung, R.; Tucker, S.; Kuban, D.; Crevoisier, R. de; Melancon, A.; Kuban, D.; Cheung, R.; Dong, L.; Peignaux, K.; Brenier, J.P.; Truc, G.; Bosset, M.; Ammor, A.; Barillot, I.; Maingon, P.; Molines, J.C.; Berland, E.; Cornulier, J. de; Coulet-Parpillon, A.; Cohard, C.; Picone, M.; Fourneret, P.; Artignan, X.; Daanen, V.; Gastaldo, J.; Bolla, M.; Collomb, D.; Dusserre, A.; Descotes, J.L.; Troccaz, J.; Giraud, J.Y.; Quero, L.; Hennequin, C.; Ravery, V.; Desgrandschamps, F.; Maylin, C.; Boccon-Gibod, L.; Salem, N.; Bladou, F.; Gravis, G.; Tallet, A.; Simonian, M.; Serment, G.; Salem, N.; Bladou, F.; Gravis, G.; Simonian, M.; Rosello, R.; Serment, G.

    2005-01-01

    Some short communications on the prostate carcinoma are given here. The impact of pelvic irradiation, conformation with intensity modulation, association of radiotherapy and chemotherapy reduction of side effects, imaging, doses escalation are such subjects studied and reported. (N.C.)

  4. Androgen Receptor Expression in Epithelial and Stromal Cells of Prostatic Carcinoma and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    Filipovski, Vanja; Kubelka-Sabit, Katerina; Jasar, Dzengis; Janevska, Vesna

    2017-08-15

    Prostatic carcinoma (PCa) derives from prostatic epithelial cells. However stromal microenvironment, associated with malignant epithelium, also plays a role in prostatic carcinogenesis. Alterations in prostatic stromal cells contribute to the loss of growth control in epithelial cells that lead to progression of PCa. To analyse the differences between Androgen Receptor (AR) expression in both epithelial and stromal cells in PCa and the surrounding benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and to compare the results with tumour grade. Samples from 70 cases of radical prostatectomy specimens were used. The expression and intensity of the signal for AR was analysed in the epithelial and stromal cells of PCa and BPH, and the data was quantified using histological score (H-score). AR showed significantly lower expression in both epithelial and stromal cells of PCa compared to BPH. In PCa a significant positive correlation of AR expression was found between stromal and epithelial cells of PCa. AR expression showed a correlation between the stromal cells of PCa and tumour grade. AR expression is reduced in epithelial and stromal cells of PCa. Expression of AR in stromal cells of PCa significantly correlates with tumour grade.

  5. Establishing an in vivo model of canine prostate carcinoma using the new cell line CT1258

    Fork, Melani AM; Bullerdiek, Jörn; Nolte, Ingo; Escobar, Hugo Murua; Soller, Jan T; Sterenczak, Katharina A; Willenbrock, Saskia; Winkler, Susanne; Dorsch, Martina; Reimann-Berg, Nicola; Hedrich, Hans J

    2008-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a frequent finding in man. In dogs, malignant disease of the prostate is also of clinical relevance, although it is a less common diagnosis. Even though there are numerous differences in origin and development of the disease, man and dog share many similarities in the pathological presentation. For this reason, the dog might be a useful animal model for prostate malignancies in man. Although prostate cancer is of great importance in veterinary medicine as well as in comparative medicine, there are only few cell lines available. Thus, it was the aim of the present study to determine whether the formerly established prostate carcinoma cell line CT1258 is a suitable tool for in vivo testing, and to distinguish the growth pattern of the induced tumours. For characterisation of the in vivo behaviour of the in vitro established canine prostate carcinoma cell line CT1258, cells were inoculated in 19 NOD.CB17-Prkdc Scid /J (in the following: NOD-Scid) mice, either subcutaneously or intraperitoneally. After sacrifice, the obtained specimens were examined histologically and compared to the pattern of the original tumour in the donor. Cytogenetic investigation was performed. The cell line CT 1258 not only showed to be highly tumourigenic after subcutaneous as well as intraperitoneal inoculation, but also mimicked the behaviour of the original tumour. Tumours induced by inoculation of the cell line CT1258 resemble the situation in naturally occurring prostate carcinoma in the dog, and thus could be used as in vivo model for future studies

  6. Interlink between cholesterol & cell cycle in prostate carcinoma

    Govind Singh

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The present findings along with increased expression of cell cycle protein cyclin E in the cell nucleus of the tumour tissue suggested the possibility of an intriguing role of cholesterol in the mechanism of cell cycle process of prostate cell proliferation.

  7. Low grade urothelial carcinoma mimicking basal cell hyperplasia and transitional metaplasia in needle prostate biopsy

    Julian Arista-Nasr

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose The vast majority of urothelial carcinomas infiltrating the bladder are consistent with high-grade tumors that can be easily recognized as malignant in needle prostatic biopsies. In contrast, the histological changes of low-grade urothelial carcinomas in this kind of biopsy have not been studied. Materials and Methods We describe the clinicopathologic features of two patients with low-grade bladder carcinomas infiltrating the prostate. They reported dysuria and hematuria. Both had a slight elevation of the prostate specific antigen and induration of the prostatic lobes. Needle biopsies were performed. At endoscopy bladder tumors were found in both cases. Results Both biopsies showed nests of basophilic cells and cells with perinuclear clearing and slight atypia infiltrating acini and small prostatic ducts. The stroma exhibited extensive desmoplasia and chronic inflammation. The original diagnosis was basal cell hyperplasia and transitional metaplasia. The bladder tumors also showed low-grade urothelial carcinoma. In one case, the neoplasm infiltrated the lamina propria, and in another, the muscle layer. In both, a transurethral resection was performed for obstructive urinary symptoms. The neoplasms were positive for high molecular weight keratin (34BetaE12 and thrombomodulin. No metastases were found in either of the patients, and one of them has survived for five years. Conclusions The diagnosis of low-grade urothelial carcinoma in prostate needle biopsies is difficult and may simulate benign prostate lesions including basal cell hyperplasia and urothelial metaplasia. It is crucial to recognize low-grade urothelial carcinoma in needle biopsies because only an early diagnosis and aggressive treatment can improve the prognosis for these patients.

  8. An Aggressive Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma of the Prostate in a Japanese Man

    Yasuhiro Hashimoto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC of the prostate is rare, with approximately 100 case reports to date. Here we report a very aggressive case of SRCC of the prostate in a Japanese man. The patient received estramustine, docetaxel, and carboplatin combination chemotherapy, followed by TS-1 and CPT-11 combination therapy. Unfortunately, the disease progressed, and he died of general metastatic disease treated over 16 month with systemic chemotherapy.

  9. Cytokeratin characterization of human prostatic carcinoma and its derived cell lines.

    Nagle, R B; Ahmann, F R; McDaniel, K M; Paquin, M L; Clark, V A; Celniker, A

    1987-01-01

    Two murine monoclonal anti-cytokeratin antibodies with defined specificity were shown to distinguish between basal cells and luminal cells in human prostate tissue. Forty-one biopsies or transurethral resection specimens were characterized using these two antibodies. In cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia, focal loss of the basal cell layer was noted in areas of glandular proliferation. Ten cases of adenocarcinoma of the prostate, varying in Gleason's histological grade from 2 to 4, were also studied. In each case the carcinoma was shown to represent the luminal cell phenotype with no evidence of involvement of the basal cell phenotype. An analysis of three established metastatic prostatic carcinoma cell lines (DU-145, PC-3, and LNCaP) using two-dimensional electrophoresis showed that the cytokeratin complement of each cell line was slightly different but retained the phenotype of the luminal cell. It was concluded that during both hyperplasia and neoplastic transformation of the prostate, the luminal cell phenotype is primarily involved and that the basal cell phenotype does not appear to contribute to either intraluminal proliferation or invasive cell populations.

  10. Establishing an in vivo model of canine prostate carcinoma using the new cell line CT1258

    Winkler Susanne

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate cancer is a frequent finding in man. In dogs, malignant disease of the prostate is also of clinical relevance, although it is a less common diagnosis. Even though there are numerous differences in origin and development of the disease, man and dog share many similarities in the pathological presentation. For this reason, the dog might be a useful animal model for prostate malignancies in man. Although prostate cancer is of great importance in veterinary medicine as well as in comparative medicine, there are only few cell lines available. Thus, it was the aim of the present study to determine whether the formerly established prostate carcinoma cell line CT1258 is a suitable tool for in vivo testing, and to distinguish the growth pattern of the induced tumours. Methods For characterisation of the in vivo behaviour of the in vitro established canine prostate carcinoma cell line CT1258, cells were inoculated in 19 NOD.CB17-PrkdcScid/J (in the following: NOD-Scid mice, either subcutaneously or intraperitoneally. After sacrifice, the obtained specimens were examined histologically and compared to the pattern of the original tumour in the donor. Cytogenetic investigation was performed. Results The cell line CT 1258 not only showed to be highly tumourigenic after subcutaneous as well as intraperitoneal inoculation, but also mimicked the behaviour of the original tumour. Conclusion Tumours induced by inoculation of the cell line CT1258 resemble the situation in naturally occurring prostate carcinoma in the dog, and thus could be used as in vivo model for future studies.

  11. Effect of radiation combined with hyperthermia on human prostatic carcinoma cell lines in culture

    Kaver, I.; Ware, J.L.; Wilson, J.D.; Koontz, W.W. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of radiation combined with heat on three human prostatic carcinoma cell lines growing in vitro was investigated. Cells were exposed to different radiation doses followed by heat treatment at 43 degrees C for one hour. Heat treatment, given ten minutes after radiation, significantly enhanced the radiation response of all the cell lines studied. The combined effect of radiation and heat produced greater cytotoxicity than predicted from the additive effects of the two individual treatment modalities alone. These results indicate that a combined treatment regimen of radiation plus hyperthermia (43 degrees, 1 hr) might be an important tool in maintaining a better local control of prostatic cancer

  12. Superoxide dismutase in radioresistant PC-3 human prostate carcinoma cells

    Prokopovic, J.; Adzic M; Niciforovic, A.; Vucic, V.; Zaric, B.; Radojcic, M. B.

    2006-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of gamma-ionizing radiation (IR) resistance of human prostate cancer cells PC-3 is not known. Since low-LET-IR effects are primarily achieved through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), IR-induced expression of ROS-metabolizing antioxidant enzymes, Mn- and CuZn-superoxide dismutase (Mn- and CuZnSOD) and catalase (CAT), and their upstream regulator transcription factor NFκB was followed. Significant elevation of both SODs was found in cells irradiated with 10- and 20 Gy, while CAT and NFκB expression was unchanged. Since, such conditions lead to accumulation of H 2 O 2 , it is concluded that radioresistance of PC-3 cells may emerge from positive feed-forward vicious circle established between H 2 O 2 activation of NFκB and elevated MnSOD activity. (author)

  13. Brain metastasis from prostate small cell carcinoma: not to be neglected.

    Erasmus, C.E.; Verhagen, W.I.M.; Wauters, C.A.P.; Lindert, E.J. van

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Symptomatic brain metastases from prostatic carcinoma are rare (0.05% to 0.5%). CASE REPORT: A 70-year-old man presented with a homonymous hemianopsia due to brain metastatic prostatic carcinoma shortly before becoming symptomatic of prostatic disease. CT and MRI of the brain showed a

  14. Biochemical characterization of prostate-specific membrane antigen from canine prostate carcinoma cells.

    Wu, Lisa Y; Johnson, Jacqueline M; Simmons, Jessica K; Mendes, Desiree E; Geruntho, Jonathan J; Liu, Tiancheng; Dirksen, Wessel P; Rosol, Thomas J; Davis, William C; Berkman, Clifford E

    2014-05-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) remains an important target for diagnostic and therapeutic application for human prostate cancer. Model cell lines have been recently developed to study canine prostate cancer but their PSMA expression and enzymatic activity have not been elucidated. The present study was focused on determining PSMA expression in these model canine cell lines and the use of fluorescent small-molecule enzyme inhibitors to detect canine PSMA expression by flow cytometry. Western blot and RT-PCR were used to determine the transcriptional and translational expression of PSMA on the canine cell lines Leo and Ace-1. An endpoint HPLC-based assay was used to monitor the enzymatic activity of canine PSMA and the potency of enzyme inhibitors. Flow cytometry was used to detect the PSMA expressed on Leo and Ace-1 cells using a fluorescently tagged PSMA enzyme inhibitor. Canine PSMA expression on the Leo cell line was confirmed by Western blot and RT-PCR, the enzyme activity, and flow cytometry. Kinetic parameters Km and Vmax of PSMA enzymatic activity for the synthetic substrate (PABGγG) were determined to be 393 nM and 220 pmol min(-1)  mg protein(-1) , respectively. The inhibitor core 1 and fluorescent inhibitor 2 were found to be potent reversible inhibitors (IC50  = 13.2 and 1.6 nM, respectively) of PSMA expressed on the Leo cell line. Fluorescent labeling of Leo cells demonstrated that the fluorescent PSMA inhibitor 2 can be used for the detection of PSMA-positive canine prostate tumor cells. Expression of PSMA on Ace-1 was low and not detectable by flow cytometry. The results described herein have demonstrated that PSMA is expressed on canine prostate tumor cells and exhibits similar enzymatic characteristics as human PSMA. The findings show that the small molecule enzyme inhibitors currently being studied for use in diagnosis and therapy of human prostate cancer can also be extended to include canine prostate cancer. Importantly

  15. Differential Modulation of Transcription Factors and Cytoskeletal Proteins in Prostate Carcinoma Cells by a Bacterial Lactone

    Senthil R. Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study tested the effect of a bacterial lactone N-(3-oxododecanoyl-homoserine lactone (C12-HSL on the cytoskeletal and transcriptional genes and proteins in prostate adenocarcinoma (PA cells (DU145 and LNCaP and prostate small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SCNC PC3 cells including their cellular viability and apoptosis. Our data indicate that cell migration and colony formation were affected in the presence of C12-HSL. C12-HSL induced apoptosis and altered viability of both PA and SCNC cells in a concentration dependent manner as measured by fluorescence and chemiluminescence assays. Compared to PCa cells, noncancerous prostate epithelial cells (RWPE1 were resistant to modification by C12-HSL. Further, the viability of PC3 cells in 3D matrix was suppressed by C12-HSL treatment as detected using calcein AM fluorescence in situ. C12-HSL treatment induced cytoskeletal associated protein expression of vinculin and RhoC, which may have implications in cancer cell motility, adhesion, and metastasis. IQGAP protein expression was reduced in DU145 and RWPE1 cells in the presence of C12-HSL. C12-HSL decreased STAT3 phosphorylation in DU145 cells but increased STAT1 protein phosphorylation in PC3 and LNCaP cells. Overall, these studies indicate that C12-HSL can trigger changes in transcription factors and cytoskeletal proteins and thereby modulate growth and migration properties of PCa cells.

  16. Differentially methylated genes and androgen receptor re-expression in small cell prostate carcinomas.

    Kleb, Brittany; Estécio, Marcos R H; Zhang, Jiexin; Tzelepi, Vassiliki; Chung, Woonbok; Jelinek, Jaroslav; Navone, Nora M; Tahir, Salahaldin; Marquez, Victor E; Issa, Jean-Pierre; Maity, Sankar; Aparicio, Ana

    2016-03-03

    Small cell prostate carcinoma (SCPC) morphology is rare at initial diagnosis but often emerges during prostate cancer progression and portends a dismal prognosis. It does not express androgen receptor (AR) or respond to hormonal therapies. Clinically applicable markers for its early detection and treatment with effective chemotherapy are needed. Our studies in patient tumor-derived xenografts (PDX) revealed that AR-negative SCPC (AR(-)SCPC) expresses neural development genes instead of the prostate luminal epithelial genes characteristic of AR-positive castration-resistant adenocarcinomas (AR(+)ADENO). We hypothesized that the differences in cellular lineage programs are reflected in distinct epigenetic profiles. To address this hypothesis, we compared the DNA methylation profiles of AR(-) and AR(+) PDX using methylated CpG island amplification and microarray (MCAM) analysis and identified a set of differentially methylated promoters, validated in PDX and corresponding donor patient samples. We used the Illumina 450K platform to examine additional regions of the genome and the correlation between the DNA methylation profiles of the PDX and their corresponding patient tumors. Struck by the low frequency of AR promoter methylation in the AR(-)SCPC, we investigated this region's specific histone modification patterns by chromatin immunoprecipitation. We found that the AR promoter was enriched in silencing histone modifications (H3K27me3 and H3K9me2) and that EZH2 inhibition with 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep) resulted in AR expression and growth inhibition in AR(-)SCPC cell lines. We conclude that the epigenome of AR(-) is distinct from that of AR(+) castration-resistant prostate carcinomas, and that the AR(-) phenotype can be reversed with epigenetic drugs.

  17. A novel combination of multiple primary carcinomas: Urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma, prostate adenocarcinoma and small cell lung carcinoma- report of a case and review of the literature

    Giannikaki Elpida

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of multiple primary malignant neoplasms increases with age and they are encountered more frequently nowadays than before, the phenomenon is still considered to be rare. Case presentation We report a case of a man in whom urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma, metachronous prostate adenocarcinoma and small cell lung carcinoma were diagnosed within an eighteen-month period. The only known predisposing factor was that he was heavy smoker (90–100 packets per year. The literature on the phenomenon of multiple primary malignancies in a single patient is reviewed and the data is summarized. Conclusion It is important for the clinicians to keep in mind the possibility of a metachronous (successive or a synchronous (simultaneous malignancy in a cancer patient. It is worthy mentioning this case because clustering of three primary malignancies (synchronous and metachronous is of rare occurrence in a single patient, and, to our knowledge, this is the first report this combination of three carcinomas appearing in the same patient.

  18. Prostate carcinomas; Cancer de la prostate

    Toledano, A.; Chauveinc, L.; Flam, T.; Thiounn, N.; Solignac, S.; Timbert, M.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Cosset, J.M.; Ammor, A.; Bonnetain, F.; Brenier, J.P.; Maingon, P.; Peignaux, K.; Truc, G.; Bosset, M.; Crevoisier, R. de; Tucker, S.; Dong, L.; Cheung, R.; Kuban, D.; Azria, D.; Llacer Moscardo, C.; Ailleres, N.; Allaw, A.; Serre, A.; Fenoglietto, P.; Hay, M.H.; Thezenas, S.; Dubois, J.B.; Pommier, P.; Perol, D.; Lagrange, J.L.; Richaud, P.; Brune, D.; Le Prise, E.; Azria, D.; Beckendorf, V.; Chabaud, S.; Carrie, C.; Bosset, M.; Bosset, J.F.; Maingon, P.; Ammor, A.; Crehangen, G.; Truc, G.; Peignaux, K.; Bonnetain, F.; Keros, L.; Bernier, V.; Aletti, P.; Wolf, D.; Marchesia, V.; Noel, A.; Artignan, X.; Fourneret, P.; Bacconier, M.; Shestaeva, O.; Pasquier, D.; Descotes, J.L.; Balosso, J.; Bolla, M.; Burette, R.; Corbusier, A.; Germeau, F.; Crevoisier, R. de; Dong, L.; Bonnen, M.; Cheung, R.; Tucker, S.; Kuban, D.; Crevoisier, R. de; Melancon, A.; Kuban, D.; Cheung, R.; Dong, L.; Peignaux, K.; Brenier, J.P.; Truc, G.; Bosset, M.; Ammor, A.; Barillot, I.; Maingon, P.; Molines, J.C.; Berland, E.; Cornulier, J. de; Coulet-Parpillon, A.; Cohard, C.; Picone, M.; Fourneret, P.; Artignan, X.; Daanen, V.; Gastaldo, J.; Bolla, M.; Collomb, D.; Dusserre, A.; Descotes, J.L.; Troccaz, J.; Giraud, J.Y.; Quero, L.; Hennequin, C.; Ravery, V.; Desgrandschamps, F.; Maylin, C.; Boccon-Gibod, L.; Salem, N.; Bladou, F.; Gravis, G.; Tallet, A.; Simonian, M.; Serment, G.; Salem, N.; Bladou, F.; Gravis, G.; Simonian, M.; Rosello, R.; Serment, G

    2005-11-15

    Some short communications on the prostate carcinoma are given here. The impact of pelvic irradiation, conformation with intensity modulation, association of radiotherapy and chemotherapy reduction of side effects, imaging, doses escalation are such subjects studied and reported. (N.C.)

  19. MicroRNA-125a-5p regulates cancer cell proliferation and migration through NAIF1 in prostate carcinoma.

    Fu, Yi; Cao, Fuhua

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the functional roles of microRNA-125a-5p in regulating human prostate carcinoma. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was conducted to evaluate the gene expression levels of miR-125a-5p in eight prostate cancer cell lines and nine biopsy specimens from patients with prostate cancer. miR-125a-5p was genetically knocked down in prostate cancer cell lines, DU145 and VCaP cells by lentiviral transduction. The effects of miR-125a-5p downregulation on prostate cancer cell proliferation and migration were evaluated by MTT assay and transwell assay, respectively. Direct regulation of miR-125a-5p on its downstream targets, NAIF1, and apoptotic gene caspase-3 were evaluated through dual-luciferase reporter assay, qRT-PCR, and Western blot, respectively. NAIF1 was then ectopically overexpressed in DU145 and VCaP cells to modulate prostate cancer cell proliferation and migration. Finally, the effects of miR-125a-5p downregulation or NAIF1 overexpression on the growth of in vivo prostate cancer xenograft were evaluated. miR-125a-5p was upregulated in prostate cancer cell lines and human prostate carcinomas. Lentivirus induced miR-125a-5p downregulation in DU145 and VCaP cells inhibited prostate cancer cell proliferation or migration. NAIF1 was the direct target of miR-125a-5p, as both gene and protein expression levels of NAIF1, as well as caspase-3 were upregulated by miR-125a-5p. Forced overexpression of NAIF1 had similar antitumor effects as miR-125a-5p downregulation on prostate cancer cell proliferation and migration. In vivo prostate xenograft assay confirmed the tumor-suppressive effect of miR-125a-5p downregulation or NAIF1 overexpression. miR-125a-5p regulates prostate cancer cell proliferation and migration through NAIF1.

  20. Effects of oridonin nanosuspension on cell proliferation and apoptosis of human prostatic carcinoma PC-3 cell line

    Zhen Zhang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Zhen Zhang, Xiumei Zhang, Wei Xue, Yuna YangYang, Derong Xu, Yunxue Zhao, Haiyan LouSchool of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Republic of ChinaAbstract: This study aims to investigate the inhibitory effects of oridonin nanosuspension on human prostatic carcinoma PC-3 cell line in vitro. The PC-3 cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of oridonin solution and nanosuspensions for 12 hours, 24 hours, and 36 hours. MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay was performed to measure cellular viability and investigate the effect of oridonin on cell growth of PC-3. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining method was used to determine the effect of oridonin by fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry, respectively. Nanosuspension on early apoptosis of PC-3 cells was also evaluated. Oridonin significantly inhibited the growth of PC-3 cells after 12 hours, 24 hours, and 36 hours of treatment in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05. Compared with the same concentration of oridonin solution, oridonin nanosuspension enhanced the inhibition ratio of proliferation. The observation of propidium iodide fluorescence staining confirmed the MTT assay results. The cell proportion of PC-3 at the G2/M phase in the nanosuspension treatment group was upregulated compared with that of the control and oridonin solution groups. Both oridonin solution and nanosuspension promoted the early apoptosis of PC-3 cells. Furthermore, while improving the ratio of early apoptosis, oridonin nanosuspensions also enhanced growth suppression, and induced apoptosis of PC-3 cells. This shows great potential in the treatment of androgen-independent carcinoma of prostate by oridonin nanosuspensions.Keywords: oridonin, nanosuspension, carcinoma of prostate, PC-3 cells, cell cycle, apoptosis

  1. A Network Biology Approach Identifies Molecular Cross-Talk between Normal Prostate Epithelial and Prostate Carcinoma Cells.

    Victor Trevino

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The advent of functional genomics has enabled the genome-wide characterization of the molecular state of cells and tissues, virtually at every level of biological organization. The difficulty in organizing and mining this unprecedented amount of information has stimulated the development of computational methods designed to infer the underlying structure of regulatory networks from observational data. These important developments had a profound impact in biological sciences since they triggered the development of a novel data-driven investigative approach. In cancer research, this strategy has been particularly successful. It has contributed to the identification of novel biomarkers, to a better characterization of disease heterogeneity and to a more in depth understanding of cancer pathophysiology. However, so far these approaches have not explicitly addressed the challenge of identifying networks representing the interaction of different cell types in a complex tissue. Since these interactions represent an essential part of the biology of both diseased and healthy tissues, it is of paramount importance that this challenge is addressed. Here we report the definition of a network reverse engineering strategy designed to infer directional signals linking adjacent cell types within a complex tissue. The application of this inference strategy to prostate cancer genome-wide expression profiling data validated the approach and revealed that normal epithelial cells exert an anti-tumour activity on prostate carcinoma cells. Moreover, by using a Bayesian hierarchical model integrating genetics and gene expression data and combining this with survival analysis, we show that the expression of putative cell communication genes related to focal adhesion and secretion is affected by epistatic gene copy number variation and it is predictive of patient survival. Ultimately, this study represents a generalizable approach to the challenge of deciphering cell

  2. A Network Biology Approach Identifies Molecular Cross-Talk between Normal Prostate Epithelial and Prostate Carcinoma Cells.

    Trevino, Victor; Cassese, Alberto; Nagy, Zsuzsanna; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Herbert, John; Antczak, Philipp; Clarke, Kim; Davies, Nicholas; Rahman, Ayesha; Campbell, Moray J; Guindani, Michele; Bicknell, Roy; Vannucci, Marina; Falciani, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The advent of functional genomics has enabled the genome-wide characterization of the molecular state of cells and tissues, virtually at every level of biological organization. The difficulty in organizing and mining this unprecedented amount of information has stimulated the development of computational methods designed to infer the underlying structure of regulatory networks from observational data. These important developments had a profound impact in biological sciences since they triggered the development of a novel data-driven investigative approach. In cancer research, this strategy has been particularly successful. It has contributed to the identification of novel biomarkers, to a better characterization of disease heterogeneity and to a more in depth understanding of cancer pathophysiology. However, so far these approaches have not explicitly addressed the challenge of identifying networks representing the interaction of different cell types in a complex tissue. Since these interactions represent an essential part of the biology of both diseased and healthy tissues, it is of paramount importance that this challenge is addressed. Here we report the definition of a network reverse engineering strategy designed to infer directional signals linking adjacent cell types within a complex tissue. The application of this inference strategy to prostate cancer genome-wide expression profiling data validated the approach and revealed that normal epithelial cells exert an anti-tumour activity on prostate carcinoma cells. Moreover, by using a Bayesian hierarchical model integrating genetics and gene expression data and combining this with survival analysis, we show that the expression of putative cell communication genes related to focal adhesion and secretion is affected by epistatic gene copy number variation and it is predictive of patient survival. Ultimately, this study represents a generalizable approach to the challenge of deciphering cell communication networks

  3. Testicular Metastases From Prostate Carcinoma

    Harrina Erlianti Rahardjo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis of prostate carcinoma to the testis is seldom reported. The tumour may spread from the prostatic urethra by retrograde venous extension, arterial embolism or through direct invasion into the lymphatics and lumen of the vas deferens. Clinical manifestations of secondary testicular tumours from the prostate are most often unsuspected clinically and are instead detected incidentally during orchidectomy. Less frequently, a palpable mass is detected, which may be confused with a primary testicular neoplasm. We report a case of a 66-year-old patient with adenocarcinoma of the prostate, and a left testicular tumour that was diagnosed as metastases from prostate carcinoma after radical orchidectomy.

  4. Overexpression of vimentin in canine prostatic carcinoma

    Rodrigues, M M P; Rema, A; Gärtner, F

    2011-01-01

    Canine prostatic tumours exhibit similarities to those of man and may represent a useful model system to explore the mechanisms of cancer progression. Tumour progression to malignancy requires a change from an epithelial phenotype to a fibroblastic or mesenchymal phenotype. Vimentin expression...... is associated with the invasive phenotype of human prostate cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to characterize immunohistochemically the expression of vimentin by canine prostatic carcinomas. Primary carcinomas and metastatic tumour foci both showed vimentin expression. This finding suggests...... that the acquisition of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotype in canine prostatic carcinoma may be characterized by the presence of mesenchymal intermediate filament (vimentin) that could lead to a higher likelihood of metastasis....

  5. Constitutive Activation of NF-kappaB in Prostate Carcinoma Cells Through a Positive Feedback Loop: Implication of Inducible IKK-Related Kinase (IKKi)

    Budunova, Irina V

    2004-01-01

    The overall goal of this project is to understand the role of inducible IKK-related kinase IKKi in constitutive activation of anti-apoptotic transcription factor NF-kB prostate carcinoma (PC) cells...

  6. Constitutive Activation of NF-KB in Prostate Carcinoma Cells Through a Positive Feedback Loop: Implication of Inducible IKK-Related Kinase (IKKi)

    Budunova, Irina V

    2005-01-01

    The overall goal of this project is to understand the role of inducible IKK-related kinase IKKi in constitutive activation of anti-apoptotic transcription factor NF-KB prostate carcinoma (PC) cells...

  7. Differential Effects of Leptin on the Invasive Potential of Androgen-Dependent and -Independent Prostate Carcinoma Cells

    Dayanand D. Deo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has been linked with an increased risk of prostate cancer. The formation of toxic free oxygen radicals has been implicated in obesity mediated disease processes. Leptin is one of the major cytokines produced by adipocytes and controls body weight homeostasis through food intake and energy expenditure. The rationale of the study was to determine the impact of leptin on the metastatic potential of androgen-sensitive (LNCaP cells as well as androgen-insensitive (PC-3 and DU-145 cells. At a concentration of 200_nm, LNCaP cells showed a significant increase (20% above control; P<.0001 in cellular proliferation without any effect on androgen-insensitive cells. Furthermore, exposure to leptin caused a significant (P<.01 to P<.0001 dose-dependent decrease in migration and invasion of PC3 and Du-145 prostate carcinoma cell lines. At the molecular level, exposure of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells to leptin stimulates the phosphorylation of MAPK at early time point as well as the transcription factor STAT3, suggesting the activation of the intracellular signaling cascade upon leptin binding to its cognate receptor. Taken together, these results suggest that leptin mediates the invasive potential of prostate carcinoma cells, and that this effect is dependent on their androgen sensitivity.

  8. Cellular and molecular effects of the liposomal mTHPC derivative Foslipos in prostate carcinoma cells in-vitro

    Besic Gyenge, E; Hiestand, S; Graefe, S; Walt, H; Maake, C

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Meso-tetra-hydroxyphenyl-chlorine (mTHPC) is among the most powerful photosensitizers available for photodynamic therapy (PDT). However, the mechanisms leading to cell death are poorly understood. We here focused on changes at DNA and RNA levels after treatment with the liposomal mTHPC derivative Foslipos in vitro. METHODS: After determination of darktoxicity, laser conditions and uptake kinetics, PC-3 prostate carcinoma cells were subjected to PDT with Foslipos, followed by as...

  9. Severe Cushing’s syndrome due to small cell prostate carcinoma: a case and review of literature

    M S Elston

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cushing’s syndrome (CS due to ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH is associated with a variety of tumours most of which arise in the thorax or abdomen. Prostate carcinoma is a rare but important cause of rapidly progressive CS. To report a case of severe CS due to ACTH production from prostate neuroendocrine carcinoma and summarise previous published cases. A 71-year-old male presented with profound hypokalaemia, oedema and new onset hypertension. The patient reported two weeks of weight gain, muscle weakness, labile mood and insomnia. CS due to ectopic ACTH production was confirmed with failure to suppress cortisol levels following low- and high-dose dexamethasone suppression tests in the presence of a markedly elevated ACTH and a normal pituitary MRI. Computed tomography demonstrated an enlarged prostate with features of malignancy, confirmed by MRI. Subsequent prostatic biopsy confirmed neuroendocrine carcinoma of small cell type and conventional adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Adrenal steroidogenesis blockade was commenced using ketoconazole and metyrapone. Complete biochemical control of CS and evidence of disease regression on imaging occurred after four cycles of chemotherapy with carboplatin and etoposide. By the sixth cycle, the patient demonstrated radiological progression followed by recurrence of CS and died nine months after initial presentation. Prostate neuroendocrine carcinoma is a rare cause of CS that can be rapidly fatal, and early aggressive treatment of the CS is important. In CS where the cause of EAS is unable to be identified, a pelvic source should be considered and imaging of the pelvis carefully reviewed.

  10. A receptor tyrosine kinase, UFO/Axl, and other genes isolated by a modified differential display PCR are overexpressed in metastatic prostatic carcinoma cell line DU145.

    Jacob, A N; Kalapurakal, J; Davidson, W R; Kandpal, G; Dunson, N; Prashar, Y; Kandpal, R P

    1999-01-01

    We have used a modified differential display PCR protocol for isolating 3' restriction fragments of cDNAs specifically expressed or overexpressed in metastatic prostate carcinoma cell line DU145. Several cDNA fragments were identified that matched to milk fat globule protein, UFO/Axl, a receptor tyrosine kinase, human homologue of a Xenopus maternal transcript, laminin and laminin receptor, human carcinoma-associated antigen, and some expressed sequence tags. The transcript for milk fat globule protein, a marker protein shown to be overexpressed in breast tumors, was elevated in DU145 cells. The expression of UFO/Axl, a receptor tyrosine kinase, was considerably higher in DU145 cells as compared to normal prostate cells and prostatic carcinoma cell line PC-3. The overexpression of UFO oncogene in DU145 cells is discussed in the context of prostate cancer metastasis.

  11. PC-3 prostate carcinoma cells release signal substances that influence the migratory activity of cells in the tumor's microenvironment

    Zänker Kurt S

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor cells interact with the cells of the microenvironment not only by cell-cell-contacts but also by the release of signal substances. These substances are known to induce tumor vascularization, especially under hypoxic conditions, but are also supposed to provoke other processes such as tumor innervation and inflammatory conditions. Inflammation is mediated by two organ systems, the neuroendocrine system and the immune system. Therefore, we investigated the influence of substances released by PC-3 human prostate carcinoma cells on SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells as well as neutrophil granulocytes and cytotoxic T lymphocytes, especially with regard to their migratory activity. Results PC-3 cells express several cytokines and growth factors including vascular endothelial growth factors, fibroblast growth factors, interleukins and neurotrophic factors. SH-SY5Y cells are impaired in their migratory activity by PC-3 cell culture supernatant, but orientate chemotactically towards the source. Neutrophil granulocytes increase their locomotory activity only in response to cell culture supernantant of hypoxic but not of normoxic PC-3 cells. In contrast, cytotoxic T lymphocytes do not change their migratory activity in response to either culture supernatant, but increase their cytotoxicity, whereas supernatant of normoxic PC-3 cells leads to a stronger increase than that of hypoxic PC-3 cells. Conclusions PC-3 cells release several signal substances that influence the behavior of the cells in the tumor's microenvironment, whereas no clear pattern towards proinflammatory or immunosuppressive conditions can be seen.

  12. Small cell carcinoma of the prostate in an elderly patient: a case report and review of the literature

    Dale Alan Whitaker Jr.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy of men in the United States. Small-cell carcinoma (SCC, which typically presents as an aggressive lung malignancy, is a rare diagnosis within the setting of prostate cancer pathology. Due to its limited prevalence, little information regarding the treatment and prognosis of this disease in large populations is available. To date our current knowledge base is largely limited to case reports and retrospective case reviews. The mainstay of treatment for this particular histology most often involves a multimodality approach utilizing chemotherapy in conjunction with radiation therapy, androgen deprivation therapy, or prostatectomy. Here we present the case of an elderly 89- year-old Caucasian male who was diagnosed with SCC of the prostate. Despite proceeding with a course of definitive radiotherapy, the patient experienced rapid progression of disease and ultimately elected to discontinue radiation therapy and receive hospice care.

  13. Small cell carcinoma of the prostate presenting with Cushing Syndrome. A narrative review of an uncommon condition.

    Rueda-Camino, José Antonio; Losada-Vila, Beatriz; De Ancos-Aracil, Cristina Lucía; Rodríguez-Lajusticia, Laura; Tardío, Juan Carlos; Zapatero-Gaviria, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma (SCC) of the prostate is an uncommon condition; there are very few cases in which presenting symptoms are consistent with Cushing Syndrome (CS). We report a new case in which CS triggers the suspicion of an SCC of the prostate and a review of the published cases of SCC of the prostate presenting with CS. The origin of these neoplasms is still unclear. It may be suspected when laboratory features appear in patients diagnosed with prostatic adenocarcinoma which becomes resistant to specific therapy. SCC usually occurs after the 6th decade. Patients suffering SCC of the prostate presenting with CS usually present symptoms such as hypertension, hyperglycemia, alkalosis or hypokalemia; cushingoid phenotype is less frequent. Cortisol and ACTH levels are often high. Prostatic-specific antigen levels are usually normal. CT scan is the preferred imaging test to localize the lesion, but its performance may be improved by adding other tests, such as FDG-PET scan. All patients have metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. Lymph nodes, liver and bone are the most frequent metastases sites. Surgery and Ketokonazole are the preferred treatments for CS. The prognosis is very poor: 2- and 5-year survival rates are 27.5 and 14.3%, respectively. Key messages When a patient presents with ectopic Cushing Syndrome but lungs are normal, an atypical localization should be suspected. We should suspect a prostatic origin if Cushing Syndrome is accompanied by obstructive inferior urinary tract symptoms or in the setting of a prostatic adenocarcinoma with rapid clinical and radiological progression with relatively low PSA levels. Although no imaging test is preferred to localize these tumors, FDG-PET-TC can be very useful. Hormone marker scintigraphy (e.g. somatostatin) could be used too. As Cushing Syndrome is a paraneoplastic phenomenon, treatment of the underlying disease may help control hypercortisolism manifestations. These tumors are usually metastatic by the

  14. Ghrelin inhibits proliferation and increases T-type Ca2+ channel expression in PC-3 human prostate carcinoma cells

    Diaz-Lezama, Nundehui; Hernandez-Elvira, Mariana; Sandoval, Alejandro; Monroy, Alma; Felix, Ricardo; Monjaraz, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Ghrelin decreases prostate carcinoma PC-3 cells proliferation. → Ghrelin favors apoptosis in PC-3 cells. → Ghrelin increase in intracellular free Ca 2+ levels in PC-3 cells. → Grelin up-regulates expression of T-type Ca 2+ channels in PC-3 cells. → PC-3 cells express T-channels of the Ca V 3.1 and Ca V 3.2 subtype. -- Abstract: Ghrelin is a multifunctional peptide hormone with roles in growth hormone release, food intake and cell proliferation. With ghrelin now recognized as important in neoplastic processes, the aim of this report is to present findings from a series of in vitro studies evaluating the cellular mechanisms involved in ghrelin regulation of proliferation in the PC-3 human prostate carcinoma cells. The results showed that ghrelin significantly decreased proliferation and induced apoptosis. Consistent with a role in apoptosis, an increase in intracellular free Ca 2+ levels was observed in the ghrelin-treated cells, which was accompanied by up-regulated expression of T-type voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels. Interestingly, T-channel antagonists were able to prevent the effects of ghrelin on cell proliferation. These results suggest that ghrelin inhibits proliferation and may promote apoptosis by regulating T-type Ca 2+ channel expression.

  15. Prostate carcinoma: current diagnostic strategy

    Schwarzschild, Monica Maria Agata Stiepcich; Ferraz, Maria Lucia Cardoso Gomes; Oliveira, Jose Marcelo Amatuzzi; Andriolo, Adagmar

    2001-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second cause of cancer death in men in the Western world. Despite progress in the treatment of advanced disease, it is recognized that the only possibility of reduction in prostate cancer death is nearly diagnosis when the disease is localized. In the present study our aim was to review the current strategy for diagnosis of prostate carcinoma. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a valuable tumor marker and has demonstrated effectiveness in detecting prostate carcinoma, monitoring therapeutic efficacy, and disclosing disease recurrence. However, alternative methods are been proposed just as the free to total PSA ratio, PSA density, PSA velocity, which could improve the diagnostic sensibility and the specificity. Image diagnostic methods include transrectal ultra sound, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance image, and bone cintigraphy. The ultra sound is the best approach to guide the prostate biopsy and, together with the magnetic resonance is still useful for loco regional graduation. Computerized tomography as magnetic resonance image can be used for identification of linfonodal involvement. Bone cintigraphy is the best method for the identification of metastatic disease. (author)

  16. Metastatic Breast Carcinoma to the Prostate Gland

    Meghan E. Kapp

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer of the male breast is an uncommon event with metastases to the breast occurring even less frequently. Prostate carcinoma has been reported as the most frequent primary to metastasize to the breast; however, the reverse has not been previously reported. Herein, we present, for the first time, a case of breast carcinoma metastasizing to the prostate gland. Prostate needle core biopsy revealed infiltrative nests of neoplastic epithelioid cells, demonstrated by immunohistochemistry (IHC to be positive for GATA3 and ER and negative for PSA and P501S. A prostate cocktail by IHC study demonstrated lack of basal cells (p63 and CK903 and no expression of P501S. The patient’s previous breast needle core biopsy showed strong ER positivity and negative staining for PR and HER2. Similar to the prostate, the breast was negative for CK5/6, p63, and p40. This case demonstrates the importance of considering a broad differential diagnosis and comparing histology and IHC to prior known malignancies in the setting of atypical presentation or rare tumors.

  17. Phenotypic relationships of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia to invasive prostatic carcinoma.

    Nagle, R. B.; Brawer, M. K.; Kittelson, J.; Clark, V.

    1991-01-01

    Thirty-one snap-frozen human prostate specimens containing examples of benign hyperplasia, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), and invasive carcinoma were analyzed using a panel of 24 antibodies and one lectin. Twenty-seven additional routinely processed radical prostatectomy specimens were studied using selected probes known to work on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded material. Three probes, anticytokeratin KA4, anti-vimentin V9, and the lectin from Ulex europaeus (UEA-1), demonstrated phenotypic similarities between PIN and invasive carcinoma. Whereas the luminal cells of normal or hyperplastic prostatic epithelium are minimally reactive with KA4 (4%) or UEA-1 (0%) and strongly reactive with anti-vimentin (91%), both the PIN and invasive carcinoma are reactive with KA4 (89% and 93%, respectively) and UEA-1 (96% and 93%, respectively) and minimally reactive with anti-vimentin (15% and 0%, respectively). The increased KA4 staining was shown to be in part due to detection of cytokeratin 19, by using cytokeratin-19-specific antibodies, 4.62 and LP2K. The reasons for the increased expression of this cytokeratin and the decreased expression of vimentin are unclear but seem to indicate a phenotypic relationship between the PIN lesions and invasive carcinoma. Images Figure 4 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1987760

  18. Withanolides from Aeroponically Grown Physalis peruviana and Their Selective Cytotoxicity to Prostate Cancer and Renal Carcinoma Cells.

    Xu, Ya-Ming; Wijeratne, E M Kithsiri; Babyak, Ashley L; Marks, Hanna R; Brooks, Alan D; Tewary, Poonam; Xuan, Li-Jiang; Wang, Wen-Qiong; Sayers, Thomas J; Gunatilaka, A A Leslie

    2017-07-28

    Investigation of aeroponically grown Physalis peruviana resulted in the isolation of 11 new withanolides, including perulactones I-L (1-4), 17-deoxy-23β-hydroxywithanolide E (5), 23β-hydroxywithanolide E (6), 4-deoxyphyperunolide A (7), 7β-hydroxywithanolide F (8), 7β-hydroxy-17-epi-withanolide K (9), 24,25-dihydro-23β,28-dihydroxywithanolide G (10), and 24,25-dihydrowithanolide E (11), together with 14 known withanolides (12-25). The structures of 1-11 were elucidated by the analysis of their spectroscopic data, and 12-25 were identified by comparison of their spectroscopic data with those reported. All withanolides were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against a panel of tumor cell lines including LNCaP (androgen-sensitive human prostate adenocarcinoma), 22Rv1 (androgen-resistant human prostate adenocarcinoma), ACHN (human renal adenocarcinoma), M14 (human melanoma), SK-MEL-28 (human melanoma), and normal human foreskin fibroblast cells. Of these, the 17β-hydroxywithanolides (17-BHWs) 6, 8, 9, 11-13, 15, and 19-22 showed selective cytotoxic activity against the two prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and 22Rv1, whereas 13 and 20 exhibited selective toxicity for the ACHN renal carcinoma cell line. These cytotoxicity data provide additional structure-activity relationship information for the 17-BHWs.

  19. Comparative analysis of metastasis variants derived from human prostate carcinoma cells: roles in intravasation of VEGF-mediated angiogenesis and uPA-mediated invasion

    Conn, Erin M; Bøtkjær, Kenneth Alrø; Kupriyanova, Tatyana A

    2009-01-01

    To analyze the process of tumor cell intravasation, we used the human tumor-chick embryo spontaneous metastasis model to select in vivo high (PC-hi/diss) and low (PC-lo/diss) disseminating variants from the human PC-3 prostate carcinoma cell line. These variants dramatically differed in their int...

  20. Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ... Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Squamous cell carcinoma Overview Squamous cell carcinoma: This man's skin ... a squamous cell carcinoma on his face. Squamous cell carcinoma: Overview Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a ...

  1. SHBG is an important factor in stemness induction of cells by DHT in vitro and associated with poor clinical features of prostate carcinomas.

    Ma, Yuanyuan; Liang, Dongming; Liu, Jian; Wen, Jian-Guo; Servoll, Einar; Waaler, Gudmund; Sæter, Thorstein; Axcrona, Karol; Vlatkovic, Ljiljana; Axcrona, Ulrika; Paus, Elisabeth; Yang, Yue; Zhang, Zhiqian; Kvalheim, Gunnar; Nesland, Jahn M; Suo, Zhenhe

    2013-01-01

    Androgen plays a vital role in prostate cancer development. However, it is not clear whether androgens influence stem-like properties of prostate cancer, a feature important for prostate cancer progression. In this study, we show that upon DHT treatment in vitro, prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and PC-3 were revealed with higher clonogenic potential and higher expression levels of stemness related factors CD44, CD90, Oct3/4 and Nanog. Moreover, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) was also simultaneously upregulated in these cells. When the SHBG gene was blocked by SHBG siRNA knock-down, the induction of Oct3/4, Nanog, CD44 and CD90 by DHT was also correspondingly blocked in these cells. Immunohistochemical evaluation of clinical samples disclosed weakly positive, and areas negative for SHBG expression in the benign prostate tissues, while most of the prostate carcinomas were strongly positive for SHBG. In addition, higher levels of SHBG expression were significantly associated with higher Gleason score, more seminal vesicle invasions and lymph node metastases. Collectively, our results show a role of SHBG in upregulating stemness of prostate cancer cells upon DHT exposure in vitro, and SHBG expression in prostate cancer samples is significantly associated with poor clinicopathological features, indicating a role of SHBG in prostate cancer progression.

  2. SHBG is an important factor in stemness induction of cells by DHT in vitro and associated with poor clinical features of prostate carcinomas.

    Yuanyuan Ma

    Full Text Available Androgen plays a vital role in prostate cancer development. However, it is not clear whether androgens influence stem-like properties of prostate cancer, a feature important for prostate cancer progression. In this study, we show that upon DHT treatment in vitro, prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and PC-3 were revealed with higher clonogenic potential and higher expression levels of stemness related factors CD44, CD90, Oct3/4 and Nanog. Moreover, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG was also simultaneously upregulated in these cells. When the SHBG gene was blocked by SHBG siRNA knock-down, the induction of Oct3/4, Nanog, CD44 and CD90 by DHT was also correspondingly blocked in these cells. Immunohistochemical evaluation of clinical samples disclosed weakly positive, and areas negative for SHBG expression in the benign prostate tissues, while most of the prostate carcinomas were strongly positive for SHBG. In addition, higher levels of SHBG expression were significantly associated with higher Gleason score, more seminal vesicle invasions and lymph node metastases. Collectively, our results show a role of SHBG in upregulating stemness of prostate cancer cells upon DHT exposure in vitro, and SHBG expression in prostate cancer samples is significantly associated with poor clinicopathological features, indicating a role of SHBG in prostate cancer progression.

  3. SHBG Is an Important Factor in Stemness Induction of Cells by DHT In Vitro and Associated with Poor Clinical Features of Prostate Carcinomas

    Ma, Yuanyuan; Liang, Dongming; Liu, Jian; Wen, Jian-Guo; Servoll, Einar; Waaler, Gudmund; Sæter, Thorstein; Axcrona, Karol; Vlatkovic, Ljiljana; Axcrona, Ulrika; Paus, Elisabeth; Yang, Yue; Zhang, Zhiqian; Kvalheim, Gunnar; Nesland, Jahn M.; Suo, Zhenhe

    2013-01-01

    Androgen plays a vital role in prostate cancer development. However, it is not clear whether androgens influence stem-like properties of prostate cancer, a feature important for prostate cancer progression. In this study, we show that upon DHT treatment in vitro, prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and PC-3 were revealed with higher clonogenic potential and higher expression levels of stemness related factors CD44, CD90, Oct3/4 and Nanog. Moreover, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) was also simultaneously upregulated in these cells. When the SHBG gene was blocked by SHBG siRNA knock-down, the induction of Oct3/4, Nanog, CD44 and CD90 by DHT was also correspondingly blocked in these cells. Immunohistochemical evaluation of clinical samples disclosed weakly positive, and areas negative for SHBG expression in the benign prostate tissues, while most of the prostate carcinomas were strongly positive for SHBG. In addition, higher levels of SHBG expression were significantly associated with higher Gleason score, more seminal vesicle invasions and lymph node metastases. Collectively, our results show a role of SHBG in upregulating stemness of prostate cancer cells upon DHT exposure in vitro, and SHBG expression in prostate cancer samples is significantly associated with poor clinicopathological features, indicating a role of SHBG in prostate cancer progression. PMID:23936228

  4. Radiation therapy of prostatic carcinoma

    Jacobsen, A B; Fossaa, S D; Oedegaard, A [Norske Radiumhospital, Oslo

    1980-07-10

    Between 1971 and 1976, 33 patients with adenocarcinoma of the prostate T2-T4 and without evidence of distant metastases have been treated with high energy radiotherapy 50-70Gy given to the primary tumour. 72% showed local response to the treatment. Actuarial 5 years survival (uncorrected) for patients primarily treated with radiotherapy was 52%, but for patients who had earlier received oestrogens, only 16%. The results in terms of local control as well as survival were best for category T2 and T3 patients who had not previously received hormone treatment. The response rate was better for moderately differentiated carcinomas than for poorly differentiated carcinomas.

  5. Evaluation of anticancer activity of Cordia dichotoma leaves against a human prostate carcinoma cell line, PC3.

    Rahman, Md Azizur; Sahabjada; Akhtar, Juber

    2017-07-01

    Mechanisms of antioxidant and apoptosis induction may be involved in the management of cancer by medicinal plants. Aim of the study was designed to evaluate anticancer activity of the methanolic extract of Cordia dichotoma leaves (MECD) against a human prostate carcinoma cell line, PC3. Flavonoid content was determined by colorimetric principle and antioxidant activity by various in vitro assays. MTT, DCFH-DA and DAPI staining assays were performed for the evaluation of cytotoxicity, analysis of induction of apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity level by MECD against human prostate carcinoma cell line, PC3. Flavonoid content was found to be 160 mg QE/g extract. IC 50 values for MECD treatment in various assays based on scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylenebenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), nitric oxide, peroxy radical, superoxide anion, hydroxy radical were found to be 315.5, 38, 476, 523, 197, 82 μg/ml respectively. MECD exposure to PC3 cells significantly increased the cell death (p < 0.001, IC 50  = 74.5 μg/ml), nuclear condensation, apoptosis (p < 0.001) and induced production of ROS (p < 0.001) initiating apoptotic cascade in a dose dependent manner. This study confirms that MECD possesses antioxidant property and can prevent carcinogenesis by reducing oxidative stress. MECD possesses anticancer activity and lead to PC3 cell death via induction of apoptosis mediated through excessive ROS generation. Flavonoids in MECD may be responsible for these activities due to dual antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties.

  6. Comparative analysis of three- and two-antibody cocktails to AMACR and basal cell markers for the immunohistochemical diagnosis of prostate carcinoma

    Dabir Parag

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunohistochemistry using antibody cocktails against basal cell specific and cancer-associated markers is important in the diagnosis of prostate carcinoma in needle biopsies. We compared the usefulness for detecting prostate carcinoma of a three-marker cocktail of antibodies to α-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR, p63 and cytokeratin (CK 5 with a traditional two-marker cocktail of AMACR and p63. Methods Sixty-six prostate needle biopsies were analysed prospectively. Serial sections were immunostained with the two- and three- antibody cocktails. Blinded slides were assessed individually by two pathologists and sensitivity, specificity and kappa statistics were calculated. Results Both antibody cocktails contributed to the detection of prostate carcinoma in needle biopsies. There was an acceptable level of agreement between the pathologists for both the cocktails. Sensitivity was similar for one pathologist comparing both the cocktails (76.4% and 75.7%, but was slightly lower comparing the three-antibody with the two-antibody cocktail for the other pathologist (66.6% vs. 77.4%, respectively. Higher specificity values of 90.3% were achieved by both pathologists using three-antibody as compared with two-antibody cocktails (68.7% and 71.8%. Conclusions Antibody cocktails are important in diagnosing prostate carcinoma in needle biopsies. Adding an extra basal cell marker to the traditional two-antibody cocktail improves the specificity of detecting prostate carcinoma in limited needle biopsy material, and should be considered for routine diagnostic use. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2492231327330327

  7. Cyclin D1 expression in prostate carcinoma

    Pereira, R.A.; Ravinal, R.C.; Costa, R.S.; Lima, M.S. [Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Patologia, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Tucci, S. [Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Divisão de Urologia, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Divisão de Urologia, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Muglia, V.F. [Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Medicina Interna (Centro de Ciência da Imagem), Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Medicina Interna (Centro de Ciência da Imagem), Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Reis, R.B. Dos [Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Divisão de Urologia, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Divisão de Urologia, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Silva, G.E.B. [Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Patologia, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2014-05-09

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cyclin D1 expression and clinicopathological parameters in patients with prostate carcinoma. We assessed cyclin D1 expression by conventional immunohistochemistry in 85 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for prostate carcinoma and 10 normal prostate tissue samples retrieved from autopsies. We measured nuclear immunostaining in the entire tumor area and based the results on the percentage of positive tumor cells. The preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level was 8.68±5.16 ng/mL (mean±SD). Cyclin D1 staining was positive (cyclin D1 expression in >5% of tumor cells) in 64 cases (75.4%) and negative (cyclin D1 expression in ≤5% of tumor cells) in 21 cases (including 15 cases with no immunostaining). Normal prostate tissues were negative for cyclin D1. Among patients with a high-grade Gleason score (≥7), 86% of patients demonstrated cyclin D1 immunostaining of >5% (P<0.05). In the crude analysis of cyclin D1 expression, the high-grade Gleason score group showed a mean expression of 39.6%, compared to 26.9% in the low-grade Gleason score group (P<0.05). Perineural invasion tended to be associated with cyclin D1 expression (P=0.07), whereas cyclin D1 expression was not associated with PSA levels or other parameters. Our results suggest that high cyclin D1 expression could be a potential marker for tumor aggressiveness.

  8. Cyclin D1 expression in prostate carcinoma

    Pereira, R.A.; Ravinal, R.C.; Costa, R.S.; Lima, M.S.; Tucci, S.; Muglia, V.F.; Reis, R.B. Dos; Silva, G.E.B.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cyclin D1 expression and clinicopathological parameters in patients with prostate carcinoma. We assessed cyclin D1 expression by conventional immunohistochemistry in 85 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for prostate carcinoma and 10 normal prostate tissue samples retrieved from autopsies. We measured nuclear immunostaining in the entire tumor area and based the results on the percentage of positive tumor cells. The preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level was 8.68±5.16 ng/mL (mean±SD). Cyclin D1 staining was positive (cyclin D1 expression in >5% of tumor cells) in 64 cases (75.4%) and negative (cyclin D1 expression in ≤5% of tumor cells) in 21 cases (including 15 cases with no immunostaining). Normal prostate tissues were negative for cyclin D1. Among patients with a high-grade Gleason score (≥7), 86% of patients demonstrated cyclin D1 immunostaining of >5% (P<0.05). In the crude analysis of cyclin D1 expression, the high-grade Gleason score group showed a mean expression of 39.6%, compared to 26.9% in the low-grade Gleason score group (P<0.05). Perineural invasion tended to be associated with cyclin D1 expression (P=0.07), whereas cyclin D1 expression was not associated with PSA levels or other parameters. Our results suggest that high cyclin D1 expression could be a potential marker for tumor aggressiveness

  9. Prostatic pseudohyperplasia carcinoma. Experiences and criteria.

    Ileana Franco Zunda; Alfredo B. Quiñones Ceballos; Antonio L. Moreno Otero

    2005-01-01

    Fundament: Prostatic deseases are a havoc in male population older than 45 years old. Pseudohyperplastic carcinoma is a non frecuent variety and hard to diagnose. Objective: to reevaluate prostatic hyperplasia diagnoses to identify pseudohyperplastic carcinomas. Methods: retrospective study in which the prostatic hyperplasia diagnoses of 2004 were reevaluated in the Uiversitary Hospital ¨Dr. Gustavo Aldereguia Lima¨, considering as a basis the criteria given by Julian Arista -Nasr, evaluated ...

  10. Prostatic carcinoma in two cats

    Caney, S.M.A.; Holt, P.E.; Day, M.J.; Rudorf, H.; Gruffydd-Jones, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    Clinical, radiological and pathological features of two cats with prostatic carcinoma are reported. In both cats the presenting history included signs of lower urinary tract disease with haematuria and dysuria. Prostatomegaly was visible radiographically in one cat; an irregular intraprostatic urethra was seen on retrograde contrast urethrography in both cats. In one of the cats, neoplasia was suspected on the basis of a transurethral catheter biopsy. Following a poor response to palliative treatment in both cases, euthanasia was performed with histological confirmation of the diagnosis

  11. Granulomatous prostatitis: a pitfall in MR imaging of prostatic carcinoma

    Gevenois, P.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Cliniques Univ. de Bruxelles, Hopital Erasme (Belgium); Stallenberg, B. [Dept. of Radiology, Cliniques Univ. de Bruxelles, Hopital Erasme (Belgium); Sintzoff, S.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Cliniques Univ. de Bruxelles, Hopital Erasme (Belgium); Salmon, I. [Dept. of Pathology, Cliniques Univ. de Bruxelles, Hopital Erasme (Belgium); Regemorter, G. van [Dept. of Urology, Cliniques Univ. de Bruxelles, Hopital Erasme (Belgium); Struyven, J. [Dept. of Radiology, Cliniques Univ. de Bruxelles, Hopital Erasme (Belgium)

    1992-08-01

    Granulomatous prostatitis is an uncommon disease that can mimic prostatic carcinoma on both digital rectal examination and transrectal ultrasound. Four patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate had a histological diagnosis of granulomatous prostatitis; three of them had recent urinary tract infections. The other patient had an associated midline prostatic cyst and a focus of malignancy. T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo images were obtained in all cases. Peripheral zone lesions of decreased signal intensity, suggestive of carcinoma, were found in all four patients on T2-weighted images. Granulomatous prostatitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of low signal intensity areas with prostatic magnetic resonance imaging. (orig.)

  12. Fluorescence (FISH) and chromogenic (CISH) in situ hybridisation in prostate carcinoma cell lines: comparison and use of virtual microscopy.

    Elliott, K; Hamilton, P W; Maxwell, P

    2008-01-01

    Chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH) has become an attractive alternative to fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) due to its permanent stain which is more familiar to pathologists and because it can be viewed using light microscopy. The aim of the present study is to examine reproducibility in the assessment of abnormal chromosome number by CISH in comparison to FISH. Using three prostate cell lines--PNT1A (derived from normal epithelium), LNCAP and DU145 (derived from prostatic carcinoma), chromosomes 7 and 8 were counted in 40 nuclei in FISH preparations (x100 oil immersion) and 100 nuclei in CISH preparations (x40) by two independent observers. The CISH slides were examined using standard light microscopy and virtual microscopy. Reproducibility was examined using paired Student's t-test (PCISH. No significant differences in chromosome count were seen between the techniques. Chromosomes 7 and 8 showed disomic status for each cell line except LNCAP, which proved to be heterogeneous (disomic/aneusomic), particularly for chromosome 8. Virtual microscopy proved to be easy to use and gave no significant differences from standard light microscopy. These results support the hypothesis that there is no significant difference between FISH and CISH techniques.

  13. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    ... Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Basal cell carcinoma Overview Basal cell carcinoma: This skin cancer ... that has received years of sun exposure. Basal cell carcinoma: Overview Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the ...

  14. Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    ... Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Merkel cell carcinoma Overview Merkel cell carcinoma: This rare skin ... hard patch (1) or firm bump (2). Merkel cell carcinoma: Overview What is Merkel cell carcinoma? Merkel ...

  15. The role of Rad 51 protein in radioresistance of spheroid model of Du 145 prostate carcinoma cell line

    Taghizadeh, M.; Khoei, S.; Nikoofar, A. R.; Ghamsari, L.; Goliaei, B.

    2009-01-01

    Rad 51 is a protein with critical role in double strand break repair. Down-regulation of this protein has a significant effect in radiosensitivity of some cell lines like prostate carcinoma. Compared to monolayer cell culture model, the spheroids are more resistant to radiation. The aim of the current study was to determine the Rad 51 protein level in Du 145 spheroids, and monolayer cells before and after exposure to gamma irradiation. Materials and Methods: In the present study, western blot was used to determine the level of Rad 51 protein in Du 145 cell line grown as monolayer and spheroid. Results: Western blot analysis showed that in the spheroid cells, Rad 51 had an elevated level before and after radiation in comparison with monolayer cells. Higher doses of radiation induced elevated expression of Rad 51 protein in both culture models.The level of at protein after exposure to gamma rays had been time-dependent. Conclusion: Rad 51 might act as a mediator of radiation resistance in tumor cells. Repression of Rad 51 activity could be a prominent strategy to overcome radiation resistance of tumors.

  16. Adenoma clear cell carcinoma of prostatic utricle. Report of a case. Literature Review

    Cataldi, S.; Castillo, L.; Rodrígue, R.

    2004-01-01

    The prostatic utricle (UP) is a rudimentary structure derived from the Müllerian ducts (paramesonephric), which gives rise to the female genital tract in its portion flow and Wollfianos products (mesonephric), which causes the male seminal tubes urogenital sinus and in the caudal segment. It is located in the central portion of the prostatic urethra. UP pathology is rare in the literature and only few isolated cases have been reported and rare reviews. UP neoplasms are extremely rare. The first report on the literature is the year 1967 in a man 66 years in which the diagnosis was incidental in a piece of prostatectomy. Objective: The aim of this paper is to review the literature on this rare condition from the report of a clinical case. Case report: Male patient, 15 years who presented with hematuria. the tomography showed right renal agenesis, hypertrophic left kidney and a solid mass retrovesical in prostate topography. The transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy remains informed embryonic kidney blastoma and immunohistochemical profile is specific to urothelial epithelium and glomerular (BPM CK7 strongly positive). It is involved, resecting the tumor whose pelvic pathology (AP) corresponded to clear cell adenocarcinoma UP. Pursuing a post-operative complications and remains without clinical tomographic control locoregional relapse was diagnosed 5 months after. Get chemotherapy type adriamycin-cisplatin with complete clinical response after the 2nd cycle of treatment and rapid lesion progression at the end of the 6th cycle. Was re hospitalized resecting one laterovesical mass right, leaving in situ a left laterovesical similar mass. the AP was similar to the original. Currently, the patient underwent a left nephrostomy is planned initiation of palliative chemotherapy of weekly Docetaxel type. Conclusions: Given the rarity of the disease, and little literature there is no data on evolution and sensitivity to treatment. In the case of this patient highlight the high

  17. Cellular and molecular effects of the liposomal mTHPC derivative Foslipos in prostate carcinoma cells in vitro.

    Gyenge, Emina Besic; Hiestand, Seraina; Graefe, Susanna; Walt, Heinrich; Maake, Caroline

    2011-06-01

    Meso-tetra-hydroxyphenyl-chlorine (mTHPC) is among the most powerful photosensitizers available for photodynamic therapy (PDT). However, the mechanisms leading to cell death are poorly understood. We here focused on changes at DNA and RNA levels after treatment with the liposomal mTHPC derivative Foslipos in vitro. After determination of darktoxicity, laser conditions and uptake kinetics, PC-3 prostate carcinoma cells were subjected to PDT with Foslipos, followed by assessment of cell numbers directly (TP0) or 1h (TP1), 2h (TP2), 5h (TP5) and 24h (TP24) after illumination. Nucleic acids had been extracted for evaluation of RNA amounts and integrity as well as for estimation of abasic sites as a measure for DNA damage. Furthermore, expression changes of 84 genes related to oxidative stress were investigated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Already at TP0, the number of dead cells was significantly higher after PDT versus controls and at TP24 more than 90% of cells had been destroyed. PDT resulted in a severe damage of both RNA and DNA. Gene expression analyses revealed an impact of PDT on pathways for oxidative and metabolic stress, heat shock, proliferation and carcinogenesis, growth arrest, inflammation, DNA repair and apoptosis signaling. Mechanisms of Foslipos-mediated PDT comprise a combination of acute and delayed lethal effects in PC-3 cells. The latter may include death processes initiated by nucleic acid damage, activation of stress and growth arrest genes in combination with a reduced capability to adequately cope with oxidative toxicity. Our results will help to better understand molecular photodynamic effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Embryonal carcinoma cell induction of miRNA and mRNA changes in co-cultured prostate stromal fibromuscular cells

    VÊNCIO, ENEIDA F.; PASCAL, LAURA E.; PAGE, LAURA S.; DENYER, GARETH; WANG, AMY J.; RUOHOLA-BAKER, HANNELE; ZHANG, SHILE; WANG, KAI; GALAS, DAVID J.; LIU, ALVIN Y.

    2014-01-01

    The prostate stromal mesenchyme controls organ-specific development. In cancer, the stromal compartment shows altered gene expression compared to non-cancer. The lineage relationship between cancer-associated stromal cells and normal tissue stromal cells is not known. Nor is the cause underlying the expression difference. Previously, the embryonal carcinoma (EC) cell line, NCCIT, was used by us to study the stromal induction property. In the current study, stromal cells from non-cancer (NP) and cancer (CP) were isolated from tissue specimens and co-cultured with NCCIT cells in a trans-well format to preclude heterotypic cell contact. After 3 days, the stromal cells were analyzed by gene arrays for microRNA (miRNA) and mRNA expression. In co-culture, NCCIT cells were found to alter the miRNA and mRNA expression of NP stromal cells to one like that of CP stromal cells. In contrast, NCCIT had no significant effect on the gene expression of CP stromal cells. We conclude that the gene expression changes in stromal cells can be induced by diffusible factors synthesized by EC cells, and suggest that cancer-associated stromal cells represent a more primitive or less differentiated stromal cell type. PMID:20945389

  19. Ghrelin inhibits proliferation and increases T-type Ca{sup 2+} channel expression in PC-3 human prostate carcinoma cells

    Diaz-Lezama, Nundehui; Hernandez-Elvira, Mariana [Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, Institute of Physiology, Autonomous University of Puebla (BUAP), Puebla (Mexico); Sandoval, Alejandro [School of Medicine FES Iztacala, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), Tlalnepantla (Mexico); Monroy, Alma; Felix, Ricardo [Department of Cell Biology, Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute (Cinvestav-IPN), Mexico City (Mexico); Monjaraz, Eduardo, E-mail: emguzman@siu.buap.mx [Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, Institute of Physiology, Autonomous University of Puebla (BUAP), Puebla (Mexico)

    2010-12-03

    Research highlights: {yields} Ghrelin decreases prostate carcinoma PC-3 cells proliferation. {yields} Ghrelin favors apoptosis in PC-3 cells. {yields} Ghrelin increase in intracellular free Ca{sup 2+} levels in PC-3 cells. {yields} Grelin up-regulates expression of T-type Ca{sup 2+} channels in PC-3 cells. {yields} PC-3 cells express T-channels of the Ca{sub V}3.1 and Ca{sub V}3.2 subtype. -- Abstract: Ghrelin is a multifunctional peptide hormone with roles in growth hormone release, food intake and cell proliferation. With ghrelin now recognized as important in neoplastic processes, the aim of this report is to present findings from a series of in vitro studies evaluating the cellular mechanisms involved in ghrelin regulation of proliferation in the PC-3 human prostate carcinoma cells. The results showed that ghrelin significantly decreased proliferation and induced apoptosis. Consistent with a role in apoptosis, an increase in intracellular free Ca{sup 2+} levels was observed in the ghrelin-treated cells, which was accompanied by up-regulated expression of T-type voltage-gated Ca{sup 2+} channels. Interestingly, T-channel antagonists were able to prevent the effects of ghrelin on cell proliferation. These results suggest that ghrelin inhibits proliferation and may promote apoptosis by regulating T-type Ca{sup 2+} channel expression.

  20. 15,16-Dihydrotanshinone I, a Compound of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, Induces Apoptosis through Inducing Endoplasmic Reticular Stress in Human Prostate Carcinoma Cells

    Mao-Te Chuang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available 5,16-dihydrotanshinone I (DHTS is extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (tanshen root and was found to be the most effective compound of tanshen extracts against breast cancer cells in our previous studies. However, whether DHTS can induce apoptosis through an endoplasmic reticular (ER stress pathway was examined herein. In this study, we found that DHTS significantly inhibited the proliferation of human prostate DU145 carcinoma cells and induced apoptosis. DHTS was able to induce ER stress as evidenced by the upregulation of glucose regulation protein 78 (GRP78/Bip and CAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein/growth arrest- and DNA damage-inducible gene 153 (CHOP/GADD153, as well as increases in phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α, c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, and X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1 mRNA splicing forms. DHTS treatment also caused significant accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α, indicating that DHTS might be a proteasome inhibitor that is known to induce ER stress or enhance apoptosis caused by the classic ER stress-dependent mechanism. Moreover, DHTS-induced apoptosis was reversed by salubrinal, an ER stress inhibitor. Results suggest that DHTS can induce apoptosis of prostate carcinoma cells via induction of ER stress and/or inhibition of proteasome activity, and may have therapeutic potential for prostate cancer patients.

  1. Prostate-specific antigen superior serum marker for prostatic carcinoma

    Heaney, J A; Allen, M A; Keane, T; Duffy, J J

    1987-05-01

    A new immunoradiometric assay based on dual monoclonal antibody reaction system (Hybritech-TANDEM/sup R/) was used to measure serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in 39 patients with prostatic carcinoma (CaP), in 57 with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and in 14 without prostatic disease. Serum PSA was elevated in 82% of patients with CaP while PAP was elevated in only 54%. In this and other studies, PSA is superior to conventional serum markers in sensitivity, prediction of CaP stage and in longitudinal monitoring of disease. A 16% false positive rate precludes PSA as a screening test. The assay used was found to be simple and reliable.

  2. Prostate-specific antigen superior serum marker for prostatic carcinoma

    Heaney, J.A.; Allen, M.A.; Keane, T.; Duffy, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    A new immunoradiometric assay based on dual monoclonal antibody reaction system (Hybritech-TANDEM R ) was used to measure serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in 39 patients with prostatic carcinoma (CaP), in 57 with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and in 14 without prostatic disease. Serum PSA was elevated in 82% of patients with CaP while PAP was elevated in only 54%. In this and other studies, PSA is superior to conventional serum markers in sensitivity, prediction of CaP stage and in longitudinal monitoring of disease. A 16% false positive rate precludes PSA as a screening test. The assay used was found to be simple and reliable. (author)

  3. miR-221 and miR-222 expression affects the proliferation potential of human prostate carcinoma cell lines by targeting p27Kip1.

    Galardi, Silvia; Mercatelli, Neri; Giorda, Ezio; Massalini, Simone; Frajese, Giovanni Vanni; Ciafrè, Silvia Anna; Farace, Maria Giulia

    2007-08-10

    MicroRNAs are short regulatory RNAs that negatively modulate protein expression at a post-transcriptional level and are deeply involved in the pathogenesis of several types of cancers. Here we show that miR-221 and miR-222, encoded in tandem on chromosome X, are overexpressed in the PC3 cellular model of aggressive prostate carcinoma, as compared with LNCaP and 22Rv1 cell line models of slowly growing carcinomas. In all cell lines tested, we show an inverse relationship between the expression of miR-221 and miR-222 and the cell cycle inhibitor p27(Kip1). We recognize two target sites for the microRNAs in the 3' untranslated region of p27 mRNA, and we show that miR-221/222 ectopic overexpression directly results in p27 down-regulation in LNCaP cells. In those cells, we demonstrate that the ectopic overexpression of miR-221/222 strongly affects their growth potential by inducing a G(1) to S shift in the cell cycle and is sufficient to induce a powerful enhancement of their colony-forming potential in soft agar. Consistently, miR-221 and miR-222 knock-down through antisense LNA oligonucleotides increases p27(Kip1) in PC3 cells and strongly reduces their clonogenicity in vitro. Our results suggest that miR-221/222 can be regarded as a new family of oncogenes, directly targeting the tumor suppressor p27(Kip1), and that their overexpression might be one of the factors contributing to the oncogenesis and progression of prostate carcinoma through p27(Kip1) down-regulation.

  4. Expression and localization of GLUT1 and GLUT12 in prostate carcinoma.

    Chandler, Jenalle D; Williams, Elizabeth D; Slavin, John L; Best, James D; Rogers, Suzanne

    2003-04-15

    Increased glucose consumption is a characteristic of malignant cells and in prostate carcinoma is associated with the proliferation of both androgen-dependent and independent cells. Transport of polar glucose across the nonpolar membrane relies on glucose transporter proteins, known as GLUTs. Increased expression of GLUT1 is a characteristic of many malignant cells. The authors characterized and cloned the cDNA for a novel glucose transporter, GLUT12, which was identified initially in malignant breast epithelial cells. To the authors' knowledge, there have been no reports on the expression of glucose transporters in the human prostate or human prostate carcinoma cells. The authors evaluated GLUT1 and GLUT12 expression in human prostate carcinoma cells. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed on total RNA extracted from cultured prostate carcinoma cells LNCaP, C4, C4-2, and C4-2B using primers to amplify GLUT1, GLUT12, or the housekeeping gene, 36B4. Total protein extracted from prostate carcinoma cell lines was assessed for GLUT12 protein by Western blot analysis. Cultured cell monolayers were incubated with antibodies to GLUT1 or GLUT12 and a peripheral Golgi protein, Golgi 58K, for detection by immunofluorescent confocal microscopy. Sections of benign prostatic hyperplasia and human prostate carcinoma were stained for immunohistochemical detection of GLUT1 and GLUT12. GLUT1 and GLUT12 mRNA and protein were detected in all cell lines evaluated. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated both GLUT1 and GLUT12 on the plasma membrane and in the cytoplasm in all cultured prostate carcinoma cell lines, with GLUT1 but not GLUT12 appearing to colocalize with the Golgi. Immunohistochemical staining of benign prostatic hyperplasia indicated expression of GLUT1 but not GLUT12. Malignant tissue stained for GLUT12 but was negative for GLUT1. GLUT1 and GLUT12 are expressed in human prostate carcinoma cells. One possible rationale for the GLUT1 Golgi

  5. Oral Rigosertib for Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    2017-06-22

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  6. Immunohistochemical differentiation of high-grade prostate carcinoma from urothelial carcinoma.

    Chuang, Ai-Ying; DeMarzo, Angelo M; Veltri, Robert W; Sharma, Rajni B; Bieberich, Charles J; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2007-08-01

    The histologic distinction between high-grade prostate cancer and infiltrating high-grade urothelial cancer may be difficult, and has significant implications because each disease may be treated very differently (ie, hormone therapy for prostate cancer and chemotherapy for urothelial cancer). Immunohistochemistry of novel and established prostatic and urothelial markers using tissue microarrays (TMAs) were studied. Prostatic markers studied included: prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostein (P501s), prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), NKX3.1 (an androgen-related tumor suppressor gene), and proPSA (pPSA) (precursor form of PSA). "Urothelial markers" included high molecular weight cytokeratin (HMWCK), p63, thrombomodulin, and S100P (placental S100). TMAs contained 38 poorly differentiated prostate cancers [Gleason score 8 (n=2), Gleason score 9 (n=18), Gleason score 10 (n=18)] and 35 high-grade invasive urothelial carcinomas from radical prostatectomy and cystectomy specimens, respectively. Each case had 2 to 8 tissue spots (0.6-mm diameter). If all spots for a case showed negative staining, the case was called negative. The sensitivities for labeling prostate cancers were PSA (97.4%), P501S (100%), PSMA (92.1%), NKX3.1 (94.7%), and pPSA (94.7%). Because of PSA's high sensitivity on the TMA, we chose 41 additional poorly differentiated primary (N=36) and metastatic (N=5) prostate carcinomas which showed variable PSA staining at the time of diagnosis and performed immunohistochemistry on routine tissue sections. Compared to PSA, which on average showed 18.8% of cells with moderate to strong positivity, cases stained for P501S, PSMA, and NKX3.1 had on average 42.5%, 53.7%, 52.9% immunoreactivity, respectively. All prostatic markers showed excellent specificity. HMWCK, p63, thrombomodulin, and S100P showed lower sensitivities in labeling high-grade invasive urothelial cancer in the TMAs with 91.4%, 82.9%, 68.6%, and 71.4% staining, respectively. These urothelial

  7. Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) in prostate, bladder and kidney cancer cell lines and the use of IL-FABP as survival predictor in patients with renal cell carcinoma

    Tölle, Angelika; Suhail, Saba; Jung, Monika; Jung, Klaus; Stephan, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Fatty acid binding proteins (FABP) play an important role in carcinogenesis. Modified FABP expression patterns were described for prostate, bladder and for renal cell carcinoma. Studies on metabolic relationships and interactions in permanent cell lines allow a deeper insight into molecular processes. The aim of this study is therefore a systematic overview on mRNA and protein expressions of seven FABPs in frequently used urological cell lines. Nine cell lines of renal carcinomas, seven of urinary bladder carcinomas, and five of prostate carcinomas were investigated. Quantitative RT-qPCR and western blotting were used to determine different FABPs. In addition, 46 paired cancerous and noncancerous tissue samples from nephrectomy specimen with renal cell carcinomas were investigated regarding the ileum FABP mRNA expression level and associated with survival outcome. General characteristics of all urological carcinoma cell lines were the expression of E-and IL-FABP on mRNA and protein level, while the expressions differed between the cell lines. The protein expression was not always congruent with the mRNA expression. Renal cell carcinoma cell lines showed expressions of L-, H- and B-FABP mRNA in addition to the general FABP expression in five out of the eight investigated cell lines. In bladder cancer cell lines, we additionally found the expression of A-FABP mRNA in six cell lines, while H-FABP was present only in three cell lines. In prostate cancer cell lines, a strong reduction of A- and E- FABP mRNA was observed. The expression of B-FABP mRNA and protein was observed only in the 22 RV-1 cells. IL-FABP mRNA was over-expressed in renal tumour tissue. The IL-FABP ratio was identified as an independent indicator of survival outcome. Distinctly different FABP expression patterns were observed not only between the cell lines derived from the three cancer types, but also between the cell lines from the same cancer. The FABP patterns in the cell lines do not always

  8. Microbeam X-ray fluorescence mapping of Cu and Fe in human prostatic carcinoma cell lines using synchrotron radiation

    Rocha, K.M.J.; Leitao, R.G.; Oliveira-Barros, E.G.; Oliveira, M.A.; Canellas, C.G.L.; Anjos, M.J.; Nasciutti, L.E.; Lopes, R.T., E-mail: kjose@nuclear.ufrj.br, E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: roberta@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: eligouveab@gmail.com, E-mail: maria_aparecida_ufrj@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: luiz.nasciutti@histo.ufrj.br, E-mail: roberta.leitao@uerj.br, E-mail: marcelin@uerj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas; Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2017-11-01

    Cancer is a worldwide public health problem and prostate cancer continues to be one of the most common fatal cancers in men. Copper plays an important role in the aetiology and growth of tumours however, whether intratumoral copper is actually elevated in prostate cancer patients has not been established. Iron, an important trace element, plays a vital function in oxygen metabolism, oxygen uptake, and electron transport in mitochondria, energy metabolism, muscle function, and hematopoiesis. The X-ray microfluorescence technique (μXRF) is a rapid and non-destructive method of elemental analysis that provides useful elemental information about samples without causing damage or requiring extra sample preparations. This study investigated the behavior of cells in spheroids of human prostate cells, tumour cell line (DU145) and normal cell line (RWPE-1), after supplementation with zinc chloride by 24 hours using synchrotron X-ray microfluorescence (μSRXRF). The measurements were performed with a standard geometry of 45 deg of incidence, excited by a white beam using a pixel of 25 μm and a time of 300 ms/pixel at the XRF beamline at the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil). The results by SRμXRF showed non-uniform Cu and Fe distributions in all the spheroids analyzed. (author)

  9. Microbeam X-ray fluorescence mapping of Cu and Fe in human prostatic carcinoma cell lines using synchrotron radiation

    Rocha, K.M.J.; Leitao, R.G.; Oliveira-Barros, E.G.; Oliveira, M.A.; Canellas, C.G.L.; Anjos, M.J.; Nasciutti, L.E.; Lopes, R.T.; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is a worldwide public health problem and prostate cancer continues to be one of the most common fatal cancers in men. Copper plays an important role in the aetiology and growth of tumours however, whether intratumoral copper is actually elevated in prostate cancer patients has not been established. Iron, an important trace element, plays a vital function in oxygen metabolism, oxygen uptake, and electron transport in mitochondria, energy metabolism, muscle function, and hematopoiesis. The X-ray microfluorescence technique (μXRF) is a rapid and non-destructive method of elemental analysis that provides useful elemental information about samples without causing damage or requiring extra sample preparations. This study investigated the behavior of cells in spheroids of human prostate cells, tumour cell line (DU145) and normal cell line (RWPE-1), after supplementation with zinc chloride by 24 hours using synchrotron X-ray microfluorescence (μSRXRF). The measurements were performed with a standard geometry of 45 deg of incidence, excited by a white beam using a pixel of 25 μm and a time of 300 ms/pixel at the XRF beamline at the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil). The results by SRμXRF showed non-uniform Cu and Fe distributions in all the spheroids analyzed. (author)

  10. Urethral dose sparing in squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal using proton therapy matching electrons with prior brachytherapy for prostate cancer: A case study.

    Apinorasethkul, Ontida; Lenards, Nishele; Hunzeker, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this case study is to communicate a technique on treating the re-irradiation of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of anal canal with proton fields matched with electron fields to spare prostatic urethra. A 76-year old male presented with a secondary radiation-induced malignancy as a result of prostate brachytherapy seeds irradiation 10 years prior. A rectal examination revealed a bulky tumor at the top of the anal canal involving the left superior-most aspect of the anal canal extending superiorly into the rectum. The inferior extent was palpable approximately 3cm from the anal verge and the superior extent of the mass measured greater than 5cm in the superior-inferior dimension. Chemoradiation was suggested since the patient was opposed to abdominoperineal resection (APR) and colostomy. The use of proton therapy matching with electron fields in the re-irradiation setting could help reduce the complications. A 2 lateral proton beams were designed to treat the bulky tumor volume with 2 electron beams treating the nodal volumes. This complication of treatment fields helped spare the prostatic urethra and reduced the risk of urinary obstruction in the future. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Urethral dose sparing in squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal using proton therapy matching electrons with prior brachytherapy for prostate cancer: A case study

    Apinorasethkul, Ontida, E-mail: ontida.a@gmail.com [Medical Dosimetry Graduate Program, University of Wisconsin, La Crosse, WI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Lenards, Nishele; Hunzeker, Ashley [Medical Dosimetry Graduate Program, University of Wisconsin, La Crosse, WI (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this case study is to communicate a technique on treating the re-irradiation of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of anal canal with proton fields matched with electron fields to spare prostatic urethra. A 76-year old male presented with a secondary radiation-induced malignancy as a result of prostate brachytherapy seeds irradiation 10 years prior. A rectal examination revealed a bulky tumor at the top of the anal canal involving the left superior-most aspect of the anal canal extending superiorly into the rectum. The inferior extent was palpable approximately 3 cm from the anal verge and the superior extent of the mass measured greater than 5 cm in the superior-inferior dimension. Chemoradiation was suggested since the patient was opposed to abdominoperineal resection (APR) and colostomy. The use of proton therapy matching with electron fields in the re-irradiation setting could help reduce the complications. A 2 lateral proton beams were designed to treat the bulky tumor volume with 2 electron beams treating the nodal volumes. This complication of treatment fields helped spare the prostatic urethra and reduced the risk of urinary obstruction in the future.

  12. Evolution of brachytherapy for prostate carcinoma

    Qin Lan

    2005-01-01

    Brachytherapy is one of the most main management to prostate carcinoma. This method has been rapidly accepted in clinical application since it is a convenient, little-traumatic, and outpatient therapy. With the development of techniques of production of radio-seeds, imaging modality and three-dimensional radiotherapy plan system, brachytherapy has been made a virtually progress in improving curative-effect and reducing damage to surrounding normal tissue. (authors)

  13. A preliminary investigation of the enzymatic inhibition of 5alpha-reduction and growth of prostatic carcinoma cell line LNCap-FGC by natural astaxanthin and Saw Palmetto lipid extract in vitro.

    Anderson, Mark L

    2005-01-01

    Inhibition of 5alpha-reductase has been reported to decrease the symptoms of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and possibly inhibit or help treat prostate cancer. Saw Palmetto berry lipid extract (SPLE) is reported to inhibit 5alpha-reductase and decrease the clinical symptoms of BPH. Epidemiologic studies report that carotenoids such as lycopene may inhibit prostate cancer. In this investigation the effect of the carotenoid astaxanthin, and SPLE were examined for their effect on 5alpha-reductase inhibition as well as the growth of prostatic carcinoma cells in vitro. These studies support patent #6,277,417 B1. The results show astaxanthin demonstrated 98% inhibition of 5alpha-reductase at 300 microg/mL in vitro. Alphastat, the combination of astaxanthin and SPLE, showed a 20% greater inhibition of 5alpha-reductase than SPLE alone n vitro. A nine day treatment of prostatic carcinoma cells with astaxanthin in vitro produced a 24% decrease in growth at 0.1 mcg/mL and a 38% decrease at 0.01 mcg/mL. SPLE showed a 34% decrease at 0.1 mcg/mL. Low levels of carotenoid astaxanthin inhibit 5alpha-reductase and decrease the growth of human prostatic cancer cells in vitro. Astaxanthin added to SPLE shows greater inhibition of 5alpha-reductase than SPLE alone in vitro.

  14. Basal cell carcinoma of the skin with areas of squamous cell carcinoma: a basosquamous cell carcinoma?

    de Faria, J

    1985-01-01

    The diagnosis of basosquamous cell carcinoma is controversial. A review of cases of basal cell carcinoma showed 23 cases that had conspicuous areas of squamous cell carcinoma. This was distinguished from squamous differentiation and keratotic basal cell carcinoma by a comparative study of 40 cases of compact lobular and 40 cases of keratotic basal cell carcinoma. Areas of intermediate tumour differentiation between basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma were found. Basal cell carcinomas with ...

  15. Expression of P-cadherin identifies prostate-specific-antigen-negative cells in epithelial tissues of male sexual accessory organs and in prostatic carcinomas. Implications for prostate cancer biology.

    Soler, A. P.; Harner, G. D.; Knudsen, K. A.; McBrearty, F. X.; Grujic, E.; Salazar, H.; Han, A. C.; Keshgegian, A. A.

    1997-01-01

    Cadherins constitute a family of calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion molecules the individual members of which are essential for the sorting of cells into tissues during development. In this study, we examined the expression of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, and P-cadherin in tissues obtained from radical prostatectomies. Epithelial cells of prostatic glands, ejaculatory ducts, and seminal vesicles expressed E-cadherin but not N-cadherin. P-cadherin was expressed in epithelial cells of the seminal ...

  16. Prostatic carcinoma: limited field irradiation

    Rounsaville, M.C.; Green, J.P.; Vaeth, J.M.; Purdon, R.P.; Heltzel, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    This is a retrospective study of 251 patients with histologically proven adenocarcinoma treated primarily with limited field radiotherapy techniques, under the principle direction of authors JMV and JPG, between 1968 and 1981 in San Francisco, California. All patients are followed for a minimum of 3 years; mean follow-up is 7.3 years. Routine clinical staging procedures included: HandP, digital prostate exam, cystoscopy, biopsy, blood studies including serum acid phosphatase, and imaging studies including chest X ray, IVP, bone survey or radionucleotide bone scan, and in recent years, pelvic CT scans. Twelve patients are Stage A1, 37-Stage A2, 50-Stage B, 140-Stage C1 and 12-Stage C2. Ninety percent of all cases and 85% of Stage C patients were treated with limited fields to the prostate and periprostatic volume only. Total doses were prescribed at midplane or isocenter and were generally 6500-7000 cGy, daily doses of 180-200 cGy, 5 days per week. Actuarial 5- and 10-year survival rates are: entire population-69% and 47%; Stage A1-74% and 50%; Stage A2-81% and 67%; Stage B-84% and 53%; Stage C1-63% and 42%; Stage C2-32% and 11%. The 5- and 10-year disease-free actuarial survivals are: entire population-71% and 50%; Stage A1-89% and 74%; Stage A2-82% and 69%; Stage B-71% and 52%; Stage C1-67% and 44%; Stage C2-0%. Sites of recurrence, alone or as a component of the failure pattern are: 37 (15%) local, 11 (4%) symptomatic regional recurrence (lower extremity edema, pelvic pain/sciatica, hydroureteronephrosis), and 87 (35%) distant metastasis. Seven (3%) had unknown sites of failure. Local-regional failure occurred in 42% of Stage C2 patients

  17. No supra-additive effects of goserelin and radiotherapy on clonogenic survival of prostate carcinoma cells in vitro

    Thelen Paul

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oncological results of radiotherapy for locally advanced prostate cancer (PC are significantly improved by simultaneous application of LHRH analoga (e.g. goserelin. As 85% of PC express LHRH receptors, we investigated the interaction of goserelin incubation with radiotherapy under androgen-deprived conditions in vitro. Methods LNCaP and PC-3 cells were stained for LHRH receptors. Downstream the LHRH receptor, changes in protein expression of c-fos, phosphorylated p38 and phosphorylated ERK1/2 were analyzed by means of Western blotting after incubation with goserelin and irradiation with 4 Gy. Both cell lines were incubated with different concentrations of goserelin in hormone-free medium. 12 h later cells were irradiated (0 – 4 Gy and after 12 h goserelin was withdrawn. Endpoints were clonogenic survival and cell viability (12 h, 36 h and 60 h after irradiation. Results Both tested cell lines expressed LHRH-receptors. Changes in protein expression demonstrated the functional activity of goserelin in the tested cell lines. Neither in LNCaP nor in PC-3 any significant effects of additional goserelin incubation on clonogenic survival or cell viability for all tested concentrations in comparison to radiation alone were seen. Conclusion The clinically observed increase in tumor control after combination of goserelin with radiotherapy in PC cannot be attributed to an increase in radiosensitivity of PC cells by goserelin in vitro.

  18. Comparison of two peptide radiotracers for prostate carcinoma targeting

    Bluma Linkowski Faintuch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Scintigraphy is generally not the first choice treatment for prostate cancer, although successful studies using bombesin analog radiopeptides have been performed. Recently, a novel peptide obtained using a phage display library demonstrated an affinity for prostate tumor cells. The aim of this study was to compare the use of a bombesin analog to that of a phage display library peptide (DUP-1 radiolabeled with technetium-99m for the treatment of prostate carcinoma. The peptides were first conjugated to S-acetyl-MAG3 with a 6-carbon spacer, namely aminohexanoic acid. METHODS: The technetium-99m labeling required a sodium tartrate buffer. Radiochemical evaluation was performed using ITLC and was confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The coefficient partition was determined, and in vitro studies were performed using human prostate tumor cells. Biodistribution was evaluated in healthy animals at various time points and also in mice bearing tumors. RESULTS: The radiochemical purity of both radiotracers was greater than 95%. The DUP-1 tracer was more hydrophilic (log P = -2.41 than the bombesin tracer (log P = -0.39. The biodistribution evaluation confirmed this hydrophilicity by revealing the greater kidney uptake of DUP-1. The bombesin concentration in the pancreas was greater than that of DUP-1 due to specific gastrin-releasing peptide receptors. Bombesin internalization occurred for 78.32% of the total binding in tumor cells. The DUP-1 tracer showed very low binding to tumor cells during the in vitro evaluation, although tumor uptake for both tracers was similar. The tumors were primarily blocked by DUP1 and the bombesin radiotracer primarily targeted the pancreas. CONCLUSION: Further studies with the radiolabeled DUP-1 peptide are recommended. With further structural changes, this molecule could become an efficient alternative tracer for prostate tumor diagnosis.

  19. Tissue concentrations of prostate-specific antigen in prostatic carcinoma and benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Pretlow, T G; Pretlow, T P; Yang, B; Kaetzel, C S; Delmoro, C M; Kamis, S M; Bodner, D R; Kursh, E; Resnick, M I; Bradley, E L

    1991-11-11

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), as measured in peripheral blood, is currently the most widely used marker for the assessment of tumor burden in the longitudinal study of patients with carcinoma of the prostate (PCA). Studies from other laboratories have led to the conclusion that a given volume of PCA causes a much higher level of PSA in the peripheral circulation of patients than a similar volume of prostate without carcinoma. We have evaluated PSA in the resected tissues immunohistochemically and in extracts of PCA and of prostates resected because of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Immunohistochemical results were less quantitative than but consistent with the results of the ELISA of tissue extracts. Immunohistochemically, there was considerable heterogeneity in the expression of PSA by both PCA and BPH both within and among prostatic tissues from different patients. While the levels of expression of PSA in these tissues overlap broadly, PSA is expressed at a lower level in PCA than in BPH when PSA is expressed as a function of wet weight of tissue (p = 0.0095), wet weight of tissue/% epithelium (p less than 0.0001), protein extracted from the tissue (p = 0.0039), or protein extracted/% epithelium (p less than 0.0001).

  20. Silibinin inhibits fibronectin induced motility, invasiveness and survival in human prostate carcinoma PC3 cells via targeting integrin signaling

    Deep, Gagan [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); University of Colorado Cancer Center, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); Kumar, Rahul; Jain, Anil K. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); Agarwal, Chapla [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); University of Colorado Cancer Center, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); Agarwal, Rajesh, E-mail: Rajesh.agarwal@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); University of Colorado Cancer Center, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Silibinin inhibits fibronectin-induce motile morphology in PC3 cells. • Silibinin inhibits fibronectin-induced migration and invasion in PC3 cells. • Silibinin targets fibronectin-induced integrins and downstream signaling molecule. - Abstract: Prostate cancer (PCA) is the 2nd leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men in the United States. Preventing or inhibiting metastasis-related events through non-toxic agents could be a useful approach for lowering high mortality among PCA patients. We have earlier reported that natural flavonoid silibinin possesses strong anti-metastatic efficacy against PCA however, mechanism/s of its action still remains largely unknown. One of the major events during metastasis is the replacement of cell–cell interaction with integrins-based cell–matrix interaction that controls motility, invasiveness and survival of cancer cells. Accordingly, here we examined silibinin effect on advanced human PCA PC3 cells’ interaction with extracellular matrix component fibronectin. Silibinin (50–200 μM) treatment significantly decreased the fibronectin (5 μg/ml)-induced motile morphology via targeting actin cytoskeleton organization in PC3 cells. Silibinin also decreased the fibronectin-induced cell proliferation and motility but significantly increased cell death in PC3 cells. Silibinin also inhibited the PC3 cells invasiveness in Transwell invasion assays with fibronectin or cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) serving as chemoattractant. Importantly, PC3-luc cells cultured on fibronectin showed rapid dissemination and localized in lungs following tail vein injection in athymic male nude mice; however, in silibinin-treated PC3-luc cells, dissemination and lung localization was largely compromised. Molecular analyses revealed that silibinin treatment modulated the fibronectin-induced expression of integrins (α5, αV, β1 and β3), actin-remodeling (FAK, Src, GTPases, ARP2 and cortactin), apoptosis (cPARP and

  1. Silibinin inhibits fibronectin induced motility, invasiveness and survival in human prostate carcinoma PC3 cells via targeting integrin signaling

    Deep, Gagan; Kumar, Rahul; Jain, Anil K.; Agarwal, Chapla; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Silibinin inhibits fibronectin-induce motile morphology in PC3 cells. • Silibinin inhibits fibronectin-induced migration and invasion in PC3 cells. • Silibinin targets fibronectin-induced integrins and downstream signaling molecule. - Abstract: Prostate cancer (PCA) is the 2nd leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men in the United States. Preventing or inhibiting metastasis-related events through non-toxic agents could be a useful approach for lowering high mortality among PCA patients. We have earlier reported that natural flavonoid silibinin possesses strong anti-metastatic efficacy against PCA however, mechanism/s of its action still remains largely unknown. One of the major events during metastasis is the replacement of cell–cell interaction with integrins-based cell–matrix interaction that controls motility, invasiveness and survival of cancer cells. Accordingly, here we examined silibinin effect on advanced human PCA PC3 cells’ interaction with extracellular matrix component fibronectin. Silibinin (50–200 μM) treatment significantly decreased the fibronectin (5 μg/ml)-induced motile morphology via targeting actin cytoskeleton organization in PC3 cells. Silibinin also decreased the fibronectin-induced cell proliferation and motility but significantly increased cell death in PC3 cells. Silibinin also inhibited the PC3 cells invasiveness in Transwell invasion assays with fibronectin or cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) serving as chemoattractant. Importantly, PC3-luc cells cultured on fibronectin showed rapid dissemination and localized in lungs following tail vein injection in athymic male nude mice; however, in silibinin-treated PC3-luc cells, dissemination and lung localization was largely compromised. Molecular analyses revealed that silibinin treatment modulated the fibronectin-induced expression of integrins (α5, αV, β1 and β3), actin-remodeling (FAK, Src, GTPases, ARP2 and cortactin), apoptosis (cPARP and

  2. Prostatic Adenocarcinoma with Concurrent Sertoli Cell Tumor in a Dog

    Gill, C. W.

    1981-01-01

    A case of metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma with concurrent Sertoli cell tumor is presented in an old, miniature Schnauzer dog. The prostatic neoplasm was highly anaplastic and had metastasized widely. Clinical signs were compatible with increased estrogen production. It is interesting to note that the prostatic carcinoma, usually considered to be androgen dependent, developed and metastasized, despite the presence of apparently increased estrogen levels. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6. PMID:7340923

  3. Combined radio- and hormone therapy of the prostate carcinoma

    Papic, R.

    1979-08-01

    Intention of this study is to detect in 49 patients suffering from prostate carcinomas, effects and side effects of radiotherapy. According to the present results, there is not any doubt that prostate carcinomas are radiosensitive. In all patients radiotherapy induced a prostate shrinkage and an increasing of consistency. It resulted that a prostate biopsy must be carried out in order to control the success of therapy. The success of the treatment depends upon tumour spreading and on its degree of differentiation. Within the observation period only in four cases metastasation of the prostate carcinoma occurred after radiotherapy. According to literature, the 5-year survival rate with an organ-defined prostate carcinoma ranges between 70 and 80% when radiotherapeutic methods are applied. The same authors indicate a 5-year survival rate between 42 and 48% for scattered carcinomas. Only minor side effects are provoked by radiotherapy. In 75% of the patients pollakisuria and dysuria resulted. After irradiation was finished, the symptoms disappeared and did not cause in any case any late complications. In 12% of the cases proctitic pain occurred during irradiation, which in 6% remained even after the treatment was terminated. We could prove unequivocally on our patients that passage impairments caused by a prostate carcinoma are improved by radiotherapy. Finally it can be said that this treatment is applicable for curing carcinoma which is localised on the prostate. In the case of an undefined, scattered carcinoma radiotherapy combined with hormone therapy is the treatment of choice. With regards to undesired side effects radiotherapy is superior to other therapeutic measures. (orig./MG) [de

  4. A basal stem cell signature identifies aggressive prostate cancer phenotypes

    Smith, Bryan A.; Sokolov, Artem; Uzunangelov, Vladislav; Baertsch, Robert; Newton, Yulia; Graim, Kiley; Mathis, Colleen; Cheng, Donghui; Stuart, Joshua M.; Witte, Owen N.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from numerous cancers suggests that increased aggressiveness is accompanied by up-regulation of signaling pathways and acquisition of properties common to stem cells. It is unclear if different subtypes of late-stage cancer vary in stemness properties and whether or not these subtypes are transcriptionally similar to normal tissue stem cells. We report a gene signature specific for human prostate basal cells that is differentially enriched in various phenotypes of late-stage metastatic prostate cancer. We FACS-purified and transcriptionally profiled basal and luminal epithelial populations from the benign and cancerous regions of primary human prostates. High-throughput RNA sequencing showed the basal population to be defined by genes associated with stem cell signaling programs and invasiveness. Application of a 91-gene basal signature to gene expression datasets from patients with organ-confined or hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer revealed that metastatic small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma was molecularly more stem-like than either metastatic adenocarcinoma or organ-confined adenocarcinoma. Bioinformatic analysis of the basal cell and two human small cell gene signatures identified a set of E2F target genes common between prostate small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and primary prostate basal cells. Taken together, our data suggest that aggressive prostate cancer shares a conserved transcriptional program with normal adult prostate basal stem cells. PMID:26460041

  5. Metastasis of a Prostatic Carcinoma along an Omental Graft in a Dog

    Terry M. Jacobs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An 11-year-old male American Bulldog was presented for hematuria and tenesmus. It had been treated for chronic bacterial prostatitis with abscessation two years earlier and underwent castration and a prostatic omentalization procedure. There was no histologic evidence of prostatic neoplasia at that time. On physical examination, an enlarged prostate was found by rectal palpation, and it was characterized with ultrasonography and computed tomography. Surgical biopsies were obtained, and histopathology identified prostatic adenocarcinoma. It received carprofen and mitoxantrone chemotherapy in addition to palliative radiation therapy; it was euthanized six weeks later due to a progression of clinical signs. Necropsy findings included marked localized expansion of the prostatic tumor and dissemination of prostatic carcinoma cells throughout the peritoneal cavity along the omental graft with infiltration onto the serosal surfaces of most abdominal viscera and fat. This case represents a previously unreported potential complication of the omentalization procedure wherein carcinoma cells from a prostatic tumor that independently arose after omentalization may have metastasized along the surgically created omental graft.

  6. Education concerning carcinoma of prostate and its early detection.

    Dutkiewcz, Sławomir; Jędrzejewska, Sylwia

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common male cancer. Insufficient knowledge of PCa among men causes its low detection. Lack of essential actions in health education and widely understood prophylaxis, the need of the latter are maybe responsible for the increasing mortality rate. According to our assumption, educating men increase their awareness on the need of screening tests and results in increasing reporting to physical examinations. This in turn allows for an early detection of the disease. A research was conducted between the years 2003-2009 on the knowledge of PCa among 260 men. They were divided into two groups. Group A - 63 patients treated for carcinoma of prostate and group B - 197 men reporting spontaneously to screening tests. In order to check the adopted hypothesis, we prepared an educational material and test of knowledge - test with a questionnaire. Knowledge was evaluated before (test I) and after the education process (test II). Until 2009, we were monitoring the number of patients from group B reporting to screening tests and their knowledge was once again checked (test III). Two subgroups C and D were created from group B - 117 healthy men and 80 with diagnosed diseases respectively (70 with benign prostatic hyperplasia, 7 with prostatitis, and 3 with carcinoma of prostate). Patients with prostatitis and PCa and 3 patients from group C not reporting to the tests were excluded from further monitoring. Maths statistics with the use of SPSS 12.0 PL program and Statistica 6.0 constituted the base for working out the results. We observed a higher knowledge about carcinoma of prostate in group A than in group B (p 40 from groups C and D were interested in health care (p70 a lower level of motivation was observed. The interest was proportional to the level of education, and this was differentiating in an analogical way the motivation to extend knowledge about prostate cancer (padvanced state, and during 5 years in group C - in 4 men at an early development

  7. Feasibility study of CT perfusion imaging for prostate carcinoma

    Cullu, Nesat; Kantarci, Mecit; Ogul, Hayri; Pirimoglu, Berhan; Karaca, Leyla; Kizrak, Yesim; Adanur, Senol; Koc, Erdem; Polat, Ozkan; Okur, Aylin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this feasibility study was to obtain initial data with which to assess the efficiency of perfusion CT imaging (CTpI) and to compare this with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of prostate carcinoma. This prospective study involved 25 patients with prostate carcinoma undergoing MRI and CTpI. All analyses were performed on T2-weighted images (T2WI), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps, diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and CTp images. We compared the performance of T2WI combined with DWI and CTp alone. The study was approved by the local ethics committee, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Tumours were present in 87 areas according to the histopathological results. The diagnostic performance of the T2WI+DWI+CTpI combination was significantly better than that of T2WI alone for prostate carcinoma (P < 0.001). The diagnostic value of CTpI was similar to that of T2WI+DWI in combination. There were statistically significant differences in the blood flow and permeability surface values between prostate carcinoma and background prostate on CTp images. CTp may be a valuable tool for detecting prostate carcinoma and may be preferred in cases where MRI is contraindicated. If this technique is combined with T2WI and DWI, its diagnostic value is enhanced. (orig.)

  8. Local high voltage radiotherapy with curative intent for prostatic carcinoma

    Jacobi, G.H.; Kurth, K.H.; Hohenfellner, R.

    1979-01-01

    In a 10-year interval 179 patients with prostatic carcinoma were treated by cobalt-60 teletherapy (7600 R). A selected group of 47 patients with localized disease and irradiated with curative intent had serial prostatic biopsies and were analized after a minimum follow-up of 1 year. Biopsies of half of the patients rendered definitively negative, on an average 14 months after radiotherapy. 8 patients with initial negative biopsy changed to positive secondarily. In one third of the patients histological conversion was missed, considered as radiation persister. Persistent carcinoma were of predominant low grade. 5 patients developed distant metastases 30 months after irradiation on an average. These patients had persistent positive tissue studies. Over all cumulative 5-years survival was 89%. In patients with prostatic carcinoma and local high voltage radiotherapy with curative intent (stage A through C) serial prostatic biopsies to document therapy effect seen mandatory. (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 BRE [de

  9. Genotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons fail to induce the p53-dependent DNA damage response, apoptosis or cell-cycle arrest in human prostate carcinoma LNCaP cells

    Hrubá, E.; Trilecová, L.; Marvanová, S.; Krčmář, P.; Vykopalová, L.; Milcová, Alena; Líbalová, Helena; Topinka, Jan; Staršíchová, Andrea; Souček, Karel; Vondráček, Jan; Machala, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 198, č. 3 (2010), s. 227-235 ISSN 0378-4274 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA310/07/0961 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702; CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : prostate epithelial cells * DNA adducts * carcinogenesis Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.581, year: 2010

  10. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    NBCC syndrome; Gorlin-Goltz syndrome; Basal cell nevus syndrome; BCNS; Basal cell cancer - nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome ... Nevoid basal cell carcinoma nevus syndrome is a rare genetic ... syndrome is known as PTCH ("patched"). The gene is passed down ...

  11. Frequency of carcinoma of prostate in clinically benign prostatic hyperplasia and role of different screening tests

    Rasool, M.; Saeed, M.; Ali, S.; Saleem, M.S.; Saleem, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the frequency of carcinoma in clinically benign prostatic hyperplasia and role. of digital rectal examination (DRE) and prostatic specific antigen (PSA) in assessment of these patients. Data source: Patients admitted to the Department of Urology and Renal Transplantation with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to enlarged prostate. Design of study: Descriptive Study Place and Duration of Study: Department of Urology and Renal Transplantation, Quaid-e-Azam Medical College Bahawal Victoria Hospital, Bahawalpur, from January 2007 to December 2010. Patients and Methods: Patients presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms over the age of 50 years were evaluated on International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS), clinically examined and post-voiding residual urine determined on abdominal ultrasonography. The selection criteria were; Refractory retention of urine, Severe IPSS, absence of signs of malignancy on Digital Rectal Examination (DRE) and post-voiding residual urine more than 100 mI. Thus a total 300 patients were selected. Patient's blood sample was sent to laboratory to assess Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) level pre-operatively. All these patients underwent either transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) or transvesical prostatectomy (TVP) and prostatic tissue was sent for histopathology. Results: In this study, 13.33% patients were found to have carcinoma of prostate in spite of being clinically benign prostates in all patients, irrespective of PSA range. The PSA value was found 4ngjml. In this study, 9.95% patients had carcinoma prostate in spite having normal PSA and benign prostate on DRE while with rising PSA levels and normal DRE, chances of malignancy detection increases (66.67% ). Conclusion: We conclude that although frequency is low the possibility of malignancy in clinically benign enlarged prostate should be borne in mind whenever subjecting the patient for screening, assessment and treatment. DRE alone is insufficient

  12. Investigation of the expression of the EphB4 receptor tyrosine kinase in prostate carcinoma

    Lee, Yen-Ching; Perren, Janeanne R; Douglas, Evelyn L; Raynor, Michael P; Bartley, Maria A; Bardy, Peter G; Stephenson, Sally-Anne

    2005-01-01

    The EphB4 receptor tyrosine kinase has been reported as increased in tumours originating from several different tissues and its expression in a prostate cancer xenograft model has been reported. RT-PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemical techniques were used to examine EphB4 expression and protein levels in human prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP, DU145 and PC3. Immunohistochemistry was also used to examine localisation of EphB4 in tissue samples from 15 patients with prostate carcinomas. All three prostate cancer cell lines expressed the EphB4 gene and protein. EphB4 immunoreactivity in vivo was significantly greater in human prostate cancers as compared with matched normal prostate epithelium and there appeared to be a trend towards increased expression with higher grade disease. EphB4 is expressed in prostate cancer cell lines with increased expression in human prostate cancers when compared with matched normal tissue. EphB4 may therefore be a useful anti-prostate cancer target

  13. Apoptosis Induction of Human Prostate Carcinoma DU145 Cells by Diallyl Disulfide via Modulation of JNK and PI3K/AKT Signaling Pathways

    Young Hyun Yoo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Diallyl disulfide (DADS, a sulfur compound derived from garlic, has various biological properties, such as anticancer, antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the mechanisms of action underlying the compound's anticancer activity have not been fully elucidated. In this study, the apoptotic effects of DADS were investigated in DU145 human prostate carcinoma cells. Our results showed that DADS markedly inhibited the growth of the DU145 cells by induction of apoptosis. Apoptosis was accompanied by modulation of Bcl-2 and inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP family proteins, depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, ΔΨm and proteolytic activation of caspases. We also found that the expression of death-receptor 4 (DR4 and Fas ligand (FasL proteins was increased and that the level of intact Bid proteins was down-regulated by DADS. Moreover, treatment with DADS induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs, including extracellular-signal regulating kinase (ERK, p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK. A specific JNK inhibitor, SP600125, significantly blocked DADS-induced-apoptosis, whereas inhibitors of the ERK (PD98059 and p38 MAPK (SB203580 had no effect. The induction of apoptosis was also accompanied by inactivation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt and the PI3K inhibitor LY29004 significantly increased DADS-induced cell death. These findings provide evidence demonstrating that the proapoptotic effect of DADS is mediated through the activation of JNK and the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in DU145 cells.

  14. Giant basal cell carcinoma Carcinoma basocelular gigante

    Nilton Nasser

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer but the giant vegetating basal cell carcinoma reaches less than 0.5 % of all basal cell carcinoma types. The Giant BCC, defined as a lesion with more than 5 cm at its largest diameter, is a rare form of BCC and commonly occurs on the trunk. This patient, male, 42 years old presents a Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma which reaches 180 cm2 on the right shoulder and was negligent in looking for treatment. Surgical treatment was performed and no signs of dissemination or local recurrence have been detected after follow up of five years.O carcinoma basocelular é o tipo mais comum de câncer de pele, mas o carcinoma basocelular gigante vegetante não atinge 0,5% de todos os tipos de carcinomas basocelulares. O Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante, definido como lesão maior que 5 cm no maior diâmetro, é uma forma rara de carcinoma basocelular e comumente ocorre no tronco. Este paciente apresenta um Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante com 180cm² no ombro direito e foi negligente em procurar tratamento. Foi realizado tratamento cirúrgico e nenhum sinal de disseminação ou recorrência local foi detectada após 5 anos.

  15. Molecular Signaling Pathways Mediating Osteoclastogenesis Induced by Prostate Cancer Cells

    Rafiei, Shahrzad; Komarova, Svetlana V

    2013-01-01

    Advanced prostate cancer commonly metastasizes to bone leading to osteoblastic and osteolytic lesions. Although an osteolytic component governed by activation of bone resorbing osteoclasts is prominent in prostate cancer metastasis, the molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer-induced osteoclastogenesis are not well-understood. We studied the effect of soluble mediators released from human prostate carcinoma cells on osteoclast formation from mouse bone marrow and RAW 264.7 monocytes. Soluble factors released from human prostate carcinoma cells significantly increased viability of naïve bone marrow monocytes, as well as osteoclastogenesis from precursors primed with receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL). The prostate cancer-induced osteoclastogenesis was not mediated by RANKL as it was not inhibited by osteoprotegerin (OPG). However inhibition of TGFβ receptor I (TβRI), or macrophage-colony stimulating factor (MCSF) resulted in attenuation of prostate cancer-induced osteoclastogenesis. We characterized the signaling pathways induced in osteoclast precursors by soluble mediators released from human prostate carcinoma cells. Prostate cancer factors increased basal calcium levels and calcium fluctuations, induced nuclear localization of nuclear factor of activated t-cells (NFAT)c1, and activated prolonged phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in RANKL-primed osteoclast precursors. Inhibition of calcium signaling, NFATc1 activation, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation significantly reduced the ability of prostate cancer mediators to stimulate osteoclastogenesis. This study reveals the molecular mechanisms underlying the direct osteoclastogenic effect of prostate cancer derived factors, which may be beneficial in developing novel osteoclast-targeting therapeutic approaches

  16. Radical external radiotherapy for prostatic carcinoma

    Beiler, D.D.; Wright, D.J.; Reddy, G.N.

    1981-01-01

    From 1965 through 1974, 88 patients with Stage B or C prostatic carcinoma were treated with radical megavoltage therapy. Treatment technique was small field arc alone for Stage B and 4 field box whole pelvis irradiation to 4400 or 5000 rad with small field rotational boost for Stage C. All were at risk for 5 years and 30 for 10 years or more. None of the 14 Stage B patients have died of cancer. In Stage C (74 patients) uncorrected acturial survival was 55% (5 year) and 28% (10 year). Thirty-one percent of local failures appeared after 5 years. Whole pelvis dose of 5000 rad was associated with a higher 5 and 10 year survival than 4400 rad but the difference was not statistically significant. Comparison between groups treated with radiation alone, versus radiation plus a simultaneous hormonal therapy showed no significant differences in survival, local control or complications. Complications were generally mild, but early in the series 2 patients receiving 7500 rad developed ano-rectal necrosis; one of these patients died. More common problems were urethral stricture (12%) and ano-rectal stenosis (10%). Changes in technique in 1971 drastically reduced the subsequent complications. The failure of whole pelvic irradiation to improve on the 10 year results of local treatment is discussed

  17. Prostatic carcinoma. Diagnostic and stating: MR imaging. Cancer de la prostate Diagnostic et bilan: role de l'imagerie

    Roy, C; Spittler, G; Jacqmin, D [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 67 - Strasbourg (FR); Morel, M [Clinique Saint-Francois, 67 Haguenau (FR)

    1991-01-01

    Prostatic carcinoma is the second most commun cause of cancer death over 60 years. It is suspected by digital examination and prostatic specific antigen dosage. Transrectal ultrasound shows the tumor as an hypoechoic lesion. Sensitivity is good but specificity is low. Transrectal biopsy of prostate guided by transrectal ultrasound made the diagnosis. At present, MR Imaging is the most accurate diagnostic modality for loco-regional staging of prostatic carcinoma.

  18. Bilateral papillary renal cell carcinoma

    Gossios, K.; Vazakas, P.; Argyropoulou, M.; Stefanaki, S.; Stavropoulos, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    Papillary renal cell carcinoma is a subgroup of malignant renal epithelial neoplasms. We report the clinical and imaging findings of a case with multifocal and bilateral renal cell carcinoma which are nonspecific. (orig.)

  19. Stages of Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Merkel Cell Carcinoma Go to Health Professional Version Key ...

  20. Gingival squamous cell carcinoma

    Amit Walvekar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is the most common epithelial malignancy affecting the oral cavity. The most common sites for the development are lateral surface of tongue and floor of mouth; the least common sites are soft palate, gingiva, and buccal mucosa. Gingival squamous cell carcinoma can mimic a multitude of oral lesions and enlargements, especially those of inflammatory origin. In addition, predisposing and presenting factors are different from those of other OSCCs. Careful examination as well as routine biopsy are crucial for accurate diagnosis.

  1. Intraosseous acinic cell carcinoma

    2011-12-17

    Dec 17, 2011 ... Salivary gland tumors are also known to develop within jaw bones, arising within the jaw as a ... Treatment of acinic cell carcinoma in most cases is surgical. High recurrence rates ... Panoramic radiograph [Figure 3] showed a ...

  2. Intrahepatic portal hypertension secondary to metastatic carcinoma of the prostate.

    Attila, Tan; Datta, Milton W; Sudakoff, Gary; Abu-Hajir, Majed; Massey, Benson T

    2007-02-01

    While the liver is a common site of metastasis, tumor metastases are not a common cause of portal hypertension. We report a case of a patient with symptomatic portal hypertension due to diffuse metastatic prostate carcinoma infiltration of liver parenchyma that was not appreciated with routine imaging.

  3. Radical irradiation for carcinoma of the prostate | Abratt | South ...

    Ninety-three patients treated by radical irradiation for stage A2, Band C1 carcinoma of the prostate between 1979 and 1988 at a joint radiotherapy service were reviewed. The average age was 63 years, 84% of the patients were white and on histological examination the tumours were well or moderately differentiated in ...

  4. Metastasis in urothelial carcinoma mimicking prostate cancer metastasis in Ga-68 prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography-computed tomography in a case of synchronous malignancy

    Gupta, Manoj; Choudhury, Partha Sarathi; Gupta, Gurudutt; Gandhi, Jatin

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in man. It commonly presents with urinary symptoms, bone pain, or diagnosed with elevated prostate-specific antigen.(PSA) levels. Correct staging and early diagnosis of recurrence by a precise imaging tool are the keys for optimum management. Molecular imaging of prostate cancer with Ga-68 prostate-specific membrane antigen.(PSMA), positron emission tomography-computed tomography.(PET-CT) has recently received significant attention and frequently used with a signature to prostate cancer-specific remark. However, this case will highlight the more cautious use of it. A-72-year-old male treated earlier for synchronous double malignancy.(invasive papillary urothelial carcinoma right ureter and carcinoma prostate) presented with rising PSA.(0.51.ng/ml) and referred for Ga-68 PSMA PET-CT, which showed a positive enlarged left supraclavicular lymph node. Lymph node biopsy microscopic and immunohistochemistry examination revealed metastatic carcinoma favoring urothelial origin. Specificity of PSMA scan to prostate cancer has been seen to be compromised in a certain situation mostly due to neoangiogenesis, and false positives emerged in renal cell cancer, differentiated thyroid cancer, glioblastoma, breast cancer brain metastasis, and paravertebral schwannomas. Understanding the causes of false positive will further enhance the confidence of interpretating PSMA scans

  5. [Cost analysis of ultrasound-guided transrectal needle biopsy in prostatic carcinoma].

    Bissoli, E; Fandella, A; La Torre, E; Faggiano, L; Anselmo, G; Frasson, F

    1998-04-01

    The literature mortality and morbidity rates from prostatic carcinoma prompt to the better use of some routine diagnostic tools such as transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy. We evaluated the overall cost of transrectal ultrasound biopsy (TRUSB) of the prostate and investigated the economic impact of the procedures currently used to diagnose prostatic carcinoma. The total cost of TRUSB was calculated with reference to 247 procedures performed in 1996. The following cost factors were evaluated: personnel, materials, maintenance-equipment depreciation, energy consumption and hospital overheads. A literature review was also carried out to check if our extrapolated costs corresponded to those of other authors worldwide and to consider them in the wider framework of the cost effectiveness of the strategies for the early diagnosis of prostatic cancer. The overall cost of TRUSB was Itl. 249,000, obtained by adding together the costs of: personnel (Itl. 160,000); materials (Itl. 59,000); equipment maintenance and depreciation (Itl. 12,400); energy consumption (Itl. 100); hospital overheads (Itl. 17,500). The literature review points out TRUSB as a clinically invasive tool for diagnosing prostatic carcinoma whose cost-effectiveness is debated. Cadaver studies report the presence of cancer cells in the prostate of 50% of 70-year-old men, while extrapolations calculate a morbidity from prostatic carcinoma in 9.5% of 50-year-old men. It is therefore obvious that randomized prostatic biopsies, methods apart, are very likely to be positive. This probability varies with the patient's age, the level of prostate specific antigen (PSA), the density of PSA/cm3 of prostate volume (PSAD), and the positivity of exploration and/or transrectal ultrasound findings. Despite the strict application of all these criteria and the critical assessment of the patient's general conditions, TRUSB is indicated for 16% of the male population over 50, with obvious implications. It has been recently

  6. A case with primary signet ring cell adenocarcinoma of the prostate and review of the literature

    Orcun Celik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary signet cell carcinoma of the prostate is a rare histological variant of prostate malignancies. It is commonly originated from the stomach, colon, pancreas, and less commonly in the bladder. Prognosis of the classical type is worse than the adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Primary signet cell adenocarcinoma is diagnosed by eliminating the adenocarcinomas of other organs such as gastrointestinal tract organs. In this case report, we present a case with primary signet cell adenocarcinoma of the prostate who received docetaxel chemotherapy because of short prostate specific antigen doubling time.

  7. Prostate specific antigen, digital rectal examination, transrectal ultrasound: how accurate are they in determining prostate carcinoma?

    Gomez, John Anthony M.; Pagdanganan, Ernest Jerome A.; Caedo, Florencio Gerardo O.; Magsino, Benjamin C.; Rivera, Eduardo Ll.; Songco, Jaime S.D.

    1998-01-01

    Prostate cancer is an increasing problem. It is the most frequent malignancy in men past the age of 65 years. In the Philippines, 10-20% of males operated for prostatic obstruction had prostate cancer. The potential for cure is optimized by early detection and treatment of organ confined disease. Digital rectal examination, serum prostatic specific antigen and transrectal ultrasound of the prostate have been advocated individually and collectively to determine prostatic cancer. Our study involved forty-nine males who underwent all three screening modalities. Results of the study showed a statistically significant association between the presence of a nodule and occurrence of prostate cancer, a statistically significant association between hardness in consistency and cancer, a statistically significant difference in mean weight between those with Ca and BPH; a statistically significant difference in mean PSA levels between those with Ca and with BPH; statistically significant association between abnormal PSA levels and Ca; and a statistically significant association between a composite positive result and cancer. On the other hand, there was no statistically significant difference in mean age between those with cancer and those with BPH; there is no statistically significant association between the presence of prostatism and whether the patient has Ca or BPH; and there is no statistically significant difference in the mean duration between those with cancer and those with BPH. The study advocates the use of DRE, serum PSA in determining prostatic Ca as well as TRUS for determining occult carcinoma. (Author)

  8. High-voltage therapy of carcinoma of the prostate

    Schnorr, D.; Kelly, L.U.; Guddat, H.M.; Schubert, J.; Gorski, J.; Schorcht, J.; Mau, S.; Wehnert, J.; Medizinische Akademie, Dresden

    1983-01-01

    High-voltage therapy is becoming increasingly important as a form of individual differential therapy of carcinoma of the prostate. Around 40% of all patients with a diagnosis of carcinoma of the prostate can be treated with high-voltage therapy. The precondition is the absence of bone and soft tissue metastases and of juxtaregional lymph node metastases. Individual carcinoma therapy is based on pre therapeutic tumor classification according to the TNM system. The 5-year survival rates are presented from a retrospective study carried out using primary radiation monotherapy and a combined hormone and radiation therapy; these figures were calculated by the life-table method. The study revealed no significant differences between the two forms of therapy as regards 5-year survival rates. The 5-year survival rates of all patients of the classifications T 0 -T 3 N/sub x/-N 2 M 0 irradiated (n: 198) (72% +- 11% for hormone plus radiation therapy and 74% +- 11% for radiation monotherapy) did not differ greatly from those of a normal male population of the same age (77%). High-voltage therapy of carcinoma of the prostate can thus be classified as a curative method of treatment. (author)

  9. Gene expression changes in human prostate carcinoma cells exposed to genotoxic and nongenotoxic aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands

    Hrubá, E.; Vondráček, Jan; Líbalová, Helena; Topinka, Jan; Bryja, Vítězslav; Souček, Karel; Machala, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 206, č. 2 (2011), s. 178-188 ISSN 0378-4274 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA310/07/0961; GA ČR(CZ) GA524/09/1337 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702; CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : LNCaP cells * AhR ligands * WNT5A Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.230, year: 2011

  10. Penis squamous cell carcinoma

    Leonor Hernández Piñero

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer has become a first order health problem worldwide, despite the great diagnostic and therapeutic programs achieved during the last years. This is a clinical case of an 81- year-old patient with personal and social history of promiscuous and unprotected sexual behavior that shows a vegetative lesion in his gland and numerous inguinal adenopathies. Biopsy confirms the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating the penis, which is a relatively rare pathology which is generally diagnosed belatedly. Partial amputation of the penis was considered to be performed, but there was no consent on behalf of his family. The patient’s general condition was getting worse until he died.

  11. Prostate specific antigen levels after definitive irradiation for carcinoma of the prostate

    Schellhammer, P.F.; Schlossberg, S.M.; El-Mahdi, A.M.; Wright, G.L.; Brassil, D.N.

    1991-01-01

    Prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels were determined in 78 patients judged clinically to be free of disease at intervals of 36 or more months (range 38 to 186 months, median 87 months) after completion of irradiation therapy by 125-iodine implantation or external beam radiation. Of this select group of patients 38% had undetectable serum PSA levels (0.5 ng./ml. or less) and 38% had PSA levels that were within normal limits (4.0 ng./ml. or less). All stages and grades were represented. Undetectable PSA levels were only rarely found (3%) in patients with carcinoma of the prostate before treatment. In 24 of these 78 patients a negative biopsy of the irradiated prostate had been obtained 18 to 42 months after treatment. When the PSA level was drawn, which ranged from 7 to 16 years after treatment, an equal percentage of these biopsied patients had either an undetectable, normal or elevated level. Irradiation is able to decrease PSA to undetectable levels in some patients with prostatic carcinoma. Whether this reflects suppression of marker production alone or, more importantly, ablation of prostate cancer producing that marker remains to be determined

  12. PPARγ-independent induction of growth arrest and apoptosis in prostate and bladder carcinoma

    Chaffer, Christine L; Thomas, David M; Thompson, Erik W; Williams, Elizabeth D

    2006-01-01

    Although PPARγ antagonists have shown considerable pre-clinical efficacy, recent studies suggest PPARγ ligands induce PPARγ-independent effects. There is a need to better define such effects to permit rational utilization of these agents. We have studied the effects of a range of endogenous and synthetic PPARγ ligands on proliferation, growth arrest (FACS analysis) and apoptosis (caspase-3/7 activation and DNA fragmentation) in multiple prostate carcinoma cell lines (DU145, PC-3 and LNCaP) and in a series of cell lines modelling metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (TSU-Pr1, TSU-Pr1-B1 and TSU-Pr1-B2). 15-deoxy-prostaglandin J 2 (15dPGJ2), troglitazone (TGZ) and to a lesser extent ciglitazone exhibited inhibitory effects on cell number; the selective PPARγ antagonist GW9662 did not reverse these effects. Rosiglitazone and pioglitazone had no effect on proliferation. In addition, TGZ induced G0/G1 growth arrest whilst 15dPGJ2 induced apoptosis. Troglitazone and 15dPGJ2 inhibit growth of prostate and bladder carcinoma cell lines through different mechanisms and the effects of both agents are PPARγ-independent

  13. Squamous cell carcinoma - invasive (image)

    This irregular red nodule is an invasive squamous cell carcinoma (a form of skin cancer). Initial appearance, shown here, may be very similar to a noncancerous growth called a keratoacanthoma. Squamous cell cancers ...

  14. Cancer Patient T Cells Genetically Targeted to Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Specifically Lyse Prostate Cancer Cells and Release Cytokines in Response to Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen

    Michael C. Gong

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The expression of immunoglobulin-based artificial receptors in normal T lymphocytes provides a means to target lymphocytes to cell surface antigens independently of major histocompatibility complex restriction. Such artificial receptors have been previously shown to confer antigen-specific tumoricidal properties in murine T cells. We constructed a novel ζ chain fusion receptor specific for prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA termed Pz-1. PSMA is a cell-surface glycoprotein expressed on prostate cancer cells and the neovascular endothelium of multiple carcinomas. We show that primary T cells harvested from five of five patients with different stages of prostate cancer and transduced with the Pz-1 receptor readily lyse prostate cancer cells. Having established a culture system using fibroblasts that express PSMA, we next show that T cells expressing the Pz-1 receptor release cytokines in response to cell-bound PSMA. Furthermore, we show that the cytokine release is greatly augmented by B7.1-mediated costimulation. Thus, our findings support the feasibility of adoptive cell therapy by using genetically engineered T cells in prostate cancer patients and suggest that both CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte functions can be synergistically targeted against tumor cells.

  15. Ureteral Metastasis from Prostatic Carcinoma with an Associated Ureteral Stone: A Case Report

    Chia-Chu Liu

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Ureteral metastasis is rare, and only a few cases of ureteral metastasis from prostatic carcinoma have been reported. We present a case of ureteral metastasis from prostatic carcinoma that was also associated with a ureteral stone. To our knowledge, this is the second case with a ureteral stone at the site of the metastatic lesion.

  16. Urtica dioica Induces Cytotoxicity in Human Prostate Carcinoma ...

    Purpose: To evaluate the cytotoxic mechanisms of an extract from the leaves of the Urtica dioica (UD) plant in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Methods: LNCaP cells were exposed to the UD extract for 24hrs and cell viability assessed using the MTT assay. Reactive oxygen species generation was assessed using the NBT ...

  17. Testosterone metabolism of fibroblasts grown from prostatic carcinoma, benign prostatic hyperplasia and skin fibroblasts

    Schweikert, H.U.; Hein, H.J.; Romijn, J.C.; Schroeder, F.H.

    1982-01-01

    The metabolism of [1,2,6,7-3H]testosterone was assessed in fibroblast monolayers derived from tissue of 5 prostates with benign hyperplasia (BPH), 4 prostates with carcinoma (PC), and 3 biopsy samples of skin, 2 nongenital skin (NG) and 1 genital skin. The following metabolites could be identified: androstanedione androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone, androsterone, epiandrosterone, androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol and androstane-3 beta, 17 beta-diol. Testosterone was metabolized much more rapidly in fibroblasts originating from prostatic tissue than in fibroblasts derived from NG. A significantly higher formation of 5 alpha-androstanes and 3 alpha-hydroxysteroids could be observed in fibroblasts from BPH as compared to PC. 17-ketosteroid formation exceeded 5 alpha-androstane formation in BPH, whereas 5 alpha-reduction was the predominant pathway in fibroblasts grown from PC and NG. Since testosterone metabolism in fibroblasts of prostatic origin therefore resembles in many aspects that in whole prostatic tissue, fibroblasts grown from prostatic tissues might be a valuable tool for further investigation of the pathogenesis of human BPH and PC

  18. Osteoblast-Prostate Cancer Cell Interaction in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastases

    Navone, Nora

    2001-01-01

    .... This suggests that prostate cancer cells interact with cells from the osteoblastic lineage. To understand the molecular bases of prostatic bone metastases, we established two prostate cancer cell lines, MDA PCa 2a and MDA PCa 2b (1...

  19. Evaluation of Tumor Heterogeneity of Prostate Carcinoma by Flow- and Image DNA Cytometry and Histopathological Grading

    Naining Wang

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Heterogeneity of prostate carcinoma is one of the reasons for pretreatment underestimation of tumor aggressiveness. We studied tumor heterogeneity and the probability of finding the highest tumor grade and DNA aneuploidy with relation to the number of biopsies. Material and methods. Specimens simulating core biopsies from five randomly selected tumor areas from each of 16 Böcking’s grade II and 23 grade III prostate carcinomas were analyzed for tumor grade and DNA ploidy by flow‐ and fluorescence image cytometry (FCM, FICM. Cell cycle composition was measured by FCM. Results. By determination of ploidy and cell cycle composition, morphologically defined tumors can further be subdivided. Heterogeneity of tumor grade and DNA ploidy (FCM was 54% and 50%. Coexistence of diploid tumor cells in aneuploid specimens represents another form of tumor heterogeneity. The proportion of diploid tumor cells decreased significantly with tumor grade and with increase in the fraction of proliferating cell of the aneuploid tumor part. The probability of estimating the highest tumor grade or aneuploidy increased from 40% for one biopsy to 95% for 5 biopsies studied. By combining the tumor grade with DNA ploidy, the probability of detecting a highly aggressive tumor increased from 40% to 70% and 90% for one and two biopsies, respectively. Conclusion. Specimens of the size of core biopsies can be used for evaluation of DNA ploidy and cell cycle composition. Underestimation of aggressiveness of prostate carcinoma due to tumor heterogeneity is minimized by simultaneous study of the tumor grade and DNA ploidy more than by increasing the number of biopsies. The biological significance of coexistent diploid tumor cell in aneuploid lesions remains to be evaluated.

  20. Fractionation and protraction for radiotherapy of prostate carcinoma

    Brenner, David J.; Hall, Eric J.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether current fractionation and brachytherapy protraction schemes for the treatment of prostatic cancer with radiation are optimal, or could be improved. Methods and Materials: We analyzed two mature data sets on radiotherapeutic tumor control for prostate cancer, one using EBRT and the other permanent seed implants, to extract the sensitivity to changes in fractionation of prostatic tumors. The standard linear-quadratic model was used for the analysis. Results: Prostatic cancers appear significantly more sensitive to changes in fractionation than most other cancers. The estimated α/β value is 1.5 Gy [0.8, 2.2]. This result is not too surprising as there is a documented relationship between cellular proliferative status and sensitivity to changes in fractionation, and prostatic tumors contain exceptionally low proportions of proliferating cells. Conclusions: High dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy would be a highly appropriate modality for treating prostate cancer. Appropriately designed HDR brachytherapy regimens would be expected to be as efficacious as low dose rate, but with added advantages of logistic convenience and more reliable dose distributions. Similarly, external beam treatments for prostate cancer can be designed using larger doses per fraction; appropriately designed hypofractionation schemes would be expected to maintain current levels of tumor control and late sequelae, but with reduced acute morbidity, together with the logistic and financial advantages of fewer numbers of fractions

  1. A Novel Role of Silibinin as a Putative Epigenetic Modulator in Human Prostate Carcinoma

    Ioannis Anestopoulos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Silibinin, extracted from milk thistle (Silybum marianum L., has exhibited considerable preclinical activity against prostate carcinoma. Its antitumor and chemopreventive activities have been associated with diverse effects on cell cycle, apoptosis, and receptor-dependent mitogenic signaling pathways. Here we hypothesized that silibinin’s pleiotropic effects may reflect its interference with epigenetic mechanisms in human prostate cancer cells. More specifically, we have demonstrated that silibinin reduces gene expression levels of the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2 members Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2, Suppressor of Zeste Homolog 12 (SUZ12, and Embryonic Ectoderm Development (EED in DU145 and PC3 human prostate cancer cells, as evidenced by Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR. Furthermore immunoblot and immunofluorescence analysis revealed that silibinin-mediated reduction of EZH2 levels was accompanied by an increase in trimethylation of histone H3 on lysine (Κ-27 residue (H3K27me3 levels and that such response was, in part, dependent on decreased expression levels of phosphorylated Akt (ser473 (pAkt and phosphorylated EZH2 (ser21 (pEZH2. Additionally silibinin exerted other epigenetic effects involving an increase in total DNA methyltransferase (DNMT activity while it decreased histone deacetylases 1-2 (HDACs1-2 expression levels. We conclude that silibinin induces epigenetic alterations in human prostate cancer cells, suggesting that subsequent disruptions of central processes in chromatin conformation may account for some of its diverse anticancer effects.

  2. DJ-1 and androgen receptor immunohistochemical expression in prostatic carcinoma: A possible role in carcinogenesis

    Osman, W.M.; Abd El Atti, R.M.; Abou Gabal, H.H.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Androgen plays a fundamental role in the growth and differentiation of prostate. Androgen receptor (AR) expression may represent a potential marker of prognosis in prostate cancer. However, there have been variable results regarding its ability to predict clinical progression. Despite the oncogenic properties of DJ-1, its significance in prostate cancer development and progression is not well understood. This research shed some light on the possible role of immunohistochemical expression of DJ-1 in clinically localized prostatic carcinoma in relation to the established role of AR and other clinico pathologic parameters. Materials and Methods: The immunohistochemical expression of AR and DJ-1 was evaluated in 129 samples including benign hyperplasia (n = 60) and prostatic carcinoma (n = 69). Results: The mean value of AR immunostaining was significantly higher in prostatic carcinomas than in benign hyperplasia (P = 0.001). A significant inverse correlation was found between AR immunostaining and the grade of prostatic carcinomas. A significantly higher median DJ-1 score was found in prostatic carcinoma than in benign hyperplasia (P = 0.0001). There was a significant direct correlation between AR and DJ-1 score (P = 0.0001). AR is more sensitive in predicting prostatic carcinoma than DJ-1 but DJ-1 is more specific than AR. Conclusion: AR nuclear expression was consistently present in benign and adenocarcinoma epithelium. But, there may be limited clinical use for AR expression in localized carcinoma due to its constant heterogeneity. DJ-1 with its oncogenic properties, specificity for prostatic carcinoma and homogenous expression gives an ideal complementary role to AR in the detection and treatment of prostatic carcinomas.

  3. Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Parekh, Vishwas; Seykora, John T

    2017-09-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is a malignant neoplasm of the skin characterized by an aberrant proliferation of keratinocytes. Cutaneous SCC is the second most common malignancy globally, and usually arises in the chronically sun-damaged skin of elderly white individuals. From a pathologist's perspective, it is important to differentiate cSCC from the benign and reactive squamoproliferative lesions and identify the high-risk features associated with aggressive tumor behavior. In this article, we provide an up-to-date overview of cSCC along with its precursor lesions and important histologic variants, with a particular emphasis on the histopathologic features and molecular pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Prognostic role of serum prostatic acid phosphatase for 103Pd-based radiation for prostatic carcinoma

    Dattoli, Michael; Wallner, Kent; True, Lawrence; Sorace, Richard; Koval, John; Cash, Jennifer; Acosta, Rudolph; Biswas, Mohendra; Binder, Michael; Sullivan, Brent; Lastarria, Emilio; Kirwan, Novelle; Stein, Douglas

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To establish the prognostic role of serum enzymatic prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in patients treated with palladium ( 103 Pd) and supplemental external beam irradiation (EBRT) for clinically localized, high-risk prostate carcinoma. Methods and Materials: One hundred twenty-four consecutive patients with Stage T2a-T3 prostatic carcinoma were treated from 1992 through 1995. Each patient had at least one of the following risk factors for extracapsular disease extension: Stage T2b or greater (100 patients), Gleason score 7-10 (40 patients), pretreatment prostate specific antigen (PSA) > 15 ng/ml (32 patients), or elevated serum PAP (25 patients). Patients received 41 Gy conformal EBRT to a limited pelvic field, followed 4 weeks later by a 103 Pd boost (prescription dose 80 Gy). Biochemical failure was defined as a PSA greater than 1 ng/ml (normal < 4 ng/ml). Results: The overall, actuarial freedom from biochemical failure at 4 years after treatment was 79%. In Cox-proportional hazard multivariate analysis, the strongest predictor of failure was elevated pretreatment acid phosphatase (p = 0.02), followed by Gleason score (p = 0.1), and PSA (p = 0.14). Conclusion: PAP was the strongest predictor of long-term biochemical failure. It may be a more accurate indicator of micrometastatic disease than PSA, and as such, we suggest that it be reconsidered for general use in radiation-treated patients

  5. Prostate carcinoma mimicking a sphenoid wing meningioma.

    Bradley, Lucas H; Burton, Matthew; Gokden, Murat; Serletis, Demitre

    2015-01-01

    We report here on a rare case of a large, lateral sphenoid wing tumor with radiographic and intraoperative findings highly suggestive of meningioma, yet pathology was in fact consistent with metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma. An 81 year-old male presented with expressive dysphasia, right-sided weakness and headaches. Imaging revealed a heterogeneously-enhancing lesion based on the left lateral sphenoid wing. The presumed diagnosis was strongly in favor of meningioma, and the patient underwent complete resection of the dural-based lesion. Final pathology confirmed the unexpected finding of a metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma. Although he tolerated surgery well, the patient was subsequently referred for palliative therapy given findings of widespread systemic disease. Intracranial metastases may involve the dura, at times presenting with rare radiographic features highly suggestive for meningioma, as in our case here. This makes differentiation, at least based on imaging, a challenge. Elderly patients presenting with neurological deficits secondary to a newly-diagnosed, dural-based lesion should thus be considered for metastasis, prompting additional imaging studies (including body CT, MRI or PET) to rule out a primary lesion elsewhere. In some cases, this may affect the overall decision to proceed with surgical resection, or alternatively, to proceed directly to palliative therapy (the latter decision made in the context of widespread metastatic disease). We conclude that dural-based metastatic lesions may mimic meningiomas, warranting thorough pre-operative work-up to exclude the possibility of metastasis. In certain cases, identification of widespread disease might preclude surgery and favor palliation, instead. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Iodine-125 implants for carcinoma of the prostate

    Peschel, R.E.; Fogel, T.D.; Kacinski, B.M.; Kelly, K.; Mate, T.P.

    1985-01-01

    One hundred-thirteen patients underwent Iodine-125 prostate implant and lymphadenectomy at Yale-New Haven Hospital from 1974 through 1980. The distribution by clinical stage was: 7 Stage A2, 86 Stage B, and 20 Stage C patients. Ninety-four patients had a negative lymphadenectomy and 19 patients (17%) had metastatic disease in the pelvic lymph nodes (N+). The actuarial 5-year survival for all 113 patients was 87%. Local tumor control was 85% for all Stage B patients and 75% for all Stage C patients. Only 10 patients (9%) have developed long-term gastrointestinal or genitourinary complications following their implant. Iodine-125 implant appears to be a reasonable alternate form of therapy in highly selected groups of patients with carcinoma of the prostate

  7. Renal cell carcinoma in childhood

    Zanier, J.F.C.; Ramos, C.O.P.; Pereira, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present five cases of renal cell carcinoma in children, describing its aspects on excretory urography, ultra-sonography and computerized tomography. The clinical, pathological and radiological features are compared with those of the literature. (author)

  8. BMP7 Induces Dormancy of Prostatic Tumor Stem Cell in Bone

    2013-07-01

    of NDRG1 is correlated with tumor progression and poor prog- nosis in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Dis. Esophagus . 19:454–458...Dormancy of Prostatic Tumor Stem Cell in Bone PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Fei Xing, Ph.D...BMP7 Induces Dormancy of Prostatic Tumor Stem Cell in Bone 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0666 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Fei

  9. Gene Delivery for Metastatic Prostate Cancer Cells

    Pang, Shen

    2001-01-01

    .... Enhanced by the bystander effect, the specific expression of the DTA gene causes significant cell death in prostate cancer cell cultures, with very low background cell eradication in control cell lines...

  10. Postoperative irradiation in carcinoma of the prostate

    Pilepich, M.V.; Walz, B.J.; Baglan, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-eight patients received postoperative radiotherapy with curative intent following either radical prostatectomy (18 patients) or enucleative prostatectomy (10 patients). In patients undergoing radical prostatectomy, the indications for postoperative radiotherapy included positive margins in 13, close margins in 2, and seminal vesicle involvement in 3 patients. The majority of patients (82%) received total dose to the prostatic bed in excess of 6500 rad. In over 80% of the patients, the pelvic lymphatics are also treated (to a total dose of 4000-5000 rad). All of the patients irradiated after radical prostatectomy clinically remained disease-free locally. Approximately one-half of the patients in both the enucleation and radial prostatectomy groups developed evidence of distant metastases. The complications of treatment have been comparable to those in patients treated with radiotherapy only. The continence status has not been affected significantly. All patients with incontinence following completion of radiotherapy had documented impairment of continence prior to radiotherapy. Postoperative radiotherapy administered following either radical or enucleative prostatectomy was tolerated well and resulted in excellent local control

  11. Synchronous thyroid carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. A case report

    Lee, Jae Seo

    2006-01-01

    Thyroid carcinoma occurring as a second primary associated with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is unusual. This report presents a synchronous thyroid carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in the anterior palate region of a 41-year-old man. The clinical, radiologic, and histologic features are described. At 10-month follow-up after operation, no evidence of recurrence ana metastasis was present

  12. Snail regulates cell survival and inhibits cellular senescence in human metastatic prostate cancer cell lines.

    Emadi Baygi, Modjtaba; Soheili, Zahra Soheila; Schmitz, Ingo; Sameie, Shahram; Schulz, Wolfgang A

    2010-12-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is regarded as an important step in cancer metastasis. Snail, a master regulator of EMT, has been recently proposed to act additionally as a cell survival factor and inducer of motility. We have investigated the function of Snail (SNAI1) in prostate cancer cells by downregulating its expression via short (21-mer) interfering RNA (siRNA) and measuring the consequences on EMT markers, cell viability, death, cell cycle, senescence, attachment, and invasivity. Of eight carcinoma cell lines, the prostate carcinoma cell lines LNCaP and PC-3 showed the highest and moderate expression of SNAI1 mRNA, respectively, as measured by quantitative RT-PCR. Long-term knockdown of Snail induced a severe decline in cell numbers in LNCaP and PC-3 and caspase activity was accordingly enhanced in both cell lines. In addition, suppression of Snail expression induced senescence in LNCaP cells. SNAI1-siRNA-treated cells did not tolerate detachment from the extracellular matrix, probably due to downregulation of integrin α6. Expression of E-cadherin, vimentin, and fibronectin was also affected. Invasiveness of PC-3 cells was not significantly diminished by Snail knockdown. Our data suggest that Snail acts primarily as a survival factor and inhibitor of cellular senescence in prostate cancer cell lines. We therefore propose that Snail can act as early driver of prostate cancer progression.

  13. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic carcinoma: correlation with angiogenesis

    Ren, J.; Huan, Y.; Wang, H.; Chang, Y.-J.; Zhao, H.-T.; Ge, Y.-L.; Liu, Y.; Yang, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the diagnostic and differential diagnostic values of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI) in prostatic diseases, and to investigate the correlation between the parameters of SI-T curves and angiogenesis. Materials and methods: Twenty-one patients with proven prostatic carcinoma (Pca) and 29 patients with proven benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) were examined using DCE MRI. Diagnostic characteristics for differentiation were examined using threshold values for maximum peak time, enhancement degree, and enhancement rate. Then, the signal intensity-time curves (SI-T curves) were analysed, and the correlations between the parameters of SI-T curves and the expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and microvascular density (MVD) were investigated. All patients underwent prostatectomy. DCE MRI and histological findings were correlated. Results: Pca showed stronger enhancement with an earlier peak time, higher enhancement, and enhancement rate (p 2 = 13.57, P < 0.005). The VEGF and MVD expression levels of Pca were higher than those of BPH. Peak time was negatively correlated with the expression levels of VEGF and MVD, whereas the enhancement degree and enhancement rate showed positive correlations (Pearson correlation, p < 0.05). Conclusion: Based on T2-weighted imaging, DCE MRI curves can help to differentiate benign from malignant prostate tissue. In the present study the type C curve was rarely seen with malignant disease, but these results need confirmation

  14. Expression of androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen in male breast carcinoma

    Kidwai, Noman; Gong, Yun; Sun, Xiaoping; Deshpande, Charuhas G; Yeldandi, Anjana V; Rao, M Sambasiva; Badve, Sunil

    2004-01-01

    The androgen-regulated proteins prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate-specific acid phosphatase (PSAP) are present in high concentrations in normal prostate and prostatic cancer and are considered to be tissue-specific to prostate. These markers are commonly used to diagnose metastatic prostate carcinoma at various sites including the male breast. However, expression of these two proteins in tumors arising in tissues regulated by androgens such as male breast carcinoma has not been thoroughly evaluated. In this study we analyzed the expression of PSA, PSAP and androgen receptor (AR) by immunohistochemistry in 26 cases of male breast carcinomas and correlated these with the expression of other prognostic markers. AR, PSA and PSAP expression was observed in 81%, 23% and 0% of carcinomas, respectively. Combined expression of AR and PSA was observed in only four tumors. Although the biological significance of PSA expression in male breast carcinomas is not clear, caution should be exercised when it is used as a diagnostic marker of metastatic prostate carcinoma

  15. Hemodynamic and metabolic characterization of orthotopic rat prostate carcinomas using dynamic MRI and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Kiessling, F.; Lichy, M.; Kauczor, H.U.; Schlemmer, H.P.; Grobholz, R.; Heilmann, M.; Meding, J.; Huber, P.E.; Peschke, P.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was the noninvasive characterization of prostate carcinoma orthotopically implanted in rats using Gd-DTPA-assisted dynamic MRI (dMRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS). After surgical exposure of the prostate, Dunning R3327 orthotopic prostate carcinoma was induced by injecting cells of the MAT-LyLu subline. Six rats were examined 5 and 14 days after tumor induction with dMRI and 1 H-MRS at 1.5 T. Six tumor-free rats served as controls. Using an open two-compartment model, the parameters A (amplitude) and k ep (exchange rate constants) were calculated from the signal time curves of the dMRI. The relative signal intensities (Cho/Cr) of the resonances of choline (Cho) and the creatine-phosphocreatine complex (Cr) were computed from the MR spectra. Already after 5 days, the tumors in the prostate could be clearly identified based on the decrease in signal intensity to T2w and increase of A and k ep . High Cho/Cr levels and resonances of two lipid fractions (Lip 1 at 0.8-1.5 ppm and Lip 2 at 2.0-2.2 ppm) were observed by MRS in the highly necrotic tumors. The orthotopic rat prostate carcinoma model resembles human prostate carcinoma in regard to MR morphology, dMRI, and 1 H-MRS. The noninvasive characterization of perfusion and metabolism makes a comparative examination of different treatment modalities possible. (orig.) [de

  16. Prostate carcinoma (PC) - an organ-related specific pathological neoplasm

    Massmann, J.; Funk, A.; Altwein, J.; Praetorius, M.

    2003-01-01

    The organ- and tumour-related specific characteristics of prostate carcinoma (PC) are presented in an overview under various aspects. It is the key for understanding pathological changes, including PC, to consider the subdivision of the prostate into anatomically and functionally distinguishable zones, especially the transitional zone (TZ) and the peripheral zone (PZ). The pseudoneoplastic hyperplasia of the TZ, combined with inflammatory consequences and age-related changes, forms a differential diagnostic challenge to both clinico-radiological diagnosis and macroscopic and microscopic examination. High-degree prostatic intra-epithelial neoplasia (PIN III) and atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH) are presented as precursor lesions of PC with varying significance and assessment. Moreover, there are discussed the following characteristic features of PC: localisation types, focality, volume, progression, double-graduation according to Gleason, tumour stage, and prognosis. The most important prognosis factors of PC (category I) include the categories of the TNM system, such as stage, surgical marginal situation, degree and also the preoperative PSA level as a (poor) substitute for the tumour volume. Potential prognosis parameters (category II) show the tumour volume and the DNS ploidy, while there continues to exist a large number of non-established parameters (category III). The prognostic validity of the pathological examinations depends, on the one hand, on the tissue extent (needle biopsy, transurethral resection (TURP), so-called simple prostatectomy, radical prostatectomy (RPE)) and the prostate zones covered. On the other hand, the prognostic certainty also depends on the tumour-adequate macroscopic and microscopic assessment of an RPE that can only be a partial or complete handling in transversal large-area sections. (orig.) [de

  17. NF-kB and c-Jun induce the expression of the oncogenic miR-221 and miR-222 in prostate carcinoma and glioblastoma cells

    Galardi, Silvia; Mercatelli, Neri; Farace, Maria G.; Ciafrè, Silvia A.

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are potent negative regulators of gene expression involved in all aspects of cell biology. They finely modulate virtually all physiological pathways in metazoans, and are deeply implicated in all main pathologies, among which cancer. Mir-221 and miR-222, two closely related miRNAs encoded in cluster from a genomic region on chromosome X, are strongly upregulated in several forms of human tumours. In this work, we report that the ectopic modulation of NF-kB modifies miR-221/222 expression in prostate carcinoma and glioblastoma cell lines, where we had previously shown their oncogenic activity. We identify two separate distal regions upstream of miR-221/222 promoter which are bound by the NF-kB subunit p65 and drive efficient transcription in luciferase reporter assays; consistently, the site-directed mutagenesis disrupting p65 binding sites or the ectopical inhibition of NF-kB activity significantly reduce luciferase activity. In the most distal enhancer region, we also define a binding site for c-Jun, and we show that the binding of this factor cooperates with that of p65, fully accounting for the observed upregulation of miR-221/222. Thus our work uncovers an additional mechanism through which NF-kB and c-Jun, two transcription factors deeply involved in cancer onset and progression, contribute to oncogenesis, by inducing miR-221/222 transcription. PMID:21245048

  18. A role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor in the antiandrogenic effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in LNCaP human prostate carcinoma cells

    Kizu, Ryoichi; Okamura, Kazumasa; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, 13-1 Takara-machi, Kanazawa 920-0934 (Japan); Kakishima, Hiroshi [Research Planning Department, Eiken Chemical Co. Ltd., 5-26-20 Oji, Kita-ku, Tokyo 114-0002 (Japan); Mizokami, Atsushi [School of Medicine, Kanazawa University, 13-1 Takara-machi, Kanazawa 920-8641 (Japan); Burnstein, Kerry L. [Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, University of Miami School of Medicine, FL 33101, Miami (United States)

    2003-06-01

    The role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) on the antiandrogenic effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was studied in LNCaP cells. The PAHs used in this study were chrysene (Chr), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), anthracene (Ant) and pyrene (Pyr). Chr, BkF and BaP acted as AhR agonists in LNCaP cells, while Ant and Pyr did not. The antiandrogenic effects of the PAHs were evaluated on the basis of regulation of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) mRNA and protein levels by 5{alpha}-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Chr, BkF and BaP exhibited an antiandrogenic effect, but Ant and Pyr did not. {alpha}-Naphthoflavone ({alpha}-NF), an AhR antagonist, reversed the antiandrogen action of Chr, BkF and BaP, suggesting a requirement for activated AhR. The antiandrogenic PAHs did not significantly decrease androgen receptor (AR) levels or cellular DHT concentrations. Gel mobility shift assays revealed that Chr, BkF and BaP inhibited the binding of AR in nuclear extracts to oligonucleotide probes containing the AR-responsive element (ARE), whereas Ant and Pyr had no effect. The antiandrogenic PAHs elevated mRNA levels of c-fos and c-jun. Since activator protein-1 (AP-1), a heterodimer of c-jun and c-fos proteins, is known to inhibit binding of AR to ARE by protein-protein interaction with AR, the findings in the present study suggest a possible involvement of AP-1 in the antiandrogenic effects of PAHs acting as AhR agonists. These results suggest that AhR can stimulate AP-1 expression resulting in inhibition of the binding of AR to ARE in the transcription regulatory region of target genes such as PSA. (orig.)

  19. Potential targets for lung squamous cell carcinoma

    Researchers have identified potential therapeutic targets in lung squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of lung cancer. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network study comprehensively characterized the lung squamous cell carcinoma gen

  20. General Information about Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Merkel Cell Carcinoma Go to Health Professional Version Key ...

  1. Prostate-specific antigen and hormone receptor expression in male and female breast carcinoma

    Cohen Cynthia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate carcinoma is among the most common solid tumors to secondarily involve the male breast. Prostate specific antigen (PSA and prostate-specific acid phosphatase (PSAP are expressed in benign and malignant prostatic tissue, and immunohistochemical staining for these markers is often used to confirm the prostatic origin of metastatic carcinoma. PSA expression has been reported in male and female breast carcinoma and in gynecomastia, raising concerns about the utility of PSA for differentiating prostate carcinoma metastasis to the male breast from primary breast carcinoma. This study examined the frequency of PSA, PSAP, and hormone receptor expression in male breast carcinoma (MBC, female breast carcinoma (FBC, and gynecomastia. Methods Immunohistochemical staining for PSA, PSAP, AR, ER, and PR was performed on tissue microarrays representing six cases of gynecomastia, thirty MBC, and fifty-six FBC. Results PSA was positive in two of fifty-six FBC (3.7%, focally positive in one of thirty MBC (3.3%, and negative in the five examined cases of gynecomastia. PSAP expression was absent in MBC, FBC, and gynecomastia. Hormone receptor expression was similar in males and females (AR 74.1% in MBC vs. 67.9% in FBC, p = 0.62; ER 85.2% vs. 68.5%, p = 0.18; and PR 51.9% vs. 48.2%, p = 0.82. Conclusions PSA and PSAP are useful markers to distinguish primary breast carcinoma from prostate carcinoma metastatic to the male breast. Although PSA expression appeared to correlate with hormone receptor expression, the incidence of PSA expression in our population was too low to draw significant conclusions about an association between PSA expression and hormone receptor status in breast lesions.

  2. Primary orbital squamous cell carcinoma

    Ana L. Campos Arbulú

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary orbital squamous cell carcinoma is a rare entity. There is little published literature. We report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the orbital soft tissues. Surgical resection offered the best treatment for the patient. Complete resection of the lesion was achieved. The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy due to the proximity of the lesion to the surgical margins. Surgical treatment is feasible and should be considered as part of the surgeon's arsenal. However, therapeutic decisions must be made on a case-by-case basis

  3. Serum testosterone as a prognostic factor in patients with advanced prostatic carcinoma

    Iversen, P; Rasmussen, F; Christensen, I J

    1994-01-01

    In 245 patients with previously untreated advanced carcinoma of the prostate, serum concentrations of testosterone have been measured before androgen deprivation therapy, and patients were divided in quartiles according to their serum concentration. Pretreatment level of serum testosterone...... parameters suggest that low serum testosterone merely is a consequence of the advanced malignancy rather than a causative factor in the pathogenesis of prostatic cancer....

  4. Canine prostate carcinoma: epidemiological evidence of an increased risk in castrated dogs.

    Teske, E.; Naan, E.C.; Dijk, E.M. van; Garderen, E. van; Schalken, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    The present retrospective study investigated the frequency of prostate carcinoma (PCA) among prostate abnormalities in dogs and determined whether castration influences the incidence of PCA in dogs. During the years 1993-1998, 15363 male dogs were admitted to the Utrecht University Clinic of

  5. The detection of prostatic carcinoma. 4- or 7-MHz transrectal ultrasonography?

    Vleeming, R.; Noordzij, J. W.; de Reijke, T. M.; Kurth, K. H.

    1993-01-01

    In this prospective study a comparison of 4-versus 7-MHz transrectal ultrasonography for the detection of prostatic carcinoma is reported. A total of 150 prostates were biopsied due to suspicion of malignancy arising at either digital rectal examination, 4- and/or 7-MHz transrectal ultrasonography,

  6. Multi cranial nerve palsies as the presenting features of prostate carcinoma

    Mitchell, D.M.; Wynne, C.J.; Cowan, I.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Cranial nerve palsies have previously been reported in metastatic prostate carcinoma, usually occurring late in the course of the disease. We describe the case of a 55-year-old man whose diagnosis of prostate cancer was made following investigation of multiple cranial nerve palsies.

  7. Interstitial radiotherapy in the treatment of carcinoma of the prostate

    Knuefermann, H.; Bruggmoser, G.; Wannenmacher, M.

    1981-01-01

    The practical and organisatory sides of interstitial radiation therapy of prostate carcinoma with iodine 125 capsules are reported on. Special stress is laid upon measures and measurements concerning radiation protection. First evaluations of these measurements show that this form of therapy is to be carried out in exact correspondence with the radiation protection law. The computer-supported isodose calculation and in-vivo-measurements in rectum, method and urinary bladder confirm the rapid drop in the dosage outside of the irradiated focus volume. Therefore, the inflammatory accompanying reactions are despite higher tumour dose, significantly milder then with the percutaneous radiation therapy. The indication criteria should be closely adhered to because the operation is a very extensive one. (orig.) [de

  8. Basal cell carcinoma-treatment with cryosurgery

    Kaur S

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma is a common cutaneous malignancy, frequently occurring over the face in elderly individuals. Various therapeutic modalities are available to treat these tumors. We describe three patients with basal cell carcinoma successfully treated with cryosurgery and discuss the indications and the use of this treatment modality for basal cell carcinomas.

  9. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma caused by carcinoma misdiagnosed as acne - case report and literature review

    Aydin, Dogu; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Jakobsen, Linda Plovmand

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment-resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis.......Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment-resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis....

  10. The expression of prostate-specific antigen in invasive breast carcinoma and its relationship with routine clinicopathologic parameters

    Fereshteh Mohammadizadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Invasive breast carcinoma is one of the most common cancers of women. Parameters such as lymph node status, tumor grade, and the status of hormone receptors are among the main prognostic determinants of this cancer. Immunohistochemical detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA is widely used to identify metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma. However, its immunoreactivity has been found in some non-prostatic tissues. This study was conducted to assess PSA expression in invasive breast carcinoma and its relationship with routine clinicopathologic parameters. Materials and Methods: 100 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded invasive breast carcinoma tissue specimens from the pathology archive of Alzahra hospital (Isfahan, Iran were studied for the expression of estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, HER2/neu, and PSA by immunohistochemistry. Stained sections were classified according to the intensity of staining and the percentage of cells showing PSA staining. The relationship between PSA expression and other markers, age, lymph node status, tumor subtype, and tumor grade was then studied. Results: No association was found between PSA expression on one hand and PR, Her2/neu, age, lymph node status, tumor grade, and tumor subtype on the other. PSA score was reversely correlated with ER expression (P = 0.015. Conclusion: Despite the reverse relationship between PSA expression and the immunoreactivity of ER, PSA expression was not correlated with other prognostic factors. Therefore, the detection of PSA by immunohistochemistry does not seem to be a significant prognostic parameter in patients with invasive breast carcinoma.

  11. Multiple primary cancers: Simultaneously occurring prostate cancer ...

    We also reviewed the existing literatures for possible biologic links between prostatic carcinoma and other primary tumors. ... The primary tumors co-existing with prostate cancer were colonic adenocarcinoma, rectal adenocarcinoma, urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma, primary liver cell carcinoma, and thyroid ...

  12. Transitional cell carcinoma involving the ductus deferens in a dog.

    Guerin, Vincent J; 't Hooft, Krista W Visser; L'Eplattenier, Henry F; Petite, Audrey F

    2012-02-15

    A 12-year-old neutered male Springer Spaniel was referred with a 1-year history of recurring urinary tract infections. Repeated treatment with appropriate antimicrobials selected on the basis of bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility results would result in clinical improvement, but recurrence of clinical signs was observed within days after discontinuation of treatment. Ultrasound examination revealed a tubular, fluid-filled structure dorsal to the bladder that extended from the midlevel of the bladder to the cranial pole of the prostate. Mineralized foci within a heterogeneous prostatic parenchyma were also noted. Dilation of the right ductus deferens (DD) was observed during exploratory laparotomy. Both DD were surgically removed, and the prostate was biopsied. The histopathological diagnosis was transitional cell carcinoma involving the right DD and the prostate. The dog was treated with meloxicam (0.1 mg/kg [0.05 mg/lb], p.o., q 24 h) for 9 months after diagnosis before being euthanized. Because the normal DD is rarely visualized during abdominal ultrasonography in dogs, identification of a tubular, fluid-filled structure dorsal to the bladder may indicate an abnormal DD. Transitional cell carcinoma of the DD should be included in the differential diagnoses of affected patients examined for clinical signs involving the urinary tract.

  13. Spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma.

    Hassan, S J

    2010-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin predominantly affecting elderly Caucasians. It has a high rate of local recurrence and regional lymph node metastases. It is associated with a poor prognosis. Complete spontaneous regression of Merkel cell carcinoma has been reported but is a poorly understood phenomenon. Here we present a case of complete spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma demonstrating a markedly different pattern of events from those previously published.

  14. Epidermal growth factor increases LRF/Pokemon expression in human prostate cancer cells.

    Aggarwal, Himanshu; Aggarwal, Anshu; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2011-10-01

    Leukemia/lymphoma related factor/POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor (LRF/Pokemon) is a member of the POK family of proteins that promotes oncogenesis in several forms of cancer. Recently, we found higher LRF expression in human breast and prostate carcinomas compared to the corresponding normal tissues. The aim of this study was to examine the regulation of LRF expression in human prostate cells. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptors mediate several tumorigenic cascades that regulate cell differentiation, proliferation, migration and survival of prostate cancer cells. There was significantly higher level of LRF expression in the nucleus of LNCaP and PC-3 cells than RWPE-1 cells. A significant increase in LRF expression was observed with increasing doses of EGF in more aggressive and androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells suggesting that EGF signaling pathway is critical in upregulating the expression of LRF/Pokemon to promote oncogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Multiple gastrointestinal metastases of Merkel cell carcinoma.

    Poškus, Eligijus; Platkevičius, Gediminas; Simanskaitė, Vilma; Rimkevičiūtė, Ernesta; Petrulionis, Marius; Strupas, Kestutis

    2016-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is an aggressive skin malignancy. Primary Merkel cell carcinomas are treated by wide radical excision with or without adjuvant radiotherapy, while benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy remain doubtful. There are only several cases of gastrointestinal metastases of Merkel cell carcinoma reported so far. We report a case of recurrent Merkel cell carcinoma with metastases to the stomach and the small intestines after wide excision of primary Merkel cell carcinoma. Copyright © 2016 The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  16. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma management

    Flavio L. Heldwein

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the current treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma, focusing on medical treatment options. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The most important recent publications have been selected after a literature search employing PubMed using the search terms: advanced and metastatic renal cell carcinoma, anti-angiogenesis drugs and systemic therapy; also significant meeting abstracts were consulted. RESULTS: Progress in understanding the molecular basis of renal cell carcinoma, especially related to genetics and angiogenesis, has been achieved mainly through of the study of von Hippel-Lindau disease. A great variety of active agents have been developed and tested in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC patients. New specific molecular therapies in metastatic disease are discussed. Sunitinib, Sorafenib and Bevacizumab increase the progression-free survival when compared to therapy with cytokines. Temsirolimus increases overall survival in high-risk patients. Growth factors and regulatory enzymes, such as carbonic anhydrase IX may be targets for future therapies. CONCLUSIONS: A broader knowledge of clear cell carcinoma molecular biology has permitted the beginning of a new era in mRCC therapy. Benefits of these novel agents in terms of progression-free and overall survival have been observed in patients with mRCC, and, in many cases, have become the standard of care. Sunitinib is now considered the new reference first-line treatment for mRCC. Despite all the progress in recent years, complete responses are still very rare. Currently, many important issues regarding the use of these agents in the management of metastatic renal cancer still need to be properly addressed.

  17. 103PD brachytherapy and external beam irradiation for clinically localized, high-risk prostatic carcinoma

    Dattoli, Michael; Wallner, Kent; Sorace, Richard; Koval, John; Cash, Jennifer; Acosta, Rudolph; Brown, Charles; Etheridge, James; Binder, Michael; Brunelle, Richard; Kirwan, Novelle; Sanchez, Servando; Stein, Douglas; Wasserman, Stuart

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To summarize biochemical failure rates and morbidity of external beam irradiation (EBRT) combined with palladium ( 103 Pd) boost for clinically localized high-risk prostate carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Seventy-three consecutive patients with stage T2a-T3 prostatic carcinoma were treated from 1991 through 1994. Each patient had at least one of the following risk factors for extracapsular disease extension: Stage T2b or greater (71 patients), Gleason score 7-10 (40 patients), prostate specific antigen (PSA) >15 (32 patients), or elevated prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) (17 patients). Patients received 41 Gy EBRT to a limited pelvic field, followed 4 weeks later by a 103 Pd boost (prescription dose: 80 Gy). Biochemical failure was defined as a PSA greater than 1.0 ng/ml (normal 103 Pd brachytherapy for clinically localized, high-risk prostate cancer compare favorably with that reported after conventional dose EBRT alone. Morbidity has been acceptable

  18. Characterization of adenoviral transduction profile in prostate cancer cells and normal prostate tissue.

    Ai, Jianzhong; Tai, Phillip W L; Lu, Yi; Li, Jia; Ma, Hong; Su, Qin; Wei, Qiang; Li, Hong; Gao, Guangping

    2017-09-01

    Prostate diseases are common in males worldwide with high morbidity. Gene therapy is an attractive therapeutic strategy for prostate diseases, however, it is currently underdeveloped. As well known, adeno virus (Ad) is the most widely used gene therapy vector. The aims of this study are to explore transduction efficiency of Ad in prostate cancer cells and normal prostate tissue, thus further providing guidance for future prostate pathophysiological studies and therapeutic development of prostate diseases. We produced Ad expressing enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP), and characterized the transduction efficiency of Ad in both human and mouse prostate cancer cell lines in vitro, as well as prostate tumor xenograft, and wild-type mouse prostate tissue in vivo. Ad transduction efficiency was determined by EGFP fluorescence using microscopy and flow cytometry. Cell type-specific transduction was examined by immunofluorescence staining of cell markers. Our data showed that Ad efficiently transduced human and mouse prostate cancer cells in vitro in a dose dependent manner. Following intratumoral and intraprostate injection, Ad could efficiently transduce prostate tumor xenograft and the major prostatic cell types in vivo, respectively. Our findings suggest that Ad can efficiently transduce prostate tumor cells in vitro as well as xenograft and normal prostate tissue in vivo, and further indicate that Ad could be a potentially powerful toolbox for future gene therapy of prostate diseases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Squamous Cell Carcinoma In Situ Overlying Merkel Cell Carcinoma.

    McGowan, Maria A; Helm, Matthew F; Tarbox, Michelle B

    2016-11-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive cutaneous neoplasm that has exhibited an exponential increase in incidence in the past 3 decades. Combined MCC and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC/MCC) is an uncommon variant of MCC that exhibits worse prognosis than pure MCC. To describe the clinical presentation, dermoscopy, and histology of an unusual subtype of combined SCC/MCC. A 73-year-old white woman presented with an ulcerated and violaceous 10-mm plaque on her right jawline that had been present for 2 to 3 months. On dermoscopy, the lesion was predominantly milky pink to red with peripheral crusting and large-caliber polymorphous vessels. Histology revealed SCC in situ above and adjacent to MCC. The tumor was excised with clear margins, and sentinel lymph node scintography was negative for nodal involvement. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. The gastrin/cholecystokinin-B receptor on prostate cells--a novel target for bifunctional prostate cancer imaging.

    Sturzu, Alexander; Klose, Uwe; Sheikh, Sumbla; Echner, Hartmut; Kalbacher, Hubert; Deeg, Martin; Nägele, Thomas; Schwentner, Christian; Ernemann, Ulrike; Heckl, Stefan

    2014-02-14

    The means of identifying prostate carcinoma and its metastases are limited. The contrast agents used in magnetic resonance imaging clinical diagnostics are not taken up into the tumor cells, but only accumulate in the interstitial space of the highly vasculated tumor. We examined the gastrin/cholecystokinin-B receptor as a possible target for prostate-specific detection using the C-terminal seven amino acid sequence of the gastrin peptide hormone. The correct sequence and a scrambled control sequence were coupled to the fluorescent dye rhodamine and the magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent gadolinium (Gd)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA). Expression analysis of the gastrin receptor mRNA was performed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction on PC3 prostate carcinoma cells, U373 glioma, U2OS osteosarcoma and Colo205 colon carcinoma cells. After having confirmed elevated expression of gastrin receptor in PC3 cells and very low expression of the receptor in Colo205 cells, these two cell lines were used to create tumor xenografts on nude mice for in vivo experiments. Confocal lasers scanning microscopy and magnetic resonance imaging showed a high specificity of the correct conjugate for the PC3 xenografts. Staining of the PC3 xenografts was much weaker with the scrambled conjugate while the Colo205 xenografts showed no marked staining with any of the conjugates. In vitro experiments comparing the correct and scrambled conjugates on PC3 cells by magnetic resonance relaxometry and fluorescence-activated cell sorting confirmed markedly higher specificity of the correct conjugate. The investigations show that the gastrin receptor is a promising tumor cell surface target for future prostate-cancer-specific imaging applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Estramustine: A novel radiation enhancer in human carcinoma cells

    Ryu, S.; Gabel, M.; Khil, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    Estramustine (EM), an antimicrotubule agent, binds microtubule-associated proteins, causes spindle disassembly, and arrests cells at the late G 2 /M phase of the cell cycle. Since cells in the G 2 /M phase are the most radiosensitive and some human cancer cells contain high level of EM-binding protein, experiments were carried out to determine whether radiation sensitization could be obtained in human carcinoma cells. Cells containing a high level of EM-binding protein such as prostate carcinoma (DU-145), breast carcinoma (MCF-7), and malignant glioma (U-251) were used to demonstrate radiosensitization. Cervical carcinoma (HeLa-S 3 ) and colon carcinoma (HT-29) cells which are not known to contain EM-binding protein were also employed. Cell survival was assayed by the colony forming ability of single plated cells in culture to obtain dose-survival curves. Pretreatment of DU-145, MCF-7, and U-251 cells to a nontoxic concentration (5 μM) of EM for more than one cell cycle time, substantially enhanced the radiation-induced cytotoxicity. The sensitizer enhancement ratio of these cells ranged from 1.35-1.52. The magnitude of the enhancement was dependent on the drug concentration and exposure time. The rate of cell accumulation in G 2 /M phase, as determined by flow cytometry, increased with longer treatment time in the cell lines which showed radiosensitization. Other antimicrotubule agents such as taxol and vinblastine caused minimal or no radiosensitization at nontoxic concentrations. The data provide a radiobiological basis for using EM as a novel radiation enhancer, with the property of tissue selectivity. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  2. Targeting Stromal Recruitment by Prostate Cancer Cells

    2006-03-01

    Ensinger, C., Tumer , Z., Tommerup, N. et al.: Hedgehog signaling in small-cell lung cancer : frequent in vivo but a rare event in vitro. Lung Cancer , 52...W81XWH-04-1-0157 TITLE: Targeting Stromal Recruitment by Prostate Cancer Cells PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jingxian Zhang, Ph.D...DATES COVERED (From - To) 15 Feb 2004 – 14 Feb 2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting Stromal Recruitment by Prostate Cancer

  3. Intraductal Carcinoma of the Prostate on Diagnostic Needle Biopsy Predicts Prostate Cancer Mortality: A Population-Based Study.

    Saeter, Thorstein; Vlatkovic, Ljiljana; Waaler, Gudmund; Servoll, Einar; Nesland, Jahn M; Axcrona, Karol; Axcrona, Ulrika

    2017-06-01

    Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDC-P) is a distinct histopathologic feature associated with high-grade, advanced prostate cancer. Although studies have shown that IDC-P is a predictor of progression following surgical or radiation treatment for prostate cancer, there are sparse data regarding IDC-P on diagnostic needle biopsy as a prognosticator of prostate cancer mortality. This was a population-based study of all prostate cancer patients diagnosed using needle biopsy and without evidence of systemic disease between 1991 and 1999 within a defined geographic region of Norway. Patients were identified by cross-referencing the Norwegian Cancer Registry. Of 318 eligible patients, 283 had biopsy specimens available for central pathology review. Clinical data were obtained from medical charts. We examined whether IDC-P on diagnostic needle biopsy was associated with adverse clinicopathological features and prostate cancer mortality. Patients with IDC-P on diagnostic needle biopsy had a more advanced stage and a higher Gleason score compared to patients without IDC-P. IDC-P was also associated with an intensively reactive stroma. The 10-year prostate cancer-specific survival was 69% for patients with IDC-P on diagnostic needle biopsy and 89% for patients without IDC-P (Log rank P-value prostate cancer mortality after adjustments for clinical prognostic factors and treatment. After adjustment for the newly implemented Grade Group system of prostate cancer, IDC-P showed a strong tendency toward statistical significance. However, IDC-P did not remain a statistically significant predictor in the multivariable analysis. IDC-P on diagnostic needle biopsy is an indicator of prostate cancer with a high risk of mortality. Accordingly, a diagnosis of IDC-P on needle biopsy should be reported and considered a feature of high-risk prostate cancer. Moreover, the association between IDC-P and reactive stroma provides evidence in support of the idea that stromal factors

  4. Advanced prostatic carcinomas with low serum levels of prostate-specific antigen

    Cerović Snežana J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA represent a significant diagnostic and monitoring parameter of prostatic carcinoma (PC. The aim of the study was to establish correlation of serum PSA level in addition to grade, histological type, and clinical stage of PC in patients with normal or intermediary PSA serum level. In 37 untreated PC patients with preoperative serum PSA levels ranging between 0.1 and 9.6 ng/ml, paraffin-embedded tissue and serum samples were immunohistological studied and immunoassay for PSA was done. The most representative was poorly differentiated PC with D stage In serum samples from PC patients 27 (73.7% normal (≤ 4.0 ng/ml, and 10 (27.3% intermediate (4.1-10 ng/ml PSA levels were found Immunohistochemistry, in 36 PC (97.3% had demonstrated the expression of PSA. Our study results had shown low serum PSA levels in some patients with advanced poorly differentiated PC.

  5. Update on Merkel Cell Carcinoma.

    Harms, Paul W

    2017-09-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive cutaneous neuroendocrine malignancy. Merkel cell polyomavirus, a tumorigenic DNA virus, is present in most MCC tumors, with implications for tumor biology, diagnosis, and management. Merkel cell polyomavirus-negative tumors have a high burden of UV-signature mutations, similar to melanoma. The histopathologic diagnosis of MCC requires immunohistochemistry to exclude morphologically similar entities. Therapies for advanced disease are currently lacking. Here, the features of MCC are reviewed, including recent molecular discoveries with implications for improved therapy for advanced disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Second-harmonic generation as a DNA malignancy indicator of prostate glandular epithelial cells

    Zheng-Fei, Zhuang; Han-Ping, Liu; Zhou-Yi, Guo; Xiao-Yuan, Deng; Shuang-Mu, Zhuo; Bi-Ying, Yu

    2010-01-01

    This paper first demonstrates second-harmonic generation (SHG) in the intact cell nucleus, which acts as an optical indicator of DNA malignancy in prostate glandular epithelial cells. Within a scanning region of 2.7 μm×2.7 μm in cell nuclei, SHG signals produced from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate carcinoma (PC) tissues (mouse model C57BL/6) have been investigated. Statistical analyses (t test) of a total of 405 measurements (204 nuclei from BPH and 201 nuclei from PC) show that SHG signals from BPH and PC have a distinct difference (p < 0.05), suggesting a potential optical method of revealing very early malignancy in prostate glandular epithelial cells based upon induced biochemical and/or biophysical modifications in DNA. (geophysics, astronomy and astrophysics)

  7. Merkel cell carcinoma in an immunosuppressed patient.

    Góes, Heliana Freitas de Oliveira; Lima, Caren Dos Santos; Issa, Maria Cláudia de Almeida; Luz, Flávio Barbosa; Pantaleão, Luciana; Paixão, José Gabriel Miranda da

    2017-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is an uncommon neuroendocrine carcinoma with a rising incidence and an aggressive behavior. It predominantly occurs in older patients, with onset occurring at a mean age of 75-80 years. Recognized risk factors are ultraviolet sunlight exposure, immunosuppression, and, more recently, Merkel cell polyomavirus. We report a case of Merkel cell carcinoma in a young HIV positive patient with Merkel Cell polyomavirus detected in the tumor.

  8. Wide variation of prostate-specific antigen doubling time of untreated, clinically localized, low-to-intermediate grade, prostate carcinoma.

    Choo, Richard; Klotz, Laurence; Deboer, Gerrit; Danjoux, Cyril; Morton, Gerard C

    2004-08-01

    To assess the prostate specific antigen (PSA) doubling time of untreated, clinically localized, low-to-intermediate grade prostate carcinoma. A prospective single-arm cohort study has been in progress since November 1995 to assess the feasibility of a watchful-observation protocol with selective delayed intervention for clinically localized, low-to-intermediate grade prostate adenocarcinoma. The PSA doubling time was estimated from a linear regression of ln(PSA) against time, assuming a simple exponential growth model. As of March 2003, 231 patients had at least 6 months of follow-up (median 45) and at least three PSA measurements (median 8, range 3-21). The distribution of the doubling time was: 50 years, 56. The median doubling time was 7.0 years; 42% of men had a doubling time of >10 years. The doubling time of untreated clinically localized, low-to-intermediate grade prostate cancer varies widely.

  9. Regulation of DU145 prostate cancer cell growth by Scm-like with ...

    2012-12-08

    Dec 8, 2012 ... PhoRC components, transcriptional repressor Pleiohomeotic ... protein EZH2 is highly overexpressed in prostate carcinoma ... 2004) or its interaction with the cell cycle regulators such ... specificity of each antiserum, Western blot analysis was ..... residue of histones that play an important role in the main-.

  10. Matrix-Dependent Regulation of AKT in Hepsin-Overexpressing PC3 Prostate Cancer Cells12

    Wittig-Blaich, Stephanie M; Kacprzyk, Lukasz A; Eismann, Thorsten; Bewerunge-Hudler, Melanie; Kruse, Petra; Winkler, Eva; Strauss, Wolfgang S L; Hibst, Raimund; Steiner, Rudolf; Schrader, Mark; Mertens, Daniel; Sültmann, Holger; Wittig, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    The serine-protease hepsin is one of the most prominently overexpressed genes in human prostate carcinoma. Forced expression of the enzyme in mice prostates is associated with matrix degradation, invasive growth, and prostate cancer progression. Conversely, hepsin overexpression in metastatic prostate cancer cell lines was reported to induce cell cycle arrest and reduction of invasive growth in vitro. We used a system for doxycycline (dox)-inducible target gene expression in metastasis-derived PC3 cells to analyze the effects of hepsin in a quantitative manner. Loss of viability and adhesion correlated with hepsin expression levels during anchorage-dependent but not anchorage-independent growth. Full expression of hepsin led to cell death and detachment and was specifically associated with reduced phosphorylation of AKT at Ser473, which was restored by growth on matrix derived from RWPE1 normal prostatic epithelial cells. In the chorioallantoic membrane xenograft model, hepsin overexpression in PC3 cells reduced the viability of tumors but did not suppress invasive growth. The data presented here provide evidence that elevated levels of hepsin interfere with cell adhesion and viability in the background of prostate cancer as well as other tissue types, the details of which depend on the microenvironment provided. Our findings suggest that overexpression of the enzyme in prostate carcinogenesis must be spatially and temporally restricted for the efficient development of tumors and metastases. PMID:21750652

  11. Matrix-Dependent Regulation of AKT in Hepsin-Overexpressing PC3 Prostate Cancer Cells

    Stephanie M Wittig-Blaich

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The serine-protease hepsin is one of the most prominently overexpressed genes in human prostate carcinoma. Forced expression of the enzyme in mice prostates is associated with matrix degradation, invasive growth, and prostate cancer progression. Conversely, hepsin overexpression in metastatic prostate cancer cell lines was reported to induce cell cycle arrest and reduction of invasive growth in vitro. We used a system for doxycycline (dox-inducible target gene expression in metastasis-derived PC3 cells to analyze the effects of hepsin in a quantitative manner. Loss of viability and adhesion correlated with hepsin expression levels during anchorage-dependent but not anchorage-independent growth. Full expression of hepsin led to cell death and detachment and was specifically associated with reduced phosphorylation of AKT at Ser473, which was restored by growth on matrix derived from RWPE1 normal prostatic epithelial cells. In the chorioallantoic membrane xenograft model, hepsin overexpression in PC3 cells reduced the viability of tumors but did not suppress invasive growth. The data presented here provide evidence that elevated levels of hepsin interfere with cell adhesion and viability in the background of prostate cancer as well as other tissue types, the details of which depend on the microenvironment provided. Our findings suggest that overexpression of the enzyme in prostate carcinogenesis must be spatially and temporally restricted for the efficient development of tumors and metastases.

  12. Complete en bloc urinary exenteration for synchronous multicentric transitional cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid features in a hemodialysis patient

    Tiberio M. Siqueira Jr

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC in patients submitted to hemodialysis is low. The presence of TCC with sarcomatoid features in this cohort is even scarcer. Herein, we describe a very rare case of synchronous multicentric muscle invasive bladder carcinoma with prostate invasion in a hemodialysis patient, submitted to complete en bloc urinary exenteration.

  13. Small cell glioblastoma or small cell carcinoma

    Hilbrandt, Christine; Sathyadas, Sathya; Dahlrot, Rikke H

    2013-01-01

    was admitted to the hospital with left-sided loss of motor function. A MRI revealed a 6 cm tumor in the right temporoparietal area. The histology was consistent with both glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) but IHC was suggestive of a SCLC metastasis. PET-CT revealed...

  14. Quantitative bone scintigraphy. A study in patients with prostatic carcinoma

    Sundkvist, G.

    1991-01-01

    Quantitative bone scintigraphy was performed in patients with prostatic carcinoma before orchiectomy as well as two weeks, two and six months after operation. The count rate was recorded as serial gamma camera images over the lower thoracic and all lumbar vertebrae from 1 to 240 min and at 24 h after injection of 99T c m -MDP. In almost all abnormal vertebrae an increased count rate was observed within one hour after injection. Most of the vertebrae which were considered normal at 4 h after injection, but had an increased 24h/4h ratio developed into abnormal vertebrae later in the study. The patients with normal bone scintigrams showed no change in 99 Tc m -MDP uptake during the study. The reproducibility of quantitative bone scintigraphy was found to be ± 7% (1 SD). In response to therapy, most of the patients with abnormal bone scintigrams showed an increase in count rate two weeks after operation followed by a decrease to the pre-operative level after two months and a further decrease after six months. This so called 'flare phenomenon' was found to indicate 99 Tc m -MDP in the vascular phase as well as an active bone uptake. In some of the patients the whole-body retention of 99 Tc m -MDP after 24 h and the bone mineral density in the vertebrae were determined and found to be valuable in the interpretation of skeletal metastases and the assessment of response to therapy. (71 refs.)

  15. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    Kannan Karthiga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Binkley and Johnson first reported this syndrome in 1951. But it was in 1960, Gorlin-Goltz established the association of basal cell epithelioma, jaw cyst and bifid ribs, a combination which is now frequently known as Gorlin-Goltz syndrome as well as Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS. NBCCS is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with high penetrance and variable expressivity. NBCCS is characterized by variety of cutaneous, dental, osseous, opthalmic, neurologic and sexual abnormalities. One such case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is reported here with good illustrations.

  16. Prognostic significance of epithelial/stromal caveolin‐1 expression in prostatic hyperplasia, high grade prostatic intraepithelial hyperplasia and prostatic carcinoma and its correlation with microvessel density

    Dareen A. Mohammed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Caveolin-1 may play a role in cancer development and progression. The aim was to record the expression and localization of caveolin-1 in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN and prostatic carcinoma (PCa. Microvessel density was evaluated with CD34 immunostain. Correlations with known prognostic factors of PCa were recorded. Immunohistochemical expression of caveolin-1 and the MVD was evaluated in 65 cases; BPH (25, HGPIN (20 and PCa (20. Stromal caveolin-1expression was significantly higher in BPH than HGPIN and PCca. There was significant inverse relation between stromal caveolin-1 expression and extension to lymph node and seminal vesicle in carcinoma cases. Epithelial caveolin-1 was significantly higher in carcinomas than in BPH and HGPIN. Epithelial expression in carcinoma was significantly associated with preoperative PSA, Gleason score and lymph node extension. MVD was significantly higher in PCa than in BPH and HGPIN. There were significant relations between MVD and preoperative PSA, Gleason score, lymph node and seminal vesicle extension. Stromal caveolin-1 was associated with low MVD while epithelial caveolin-1 with high MVD. Conclusions: Caveolin-1 plays an important role in prostatic carcinogenesis and metastasis. Stromal expression of caveolin-1 in PCa is lowered in relation to BPH and HGPIN. In PCa; stromal caveolin-1 was associated with good prognostic parameters. Epithelial caveolin-1 is significantly increased in PCa than BPH and HGPIN. It is associated with clinically aggressive disease. Caveolin-1 may play a role in angiogenesis.

  17. Photodynamic therapy for basal cell carcinoma.

    Fargnoli, Maria Concetta; Peris, Ketty

    2015-11-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy is an effective and safe noninvasive treatment for low-risk basal cell carcinoma, with the advantage of an excellent cosmetic outcome. Efficacy of photodynamic therapy in basal cell carcinoma is supported by substantial research and clinical trials. In this article, we review the procedure, indications and clinical evidences for the use of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

  18. Analysis of the testicular dose in patients undergoing radiotherapy for carcinoma of the prostate

    Bejar Navarro, M. J.; Ordonez Marquez, J.; Hervas Moron, A.; Alvarez Rodriguez, S.; Garcia-Galloway, E.; Sanchez Casanueva, R.; Polo Rubio, A.; Rodriguez-Patron, R.; Yanowsky, K.; Gomez Dos Santos, V.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this work are: -Studying comparatively the doses received in testes in patients undergoing radiotherapy of prostate carcinoma with external beam radiation and brachytherapy of low rate using I-125 seeds. -Compare doses due to images of verification using Cone Beam CT (CBCT), with doses of radiotherapy treatment itself. -Determine the seminal alterations and cytogenetic after treatment with ionizing radiation (RTE or BQT) in patients diagnosed with prostate cancer and its relation with testicular dose. (Author)

  19. Akt Inhibitor MK2206 and Hydroxychloroquine in Treating Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors, Melanoma, Prostate or Kidney Cancer

    2018-05-15

    Adult Solid Neoplasm; Hormone-Resistant Prostate Carcinoma; Recurrent Melanoma; Recurrent Prostate Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IV Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IV Prostate Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer AJCC v7

  20. Pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma following head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: Metastasis or second primary?

    Geurts, Tom W.; Nederlof, Petra M.; van den Brekel, Michiel W. M.; van't Veer, Laura J.; de Jong, Daphne; Hart, August A. M.; van Zandwijk, Nico; Klomp, Houke; Balm, Alfons J. M.; van Velthuysen, Marie-Louise F.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To distinguish a metastasis from a second primary tumor in patients with a history of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and subsequent pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma. Experimental Design: For 44 patients with a primary squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck followed by a

  1. Genetics Home Reference: head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    ... and neck squamous cell carcinoma Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... Consumer Version: Overview of Mouth, Nose, and Throat Cancers Orphanet: Squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck University of Michigan ...

  2. Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate: a distinct histopathological entity with important prognostic implications.

    Henry, P C; Evans, A J

    2009-07-01

    Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDCP) has been described as a lesion associated with poor prognostic features in prostate cancer. Its recognition and reporting in prostate specimens, particularly in needle biopsies, is critical as it carries significant implications for patient management. Recent histological definitions have been proposed to assist in the recognition of IDCP and to help distinguish it from lesions with similar appearance, but different clinical behaviour. In this review, a historical overview of the description of IDCP will be presented followed by a summary of the current histological diagnostic criteria and the recommendations for management and reporting of IDCP.

  3. Ultrasonically guided 125iodine seed implantation with external radiation in management of localized prostatic carcinoma

    Iversen, P; Bak, M; Juul, N

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-three patients with localized prostatic carcinoma (16 poorly differentiated) were treated with transperineal 125Iodine seed implantation (160 Gy) guided by transrectal ultrasonography and subsequent external beam irradiation (47.4 Gy). The observation time was six to sixty-eight months...... with a median follow-up of thirty-five months. Median change in prostatic volume was a reduction of 35 percent. Re-biopsy or transurethral resection of the prostate was performed in 25 patients after one to two years, revealing still malignant histology in 12 (48%). Development of distant metastases occurred...

  4. Percutaneous transperineal placement of gold 198 seeds for treatment of carcinoma of the prostate

    Crusinberry, R.A.; Kramolowsky, E.V.; Loening, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Thirty-one patients have been treated for carcinoma of the prostate with /sup 198/Au seeds placed transperineally using transrectal ultrasonic guidance. Twenty patients have been followed postoperatively for periods ranging from 3 to 31 months, with an average follow-up time of 12 months. Cumulative dose of radiation to the prostate calculated by dosimetry was either 9000 rads or 15,000 rads. Serial transrectal ultrasound examinations performed on these patients showed a decrease in prostate size in all patients within 6 months of treatment, with a statistically significant decrease observed between the third and sixth months. No significant difference in amount or rate of tumor regression was noted when tumor stage and grade were correlated to volume decrease after treatment. Patients who received the larger doses of radiation (15,000 rads) showed a significantly greater rate of decline in prostatic volume than those who received 9000 rads. Seven patients underwent prostate biopsy between 12 and 18 months after treatment; six biopsies showed residual tumor. Complications after treatment included urinary retention because of prostatic edema (three), radiation urethritis (three), and rectal ulceration (one). Transperineal placement of /sup 198/Au is well tolerated and offers an alternative to external beam radiation for treatment of carcinoma of the prostate.

  5. Constitutive Activation of NF-KB in Prostate Carcinoma Cells Through a Positive Feedback Loop: Implication of Inducible IKK-Related Kinase (IKKi)

    Budunova, Irina V

    2005-01-01

    .... During FYO2 we developed the conditions for RNA isolation from OCT-embedded frozen PC and BPH samples, developed conditions for cell lysis and IKKi immunoprecipitation from transfected cells using FLAG antibody...

  6. Expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

    Pinhal, Maria Aparecida Silva; Almeida, Maria Carolina Leal; Costa, Alessandra Scorse; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachell; Serrano, Rodrigo Lorenzetti; Machado, Carlos D'Apparecida Santos

    2016-01-01

    Heparanase is an enzyme that cleaves heparan sulfate chains. Oligosaccharides generated by heparanase induce tumor progression. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma comprise types of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Evaluate the glycosaminoglycans profile and expression of heparanase in two human cell lines established in culture, immortalized skin keratinocyte (HaCaT) and squamous cell carcinoma (A431) and also investigate the expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and eyelid skin of individuals not affected by the disease (control). Glycosaminoglycans were quantified by electrophoresis and indirect ELISA method. The heparanase expression was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRTPCR). The A431 strain showed significant increase in the sulfated glycosaminoglycans, increased heparanase expression and decreased hyaluronic acid, comparing to the HaCaT lineage. The mRNA expression of heparanase was significantly higher in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma compared with control skin samples. It was also observed increased heparanase expression in squamous cell carcinoma compared to the Basal cell carcinoma. The glycosaminoglycans profile, as well as heparanase expression are different between HaCaT and A431 cell lines. The increased expression of heparanase in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma suggests that this enzyme could be a marker for the diagnosis of such types of non-melanoma cancers, and may be useful as a target molecule for future alternative treatment.

  7. Urinary bladder carcinoma with divergent differentiation featuring small cell carcinoma, sarcomatoid carcinoma, and liposarcomatous component.

    Yasui, Mariko; Morikawa, Teppei; Nakagawa, Tohru; Miyakawa, Jimpei; Maeda, Daichi; Homma, Yukio; Fukayama, Masashi

    2016-09-01

    Both small cell carcinoma and sarcomatoid carcinoma of the urinary bladder are highly aggressive tumors, and a concurrence of these tumors is extremely rare. We report a case of urinary bladder cancer with small cell carcinoma as a predominant component, accompanied by sarcomatoid carcinoma and conventional urothelial carcinoma (UC). Although the small cell carcinoma component had resolved on receiving chemoradiotherapy, rapid growth of the residual tumor led to a fatal outcome. A 47-year-old man presented with occasional bladder irritation and had a 2-year history of asymptomatic hematuria. Cystoscopy revealed a huge mass in the urinary bladder, and transurethral resection was performed. Microscopically, small cell carcinoma was detected as the major tumor component. Spindle-shaped sarcomatoid cells were also observed that were intermingled with small cell carcinoma and conventional UC. In addition, a sheet-like growth of the lipoblast-like neoplastic cells was observed focally. Initially, by providing chemoradiotherapy, we achieved a marked tumor regression; however, the tumor rapidly regrew after the completion of chemoradiotherapy, and the patient underwent radical cystectomy. Only conventional UC and sarcomatoid carcinoma were identified in the cystectomy specimen. The patient died of the disease 4 months after cystectomy. Urinary bladder cancer may include a combination of multiple aggressive histologies as in the present case. Because the variation in the tumor components may affect the efficacy of therapy, a correct diagnosis of every tumor component is necessary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. CARCINOMA PROSTATE HISTOPATHOLOGY IN NEEDLE BIOPSIES INCLUDING REVISED GLEASON’S GRADING AND ROLE OF IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL MARKERS

    Rema Priyadarsini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Adenocarcinoma of prostate is the most common form of cancer in men accounting for 29% of cancers in developed nations and the incidence of prostatic cancer is 6.4% in males of Trivandrum District. MATERIALS AND METHODS All prostatic biopsies taken per rectally and stained by haematoxylin and eosin. In suspected cases of malignancy immunohistochemical markers, the AMACR P504S and high molecular weight cytokeratin 34E12 were done. RESULTS The total number of cases studied were 142. The final diagnosis with histomorphological features show that maximum cases were prostatic carcinoma constituting 45.5% of the samples received. CONCLUSION All prostatic carcinomas were graded by revised Gleason’s grade (ISUP 2005 and the use of immunohistochemical markers in arriving at a definite diagnosis in carcinoma prostate was confirmed.

  9. Advanced research on separating prostate cancer stem cells

    Hao Yumei; He Xin; Song Naling

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a common malignant tumor in male urinary system,and may easily develop into the hormone refractory prostate cancer which can hardly be cured. Recent studies had found that the prostate cancer stem cells may be the source of the prostate cancer's occurrence,development, metastasis and recurrence. The therapy targeting the prostate cancer stem cells may be the effective way to cure prostate cancer. But these cells is too low to be detected. The difficulty lies in the low separation efficiency of prostate cancer stem cell, so the effectively separating prostate cancer stem cells occupied the main position for the more in-depth research of prostate cancer stem cells. This paper reviews the research progress and existing problems on the several main separating methods of prostate cancer stem cells, includes the fluorescence activated cells sorting and magnetic activated cells sorting based on prostate cancer stem cell surface markers, the side-population sorting and serum-free medium sphere forming sorting based on prostate cancer stem cell's biology. (authors)

  10. Prostate-Specific Natural Health Products (Dietary Supplements) Radiosensitize Normal Prostate Cells

    Hasan, Yasmin; Schoenherr, Diane; Martinez, Alvaro A.; Wilson, George D.; Marples, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Prostate-specific health products (dietary supplements) are taken by cancer patients to alleviate the symptoms linked with poor prostate health. However, the effect of these agents on evidence-based radiotherapy practice is poorly understood. The present study aimed to determine whether dietary supplements radiosensitized normal prostate or prostate cancer cell lines. Methods and Materials: Three well-known prostate-specific dietary supplements were purchased from commercial sources available to patients (Trinovin, Provelex, and Prostate Rx). The cells used in the study included normal prostate lines (RWPE-1 and PWR-1E), prostate tumor lines (PC3, DU145, and LNCaP), and a normal nonprostate line (HaCaT). Supplement toxicity was assessed using cell proliferation assays [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] and cellular radiosensitivity using conventional clonogenic assays (0.5-4Gy). Cell cycle kinetics were assessed using the bromodeoxyuridine/propidium iodide pulse-labeling technique, apoptosis by scoring caspase-3 activation, and DNA repair by assessing γH2AX. Results: The cell growth and radiosensitivity of the malignant PC3, DU145, and LNcaP cells were not affected by any of the dietary prostate supplements (Provelex [2μg/mL], Trinovin [10μg/mL], and Prostate Rx [50 μg/mL]). However, both Trinovin (10μg/mL) and Prostate Rx (6μg/mL) inhibited the growth rate of the normal prostate cell lines. Prostate Rx increased cellular radiosensitivity of RWPE-1 cells through the inhibition of DNA repair. Conclusion: The use of prostate-specific dietary supplements should be discouraged during radiotherapy owing to the preferential radiosensitization of normal prostate cells.

  11. Neglected basal cell carcinoma on scalp

    Sudip Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant basal cell carcinoma (BCC is a very rare entity. Usually, they occur due to the negligence of the patient. Local or distant metastasis is present in most cases. Here, we present a case of giant BCC that clinically resembled squamous cell carcinoma and demonstrated no metastasis at presentation.

  12. Combination therapies in oral squamous cell carcinomas

    Krishnamurthi, S.; Shanta, V.

    1982-01-01

    The clinical trials are reported involving combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy in oral squamous cell carcinomas. Bleomycin was the only drug that potentiated radiation response in buccal squamous cell carcinomas. The response of the primary tumors was consistent, predictable and reproducible. The following drugs or chemicals were used: synkavit, methotrexate, metronidazole, bleomycin, pepleomycin, and hyperbaric oxygen. The results and their comparison is given in tables

  13. Scalp squamous cell carcinoma in xeroderma pigmentosum.

    Awan, Basim A; Alzanbagi, Hanadi; Samargandi, Osama A; Ammar, Hossam

    2014-02-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder that appears in early childhood. Squamous cell carcinoma is not uncommon in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum and mostly involving the face, head, neck, and scalp. However, squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp may exhibit an aggressive course. Here, we present a huge squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp in a three-years-old child with xeroderma pigmentosum. In addition, we illustrate the challenges of a child with xeroderma pigmentosum who grows up in a sunny environment where the possibility of early onset of squamous cell carcinoma is extremely high in any suspected skin lesion. In xeroderma pigmentosum patients, squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp can present early and tends to be unusually aggressive. In sunny areas, proper education to the patient and their parents about ultra-violet light protection and early recognition of any suspicious lesion could be life-saving.

  14. Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Stem Cells as Immunotherapy Targets

    2017-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0260 TITLE: Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Stem Cells as Immunotherapy Targets PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Carla Kim... Cell Carcinoma Stem Cells as Immunotherapy Targets 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0260 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second most common type of lung cancer, and immunotherapy is a promising new

  15. Slug/SNAI2 regulates cell proliferation and invasiveness of metastatic prostate cancer cell lines.

    Emadi Baygi, Modjtaba; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Essmann, Frank; Deezagi, Abdolkhaleg; Engers, Rainer; Goering, Wolfgang; Schulz, Wolfgang A

    2010-08-01

    Many metastatic cancers recapitulate the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) resulting in enhanced cell motility and invasiveness. The EMT is regulated by several transcription factors, including the zinc finger protein SNAI2, also named Slug, which appears to exert additional functions during development and cancer progression. We have studied the function of SNAI2 in prostate cancer cells. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed strong SNAI2 expression particularly in the PC-3 and PC3-16 prostate carcinoma cell lines. Knockdown of SNAI2 by specific siRNA induced changes in EMT markers and inhibited invasion of both cell lines into a matrigel matrix. SNAI2 siRNA-treated cells did not tolerate detachment from the culture plates, likely at least in part due to downregulation of integrin alpha6beta4. SNAI2 knockdown disturbed the microtubular and actin cytoskeletons, especially severely in PC-3 cells, resulting in grossly enlarged, flattened, and sometimes multinuclear cells. Knockdown also decreased cell proliferation, with a prominent G0/G1 arrest in PC3-16. Together, our data imply that SNAI2 exerts strong effects on the cytoskeleton and adhesion of those prostate cancer cells that express it and is necessary for their proliferation and invasiveness.

  16. Multi-parametric MR imaging for prostate carcinoma; Multiparametrische MR-Bildgebung beim Prostatakarzinom

    Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Radiologie

    2017-03-15

    Multi-parametric NMR imaging in case of prostate carcinoma can improve diagnostics, allows reliable prognostic estimations and helps to find the optimum individual therapy. The contribution is focused to deliver the needed methodological tools and background knowledge for the daily routine.

  17. Studies on the pathogenesis and management of prostate carcinoma in dogs

    L'Eplattenier, H.F.

    2009-01-01

    The dog is one of the few species to develop spontaneous prostate carcinoma (PCA) and is thus an attractive model for the study of the disease in humans. Many of the features of the disease in the dog are similar to its human counterpart, however a number of aspects of the pathogenesis, diagnosis

  18. Circulating Tumor Cells in Prostate Cancer

    Hu, Brian; Rochefort, Holly; Goldkorn, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can provide a non-invasive, repeatable snapshot of an individual patient’s tumor. In prostate cancer, CTC enumeration has been extensively studied and validated as a prognostic tool and has received FDA clearance for use in monitoring advanced disease. More recently, CTC analysis has been shifting from enumeration to more sophisticated molecular characterization of captured cells, which serve as a “liquid biopsy” of the tumor, reflecting molecular changes in an individual’s malignancy over time. Here we will review the main CTC studies in advanced and localized prostate cancer, highlighting the important gains as well as the challenges posed by various approaches, and their implications for advancing prostate cancer management

  19. Breast Cancer with Synchronous Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Rare Presentation.

    Arjunan, Ravi; Kumar, Durgesh; Kumar, K V Veerendra; Premlatha, C S

    2016-10-01

    Primary cancer arising from multiple organs is a well known fact. Synchronous tumours have been most commonly associated with kidney cancer. Bladder, prostate, colorectal and lung cancer are the most common synchronous primaries with Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) identified till date. We found metachronous tumours of breast with RCC in literature search which included both metastatic tumours as well second primaries. Overall, 25 cases of metastatic breast tumours and eight cases of second primary in previously treated RCC have been reported in the literature. Here, we are reporting a case of synchronous presentation of carcinoma breast with RCC which is very rare because most of the multiple malignancies reported in the literature are metastatic tumours or metachronous breast malignancy with RCC.

  20. The gene expression program of prostate fibroblast senescence modulates neoplastic epithelial cell proliferation through paracrine mechanisms.

    Bavik, Claes; Coleman, Ilsa; Dean, James P; Knudsen, Beatrice; Plymate, Steven; Nelson, Peter S

    2006-01-15

    The greatest risk factor for developing carcinoma of the prostate is advanced age. Potential molecular and physiologic contributors to the frequency of cancer occurrence in older individuals include the accumulation of somatic mutations through defects in genome maintenance, epigenetic gene silencing, oxidative stress, loss of immune surveillance, telomere dysfunction, chronic inflammation, and alterations in tissue microenvironment. In this context, the process of prostate carcinogenesis can be influenced through interactions between intrinsic cellular alterations and the extrinsic microenvironment and macroenvironment, both of which change substantially as a consequence of aging. In this study, we sought to characterize the molecular alterations that occur during the process of prostate fibroblast senescence to identify factors in the aged tissue microenvironment capable of promoting the proliferation and potentially the neoplastic progression of prostate epithelium. We evaluated three mechanisms leading to cell senescence: oxidative stress, DNA damage, and replicative exhaustion. We identified a consistent program of gene expression that includes a subset of paracrine factors capable of influencing adjacent prostate epithelial growth. Both direct coculture and conditioned medium from senescent prostate fibroblasts stimulated epithelial cell proliferation, 3-fold and 2-fold, respectively. The paracrine-acting proteins fibroblast growth factor 7, hepatocyte growth factor, and amphiregulin (AREG) were elevated in the extracellular environment of senescent prostate fibroblasts. Exogenous AREG alone stimulated prostate epithelial cell growth, and neutralizing antibodies and small interfering RNA targeting AREG attenuated, but did not completely abrogate the growth-promoting effects of senescent fibroblast conditioned medium. These results support the concept that aging-related changes in the prostate microenvironment may contribute to the progression of prostate

  1. Pyruvate dehydrogenase expression is negatively associated with cell stemness and worse clinical outcome in prostate cancers

    Zhong, Yali; Li, Xiaoli; Ji, Yasai; Li, Xiaoran; Li, Yaqing; Yu, Dandan; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Jian; Li, Huixiang; Zhang, Mingzhi; Ji, Zhenyu; Fan, Dandan; Wen, Jianguo; Goscinski, Mariusz Adam; Yuan, Long; Hao, Bin; Nesland, Jahn M; Suo, Zhenhe

    2017-01-01

    Cells generate adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP), the major currency for energy-consuming reactions, through mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and glycolysis. One of the remarkable features of cancer cells is aerobic glycolysis, also known as the “Warburg Effect”, in which cancer cells rely preferentially on glycolysis instead of mitochondrial OXPHOS as the main energy source even in the presence of high oxygen tension. One of the main players in controlling OXPHOS is the mitochondrial gatekeeperpyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc) and its major subunit is E1α (PDHA1). To further analyze the function of PDHA1 in cancer cells, it was knock out (KO) in the human prostate cancer cell line LnCap and a stable KO cell line was established. We demonstrated that PDHA1 gene KO significantly decreased mitochondrial OXPHOS and promoted anaerobic glycolysis, accompanied with higher stemness phenotype including resistance to chemotherapy, enhanced migration ability and increased expression of cancer stem cell markers. We also examined PDHA1 protein expression in prostate cancer tissues by immunohistochemistry and observed that reduced PDHA1 protein expression in clinical prostate carcinomas was significantly correlated with poor prognosis. Collectively, our results show that negative PDHA1 gene expressionis associated with significantly higher cell stemness in prostate cancer cells and reduced protein expression of this gene is associated with shorter clinical outcome in prostate cancers. PMID:28076853

  2. Dutasteride and enzalutamide synergistically suppress prostate tumor cell proliferation

    Hamid, A.R.; Verhaegh, G.W.C.T.; Smit, F.P.; RIjt-van de Westerlo, C.; Armandari, I.; Brandt, A.; Sweep, F.C.; Sedelaar, J.P.M.; Schalken, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Dihydrotestosterone is the main active androgen in the prostate and it has a role in prostate cancer progression. After androgen deprivation therapy androgen receptor signaling is still active in tumor cells. Persistent intratumor steroidogenesis and androgen receptor changes are

  3. The Basal Cell Marker p63 and Prostate Stem Cells

    Signoretti, Sabina

    2002-01-01

    ...(s) involved in prostate carcinogenesis. The p53-homologue p63 is selectively expressed in the basal cell compartment of a variety of epithelial tissues and p63 deficient mice show severe defects in the development of epithelial organs...

  4. The Basal Cell Marker p63 and Prostate Stem Cells

    Signoretti, Sabina

    2003-01-01

    ...(s) involved in prostate carcinogenesis. The p53-homologue p63 is selectively expressed in the basal cell compartment of a variety of epithelial tissues and p63 deficient mice show severe defects in the development of epithelial organs...

  5. The Basal Cell Marker p63 and Prostate Stem Cells

    Signoretti, Sabina

    2004-01-01

    ...(s) involved in prostate carcinogenesis. The p53-homologue p63 is selectively expressed in the basal cell compartment of a variety of epithelial tissues and p63 deficient mice show severe defects in the development of epithelial organs...

  6. Benzyl Isothiocyanate Inhibits Prostate Cancer Development in the Transgenic Adenocarcinoma Mouse Prostate (TRAMP Model, Which Is Associated with the Induction of Cell Cycle G1 Arrest

    Han Jin Cho

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC is a hydrolysis product of glucotropaeolin, a compound found in cruciferous vegetables, and has been shown to have anti-tumor properties. In the present study, we investigated whether BITC inhibits the development of prostate cancer in the transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate (TRAMP mice. Five-week old, male TRAMP mice and their nontransgenic littermates were gavage-fed with 0, 5, or 10 mg/kg of BITC every day for 19 weeks. The weight of the genitourinary tract increased markedly in TRAMP mice and this increase was suppressed significantly by BITC feeding. H and E staining of the dorsolateral lobes of the prostate demonstrated that well-differentiated carcinoma (WDC was a predominant feature in the TRAMP mice. The number of lobes with WDC was reduced by BITC feeding while that of lobes with prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia was increased. BITC feeding reduced the number of cells expressing Ki67 (a proliferation marker, cyclin A, cyclin D1, and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK2 in the prostatic tissue. In vitro cell culture results revealed that BITC decreased DNA synthesis, as well as CDK2 and CDK4 activity in TRAMP-C2 mouse prostate cancer cells. These results indicate that inhibition of cell cycle progression contributes to the inhibition of prostate cancer development in TRAMP mice treated with BITC.

  7. Merkel cell carcinoma: is this a true carcinoma?

    Jankowski, Marek; Kopinski, Piotr; Schwartz, Robert; Czajkowski, Rafal

    2014-11-01

    Recent years have brought an enhanced understanding of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) biology, especially with regard to the Merkel cell polyoma virus as a causative agent. Differences between Merkel cell polyomavirus-positive and Merkel cell polyomavirus-negative MCC in morphology; gene expression, miRNA profiles and prognosis have been reported. Origin of MCC is controversial. Presence of neurosecretory granules has suggested that these carcinomas originate from one of the neurocrest derivatives, most probably Merkel cells; the name Merkel cell carcinoma is now widely accepted. Expression of PGP 9.5, chromogranin A and several neuropeptides, initially regarded as specific markers for neural and neuroendocrine cells, has recently been shown in a subset of lymphomas. MCC commonly expresses terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase and PAX5. Their co-expression under physiologic circumstances is restricted to pro/pre-B cells and pre-B cells. These findings lead to the hypothesis by zur Hausen et al. that MCC originates from early B cells. This review was intended to critically appraise zur Hausen's hypothesis and discuss the possibility that MCC is a heterogenous entity with distinct subtypes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Comparison of serum prostate specific antigen levels and bone scintigraphy in patients with prostate carcinoma

    Bielickaite, J.; Zadeikaite, R.; Jurkiene, N. and others

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the levels of serum prostate specific antigen in patients with and without bone metastases detected by means of bone scintigraphy and to determine the highest prostate specific antigen level in patients without bone metastases. The 50 patients consecutively diagnosed of prostate cancer between 1999 and 2001 in our institution made up the study population. Prostate specific antigen plasmatic levels were determined and bone scintigraphy was performed (whole body study after 99mTc-methyl-diphosphonate administration) in all the patients. In patients with positive bone scans (n=23), the mean prostate specific antigen level was 71.4±35.2 ng/ml and was significantly (p<0.00005) higher than in 14 patients with negative bone scans (mean prostate specific antigen level was 10.1±10.5 ng/ml). Suspicious lesions were found in 13 patients and their mean prostate specific antigen level was 8.5±7.7 ng/ml. Regarding prostate specific antigen levels, no statistically significant differences were found between patients with suspicious lessons and normal bone scans. The highest determined prostate specific antigen level in patients without bone metastases was 18 ng/ml. The bone scintigraphy should be performed in all patients with prostate specific antigen level above 18 ng/ml, but it is of limited value in patients with prostate specific antigen level below 18 ng/ml. (author)

  9. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome).

    Bresler, Scott C; Padwa, Bonnie L; Granter, Scott R

    2016-06-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, or basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome), is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by development of basal cell carcinomas from a young age. Other distinguishing clinical features are seen in a majority of patients, and include keratocystic odontogenic tumors (formerly odontogenic keratocysts) as well as dyskeratotic palmar and plantar pitting. A range of skeletal and other developmental abnormalities are also often seen. The disorder is caused by defects in hedgehog signaling which result in constitutive pathway activity and tumor cell proliferation. As sporadic basal cell carcinomas also commonly harbor hedgehog pathway aberrations, therapeutic agents targeting key signaling constituents have been developed and tested against advanced sporadically occurring tumors or syndromic disease, leading in 2013 to FDA approval of the first hedgehog pathway-targeted small molecule, vismodegib. The elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome has resulted in further understanding of the most common human malignancy.

  10. Tuft (caveolated) cells in two human colon carcinoma cell lines.

    Barkla, D. H.; Whitehead, R. H.; Foster, H.; Tutton, P. J.

    1988-01-01

    The presence of an unusual cell type in two human colon carcinoma cell lines is reported. The cells show the same morphology as "tuft" (caveolated) cells present in normal gastrointestinal epithelium. Tuft cells were seen in cell line LIM 1863 growing in vitro and in human colon carcinoma cell line LIM 2210 growing as subcutaneous solid tumour xenografts in nude mice. Characteristic morphologic features of tuft cells included a wide base, narrow apex and a tuft of long microvilli projecting f...

  11. Prognostic significance of epithelial/stromal caveolin-1 expression in prostatic hyperplasia, high grade prostatic intraepithelial hyperplasia and prostatic carcinoma and its correlation with microvessel density.

    Mohammed, Dareen A; Helal, Duaa S

    2017-03-01

    Caveolin-1 may play a role in cancer development and progression. The aim was to record the expression and localization of caveolin-1 in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) and prostatic carcinoma (PCa). Microvessel density was evaluated with CD34 immunostain. Correlations with known prognostic factors of PCa were recorded. Immunohistochemical expression of caveolin-1 and the MVD was evaluated in 65 cases; BPH (25), HGPIN (20) and PCa (20). Stromal caveolin-1expression was significantly higher in BPH than HGPIN and PCca. There was significant inverse relation between stromal caveolin-1 expression and extension to lymph node and seminal vesicle in carcinoma cases. Epithelial caveolin-1 was significantly higher in carcinomas than in BPH and HGPIN. Epithelial expression in carcinoma was significantly associated with preoperative PSA, Gleason score and lymph node extension. MVD was significantly higher in PCa than in BPH and HGPIN. There were significant relations between MVD and preoperative PSA, Gleason score, lymph node and seminal vesicle extension. Stromal caveolin-1 was associated with low MVD while epithelial caveolin-1 with high MVD. Caveolin-1 plays an important role in prostatic carcinogenesis and metastasis. Stromal expression of caveolin-1 in PCa is lowered in relation to BPH and HGPIN. In PCa; stromal caveolin-1 was associated with good prognostic parameters. Epithelial caveolin-1 is significantly increased in PCa than BPH and HGPIN. It is associated with clinically aggressive disease. Caveolin-1 may play a role in angiogenesis. Copyright © 2017 National Cancer Institute, Cairo University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Expression of ERG Protein and TMRPSS2-ERG Fusion in Prostatic Carcinoma in Egyptian Patients

    Ahmed Abdel-Hady

    2017-03-01

    CONCLUSION: Our findings emphasise that only malignant and pre-malignant cells and not benign cells from the prostate stain positive. ERG expression may offer a simpler, accurate and less costly alternative for evaluation of ERG fusion status in PCa.

  13. Non-THC cannabinoids inhibit prostate carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo: pro-apoptotic effects and underlying mechanisms.

    De Petrocellis, Luciano; Ligresti, Alessia; Schiano Moriello, Aniello; Iappelli, Mariagrazia; Verde, Roberta; Stott, Colin G; Cristino, Luigia; Orlando, Pierangelo; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Cannabinoid receptor activation induces prostate carcinoma cell (PCC) apoptosis, but cannabinoids other than Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which lack potency at cannabinoid receptors, have not been investigated. Some of these compounds antagonize transient receptor potential melastatin type-8 (TRPM8) channels, the expression of which is necessary for androgen receptor (AR)-dependent PCC survival. We tested pure cannabinoids and extracts from Cannabis strains enriched in particular cannabinoids (BDS), on AR-positive (LNCaP and 22RV1) and -negative (DU-145 and PC-3) cells, by evaluating cell viability (MTT test), cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction, by FACS scans, caspase 3/7 assays, DNA fragmentation and TUNEL, and size of xenograft tumours induced by LNCaP and DU-145 cells. Cannabidiol (CBD) significantly inhibited cell viability. Other compounds became effective in cells deprived of serum for 24 h. Several BDS were more potent than the pure compounds in the presence of serum. CBD-BDS (i.p.) potentiated the effects of bicalutamide and docetaxel against LNCaP and DU-145 xenograft tumours and, given alone, reduced LNCaP xenograft size. CBD (1-10 µM) induced apoptosis and induced markers of intrinsic apoptotic pathways (PUMA and CHOP expression and intracellular Ca(2+)). In LNCaP cells, the pro-apoptotic effect of CBD was only partly due to TRPM8 antagonism and was accompanied by down-regulation of AR, p53 activation and elevation of reactive oxygen species. LNCaP cells differentiated to androgen-insensitive neuroendocrine-like cells were more sensitive to CBD-induced apoptosis. These data support the clinical testing of CBD against prostate carcinoma. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  14. Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Anne Kristine Larsen, MD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence 1 year postoperatively.

  15. Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma of the head and face.

    Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Kramer, B; Altini, M; Lemmer, J

    2016-02-05

    Ultraviolet light (UV) is an important risk factor for cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin. These cancers most commonly affect persons with fair skin and blue eyes who sunburn rather than suntan. However, each of these cancers appears to be associated with a different pattern of UV exposure and to be mediated by different intracellular molecular pathways.Some melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene variants play a direct role in the pathogenesis of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma apart from their role in determining a cancer-prone pigmentory phenotype (fair skin, red hair, blue eyes) through their interactions with other genes regulating immuno-inflammatory responses, DNA repair or apoptosis.In this short review we focus on the aetiological role of UV in cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin, and on some associated biopathological events.

  16. Diagnosis and Follow Up of Prostate Carcinoma by an in House Prostate Specific Antigen ELISA Kit at Pramongkutklao Hospital

    Dumrongpisutikut, S.; Raungdilokrut, S.

    1998-01-01

    PSA ELISA kit was developed and compared to a commercial PSA ELISA kit (Cobas Registered trade mark Core PSA EIA, Roche Switzerland) with a correlation of 98.9% (r 0.989, p < 0.05). The precision of the assay kit evaluated by intermal quality control studies shown that the coefficient of variation of high, medium and low control were 4.4, 3.6 and 4.7% respectively. The sentuvity of detection was 0.25 ng/ml. This PSA ELISA kit has been used for detection of PSA in serum of 571 patients ages between 25-93 years old with satisfactory results. The normal range of PSA is 0 - 3.46 ng/ml (X-bar = 2SD, n = 384). The mean value of PSA in Prostate carcinoma before treatment and after successful treatment are 77.30 ng/ml (n = 53) and 1.64 ng/ml (n = 25) and increase to 53.71 ng/ml (n = 8) in metastasis. In Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) the range of PSA is 0 - 27.52 ng/ml (n = 74). Phi (φ) coefficient analysis shown that the correlation of PSA and Prostate carcinoma is 63.8% with a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 86.9% respectively

  17. A dural metastatic small cell carcinoma of the gallbladder as the first manifestation: a case report.

    Tonomura, Shuichi; Kitaichi, Tomoko; Onishi, Rina; Kakehi, Yoshiaki; Shimizu, Hisao; Shimada, Keiji; Kanemasa, Kazuyuki; Fukusumi, Akio; Takahashi, Nobuyuki

    2018-03-16

    A dural metastasis is one of the essential differential diagnoses of meningioma. In general, carcinomas of the breast and lung in females and prostate in males have been the most commonly reported primary lesions of dural metastases. However, dural metastasis of gallbladder carcinoma is extremely rare. Here, we report a unique case of a dural matter metastasis of gallbladder carcinoma as the first manifestation, which was autopsy-defined as small cell carcinoma. A 78-year-old man came to our hospital complaining of left hemianopia. Brain computed tomography (CT) revealed a sizeable parasagittal dural-based extra-axial tumor. However, the findings for meningioma were atypical by magnetic resonance imaging, suggesting a meningioma mimic. A contrast-enhanced CT scan of the abdomen revealed a large gallbladder carcinoma. The patient opted for the best supportive care and died 2 months later. The post-mortem examination revealed small cell carcinoma in gallbladder carcinoma. Moreover, an immunologically similar carcinoma was detected in the dural metastasis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a dural metastasis of gallbladder small cell carcinoma. A systemic examination is essential for clinicians when atypical findings of meningioma are observed, suggesting a meningioma mimic. We present this rare case with a review of the literature.

  18. URG11 Regulates Prostate Cancer Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion

    Bin Pan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Upregulated gene 11 (URG11, a new gene upregulated by hepatitis B virus X protein, is involved in the development and progression of several tumors, including liver, stomach, lung, and colon cancers. However, the role of URG11 in prostate cancer remains yet to be elucidated. By determined expression in human prostate cancer tissues, URG11 was found significantly upregulated and positively correlated with the severity of prostate cancer, compared with that in benign prostatic hyperplasia tissues. Further, the mRNA and protein levels of URG11 were significantly upregulated in human prostate cancer cell lines (DU145, PC3, and LNCaP, compared with human prostate epithelial cell line (RWPE-1. Moreover, by the application of siRNA against URG11, the proliferation, migration, and invasion of prostate cancer cells were markedly inhibited. Genetic knockdown of URG11 also induced cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase, induced apoptosis, and decreased the expression level of β-catenin in prostate cancer cells. Overexpression of URG11 promoted the expression of β-catenin, the growth, the migration, and invasion ability of prostate cancer cells. Taken together, this study reveals that URG11 is critical for the proliferation, migration, and invasion in prostate cancer cells, providing the evidence of URG11 to be a novel potential therapeutic target of prostate cancer.

  19. Ethacrynic acid: a novel radiation enhancer in human carcinoma cells

    Khil, Mark S.; Sang, Hie Kim; Pinto, John T.; Jae, Ho Kim

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Because agents that interfere with thiol metabolism and glutathione S-transferase (GST) functions have been shown to enhance antitumor effects of alkylating agents in vitro and in vivo, the present study was conceived on the basis that an inhibitor of GST would enhance the radiation response of some selected human carcinoma cells. Ethacrynic acid (EA) was chosen for the study because it is an effective inhibitor of GST and is a well known diuretic in humans. Methods and Materials: Experiments were carried out with well-established human tumor cells in culture growing in Eagle's minimum essential medium (MEM) supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS). Cell lines used were MCF-7, MCF-7 adriamycin resistant (AR) cells (breast carcinoma), HT-29 cells (colon carcinoma), DU-145 cells (prostate carcinoma), and U-373 cells (malignant glioma). Cell survival following the exposure of cells to drug alone, radiation alone, and a combined treatment was assayed by determining the colony-forming ability of single plated cells in culture to obtain dose-survival curves. The drug enhancement ratio was correlated with levels of GST. Results: The cytotoxicity of EA was most pronounced in MCF-7, U-373, and DU-145 cells compared to MCF-7 AR and HT-29 cells. The levels of GST activity were found to be lower in those EA-sensitive cells. A significant radiation enhancement was obtained with EA-sensitive cells exposed to nontoxic concentrations of the drug immediately before or after irradiation. The sensitizer enhancement ratio (SER) of MCF-7 cells was 1.55 with EA (20 μg/ml), while the SER of MCF-7 AR was less than 1.1. Based on five different human tumor cells, a clear inverse relationship was demonstrated between the magnitude of SER and GST levels of tumor cells prior to the combined treatment. Conclusion: The present results suggest that EA, which acts as both a reversible and irreversible inhibitor of GST activity, could significantly enhance the radiation response of

  20. Exoftalmo unilateral por metástase orbitária de carcinoma de próstata Unilateral exophthalmos secondary to orbital metastatic carcinoma of the prostate: a case report

    José Carlos Corrêa Barbosa

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available É relatado um caso de exoftalmo ou proptose unilateral direita, causado por metástase orbitária de carcinoma da próstata em paciente negro, na 6.ª década de vida, com evolução de 9 meses. O exame neuro-ocular revelou acentuada diminuição da agudeza visual, perturbação para visão de cores, perda da convergência, diminuição dos reflexos à luz e acomodação e restrição dos movimentos oculares. O paciente apresentava discreta disbasia esquerda por metástase no fêmur. Exames laboratoriais, radiológicos e a biópsia confirmaram a etiologia carcinomatosa da manifestação ocular.A case of right unilateral exophthalmos secondary to metastatic carcinoma of the prostate, in a 68 years old negro patient in which the ocular manifestation lasted 9 months is reported The extrinsic movements of the eye were limited. Pupils reacted slightly to light and accommodation. There was no ocular convergence. The vision of the right eye was blurred and there was mild color vision. The prostate was found to be petrous by touch specially in the right portion. The laboratory findings pointed to a prostatic carcinoma. Bone X-rays were strongly suggestive of metastatic tumour. The histological examination of the orbital tumour showed prostatic tumour cells.

  1. Role of computed tomography in the evaluation and management of carcinoma of the prostate

    Giri, P.G.S.; Walsh, J.W.; Hazra, T.A.; Texter, J.H.; Koontz, W.W.

    1982-01-01

    Between January 1978 to March 1980, 25 patients with biopsy-proven prostate carcinoma were evaluated by computerized tomography (CT). CT differed from clinical stage in 7 of 25 patients (28%). In 6 of the 7 patients, change in stage resulted because of demonstration of extracapsular extension and/or pelvic lymph node involvement. Twelve of the 25 patients (48%) underwent surgery with histological confirmation of CT findings. CT identified nodal involvement accurately in 10 of 12 patients (83%). We recommend use of CT for initial staging, treatment planning and assessment of response in the management of prostate cancer

  2. PrognosticValue of PINP,BoneAlkaline Phosphatase, CTX-I, andYKL-40 in Patients With Metastatic Prostate Carcinoma

    Brasso, Klaus; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Johansen, Julia S

    2006-01-01

    Prognostic value of PINP, bone alkaline phosphatase, CTX-I, and YKL-40 in patients with metastatic prostate carcinoma. Prostate. 2006 Apr 1;66(5):503-13. PMID: 16372331 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]......Prognostic value of PINP, bone alkaline phosphatase, CTX-I, and YKL-40 in patients with metastatic prostate carcinoma. Prostate. 2006 Apr 1;66(5):503-13. PMID: 16372331 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]...

  3. Cetuximab & Nivolumab in Patients With Recurrent/Metastatic Head & Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    2018-04-10

    Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus; Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Squamous Cell Cancer; Head and Neck Carcinoma

  4. Treatment Options by Stage (Merkel Cell Carcinoma)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... common for Merkel cell carcinoma to recur. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Merkel Cell Carcinoma)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... common for Merkel cell carcinoma to recur. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  6. The role of Cajal cells in chronic prostatitis.

    Haki Yuksel, Ozgur; Urkmez, Ahmet; Verit, Ayhan

    2016-07-04

    Types of prostatitis can be defined as groups of syndromes in adult men associated with infectious and noninfectious causes characterized frequently by lower abdominal and perineal signs and diverse clinical symptoms and complications. Etiopathogenesis of chronic prostatitis is not well defined. Moreover, its treatment outcomes are not satisfactory. Presence of c-kit positive interstitial cells in human prostate is already known. It has been demonstrated that these cells can be pacemaker cells which trigger spontaneous slow-wave electrical activity in the prostate and can be responsible for the transport of glandular secretion from acinar cells into major and minor prostatic ducts and finally into urethra. In the light of all these data, when presence of a possible inflammatory pathology is thought to involve prostate that secretes and has a reservoir which drains its secretion (for prostate, prostatic urethra), two points are worth mentioning. Impairment of secretion mechanism and collection of secretion within the organ with reflux of the microbial material from its reservoir back into prostate gland. Both of these potential conditions can be explained by ductal neuromuscular mechanism, which induces secretion. We think that in this neuromuscular mechanism interstitial Cajal cells have an important role in chronic prostatitis. Our hypothesis is that curability of prostatitis is correlated with the number of Cajal cells not subjected to apoptosis.

  7. The role of Cajal cells in chronic prostatitis

    Ozgur Haki Yuksel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Types of prostatitis can be defined as groups of syndromes in adult men associated with infectious and noninfectious causes characterized frequently by lower abdominal and perineal signs and diverse clinical symptoms and complications. Etiopathogenesis of chronic prostatitis is not well defined. Moreover, its treatment outcomes are not satisfactory. Presence of c-kit positive interstitial cells in human prostate is already known. It has been demonstrated that these cells can be pacemaker cells which trigger spontaneous slow-wave electrical activity in the prostate and can be responsible for the transport of glandular secretion from acinar cells into major and minor prostatic ducts and finally into urethra. In the light of all these data, when presence of a possible inflammatory pathology is thought to involve prostate that secretes and has a reservoir which drains its secretion (for prostate, prostatic urethra, two points are worth mentioning. Impairment of secretion mechanism and collection of secretion within the organ with reflux of the microbial material from its reservoir back into prostate gland. Both of these potential conditions can be explained by ductal neuromuscular mechanism, which induces secretion. We think that in this neuromuscular mechanism interstitial Cajal cells have an important role in chronic prostatitis. Our hypothesis is that curability of prostatitis is correlated with the number of Cajal cells not subjected to apoptosis.

  8. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

    Yeliz Bilir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts, the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome.

  9. Using an AMACR (P504S)/34betaE12/p63 cocktail for the detection of small focal prostate carcinoma in needle biopsy specimens.

    Jiang, Zhong; Li, Cuizhen; Fischer, Andrew; Dresser, Karen; Woda, Bruce A

    2005-02-01

    We assessed the usefulness of immunohistochemical analysis with a 3-antibody cocktail (alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase [AMACR, or P504S], 34betaE12, p63) and a double-chromogen reaction for detection of limited prostate cancer in 138 needle biopsy specimens, including 82 with small foci of prostatic adenocarcinoma and 56 benign prostates. When carcinoma was present, red cytoplasmic granular staining (AMACR) in the malignant glands and cells and dark brown nuclear (p63) and cytoplasmic (34betaE12) staining in basal cells of adjacent nonmalignant glands were found. Of 82 cases of small foci of prostatic adenocarcinoma, 78 (95%) expressed AMACR; all malignant glands were negative for basal cell staining. All benign glands adjacent to malignant glands were recognized easily by basal cell marker positivity and little or no AMACR expression. No benign glands were simultaneously positive for AMACR and negative for basal cell markers (specificity, 100%). There were no differences in intensity and numbers of positive glands with double-chromogen staining compared with using 1-color staining. Our results indicate that immunohistochemistry with a 3-antibody cocktail and double chromogen is a simple and easy assay that can be used as a routine test, which overcomes the problems of studying small lesions in prostate needle biopsies with multiple immunohistochemical stains.

  10. Merkel Cell Carcinoma Therapeutic Update.

    Cassler, Nicole M; Merrill, Dean; Bichakjian, Christopher K; Brownell, Isaac

    2016-07-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive neuroendocrine tumor of the skin. Early-stage disease can be cured with surgical resection and radiotherapy (RT). Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is an important staging tool, as a microscopic MCC is frequently identified. Adjuvant RT to the primary excision site and regional lymph node bed may improve locoregional control. However, newer studies confirm that patients with biopsy-negative sentinel lymph nodes may not benefit from regional RT. Advanced MCC currently lacks a highly effective treatment as responses to chemotherapy are not durable. Recent work suggests that immunotherapy targeting the programmed cell death receptor 1/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) checkpoint holds great promise in treating advanced MCC and may provide durable responses in a portion of patients. At the same time, high-throughput sequencing studies have demonstrated significant differences in the mutational profiles of tumors with and without the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV). An important secondary endpoint in the ongoing immunotherapy trials for MCC will be determining if there is a response difference between the virus-positive MCC tumors that typically lack a large mutational burden and the virus-negative tumors that have a large number of somatic mutations and predicted tumor neoantigens. Interestingly, sequencing studies have failed to identify a highly recurrent activated driver pathway in the majority of MCC tumors. This may explain why targeted therapies can demonstrate exceptional responses in case reports but fail when treating all comers with MCC. Ultimately, a precision medicine approach may be more appropriate for treating MCC, where identified driver mutations are used to direct targeted therapies. At a minimum, stratifying patients in future clinical trials based on tumor viral status should be considered as virus-negative tumors are more likely to harbor activating driver mutations.

  11. Merkel cell polyomavirus and Merkel cell carcinoma.

    DeCaprio, James A

    2017-10-19

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) causes the highly aggressive and relatively rare skin cancer known as Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). MCPyV also causes a lifelong yet relatively innocuous infection and is one of 14 distinct human polyomaviruses species. Although polyomaviruses typically do not cause illness in healthy individuals, several can cause catastrophic diseases in immunocompromised hosts. MCPyV is the only polyomavirus clearly associated with human cancer. How MCPyV causes MCC and what oncogenic events must transpire to enable this virus to cause MCC is the focus of this essay.This article is part of the themed issue 'Human oncogenic viruses'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. Eyelid Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Dog

    Chang-hyun Song1§, Sae-kwang Ku2§, Hwan-soo Jang3, Eun-young Kye, Sung-ho Yun, Kwang-ho Jang and Young-sam Kwon*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old, female, Yorkshire Terrier was presented with a left lower eyelid mass. No other abnormality was detected on affected eye in a general eye examination. The mass was surgically removed and histologically diagnosed as a squamous cell carcinoma. The advancement flap used in this case may be an appropriate therapeutic choice for eyelid squamous cell carcinoma in dogs.

  13. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in an odontogenic cyst

    Yu, Jae Jung; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae; Choi, Jeong Hee

    2003-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma arising in an odontogenic cyst is uncommon. The diagnosis of carcinoma arising in a cyst requires that there must be an area of microscopic transition from the benign epithelial cyst lining to the invasive squamous cell carcinoma. We report a histopathologically proven case of squamous cell carcinoma arising in a residual mandibular cyst in a 54-year-old woman.

  14. Cellular and molecular biology of the prostate: stem cell biology.

    Schalken, J.A.; Leenders, G.J.L.H. van

    2003-01-01

    The normal prostate shows a high degree of cellular organization. The basal layer is populated by prostate epithelial stem cells and a population of transiently proliferating/amplifying (TP/A) cells intermediate to the stem cells and fully differentiated cells. The luminal layer is composed of fully

  15. Collagen derived serum markers in carcinoma of the prostate

    Rudnicki, M; Jensen, L T; Iversen, P

    1995-01-01

    of prostatic bone metastases. Blood samples were obtained prior to biopsy or TURP. Serum PICP, PIIINP and ICTP were measured with commercial available RIAs and PSA by IRMA. Serum PSA was increased in patients with local prostatic cancer compared with patients with hyperplasia (p ..., ICTP, and PICP did not differ between these two groups. In patients with metastatic prostatic cancer all five markers were increased compared to the level measured in patients with localized cancer (p .... The sensitivity ranged from 0.53 to 0.62 and specificity from 0.91 to 0.95. The sensitivity for alkaline phosphatase and PSA was 0.69 and 0.66 and specificity 0.91 and 0.68, respectively....

  16. Gingival squamous cell carcinoma: A diagnostic impediment

    Rekha Rani Koduganti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral squamous cell carcinomas represent 3% of cancers in men and 2% of cancers in women. More than 90% of oral cancer occurs in people older than 45 years Lesions of gingiva account for approximately 10% of the oral squamous cell carcinomas and may present clinically as an area of ulceration, exophytic mass, or red/white speckled patches. The proximity to the underlying periosteum may invite early bone invasion. Carcinoma of gingiva constitutes an extremely important group of neoplasms as the lesion frequently mimics the reactive and inflammatory conditions affecting the periodontium, delaying the diagnosis and making the prognosis of the patient poorer. A rare case of gingival squamous cell carcinoma has been reported here, in a 40 Year old male patient. Careful recording of the case history and results of clinical examination, radiographic, and laboratory investigations, along with a critical review of similar conditions led to the diagnosis, and treatment was initiated.

  17. Collagen derived serum markers in carcinoma of the prostate

    Rudnicki, M; Jensen, L T; Iversen, P

    1995-01-01

    Three new collagen markers deriving from the collagenous matrix, e.g. carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP), carboxy-terminal pyridinoline cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), and aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) were used for the diagnose...... of prostatic bone metastases. Blood samples were obtained prior to biopsy or TURP. Serum PICP, PIIINP and ICTP were measured with commercial available RIAs and PSA by IRMA. Serum PSA was increased in patients with local prostatic cancer compared with patients with hyperplasia (p

  18. Definition of molecular determinants of prostate cancer cell bone extravasation.

    Barthel, Steven R; Hays, Danielle L; Yazawa, Erika M; Opperman, Matthew; Walley, Kempland C; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Burdick, Monica M; Gillard, Bryan M; Moser, Michael T; Pantel, Klaus; Foster, Barbara A; Pienta, Kenneth J; Dimitroff, Charles J

    2013-01-15

    Advanced prostate cancer commonly metastasizes to bone, but transit of malignant cells across the bone marrow endothelium (BMEC) remains a poorly understood step in metastasis. Prostate cancer cells roll on E-selectin(+) BMEC through E-selectin ligand-binding interactions under shear flow, and prostate cancer cells exhibit firm adhesion to BMEC via β1, β4, and αVβ3 integrins in static assays. However, whether these discrete prostate cancer cell-BMEC adhesive contacts culminate in cooperative, step-wise transendothelial migration into bone is not known. Here, we describe how metastatic prostate cancer cells breach BMEC monolayers in a step-wise fashion under physiologic hemodynamic flow. Prostate cancer cells tethered and rolled on BMEC and then firmly adhered to and traversed BMEC via sequential dependence on E-selectin ligands and β1 and αVβ3 integrins. Expression analysis in human metastatic prostate cancer tissue revealed that β1 was markedly upregulated compared with expression of other β subunits. Prostate cancer cell breaching was regulated by Rac1 and Rap1 GTPases and, notably, did not require exogenous chemokines as β1, αVβ3, Rac1, and Rap1 were constitutively active. In homing studies, prostate cancer cell trafficking to murine femurs was dependent on E-selectin ligand, β1 integrin, and Rac1. Moreover, eliminating E-selectin ligand-synthesizing α1,3 fucosyltransferases in transgenic adenoma of mouse prostate mice dramatically reduced prostate cancer incidence. These results unify the requirement for E-selectin ligands, α1,3 fucosyltransferases, β1 and αVβ3 integrins, and Rac/Rap1 GTPases in mediating prostate cancer cell homing and entry into bone and offer new insight into the role of α1,3 fucosylation in prostate cancer development.

  19. Rectal necrosis following external radiation therapy for carcinoma of the prostate: report of a case

    Quan, S.H.Q.; O'Kelly, P.J.

    1975-01-01

    Increasing attention is being paid to the use of radiation therapy in the management of primary carcinoma of the prostate. Since 1965, radical radiation therapy has been used at Memorial Hospital to treat primary carcinoma of the prostate. Small primary tumors are treated by implantation with radioactive iodine ( 125 I) seeds and larger tumors considered unsuitable for implantation are treated by external supervoltage beam therapy. Fifty patients had been treated by implantation and 30 by external beam therapy at the time of this report. None of the patients treated by implantation developed rectal symptoms. Proctitis developed in all patients treated by external radiation therapy and in half the patients chronic proctitis ensued, accompanied by the passage of mucus. The constant leaking of mucus through the anal sphincter produces irritation of the skin and intermittent attacks of pruritus ani, a discomfiting sequel. Apart from the proctitis, most patients tolerated treatment well, with one notable exception, in whom rectal necrosis developed. This case is described

  20. Half-body irradiation in the treatment of metastatic prostatic carcinoma

    Rowland, C.G.; Bullimore, J.A.; Smith, P.J.B.; Roberts, J.B.M.

    1981-01-01

    High dose radiation therapy given as a single fraction to the upper and lower halves of the body gives effective palliation for metastatic solid tumours. This treatment modality appears to be particularly effective in tumours which may have a slow doubling time such as carcinoma of the prostate. Fifty-two patients with metastatic carcinoma of the prostate involving the skeletal system have received half-body irradiation (8 MeV X-rays at a dose rate of about 100 cGy/min). All had prior treatment with additive hormones or orchiectomy and the majority had received localised irradiation and/or chemotherapy. Significant immediate pain relief was achieved in 42 out of 52 patients (80%). This pain relief was maintained until death in 29 out of 43 patients (67%). Pain relief in responders appears to occur within 24 to 48 h of treatment. (author)

  1. Immunosuppressive Environment in Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Omland, Silje Haukali; Nielsen, Patricia S; Gjerdrum, Lise M R

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between tumour survival tactics and anti-tumour immune response is a major determinant for cancer growth. Regulatory T cells (T-regs) contribute to tumour immune escape, but their role in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is not understood. The fraction of T-regs among T cells was analysed b...

  2. Detection of prostate carcinomas with T1-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Value of two-compartment model

    Kiessling, F.; Lichy, M.; Farhan, N.; Delorme, S.; Kauczor, H.U.; Grobholz, R.; Heilmann, M.; Michel, M.S.; Trojan, L.; Werner, A.; Rabe, J.; Schlemmer, H.P.

    2003-01-01

    Aim The suitability of dynamic parameters of the two-compartment model for detecting prostate carcinomas and its correlation with tumor microvascular density were evaluated. The study included 43 patients with biopsy-proven prostate carcinoma: 28 were examined by 1.0-T MRI (Turbo-FLASH) and 15 by 1.5-T MRI (FLASH) with infusion of 0.1 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA. Signal time curves were parametrized with an open two-compartment model in amplitude and exchange rate constants (k ep ).The microvascular density of resected prostate carcinomas was determined. The microvascular density in the tumors was significantly higher than in the adjacent healthy prostate tissue and correlated in both sequences with k ep . Prostate carcinomas of the peripheral zone were demarcated by amplitude and k ep . In the Turbo-FLASH sequence there was a significant difference between the tumor tissue and healthy peripheral zone in terms of k ep and in the FLASH sequence in terms of amplitude. Prostate carcinomas can be visualized with dynamic T1-weighted MR sequences using a two-compartment model. Moreover, the parameter k ep reveals the microvascular density in the tumor and can thus provide valuable clinical information for characterizing the tumors. (orig.) [de

  3. Phosphorus 32 in the treatment of the bony metastasis for carcinoma prostatic

    Portilla Fabregat, Ivette; Alsina Sarmiento, Sofia de la C.; Oliva Gonzalez, Juan P.; Barroso Alvarez, Maria del C.; Chi Ramirez, Daysi

    2000-01-01

    The results of the treatment with phosphorus 32 of 50 patients affected by metastatic prostatic carcinoma with intense bone pains were reported. Age groups, objective and subjective responses and their duration were examined. 50 % patients showed full responses and 46 % partial responses to treatment, 42 patients (84 %) declared that their pains had disappeared whereas 6 (12 %) reported some palliation of pain. The advantages of this method were presented

  4. Novel Topical Photodynamic Therapy of Prostate Carcinoma Using Hydroxy-aluminum Phthalocyanine Entrapped in Liposomes

    Sutoris, K.; Rakušan, J.; Karásková, M.; Mattová, J.; Beneš, J.; Nekvasil, Miloš; Ježek, Petr; Zadinová, M.; Poučková, P.; Větvička, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 4 (2013), s. 1563-1568 ISSN 0250-7005 R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) 2A-1TP1/026; GA MŠk(CZ) OE09026; GA TA ČR(CZ) TA01010781 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : PC prostate carcinomas * LNCaP * liposomes * hydroxy-aluminum phthalocyanine * photodynamic therapy Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 1.872, year: 2013

  5. Urethrography and ischial intertuberosity line in radiation therapy planning for prostate carcinoma

    Sadeghi, Ahmad; Kuisk, Hans; Tran, Luu; St Royal, Leslie

    1996-01-01

    We analyzed our urethrography procedure regarding the validity of using the ischial tuberosity line (ITL) as the caudal margin of treatment portals for prostate carcinoma. The distances of the external urethral sphincter and the lowest margin of the opacified urinary bladder were analyzed in one hundred fifteen consecutive urethrograms. None showed the urethral sphincter to be caudal to the ITL. Ten percent of the sphincters were located less than 1.0 cm cephalad to the ITL, yielding inadequate treatment coverage if the ITL was relied on. Arbitrarily considering 2.0 cm or more of the urethral irradiation to be excessive, the use of the ITL would then have resulted in unnecessary normal tissue irradiation of 42.5%. The ITL should not be used as the caudal margin for prostate treatment portals. Variation in sphincter position, as also seen on lateral projections, reveal a need for urethrography as a necessary supplement to computed tomography to plan radiation portals for prostate cancer

  6. Metastatic giant basal cell carcinoma: a case report.

    Bellahammou, Khadija; Lakhdissi, Asmaa; Akkar, Othman; Rais, Fadoua; Naoual, Benhmidou; Elghissassi, Ibrahim; M'rabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer, characterised by a slow growing behavior, metastasis are extremely rare, and it occurs in less than 0, 1% of all cases. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a rare form of basal cell carcinoma, more aggressive and defined as a tumor measuring more than 5 cm at its largest diameter. Only 1% of all basal cell carcinoma develops to a giant basal cell carcinoma, resulting of patient's negligence. Giant basal cell carcinoma is associated with higher potential of metastasis and even death, compared to ordinary basal cell carcinoma. We report a case of giant basal cell carcinoma metastaticin lung occurring in a 79 years old male patient, with a fatal evolution after one course of systemic chemotherapy. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a very rare entity, early detection of these tumors could prevent metastasis occurrence and improve the prognosis of this malignancy.

  7. Probing the interaction forces of prostate cancer cells with collagen I and bone marrow derived stem cells on the single cell level.

    Ediz Sariisik

    Full Text Available Adhesion of metastasizing prostate carcinoma cells was quantified for two carcinoma model cell lines LNCaP (lymph node-specific and PC3 (bone marrow-specific. By time-lapse microscopy and force spectroscopy we found PC3 cells to preferentially adhere to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SCP1 cell line. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM based force spectroscopy, the mechanical pattern of the adhesion to SCP1 cells was characterized for both prostate cancer cell lines and compared to a substrate consisting of pure collagen type I. PC3 cells dissipated more energy (27.6 aJ during the forced de-adhesion AFM experiments and showed significantly more adhesive and stronger bonds compared to LNCaP cells (20.1 aJ. The characteristic signatures of the detachment force traces revealed that, in contrast to the LNCaP cells, PC3 cells seem to utilize their filopodia in addition to establish adhesive bonds. Taken together, our study clearly demonstrates that PC3 cells have a superior adhesive affinity to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, compared to LNCaP. Semi-quantitative PCR on both prostate carcinoma cell lines revealed the expression of two Col-I binding integrin receptors, α1β1 and α2β1 in PC3 cells, suggesting their possible involvement in the specific interaction to the substrates. Further understanding of the exact mechanisms behind this phenomenon might lead to optimized therapeutic applications targeting the metastatic behavior of certain prostate cancer cells towards bone tissue.

  8. Altered CXCR3 isoform expression regulates prostate cancer cell migration and invasion

    Wu Qian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carcinoma cells must circumvent the normally suppressive signals to disseminate. While often considered 'stop' signals for adherent cells, CXCR3-binding chemokines have recently been correlated positively with cancer progression though the molecular basis remains unclear. Results Here, we examined the expression and function of two CXCR3 variants in human prostate cancer biopsies and cell lines. Globally, both CXCR3 mRNA and protein were elevated in localized and metastatic human cancer biopsies compared to normal. Additionally, CXCR3A mRNA level was upregulated while CXCR3B mRNA was downregulated in these prostate cancer specimens. In contrast to normal prostate epithelial cells (RWPE-1, CXCR3A was up to half the receptor in the invasive and metastatic DU-145 and PC-3 prostate cancer cells, but not in the localized LNCaP cells. Instead of inhibiting cell migration as in RWPE-1 cells, the CXCR3 ligands CXCL4/PF4 and CXCL10/IP10 promoted cell motility and invasiveness in both DU-145 and PC-3 cells via PLCβ3 and μ-calpain activation. CXCR3-mediated diminution of cell motility in RWPE-1 cells is likely a result of cAMP upregulation and m-calpain inhibition via CXCR3B signal transduction. Interestingly, overexpression of CXCR3B in DU-145 cells decreased cell movement and invasion. Conclusion These data suggest that the aberrant expression of CXCR3A and down-regulation of CXCR3B may switch a progression "stop" to a "go" signal to promote prostate tumor metastasis via stimulating cell migration and invasion.

  9. The specific role of radiotherapy in the management of prostate carcinoma at different stages of tumor development

    Huber, J.

    1987-01-01

    The study described here was based on the case reports of 135 patients of the Radiological Department at Kiel's University Hospital, who were treated for carcinomas of the prostate at any time during the period between 1965 and 1980. It was the aim of these evaluations to define the particular role of radiotherapy in the management of carcinomas of the prostate and to compare it to that of other methods of treatment (hormones, surgery). Percutaneous local irradiation of the carcinoma or irradiation of metastases were the criteria of inclusion into this retrospective study. The stage of the tumour was a decisive factor in the final analysis of the results. (orig.) [de

  10. Serum levels of endothelial and neural cell adhesion molecules in prostate cancer.

    Lynch, D F; Hassen, W; Clements, M A; Schellhammer, P F; Wright, G L

    1997-08-01

    Tumorigenesis and progression to metastatic disease are accompanied by changes in the expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). Normally expressed CAMs, such as E-cadherin, are lost, while others, i.e., ICAM-1, VCAM-1, NCAM, and E-selectin, are altered and overexpressed in progressive disease and metastases. Abnormal levels of these latter CAMs have been observed in melanoma and carcinomas of the colon and breast, and NCAM is overexpressed in small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). The objective of this study was to determine if serum levels of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, NCAM, and E-selectin could differentiate patients with benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH) from those with prostate carcinoma (CaP) and identify prostate cancers with high potential for progression to metastatic disease. Serum levels of these CAMs were determined by ELISA in serum from normal males and females and from patients with BPH and CaP before and after treatment. Sera from patients with breast carcinoma, colon carcinoma, melanoma, and small-cell lung carcinoma were also evaluated, as soluble CAMs have been reported to be elevated in these cancer patients. ICAM-1 levels were elevated in sera from patients with breast carcinoma (P = 0.0004) and melanoma (P = 0.0001). VCAM-1 levels were elevated in sera from patients with colon carcinoma (P = 0.0001). NCAM levels were elevated in the sera of patients with SCLC (P = 0.0001). Normal levels of ICAM-1, E-selectin, and NCAM were found in both BPH and pretreatment CaP patients. Median NCAM levels in hormone-refractive CaP patients were significantly greater than in BPH (P = 0.0005) and CaP patients with pathologically determined organ-confined (P = 0.0014) or nonorgan-confined disease (P = 0.0385). VCAM-1 levels were significantly elevated in both BPH patients (P = 0.0002) and CaP patients (P = 0.0002) when compared with levels for normal age-matched donors. None of the CAMs were found to offer an advantage over prostatic-specific antigen (PSA) for monitoring Ca

  11. A novel retinoic acid chalcone reverses epithelial‑mesenchymal transition in prostate cancer cells

    Jian Zhong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to investigate the effect of retinoic acid fluoro chalcone (RAFC on lipopolysaccharide (LPS induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT in PC3 and CWR22rv1 prostate cell lines. Lipo-polysaccharide (LPS was used to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition in prostate carcinoma cell lines. The results revealed that treatment of PC3 and CWR22rv1 cells with LPS resulted in significant changes in the morphological features of the EMT. The mesenchymal marker, vimentin expression was significantly increased whereas the expression level of E‑cadherin was markedly decreased after the treatment. We also observed increased cell motility and higher level of transcription factor glioma‑associated oncogene homolog 1 (Gli1 expression on LPS treatment. Treatment of prostate cells with RAFC reversed the morphological changes induced by LPS in prostate cells. RAFC also reduced the expression of EMT markers induced by LPS and suppressed the Gli1 expression. The resultant effect of these changes was the suppression of motility and invasiveness of the prostrate cells. Thus, RAFC exhibited anti‑invasive effect on prostrate cells by inhibition of the EMT process via Hedgehog signaling pathway.

  12. Intracavitary irradiation of prostatic carcinoma by a high dose-rate afterloading technique

    Odelberg-Johnson, O.; Underskog, I.; Johansson, J.E.; Bernshaw, D.; Sorbe, B.; Persson, J.E. (Oerebro Medical Center Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology Oerebro Medical Center Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Urology Oerebro Medical Center Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Gynecologic Oncology Oerebro Medical Center Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Physics)

    1991-01-01

    A high dose-rate ({sup 60}Co) afterloading technique was evaluated in a series of 73 patients with prostatic carcinoma stages I-IV. The intraurethral irradiation was combined with external pelvic radiotherapy. A minimum total dose of 78 Gy was delivered to the target volume. In a subgroup of patients extramustine (Estracyt) was given as adjuvant chemohormonal therapy during irradiation. The median follow-up for the whole group was 63 months. The crude 5-year survival rate was 60% and the corrected survival rate 90%. Survival was related to the tumor grade. Local pelvic recurrences were recorded in 17.8%. 'Viable cells' in posttherapy aspiration biopsy were not associated with tumor recurrences or survival. Four patients (5%) had grade 3 late radiation reactions with urethral structure or bladder fibrosis. Urinary tract infections and prior transurethral resections were not associated with a higher frequency of reactions. Concurrent estramustine therapy seemed to increase the frequency of both acute and chronic radiation reactions. Local control, recurrence, and survival were not affected by chemohormonal therapy. The use of tomography, magnetic resonance, and ultrasound as aids to computerized dosimetry may improve local dose distribution and reduce the irradiated volume. (orig.).

  13. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the nasopharynx.

    Atar, Yavuz; Topaloglu, Ilhan; Ozcan, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic renal cell carcinoma of the nasopharynx, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses can be misdiagnosed as primary malignant or benign diseases. A 33-year-old male attended our outpatient clinic complaining of difficulty breathing through the nose, bloody nasal discharge, postnasal drop, snoring, and discharge of phlegm. Endoscopic nasopharyngeal examination showed a vascularized nasopharyngeal mass. Under general anesthesia, multiple punch biopsies were taken from the nasopharynx. Pathologically, the tumor cells had clear cytoplasm and were arranged in a trabecular pattern lined by a layer of endothelial cells. After the initial pathological examination, the pathologist requested more information about the patient's clinical status. A careful history revealed that the patient had undergone left a nephrectomy for a kidney mass diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma 3 years earlier. Subsequently, nasopharyngeal metastatic renal cell carcinoma was diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining with CD10 and vimentin. Radiotherapy was recommended for treatment.

  14. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the nasopharynx

    Yavuz Atar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic renal cell carcinoma of the nasopharynx, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses can be misdiagnosed as primary malignant or benign diseases. A 33-year-old male attended our outpatient clinic complaining of difficulty breathing through the nose, bloody nasal discharge, postnasal drop, snoring, and discharge of phlegm. Endoscopic nasopharyngeal examination showed a vascularized nasopharyngeal mass. Under general anesthesia, multiple punch biopsies were taken from the nasopharynx. Pathologically, the tumor cells had clear cytoplasm and were arranged in a trabecular pattern lined by a layer of endothelial cells. After the initial pathological examination, the pathologist requested more information about the patient′s clinical status. A careful history revealed that the patient had undergone left a nephrectomy for a kidney mass diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma 3 years earlier. Subsequently, nasopharyngeal metastatic renal cell carcinoma was diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining with CD10 and vimentin. Radiotherapy was recommended for treatment.

  15. Small cell type neuroendocrine carcinoma colliding with squamous cell carcinoma at esophagus

    Yang, Luoluo; Sun, Xun; Zou, Yabin; Meng, Xiangwei

    2014-01-01

    Collision tumor is an extremely rare tumor which defined as the concrescence of two distinct primaries neoplasms. We report here a case of collision tumor at lower third esophagus composed of small cell type neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC), which is an very rare, highly aggressive and poorly prognostic carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC). In our case, pathologically, the small cell carcinoma display the characteristic of small, round, ovoid or spindle-shaped tumor cells with scant cytoplasm, which colliding with a moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated positive activities for CD56, synaptophysin, 34βE12, CK 5/6, ki-67 (70%-80%), but negative for CD99, chromogranin A, and TTF-1. Accurate diagnosis was made base on these findings. PMID:24817981

  16. Progression of renal cell carcinoma is inhibited by genistein and radiation in an orthotopic model

    Hillman, Gilda G; Wang, Yu; Che, Mingxin; Raffoul, Julian J; Yudelev, Mark; Kucuk, Omer; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2007-01-01

    We have previously reported the potentiation of radiotherapy by the soy isoflavone genistein for prostate cancer using prostate tumor cells in vitro and orthotopic prostate tumor models in vivo. However, when genistein was used as single therapy in animal models, it promoted metastasis to regional para-aortic lymph nodes. To clarify whether these intriguing adverse effects of genistein are intrinsic to the orthotopic prostate tumor model, or these results could also be recapitulated in another model, we used the orthotopic metastatic KCI-18 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) model established in our laboratory. The KCI-18 RCC cell line was generated from a patient with papillary renal cell carcinoma. Following orthotopic renal implantation of KCI-18 RCC cells and serial in vivo kidney passages in nude mice, we have established a reliable and predictable metastatic RCC tumor model. Mice bearing established kidney tumors were treated with genistein combined with kidney tumor irradiation. The effect of the therapy was assessed on the primary tumor and metastases to various organs. In this experimental model, the karyotype and histological characteristics of the human primary tumor are preserved. Tumor cells metastasize from the primary renal tumor to the lungs, liver and mesentery mimicking the progression of RCC in humans. Treatment of established kidney tumors with genistein demonstrated a tendency to stimulate the growth of the primary kidney tumor and increase the incidence of metastasis to the mesentery lining the bowel. In contrast, when given in conjunction with kidney tumor irradiation, genistein significantly inhibited the growth and progression of established kidney tumors. These findings confirm the potentiation of radiotherapy by genistein in the orthotopic RCC model as previously shown in orthotopic models of prostate cancer. Our studies in both RCC and prostate tumor models demonstrate that the combination of genistein with primary tumor irradiation is a more

  17. The prostate specific antigen: a new marker for diagnosis of prostate-carcinomas

    Spitz, J.; Clemenz, N.; Koellermann, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    Determination of serum PSA levels in the primary diagnosis and follow-up of patients with prostatic cancer has all the advantages of a prostate-specific marker that are known from PAP assays. But PSA levels have higher amplitudes that those of PAP so that the signalling effect is improved. In addition, information is available earlier than from PAP levels. Elevation of PSA levels in patients with BPH is suggestive of increased risk, but further studies are required for confirmation. As PSA molecules are less sensitive than PAP molecules, handling of serum samples is less problematic so that systematic follow-ups of patients with prostatic cancer can be done on a wider basis. Experience available sofar suggest that PSA and PAP levels should be determined simultaneously in the primary diagnosis and follow-up of patients with prostatic cancer. (Author)

  18. Semiquantitative morphology of human prostatic development and regional distribution of prostatic neuroendocrine cells.

    Aumüller, G; Leonhardt, M; Renneberg, H; von Rahden, B; Bjartell, A; Abrahamsson, P A

    2001-02-01

    The neuroendocrine cells of the human prostate have been related to proliferative disorders such as prostatic cancer. Their origin, distribution, and development have therefore been studied and discussed in terms of current stem cell concepts in the prostate. Prostatic tissue specimens (n = 20) from human fetuses (n = 8), prepubertal and pubertal children (n = 8) and mature men (n = 4) were studied immunohistochemically using antibodies directed against neuroendocrine, epithelial as well as secretory markers. Semiquantitative computer-assisted evaluation of different epithelial and stromal components based on stereological principles was performed on azan-stained sections representative of all developmental stages. By the end of gestational Week 9, neuroendocrine (NE) cells appear in the epithelium of the urogenital sinus and are subsequently closely associated with the formation of urethral prostatic buds. The fetal and postnatal distribution pattern of NE cells within the gland is characterized by a relatively constant number of cells per gland similar to prostatic smooth muscle cells. Likewise, a density gradient exists with the highest density in the large collicular ducts and almost no NE cells in subcapsular peripheral acini. In peripheral ducts, the distribution is random. Maturation of the NE cells precedes that of the secretory cells by about 10-16 years. A second prostatic stem cell lineage, different from the urogenital sinus (UGS)-lineage is hypothesized originating from immature neuroendocrine cells. Being morphologically indistinguishable from the UGS-derived prostatic secretory cell lineage, it gives rise to neuroendocrine cells. Their presence is apparently important for proliferation regulation of the UGS-derived lineage of the prostate. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Clinicopathological characteristics of head and neck Merkel cell carcinomas.

    Knopf, Andreas; Bas, Murat; Hofauer, Benedikt; Mansour, Naglaa; Stark, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    There are still controversies about the therapeutic strategies and subsequent outcome in head and neck Merkel cell carcinoma. Clinicopathological data of 23 Merkel cell carcinomas, 93 cutaneous head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs), 126 malignant melanomas, and 91 primary parotid gland carcinomas were comprehensively analyzed. Merkel cell carcinomas were cytokeratin 20 (CK20)/neuron-specific enolase (NSE)/chromogranin A (CgA)/synaptophysin (Syn)/thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1)/MIB1 immunostained. All Merkel cell carcinomas underwent wide local excision. Parotidectomy/neck dissection was performed in 40%/33% cutaneous Merkel cell carcinoma and 100%/100% in parotid gland Merkel cell carcinoma. Five-year recurrence-free interval (RFI)/overall survival (OS) was significantly higher in malignant melanoma (81/80%) than in cutaneous Merkel cell carcinoma/HNSCC. Interestingly, 5-year RFI/OS was significantly higher in Merkel cell carcinoma (61%/79%) than in HNSCC (33%/65%; p Merkel cell carcinoma and parotid gland carcinomas, nor in the immunohistochemical profile. Five-year RFI/OS was significantly better in cutaneous Merkel cell carcinoma when compared with TNM classification matched HNSCC. Five-year RFI/OS was comparable in parotid gland Merkel cell carcinoma and other primary parotid gland malignancies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 92-97, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Prostate specific antigen levels during and after external beam radiotherapy for localized carcinoma of the prostate: Predictor of therapeutic efficancy

    Rodrigus, P.; Landeghem, A.A.J. van

    1992-01-01

    For 105 patients with locoregional carcinoma of the prostate, prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels were evaluated before, during and after external beam radiotherapy. The median follow-up is 17 months. In 51 patients (48.5%) initial PSA levels exceeded the maximum normal value of 20 ng/ml. Nine patients kept non-declining high levels just after radiotherapy. Only one of these is free of disease. Assuming PSA levels decrease exponentially during radiotherapy, a mean half-life of 62 days (median 54, SD 26 days) was calculated. Three out of five patients with a PSA half-life of more than 88 days relapsed as compared to a 8% (3/37) relapse rate in patients with a 'normal' half-life. Prolonged PSA half-life suggests residual disease. PSA levels are expected to further decrease after radiation. Six months after irradiation persistent high PSA levels were found in 14/51 (27.5%) patients. Only four of them had no evidence of manifest disease. Important negative prognostic factors for disease control in our series were non-declining high levels of PSA, a PSA serum half-life exceeding 88 days and persistence of elevated PSA values longer than six months after treatment. In our opinion, PSA is a valuable marker in the follow-up of prostate cancer patients during and after radiotherapy. (orig.) [de

  1. Lineage relationship of prostate cancer cell types based on gene expression

    Ware Carol B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate tumor heterogeneity is a major factor in disease management. Heterogeneity could be due to multiple cancer cell types with distinct gene expression. Of clinical importance is the so-called cancer stem cell type. Cell type-specific transcriptomes are used to examine lineage relationship among cancer cell types and their expression similarity to normal cell types including stem/progenitor cells. Methods Transcriptomes were determined by Affymetrix DNA array analysis for the following cell types. Putative prostate progenitor cell populations were characterized and isolated by expression of the membrane transporter ABCG2. Stem cells were represented by embryonic stem and embryonal carcinoma cells. The cancer cell types were Gleason pattern 3 (glandular histomorphology and pattern 4 (aglandular sorted from primary tumors, cultured prostate cancer cell lines originally established from metastatic lesions, xenografts LuCaP 35 (adenocarcinoma phenotype and LuCaP 49 (neuroendocrine/small cell carcinoma grown in mice. No detectable gene expression differences were detected among serial passages of the LuCaP xenografts. Results Based on transcriptomes, the different cancer cell types could be clustered into a luminal-like grouping and a non-luminal-like (also not basal-like grouping. The non-luminal-like types showed expression more similar to that of stem/progenitor cells than the luminal-like types. However, none showed expression of stem cell genes known to maintain stemness. Conclusions Non-luminal-like types are all representatives of aggressive disease, and this could be attributed to the similarity in overall gene expression to stem and progenitor cell types.

  2. Collagen derived serum markers in carcinoma of the prostate

    Rudnicki, M; Jensen, L T; Iversen, P

    1995-01-01

    Three new collagen markers deriving from the collagenous matrix, e.g. carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP), carboxy-terminal pyridinoline cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), and aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) were used for the diagnose......, ICTP, and PICP did not differ between these two groups. In patients with metastatic prostatic cancer all five markers were increased compared to the level measured in patients with localized cancer (p

  3. ERG oncoprotein expression in prostate carcinoma patients of different ethnicities

    KELLY, GREGORY M.; KONG, YINK HEAY; DOBI, ALBERT; SRIVASTAVA, SHIV; SESTERHENN, ISABELL A.; PATHMANATHAN, RAJADURAI; TAN, HUI MENG; TAN, SHYH-HAN; CHEONG, SOK CHING

    2014-01-01

    Overexpression of the erythroblast transformation-specific-related gene (ERG) oncoprotein due to transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2)-ERG fusion, the most prevalent genomic alteration in prostate cancer (CaP), is more frequently observed among Caucasian patients compared to patients of African or Asian descent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the prevalence of ERG alterations in a multiethnic cohort of CaP patients. A total of 191 formalin-fixed para...

  4. Molecular Profiling of Intraductal Carcinoma of the Prostate

    2016-12-01

    months or 10% Supporting Agency: Department of the Army Name of Procuring Contracting/Grants Officer: Lymor Barnhard Address of Funding Agency: 820...Name of Procuring Contracting/Grants Officer: Romy Reis Address of Funding Agency: NIH 616 Executive Boulevard, Suite 7013, MSC 8347, Rockville, MD...T.L.L.), the NIH/NCI Prostate SPORE P50CA58236, and a generous gift from Mr David H. Koch (A.M.D.M.). The authors have disclosed that they have no sig

  5. Local control after brachytherapy for localized prostatic carcinomas

    Wachter, T.; Peneau, M.; Sabattier, R.; Breteau, N.

    1996-01-01

    From 1991 to 1995; 31 patients (mid-age: 70 years) underwent prostatic brachytherapy for localized prostate cancers using Iridium 192 transperineal percutaneous interstitial implantation guided by transrectal ultrasonography. Initial staging included among other evaluations a bilateral staging, iliac and obturator lymph nodes dissection. Classification according to stage was : T1b=16%, T1c=36%, T2a=19%, T2b=13%, T2c=13%, T3a=3%. All patients were N (-). Gleason score was 5 for 55%. 77% of the initial PSA was < 25μg/l. Follow-up included one clinical control and psa determination at 1-3-6-12 and 18 months, bone scanning at 12 months and prostate biopsy guided by transrectal ultrasonography at 18, 24, 30 months. Up to now, mean follow-up is 32 months. At one month, psa was normal (< 2,5μg/l) in 21% of the patients, at 12 months 60% and 67% two years after brachytherapy. Biopsies at 18 months were negative for 60% of the patients and 63% at 24 months. 3 patients were metastased after 3 years. 4 patients had severe complications with colostomy and/or urinary derivation. This technic seems to be interesting for localized prostate cancers T1 and T2 with initial psa < 25μg/l. Two third of the patients had normal psa and negative biopsies after 2 years. The rate of ano-rectal and urinary morbidity is high but is explained by the technic used at the beginning of this study

  6. EMMPRIN regulates cytoskeleton reorganization and cell adhesion in prostate cancer.

    Zhu, Haining; Zhao, Jun; Zhu, Beibei; Collazo, Joanne; Gal, Jozsef; Shi, Ping; Liu, Li; Ström, Anna-Lena; Lu, Xiaoning; McCann, Richard O; Toborek, Michal; Kyprianou, Natasha

    2012-01-01

    Proteins on cell surface play important roles during cancer progression and metastasis via their ability to mediate cell-to-cell interactions and navigate the communication between cells and the microenvironment. In this study a targeted proteomic analysis was conducted to identify the differential expression of cell surface proteins in human benign (BPH-1) versus malignant (LNCaP and PC-3) prostate epithelial cells. We identified EMMPRIN (extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer) as a key candidate and shRNA functional approaches were subsequently applied to determine the role of EMMPRIN in prostate cancer cell adhesion, migration, invasion as well as cytoskeleton organization. EMMPRIN was found to be highly expressed on the surface of prostate cancer cells compared to BPH-1 cells, consistent with a correlation between elevated EMMPRIN and metastasis found in other tumors. No significant changes in cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, or apoptosis were detected in EMMPRIN knockdown cells compared to the scramble controls. Furthermore, EMMPRIN silencing markedly decreased the ability of PC-3 cells to form filopodia, a critical feature of invasive behavior, while it increased expression of cell-cell adhesion and gap junction proteins. Our results suggest that EMMPRIN regulates cell adhesion, invasion, and cytoskeleton reorganization in prostate cancer cells. This study identifies a new function for EMMPRIN as a contributor to prostate cancer cell-cell communication and cytoskeleton changes towards metastatic spread, and suggests its potential value as a marker of prostate cancer progression to metastasis. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Efficient CT simulation of the four-field technique for conformal radiotherapy of prostate carcinoma

    Valicenti, Richard K.; Waterman, Frank M.; Croce, Raymond J.; Corn, Benjamin; Suntharalingam, Nagalingam; Curran, Walter J.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Conformal radiotherapy of prostate carcinoma relies on contouring of individual CT slices for target and normal tissue localization. This process can be very time consuming. In the present report, we describe a method to more efficiently localize pelvic anatomy directly from digital reconstructed radiographs (DRRs). Materials and Methods: Ten patients with prostate carcinoma underwent CT simulation (the spiral mode at 3 mm separation) for conformal four-field 'box' radiotherapy. The bulbous urethra and bladder were opacified with iodinated contrast media. On lateral and anteroposterior DRRs, the volume of interest (VOI) was restricted to 1.0-1.5 cm tissue thickness to optimize digital radiograph reconstruction of the prostate and seminal vesicles. By removing unessential voxel elements, this method provided direct visualization of those structures. For comparison, the targets of each patient were also obtained by contouring CT axial slices. Results: The method was successfully performed if the target structures were readily visualized and geometrically corresponded to those generated by contouring axial images. The targets in 9 of 10 patients were reliable representations of the CT-contoured volumes. One patient had 18 mm variation due to the lack of bladder opacification. Using VOIs to generate thin tissue DRRs, the time required for target and normal tissue localization was on the average less than 5 min. Conclusion: In CT simulation of the four-field irradiation technique for prostate carcinoma, thin-tissue DRRs allowed for efficient and accurate target localization without requiring individual axial image contouring. This method may facilitate positioning of the beam isocenter and provide reliable conformal radiotherapy

  8. Rare ADAR and RNASEH2B variants and a type I interferon signature in glioma and prostate carcinoma risk and tumorigenesis.

    Beyer, Ulrike; Brand, Frank; Martens, Helge; Weder, Julia; Christians, Arne; Elyan, Natalie; Hentschel, Bettina; Westphal, Manfred; Schackert, Gabriele; Pietsch, Torsten; Hong, Bujung; Krauss, Joachim K; Samii, Amir; Raab, Peter; Das, Anibh; Dumitru, Claudia A; Sandalcioglu, I Erol; Hakenberg, Oliver W; Erbersdobler, Andreas; Lehmann, Ulrich; Reifenberger, Guido; Weller, Michael; Reijns, Martin A M; Preller, Matthias; Wiese, Bettina; Hartmann, Christian; Weber, Ruthild G

    2017-12-01

    In search of novel germline alterations predisposing to tumors, in particular to gliomas, we studied a family with two brothers affected by anaplastic gliomas, and their father and paternal great-uncle diagnosed with prostate carcinoma. In this family, whole-exome sequencing yielded rare, simultaneously heterozygous variants in the Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) genes ADAR and RNASEH2B co-segregating with the tumor phenotype. AGS is a genetically induced inflammatory disease particularly of the brain, which has not been associated with a consistently increased cancer risk to date. By targeted sequencing, we identified novel ADAR and RNASEH2B variants, and a 3- to 17-fold frequency increase of the AGS mutations ADAR,c.577C>G;p.(P193A) and RNASEH2B,c.529G>A;p.(A177T) in the germline of familial glioma patients as well as in test and validation cohorts of glioblastomas and prostate carcinomas versus ethnicity-matched controls, whereby rare RNASEH2B variants were significantly more frequent in familial glioma patients. Tumors with ADAR or RNASEH2B variants recapitulated features of AGS, such as calcification and increased type I interferon expression. Patients carrying ADAR or RNASEH2B variants showed upregulation of interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) transcripts in peripheral blood as seen in AGS. An increased ISG expression was also induced by ADAR and RNASEH2B variants in tumor cells and was blocked by the JAK inhibitor Ruxolitinib. Our data implicate rare variants in the AGS genes ADAR and RNASEH2B and a type I interferon signature in glioma and prostate carcinoma risk and tumorigenesis, consistent with a genetic basis underlying inflammation-driven malignant transformation in glioma and prostate carcinoma development.

  9. Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Stomach.

    Hamzaoui, Lamine; Bouassida, Mahdi; Kilani, Houda; Medhioub, Mouna; Chelbi, Emna

    2015-11-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach is very rare. Its pathogenesis is unclear and the treatment strategy is controversial. We report an agressive primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach with liver and lung metastases in a 55-year-old man. The patient presented with a 1-month history of abdominal pain, vomiting and weight loss. Abdominal ultrasound revealed multiple liver metastases. Endoscopic examination showed two tumour masses on the fundus of the stomach. Biopsy of the lesions revealed squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach. Chest x-ray showed multiple large pulmonary nodules highly suggestive of pulmonary metastases. The patient died ten days after he was admitted because of progression of the tumour and before any therapeutic decision.

  10. Identification of Prognostic Biomarkers for Progression of Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    2017-10-09

    Carcinoma, Squamous Cell; Carcinoma, Squamous; Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Neoplasms; Cancer of Lung; Cancer of the Lung; Lung Cancer; Neoplasms, Lung; Neoplasms, Pulmonary; Pulmonary Cancer; Pulmonary Neoplasms

  11. Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Merkel cell carcinoma treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Get detailed information about the diagnosis and treatment of newly diagnosed and recurrent Merkel cell carcinoma in this summary for clinicians.

  12. Positron tomographic assessment of androgen receptors in prostatic carcinoma

    Dehdashti, Farrokh; Siegel, Barry A.; Welch, Michael J.; Picus, Joel; Michalski, Jeff M.; Dence, Carmen S.; Katzenellenbogen, John A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of androgen receptor (AR) imaging with 16β-[ 18 F]fluoro-5α-dihydrotestosterone (FDHT) by positron emission tomography (PET) and to assess the binding selectivity of FDHT to AR in patients with prostate cancer. Twenty men (age range 56-87 years) with advanced prostate cancer were studied. All except one had metastatic disease confirmed by biopsy and/or radiological studies. One patient who had radiological findings suggesting a single hepatic metastasis was found to have focal fatty infiltration on biopsy obtained after FDHT-PET and was excluded from further data analysis. FDHT uptake was assessed semiquantitatively by determination of the standardized uptake value (SUV) and tumor-to-muscle ratio (T/M). Additionally, to assess the AR binding selectivity of FDHT, patients with one or more foci of abnormally increased FDHT accumulation were studied after administration of an AR antagonist (flutamide). Conventional imaging demonstrated innumerable lesions in two patients and 43 lesions in the remaining 17 patients with advanced prostate cancer. FDHT-PET was positive in 12 of 19 patients (sensitivity of 63%), including the two patients with innumerable lesions. FDHT-PET detected 24 of 28 known lesions (86%) in the remaining ten patients. In addition, FDHT-PET detected 17 unsuspected lesions in five of these ten patients. All 12 patients with positive FDHT-PET underwent a repeat PET study after receiving flutamide for 1 day (250 mg t.i.d.). In all of these patients, there was a decrease in tumor FDHT uptake after flutamide; the mean (± standard deviation) SUV and T/M decreased from 7.0±4.7 and 6.9±3.9, respectively, to 3.0±1.5 and 3.0±1.6, respectively (p=0.002). The mean PSA in patients with positive FDHT-PET was significantly higher than that in patients with negative FDHT-PET (p=0.006). Our results document the feasibility of PET imaging of prostate cancer with FDHT and suggest that tumor uptake of FDHT

  13. Renal cell carcinoma presenting as mandibular metastasis

    Hassan Ahmadnia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal clear cell carcinoma (RCC has different manifestations, including uncommon metastasis and paraneoplastic syndromes. Here we report a rare case of RCC presenting as metastasis to the mandible. A 57-year-old patient with mandibular swelling was referred to the dentist. After necessary evaluations, an incisional biopsy of mandible showed metastatic RCC. The patient was referred to the urologist. The patient underwent right radical nephrectomy. Pathological examination showed clear renal cell carcinoma. Every abnormal bone lesion in the oral cavity should be evaluated carefully and the possibility of a malignant lesion should always be considered.

  14. Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Tattooed Eyebrow

    Lee, Jong-Sun; Park, Jin; Kim, Seong-Min; Kim, Han-Uk

    2009-01-01

    Malignant skin tumors, including squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, have occurred in tattoos. Seven documented cases of basal cell carcinoma associated with tattoos have also been reported in the medical literature. We encountered a patient with basal cell carcinoma in a tattooed eyebrow. We report on this case as the eighth reported case of a patient with basal cell carcinoma arising in a tattooed area. PMID:20523804

  15. Clear cell urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder: a case report and review of the literature.

    Knez, Virginia M; Barrow, Willis; Lucia, M Scott; Wilson, Shandra; La Rosa, Francisco G

    2014-08-14

    The occurrence of clear cell tumors in the bladder is not uncommon. Clear cell dysplasia is well-described and characterized by focal replacement of transitional mucosa by cells with abundant clear cytoplasm, nuclear enlargement, and a granular chromatin pattern. Clear cells can also be seen in clear cell adenocarcinoma, which is rare, comprising 0.5% to 2.0% of the reported bladder carcinomas. Other clear cell tumors found in the bladder to be considered in the differential diagnosis are tumors of Müllerian origin and metastatic lesions, such as renal cell carcinoma, clear cell sarcoma, and malignant melanoma. Clear cell urothelial carcinoma is exceedingly rare, with only nine clinical cases described in the literature. We report the case of a 75-year-old Caucasian man who presented with intermittent hematuria, in whom a bladder tumor was identified. A final histopathology examination of a cystoprostatectomy specimen revealed a pT3b, G3 urothelial carcinoma of clear cell type (>90% clear cells) and a prostatic adenocarcinoma of Gleason grade 3+3 (score=6). The bladder tumor consisted of sheets of malignant cells with severe nuclear atypia and abundant clear cytoplasm; no glandular or tubular structures were identified. Tumor cells were periodic acid-Schiff positive and negative after diastase treatment; additional mucicarmine and oil red O stains were negative. Immunohistochemical stains showed the tumor cells positive for cytokeratin 7 (CK7), p63 (>80% nuclei), p53 (about 30% nuclei), vimentin, E-cadherin, cluster of differentiation (CD10), and Ki-67 (>70% nuclei). Stains for cell adhesion molecule 5.2 (CAM 5.2), CD117, cytokeratin 20 (CK20), human melanoma black 45 (HMB-45), paired box protein (PAX 8), placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), prostate specific antigen (PSA), renal cell carcinoma (RCC), cancer antigen 25 (CA25), leukocyte common antigen (LC), S-100 protein, and uroplakin III were all negative. The tumor marker profile was consistent with clear

  16. Neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate cancer cells

    Souček, Karel; Pernicová, Zuzana; Lincová, Eva; Staršíchová, Andrea; Kozubík, Alois

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 5 (2008), s. 393 ISSN 0009-2770. [Mezioborové setkání mladých biologů, biochemiků a chemiků. Konference Sigma-Aldrich /8./. 10.06.2008-13.06.2008, Devět skal - Žďárské vrchy] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/07/0834; GA ČR(CZ) GA310/07/0961 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : neuroendocrine differentiation * prostate cancer * neuroendocrine-like cells Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  17. Asymptomatic renal cell carcinoma incidentally detected by abdominal CT

    Yoneda, Fumio; Miyake, Noriaki; Tsujimura, Haruhiro; Nakajima, Mikio; Akiyama, Hajime

    1987-01-01

    Four cases of renal cell carcinoma that were incidentally detected by abdominal CT are reported. Abdominal CT was performed during gastro-intestinal examination in two patients and for suspected liver disease in the other two. No patient had symptoms of renal cell carcinoma, or hematuria. In all cases, the histopathological diagnosis was renal cell carcinoma of a low stage. (author)

  18. Histologic Mimics of Basal Cell Carcinoma.

    Stanoszek, Lauren M; Wang, Grace Y; Harms, Paul W

    2017-11-01

    - Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common human malignant neoplasm and is a frequently encountered diagnosis in dermatopathology. Although BCC may be locally destructive, it rarely metastasizes. Many diagnostic entities display morphologic and immunophenotypic overlap with BCC, including nonneoplastic processes, such as follicular induction over dermatofibroma; benign follicular tumors, such as trichoblastoma, trichoepithelioma, or basaloid follicular hamartoma; and malignant tumors, such as sebaceous carcinoma or Merkel cell carcinoma. Thus, misdiagnosis has significant potential to result in overtreatment or undertreatment. - To review key features distinguishing BCC from histologic mimics, including current evidence regarding immunohistochemical markers useful for that distinction. - Review of pertinent literature on BCC immunohistochemistry and differential diagnosis. - In most cases, BCC can be reliably diagnosed by histopathologic features. Immunohistochemistry may provide useful ancillary data in certain cases. Awareness of potential mimics is critical to avoid misdiagnosis and resulting inappropriate management.

  19. Biochemical characterization of nuclear receptors for vitamin D3 and glucocorticoids in prostate stroma cell microenvironment

    Hidalgo, Alejandro A.; Montecinos, Viviana P.; Paredes, Roberto; Godoy, Alejandro S.; McNerney, Eileen M.; Tovar, Heribelt; Pantoja, Diego; Johnson, Candace; Trump, Donald; Onate, Sergio A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Fibroblasts from benign and carcinoma-associated stroma were biochemically characterized for VDR and GR function as transcription factors in prostate stroma cell microenvironment. → Decreased SRC-1/CBP coactivators recruitment to VDR and GR may result in hormone resistance to 1,25D 3 in stromal cell microenvironment prostate cancer. → 1a,25-Dyhidroxyvitamin D 3 (1,25D 3 ) and glucocorticoids, either alone or in combination, may not be an alternative for 'some' advanced prostate cancers that fails androgen therapies. -- Abstract: The disruption of stromal cell signals in prostate tissue microenvironment influences the development of prostate cancer to androgen independence. 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (1,25D 3 ) and glucocorticoids, either alone or in combination, have been investigated as alternatives for the treatment of advanced prostate cancers that fails androgen therapies. The effects of glucocorticoids are mediated by the intracellular glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Similarly, the effect of 1,25D 3 is mediated by the 1,25D 3 nuclear receptor (VDR). In this study, fibroblasts from benign- (BAS) and carcinoma-associated stroma (CAS) were isolated from human prostates to characterize VDR and GR function as transcription factors in prostate stroma. The VDR-mediated transcriptional activity assessed using the CYP24-luciferase reporter was limited to 3-fold induction by 1,25D 3 in 9 out of 13 CAS (70%), as compared to >10-fold induction in the BAS clinical sample pair. Expression of His-tagged VDR (Ad-his-VDR) failed to recover the low transcriptional activity of the luciferase reporter in 7 out of 9 CAS. Interestingly, expression of Ad-his-VDR successfully recovered receptor-mediated induction in 2 out of the 9 CAS analyzed, suggesting that changes in the receptor protein itself was responsible for decreased response and resistance to 1,25D 3 action. Conversely, VDR-mediated transcriptional activity was more efficient in 4 out of 13 CAS (30

  20. Clinical presentation of renal cell carcinoma

    Rehman, R.A.; Ashraf, S.; Jamil, N.

    2015-01-01

    Most common malignant tumour of the kidney is Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) and is known for its unpredictable clinical behaviour. Aetiology and risk factors are not completely understood. Extensive workup is being done in the understanding of the disease, especially to diagnose early and to treat promptly. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical presentation and pathological pattern of RCC. Methods: After approval from ethical committee a retrospective review of records was conducted extending from January 2012 to January 2014 to identify clinical characteristics of renal cell carcinomas. The study included all renal cancer patients presented to Sheikh Zayed Hospital Lahore with in this specified period. The data was retrieved regarding, history, physical examination and necessary investigations such as ultrasonography of abdomen and pelvis and CT scan of abdomen and pelvis. Results: There were total of 50 cases. The male to female ratio was 3:2. Mean age of patients were 52.38 (18-93) years old. Most common clinical presentation was gross haematuria(66%).The mean tumour size was 8.34 (3-24) cm. Tumour histology were clear cell (84%), papillary transitional cell carcinoma (12%) and oncosytoma contributed 4%. Conclusion: We observed that large number of the patients with RCC presented with haematuria and most of them were male. Common pathological type was clear cell carcinoma. (author)

  1. File list: DNS.Prs.10.AllAg.Prostate_cancer_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available DNS.Prs.10.AllAg.Prostate_cancer_cells hg19 DNase-seq Prostate Prostate cancer cell...s http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Prs.10.AllAg.Prostate_cancer_cells.bed ...

  2. File list: DNS.Prs.05.AllAg.Prostate_cancer_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available DNS.Prs.05.AllAg.Prostate_cancer_cells hg19 DNase-seq Prostate Prostate cancer cell...s http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Prs.05.AllAg.Prostate_cancer_cells.bed ...

  3. File list: DNS.Prs.20.AllAg.Prostate_cancer_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available DNS.Prs.20.AllAg.Prostate_cancer_cells hg19 DNase-seq Prostate Prostate cancer cell...s http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Prs.20.AllAg.Prostate_cancer_cells.bed ...

  4. Novel Technology for Cloning Prostate Cancer Cell Markers

    Bancroft, F

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the project is to employ probes isolated from the LNCaP series of human prostate cancer cells, to probe human cDNA microarrays, so as to investigate genes differentially expressed among these cell lines...

  5. External beam radiotherapy for carcinoma of the prostate

    Sagerman, R.H.; Chun, H.C.; King, G.A.; Chung, C.T.; Dalal, P.S.

    1989-01-01

    Five hundred nineteen patients with prostate cancer were seen in the Radiation Oncology Division of the State University of New York (SUNY) Health Science Center, Syracuse, New York, between 1969 and 1981. The results for the 239 patients treated with radical intent are reported here. All patients received 60 to 70 Gy to the prostate with megavoltage beam irradiation; 142 with a small field (10 X 10 cm) 360 degrees rotational technique for Stage A, B, or C disease and 69 with a four-field pelvic brick technique (followed by a boost to the prostate) for Stage A through C and D1 disease. Twenty-eight patients were treated postoperatively for residual disease after radical prostatectomy or for recurrent tumor. The minimum follow-up time was 5 years. Actuarial 5-year and 7-year survival rates for Stage A (n = 34), B (n = 100), C (n = 63), and D1 (n = 14) were 91% and 76%, 86% and 75%, 67% and 40%, and 46% and 36%, respectively. The corresponding 5-year and 7-year relapse-free survival rates were 72% and 65%, 77% and 60%, 46% and 28%, and 38% and 25%. The local tumor control rates at 5 years were 91%, 85%, 77%, and 62% for Stage A, B, C, and D1, respectively. In our experience, there was no significant difference in relapse-free survival rates for patients who underwent transurethral resection (TURP) versus those who did not (67% versus 78% for Stage B [P greater than 0.25] and 38% versus 47% for Stage C [P greater than 0.25], respectively). Also there was no significant difference in relapse-free survival rates between large and small field techniques (64% versus 77% for Stage B [P greater than 0.25] and 56% versus 41% for Stage C [P greater than 0.25], respectively). The 5-year and 7-year actuarial survival rates were 90% and 71%, respectively, for the 15 patients with residual tumor and 58% and 33%, respectively, for the 13 patients treated for postprostatectomy recurrence

  6. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Pancreas: A Review.

    Cheng, Shaun Kian Hong; Chuah, Khoon Leong

    2016-06-01

    The pancreas is an unusual site for tumor metastasis, accounting for only 2% to 5% of all malignancies affecting the pancreas. The more common metastases affecting the pancreas include renal cell carcinomas, melanomas, colorectal carcinomas, breast carcinomas, and sarcomas. Although pancreatic involvement by nonrenal malignancies indicates widespread systemic disease, metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the pancreas often represents an isolated event and is thus amenable to surgical resection, which is associated with long-term survival. As such, it is important to accurately diagnose pancreatic involvement by metastatic renal cell carcinoma on histology, especially given that renal cell carcinoma metastasis may manifest more than a decade after its initial presentation and diagnosis. In this review, we discuss the clinicopathologic findings of isolated renal cell carcinoma metastases of the pancreas, with special emphasis on separating metastatic renal cell carcinoma and its various differential diagnoses in the pancreas.

  7. Characterizing components of the Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE) on prostate cancer cell growth and traction

    Scholtysek, Carina; Krukiewicz, Aleksandra A.; Alonso, Jose-Luis; Sharma, Karan P.; Sharma, Pal C.; Goldmann, Wolfgang H.

    2009-01-01

    Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE) is applied for prostate health and treatment of urinary tract infections, nonbacterial prostitis and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) in man. An assumption is that SPBE affects tumor cell progression and migration in breast and prostate tissue. In this work, DU-145 cells were used to demonstrate that SPBE and its sterol components, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol, inhibit prostate cancer growth by increasing p53 protein expression and also inhibit carcinoma development by decreasing p21 and p27 protein expression. In the presence of cholesterol, these features are not only reversed but increased significantly. The results show for the first time the potential of SPBE, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol as potential anti-tumor agents. Since the protein p53 is also regarded as nuclear matrix protein facilitating actin cytoskeletal binding, 2D tractions were measured. The cell adhesion strength in the presence of SPBE, β-sitosterol and cholesterol and the observation was that the increase in p53 expression triggered an increase in the intracellular force generation. The results suggest a dual function of p53 in cells.

  8. Characterizing components of the Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE) on prostate cancer cell growth and traction.

    Scholtysek, Carina; Krukiewicz, Aleksandra A; Alonso, José-Luis; Sharma, Karan P; Sharma, Pal C; Goldmann, Wolfgang H

    2009-02-13

    Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE) is applied for prostate health and treatment of urinary tract infections, nonbacterial prostitis and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) in man. An assumption is that SPBE affects tumor cell progression and migration in breast and prostate tissue. In this work, DU-145 cells were used to demonstrate that SPBE and its sterol components, beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol, inhibit prostate cancer growth by increasing p53 protein expression and also inhibit carcinoma development by decreasing p21 and p27 protein expression. In the presence of cholesterol, these features are not only reversed but increased significantly. The results show for the first time the potential of SPBE, beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol as potential anti-tumor agents. Since the protein p53 is also regarded as nuclear matrix protein facilitating actin cytoskeletal binding, 2D tractions were measured. The cell adhesion strength in the presence of SPBE, beta-sitosterol and cholesterol and the observation was that the increase in p53 expression triggered an increase in the intracellular force generation. The results suggest a dual function of p53 in cells.

  9. Lowering T Cell Activation Thresholds and Deregulating Homeostasis to Facilitate Immunotherapeutic Responses to Treat Prostate Cancer

    Kwon, Eugene D

    2006-01-01

    ... to develop immune-based therapies for prostate cancer Hence, relatively straightforward manipulations that induce specific T cell responses against prostate tumors or epithelial tissues, especially...

  10. Radiation protection in brachytherapic treatment of prostatic carcinoma

    Mannino, G.; Bona, R.; Occhipinti, A. [Catania Univ. Hospital, ' Vittorio Emanuele, Ferrarotto e Santo Bambino' (Italy); Testagrossa, B.; Vermiglio, G.; Tripepi, M.G. [Messina Univ., Dept. of Protezionistica Ambientale, Sanitaria, Sociale ed Industriale (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate absorbed doses for medical staff and general public deriving from prostate brachytherapy with I-125 seeds. Methods And Materials: Radiation exposure measurements were made for staff and on a subset of 64 patients of the 100 trans perineal I-125 implanted seeds implants at the Vittorio Emanuele, Ferrarotto e Santo Bambino Universitary Hospital. Results: Absorbed doses for operators are very low when using radiation safety devices. The exposure rate at the anterior skin surface due to I-125 implanted seeds ranged from 32 to 120 {mu}Sv/hour. Conclusions: The evaluation of dose measurements shows that radiation risk associated to this practice is very low, both for staff that for critical group of population, if they follow the specific radioprotection statements supplied by health physicists. (authors)

  11. Radiation protection in brachytherapic treatment of prostatic carcinoma

    Mannino, G.; Bona, R.; Occhipinti, A.; Testagrossa, B.; Vermiglio, G.; Tripepi, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate absorbed doses for medical staff and general public deriving from prostate brachytherapy with I-125 seeds. Methods And Materials: Radiation exposure measurements were made for staff and on a subset of 64 patients of the 100 trans perineal I-125 implanted seeds implants at the Vittorio Emanuele, Ferrarotto e Santo Bambino Universitary Hospital. Results: Absorbed doses for operators are very low when using radiation safety devices. The exposure rate at the anterior skin surface due to I-125 implanted seeds ranged from 32 to 120 μSv/hour. Conclusions: The evaluation of dose measurements shows that radiation risk associated to this practice is very low, both for staff that for critical group of population, if they follow the specific radioprotection statements supplied by health physicists. (authors)

  12. ERG oncoprotein expression in prostate carcinoma patients of different ethnicities.

    Kelly, Gregory M; Kong, Yink Heay; Dobi, Albert; Srivastava, Shiv; Sesterhenn, Isabell A; Pathmanathan, Rajadurai; Tan, Hui Meng; Tan, Shyh-Han; Cheong, Sok Ching

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of the erythroblast transformation-specific-related gene (ERG) oncoprotein due to transmembrane protease, serine 2 ( TMPRSS2 ) -ERG fusion, the most prevalent genomic alteration in prostate cancer (CaP), is more frequently observed among Caucasian patients compared to patients of African or Asian descent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the prevalence of ERG alterations in a multiethnic cohort of CaP patients. A total of 191 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections of transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy specimens, collected from 120 patients treated at the Sime Darby Medical Centre, Subang Jaya, Malaysia, were analyzed for ERG protein expression by immunohistochemistry using the anti-ERG monoclonal antibody 9FY as a surrogate for the detection of ERG fusion events. The overall frequency of ERG protein expression in the population evaluated in this study was 39.2%. Although seemingly similar to rates reported in other Asian communities, the expression of ERG was distinct amongst different ethnic groups (P=0.004). Malaysian Indian (MI) patients exhibited exceedingly high expression of ERG in their tumors, almost doubling that of Malaysian Chinese (MC) patients, whereas ERG expression was very low amongst Malay patients (12.5%). When collectively analyzing data, we observed a significant correlation between younger patients and higher ERG expression (P=0.04). The prevalence of ERG expression was significantly different amongst CaP patients of different ethnicities. The higher number of ERG-expressing tumors among MI patients suggested that the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion may be particularly important in the pathogenesis of CaP amongst this group of patients. Furthermore, the more frequent expression of ERG among the younger patients analyzed suggested an involvement of ERG in the early onset of CaP. The results of this study underline the value of using ERG status to better understand the differences in the

  13. Sexual function disorders after local radiotherapy for carcinoma of the prostate

    Van Heeringen, C.; Verbeek, E.; De Schryver, A.

    1988-01-01

    In order to contribute some insight into the extent to which local radiotherapy for carcinoma of the prostate is followed by disorders in sexual functioning, 18 patients whose age ranged from 60 to 82, were interviewed 4 to 45 months after their Radiotherapy (RT). Our results confirmed the fact that RT was followed by impotence as such in only a minority of cases (3 out of 12 or 0.25). However, when other aspects of sexuality were taken into account, a higher proportion appeared to have problems. In a substantial number of patients, psychogenic factors seemed to be (at least partly) responsible. More attention to these facts and, when necessary, psychiatric assistance, may help reduce the incidence of sexual disorders following RT to the prostate

  14. Dural metastases from prostate carcinoma: A systematic review of the literature apropos of six patients

    Vasconcelos Sobreira Guedes, Bruno de; Rocha, Antonio Jose da; Pereira Pinto Gama, Hugo; Silva, Carlos Jorge da

    2011-01-01

    Intracranial metastases are a rare manifestation of prostate carcinoma and the dura mater is the most affected site. We report a series of six patients with dural prostate metastases (DPM) and perform a systematic review of the current literature in order to depict imaging trademarks of this condition. This review points to a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pattern of meningeal involvement characterized by a diffuse smooth thickening, nodular appearance or dural-based masses. We also demonstrate an osteoblastic pattern of lesions, particularly in sphenoid wing, by computed tomography (CT) scans. We suggest that these imaging findings may support an elevated index of suspicion of DPM in elderly men, including those patients without urologic symptoms.

  15. Optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma

    Yücel, D.; Themstrup, L.; Manfredi, Maddalena

    2016-01-01

    Background: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most prevalent malignancy in Caucasians. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive optical imaging technology using the principle of interferometry. OCT has shown a great potential in diagnosing, monitoring, and follow-up of BCC. So far most...

  16. Neglected giant scalp Basal cell carcinoma

    Larsen, Anne Kristine; El-Charnoubi, Waseem-Asim Ghulam; Gehl, Julie

    2014-01-01

    control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence...

  17. Basal Cell Carcinoma: 10 Years of Experience

    Cigna, E.; Tarallo, M.; Maruccia, M.; Sorvillo, V.; Pollastrini, A.; Scuderi, N.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a locally invasive malignant epidermal tumour. Incidence is increasing by 10% per year; incidence of metastases is minimal, but relapses are frequent (40%-50%). The complete excision of the BCC allows reduction of relapse. Materials and Methods. The study cohort consists of 1123 patients underwent surgery for basal cell carcinoma between 1999 and 2009. Patient and tumor characteristics recorded are: age; gender; localization (head and neck, trunk, and upper and lower extremities), tumor size, excisional margins adopted, and relapses. Results. The study considered a group of 1123 patients affected by basal cell carcinoma. Relapses occurred in 30 cases (2,67%), 27 out of 30 relapses occurred in noble areas, where peripheral margin was <3mm. Incompletely excised basal cell carcinoma occurred in 21 patients (1,87%) and were treated with an additional excision. Discussion. Although guidelines indicate 3mm peripheral margin of excision in BCC <2cm, in our experience, a margin of less than 5mm results in a high risk of incomplete excisions

  18. Granuloma Inguinale Simulating Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    M Z Mani

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of extensive granuloma inguinale simulating squamous cell carcinoma is described. There was past history of urethritis leading to a urethral fistula. The ulcer healed almost completely within 19 days of receiving streptomycin injections. The patient had associated scabies and presumably also had latent syphillis (His VDRL was reactive in 1:8 dilution. The patient belonged to Madhya Pradesh.

  19. Basal cell carcinoma on the left cheek

    Jancar, B.

    2007-01-01

    A 91-year-old female patient was treated with irradiation for histologically confirmed basal cell carcinoma on the left cheek. The tumour, measuring 3 x 3 cm, with the depth of 2 cm, was extending up to the lower lid of the left eye. (author)

  20. Merkel cell carcinoma of the abdominal wall

    Dunlop, P.; Sapp, H.; Walsh, N.M.G.; Logan, P.M.

    1998-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare highly malignant tumour. There have been previous descriptions of the CT appearances of this tumour, but to our knowledge this is the first MRI description. MRI may be a more sensitive method of initial evaluation of the local extension of the primary tumour. (orig.)

  1. Vulvar basal cell carcinoma, a rare location

    Cornelia Nitipir

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Basal Cell Carcinoma is the most common human malignant neoplasm. Vulvar basal cell carcinoma is rare, accounting for less than 5% of all vulvar neoplasms. Vulvar basal cell carcinomas are usually diagnosed late because they are often asymptomatic and tend to grow at slow rates. They are usually diagnosed late because they are often asymptomatic. However, these tumours may appear in areas which are normally covered with ultraviolet light. We present the case of a 60 years old woman diagnosed with invasive breast cancer for which she underwent surgery followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The patient presented to our department with an ulcerated vulvar lesion. On inspection, the tumour measured 3/2 cm and was located on the left labium majus. The biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of vulvar basal cell carcinoma and a wide local excision was performed with no relapse at one year. In conclusion, early detection of BCC’s is critical to allow complete surgical cure so any abnormality on the vulva should be biopsied. A wide safety margin of 1cm should be achieved when resecting the tumour and the physician should keep in mind that the BCC’s of the vulva has a high recurrence rate. Previous chemotherapy is not associated with this type of non-melanoma skin cancer.

  2. Cardiac Metastasis in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    abp

    2015-10-21

    Oct 21, 2015 ... Metastatic disease of the heart is over twenty times more common than primary heart tumors [1]. They are among the least known and highly debated issues in oncology, and few systematic studies are devoted to this topic. Cardiac involvement in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) commonly arises from direct ...

  3. Squamous cell carcinoma in bladder extrophy

    Cabral-Ribeiro, J; Silva, C; Sousa, L; Pérez García, D; Ribeiro dos Santos, A

    2005-01-01

    Bladder extrophy is a rare congenital malformation that nowadays is surgically corrected in neonatal period. We present a case report of a 71-year-old male with a verrucous squamous cell carcinoma arising in a classical uncorrected form of bladder extrophy.

  4. Presumed choroidal metastasis of Merkel cell carcinoma

    Small, K.W.; Rosenwasser, G.O.; Alexander, E. III; Rossitch, G.; Dutton, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare skin tumor of neural crest origin and is part of the amine precursor uptake and decarboxylase system. It typically occurs on the face of elderly people. Distant metastasis is almost uniformly fatal. Choroidal metastasis, to our knowledge, has not been described. We report a patient with Merkel cell carcinoma who had a synchronous solid choroidal tumor and a biopsy-proven brain metastasis. Our 56-year-old patient presented with a rapidly growing, violaceous preauricular skin tumor. Computed tomography of the head disclosed incidental brain and choroidal tumors. Light and electron microscopy of biopsy specimens of both the skin and the brain lesions showed Merkel cell carcinoma. Ophthalmoscopy, fluorescein angiography, and A and B echography revealed a solid choroidal mass. The brain and skin tumors responded well to irradiation. A radioactive episcleral plaque was applied subsequently to the choroidal tumor. All tumors regressed, and the patient was doing well 28 months later. To our knowledge this is the first case of presumed choroidal metastasis of Merkel cell carcinoma

  5. Merkel cells carcinoma of the aged patient

    Levy, A.; Assouline, A.; Mazeron, J.J.; Chargari, C.; Krzisch, C.

    2009-01-01

    The carcinoma at Merkel cells is a rare and aggressive skin cancer, principally of the aged adult. The surgery is the fundamental treatment. The interest of the adjuvant radiotherapy is discussed for the aged patient. In the limits of this retrospective analysis, the postoperative radiotherapy appeared to bring a similar benefit as for younger patients. (N.C.)

  6. Prostate stromal cells express the progesterone receptor to control cancer cell mobility.

    Yu, Yue; Lee, Jennifer Suehyun; Xie, Ning; Li, Estelle; Hurtado-Coll, Antonio; Fazli, Ladan; Cox, Michael; Plymate, Stephen; Gleave, Martin; Dong, Xuesen

    2014-01-01

    Reciprocal interactions between epithelium and stroma play vital roles for prostate cancer development and progression. Enhanced secretions of cytokines and growth factors by cancer associated fibroblasts in prostate tumors create a favorable microenvironment for cancer cells to grow and metastasize. Our previous work showed that the progesterone receptor (PR) was expressed specifically in prostate stromal fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells. However, the expression levels of PR and its impact to tumor microenvironment in prostate tumors are poorly understood. Immunohistochemistry assays are applied to human prostate tissue biopsies. Cell migration, invasion and proliferation assays are performed using human prostate cells. Real-time PCR and ELISA are applied to measure gene expression at molecular levels. Immunohistochemistry assays showed that PR protein levels were decreased in cancer associated stroma when compared with paired normal prostate stroma. Using in vitro prostate stromal cell models, we showed that conditioned media collected from PR positive stromal cells inhibited prostate cancer cell migration and invasion, but had minor suppressive impacts on cancer cell proliferation. PR suppressed the secretion of stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and interlukin-6 (IL-6) by stromal cells independent to PR ligands. Blocking PR expression by siRNA or supplementation of exogenous SDF-1 or IL-6 to conditioned media from PR positive stromal cells counteracted the inhibitory effects of PR to cancer cell migration and invasion. Decreased expression of the PR in cancer associated stroma may contribute to the elevated SDF-1 and IL-6 levels in prostate tumors and enhance prostate tumor progression.

  7. CT differentiation of renal tumor invading parenchyma and pelvis: renal cell carcinoma vs transitional cell carcinoma

    Lee, Chang Hee; Cho, Seong Beum; Park, Cheol Min; Cha, In Ho; Chung, Kyoo Byung

    1994-01-01

    The differentiation between renal cell carcinoma(RCC) and transitional cell carcinoma(TCC) is important due to the different methods of treatment and prognosis. But occasionally it is difficult to draw a distinction between the two diseases when renal parenchyma and renal collecting systems are invaded simultaneously. We reviewed CT scans of 37 cases of renal cell carcinoma and 12 cases of transitional cell carcinoma which showed involvement of renal parenchyma and renal sinus fat on CT. Retrospective analysis was performed by 3 abdominal radiologists. Check points were renal contour bulging or reinform shape, location of mass center, intact parenchyma overlying the tumor, cystic change, calcification, LN metastasis, vessel invasion, and perirenal extention. There were renal contour bulging due to the tumor mass in 33 out of 37 cases of renal cell carcinoma, where a and nine of 12 cases of transitional cell carcinoma maintained the reinform appearance. This is significant statiscal difference between the two(P<0.005). Center of all TCCs were located in the renal sinus, and 24 out of 35 cases of RCC were located in the cortex(P<0.005). Thirty-six out of 37 cases of RCC lost the overlying parenchyma, where as 4 out of 9 cases of well enhanced TCC had intact overlying parenchyma(P<0.005) RCC showed uptic change within the tumor mags in 31 cases which was significanity higher than the 4 cases in TCC(P<0.05). CT findings of renal cell carcinoma are contour bulging, peripheral location, obliteration of parenchyma, and cystic change. Findings of transitional cell carcinoma are reinform appearance, central location within the kidney, intact overlying parenchyma, and rare cystic change

  8. Serum prostate-specific antigen in monitoring the response of carcinoma of the prostate to radiation therapy

    Fijuth, J; Chauvet, B; Vincent, P; Felix-Faure, C; Reboul, F [Clinique Saint-Catherine, Avignon (France)

    1992-04-01

    In order to assess value of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in the monitoring of patients with localized prostatic carcinoma undergoing radical radiation therapy, 146 previously untreated patients were studied. To the prostate 60-70 Gy were administered over 8-9 weeks. Median follow-up was 28 every 3 months during 1st year and every 6 months after. Pre-treatment PSA values exceeded 10 ng/ml in 62%. Initial PSA values were correlated with tumor size and Gleason score. PSA levels decreased 6 months after completion of radiation therapy, compared to initial value in 88.3%. It had fallen to 10 ng/ml or less in 59% with initial abnormal PSA levels. Patients whose initial PSA exceeded 50 ng/ml attained levels of 10 ng/ml or less in only 19%. Only 3/55 with both initial and 6-month PSA values of about 10 ng/ml developed metastases. Of 91 patients with initial PSA values over 10 ng/ml 54 had a 6-month PSA level of 10 ng/ml or less, and only 4/54 relapsed. By contrast, 13/37 patients with a 6-month PSA level persistently above 10 ng/ml relapsed. The 3-year relapse-free survival is 85.1% for 6-month PSA level of about 10 ng/ml, and 50.2% for patients with persistently elevated PSA values. The pattern of decline of PSA level was also analyzed: 11/22 patients with initial PSA>10 ng/ml and relative difference between an initial and a 6-month PSA value of less than 50%, developed metastases. By contrast, when relative difference was greater than 50%, only 6/69 belonging to this group had local recurrence or developed metastases. The 3-year relapse-free survival rate was significantly superior in latter group.

  9. β-catenin is required for prostate development and cooperates with Pten loss to drive invasive carcinoma.

    Jeffrey C Francis

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is a major cause of male death in the Western world, but few frequent genetic alterations that drive prostate cancer initiation and progression have been identified. β-Catenin is essential for many developmental processes and has been implicated in tumorigenesis in many tissues, including prostate cancer. However, expression studies on human prostate cancer samples are unclear on the role this protein plays in this disease. We have used in vivo genetic studies in the embryo and adult to extend our understanding of the role of β-Catenin in the normal and neoplastic prostate. Our gene deletion analysis revealed that prostate epithelial β-Catenin is required for embryonic prostate growth and branching but is dispensable in the normal adult organ. During development, β-Catenin controls the number of progenitors in the epithelial buds and regulates a discrete network of genes, including c-Myc and Nkx3.1. Deletion of β-Catenin in a Pten deleted model of castration-resistant prostate cancer demonstrated it is dispensable for disease progression in this setting. Complementary overexpression experiments, through in vivo protein stabilization, showed that β-Catenin promotes the formation of squamous epithelia during prostate development, even in the absence of androgens. β-Catenin overexpression in combination with Pten loss was able to drive progression to invasive carcinoma together with squamous metaplasia. These studies demonstrate that β-Catenin is essential for prostate development and that an inherent property of high levels of this protein in prostate epithelia is to drive squamous fate differentiation. In addition, they show that β-Catenin overexpression can promote invasive prostate cancer in a clinically relevant model of this disease. These data provide novel information on cancer progression pathways that give rise to lethal prostate disease in humans.

  10. Androgen deprivation therapy and fracture risk in Chinese patients with prostate carcinoma.

    Chi-Ho Lee

    Full Text Available Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT increases fracture risk in men with carcinoma of the prostate, but little is known about the fracture risk for different types of ADT. We studied the fracture risk amongst Chinese patients with carcinoma of the prostate prescribed different ADT regimens.This was a single-centered observational study that involved 741 patients with carcinoma of the prostate from January 2001 to December 2011.After a median follow-up of 5 years, 71.7% of the study cohort received ADT and the incidence rate of fracture was 8.1%. Multivariable Cox regression analysis revealed that use of ADT was significantly associated with risk of incident fracture (Hazard Ratio [HR] 3.60; 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 1.41-9.23; p = 0.008, together with aged >75 years and type 2 diabetes. Compared with no ADT, all three types of ADT were independently associated with the risk of incident fracture: anti-androgen monotherapy (HR 4.47; 95% CI 1.47-13.7; p = 0.009, bilateral orchiectomy ± anti-androgens (HR 4.01; 95% CI 1.46-11.1; p = 0.007 and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists ± anti-androgens (HR 3.16; 95% CI 1.18-8.43; p = 0.022. However, there was no significant difference in the relative risks among the three types of ADT.Fracture risk increases among all types of ADT. Clinicians should take into account the risk-benefit ratio when prescribing ADT, especially in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes.

  11. Pathophysiology and Natural History of Anorectal Sequelae Following Radiation Therapy for Carcinoma of the Prostate

    Yeoh, Eric K.; Holloway, Richard H.; Fraser, Robert J.; Botten, Rochelle J.; Di Matteo, Addolorata C.; Butters, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize the prevalence, pathophysiology, and natural history of chronic radiation proctitis 5 years following radiation therapy (RT) for localized carcinoma of the prostate. Methods and Materials: Studies were performed in 34 patients (median age 68 years; range 54-79) previously randomly assigned to either 64 Gy in 32 fractions over 6.4 weeks or 55 Gy in 20 fractions over 4 weeks RT schedule using 2- and later 3-dimensional treatment technique for localized prostate carcinoma. Each patient underwent evaluations of (1) gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms (Modified Late Effects in Normal Tissues Subjective, Objective, Management and Analytic scales including effect on activities of daily living [ADLs]); (2) anorectal motor and sensory function (manometry and graded balloon distension); and (3) anal sphincteric morphology (endoanal ultrasound) before RT, at 1 month, and annually for 5 years after its completion. Results: Total GI symptom scores increased after RT and remained above baseline levels at 5 years and were associated with reductions in (1) basal anal pressures, (2) responses to squeeze and increased intra-abdominal pressure, (3) rectal compliance and (4) rectal volumes of sensory perception. Anal sphincter morphology was unchanged. At 5 years, 44% and 21% of patients reported urgency of defecation and rectal bleeding, respectively, and 48% impairment of ADLs. GI symptom scores and parameters of anorectal function and anal sphincter morphology did not differ between the 2 RT schedules or treatment techniques. Conclusions: Five years after RT for prostate carcinoma, anorectal symptoms continue to have a significant impact on ADLs of almost 50% of patients. These symptoms are associated with anorectal dysfunction independent of the RT schedules or treatment techniques reported here.

  12. Pathophysiology and Natural History of Anorectal Sequelae Following Radiation Therapy for Carcinoma of the Prostate

    Yeoh, Eric K., E-mail: eric.yeoh@health.sa.gov.au [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); Discipline of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Holloway, Richard H. [Discipline of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Department of Gastroenterology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); Fraser, Robert J. [Discipline of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Gastrointestinal Investigation Unit, Repatriation General Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); Botten, Rochelle J.; Di Matteo, Addolorata C.; Butters, Julie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To characterize the prevalence, pathophysiology, and natural history of chronic radiation proctitis 5 years following radiation therapy (RT) for localized carcinoma of the prostate. Methods and Materials: Studies were performed in 34 patients (median age 68 years; range 54-79) previously randomly assigned to either 64 Gy in 32 fractions over 6.4 weeks or 55 Gy in 20 fractions over 4 weeks RT schedule using 2- and later 3-dimensional treatment technique for localized prostate carcinoma. Each patient underwent evaluations of (1) gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms (Modified Late Effects in Normal Tissues Subjective, Objective, Management and Analytic scales including effect on activities of daily living [ADLs]); (2) anorectal motor and sensory function (manometry and graded balloon distension); and (3) anal sphincteric morphology (endoanal ultrasound) before RT, at 1 month, and annually for 5 years after its completion. Results: Total GI symptom scores increased after RT and remained above baseline levels at 5 years and were associated with reductions in (1) basal anal pressures, (2) responses to squeeze and increased intra-abdominal pressure, (3) rectal compliance and (4) rectal volumes of sensory perception. Anal sphincter morphology was unchanged. At 5 years, 44% and 21% of patients reported urgency of defecation and rectal bleeding, respectively, and 48% impairment of ADLs. GI symptom scores and parameters of anorectal function and anal sphincter morphology did not differ between the 2 RT schedules or treatment techniques. Conclusions: Five years after RT for prostate carcinoma, anorectal symptoms continue to have a significant impact on ADLs of almost 50% of patients. These symptoms are associated with anorectal dysfunction independent of the RT schedules or treatment techniques reported here.

  13. Prostatitis

    Prostatitis Overview Prostatitis is swelling and inflammation of the prostate gland, a walnut-sized gland situated directly below the bladder in ... produces fluid (semen) that nourishes and transports sperm. Prostatitis often causes painful or difficult urination. Other symptoms ...

  14. Squamous cell carcinoma of the breast: a case report

    Hofstee Mans

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Squamous cells are normally not found inside the breast, so a primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast is an exceptional phenomenon. There is a possible explanation for these findings. Case presentation A 72-year-old woman presented with a breast abnormality suspected for breast carcinoma. After the operation the pathological examination revealed a primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast. Conclusion The presentation of squamous cell carcinoma could be similar to that of an adenocarcinoma. However, a squamous cell carcinoma of the breast could also develop from a complicated breast cyst or abscess. Therefore, pathological examination of these apparent benign abnormalities is mandatory.

  15. N-Myc Drives Neuroendocrine Prostate Cancer Initiated from Human Prostate Epithelial Cells

    Lee, John K.; Phillips, John W.; Smith, Bryan A.; Park, Jung Wook; Stoyanova, Tanya; McCaffrey, Erin F.; Baertsch, Robert; Sokolov, Artem; Meyerowitz, Justin G.; Mathis, Colleen; Cheng, Donghui; Stuart, Joshua M.; Shokat, Kevan M.; Gustafson, W. Clay; Huang, Jiaoti; Witte, Owen N.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY MYCN amplification and overexpression are common in neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC). However, the impact of aberrant N-Myc expression in prostate tumorigenesis and the cellular origin of NEPC have not been established. We define N-Myc and activated AKT1 as oncogenic components sufficient to transform human prostate epithelial cells to prostate adenocarcinoma and NEPC with phenotypic and molecular features of aggressive, late-stage human disease. We directly show that prostate adenocarcinoma and NEPC can arise from a common epithelial clone. Further, N-Myc is required for tumor maintenance and destabilization of N-Myc through Aurora A kinase inhibition reduces tumor burden. Our findings establish N-Myc as a driver of NEPC and a target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27050099

  16. Serum testosterone as a prognostic factor in patients with advanced prostatic carcinoma

    Iversen, P; Rasmussen, F; Christensen, I J

    1994-01-01

    In 245 patients with previously untreated advanced carcinoma of the prostate, serum concentrations of testosterone have been measured before androgen deprivation therapy, and patients were divided in quartiles according to their serum concentration. Pretreatment level of serum testosterone...... was confirmed as having significant prognostic value on progression-free, overall, and cancer-specific survival, and the hazard ratios of lower quartiles compared to the upper quartile for these endpoints were 2.3, 2.1, and 2.0, respectively. However, correlations with symptomatology and other pretreatment...

  17. Prostate Cancer Stem-Like Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Prostate cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death among men, killing an estimated 27,000 men each year in the United States. Men with advanced prostate cancer often become resistant to conventional therapies. Many researchers speculate that the emergence of resistance is due to the presence of cancer stem cells, which are believed to be a small subpopulation

  18. Cutaneous metastasis of bilateral renal cell carcinoma.

    Abbasi, Fariba; Alizadeh, Mansur; Noroozinia, Farahnaz; Moradi, Amin

    2013-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a malignant lethal tumour with high potential of metastasis. However, metastasis from RCC to the skin is much less common. It is virtually a sign of poor prognosis. We represent a 42 years old man with bilateral RCC of clear cell type followed by metastasis to the scalp one month later. In this case the relatively young age of the patient, bilaterality of RCC and occurance of skin metastasis in the absence of recurrent kidney tumour are interesting.

  19. Met-Independent Hepatocyte Growth Factor-mediated regulation of cell adhesion in human prostate cancer cells

    Davis Rodney

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate cancer cells communicate reciprocally with the stromal cells surrounding them, inside the prostate, and after metastasis, within the bone. Each tissue secretes factors for interpretation by the other. One stromally-derived factor, Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF, was found twenty years ago to regulate invasion and growth of carcinoma cells. Working with the LNCaP prostate cancer progression model, we found that these cells could respond to HGF stimulation, even in the absence of Met, the only known HGF receptor. The new HGF binding partner we find on the cell surface may help to clarify conflicts in the past literature about Met expression and HGF response in cancer cells. Methods We searched for Met or any HGF binding partner on the cells of the PC3 and LNCaP prostate cancer cell models, using HGF immobilized on agarose beads. By using mass spectrometry analyses and sequencing we have identified nucleolin protein as a novel HGF binding partner. Antibodies against nucleolin (or HGF were able to ameliorate the stimulatory effects of HGF on met-negative prostate cancer cells. Western blots, RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry were used to assess nucleolin levels during prostate cancer progression in both LNCaP and PC3 models. Results We have identified HGF as a major signaling component of prostate stromal-conditioned media (SCM and have implicated the protein nucleolin in HGF signal reception by the LNCaP model prostate cancer cells. Antibodies that silence either HGF (in SCM or nucleolin (on the cell surfaces eliminate the adhesion-stimulatory effects of the SCM. Likewise, addition of purified HGF to control media mimics the action of SCM. C4-2, an LNCaP lineage-derived, androgen-independent human prostate cancer cell line, responds to HGF in a concentration-dependent manner by increasing its adhesion and reducing its migration on laminin substratum. These HGF effects are not due to shifts in the expression levels of

  20. Met-Independent Hepatocyte Growth Factor-mediated regulation of cell adhesion in human prostate cancer cells

    Tate, Amanda; Isotani, Shuji; Bradley, Michael J; Sikes, Robert A; Davis, Rodney; Chung, Leland WK; Edlund, Magnus

    2006-01-01

    Prostate cancer cells communicate reciprocally with the stromal cells surrounding them, inside the prostate, and after metastasis, within the bone. Each tissue secretes factors for interpretation by the other. One stromally-derived factor, Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF), was found twenty years ago to regulate invasion and growth of carcinoma cells. Working with the LNCaP prostate cancer progression model, we found that these cells could respond to HGF stimulation, even in the absence of Met, the only known HGF receptor. The new HGF binding partner we find on the cell surface may help to clarify conflicts in the past literature about Met expression and HGF response in cancer cells. We searched for Met or any HGF binding partner on the cells of the PC3 and LNCaP prostate cancer cell models, using HGF immobilized on agarose beads. By using mass spectrometry analyses and sequencing we have identified nucleolin protein as a novel HGF binding partner. Antibodies against nucleolin (or HGF) were able to ameliorate the stimulatory effects of HGF on met-negative prostate cancer cells. Western blots, RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry were used to assess nucleolin levels during prostate cancer progression in both LNCaP and PC3 models. We have identified HGF as a major signaling component of prostate stromal-conditioned media (SCM) and have implicated the protein nucleolin in HGF signal reception by the LNCaP model prostate cancer cells. Antibodies that silence either HGF (in SCM) or nucleolin (on the cell surfaces) eliminate the adhesion-stimulatory effects of the SCM. Likewise, addition of purified HGF to control media mimics the action of SCM. C4-2, an LNCaP lineage-derived, androgen-independent human prostate cancer cell line, responds to HGF in a concentration-dependent manner by increasing its adhesion and reducing its migration on laminin substratum. These HGF effects are not due to shifts in the expression levels of laminin-binding integrins, nor can they be linked to

  1. The inhibition of the highly expressed miR-221 and miR-222 impairs the growth of prostate carcinoma xenografts in mice.

    Neri Mercatelli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MiR-221 and miR-222 are two highly homologous microRNAs whose upregulation has been recently described in several types of human tumors, for some of which their oncogenic role was explained by the discovery of their target p27, a key cell cycle regulator. We previously showed this regulatory relationship in prostate carcinoma cell lines in vitro, underlying the role of miR-221/222 as inducers of proliferation and tumorigenicity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe a number of in vivo approaches confirming our previous data. The ectopic overexpression of miR-221 is able, per se, to confer a high growth advantage to LNCaP-derived tumors in SCID mice. Consistently, the anti-miR-221/222 antagomir treatment of established subcutaneous tumors derived from the highly aggressive PC3 cell line, naturally expressing high levels of miR-221/222, reduces tumor growth by increasing intratumoral p27 amount; this effect is long lasting, as it is detectable as long as 25 days after the treatment. Furthermore, we provide evidence in favour of a clinical relevance of the role of miR-221/222 in prostate carcinoma, by showing their general upregulation in patient-derived primary cell lines, where we find a significant inverse correlation with p27 expression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that modulating miR-221/222 levels may have a therapeutic potential in prostate carcinoma.

  2. Studies of rhodamine-123: effect on rat prostate cancer and human prostate cancer cells in vitro.

    Arcadi, J A; Narayan, K S; Techy, G; Ng, C P; Saroufeem, R M; Jones, L W

    1995-06-01

    The effect of the lipophilic, cationic dye, Rhodamine-123 (Rh-123), on prostate cancer in rats, and on three tumor cell lines in vitro is reported here. The general toxicity of Rh-123 in mice has been found to be minimal. Lobund-Wistar (L-W) rats with the autochthonous prostate cancer of Pollard were treated for six doses with Rh-123 at a dose of 15 mg/kg subcutaneously every other day. Microscopic examination of the tumors revealed cellular and acinar destruction. The effectiveness of Rh-123 as a cytotoxic agent was tested by clonogenic and viability assays in vitro with three human prostate cancer cell lines. Severe (60-95%) growth inhibition was observed following Rh-123 exposure for 2-5 days at doses as low as 1.6 micrograms/ml in all three prostate cancer cell lines.

  3. File list: ALL.Prs.05.AllAg.Prostate_cancer_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available ALL.Prs.05.AllAg.Prostate_cancer_cells hg19 All antigens Prostate Prostate cancer c...ells SRX022582,SRX022577,SRX022578,SRX022581,SRX022579,SRX022580 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Prs.05.AllAg.Prostate_cancer_cells.bed ...

  4. File list: ALL.Prs.50.AllAg.Prostate_cancer_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  5. File list: Oth.Prs.05.AllAg.Prostate_cancer_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Oth.Prs.05.AllAg.Prostate_cancer_cells hg19 TFs and others Prostate Prostate cancer... cells SRX022577,SRX022578 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Prs.05.AllAg.Prostate_cancer_cells.bed ...

  6. File list: Pol.Prs.10.AllAg.Prostate_cancer_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Pol.Prs.10.AllAg.Prostate_cancer_cells hg19 RNA polymerase Prostate Prostate cancer... cells SRX022582 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Prs.10.AllAg.Prostate_cancer_cells.bed ...

  7. File list: Oth.Prs.10.AllAg.Prostate_cancer_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Oth.Prs.10.AllAg.Prostate_cancer_cells hg19 TFs and others Prostate Prostate cancer... cells SRX022578,SRX022577 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Prs.10.AllAg.Prostate_cancer_cells.bed ...

  8. File list: Oth.Prs.20.AllAg.Prostate_cancer_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Oth.Prs.20.AllAg.Prostate_cancer_cells hg19 TFs and others Prostate Prostate cancer... cells SRX022578,SRX022577 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Prs.20.AllAg.Prostate_cancer_cells.bed ...

  9. File list: Unc.Prs.50.AllAg.Prostate_cancer_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Unc.Prs.50.AllAg.Prostate_cancer_cells hg19 Unclassified Prostate Prostate cancer c...ells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Prs.50.AllAg.Prostate_cancer_cells.bed ...

  10. File list: His.Prs.20.AllAg.Prostate_cancer_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Prs.20.AllAg.Prostate_cancer_cells hg19 Histone Prostate Prostate cancer cells ...SRX022579,SRX022581,SRX022580 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Prs.20.AllAg.Prostate_cancer_cells.bed ...

  11. File list: Pol.Prs.05.AllAg.Prostate_cancer_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Pol.Prs.05.AllAg.Prostate_cancer_cells hg19 RNA polymerase Prostate Prostate cancer... cells SRX022582 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Prs.05.AllAg.Prostate_cancer_cells.bed ...

  12. The Bony Side of Endothelial Cells in Prostate Cancer.

    Peng, Jia; Kang, Yibin

    2017-06-05

    Prostate cancer bone metastases are primarily osteoblastic, but the source of bone-forming cells in these lesions remains poorly defined. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Lin et al. (2017) demonstrate that tumor-associated endothelial cells can give rise to osteoblasts in prostate cancer through endothelial-to-osteoblast (EC-to-OSB) conversion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular features of renal cell carcinoma: early diagnostics and perspectives for therapy

    O. V. Kovaleva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kidney cancer (renal cell carcinoma is one of the major problems of modern urological oncology. In Russia renal cell carcinoma accountsfor 4.3 % of all cancers. The global incidence of renal cell carcinoma has increased over the past two decades. Worldwide renal cell carcinoma accounts for 3.6 % of all cancers and is 10th frequent malignancy. For some malignancies, for instance tumours of prostate, there are markers known that allowed improved early diagnostics. Kidney cancer, however, remains to be hard to diagnose and to treat, since the symptoms can be detected on advanced stages of the disease. In Russia 75.4 % of renal cell carcinoma cases detected at the stage of local and locally advanced disease. Though there are various target drugs on the market aimed to treat this disease, the results of renal cell carcinoma treatment did not reach any substantial success. Most of existing target drugs for kidney cancer treatment include inhibitors of a single signalingpathway regulated by VHL1, which expression is lost in the vast majority of renal-cell carcinomas. Till now existing drugs did not reach sufficient efficacy. Therefore, it is highly important to search for new signaling pathways, regulating such cellular processes as proliferation, migration and apoptosis. Further, prognostic markers and therapy targets identified so far are not sufficient and poorly specific. Therefore identification and validation of new markers, and especially new specific targets for the treatment of kindey oncopathologies is highly important and timely task.

  14. Hyaluronan in aged collagen matrix increases prostate epithelial cell proliferation

    Damodarasamy, Mamatha; Vernon, Robert B.; Chan, Christina K.; Plymate, Stephen R.; Wight, Thomas N.

    2015-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of the prostate, which is comprised primarily of collagen, becomes increasingly disorganized with age, a property that may influence the development of hyperplasia and cancer. Collageous ECM extracted from the tails of aged mice exhibits many characteristics of collagen in aged tissues, including the prostate. When polymerized into a 3-dimensional (3D) gel, these collagen extracts can serve as models for the study of specific cell-ECM interactions. In the present study, we examined the behaviors of human prostatic epithelial cell lines representing normal prostate epithelial cells (PEC), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH-1), and adenocarcinoma (LNCaP) cultured in contact with 3D gels made from collagen extracts of young and aged mice. We found that proliferation of PEC, BPH-1, and LNCaP cells were all increased by culture on aged collagen gels relative to young collagen gels. In examining age-associated differences in the composition of the collagen extracts, we found that aged and young collagen had a similar amount of several collagen-associated ECM components, but aged collagen had a much greater content of the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) than young collagen. The addition of HA (of similar size and concentration to that found in aged collagen extracts) to cells placed in young collagen elicited significantly increased proliferation in BPH-1 cells, but not in PEC or LNCaP cells, relative to controls not exposed to HA. Of note, histochemical analyses of human prostatic tissues showed significantly higher expression of HA in BPH and prostate cancer stroma relative to stroma of normal prostate. Collectively, these results suggest that changes in ECM involving increased levels of HA contribute to the growth of prostatic epithelium with aging. PMID:25124870

  15. Reevaluation and reclassification of resected lung carcinomas originally diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma using immunohistochemical analysis

    Kadota, Kyuichi; Nitadori, Jun-ichi; Rekhtman, Natasha; Jones, David R.; Adusumilli, Prasad S.; Travis, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, non-small cell lung carcinomas are primarily classified by light microscopy. However, recent studies have shown that poorly-differentiated tumors are more accurately classified by immunohistochemistry. In this study, we investigated the use of immunohistochemical analysis in reclassifying lung carcinomas that were originally diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma. Tumor slides and blocks were available for histologic evaluation, and tissue microarrays were constructed from 480 patients with resected lung carcinomas originally diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma between 1999 and 2009. Immunohistochemistry for p40, p63, thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1; clone SPT24 and 8G7G3/1), Napsin A, Chromogranin A, Synaptophysin, and CD56 were performed. Staining intensity (weak, moderate, or strong) and distribution (focal or diffuse) were also recorded. Of all, 449 (93.5%) patients were confirmed as having squamous cell carcinomas; the cases were mostly diffusely positive for p40 and negative for TTF-1 (8G7G3/1). Twenty cases (4.2%) were reclassified as adenocarcinoma since they were positive for TTF-1 (8G7G3/1 or SPT24) with either no or focal p40 expression, and all of them were poorly-differentiated with squamoid morphology. In addition, 1 case was reclassified as adenosquamous carcinoma, 4 cases as large cell carcinoma, 4 cases as large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, and 2 cases as small cell carcinoma. In poorly-differentiated non-small cell lung carcinomas, an accurate distinction between squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cannot be reliably determined by morphology alone and requires immunohistochemical analysis, even in resected specimens. Our findings suggest that TTF-1 8G7G3/1 may be better suited as the primary antibody in differentiating adenocarcinoma from squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25871623

  16. Tuft (caveolated) cells in two human colon carcinoma cell lines.

    Barkla, D H; Whitehead, R H; Foster, H; Tutton, P J

    1988-09-01

    The presence of an unusual cell type in two human colon carcinoma cell lines is reported. The cells show the same morphology as "tuft" (caveolated) cells present in normal gastrointestinal epithelium. Tuft cells were seen in cell line LIM 1863 growing in vitro and in human colon carcinoma cell line LIM 2210 growing as subcutaneous solid tumour xenografts in nude mice. Characteristic morphologic features of tuft cells included a wide base, narrow apex and a tuft of long microvilli projecting from the apical surface. The microvilli are attached by a core of long microfilaments passing deep into the apical cytoplasm. Between the microvilli are parallel arrays of vesicles (caveoli) containing flocculent material. Two different but not mutually exclusive explanations for the presence of tuft cells are proposed. The first explanation is that tuft cells came from the resected tumour and have survived by mitotic division during subsequent passages. The second explanation suggests that tuft cells are the progeny of undifferentiated tumour cells. Descriptions of tuft cells in colon carcinomas are uncommon and possible reasons for this are presented. The morphology of tuft cells is consistent with that of a highly differentiated cell specialised for absorption, and these new models provide an opportunity to further investigate the structure and function of tuft cells.

  17. Treatment decision-making strategies and influences in patients with localized prostate carcinoma.

    Gwede, Clement K; Pow-Sang, Julio; Seigne, John; Heysek, Randy; Helal, Mohamed; Shade, Kristin; Cantor, Alan; Jacobsen, Paul B

    2005-10-01

    Patients diagnosed with localized prostate carcinoma need to interpret complicated medical information to make an informed treatment selection from among treatments that have comparable efficacy but differing side effects. The authors reported initial results for treatment decision-making strategies among men receiving definitive treatment for localized prostate carcinoma. One hundred nineteen men treated with radical prostatectomy (44%) or brachytherapy (56%) consented to participate. Guided by a cognitive-affective theoretic framework, the authors assessed differences in decision-making strategies, and treatment and disease-relevant beliefs and affects, in addition to demographic and clinical variables. Approximately half of patients reported difficulty (49%) and distress (45%) while making treatment decisions, but no regrets (74%) regarding the treatment choice they made. Patients who underwent prostatectomy were younger, were more likely to be employed, had worse tumor grade, and had a shorter time since diagnosis (P Decision-making aids or other interventions to reduce decisional difficulty and emotional distress during decision making were indicated.

  18. External radiation therapy of prostatic carcinoma and its relationship to hormonal therapy

    Takada, Chitose; Ito, Koushiro; Nishi, Junko; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Hatanaka, Yoshimi; Baba, Yuji; Takahashi, Mutsumasa.

    1995-01-01

    From 1980 to 1990, a total of 54 patients with prostatic carcinoma were treated with external radiation therapy at the Kumamoto National Hospital. Ten patients were classified as Stage B, 22 as Stage C, and another 22 as Stage D according to the American Urological Association Clinical Staging System. The 5-year survival for all 54 patients was 30%. The 5-year disease-specific survival was 67% for Stage B, 47% for Stage C, and 26% for Stage D. The 5-year survival was 43% for patients in whom radiation therapy was initiated immediately after the first diagnosis or with less than one year of hormonal therapy, while it was 0% for patients in whom radiation therapy was initiated after more than one year of hormonal therapy (p=0.01). The cause of intercurrent death was acute myocardial infarction in four patients and acute cardiac failure in one. Four of these patients received hormonal therapy for more than one year. The incidence of radiation-induced proctitis was not severe. This study suggests that long-term hormonal therapy prior to radiation therapy worsens the prognosis of patients with prostatic carcinoma. (author)

  19. Clinical eveluation of metastasis from carcinoma of the prostate by bone scintiscanning

    Okada, Kiyoki; Igarashi, Jotaro; Nogaki, Joji; Kinoshita, Masayuki; Kishimoto, Takashi

    1981-01-01

    Eighty radioisotopic bone scintiscans in conjunction with radiographic skeletal survey were carried out in 47 patients with prostatic carcinoma encountered over the past 6 years. Five patients were excluded because of false positive bone scan. None of the patients was found with false negative bone scan irrespective of the presence of osteolytic lesions. In 21 of the remaining 42 cases (40.0%), increased information on bone metastasis was obtained by the bone scan. A positive bone scan was interpreted at 156 sites, of which 67 (42.9%) were negative on bone survey. Bone scan was superior to bone survey for detecting metastatic sites of the sternum, cervical and thoracic spine, ribs, scapula and skull. Serial bone scans in some cases demonstrated an objective response of the metastasis following hormonal treatment. At the time of bone scan, 22 of 47 cases (46.8%) showed an abnormal renal image, which represented the degree of bone metastasis as well as that of renal function. Thus, bone scan represents a useful tool for detecting metastatic lesions from prostatic carcinoma and for assessing the response to treatment. (author)

  20. Skeletal metastases of carcinomas of prostate in dependence on tumor size and tumor differentiation

    Krause, U.

    1981-01-01

    153 patients with carcinoma of the prostate underwent holebody skeletal scintiscanning. It resulted that the tendency to the development of skeletal metastases increases with increasing dedifferentiation of the tumor. Also the tumor size correlated with the metastase identification. The tumor dedifferentiation also increased with the tumor size. The findings proved that the early diagnosis of a carcinoma of the prostate is a necessary prerequisite, because a radical total removal can only be curative when any metastases are absent. The comparative evaluation of the diagnostic methods proved the superiority of the nuclear medical examination. In 68% of the cases the roentgenologic examination led to correctly positive results. This investigation showed with 98% a high diagnostic specificity and therefore it should be applied in addition to scintiscanning in order to obtain supplementary information. The alkaline and the acid phosphatase offering an almost identical informative value resulted to be not useful for establishing an early diagnosis of skeletal metastases. It was found that the determination of the blood sedimentation rate and of the lactate dehydrogenase do also not render possible the early diagnosis of skeletal metastases. (orig./MG) [de

  1. Urtica dioica Induces Cytotoxicity in Human Prostate Carcinoma ...

    In order to evaluate the involvement of caspases in UD-AQ induced cytotoxicity, the activities of caspase 3 and 9 were measured using a colorimetric assay. Following treatment of. LNCaP cells with UD-AQ extract (50 µg/ml) in 6- well plates, cells were collected by centrifugation and lysed with lysis buffer (1 % Triton X-100,.

  2. The integrin α6β4 as a signaling membrane protein for a damage response to ionizing radiation in human prostate cancer cell lines

    Woo, Charles; Nagle, Ray B.; Stea, Baldassarre; Cress, Anne E.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Object: Integrins are cell surface receptors that exist as heterodimers. The integrin α6β4 is a receptor for laminin and is present in normal human prostate tissue. In prostate carcinoma however, there is loss of β4 expression. Prior studies demonstrated that when a low β4 expressing rectal carcinoma cell line was transfected with β4, the cells underwent apoptosis. We investigated the effects that the β4 integrin had on DNA damage responses in a human prostate carcinoma line. Materials and Methods: DU-145 human prostate carcinoma cells previously selected by us for α6β1 expression were transfected with either a full length β4 construct or vector only. Both cell lines were grown simultaneously and maintained in geneticin for selection purposes. Cells were grown on glass coverslips in 60mm tissue culture dishes under optimal growth conditions. Radiation was delivered using a Co-60 machine with a dose rate of 35 Gy/hr. The cells were given 0, 2, 5, and 10 Gy. Three different radiation damage responses were assayed and include micronuclei (MN) formation, cell cycle distribution, and cell survival. 24 hours after irradiation, the cells were fixed and stained with propidium iodide. Micronuclei formation was detected using a Zeiss LSM10 confocal microscope, and the resulting digital images were analyzed using the NIH Image program. The observed MN were detected without the use of cytochalasin B, but were noted to contain nuclear histone and DNA and were morphologically distinct from apoptotic or necrotic bodies. Results: The quantitative analysis of MN formation revealed a radiation dose dependence of MN formation in both the α6β4 and α6β1 expressing cell lines. The presence of MN 24 hours after irradiation was observed at clinically significant doses (2 Gy) with the largest effect occurring at 5 Gy. The α6β4 expressing cells consistently produced approximately two fold more MN as compared to the α6β1 expressing cells at all radiation doses. The

  3. GC-MS-Based Endometabolome Analysis Differentiates Prostate Cancer from Normal Prostate Cells

    Ana Rita Lima

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is an important health problem worldwide. Diagnosis and management of PCa is very complex because the detection of serum prostate specific antigen (PSA has several drawbacks. Metabolomics brings promise for cancer biomarker discovery and for better understanding PCa biochemistry. In this study, a gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS based metabolomic profiling of PCa cell lines was performed. The cell lines include 22RV1 and LNCaP from PCa with androgen receptor (AR expression, DU145 and PC3 (which lack AR expression, and one normal prostate cell line (PNT2. Regarding the metastatic potential, PC3 is from an adenocarcinoma grade IV with high metastatic potential, DU145 has a moderate metastatic potential, and LNCaP has a low metastatic potential. Using multivariate analysis, alterations in levels of several intracellular metabolites were detected, disclosing the capability of the endometabolome to discriminate all PCa cell lines from the normal prostate cell line. Discriminant metabolites included amino acids, fatty acids, steroids, and sugars. Six stood out for the separation of all the studied PCa cell lines from the normal prostate cell line: ethanolamine, lactic acid, β-Alanine, L-valine, L-leucine, and L-tyrosine.

  4. Tissue polypeptide-specific antigen (TPS) determinations before and during intermittent maximal androgen blockade in patients with metastatic prostatic carcinoma

    Kil, P. J. M.; Goldschmidt, H. M. J.; Wieggers, B. J. A.; Kariakine, O. B.; Studer, U. E.; Whelan, P.; Hetherington, J.; de Reijke, Th M.; Hoekstra, J. W.; Collette, L.

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the prognostic significance of serially measured tissue polypeptide-specific antigen (TPS) levels in patients with metastatic prostatic carcinoma treated with intermittent maximal androgen blockade (MAB). To determine its value with respect to predicting response to treatment and time to

  5. RENAL MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS: RENAL CELL CARCINOMA

    Elisangela Giachini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of malignant kidney tumors, to contribute to identifying factors which the diagnosis of renal cell carcinomas. Through this study, we understand that kidney disease over the years had higher incidence rates, especially in adults in the sixth decade of life. The renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the third most common malignancy of the genitourinary tract, affecting 2% to 3% of the population. There are numerous ways of diagnosis; however, the most important are ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. In general most of the patients affected by the CCR, have a good prognosis when diagnosed early and subjected to an effective treatment. This study conducted a literature review about the CCR, through this it was possible to understand the development needs of the imaging methods used for precise diagnosis and classification of RCC through the TNM system.

  6. Possible application of tumor marker radioimmunoassay in diagnosis of testicular and prostatic carcinomas

    Kausitz, J

    1988-10-01

    Determinations of alpha fetoprotein and chorionic gonadotropin levels by radioimmunoassay in 340 patients with germ cell tumors of the testes have confirmed that tumor markers are suitable prognostic parameters, facilitate assessment of the clinical stage, are sensitive parameters of the efficacy of chemotherapy and enable early detection of relapses. In a group of 71 patients with prostate cancer, systematic determination of prostate specific antigen levels proved to be a reliable method of monitoring and a sensitive method of detecting remote metastases. (author). 5 figs., 13 tabs., 23 refs.

  7. Squamous cell carcinoma in situ after irradiation

    Kambara, Takeshi; Nishiyama, Takafumi; Yamada, Rie; Nagatani, Tetsuo; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Asami

    1997-01-01

    We report two cases with Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) in situ caused by irradiation to hand eczemas, resistant to any topical therapies. Both of our cases clinically show palmer sclerosis and flexor restriction of the fingers, compatible to chronic radiation dermatitis. Although SCC arising in chronic radiation dermatitis is usually developed ten to twenty years after irradiation, in our cases SCC were found more than forty years after irradiation. (author)

  8. Linear Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report

    Yuko Ichinokawa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC presents with diverse clinical features, and several morphologic and histologic variants of BCC have been reported [Sexton et al.: J Am Acad Dermatol 1990;23:1118–1126]. Linear BCC was first described as a new clinical subtype in 1985 by Lewis [Int J Dematol 1985;24:124–125]. Here, we present a case of linear BCC that we recently encountered in an elderly Japanese patient, and review other cases reported in Japan.

  9. Avelumab Impresses in Merkel Cell Carcinoma.

    2017-06-01

    The PD-L1 inhibitor avelumab-approved by the FDA in March for the treatment of Merkel cell carcinoma-demonstrated a high number of durable responses in an international, open-label, prospective phase II study. The results of the study, which supported the FDA's decision, were presented in April at the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Annual Meeting 2017. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Papillary renal cell carcinoma in allograft kidney

    Roy, Catherine; El Ghali, Sofiane; Buy, Xavier; Gangi, Afshin; Lindner, Veronique

    2005-01-01

    Papillary renal cell carcinoma is a subgroup of malignant renal epithelial neoplasms. Its occurrence in allograft transplanted kidney has not been debated in the literature. We report two pathologically proven cases and discuss the clinical hypothesis for such neoplasms and the aspect on MR images. The paramagnetic effect of the iron associated with an absence of signal coming from calcifications is a plausible explanation for this unusual hypointense appearance on T2-weighted sequence. (orig.)

  11. The role of mast cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Gudiseva, Swetha; Chitturi, Raviteja; Anumula, Vamsikrishna; Poosarla, Chandrashekar; Baddam, Venkat Ramana Reddy

    2017-01-01

    The mast cells are initial effective lineage in both humoral and adaptive immunity. They are ubiquitous in skin, mucosa, and in function. They contain biologically essential and dynamic mediators in healthy and harmful conditions of tissue. Mast cell malfunctioning could be attributed to various chronic allergic diseases. Considerately, emerging evidence of mast cell involvement in various cancers shows them to have both positive and negative roles in tumour growth. It mostly indulges in tumour progression and metastasis via angiogenesis, extracellular matrix degradation, and mitogenic activity in the tumour microenvironment. The current paper reviewed research papers on mast cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma through the PubMed database from 1980 to the present date. The present paper is an attempt to summarise the research reports on the role of mast cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Further to this note, this paper also outlines the role of mast cells in normal physiological processes and tumour biology. PMID:28435394

  12. The role of mast cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Swetha Gudiseva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The mast cells are initial effective lineage in both humoral and adaptive immunity. They are ubiquitous in skin, mucosa, and in function. They contain biologically essential and dynamic mediators in healthy and harmful conditions of tissue. Mast cell malfunctioning could be attributed to various chronic allergic diseases. Considerately, emerging evidence of mast cell involvement in various cancers shows them to have both positive and negative roles in tumour growth. It mostly indulges in tumour progression and metastasis via angiogenesis, extracellular matrix degradation, and mitogenic activity in the tumour microenvironment. The current paper reviewed research papers on mast cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma through the PubMed database from 1980 to the present date. The present paper is an attempt to summarise the research reports on the role of mast cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Further to this note, this paper also outlines the role of mast cells in normal physiological processes and tumour biology.

  13. CT features of nonfunctioning islet cell carcinoma

    Eelkema, E.A.; Stephens, D.H.; Ward, E.M.; Sheedy, P.F. II

    1984-11-01

    To determine the computed tomographic (CT) characteristics of nonfunctioning islet cell carcinoma of the pancreas, the CT scans of 27 patients with that disease were reviewed. The pancreatic tumor was identified as a mass in 26 patients (96%) Of the 25 tumors evaluated with contrast enhancement, 20 became partially diffusely hyperdense relative to nearby normal pancreatic tissue. Hepatic metastases were identified in 15 patients (56%), regional lymphadenopathy in 10 (37%), atrophy of the gland proximal to the tumor in six (22%), dilatation of the biliary ducts in five (19%), and dilatation of the pancreatic duct in four (15%). The CT appearances of the nonfunctioning islet cell tumors were compared with those of 100 ordinary (ductal) pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Although the two types of tumors were sometimes indistinguishable, features found to be more characteristic of islet cell carcinoma included a pancreatic mass of unusually large size, calcification within the tumor, and contrast enhancement of either the primary tumor or hepatic metastases. Involvement of the celiac axis or proximal superior mesenteric artery was limited to ductal carcinoma.

  14. Intradural squamous cell carcinoma in the sacrum

    Fujisawa Kozo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis occurs in patients with cancer at the rate of approximately 5%; it develops particularly in patients with breast cancer, lung cancer, melanoma, leukemia, or malignant lymphoma. We describe a rare case of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis in which spinal intradural squamous cell carcinoma with no lesions in the cerebral meninges and leptomeninx, was the primary lesion. Methods A 64-year-old man complained of sacral pain. Although the patient was treated with analgesics, epidural block and nerve root block, sacral pain persisted. Since acute urinary retention occurred, he was operated on. The patient was diagnosed as having an intradural squamous cell carcinoma of unknown origin. Results Since the patient presented with a slightly decreased level of consciousness 2 months after surgery, he was subjected to MRI scanning of the brain and spinal cord, which revealed disseminated lesions in the medulla oblongata. The patient died of pneumonia and sepsis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 5 months after surgery. Conclusion We report the first case of a patient with intradural squamous cell carcinoma with unknown origin that developed independently in the sacrum.

  15. Cabozantinib (advanced renal cell carcinoma)

    ... cancer cells.Cabozantinib is also available as a capsule (Cometriq) to treat a certain type of thyroid ... vomiting material that is bloody or looks like coffee grounds menstrual bleeding that is heavier than usual ...

  16. PSA doubling time of prostate carcinoma managed with watchful observation alone

    Choo, Richard; DeBoer, Gerrit; Klotz, Lawrence; Danjoux, Cyril; Morton, Gerard C.; Rakovitch, Eileen; Fleshner, Neil; Bunting, Peter; Kapusta, Linda; Hruby, George

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To study prostate-specific antigen (PSA) doubling time of untreated, favorable grade, prostate carcinoma. Methods and Materials: A prospective single-arm cohort study has been in progress to assess the feasibility of a watchful observation protocol with selective delayed intervention using clinical, histologic, or PSA progression as treatment indication in untreated, localized, favorable grade prostate adenocarcinoma (T1b-T2bN0 M0, Gleason Score ≤7, and PSA ≤15 ng/mL). Patients are conservatively managed with watchful observation alone, as long as they do not meet the arbitrarily defined disease progression criteria. Patients are followed regularly and undergo blood tests including PSA at each visit. PSA doubling time (Td) is estimated from a linear regression of ln(PSA) on time, assuming a simple exponential growth model. Results: As of March 2000, 134 patients have been on the study for a minimum of 12 months (median, 24; range, 12-52) and have a median frequency of PSA measurement of 7 times (range, 3-15). Median age is 70 years. Median PSA at enrollment is 6.3 (range, 0.5-14.6). The distribution of Td is as follows: 50 years, 27. The median Td is 5.1 years. In 44 patients (33%), Td is greater than 10 years. There was no correlation between Td and patient age, clinical T stage, Gleason score, or initial PSA level. Conclusion: Td of untreated prostate cancer varies widely. In our cohort, 33% have Td >10 years. Td may be a useful tool to guide treatment intervention for patients managed conservatively with watchful observation alone

  17. Serum prostate-specific antigen in monitoring the response of carcinoma of the prostate to radiation therapy

    Fijuth, J.; Chauvet, B.; Vincent, P.; Felix-Faure, C.; Reboul, F.

    1992-01-01

    In order to assess value of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in the monitoring of patients with localized prostatic carcinoma undergoing radical radiation therapy, 146 previously untreated patients were studied. To the prostate 60-70 Gy were administered over 8-9 weeks. Median follow-up was 28 every 3 months during 1st year and every 6 months after. Serum PSA levels were measured prior to radiotherapy. Pre-treatment PSA values exceeded 10 ng/ml in 62%. Initial PSA values were correlated with tumor size and Gleason score. PSA levels decreased 6 months after completion of radiation therapy, compared to initial value in 88.3%. It had fallen to 10 ng/ml or less in 59% with initial abnormal PSA levels. Patients whose initial PSA exceeded 50 ng/ml attained levels of 10 ng/ml or less in only 19%. Only 3/55 with both initial and 6-month PSA values ≤ 10 ng/ml developed metastases. Of 91 patients with initial PSA values over 10 ng/ml 54 had a 6-month PSA level of 10 ng/ml or less, and only 4/54 relapsed. By contrast, 13/37 patients with a 6-month PSA level persistently above 10 ng/ml relapsed. The 3-year relapse-free survival is 85.1% for 6-month PSA level ≤ 10 ng/ml, and 50.2% for patients with persistently elevated PSA values. This difference is highly significant (p 10 ng/ml and relative difference between an initial and a 6-month PSA value of less than 50%, developed metastases. By contrast, when relative difference was ≥50%, only 6/69 belonging to this group had local recurrence or developed metastases. The 3-year relapse-free survival rate was significantly superior in latter group (76.9 versus 30.2%, p<0.0001). It is concluded that a PSA value in excess of 10 mg/nl 6 months after radiation therapy or a relative difference between an initial and a 6- month PSA value of less than 50% have a poor prognostic significance and are discriminant criteria to identify a subset of patients with a high risk of relapse who may benefit from early hormonal therapy

  18. Anogenital squamous cell carcinoma in neglected patient.

    Svecova, D; Havrankova, M; Weismanova, E; Babal, P

    2012-01-01

    Skin squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are arguably the second most common carcinoma of the skin and are responsible for the majority of non-melanoma skin cancer deaths. Gynecologist treated a Caucasian 56-years old female patient for genital wart with podophyllotoxin cream. She did not achieve complete response and therefore she has interrupted the therapy and the collaboration with the gynecologist. At the time of evaluation the lesion had a size of man's palm in anogenital region and showed characteristic features of neoplasm. The regional lymph nodes have produced infiltrated painful bubo. PCR analysis for HPV proved negative. Histopathology revealed well-differentiated squamous cell keratinizing carcinoma from the tumor as well as from the regional lymph node packet. Staging computed tomography scans proved negative and pelvis scans disclosed regional lymphadenopathy underlying the tumor. Palliative radiation therapy (by linear accelerator) was administered for the oversized tumor to the total TD 50.0Gy. The patient died 6 months after diagnostic assessment from cardio-respiratory failure. Staging computed tomography before her death did not disclose distinct metastases in her inner organs. Well-differentiated squamous cell keratinizing carcinoma could be growing endophytically affecting the underlying adipose tissue and musculature, with spreading into the regional lymph nodes. The rate of metastases into inner organs seems to vary according to the aggressiveness and metastatic behavior of each SCC. The case report calls for attention to the importance of collaboration among various specialists assisting in the diagnosis and management of skin neoplasm (Fig. 5, Ref. 12). Full Text in PDF www.elis.sk.

  19. The many ways to make a luminal cell and a prostate cancer cell

    Strand, Douglas W; Goldstein, Andrew S

    2015-01-01

    Research in the area of stem/progenitor cells has led to the identification of multiple stem-like cell populations implicated in prostate homeostasis and cancer initiation. Given that there are multiple cells that can regenerate prostatic tissue and give rise to prostate cancer, our focus should shift to defining the signaling mechanisms that drive differentiation and progenitor self-renewal. In this article, we will review the literature, present the evidence and raise important unanswered q...

  20. Isoform 1 of TPD52 (PC-1) promotes neuroendocrine transdifferentiation in prostate cancer cells

    Moritz, Tom

    2016-02-05

    The tumour protein D52 isoform 1 (PC-1), a member of the tumour protein D52 (TPD52) protein family, is androgen-regulated and prostate-specific expressed. Previous studies confirmed that PC-1 contributes to malignant progression in prostate cancer with an important role in castration-resistant stage. In the present work, we identified its impact in mechanisms leading to neuroendocrine (NE) transdifferentiation. We established for long-term PC-1 overexpression an inducible expression system derived from the prostate carcinoma cell line LNCaP. We observed that PC-1 overexpression itself initiates characteristics of neuroendocrine cells, but the effect was much more pronounced in the presence of the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). Moreover, to our knowledge, this is the first report that treatment with IL-6 leads to a significant upregulation of PC-1 in LNCaP cells. Other TPD52 isoforms were not affected. Proceeding from this result, we conclude that PC-1 overexpression enhances the IL-6-mediated differentiation of LNCaP cells into a NE-like phenotype, noticeable by morphological changes and increased expression of typical NE markers, like chromogranin A, synaptophysin or beta-3 tubulin. Immunofluorescent staining of IL-6-treated PC-1-overexpressing LNCaP cells indicates a considerable PC-1 accumulation at the end of the long-branched neuron-like cell processes, which are typically formed by NE cells. Additionally, the experimentally initiated NE transdifferentiation correlates with the androgen receptor status, which was upregulated additively. In summary, our data provide evidence for an involvement of PC-1 in NE transdifferentiation, frequently associated with castration resistance, which is a major therapeutic challenge in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer.

  1. Chemokine Receptors and Integrin Function in Prostate Cancer

    McCarthy, James

    2000-01-01

    Preliminary data demonstrated that the addition of specific alpha-chemokines, IL-8 and Gro-alpha, to prostate carcinoma cell cultures, leads to an increase in the motility and invasion of these cells in vitro...

  2. Prostate cancer cells induce osteoblastic differentiation via semaphorin 3A.

    Liu, Fuzhou; Shen, Weiwei; Qiu, Hao; Hu, Xu; Zhang, Chao; Chu, Tongwei

    2015-03-01

    Prostate cancer metastasis to bone is the second most commonly diagnosed malignant disease among men worldwide. Such metastatic disease is characterized by the presence of osteoblastic bone lesions, and is associated with high rates of mortality. However, the various mechanisms involved in prostate cancer-induced osteoblastic differentiation have not been fully explored. Semaphorin 3A (Sema 3A) is a newly identified regulator of bone metabolism which stimulates differentiation of pre-osteoblastic cells under physiological conditions. We investigated in this study whether prostate cancer cells can mediate osteoblastic activity through Sema 3A. We cultured osteoprogenitor MC3T3-E1 cells in prostate cancer-conditioned medium, and analyzed levels of Sema 3A protein in diverse prostate cancer cell lines to identify cell lines in which Sema 3A production showed a positive correlation with osteo-stimulation. C4-2 cells were stably transfected with Sema 3A short hairpin RNA to further determine whether Sema 3A contributes to the ability of C4-2 cells to induce osteoblastic differentiation. Down-regulation of Sema 3A expression decreased indicators of C4-2 CM-induced osteoblastic differentiation, including alkaline phosphatase production and mineralization. Additionally, silencing or neutralizing Sema 3A in C4-2 cells resulted in diminished β-catenin expression in osteogenitor MC3T3-E1 cells. Our results suggest that prostate cancer-induced osteoblastic differentiation is at least partially mediated by Sema 3A, and may be regulated by the β-catenin signalling pathway. Sema 3A may represent a novel target for treatment of prostate cancer-induced osteoblastic lesions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.

    Martin, F T

    2012-01-31

    Squamous cell carcinoma ofthe anal canal represents 1.5% of all malignancies affectingthe gastrointestinal tract. Over the past 20 years dramatic changes have been seen in both the epidemiological distribution of the disease and in the therapeutic modalities utilised to manage it. CLINICAL MANAGEMENT: Historically abdominoperineal resection had been the treatment of choice with local resection reserved for early stage disease. Work by Nigro et al. has revolutionised how we currently manage carcinoma of the anal canal, demonstrating combined modality chemoradiotherapy as an appropriate alternative to surgical resection with the benefit of preserving sphincter function. Surgery is then reserved for recurrent disease with salvage abdominoperineal resection. This article reviews current literature and highlights the changing therapeutic modalities with selected clinical cases

  4. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity

    Lindeloev, B.; Kirkegaard, J.; Hansen, H.S.; Copenhagen Univ. Hospital

    1990-01-01

    Three hundred and four patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity were treated at the Finsen Institute in cooperation with the ENT-surgical departments between 1978 and 1982. The primary treatment consisted of radiotherapy alone in 74%, surgery alone in 4%, and a combination of radiotherapy and surgery in 15% of the patients. 2% received other treatment (cryotherapy), 5% did not complete the planned radiotherapy, and 1% were not treated at all. Of 203 patients with tumour remnant or first recurrence, 45% were operated, 2% received radiotherapy, and 2% combined treatment. This treatment strategy made 38% of the patients free of disease in the follow-up period (3 1/2 to 8 years) or until the patients died from other causes. Fifty-nine percent of the patients died from their oral carcinomas. Tumour size (T), lymph node status (N), and tumour stage were as expected important prognostic factors. (orig.)

  5. Radioimmunoassay for tumor antigen of human cervical squamous cell carcinoma

    Kato, H.; Torigoe, T.

    1977-01-01

    A heterologous antiserum for human cervical squamous cell carcinoma was prepared and specificity determined by Ouchterlony immunodiffusion and immunofluorescence studies. With this antiserum, a tumor antigen was purified from human cervical squamous cell carcinoma tissue. The specificities of the antigen and the antiserum were then re-examined by a radioimmunoassay method using 125 I-labeled purified antigen. Although normal cervical tissue extract showed a moderate cross-reactivity in the radioimmunoassay, the circulating antigen activity could not be detected in normal women or in several patients with other carcinomas, whereas 27 of 35 patients with cervical squamous cell carcinoma showed detectable serum antigen activity. All patients with advanced stages of cervical squamous cell carcinoma showed detectable antigen levels. These results indicate that there is a quantitative abnormality, at least, of this tumor antigen in patients with cervical squamous cell carcinoma and that the radioimmunoassay for the antigen is a potentially useful tool in clinical care

  6. Multiple factor analysis of metachronous upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma after radical cystectomy

    P. Wang

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the urothelium is often multifocal and subsequent tumors may occur anywhere in the urinary tract after the treatment of a primary carcinoma. Patients initially presenting a bladder cancer are at significant risk of developing metachronous tumors in the upper urinary tract (UUT. We evaluated the prognostic factors of primary invasive bladder cancer that may predict a metachronous UUT TCC after radical cystectomy. The records of 476 patients who underwent radical cystectomy for primary invasive bladder TCC from 1989 to 2001 were reviewed retrospectively. The prognostic factors of UUT TCC were determined by multivariate analysis using the COX proportional hazards regression model. Kaplan-Meier analysis was also used to assess the variable incidence of UUT TCC according to different risk factors. Twenty-two patients (4.6%. developed metachronous UUT TCC. Multiplicity, prostatic urethral involvement by the bladder cancer and the associated carcinoma in situ (CIS were significant and independent factors affecting the occurrence of metachronous UUT TCC (P = 0.0425, 0.0082, and 0.0006, respectively. These results were supported, to some extent, by analysis of the UUT TCC disease-free rate by the Kaplan-Meier method, whereby patients with prostatic urethral involvement or with associated CIS demonstrated a significantly lower metachronous UUT TCC disease-free rate than patients without prostatic urethral involvement or without associated CIS (log-rank test, P = 0.0116 and 0.0075, respectively. Multiple tumors, prostatic urethral involvement and associated CIS were risk factors for metachronous UUT TCC, a conclusion that may be useful for designing follow-up strategies for primary invasive bladder cancer after radical cystectomy.

  7. Photodynamic Therapy With HPPH in Treating Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    2016-04-19

    Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

  8. The role of nuclear medicine diagnostic technology in prediction of prostate carcinoma in Sudanese individuals

    Auhamed, H. S. H.

    2011-03-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide, with an estimated 40,000 new case diagnosed annually. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is important to the growth and function of prostate gland, but its incidence and mortality have been associated with increased circulating IGF-1 levels and this causes a high risk to the prostate gland cells in development of cancer. To fulfill these hypotheses we do a prospective study of prostate gland in Sudanese men at the Physicians Urology Health department in Khartoum State hospitals (2004-2009) to assayed circulating levels of IGF-1, PSA, E2 and testosterone among 110 known cases of prostate cancer (Ca.P), 110 benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and 110 matched controls subjects (CG). Using non isotopic enzyme methods of Enzyme Linked Sorbent Assay (ELISA), kits produced from Germany DRG company and sensitive micro plate reader and SPSS and ANOVAS one way statistic programme to analysis the data. So when we compare these three groups with ages, types of cancers, and the IGF-1, PSA, E2 and testosterone parameters, there was significant (p=0.04) and the associations between these hormones parameters was (p=0.01). Also when we compare the IGF-1 levels at 95% of upper quartiles of confidence interval in CG group (180ng/ml) with the IGF-1 levels at 25% of lower quartiles of confidence interval in the (Ca.P) and (BPH) group (165ng/ml) and (134ng/ml) respectively, the CG-IGF-1 group was higher than (Ca.P and BPH) groups at these percentiles, with associations between them of (p=0.05). This apparent discrepancy of the risk fallen to the normal (CG) group can be explained using the risk ratio (RR), odds ratio (OR) and confidence interval (CI) with Ca.P patients groups, (OR 2.4, 95% CI 0.71-7.9) (RR 2.3, 95% C10.7-7.1), showing that the risk fallen to the (CG) group was ten (10) times higher than the known cancer patients of the Ca.P, with significant of (p=0.05). So there were associations between high circulating

  9. Perioperative Search for Circulating Tumor Cells in Patients Undergoing Prostate Brachytherapy for Clinically Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer

    Hideyasu Tsumura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the absence of local prostate cancer recurrence, some patients develop distant metastases after prostate brachytherapy. We evaluate whether prostate brachytherapy procedures have a potential risk for hematogenous spillage of prostate cancer cells. Fifty-nine patients who were undergoing high-dose-rate (HDR or low-dose-rate (LDR brachytherapy participated in this prospective study. Thirty patients with high-risk or locally advanced cancer were treated with HDR brachytherapy after neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT. Twenty-nine patients with clinically localized cancer were treated with LDR brachytherapy without neoadjuvant ADT. Samples of peripheral blood were drawn in the operating room before insertion of needles (preoperative and again immediately after the surgical manipulation (intraoperative. Blood samples of 7.5 mL were analyzed for circulating tumor cells (CTCs using the CellSearch System. While no preoperative samples showed CTCs (0%, they were detected in intraoperative samples in 7 of the 59 patients (11.8%; preoperative vs. intraoperative, p = 0.012. Positive CTC status did not correlate with perioperative variables, including prostate-specific antigen (PSA at diagnosis, use of neoadjuvant ADT, type of brachytherapy, Gleason score, and biopsy positive core rate. We detected CTCs from samples immediately after the surgical manipulation. Further study is needed to evaluate whether those CTCs actually can survive and proliferate at distant sites.

  10. A direct comparison of CellSearch and ISET for circulating tumour-cell detection in patients with metastatic carcinomas

    Farace, F; Massard, C; Vimond, N; Drusch, F; Jacques, N; Billiot, F; Laplanche, A; Chauchereau, A; Lacroix, L; Planchard, D; Le Moulec, S; André, F; Fizazi, K; Soria, J C; Vielh, P

    2011-01-01

    Background: Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) can provide information on patient prognosis and treatment efficacy. However, there is no universal method to detect CTC currently available. Here, we compared the performance of two CTC detection systems based on the expression of the EpCAM antigen (CellSearch assay) or on cell size (ISET assay). Methods: Circulating tumour cells were enumerated in 60 patients with metastatic carcinomas of breast, prostate and lung origins using CellSearch according to the manufacturer's protocol and ISET by studying cytomorphology and immunolabelling with anti-cytokeratin or lineage-specific antibodies. Results: Concordant results were obtained in 55% (11 out of 20) of the patients with breast cancer, in 60% (12 out of 20) of the patients with prostate cancer and in only 20% (4 out of 20) of lung cancer patients. Conclusion: Our results highlight important discrepancies between the numbers of CTC enumerated by both techniques. These differences depend mostly on the tumour type. These results suggest that technologies limiting CTC capture to EpCAM-positive cells, may present important limitations, especially in patients with metastatic lung carcinoma. PMID:21829190

  11. Transitional cell carcinoma express vitamin D receptors

    Hermann, G G; Andersen, C B

    1997-01-01

    Recently, vitamin D analogues have shown antineoplastic effect in several diseases. Vitamin D analogues exert its effect by interacting with the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Studies of VDR in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) have not been reported. The purpose of the present study was therefore.......05). Similarly, also tumor grade appeared to be related to the number of cells expressing the receptor. Normal urothlium also expressed VDR but only with low intensity. Our study shows that TCC cells possess the VDR receptor which may make them capable to respond to stimulation with vitamin D, but functional...... studies of vitamin D's effect on TCC cells in vitro are necessary before the efficacy of treatment with vitamin D analogues in TCC can be evaluated in patients....

  12. Carcinoma basocelular em localizações incomuns Basal cell carcinoma in unusual locations

    Ane Beatriz Mautari Niwa

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam cinco pacientes que desenvolveram carcinomas basocelulares em locais incomuns de ocorrência desse tumor. O objetivo é relatar a raridade topográfica da neoplasia cutânea e discutir o conceito de localização incomum para o carcinoma basocelular.The authors present five patients who develop basal cell carcinomas in sites this tumor rarely occurs. The aim is to report the rare location of this frequent cutaneous malignancy and to briefly discuss the concept of unusual location of basal cell carcinoma.

  13. Osteoblast-secreted collagen upregulates paracrine Sonic hedgehog signaling by prostate cancer cells and enhances osteoblast differentiation

    Zunich Samantha M

    2012-07-01

    inhibitor 3,4-dehydro-L-proline. Conclusions Matrix collagen, formed by osteoblasts in the presence of AA, potentiates Shh signaling between Shh-expressing prostate cancer cells and osteoblasts. Collagen and Shh signaling exert a synergistic effect on osteoblast differentiation, a defining event in prostate carcinoma bone metastasis. Investigations into paracrine interactions among prostate cancer cells, osteoblasts, and osteoblast-synthesized matrix proteins advance our understanding of mechanisms contributing to prostate cancer bone metastasis.

  14. Biomarkers of Prostatic Cancer: An Attempt to Categorize Patients into Prostatic Carcinoma, Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, or Prostatitis Based on Serum Prostate Specific Antigen, Prostatic Acid Phosphatase, Calcium, and Phosphorus

    Shahana Sarwar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostatitis, BPH, and P.Ca are the most frequent pathologies of the prostate gland that are responsible for morbidity in men. Raised levels of PSA are seen in different pathological conditions involving the prostate. PAP levels are altered in inflammatory or infectious or abnormal growth of the prostate tissue. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels were also found to be altered in prostate cancer and BPH. The present study was carried out to study the levels of PSA, PAP, calcium, and phosphorus in serum of patients with Prostatitis, BPH, or P.Ca and also to evaluate the relationship between them. Males in the age group of 50–85 years with LUTS disease symptoms and with PSA levels more than 4 ng/mL were included. A total of 114 patients were analyzed including 30 controls. Prostatitis in 35.7% of cases, BPH in 35.7% of the cases, and P.Ca in 28.57% of the cases were observed. Thus, the nonmalignant cases constitute a majority. PSA, a marker specific for prostatic conditions, was significantly high in all the diseases compared to controls. A rise in serum PSA and PAP indicates prostatitis or, in combination with these two tests, decreased serum calcium shows advanced disease.

  15. Some aspects of the relation between the volume of prostate carcinoma and its interstitial BT volume

    Zivanovic, A; Babic, J; Erak, M.; Dabic, K.; Donat, D.; Kuzmanovic, Z.; Savic, D.

    1996-01-01

    It is a fact that the volume achieved by the interstitial procedure during the brachy treatment of prostate carcinoma is several times smaller than the one we get in, so called, external beam therapy. Furthermore, interstitial brachytherapy offers the possibility to apply large dose into the small volume. However, both dose and volume are at the same time the factors that limit the therapy and the main technical offenders in case of therapy failure. We tried, through a strong individual approach, to compare the volume obtained mathematically and the volume obtained by planning (TPS). By means of clinical examinations and CT scans we conceived a prostate as half of the volume of ellipsoid under one condition only: the magnification of the prostate has to be a symmetrical one. Finally, we applied the following formula: V prostate=(1(2)) ellipsoid=2.09·a/2·e/2·b where a=(1(2)) of sagittal diameter b=prostate height (from apex to base) c=(1(2)) of transversal diameter Each volume obtained in the this way has been taken into account during the application of interstitial needles which in their own way and in accordance to a routine planning, form an active therapeutic interstitial volume. The obtained data showed differences between these two types of volumes. From the statistical point of view, mathematically obtained volume of CV was 16.6% while interstitial volume was 14.9%. T-test was 3.9. On average, mathematical volume is lower and this balance is a desirable one because it means a smaller possibility for potential positive biopsy as a result of a 'rest' tumour. If on the other hand, positive biopsy is a result of the 'rest' tumour and our interpretation has been a contradictory one, precious time with disappointing results will be lost. At the end we achieved: a) double checked control of the embraced volumes, b) stronger fulcrum for the next step: dose-fraction balance

  16. Diagnostic potential of PET/CT using a {sup 68}Ga-labelled prostate-specific membrane antigen ligand in whole-body staging of renal cell carcinoma: initial experience

    Sawicki, Lino M.; Buchbender, Christian; Boos, Johannes; Antoch, Gerald [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Dusseldorf (Germany); Giessing, Markus [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Urology, Dusseldorf (Germany); Ermert, Johannes [Juelich Research Center, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, INM-5: Nuclear Chemistry, Juelich (Germany); Antke, Christina; Hautzel, Hubertus [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Dusseldorf (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic potential of whole-body PET/CT using a {sup 68}Ga-labelled PSMA ligand in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Six patients with histopathologically proven RCC underwent {sup 68}Ga-PSMA PET/CT. Each PET/CT scan was evaluated in relation to lesion count, location and dignity. SUVmax was measured in primary tumours and PET-positive metastases. Tumour-to-background SUVmax ratios (TBR{sub SUVmax}) were calculated for primary RCCs in relation to the surrounding normal renal parenchyma. Metastasis-to-background SUVmax ratios (MBR{sub SUVmax}) were calculated for PET-positive metastases in relation to gluteal muscle. Five primary RCCs and 16 metastases were evaluated. The mean SUVmax of the primary RCCs was 9.9 ± 9.2 (range 1.7 - 27.2). Due to high uptake in the surrounding renal parenchyma, the mean TBR{sub SUVmax} of the primary RCCs was only 0.2 ± 0.3 (range 0.02 - 0.7). Eight metastases showed focal {sup 68}Ga-PSMA uptake (SUVmax 9.9 ± 8.3, range 3.4 - 25.6). The mean MBR{sub SUVmax} of these PET-positive metastases was 11.7 ± 0.2 (range 4.4 - 28.1). All PET-negative metastases were subcentimetre lung metastases. {sup 68}Ga-PSMA PET/CT appears to be a promising method for detecting RCC metastases. However, no additional diagnostic value in assessing the primary tumour was found. (orig.)

  17. Granulomatous prostatitis after intravesical immunotherapy mimicking prostate cancer

    Waldemar Białek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Intravesical immunotherapy with attenuated strains of Mycobacterium bovis is a widely used therapeutic option in patients with non-muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. A rare complication of intravesical therapy with the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine is granulomatous prostatitis, which due to increasing levels of prostate-specific antigen and abnormalities found in transrectal examination of the prostate may suggest concomitant prostate cancer. A case of extensive granulomatous prostatitis in a 61-year-old patient which occurred after the first course of a well-tolerated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy is presented. Due to abnormalities found in rectal examination and an abnormal transrectal ultrasound image of the prostate with extensive infiltration mimicking neoplastic hyperplasia a core biopsy of the prostate was performed. Histopathological examination revealed inflammatory infiltration sites of tuberculosis origin.

  18. Prostate stromal cells express the progesterone receptor to control cancer cell mobility.

    Yue Yu

    Full Text Available Reciprocal interactions between epithelium and stroma play vital roles for prostate cancer development and progression. Enhanced secretions of cytokines and growth factors by cancer associated fibroblasts in prostate tumors create a favorable microenvironment for cancer cells to grow and metastasize. Our previous work showed that the progesterone receptor (PR was expressed specifically in prostate stromal fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells. However, the expression levels of PR and its impact to tumor microenvironment in prostate tumors are poorly understood.Immunohistochemistry assays are applied to human prostate tissue biopsies. Cell migration, invasion and proliferation assays are performed using human prostate cells. Real-time PCR and ELISA are applied to measure gene expression at molecular levels.Immunohistochemistry assays showed that PR protein levels were decreased in cancer associated stroma when compared with paired normal prostate stroma. Using in vitro prostate stromal cell models, we showed that conditioned media collected from PR positive stromal cells inhibited prostate cancer cell migration and invasion, but had minor suppressive impacts on cancer cell proliferation. PR suppressed the secretion of stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1 and interlukin-6 (IL-6 by stromal cells independent to PR ligands. Blocking PR expression by siRNA or supplementation of exogenous SDF-1 or IL-6 to conditioned media from PR positive stromal cells counteracted the inhibitory effects of PR to cancer cell migration and invasion.Decreased expression of the PR in cancer associated stroma may contribute to the elevated SDF-1 and IL-6 levels in prostate tumors and enhance prostate tumor progression.

  19. Pulmonary embolization of permanently implanted radioactive palladium-103 seeds for carcinoma of the prostate

    Nag, Subir; Vivekanandam, Singhavajhala; Martinez-Monge, Rafael

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: It has been reported that permanently implanted iodine-125 seeds can embolize to the lungs. There is little data on the embolization of palladium-103 seeds. The purpose of this study is to collect and evaluate data on the embolization of Pd-103 seeds. Methods and Materials: The records of 112 patients implanted with Pd-103 for carcinoma of the prostate were reviewed to systemically study the incidence and dynamics of pulmonary embolism of Pd-103 seeds. Five patients had no postoperative chest radiograph and were thus excluded, leaving 107 patients for review. Results: Chest radiographs of 19 of the 107 patients showed embolized seeds in the lungs (18%). Two patients had three seeds each, nine patients had two seeds each; and in the remaining eight patients, a single seed migrated to the lungs. The seeds migrated mainly (84%) to the lower lobes. None of the eight patients who had their first postoperative chest radiograph on the day of the implant showed any embolized seeds. The embolized seed appeared only on subsequent chest radiographs taken 27 to 40 days later. Ten of the other 11 patients who had their first radiograph 1 to 97 days after brachytherapy had embolized seeds on their first chest radiograph. In the other patient, the embolized seed appeared only on a subsequent chest radiograph taken after 127 days. There were no clinical pulmonary or cardiac effects evident on routine follow-up of these patients with pulmonary embolized seeds. Conclusion: Embolization of Pd-103 seeds to the lungs after implantation for carcinoma of the prostate is an unusual event. In this study only 0.3% of the seeds implanted migrated to the lungs. Although it was previously thought that pulmonary seed migration mainly occurred on the day of brachytherapy, our experience shows that seeds usually migrated to the lungs after the day of the implant. There were no clinical pulmonary or cardiac effects attributable to embolized seeds in the lungs on routine follow-up

  20. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus.

    Chen, Shao-Bin; Weng, Hong-Rui; Wang, Geng; Yang, Jie-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Ping; Li, Hua; Liu, Di-Tian; Chen, Yu-Ping

    2012-07-01

    Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) of the esophagus is a rare carcinoma with distinct characteristics. No standard treatment has been established. This retrospective study was designed to investigate the clinical and pathological characteristics, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of esophageal BSCC. Clinical data were retrospectively analyzed from 26 patients with pathologically confirmed esophageal BSCC who underwent transthoracic esophagectomy with lymphadenectomy between January 1995 and June 2010 at the Cancer Hospital of Shantou University Medical College. Clinicopathologic data between BSCC patients and different histologic grades of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients were statistically compared by means of the χ(2) test or Fisher's exact test. The Kaplan-Meier and log-rank methods were used to estimate and compare survival rates. Microscopically, BSCC was characterized by a nesting, lobular, or trabecular arrangement of small crowded cells with scant cytoplasm. None of the histologic specimens taken at preoperative esophagoscopy were diagnosed as BSCC. The median survival time (MST) of the 26 patients was 29.0 months (95% confidence interval, 9.0-49.0), and the 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates were 73.1, 42.7, and 36.6%, respectively. The MST for BSCC patients was significantly lower than that of well-differentiated SCC patients (P = 0.024), but there were no significant differences between the MST for BSCC patients and that of moderately or poorly differentiated SCC patients (P > 0.05). BSCC of the esophagus is a rare but distinctive disease and is prone to be misdiagnosed by endoscopic biopsy. The prognosis is poorer than well-differentiated SCC, but similar to moderately or poorly differentiated SCC.

  1. Expression of biomarkers modulating prostate cancer angiogenesis: Differential expression of annexin II in prostate carcinomas from India and USA

    Dinda Amit K

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate cancer (PCa incidences vary with genetic, geographical and ethnic dietary background of patients while angiogenesis is modulated through exquisite interplay of tumor-stromal interactions of biological macromolecules. We hypothesized that comprehensive analysis of four biomarkers modulating angiogenesis in PCa progression in two diverse populations might explain the variance in the incidence rates. Results Immunohistochemical analysis of 42 PCa biopsies reveals that though Anx-II expression is lost in both the Indian and American population with Gleason scores (GS ranging between 6 and 10, up to 25 % of cells in the entire high grade (GS > 8 PD PCa samples from US show intense focal membrane staining for Anx-II unlike similarly graded specimens from India. Consistent with this observation, the prostate cancer cell lines PC-3, DU-145 and MDA PCa 2A, but not LNCaP-R, LNCAP-UR or MDA PCa 2B cell lines, express Anx-II. Transcriptional reactivation of Anx-II gene with Aza-dC could not entirely account for loss of Anx-II protein in primary PCa. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 was moderately expressed in most of high grade PIN and some MD PCa and surrounding stroma. COX-2 was not expressed in PD PCa (GS ~7–10, while adjacent smooth muscles cells stained weakly positive. Decorin expression was observed only in high grade PIN but not in any of the prostate cancers, atrophy or BPH while stromal areas of BPH stained intensively for DCN and decreased with advancing stages of PCa. Versican expression was weak in most of the MD PCa, moderate in all of BPH, moderately focal in PD PC, weak and focal in PIN, atrophy and adjacent stroma. Conclusions Expression of pro- and anti-angiogenic modulators changes with stage of PCa but correlates with angiogenic status. Focal membrane staining of Anx-II reappears in high grade PCa specimens only from US indicating differential expression of Anx-II. COX-2 stained stronger in American specimens

  2. The association between human papillomavirus and oropharyngeal squamous cell Carcinoma

    Walvik, Lena; Svensson, Amanda Björk; Friborg, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    carcinoma using the Bradford Hill criteria. The strength of the association is supported by, detection of human papillomavirus infection and antibodies prior to oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. This is furthermore reinforced by the absence of human papillomavirus DNA in healthy tonsils...... incidence in human papillomavirus positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is associated with sexual behaviour. These associations have been repeatedly observed and are in accordance with our current knowledge. The time relation between cause and effect remains the main challenge, due to the lack...... of well-defined premalignant lesions. However, a causal relationship between human papillomavirus infection and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma seems evident....

  3. Nonsurgical Treatment Options for Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Lien, M. H.; Sondak, V. K.; Sondak, V. K.

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) remains the most common form of non melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in Caucasians, with perhaps as many as 2 million new cases expected to occur in the United States in 2010. Many treatment options, including surgical interventions and nonsurgical alternatives, have been utilized to treat BCC. In this paper, two non-surgical options, imiquimod therapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT), will be discussed. Both modalities have demonstrated acceptable disease control rates, cosmetically superior outcomes, and short-term cost-effectiveness. Further studies evaluating long-term cure rates and long-term cost effectiveness of imiquimod therapy and PDT are needed.

  4. Fanconi anemia and vaginal squamous cell carcinoma

    Jesus Paula Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fanconi Anemia (FA is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by chromosome instability, cellular hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents, and increased predisposition to malignancies. We describe here a 28 year-old female with FA and vaginal squamous cell carcinoma treated by radiation therapy alone. The patient developed arm phlebitis, pulmonary fungal infection, and severe rectal bleeding, followed by hypocalcaemia, hypokalemia, vaginal bacterial and fungal infection, with subsequent leg and arm phlebitis, perineal abscess, and sepsis. The patient died 12 weeks later.

  5. Unilateral Renal Cell Carcinoma in a Dog

    J. Y. Chung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 4-year-old, neutered male, American Cocker Spaniel weighing 8.3 kg was presented with a 1-month history of weight-loss, anorexia, intermittent vomiting and bloody-diarrhea. Abnormal blood tests results, a large mass on the kidney field in radiographic views and ultrasonography were presented. Nephroureterectomy was tried, but a large mass in the kidney and metastasis to the spleen caused to decline the surgery and treatment. The dog was euthanized, and necropsy and histological review revealed the renal cell carcinoma.

  6. Basal cell carcinoma after radiation therapy

    Shimbo, Keisuke; Terashi, Hiroto; Ishida, Yasuhisa; Tahara, Shinya; Osaki, Takeo; Nomura, Tadashi; Ejiri, Hirotaka

    2008-01-01

    We reported two cases of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) that developed after radiation therapy. A 50-year-old woman, who had received an unknown amount of radiation therapy for the treatment of intracranial germinoma at the age of 22, presented with several tumors around the radiation ulcer. All tumors showed BCC. A 33-year-old woman, who had received an unknown amount of radiation therapy on the head for the treatment of leukemia at the age of 2, presented with a black nodule within the area of irradiation. The tumor showed BCC. We discuss the occurrence of BCC after radiation therapy. (author)

  7. Postoperative radiotherapy for merkel cell carcinoma

    Inoue, Kazuya; Asakawa, Isao; Katayama, Emiko; Kajitani, Chikae; Tamamoto, Tetsuro; Hasegawa, Masatoshi; Fukumoto, Takaya; Asada, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    Seven patients with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) who visited our department of radiation oncology from February 2005 to July 2011 received postoperative radiotherapy (50-60 Gy). All patients were alive without recurrence (median follow-up period: 47.6 (14.7-88.4) months). All of them had grade 2 dermatitis, and one grade 2 oral mucositis and three grade 2 lymphedema were observed. No adverse event grade 3 (CTCAE v4.0) or over was observed. In our hospital, clinical results of postoperative radiotherapy for MCC were fairly good, and adverse events were acceptable during the follow-up period. (author)

  8. [Bushen Huoxue Fang promotes the apoptosis of epithelial cells in the prostatic ductal system of rats with benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    Sun, Jie; Li, Qiu-Fen; Tian, Dai-Zhi; Jiang, Shao-Bo; Wu, Xian-De; Qiu, Shun-An; Ren, Xiao-Gang; Li, Yu-Bing

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the effects of Bushen Huoxue Fang (BSHX) on the apoptosis of epithelial cells in the prostatic ductal system of rats with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and its possible action mechanism. One hundred 3- month-old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups of equal number (control, castrated, BPH model, and BSHX). BPH models were made by subcutaneous injection of testosterone following castration; the rats in the BSHX group were treated intragastrically with BSHX at 2.34 g/ml after modeling, while those in the other two groups with equal volume of saline, all for 37 days. On the 38th day, all the rats were sacrificed and their prostates harvested for detection of the distribution of TGF-beta1 and alpha-actin and the count of positive cells in the prostatic ductal system by immunohistochemical staining. The apoptosis rate of epithelial cells in the prostatic ductal system was determined by TUNEL assay. The expression of TGF-beta1 was significantly increased in the rats of the BSHX group as compared with the BPH models in both the proximal prostatic duct ([15.28 +/- 4.30]% vs [36.42 +/- 8.10]%, P epithelial cells in the proximal prostatic duct ([39.42 +/- 9.20]% vs [3.86 +/- 1.34]%, P epithelial cells in the prostatic ductal system was significantly higher in the BSHX-treated rats than in the BPH models (P epithelial cells, and thus effectively inhibit benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  9. Meta-analysis of rates of erectile function after treatment of localized prostate carcinoma

    Robinson, John W.; Moritz, Sabine; Fung, Tak

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The results of a 1997 meta-analysis of the rates of erectile function after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and radical prostatectomy have been widely used in patient and professional education materials and as a reference against which new findings are compared. With a number of recent publications, it is now possible to update this analysis and compare brachytherapy with or without EBRT with EBRT alone, standard and nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy, and cryotherapy. Methods: A comprehensive literature review and subsequent meta-analysis of the rates of erectile dysfunction associated with the treatments of localized prostate carcinoma was conducted. A simple logistic regression analysis was used to combine the data from the 54 articles that met the selection criteria. Results: The predicted probability of maintaining erectile function after brachytherapy was 0.76, after brachytherapy plus EBRT 0.60, after EBRT 0.55, after nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy 0.34, after standard radical prostatectomy 0.25, and after cryotherapy 0.13. When only studies reporting ≥2 years follow-up were considered, the only significant change was a decline in the probability for nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy. No brachytherapy studies had a follow-up of ≥2 years. When the probabilities were adjusted for age, the spread between the RT methods and surgical approaches was greater. Conclusion: The differences in the probability of maintaining erectile function after different treatments of localized prostate cancer are significant

  10. External beam radiotherapy for carcinoma of the prostate: a retrospective study

    Mithal, N.P.; Hoskin, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    Two hundred and thirty-seven consecutive patients receiving radiotherapy for primary prostatic carcinoma have been reviewed. The presenting symptoms included acute retention, chronic outflow obstruction and haematuria. The diagnosis was confirmed at trans-urethral resection of the prostate (TURP) in 95%; all but seven patients had adenocarcinoma. The clinical stage at presentation was T 0 (3%), T 1 (9%), T 2 (49%), T 3 (21%) and T 4 (17%). Two hundred and six patients received primary radiotherapy, 38 had concurrent endocrine therapy. Local relapse alone occurred in 38 patients (16%), distant relapse alone occurred in 30 (13%), and both local and distant relapse occurred in 30 (13%). Median time to local relapse alone was 25 months, distant relapse alone 14 months, and local and distant relapse 22 months. Overall survival was related to stage and grade at presentation. No influence of endocrine therapy, dose or planning technique was seen, but a significant advantage for those patients treated using a planned volume compared with parallel opposed fields was observed. Acute radiation toxicity affecting the bladder occurred in 42% and the bowel in 45%. Late toxicity affecting the bladder occurred in 7% and the bowel in 2%. (author)

  11. Preoperative irradiation, lymphadenectomy, and 125iodine implantation for patients with localized carcinoma of the prostate

    DeLaney, T.F.; Shipley, W.U.; O'Leary, M.P.; Biggs, P.J.; Prout, G.R. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Fifty-four patients with clinically and surgically localized prostatic carcinoma were treated with low-dose preoperative irradiation (1050 cGy), pelvic lymphadenectomy, and interstitial 125 Iodine implantation. The follow-up range is 2 to 9 years with a median follow-up of 5 years. Overall local tumor control is 92%. Actuarial 5-year survival is 86% and the actuarial disease-free survival at 5 years is 73%. Patients with poorly differentiated tumors have a significantly worse actuarial survival (62%) at 5 years than patients with well (95%) or moderately well differentiated tumors (93%), p = 0.04. Disease-free survival at 5 years was influenced by grade: well (100%), moderate (60%), and poor (48%), p = 0.03. Multivariate regression analysis indicates that only the degree of differentiation (p = 0.05) significantly impacts on survival. Both degree of differentiation (p = 0.04) and nodal status (p = 0.03) significantly influence disease-free survival. Potency has been maintained in 71% of patients potent at the time of implantation. Late reactions have been acceptable to date: bladder outlet obstruction (13%), mild proctitis (13%), cystourethritis (6%), incontinence (2%), and prostatic calculi (2%)

  12. Challenges in Optimizing a Prostate Carcinoma Binding Peptide, Identified through the Phage Display Technology

    Jürgen Debus

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The transfer of peptides identified through the phage display technology to clinical applications is difficult. Major drawbacks are the metabolic degradation and label instability. The aim of our work is the optimization of DUP-1, a peptide which was identified by phage display to specifically target human prostate carcinoma. To investigate the influence of chelate conjugation, DOTA was coupled to DUP-1 and labeling was performed with 111In. To improve serum stability cyclization of DUP-1 and targeted D-amino acid substitution were carried out. Alanine scanning was performed for identification of the binding site and based on the results peptide fragments were chemically synthesized. The properties of modified ligands were investigated in in vitro binding and competition assays. In vivo biodistribution studies were carried out in mice, carrying human prostate tumors subcutaneously. DOTA conjugation resulted in different cellular binding kinetics, rapid in vivo renal clearance and increased tumor-to-organ ratios. Cyclization and D-amino acid substitution increased the metabolic stability but led to binding affinity decrease. Fragment investigation indicated that the sequence NRAQDY might be significant for target-binding. Our results demonstrate challenges in optimizing peptides, identified through phage display libraries, and show that careful investigation of modified derivatives is necessary in order to improve their characteristics.

  13. Relevance of prostate cancer in patients with synchronous invasive bladder urothelial carcinoma: a monocentric retrospective analysis

    Lucio Dell’Atti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We retrospectively reviewed data of patients with incidental prostate cancer (PCa who underwent radical cystoprostatectomy (RCP for invasive bladder cancer and we analyzed their features with regard to incidence, pathologic characteristics, clinical significance, and implications for management. Material and Methods: Clinical data and pathological features of 64 patients who underwent standard RCP for bladder cancer were included in this study. Besides the urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder, the location and tumor volume of the PCa, prostate apex involvement, Gleason score, pathological staging and surgical margins were evaluated. Clinically significant PCa was defined as a tumor with a Gleason 4 or 5 pattern, stage ≥ pT3, lymph node involvement, positive surgical margin or multifocality of three or more lesions. Postoperative follow-up was scheduled every 3 months in the first year, every 6 months in the second and third year, annually thereafter. Results: 11 out of 64 patients (17.2% who underwent RCP had incidentally diagnosed PCa. 3 cases (27.3% were diagnosed as significant PCa, while 8 cases (72.7% were clinically insignificant. The positive surgical margin of PCa was detected in 1 patient with significant disease. The prostate apex involvement was present in 1 patient of the significant PCa group. Median follow-up period was 47.8 ± 29.2 (range 4-79. During the follow-up, biochemical recurrence occurred in 1 patient (9%. Concernig the cancer specific survival there was no statistical significance (P = 0.326 between the clinically significant and clinical insignificant cancer group. Conclusions: In line with published studies, incidental PCa does not impact on the prognosis of bladder cancer of patients undergoing RCP.

  14. Honokiol, a constituent of Magnolia species, inhibits adrenergic contraction of human prostate strips and induces stromal cell death

    Daniel Herrmann

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: Honokiol inhibits smooth muscle contraction in the human prostate, and induces cell death in cultured stromal cells. Because prostate smooth muscle tone and prostate growth may cause LUTS, it appears possible that honokiol improves voiding symptoms.

  15. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater.

    Beggs, Rachel E

    2012-09-01

    Large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of the ampulla of Vater are rare and confer a very poor prognosis despite aggressive therapy. There are few case reports of large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of the ampulla of Vater in the literature and to date no studies have been done to establish optimal management. We describe a pooled case series from published reports of neuroendocrine carcinomas of the ampulla of Vater including a case which presented to our institution.

  16. Hürthle cell carcinoma: current perspectives

    Ahmadi S

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sara Ahmadi,1 Michael Stang,2 Xiaoyin “Sara” Jiang,3 Julie Ann Sosa2,4,5 1Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, 2Section of Endocrine Surgery, Department of Surgery, 3Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, 4Duke Cancer Institute, 5Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: Hürthle cell carcinoma (HCC can present either as a minimally invasive or as a widely invasive tumor. HCC generally has a more aggressive clinical behavior compared with the other differentiated thyroid cancers, and it is associated with a higher rate of distant metastases. Minimally invasive HCC demonstrates much less aggressive behavior; lesions <4 cm can be treated with thyroid lobectomy alone, and without radioactive iodine (RAI. HCC has been observed to be less iodine-avid compared with other differentiated thyroid cancers; however, recent data have demonstrated improved survival with RAI use in patients with HCC >2 cm and those with nodal and distant metastases. Patients with localized iodine-resistant disease who are not candidates for a wait-and-watch approach can be treated with localized therapies. Systemic therapy is reserved for patients with progressive, widely metastatic HCC. Keywords: thyroid cancer, thyroid nodule, follicular cell carcinoma, Hurthle cell lesion, minimally invasive HCC

  17. Merkel cell polyomavirus infection and Merkel cell carcinoma.

    Liu, Wei; MacDonald, Margo; You, Jianxin

    2016-10-01

    Merkel cell polyomavirus is the only polyomavirus discovered to date that is associated with a human cancer. MCPyV infection is highly prevalent in the general population. Nearly all healthy adults asymptomatically shed MCPyV from their skin. However, in elderly and immunosuppressed individuals, the infection can lead to a lethal form of skin cancer, Merkel cell carcinoma. In the last few years, new findings have established links between MCPyV infection, host immune response, and Merkel cell carcinoma development. This review discusses these recent discoveries on how MCPyV interacts with host cells to achieve persistent infection and, in the immunocompromised population, contributes to MCC development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cell-autonomous intracellular androgen receptor signaling drives the growth of human prostate cancer initiating cells.

    Vander Griend, Donald J; D'Antonio, Jason; Gurel, Bora; Antony, Lizamma; Demarzo, Angelo M; Isaacs, John T

    2010-01-01

    The lethality of prostate cancer is due to the continuous growth of cancer initiating cells (CICs) which are often stimulated by androgen receptor (AR) signaling. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) for such AR-mediated growth stimulation are not fully understood. Such mechanisms may involve cancer cell-dependent induction of tumor stromal cells to produce paracrine growth factors or could involve cancer cell autonomous autocrine and/or intracellular AR signaling pathways. We utilized clinical samples, animal models and a series of AR-positive human prostate cancer cell lines to evaluate AR-mediated growth stimulation of prostate CICs. The present studies document that stromal AR expression is not required for prostate cancer growth, since tumor stroma surrounding AR-positive human prostate cancer metastases (N = 127) are characteristically AR-negative. This lack of a requirement for AR expression in tumor stromal cells is also documented by the fact that human AR-positive prostate cancer cells grow equally well when xenografted in wild-type versus AR-null nude mice. AR-dependent growth stimulation was documented to involve secretion, extracellular binding, and signaling by autocrine growth factors. Orthotopic xenograft animal studies documented that the cellautonomous autocrine growth factors which stimulate prostate CIC growth are not the andromedins secreted by normal prostate stromal cells. Such cell autonomous and extracellular autocrine signaling is necessary but not sufficient for the optimal growth of prostate CICs based upon the response to anti-androgen plus/or minus preconditioned media. AR-induced growth stimulation of human prostate CICs requires AR-dependent intracellular pathways. The identification of such AR-dependent intracellular pathways offers new leads for the development of effective therapies for prostate cancer. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Immunotherapy in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Comprehensive Review

    Rachna Raman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC is often curable by surgery alone. However, metastatic RCC is generally incurable. In the 1990s, immunotherapy in the form of cytokines was the mainstay of treatment for metastatic RCC. However, responses were seen in only a minority of highly selected patients with substantial treatment-related toxicities. The advent of targeted agents such as vascular endothelial growth factor tyrosine kinase inhibitors VEGF-TKIs and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitors led to a change in this paradigm due to improved response rates and progression-free survival, a better safety profile, and the convenience of oral administration. However, most patients ultimately progress with about 12% being alive at 5 years. In contrast, durable responses lasting 10 years or more are noted in a minority of those treated with cytokines. More recently, an improved overall survival with newer forms of immunotherapy in other malignancies (such as melanoma and prostate cancer has led to a resurgence of interest in immune therapies in metastatic RCC. In this review we discuss the rationale for immunotherapy and recent developments in immunotherapeutic strategies for treating metastatic RCC.

  20. Proliferation of Prostate Stromal Cell Induced by Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Epithelial Cell Stimulated With Trichomonas vaginalis via Crosstalk With Mast Cell.

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Sang-Su; Han, Ik-Hwan; Sim, Seobo; Ahn, Myoung-Hee; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2016-11-01

    Chronic inflammation has a role in the pathogenesis of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer. Mast cells have been detected in chronic inflammatory infiltrate of the prostate, and it is possible that the interaction between prostate epithelial cells and Trichomonas vaginalis influences the activity of mast cells in the prostate stroma. Activated mast cells might influence the biological functions of nearby tissues and cells. In this study, we investigated whether mast cells reacted with the culture supernatant of BPH epithelial cells infected with T. vaginalis may induce the proliferation of prostate stromal cells. To measure the proliferation of prostate stromal cells in response to chronic inflammation caused by the infection of BPH-1 cells with T. vaginalis, the CCK-8 assay and wound healing assay were used. ELISAs, quantitative real-time PCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence were used to measure the production and expression of inflammatory cytokine and cytokine receptor. BPH-1 cells incubated with live trichomonads produced increased levels of CCL2, IL-1β, IL-6, and CXCL8, and induced the migration of mast cells and monocytes. When the culture supernatant of BPH-1 cells stimulated with trichomonads (TCM) was added to mast cells, they became activated, as confirmed by release of β-hexosaminidase and CXCL8. Prostate stromal cells incubated with the culture supernatant of mast cells activated with TCM (M-TCM) proliferated and expressed increased levels of CXCL8, CCL2, and the cytokine receptors CXCR1 and CCR2. Blocking the chemokine receptors reduced the proliferation of stromal cells and also decreased the production of CXCL8 and CCL2. Moreover, the expression of FGF2, cyclin D1, and Bcl-2 was increased in the proliferated stromal cells stimulated with M-TCM. Additionally, the M-TCM-treated stromal cells were more invasive than control cells. The inflammatory mediators released by BPH epithelial cells in response to infection by

  1. 3-Bromopyruvate induces rapid human prostate cancer cell death by affecting cell energy metabolism, GSH pool and the glyoxalase system.

    Valenti, Daniela; Vacca, Rosa A; de Bari, Lidia

    2015-12-01

    3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) is an anti-tumour drug effective on hepatocellular carcinoma and other tumour cell types, which affects both glycolytic and mitochondrial targets, depleting cellular ATP pool. Here we tested 3-BP on human prostate cancer cells showing, differently from other tumour types, efficient ATP production and functional mitochondrial metabolism. We found that 3-BP rapidly induced cultured androgen-insensitive (PC-3) and androgen-responsive (LNCaP) prostate cancer cell death at low concentrations (IC(50) values of 50 and 70 μM, respectively) with a multimodal mechanism of action. In particular, 3-BP-treated PC-3 cells showed a selective, strong reduction of glyceraldeide 3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, due to the direct interaction of the drug with the enzyme. Moreover, 3-BP strongly impaired both glutamate/malate- and succinate-dependent mitochondrial respiration, membrane potential generation and ATP synthesis, concomitant with the inhibition of respiratory chain complex I, II and ATP synthase activities. The drastic reduction of cellular ATP levels and depletion of GSH pool, associated with significant increase in cell oxidative stress, were found after 3-BP treatment of PC-3 cells. Interestingly, the activity of both glyoxalase I and II, devoted to the elimination of the cytotoxic methylglyoxal, was strongly inhibited by 3-BP. Both N-acetylcysteine and aminoguanidine, GSH precursor and methylglyoxal scavenger, respectively, prevented 3-BP-induced PC-3 cell death, showing that impaired cell antioxidant and detoxifying capacities are crucial events leading to cell death. The provided information on the multi-target cytotoxic action of 3-BP, finally leading to PC-3 cell necrosis, might be useful for future development of 3-BP as a therapeutic option for prostate cancer treatment.

  2. Castration-Resistant Lgr5+ Cells Are Long-Lived Stem Cells Required for Prostatic Regeneration

    Bu-er Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The adult prostate possesses a significant regenerative capacity that is of great interest for understanding adult stem cell biology. We demonstrate that leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5 is expressed in a rare population of prostate epithelial progenitor cells, and a castration-resistant Lgr5+ population exists in regressed prostate tissue. Genetic lineage tracing revealed that Lgr5+ cells and their progeny are primarily luminal. Lgr5+ castration-resistant cells are long lived and upon regeneration, both luminal Lgr5+ cells and basal Lgr5+ cells expand. Moreover, single Lgr5+ cells can generate multilineage prostatic structures in renal transplantation assays. Additionally, Lgr5+ cell depletion revealed that the regenerative potential of the castrated adult prostate depends on Lgr5+ cells. Together, these data reveal insights into the cellular hierarchy of castration-resistant Lgr5+ cells, indicate a requirement for Lgr5+ cells during prostatic regeneration, and identify an Lgr5+ adult stem cell population in the prostate.

  3. Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Stomach: A Rare Entity ...

    Schmidt C, Schmid A, Lüttges JE, Kremer B, Henne-Bruns D. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach. Report of a case and review of literature. Hepatogastroenterology 2001;48:1033-6. 5. Muto M, Hasebe T, Muro K, Boku N, Ohtsu A, Fujii T, et al. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach: A case report with ...

  4. Amyloid in basal cell carcinoma and seborrheic keratosis

    Olsen, K E; Westermark, Per

    1994-01-01

    The frequency of amyloid substance was studied in two different types of skin tumours: basal cell carcinoma and seborrheic keratosis. In 9 out of 49 cases of seborrheic keratosis amyloid substance was found. In the basal cell carcinomas, 194 out of 260 cases showed amyloid deposits, a rate...

  5. Squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva in Ilorin, Nigeria ...

    The aim was to determine the incidence of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma at UITH over an 11 – year period. Nineteen patients (11males and 8 females) had histological confirmation of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma out of 21 conjunctival specimens, representing 22.9% of all orbito-ocular tumours reviewed ...

  6. induced acute cytotoxicity in human cervical epithelial carcinoma cells

    Molecular basis of arsenite (As +3 )-induced acute cytotoxicity in human cervical epithelial carcinoma cells. ... Libyan Journal of Medicine ... Methods: After performing cytotoxic assays on a human epithelial carcinoma cell line, expression analysis was done by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and ...

  7. Neuroendocrine cells during human prostate development: does neuroendocrine cell density remain constant during fetal as well as postnatal life?

    Xue, Y.; van der Laak, J.; Smedts, F.; Schoots, C.; Verhofstad, A.; de la Rosette, J.; Schalken, J.

    2000-01-01

    Knowledge concerning differentiation of neuroendocrine (NE) cells during development of the human prostate is rather fragmentary. Using immunohistochemistry combined with a morphometric method, we investigated the distribution and density of NE cells in the developing human prostate, with special

  8. Primary peritoneal clear cell carcinoma versus ovarian carcinoma versus malignant transformation of endometriosis: a vexing issue.

    Insabato, Luigi; Natella, Valentina; Somma, Anna; Persico, Marcello; Camera, Luigi; Losito, Nunzia Simona; Masone, Stefania

    2015-05-01

    Peritoneum is a site for both primary and secondary tumors. Primary peritoneal tumors are fairly rare. The most common primary tumors of the peritoneum are malignant mesothelioma and serous papillary adenocarcinoma. Clear cell carcinoma of the peritoneum is extremely rare and often misdiagnosed as mesothelioma, serous carcinoma, or metastatic adenocarcinoma, so it represents a diagnostic challenge for both clinicians and pathologists. Up to date, to the best of our knowledge, only 11 cases of primary peritoneal clear cell carcinoma have been reported in the English literature. Distinguishing this tumor of the peritoneum versus ovarian carcinoma can be problematic. Herein, we report a rare case of primary peritoneal clear cell carcinoma occurring in a 49-year-old woman, along with a review of the literature. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Rising incidence of Merkel cell carcinoma

    Lyhne, Dorte; Lock-Andersen, Jørgen; Dahlstrøm, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive, skin cancer of obscure histogenesis, the incidence of which is rising. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the staging, investigation, treatment, and follow-up of MCC in eastern Denmark, and to investi......Abstract Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive, skin cancer of obscure histogenesis, the incidence of which is rising. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the staging, investigation, treatment, and follow-up of MCC in eastern Denmark......, and to investigate the incidence. We suggest guidelines for treatment. First we reviewed the medical records of 51 patients diagnosed with MCC from 1995 until 2006 in eastern Denmark. The nation-wide incidence of MCC was extracted from the Danish Cancer Registry for the calculations for the period 1986-2003. We...... reviwed published papers about MCC based on a MEDLINE search. Fourteen of the 51 patients developed recurrence, and 37 (73%) died during the study period. Mean follow-up was 13 months (range 1-122). A total of 153 patients were identified in the Danish Cancer Registry, and showed that incidence rates had...

  10. Treatment of early glottic squamous cell carcinoma

    Rikimaru, Fumihide; Matsuo, Mioko; Higaki, Yuichiro; Tomita, Kichinobu

    2011-01-01

    We treat early glottic squamous cell carcinoma with chemoradiation and evaluate the effects of the chemoradiation at the dose of 30-40 Gy as an intermediate evaluation. To investigate the need for this intermediate evaluation, we retrospectively analyzed 97 patients, 92 men and 5 women aged 36 to 86 years, with glottic squamous cell carcinoma at stage I and II treated at our institution from January 2000 to May 2007. The three-year survival rate was 98% in all cases, 100% in T1a, 93% in T1b and 94% in T2. The three-year preservation rate of the larynx was 92% in all cases, 98% in T1a, 93% in T1b and 83% in T2. In the intermediate evaluation, complete response was 78% in T1a, 85% in T1b and 53% in T2. In cases of larynx preservation, the recurrence rate of the primary site was significantly higher in cases without complete response in the intermediate evaluation than in cases with complete response (p<0.05). It seemed that the not complete response case in the intermediate evaluation paid attention to a primary tumor recurrence in particular and needed careful follow-up. (author)

  11. Isorhynchophylline, a Potent Plant Alkaloid, Induces Apoptotic and Anti-Metastatic Effects in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells through the Modulation of Diverse Cell Signaling Cascades.

    Lee, Hanwool; Baek, Seung Ho; Lee, Jong Hyun; Kim, Chulwon; Ko, Jeong-Hyeon; Lee, Seok-Geun; Chinnathambi, Arunachalam; Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Yang, Woong Mo; Um, Jae-Young; Sethi, Gautam; Ahn, Kwang Seok

    2017-05-19

    Isorhynchophylline (Rhy) is an active pharmacological component of Uncaria rhynchophylla that has been reported previously to exert significant antihypertensive and neuroprotective effects. However, very little is known about its potential anti-cancer activities. This study was carried out to evaluate the anticancer effects of Rhy against various human carcinoma cell lines. We found that Rhy exhibited substantial cytotoxic effect against human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells when compared with other human carcinoma cell lines including those of lung, pancreas, prostate, head and neck, breast, multiple myeloma, brain and renal cell carcinoma. Rhy induced apoptosis as characterized by accumulation of cells in sub G1 phase; positive Annexin V binding; activation of caspase-8, -9, and -3; and cleavage of PARP (poly-ADP ribose polymerase). This effect of Rhy correlated with the down-regulation of various proteins that mediated cell proliferation, cell survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Moreover, cell proliferation, migration, and constitutive CXCR4 (C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4), MMP-9 (Matrix metallopeptidase-9), and MMP-2 expression were inhibited upon Rhy treatment. We further investigated the effect of Rhy on the oncogenic cell signaling cascades through phospho-kinase array profiling assay. Rhy was found to abrogate phospho-p38, ERK, JNK, CREB, c-Jun, Akt, and STAT3 signals, but interestingly enhanced phospho-p53 signal. Overall, our results indicate, for the first time, that Rhy could exert anticancer and anti-metastatic effects through regulation of multiple signaling cascades in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

  12. Sildenafil (Viagra) sensitizes prostate cancer cells to doxorubicin-mediated apoptosis through CD95

    Das, Anindita; Durrant, David; Mitchell, Clint; Dent, Paul; Batra, Surinder K.; Kukreja, Rakesh C.

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that Sildenafil enhances apoptosis and antitumor efficacy of doxorubicin (DOX) while attenuating its cardiotoxic effect in prostate cancer. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism by which sildenafil sensitizes DOX in killing of prostate cancer (PCa) cells, DU145. The death receptor Fas (APO-1 or CD95) induces apoptosis in many carcinoma cells, which is negatively regulated by anti-apoptotic molecules such as FLIP (Fas-associated death domain (FADD) interleukin-1-converting enzyme (FLICE)-like inhibitory protein). Co-treatment of PCa cells with sildenafil and DOX for 48 hours showed reduced expression of both long and short forms of FLIP (FLIP-L and -S) as compared to individual drug treatment. Over-expression of FLIP-s with an adenoviral vector attentuated the enhanced cell-killing effect of DOX and sildenafil. Colony formation assays also confirmed that FLIP-S over-expression inhibited the DOX and sildenafil-induced synergistic killing effect as compared to the cells infected with an empty vector. Moreover, siRNA knock-down of CD95 abolished the effect of sildenafil in enhancing DOX lethality in cells, but had no effect on cell killing after treatment with a single agent. Sildenafil co-treatment with DOX inhibited DOX-induced NF-κB activity by reducing phosphorylation of IκB and nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit, in addition to down regulation of FAP-1 (Fas associated phosphatase-1, a known inhibitor of CD95-mediated apoptosis) expression. This data provides evidence that the CD95 is a key regulator of sildenafil and DOX mediated enhanced cell death in prostate cancer. PMID:26716643

  13. Nuclear/Nucleolar morphometry and DNA image cytometry as a combined diagnostic tool in pathology of prostatic carcinoma

    Kavantzas, N.; Agapitos, E.; Lazaris, A. C.; Pavlopulos, P.M.; Sofikitis, N.; Davaris, P. [National University of Athens, Dept. of Pathology, Medical School, Athens (Greece)

    2001-12-01

    Paraffin tissue sections from 50 patients with prostate adenocarcinoma were used to study nuclear and nucleolar morphometric features by image analysis. The results were compared to DNA ploidy and Gleason grade. In the examined histological samples nuclear and nucleolar areas were positively interrelated. It was also noticed that the higher the percentage of nucleolated nuclei, the bigger the nuclear and nucleolar areas. The morphometric characteristics did not differ significantly among the four grades of the examined specimens. In well-differentiated carcinomas the DNA index was lower than in the rest at a statistically significant level. Hypodiploid carcinomas were found to possess significantly bigger nuclear areas than any other DNA index group. Morphonuclear evidence of anaplasia and DNA aneuploidy may be used as diagnostic tools in prostate cancer in addition to Gleason grade.

  14. Nuclear/Nucleolar morphometry and DNA image cytometry as a combined diagnostic tool in pathology of prostatic carcinoma

    Kavantzas, N.; Agapitos, E.; Lazaris, A. C.; Pavlopulos, P.M.; Sofikitis, N.; Davaris, P.

    2001-01-01

    Paraffin tissue sections from 50 patients with prostate adenocarcinoma were used to study nuclear and nucleolar morphometric features by image analysis. The results were compared to DNA ploidy and Gleason grade. In the examined histological samples nuclear and nucleolar areas were positively interrelated. It was also noticed that the higher the percentage of nucleolated nuclei, the bigger the nuclear and nucleolar areas. The morphometric characteristics did not differ significantly among the four grades of the examined specimens. In well-differentiated carcinomas the DNA index was lower than in the rest at a statistically significant level. Hypodiploid carcinomas were found to possess significantly bigger nuclear areas than any other DNA index group. Morphonuclear evidence of anaplasia and DNA aneuploidy may be used as diagnostic tools in prostate cancer in addition to Gleason grade

  15. Late effects of radiation therapy for prostate carcinoma: The patient`s perspective of bladder, bowel and sexual morbidity

    Franklin, C.I.V.; Parker, C.A.; Morton, K.M. [Queensland Radium Institute, Herston, QLD (Australia)

    1998-02-01

    The patients` perceptions of the late effects of radiation therapy for carcinoma of the prostate on bladder, bowel and sexual function were determined by using a self-administered questionnaire (included as an appendix) which was posted in June 1996 to patients who had been treated for carcinoma of the prostate between February 1993 and April 1994 at the Herston centre of the Queensland Radium Institute. The questions were based on the SOMA-LENT subjective scales. Moderate bladder morbidity was reported by 15% of patients, with 2% reporting major morbidity. Moderate bowel morbidity was reported by 19% of patients with 2% reporting major morbidity, the major symptoms being bowel urgency and mucus discharge. Sexual function was a problem, with 72% of patients reporting dissatisfaction with their current level of sexual activity. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 12 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  16. Late effects of radiation therapy for prostate carcinoma: The patient's perspective of bladder, bowel and sexual morbidity

    Franklin, C.I.V.; Parker, C.A.; Morton, K.M.

    1998-01-01

    The patients' perceptions of the late effects of radiation therapy for carcinoma of the prostate on bladder, bowel and sexual function were determined by using a self-administered questionnaire (included as an appendix) which was posted in June 1996 to patients who had been treated for carcinoma of the prostate between February 1993 and April 1994 at the Herston centre of the Queensland Radium Institute. The questions were based on the SOMA-LENT subjective scales. Moderate bladder morbidity was reported by 15% of patients, with 2% reporting major morbidity. Moderate bowel morbidity was reported by 19% of patients with 2% reporting major morbidity, the major symptoms being bowel urgency and mucus discharge. Sexual function was a problem, with 72% of patients reporting dissatisfaction with their current level of sexual activity. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  17. Airway Basal Cell Heterogeneity and Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Hynds, Robert E; Janes, Sam M

    2017-09-01

    Basal cells are stem/progenitor cells that maintain airway homeostasis, enact repair following epithelial injury, and are a candidate cell-of-origin for lung squamous cell carcinoma. Heterogeneity of basal cells is recognized in terms of gene expression and differentiation capacity. In this Issue, Pagano and colleagues isolate a subset of immortalized basal cells that are characterized by high motility, suggesting that they might also be heterogeneous in their biophysical properties. Motility-selected cells displayed an increased ability to colonize the lung in vivo The possible implications of these findings are discussed in terms of basal cell heterogeneity, epithelial cell migration, and modeling of metastasis that occurs early in cancer evolution. Cancer Prev Res; 10(9); 491-3. ©2017 AACR See related article by Pagano et al., p. 514 . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Which Are the Cells of Origin in Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Tilling, T.; Moll, I.

    2012-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a highly aggressive skin tumour with increasing incidence, is associated with the newly discovered Merkel cell polyoma virus (MCPyV). Studies on MCC and MCPyV as well as other risk factors have significantly increased our knowledge of MCC pathogenesis, but the cells of origin, which could be important targets in future therapies, are still unknown. Merkel cells (MCs), the neuroendocrine cells of the skin, were believed to be at the origin of MCC due to their phenotypic similarities. However, for several reasons, for example, heterogeneous differentiation of MCCs and post mitotic character of MCs, it is not very likely that MCC develops from differentiated MCs. Skin stem cells, probably from the epidermal lineage, are more likely to be cells of origin in MCC. Future studies will have to address these questions more directly in order to identify the physiological cells which are transformed to MCC cells.

  19. Squamous cell carcinoma following radiation therapy for the infiltrative thymoma

    Ozawa, Shinji; Kitao, Takeshi

    1992-01-01

    This report represents one case of infiltrative thymoma followed by squamous cell carcinoma of the lungs. A 69-year-old man suffered from infiltrative thymoma which reduced by the radiation therapy. Seven years later its replase and the onset of squamous cell carcinoma were found simultaneously. Infiltrative thymoma metastasized not only to the mediastinum but also to the liver and bronchus. Squamous cell carcinoma developed in the right upper lobe. In spite of chemotherapy against them, the patient died. There are many cases in which infiltrative thymoma is accompanied by squamous cell carcinoma of the lung simultaneously; however, secondary onset of squamous cell carcinoma after the radiation therapy of infiltrative thymoma is rare. Secondary carcinogenesis of this case was considered to be closely related with immunological abnormalities caused by thymoma, effects of radiation, smoking and so on. (author)

  20. CT staging of renal cell carcinoma

    Spina, Juan C.; Garcia, Adriana T.; Rogondino, Jose; Spina, Juan C. h; Vidales, Valeria; Troiani, Guillermo; Iotti, Alejandro; Venditti, Julio

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess the usefulness of computerized tomography (CT) in the characterization of renal masses, in order to stage them, determine their prognosis and their appropriate clinical and/or surgical management. Material and Methods: Between 1988 and 2001, we selected 63 patients with renal tumors that had been examined by pathology. Patient's ages ranged from 16 to 88 years (25 women, 38 men). The studies were performed with a sequential helical CT, using 5 mm thickness sections every 5mm evaluating the cortico medullar and nephrographic phases. Renal tumors were characterized and staged without any knowledge about the pathological findings; subsequently the tomographic characteristics were compared to such findings. The following characteristics were evaluated: 1) mixed solid-cystic nature; 2) size; 3) borders; 4) enhancement; 5) necrosis; 6) hemorrhage; 7) central scar; 8) presence of fat; 9) collecting system; 10) capsular invasion; 11) perirenal fat invasion; 12) vessels; 13) Gerota's fascia; 14) lymph nodes; and 15) local and/or distant metastases. Results: Of the 63 tumors, 2 were complicated cysts; of the 61 remaining tumors, 10 were angiomyolipomas, 1 was a renal lymphoma, 1 was a focal xantogranulomatose pyelonephritis, 1 was a metanephric adenoma, 3 papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC), 4 transitional cell tumors, 4 oncocytomas, 37 clear cell renal carcinoma. The CT could correctly characterize the 2 cystic tumors as such, as well as the 9 angiomyolipomas and the 4 transitional cell tumors. The 48 other tumors (1 angiomyolipoma, 1 lymphoma, 1 focal xantogranulomatose pyelonephritis, 1 metanephric adenoma, 3 papillary RCC, 4 oncocytomas, and 37 cell renal carcinomas) remaining were characterized as renal adenocarcinomas and CT staged. Conclusion: CT is a useful method to characterize renal masses since it determines their solid-cystic or fatty structure; aiding in many cases to define a surgical treatment. For the CT staging of renal tumors, the

  1. Long-term outcome of radical radiation therapy for prostatic carcinoma: 1967-1987

    Hahn, Per; Baral, Edward; Cheang, Mary; Math, M.; Kostyra, Jeri; Roelss, Randall

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: This study was done to review long-term results of radical radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: The records of 674 patients with Stage T1a, T1b, T2a, T2b, T3, and any T,N1,M0 disease, treated with external beam radiotherapy between January 1, 1967 and December 1987, were reviewed. These patients were treated to an average total dose of 66 Gy, with an average fractional dose of 2.05 Gy, using megavoltage. The duration of follow-up for surviving patients ranged from a minimum of 7 years to more than 20 years. Results: The survival for 151 Stage T1a,T1b patients was 98.5% at 5 years, 93.6% at 10 years, and 75.2% at 15 years. Survival for 346 Stage T2a,b patients was 94.4% at 5 years, 67.9% at 10 years, and 41.5% at 15 years. Survival for 92 Stage T3 patients was 87.3% at 5 years, 54% at 10 years, and 26.6% at 15 years. The survival for 85 any T,N1,M0 patients was 73.9% at 5 years, 34.4% at 10 years, and 8.5% at 15 years. At 15 years, 75.2% of Stage T1a,b patients, 41.5% of Stage T2a,b patients, 21.7% of Stage T3 patients, and 8.5% of Stage T,N1,M0 patients remained free of local recurrence and distant metastases. The elevation of prostatic acid phosphatase prior to radiotherapy was an unfavorable prognostic factor, with impact on both loco-regional recurrences and survival. Conclusions: The external beam radiotherapy for localized carcinoma of the prostate produced a good loco-regional control, NED, and overall survival. Patients with smaller tumors and low grade fared better than the ones with more aggressive and/or bulky tumors. The weakness of this study is the absence of serial prostate-specific measurements, which were not available during the period under study. The complication rate requiring surgical intervention was low, i.e. 0.4%

  2. The value of bladder mapping and prostatic urethra biopsies for detection of carcinoma in situ (CIS).

    Gudjónsson, Sigurdur; Bläckberg, Mats; Chebil, Gunilla; Jahnson, Staffan; Olsson, Hans; Bendahl, Pär-Ola; Månsson, Wiking; Liedberg, Fredrik

    2012-07-01

    It is well known that CIS is a major risk factor for muscle-invasive bladder cancer and that this entity can be difficult to diagnose. Taking cold-cup mapping biopsies from different areas of the bladder (BMAP) is commonly used in patients at risk of harbouring CIS. The diagnostic accuracy of this approach has not been assessed until now. By using the CIS found in the cystoprostatectomy specimen as an indicator of the true occurrence of CIS and comparing that with the findings of BMAP, it is clear that the sensitivity of BMAP to detect CIS when present is low and that negative findings should be considered unreliable. To assess the value of bladder mapping and prostatic urethra biopsies for detection of urothelial carcinoma in situ (CIS). CIS of the urinary bladder is a flat high-grade lesion of the mucosa associated with a significant risk of progression to muscle-invasive disease. CIS is difficult to identify on cystoscopy, and definite diagnosis requires histopathology. Traditionally, if CIS is suspected, multiple cold-cup biopsies are taken from the bladder mucosa, and resection biopsies are obtained from the prostatic urethra in males. This approach is often called bladder mapping (BMAP). The accuracy of BMAP as a diagnostic tool is not known. Male patients with bladder cancer scheduled for cystectomy underwent cold-cup bladder biopsies (sidewalls, posterior wall, dome, trigone), and resection biopsies were taken from the prostatic urethra. After cystectomy, the surgical specimen was investigated in a standardised manner and subsequently compared with the BMAP biopsies for the presence of CIS. The histopathology reports of 162 patients were analysed. CIS was detected in 46% of the cystoprostatectomy specimens, and multiple (≥2) CIS lesions were found in 30%. BMAP (cold-cup bladder biopsies + resection biopsies from the prostatic urethra) provided sensitivity of 51% for any CIS, and 55% for multiple CIS lesions. The cold-cup biopsies for CIS in the bladder

  3. Synchronous presentation of nasopharyngeal and renal cell carcinomas

    Cem Boruban

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of synchronous presentation of nasopharyngeal and renal cell carcinomas in a-50-year old male patient with long standing smoking history. The patient was initially presented with a diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. During staging process, the abdominal computed tomography detected a right renal solid mass, 6.5 cm in diameter, originating from posterior portion of the right renal cortex. Right radical nephrectomy was performed and pathological examination revealed renal cell carcinoma. Smoking was thought to be a risk factor for both cancers. Systemic evaluation of kidney should not be discarded in patients diagnosed with nasopharyngeal carcinoma living in western countries with a smoking history.

  4. Merkel cell carcinoma: A rare presentation

    Prosanta Kumar Bhattacharjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 33-year-old man presented with a lump at the right side of chest wall of 4 months duration which started bleeding suddenly from an ulcer at its center. Examination revealed a globular ulcerated mass 2 cm in diameter, on the anterior axillary fold, with adherent clot at its center. No regional lymphadenopathy was noted. Wide local excision with 2 cm margin was done. Biopsy report revealed malignant small round-cell tumor. Immunohistochemistry showed it to be cytokeratin-20-positive and S100-negative, suggesting the diagnosis of Merkel cell carcinoma. The patient did not receive any other adjuvant therapy. He is being followed-up for the last 4 years and has shown no features of recurrence so far.

  5. Comparison of PSMA-HBED and PSMA-I and T as diagnostic agents in prostate carcinoma

    McCarthy, Michael; Langton, Tiffany; Kumar, Divesh [Fiona Stanley Hospital, Molecular Imaging and Therapy Service (Nuclear Medicine), Perth (Australia); Royal Perth Hospital, Molecular Imaging and Therapy Service (Nuclear Medicine), Perth (Australia); Campbell, Andrew [Fiona Stanley Hospital, Molecular Imaging and Therapy Service (Nuclear Medicine), Perth (Australia); Royal Perth Hospital, Molecular Imaging and Therapy Service (Nuclear Medicine), Perth (Australia); Royal Perth Hospital, Medical Engineering and Physics, Perth (Australia)

    2017-08-15

    Gallium(68)-labelled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) radiopharmaceuticals can be used to detect prostate cancer (PCa) cells due the their over expression of PSMA. The {sup 68}Ga HBED-PSMA (PSMA-HBED) ligand has been most widely used and can be considered the current gold standard agent. Further PSMA ligands based on the DOTAGA and DOTA conjugates have more recently been developed. These agents (PSMA-I and T and PSMA-617) have potential theranostic capabilities as they can be conjugated with therapeutic radioisotopes. In this study, we examine whether PSMA-I and T has comparative efficacy, such that it could replace PSMA-HBED as a diagnostic agent in prostate carcinoma. 19 patients with PCa referred for {sup 68}Ga-PSMA imaging were imaged with PSMA-HBED and PSMA-I and T PET-CT imaging within a 2-week period. The two pharmaceuticals were synthesised using click chemistry. Imaging was performed using the same standardised methodology on a Siemens Biograph mCT. All sites of PSMA binding thought to represent PCa (probable or definite) were included in a lesion analysis that examined lesion concordance and lesional binding efficiency (SUV{sub peak}) between the two radiopharmaceuticals. For each patient, SUV{sub mean} of the LV cavity blood pool, bone, muscle and liver were determined as image background measures. Across all patients, PSMA uptake was observed in 47 lesions (10 bone lesions, 19 nodal lesions, 18 high-grade intraprostatic binding). Lesions were concordant between the agents in all except for two small (<4 mm) nodal lesions which were not visualised with PSMA-I and T. SUV{sub peak} assessment showed significantly greater overall lesion binding with HBED (paired t test, p = 0.0001). LV blood pool and bone marrow SUV{sub mean} were significantly higher for I and T than HBED (paired t test, blood pool p < 1 x 10-5, bone marrow p < 0.005). Intra-patient comparative imaging demonstrates higher lesional PSMA-HBED binding than PSMA-I and T and that the

  6. Hydrodynamic cavitation kills prostate cells and ablates benign prostatic hyperplasia tissue.

    Itah, Zeynep; Oral, Ozlem; Perk, Osman Yavuz; Sesen, Muhsincan; Demir, Ebru; Erbil, Secil; Dogan-Ekici, A Isin; Ekici, Sinan; Kosar, Ali; Gozuacik, Devrim

    2013-11-01

    Hydrodynamic cavitation is a physical phenomenon characterized by vaporization and bubble formation in liquids under low local pressures, and their implosion following their release to a higher pressure environment. Collapse of the bubbles releases high energy and may cause damage to exposed surfaces. We recently designed a set-up to exploit the destructive nature of hydrodynamic cavitation for biomedical purposes. We have previously shown that hydrodynamic cavitation could kill leukemia cells and erode kidney stones. In this study, we analyzed the effects of cavitation on prostate cells and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) tissue. We showed that hydrodynamic cavitation could kill prostate cells in a pressure- and time-dependent manner. Cavitation did not lead to programmed cell death, i.e. classical apoptosis or autophagy activation. Following the application of cavitation, we observed no prominent DNA damage and cells did not arrest in the cell cycle. Hence, we concluded that cavitation forces directly damaged the cells, leading to their pulverization. Upon application to BPH tissues from patients, cavitation could lead to a significant level of tissue destruction. Therefore similar to ultrasonic cavitation, we propose that hydrodynamic cavitation has the potential to be exploited and developed as an approach for the ablation of aberrant pathological tissues, including BPH.

  7. Survey of Differentially Methylated Promoters in Prostate Cancer Cell Lines

    Yipeng Wang

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation, copy number in the genomes of three immortalized prostate epithelial, five cancer cell lines (LNCaP, PC3, PC3M, PC3M-Pro4, PC3MLN4 were compared using a microarray-based technique. Genomic DNA is cut with a methylation-sensitive enzyme Hpall, followed by linker ligation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification, labeling, hybridization to an array of promoter sequences. Only those parts of the genomic DNA that have unmethylated restriction sites within a few hundred base pairs generate PCR products detectable on an array. Of 2732 promoter sequences on a test array, 504 (18.5% showed differential hybridization between immortalized prostate epithelial, cancer cell lines. Among candidate hypermethylated genes in cancer-derived lines, there were eight (CD44, CDKN1A, ESR1, PLAU, RARB, SFN, TNFRSF6, TSPY previously observed in prostate cancer, 13 previously known methylation targets in other cancers (ARHI, bcl-2, BRCA1, CDKN2C, GADD45A, MTAP, PGR, SLC26A4, SPARC, SYK, TJP2, UCHL1, WIT-1. The majority of genes that appear to be both differentially methylated, differentially regulated between prostate epithelial, cancer cell lines are novel methylation targets, including PAK6, RAD50, TLX3, PIR51, MAP2K5, INSR, FBN1, GG2-1, representing a rich new source of candidate genes used to study the role of DNA methylation in prostate tumors.

  8. Multiple squamous cell carcinomas within the head and neck region

    Sato, Katsuro; Hanazawa, Hideyuki; Sato, Yuichiro; Takahashi, Sugata

    2004-01-01

    Clinical features of multiple squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cases within the head and neck that were treated in our department during the recent 10 years are discussed. Multiple SCCs arose in 6.6% of the cases with primary SCC; 67% of the cases had two carcinomas, and 33% had more than three carcinomas. The most common site of the multiple SCCs was the oral cavity (54%). The most frequent interval between treatment of previous carcinoma and diagnosis of subsequent carcinoma was simultaneous, but more than 5 years' interval was observed in 36% of the patients. The most common initial treatment of the carcinoma was irradiation, but the ratio of surgery increased for subsequent carcinomas. Prognosis of the patients with more than three carcinomas was not worse than that of patients with two carcinomas. Therefore, early diagnosis of the subsequent carcinomas based on careful long-term observation in the head and neck is necessary for follow-up of the patients with SCC of the head and neck. Treatment strategies considering the treatment of subsequent carcinomas are needed for the patients with primary head and neck SCC. (author)

  9. Biochemical characterization of nuclear receptors for vitamin D{sub 3} and glucocorticoids in prostate stroma cell microenvironment

    Hidalgo, Alejandro A. [Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology, Department of Physiopathology, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, NY (United States); Montecinos, Viviana P.; Paredes, Roberto; Godoy, Alejandro S.; McNerney, Eileen M.; Tovar, Heribelt; Pantoja, Diego [Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology, Department of Physiopathology, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Johnson, Candace [Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, NY (United States); Trump, Donald [Department of Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Onate, Sergio A., E-mail: sergio.onate@udec.cl [Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology, Department of Physiopathology, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Department of Urology, State University of New York at Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2011-08-19

    Highlights: {yields} Fibroblasts from benign and carcinoma-associated stroma were biochemically characterized for VDR and GR function as transcription factors in prostate stroma cell microenvironment. {yields} Decreased SRC-1/CBP coactivators recruitment to VDR and GR may result in hormone resistance to 1,25D{sub 3} in stromal cell microenvironment prostate cancer. {yields} 1a,25-Dyhidroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (1,25D{sub 3}) and glucocorticoids, either alone or in combination, may not be an alternative for 'some' advanced prostate cancers that fails androgen therapies. -- Abstract: The disruption of stromal cell signals in prostate tissue microenvironment influences the development of prostate cancer to androgen independence. 1{alpha},25-Dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (1,25D{sub 3}) and glucocorticoids, either alone or in combination, have been investigated as alternatives for the treatment of advanced prostate cancers that fails androgen therapies. The effects of glucocorticoids are mediated by the intracellular glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Similarly, the effect of 1,25D{sub 3} is mediated by the 1,25D{sub 3} nuclear receptor (VDR). In this study, fibroblasts from benign- (BAS) and carcinoma-associated stroma (CAS) were isolated from human prostates to characterize VDR and GR function as transcription factors in prostate stroma. The VDR-mediated transcriptional activity assessed using the CYP24-luciferase reporter was limited to 3-fold induction by 1,25D{sub 3} in 9 out of 13 CAS (70%), as compared to >10-fold induction in the BAS clinical sample pair. Expression of His-tagged VDR (Ad-his-VDR) failed to recover the low transcriptional activity of the luciferase reporter in 7 out of 9 CAS. Interestingly, expression of Ad-his-VDR successfully recovered receptor-mediated induction in 2 out of the 9 CAS analyzed, suggesting that changes in the receptor protein itself was responsible for decreased response and resistance to 1,25D{sub 3} action. Conversely, VDR

  10. Inflammatory Cell Distribution in Primary Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Wheat, Rachel [School of Cancer Sciences and CR UK Centre for Cancer Research, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Roberts, Claudia [School of Cancer Sciences and CR UK Centre for Cancer Research, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, New Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, Mindelsohn Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2WB (United Kingdom); Waterboer, Tim [Infection and Cancer Program, DKFZ (German Cancer Research Centre), 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Steele, Jane [Human Biomaterials Resource Centre, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Marsden, Jerry [University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, New Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, Mindelsohn Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2WB (United Kingdom); Steven, Neil M., E-mail: n.m.steven@bham.ac.uk [School of Cancer Sciences and CR UK Centre for Cancer Research, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, New Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, Mindelsohn Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2WB (United Kingdom); Blackbourn, David J., E-mail: n.m.steven@bham.ac.uk [Department of Microbial and Cellular Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-06

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive poorly differentiated neuroendocrine cutaneous carcinoma associated with older age, immunodeficiency and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) integrated within malignant cells. The presence of intra-tumoural CD8+ lymphocytes reportedly predicts better MCC-specific survival. In this study, the distribution of inflammatory cells and properties of CD8+ T lymphocytes within 20 primary MCC specimens were characterised using immunohistochemistry and multicolour immunofluorescent staining coupled to confocal microscopy. CD8+ cells and CD68+ macrophages were identified in 19/20 primary MCC. CD20+ B cells were present in 5/10, CD4+ cells in 10/10 and FoxP3+ cells in 7/10 specimens. Only two specimens had almost no inflammatory cells. Within specimens, inflammatory cells followed the same patchy distribution, focused at the edge of sheets and nodules and, in some cases, more intense in trabecular areas. CD8+ cells were outside vessels on the edge of tumour. Those few within malignant sheets typically lined up in fine septa not contacting MCC cells expressing MCPyV large T antigen. The homeostatic chemokine CXCL12 was expressed outside malignant nodules whereas its receptor CXCR4 was identified within tumour but not on CD8+ cells. CD8+ cells lacked CXCR3 and granzyme B expression irrespective of location within stroma versus malignant nodules or of the intensity of the intra-tumoural infiltrate. In summary, diverse inflammatory cells were organised around the margin of malignant deposits suggesting response to aberrant signaling, but were unable to penetrate the tumour microenvironment itself to enable an immune response against malignant cells or their polyomavirus.

  11. Inflammatory Cell Distribution in Primary Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Wheat, Rachel; Roberts, Claudia; Waterboer, Tim; Steele, Jane; Marsden, Jerry; Steven, Neil M.; Blackbourn, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive poorly differentiated neuroendocrine cutaneous carcinoma associated with older age, immunodeficiency and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) integrated within malignant cells. The presence of intra-tumoural CD8+ lymphocytes reportedly predicts better MCC-specific survival. In this study, the distribution of inflammatory cells and properties of CD8+ T lymphocytes within 20 primary MCC specimens were characterised using immunohistochemistry and multicolour immunofluorescent staining coupled to confocal microscopy. CD8+ cells and CD68+ macrophages were identified in 19/20 primary MCC. CD20+ B cells were present in 5/10, CD4+ cells in 10/10 and FoxP3+ cells in 7/10 specimens. Only two specimens had almost no inflammatory cells. Within specimens, inflammatory cells followed the same patchy distribution, focused at the edge of sheets and nodules and, in some cases, more intense in trabecular areas. CD8+ cells were outside vessels on the edge of tumour. Those few within malignant sheets typically lined up in fine septa not contacting MCC cells expressing MCPyV large T antigen. The homeostatic chemokine CXCL12 was expressed outside malignant nodules whereas its receptor CXCR4 was identified within tumour but not on CD8+ cells. CD8+ cells lacked CXCR3 and granzyme B expression irrespective of location within stroma versus malignant nodules or of the intensity of the intra-tumoural infiltrate. In summary, diverse inflammatory cells were organised around the margin of malignant deposits suggesting response to aberrant signaling, but were unable to penetrate the tumour microenvironment itself to enable an immune response against malignant cells or their polyomavirus

  12. Primary Small Cell Carcinoma of the Upper Urinary Tract

    Victor Ka-Siong Kho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of primary extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma of the distal ureter, with a synchronous small cell carcinoma of the ipsilateral renal pelvis. These tumors, rarely reported in the urinary tract, are locally aggressive and have a poor prognosis. A 77-year-old male bedridden patient presented with fever and chills with left side-flank pain for 3 days. Following a diagnosis of ureteral urothelial carcinoma, hand-assisted laparoscopic nephroureterectomy with bladder cuff excision was carried out. Adjuvant chemotherapy was given after pathologic report of primary small cell carcinoma of the distal ureter and a synchronous small cell carcinoma of the ipsilateral renal pelvis. After 3 cycles of combination chemotherapy, the patient died 4 months postoperatively due to sepsis.

  13. Collision tumor of Small Cell Carcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma of maxillary sinus

    Irfan Sugianto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Two kinds of different malignant tumors occurring within the same organ is defined as collision tumor. Small Cell Carcinoma (SmCC is high-grade derived from neuroendocrine cell tumors, occurance in the head and neck is rare. Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC is the most common malignancies encountered in head and neck area, but the occuranceof collision tumor is very rare. This report describe a 82 year-old woman patient with a SmCC and SCC that occurred in the maxillary sinus. CT was performed including with enhancement, MRI examination was T1WI, STIR and contrast enhancement. We also conducted analysis of Dynamic Contrast Enhancement (DCE. Histopathologic examination revealed small cell carcinoma. A distant metastasis was not detected. After patient received chemoradiotherapy (CCRT, most of  tumorwas reduced although a part of the tumor was remained. Pathological examination of surgery tumor specimen revealed that specimen consisted of SCC and SmCC was disappeared, and six months after surgery, the patient suffered tumor recurrence and multiple metastasis to the organs in the abdomen. This time we have to report that the experience one cases that are considered collision cancer of SmCC and SCC that occurred in the maxillary sinus.

  14. Serial lectin affinity chromatography with concavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin demonstrates altered asparagine-linked sugar-chain structures of prostatic acid phosphatase in human prostate carcinoma.

    Yoshida, K I; Honda, M; Arai, K; Hosoya, Y; Moriguchi, H; Sumi, S; Ueda, Y; Kitahara, S

    1997-08-01

    Differences between human prostate carcinoma (PCA, five cases) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, five cases) in asparagine-linked (Asn) sugar-chain structure of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) were investigated using lectin affinity chromatography with concanavalin A (Con A) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). PAP activities were significantly decreased in PCA-derived PAP, while no significant differences between the two PAP preparations were observed in the enzymatic properties (Michaelis-Menten value, optimal pH, thermal stability, and inhibition study). In these PAP preparations, all activities were found only in the fractions which bound strongly to the Con A column and were undetectable in the Con A unbound fractions and in the fractions which bound weakly to the Con A column. The relative amounts of PAP which bound strongly to the Con A column but passed through the WGA column, were significantly greater in BPH-derived PAP than in PCA-derived PAP. In contrast, the relative amounts of PAP which bound strongly to the Con A column and bound to the WGA column, were significantly greater in PCA-derived PAP than in BPH-derived PAP. The findings suggest that Asn-linked sugar-chain structures are altered during oncogenesis in human prostate and also suggest that studies of qualitative differences of sugar-chain structures of PAP might lead to a useful diagnostic tool for PCA.

  15. Red Dot Basal Cell Carcinoma: Report of Cases and Review of This Unique Presentation of Basal Cell Carcinoma.

    Cohen, Philip R

    2017-03-22

    Red dot basal cell carcinoma is a unique variant of basal cell carcinoma. Including the three patients described in this report, red dot basal cell carcinoma has only been described in seven individuals. This paper describes the features of two males and one female with red dot basal cell carcinoma and reviews the characteristics of other patients with this clinical subtype of basal cell carcinoma. A 70-year-old male developed a pearly-colored papule with a red dot in the center on his nasal tip. A 71-year-old male developed a red dot surrounded by a flesh-colored papule on his left nostril. Lastly, a 74-year-old female developed a red dot within an area of erythema on her left mid back. Biopsy of the lesions all showed nodular and/or superficial basal cell carcinoma. Correlation of the clinical presentation and pathology established the diagnosis of red dot basal cell carcinoma. The tumors were treated by excision using the Mohs surgical technique. Pubmed was searched with the keyword: basal, cell, cancer, carcinoma, dot, red, and skin. The papers generated by the search and their references were reviewed. Red dot basal cell carcinoma has been described in three females and two males; the gender was not reported in two patients. The tumor was located on the nose (five patients), back (one patient) and thigh (one patient). Cancer presented as a solitary small red macule or papule; often, the carcinoma was surrounded by erythema or a flesh-colored papule. Although basal cell carcinomas usually do not blanch after a glass microscope slide is pressed against them, the red dot basal cell carcinoma blanched after diascopy in two of the patients, resulting in a delay of diagnosis in one of these individuals. Dermoscopy may be a useful non-invasive modality for evaluating skin lesions when the diagnosis of red dot basal cell carcinoma is considered. Mohs surgery is the treatment of choice; in some of the patients, the ratio of the area of the postoperative wound to that

  16. A case report of renal cell carcinoma in a dog

    A.-S. Paşca

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mix renal carcinoma was noticed during the necropsic examination of a 14 year old mix breed female. Tumours were bilateral and metastasis was noticed in the spleen and myocard. Histological examination evidenced morphological aspects characteristic to the mixt renal carcinoma. Histological aspects described in this individual characterize renal cell carcinoma, also known as renal adenocarcinoma, hypernephroma or, in older literature, Grawitz tumour.

  17. Changes in keratin expression during the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Xue, Y.; Smedts, F.; Umbas, R.; Aalders, T. W.; Debruyne, F. M.; de la Rosette, J. J.; Schalken, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between different types of epithelial cells in the prostate and the regulatory mechanism underlying benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are still obscure as is the association between BPH and prostate carcinoma (PCa.) On the basis of keratin immunophenotyping, a subpopulation of

  18. Squamous cell carcinoma of penis in patient with incipient neurosyphilis

    D. V. Zaslavsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin (SSCC is one of the most common malignant skin tumors. Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum, with human beings as the only host. The combination of syphilis and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin is not uncommon, particularly if the lesions are located on different parts of the body. However, simultaneous development of the chancre and squamous cell carcinoma of the glans penis seems exceptional. Considering rarity of the manifestation observed we feel the rare case of combined syphilis and squamous cell skin cancer is of interest.

  19. Merkel Cell Carcinoma Metastatic to Pleural Fluid: A Case Report

    Ye-Young Rhee

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC is a rare aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin that shows locoregional or distant metastasis. Metastasis of MCC to body cavity effusion is extremely rare; only three cases have been reported so far. Metastatic MCC in effusion cytology shows small blue round cells with fine stippled chromatin like other small blue round cell tumors such as small cell lung carcinoma or lymphoma. The diagnosis of metastatic MCC can grant patients good chances at recently advanced therapeutic options. Here, we present a case of metastatic MCC to pleural effusion with characteristic single file-like pattern.

  20. Merkel Cell Carcinoma Metastatic to Pleural Fluid: A Case Report.

    Rhee, Ye-Young; Kim, Soo Hee; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Se Hoon

    2018-05-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin that shows locoregional or distant metastasis. Metastasis of MCC to body cavity effusion is extremely rare; only three cases have been reported so far. Metastatic MCC in effusion cytology shows small blue round cells with fine stippled chromatin like other small blue round cell tumors such as small cell lung carcinoma or lymphoma. The diagnosis of metastatic MCC can grant patients good chances at recently advanced therapeutic options. Here, we present a case of metastatic MCC to pleural effusion with characteristic single file-like pattern.

  1. Rare Case of Duodenal Metastasis From Pulmonary Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Zain Memon DO

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma is the second most common non–small cell malignancy of the lung. It commonly metastasizes to the adrenal glands, bone, liver, brain, and kidneys. Most occurrences of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma involving the gastrointestinal tract originate from primary lung tumors. Metastasis to the duodenum, however, is exceedingly rare, with very few cases of stomach or duodenal involvement described in the literature. We report the case of a patient with stage IV pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma metastasizing to the duodenum with an uncommon presentation to add to the paucity of literature available regarding this rare finding.

  2. Chemotherapeutic Effect of CD147 Antibody-labeled Micelles Encapsulating Doxorubicin Conjugate Targeting CD147-Expressing Carcinoma Cells.

    Asakura, Tadashi; Yokoyama, Masayuki; Shiraishi, Koichi; Aoki, Katsuhiko; Ohkawa, Kiyoshi

    2018-03-01

    CD147 (basigin/emmprin) is expressed on the surface of carcinoma cells. For studying the efficacy of CD147-targeting medicine on CD147-expressing cells, we studied the effect of anti-CD147-labeled polymeric micelles (CD147ab micelles) that encapsulated a conjugate of doxorubicin with glutathione (GSH-DXR), with specific accumulation and cytotoxicity against CD147-expressing A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells, Ishikawa human endometrial adenocarcinoma cells, and PC3 human prostate carcinoma cells. By treatment of each cell type with CD147ab micelles for 1 h, a specific accumulation of CD147ab micelles in CD147-expressing cells was observed. In addition, the cytotoxicity of GSH-DXR-encapsulated micelles against each cell type was measured by treatment of the micelles for 1 h. The cytotoxic effect of CD147ab micelles carrying GSH-DXR was 3- to 10-fold higher for these cells than that of micelles without GSH-DXR. These results suggest that GSH-DXR-encapsulated CD147ab micelles could serve as an effective drug delivery system to CD147-expressing carcinoma cells. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  3. Role of IGF-1/IGF-1R in regulation of invasion in DU145 prostate cancer cells

    Setya Hemani

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate cancer progression to androgen independence is the primary cause of mortality by this tumor type. The IGF-1/IGF-1R axis is well known to contribute to prostate cancer initiation, but its contribution to invasiveness and the downstream signalling mechanisms that are involved are unclear at present. Results We examined the invasive response of androgen independent DU145 prostate carcinoma cells to IGF-1 stimulation using Matrigel assays. We then examined the signaling mechanisms and protease activities that are associated with this response. IGF-1 significantly increased the invasive capacity of DU145 cells in vitro, and this increase was inhibited by blocking IGF-1R. We further demonstrated that specific inhibitors of the MAPK and PI3-K pathways decrease IGF-1-mediated invasion. To determine potential molecular mechanisms for this change in invasive capacity, we examined changes in expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinases. We observed that IGF-1 increases the enzymatic activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in DU145 cells. These changes in activity are due to differences in expression in the case of MMP-9 but not in the case of MMP-2. This observation is corroborated by the fact that correlated changes of expression in a regulator of MMP-2, TIMP-2, were also seen. Conclusion This work identifies a specific effect of IGF-1 on the invasive capacity of DU145 prostate cancer cells, and furthermore delineates mechanisms that contribute to this effect.

  4. Different Phenotypes in Human Prostate Cancer: α6 or α3 Integrin in Cell-extracellular Adhesion Sites

    Monika Schmelz

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of α6/α3 integrin in adhesion complexes at the basal membrane in human normal and cancer prostate glands was analyzed in 135 biopsies from 61 patients. The levels of the polarized α6/α3 integrin expression at the basal membrane of prostate tumor glands were determined by quantitative immunohistochemistry. The α6/α3 integrin expression was compared with Gleason sum score, pathological stage, and preoperative serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA. The associations were assessed by statistical methods. Eighty percent of the tumors expressed the α6 or α3 integrin and 20% was integrin-negative. Gleason sum score, but not serum PSA, was associated with the integrin expression. Low Gleason sum score correlated with increased integrin expression, high Gleason sum score with low and negative integrin expression. Three prostate tumor phenotypes were distinguished based on differential integrin expression. Type I coexpressed both α6 and α3 subunits, type II exclusively expressed a6 integrin, and type III expressed α3 integrin only. Fifteen cases were further examined for the codistribution of vinculin, paxillin, and CD 151 on frozen serial sections using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The α6/α3 integrins, CD151, paxillin, and vinculin were present within normal glands. In prostate carcinoma, α6 integrin was colocalized with CD 151, but not with vinculin or paxillin. In tumor phenotype I, the α6 subunit did not colocalize with the α3 subunit indicating the existence of two different adhesion complexes. Human prostate tumors display on their cell surface the α6β1 and/or α3β1 integrins. Three tumor phenotypes associated with two different adhesion complexes were identified, suggesting a reorganization of cell adhesion structures in prostate cancer.

  5. Oncolytic vaccinia therapy of squamous cell carcinoma

    Yu Yong A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Novel therapies are necessary to improve outcomes for patients with squamous cell carcinomas (SCC of the head and neck. Historically, vaccinia virus was administered widely to humans as a vaccine and led to the eradication of smallpox. We examined the therapeutic effects of an attenuated, replication-competent vaccinia virus (GLV-1h68 as an oncolytic agent against a panel of six human head and neck SCC cell lines. Results All six cell lines supported viral transgene expression (β-galactosidase, green fluorescent protein, and luciferase as early as 6 hours after viral exposure. Efficient transgene expression and viral replication (>150-fold titer increase over 72 hrs were observed in four of the cell lines. At a multiplicity of infection (MOI of 1, GLV-1h68 was highly cytotoxic to the four cell lines, resulting in ≥ 90% cytotoxicity over 6 days, and the remaining two cell lines exhibited >45% cytotoxicity. Even at a very low MOI of 0.01, three cell lines still demonstrated >60% cell death over 6 days. A single injection of GLV-1h68 (5 × 106 pfu intratumorally into MSKQLL2 xenografts in mice exhibited localized intratumoral luciferase activity peaking at days 2–4, with gradual resolution over 10 days and no evidence of spread to normal organs. Treated animals exhibited near-complete tumor regression over a 24-day period without any observed toxicity, while control animals demonstrated rapid tumor progression. Conclusion These results demonstrate significant oncolytic efficacy by an attenuated vaccinia virus for infecting and lysing head and neck SCC both in vitro and in vivo, and support its continued investigation in future clinical trials.

  6. The many ways to make a luminal cell and a prostate cancer cell.

    Strand, Douglas W; Goldstein, Andrew S

    2015-12-01

    Research in the area of stem/progenitor cells has led to the identification of multiple stem-like cell populations implicated in prostate homeostasis and cancer initiation. Given that there are multiple cells that can regenerate prostatic tissue and give rise to prostate cancer, our focus should shift to defining the signaling mechanisms that drive differentiation and progenitor self-renewal. In this article, we will review the literature, present the evidence and raise important unanswered questions that will help guide the field forward in dissecting critical mechanisms regulating stem-cell differentiation and tumor initiation. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  7. Immunohistochemical expression of alpha methylacyl-coa racemase (amacr) in carcinoma prostate in pakistani population

    Tariq, H.; Ahmed, R.; Muhammad, I.; Afzal, M.S.; Hashmi, S.N.; Hamdani, S.N.R.; Shahid, A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of expression of positive diagnostic marker alpha methylacyl-COA RACEMES (AMACR) in the examination of prostate needle biopsy specimens from patients of adenocarcinoma prostate from a subset of Pakistani population. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Histopathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi from Apr 2015 to Oct 2015. Material and Methods: All specimens of adenocarcinoma prostate diagnosed at Armed forces institute of pathology on the basis of immunohistochemistry and routine histopathology irrespective of age of patient, histological type or grade of the tumor were analyzed. Mean and Standard deviation were calculated for quantitative variables like patient's age and frequencies along with percentages were calculated for qualitative variables like AMACR expression. Results: Out of the total 80 cases, 68 (85%) were positive for AMACR while 12 (15%) were negative. Among the cases that were negative 9 (11.3%) showed 1 +- staining (Weak, non-circumferential) and 3 cases (3.8%) displayed 0 staining (No cytoplasmic staining). Conclusion: Positive staining for AMACR can be used to support a diagnosis of cancer on prostate needle core biopsies when the focus in question is <1mm in maximum dimension. The results of AMACR expression in a subset of Pakistani population are comparable to the western studies. AMACR staining must be interpreted in the context of basic haematoxylin and eosin criteria for malignancy along with the results expansion of other supportive markers, such as a basal cell specific marker like p63 or 34 beta E12. (author)

  8. Origin of clear cell carcinoma: nature or nurture?

    Kolin, David L; Dinulescu, Daniela M; Crum, Christopher P

    2018-02-01

    A rare but serious complication of endometriosis is the development of carcinoma, and clear cell and endometrioid carcinomas of the ovary are the two most common malignancies which arise from endometriosis. They are distinct diseases, characterized by unique morphologies, immunohistochemical profiles, and responses to treatment. However, both arise in endometriosis and can share common mutations. The overlapping mutational profiles of clear cell and endometrioid carcinomas suggest that their varied histologies may be due to a different cell of origin which gives rise to each type of cancer. Cochrane and colleagues address this question in a recent article in this journal. They show that a marker of ovarian clear cell carcinoma, cystathionine gamma lyase, is expressed in ciliated cells. Similarly, they show that markers of secretory cells (estrogen receptor and methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1) are expressed in ovarian endometrioid carcinoma. Taken together, they suggest that endometrioid and clear cell carcinomas arise from cells related to secretory and ciliated cells, respectively. We discuss Cochrane et al's work in the context of other efforts to determine the cell of origin of gynecological malignancies, with an emphasis on recent developments and challenges unique to the area. These limitations complicate our interpretation of tumor differentiation; does it reflect nature imposed by a specific cell of origin or nurture, by either mutation(s) or environment? Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Chronic effects of therapeutic irradiation for localized prostatic carcinoma on anorectal function

    Yeoh, Eric E.K.; Botten, Rochelle; Russo, Antonietta; McGowan, Roz; Fraser, Robert; Roos, Daniel; Penniment, Michael; Borg, Martin; Sun Weiming

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate prospectively the prevalence and pathophysiology of anorectal dysfunction following radiation therapy (RTH) for localized carcinoma of the prostate. Methods and Materials: The following parameters of anorectal function were evaluated in each of 35 patients (aged 55-82 years) with localized prostatic carcinoma treated with RTH either to a dose of 55 Gy/20 fractions/4 weeks (18 patients) or 64 Gy/32 fractions/6.5 weeks (17 patients), before RTH and 4-6 weeks and at a mean (± SD) of 1.4 (± 0.2) years after its completion: (1) anorectal symptoms (questionnaire), (2) anorectal pressures at rest and in response to voluntary squeeze and increases in intra-abdominal pressure (multiport anorectal manometry), (3) rectal sensation (balloon distension) and (4) anal sphincteric morphology (endoanal ultrasound). Results: All but 1 patient completed three series of measurements. RTH had no effect on anal sphincteric morphology. The increase in frequency of defecation and fecal urgency and incontinence scores previously reported in the patients 4-6 weeks after RTH were sustained 1 year later (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p < 0.05, cf. baseline, respectively). At this time, 56% (19 of 34), 50% (17 of 34) and 26% (9 of 34) of the patients had increased frequency of defecation, fecal urgency, and incontinence, respectively. Decreases in anal sphincteric pressures at rest and in response to voluntary squeeze recorded in the patients 4-6 weeks after RTH were not sustained 1 year later but the volumes of rectal distension associated with perception of the stimulus and desire to defecate were lower compared with baseline volumes (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively), reflecting heightened rectal sensitivity in the patients. There was no difference in measurements between the two radiation dose regimens. Univariate logistical regression analysis was performed on patients who had experienced increased symptom scores or decreases in recorded motor and sensory manometric

  10. The role of CD133 in normal human prostate stem cells and malignant cancer-initiating cells.

    Vander Griend, Donald J; Karthaus, Wouter L; Dalrymple, Susan; Meeker, Alan; DeMarzo, Angelo M; Isaacs, John T

    2008-12-01

    Resolving the specific cell of origin for prostate cancer is critical to define rational targets for therapeutic intervention and requires the isolation and characterization of both normal human prostate stem cells and prostate cancer-initiating cells (CIC). Single epithelial cells from fresh normal human prostate tissue and prostate epithelial cell (PrEC) cultures derived from them were evaluated for the presence of subpopulations expressing stem cell markers and exhibiting stem-like growth characteristics. When epithelial cell suspensions containing cells expressing the stem cell marker CD133+ are inoculated in vivo, regeneration of stratified human prostate glands requires inductive prostate stromal cells. PrEC cultures contain a small subpopulation of CD133+ cells, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting-purified CD133+ PrECs self-renew and regenerate cell populations expressing markers of transit-amplifying cells (DeltaNp63), intermediate cells (prostate stem cell antigen), and neuroendocrine cells (CD56). Using a series of CD133 monoclonal antibodies, attachment and growth of CD133+ PrECs requires surface expression of full-length glycosylated CD133 protein. Within a series of androgen receptor-positive (AR+) human prostate cancer cell lines, CD133+ cells are present at a low frequency, self-renew, express AR, generate phenotypically heterogeneous progeny negative for CD133, and possess an unlimited proliferative capacity, consistent with CD133+ cells being CICs. Unlike normal adult prostate stem cells, prostate CICs are AR+ and do not require functional CD133. This suggests that (a) AR-expressing prostate CICs are derived from a malignantly transformed intermediate cell that acquires "stem-like activity" and not from a malignantly transformed normal stem cell and (b) AR signaling pathways are a therapeutic target for prostate CICs.

  11. PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN A Clue for the Prostatic Origin of Metastasis

    MANABE, Toshiaki; TSUKAYAMA, Chotatsu; YAMAGUCHI, Masae; YAMASHITA, Koshi

    1983-01-01

    The prostate-specific antigen is a recently purified glycoprotein which is present only in the prostatic gland. In order to confirm the usefulness of this protein in isolating prostatic carcinomas from socalled metastatic carcinomas of unknown primary site, we immunohistochemically studied 19 non-neoplastic prostatic tissue, 18 primary carcinomas of the prostate, and 32 non-prostatic adenocarcinomas. From our study, we concluded that PSA is highly specific for the prostatic carcinomas. The ab...

  12. Perineural Infiltration of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Basal Cell Carcinoma Without Clinical Features

    Lin, Charles, E-mail: Charles_Lin@health.qld.gov.au [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Tripcony, Lee; Keller, Jacqui [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Poulsen, Michael [Mater Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Martin, Jarad [St. Andrews Hospital, Toowoomba, Queensland (Australia); Jackson, James; Dickie, Graeme [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To review the factors that influence outcome and patterns of relapse in patients with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) with perineural infiltration (PNI) without clinical or radiologic features, treated with surgery and radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2004, 222 patients with SCC or BCC with PNI on pathologic examination but without clinical or radiologic PNI features were identified. Charts were reviewed retrospectively and relevant data collected. All patients were treated with curative intent; all had radiotherapy, and most had surgery. The primary endpoint was 5-year relapse-free survival from the time of diagnosis. Results: Patients with SCC did significantly worse than those with BCC (5-year relapse-free survival, 78% vs. 91%; p < 0.01). Squamous cell carcinoma with PNI at recurrence did significantly worse than de novo in terms of 5-year local failure (40% vs. 19%; p < 0.01) and regional relapse (29% vs. 5%; p < 0.01). Depth of invasion was also a significant factor. Of the PNI-specific factors for SCC, focal PNI did significantly better than more-extensive PNI, but involved nerve diameter or presence of PNI at the periphery of the tumor were not significant factors. Conclusions: Radiotherapy in conjunction with surgery offers an acceptable outcome for cutaneous SCC and BCC with PNI. This study suggests that focal PNI is not an adverse feature.

  13. Merkel Cell Carcinoma: An Update and Immunotherapy

    Hiroshi Uchi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC is a rare but aggressive skin cancer with frequent metastasis and death. MCC has a mortality rate of 30%, making it more lethal than malignant melanoma, and incidence of MCC has increased almost fourfold over the past 20 years in the USA. MCC has long been considered to be an immunogenic cancer because it occurs more frequently in immunosuppressed patients from organ transplant and HIV infection than in those with immunocompetent. Chronic UV light exposure and clonal integration of Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV are two major causative factors of MCC. Approximately 80% of MCC are associated with MCPyV, and T cells specific for MCPyV oncoproteins are present in the blood and tumors of patients. Several studies have shown that a subset of MCCs express PD-1 on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and express PD-L1 on tumor cells, which suggests an endogenous tumor-reactive immune response that might be unleashed by anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 drugs.

  14. Subungual squamous cell carcinoma: A case study

    Neill, Cory J., E-mail: coryjneill@gmail.com

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this case study is to describe a dosimetric delivery of radiation to a superficial disease process involving the skin and bone of the distal finger. A 76-year-old male patient presented with a subungual squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the left distal index finger with bony involvement. The patient refused conventional surgical treatment but agreed to external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). There is a gap in the current literature describing how to successfully immobilize fingers and which EBRT modality is dosimetrically advantageous in treating them. The construction of a simple immobilization method with the patient in a reproducible position is described. The use of photons and electrons were compared ultimately showing photons to be dosimetrically advantageous. Long-term efficacy of the treatment was not evaluated because of patient noncompliance.

  15. Sequential Therapy in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Bradford R Hirsch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC has changed dramatically in the past decade. As the number of available agents, and related volume of research, has grown, it is increasingly complex to know how to optimally treat patients. The authors are practicing medical oncologists at the US Oncology Network, the largest community-based network of oncology providers in the country, and represent the leadership of the Network's Genitourinary Research Committee. We outline our thought process in approaching sequential therapy of mRCC and the use of real-world data to inform our approach. We also highlight the evolving literature that will impact practicing oncologists in the near future.

  16. Imaging in Patients with Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Enzenhofer, E.; Ubl, P.; Czerny, C.; Erovic, B. M.

    2013-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive neuroendocrine tumor of the skin with a mortality rate of approximately 25% (Peloschek et al., 2010). Accurate assessment of nodal involvement in patients with MCC predicts significantly overall outcome (Smith et al., 2012 and Ortin-Perez et al., 2007). Due to the rarity of this highly aggressive disease, only a few imaging reports on MCC were published, and subsequently still to date no accepted imaging algorithm for MCC is available. For primary staging of MCC, general recommendations have included ultrasonography, chest X-ray CT, and MRI, but recent articles show that the use of sentinel node and FDG-PET/PET-CT is gaining more and more importance

  17. Merkel cell carcinoma with seborrheic keratosis: A unique association.

    Anand, Murthy S; Krishnamurthy, Shantha; Ravindranath, Suvarna; Ranganathan, Jyothi

    2018-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, clinically aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin; MCC is 40 times less common as compared to melanoma. The most frequently reported sites have been the head and neck, extremities, and trunk. Potential mimics include malignant melanoma, lymphoma, or metastatic small cell (neuroendocrine) carcinomas. Histopathology of MCC resembles small cell carcinoma both morphologically and on IHC. The possible cell of origin was proposed as the Merkel cell, which functions as a mechanoreceptor. It has a high chance of local recurrence, regional and distant spread. In recent times, Merkel cell polyomavirus has been implicated as the causative agent for this tumor. The same agent has a reported etiologic association with other skin lesions, including seborrheic keratosis.

  18. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Based Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    2015-11-01

    Montero-Menei, C.; Menei, P. Mesenchymal Stem Cells as Cellular Vehicles for Delivery of Nanoparticles to Brain Tumors. Biomaterials 2010, 31, 8393... Stem Cells : Considerations for Regenerative Medicine Approaches. Tissue Eng. Part B. Rev. 2010, 16, 159–168. 55. Ellem, S. J.; Taylor, R. a.; Furic, L...Award Number: W81XWH-13-1-0304 TITLE: Mesenchymal Stem Cell -Based Therapy for Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: John Isaacs CONTRACTING

  19. Watermelon stomach, hemorrhagic pericarditis, small cell carcinoma of the lung and synchronous squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue base

    A. Murinello

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on a case of gastric antral vascular ectasia (watermelon stomach that was associated with hemorrhagic pericarditis, small cell lung carcinoma with mediastinal lymph node metastases and a synchronous squamous cell carcinoma of the base of the tongue, the authors made a review of the clinical, endoscopic and histopathological aspects of this type of gastropathy, and its association with other diseases, and of the results of its endoscopic therapy. The causes of hemorrhagic pericarditis are considered, emphasizing the necessity to know if the effusion has a malignant etiology. To the best of our knowledge the association of watermelon stomach to small cell lung carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the base of the tongue has not yet been described. Extensive metastases to mediastal lymph nodes are common to small cell lung carcinoma. Resumo: Baseados num caso de gastropatia antral com ectasia vascular (estômago em melancia associado a pericardite hemorrágica e a um carcinoma de pequenas células do pulmão com metástases ganglionares ao longo do mediastino e a um carcinoma pavimentocelular síncrono da base da língua, os autores fazem uma revisão dos aspectos clínicos, endoscópicos e histopatológicos deste tipo de gastropatia, da sua associação a outras doenças e das possibilidades terapêuticas actuais por via endoscópica. Referem-se igualmente as causas mais frequentes de pericardite hemorrágica, salientando-se a necessidade de esclarecer se o derrame é ou não de origem neoplásica. Não está referida na literatura a associação deste tipo de gastropatia ao carcinoma de pequenas células do pulmão nem ao carcinoma pavimento-celular da base da língua. A invasão extensa dos gânglios mediastínicos pelo carcinoma de pequenas células do pulmão é ocorrência frequente. Key-words: Gastric antral vascular ectasia, watermelon stomach, small cell lung carcinoma, oat cell lung carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the base

  20. EphA2 Is a Potential Player of Malignant Cellular Behavior in Non-Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Cells but Not in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Cells.

    Cho, Min Chul; Cho, Sung Yong; Yoon, Cheol Yong; Lee, Seung Bae; Kwak, Cheol; Kim, Hyeon Hoe; Jeong, Hyeon

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the role of EphA2 in malignant cellular behavior in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells and whether FAK/RhoA signaling can act as downstream effectors of EphA2 on RCC cells. Expression of EphA2 protein in non-metastatic RCC (Caki-2 and A498), metastatic RCC cells (Caki-1 and ACHN), HEK-293 cells and prostate cancer cells (PC-3 and DU-145; positive controls of EphA2 expression) was evaluated by Western blot. Changes in mRNA or protein expression of EphA2, FAK or membrane-bound RhoA following EphA2, FAK or RhoA small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction or Western blot. The effect of siRNA treatment on cellular viability, apoptosis and invasion was analyzed by cell counting kit-8, Annexin-V and modified Matrigel-Boyden assays, respectively. In all RCC cell lines, the expression of EphA2 protein was detectable at variable levels; however, in HEK-293 cells, EphA2 expression was very low. Treatment with EphA2 siRNA significantly reduced the expression of EphA2 mRNA and protein in all RCC cell lines. For non-metastatic RCC cells (Caki-2 and A498) but not metastatic RCC cells (Caki-1 and ACHN), cellular viability, invasiveness, resistance to apoptosis, expression of membrane-bound RhoA protein and FAK phosphorylation were significantly decreased in EphA2 siRNA-treated cells compared to the control. In non-metastatic RCC cells, FAK siRNA significantly attenuated the invasiveness, resistance to apoptosis, as well as expression of membrane-bound RhoA protein without changing protein expression of EphA2. RhoA siRNA significantly decreased the malignant cellular behavior and expression of membrane-bound RhoA protein without changing EphA2 protein expression or FAK phosphorylation. Our data provide the first functional evidence that the EphA2/FAK/RhoA signaling pathway plays a critical role in the malignant cellular behavior of RCC and appears to be functional particularly in the early stage of

  1. Targeting cancer stem cells in hepatocellular carcinoma

    He AR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aiwu Ruth He,1 Daniel C Smith,1 Lopa Mishra2 1Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, 2Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: The poor outcome of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is attributed to recurrence of the disease after curative treatment and the resistance of HCC cells to conventional chemotherapy, which may be explained partly by the function of liver cancer stem cells (CSCs. Liver CSCs have emerged as an important therapeutic target against HCC. Numerous surface markers for liver CSCs have been identified, and include CD133, CD90, CD44, CD13, and epithelial cell adhesion molecules. These surface markers serve not only as tools for identifying and isolating liver CSCs but also as therapeutic targets for eradicating these cells. In studies of animal models and large-scale genomic analyses of human HCC samples, many signaling pathways observed in normal stem cells have been found to be altered in liver CSCs, which accounts for the stemness and aggressive behavior of these cells. Antibodies and small molecule inhibitors targeting the signaling pathways have been evaluated at different levels of preclinical and clinical development. Another strategy is to promote the differentiation of liver CSCs to less aggressive HCC that is sensitive to conventional chemotherapy. Disruption of the tumor niche essential for liver CSC homeostasis has become a novel strategy in cancer treatment. To overcome the challenges in developing treatment for liver CSCs, more research into the genetic makeup of patient tumors that respond to treatment may lead to more effective therapy. Standardization of HCC CSC tumor markers would be helpful for measuring the CSC response to these agents. Herein, we review the current strategies for developing treatment to eradicate liver CSCs and to improve the outcome for patients with

  2. Ultrastructural proof of polyomavirus in Merkel cell carcinoma tumour cells and its absence in small cell carcinoma of the lung.

    Charlotte T A H Wetzels

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A new virus called the Merkel Cell Polyomavirus (MCPyV has recently been found in Merkel Cell Carcinoma (MCC. MCC is a rare aggressive small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma primarily derived from the skin, morphologically indistinguishable from small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC. So far the actual presence of the virus in MCC tumour cells on a morphological level has not been demonstrated, and the presence of MCPyV in other small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas has not been studied yet. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated MCC tissue samples from five patients and SCLCs from ten patients for the presence of MCPyV-DNA by PCR and sequencing. Electron microscopy was used to search ultrastructurally for morphological presence of the virus in MCPyV-DNA positive samples. MCPyV was detected in two out of five primary MCCs. In one MCC patient MCPyV-DNA was detected in the primary tumour as well as in the metastasis, strongly suggesting integration of MCPyV in the cellular DNA of the tumour in this patient. In the primary MCC of another patient viral particles in tumour cell nuclei and cytoplasm were identified by electron microscopy, indicating active viral replication in the tumour cells. In none of the SCLCs MCPyV-DNA was detected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results strongly suggest that MCPyV is an oncogenic polyomavirus in humans, and is potentially causally related to the development of MCC but not to the morphological similar SCLC.

  3. Transcriptomic dissection of tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    Schwartz Joel L

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The head and neck/oral squamous cell carcinoma (HNOSCC is a diverse group of cancers, which develop from many different anatomic sites and are associated with different risk factors and genetic characteristics. The oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC is one of the most common types of HNOSCC. It is significantly more aggressive than other forms of HNOSCC, in terms of local invasion and spread. In this study, we aim to identify specific transcriptomic signatures that associated with OTSCC. Results Genome-wide transcriptomic profiles were obtained for 53 primary OTSCCs and 22 matching normal tissues. Genes that exhibit statistically significant differences in expression between OTSCCs and normal were identified. These include up-regulated genes (MMP1, MMP10, MMP3, MMP12, PTHLH, INHBA, LAMC2, IL8, KRT17, COL1A2, IFI6, ISG15, PLAU, GREM1, MMP9, IFI44, CXCL1, and down-regulated genes (KRT4, MAL, CRNN, SCEL, CRISP3, SPINK5, CLCA4, ADH1B, P11, TGM3, RHCG, PPP1R3C, CEACAM7, HPGD, CFD, ABCA8, CLU, CYP3A5. The expressional difference of IL8 and MMP9 were further validated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The Gene Ontology analysis suggested a number of altered biological processes in OTSCCs, including enhancements in phosphate transport, collagen catabolism, I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling cascade, extracellular matrix organization and biogenesis, chemotaxis, as well as suppressions of superoxide release, hydrogen peroxide metabolism, cellular response to hydrogen peroxide, keratinization, and keratinocyte differentiation in OTSCCs. Conclusion In summary, our study provided a transcriptomic signature for OTSCC that may lead to a diagnosis or screen tool and provide the foundation for further functional validation of these specific candidate genes for OTSCC.

  4. Five cases of squamous cell carcinoma induced by irradiation

    Omoto, Kayo; Tani, Tasaburo; Nagata, Hiroyuki; Kohda, Mamoru; Ueki, Hiroaki

    1985-01-01

    Five cases of squamous cell carcinoma (skin) induced by irradiation are reported. Three cases had been given radiotherapy for benign skin disorders, tinea pedis, lichen Vidal, and dermatitis papillaris capillitis. The other two cases were medical doctors who had developed carcinoma as the result of advanced radiodermatitis. (author)

  5. Humeral Metastasis in a case of Squamous Cell Carcinoma - a ...

    A rare case of squamous cell carcinoma with metastasis to distal acral skeleton – humerus within two months of diagnosis of the primary is being reported. The metastasis to the bones from carcinoma cervix is uncommon especially in the distal appendicular skeleton. A 47 years female came with spontaneous fracture of ...

  6. Oct-4 expression maintained stem cell properties in prostate cancer ...

    Erah

    Keywords: Prostate cancer, Cancer stem-like cells, Oct-4, CD133, Multi-drug resistance1 (MDR1). Received: 7 ... mechanisms in maintaining the self-renewal and drug resistant ... (platelet-derived growth factor α receptor). This suggests that ...

  7. Hypofractionated stereotactic boost in intermediate risk prostate carcinoma: Preliminary results of a multicenter phase II trial (CKNO-PRO.

    David Pasquier

    Full Text Available Dose escalation may improve curability in intermediate-risk prostate carcinoma. A multicenter national program was developed to assess toxicity and tumor response with hypofractionated stereotactic boost after conventional radiotherapy in intermediate-risk prostate cancer.Between August 2010 and April 2013, 76 patients with intermediated-risk prostate carcinoma were included in the study. A first course delivered 46 Gy by IMRT (68.4% of patients or 3D conformal radiotherapy (31.6% of patients. The second course delivered a boost of 18 Gy (3x6Gy within 10 days. Gastrointestinal (GI and genitourinary (GU toxicities were evaluated as defined by NCI-CTCAE (v4.0. Secondary outcome measures were local control, overall and metastasis-free survival, PSA kinetics, and patient functional status (urinary and sexual according to the IIEF5 and IPSS questionnaires.The overall treatment time was 45 days (median, range 40-55. Median follow-up was 26.4 months (range, 13.6-29.9 months. Seventy-seven per cent (n = 58 of patients presented a Gleason score of 7. At 24 months, biological-free survival was 98.7% (95% CI, 92.8-99.9% and median PSA 0.46 ng/mL (range, 0.06-6.20 ng/mL. Grade ≥2 acute GI and GU toxicities were 13.2% and 23.7%, respectively. Grade ≥2 late GI and GU toxicities were observed in 6.6% and 2.6% of patients, respectively. No grade 4 toxicity was observed.Hypofractionated stereotactic boost is effective and safely delivered for intermediate-risk prostate carcinoma after conventional radiation. Mild-term relapse-free survival and tolerance results are promising, and further follow-up is warranted to confirm the results at long term.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01596816.

  8. Squamous cell carcinoma of temporal bone: four case reports

    Lee, Jun Ha; Sung, Ki Joon; Sim, Young; Shim, Sue Yoen; Yoon, Byoung Moon

    2000-01-01

    We report the CT findings of four cases of squamous cell carcinoma, paying special attention to the epicenter of the lesion and the pattern of bony destruction. All four patients had a past history of chronic otitis media. Squamous cell carcinoma affected mainly the hypotympanum and inferior wall of the external auditory canal. and in all cases revealed an irregular pattern of bony destruction. Irregular destruction of the tegmen tympani occurred in two cases. In cases of squamous cell carcinoma, CT findings suggesting involvement of the promontory are usually noted. (author)

  9. Squamous cell carcinoma of temporal bone: four case reports

    Lee, Jun Ha; Sung, Ki Joon; Sim, Young; Shim, Sue Yoen; Yoon, Byoung Moon [Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-04-01

    We report the CT findings of four cases of squamous cell carcinoma, paying special attention to the epicenter of the lesion and the pattern of bony destruction. All four patients had a past history of chronic otitis media. Squamous cell carcinoma affected mainly the hypotympanum and inferior wall of the external auditory canal. and in all cases revealed an irregular pattern of bony destruction. Irregular destruction of the tegmen tympani occurred in two cases. In cases of squamous cell carcinoma, CT findings suggesting involvement of the promontory are usually noted. (author)

  10. Merkel Cell Carcinoma: Interdisciplinary Management of a Rare Disease

    Schneider, S.; Thurnher, D.; Erovic, B. M.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to review contemporary multidisciplinary treatment with reference to Milkier cell carcinoma. Management of this rare but highly aggressive skin cancer is a complex undertaking that necessitates an understanding of its etiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, and the coordinated work of several clinical specializations. Recent Findings. The contemporary literature employs a multidisciplinary approach to achieve the best patient's treatment. Conclusion. This paper presents an algorithm for contemporary management for the rare and aggressive Merkel cell carcinoma. Multidisciplinary approach in a tumor center provides high-quality care for patients with Merkel cell carcinoma.

  11. treatment of Merkel cell carcinoma: a report of four cases

    Song Yongwen; Liu Xinfan; Wang Xiaozhen; Li Yexiong

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical characteristics and progress so as to establish a better therapeutic principle for Merkel cell carcinoma. Methods: Manifestations and results of 4 Merkel cell carcinoma patients treated, with review of relevant papers is presented. Results: Among these 4 patients, local recurrence developed in 2, regional lymphatic metastasis in 3 and distant metastasis in 2. One of them died of the disease. Conclusions: High risks of local recurrence and regional/distant metastasis feature Merkel cell carcinoma. We recommend postoperative radiotherapy for stage I disease and radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy for resected stage II and stage III disease

  12. The neuroendocrine (Merkel cell) carcinoma of head and neck

    Weidauer, H.; Altmannsberger, H.M.

    1987-01-01

    The neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin has its histogenetic origin in Merkel cells and a preference in head and neck area in the seventh decade of life. The definitive diagnosis can be made with a combination of electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Merkel cell carcinoma is a primary cutaneous neoplasma and is rarely found on the lips or gingiva. Operation and radiation are the therapy of choice. The value of an additional antineoplastic chemotherapy in the treatment of Merkel cell carcinoma is still controversial. Although long survival times had been described in literature the occurrence of local relapses and metastases demands for frequent controls. (orig.) [de

  13. Merkel Cell Carcinoma: Interdisciplinary Management of a Rare Disease

    Sven Schneider

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The goal of this paper is to review contemporary multidisciplinary treatment with reference to Merkel cell carcinoma. Management of this rare but highly aggressive skin cancer is a complex undertaking that necessitates an understanding of its etiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, and the coordinated work of several clinical specializations. Recent Findings. The contemporary literature employs a multidisciplinary approach to achieve the best patient's treatment. Conclusion. This paper presents an algorithm for contemporary management for the rare and aggressive Merkel cell carcinoma. Multidisciplinary approach in a tumor center provides high-quality care for patients with Merkel cell carcinoma.

  14. File list: InP.Prs.50.AllAg.Prostate_cancer_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available InP.Prs.50.AllAg.Prostate_cancer_cells hg19 Input control Prostate Prostate cancer ...cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Prs.50.AllAg.Prostate_cancer_cells.bed ...

  15. File list: NoD.Prs.05.AllAg.Prostate_cancer_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available NoD.Prs.05.AllAg.Prostate_cancer_cells hg19 No description Prostate Prostate cancer... cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Prs.05.AllAg.Prostate_cancer_cells.bed ...

  16. File list: InP.Prs.10.AllAg.Prostate_cancer_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available InP.Prs.10.AllAg.Prostate_cancer_cells hg19 Input control Prostate Prostate cancer ...cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Prs.10.AllAg.Prostate_cancer_cells.bed ...

  17. Identification of Human Cutaneous Basal Cell Carcinoma Cancer Stem Cells.

    Morgan, Huw; Olivero, Carlotta; Patel, Girish K

    2018-04-20

    The cancer stem cell model states that a subset of tumor cells, called "cancer stem cells," can initiate and propagate tumor growth through self-renewal, high proliferative capacity, and their ability to recreate tumor heterogeneity. In basal cell carcinoma (BCC), we have shown that tumor cells that express the cell surface protein CD200 fulfill the cancer stem cell hypothesis. CD200+ CD45- BCC cells represent 0.05-3.96% of all BCC cells and reside in small clusters at the tumor periphery. Using a novel, reproducible in vivo xenograft growth assay, we determined that tumor-initiating cell (TIC) frequencies are approximately 1 per 1.5 million unsorted BCC cells. The CD200+ CD45- BCC subpopulation recreated BCC tumor growth in vivo with typical histological architecture and expression of sonic hedgehog-regulated genes. Reproducible in vivo BCC growth was achieved with as few as 10,000 CD200+ CD45- cells, representing ~1500-fold enrichment. The methods used to identify and purify CD200+ CD45- BCC cells, as well as characterize gene expression, are described herein.

  18. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hilar Bile Duct

    Ippei Yamana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We herein report a rare case of squamous cell carcinoma of the hilar bile duct. A 66-year-old Japanese male patient was admitted to our hospital because of appetite loss and jaundice. Abdominal computed tomography revealed an enhanced mass measuring 10 × 30 mm in the hilar bile duct region. After undergoing biliary drainage, the patient underwent extended right hepatic lobectomy with regional lymph nodes dissection. The tumor had invaded the right portal vein. Therefore, we also performed resection and reconstruction of the portal vein. Histopathologically, the carcinoma cells exhibited a solid structure with differentiation to squamous cell carcinoma with keratinization and intercellular bridges. Immunohistochemical staining of the tumor cells revealed positive cytokeratin staining and negative CAM 5.2 staining. Based on these findings, a definitive diagnosis of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the hilar bile duct was made.

  19. Radiation sensitivity of Merkel cell carcinoma cell lines

    Leonard, J.H.; Ramsay, J.R.; Birrell, G.W. [Queensland Institute of Medical Research (Australia)] [and others

    1995-07-30

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), being a small cell carcinoma, would be expected to be sensitive to radiation. Clinical analysis of patients at our center, especially those with macroscopic disease, would suggest the response is quite variable. We have recently established a number of MCC cell lines from patients prior to radiotherapy, and for the first time are in a position to determine their sensitivity under controlled conditions. Some of the MCC lines grew as suspension cultures and could not be single cell cloned; therefore, it was not possible to use clonogenic survival for all cell lines. A tetrazolium based (MTT) assay was used for these lines, to estimate cell growth after {gamma} irradiation. Control experiments were conducted on lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) and the adherent MCC line, MCC13, to demonstrate that the two assays were comparable under the conditions used. We have examined cell lines from MCC, small cell lung cancer (SCLC), malignant melanomas, Epstein Barr virus (EBV) transformed lymphocytes (LCL), and skin fibroblasts for their sensitivity to {gamma} irradiation using both clonogenic cell survival and MTT assays. The results show that the tumor cell lines have a range of sensitivities, with melanoma being more resistant (surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) 0.57 and 0.56) than the small cell carcinoma lines, MCC (SF2 range 0.21-0.45, mean SF2 0.30, n = 8) and SCLC (SF2 0.31). Fibroblasts were the most sensitive (SF2 0.13-0.20, mean 0.16, n = 5). The MTT assay, when compared to clonogenic assay for the MCC13 adherent line and the LCL, gave comparable results under the conditions used. Both assays gave a range of SF2 values for the MCC cell lines, suggesting that these cancers would give a heterogeneous response in vivo. The results with the two derivative clones of MCC14 (SF2 for MCC14/1 0.38, MCC14/2 0.45) would further suggest that some of them may develop resistance during clonogenic evolution. 25 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Radiation sensitivity of Merkell cell carcinoma cell lines

    Leonard, J. Helen; Ramsay, Jonathan R.; Kearsley, John H.; Birrell, Geoff W.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), being a small cell carcinoma, would be expected to be sensitive to radiation. Clinical analysis of patients at our center, especially those with macroscopic disease, would suggest the response is quite variable. We have recently established a number of MCC cell lines from patients prior to radiotherapy, and for the first time are in a position to determine their sensitivity under controlled conditions. Methods and Materials: Some of the MCC lines grew as suspension cultures and could not be single cell cloned; therefore, it was not possible to use clonogenic survival for all cell lines. A tetrazolium based (MTT) assay was used for these lines, to estimate cell growth after γ irradiation. Control experiments were conducted on lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) and the adherent MCC line, MCC13, to demonstrate that the two assays were comparable under the conditions used. Results: We have examined cell lines from MCC, small cell lung cancer (SCLC), malignant melanomas, Epstein Barr virus (EBV) transformed lymphocytes (LCL), and skin fibroblasts for their sensitivity to γ irradiation using both clonogenic cell survival and MTT assays. The results show that the tumor cell lines have a range of sensitivities, with melanoma being more resistant (surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) 0.57 and 0.56) than the small cell carcinoma lines, MCC (SF2 range 0.21-0.45, mean SF2 0.30, n = 8) and SCLC (SF2 0.31). Fibroblasts were the most sensitive (SF2 0.13-0.20, mean 0.16, n = 5). The MTT assay, when compared to clonogenic assay for the MCC13 adherent line and the LCL, gave comparable results under the conditions used. Conclusion: Both assays gave a range of SF2 values for the MCC cell lines, suggesting that these cancers would give a heterogeneous response in vivo. The results with the two derivative clones of MCC14 (SF2 for MCC14/1 0.38, MCC14/2 0.45) would further suggest that some of them may develop resistance during clonogenic evolution

  1. Renal cell carcinoma: evolving approaches to advanced non-clear cell carcinoma

    Daniel Y.C. Heng

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC has changed dramatically with the introduction of targeted therapies including sunitinib, sorafenib, and temsirolimus. Because patients with conventional clear cell histology account for 75- 80% of all patients with RCC, there has been little accumulated evidence on the treatment of patients with non-clear cell histologies. Most clinical trials have excluded them from enrolment, except for randomized studies investigating temsirolimus. Many retrospective studies on the use of all three of these targeted therapies in patients with non-clear cell histology have demonstrated response rates ranging from 3.7%–16%. Although response rates may not be as high compared to patients with clear cell histologies, targeted therapy does provide a clinically meaningful response.

  2. Plasma cell-free DNA and its DNA integrity as biomarker to distinguish prostate cancer from benign prostatic hyperplasia in patients with increased serum prostate-specific antigen.

    Feng, Jiang; Gang, Feng; Li, Xiao; Jin, Tang; Houbao, Huang; Yu, Cao; Guorong, Li

    2013-08-01

    To investigate whether plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) or its integrity could differentiate prostate cancer from benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) in patients with serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≥ 4 ng/ml. Ninety-six patients with prostate cancer and 112 patients with BPH were enrolled. cfDNA levels in plasma before prostate biopsy were quantified by real-time PCR amplification of ALU gene (product size of 115 bp), and quantitative ratio of ALU (247 bp) to ALU (115 bp) reflected the integrity of cfDNA. In patients with serum PSA ≥ 4 ng/ml, there were significant differences in plasma cfDNA or its integrity between the patients with prostate cancer (19.74 ± 4.43, 0.34 ± 0.05) and patients with BPH (7.36 ± 1.58, 0.19 ± 0.03; P Prostate cancer could be differentiated with a sensitivity of 73.2 % and a specificity of 72.7 % by cfDNA (AUC = 0.864). The integrity of cfDNA had a sensitivity of 81.7 % and a specificity of 78.8 % for the distinguishing prostate cancer from BPH (AUC = 0.910). cfDNA and its integrity could be applied to differentiate prostate cancer from BPH in patients with serum PSA ≥ 4 ng/ml.

  3. Three dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3d-crt) in prostate carcinoma: for whom and how?; La radiotherapie conformationnelle dans le cancer de la prostate: pour qui et comment?

    Bey, P.; Beckendorf, V.; Aletti, P.; Marchesi, V. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2002-05-01

    External radiotherapy is one of the modalities use o cure localized prostate carcinoma. Most of localized prostate carcinomas, specially those of the intermediate prognostic group, may benefit from escalated dose above 70 Gy at least as regard biochemical and clinical relapse free survival. 3D-CRT allows a reduction of the dose received by organs at risk and an increase of prostate dose over 70 Gy. It is on the way to become a standard. Intensity modulated radiation therapy increases dose homogeneity and reduces rectal dose. These methods necessitate rigorous procedures in reproducibility, delineation of volumes, dosimetry, daily treatment. They need also technological and human means. It is clear that localized prostate cancer is a good example for evaluation of these new radiotherapy modalities. (author)

  4. Clinicopathological evaluation of radiation induced basal cell carcinoma

    Meibodi Naser

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Development of skin neoplasms is one of the most important chronic complications of radiation therapy. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most frequent carcinoma occurring at the region of the body to which radiotherapy was delivered. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and histological aspects of basal cell carcinoma in patients with a history of radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Medical records and microscopic slides of 80 patients with basal cell carcinoma who had received radiotherapy (1996-2006 were reviewed in pathology department of Imam Reza hospital of Mashhad, Iran. Collected data were analyzed statistically using descriptive test. Results: 60 men and 20 women were included, majority of them in their sixties. Plaque was the most common clinical pattern of basal cell carcinoma. Fifty one percent of the patients had pigmented and 42.5% had multiple lesions. Scalp was the most common site of involvement. Histologically, macronodular and pigmented carcinoma were the most predominant forms of basal cell carcinoma. Discussion: Majority of patients had scalp involvement and multiple lesions. Nodular and pigmented forms were the most common histological findings. We suggest the need for close supervision in patients with a history of radio therapy in the past.

  5. Application of biological dose concept in dose optimization for conformal radiotherapy of prostate carcinoma

    Li Yunhai; Liao Yuan; Zhou Lijun; Pan Ziqiang; Feng Yan

    2003-01-01

    Objective: On basis of physical dose optimization, LQ model was used to investigate the difference between the curves of biological effective dose and physical isodose. The influence of applying the biological dose concept on three dimensional conformal radiotherapy of prostate carcinoma was discussed. Methods: Four treatment plannings were designed for physical dose optimization: three fields, four-box fields, five fields and six fields. Target dose uniformity and protection of the critical tissue-rectum were used as the principal standard for designing the treatment planning. Biological effective dose (BED) was calculated by LQ model. The difference between the BED curve drawn in the central layer and the physical isodose curve was studied. The difference between the adjusted physical dose (APD) and the physical dose was also studied. Results: Five field planning was the best in target dose uniformity and protection of the critical tissue-rectum. The physical dose was uniform in the target, but the biological effective doses revealed great discrepancy in the biological model. Adjusted physical dose distribution also displayed larger discrepancy than the physical dose unadjusted. Conclusions: Intensified Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) technique with inversion planning using biological dose concept may be much more advantageous to reach a high tumor control probability and low normal tissue complication probability

  6. Prophylactic radiotherapy of the breast in patients with prostatic carcinoma before application of contrasexual hormones

    Arndt, D.; Heibel, J.H.

    1983-08-01

    Symptoms and objective parameters of gynecomastia are analysed in 113 patients, who received prophylactic irradiation of the breast (12 Gy in 3 fractions) prior to estrogen therapy of prostatic carcinoma. Another 10 patients were treated equally after estrogens had caused severe complaints. Symptoms increased from 10% to 100% in relation to 4 classes of gynecomastia. They were mild in 27.5%, moderate in 23.9% and severe in 8.8%. A correlation between metric classification and graded symptoms became more evident when only 2 groups were distinguished. With a maximum diameter of 3.5 cm only 17% of the patients had mostly slight discomfort in contrast to 70% of the patients with a gland of more than 3.5 cm in diameter; they revealed moderate or serious complaints. These results indicate that prophylactic radiotherapy may reduce severe complications to less than 10% as compared to 70-80% without irradiation. If gynecomastia has developed, regression by subsequent radiotherapy seems to be impossible; but the intensity of complaints could be reduced in our ten patients. Provided that irradiation precedes estrogen application, this sequence may be considered as a reasonable alternative to expensive antiandrogen therapy.

  7. Antigen specific T-cell responses against tumor antigens are controlled by regulatory T cells in patients with prostate cancer.

    Hadaschik, Boris; Su, Yun; Huter, Eva; Ge, Yingzi; Hohenfellner, Markus; Beckhove, Philipp

    2012-04-01

    Immunotherapy is a promising approach in an effort to control castration resistant prostate cancer. We characterized tumor antigen reactive T cells in patients with prostate cancer and analyzed the suppression of antitumor responses by regulatory T cells. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 57 patients with histologically confirmed prostate cancer, 8 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and 16 healthy donors. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and antigen specific interferon-γ secretion of isolated T cells was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunospot assay. T cells were functionally characterized and T-cell responses before and after regulatory T-cell depletion were compared. As test tumor antigens, a panel of 11 long synthetic peptides derived from a total of 8 tumor antigens was used, including prostate specific antigen and prostatic acid phosphatase. In patients with prostate cancer we noted a 74.5% effector T-cell response rate compared with only 25% in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and 31% in healthy donors. In most patients 2 or 3 tumor antigens were recognized. Comparing various disease stages there was a clear increase in the immune response against prostate specific antigens from intermediate to high risk tumors and castration resistant disease. Regulatory T-cell depletion led to a significant boost in effector T-cell responses against prostate specific antigen and prostatic acid phosphatase. Tumor specific effector T cells were detected in most patients with prostate cancer, especially those with castration resistant prostate cancer. Since effector T-cell responses against prostate specific antigens strongly increased after regulatory T-cell depletion, our results indicate that immunotherapy efficacy could be enhanced by decreasing regulatory T cells. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome

    Lo Muzio Lorenzo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms. The estimated prevalence varies from 1/57,000 to 1/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs, odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and soles, skeletal abnormalities, intracranial ectopic calcifications, and facial dysmorphism (macrocephaly, cleft lip/palate and severe eye anomalies. Intellectual deficit is present in up to 5% of cases. BCCs (varying clinically from flesh-colored papules to ulcerating plaques and in diameter from 1 to 10 mm are most commonly located on the face, back and chest. The number of BBCs varies from a few to several thousand. Recurrent jaw cysts occur in 90% of patients. Skeletal abnormalities (affecting the shape of the ribs, vertebral column bones, and the skull are frequent. Ocular, genitourinary and cardiovascular disorders may occur. About 5–10% of NBCCS patients develop the brain malignancy medulloblastoma, which may be a potential cause of early death. NBCCS is caused by mutations in the PTCH1 gene and is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Clinical diagnosis relies on specific criteria. Gene mutation analysis confirms the diagnosis. Genetic counseling is mandatory. Antenatal diagnosis is feasible by means of ultrasound scans and analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells (obtained by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. Main differential diagnoses include Bazex syndrome, trichoepithelioma papulosum multiplex and Torre's syndrome (Muir-Torre's syndrome. Management requires a multidisciplinary approach. Keratocysts are treated by surgical removal. Surgery for BBCs is indicated when the number of lesions is limited; other treatments include laser

  9. Genomic instability in human actinic keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma

    Cabral, Luciana Sanches; Neto, Cyro Festa; Sanches, José A; Ruiz, Itamar R G

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the repetitive DNA patterns of human actinic keratoses and squamous cell carcinomas to determine the genetic alterations that are associated with malignant transformation. INTRODUCTION: Cancer cells are prone to genomic instability, which is often due to DNA polymerase slippage during the replication of repetitive DNA and to mutations in the DNA repair genes. The progression of benign actinic keratoses to malignant squamous cell carcinomas has been proposed by several authors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eight actinic keratoses and 24 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), which were pair-matched to adjacent skin tissues and/or leucocytes, were studied. The presence of microsatellite instability (MSI) and the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in chromosomes 6 and 9 were investigated using nine PCR primer pairs. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA patterns were also evaluated using eight primers. RESULTS: MSI was detected in two (D6S251, D9S50) of the eight actinic keratosis patients. Among the 8 patients who had squamous cell carcinoma-I and provided informative results, a single patient exhibited two LOH (D6S251, D9S287) and two instances of MSI (D9S180, D9S280). Two LOH and one example of MSI (D6S251) were detected in three out of the 10 patients with squamous cell carcinoma-II. Among the four patients with squamous cell carcinoma-III, one patient displayed three MSIs (D6S251, D6S252, and D9S180) and another patient exhibited an MSI (D9S280). The altered random amplified polymorphic DNA ranged from 70% actinic keratoses, 76% squamous cell carcinoma-I, and 90% squamous cell carcinoma-II, to 100% squamous cell carcinoma-III. DISCUSSION: The increased levels of alterations in the microsatellites, particularly in D6S251, and the random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprints were statistically significant in squamous cell carcinomas, compared with actinic keratoses. CONCLUSION: The overall alterations that were observed in the repetitive DNA of actinic keratoses and

  10. Treatment of early glassy cell carcinoma of uterine cervix

    Kim, Ok Bae; Kim, Jin Hee; Choi, Tae Jin

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical findings, treatment, and outcome of patients with glassy cell carcinoma of cervix. We reviewed all cases of glassy cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix confirmed and treated at the Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University, between January 1993 and December 2005. There were 7 cases with histopathologically confirmed gassy cell carcinoma. A tumor was diagnosed as glassy cell carcinoma if over 50% of the tumor cell type displayed glassy cell features. Six patients with stage IB had radical hysterectomy and bilateral pelvic node dissection, and 2 of them received adjuvant external pelvic irradiation with concurrent chemotherapy. Remaining one patient with stage IIA had curative concurrent chemoradiotherapy with external pelvic irradiation and brachytherapy. There were 7 patients diagnosed as glassy cell carcinoma among the 3,745 (0.2%) patients of carcinoma of uterine cervix. The mean age of 7 patients was 44 years with range of 35 to 53 years of age. The most frequent symptom was vaginal bleeding (86%). By the punch biopsy undertaken before treatment of 7 cases, 2 only cases could diagnose as glassy cell carcinoma of uterine cervix, but remaining of them confirmed by surgical pathological examination. The mean follow up duration was 73 months with range of 13 to 150 months. All 7 patients were alive without disease after treatment. Glassy cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix is a distinct clinicopathologic entity that demonstrates an aggressive biologic behavior. However for early-stage disease, we may have more favorable clinical outcome with radical surgery followed by chemoradiotherapy

  11. Racial influence on the prevalence of prostate carcinoma in Brazilian volunteers

    Edson L Paschoalin

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the prevalence of prostate carcinoma in a sample of volunteers known to have a large proportion of Bantu African ancestors, and the performance of total PSA (tPSA, PSA density (PSAD and free-to-total PSA ratio (f/tPSA on the diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 473 volunteers (range: 40 - 79 years were screened for prostate carcinoma. Those with tPSA >2 ng/ml and/or abnormal digital rectal examination were submitted to a transrectal ultrasound-directed biopsy (10 cores. The volunteers were classified as White, Mulatto or Black according to physical characteristics and to ancestors race reference. The following variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR were analyzed in the blood of 120 volunteers without cancer and in 27 patients with prostate cancer: D4S43, PAH, F13A1, APOB and vW-1. RESULTS: The biopsies performed in 121 volunteers revealed cancer in 27 (5.7% of 473. The proportions of cancer in White, Mulatto and Black were respectively: 0.6% (1/148, 6.7% (6/90 and 8.5% (20/235 (p = 0.006. The VNTRs analysis revealed heterogeneity in White, Mulatto and Black anthropologic phenotypes with the following admixture of Caucasian, African and Amerindian gene lineages: 67.5 ± 8%, 20.8 ± 8%, 11.7 ± 7%; 54.8 ± 9%, 36.3 ± 5%, 8.9 ± 7%; and, 45.3 ± 3%, 45.9 ± 4%, 8.8 ± 7%. Such a mixture was 50.5 ± 9%, 49 ± 8% and 0.5 ± 4% in volunteers bearing cancer, and 59.1 ± 7%, 31.7 ± 8% and 9.2 ± 5% in those without cancer. The sensitivity and specificity of tPSA at cut-off levels of 2, 2.5 and 4 ng/ml for volunteers with tPSA <= 10 ng/ml were respectively: 100% and 6,6%, 100% and 36,6%, 69,2% and 62,2%. PSAD at a cut-off level of 0.08 or 0.10, and f/tPSA at a cut-off level of 20% were able to increase significantly tPSA specificity without loss on sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: The tumor prevalence was higher in Non-White than in White phenotype. The association of tPSA at a cut-off level of 2.5 ng/ml with a PSAD of 0.08 or

  12. Disease-related effects of perioperative blood transfusions associated with 125I seed implantation for prostate carcinoma

    Petersen, J.P.; Schellhammer, P.F.; el-Mahdi, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    In some retrospective studies perioperative transfusions during oncologic surgery have been shown to decrease the time interval between surgery and local and/or distant recurrence of cancer. This study examines the disease-related effect, if any, of perioperative blood transfusions among 108 patients with localized carcinoma of the prostate treated by radioactive iodine-125 seed implantation of the prostate and lymphadenectomy. When all subjects were analyzed, there was no statistical difference of local and distant failure between the transfused and nontransfused groups. Patients with well-differentiated tumors had statistically fewer local recurrences (0% vs 22%, p = 0.036) if they were transfused perioperatively. However, the difference in distant metastases (0% vs 11%) was not statistically significant (p = 0.21). In contrast, patients with moderately and poorly differentiated disease receiving transfusions had more local recurrences and metastases, though this was not statistically significant. Our data suggest that there is no obvious evidence that perioperative blood transfusions have an adverse effect on local recurrence or distant metastases for iodine-125 seed implantation of carcinoma of the prostate

  13. Facial skin follllicular hyperkeratosis of patients with basal cell carcinoma

    M. V. Zhuchkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a clinical observation of paraneoplastic syndrome of a patient with basal cell carcinoma of skin. Authors present clinical features of the described for the first time, paraneoplastic retentional follicular hyperkeratosis of facial area.

  14. Leukemoid reaction associated with transitional cell carcinoma: A ...

    Leukemoid reaction associated with transitional cell carcinoma: A case report ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice ... At 3 months later, patient was admitted to our 21 22 hospital with the complaints of the left leg edema, diagnosed as pelvic

  15. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in mature cystic teratoma of ovary

    Ranu Patni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the ovary is a rare condition and usually arises in mature cystic teratoma (MCT or dermoid cyst of the ovary. The reported incidence of malignant transformation in MCT is approximately 2%. A case of squamous cell carcinoma arising in a dermoid cyst of the ovary presenting at an early stage is presented here. A 53-year-old postmenopausal lady, presented with the complaint of pain in right lower abdomen since one month and a large complex abdomino-pelvic mass on examination and investigations. Final histopathology was reported as squamous cell carcinoma of left ovary arising from dermoid cyst and a benign dermoid cyst in the right ovary. The patient was assigned to squamous cell carcinoma of the ovary arising in a mature cystic teratoma, surgical stage Ic2. In view of the poor prognosis, adjuvant chemotherapy was started.

  16. Ovarian Small Cell Carcinoma Hypercalcemic Type: A Case Report

    Rahma, M B.

    2016-09-01

    A 31-year-old female was diagnosed with small cell carcinoma of the ovary hypercalcaemic type (OSCCHT) post left oophorectomy. This is a rare aggressive ovarian tumour of which less than 300 cases were reported.

  17. A case of renal cell carcinoma and angiomyolipoma in an ...

    Abstract. We describe a case of renal cell carcinoma in the right kidney together with an angiomyolipoma in the left kidney, encountered in an adolescent girl at Potchefstroom Provincial Hospital, North West Province, South Africa.

  18. Merkel Cell Carcinoma in Immunosuppressed Patients

    Ma, Janice E. [Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Brewer, Jerry D., E-mail: brewer.jerry@mayo.edu [Department of Dermatology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)

    2014-06-27

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive cutaneous malignancy. The infectivity of Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), an apparent agent in MCC development, may be exacerbated with impaired immune responses. This paper reviews relevant data regarding the role of immunosuppression in the development of MCC and describes modes of immunodeficient states. Because of the inherently low incidence rate of MCC, several case studies and series are also briefly mentioned to provide a more comprehensive summary of MCC in the setting of immunosuppression. We describe immunosuppressed patients who have experienced excessive UV radiation, organ transplantation, human immunodeficiency virus infection/AIDS, autoimmune diseases, and lymphoproliferative disorders. Iatrogenic forms of immunosuppression are also highlighted. Studies that quantify risks consistently report that individuals with a history of solid organ transplantation, autoimmune diseases, AIDS, and/or lymphoproliferative diseases have a significantly elevated risk of developing MCC. Overall, immunocompromised patients also appear to have an early onset and more aggressive course of MCC, with poorer outcomes. Recommendations for multidisciplinary approaches are proposed to effectively prevent and manage MCC in these patients.

  19. Wnt Signaling in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Qi Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC accounts for 90% of all kidney cancers. Due to poor diagnosis, high resistance to the systemic therapies and the fact that most RCC cases occur sporadically, current research switched its focus on studying the molecular mechanisms underlying RCC. The aim is the discovery of new effective and less toxic anti-cancer drugs and novel diagnostic markers. Besides the PI3K/Akt/mTOR, HGF/Met and VHL/hypoxia cellular signaling pathways, the involvement of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in RCC is commonly studied. Wnt signaling and its targeted genes are known to actively participate in different biological processes during embryonic development and renal cancer. Recently, studies have shown that targeting this pathway by alternating/inhibiting its intracellular signal transduction can reduce cancer cells viability and inhibit their growth. The targets and drugs identified show promising potential to serve as novel RCC therapeutics and prognostic markers. This review aims to summarize the current status quo regarding recent research on RCC focusing on the involvement of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and how its understanding could facilitate the identification of potential therapeutic targets, new drugs and diagnostic biomarkers.

  20. Merkel Cell Carcinoma in Immunosuppressed Patients

    Ma, Janice E.; Brewer, Jerry D.

    2014-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive cutaneous malignancy. The infectivity of Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), an apparent agent in MCC development, may be exacerbated with impaired immune responses. This paper reviews relevant data regarding the role of immunosuppression in the development of MCC and describes modes of immunodeficient states. Because of the inherently low incidence rate of MCC, several case studies and series are also briefly mentioned to provide a more comprehensive summary of MCC in the setting of immunosuppression. We describe immunosuppressed patients who have experienced excessive UV radiation, organ transplantation, human immunodeficiency virus infection/AIDS, autoimmune diseases, and lymphoproliferative disorders. Iatrogenic forms of immunosuppression are also highlighted. Studies that quantify risks consistently report that individuals with a history of solid organ transplantation, autoimmune diseases, AIDS, and/or lymphoproliferative diseases have a significantly elevated risk of developing MCC. Overall, immunocompromised patients also appear to have an early onset and more aggressive course of MCC, with poorer outcomes. Recommendations for multidisciplinary approaches are proposed to effectively prevent and manage MCC in these patients