WorldWideScience

Sample records for prostate cancer screening

  1. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different tests to find those ... PSA level may be high if you have prostate cancer. It can also be high if you have ...

  2. Prostate Cancer Screening Results from PLCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn the results of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial, a large-scale clinical trial to determine whether certain cancer screening tests can help reduce deaths from prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer.

  3. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prostate. The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system located just below the bladder (the organ that ... up part of semen . Enlarge Anatomy of the male reproductive and urinary systems, showing the prostate, testicles, bladder, and other organs. ...

  4. Review article: Prostate cancer screening using prostate specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Prostate cancer is the commonest cancer among men in Nigeria and early detection is key to cure and survival but its screening through prostate specific antigen (PSA) has remain controversial in literature. Screening with prostate specific antigen (PSA) has led to more men diagnosed with prostate cancer than ...

  5. REVIEW ARTICLE: PROSTATE CANCER SCREENING USING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FOBUR

    ABSTRACT. Background: Prostate cancer is the commonest cancer among men in Nigeria and early detection is key to cure and survival but its screening through prostate specific antigen (PSA) has remain controversial in literature. Screening with prostate specific antigen (PSA) has led to more men diagnosed with ...

  6. Prostate cancer screening: and yet it moves!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Kwiatkowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The debate of prostate cancer (PCa screening has been shaped over decades. There is a plethora of articles in the literature supporting as well as declining prostate-specific antigen (PSA screening. Does screening decrease PCa mortality? With the long-term results of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate (ERSPC the answer is clearly YES. It moves! However, in medicine there are no benefits without any harm and thus, screening has to be performed in targeted and smart way-or in other words-in a risk-adapted fashion when compared with the way it was done in the past. Here, we discuss the main findings of the ERSPC trials and provide insights on how the future screening strategies should be implemented.

  7. Prostate cancer mortality in screen and clinically detected prostate cancer : Estimating the screening benefit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Pim J.; Connolly, David; Gavin, Anna; Roobol, Monique J.; Black, Amanda; Bangma, Chris H.; Schroder, Fritz H.

    Background: To estimate the benefits of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening on prostate cancer (Pca) metastasis and Pca-specific mortality, we compared two populations with a well-defined difference in intensity of screening. Methods: Between 1997 and 1999, a total of 11,970 men, aged 55-74

  8. Risks of Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prostate. The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system located just below the bladder (the organ that ... up part of semen . Enlarge Anatomy of the male reproductive and urinary systems, showing the prostate, testicles, bladder, and other organs. ...

  9. Prostate Cancer Screening : The effect on prostate cancer mortality and incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. van Leeuwen (Pim)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAt first glance, deciding whether to get the PSA screening test for prostate cancer seems to be pretty straightforward and attractive. It’s a simple blood test that can pick up the prostate cancer long before your symptoms appear. After all, your prostate cancer is earlier treated

  10. Predictors of participation in prostate cancer screening at worksites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrich, S P; Greiner, E; Reis-Starr, C; Yoon, S; Weinrich, M

    1998-01-01

    Unfortunately, African American men have a higher incidence of and a higher mortality rate for prostate cancer than White men but are less likely to participate in prostate cancer screening. This correlational survey research identifies predictors for participation in a free prostate cancer screening in 179 men, 64% of whom are African American. Each man was invited to see his personal physician for a free prostate cancer screening following a prostate cancer educational program given at his worksite. Forty-seven percent of the African American men went to their personal physician following the educational program and received a digital rectal examination (DRE) and a prostate specific antigen (PSA) screening. In the original cohort of educational program attendees, only 16% of the African Americans had obtained a DRE in the previous 12 months. However, 44% subsequently did participate in free DRE screening. Similarly, only 6% of the African American men had received a PSA screening in the previous 12 months, yet 42% obtained a PSA screening after the educational program, a sevenfold increase. Implications for allocating limited resources for education and screening to the high-risk group of African American men are discussed. This study's model of a prostate cancer educational program at worksites followed by attendees visiting their personal physician for screening could be replicated throughout the United States to increase African American men's participation in prostate cancer screening.

  11. Prostate cancer screening in Ghana - a clinical benefit? | Arthur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ghana and most African countries, prostate cancer is the most common cancer in males after hepatocellular carcinoma. Whereas in the advanced countries, screening for prostate specific antigen (PSA) has led to early detection and management of the disease, screening has been very low in Ghana, thus leading to low ...

  12. Prostate-specific antigen: does the current evidence support its use in prostate cancer screening?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    Although widely used, the value of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in screening asymptomatic men for prostate cancer is controversial. Reasons for the controversy relate to PSA being less than an ideal marker in detecting early prostate cancer, the possibility that screening for prostate cancer may result in the overdetection and thus overtreatment of indolent disease and the lack of clarity as to the definitive or best treatment for men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer. Although the results from some randomized prospective trials suggest that screening with PSA reduces mortality from prostate cancer, the overall benefit was modest. It is thus currently unclear as to whether the modest benefit of reduced mortality outweighs the harms of overdetection and overtreatment. Thus, prior to undergoing screening for prostate cancer, men should be informed of the risks and benefits of early detection. Newly emerging markers that may complement PSA in the early detection of prostate cancer include specific isoforms of PSA and PCA3.

  13. Prostate and Colon Cancer Screening Messages in Popular Magazines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Mira L; Sheridan, Stacey; Pignone, Michael; Lewis, Carmen; Battle, Jamila; Gollop, Claudia; O'Malley, Michael

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To 1) compare the number of articles published about prostate, colon, and breast cancer in popular magazines during the past 2 decades, and 2) evaluate the content of in-depth prostate and colon cancer screening articles identified from 1996 to 2001. DESIGN We used a searchable database to identify the number of prostate, colon, and breast cancer articles published in three magazines with the highest circulation from six categories. In addition, we performed a systematic review on the in-depth (≥2 pages) articles on prostate and colon cancer screening that appeared from 1996 through 2001. RESULTS Although the number of magazine articles on prostate and colon cancer published in the 1990s increased compared to the 1980s, the number of articles is approximately one third of breast cancer articles. There were 36 in-depth articles from 1996 to 2001 in which prostate or colon cancer screening were mentioned. Over 90% of the articles recommended screening. However, of those articles, only 76% (25/33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 58% to 89%) cited screening guidelines. The benefits of screening were mentioned in 89% (32/36; 95% CI, 74% to 97%) but the harms were only found in 58% (21/36; 95% CI, 41% to 75%). Only 28% (10/36; 95% CI, 14% to 45%) of the articles provided all the necessary information needed for the reader to make an informed decision. CONCLUSIONS In-depth articles about prostate and colon cancer in popular magazines do not appear as frequently as articles about breast cancer. The available articles on prostate and colon cancer screening often do not provide the information necessary for the reader to make an informed decision about screening. PMID:15242469

  14. Stages of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Prostate Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Prostate ...

  15. Prostate Cancer Screening in Jamaica: Results of the Largest National Screening Clinic Prostate Cancer Screening in Jamaica: Results of the Largest National Screening Clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, B. F.; Aiken, W.; Mayhew, R.; Gordon, Y.; Reid, M.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is highly prevalent in Jamaica and is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Our aim was to evaluate the patterns of screening in the largest organized screening clinic in Jamaica at the Jamaica Cancer Society. A retrospective analysis of all men presenting for screening at the Jamaica Cancer Society from 1995 to 2005 was done. All patients had digital rectal examinations (DRE) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) tests done. Results of prostate biopsies were noted. 1117 men of mean age 59.9 ± 8.2 years presented for screening. The median documented PSA was 1.6 ng/mL (maximum of 5170 ng/mL). Most patients presented for only 1 screen. There was a gradual reduction in the mean age of presentation for screening over the period. Prostate biopsies were requested on 11% of screening visits; however, only 59% of these were done. 5.6% of all persons screened were found to have cancer. Of the cancers diagnosed, Gleason 6 adenocarcinoma was the commonest grade and median PSA was 8.9 ng/mL (range 1.5-1059 ng/mL). Older men tend to screen for prostate cancer in Jamaica. However, compliance with regular maintenance visits and requests for confirmatory biopsies are poor. Screening needs intervention in the Jamaican population.

  16. Pre-screening Discussions and Prostate-Specific Antigen Testing for Prostate Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhao, Guixiang; Hall, Ingrid J

    2015-08-01

    For many men, the net benefit of prostate cancer screening with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests may be small. Many major medical organizations have issued recommendations for prostate cancer screening, stressing the need for shared decision making before ordering a test. The purpose of this study is to better understand associations between discussions about benefits and harms of PSA testing and uptake of the test among men aged ≥40 years. Associations between pre-screening discussions and PSA testing were examined using self-reported data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Unadjusted prevalence of PSA testing was estimated and AORs were calculated using logistic regression in 2014. The multivariate analysis showed that men who had ever discussed advantages of PSA testing only or discussed both advantages and disadvantages were more likely, respectively, to report having had a test within the past year than men who had no discussions (ptesting with their healthcare providers were more likely (AOR=2.75, 95% CI=2.00, 3.79) to report getting tested than men who had no discussions. Discussions of the benefits or harms of PSA testing are positively associated with increased uptake of the test. Given the conflicting recommendations for prostate cancer screening and increasing importance of shared decision making, this study points to the need for understanding how pre-screening discussions are being conducted in clinical practice and the role played by patients' values and preferences in decisions about PSA testing. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Prostate Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  18. Prostate cancer - epidemiology, etiology, diagnostics, clinical symptoms, screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondrus, D.

    2006-01-01

    Prostate cancer presents a real important medical and social problem at present. It is one of the most common malignancy in males. In global point of view it means permanent incidence increase of this disease. Despite improvement of prostate cancer diagnosis and complex treatment mortality does not decreased significantly. Knowledge of etiological factors are relatively limited. Important factors are: genetic disposition, age, life style, race, positive familial history, circulated androgens. Diagnostics is well known, based on routine clinical methods: digital rectal examination, measurement of PSA a transrectal ultrasound. Benefit of prostate cancer screening is until now unclear, controversial. (author)

  19. Barriers and facilitators of prostate cancer screening among Filipino men in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Francisco A; Landier, Wendy; Ishida, Dianne; Bell, Rose; Cuaresma, Charlene F; Misola, Jane

    2011-03-01

    To examine perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs regarding barriers and facilitators to prostate cancer screening, and to identify potential interventional strategies to promote prostate cancer screening among Filipino men in Hawaii. Exploratory, qualitative. Community-based settings in Hawaii. 20 Filipino men age 40 years or older. Focus group discussions were tape recorded and transcribed, and content analysis was performed for emergent themes. Perceptions regarding prostate cancer, barriers and facilitators to prostate cancer screening, and culturally relevant interventional strategies. Perceptions of prostate cancer included fatalism, hopelessness, and dread. Misconceptions regarding causes of prostate cancer, such as frequency of sexual activity, were identified. Barriers to prostate cancer screening included lack of awareness of the need for screening, reticence to seek health care when feeling well, fear of cancer diagnosis, financial issues, time constraints, and embarrassment. Presence of urinary symptoms, personal experience with family or friends who had cancer, and receiving recommendations from a healthcare provider regarding screening were facilitators for screening. Potential culturally relevant interventional strategies to promote prostate cancer screening included screening recommendations from healthcare professionals and cancer survivors; radio or television commercials and newspaper articles targeting the Filipino community; informational brochures in Tagalog, Ilocano, or English; and interactive, educational forums facilitated by multilingual Filipino male healthcare professionals. Culturally relevant interventions are needed that address barriers to prostate cancer screening participation and misconceptions about causes of prostate cancer. Findings provide a foundation for future research regarding development of interventional strategies to promote prostate cancer screening among Filipino men.

  20. Prostate cancer in Brazil and Latin America: epidemiology and screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rocha Tourinho-Barbosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Prostate cancer is one of the tumors with higher incidence and mortality among men in the World. Epidemiological data are influenced by life expectancy of population, available diagnostic methods, correct collection of data and quality of health services. Screening of the disease is not standardized around the World. Up till now there is no consensus about the risks versus benefits of early detection. There are still missing data about this pathology in Latin America. Objective: to revise current epidemiologic situation and early diagnosis policies of prostate cancer in Brazil and Latin America. Materials and Methods: Medline, Cochrane Library and SciELO databases were reviewed on the subject of epidemiology and screening of prostate cancer. Screening research was performed in websites on national public health organizations and Latin America. Screening recommendations were obtained from those governmental organizations and from Latin American urological societies and compared to the most prominent regulatory agencies and societies of specialists and generalists from around the World. Results: Brazil and Latin America have a special position in relation to incidence and mortality of prostate cancer. In Brazil, it occupies the first position regarding incidence of cancer in men and the second cause of mortality. Central America has the highest rate of mortality of the continent with lower incidence/mortality ratios. Screening recommendations are very distinct, mainly among regulatory organs and urological societies. Conclusion: prostate cancer epidemiology is an important health public topic. Data collection related to incidence and mortality is still precarious, especially in less developed countries. It is necessary to follow-up long term screening studies results in order to conclude its benefits.

  1. Prostate-specific antigen-based prostate cancer screening: Past and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Arnout R; Schoots, Ivo G; Roobol, Monique J

    2015-06-01

    Prostate-specific antigen-based prostate cancer screening remains a controversial topic. Up to now, there is worldwide consensus on the statement that the harms of population-based screening, mainly as a result of overdiagnosis (the detection of clinically insignificant tumors that would have never caused any symptoms), outweigh the benefits. However, worldwide opportunistic screening takes place on a wide scale. The European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer showed a reduction in prostate cancer mortality through prostate-specific antigen based-screening. These population-based data need to be individualized in order to avoid screening in those who cannot benefit and start screening in those who will. For now, lacking a more optimal screening approach, screening should only be started after the process of shared decision-making. The focus of future research is the reduction of unnecessary testing and overdiagnosis by further research to better biomarkers and the value of the multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, potentially combined in already existing prostate-specific antigen-based multivariate risk prediction models. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.

  2. Screening for prostate cancer with the prostate-specific antigen test: are patients making informed decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, K J; Volk, R J; Cass, A R; Spann, S J

    1999-09-01

    The benefits of early detection of prostate cancer are uncertain, and the American College of Physicians and the American Academy of Family Physicians recommend individual decision making in prostate cancer screening. This study reports the knowledge of male primary care patients about prostate cancer and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing and examines how that knowledge is related to PSA testing, preferences for testing in the future, and desire for involvement in physician-patient decision making. The sample included 160 men aged 45 to 70 years with no history of prostate cancer who presented for care at a university-based family medicine clinic. Before scheduled office visits, patients completed a questionnaire developed for this study that included a 10-question measure of prostate cancer knowledge, the Deber-Kraestchmer Problem-Solving Decision-Making Scale, sociodemographic indicators, and questions on PSA testing. In general, patients who were college graduates were more knowledgeable about prostate cancer and early detection than those with a high school education or less. Aside from college graduates, most patients could not identify the principle advantages and disadvantages of PSA testing. Patients indicating previous or future plans for PSA testing demonstrated greater knowledge than other patients. Desire for involvement in decision making varied by patient education but was not related to past PSA testing. Patients lack knowledge about prostate cancer and early detection. This knowledge deficit may impede the early detection of prostate cancer and is a barrier to making an informed decision about undergoing PSA testing.

  3. Polygenic hazard score to guide screening for aggressive prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibert, Tyler M; Fan, Chun Chieh; Wang, Yunpeng

    2018-01-01

    . These polymorphisms were incorporated into a survival analysis to estimate their effects on age at diagnosis of aggressive PCa (that is, not eligible for surveillance according to National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines; any of Gleason score ≥7, stage T3-T4, PSA (prostate specific antigen) concentration ≥10......OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate a genetic tool to predict age of onset of aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) and to guide decisions of who to screen and at what age. DESIGN: Analysis of genotype, PCa status, and age to select single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with diagnosis...

  4. A System Dynamics Model of Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen Screening for Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Anton; Lounsbury, David W; Schlecht, Nicolas F; Agalliu, Ilir

    2016-02-01

    Since 2012, US guidelines have recommended against prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer. However, evidence of screening benefit from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening trial and the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer has been inconsistent, due partly to differences in noncompliance and contamination. Using system dynamics modeling, we replicated the PLCO trial and extrapolated follow-up to 20 years. We then simulated 3 scenarios correcting for contamination in the PLCO control arm using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) incidence and survival data collected prior to the PSA screening era (scenario 1), SEER data collected during the PLCO trial period (1993-2001) (scenario 2), and data from the European trial's control arm (1991-2005) (scenario 3). In all scenarios, noncompliance was corrected using incidence and survival rates for men with screen-detected cancer in the PLCO screening arm. Scenarios 1 and 3 showed a benefit of PSA screening, with relative risks of 0.62 (95% confidence interval: 0.53, 0.72) and 0.70 (95% confidence interval: 0.59, 0.83) for cancer-specific mortality after 20 years, respectively. In scenario 2, however, there was no benefit of screening. This simulation showed that after correcting for noncompliance and contamination, there is potential benefit of PSA screening in reducing prostate cancer mortality. It also demonstrates the utility of system dynamics modeling for synthesizing epidemiologic evidence to inform public policy. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Metastatic prostate cancer in the modern era of PSA screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. Fontenot Jr

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction To characterize initial presentation and PSA screening status in a contemporary cohort of men treated for metastatic prostate cancer at our institution. Materials and methods We reviewed records of 160 men treated for metastatic prostate cancer between 2008-2014 and assessed initial presentation, categorizing patients into four groups. Groups 1 and 2 presented with localized disease and received treatment. These men suffered biochemical recurrence late (>1 year or earlier (<1 year, respectively, and developed metastases. Groups 3 and 4 had asymptomatic and symptomatic metastases at the outset of their diagnosis. Patients with a first PSA at age 55 or younger were considered to have guideline-directed screening. Results Complete records were available on 157 men for initial presentation and 155 men for PSA screening. Groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 included 27 (17%, 7 (5%, 69 (44% and 54 (34% patients, respectively. Twenty (13% patients received guideline-directed PSA screening, 5/155 (3% patients presented with metastases prior to age 55 with their first PSA, and 130/155 (84% had their first PSA after age 55, of which 122/130 (94% had metastasis at the time of diagnosis. Conclusion Despite widespread screening, most men treated for metastatic prostate cancer at our institution presented with metastases rather than progressed after definitive treatment. Furthermore, 25 (16% patients received guideline-directed PSA screening at or before age 55. These data highlight that, despite mass screening efforts, patients treated for incurable disease at our institution may not have been a result of a failed screening test, but a failure to be screened.

  6. Metastatic prostate cancer in the modern era of PSA screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, Philip A.; Nehra, Avinash; Parker, William; Wyre, Hadley; Mirza, Moben; Duchene, David A.; Holzbeierlein, Jeffrey; Thrasher, James Brantley; Veldhuizen, Peter Van; Lee, Eugene K.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction To characterize initial presentation and PSA screening status in a contemporary cohort of men treated for metastatic prostate cancer at our institution. Materials and methods We reviewed records of 160 men treated for metastatic prostate cancer between 2008-2014 and assessed initial presentation, categorizing patients into four groups. Groups 1 and 2 presented with localized disease and received treatment. These men suffered biochemical recurrence late (>1 year) or earlier (<1 year), respectively, and developed metastases. Groups 3 and 4 had asymptomatic and symptomatic metastases at the outset of their diagnosis. Patients with a first PSA at age 55 or younger were considered to have guideline-directed screening. Results Complete records were available on 157 men for initial presentation and 155 men for PSA screening. Groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 included 27 (17%), 7 (5%), 69 (44%) and 54 (34%) patients, respectively. Twenty (13%) patients received guideline-directed PSA screening, 5/155 (3%) patients presented with metastases prior to age 55 with their first PSA, and 130/155 (84%) had their first PSA after age 55, of which 122/130 (94%) had metastasis at the time of diagnosis. Conclusion Despite widespread screening, most men treated for metastatic prostate cancer at our institution presented with metastases rather than progressed after definitive treatment. Furthermore, 25 (16%) patients received guideline-directed PSA screening at or before age 55. These data highlight that, despite mass screening efforts, patients treated for incurable disease at our institution may not have been a result of a failed screening test, but a failure to be screened. PMID:28338310

  7. Breast, prostate, and thyroid cancer screening tests and overdiagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo

    The purpose of this study was to examine overdiagnosis and overtreatment related to cancer screening and to review relevant reports and studies. A comprehensive search of peer-reviewed and gray literature was conducted for relevant studies published between January 2000 and December 2015 reporting breast, prostate, and thyroid cancer screening tests and overdiagnosis. This study revealed no dichotomy on where screening would lower risk or cause overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Many screening tests did both, that is, at population level, there were both benefit (decreased disease-specific mortality) and harm (overdiagnosis and overtreatment). Therefore, we need to consider a balanced argument with citations for the potential benefits of screening along with the harms associated with screening. Although the benefits and harms can only be tested through randomized trials, important data from cohort studies, diagnostic accuracy studies, and modeling work can help define the extent of benefits and harms in the population. The health care cycle that prompt patients to undergo periodic screening tests is self-reinforcing. In most developed countries, screening test recommendations encourage periodic testing. Therefore, patients are continuing their screening. It is necessary for patients to become wise consumers of screening tests and make decisions with their physicians regarding further testing and treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Barriers and Facilitators of Prostate Cancer Screening among Filipino Men in Hawai’i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Francisco A.; Landier, Wendy; Ishida, Dianne; Bell, Rose; Cuaresma, Charlene F.; Misola, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To examine perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs regarding barriers and facilitators to prostate cancer screening, and to identify potential interventional strategies to promote prostate cancer screening among Filipino men in Hawai’i. Design Exploratory, qualitative. Setting Community-based settings in Hawai’i. Sample 20 Filipino men, 40 years old or older Methods Focus group discussions were tape-recorded, transcribed, and content analysis performed for emergent themes. Main Research Variables Perceptions regarding prostate cancer, barriers and facilitators to prostate cancer screening, and culturally-relevant interventional strategies Findings Perceptions of prostate cancer included fatalism, hopelessness, and dread. Misconceptions regarding causes of prostate cancer, such as frequency of sexual activity, were identified. Barriers to prostate cancer screening included lack of awareness of the need for screening, reticence to seek healthcare when feeling well, fear of cancer diagnosis, financial issues, time constraints, and embarrassment. Presence of urinary symptoms, personal experience with family or friend who had cancer, and receiving recommendations from a healthcare provider regarding screening were facilitators for screening. Potential culturally-relevant interventional strategies to promote prostate cancer screening included screening recommendations from health professionals and cancer survivors; radio/television commercials and newspaper articles targeted to the Filipino community; informational brochures in Tagalog, Ilocano and/or English; and interactive, educational forums facilitated by Filipino multilingual, male healthcare professionals. Conclusions Culturally-relevant interventions are needed that address barriers to prostate cancer screening participation and misconceptions about causes of prostate cancer. Implications for Nursing Findings provide a foundation for future research regarding development of interventional

  9. Religiousness and prostate cancer screening in African American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, Alexis D; Houston, Tina R; Bjorck, Jeffrey P; Gorsuch, Richard L; Arnold, Harold L

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the relationship between religiousness (organized, nonorganized, and intrinsic) and religious problem solving (collaborative, deferring, and self-directing) in prostate cancer screening (PCS) attitudes and behavior. Men (N = 481) of African descent between the ages of 40 and 70 participated. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that religiousness and self-directed problem solving were associated with PCS attitudes. Intrinsic religiousness was associated with PCS attitudes after controlling for health and organized religiousness. Religiousness was not associated with PCS behavior. Intrinsic religiousness may be an important dimension of religiousness to be considered in tailoring cancer interventions for individuals from faith-based communities.

  10. Discoveries and application of prostate-specific antigen, and some proposals to optimize prostate cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokudome S

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Shinkan Tokudome,1 Ryosuke Ando,2 Yoshiro Koda,3 1Department of Nutritional Epidemiology, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 2Department of Nephro-urology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, 3Department of Forensic Medicine and Human Genetics, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Japan Abstract: The discoveries and application of prostate-specific antigen (PSA have been much appreciated because PSA-based screening has saved millions of lives of prostate cancer (PCa patients. Historically speaking, Flocks et al first identified antigenic properties in prostate tissue in 1960. Then, Barnes et al detected immunologic characteristics in prostatic fluid in 1963. Hara et al characterized γ-semino-protein in semen in 1966, and it has been proven to be identical to PSA. Subsequently, Ablin et al independently reported the presence of precipitation antigens in the prostate in 1970. Wang et al purified the PSA in 1979, and Kuriyama et al first applied an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for PSA in 1980. However, the positive predictive value with a cutoff figure of 4.0 ng/mL appeared substantially low (~30%. There are overdiagnoses and overtreatments for latent/low-risk PCa. Controversies exist in the PCa mortality-reducing effects of PSA screening between the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC and the US Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO Cancer Screening Trial. For optimizing PCa screening, PSA-related items may require the following: 1 adjustment of the cutoff values according to age, as well as setting limits to age and screening intervals; 2 improving test performance using doubling time, density, and ratio of free: total PSA; and 3 fostering active surveillance for low-risk PCa with monitoring by PSA value. Other items needing consideration may include the following: 1 examinations of cell proliferation and cell cycle markers

  11. Prostate Cancer Screening Efficacy in African-Americans Using Case-Control Methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Godley, Paul

    1999-01-01

    ...-control study of PSA screening for prostate cancer in African Americans. The lack of symptoms documented in the patient's medical record was to be used as evidence that PSA was intended as a screening examination...

  12. Need for and relevance of prostate cancer screening in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinremi, To; Adeniyi, A; Olutunde, A; Oduniyi, A; Ogo, Cn

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) has become the most prevalent cancer among males in Nigeria, and similar to other black populations, Nigerian men present with more advanced disease at an earlier age than in several other ethnic groups. In this unscreened, high-risk group, the reference range for early detection and diagnosis as well as risk factors need to be determined through large-scale screening. Over 4 years, 1124 previously unscreened men between 40 and 85 years of age were screened at free community health programmes for PCa, using the common parameters of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) plus digital rectal examination (DRE). We thereby assessed the practicality and importance of screening. Consent was obtained, demographic data obtained, PSA measured using qualitative laboratory kits, and DRE performed by surgeons. We found that the number of men attending and consenting to screening increases from year to year. Of 40-85-year-old men, 85.4% consented, of whom 33.3% (a third) and 60% were 51-60 years old and 51-65 years, respectively. While 11.5% of men had PSA >4 ng/ml, 31.45% showed abnormal DRE. Of the men who took the PSA test, 79.2% also consented to the DRE, of whom 5.8% had combined abnormal DRE and PSA >4 ng/ml. Our findings suggest that Nigerian men are a willing group for screening by both the PSA and DRE with the positive response to calls for health screening and interest in prostate health. The finding of PSA >4 ng/ml in 11.15% of this population reveals the need for greater awareness and measures to increase early detection. However, the value and validity of established PSA reference ranges and cutoff of 'normal' still need to be established. Screening is very important to better define the PCa prevalence and characteristics in our population; otherwise political and economic circumstances will ensure that men still present late with aggressive PCa.

  13. Men's perspectives of prostate cancer screening: A systematic review of qualitative studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J James

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed non-skin cancer in men. Screening for prostate cancer is widely accepted; however concerns regarding the harms outweighing the benefits of screening exist. Although patient's play a pivotal role in the decision making process, men may not be aware of the controversies regarding prostate cancer screening. Therefore we aimed to describe men's attitudes, beliefs and experiences of prostate cancer screening.Systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative studies on men's perspectives of prostate cancer screening. Electronic databases and reference lists were searched to October 2016.Sixty studies involving 3,029 men aged from 18-89 years, who had been screened for prostate cancer by Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA or Digital Rectal Examination (DRE and not screened, across eight countries were included. Five themes were identified: Social prompting (trusting professional opinion, motivation from family and friends, proximity and prominence of cancer; gaining decisional confidence (overcoming fears, survival imperative, peace of mind, mental preparation, prioritising wellbeing; preserving masculinity (bodily invasion, losing sexuality, threatening manhood, medical avoidance; avoiding the unknown and uncertainties (taboo of cancer-related death, lacking tangible cause, physiological and symptomatic obscurity, ambiguity of the procedure, confusing controversies; and prohibitive costs.Men are willing to participate in prostate cancer screening to prevent cancer and gain reassurance about their health, particularly when supported or prompted by their social networks or healthcare providers. However, to do so they needed to mentally overcome fears of losing their masculinity and accept the intrusiveness of screening, the ambiguities about the necessity and the potential for substantial costs. Addressing the concerns and priorities of men may facilitate informed decisions about prostate cancer screening

  14. 76 FR 22108 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... (prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovary). In addition, cancer incidence, stage shift, and case survival are... Request; Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) (NCI) SUMMARY: In compliance... for public comment on proposed data collection projects, the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the...

  15. The Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Recommendations for Prostate Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Andrew J; Eastham, James A; Scardino, Peter T; Lilja, Hans

    2016-05-01

    The Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) recommendations on prostate cancer screening were developed in response to three limitations of previous screening guidelines: insufficient evidence base, failure to link screening with treatment, and lack of risk stratification. The objective of the recommendations is to provide a schema for prostate cancer screening that maximizes the benefits, in terms of reduction in prostate cancer-specific mortality, and minimizes the harms, in terms of overdiagnosis and overtreatment. We recommend the following schema for men choosing to be screened following informed decision-making: starting at age 45, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) without digital rectal examination. If PSA ≥ 3 ng/mL: consider prostate biopsy; if PSA ≥ 1 but decision to biopsy a man with a PSA > 3 ng/mL should be based on a variety of factors including repeat blood draw for confirmatory testing of the PSA level, digital rectal examination results, and workup for benign disease. Additional reflex tests in blood such as a free-to-total PSA ratio, the Prostate Health Index, or 4Kscore, or urinary testing of PCA3, can also be informative in some patients. The best evidence suggests that more restricted indication for prostate biopsy and a more focused approach to pursue screening in men at highest risk of lethal cancer would retain most of the mortality benefits of aggressive screening schema, while importantly reducing harms from overdetection and overtreatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Population Based Screening for Prostate Cancer: assessment of diagnostic tools and cancers detected

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.W. Rietbergen (John)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractOver the past decade, considerable debate has occurred over the question whether or not to screen asymptomatic men for prostate cancer. It is unknown whether early detection and treatment of the disease will decrease the disease specific mortality. On theoretical grounds screening may

  17. Internet-Based Education for Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    cells. n Hormone therapy: Certain hormones are given or removed. This helps to keep cancer cells from growing. n Cryotherapy : A special probe is placed...are many other diseases that are more deadly than prostate cancer . Talk to your doctor about how to prevent them. n As a result, most men with...prostate cancer ranks 5th, behind heart disease, lung cancer , stroke, and emphysema. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , National Canter for Health

  18. Prostate cancer mortality reduction by prostate-specific antigen-based screening adjusted for nonattendance and contamination in the European Randomised Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roobol, Monique J; Kerkhof, Melissa; Schröder, Fritz H; Cuzick, Jack; Sasieni, Peter; Hakama, Matti; Stenman, Ulf Hakan; Ciatto, Stefano; Nelen, Vera; Kwiatkowski, Maciej; Lujan, Marcos; Lilja, Hans; Zappa, Marco; Denis, Louis; Recker, Franz; Berenguer, Antonio; Ruutu, Mirja; Kujala, Paula; Bangma, Chris H; Aus, Gunnar; Tammela, Teuvo L J; Villers, Arnauld; Rebillard, Xavier; Moss, Sue M; de Koning, Harry J; Hugosson, Jonas; Auvinen, Anssi

    2009-10-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) based screening for prostate cancer (PCa) has been shown to reduce prostate specific mortality by 20% in an intention to screen (ITS) analysis in a randomised trial (European Randomised Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer [ERSPC]). This effect may be diluted by nonattendance in men randomised to the screening arm and contamination in men randomised to the control arm. To assess the magnitude of the PCa-specific mortality reduction after adjustment for nonattendance and contamination. We analysed the occurrence of PCa deaths during an average follow-up of 9 yr in 162,243 men 55-69 yr of age randomised in seven participating centres of the ERSPC. Centres were also grouped according to the type of randomisation (ie, before or after informed written consent). Nonattendance was defined as nonattending the initial screening round in ERSPC. The estimate of contamination was based on PSA use in controls in ERSPC Rotterdam. Relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were compared between an ITS analysis and analyses adjusting for nonattendance and contamination using a statistical method developed for this purpose. In the ITS analysis, the RR of PCa death in men allocated to the intervention arm relative to the control arm was 0.80 (95% CI, 0.68-0.96). Adjustment for nonattendance resulted in a RR of 0.73 (95% CI, 0.58-0.93), and additional adjustment for contamination using two different estimates led to estimated reductions of 0.69 (95% CI, 0.51-0.92) to 0.71 (95% CI, 0.55-0.93), respectively. Contamination data were obtained through extrapolation of single-centre data. No heterogeneity was found between the groups of centres. PSA screening reduces the risk of dying of PCa by up to 31% in men actually screened. This benefit should be weighed against a degree of overdiagnosis and overtreatment inherent in PCa screening.

  19. [Prostate cancer screening using prostate-specific antigen: The views of general and laboratory physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, N; Filella, X; Gavagnach, M; Allué, J A; Pedrazas, D; Ferrer, F

    2018-03-21

    It is currently recommended to provide individualised information on benefit-risk balance and shared decision-making in prostate cancer screening using prostate-specific antigen (PSA). To determine the usual practice and the views of general and laboratory practitioners in the screening of prostate cancer using PSA. A cross-sectional study based on a questionnaire and on PSA screening requests from Primary Health Care (PHC) in men older than 49 years with no prostatic symptoms. In 2015, PHC in Catalonia requested PSA on 15.2% of males. A total of 114 general practitioners and 227 laboratory practitioners participated in the questionnaire. The mean age of those who responded was 43 years with a mean of 17 years' experience, and included 64% women. According to general practitioners, 61% of PSA was performed at the patient's request. The uncertainty score when requesting PSA was 5 points for general practitioners and 5.7 for laboratory professionals. Interest in having clinical recommendations received 7.2 points in PHC, and 8.8 in the laboratory. Knowledge about the different clinical practice guidelines received was less than 5 points overall. General practitioners requested PSA screening in almost one-sixth of men over the age of 49 without prostate disease, often at the patient's request, and after informing them of the benefits and risks. PHC and laboratory physicians were interested in having recommendations and information, although they did not usually consult clinical practice guidelines immediately. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. What Prevents Men Aged 40-64 Years from Prostate Cancer Screening in Namibia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kangmennaang, J.; Mkandawire, P.; Luginaah, I.

    2016-01-01

    Although a growing body of evidence demonstrates the public health burden of prostate cancer in SSA, relatively little is known about the underlying factors surrounding the low levels of testing for the disease in the context of this region. Using Namibia Demographic Health Survey dataset (NDHS, 2013), we examined the factors that influence men’s decision to screen for prostate cancer in Namibia. Methods. We use complementary log-log regression models to explore the determinants of screening for prostate cancer. We also corrected for the effect of unobserved heterogeneity that may affect screening behaviours at the cluster level. Results. The results show that health insurance coverage (OR = 2.95, ) is an important predictor of screening for prostate cancer in Namibia. In addition, higher education and discussing reproductive issues with a health worker (OR = 2.02, P = 0.05) were more likely to screening for prostate cancer. Conclusions. A universal health insurance scheme may be necessary to increase uptake of prostate cancer screening. However it needs to be acknowledged that expanded screening can have negative consequences and any allocation of scarce resources towards screening must be guided by evidence obtained from the local context about the costs and benefits of screening.

  1. Use of RIA (radioimmunoassay) for the screening o prostate cancer in lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Ezzi, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    The incidence of prostate cancer is known to be high in USA and europpe and very low in asia. There are lots of controversies about the early screening programs of this cancer because of the low cost effctiveness and the limited choices of treatment. However, in USA, early screening programs have helped in increasing the ratee of eaarly detection of this cancer. Actually, 75% of patients are detected when their cancer is still organ confined. This rate was 25% before this program. There is no statistical data in lebanon or any other arabic country about the incidence of this cancer. In this study, 300 men aged 40 years and more from the area of mount lebanon were screened for prostate cancer. This was done by digital rectal examination (DRE) followed by blood withdrawal for PSA (prostate specific antigen) test. IRMA technique was used for assaying PSA by kits fromimmunotech. 23 men have abnormal PSA values. Results of this study showed the presence of two cases of prostate cancer, 3 cases of prostatitis and 8 cases of BPH (being prostate hypeeerplasial0, which proof that the incidence of prostate cancer is not low as expected (in japan, the rate of cancer is 1:50 000 men) and that the early screening is very important in our country at least to increase the awareness from this cancer. Because purchasing kits from international sources is very expensive, local preparation of PSA kits is a necessity to overcome this problem

  2. Mortality results from the Göteborg randomised population-based prostate-cancer screening trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugosson, Jonas; Carlsson, Sigrid; Aus, Gunnar; Bergdahl, Svante; Khatami, Ali; Lodding, Pär; Pihl, Carl-Gustaf; Stranne, Johan; Holmberg, Erik; Lilja, Hans

    2010-08-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of death from malignant disease among men in the developed world. One strategy to decrease the risk of death from this disease is screening with prostate-specific antigen (PSA); however, the extent of benefit and harm with such screening is under continuous debate. In December, 1994, 20,000 men born between 1930 and 1944, randomly sampled from the population register, were randomised by computer in a 1:1 ratio to either a screening group invited for PSA testing every 2 years (n=10,000) or to a control group not invited (n=10,000). Men in the screening group were invited up to the upper age limit (median 69, range 67-71 years) and only men with raised PSA concentrations were offered additional tests such as digital rectal examination and prostate biopsies. The primary endpoint was prostate-cancer specific mortality, analysed according to the intention-to-screen principle. The study is ongoing, with men who have not reached the upper age limit invited for PSA testing. This is the first planned report on cumulative prostate-cancer incidence and mortality calculated up to Dec 31, 2008. This study is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial ISRCTN54449243. In each group, 48 men were excluded from the analysis because of death or emigration before the randomisation date, or prevalent prostate cancer. In men randomised to screening, 7578 (76%) of 9952 attended at least once. During a median follow-up of 14 years, 1138 men in the screening group and 718 in the control group were diagnosed with prostate cancer, resulting in a cumulative prostate-cancer incidence of 12.7% in the screening group and 8.2% in the control group (hazard ratio 1.64; 95% CI 1.50-1.80; pattendees compared with the control group was 0.44 (95% CI 0.28-0.68; p=0.0002). Overall, 293 (95% CI 177-799) men needed to be invited for screening and 12 to be diagnosed to prevent one prostate cancer death. This study shows that prostate

  3. Mortality results from the Göteborg Randomised Prostate Cancer Screening Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugosson, Jonas; Carlsson, Sigrid; Aus, Gunnar; Bergdahl, Svante; Khatami, Ali; Lodding, Pär; Pihl, Carl-Gustaf; Stranne, Johan; Holmberg, Erik; Lilja, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of death from malignant disease among men in the Western world. One strategy to decrease the risk of dying from this disease is screening with Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA); however, the extent of benefit and harm with such screening is under continuous debate. Methods In December 1994, 20 000 men born 1930 to 1944, randomly sampled from the Population Register, were computer randomised in a 1:1 ratio to a screening group invited for biennial PSA testing or to a control group not invited. In each arm, 48 men were excluded from analysis due to either death or emigration before randomization date or prevalent prostate cancer. The primary endpoint was prostate cancer specific mortality analyzed according to the intention-to-screen principle. Men in the screening group were invited up to the upper age limit (median 69, range 67–71 years) and only men with elevated PSA were offered additional tests such as digital rectal examination and prostate biopsies. The study is still ongoing inviting men who have not yet reached the upper age limit. This is the first planned report on cumulative prostate cancer incidence and mortality calculated up to Dec 31 2008. This study is registered [as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial], number [ISRCTN49127736]. Findings Among men randomised to screening 7578/9952 (76%) attended at least once (attendees). During a median follow-up of 14 years, 1138 men in the screening group and 718 in the control group were diagnosed with prostate cancer resulting in a cumulative incidence of prostate cancer of 12.7% in the screening arm and 8.2% in the control arm (hazard ratio 1.64; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.50–1.80; pattendees compared to the control group was 0.44 (95% CI 0.28–0.68; p=0.0002). Overall, 293 men needed to be invited for screening and 12 to be diagnosed to prevent one prostate cancer death. Interpretation The benefit of prostate cancer

  4. Evaluation of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator in a High-Risk Screening Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, David J.; Boorjian, Stephen A.; Ruth, Karen; Egleston, Brian L.; Chen, David Y.T.; Viterbo, Rosalia; Uzzo, Robert G.; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Raysor, Susan; Giri, Veda N.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Clinical factors in addition to PSA have been evaluated to improve risk assessment for prostate cancer. The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) risk calculator provides an assessment of prostate cancer risk based on age, PSA, race, prior biopsy, and family history. This study evaluated the risk calculator in a screening cohort of young, racially diverse, high-risk men with a low baseline PSA enrolled in the Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment Program. Patients and Methods Eligibility for PRAP include men ages 35-69 who are African-American, have a family history of prostate cancer, or have a known BRCA1/2 mutation. PCPT risk scores were determined for PRAP participants, and were compared to observed prostate cancer rates. Results 624 participants were evaluated, including 382 (61.2%) African-American men and 375 (60%) men with a family history of prostate cancer. Median age was 49.0 years (range 34.0-69.0), and median PSA was 0.9 (range 0.1-27.2). PCPT risk score correlated with prostate cancer diagnosis, as the median baseline risk score in patients diagnosed with prostate cancer was 31.3%, versus 14.2% in patients not diagnosed with prostate cancer (p<0.0001). The PCPT calculator similarly stratified the risk of diagnosis of Gleason score ≥7 disease, as the median risk score was 36.2% in patients diagnosed with Gleason ≥7 prostate cancer versus 15.2% in all other participants (p<0.0001). Conclusion PCPT risk calculator score was found to stratify prostate cancer risk in a cohort of young, primarily African-American men with a low baseline PSA. These results support further evaluation of this predictive tool for prostate cancer risk assessment in high-risk men. PMID:19709072

  5. A Survey of Knowledge About and Perceived Barriers to Prostate Cancer Screening Among Medical Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbarizadeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men and the second leading cause of deaths from cancer. Results of previous studies indicate the effectiveness of screening and early detection in reducing mortality from this disease. Objectives The purpose of this study was to survey the knowledge about prostate cancer and perceived barriers to prostate cancer screening among medical staff of two universities in Ahvaz, Iran. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed on 120 employees over 40 years old at Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences and Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, who were selected by using simple random sampling. The data collection tool was a researcher-created questionnaire based on the study of texts and other studies. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software and through analytical methods including descriptive and inferential statistics. Results The most common barriers to screening for prostate cancer were a lack of knowledge about where to go for tests and how screening tests are done (70.8%, a lack of emphasis on screening tests (59.1%, and a fear of thinking about the disease (50%. Results showed that there was no significant relationship between doing the serum antigen test and having knowledge regarding prostate cancer. But there was a significant association between prostate cancer screening and perceived barriers (P = 0.001. Conclusions Results showed that whereas knowledge by itself cannot guarantee men’s participation in prostate cancer screenings, perceived barriers can play an important role in discouraging men from cancer screening participation. Therefore, designing programs to address these barriers is very important.

  6. The influence of family history on cognitive heuristics, risk perceptions, and prostate cancer screening behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Michelle E; Occhipinti, Stefano; Chambers, Suzanne K

    2013-11-01

    To examine how family history of prostate cancer, risk perceptions, and heuristic decision strategies influence prostate cancer screening behavior. Men with a first-degree family history of prostate cancer (FDRs; n = 207) and men without a family history (PM; n = 239) completed a Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) examining prostate cancer risk perceptions, PSA testing behaviors, perceptions of similarity to the typical man who gets prostate cancer (representativeness heuristic), and availability of information about prostate cancer (availability heuristic). A path model explored family history as influencing the availability of information about prostate cancer (number of acquaintances with prostate cancer and number of recent discussions about prostate cancer) to mediate judgments of risk and to predict PSA testing behaviors and family history as a moderator of the relationship between representativeness (perceived similarity) and risk perceptions. FDRs reported greater risk perceptions and a greater number of PSA tests than did PM. Risk perceptions predicted increased PSA testing only in path models and was significant only for PM in multi-Group SEM analyses. Family history moderated the relationship between similarity perceptions and risk perceptions such that the relationship between these variables was significant only for FDRs. Recent discussions about prostate cancer mediated the relationships between family history and risk perceptions, and the number of acquaintances men knew with prostate cancer mediated the relationship between family history and PSA testing behavior. Family history interacts with the individuals' broader social environment to influence risk perceptions and screening behavior. Research into how risk perceptions develop and what primes behavior change is crucial to underpin psychological or public health intervention that seeks to influence health decision making.

  7. In-vitro radioimmunoassay of prostate specific antigen (PSA) for the screening and management of prostate cancer in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Ezzi, Asmahan; El Ahmadiyeh, Nabil

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Immunoassays for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) are used to detect early-stage prostate cancer, monitor disease progress, and evaluate therapeutic response. At least two forms of PSA, free PSA (F-PSA) and PSA complexed to alpha-1 anti-chymotrypsin (PSA-ACT) are detected by commercial PSA assays. The fraction of F-PSA is shown to be smaller in patients with untreated prostate cancer than in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). Thus, combined measurements of both total and free PSA are used for a better discrimination between BPH and prostate cancer. Detection of PSA for screening of prostate cancer has been a subject of debate for many years. The reason of this debate is mainly because screening for prostate cancer is not cost-effective, as was shown by studies undertaken in Europe and United States. In Lebanon, no previous programs of screening for prostate cancer were done and so the incidence of this cancer is not known. Recently, the cancer registry in Lebanon found that lung and prostate are the highest cancers in the Lebanese men. The Lebanese association of urologists noted that 80% of men suffering from prostate cancer consult their urologists when the cancer is spread outside the prostate capsule. There is a socio-economic barrier behind this delay. We decided to undertake this study for the screening of prostate cancer in Lebanon, taking into consideration the above-mentioned facts and the experience of other countries. Volunteer men aged 45 and above, who were not visitors of a urology clinic, were selected randomly. A blood sample was withdrawn from each man, then a rectal examination was done and a questionnaire was filled. The blood serum separated was assayed for total PSA first and where abnormal or borderline, was assayed for free PSA. The percentage of free to total PSA was calculated. Men having borderline or abnormal results did undergo more investigations for the definitive diagnosis of their samples. IRMA

  8. 15-year followup of a population based prostate cancer screening study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellman, Anders; Akre, Olof; Norming, Ulf; Törnblom, Magnus; Gustafsson, Ove

    2009-04-01

    We evaluated long-term survival in attendees and nonattendees of a 1-time screening for prostate cancer. A total of 2,400 men 55 to 70 years old in 1988 were randomly selected and invited to a screening for prostate cancer. Of the invited men 1,782 (74%) attended. Screening attendees were examined with digital rectal examination, transrectal ultrasound and prostate specific antigen analysis. When cancer was suspected, prostate biopsies were taken. A total of 65 men with prostate cancer were detected by this procedure. The entire source population comprising 27,204 men, including 618 nonattendees (26%), was followed for prostate cancer diagnosis and survival for 15 years. Incidence rate ratios were calculated using Poisson regression models. We found no effect of this screening procedure on the risk of death from prostate cancer and other causes of death (incidence rate ratio 1.10, 95% CI 0.83-1.46 and 0.98, 95% CI 0.92-1.05, respectively) when comparing all invited men with the source population. However, attending the screening program was associated with a significantly decreased risk of death from causes other than prostate cancer (vs source population incidence rate ratio 0.82, 95% CI 0.76-0.90). In contrast, the corresponding incidence rate ratio in nonattendees was 1.53 (95% CI 1.37-1.71). We found no evidence of a beneficial effect of this specific screening procedure but strong evidence of a difference in overall survival in screening attendees and nonattendees. These findings should be considered when interpreting previous and upcoming studies of the effect of screening programs.

  9. 1prostate cancer screening in ghana - a clinical benefit?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prince Acheampong

    Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi. 3Department of Pathology, School of Medical Sciences,. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi. ABSTRACT. In Ghana and most African countries, prostate cancer is the most common cancer in males after hepatocellular carcinoma.

  10. Primary care physicians' reported use of pre-screening discussions for prostate cancer screening: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Suzanne K; Hawley, Sarah T; Cooper, Crystale P; Scholl, Lawrence E; Jibaja-Weiss, Maria; Volk, Robert J

    2009-03-18

    Professional medical organizations recommend individualized patient decision making about prostate cancer screening. Little is known about primary care physicians' use of pre-screening discussions to promote informed decision making for prostate cancer screening. The aim of this study is to explore physicians' use of pre-screening discussions and reasons why physicians would or would not try to persuade patients to be screened if they initially refuse testing. Primary care physicians completed a self-administered survey about prostate cancer screening practices for informed decision making. Sixty-six physicians (75.9%) completed the survey, and 63 were used in the analysis. Thirteen physicians (20.6%) reported not using prescreening discussions, 45 (71.4%) reported the use of prescreening discussions, and 3 (4.8%) reported neither ordering the PSA test nor discussing it with patients. Sixty-nine percent of physicians who reported not having discussions indicated they were more likely to screen African American patients for prostate cancer, compared to 50% of physicians who reported the use of discussions (Chi-square(1) = 1.62, p = .20). Similarly, 91% of physicians who reported not having discussions indicated they are more likely to screen patients with a family history of prostate cancer, compared to 46% of those who reported the use of discussion (Chi-square(1) = 13.27, p practice styles. Future research needs to consider the nature of discussions and the degree to which informed decision making is being achieved in clinical practice.

  11. Detection of prostate cancer by an FDG-PET cancer screening program: results from a Japanese nationwide survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minamimoto, Ryogo; Senda, Michio; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Terauchi, Takashi; Inoue, Tomio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze detection rates and effectiveness of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) cancer screening program for prostate cancer in Japan, which is defined as a cancer-screening program for subjects without known cancer. It contains FDG-PET aimed at detection of cancer at an early stage with or without additional screening tests such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A total of 92,255 asymptomatic men underwent the FDG-PET cancer screening program. Of these, 504 cases with findings of possible prostate cancer in any screening method were analyzed. Of the 504 cases, 165 were verified as having prostate cancer. Of these, only 61 cases were detected by FDG-PET, which result in 37.0% relative sensitivity and 32.8% positive predictive value (PPV). The sensitivity of PET/computed tomography (CT) scanner was higher than that of dedicated PET (44.0% vs. 20.4%). However, the sensitivity of FDG-PET was lower than that of PSA and pelvic MRI. FDG-PET did not contribute to improving the sensitivity and PPV when performed as combined screening. PSA should be included in FDG-PET cancer screening programs to screen for prostate cancer

  12. Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast cancer (BRCA1 or BRCA2) or a very strong family history of breast cancer, your risk of prostate cancer may be higher. Obesity. Obese men diagnosed with prostate cancer may be more likely ...

  13. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Screening and New Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer (PCa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Carsten; Rittenhouse, Harry; Hu, Xinhai; Cammann, Henning; Jung, Klaus

    2014-04-01

    PSA screening reduces PCa-mortality but the disadvantages overdiagnosis and overtreatment require multivariable risk-prediction tools to select appropriate treatment or active surveillance. This review explains the differences between the two largest screening trials and discusses the drawbacks of screening and its meta-analysisxs. The current American and European screening strategies are described. Nonetheless, PSA is one of the most widely used tumor markers and strongly correlates with the risk of harboring PCa. However, while PSA has limitations for PCa detection with its low specificity there are several potential biomarkers presented in this review with utility for PCa currently being studied. There is an urgent need for new biomarkers especially to detect clinically significant and aggressive PCa. From all PSA-based markers, the FDA-approved prostate health index (phi) shows improved specificity over percent free and total PSA. Another kallikrein panel, 4K, which includes KLK2 has recently shown promise in clinical research studies but has not yet undergone formal validation studies. In urine, prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) has also been validated and approved by the FDA for its utility to detect PCa. The potential correlation of PCA3 with cancer aggressiveness requires more clinical studies. The detection of the fusion of androgen-regulated genes with genes of the regulatory transcription factors in tissue of (~)50% of all PCa-patients is a milestone in PCa research. A combination of the urinary assays for TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion and PCA3 shows an improved accuracy for PCa detection. Overall, the field of PCa biomarker discovery is very exciting and prospective.

  14. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Screening and New Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer (PCa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenhouse, Harry; Hu, Xinhai; Cammann, Henning; Jung, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Abstract PSA screening reduces PCa-mortality but the disadvantages overdiagnosis and overtreatment require multivariable risk-prediction tools to select appropriate treatment or active surveillance. This review explains the differences between the two largest screening trials and discusses the drawbacks of screening and its meta-analysisxs. The current American and European screening strategies are described. Nonetheless, PSA is one of the most widely used tumor markers and strongly correlates with the risk of harboring PCa. However, while PSA has limitations for PCa detection with its low specificity there are several potential biomarkers presented in this review with utility for PCa currently being studied. There is an urgent need for new biomarkers especially to detect clinically significant and aggressive PCa. From all PSA-based markers, the FDA-approved prostate health index (phi) shows improved specificity over percent free and total PSA. Another kallikrein panel, 4K, which includes KLK2 has recently shown promise in clinical research studies but has not yet undergone formal validation studies. In urine, prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) has also been validated and approved by the FDA for its utility to detect PCa. The potential correlation of PCA3 with cancer aggressiveness requires more clinical studies. The detection of the fusion of androgen-regulated genes with genes of the regulatory transcription factors in tissue of ~50% of all PCa-patients is a milestone in PCa research. A combination of the urinary assays for TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion and PCA3 shows an improved accuracy for PCa detection. Overall, the field of PCa biomarker discovery is very exciting and prospective. PMID:27683457

  15. Bioimpedance and chronoamperometry as an adjunct to prostate-specific antigen screening for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abreu DS

    2011-04-01

    .9% to 59.3% in prostate cancer screening.Keywords: prostate cancer screening, bioimpedance, delta of conductivity, electro interstitial scan system

  16. Association of physicians' knowledge and behavior with prostate cancer counseling and screening in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafa A. Arafa

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices of primary care physicians towards prostate cancer counseling and screening. This cross sectional study was conducted in May 2009 to October 2009 through a survey questionnaire, which was distributed to all licensed primary care physicians in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study took place in the Princes Al-Johara Al-Ibrahim Center for Cancer Research, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia. Data was obtained from 204 primary care physicians using self-reports of prostate cancer screening practices, knowledge, attitudes towards prostate cancer screening, and continuous medical education preferences. Respondents' characteristics were also collected. Approximately 54.7% of the respondents were practicing counseling and referring prostate cancer patients. The mean correct knowledge score was 54.3%, their attitude was not strong; the only statement that approximately 70% of physicians agreed upon was about the value of screening, however, the reliability and evidence to support digital rectal examination and prostatic specific antigen were in question. Our primary care physicians had self-confidence in suspecting and referring high-risk patients for screening, but not for management and treatment. Knowledge and attitude were found to be the most significant predictors that determine physicians' self practice. Physicians' practice towards a screening procedures or early detection of diseases should rely on a good background of information, which in turn enhances their self-efficacy and develops a good and positive attitude towards their practice skills (Author).

  17. Primary care physicians' reported use of pre-screening discussions for prostate cancer screening: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper Crystale P

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Professional medical organizations recommend individualized patient decision making about prostate cancer screening. Little is known about primary care physicians' use of pre-screening discussions to promote informed decision making for prostate cancer screening. The aim of this study is to explore physicians' use of pre-screening discussions and reasons why physicians would or would not try to persuade patients to be screened if they initially refuse testing. Methods Primary care physicians completed a self-administered survey about prostate cancer screening practices for informed decision making. Results Sixty-six physicians (75.9% completed the survey, and 63 were used in the analysis. Thirteen physicians (20.6% reported not using prescreening discussions, 45 (71.4% reported the use of prescreening discussions, and 3 (4.8% reported neither ordering the PSA test nor discussing it with patients. Sixty-nine percent of physicians who reported not having discussions indicated they were more likely to screen African American patients for prostate cancer, compared to 50% of physicians who reported the use of discussions (Chi-square(1 = 1.62, p = .20. Similarly, 91% of physicians who reported not having discussions indicated they are more likely to screen patients with a family history of prostate cancer, compared to 46% of those who reported the use of discussion (Chi-square(1 = 13.27, p Conclusion Although guidelines recommend discussing the risks and benefits of prostate cancer screening, physicians report varying practice styles. Future research needs to consider the nature of discussions and the degree to which informed decision making is being achieved in clinical practice.

  18. [Prostate cancer screening at Tatebayashi City in Gunma prefecture--results of screening with PSA alone between 2003 and 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Etsunaga, Toru; Sasaki, Yasushi; Nitta, Takashi; Okugi, Yasunobu; Okazaki, Hiroshi; Katou, Nobuo; Yamamoto, Takumi; Suzuki, Kazuhiro

    2007-05-01

    Since 2003, a basic health checkup has involved prostate cancer screening with prostate specific antigen (PSA) alone. We investigated the results between 2003 and 2005. Among males aged over 50 years who underwent a basic health checkup, the subjects were those who desired prostate cancer screening. Cancer screening with PSA alone was performed; mass screening or individual screening in hospitals in the city. We employed PSA with respect to age stratification. On the primary screening, written informed consent regarding the analysis of the screening results was obtained. In 2003, there were 15,303 males aged over 50 years in Tatebayashi City. In 2003, 2004, and 2005, 11.8%, 12.2%, and 12.7% of the males underwent PSA screening, respectively. The rate of elevated PSA levels between 2003 and 2005 was 20.6%. Furthermore, 208, 165, and 179 males required secondary screening, and 80.3%, 61.2%, and 55.3% of the males underwent secondary screening, respectively. Of the males who underwent secondary screening, prostate biopsy was performed in 123 (73.2%), 54 (53.5%), and 38 (38.4%). Prostate cancer was detected in 60, 28, and 16 males, respectively. These values corresponded to 3.4%, 1.5%, and 0.8% of the males who underwent primary screening. The incidence of prostate cancer was 1.85% during the 3 years, and 3.2% in males who underwent the initial health checkup. Of 101 males in whom the stage was evaluated, the clinical stage was evaluated as B in 86 (85.1%), C in 9 (8.9%), and D in 6 (5.9%). Of the 101 males, endocrine therapy was performed in 46 (45.5%), surgery in 31 (30.7%), external irradiation in 5 (5.0%), and followup without treatment in 6 (5.9%). In addition, 7 (6.3%) desired treatment in another hospital, and 6 (5.9%) refused treatment. Prostate cancer was detected in 1.85% of males who underwent primary screening between 2003 and 2005. Of 101 males in whom the stage was evaluated, the clinical stage was evaluated as B in 86 (85.1%), and the early treatment of

  19. Screening program for prostate cancer at a university hospital in eastern Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, Saud A.; Kamal, Baher A.

    2005-01-01

    Implementation of a pilot screening program for prostate cancer among Saudi patients that would serve as a nucleus for a Kingdom-wide screening program. A prospective study on 1,213 Saudi males between 50-80 years of age who attended the Outpatient Department at King Fahd Hospital of King Faisal University, Al-Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during a period of 18 months (April 2001-October 2002). They were included at random from different clinics including the urology clinic. Free and total prostate specific antigen (PSA) and digital rectal examination (DRE) of the prostate were performed in all patients. Patients with abnormal DRE or PSA were scheduled for transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and ultrasound guided biopsy of the prostate. Abnormal DRE or PSA were present in 84 out of 1,213 patients. Only 63 patients agreed to have TRUS and ultrasound guided biopsies. Prostate cancer was confirmed in 14 out of 1,192 patients who completed the study (1.17%). The incidence of prostate cancer among Saudi men in this hospital based study is low. A population based screening for prostate cancer may reveal the incidence of this disease. (author)

  20. Prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R.; Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results

  1. Prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R., Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results.

  2. Targeted prostate cancer screening in men with mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 detects aggressive prostate cancer: preliminary analysis of the results of the IMPACT study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitra, Anita V; Bancroft, Elizabeth K; Barbachano, Yolanda

    2011-01-01

    mutations were offered annual prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing, and those with PSA >3 ng/mL, were offered a prostate biopsy. Controls were men age-matched (± 5 years) who were negative for the familial mutation. RESULTS: In total, 300 men were recruited (205 mutation carriers; 89 BRCA1, 116 BRCA2......Study Type - Diagnostic (validating cohort)
Level of Evidence 1b OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of targeted prostate cancer screening in men with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, an international study, IMPACT (Identification of Men with a genetic predisposition to ProstAte Cancer: Targeted screening...... in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and controls), was established. This is the first multicentre screening study targeted at men with a known genetic predisposition to prostate cancer. A preliminary analysis of the data is reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Men aged 40-69 years from families with BRCA1 or BRCA2...

  3. Employee response to a company-sponsored program of colorectal and prostate cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, R E; Vernon, S W; Carpenter, A V; Balshem, A M; Lewis, P G; Wolf, T A; Hilbert, J; DeFonso, L R; Ross, E A

    1997-01-01

    Studies done in the mid-1970s documented increased risk for respiratory cancer and leukemia among employees in a chemical company manufacturing plant where chloromethyl ethers were used in production from 1948 to 1971. In the late 1980s, the company informed current and former employees about the results of follow-up studies which showed a moderation of risk of respiratory cancer and leukemia. New data showing elevated rates of mortality from colorectal, prostate, bladder, and pancreatic cancer in the population were also reported. Via mailed correspondence, the company made a no-cost program of colorectal and prostate cancer screening available to employees upon request; and information about bladder and pancreatic cancer was made available. Thirteen percent of employees in the population indicated interest in colorectal and prostate cancer screening (response). Thirty-one percent of these responders were screened (adherence). Multivariate analyses showed that education and length of employment in the plant were positively associated with response. Being white was positively associated with response for younger workers; while among older workers being male was positively associated with response. In terms of adherence, we found that older, more highly educated workers were more likely to have a screening examination. Findings indicate that employee participation in workplace-sponsored colorectal and prostate cancer screening can vary according to worker sociodemographic factors and length of employment in areas of potential exposure.

  4. Benefits and harms of prostate cancer screening – predictions of the ONCOTYROL prostate cancer outcome and policy model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Mühlberger

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent recalibration of the ONCOTYROL Prostate Cancer Outcome and Policy (PCOP Model, assuming that latent prostate cancer (PCa detectable at autopsy might be detectable by screening as well, resulted in considerable worsening of the benefit-harm balance of screening. In this study, we used the recalibrated model to assess the effects of familial risk, quality of life (QoL preferences, age, and active surveillance. Methods Men with average and elevated familial PCa risk were simulated in separate models, differing in familial risk parameters. Familial risk was assumed to affect PCa onset and progression simultaneously in the base-case, and separately in scenario analyses. Evaluated screening strategies included one-time screening at different ages, and screening at different intervals and age ranges. Optimal screening strategies were identified depending on age and individual QoL preferences. Strategies were additionally evaluated with active surveillance by biennial re-biopsy delaying treatment of localized cancer until grade progression to Gleason score ≥ 7. Results Screening men with average PCa risk reduced quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE even under favorable assumptions. Men with elevated familial risk, depending on age and disutilities, gained QALE. While for men with familial risk aged 55 and 60 years annual screening to age 69 was the optimal strategy over most disutility ranges, no screening was the preferred option for 65 year-old men with average and above disutilities. Active surveillance greatly reduced overtreatment, but QALE gains by averted adverse events were opposed by losses due to delayed treatment and additional biopsies. The effect of active surveillance on the benefit-harm balance of screening differed between populations, as net losses and gains in QALE predicted for screening without active surveillance in men with average and familial PCa risk, respectively, were both reduced

  5. Chemical biology drug sensitivity screen identifies sunitinib as synergistic agent with disulfiram in prostate cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Ketola

    Full Text Available Current treatment options for castration- and treatment-resistant prostate cancer are limited and novel approaches are desperately needed. Our recent results from a systematic chemical biology sensitivity screen covering most known drugs and drug-like molecules indicated that aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor disulfiram is one of the most potent cancer-specific inhibitors of prostate cancer cell growth, including TMPRSS2-ERG fusion positive cancers. However, the results revealed that disulfiram alone does not block tumor growth in vivo nor induce apoptosis in vitro, indicating that combinatorial approaches may be required to enhance the anti-neoplastic effects.In this study, we utilized a chemical biology drug sensitivity screen to explore disulfiram mechanistic details and to identify compounds potentiating the effect of disulfiram in TMPRSS2-ERG fusion positive prostate cancer cells. In total, 3357 compounds including current chemotherapeutic agents as well as drug-like small molecular compounds were screened alone and in combination with disulfiram. Interestingly, the results indicated that androgenic and antioxidative compounds antagonized disulfiram effect whereas inhibitors of receptor tyrosine kinase, proteasome, topoisomerase II, glucosylceramide synthase or cell cycle were among compounds sensitizing prostate cancer cells to disulfiram. The combination of disulfiram and an antiangiogenic agent sunitinib was studied in more detail, since both are already in clinical use in humans. Disulfiram-sunitinib combination induced apoptosis and reduced androgen receptor protein expression more than either of the compounds alone. Moreover, combinatorial exposure reduced metastatic characteristics such as cell migration and 3D cell invasion as well as induced epithelial differentiation shown as elevated E-cadherin expression.Taken together, our results propose novel combinatorial approaches to inhibit prostate cancer cell growth. Disulfiram

  6. Impact of Prostatic-specific Antigen Threshold and Screening Interval in Prostate Cancer Screening Outcomes: Comparing the Swedish and Finnish European Randomised Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer Centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarimäki, Lasse; Hugosson, Jonas; Tammela, Teuvo L; Carlsson, Sigrid; Talala, Kirsi; Auvinen, Anssi

    2017-08-10

    The European Randomised Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer trial has shown a 21% reduction in prostate cancer (PC) mortality with prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based screening. Sweden used a 2-yr screening interval and showed a larger mortality reduction than Finland with a 4-yr interval and higher PSA cut-off. To evaluate the impact of screening interval and PSA cut-off on PC detection and mortality. We analysed the core age groups (55-69 yr at entry) of the Finnish (N=31 866) and Swedish (N=5901) screening arms at 13 yr and 16 yr of follow-up. Sweden used a screening interval of 2 yr and a PSA cut-off of 3.0ng/ml, while in Finland the screening interval was 4 yr and the PSA cut-off 4.0ng/ml (or PSA 3.0-3.9ng/ml with free PSAprostate-specific antigen threshold of 3ng/ml versus 4ng/ml or a screening interval of 2 yr instead of 4 yr is unlikely to explain the larger mortality reduction achieved in Sweden compared with Finland. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Targeted prostate cancer screening in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bancroft, Elizabeth K; Page, Elizabeth C; Castro, Elena

    2014-01-01

    AND PARTICIPANTS: We recruited men aged 40-69 yr with germline BRCA1/2 mutations and a control group of men who have tested negative for a pathogenic BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation known to be present in their families. All men underwent prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing at enrollment, and those men with PSA >3 ng......BACKGROUND: Men with germline breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) or breast cancer 2, early onset (BRCA2) gene mutations have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer (PCa) than noncarriers. IMPACT (Identification of Men with a genetic predisposition to ProstAte Cancer: Targeted screening....../ml were offered prostate biopsy. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: PSA levels, PCa incidence, and tumour characteristics were evaluated. The Fisher exact test was used to compare the number of PCa cases among groups and the differences among disease types. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: We...

  8. Targeted Prostate Cancer Screening in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers: Results from the Initial Screening Round of the IMPACT Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bancroft, Elizabeth K.; Page, Elizabeth C.; Castro, Elena; Lilja, Hans; Vickers, Andrew; Sjoberg, Daniel; Assel, Melissa; Foster, Christopher S.; Mitchell, Gillian; Drew, Kate; Mæhle, Lovise; Axcrona, Karol; Evans, D. Gareth; Bulman, Barbara; Eccles, Diana; McBride, Donna; van Asperen, Christi; Vasen, Hans; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Ringelberg, Janneke; Cybulski, Cezary; Wokolorczyk, Dominika; Selkirk, Christina; Hulick, Peter J.; Bojesen, Anders; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Lam, Jimmy; Taylor, Louise; Oldenburg, Rogier; Cremers, Ruben; Verhaegh, Gerald; van Zelst-Stams, Wendy A.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; Blanco, Ignacio; Salinas, Monica; Cook, Jackie; Rosario, Derek J.; Buys, Saundra; Conner, Tom; Ausems, Margreet G.; Ong, Kai-Ren; Hoffman, Jonathan; Domchek, Susan; Powers, Jacquelyn; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Maia, Sofia; Foulkes, William D.; Taherian, Nassim; Ruijs, Marielle; van Os, Theo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Men with germline breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) or breast cancer 2, early onset (BRCA2) gene mutations have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer (PCa) than noncarriers. IMPACT (Identification of Men with a genetic predisposition to ProstAte Cancer: Targeted screening in

  9. Targeted Prostate Cancer Screening in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers : Results from the Initial Screening Round of the IMPACT Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bancroft, Elizabeth K.; Page, Elizabeth C.; Castro, Elena; Lilja, Hans; Vickers, Andrew; Sjoberg, Daniel; Assel, Melissa; Foster, Christopher S.; Mitchell, Gillian; Drew, Kate; Maehle, Lovise; Axcrona, Karol; Evans, D. Gareth; Bulman, Barbara; Eccles, Diana; McBride, Donna; van Asperen, Christi; Vasen, Hans; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Ringelberg, Janneke; Cybulski, Cezary; Wokolorczyk, Dominika; Selkirk, Christina; Hulick, Peter J.; Bojesen, Anders; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Lam, Jimmy; Taylor, Louise; Oldenburg, Rogier; Cremers, Ruben; Verhaegh, Gerald; van Zelst-Stams, Wendy A.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; Blanco, Ignacio; Salinas, Monica; Cook, Jackie; Rosario, Derek J.; Buys, Saundra; Conner, Tom; Ausems, Margreet G.; Ong, Kai-ren; Hoffman, Jonathan; Domchek, Susan; Powers, Jacquelyn; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Maia, Sofia; Foulkes, William D.; Taherian, Nassim; Ruijs, Marielle; Helderman-van den Enden, Apollonia T.

    Background: Men with germline breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) or breast cancer 2, early onset (BRCA2) gene mutations have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer (PCa) than noncarriers. IMPACT (Identification of Men with a genetic predisposition to ProstAte Cancer: Targeted screening in

  10. Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  11. Older Korean American men's prostate cancer screening behavior: the prime role of culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Yun; Jung, Yunkyung

    2013-12-01

    East and South Asian male immigrants show markedly low odds of prostate cancer screening as compared to U.S.-born men. However, knowledge about these immigrants' culture-based screening behavior and barriers to screening is extremely limited. This study investigates factors influencing receipt of prostate cancer screening among Korean American immigrant men, particularly investigating culture's impact on screening behaviors. Data were collected through a convenience and purposive sampling technique from 134 Korean American males aged 50 and older recruited in New York City. A structured questionnaire was used and cultural variables were measured by adopting items from Tang and colleagues' work. Approximately 60 % of the sample had received a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test in their lifetime, and of these, about 66 % reported having done so in the previous 12 months. Logistic regression analysis revealed that a crisis-oriented intervention approach was associated with a substantially reduced likelihood of screening. A positive correlation was noted between the use of Eastern medicine and PSA test receipt. Further analysis revealed a significant interaction effect between use of Eastern medicine and age in predicting PSA test uptake. Culture-specific intervention strategies for increasing prostate cancer screening in this group are discussed, with particular attention to increasing pertinent health literacy. Health professionals should consider the cultural domain when working with Korean immigrant men in order to provide culturally competent care.

  12. Assessment of nucleosides as putative tumor biomarkers in prostate cancer screening by CE-UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzatto, Adriana Zardini; de Oliveira Silva, Mariana; Poppi, Ronei Jesus; Simionato, Ana Valéria Colnaghi

    2017-05-01

    Cancer is responsible for millions of deaths worldwide, but most base diseases may be cured if detected early. Screening tests may be used to identify early-stage malignant neoplasms. However, the major screening tool for prostate cancer, the prostate-specific antigen test, has unsuitable sensitivity. Since cancer cells may affect the pattern of consumption and excretion of nucleosides, such biomolecules are putative biomarkers that can be used for diagnosis and treatment evaluation. Using a previously validated method for the analysis of nucleosides in blood serum by capillary electrophoresis with UV-vis spectroscopy detection, we investigated 60 samples from healthy individuals and 42 samples from prostate cancer patients. The concentrations of nucleosides in both groups were compared and a multivariate partial least squares-discriminant analysis classification model was optimized for prediction of prostate cancer. The validation of the model with an independent sample set resulted in the correct classification of 82.4% of the samples, with sensitivity of 90.5% and specificity of 76.7%. A significant downregulation of 5-methyluridine and inosine was observed, which can be indicative of the carcinogenic process. Therefore, such analytes are potential candidates for prostate cancer screening. Graphical Abstract Separation of the studied nucleosides and the internal standard 8-Bromoguanosine by CE-UV (a); classification of the external validation samples (30 from healthy volunteers and 21 from prostate cancer patients) by the developed Partial Least Square - Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) model with accuracy of 82.4% (b); Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve (c); and Variable Importance in the Projection (VIP) values for the studied nucleosides (d). A significant down-regulation of 5- methyluridine (5mU) and inosine (I) was observed, which can be indicative of the presence of prostate tumors.

  13. Informing men about prostate cancer screening: a randomized controlled trial of patient education materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilic, Dragan; Egberts, Kristine; McKenzie, Joanne E; Risbridger, Gail; Green, Sally

    2008-04-01

    Patient education materials can assist patient decision making on prostate cancer screening. To explore the effectiveness of presenting health information on prostate cancer screening using video, internet, and written interventions on patient decision making, attitudes, knowledge, and screening interest. Randomized controlled trial. A total of 161 men aged over 45, who had never been screened for prostate cancer, were randomized to receive information on prostate cancer screening. Participants were assessed at baseline and 1-week postintervention for decisional conflict, screening interest, knowledge, anxiety, and decision-making preference. A total of 156 men were followed-up at 1-week postintervention. There was no statistical, or clinical, difference in mean change in decisional conflict scores between the 3 intervention groups (video vs internet -0.06 [95% CI -0.24 to 0.12]; video vs pamphlet 0.04 [95%CI -0.15 to 0.22]; internet vs pamphlet 0.10 [95%CI -0.09 to 0.28]). There was also no statistically significant difference in mean knowledge, anxiety, decision-making preference, and screening interest between the 3 intervention groups. Results from this study indicate that there are no clinically significant differences in decisional conflict when men are presented health information on prostate cancer screening via video, written materials, or the internet. Given the equivalence of the 3 methods, other factors need to be considered in deciding which method to use. Health professionals should provide patient health education materials via a method that is most convenient to the patient and their preferred learning style.

  14. PSA and Prostate Health Index based prostate cancer screening in a hereditary migration complicated population: implications in precision diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akizhanova, Mariyam; Iskakova, Elzira E; Kim, Valdemir; Wang, Xiao; Kogay, Roman; Turebayeva, Aiym; Sun, Qinglei; Zheng, Ting; Wu, Shenghui; Miao, Lixia; Xie, Yingqiu

    2017-01-01

    Precision diagnosis requires specific markers for differential ethnic populations. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) level (threshold of 4ng/ml) has been widely used to screen prostate cancer and as reference of pro-biopsy but false diagnosis frequently occurs. Prostate health Index (PHI) is a new diagnosis marker which combines PSA, free PSA and p2PSA4. Overall the PCa screening database is lacking in Kazakhstani patients. We analyzed the PSA levels and Gleason scores of 222 biopsies collected in 2015 in Almaty area, Kazakhstan approved by institutional ethics board. We found using PSA of 4ng/ml as threshold, only 25.68% of patients have cancer with Gleason score ranged 6-8 and 65.77% of patients have no character of cancer. Moreover, there is no significant correlation between PSA and cancerous (P=0.266) or Gleason grade (P=0.3046) based on pathological biopsy. In addition, PHI is not correlated to prostate cancer (P=0.4301). Our data suggest that false-positive rate is much higher than the correct-positive diagnosis when using PSA as the first screening. Thus in this cohort study, most patients can not get benefit from the PSA screening for precision PCa diagnosis. As Kazakhstani family trees are unique and complicated because of history and migration, the high rate of over diagnosis might be due to the hyperexpression of PSA via heterosis in Eurasian men. Therefore we should be cautious when using pro-biopsy in precision diagnosis for Eurasian prostate cancer patients.

  15. Cost effectiveness analysis of screening in the early diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Lisse, U.G.; Mueller-Lisse, U.L.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose. The authors attempted to provide an overview of current concepts and the status of research in the field of cost effectiveness analysis (CEA) of screening for prostate cancer (PCA).Material and methods. Basic concepts and methods of CEA were reviewed. Examples of CEA-related studies of PCA were obtained from pertinent literature through medical databases.Results. Screening for PCA has so far been restricted to limited groups of health care recipients, usually within the framework of clinical trials. In those trials, screening for PCA usually results in higher numbers of PCAs being detected at lower average stages in a given population. As a consequence of screening, the rate of potentially curable PCAs increases. However, it has not yet been demonstrated that screening for PCA decreases PCA-related mortality or morbidity from metastatic PCA. On the other hand, additional costs are associated with the screening measure and with increased use of resources for diagnosis and treatment of the additional PCAs detected through screening.Conclusions. Throughout the European Union and North America, mass screening for PCA has not been implemented. This may chiefly be due to the current lack of information on long term benefits of PCA screening, particularly disease-specific survival. Currently, major studies are underway to assess the effects of PCA screening and its cost effectiveness. These studies include the US-American prostate, lung, colon and ovary trials (PLCO) and the European randomised study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC). (orig.) [de

  16. Comparison of clinical and survival characteristics between prostate cancer patients of PSA-based screening and clinical diagnosis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Libo; Wang, Jinguo; Guo, Baofeng; Zhang, Haixia; Wang, Kaichen; Wang, Ding; Dai, Chang; Zhang, Ling; Zhao, Xuejian

    2018-01-02

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based mass screening remains the most controversial topic in prostate cancer. PSA-based mass screening has not been widely used in China yet. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of the PSA-based screening in China. The cohort consisted of 1,012 prostate cancer patients. Data were retrospectively collected and clinical characteristics of the cohorts were investigated. Survival was analyzed for prostatic carcinoma of both PSA screened and clinically diagnosed patients according to clinical characteristics and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) risk classification. Cox Proportional Hazards Model analysis was done for risk predictor identification. The median age was 71 years old. Five-year overall and prostate-cancer-specific survival in prostatic adenocarcinoma patients were 77.52% and 79.65%; 10-year survivals were 62.57% and 68.60%, respectively. Survival was significantly poorer in patients with metastases and non-curative management. T staging and Gleason score by NCCN classification effectively stratified prostatic adenocarcinoma patients into different risk groups. T staging was a significant predictor of survival by COX Proportional Hazard Model. PSA screened patients had a significantly higher percentage diagnosed in early stage. PSA screened prostatic adenocarcinoma patients had a better prognosis in both overall and prostate cancer-specific survivals. This Chinese cohort had a lower overall and prostate cancer survival rate than it is reported in western countries. The incidence of early-stage prostate cancer found in PSA-based mass screening was high and there were significant differences in both overall and prostate cancer-specific survival between the PSA-screened and clinically diagnosed patients.

  17. A Cost-Utility Analysis of Prostate Cancer Screening in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Andrew; Gericke, Christian; Whitty, Jennifer A; Yaxley, John; Kua, Boon; Coughlin, Geoff; Gianduzzo, Troy

    2017-02-01

    The Göteborg randomised population-based prostate cancer screening trial demonstrated that prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based screening reduces prostate cancer deaths compared with an age-matched control group. Utilising the prostate cancer detection rates from this study, we investigated the clinical and cost effectiveness of a similar PSA-based screening strategy for an Australian population of men aged 50-69 years. A decision model that incorporated Markov processes was developed from a health system perspective. The base-case scenario compared a population-based screening programme with current opportunistic screening practices. Costs, utility values, treatment patterns and background mortality rates were derived from Australian data. All costs were adjusted to reflect July 2015 Australian dollars (A$). An alternative scenario compared systematic with opportunistic screening but with optimisation of active surveillance (AS) uptake in both groups. A discount rate of 5 % for costs and benefits was utilised. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the effect of variable uncertainty on model outcomes. Our model very closely replicated the number of deaths from both prostate cancer and background mortality in the Göteborg study. The incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) for PSA screening was A$147,528. However, for years of life gained (LYGs), PSA-based screening (A$45,890/LYG) appeared more favourable. Our alternative scenario with optimised AS improved cost utility to A$45,881/QALY, with screening becoming cost effective at a 92 % AS uptake rate. Both modelled scenarios were most sensitive to the utility of patients before and after intervention, and the discount rate used. PSA-based screening is not cost effective compared with Australia's assumed willingness-to-pay threshold of A$50,000/QALY. It appears more cost effective if LYGs are used as the relevant outcome, and is more cost effective than the

  18. Prostate cancer screening by prostate-specific antigen (PSA); a relevant approach for the small population of the Cayman Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyoti, Shravana Kumar; Blacke, Camille; Patil, Pallavi; Amblihalli, Vibha P; Nicholson, Amanda

    2018-01-01

    The common tool for diagnosing prostate cancer is prostate-specific antigen (PSA), but the high sensitivity and low specificity of PSA testing are the problems in clinical practice. There are no proper guidelines to investigate the suspected prostate cancer in the Cayman Islands. We correlated PSA levels with the incidence of prostate cancers by tissue diagnosis and proposed logical protocol for prostate screening by using PSA test in this small population. A total of 165 Afro Caribbean individuals who had prostate biopsy done after the investigations for PSA levels from year 2005 to 2015 were studied retrospectively. The patients were divided into subgroups by baseline PSA levels as follows: 100 ng/mL and were correlated to the age and presence of cancer. Benign lesions had lower PSA levels compared to cancer which generally had higher values. Only three cases that had less than 4 ng/mg were turned out to be malignant. When PSA value was more than 100 ng/mL, all the cases were malignant. Between PSA values of 4-100 ng/mL, the probability of cancer diagnosis was 56.71% (76 cancers out of 134 in this range). Limitation of PSA testing has the risk of over diagnosis and the resultant negative biopsies owing to poor specificity. Whereas the cutoff limit for cancer diagnosis still remains 4 ng/mL from our study, most of the patients can be assured of benign lesion below this level and thus morbidity associated with the biopsy can be prevented. When the PSA value is greater than 100 ng, biopsy procedure was mandatory as there were 100% cancers above this level. On the background of vast literature linking PSA to prostate cancer and its difficulty in implementing in clinical practice, we studied literature of this conflicting and complex topic and tried to bring relevant protocols to the small population of Cayman Islands for the screening of prostate cancer. In this study, a total of 165 Afro Caribbean individuals who had prostate biopsy done after the

  19. Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Prostate Cancer Screening: A Pilot Study Within the Göteborg Randomised Screening Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergdahl, Anna Grenabo; Wilderäng, Ulrica; Aus, Gunnar; Carlsson, Sigrid; Damber, Jan-Erik; Frånlund, Maria; Geterud, Kjell; Khatami, Ali; Socratous, Andreas; Stranne, Johan; Hellström, Mikael; Hugosson, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and targeted biopsies (TB) have shown potential to more accurately detect significant prostate cancer (PC) compared to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and systematic biopsies (SB). Objective To compare sequential screening (PSA + MRI) with conventional PSA screening. Design, Setting and Participants Of 384 attendees in the 10th screening round of the Göteborg randomised screening trial, 124 men, median age 69.5, had a PSA of ≥1.8 ng/ml and underwent a prebiopsy MRI. Men with suspicious lesions on MRI and/or PSA ≥3.0 ng/ml were referred for biopsy. SB was performed blinded to MRI results and TB was performed in men with tumour-suspicious findings on MRI. Three screening strategies were compared (PSA≥3.0+SB; PSA≥3.0+MRI+TB and PSA≥1.8+MRI+TB). Outcome Measurements and Statistical Analysis Cancer detection rates, sensitivity and specificity were calculated per screening strategy and compared using McNemar´s test. Results and Limitations In total, 28 PC were detected, of which 20 were diagnosed in biopsy-naïve men. Both PSA≥3.0+MRI and PSA≥1.8+MRI significantly increased specificity compared with PSA≥3.0+SB (0.92 and 0.79 vs. 0.52; p=3.0+MRI (0.73 vs. 0.46, p=0.008). The detection rate of significant cancer was higher with PSA≥1.8+MRI compared to PSA≥3.0+SB (5.9 vs. 4.0%), while the detection rate of insignificant cancer was lowered by PSA≥3.0+MRI (0.3 vs. 1.2%). The primary limitation of this study is the small sample of men. Conclusion A screening strategy with a lowered PSA cut-off followed by TB in MRI-positive men seems to increase the detection of significant cancers while improving specificity. If replicated, these results may contribute to a paradigm shift in future screening. Patient Summary Major concerns in prostate-specific antigen screening are overdiagnosis and underdiagnosis. We evaluated whether prostate magnetic resonance imaging could improve the balance of benefits to harm in

  20. 77 FR 41791 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ... Collection: This trial was designed to determine if cancer screening for prostate, lung, colorectal, and... annually in the U.S. The design is a two-armed randomized trial of men and women aged 55 to 74 at entry... submission is that the Supplemental Questionnaire is being replaced with the Medication Use Questionnaire. As...

  1. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)–Based Population Screening for Prostate Cancer: An Evidence-Based Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pron, G

    2015-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer (PC) is the most commonly diagnosed non-cutaneous cancer in men and their second or third leading cause of cancer death. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing for PC has been in common practice for more than 20 years. Objectives A systematic review of the scientific literature was conducted to determine the effectiveness of PSA-based population screening programs for PC to inform policy decisions in a publicly funded health care system. Data Sources A systematic review of bibliographic databases was performed for systematic reviews or randomized controlled trials (RCT) of PSA-based population screening programs for PC. Review Methods A broad search strategy was employed to identify studies reporting on key outcomes of PC mortality and all-cause mortality. Results The search identified 5 systematic reviews and 6 RCTs. None of the systematic reviews found a statistically significant reduction in relative risk (RR) of PC mortality or overall mortality with PSA-based screening. PC mortality reductions were found to vary by country, by screening program, and by age of men at study entry. The European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer found a statistically significant reduction in RR in PC mortality at 11-year follow-up (0.79; 95% CI, 0.67–0.92), although the absolute risk reduction was small (1.0/10,000 person-years). However, the primary treatment for PCs differed significantly between countries and between trial arms. The American Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) found a statistically non-significant increase in RR for PC mortality with 13-year follow-up (1.09; 95% CI, 0.87–1.36). The degree of opportunistic screening in the control arm of the PLCO trial, however, was high. None of the RCTs found a reduction in all-cause mortality and all found a statistically significant increase in the detection of mainly low-risk, organ-confined PCs in the screening arm. Conclusions There was no

  2. PROSTATE CANCER SCREENING: PSA TEST AWARENESS AMONG ADULT MALES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obana, Michael; O'Lawrence, Henry

    2015-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to determine whether visits to the doctor in the last 12 months, education level, and annual household income for adult males increased the awareness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests. The effect of these factors for the knowledge of PSA exams was performed using statistical analysis. A retrospective secondary database was utilized for this study using the questionnaire in the California Health Interview Survey from 2009. Based on this survey, annual visits to the doctor, higher educational levels attained, and greater take-home pay were statistically significant and the results of the study were equivalent to those hypothesized. This also reflects the consideration of marketing PSA blood test screenings to those adult males who are poor, uneducated, and do not see the doctor on a consistent basis.

  3. Cultural factors associated with the intent to be screened for prostate cancer among adult men in a rural Kenyan community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinyao Mutua

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine cultural factors associated with prostate cancer screening intent among adult Kenyan African men. Methods A cross-sectional quantitative study with an analytic design was carried out in a randomly selected sample of 155 adult men aged 25–98 years living in a rural community in Kenya. Constructs from the Theory of Planned Behaviour were used to guide this study. A 5 -point Likert scale was used to assess fatalistic beliefs, fear, perceived benefits, and family influence. A structured questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data at the household level. Results Only 2.4% of the study participants had been screened for prostate cancer. About 2/3rd (64% of the participants felt that they were at risk of getting prostate cancer; 44% intended to be screened within the following 6 months. Mean scores on a 5-point Likert scale indicated: strong beliefs in the benefits of prostate screening (4.2 (±SD .8, men aged over 40 were not perceived to be at risk of getting prostate cancer (1.3 ± .6, relatively high fatalistic beliefs of prostate cancer screening (3.6 (±SD .8, high degree of fear or apprehension of prostate cancer screening (3.2 (±SD 1.2, and a high level of influence of family members in prostate cancer screening (3.9 (±SD 1.0. The Wald criterion demonstrated that only family influence made a significant contribution to the intent to screen for prostate cancer (p = 0.031. Age, education, marital status, fatalism, fear, and benefit of screening were not associated with the intent to screen for prostate cancer. Conclusions Strong beliefs of the benefits of prostate screening tended to be surpassed by relatively high fatalistic beliefs and fear or apprehension in prostate cancer screening. The family plays an important role in influencing decision making related to prostate cancer screening in Africans.

  4. Rates and predictors of colorectal cancer screening by race among motivated men participating in a prostate cancer risk assessment program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michael J.; Ruth, Karen; Giri, Veda N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Screening by fecal occult blood test and lower endoscopy have lowered colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality, but compliance gaps persist. Of concern are possible disparities in uptake of CRC screening between White and African American (AA) men. Our goal was to assess for disparities in uptake of CRC screening among men participating in a high-risk prostate cancer clinic. If present, such disparities could support hypotheses for further research examining racial differences in awareness and patient preferences in undergoing CRC screening. Methods Baseline data on a racially diverse cohort of men age 50–69 at increased risk of prostate cancer collected via the prostate cancer risk assessment program (PRAP) at Fox Chase Cancer Center were analyzed. Predictors of uptake of CRC screening were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. Results Compared to Whites, AA men had statistically significantly lower uptake of fecal occult blood testing (AA 49.0% vs White 60.7%, p=0.035), lower endoscopy (AA 44.1% vs White 58.5%, p=0.011), and any CRC screening (AA 66.2% vs White 76.3%, p=0.053). Predictors of uptake of lower endoscopy among AA men included older age (OR 3.61, 95% CI 1.87–6.97), family history of CRC (OR 3.47, 95% CI 1.30–9.25), and insurance status (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.04–3.46). Conclusion Despite awareness of cancer risk and motivation to seek prostate cancer screening through a specialized prostate cancer risk assessment program, evidence supporting compliance gaps with CRC screening among men was found. Tailored messages to younger AA men with and without a family history of CRC are needed. PMID:21751189

  5. Perceived barriers to prostate cancer screenings among middle-aged men in north-eastern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannöver, Wolfgang; Köpke, David; Hannich, Hans-Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer ranks high in mortality. Only 18% of men entitled for screenings take advantage of this. Social-cognitive models of health psychology describe and predict health behavior. This study investigates what barriers men perceive that impede the utilization of cancer screenings. Semistructured interviews were conducted in 2 general practices and 3 hospital wards. One hundred and seventy-eight men over 45 years were addressed; 64 utilized cancer screenings regularly, 3 had a diagnosis of prostate cancer, and 18 declined participation. Content analyses were conducted with 83 interviews. The interview tapped into the following domains: barriers, risk perception, outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, and intentions. 57 men regarded their health as very important, while 47 had never utilized cancer screenings. Barriers were divided into emotional/cognitive versus organizational/structural. Sixty-four men did not utilize cancer screenings because of lack of symptoms, 22 feared a positive result, 20 had more pertinent health issues, and 18 assumed that their physicians would screen for cancer "automatically." Mainly emotional/cognitive barriers were seen as important for nonutilization, especially the absence of symptoms. Following the reasoning of social-cognitive models, a first step to enhance utilization rates would be to enhance risk perception. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Relationship between male pattern baldness and the risk of aggressive prostate cancer: an analysis of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cindy Ke; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Cleary, Sean D; Hoffman, Heather J; Levine, Paul H; Chu, Lisa W; Hsing, Ann W; Cook, Michael B

    2015-02-10

    Male pattern baldness and prostate cancer appear to share common pathophysiologic mechanisms. However, results from previous studies that assess their relationship have been inconsistent. Therefore, we investigated the association of male pattern baldness at age 45 years with risks of overall and subtypes of prostate cancer in a large, prospective cohort—the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. We included 39,070 men from the usual care and screening arms of the trial cohort who had no cancer diagnosis (excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) at the start of follow-up and recalled their hair-loss patterns at age 45 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated by using Cox proportional hazards regression models with age as the time metric. During follow-up (median, 2.78 years), 1,138 incident prostate cancer cases were diagnosed, 571 of which were aggressive (biopsy Gleason score ≥ 7, and/or clinical stage III or greater, and/or fatal). Compared with no baldness, frontal plus moderate vertex baldness at age 45 years was not significantly associated with overall (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.98 to 1.45) or nonaggressive (HR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.30) prostate cancer risk but was significantly associated with increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.80). Adjustment for covariates did not substantially alter these estimates. Other classes of baldness were not significantly associated with overall or subtypes of prostate cancer. Our analysis indicates that frontal plus moderate vertex baldness at age 45 years is associated with an increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer and supports the possibility of common pathophysiologic mechanisms. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  7. [Four year follow-up of a screening program for prostate cancer in workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso-Barbero, Luis; Díaz-Garrido, Ramón; Piñaga-Solé, Montserrat; Fernández-Fernández, Miguel; Belanger-Quintana, Diego; Gómez-Gallego, Félix

    2013-01-01

    To analyze our four-year follow-up experience (2008-2011) with a prostate cancer screening program offered to employees of a banking company. Data were obtained from the health examinations carried out by the bank's in-house occupational health service (with centers in Barcelona, Madrid and Valencia). PSA (prostate-specific antigen) blood levels were measured and cases with high levels (>4 ng/ml) were followed through diagnosis and treatment, including a telephone survey of confirmed cases. Personal and occupational characteristics of the participants were analyzed as well. 750 workers (99% with administrative and/or commercial jobs) met the inclusion criteria for the screening program. Of these, 110 had elevated PSA levels on at least one occasion. The diagnosis of prostate cancer was confirmed in 21 cases. There were no associations between a diagnosis of cancer and the remaining analyzed variables. Urology and pathology records were retrieved for 76% of the contacted cases. The most frequent histological type was adenocarcinoma (98%), the most common Gleason grade at diagnosis was 6-7% (88%), and the majority of cases were treated surgically (90%).With respect to adverse effects, 48% of cases described erectile dysfunction and 33% reported urinary incontinence. In our program the observed prevalence of prostate cancer was above that expected (respectively, 21 confirmed cases vs. 12 expected). The identified cases unanimously expressed their support for the screening program. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Seguretat i Medicina del Treball.

  8. Relationship between prostate-specific antigen and obesity in prostate cancer screening: analysis of a large cohort in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Yasuaki; Seike, Kensaku; Maeda, Shinichi; Shinohara, Yuka; Iwata, Masamitsu; Sugimoto, Norio

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that lower prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in obese men might decrease the sensitivity of prostate cancer screening, leading to delayed diagnosis and unfavorable prognosis. We examined whether the effect of obesity is important in prostate cancer screening of Japanese men, who have a low prevalence of obesity. We analyzed 19,294 male subjects from a large cohort of Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) employees (aged > 50 years, serum PSA level ≤ 4.0 ng/mL) who underwent physical examinations from August 2006 to December 2009. The relationship between PSA level and obesity-related factors was analyzed by simple and multiple regression analysis. The relationships between six body mass index (BMI) categories, and PSA level and PSA mass (PSA concentration × plasma volume) were analyzed. PSA level decreased significantly with increasing BMI, but the coefficient of determination was very low. Mean PSA values decreased from 1.02 to 0.85 ng/mL as BMI increased from underweight (BMI 35). However, PSA mass peaked in the overweight category and was slightly reduced with increasing BMI. On multiple regression analysis, PSA level was influenced by age, diastolic blood pressure and high-density lipoprotein as well as BMI. We found an inverse but weak relationship between PSA level and BMI. Obesity seems to have very limited influence on prostate cancer screening in this population. Nonetheless, when considering indications for prostatic biopsy in obese men, we should be aware that the hemodilution effect might reduce PSA levels. © 2010 The Japanese Urological Association.

  9. Prostate cancer guidelines on Web 2.0-based sites: the screening dilemma continues online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Daniela B; Koskan, Alexis; Rose, India D

    2011-03-01

    Little is known about prostate cancer (PrCA) screening information on participatory, interactive, and consumer-generated websites collectively referred to as Web 2.0. A content analysis was conducted of PrCA resources on four highly trafficked Web 2.0 social bookmarking sites. A total of 127 webpages were analyzed. Most content was from news websites (48.9%) and blogs (37.8%). PrCA screening was mentioned on 95.3% of pages; only 30.7% discussed the prostate-specific antigen test. Less than half (43.8%) mentioned current screening guidelines. PrCA content is inconsistent on Web 2.0 sites. Future research should assess the readability and usability of Web 2.0 cancer resources.

  10. Prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spera, G.

    2010-01-01

    This work is about diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of prostate cancer. The techniques used are: transrectal ultrasound, laparascopy, bone scan, chest x-ray, radiography, chemoterapy and radiotherapy

  11. Assessment of the contents related to screening on Portuguese language websites providing information on breast and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ferreira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the quality of the contents related to screening in a sample of websites providing information on breast and prostate cancer in the Portuguese language. The first 200 results of each cancer-specific Google search were considered. The accuracy of the screening contents was defined in accordance with the state of the art, and its readability was assessed. Most websites mentioned mammography as a method for breast cancer screening (80%, although only 28% referred to it as the only recommended method. Almost all websites mentioned PSA evaluation as a possible screening test, but correct information regarding its effectiveness was given in less than 10%. For both breast and prostate cancer screening contents, the potential for overdiagnosis and false positive results was seldom addressed, and the median readability index was approximately 70. There is ample margin for improving the quality of websites providing information on breast and prostate cancer in Portuguese.

  12. Impact of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing by Dutch general practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Meer, Saskia; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Hirdes, Willem H.; Steffens, Martijn G.; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; Nijman, Rien M.; Blanker, Marco H.

    Objective To determine the impact of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) publication in 2009 on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level testing by Dutch general practitioners (GPs) in men aged 40 years. Materials and Methods Retrospective study with a Dutch insurance

  13. Optimal screening interval for men with low baseline prostate-specific antigen levels (≤1.0 ng/mL) in a prostate cancer screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urata, Satoko; Kitagawa, Yasuhide; Matsuyama, Satoko; Naito, Renato; Yasuda, Kenji; Mizokami, Atsushi; Namiki, Mikio

    2017-04-01

    To optimize the rescreening schedule for men with low baseline prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, we evaluated men with baseline PSA levels of ≤1.0 ng/mL in PSA-based population screening. We enrolled 8086 men aged 55-69 years with baseline PSA levels of ≤1.0 ng/mL, who were screened annually. The relationships of baseline PSA and age with the cumulative risks and clinicopathological features of screening-detected cancer were investigated. Among the 8086 participants, 28 (0.35 %) and 18 (0.22 %) were diagnosed with prostate cancer and cancer with a Gleason score (GS) of ≥7 during the observation period, respectively. The cumulative probabilities of prostate cancer at 12 years were 0.42, 1.0, 3.4, and 4.3 % in men with baseline PSA levels of 0.0-0.4, 0.5-0.6, 0.7-0.8, and 0.9-1.0 ng/mL, respectively. Those with GS of ≥7 had cumulative probabilities of 0.42, 0.73, 2.8, and 1.9 %, respectively. The cumulative probabilities of prostate cancer were significantly lower when baseline PSA levels were 0.0-0.6 ng/mL compared with 0.7-1.0 ng/mL. Prostate cancer with a GS of ≥7 was not detected during the first 10 years of screening when baseline PSA levels were 0.0-0.6 ng/mL and was not detected during the first 2 years when baseline PSA levels were 0.7-1.0 ng/mL. Our study demonstrated that men with baseline PSA levels of 0.0-0.6 ng/mL might benefit from longer screening intervals than those recommended in the guidelines of the Japanese Urological Association. Further investigation is needed to confirm the optimal screening interval for men with low baseline PSA levels.

  14. There are calls for a national screening programme for prostate cancer: what is the evidence to justify such a national screening programme?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A; Tait, C; Aboumarzouk, O; Somani, B K; Cohen, N P

    2013-05-01

    Prostate cancer is the commonest cancer in men and a major health issue worldwide. Screening for early disease has been available for many years, but there is still no national screening programme established in the United Kingdom. To assess the latest evidence regarding prostate cancer screening and whether it meets the necessary requirements to be established as a national programme for all men. Electronic databases and library catalogues were searched electronically and manual retrieval was performed. Only primary research results were used for the analysis. In recent years, several important randomised controlled trials have produced varied outcomes. In Europe the largest study thus far concluded that screening reduced prostate cancer mortality by 20%. On the contrary, a large American trial found no reduction in mortality after 7-10 years follow-up. Most studies comment on the adverse effects of screening - principally those of overdiagnosis and subsequent overtreatment. Further information about the natural history of prostate cancer and accuracy of screening is needed before a screening programme can be truly justified. In the interim, doctors and patients should discuss the risks, benefits and sequelae of taking part in voluntary screening for prostate cancer.

  15. Danish General Practitioners' Use of Prostate-Specific Antigen in Opportunistic Screening for Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Kasper; Søndergaard, Jens; Larsen, Pia Veldt

    2013-01-01

    Background. The use of prostate-specific antigen test has markedly increased in Danish general practice in the last decade. Despite the national guidelines advice against PSA screening, opportunistic screening is supposed to be the primary reason for this increased number of PSA tests performed....... Aims. Based on the increase in the amount of PSA conducted, we aimed to analyse how GPs in Denmark use the PSA test. Methods. A self-administrated questionnaire concerning symptomatic and asymptomatic patient cases was developed based on the national and international guidelines and the extensive...... literature review, and an in-depth interview conducted with a GP was performed. Results. None of the GPs would do a PSA measurement for an asymptomatic 76-year-old man. For asymptomatic 55- and 42-year-old men, respectively, 21.9% and 18.6% of GPs would measure PSA. Patient request and concern could...

  16. Factors related to use of prostate cancer screening: the Alberta Tomorrow Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Kristan J; James, Alison; McGregor, Elizabeth S; Bryant, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Background Very few data are available on the determinants of PSA testing in Canada, and it is a matter of debate whether prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in asymptomatic men age 50 and older with no risk factors for prostate cancer is useful. If PSA screening is introduced into the periodic health examination, it will be important to know what factors influence its use. Objectives The purpose of this study is to determine the factors associated with PSA testing among asymptomatic men age 50 and older participating in the Tomorrow Project in Alberta. Methods The Tomorrow Project is a population-based cohort study with over 11,000 participants accrued in Alberta since February 2003. Information was collected on medical history, sociodemographic factors, health status and lifestyle characteristics. This analysis includes 2136 men 50 years of age and older. The independent association between various factors and recent PSA screening is estimated using logistic regression. Results Approximately 50% of of the study group had received one or more PSA tests in their lifetime. Of these, 58% were asymptomatic for prostate disease at the time of their most recent PSA test. Variables independently associated with recent PSA screening for prostate cancer in this population include older age (≥ 65 versus < 55 years: adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.77–3.83), higher income (≥ $80,000 versus < $20,000, OR 1.97; 95% CI 1.09–3.55), region of health care delivery, perception of health status (good versus excellent health status; OR 0.65, CI 0.43–0.96], increased number of chronic health conditions (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.10–2.71), and history of colorectal cancer screening with fecal occult blood test (OR 2.21; 95% CI 1.73–2.83). Conclusions An increasing proportion of men in Alberta are receiving a PSA test. A number of significant predictors of having a PSA test were identified, suggesting that factors other than having a clinical

  17. Exploring factors that might influence primary-care provider discussion of and recommendation for prostate and colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Christine E; Vu, Maihan; Sutkowi-Hemstreet, Anne; Gizlice, Ziya; Harris, Russell P; Brewer, Noel T; Lewis, Carmen L; Dolor, Rowena J; Barclay, Colleen; Sheridan, Stacey L

    2018-01-01

    Background Primary-care providers may contribute to the use of low-value cancer screening. Objective We sought to examine circumstances under which primary-care providers would discuss and recommend two types of cancer screening services across a spectrum of net benefit and other factors known to influence screening. Patients and methods This was a cross sectional survey of 126 primary-care providers in 24 primary-care clinics in the US. Participants completed surveys with two hypothetical screening scenarios for prostate or colorectal cancer (CRC). Patients in the scenarios varied by age and screening-request status. For each scenario, providers indicated whether they would discuss and recommend screening. Providers also reported on their screening attitudes and the influence of other factors known to affect screening (short patient visits, worry about lawsuits, clinical reminders/performance measures, and screening guidelines). We examined associations between providers’ attitudes and their screening recommendations for hypothetical 90-year-olds (the lowest-value screening). Results Providers reported they would discuss cancer screening more often than they would recommend it (P<0.001). More providers would discuss and recommend screening for CRC than prostate cancer (P<0.001), for younger than older patients (P<0.001), and when the patient requested it than when not (P<0.001). For a 90-year-old patient, every point increase in cancer-specific screening attitude increased the likelihood of a screening recommendation (30% for prostate cancer and 30% for CRC). Discussion While most providers’ reported practice patterns aligned with net benefit, some providers would discuss and recommend low-value cancer screening, particularly when faced with a patient request. Conclusion More work appears to be needed to help providers to discuss and recommend screening that aligns with value. PMID:29844698

  18. Prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bey, P.; Beckendorf, V.; Stines, J.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation therapy of prostate carcinoma with a curative intent implies to treat the whole prostate at high dose (at least 66 Gy). According to clinical stage, PSA level, Gleason's score, the clinical target volume may include seminal vesicles and less often pelvic lymph nodes. Microscopic extra-capsular extension is found in 15 to 60% of T1-T2 operated on, specially in apex tumors. On contrary, cancers developing from the transitional zone may stay limited to the prostate even with a big volume and with a high PSA level. Zonal anatomy of the prostate identifies internal prostate, including the transitional zone (5% of the prostate in young people). External prostate includes central and peripheral zones. The inferior limit of the prostate is not lower than the inferior border of the pubic symphysis. Clinical and radiological examination: ultrasonography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), CT-scan identify prognostic factors as tumor volume, capsule effraction, seminal vesicles invasion and lymph node extension. The identification of the clinical target volume is now done mainly by CT-Scan which identifies prostate and seminal vesicles. NMR could be helpful to identify more precisely prostate apex. The definition of margins around the clinical target volume has to take in account daily reproducibility and organ motion and of course the maximum tolerable dose for organs at risk. (authors)

  19. The Influences of Health Insurance and Access to Information on Prostate Cancer Screening among Men in Dominican Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kangmennaang, J.; Luginaah, I.

    2016-01-01

    Although research demonstrates the public health burden of prostate cancer among men in the Caribbean, relatively little is known about the factors that underlie the low levels of testing for the disease among this population. Study Design. A cross-sectional study of prostate cancer testing behaviours among men aged 40-60 years in Dominican Republic using the Demographic and Health Survey (2013). Methods. We use hierarchical binary logit regression models and average treatment effects combined with propensity score matching to explore the determinants of prostate screening as well as the average effect of health insurance coverage on screening. The use of hierarchical binary logit regression enabled us to control for the effect of unobserved heterogeneity at the cluster level that may affect prostate cancer testing behaviours. Results. Screening varied significantly with health insurance coverage, knowledge of cholesterol level, education, and wealth. Insured men were more likely to test for prostate cancer (OR=1.65, P=0.01) compared to the uninsured. Conclusions. The expansion and restructuring of Dominican Republic universal health insurance scheme to ensure equity in access may improve health access that would potentially impact positively on prostate cancer screening among men.

  20. Prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Balslev, Ingegerd; Logager, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data.......To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data....

  1. Quality of prostate cancer screening information on the websites of nationally recognized cancer centers and health organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manole, Bogdan-Alexandru; Wakefield, Daniel V; Dove, Austin P; Dulaney, Caleb R; Marcrom, Samuel R; Schwartz, David L; Farmer, Michael R

    2017-12-24

    The purpose of this study was to survey the accessibility and quality of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening information from National Cancer Institute (NCI) cancer center and public health organization Web sites. We surveyed the December 1, 2016, version of all 63 NCI-designated cancer center public Web sites and 5 major online clearinghouses from allied public/private organizations (cancer.gov, cancer.org, PCF.org, USPSTF.org, and CDC.gov). Web sites were analyzed according to a 50-item list of validated health care information quality measures. Web sites were graded by 2 blinded reviewers. Interrater agreement was confirmed by Cohen kappa coefficient. Ninety percent of Web sites addressed PSA screening. Cancer center sites covered 45% of topics surveyed, whereas organization Web sites addressed 70%. All organizational Web pages addressed the possibility of false-positive screening results; 41% of cancer center Web pages did not. Forty percent of cancer center Web pages also did not discuss next steps if a PSA test was positive. Only 6% of cancer center Web pages were rated by our reviewers as "superior" (eg, addressing >75% of the surveyed topics) versus 20% of organizational Web pages. Interrater agreement between our reviewers was high (kappa coefficient = 0.602). NCI-designated cancer center Web sites publish lower quality public information about PSA screening than sites run by major allied organizations. Nonetheless, information and communication deficiencies were observed across all surveyed sites. In an age of increasing patient consumerism, prospective prostate cancer patients would benefit from improved online PSA screening information from provider and advocacy organizations. Validated cancer patient Web educational standards remain an important, understudied priority. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Localized Prostate Cancer and Quality of Life: Screening, treatment and methodological issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.J. Korfage (Ida)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn Western countries prostate cancer is the most prevalent malignancy in males. In its early stage prostate cancer usually does not cause any pain or other symptoms. It can be detected early by testing for prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Since the 1980s the PSA-test has been applied

  3. Involving a Citizens' Jury in Decisions on Individual Screening for Prostate Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Mosconi

    Full Text Available Most public health agencies and learned societies agree that the prostate-specific antigen (PSA test in asymptomatic men should not be recommended, on account of its potential for harm. Yet PSA is still widely used as a screening test and is not being abandoned. This remains a significant public health issue, and citizens' engagement is needed. This study was designed to produce a deliberation on the PSA screening test by a citizens' jury.Fifteen citizens were selected and balanced for sex, age, and education. They received an information booklet and participated in a two-day meeting with experts to reach a deliberation on the question "Should the National Health Service discourage or recommend PSA as an individual screening test for prostate cancer in men 55-69 years old?". A facilitator ran the jurors' discussion.All except three of the jurors decided that the National Health Service should discourage the use of PSA as an individual screening test for prostate cancer in 55-69 year-old men. The jury was particularly convinced by the uncertainty of the test outcomes, the utility of the test, and its cost/benefit ratio. Before the meeting 60% of jurors would have recommended the test to a relative, and all the male jurors would have done so. After the meeting these percentages fell to 15% and 12%.This experience confirms the feasibility and effectiveness of delegating to a group of citizens the responsibility to decide on public health issues on behalf of the community. Public health authorities should invest in information campaigns aimed at the public and in educational initiatives for physicians. This also provided an opportunity to disseminate information on screening, over-diagnosis, and over-treatment.

  4. Awareness and uptake of colorectal, breast, cervical and prostate cancer screening tests in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar; Hernandez-Barrera, Valentın; Lopez de Andres, Ana; Jimenez-Trujillo, Isabel; Gallardo Pino, Carmen; Jimenez-Garcıa, Rodrigo

    2014-04-01

    We aim to describe levels of awareness and uptake of colorectal, breast, cervical and prostate cancer screening tests and to analyze the association to socio-demographic and health-related variables. Population-based cross-sectional study conducted using a home-based personal interview survey on a nationwide representative sample (n = 7938) of population aged ≥18 years (Oncobarometro Survey). Awareness was assessed by asking participants: Now I am going to mention several medical tests for cancer detection, please tell me if you already know about them or if this is the first time you have heard of them? The tests mentioned were faecal occult blood test (FOBT), mammography, Pap smear and prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Cancer screening uptake was assessed by asking participants whether they had received tests within the previous 2 years. Awareness rates of 38.55% for FOBT, 95.03% for mammography, 70.84% for Pap smears and 54.72% for PSA were found. Uptake mammography was 74.46%, Pap smears 65.57%, PSA 35.19% and FOBT 9.40%. Factors such as immigration status, lower educational level or income and not suffering from chronic conditions are negative predictors for uptake. Awareness and uptake results showed acceptable figures for mammography, moderate for Pap smears and unacceptably low for FOBT. Inequalities exist in uptake of cancer screening. It is necessary to develop public health educational programmes, especially for the vulnerable populations, aiming to inform and motivate them to use screening services on a regular basis. Our data suggest that although PSA is not recommended, this opportunistic screening is frequently used in Spain.

  5. Psychosocial impact of undergoing prostate cancer screening for men with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, Elizabeth K; Saya, Sibel; Page, Elizabeth C; Myhill, Kathryn; Thomas, Sarah; Pope, Jennifer; Chamberlain, Anthony; Hart, Rachel; Glover, Wayne; Cook, Jackie; Rosario, Derek J; Helfand, Brian T; Hutten Selkirk, Christina; Davidson, Rosemarie; Longmuir, Mark; Eccles, Diana M; Gadea, Neus; Brewer, Carole; Barwell, Julian; Salinas, Monica; Greenhalgh, Lynn; Tischkowitz, Marc; Henderson, Alex; Evans, David Gareth; Buys, Saundra S; Eeles, Rosalind A; Aaronson, Neil K

    2018-05-26

    To report the baseline results of a longitudinal psychosocial study that forms part of the IMPACT study, a multi-national investigation of targeted prostate cancer (PCa) screening among men with a known pathogenic germline mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. Men enrolled in the IMPACT study were invited to complete a questionnaire at collaborating sites prior to each annual screening visit. The questionnaire included sociodemographic characteristics and the following measures: the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Impact of Event Scale (IES), 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36), Memorial Anxiety Scale for Prostate Cancer, Cancer Worry Scale-Revised, risk perception and knowledge. The results of the baseline questionnaire are presented. A total of 432 men completed questionnaires: 98 and 160 had mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, respectively, and 174 were controls (familial mutation negative). Participants' perception of PCa risk was influenced by genetic status. Knowledge levels were high and unrelated to genetic status. Mean scores for the HADS and SF-36 were within reported general population norms and mean IES scores were within normal range. IES mean intrusion and avoidance scores were significantly higher in BRCA1/BRCA2 carriers than in controls and were higher in men with increased PCa risk perception. At the multivariate level, risk perception contributed more significantly to variance in IES scores than genetic status. This is the first study to report the psychosocial profile of men with BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations undergoing PCa screening. No clinically concerning levels of general or cancer-specific distress or poor quality of life were detected in the cohort as a whole. A small subset of participants reported higher levels of distress, suggesting the need for healthcare professionals offering PCa screening to identify these risk factors and offer additional information and support to men seeking PCa screening. © 2018 The Authors BJU

  6. Prostate Cancer FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundraise for PCF: Many vs Cancer Contact Us Prostate Cancer FAQs Top 10 Things You Should Know About ... prostate cancer detected? What are the symptoms of prostate cancer? If the cancer is caught at its earliest ...

  7. Prostate Cancer Ambassadors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vines, Anissa I.; Hunter, Jaimie C.; Carlisle, Veronica A.; Richmond, Alan N.

    2016-01-01

    African American men bear a higher burden of prostate cancer than Caucasian men, but knowledge about how to make an informed decision about prostate cancer screening is limited. A lay health advisor model was used to train “Prostate Cancer Ambassadors” on prostate cancer risk and symptoms, how to make an informed decision for prostate-specific antigen screening, and how to deliver the information to members of their community. Training consisted of two, 6-hour interactive sessions and was implemented in three predominantly African American communities over an 8-month period between 2013 and 2014. Following training, Ambassadors committed to contacting at least 10 people within 3 months using a toolkit composed of wallet-sized informational cards for distribution, a slide presentation, and a flip chart. Thirty-two Ambassadors were trained, with more than half being females (59%) and half reporting a family history of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer knowledge improved significantly among Ambassadors (p ≤ .0001). Self-efficacy improved significantly for performing outreach tasks (p < .0001), and among women in helping a loved one with making an informed decision (p = .005). There was also an improvement in collective efficacy in team members (p = .0003). Twenty-nine of the Ambassadors fulfilled their commitment to reach at least 10 people (average number of contacts per Ambassador was 11). In total, 355 individuals were reached with the prostate cancer information. The Ambassador training program proved successful in training Ambassadors to reach communities about prostate cancer and how to make an informed decision about screening. PMID:27099348

  8. Prostate Cancer Detected by Screening in a Semi Urban Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towns that share a common border with Nsukka are Edem Ani, Alor‑uno, Opi, Orba, and Ede‑Oballa. Nsukka LGA has an area of 1810 km² and a population of 309,633 at the 2006 census. All consecutive responders who met the inclusion criteria were recruited. Subjects and Methods: A screening outreach was conducted ...

  9. Prostate-specific antigen velocity in a prospective prostate cancer screening study of men with genetic predisposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikropoulos, Christos; Selkirk, Christina G Hutten; Saya, Sibel

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and PSA-velocity (PSAV) have been used to identify men at risk of prostate cancer (PrCa). The IMPACT study is evaluating PSA screening in men with a known genetic predisposition to PrCa due to BRCA1/2 mutations. This analysis evaluates the utility of PSA...... and PSAV for identifying PrCa and high-grade disease in this cohort. METHODS: PSAV was calculated using logistic regression to determine if PSA or PSAV predicted the result of prostate biopsy (PB) in men with elevated PSA values. Cox regression was used to determine whether PSA or PSAV predicted PSA...... elevation in men with low PSAs. Interaction terms were included in the models to determine whether BRCA status influenced the predictiveness of PSA or PSAV. RESULTS: 1634 participants had ⩾3 PSA readings of whom 174 underwent PB and 45 PrCas diagnosed. In men with PSA >3.0 ng ml-l, PSAV...

  10. Assessing Technologies for Information-Seeking on Prostate Cancer Screening by Low-Income Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan W. McRoy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper presents a multipart investigation of the benefits and challenges in deploying automated question-answering as an alternative to web-based searching to provide information about prostate cancer screening for low-income men age 40 years and older. Methods: The study comprised: 1 a survey assessing current use of the Internet, mobile phones and texting; 2 a controlled observational study of both web-based searching and automated question-answering for information about prostate cancer; and 3 a formative field study in which subjects interacted with a health department nurse using text messages. Results: Survey results suggest the target population has greater access to, and familiarity with, cell phones and text messaging compared to the Internet and web-based searching. Participants were significantly more confident using a cell phone and preferred to get health information through text messaging. Participants in the controlled observational study accepted the text messaging system, with most indicating it answered their questions, was easy to use and was a favorable tool for information-seeking. The field study also demonstrated potential for automated question-answering and text messaging to help the target population access health information. Conclusions: A two-way text messaging system has great potential to promote health communication and health information distribution. Participant interest in this system was high and did not seem to be specific to prostate cancer screening, suggesting that information about other topics, such as high blood pressure screening, could be provided similarly. We believe more investigations should be focused on this area, especially on benefits for the low-income community.

  11. Screening for prostate cancer in 8 health areas from Santiago de Cuba province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrios Lopez, Yusimy; Perera Fernandez, Francisco; Carvajal Beltran, Irma Iris; Perez Rodriguez, Arnoldo

    2012-01-01

    A descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out in 28 917 men over 50 years of age, belonging to 8 health areas of Santiago de Cuba, from November 2007 to July 2010, to determine the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and thus detect prostate cancer hidden morbidity. The test was performed in 18 007 screened individuals, of whom 1 745 had pathological findings, and of them 1 630 were evaluated at the urology department of the selected polyclinic according to the established flow chart. Finally, 125 males were diagnosed with the disease, so that it was confirmed the importance of having a greater dissemination of PSA test, benefits of which allow the family physician to know the health of their patients, and the risk population obtain such assistance annually through the doctor's offices

  12. European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator: External Validation, Variability, and Clinical Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gómez, Enrique; Carrasco-Valiente, Julia; Blanca-Pedregosa, Ana; Barco-Sánchez, Beatriz; Fernandez-Rueda, Jose Luis; Molina-Abril, Helena; Valero-Rosa, Jose; Font-Ugalde, Pilar; Requena-Tapia, Maria José

    2017-04-01

    To externally validate the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) risk calculator (RC) and to evaluate its variability between 2 consecutive prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values. We prospectively catalogued 1021 consecutive patients before prostate biopsy for suspicion of prostate cancer (PCa). The risk of PCa and significant PCa (Gleason score ≥7) from 749 patients was calculated according to ERSPC-RC (digital rectal examination-based version 3 of 4) for 2 consecutive PSA tests per patient. The calculators' predictions were analyzed using calibration plots and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (area under the curve). Cohen kappa coefficient was used to compare the ability and variability. Of 749 patients, PCa was detected in 251 (33.5%) and significant PCa was detected in 133 (17.8%). Calibration plots showed an acceptable parallelism and similar discrimination ability for both PSA levels with an area under the curve of 0.69 for PCa and 0.74 for significant PCa. The ERSPC showed 226 (30.2%) unnecessary biopsies with the loss of 10 significant PCa. The variability of the RC was 16% for PCa and 20% for significant PCa, and a higher variability was associated with a reduced risk of significant PCa. We can conclude that the performance of the ERSPC-RC in the present cohort shows a high similitude between the 2 PSA levels; however, the RC variability value is associated with a decreased risk of significant PCa. The use of the ERSPC in our cohort detects a high number of unnecessary biopsies. Thus, the incorporation of ERSPC-RC could help the clinical decision to carry out a prostate biopsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prostate-Specific Antigen-Based Screening for Prostate Cancer: Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Joshua J; Weyrich, Meghan S; Durbin, Shauna; Liu, Yu; Bang, Heejung; Melnikow, Joy

    2018-05-08

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among US men. To systematically review evidence on prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based prostate cancer screening, treatments for localized prostate cancer, and prebiopsy risk calculators to inform the US Preventive Services Task Force. Searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Registries and Databases from July 1, 2011, through July 15, 2017, with a surveillance search on February 1, 2018. English-language reports of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of screening; cohort studies reporting harms; RCTs and cohort studies of active localized cancer treatments vs conservative approaches (eg, active surveillance, watchful waiting); external validations of prebiopsy risk calculators to identify aggressive cancers. One investigator abstracted data; a second checked accuracy. Two investigators independently rated study quality. Prostate cancer and all-cause mortality; false-positive screening results, biopsy complications, overdiagnosis; adverse effects of active treatments. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted for treatment harms. Sixty-three studies in 104 publications were included (N = 1 904 950). Randomization to PSA screening was not associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer mortality in either a US trial with substantial control group contamination (n = 76 683) or a UK trial with low adherence to a single PSA screen (n = 408 825) but was associated with significantly reduced prostate cancer mortality in a European trial (n = 162 243; relative risk [RR], 0.79 [95% CI, 0.69-0.91]; absolute risk reduction, 1.1 deaths per 10 000 person-years [95% CI, 0.5-1.8]). Of 61 604 men screened in the European trial, 17.8% received false-positive results. In 3 cohorts (n = 15 136), complications requiring hospitalization occurred in 0.5% to 1.6% of men undergoing biopsy after abnormal screening findings. Overdiagnosis was estimated to occur in 20.7% to 50

  14. Prostate and Colorectal Cancer Screening Uptake among US and Foreign-Born Males: Evidence from the 2015 NHIS Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilunga Tshiswaka, Daudet; Donley, Tiffany; Okafor, Anthony; Memiah, Peter; Mbizo, Justice

    2017-06-01

    Research suggests that prostate and colorectal cancers disproportionately affect men in the US, but little is known about the determinants of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening uptake among US and foreign-born males. The purpose of this study was to investigate what factors influence prostate and colorectal cancer screening uptake among US-native born and foreign-born men. Using the 2015 National Health Interview Survey, we conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses to highlight factors associated with the uptake of prostate and colorectal cancer screening among US-native born and foreign-born men. The sample size consisted of 5651 men respondents, with the mean age of 59.7 years (SD = 12.1). Of these, more than two-fifths (42%) were aged 50-64 years old. With respect to race/ethnicity, the sample was predominantly non-Hispanic Whites (65.5%), 863 (15.6%) Hispanics, and 710 (12.4%) Blacks. Our analysis found higher rates of both US-born and foreign-born men aged 65 years or older, who had either a PSA or CRC screening tests than those aged <65 years. Results of the general multivariate model suggest that men under 50 years old, US-born and foreign-born alike, are statistically significantly less likely to have prostate or colorectal cancer screenings than men aged 65 years or above. This study highlights the influencing factors that encourage or discourage PSA and CRC screening uptake between US-native born and foreign-born men. The results of this inquiry provide an evidence-based blueprint for policymakers and interventionists seeking to address prostate and colorectal cancer among men.

  15. Prostate Cancer Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundraise for PCF: Many vs Cancer Contact Us Prostate Cancer Symptoms and Signs Prostate Cancer Basics Risk Factors ... earlier. So what are the warning signs of prostate cancer? Unfortunately, there usually aren’t any early warning ...

  16. Prostate cancer - treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000403.htm Prostate cancer - treatment To use the sharing features on this page, ... drugs is recommended. References National Cancer Institute. Prostate cancer treatment (PDQ): Stages of prostate cancer. Updated July 31, ...

  17. Ever and Annual Use of Prostate Cancer Screening in African American Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbert, Chanita Hughes; Gattoni-Celli, Sebastiano; Savage, Stephen; Prasad, Sandip M.; Kittles, Rick; Briggs, Vanessa; Delmoor, Ernestine; Rice, LaShanta J.; Jefferson, Melanie; Johnson, Jerry C.

    2016-01-01

    Since prostate cancer continues to disproportionately affect African American men in terms of incidence, morbidity, and mortality, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening plays an important role in early detection, especially when men engage in informed decision making to accept or decline this test. The authors evaluated utilization of PSA testing among African American men based on factors that are important components of making informed decisions. Utilization of PSA testing was evaluated based on whether men had ever had PSA testing and PSA testing during the past year in a community-based sample of African American men ages 50 to 75 (n = 132). Overall, 64% of men (n = 85) reported that they had ever had a PSA test; the mean (SD) age for first use of PSA testing was 47.7 (SD = 7.4). The likelihood of ever having a PSA test increased significantly with physician communication (odds ratio [OR] = 14.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.20, 48.10; p = .0001) and with having an annual household income that was greater than $20,000 (OR = 9.80; 95% CI = 3.15, 30.51; p = .0001). The odds of ever having a PSA test were also decreased with each unit increase in future temporal orientation (OR = 0.66; 95% CI = 0.47, 0.93; p = .02). Of the men who had ever had PSA testing, 57% were screened during the past year. Only health insurance status had a significant independent association with having annual PSA testing (OR = 5.10; 95% CI = 1.67, 15.60; p = .004). Different factors were associated significantly with ever having PSA testing and annual testing among African American men. African American men may not be making an informed decision about prostate cancer screening. PMID:26240090

  18. Mass screening for prostate cancer at Ikeda City in Osaka Prefecture. Results of screening with PSA alone between 2003 and 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Hitoshi; Kinouchi, Toshiro; Kinoshita, Tatsuya

    2010-01-01

    Since 2003, screening with prostate specific antigen (PSA) has been conducted to detect prostate cancer. We investigated the results between 2003 and 2007. Screening with PSA alone was performed for males aged over 50 years who desired prostate cancer screening. We used a PSA cutoff value of 4.00 ng per milliliter. In 2003, there were 18,161 males aged over 50 years in Ikeda City. 3,738, 3,905, 4,129, 4,410, and 4,515 of the males underwent PSA screening in 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007. The rate of elevated PSA levels was 7.9%-9.8% (median 9.1%). 161, 81, 70, 75 and 60 of the males visited us for secondary screening, and prostate biopsy was performed in 130 (80.7%), 57 (70.4%), 45 (64.3%), 38 (50.7%), and 42 (70.0%). Prostate cancer was detected in 91, 33, 29, 20 and 25 males, respectively. These values corresponded to 2.43%, 0.85%, 0.70%, 0.45% and 0.55% of the males who underwent primary screening. The incidence of prostate cancer was 0.96% during the 5 years. Clinical stage was B in 137 (69.2%), C in 52 (26.3%), D in 7 (3.5%), and unknown in 2. Surgery was performed in 87 (43.9%), endocrine therapy in 61 (30.8%), irradiation in 37 (18.7%), and follow up without treatment in 7 (3.5%). Treatment for 6 (3.0%) is unknown because they desired treatment at another hospital. 198 males were diagnosed with prostate cancer between 2003 and 2007. The clinical stage B was present in 137 (69.2%), and the early treatment was achieved. This may lead to a future decrease in the mortality rate. (author)

  19. Prostate-specific antigen velocity in a prospective prostate cancer screening study of men with genetic predisposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikropoulos, Christos; Selkirk, Christina G Hutten; Saya, Sibel; Bancroft, Elizabeth; Vertosick, Emily; Dadaev, Tokhir; Brendler, Charles; Page, Elizabeth; Dias, Alexander; Evans, D Gareth; Rothwell, Jeanette; Maehle, Lovise; Axcrona, Karol; Richardson, Kate; Eccles, Diana; Jensen, Thomas; Osther, Palle J; van Asperen, Christi J; Vasen, Hans; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Ringelberg, Janneke; Cybulski, Cezary; Wokolorczyk, Dominika; Hart, Rachel; Glover, Wayne; Lam, Jimmy; Taylor, Louise; Salinas, Monica; Feliubadaló, Lidia; Oldenburg, Rogier; Cremers, Ruben; Verhaegh, Gerald; van Zelst-Stams, Wendy A; Oosterwijk, Jan C; Cook, Jackie; Rosario, Derek J; Buys, Saundra S; Conner, Tom; Domchek, Susan; Powers, Jacquelyn; Ausems, Margreet Gem; Teixeira, Manuel R; Maia, Sofia; Izatt, Louise; Schmutzler, Rita; Rhiem, Kerstin; Foulkes, William D; Boshari, Talia; Davidson, Rosemarie; Ruijs, Marielle; Helderman-van den Enden, Apollonia Tjm; Andrews, Lesley; Walker, Lisa; Snape, Katie; Henderson, Alex; Jobson, Irene; Lindeman, Geoffrey J; Liljegren, Annelie; Harris, Marion; Adank, Muriel A; Kirk, Judy; Taylor, Amy; Susman, Rachel; Chen-Shtoyerman, Rakefet; Pachter, Nicholas; Spigelman, Allan; Side, Lucy; Zgajnar, Janez; Mora, Josefina; Brewer, Carole; Gadea, Neus; Brady, Angela F; Gallagher, David; van Os, Theo; Donaldson, Alan; Stefansdottir, Vigdis; Barwell, Julian; James, Paul A; Murphy, Declan; Friedman, Eitan; Nicolai, Nicola; Greenhalgh, Lynn; Obeid, Elias; Murthy, Vedang; Copakova, Lucia; McGrath, John; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Strom, Sara; Kast, Karin; Leongamornlert, Daniel A; Chamberlain, Anthony; Pope, Jenny; Newlin, Anna C; Aaronson, Neil; Ardern-Jones, Audrey; Bangma, Chris; Castro, Elena; Dearnaley, David; Eyfjord, Jorunn; Falconer, Alison; Foster, Christopher S; Gronberg, Henrik; Hamdy, Freddie C; Johannsson, Oskar; Khoo, Vincent; Lubinski, Jan; Grindedal, Eli Marie; McKinley, Joanne; Shackleton, Kylie; Mitra, Anita V; Moynihan, Clare; Rennert, Gad; Suri, Mohnish; Tricker, Karen; Moss, Sue; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Vickers, Andrew; Lilja, Hans; Helfand, Brian T; Eeles, Rosalind A

    2018-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and PSA-velocity (PSAV) have been used to identify men at risk of prostate cancer (PrCa). The IMPACT study is evaluating PSA screening in men with a known genetic predisposition to PrCa due to BRCA1/2 mutations. This analysis evaluates the utility of PSA and PSAV for identifying PrCa and high-grade disease in this cohort. PSAV was calculated using logistic regression to determine if PSA or PSAV predicted the result of prostate biopsy (PB) in men with elevated PSA values. Cox regression was used to determine whether PSA or PSAV predicted PSA elevation in men with low PSAs. Interaction terms were included in the models to determine whether BRCA status influenced the predictiveness of PSA or PSAV. 1634 participants had ⩾3 PSA readings of whom 174 underwent PB and 45 PrCas diagnosed. In men with PSA >3.0 ng ml -l , PSAV was not significantly associated with presence of cancer or high-grade disease. PSAV did not add to PSA for predicting time to an elevated PSA. When comparing BRCA1/2 carriers to non-carriers, we found a significant interaction between BRCA status and last PSA before biopsy (P=0.031) and BRCA2 status and PSAV (P=0.024). However, PSAV was not predictive of biopsy outcome in BRCA2 carriers. PSA is more strongly predictive of PrCa in BRCA carriers than non-carriers. We did not find evidence that PSAV aids decision-making for BRCA carriers over absolute PSA value alone.

  20. Prostate-specific antigen velocity in a prospective prostate cancer screening study of men with genetic predisposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikropoulos, Christos; Selkirk, Christina G Hutten; Saya, Sibel; Bancroft, Elizabeth; Vertosick, Emily; Dadaev, Tokhir; Brendler, Charles; Page, Elizabeth; Dias, Alexander; Evans, D Gareth; Rothwell, Jeanette; Maehle, Lovise; Axcrona, Karol; Richardson, Kate; Eccles, Diana; Jensen, Thomas; Osther, Palle J; van Asperen, Christi J; Vasen, Hans; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Ringelberg, Janneke; Cybulski, Cezary; Wokolorczyk, Dominika; Hart, Rachel; Glover, Wayne; Lam, Jimmy; Taylor, Louise; Salinas, Monica; Feliubadaló, Lidia; Oldenburg, Rogier; Cremers, Ruben; Verhaegh, Gerald; van Zelst-Stams, Wendy A; Oosterwijk, Jan C; Cook, Jackie; Rosario, Derek J; Buys, Saundra S; Conner, Tom; Domchek, Susan; Powers, Jacquelyn; Ausems, Margreet GEM; Teixeira, Manuel R; Maia, Sofia; Izatt, Louise; Schmutzler, Rita; Rhiem, Kerstin; Foulkes, William D; Boshari, Talia; Davidson, Rosemarie; Ruijs, Marielle; Helderman-van den Enden, Apollonia TJM; Andrews, Lesley; Walker, Lisa; Snape, Katie; Henderson, Alex; Jobson, Irene; Lindeman, Geoffrey J; Liljegren, Annelie; Harris, Marion; Adank, Muriel A; Kirk, Judy; Taylor, Amy; Susman, Rachel; Chen-Shtoyerman, Rakefet; Pachter, Nicholas; Spigelman, Allan; Side, Lucy; Zgajnar, Janez; Mora, Josefina; Brewer, Carole; Gadea, Neus; Brady, Angela F; Gallagher, David; van Os, Theo; Donaldson, Alan; Stefansdottir, Vigdis; Barwell, Julian; James, Paul A; Murphy, Declan; Friedman, Eitan; Nicolai, Nicola; Greenhalgh, Lynn; Obeid, Elias; Murthy, Vedang; Copakova, Lucia; McGrath, John; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Strom, Sara; Kast, Karin; Leongamornlert, Daniel A; Chamberlain, Anthony; Pope, Jenny; Newlin, Anna C; Aaronson, Neil; Ardern-Jones, Audrey; Bangma, Chris; Castro, Elena; Dearnaley, David; Eyfjord, Jorunn; Falconer, Alison; Foster, Christopher S; Gronberg, Henrik; Hamdy, Freddie C; Johannsson, Oskar; Khoo, Vincent; Lubinski, Jan; Grindedal, Eli Marie; McKinley, Joanne; Shackleton, Kylie; Mitra, Anita V; Moynihan, Clare; Rennert, Gad; Suri, Mohnish; Tricker, Karen; Moss, Sue; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Vickers, Andrew; Lilja, Hans; Helfand, Brian T; Eeles, Rosalind A

    2018-01-01

    Background: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and PSA-velocity (PSAV) have been used to identify men at risk of prostate cancer (PrCa). The IMPACT study is evaluating PSA screening in men with a known genetic predisposition to PrCa due to BRCA1/2 mutations. This analysis evaluates the utility of PSA and PSAV for identifying PrCa and high-grade disease in this cohort. Methods: PSAV was calculated using logistic regression to determine if PSA or PSAV predicted the result of prostate biopsy (PB) in men with elevated PSA values. Cox regression was used to determine whether PSA or PSAV predicted PSA elevation in men with low PSAs. Interaction terms were included in the models to determine whether BRCA status influenced the predictiveness of PSA or PSAV. Results: 1634 participants had ⩾3 PSA readings of whom 174 underwent PB and 45 PrCas diagnosed. In men with PSA >3.0 ng ml−l, PSAV was not significantly associated with presence of cancer or high-grade disease. PSAV did not add to PSA for predicting time to an elevated PSA. When comparing BRCA1/2 carriers to non-carriers, we found a significant interaction between BRCA status and last PSA before biopsy (P=0.031) and BRCA2 status and PSAV (P=0.024). However, PSAV was not predictive of biopsy outcome in BRCA2 carriers. Conclusions: PSA is more strongly predictive of PrCa in BRCA carriers than non-carriers. We did not find evidence that PSAV aids decision-making for BRCA carriers over absolute PSA value alone. PMID:29301143

  1. Dihydrotestosterone and testosterone levels in men screened for prostate cancer: a study of a randomized population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, O; Norming, U; Gustafsson, S; Eneroth, P; Aström, G; Nyman, C R

    1996-03-01

    To investigate the possible relationship between serum levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), testosterone, sexual-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and tumour stage, grade and ploidy in 65 cases of prostate cancer diagnosed in a screening study compared to 130 controls from the same population. From a population of 26,602 men between the ages of 55 and 70 years, 2400 were selected randomly and invited to undergo screening for prostate cancer using a digital rectal examination, transrectal ultrasonography and PSA analysis. Among the 1782 attendees, 65 cases of prostate cancer were diagnosed. Each case was matched with two control subjects of similar age and prostate volume from the screening population. Frozen serum samples were analysed for PSA, DHT, testosterone and SHBG, and compared to the diagnosis and tumour stage, grade and ploidy. Comparisons between these variables, and multivariate and regression analyses were performed. There were significant differences in PSA level with all variables except tumour ploidy. DHT levels were slightly lower in patients with prostate cancer but the difference was not statistically significant. There was a trend towards lower DHT values in more advanced tumours and the difference for T-stages was close to statistical significance (P = 0.059). Testosterone levels were lower in patients with cancer than in the control group, but the differences were not significant. There was no correlation between testosterone levels, tumour stage and ploidy, but the differences in testosterone level in tumours of a low grade of differentiation compared to those with intermediate and high grade was nearly significant (P = 0.058). The testosterone/DHT ratio tended to be higher in patients with more advanced tumours. SHBG levels were lower in patients with cancer than in controls but the differences were not statistically significant. There were no systematic variations of tumour stage, grade and ploidy. Multivariate

  2. Personal values that support and counteract utilization of a screening test for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aavik, Toivo; Aavik, Anu; Punab, Margus

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of the current research was to discover the personal values that may support men's prostate cancer screening decisions in the future. We asked for participants' past behavior and future behavioral intentions, and also considered their real-life behavior. The sample consisted of 371 men, of which 93 were first-time patients at the Andrology Unit. The results show that Security value was related to past participation, while Achievement, Stimulation, and Traditions counteracted this. Present prostate-testing behavior was related only to higher Security values. Predictors of future behavioral intentions were Security, Self-direction, and Benevolence, which described 21% of the total variability. Considering informed decision-making processes, our results suggest that men who hold Security, Self-direction, and Benevolence values are more likely to participate in office-based initial screening. The study indicates the need to offer office-based initial screening to those age-eligible men whose values do not support participation.

  3. Prostatic specific antigen for prostate cancer detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Nogueira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Prostate-specific antigen (PSA has been used for prostate cancer detection since 1994. PSA testing has revolutionized our ability to diagnose, treat, and follow-up patients. In the last two decades, PSA screening has led to a substantial increase in the incidence of prostate cancer (PC. This increased detection caused the incidence of advanced-stage disease to decrease at a dramatic rate, and most newly diagnosed PC today are localized tumors with a high probability of cure. PSA screening is associated with a 75% reduction in the proportion of men who now present with metastatic disease and a 32.5% reduction in the age-adjusted prostate cancer mortality rate through 2003. Although PSA is not a perfect marker, PSA testing has limited specificity for prostate cancer detection, and its appropriate clinical application remains a topic of debate. Due to its widespread use and increased over-detection, the result has been the occurrence of over-treatment of indolent cancers. Accordingly, several variations as regards PSA measurement have emerged as useful adjuncts for prostate cancer screening. These procedures take into consideration additional factors, such as the proportion of different PSA isoforms (free PSA, complexed PSA, pro-PSA and B PSA, the prostate volume (PSA density, and the rate of change in PSA levels over time (PSA velocity or PSA doubling time. The history and evidence underlying each of these parameters are reviewed in the following article.

  4. Prostatic specific antigen for prostate cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Lucas; Corradi, Renato; Eastham, James A

    2009-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been used for prostate cancer detection since 1994. PSA testing has revolutionized our ability to diagnose, treat, and follow-up patients. In the last two decades, PSA screening has led to a substantial increase in the incidence of prostate cancer (PC). This increased detection caused the incidence of advanced-stage disease to decrease at a dramatic rate, and most newly diagnosed PC today are localized tumors with a high probability of cure. PSA screening is associated with a 75% reduction in the proportion of men who now present with metastatic disease and a 32.5% reduction in the age-adjusted prostate cancer mortality rate through 2003. Although PSA is not a perfect marker, PSA testing has limited specificity for prostate cancer detection, and its appropriate clinical application remains a topic of debate. Due to its widespread use and increased over-detection, the result has been the occurrence of over-treatment of indolent cancers. Accordingly, several variations as regards PSA measurement have emerged as useful adjuncts for prostate cancer screening. These procedures take into consideration additional factors, such as the proportion of different PSA isoforms (free PSA, complexed PSA, pro-PSA and B PSA), the prostate volume (PSA density), and the rate of change in PSA levels over time (PSA velocity or PSA doubling time). The history and evidence underlying each of these parameters are reviewed in the following article.

  5. Baseline prostate-specific antigen measurements and subsequent prostate cancer risk in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Signe Benzon; Brasso, Klaus; Iversen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening reduces mortality from prostate cancer, substantial over-diagnosis and subsequent overtreatment are concerns. Early screening of men for PSA may serve to stratify the male population by risk of future clinical prostate cancer.......Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening reduces mortality from prostate cancer, substantial over-diagnosis and subsequent overtreatment are concerns. Early screening of men for PSA may serve to stratify the male population by risk of future clinical prostate cancer....

  6. Opportunistic testing versus organized prostate-specific antigen screening: outcome after 18 years in the Göteborg randomized population-based prostate cancer screening trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnsrud Godtman, Rebecka; Holmberg, Erik; Lilja, Hans; Stranne, Johan; Hugosson, Jonas

    2015-09-01

    It has been shown that organized screening decreases prostate cancer (PC) mortality, but the effect of opportunistic screening is largely unknown. To compare the ability to reduce PC mortality and the risk of overdiagnosis between organized and opportunistic screening. The Göteborg screening study invited 10 000 randomly selected men for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing every 2 yr since 1995, with a prostate biopsy recommended for men with PSA ≥2.5 ng/ml. The control group of 10 000 men not invited has been exposed to a previously reported increased rate of opportunistic PSA testing. Both groups were followed until December 31, 2012. Observed cumulative PC incidence and mortality rates in both groups were calculated using the actuarial method. Using historical data from 1990-1994 (pre-PSA era), we calculated expected PC incidence and mortality rates in the absence of any PSA testing. The number needed to invite (NNI) and the number needed to diagnose (NND) were calculated by comparing the expected versus observed incidence and mortality rates. At 18 yr, 1396 men were diagnosed with PC and 79 men died of PC in the screening group, compared to 962 and 122, respectively, in the control group. In the screening group, the observed cumulative PC incidence/mortality was 16%/0.98% compared to expected values of 6.8%/1.7%. The corresponding values for the control group were 11%/1.5% and 6.9%/1.7%. Organized screening was associated with an absolute PC-specific mortality reduction of 0.72% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.50-0.94%) and relative risk reduction of 42% (95% CI 28-54%). There was an absolute reduction in PC deaths of 0.20% (95% CI -0.06% to 0.47%) and a relative risk reduction of 12% (95% CI -5 to 26%) associated with opportunistic PSA testing. NNI and NND were 139 (95% CI 107-200) and 13 for organized biennial screening and 493 (95% CI 213- -1563) and 23 for opportunistic screening. The extent of opportunistic screening could not be measured

  7. Clinicians' perceptions of the benefits and harms of prostate and colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elstad, Emily A; Sutkowi-Hemstreet, Anne; Sheridan, Stacey L; Vu, Maihan; Harris, Russell; Reyna, Valerie F; Rini, Christine; Earp, Jo Anne; Brewer, Noel T

    2015-05-01

    Clinicians' perceptions of screening benefits and harms influence their recommendations, which in turn shape patients' screening decisions. We sought to understand clinicians' perceptions of the benefits and harms of cancer screening by comparing 2 screening tests that differ in their balance of potential benefits to harms: colonoscopy, which results in net benefit for many adults, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, which may do more harm than good. In this cross-sectional study, 126 clinicians at 24 family/internal medicine practices completed surveys in which they listed and rated the magnitude of colonoscopy and PSA testing benefits and harms for a hypothetical 70-year-old male patient and then estimated the likelihood that these tests would cause harm and lengthen the life of 100 similar men in the next 10 years. We tested the hypothesis that the availability heuristic would explain the association of screening test to perceived likelihood of benefit/harm and a competing hypothesis that clinicians' gist of screening tests as good or bad would mediate this association. Clinicians perceived PSA testing to have a greater likelihood of harm and a lower likelihood of lengthening life relative to colonoscopy. Consistent with our gist hypothesis, these associations were mediated by clinicians' gist of screening (balance of perceived benefits to perceived harms). Generalizability beyond academic clinicians remains to be established. Targeting clinicians' gist of screening, for example through graphical displays that allow clinicians to make gist-based relative magnitude comparisons, may influence their risk perception and possibly reduce overrecommendation of screening. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Knowledge, beliefs and barriers associated with prostate cancer prevention and screening behaviors among African-American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocker, Deborah E; Romocki, LaHoma Smith; Thomas, Kamilah B; Jones, Belinda L; Jackson, Ethel Jean; Reid, LaVerne; Campbell, Marci K

    2006-08-01

    African-American men have the highest prostate cancer rates worldwide, and innovative efforts are needed to increase cancer prevention and screening behaviors among this population. Formative research was conducted to assess attitudes and behaviors linked to prostate cancer prevention activities that could be used to develop a culturally relevant intervention for an African-American church-based population. Four gender-specific focus groups were conducted with 29 men and women at two African-American churches in central North Carolina. Three primary themes emerged from the focus group discussions: culturally and gender-influenced beliefs and barriers about cancer prevention and screening; barriers related to the healthcare system: and religious influences, including the importance of spiritual beliefs and church support. These discussions revealed the importance of the black family, the positive influence of spouses/partners on promoting cancer screening and healthy behaviors, the roles of faith and church leadership, and beliefs about God's will for good health. These findings also revealed that there are still major barriers and challenges to cancer prevention among African Americans, including continued mistrust of the medical community and negative attitudes toward specific screening tests. Findings provide important insights to consider in implementing successful prostate cancer prevention interventions designed for church-based audiences.

  9. Design-corrected variation by centre in mortality reduction in the ERSPC randomised prostate cancer screening trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakama, Matti; Moss, Sue M; Stenman, Ulf-Hakan; Roobol, Monique J; Zappa, Marco; Carlsson, Sigrid; Randazzo, Marco; Nelen, Vera; Hugosson, Jonas

    2017-06-01

    Objectives To calculate design-corrected estimates of the effect of screening on prostate cancer mortality by centre in the European Randomised Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC). Setting The ERSPC has shown a 21% reduction in prostate cancer mortality in men invited to screening with follow-up truncated at 13 years. Centres either used pre-consent randomisation (effectiveness design) or post-consent randomisation (efficacy design). Methods In six centres (three effectiveness design, three efficacy design) with follow-up until the end of 2010, or maximum 13 years, the effect of screening was estimated as both effectiveness (mortality reduction in the target population) and efficacy (reduction in those actually screened). Results The overall crude prostate cancer mortality risk ratio in the intervention arm vs control arm for the six centres was 0.79 ranging from a 14% increase to a 38% reduction. The risk ratio was 0.85 in centres with effectiveness design and 0.73 in those with efficacy design. After correcting for design, overall efficacy was 27%, 24% in pre-consent and 29% in post-consent centres, ranging between a 12% increase and a 52% reduction. Conclusion The estimated overall effect of screening in attenders (efficacy) was a 27% reduction in prostate cancer mortality at 13 years' follow-up. The variation in efficacy between centres was greater than the range in risk ratio without correction for design. The centre-specific variation in the mortality reduction could not be accounted for by the randomisation method.

  10. Shared decision making for prostate cancer screening: the results of a combined analysis of two practice-based randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Stacey L; Golin, Carol; Bunton, Audrina; Lykes, John B; Schwartz, Bob; McCormack, Lauren; Driscoll, David; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Harris, Russell P

    2012-11-13

    Professional societies recommend shared decision making (SDM) for prostate cancer screening, however, most efforts have promoted informed rather than shared decision making. The objective of this study is to 1) examine the effects of a prostate cancer screening intervention to promote SDM and 2) determine whether framing prostate information in the context of other clearly beneficial men's health services affects decisions. We conducted two separate randomized controlled trials of the same prostate cancer intervention (with or without additional information on more clearly beneficial men's health services). For each trial, we enrolled a convenience sample of 2 internal medicine practices, and their interested physicians and male patients with no prior history of prostate cancer (for a total of 4 practices, 28 physicians, and 128 men across trials). Within each practice site, we randomized men to either 1) a video-based decision aid and researcher-led coaching session or 2) a highway safety video. Physicians at each site received a 1-hour educational session on prostate cancer and SDM. To assess intervention effects, we measured key components of SDM, intent to be screened, and actual screening. After finding that results did not vary by trial, we combined data across sites, adjusting for the random effects of both practice and physician. Compared to an attention control, our prostate cancer screening intervention increased men's perceptions that screening is a decision (absolute difference +41%; 95% CI 25 to 57%) and men's knowledge about prostate cancer screening (absolute difference +34%; 95% CI 19% to 50%), but had no effect on men's self-reported participation in shared decisions or their participation at their preferred level. Overall, the intervention decreased screening intent (absolute difference -34%; 95% CI -50% to -18%) and actual screening rates (absolute difference -22%; 95% CI -38 to -7%) with no difference in effect by frame. SDM interventions can

  11. Development of a STAT3 reporter prostate cancer cell line for high throughput screening of STAT3 activators and inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, My N.; Banerjee, Partha P.

    2008-01-01

    STAT3 is constitutively activated in several cancers, including prostate cancer, and is therefore, a potential target for cancer therapy. DU-145 prostate cancer cells were stably co-transfected with STAT3 reporter and puromycin resistant plasmids to create a stable STAT3 reporter cell line that can be used for high throughput screening of STAT3 modulators. The applicability of this cell line was tested with two known activators and inhibitors of STAT3. As expected, EGF and IL-6 increased STAT3 reporter activity and enhanced the nuclear localization of phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3); whereas Cucurbitacin I and AG490 decreased STAT3 reporter activity dose and time-dependently and reduced the localization of pSTAT3 in the nuclei of prostate cancer cells. Given the importance of STAT3 in cancer initiation and progression, the development of a stable STAT3 reporter cell line in prostate cancer cells provides a rapid, sensitive, and cost effective method for the screening of potential STAT3 modulators.

  12. Epigenetics of prostate cancer and the prospect of identification of novel drug targets by RNAi screening of epigenetic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, Mari; Rantala, Juha; Nees, Matthias; Kallioniemi, Olli

    2010-10-01

    Alterations in epigenetic processes probably underlie most human malignancies. Novel genome-wide techniques, such as chromatin immunoprecipitation and high-throughput sequencing, have become state-of-the-art methods to map the epigenomic landscape of development and disease, such as in cancers. Despite these advances, the functional significance of epigenetic enzymes in cancer progression, such as prostate cancer, remain incompletely understood. A comprehensive mapping and functional understanding of the cancer epigenome will hopefully help to facilitate development of novel cancer therapy targets and improve future diagnostics. The authors have developed a novel cell microarray-based high-content siRNA screening technique suitable to address the putative functional role and impact of all known putative and novel epigenetic enzymes in cancer, including prostate cancer.

  13. Gene expression and epigenetic discovery screen reveal methylation of SFRP2 in prostate cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Perry, Antoinette S

    2013-04-15

    Aberrant activation of Wnts is common in human cancers, including prostate. Hypermethylation associated transcriptional silencing of Wnt antagonist genes SFRPs (Secreted Frizzled-Related Proteins) is a frequent oncogenic event. The significance of this is not known in prostate cancer. The objectives of our study were to (i) profile Wnt signaling related gene expression and (ii) investigate methylation of Wnt antagonist genes in prostate cancer. Using TaqMan Low Density Arrays, we identified 15 Wnt signaling related genes with significantly altered expression in prostate cancer; the majority of which were upregulated in tumors. Notably, histologically benign tissue from men with prostate cancer appeared more similar to tumor (r = 0.76) than to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH; r = 0.57, p < 0.001). Overall, the expression profile was highly similar between tumors of high (≥ 7) and low (≤ 6) Gleason scores. Pharmacological demethylation of PC-3 cells with 5-Aza-CdR reactivated 39 genes (≥ 2-fold); 40% of which inhibit Wnt signaling. Methylation frequencies in prostate cancer were 10% (2\\/20) (SFRP1), 64.86% (48\\/74) (SFRP2), 0% (0\\/20) (SFRP4) and 60% (12\\/20) (SFRP5). SFRP2 methylation was detected at significantly lower frequencies in high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN; 30%, (6\\/20), p = 0.0096), tumor adjacent benign areas (8.82%, (7\\/69), p < 0.0001) and BPH (11.43% (4\\/35), p < 0.0001). The quantitative level of SFRP2 methylation (normalized index of methylation) was also significantly higher in tumors (116) than in the other samples (HGPIN = 7.45, HB = 0.47, and BPH = 0.12). We show that SFRP2 hypermethylation is a common event in prostate cancer. SFRP2 methylation in combination with other epigenetic markers may be a useful biomarker of prostate cancer.

  14. Curcumin Based Drug Screening for Inhibitors of NF kappa B in a Cell Model of Prostate Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    identify new and structurally diverse chemical analogs of the polyphenolic phytochemical Curcumin from the Indian herb Curcuma longa (family...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-07-1-0081 TITLE: Curcumin Based Drug Screening for... Curcumin Based Drug Screening for Inhibitors of NF kappa B in a Cell Model of Prostate Cancer Progression 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-07-1-0081 5c

  15. The development of a web- and a print-based decision aid for prostate cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwartz Marc D

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether early detection and treatment of prostate cancer (PCa will reduce disease-related mortality remains uncertain. As a result, tools are needed to facilitate informed decision making. While there have been several decision aids (DAs developed and tested, very few have included an exercise to help men clarify their values and preferences about PCa screening. Further, only one DA has utilized an interactive web-based format, which allows for an expansion and customization of the material. We describe the development of two DAs, a booklet and an interactive website, each with a values clarification component and designed for use in diverse settings. Methods We conducted two feasibility studies to assess men's (45-70 years Internet access and their willingness to use a web- vs. a print-based tool. The booklet was adapted from two previous versions evaluated in randomized controlled trials (RCTs and the website was created to closely match the content of the revised booklet. Usability testing was conducted to obtain feedback regarding draft versions of the materials. The tools were also reviewed by a plain language expert and the interdisciplinary research team. Feedback on the content and presentation led to iterative modifications of the tools. Results The feasibility studies confirmed that the Internet was a viable medium, as the majority of men used a computer, had access to the Internet, and Internet use increased over time. Feedback from the usability testing on the length, presentation, and content of the materials was incorporated into the final versions of the booklet and website. Both the feasibility studies and the usability testing highlighted the need to address men's informed decision making regarding screening. Conclusions Informed decision making for PCa screening is crucial at present and may be important for some time, particularly if a definitive recommendation either for or against screening does not

  16. Estimating the harms and benefits of prostate cancer screening as used in common practice versus recommended good practice: A microsimulation screening analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Sigrid V; de Carvalho, Tiago M; Roobol, Monique J; Hugosson, Jonas; Auvinen, Anssi; Kwiatkowski, Maciej; Villers, Arnauld; Zappa, Marco; Nelen, Vera; Páez, Alvaro; Eastham, James A; Lilja, Hans; de Koning, Harry J; Vickers, Andrew J; Heijnsdijk, Eveline A M

    2016-11-15

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening and concomitant treatment can be implemented in several ways. The authors investigated how the net benefit of PSA screening varies between common practice versus "good practice." Microsimulation screening analysis (MISCAN) was used to evaluate the effect on quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) if 4 recommendations were followed: limited screening in older men, selective biopsy in men with elevated PSA, active surveillance for low-risk tumors, and treatment preferentially delivered at high-volume centers. Outcomes were compared with a base model in which annual screening started at ages 55 to 69 years and were simulated using data from the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer. In terms of QALYs gained compared with no screening, for 1000 screened men who were followed over their lifetime, recommended good practice led to 73 life-years (LYs) and 74 QALYs gained compared with 73 LYs and 56 QALYs for the base model. In contrast, common practice led to 78 LYs gained but only 19 QALYs gained, for a greater than 75% relative reduction in QALYs gained from unadjusted LYs gained. The poor outcomes for common practice were influenced predominantly by the use of aggressive treatment for men with low-risk disease, and PSA testing in older men also strongly reduced potential QALY gains. Commonly used PSA screening and treatment practices are associated with little net benefit. Following a few straightforward clinical recommendations, particularly greater use of active surveillance for low-risk disease and reducing screening in older men, would lead to an almost 4-fold increase in the net benefit of prostate cancer screening. Cancer 2016;122:3386-3393. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  17. Effect of a Low-Intensity PSA-Based Screening Intervention on Prostate Cancer Mortality: The CAP Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Richard M; Donovan, Jenny L; Turner, Emma L; Metcalfe, Chris; Young, Grace J; Walsh, Eleanor I; Lane, J Athene; Noble, Sian; Oliver, Steven E; Evans, Simon; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Holding, Peter; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Brindle, Peter; Williams, Naomi J; Hill, Elizabeth M; Ng, Siaw Yein; Toole, Jessica; Tazewell, Marta K; Hughes, Laura J; Davies, Charlotte F; Thorn, Joanna C; Down, Elizabeth; Davey Smith, George; Neal, David E; Hamdy, Freddie C

    2018-03-06

    Prostate cancer screening remains controversial because potential mortality or quality-of-life benefits may be outweighed by harms from overdetection and overtreatment. To evaluate the effect of a single prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening intervention and standardized diagnostic pathway on prostate cancer-specific mortality. The Cluster Randomized Trial of PSA Testing for Prostate Cancer (CAP) included 419 582 men aged 50 to 69 years and was conducted at 573 primary care practices across the United Kingdom. Randomization and recruitment of the practices occurred between 2001 and 2009; patient follow-up ended on March 31, 2016. An invitation to attend a PSA testing clinic and receive a single PSA test vs standard (unscreened) practice. Primary outcome: prostate cancer-specific mortality at a median follow-up of 10 years. Prespecified secondary outcomes: diagnostic cancer stage and Gleason grade (range, 2-10; higher scores indicate a poorer prognosis) of prostate cancers identified, all-cause mortality, and an instrumental variable analysis estimating the causal effect of attending the PSA screening clinic. Among 415 357 randomized men (mean [SD] age, 59.0 [5.6] years), 189 386 in the intervention group and 219 439 in the control group were included in the analysis (n = 408 825; 98%). In the intervention group, 75 707 (40%) attended the PSA testing clinic and 67 313 (36%) underwent PSA testing. Of 64 436 with a valid PSA test result, 6857 (11%) had a PSA level between 3 ng/mL and 19.9 ng/mL, of whom 5850 (85%) had a prostate biopsy. After a median follow-up of 10 years, 549 (0.30 per 1000 person-years) died of prostate cancer in the intervention group vs 647 (0.31 per 1000 person-years) in the control group (rate difference, -0.013 per 1000 person-years [95% CI, -0.047 to 0.022]; rate ratio [RR], 0.96 [95% CI, 0.85 to 1.08]; P = .50). The number diagnosed with prostate cancer was higher in the intervention group (n = 8054; 4

  18. Prostate Cancer Foundation News

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Finding a Doctor Treatment Options Side Effects Managing Prostate Cancer Treatment Related Side Effects Clinical Trials Patient Resources Guides Videos Prostate Cancer FAQs Information by Stage Newly Diagnosed with Prostate ...

  19. Imaging and prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, Lawrence H.

    1996-01-01

    The use of imaging in evaluating patients with prostate cancer is highly dependent upon the purpose of the evaluation. Ultrasound, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, TC-99m Bone Scanning, and Positron Emission Tomography may all be utilized for imaging in prostate cancer. The utility of each of these modalities depends upon the intended purpose: for instance, screening, staging, or evaluating for progression of disease in patients with prostate cancer. Transrectal ultrasound is performed by placing a 5MHz to 7.5 MHz transducer in the rectum and imaging the prostate in the coronal and sagittal planes. Prostate cancer generally appears as an area of diminished echogenocity in the peripheral zone of the prostate gland. However, up to 24% of prostate cancers are isoechoic and cannot be well distinguished from the remainder of the peripheral zone. In addition, the incidence of malignancy in a lesion judged to be suspicious on ultrasound is between 20% and 25%. Therefore, while ultrasound is the least expensive of the three cross sectional imaging modalities, its relatively low specificity precludes it from being used as a screening examination. Investigators have also looked at the ability of ultrasound to evaluate the presence and extent of extracapsular spread of prostate cancer. The RDOG (Radiology Diagnostic Oncology Group) multi-institutional cooperative trial reported a disappointing overall accuracy of ultrasound of 58% for staging prostate cancer. The accuracy was somewhat higher 63%, for patients with advanced disease. The other cross-sectional imaging modalities available for imaging the prostate include Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Computed Tomography is useful as an 'anatomic' imaging technique to detect lymph node enlargement. It is not sensitive in detecting microscopic nodal involvement with tumor, or tumor in non-enlarged pelvic lymph nodes. The primary prostate neoplasm is generally the same attenuation as the normal

  20. Methylation screening of the TGFBI promoter in human lung and prostate cancer by methylation-specific PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Jinesh N; Shao, Genze; Hei, Tom K; Zhao, Yongliang

    2008-01-01

    Hypermethylation of the TGFBI promoter has been shown to correlate with decreased expression of this gene in human tumor cell lines. In this study, we optimized a methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) method and investigated the methylation status of the TGFBI promoter in human lung and prostate cancer specimens. Methylation-specific primers were designed based on the methylation profiles of the TGFBI promoter in human tumor cell lines, and MSP conditions were optimized for accurate and efficient amplification. Genomic DNA was isolated from lung tumors and prostatectomy tissues of prostate cancer patients, bisulfite-converted, and analyzed by MSP. Among 50 lung cancer samples, 44.0% (22/50) harbored methylated CpG sites in the TGFBI promoter. An analysis correlating gene methylation status with clinicopathological cancer features revealed that dense methylation of the TGFBI promoter was associated with a metastatic phenotype, with 42.9% (6/14) of metastatic lung cancer samples demonstrating dense methylation vs. only 5.6% (2/36) of primary lung cancer samples (p < 0.05). Similar to these lung cancer results, 82.0% (41/50) of prostate cancer samples harbored methylated CpG sites in the TGFBI promoter, and dense methylation of the promoter was present in 38.9% (7/18) of prostate cancer samples with the feature of locoregional invasiveness vs. only 19.4% (6/31) of prostate cancer samples without locoregional invasiveness (p < 0.05). Furthermore, promoter hypermethylation correlated with highly reduced expression of the TGFBI gene in human lung and prostate tumor cell lines. We successfully optimized a MSP method for the precise and efficient screening of TGFBI promoter methylation status. Dense methylation of the TGFBI promoter correlated with the extent of TGFBI gene silencing in tumor cell lines and was related to invasiveness of prostate tumors and metastatic status of lung cancer tumors. Thus, TGFBI promoter methylation can be used as a potential

  1. Cancer screening guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoorob, R; Anderson, R; Cefalu, C; Sidani, M

    2001-03-15

    Numerous medical organizations have developed cancer screening guidelines. Faced with the broad, and sometimes conflicting, range of recommendations for cancer screening, family physicians must determine the most reasonable and up-to-date method of screening. Major medical organizations have generally achieved consensus on screening guidelines for breast, cervical and colorectal cancer. For breast cancer screening in women ages 50 to 70, clinical breast examination and mammography are generally recommended every one or two years, depending on the medical organization. For cervical cancer screening, most organizations recommend a Papanicolaou test and pelvic examination at least every three years in patients between 20 and 65 years of age. Annual fecal occult blood testing along with flexible sigmoidoscopy at five-year to 10-year intervals is the standard recommendation for colorectal cancer screening in patients older than 50 years. Screening for prostate cancer remains a matter of debate. Some organizations recommend digital rectal examination and a serum prostate-specific antigen test for men older than 50 years, while others do not. In the absence of compelling evidence to indicate a high risk of endometrial cancer, lung cancer, oral cancer and ovarian cancer, almost no medical organizations have developed cancer screening guidelines for these types of cancer.

  2. Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Cancer Death in the Finnish Prostate Cancer Screening Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thea Veitonmäki

    Full Text Available Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, especially aspirin, have been associated with lowered cancer incidence and mortality. We examined overall cancer mortality and mortality from specific cancer sites among the 80,144 men in the Finnish Prostate Cancer Screening Trial. Information on prescription drug use was acquired from the national drug reimbursement database. Over-the-counter use information was gathered by a questionnaire. Hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI by prescription and over-the-counter NSAID use for overall and specific cancer deaths were calculated using Cox regression. During the median follow-up time of 15 years, 7,008 men died from cancer. Men with prescription NSAID use had elevated cancer mortality (HR 2.02 95% CI 1.91-2.15 compared to non-users. The mortality risk was increased for lung, colorectal and pancreas cancer mortality (HR 2.68, 95%CI 2.40-2.99, HR 1.91, 95% CI 1.57-2.32 and HR 1.93, 95% CI 1.58-2.37, respectively. The increased risk remained in competing risks regression (HR 1.11, 95% CI 1.05-1.18. When the usage during the last three years of follow-up was excluded, the effect was reversed (HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.65-0.73. Cancer mortality was not decreased for prescription or over-the-counter aspirin use. However, in the competing risk regression analysis combined prescription and over-the-counter aspirin use was associated with decreased overall cancer mortality (HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.70-0.82. Cancer mortality was increased for NSAID users. However, the risk disappeared when the last 3 years were excluded.

  3. Survival Following Radiation and Androgen Suppression Therapy for Prostate Cancer in Healthy Older Men: Implications for Screening Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Paul L.; Chen, Ming-Hui; Renshaw, Andrew A.; Loffredo, Marian; Kantoff, Philip W.; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force has recommended against screening men over 75 for prostate cancer. We examined whether older healthy men could benefit from aggressive prostate cancer treatment. Methods and Materials: 206 men with intermediate to high risk localized prostate cancer randomized to 70 Gy of radiation (RT) or RT plus 6 months of androgen suppression therapy (RT+AST) constituted the study cohort. Within subgroups stratified by Adult Comorbidity Evaluation-27 comorbidity score and age, Cox multivariable analysis was used to determine whether treatment with RT+AST as compared with RT was associated with a decreased risk of death. Results: Among healthy men (i.e., with mild or no comorbidity), 78 were older than the median age of 72.4 years, and in this subgroup, RT+AST was associated with a significantly lower risk of death on multivariable analysis (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.36 (95% CI=0.13-0.98), p = 0.046, with significantly lower 8-year mortality estimates of 16.5% vs. 41.4% (p = 0.011). Conversely, among men with moderate or severe comorbidity, 24 were older than the median age of 73, and in this subgroup, treatment with RT+AST was associated with a higher risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio = 5.2 (1.3-20.2), p = 0.018). Conclusion: In older men with mild or no comorbidity, treatment with RT+AST was associated with improved survival compared with treatment with RT alone, suggesting that healthy older men may derive the same benefits from prostate cancer treatment as younger men. We therefore suggest that prostate cancer screening recommendations should not be based on strict age cutoffs alone but should also take into account comorbidity.

  4. Dietary fat intake and risk of pancreatic cancer in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arem, Hannah; Mayne, Susan T; Sampson, Joshua; Risch, Harvey; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z

    2013-09-01

    Epidemiologic and experimental studies suggest that dietary fat intake may affect risk of pancreatic cancer, but published results are inconsistent. We examined risk associations for specific types of dietary fat intakes and related food sources among 111,416 participants in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to examine associations between fat intake and pancreatic cancer risk. Over a mean 8.4 years of follow-up, 411 pancreatic cancer cases were identified. We observed an inverse association between saturated fat intake and pancreatic cancer risk (hazard ratio [HR], 0.64 comparing extreme quintiles; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.46-0.88), but the association became weaker and nonsignificant when individuals with fewer than 4 years of follow-up were excluded to avoid possible reverse causation (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.58-1.33). Total fat intake showed a similar pattern of association, whereas intakes of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats and fats from animal or plant sources showed no associations with risk. These results do not support the hypothesis of increased pancreatic cancer risk with higher fat consumption overall or by specific fat type or source. Dietary changes owing to undetected disease may explain the observed inverse association with saturated fat. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. PSA velocity does not aid the detection of prostate cancer in men with a prior negative biopsy: data from the European Randomized Study of Prostate Cancer Screening in Göteborg, Sweden and Rotterdam, Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Andrew J.; Wolters, Tineke; Savage, Caroline J.; Cronin, Angel M.; O’Brien, M. Frank; Roobol, Monique J.; Aus, Gunnar; Scardino, Peter T.; Hugosson, Jonas; Schröder, Fritz H.; Lilja, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Prostate specific antigen (PSA) velocity has been proposed as a marker to aid detection of prostate cancer. We sought to determine whether PSA velocity could predict the results of repeat biopsy in men with persistently elevated PSA after initial negative biopsy. Materials and Methods We identified 1,837 men who participated in the Göteborg or Rotterdam section of the European Randomized Screening study of Prostate Cancer (ERSPC), and who had one or more subsequent prostate biopsies after an initial negative finding. We evaluated whether PSA velocity improved predictive accuracy beyond that of PSA alone. Results There were a total of 2579 repeat biopsies, of which 363 (14%) were positive for prostate cancer, and 44 (1.7%) were high grade (Gleason score ≥7). Although PSA velocity was statistically associated with cancer risk (p<0.001), it had very low predictive accuracy (area-under-the-curve [AUC] of 0.55). There was some evidence that PSA velocity improved AUC compared to PSA for high grade cancer. However, the small increase in risk associated with high PSA velocity – from 1.7 % to 2.8% as velocity increased from 0 to 1 ng / ml / year - is of questionable clinical relevance. Conclusions Men with a prior negative biopsy have a lower risk for prostate cancer at subsequent biopsies, with high grade disease particularly rare. We found little evidence to support the use of PSA velocity to aid decisions about repeat biopsy for prostate cancer. PMID:20643434

  6. Hormone Replacement Therapy and Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Mortality in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symer, Matthew M; Wong, Natalie Z; Abelson, Jonathan S; Milsom, Jeffrey W; Yeo, Heather L

    2018-06-01

    Hormone replacement therapy has been shown to reduce colorectal cancer incidence, but its effect on colorectal cancer mortality is controversial. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of hormone replacement therapy on survival from colorectal cancer. We performed a secondary analysis of data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, a large multicenter randomized trial run from 1993 to 2001, with follow-up data recently becoming mature. Participants were women aged 55 to 74 years, without recent colonoscopy. Data from the trial were analyzed to evaluate colorectal cancer incidence, disease-specific mortality, and all-cause mortality based on subjects' use of hormone replacement therapy at the time of randomization: never, current, or former users. A total of 75,587 women with 912 (1.21%) incident colorectal cancers and 239 associated deaths were analyzed, with median follow-up of 11.9 years. Overall, 88.6% were non-Hispanic white, and colorectal cancer incidence in current users compared to never-users was lower (hazard ratio [HR], 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69-0.94; P = .005), as was death from colorectal cancer (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.47-0.85; P = .002) and all-cause mortality (HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.72-0.80; P colorectal cancer incidence and improved colorectal cancer-specific survival, as well as all-cause mortality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prostate cancer-specific survival among warfarin users in the Finnish Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Pete T T; Murtola, Teemu J; Talala, Kirsi; Taari, Kimmo; Tammela, Teuvo L J; Auvinen, Anssi

    2017-08-29

    Venous thromboembolic events (VTE) are common in cancer patients and associated with higher mortality. In vivo thrombosis and anticoagulation might be involved in tumor growth and progression. We studied the association of warfarin and other anticoagulant use as antithrombotic medication and prostate cancer (PCa) death in men with the disease. The study included 6,537 men diagnosed with PCa during 1995-2009. Information on anticoagulant use was obtained from a national reimbursement registry. Cox regression with adjustment for age, PCa risk group, primary therapy and use of other medication was performed to compare risk of PCa death between warfarin users with 1) men using other types of anticoagulants and 2) non-users of anticoagulants. Medication use was analyzed as a time-dependent variable to minimize immortal time bias. In total, 728 men died from PCa during a median follow-up of 9 years. Compared to anticoagulant non-users, post-diagnostic use of warfarin was associated with an increased risk of PCa death (overall HR 1.47, 95% CI 1.13-1.93). However, this was limited to low-dose, low-intensity use. Otherwise, the risk was similar to anticoagulant non-users. Additionally, we found no risk difference between warfarin and other types of anticoagulants. Pre-diagnostic use of warfarin was not associated with the risk of PCa death. We found no reduction in risk of PCa death associated with warfarin use. Conversely, the risk was increased in short-term use, which is probably explained by a higher risk of thrombotic events prompting warfarin use in patients with terminal PCa.

  8. Shared decision-making for prostate cancer screening and treatment: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Nahara Anani; Plate, Andreas; Senn, Oliver; Markun, Stefan; Rosemann, Thomas; Neuner-Jehle, Stefan

    2018-02-23

    Men facing prostate cancer screening and treatment need to make critical and highly preference-sensitive decisions that involve a variety of potential benefits and risks. Shared decision-making (SDM) is considered fundamental for "preference-sensitive" medical decisions and it is guideline-recommended. There is no single definition of SDM however. We systematically reviewed the extent of SDM implementation in interventions to facilitate SDM for prostate cancer screening and treatment. We searched Medline Ovid, Embase (Elsevier), CINHAL (EBSCOHost), The Cochrane Library (Wiley), PsychINFO (EBSCOHost), Scopus, clinicaltrials.gov, ISRCTN registry, the WHO search portal, ohri.ca, opengrey.eu, Google Scholar, and the reference lists of included studies, clinical guidelines and relevant reviews. We also contacted the authors of relevant abstracts without available full text. We included primary peer-reviewed and grey literature of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) reported in English, conducted in primary and specialised care, addressing interventions aiming to facilitate SDM for prostate cancer screening and treatment. Two reviewers independently selected studies, appraised interventions and assessed the extent of SDM implementation based on the key features of SDM, namely information exchange, deliberation and implementation. We considered bi-directional deliberation as a central and mandatory component of SDM. We performed a narrative synthesis. Thirty-six RCTs including 19 196 randomised patients met the eligibility criteria; they were mainly conducted in North America (n = 28). The median year of publication was 2008 (1997-2015). Twenty-three RCTs addressed decision-making for screening, twelve for treatment and one for both screening and treatment for prostate cancer. Bi-directional interactions between healthcare providers and patients were verified in 31 RCTs, but only 14 fulfilled the three key SDM features, 14 had at least "deliberation", one had "unclear

  9. The prostate cancer screening clinic in the Bahamas: a model for low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Robin; Mitchell, Corydon; Tancawan, Ana Lourdes; Pedican, Mandi; Jones, Glenn Wayne

    2017-11-01

    Grand Bahama (pop. 51,000) is an island within the Bahamas archipelago. A local chapter of International Us TOO Prostate Cancer Support Group (UTGB) has led an annual community-based prostate cancer screening clinic in Grand Bahama each September since 2009. Features of this initiative, characteristics of attendees, and a description of found cancers were summarized to determine the clinic's value and to guide improvements. We analyzed the established clinic from 2012 to 2015, wherein UTGB attracted corporate funding, volunteers managed clinics, and health professionals provided healthcare services. An explicit algorithm was used to sort clients by age, comorbidities, and findings from digital rectal examinations, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values, to determine which clients would undergo secondary assessment and prostate biopsy. Overall, 1,844 males were registered (mean age 57.6 years), and only 149 men attended on more than one occasion for a total of 1,993 clinic visit. The urologist reviewed 315 men in secondary follow-up, for elevated PSA and/or an abnormal digital rectal examination. Of these, 45 men fulfilled criteria for trans-rectal ultrasound biopsy, and there were 40 found cases of prostate cancer, for a positive-predictive value of 89%. By D'Amico risk-stratification, these 40 cases were low (10%), intermediate (40%), and high risk (50%). The urologist counseled all 40 cases and facilitated access to standard care. This study suggests that low-resource countries can advance cost-effective screening clinics, apply policy guidelines, and provide services within acceptable standards of care. It is the expectation, with a sustained effort and community participation over the ensuing years, that earlier disease presentation will occur and, consequently, a concomitant decrease in the disease-specific mortality.

  10. Prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Maria Carlsen; Andersen, Morten Heebøll; Høyer, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Background Active surveillance (AS) of low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) is an accepted alternative to active treatment. However, the conventional diagnostic trans-rectal ultrasound guided biopsies (TRUS-bx) underestimate PCa aggressiveness in almost half of the cases, when compared with the surgical...... lesions. Significant cancer was defined as GS > 6 or GS 6 (3 + 3) lesions with ≥ 6 mm maximal cancer core length (MCCL). Results A total of 78 patients were included and in 21 patients a total of 22 PIRADS-score 4 or 5 lesions were detected. MRGB pathology revealed that 17 (81%) of these and 22......% of the entire AS population harbored significant cancers at AS inclusion. In eight (38%) cases, the GS was upgraded. Also, nine patients (43%) had GS 6 (3 + 3) foci with MCCL ≥ 6 mm. Conclusion In an AS cohort based on TRUS and TRUS-bx diagnostic strategies, supplemental mpMRI and in-bore MRGB were able...

  11. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... on coverage. (a) Definitions. As used in this section, the following definitions apply: (1) Prostate... digital rectal examination performed for a man age 50 or younger. (2) For an individual over 50 years of age, payment may be made for a screening digital rectal examination only if the man has not had such...

  12. Key papers in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney, Simon; Shah, Taimur Tariq; Patel, Hitendra R H; Arya, Manit

    2014-11-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer and second leading cause of death in men. The evidence base for the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer is continually changing. We aim to review and discuss past and contemporary papers on these topics to provoke debate and highlight key dilemmas faced by the urological community. We review key papers on prostate-specific antigen screening, radical prostatectomy versus surveillance strategies, targeted therapies, timing of radiotherapy and alternative anti-androgen therapeutics. Previously, the majority of patients, irrespective of risk, underwent radical open surgical procedures associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Evidence is emerging that not all prostate cancers are alike and that low-grade disease can be safely managed by surveillance strategies and localized treatment to the prostate. The question remains as to how to accurately stage the disease and ultimately choose which treatment pathway to follow.

  13. Prostate cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000397.htm Prostate cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... trials you may be able to join How Prostate Cancer Staging is Done Initial staging is based on ...

  14. Cryotherapy for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000907.htm Cryotherapy for prostate cancer To use the sharing features ... first treatment for prostate cancer. What Happens During Cryotherapy Before the procedure, you will be given medicine ...

  15. Prostate cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Friis, S; Kjaer, S K

    1998-01-01

    To review the trends in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality rates in Denmark during a 50-year period.......To review the trends in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality rates in Denmark during a 50-year period....

  16. Shared decision making for prostate cancer screening: the results of a combined analysis of two practice-based randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheridan Stacey L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Professional societies recommend shared decision making (SDM for prostate cancer screening, however, most efforts have promoted informed rather than shared decision making. The objective of this study is to 1 examine the effects of a prostate cancer screening intervention to promote SDM and 2 determine whether framing prostate information in the context of other clearly beneficial men’s health services affects decisions. Methods We conducted two separate randomized controlled trials of the same prostate cancer intervention (with or without additional information on more clearly beneficial men’s health services. For each trial, we enrolled a convenience sample of 2 internal medicine practices, and their interested physicians and male patients with no prior history of prostate cancer (for a total of 4 practices, 28 physicians, and 128 men across trials. Within each practice site, we randomized men to either 1 a video-based decision aid and researcher-led coaching session or 2 a highway safety video. Physicians at each site received a 1-hour educational session on prostate cancer and SDM. To assess intervention effects, we measured key components of SDM, intent to be screened, and actual screening. After finding that results did not vary by trial, we combined data across sites, adjusting for the random effects of both practice and physician. Results Compared to an attention control, our prostate cancer screening intervention increased men’s perceptions that screening is a decision (absolute difference +41%; 95% CI 25 to 57% and men’s knowledge about prostate cancer screening (absolute difference +34%; 95% CI 19% to 50%, but had no effect on men’s self-reported participation in shared decisions or their participation at their preferred level. Overall, the intervention decreased screening intent (absolute difference −34%; 95% CI −50% to −18% and actual screening rates (absolute difference −22%; 95% CI −38 to

  17. A computer-tailored intervention to promote informed decision making for prostate cancer screening among African American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jennifer D; Mohllajee, Anshu P; Shelton, Rachel C; Drake, Bettina F; Mars, Dana R

    2009-12-01

    African American men experience a disproportionate burden of prostate cancer (CaP) morbidity and mortality. National screening guidelines advise men to make individualized screening decisions through a process termed informed decision making (IDM). In this pilot study, a computer-tailored decision-aid designed to promote IDM was evaluated using a pre-/posttest design. African American men aged 40 years and older were recruited from a variety of community settings (n = 108). At pretest, 43% of men reported having made a screening decision; at posttest 47% reported this to be the case (p = .39). Significant improvements were observed between pre- and posttest on scores of knowledge, decision self-efficacy, and decisional conflict. Men were also more likely to want an active role in decision making after using the tool. These results suggest that use of a computer-tailored decision aid is a promising strategy to promote IDM for CaP screening among African American men.

  18. Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0185 TITLE: Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jonathan Melamed, MD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-2-0185 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...infrastructure and operations of the Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network (PCBN). The aim of the PCBN is to provide prostate researchers with high-quality

  19. Discussing uncertainty and risk in primary care: recommendations of a multi-disciplinary panel regarding communication around prostate cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Michael; Srinivasan, Malathi; Cole, Galen; Tardif, Richard; Richardson, Lisa C; Plescia, Marcus

    2013-11-01

    Shared decision making improves value-concordant decision-making around prostate cancer screening (PrCS). Yet, PrCS discussions remain complex, challenging and often emotional for physicians and average-risk men. In July 2011, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention convened a multidisciplinary expert panel to identify priorities for funding agencies and development groups to promote evidence-based, value-concordant decisions between men at average risk for prostate cancer and their physicians. Two-day multidisciplinary expert panel in Atlanta, Georgia, with structured discussions and formal consensus processes. Sixteen panelists represented diverse specialties (primary care, medical oncology, urology), disciplines (sociology, communication, medical education, clinical epidemiology) and market sectors (patient advocacy groups, Federal funding agencies, guideline-development organizations). Panelists used guiding interactional and evaluation models to identify and rate strategies that might improve PrCS discussions and decisions for physicians, patients and health systems/society. Efficacy was defined as the likelihood of each strategy to impact outcomes. Effort was defined as the relative amount of effort to develop, implement and sustain the strategy. Each strategy was rated (1-7 scale; 7 = maximum) using group process software (ThinkTank(TM)). For each group, intervention strategies were grouped as financial/regulatory, educational, communication or attitudinal levers. For each strategy, barriers were identified. Highly ranked strategies to improve value-concordant shared decision-making (SDM) included: changing outpatient clinic visit reimbursement to reward SDM; development of evidence-based, technology-assisted, point-of-service tools for physicians and patients; reframing confusing prostate cancer screening messages; providing pre-visit decision support interventions; utilizing electronic health records to promote benchmarking/best practices; providing

  20. Prostate Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing prostate cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  1. Optimizing the Management of High-Risk, Localized Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sundi, Debasish; Jeong, Byong Chang; Lee, Seung Bae; Han, Misop

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer has a high prevalence and a rising incidence in many parts of the world. Although many screen-detected prostate cancers may be indolent, prostate cancer remains a major contributor to mortality in men. Therefore, the appropriate diagnosis and treatment of localized prostate cancer with lethal potential are of great importance. High-risk, localized prostate cancer has multiple definitions. Treatment options that should be individualized to each patient include observation, radi...

  2. Clinical outcomes of prostate cancer patients in Yokosuka City, Japan: A comparative study between cases detected by prostate-specific antigen-based screening in Yokosuka and those detected by other means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Naoki; Taguri, Masataka; Kobayashi, Kazuki; Noguchi, Sumio; Ikeda, Shigeru; Koh, Hideshige; Satomi, Yoshiaki; Furuhata, Akihiko

    2015-08-01

    To investigate whether prostate-specific antigen-based screening reduced the prostate cancer mortality rate in Yokosuka, Japan. We carried out a cohort study, in which we compared clinical outcomes between patients detected by prostate-specific antigen-based screening (S group n = 524) versus those detected by other means (NS group n = 1044). Clinical and pathological factors were evaluated using Cox regression analyses and the Kaplan-Meier method. A total of 1.5% (8/524) of patients in the S group and 6.7% (70/1044) of those in the NS group died from prostate cancer during follow up. A total of 8.0% (42/524) of patients in the S group and 11.4% (119/1044) in the NS group died from other causes. The 10-year cancer specific survival rates of the S and NS groups were 97% and 86%, respectively (P prostate-specific antigen 100 ng/mL or more was significantly lower in the S group than the NS group: 7.8% and 23.0%, respectively (P specific survival (hazard ratio 4.808, 95% confidence interval 1.044-22.14, P = 0.044). Prostate-specific antigen-based population screening in Yokosuka City might help to reduce the prostate cancer mortality rate. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.

  3. Health-related quality of life and cost-effectiveness studies in the European randomised study of screening for prostate cancer and the US Prostate, Lung, Colon and Ovary trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, A. B.; Madalinska, J. B.; Church, T.; Crawford, D.; Essink-Bot, M. L.; Goel, V.; de Koning, H. J.; Määttänen, L.; Pentikäinen, T.

    2001-01-01

    Decisions on policies for screening for prostate cancer require that information upon health-related quality of life (HRQL) and cost-effectiveness (CE) be available, as the lead time for some of the cases detected by screening will be very long and detriments in quality of life could have a major

  4. Serum α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol concentrations and prostate cancer risk in the PLCO Screening Trial: a nested case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie J Weinstein

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin E compounds exhibit prostate cancer preventive properties experimentally, but serologic investigations of tocopherols, and randomized controlled trials of supplementation in particular, have been inconsistent. Many studies suggest protective effects among smokers and for aggressive prostate cancer, however. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study of serum α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol and prostate cancer risk in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, with 680 prostate cancer cases and 824 frequency-matched controls. Multivariate-adjusted, conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for tocopherol quintiles. RESULTS: Serum α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol were inversely correlated (r = -0.24, p<0.0001. Higher serum α-tocopherol was associated with significantly lower prostate cancer risk (OR for the highest vs. lowest quintile = 0.63, 95% CI 0.44-0.92, p-trend 0.05. By contrast, risk was non-significantly elevated among men with higher γ-tocopherol concentrations (OR for the highest vs. lowest quintile = 1.35, 95% CI 0.92-1.97, p-trend 0.41. The inverse association between prostate cancer and α-tocopherol was restricted to current and recently former smokers, but was only slightly stronger for aggressive disease. By contrast, the increased risk for higher γ-tocopherol was more pronounced for less aggressive cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate higher α-tocopherol status is associated with decreased risk of developing prostate cancer, particularly among smokers. Although two recent controlled trials did not substantiate an earlier finding of lower prostate cancer incidence and mortality in response to supplementation with a relatively low dose of α-tocopherol, higher α-tocopherol status may be beneficial with respect to prostate cancer risk among smokers. Determining what stage of prostate cancer

  5. Psychosocial Consequences of Overdiagnostic of Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sigrid Brisson

    Psychosocial Consequences of Overdiagnostic of Prostate Cancer Sigrid Brisson Nielsen & John Brodersen Introduction In Denmark there are approximately 4400 men diagnosed with prostate cancer each year and nearly 1200 men dies of this disease yearly. The incidence of prostate cancer has increased...... for the past twenty years and make up 24 % of all cancer incidents in men. However, the mortality of prostate cancer has not changed in line with this increase. Empirical evidence shows that the increase in incidence of prostate cancer in Denmark without an increase in the mortality is mostly caused...... by opportunistic PSA screening in General Practice. It is recommended that men ≥ 60 year old diagnosed with prostate cancer and a Gleason score ≤ 6 are monitored with active surveillance. This is due to the probability of this type of cancer metastasizing is very small as approximately 90 % of them is assumed...

  6. [Epigenetics of prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiao-Ming; Zhou, Wen-Quan

    2010-07-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in males, and its etiology and pathogenesis remain unclear. Epigenesis is involved in prostate cancer at all stages of the process, and closely related with its growth and metastasis. DNA methylation and histone modification are the most important manifestations of epigenetics in prostate cancer. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis of DNA methylation include whole-genome hypomethylation, aberrant local hypermethylation of promoters and genomic instability. DNA methylation is closely related to the process of prostate cancer, as in DNA damage repair, hormone response, tumor cell invasion/metastasis, cell cycle regulation, and so on. Histone modification causes corresponding changes in chromosome structure and the level of gene transcription, and it may affect the cycle, differentiation and apoptosis of cells, resulting in prostate cancer. Some therapies have been developed targeting the epigenetic changes in prostate cancer, including DNA methyltransferases and histone deacetylase inhibitors, and have achieved certain desirable results.

  7. Antibody Responses to Prostate-Associated Antigens in Patients with Prostatitis and Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maricque, Brett B.; Eickhoff, Jens C.; McNeel, Douglas G.

    2010-01-01

    Background An important focus of tumor immunotherapy has been the identification of appropriate antigenic targets. Serum-based screening approaches have led to the discovery of hundreds of tumor-associated antigens recognized by IgG. Our efforts to identify immunologically recognized proteins in prostate cancer have yielded a multitude of antigens, however prioritizing these antigens as targets for evaluation in immunotherapies has been challenging. In this report, we set out to determine whether the evaluation of multiple antigenic targets would allow the identification of a subset of antigens that are common immunologic targets in patients with prostate cancer. Methods Using a phage immunoblot approach, we evaluated IgG responses in patients with prostate cancer (n=126), patients with chronic prostatitis (n=45), and men without prostate disease (n=53). Results We found that patients with prostate cancer or prostatitis have IgG specific for multiple common antigens. A subset of 23 proteins was identified to which IgG were detected in 38% of patients with prostate cancer and 33% patients with prostatitis versus 6% of controls (pprostate and prostate cancer, and suggest that IgG responses to a panel of commonly recognized prostate antigens could be potentially used in the identification of patients at risk for prostate cancer or as a tool to identify immune responses elicited to prostate tissue. PMID:20632317

  8. On cribriform prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kweldam, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractThis general aim of the thesis is to study the clinical relevance, interobserver reproducibility, and genetics of cribriform growth in prostate cancer. More specifically, the aims and outline of this thesis are • To study the metastatic potential of modified Gleason score 3+3 prostate cancer in radical prostatectomies. (Chapter 2) • To examine the prognostic value of individual Gleason grade 4 patterns in prostate cancer in radical prostatectomy and diagnostic biopsy specimens...

  9. Comprehensive two-dimensional PC-3 prostate cancer cell membrane chromatography for screening anti-tumor components from Radix Sophorae flavescentis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Xu, Junnan; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Dawei; Han, Yong; Zhang, Xu

    2017-07-01

    Radix Sophorae flavescentis is generally used for the treatment of different stages of prostate cancer in China. It has ideal effects when combined with surgical treatment and chemotherapy. However, its active components are still ambiguous. We devised a comprehensive two-dimensional PC-3 prostate cancer cell membrane chromatography system for screening anti-prostate cancer components in Radix Sophorae flavescentis. Gefitinib and dexamethasone were chosen as positive and negative drugs respectively for validation and optimization the selectivity and suitability of the comprehensive two-dimensional chromatographic system. Five compounds, sophocarpine, matrine, oxymatrine, oxysophocarpine, and xanthohumol were found to have significant retention behaviors on the PC-3 cell membrane chromatography and were unambiguously identified by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Cell proliferation and apoptosis assays confirmed that all five compounds had anti-prostate cancer effects. Matrine and xanthohumol had good inhibitory effects, with half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 0.893 and 0.137 mg/mL, respectively. Our comprehensive two-dimensional PC-3 prostate cancer cell membrane chromatographic system promotes the efficient recognition and rapid analysis of drug candidates, and it will be practical for the discovery of prostate cancer drugs from complex traditional Chinese medicines. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. [Practice guideline 'Prostate cancer: diagnosis and treatment'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijke, T.M. de; Battermann, J.J.; Moorselaar, R.J.A. van; Jong, I.J. de; Visser, A.P.; Burgers, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    --A national, multidisciplinary practice guideline was developed concerning diagnosis and treatment of patients with prostate cancer. Because of the lack of sufficient scientific evidence at this moment no practice guideline on screening is included. --The diagnosis of prostate cancer is made by

  11. PSA, PSA derivatives, proPSA and prostate health index in the diagnosis of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ayyıldız, Sema Nur; Ayyıldız, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Currently, prostate- specific antigen (PSA) is the most common oncological marker used for prostate cancer screening. However, high levels of PSA in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis decrease the specificity of PSA as a cancer marker. To increase the specificity of PSA, PSA derivatives and PSA kinetics have been used. However, these new techniques were not able to increase the diagnostic specificity for prostate cancer. Therefore, the search for new molecules and derivatives of PSA...

  12. Health-related quality-of-life effects of radical prostatectomy and primary radiotherapy for screen-detected or clinically diagnosed localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madalinska, J B; Essink-Bot, M L; de Koning, H J; Kirkels, W J; van der Maas, P J; Schröder, F H

    2001-03-15

    The current study was undertaken within the framework of a screening trial to compare the health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) outcomes of two primary treatment modalities for localized prostate cancer: radical prostatectomy and external-beam radiotherapy. We conducted a prospective longitudinal cohort study among 278 patients with early screen-detected (59%) or clinically diagnosed (41%) prostate cancer using both generic and disease-specific HRQOL measures (SF-36, UCLA Prostate Cancer Index [urinary and bowel modules] and items relating to sexual functioning) at three points in time: t1 (baseline), t2 (6 months later), and t3 (12 months after t1). Questionnaires were completed by 88% to 93% of all initially enrolled patients. Patients referred for primary radiotherapy were significantly older than prostatectomy patients (63 v 68 years, P screen-detected and clinically diagnosed cancer reported similar posttreatment HRQOL. Prostatectomy and radiotherapy differed in the type of HRQOL impairment. Because the HRQOL effects may be valued differently at the individual level, patients should be made fully aware of the potential benefits and adverse consequences of therapies for early prostate cancer. Differences in posttreatment HRQOL were not related to the method of cancer detection.

  13. Health-related quality-of-life effects of radical prostatectomy and primary radiotherapy for screen-detected or clinically diagnosed localized prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madalinska, J. B.; Essink-Bot, M. L.; de Koning, H. J.; Kirkels, W. J.; van der Maas, P. J.; Schröder, F. H.

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: The current study was undertaken within the framework of a screening trial to compare the health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) outcomes of two primary treatment modalities for localized prostate cancer: radical prostatectomy and external-beam radiotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We

  14. Comparing perceived clarity of information on overdiagnosis used for breast and prostate cancer screening in England: an experimental survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanouni, Alex; Renzi, Cristina; McBride, Emily; Waller, Jo

    2017-08-21

    'Overdiagnosis', detection of disease that would never have caused symptoms or death, is a public health concern due to possible psychological and physical harm but little is known about how best to explain it. This study evaluated public perceptions of widely used information on the concept to identify scope for improving communication methods. Experimental survey carried out by a market research company via face-to-face computer-assisted interviews. Interviews took place in participants' homes. 2111 members of the general public in England aged 18-70 years began the survey; 1616 were eligible for analysis. National representativeness was sought via demographic quota sampling. Participants were allocated at random to receive a brief description of overdiagnosis derived from written information used by either the NHS Breast Screening Programme or the prostate cancer screening equivalent. The primary outcome was how clear the information was perceived to be (extremely/very clear vs less clear). Other measures included previous exposure to screening information, decision-making styles and demographic characteristics (eg, education). Binary logistic regression was used to assess predictors of perceived clarity. Overdiagnosis information from the BSP was more likely to be rated as more clear compared with the prostate screening equivalent (adjusted OR: 1.43, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.75; p=0.001). Participants were more likely to perceive the information as more clear if they had previously encountered similar information (OR: 1.77, 1.40 to 2.23; pcommunicating the concept more generally (eg, via organised campaigns). However, this information may be less well-suited to individuals who are less inclined to consider risks and benefits during decision-making. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  16. Prostate cancer epigenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinaranagari, Swathi; Sharma, Pankaj; Bowen, Nathan J; Chaudhary, Jaideep

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a major health burden within the ever-increasingly aging US population. The molecular mechanisms involved in prostate cancer are diverse and heterogeneous. In this context, epigenetic changes, both global and gene specific, are now an emerging alternate mechanism in disease initiation and progression. The three major risk factors in prostate cancer: age, geographic ancestry, and environment are all influenced by epigenetics and additional significant insight is required to gain an understanding of the underlying mechanisms. The androgen receptor and its downstream effector pathways, central to prostate cancer initiation and progression, are subject to a multitude of epigenetic alterations. In this review we focus on the global perspective of epigenetics and the use of recent next-generation sequencing platforms to interrogate epigenetic changes in the prostate cancer genome.

  17. Cancer of the prostate - role of PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shittu, O.B.

    1999-02-01

    Since 1979 when prostate specific antigen (PSA), found in the cytoplasm of benign and malignant prostatic cells, was first purified, it has attained world wide popularity in prostate cancer detection. It is also a sensitive test for skeletal meta states from carcinoma of the prostate. Prostate cancer has become the number one cancer in men and constitutes 11% of all cancers. Approximately 50% of men over 50 years have symptoms referable to the lower urinary tract. 50% or more of patients at Ibadan present an advanced stage of the disease and are therefore not curable. Thus, lacking the skill to manage advanced manifestations, early detection and screening programs are the best means to reduce mortality due to prostate cancer

  18. A computer-tailored intervention to promote informed decision making for prostate cancer screening among African-American men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jennifer D.; Mohllajee, Anshu P.; Shelton, Rachel C.; Drake, Bettina F.; Mars, Dana R.

    2010-01-01

    African-American men experience a disproportionate burden of prostate cancer (CaP) morbidity and mortality. National screening guidelines advise men to make individualized screening decisions through a process termed “informed decision making” (IDM). In this pilot study, a computer-tailored decision-aid designed to promote IDM was evaluated using a pre/post test design. African-American men aged 40+ recruited from a variety of community settings (n=108). At pre-test, 43% of men reported having made a screening decision; at post-test 47% reported this to be the case (p=0.39). Significant improvements were observed on scores (0–100%) of knowledge (54% vs 72%; pMen were also more likely to want an active role in decision-making after using the tool (67% vs 75%; p=0.03). These results suggest that use of a computer-tailored decision-aid is a promising strategy to promote IDM for CaP screening among African-American men. PMID:19477736

  19. Relative contribution of digital rectal examination and transrectal ultrasonography in interpreting serum prostate-specific antigen values for screening prostate cancer in Arab men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, M.; Sinan, T.; Hussein, Ali Y.T.; Kehinde, Elijah O.; Al-Hunayan, Adel A.; Anim, Jehoram T.

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the utility of digital rectal examination (DRE), transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the diagnosis of prostate cancer in men in Arabia, an are of the world with a relatively low incidence of this disease. 329 patients suspected of having prostate cancer on account of raised serum PSA level (>4 ng/ml), DRE or TRUS findings, underwent TRUS-guided prostate biopsy. Raised PSA individually as well as combined, or a lesion suspicious of carcinoma on DRE or TRUS was recorded as PSA (+), DRE (+) or TRUS (+), respectively. The contribution of DRE, TRUS and serum PSA to the diagnosis of prostate cancer was analysed. Of the 329 patients who had prostate biopsies 109 cases (33.1%) had PCa. Of these 109 patients 56 (51%) had DRE (+), 77 (42%) ha d TRUS (+) and 49 (66%) had both DRE (+) and TRUS (+). Statistical analysis revealed that DRE (+) tripled the probability for cancer. PSA over a range of 10-50 ng/mL demonstrated an increasing cancer probability ranging from 2to 3 fold. TRUS (+) was only significantly associated with cancer risk if PSA was elevated. The presence of all three factors increased the cancer probability by 6 to 7 fold. TRUS findings are dependent on PSA for interpretation while DRE (+) with elevated PSA makes PCa more likely. (author)

  20. Estimating the harms and benefits of prostate cancer screening as used in common practice versus recommended good practice: A microsimulation screening analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Carlsson (Sigrid); T.M. de Carvalho Delgado Marques (Tiago); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique); J. Hugosson (Jonas); A. Auvinen (Anssi); M. Kwiatkowski (Maciej); A. Villers (Arnoud); M. Zappa (Marco); V. Nelen (Vera); A. Páez (Alvaro); J.A. Eastham (James); H. Lilja (Hans); H.J. de Koning (Harry); A.J. Vickers (Andrew); E.A.M. Heijnsdijk (Eveline)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening and concomitant treatment can be implemented in several ways. The authors investigated how the net benefit of PSA screening varies between common practice versus “good practice.”. METHODS: Microsimulation screening analysis (MISCAN)

  1. Epigenetics in Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Albany, Costantine; Alva, Ajjai S.; Aparicio, Ana M.; Singal, Rakesh; Yellapragada, Sarvari; Sonpavde, Guru; Hahn, Noah M.

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most commonly diagnosed nonskin malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer death among men in the United States. Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequences. Two common epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation and histone modification, have demonstrated critical roles in prostate cancer growth and metastasis. DNA hypermethylation of cytosine-guanine (CpG) rich sequ...

  2. The value of screening tests in the detection of prostate cancer. Part I: Results of a retrospective evaluation of 1726 men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangma, C H; Kranse, R; Blijenberg, B G; Schröder, F H

    1995-12-01

    The ratio between free and total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in serum (F/T ratio) was shown to improve the differentiation between prostate carcinoma and benign conditions in selected series of patients. In this study the F/T ratio was analyzed for its ability to improve the specificity of total serum PSA, digital rectal examination (DRE), and transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) for the detection of prostate cancer in an unselected screening population of men identified in the Rotterdam population. In 1726 men between 55 and 76 years old, 67 prostate carcinomas were detected by DRE, TRUS, and total serum PSA (Abbott IMx, Hybritech Tandem E). The DELFIA ProStatus PSA EQM and ProStatus PSA Free/Total assays (Wallac) were applied in retrospect to determine total and free serum PSA. Age, total prostate and inner zone volumes were taken into consideration. Sixty-seven carcinomas were detected, two by TRUS and three by DRE alone. Total serum PSA was the most important single predictor of prostate cancer, followed by DRE. The F/T ratio increased the specificity of total serum PSA in the PSA range between 4.0 and 10.0 ng/mL. However, this improved specificity was not significant, nor for gland volumes restricted to 50 mL or less. The combination of total serum PSA and DRE remains the standard for detection of prostate carcinoma in a screening population. Their specificity may be improved minimally by the F/T ratio, but not significantly in a sample of 1726 screened men. The threshold of the F/T ratio, and the optimal PSA range for its application, remains to be assessed prospectively.

  3. General Practitioners' Experiences of, and Responses to, Uncertainty in Prostate Cancer Screening: Insights from a Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Pickles

    Full Text Available Prostate-specific antigen (PSA testing for prostate cancer is controversial. There are unresolved tensions and disagreements amongst experts, and clinical guidelines conflict. This both reflects and generates significant uncertainty about the appropriateness of screening. Little is known about general practitioners' (GPs' perspectives and experiences in relation to PSA testing of asymptomatic men. In this paper we asked the following questions: (1 What are the primary sources of uncertainty as described by GPs in the context of PSA testing? (2 How do GPs experience and respond to different sources of uncertainty?This was a qualitative study that explored general practitioners' current approaches to, and reasoning about, PSA testing of asymptomatic men. We draw on accounts generated from interviews with 69 general practitioners located in Australia (n = 40 and the United Kingdom (n = 29. The interviews were conducted in 2013-2014. Data were analysed using grounded theory methods. Uncertainty in PSA testing was identified as a core issue.Australian GPs reported experiencing substantially more uncertainty than UK GPs. This seemed partly explainable by notable differences in conditions of practice between the two countries. Using Han et al's taxonomy of uncertainty as an initial framework, we first outline the different sources of uncertainty GPs (mostly Australian described encountering in relation to prostate cancer screening and what the uncertainty was about. We then suggest an extension to Han et al's taxonomy based on our analysis of data relating to the varied ways that GPs manage uncertainties in the context of PSA testing. We outline three broad strategies: (1 taking charge of uncertainty; (2 engaging others in managing uncertainty; and (3 transferring the responsibility for reducing or managing some uncertainties to other parties.Our analysis suggests some GPs experienced uncertainties associated with ambiguous guidance and the

  4. Doctors' perspectives on PSA testing illuminate established differences in prostate cancer screening rates between Australia and the UK: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, Kristen; Carter, Stacy M; Rychetnik, Lucie; Entwistle, Vikki A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine how general practitioners (GPs) in the UK and GPs in Australia explain their prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing practices and to illuminate how these explanations are similar and how they are different. Design A grounded theory study. Setting Primary care practices in Australia and the UK. Participants 69 GPs in Australia (n=40) and the UK (n=29). We included GPs of varying ages, sex, clinical experience and patient populations. All GPs interested in participating in the study were included. Results GPs' accounts revealed fundamental differences in whether and how prostate cancer screening occurred in their practice and in the broader context within which they operate. The history of prostate screening policy, organisational structures and funding models appeared to drive more prostate screening in Australia and less in the UK. In Australia, screening processes and decisions were mostly at the discretion of individual clinicians, and varied considerably, whereas the accounts of UK GPs clearly reflected a consistent, organisationally embedded approach based on local evidence-based recommendations to discourage screening. Conclusions The GP accounts suggested that healthcare systems, including historical and current organisational and funding structures and rules, collectively contribute to how and why clinicians use the PSA test and play a significant role in creating the mindlines that GPs employ in their clinic. Australia's recently released consensus guidelines may support more streamlined and consistent care. However, if GP mindlines and thus routine practice in Australia are to shift, to ultimately reduce unnecessary or harmful prostate screening, it is likely that other important drivers at all levels of the screening process will need to be addressed. PMID:27920082

  5. Epigenetics in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albany, Costantine; Alva, Ajjai S; Aparicio, Ana M; Singal, Rakesh; Yellapragada, Sarvari; Sonpavde, Guru; Hahn, Noah M

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most commonly diagnosed nonskin malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer death among men in the United States. Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequences. Two common epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation and histone modification, have demonstrated critical roles in prostate cancer growth and metastasis. DNA hypermethylation of cytosine-guanine (CpG) rich sequence islands within gene promoter regions is widespread during neoplastic transformation of prostate cells, suggesting that treatment-induced restoration of a "normal" epigenome could be clinically beneficial. Histone modification leads to altered tumor gene function by changing chromosome structure and the level of gene transcription. The reversibility of epigenetic aberrations and restoration of tumor suppression gene function have made them attractive targets for prostate cancer treatment with modulators that demethylate DNA and inhibit histone deacetylases.

  6. Epigenetics in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantine Albany

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the most commonly diagnosed nonskin malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer death among men in the United States. Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequences. Two common epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation and histone modification, have demonstrated critical roles in prostate cancer growth and metastasis. DNA hypermethylation of cytosine-guanine (CpG rich sequence islands within gene promoter regions is widespread during neoplastic transformation of prostate cells, suggesting that treatment-induced restoration of a “normal” epigenome could be clinically beneficial. Histone modification leads to altered tumor gene function by changing chromosome structure and the level of gene transcription. The reversibility of epigenetic aberrations and restoration of tumor suppression gene function have made them attractive targets for prostate cancer treatment with modulators that demethylate DNA and inhibit histone deacetylases.

  7. Targeting Quiescence in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0413 TITLE: Targeting Quiescence in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Laura Buttitta CONTRACTING...Quiescence in Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting uiescence in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0413 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT A major problem in prostate cancer is finding and eliminating the non-proliferating or “quiescent” cancer cells. This is because early

  8. Relative Risks for Lethal Prostate Cancer Based on Complete Family History of Prostate Cancer Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Frederick S; Stephenson, Robert A; Agarwal, Neeraj; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A

    2017-01-01

    There are few published familial relative risks (RR) for lethal prostate cancer. This study estimates RRs for lethal prostate cancer based on comprehensive family history data, with the goal of improving identification of those men at highest risk of dying from prostate cancer. We used a population-based genealogical resource linked to a statewide electronic SEER cancer registry and death certificates to estimate relative risks (RR) for death from prostate cancer based upon family history. Over 600,000 male probands were analyzed, representing a variety of family history constellations of lethal prostate cancer. RR estimates were based on the ratio of the observed to the expected number of lethal prostate cancer cases using internal rates. RRs for lethal prostate cancer based on the number of affected first-degree relatives (FDR) ranged from 2.49 (95% CI: 2.27, 2.73) for exactly 1 FDR to 5.30 (2.13, 10.93) for ≥3 affected FDRs. In an absence of affected FDRs, increased risk was also significant for increasing numbers of affected second-degree or third degree relatives. Equivalent risks were observed for similar maternal and paternal family history. This study provides population-based estimates of lethal prostate cancer risk based on lethal prostate cancer family history. Many family history constellations associated with two to greater than five times increased risk for lethal prostate cancer were identified. These lethal prostate cancer risk estimates hold potential for use in identification, screening, early diagnosis, and treatment of men at high risk for death from prostate cancer. Prostate77:41-48, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Breast cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... is performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  10. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  11. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  12. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Key Points Stomach cancer is a disease in ...

  13. Hyaluronan Biosynthesis in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, James B

    2006-01-01

    Despite advances in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer in the last several years metastasis represents the major cause of frustration and failure in the successful treatment of prostate cancer patients. Hyaluronan (HA...

  14. New Prostate Cancer Treatment Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have identified a potential alternative approach to blocking a key molecular driver of an advanced form of prostate cancer, called androgen-independent or castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  15. A note on the catch-up time method for estimating lead or sojourn time in prostate cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Draisma (Gerrit); J.M. van Rosmalen (Joost)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractModels of cancer screening assume that cancers are detectable by screening before being diagnosed clinically through symptoms. The duration of this preclinical phase is called sojourn time, and it determines how much diagnosis might be advanced in time by the screening test (lead time).

  16. Prostate cancer screening and shared decision-making preferences among African-American members of the Prince Hall Masons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Randi M; Zincke, Nicole L; Turner, Ralph O; Davis, Jackson L; Davis, Kimberly M; Schwartz, Marc D; Johnson, Lenora; Kerner, Jon F; Taylor, Kathryn L

    2008-10-01

    Shared decision making (SDM) is recommended as one method to assist men in making an informed decision about prostate cancer screening (PCS). SDM preferences for PCS have not been evaluated among African-American (AA) men. Given AA men's increased risk and the uncertainty surrounding screening, it is critical to determine how to assist AA men in making an informed decision. We assessed the extent to which a sample of AA men wished to engage in SDM regarding PCS and the demographic and psychological characteristics associated with SDM preferences. Participants completed a telephone interview that covered demographic and medical information, SDM preferences, PCS knowledge, decisional conflict, and satisfaction with previous screening decisions. Subjects included 286 AA men aged 40-70, who were members of a Masonic organization. Fifty-seven percent preferred SDM, 36% preferred to make their own decision, and 7% wanted their doctor to decide. A higher level of education and older age were associated with preferring SDM (p<0.05), while men with greater PCS knowledge were more likely to prefer to make the decision independently (p<0.05). Results suggest that physicians need to be prepared to discuss PCS with their patients. Further, more attention may be needed to engage younger, less educated, and less knowledgeable men as they may be less likely to discuss PCS. This understanding of AA men's preferences for PCS decisions helps to clarify the issues that health professionals need to consider when attempting to assist AA men in making a PCS decision. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Is a prostate cancer screening anxiety measure invariant across two different samples of age-appropriate men?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linder Suzanne K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to explore the influence of anxiety on decision–making processes, valid anxiety measures are needed. We evaluated a prostate cancer screening (PCS anxiety scale that measures anxiety related to the prostate–specific antigen (PSA test, the digital rectal examination (DRE, and the decision to undergo PCS (PCS-D using two samples in different settings. Methods We assessed four psychometric properties of the scale using baseline data from a randomized, controlled decision aid trial (n = 301, private clinic; n = 149, public. Results The 3-factor measure had adequate internal consistency reliability, construct validity, and discriminant validity. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the 3–factor model did not have adequate fit. When subscales were considered separately, only the 6–item PCS-D anxiety measure had adequate fit and was invariant across clinics. Conclusions Our results support the use of a 6–item PCS-D anxiety measure with age-appropriate men in public and private settings. The development of unique anxiety items relating to the PSA test and DRE is still needed.

  18. A four-kallikrein panel for the prediction of repeat prostate biopsy: data from the European Randomized Study of Prostate Cancer screening in Rotterdam, Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A; Roobol, M J; Savage, C J; Peltola, M; Pettersson, K; Scardino, P T; Vickers, A J; Schröder, F H; Lilja, H

    2010-08-24

    Most men with elevated levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) do not have prostate cancer, leading to a large number of unnecessary biopsies. A statistical model based on a panel of four kallikreins has been shown to predict the outcome of a first prostate biopsy. In this study, we apply the model to an independent data set of men with previous negative biopsy but persistently elevated PSA. The study cohort consisted of 925 men with a previous negative prostate biopsy and elevated PSA (>or=3 ng ml(-1)), with 110 prostate cancers detected (12%). A previously published statistical model was applied, with recalibration to reflect the lower positive biopsy rates on rebiopsy. The full-kallikrein panel had higher discriminative accuracy than PSA and DRE alone, with area under the curve (AUC) improving from 0.58 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.52, 0.64) to 0.68 (95% CI: 0.62, 0.74), Por=7) at biopsy with AUC improving from 0.76 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.89) to 0.87 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.94), P=0.003). Application of the panel to 1000 men with persistently elevated PSA after initial negative biopsy, at a 15% risk threshold would reduce the number of biopsies by 712; would miss (or delay) the diagnosis of 53 cancers, of which only 3 would be Gleason 7 and the rest Gleason 6 or less. Our data constitute an external validation of a previously published model. The four-kallikrein panel predicts the result of repeat prostate biopsy in men with elevated PSA while dramatically decreasing unnecessary biopsies.

  19. Screening for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer screening is checking for cancer in people who don't have symptoms. Screening tests can help doctors find and treat several types of cancer early, but cancer screening can have harms as well as benefits.

  20. Osteoporosis and prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads Hvid; Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Abrahamsen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of osteoporosis and risk factors of osteoporotic fractures before androgen deprivation in Danish men. Treatment and prognosis of prostate cancer necessitate management of long-term consequences of androgen deprivation therapy...... (ADT), including accelerated bone loss resulting in osteoporosis. Osteoporotic fractures are associated with excess morbidity and mortality. Material and methods. Patients with prostate cancer awaiting initiation of ADT were consecutively included. Half of the patients had localized disease and were...... level was 30.5 g/l (1-5714 g/l). The average Gleason score was 7.8 (range 5-10, SD 1.1). Fifty patients had localized prostate cancer and the other 55 patients had disseminated disease. The prevalence of osteoporosis was 10% and the prevalence of osteopenia was 58% before ADT. There was no significant...

  1. Prostate Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HPV-Associated Lung Ovarian Skin Uterine Cancer Home Prostate Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English (US) ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of men getting prostate cancer or dying from prostate cancer varies by race ...

  2. Increase of Prostate Cancer Incidence in Martinique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Belpomme

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer incidence is steadily increasing in many developed countries. Because insular populations present unique ethnic, geographical, and environmental characteristics, we analyzed the evolution of prostate cancer age-adjusted world standardized incidence rates in Martinique in comparison with that of metropolitan France. We also compared prostate cancer incidence rates, and lifestyle-related and socioeconomic markers such as life expectancy, dietary energy, and fat supply and consumption, with those in other Caribbean islands, France, UK, Sweden, and USA. The incidence rate of prostate cancer in Martinique is one of the highest reported worldwide; it is continuously growing since 1985 in an exponential mode, and despite a similar screening detection process and lifestyle-related behaviour, it is constantly at a higher level than in metropolitan France. However, Caribbean populations that are genetically close to that of Martinique have generally much lower incidence of prostate cancer. We found no correlation between prostate cancer incidence rates, life expectancy, and diet westernization. Since the Caribbean African descent-associated genetic susceptibility factor would have remained constant during the 1980–2005, we suggest that in Martinique some environmental change including the intensive use of carcinogenic organochlorine pesticides might have occurred as key determinant of the persisting highly growing incidence of prostate cancer.

  3. In silico analysis and DHPLC screening strategy identifies novel apoptotic gene targets of aberrant promoter hypermethylation in prostate cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Therese M

    2011-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation has been implicated as a key survival mechanism in cancer, whereby promoter hypermethylation silences genes essential for many cellular processes including apoptosis. Limited data is available on the methylation profile of apoptotic genes in prostate cancer (CaP). The aim of this study was to profile methylation of apoptotic-related genes in CaP using denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC).

  4. Predictive value of four kallikrein markers for pathologically insignificant compared with aggressive prostate cancer in radical prostatectomy specimens: results from the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer section Rotterdam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Sigrid; Maschino, Alexandra; Schröder, Fritz; Bangma, Chris; Steyerberg, Ewout W; van der Kwast, Theo; van Leenders, Geert; Vickers, Andrew; Lilja, Hans; Roobol, Monique J

    2013-11-01

    Treatment decisions can be difficult in men with low-risk prostate cancer (PCa). To evaluate the ability of a panel of four kallikrein markers in blood-total prostate-specific antigen (PSA), free PSA, intact PSA, and kallikrein-related peptidase 2-to distinguish between pathologically insignificant and aggressive disease on pathologic examination of radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens as well as to calculate the number of avoidable surgeries. The cohort comprised 392 screened men participating in rounds 1 and 2 of the Rotterdam arm of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer. Patients were diagnosed with PCa because of an elevated PSA ≥3.0 ng/ml and were treated with RP between 1994 and 2004. We calculated the accuracy (area under the curve [AUC]) of statistical models to predict pathologically aggressive PCa (pT3-T4, extracapsular extension, tumor volume >0.5cm(3), or any Gleason grade ≥4) based on clinical predictors (age, stage, PSA, biopsy findings) with and without levels of four kallikrein markers in blood. A total of 261 patients (67%) had significant disease on pathologic evaluation of the RP specimen. While the clinical model had good accuracy in predicting aggressive disease, reflected in a corrected AUC of 0.81, the four kallikrein markers enhanced the base model, with an AUC of 0.84 (p limitation of the present study is that clinicians may be hesitant to make recommendations against active treatment on the basis of a statistical model. Our study provided proof of principle that predictions based on levels of four kallikrein markers in blood distinguish between pathologically insignificant and aggressive disease after RP with good accuracy. In the future, clinical use of the model could potentially reduce rates of immediate unnecessary active treatment. Copyright © 2013 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary Lycopene, Angiogenesis, and Prostate Cancer: A Prospective Study in the Prostate-Specific Antigen Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of lycopene in prostate cancer prevention remains controversial. We examined the associations between dietary lycopene intake and prostate cancer, paying particular attention to the influence of prostate-specific antigen screening, and evaluated tissue biomarkers in prostate cancers in relation to lycopene intake. Methods Among 49898 male health professionals, we obtained dietary information through questionnaires and ascertained total and lethal prostate cancer cases from 1986 through January 31, 2010. Cox regression was used to estimate multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry were used to assess tumor biomarker expression in a subset of men. Two-sided χ2 tests were used to calculate the P values. Results Higher lycopene intake was inversely associated with total prostate cancer and more strongly with lethal prostate cancer (top vs bottom quintile: HR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.56 to 0.94; P trend = .04). In a restricted population of screened participants, the inverse associations became markedly stronger (for lethal prostate cancer: HR = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.29 to 0.75; P trend = .009). Comparing different measures of dietary lycopene, early intake, but not recent intake, was inversely associated with prostate cancer. Higher lycopene intake was associated with biomarkers in the cancer indicative of less angiogenic potential. Conclusions Dietary intake of lycopene was associated with reduced risk of lethal prostate cancer and with a lesser degree of angiogenesis in the tumor. Because angiogenesis is a strong progression factor, an endpoint of lethal prostate cancer may be more relevant than an endpoint of indolent prostate cancer for lycopene in the era of highly prevalent prostate-specific antigen screening. PMID:24463248

  6. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Key Points Liver cancer is a ...

  7. Prostate cancer screening practices of African-American and non-African-American US primary care physicians: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richards TB

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thomas B Richards,1 Sun Hee Rim,1 Ingrid J Hall,1 Lisa C Richardson,1 Louie E Ross21Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2North Carolina A and T State University, Greensboro, NC, USAPurpose: We explored whether African-American (AA primary care physicians (PCPs have different prostate cancer screening practices compared to non-AA PCPs, after adjustment for potential confounding factors such as the proportion of AA patients in PCP practices.Methods: We used SAS/SUDAAN to compare weighted responses from AA PCPs (n = 604 with those from non-AA PCPs (n = 647 in the 2007–2008 National Survey of Primary Care Physician Practices Regarding Prostate Cancer Screening. We used multivariate logistic regression to calculate the weighted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI.Results: We found that AA PCPs had higher odds of working in practices with above-the-median (≥21% proportions of AA male patients (OR, 9.02; 95% CI: 5.85–13.91. A higher proportion of AA PCPs (53.5%; 95% CI: 49.5–57.4 reported an above-the-median proportion (≥91% of PSA testing during health maintenance exams as compared to non-AA PCPs (39.4%; 95% CI: 35.5–43.4; P < 0.0002. After adjusting for the proportion of AA patients and other factors, we found that AA PCPs had higher odds of using PSA tests to screen men (OR, 1.74; 95% CI: 1.11–2.73.Conclusion: This study quantifies the magnitude of the differences reported in previous focus group studies. Our results may be helpful in hypothesis generation and in planning future research studies.Keywords: African-American, physician practice patterns, prostate-specific antigen, screening tests

  8. The Danish Prostate Cancer Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen-Nielsen, Mary; Høyer, Søren; Friis, Søren

    2016-01-01

    variables include Gleason scores, cancer staging, prostate-specific antigen values, and therapeutic measures (active surveillance, surgery, radiotherapy, endocrine therapy, and chemotherapy). DESCRIPTIVE DATA: In total, 22,332 patients with prostate cancer were registered in DAPROCAdata as of April 2015......AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Prostate Cancer Database (DAPROCAdata) is a nationwide clinical cancer database that has prospectively collected data on patients with incident prostate cancer in Denmark since February 2010. The overall aim of the DAPROCAdata is to improve the quality of prostate cancer...... care in Denmark by systematically collecting key clinical variables for the purposes of health care monitoring, quality improvement, and research. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish patients with histologically verified prostate cancer are included in the DAPROCAdata. MAIN VARIABLES: The DAPROCAdata...

  9. Tuberculous prostatitis: mimicking a cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, El Majdoub; Abdelhak, Khallouk; Hassan, Farih Moulay

    2016-01-01

    Genitourinary tuberculosis is a common type of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis . The kidneys, ureter, bladder or genital organs are usually involved. Tuberculosis of the prostate has mainly been described in immune-compromised patients. However, it can exceptionally be found as an isolated lesion in immune-competent patients. Tuberculosis of the prostate may be difficult to differentiate from carcinoma of the prostate and the chronic prostatitis when the prostate is hard and nodular on digital rectal examination and the urine is negative for tuberculosis bacilli. In many cases, a diagnosis of tuberculous prostatitis is made by the pathologist, or the disease is found incidentally after transurethral resection. Therefore, suspicion of tuberculous prostatitis requires a confirmatory biopsy of the prostate. We report the case of 60-year-old man who presented a low urinary tract syndrome. After clinical and biological examination, and imaging, prostate cancer was highly suspected. Transrectal needle biopsy of the prostate was performed and histological examination showed tuberculosis lesions.

  10. Racial Differences in Prediction of Time to Prostate Cancer Diagnosis in a Prospective Screening Cohort of High-Risk Men: Effect of TMPRSS2 Met160Val

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Veda N.; Ruth, Karen; Hughes, Lucinda; Uzzo, Robert G.; Chen, David Y.T.; Boorjian, Stephen A.; Viterbo, Rosalia; Rebbeck, Timothy R.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion occurs in >50% of prostate tumors and has been associated with poor outcomes. The T-allele (Valine) of the Met160Val (rs12329760) in TMPRSS2 has been associated with this fusion. We evaluated this polymorphism with respect to self-identified race or ethnicity (SIRE), time to prostate cancer (PCA) diagnosis, and screening parameters in the Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment Program, a prospective screening program for high-risk men. Patients and Methods 631 men ages 35-69 years were studied. “High-risk” was defined as ≥ one first degree or two second degree relatives with PCA, any African American (AA) man regardless of familial PCA, and men with BRCA1/2 mutations. Men with elevated PSA or other indications for PCA underwent biopsy. Men were followed from time of study entry to PCA diagnosis. Cox models were used to evaluate time to PCA diagnosis by genotype. Results Genotype distribution differed significantly by SIRE (CT/TT vs. CC, p<0.0001). Among 183 Caucasian men with at least one follow-up visit, PCA was more than doubled in men carrying CT/TT vs CC genotypes (HR= 2.55, 95% CI=1.14-5.70) after controlling for age and PSA. No association was seen among AA men by TMPRSS2 genotype. Conclusions The T-allele of the Met160Val variant in TMPRSS2, which has been associated with the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion, may be informative of time to PCA diagnosis for a subset of high-risk Caucasian men who are undergoing regular PCA screening. This variant along with other genetic markers warrant further study for personalizing PCA screening. PMID:20735386

  11. A comparison of web-based versus print-based decision AIDS for prostate cancer screening: participants' evaluation and utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomko, Catherine; Davis, Kimberly M; Luta, George; Krist, Alexander H; Woolf, Steven H; Taylor, Kathryn L

    2015-01-01

    Patient decision aids facilitate informed decision making for medical tests and procedures that have uncertain benefits. To describe participants' evaluation and utilization of print-based and web-based prostate cancer screening decision aids that were found to improve decisional outcomes in a prior randomized controlled trial. Men completed brief telephone interviews at baseline, one month, and 13 months post-randomization. Participants were primary care patients, 45-70 years old, who received the print-based (N = 628) or web-based decision aid (N = 625) and completed the follow-up assessments. We assessed men's baseline preference for web-based or print-based materials, time spent using the decision aids, comprehension of the overall message, and ratings of the content. Decision aid use was self-reported by 64.3 % (web) and 81.8 % (print) of participants. Significant predictors of decision aid use were race (white vs. non-white, OR = 2.43, 95 % CI: 1.77, 3.35), higher education (OR = 1.68, 95 % CI: 1.06, 2.70) and trial arm (print vs. web, OR = 2.78, 95 % CI: 2.03, 3.83). Multivariable analyses indicated that web-arm participants were more likely to use the website when they preferred web-based materials (OR: 1.91, CI: 1.17, 3.12), whereas use of the print materials was not significantly impacted by a preference for print-based materials (OR: 0.69, CI: 0.38, 1.25). Comprehension of the decision aid message (i.e., screening is an individual decision) did not significantly differ between arms in adjusted analyses (print: 61.9 % and web: 68.2 %, p = 0.42). Decision aid use was independently influenced by race, education, and the decision aid medium, findings consistent with the 'digital divide.' These results suggest that when it is not possible to provide this age cohort with their preferred decision aid medium, print materials will be more highly used than web-based materials. Although there are many advantages to web-based decision aids, providing an option for

  12. The epigenetic promise for prostate cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Neste, Leander; Herman, James G; Otto, Gaëtan; Bigley, Joseph W; Epstein, Jonathan I; Van Criekinge, Wim

    2012-08-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosis in men and a leading cause of death. Improvements in disease management would have a significant impact and could be facilitated by the development of biomarkers, whether for diagnostic, prognostic, or predictive purposes. The blood-based prostate biomarker PSA has been part of clinical practice for over two decades, although it is surrounded by controversy. While debates of usefulness are ongoing, alternatives should be explored. Particularly with recent recommendations against routine PSA-testing, the time is ripe to explore promising biomarkers to yield a more efficient and accurate screening for detection and management of prostate cancer. Epigenetic changes, more specifically DNA methylation, are amongst the most common alterations in human cancer. These changes are associated with transcriptional silencing of genes, leading to an altered cellular biology. One gene in particular, GSTP1, has been widely studied in prostate cancer. Therefore a meta-analysis has been conducted to examine the role of this and other genes and the potential contribution to prostate cancer management and screening refinement. More than 30 independent, peer reviewed studies have reported a consistently high sensitivity and specificity of GSTP1 hypermethylation in prostatectomy or biopsy tissue. The meta-analysis combined and compared these results. GSTP1 methylation detection can serve an important role in prostate cancer managment. The meta-analysis clearly confirmed a link between tissue DNA hypermethylation of this and other genes and prostate cancer. Detection of DNA methylation in genes, including GSTP1, could serve an important role in clinical practice. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Prostate cancer in renal transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A. Sherer

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT As patients with end-stage renal disease are receiving renal allografts at older ages, the number of male renal transplant recipients (RTRs being diagnosed with prostate cancer (CaP is increasing. Historically, the literature regarding the management of CaP in RTR's is limited to case reports and small case series. To date, there are no standardized guidelines for screening or management of CaP in these complex patients. To better understand the unique characteristics of CaP in the renal transplant population, we performed a literature review of PubMed, without date limitations, using a combination of search terms including prostate cancer, end stage renal disease, renal transplantation, prostate cancer screening, prostate specific antigen kinetics, immuno-suppression, prostatectomy, and radiation therapy. Of special note, teams facilitating the care of these complex patients must carefully and meticulously consider the altered anatomy for surgical and radiotherapeutic planning. Active surveillance, though gaining popularity in the general low risk prostate cancer population, needs further study in this group, as does the management of advance disease. This review provides a comprehensive and contemporary understanding of the incidence, screening measures, risk stratification, and treatment options for CaP in RTRs.

  14. Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudit Verma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the etiology of a disease such as prostate cancer may help in identifying populations at high risk, timely intervention of the disease, and proper treatment. Biomarkers, along with exposure history and clinical data, are useful tools to achieve these goals. Individual risk and population incidence of prostate cancer result from the intervention of genetic susceptibility and exposure. Biochemical, epigenetic, genetic, and imaging biomarkers are used to identify people at high risk for developing prostate cancer. In cancer epidemiology, epigenetic biomarkers offer advantages over other types of biomarkers because they are expressed against a person’s genetic background and environmental exposure, and because abnormal events occur early in cancer development, which includes several epigenetic alterations in cancer cells. This article describes different biomarkers that have potential use in studying the epidemiology of prostate cancer. We also discuss the characteristics of an ideal biomarker for prostate cancer, and technologies utilized for biomarker assays. Among epigenetic biomarkers, most reports indicate GSTP1 hypermethylation as the diagnostic marker for prostate cancer; however, NKX2-5, CLSTN1, SPOCK2, SLC16A12, DPYS, and NSE1 also have been reported to be regulated by methylation mechanisms in prostate cancer. Current challenges in utilization of biomarkers in prostate cancer diagnosis and epidemiologic studies and potential solutions also are discussed.

  15. MRI diagnosis for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamada, Tsutomu; Nagai, Kiyohisa; Imai, Shigeki; Kajihara, Yasumasa; Jo, Yoshimasa; Tanaka, Hiroyoshi; Fukunaga, Masao (Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)); Matsuki, Takakazu

    1998-01-01

    Recently, in Japan, both the Westernization of life styles and the advent of an aged-society have led to an increase in the incidence of prostate cancer. In making a localizing diagnosis of prostate cancer, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which has excellent contrast resolution, and transrectal ultrasonography, are used clinically, and their usefulness is being established. MRI is employed in the diagnosis of prostate cancer to detect tumors, and to determine the stage of such tumors. For the visualization of prostate cancer by MRI, T2-weighted axial images are used exclusively. After becoming familiar with normal prostate images, it is important to evaluate the localization of a tumor, and the invasion of the capsule and seminal vesicles. Future applications of new techniques for MRI will undoubtedly be found. In this paper, the present state of MRI diagnosis of prostate cancer at Kawasaki Medical School Hospital will be reviewed. (author)

  16. MRI diagnosis for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamada, Tsutomu; Nagai, Kiyohisa; Imai, Shigeki; Kajihara, Yasumasa; Jo, Yoshimasa; Tanaka, Hiroyoshi; Fukunaga, Masao [Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan); Matsuki, Takakazu

    1998-12-31

    Recently, in Japan, both the Westernization of life styles and the advent of an aged-society have led to an increase in the incidence of prostate cancer. In making a localizing diagnosis of prostate cancer, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which has excellent contrast resolution, and transrectal ultrasonography, are used clinically, and their usefulness is being established. MRI is employed in the diagnosis of prostate cancer to detect tumors, and to determine the stage of such tumors. For the visualization of prostate cancer by MRI, T2-weighted axial images are used exclusively. After becoming familiar with normal prostate images, it is important to evaluate the localization of a tumor, and the invasion of the capsule and seminal vesicles. Future applications of new techniques for MRI will undoubtedly be found. In this paper, the present state of MRI diagnosis of prostate cancer at Kawasaki Medical School Hospital will be reviewed. (author)

  17. Epigenetic modifications in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngollo, Marjolaine; Dagdemir, Aslihan; Karsli-Ceppioglu, Seher; Judes, Gaelle; Pajon, Amaury; Penault-Llorca, Frederique; Boiteux, Jean-Paul; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Guy, Laurent; Bernard-Gallon, Dominique J

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men in France. Apart from the genetic alterations in prostate cancer, epigenetics modifications are involved in the development and progression of this disease. Epigenetic events are the main cause in gene regulation and the three most epigenetic mechanisms studied include DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNA expression. In this review, we summarized epigenetic mechanisms in prostate cancer. Epigenetic drugs that inhibit DNA methylation, histone methylation and histone acetylation might be able to reactivate silenced gene expression in prostate cancer. However, further understanding of interactions of these enzymes and their effects on transcription regulation in prostate cancer is needed and has become a priority in biomedical research. In this study, we summed up epigenetic changes with emphasis on pharmacologic epigenetic target agents.

  18. Prostate cancer brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, Carlos Eduardo Vita; Silva, Joao L. F.; Srougi, Miguel; Nesrallah, Adriano

    1999-01-01

    The transperineal brachytherapy with 125 I/Pd 103 seed implantation guided by transurethral ultrasound must be presented as therapeutical option of low urinary morbidity in patients with localized prostate cancer. The combined clinical staging - including Gleason and initial PSA - must be encouraged, for definition of a group of low risk and indication of exclusive brachytherapy. Random prospective studies are necessary in order to define the best role of brachytherapy, surgery and external beam radiation therapy

  19. Younger British men's understandings of prostate cancer: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, Sarah; Parlane, Victoria L; Buckley, Emily

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore young British men's understandings of prostate health and cancer of the prostate. A total of 16 White-British men between 31-50 years of age took part in interviews face-to-face or through computer-mediated communication. Thematic analysis broadly informed by grounded theory identified two key themes; 'limited knowledge about the prostate' and 'early detection & unpleasant procedures'. Accounts are discussed with reference to implications for improving men's understandings of prostate cancer, and likelihood of self-referral for prostate screening where necessary.

  20. Fatherhood and incident prostate cancer in a prospective US cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Michael L; Park, Yikyung; Brinton, Louise A; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Schatzkin, Arthur

    2011-04-01

    Fatherhood status has been hypothesized to affect prostate cancer risk but the current evidence is limited and contradictory. We prospectively evaluated the relationship between offspring number and the risk of prostate cancer in 161,823 men enrolled in the National Institues of Health - American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study. Participants were aged 50-71 years without a cancer diagnosis at baseline in 1995. Analysing 8134 cases of prostate cancer, Cox regression was used to estimate the association between offspring number and prostate cancer incidence while accounting for socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics. When examining the entire cohort, there was no relationship between fatherhood and incident prostate cancer [hazard ratio (HR) 0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86-1.02]. However, after stratifying for prostate cancer screening, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) unscreened childless men had a lower risk of prostate cancer (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.58-0.91) compared with fathers due to the interaction between PSA screening and fatherhood (P for interaction fatherhood status and offspring gender is associated with a man's prostate cancer risk.

  1. Prostate specific antigen velocity does not aid prostate cancer detection in men with prior negative biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Andrew J; Wolters, Tineke; Savage, Caroline J; Cronin, Angel M; O'Brien, M Frank; Roobol, Monique J; Aus, Gunnar; Scardino, Peter T; Hugosson, Jonas; Schröder, Fritz H; Lilja, Hans

    2010-09-01

    Prostate specific antigen velocity has been proposed as a marker to aid in prostate cancer detection. We determined whether prostate specific antigen velocity could predict repeat biopsy results in men with persistently increased prostate specific antigen after initial negative biopsy. We identified 1,837 men who participated in the Göteborg or Rotterdam section of the European Randomized Screening study of Prostate Cancer and who underwent 1 or more subsequent prostate biopsies after an initial negative finding. We evaluated whether prostate specific antigen velocity improved predictive accuracy beyond that of prostate specific antigen alone. Of the 2,579 repeat biopsies 363 (14%) were positive for prostate cancer, of which 44 (1.7%) were high grade (Gleason score 7 or greater). Prostate specific antigen velocity was statistically associated with cancer risk but had low predictive accuracy (AUC 0.55, p <0.001). There was some evidence that prostate specific antigen velocity improved AUC compared to prostate specific antigen for high grade cancer. However, the small increase in risk associated with high prostate specific antigen velocity (from 1.7% to 2.8% as velocity increased from 0 to 1 ng/ml per year) had questionable clinical relevance. Men with prior negative biopsy are at lower risk for prostate cancer at subsequent biopsies with high grade disease particularly rare. We found little evidence to support prostate specific antigen velocity to aid in decisions about repeat biopsy for prostate cancer. 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Early Prostate Cancer program: bicalutamide in nonmetastatic prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Peter; Roder, Martin Andreas; Røder, Martin Andreas

    2008-01-01

    The Early Prostate Cancer program is investigating the addition of bicalutamide 150 mg to standard care for localized or locally advanced, nonmetastatic prostate cancer. The third program analysis, at 7.4 years' median follow-up, has shown that bicalutamide 150 mg does not benefit patients...

  3. Postscreening follow-up of the Finnish Prostate Cancer Screening Trial on putative prostate cancer risk factors: vitamin and mineral use, male pattern baldness, pubertal development and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarre, Sami; Määttänen, Liisa; Tammela, Teuvo L J; Auvinen, Anssi; Murtola, Teemu J

    2016-08-01

    Objective The etiology of prostate cancer (PCa) is still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the association between PCa risk and the indicators of endogenous androgen production at puberty, male pattern baldness, over-the-counter use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and vitamin supplement use. Materials and methods Participants in the third round of the Finnish Prostate Cancer Screening Trial were sent a survey on possible PCa risk factors and 11,795 out of 12,740 (93%) men returned the questionnaire. PCa cases were identified from the Finnish Cancer Registry. Results During the median follow-up of 6.6 years, 757 PCa cases were diagnosed and 21 men died from PCa. Compared to earlier onset, puberty onset after 15 years of age was associated with a borderline significant decrease in PCa risk [hazard ratio (HR) 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.75-1.00] but not with PCa mortality. Weekly use of ibuprofen was associated with an increased risk of PCa overall (HR 1.43, 95% CI 1.08-1.91) and with metastatic PCa (HR 1.49, 95% CI 1.12-1.99) compared to less frequent use. No statistically significant association was found between vitamin use and PCa. Conclusions This study suggests that the timing of initiation of endogenous androgen production at puberty may have importance for later PCa development. Current use of over-the-counter ibuprofen is associated with an increased risk of PCa. There was no evidence of any protective effects of vitamin use on PCa risk.

  4. Screening a phage display library for a novel FGF8b-binding peptide with anti-tumor effect on prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wenhui; Chen, Xilei; Li, Tao; Li, Yanmei; Wang, Ruixue; He, Dan; Luo, Wu; Li, Xiaokun; Wu, Xiaoping

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 8b (FGF8b) is the major isoform of FGF8 expressed in prostate cancer and it correlates with the stage and grade of the disease. FGF8b has been considered as a potential target for prostate cancer therapy. Here we isolated 12 specific FGF8b-binding phage clones by screening a phage display heptapeptide library with FGF8b. The peptide (HSQAAVP, named as P12) corresponding to one of these clones showed high homology to the immunoglobulin-like (Ig-like) domain II(D2) of high-affinity FGF8b receptor (FGFR3c), contained 3 identical amino acids (AVP) to the authentic FGFR3 D2 sequence aa 163–169 (LLAVPAA) directly participating in ligand binding, carried the same charges as its corresponding motif (aa163–169) in FGFR3c, suggesting that P12 may have a greater potential to interrupt FGF8b binding to its receptors than other identified heptapeptides do. Functional analysis indicated that synthetic P12 peptides mediate significant inhibition of FGF8b-induced cell proliferation, arrest cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase via suppression of Cyclin D1 and PCNA, and blockade of the activations of Erk1/2 and Akt cascades in both prostate cancer cells and vascular endothelial cells. The results demonstrated that the P12 peptide acting as an FGF8b antagonist may have therapeutic potential in prostate cancer. - Highlights: ► A novel FGF8b-binding peptide P12 was isolated from a phage display library. ► The mechanisms for P12 peptide inhibiting cell proliferation were proposed. ► P12 caused cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase via suppression of Cyclin D1 and PCNA. ► P12 suppressed FGF8b-induced activations of Akt and MAP kinases. ► P12 acting as an FGF8b antagonist may have therapeutic potential in prostate cancer

  5. Screening a phage display library for a novel FGF8b-binding peptide with anti-tumor effect on prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenhui; Chen, Xilei; Li, Tao; Li, Yanmei; Wang, Ruixue; He, Dan; Luo, Wu [Institute of Tissue Transplantation and Immunology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Li, Xiaokun [Institute of Tissue Transplantation and Immunology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); School of Pharmaceutical Science, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Wu, Xiaoping, E-mail: twxp@jnu.edu.cn [Institute of Tissue Transplantation and Immunology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); School of Pharmaceutical Science, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China)

    2013-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 8b (FGF8b) is the major isoform of FGF8 expressed in prostate cancer and it correlates with the stage and grade of the disease. FGF8b has been considered as a potential target for prostate cancer therapy. Here we isolated 12 specific FGF8b-binding phage clones by screening a phage display heptapeptide library with FGF8b. The peptide (HSQAAVP, named as P12) corresponding to one of these clones showed high homology to the immunoglobulin-like (Ig-like) domain II(D2) of high-affinity FGF8b receptor (FGFR3c), contained 3 identical amino acids (AVP) to the authentic FGFR3 D2 sequence aa 163–169 (LLAVPAA) directly participating in ligand binding, carried the same charges as its corresponding motif (aa163–169) in FGFR3c, suggesting that P12 may have a greater potential to interrupt FGF8b binding to its receptors than other identified heptapeptides do. Functional analysis indicated that synthetic P12 peptides mediate significant inhibition of FGF8b-induced cell proliferation, arrest cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase via suppression of Cyclin D1 and PCNA, and blockade of the activations of Erk1/2 and Akt cascades in both prostate cancer cells and vascular endothelial cells. The results demonstrated that the P12 peptide acting as an FGF8b antagonist may have therapeutic potential in prostate cancer. - Highlights: ► A novel FGF8b-binding peptide P12 was isolated from a phage display library. ► The mechanisms for P12 peptide inhibiting cell proliferation were proposed. ► P12 caused cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase via suppression of Cyclin D1 and PCNA. ► P12 suppressed FGF8b-induced activations of Akt and MAP kinases. ► P12 acting as an FGF8b antagonist may have therapeutic potential in prostate cancer.

  6. Blood lipids and prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Caroline J; Bonilla, Carolina; Holly, Jeff M P

    2016-01-01

    Genetic risk scores were used as unconfounded instruments for specific lipid traits (Mendelian randomization) to assess whether circulating lipids causally influence prostate cancer risk. Data from 22,249 prostate cancer cases and 22,133 controls from 22 studies within the international PRACTICAL...... into logistic regression models to estimate the presence (and direction) of any causal effect of each lipid trait on prostate cancer risk. There was weak evidence for an association between the LDL genetic score and cancer grade: the odds ratio (OR) per genetically instrumented standard deviation (SD) in LDL.......95, 3.00; P = 0.08). The rs12916-T variant in 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) was inversely associated with prostate cancer (OR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.00; P = 0.03). In conclusion, circulating lipids, instrumented by our genetic risk scores, did not appear to alter prostate cancer risk...

  7. Long-term longitudinal changes in baseline PSA distribution and estimated prevalence of prostate cancer in male Japanese participants of population-based PSA screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Ryo; Ito, Kazuto; Suzuki, Rie; Fujizuka, Yuji; Arai, Seiji; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Sekine, Yoshitaka; Koike, Hidekazu; Matsui, Hiroshi; Shibata, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Kazuhiro

    2018-04-26

    Japan has experienced a drastic increase in the incidence of prostate cancer (PC). To assess changes in the risk for PC, we investigated baseline prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels in first-time screened men, across a 25-year period. In total, 72,654 men, aged 50-79, underwent first-time PSA screening in Gunma prefecture between 1992 and 2016. Changes in the distribution of PSA levels were investigated, including the percentage of men with a PSA above cut-off values and linear regression analyses comparing log 10 PSA with age. The 'ultimate incidence' of PC and clinically significant PC (CSPC) were estimated using the PC risk calculator. Changes in the age-standardized incidence rate (AIR) during this period were analyzed. The calculated coefficients of linear regression for age versus log 10 PSA fluctuated during the 25-year period, but no trend was observed. In addition, the percentage of men with a PSA above cut-off values varied in each 5-year period, with no specific trend. The 'risk calculator (RC)-based AIR' of PC and CSPC were stable between 1992 and 2016. Therefore, the baseline risk for developing PC has remained unchanged in the past 25 years, in Japan. The drastic increase in the incidence of PC, beginning around 2000, may be primarily due to increased PSA screening in the country. © 2018 UICC.

  8. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  9. Is there a link between BPH and prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R T M; Kirby, Roger; Challacombe, B J

    2012-04-01

    BPH is one of the most common diseases of older men, with more than 70% of men over 70 years affected, and prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in the UK. Prostate cancer generally presents in one of three ways: asymptomatic patients who are screened (usually by a PSA test); men with LUTS who are investigated and undergo prostate biopsy; or patients with symptoms of metastasis such as bone pain. Men can be reassured that the main cause of LUTS is BPH. Only a small proportion of men have LUTS that are directly attributable to prostate cancer. Digital rectal examination (DRE) gives an evaluation of prostate size, which is relevant in particular to BPH management, and along with PSA testing it is one of the only ways of differentiating clinically between BPH and prostate cancer. If a nodular abnormality is present there is around a 50% chance of a diagnosis of prostate cancer being made on biopsy. Raised levels of serum PSA may be suggestive of prostate cancer, but diagnosis requires histological confirmation in almost every case. A normal PSA, PSA density and DRE can give reasonable confidence with regards to excluding clinically significant prostate cancer. BPH is not a known risk factor for prostate cancer, although the two frequently coexist. Age is the strongest predictor of prostate cancer risk, along with family history. BPH is not considered to be a precursor of prostate cancer. It is likely that although BPH may not make prostate cancer more likely to occur, it may increase the chance of diagnosing an incidental cancer.

  10. Current state of prostate cancer treatment in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Belinda F; Aiken, William D; Mayhew, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the commonest cancer in Jamaica as well as the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. One report suggested that Jamaica has the highest incidence rate of prostate cancer in the world, with an age-standardised rate of 304/100,000 per year. The Caribbean region is reported to have the highest mortality rate of prostate cancer worldwide. Prostate cancer accounts for a large portion of the clinical practice for health-care practitioners in Jamaica. The Jamaica Urological Society is a professional body comprising 19 urologists in Jamaica who provide most of the care for men with prostate cancer in collaboration with medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, and a palliative care physician. The health-care system is structured in two tiers in Jamaica: public and private. The urologist-to-patient ratio is high, and this limits adequate urological care. Screening for prostate cancer is not a national policy in Jamaica. However, the Jamaica Urological Society and the Jamaica Cancer Society work synergistically to promote screening as well as to provide patient education for prostate cancer. Adequate treatment for localised prostate cancer is available in Jamaica in the forms of active surveillance, nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy, external beam radiation, and brachytherapy. However, there is a geographic maldistribution of centres that provide prostate cancer treatment, which leads to treatment delays. Also, there is difficulty in affording some treatment options in the private health-care sectors. Androgen deprivation therapy is available for treatment of locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer and is subsidised through a programme called the National Health Fund. Second-line hormonal agents and chemotherapeutic agents are available but are costly to most of the population. The infrastructure for treatment of prostate cancer in Jamaica is good, but it requires additional technological advances as well as additional specialist

  11. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  12. Focal therapy in prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bos, W.

    2016-01-01

    Interesting developments took place in the treatment of prostate cancer including focal therapy for less aggressive organ-confined prostate cancer. Fortunately, curative treatment is often still an option for patients suffering from the lower staged tumors. In carefully selected patients, the

  13. Vitamin D in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Donald L; Aragon-Ching, Jeanny B

    2018-04-13

    Signaling through the vitamin D receptor has been shown to be biologically active and important in a number of preclinical studies in prostate and other cancers. Epidemiologic data also indicate that vitamin D signaling may be important in the cause and prognosis of prostate and other cancers. These data indicate that perturbation of vitamin D signaling may be a target for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. Large studies of vitamin D supplementation will be required to determine whether these observations can be translated into prevention strategies. This paper reviews the available data in the use of vitamin D compounds in the treatment of prostate cancer. Clinical data are limited which support the use of vitamin D compounds in the management of men with prostate cancer. However, clinical trials guided by existing preclinical data are limited.

  14. Vitamin D in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald L Trump

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Signaling through the vitamin D receptor has been shown to be biologically active and important in a number of preclinical studies in prostate and other cancers. Epidemiologic data also indicate that vitamin D signaling may be important in the cause and prognosis of prostate and other cancers. These data indicate that perturbation of vitamin D signaling may be a target for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. Large studies of vitamin D supplementation will be required to determine whether these observations can be translated into prevention strategies. This paper reviews the available data in the use of vitamin D compounds in the treatment of prostate cancer. Clinical data are limited which support the use of vitamin D compounds in the management of men with prostate cancer. However, clinical trials guided by existing preclinical data are limited.

  15. Vitamin D in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Donald L; Aragon-Ching, Jeanny B

    2018-01-01

    Signaling through the vitamin D receptor has been shown to be biologically active and important in a number of preclinical studies in prostate and other cancers. Epidemiologic data also indicate that vitamin D signaling may be important in the cause and prognosis of prostate and other cancers. These data indicate that perturbation of vitamin D signaling may be a target for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. Large studies of vitamin D supplementation will be required to determine whether these observations can be translated into prevention strategies. This paper reviews the available data in the use of vitamin D compounds in the treatment of prostate cancer. Clinical data are limited which support the use of vitamin D compounds in the management of men with prostate cancer. However, clinical trials guided by existing preclinical data are limited. PMID:29667615

  16. TPD52: A Novel Vaccine Target for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Chinnaiyan AM and Rubin MA. (2006). Defining aggressive prostate cancer using a 12- gene model. Neoplasia 8: 59-68. 12. Scanlan MJ, Gout I, Gordon CM...prostate cancer cells, isolated from patients undergoing radical prostatectomy, using differential gene expression analysis of our novel paired...sera from breast cancer patients to screen a library of expressed genes from breast cancers, demonstrating that TPD52 is capable of inducing IgG

  17. Perceptions and knowledge about prostate cancer and attitudes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. Yeboah-Asiamah

    2017-06-29

    Jun 29, 2017 ... and previous family history of the disease are known risk fac- tors [6,7]. .... tiple regression) models considered variables from the unadjusted analysis ..... et al. Quantifying the role of PSA screening in the US prostate cancer.

  18. Predictive value of prostate-specific antigen for prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepherd, Leah; Borges, Alvaro Humberto; Ravn, Lene

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although prostate cancer (PCa) incidence is lower in HIV+ men than in HIV- men, the usefulness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in this population is not well defined and may have higher false negative rates than in HIV- men. We aimed to describe the kinetics and predict......INTRODUCTION: Although prostate cancer (PCa) incidence is lower in HIV+ men than in HIV- men, the usefulness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in this population is not well defined and may have higher false negative rates than in HIV- men. We aimed to describe the kinetics...... and predictive value of PSA in HIV+ men. METHODS: Men with PCa (n=21) and up to two matched controls (n=40) with prospectively stored plasma samples before PCa (or matched date in controls) were selected. Cases and controls were matched on date of first and last sample, age, region of residence and CD4 count...... at first sample date. Total PSA (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA), testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured. Conditional logistic regression models investigated associations between markers and PCa. Sensitivity and specificity of using tPSA >4 µg/L to predict PCa was calculated. Mixed...

  19. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... impotence)from surgery,radiation therapy,or hormone therapy. • Urinary incontinence from radiation therapy or surgery. • Problems with bowel control from radiation therapy. • A small risk of death and serious complications from surgery. To ...

  20. Development and Implementation of a High-Throughput High-Content Screening Assay to Identify Inhibitors of Androgen Receptor Nuclear Localization in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh M.; Dar, Javid A.; Ai, Junkui; Wang, Yujuan; Masoodi, Khalid Z.; Shun, Tongying; Shinde, Sunita; Camarco, Daniel P.; Hua, Yun; Huryn, Donna M.; Wilson, Gabriela Mustata; Lazo, John S.; Nelson, Joel B.; Wipf, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) can be treated with abiraterone, a potent inhibitor of androgen synthesis, or enzalutamide, a second-generation androgen receptor (AR) antagonist, both targeting AR signaling. However, most patients relapse after several months of therapy and a majority of patients with relapsed CRPC tumors express the AR target gene prostate-specific antigen (PSA), suggesting that AR signaling is reactivated and can be targeted again to inhibit the relapsed tumors. Novel small molecules capable of inhibiting AR function may lead to urgently needed therapies for patients resistant to abiraterone, enzalutamide, and/or other previously approved antiandrogen therapies. Here, we describe a high-throughput high-content screening (HCS) campaign to identify small-molecule inhibitors of AR nuclear localization in the C4-2 CRPC cell line stably transfected with GFP-AR-GFP (2GFP-AR). The implementation of this HCS assay to screen a National Institutes of Health library of 219,055 compounds led to the discovery of 3 small molecules capable of inhibiting AR nuclear localization and function in C4-2 cells, demonstrating the feasibility of using this cell-based phenotypic assay to identify small molecules targeting the subcellular localization of AR. Furthermore, the three hit compounds provide opportunities to develop novel AR drugs with potential for therapeutic intervention in CRPC patients who have relapsed after treatment with antiandrogens, such as abiraterone and/or enzalutamide. PMID:27187604

  1. Assessing the Knowledge, Self-Efficacy and Health Behaviors of Male Beneficiaries Assigned to the National Capital Area Regarding Participation in Prostate Screening

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, Angelo

    2002-01-01

    .... The study used both inferential and descriptive statistics to report findings. The majority (93%) of the participants were very knowledgeable about prostate cancer and prostate cancer screening as indicated by high scores on the knowledge scales...

  2. Prostate cancer and social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Stacy; Katz, Matthew S; Langford, Aisha; Byrne, Nataliya; Ciprut, Shannon

    2018-04-11

    The use of social media is increasing globally and is employed in a variety of ways in the prostate cancer community. In addition to their use in research, advocacy, and awareness campaigns, social media offer vast opportunities for education and networking for patients with prostate cancer and health-care professionals, and many educational resources and support networks are available to patients with prostate cancer and their caregivers. Despite the considerable potential for social media to be employed in the field of prostate cancer, concerns remain - particularly regarding the maintenance of patient confidentiality, variable information quality, and possible financial conflicts of interest. A number of professional societies have, therefore, issued guidance regarding social media use in medicine. Social media are used extensively in other cancer communities, particularly among patients with breast cancer, and both the quantity and type of information available are expected to grow in the future.

  3. Chemotherapeutic prevention studies of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djavan, Bob; Zlotta, Alexandre; Schulman, Claude

    2004-01-01

    Despite advances in the detection and management of prostate cancer, this disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in men. Increasing attention has focused on the role of chemoprevention for prostate cancer, ie the administration of agents that inhibit 1 or more steps in the natural...... history of prostate carcinogenesis. We review prostate cancer chemoprevention studies in Europe....

  4. Human Prostate Cancer Hallmarks Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Dipamoy; Aftabuddin, Md.; Gupta, Dinesh Kumar; Raha, Sanghamitra; Sen, Prosenjit

    2016-01-01

    Human prostate cancer is a complex heterogeneous disease that mainly affects elder male population of the western world with a high rate of mortality. Acquisitions of diverse sets of hallmark capabilities along with an aberrant functioning of androgen receptor signaling are the central driving forces behind prostatic tumorigenesis and its transition into metastatic castration resistant disease. These hallmark capabilities arise due to an intense orchestration of several crucial factors, including deregulation of vital cell physiological processes, inactivation of tumor suppressive activity and disruption of prostate gland specific cellular homeostasis. The molecular complexity and redundancy of oncoproteins signaling in prostate cancer demands for concurrent inhibition of multiple hallmark associated pathways. By an extensive manual curation of the published biomedical literature, we have developed Human Prostate Cancer Hallmarks Map (HPCHM), an onco-functional atlas of human prostate cancer associated signaling and events. It explores molecular architecture of prostate cancer signaling at various levels, namely key protein components, molecular connectivity map, oncogenic signaling pathway map, pathway based functional connectivity map etc. Here, we briefly represent the systems level understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with prostate tumorigenesis by considering each and individual molecular and cell biological events of this disease process. PMID:27476486

  5. Educating men about prostate cancer in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilic, Dragan

    2013-07-01

    Prostate cancer is a common cancer affecting men worldwide. Few men access health services with respect to early detection. Workplace health education initiatives can promote behavior change in men. A total of 12 in-depth interviews with men were conducted in this study to examine how a workplace-based educational campaign on prostate cancer influences the knowledge, awareness, and beliefs of male workers on screening for prostate cancer. Analyses of interview transcripts identified that men had a poor overall knowledge about prostate cancer, its screening, and treatment. Participants were receptive to the introduction of workplace-based health education initiatives to promote men's health issues but recommended an integrated health approach that incorporated information delivered by medical professionals, cancer survivors, supplemented with existing patient education materials. Further research is required to formally evaluate the impact of workplace-based education strategies on men's health.

  6. Radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, S.; Herfarth, K.

    2011-01-01

    With the development of modern radiation techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), a dose escalation in the definitive radiotherapy of prostate cancer and a consecutive improvement in biochemical recurrence-free survival (BFS) could be achieved. Among others, investigators at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) saw 5-year BFS rates of up to 98%. A further gain in effectiveness and safety is expected of hypofractionation schedules, as suggested by data published by Kupelian et al., who saw a low 5-year rate of grade ≥2 rectal side-effects of 4.5%. However, randomized studies are just beginning to mature. Patients with intermediate or high-risk tumors should receive neoadjuvant (NHT) and adjuvant (AHT) androgen deprivation. Bolla et al. could show an increase in 5-year overall survival from 62-78%. The inclusion of the whole pelvis in the treatment field (WPRT) is still controversial. The RTOG 94-13 study showed a significant advantage in disease-free survival after 60 months but long-term data did not yield significant differences between WPRT and irradiation of the prostate alone. The German Society of Urology strongly recommends adjuvant radiotherapy of the prostate bed for pT3 N0 tumors with positive margins. In a pT3 N0 R0 or pT2 N0 R+ situation, adjuvant radiotherapy should at least be considered. So far, no randomized data on NHT and AHT have been published, so androgen deprivation remains an individual decision in the postoperative setting. In a retrospective analysis Spiotto et al. reported a positive effect for adjuvant WPRT and biochemical control. This article summarizes the essential publications on definitive and adjuvant radiotherapy and discusses the additional use of androgen deprivation and WPRT. (orig.) [de

  7. Screening for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Cervical Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued final recommendations on Screening for Cervical Cancer . These recommendations are for women ...

  8. The Isolation and Characterization of Human Prostate Cancer Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    migration as a result of PSA screening, the vast majority of prostate cancers in prostatectomy specimens today are often of low grade and stage and...epithelial interactions—I. Induction of prostatic phenotype in urothelium of testicular feminized (Tfm/y) mice. J Steroid Biochem. 1981; 14(12):1317–1324

  9. Can PSA Reflex Algorithm be a valid alternative to other PSA-based prostate cancer screening strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldarelli, G; Troiano, G; Rosadini, D; Nante, N

    2017-01-01

    The available laboratory tests for the differential diagnosis of prostate cancer, are represented by the total PSA, the free PSA, and the free/total PSA ratio. In Italy most of doctors tend to request both total and free PSA for their patients even in cases where the total PSA doesn't justify the further request of free PSA, with a consequent growth of the costs for the National Health System. The aim of our study was to predict the saving in Euro (due to reagents) and reduction in free PSA tests, applying the "PSA Reflex" algorithm. We calculated the number of total PSA and free PSA exams performed in 2014 in the Hospital of Grosseto and, simulating the application of the "PSA Reflex" algorithm in the same year, we calculated the decrease in the number of free PSA requests and we tried to predict the Euro savings in reagents, obtained from this reduction. In 2014 in the Hospital of Grosseto 25,955 total PSA tests have been performed: 3,631 (14%) resulted greater than 10 ng / ml; 7,686 (29.6%) between 2 and 10 ng / ml; 14,638 (56.4%) lower than 2 ng / ml. The performed free PSA tests were 16904. Simulating the use of "PSA Reflex" algorithm, the free PSA tests would be performed only in cases with total PSA values between 2 and 10 ng / mL with a saving of 54.5% of free PSA exams and of 8,971 euros, only for reagents. Our study showed that the "PSA Reflex" algorithm is a valid alternative leading to a reduction of the costs. The estimated intralaboratory savings, due to the reagents, seem to be modest, however, they are followed by the additional savings due to the other diagnostic processes for prostate cancers.

  10. Vitamins, metabolomics, and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondul, Alison M; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Albanes, Demetrius

    2017-06-01

    How micronutrients might influence risk of developing adenocarcinoma of the prostate has been the focus of a large body of research (especially regarding vitamins E, A, and D). Metabolomic profiling has the potential to discover molecular species relevant to prostate cancer etiology, early detection, and prevention, and may help elucidate the biologic mechanisms through which vitamins influence prostate cancer risk. Prostate cancer risk data related to vitamins E, A, and D and metabolomic profiling from clinical, cohort, and nested case-control studies, along with randomized controlled trials, are examined and summarized, along with recent metabolomic data of the vitamin phenotypes. Higher vitamin E serologic status is associated with lower prostate cancer risk, and vitamin E genetic variant data support this. By contrast, controlled vitamin E supplementation trials have had mixed results based on differing designs and dosages. Beta-carotene supplementation (in smokers) and higher circulating retinol and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D concentrations appear related to elevated prostate cancer risk. Our prospective metabolomic profiling of fasting serum collected 1-20 years prior to clinical diagnoses found reduced lipid and energy/TCA cycle metabolites, including inositol-1-phosphate, lysolipids, alpha-ketoglutarate, and citrate, significantly associated with lower risk of aggressive disease. Several active leads exist regarding the role of micronutrients and metabolites in prostate cancer carcinogenesis and risk. How vitamins D and A may adversely impact risk, and whether low-dose vitamin E supplementation remains a viable preventive approach, require further study.

  11. BTG2 Antiproliferative Gene and Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walden, Paul D

    2008-01-01

    .... During this study we showed that BTG2 protein expression is lost as an early event in prostate carcinogenesis and that prostate cancer cells degrade BTG2 at a greater rate than noncancerous prostate cells...

  12. Other biomarkers for detecting prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Lucas; Corradi, Renato; Eastham, James A

    2010-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been used for detecting prostate cancer since 1994. Although it is the best cancer biomarker available, PSA is not perfect. It lacks both the sensitivity and specificity to accurately detect the presence of prostate cancer. None of the PSA thresholds currently in use consistently identify patients with prostate cancer and exclude patients without cancer. Novel approaches to improve our ability to detect prostate cancer and predict the course of the disease are needed. Additional methods for detecting prostate cancer have been evaluated. Despite the discovery of many new biomarkers, only a few have shown some clinical value. These markers include human kallikrein 2, urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, prostate-specific membrane antigen, early prostate cancer antigen, PCA3, alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase and glutathione S-transferase pi hypermethylation. We review the reports on biomarkers for prostate cancer detection, and their possible role in the clinical practice.

  13. Early prostate cancer: particularities of treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, F.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction of prostate cancer screening using PSA leads to a disproportional increase of cancer incidence. Most of those tumors are small and indolent in behavior. When diagnosed, they are usually managed by radical treatment modalities despite the growth of serious adverse events of such therapy. Active surveillance appears to be an alternative treatment approach for the majority of those patients. Author stresses on the particularities of the prostate cancer diagnosed in the PSA era. Show the importance of patient stratification and the utility of the use of nomograms in clinical praxis. The clinical importance of treatment choices based on life expectancy of patient, concomitant diseases on one side and cancer biological behavior in the other side is discussed. Critically discuss the new approach of radiation with proton beams advertising that it remains an experimental therapeutic choice. (author)

  14. Prostate Health Index improves multivariable risk prediction of aggressive prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Stacy; Shin, Sanghyuk S; Broyles, Dennis L; Wei, John T; Sanda, Martin; Klee, George; Partin, Alan W; Sokoll, Lori; Chan, Daniel W; Bangma, Chris H; van Schaik, Ron H N; Slawin, Kevin M; Marks, Leonard S; Catalona, William J

    2017-07-01

    To examine the use of the Prostate Health Index (PHI) as a continuous variable in multivariable risk assessment for aggressive prostate cancer in a large multicentre US study. The study population included 728 men, with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels of 2-10 ng/mL and a negative digital rectal examination, enrolled in a prospective, multi-site early detection trial. The primary endpoint was aggressive prostate cancer, defined as biopsy Gleason score ≥7. First, we evaluated whether the addition of PHI improves the performance of currently available risk calculators (the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial [PCPT] and European Randomised Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer [ERSPC] risk calculators). We also designed and internally validated a new PHI-based multivariable predictive model, and created a nomogram. Of 728 men undergoing biopsy, 118 (16.2%) had aggressive prostate cancer. The PHI predicted the risk of aggressive prostate cancer across the spectrum of values. Adding PHI significantly improved the predictive accuracy of the PCPT and ERSPC risk calculators for aggressive disease. A new model was created using age, previous biopsy, prostate volume, PSA and PHI, with an area under the curve of 0.746. The bootstrap-corrected model showed good calibration with observed risk for aggressive prostate cancer and had net benefit on decision-curve analysis. Using PHI as part of multivariable risk assessment leads to a significant improvement in the detection of aggressive prostate cancer, potentially reducing harms from unnecessary prostate biopsy and overdiagnosis. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Methylselenium and Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Junxuan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of the biochemical pathways and molecular targets for the selective induction of apoptosis signaling and execution of prostate cancer (PCa...

  16. Methylselenium and Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Junxuan

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of the biochemical pathways and molecular targets for the selective induction of apoptosis signaling and execution of prostate cancer (PCa...

  17. Methylselenium and Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Junxuan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of the biochemical pathways and molecular targets for the selective induction of apoptosis signaling and execution of prostate cancer (PCa...

  18. Methylselenium and Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Junxuan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of the biochemical pathways and molecular targets for the selective induction of apoptosis signaling and execution of prostate cancer (PCa...

  19. Contemporary Management of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Katherine; Konety, Badrinath; Ordonez, Maria A.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer represents a spectrum ranging from low-grade, localized tumors to devastating metastatic disease. We discuss the general options for treatment and recent developments in the field. PMID:26949522

  20. General Information about Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of bisphosphonate drugs to prevent or slow the growth of bone metastases is being studied in clinical trials. There are treatments for bone pain caused by bone metastases or hormone therapy. Prostate cancer that has spread to the ...

  1. Osteoblast-Prostate Cancer Cell Interaction in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Navone, Nora

    2001-01-01

    .... This suggests that prostate cancer cells interact with cells from the osteoblastic lineage. To understand the molecular bases of prostatic bone metastases, we established two prostate cancer cell lines, MDA PCa 2a and MDA PCa 2b (1...

  2. Risks of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  3. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  4. SCREENING FOR CERVICAL CANCER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Cervical cancer remains a major health concern worldwide, especially in devel- ... Important aspects of cervical cancer screening include the age at which .... High-risk types HPV (16,18) are impli- cated in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer.

  5. A Framework for the Identification of Men at Increased Risk for Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roobol, Monique J.; Schroder, Fritz H.; Crawford, E. David; Freedland, Stephen J.; Sartor, A. Oliver; Fleshner, Neil; Andriole, Gerald L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: We assessed the risk of prostate cancer over time, and the implications for screening strategies and potential risk reduction approaches to provide a framework for clinical use of this approach concordant with the use of prostate specific antigen as a marker of current prostate cancer risk.

  6. A Framework for the Identification of Men at Increased Risk for Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roobol, Monique J.; Schroder, Fritz H.; Crawford, E. David; Freedland, Stephen J.; Sartor, A. Oliver; Fleshner, Neil; Andriole, Gerald L.

    Purpose: We assessed the risk of prostate cancer over time, and the implications for screening strategies and potential risk reduction approaches to provide a framework for clinical use of this approach concordant with the use of prostate specific antigen as a marker of current prostate cancer risk.

  7. Low-dose irradiation for controlling prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuttler, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer among North American men and the second leading cause of death in those aged 65 and over. The American Cancer Society recommends testing those over age 50 who are expected to live at least 10 years, even though the ability of early detection to decrease prostate cancer mortality has not been demonstrated. So controversy exists about the appropriateness of screening because of the considerable economic and social burden of diagnosing and treating prostate cancer, coupled with the projected large increase in the number of new cases as the population ages. This very important public health issue could be addressed at low cost by total-body low-dose irradiation therapy to stimulate the patient's own defences to prevent and control most cancers, including prostate cancer, with no symptomatic side effects. (author)

  8. Immunotherapy in metastatic prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan F Slovin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prostate cancer remains a challenge as a target for immunological approaches. The approval of the first cell-based immune therapy, Sipuleucel-T for prostate cancer introduced prostate cancer as a solid tumor with the potential to be influenced by the immune system. Methods: We reviewed articles on immunological management of prostate cancer and challenges that lie ahead for such strategies. Results: Treatments have focused on the identification of novel cell surface antigens thought to be unique to prostate cancer. These include vaccines against carbohydrate and blood group antigens, xenogeneic and naked DNA vaccines, and pox viruses used as prime-boost or checkpoint inhibitors. No single vaccine construct to date has resulted in a dramatic antitumor effect. The checkpoint inhibitor, anti-CTLA-4 has resulted in several long-term remissions, but phase III trials have not demonstrated an antitumor effect or survival benefit. Conclusions: Multiple clinical trials suggest that prostate cancer may not be optimally treated by single agent immune therapies and that combination with biologic agents, chemotherapies, or radiation may offer some enhancement of benefit.

  9. Perceived causes of prostate cancer among prostate cancer survivors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, D.E.G.; Cremers, R.G.H.M.; Aben, K.K.H.; Oort, van I.M.; Kampman, E.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate self-reported causes of prostate cancer among prostate cancer survivors in the Netherlands to obtain insight into the common beliefs and perceptions of risk factors for prostate cancer. Materials and methods A total of 956 prostate cancer survivors,

  10. Multiple primary cancers: Simultaneously occurring prostate cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We also reviewed the existing literatures for possible biologic links between prostatic carcinoma and other primary tumors. ... The primary tumors co-existing with prostate cancer were colonic adenocarcinoma, rectal adenocarcinoma, urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma, primary liver cell carcinoma, and thyroid ...

  11. Tea, coffee and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andy H; Fraser, Michelle L; Binns, Colin W

    2009-02-01

    Worldwide, prostate cancer has the second highest incidence of all cancers in males with incidence and mortality being much higher in affluent developed countries. Risk and progression of the disease may be linked to both genetic and environmental factors, especially dietary factors. Tea and coffee are two of the most popular beverages in the world and have been investigated for possible effects on health outcomes, including cancer. However, very little dietary advice for their consumption exists. The evidence for a relationship between coffee or tea consumption and prostate cancer is reviewed in this paper. While current evidence indicates that coffee is a safe beverage, its consumption probably has no relationship with prostate cancer. Tea, especially green tea, has shown some potential in the prevention of prostate cancer. While evidence from epidemiologic studies is currently inconclusive, strong evidence has emerged from animal and in vitro studies. We also consider what level of evidence is required to make recommendations for preventive measures to the public. Although evidence on the relationship between coffee, tea and prostate cancer is not complete, we consider it strong enough to recommend tea as a healthier alternative to coffee.

  12. 3D Hanging Drop Culture to Establish Prostate Cancer Organoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Theresa; Eder, Iris E

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture enables the growth of cells in a multidimensional and multicellular manner compared to conventional cell culture techniques. Especially in prostate cancer research there is a big need for more tissue-recapitulating models to get a better understanding of the mechanisms driving prostate cancer as well as to screen for more efficient drugs that can be used for treatment. In this chapter we describe a 3D hanging drop system that can be used to culture prostate cancer organoids as tumor epithelial monocultures and as epithelial-stromal cocultures.

  13. IGF-Regulated Genes in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Charles

    2003-01-01

    We hypothesized that genes that are differentially expressed as a result of the decreased IGF-I receptor gene expression seen in metastatic prostate cancer contribute to prostate cancer progression...

  14. IGF-Regulated Genes in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Charles T., Jr

    2005-01-01

    We hypothesized that genes that are differentially expressed as a result of the decreased IGF-I receptor gene expression seen in metastatic prostate cancer contribute to prostate cancer progression...

  15. Ratio of prostate specific antigen to the outer gland volume of prostrate as a predictor for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Min; Yan, Yang; Wang, Fang; Gu, Wen-Yu; Hu, Guang-Hui; Zheng, Jun-Hua

    2014-01-01

    As a definite diagnosis of prostate cancer, puncture biopsy of the prostate is invasive method. The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of OPSAD (the ratio of PSA to the outer gland volume of prostate) as a non-invasive screening and diagnosis method for prostate cancer in a select population. The diagnosis data of 490 subjects undergoing ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate were retrospectively analyzed. This included 133 patients with prostate cancer, and 357 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). The OPSAD was significantly greater in patients with prostate cancer (1.87 ± 1.26 ng/ml(2)) than those with BPH (0.44 ± 0.21 ng/ml(2)) (P prostate cancer. In the different groups divided according to the Gleason score of prostate cancer, OPSAD is elevated with the rise of the Gleason score. OPSAD may be used as a new indicator for the diagnosis and prognosis of prostate cancer, and it can reduce the use of unnecessary puncture biopsy of the prostate.

  16. 76 FR 41805 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... mortality for each of the four cancer sites (prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovary). In addition, cancer...; Comment Request; Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) (NCI) SUMMARY: Under the provisions of Section 3507(a)(1)(D) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the National Cancer...

  17. Development and external multicenter validation of Chinese Prostate Cancer Consortium prostate cancer risk calculator for initial prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Xie, Liping; Xue, Wei; Ye, Zhangqun; Ma, Lulin; Gao, Xu; Ren, Shancheng; Wang, Fubo; Zhao, Lin; Xu, Chuanliang; Sun, Yinghao

    2016-09-01

    Substantial differences exist in the relationship of prostate cancer (PCa) detection rate and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level between Western and Asian populations. Classic Western risk calculators, European Randomized Study for Screening of Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator, and Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator, were shown to be not applicable in Asian populations. We aimed to develop and validate a risk calculator for predicting the probability of PCa and high-grade PCa (defined as Gleason Score sum 7 or higher) at initial prostate biopsy in Chinese men. Urology outpatients who underwent initial prostate biopsy according to the inclusion criteria were included. The multivariate logistic regression-based Chinese Prostate Cancer Consortium Risk Calculator (CPCC-RC) was constructed with cases from 2 hospitals in Shanghai. Discriminative ability, calibration and decision curve analysis were externally validated in 3 CPCC member hospitals. Of the 1,835 patients involved, PCa was identified in 338/924 (36.6%) and 294/911 (32.3%) men in the development and validation cohort, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that 5 predictors (age, logPSA, logPV, free PSA ratio, and digital rectal examination) were associated with PCa (Model 1) or high-grade PCa (Model 2), respectively. The area under the curve of Model 1 and Model 2 was 0.801 (95% CI: 0.771-0.831) and 0.826 (95% CI: 0.796-0.857), respectively. Both models illustrated good calibration and substantial improvement in decision curve analyses than any single predictors at all threshold probabilities. Higher predicting accuracy, better calibration, and greater clinical benefit were achieved by CPCC-RC, compared with European Randomized Study for Screening of Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator and Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator in predicting PCa. CPCC-RC performed well in discrimination and calibration and decision curve analysis in external validation compared

  18. Racial and Ethnic Variation in Time to Prostate Biopsy After an Elevated Screening Level of Serum Prostate-specific Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading, Stephanie R; Porter, Kimberly R; Hsu, Jin-Wen Y; Wallner, Lauren P; Loo, Ronald K; Jacobsen, Steven J

    2016-10-01

    To examine the racial and ethnic variation in time to prostate biopsy after an elevated screening level of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Male members of the Kaiser Permanente of Southern California health plan, 45 years of age or older, with no history of prostate cancer or a prostate biopsy, and at least 1 elevated screening level of serum PSA between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2007 were retrospectively identified (n = 59,506). All participants were passively followed via electronic health records until their time of prostate biopsy, death, membership disenrollment, or study conclusion (December 31, 2014), whichever was the initial event. Proportional hazard regression analyses were used to estimate the association between time from an elevated screening level of serum PSA to prostate biopsy, adjusting for age, benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatitis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and Charlson Comorbidity Index score. Median time until biopsy was 0.6 years (214 days), with approximately 41% of participants receiving a prostate biopsy within the study period. Results from the fully adjusted analysis indicated that the non-Hispanic Asian or Pacific Islanders (hazard ratio: 1.10, 95% confidence interval: [1.04, 1.15]) and the non-Hispanic blacks (hazard ratio: 1.04, 95% confidence interval: [1.00, 1.08]) had a slightly shorter time to prostate biopsy after an elevated screening level of serum PSA compared to the non-Hispanic whites. These data suggest that, within an integrated healthcare organization, minimal differences exist between racial and ethnic subgroups in their time to prostate biopsy after an elevated screening level of serum PSA. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. International Cancer Screening Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The International Cancer Screening Network promotes evidence-based cancer screening implementation and evaluation with cooperation from multilateral organizations around the globe. Learn more about how ICSN aims to reduce the global burden of cancer by supporting research and international collaboration.

  20. Epigenetics of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Tawnya C; Tricoli, James V

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of novel technologies that can be applied to the investigation of the molecular underpinnings of human cancer has allowed for new insights into the mechanisms associated with tumor development and progression. They have also advanced the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of cancer. These technologies include microarray and other analysis methods for the generation of large-scale gene expression data on both mRNA and miRNA, next-generation DNA sequencing technologies utilizing a number of platforms to perform whole genome, whole exome, or targeted DNA sequencing to determine somatic mutational differences and gene rearrangements, and a variety of proteomic analysis platforms including liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis to survey alterations in protein profiles in tumors. One other important advancement has been our current ability to survey the methylome of human tumors in a comprehensive fashion through the use of sequence-based and array-based methylation analysis (Bock et al., Nat Biotechnol 28:1106-1114, 2010; Harris et al., Nat Biotechnol 28:1097-1105, 2010). The focus of this chapter is to present and discuss the evidence for key genes involved in prostate tumor development, progression, or resistance to therapy that are regulated by methylation-induced silencing.

  1. Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0226 TITLE: Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Rafael Fridman...AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0226 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...response to collagen in prostate cancer. The project’s goal is to define the expression and therapeutic potential of DDRs in prostate cancer. During

  2. Prostate cancer in Saudi Arabia in 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosli, Hisham A.

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies revealed that there are variations in the geographic and ethnic distribution of cancer of prostate (CaP) gland. This cancer varies drmatically between being very common in black American men, to rare in Asian and Chinese men. Genetic, familial predisposition and environmental factors in addition to methods of cancer detection and reporting contribute to these variations. Prostate cancer is the 9th most commonly diagnosed cancer in the world yet stands first in USA where resources allow large epidemiological studies. The health policy makers take major decisions such as mass population screening according to data derived from such studies that include information on disease specific mortality rates and incidence rates for each of ethnic sub-population living in USA. Untill now we do not have similr information in KSA; therefore the policy decisions should consider the possibility of the difference in situations since genetic, familial and environmetal conditions are different.Our current local data indicates that prostate cancer occurs at lower incidence rate than western countries. The objective of this article is to provide all the available information on the different aspects of CaP gland in KSA. A second more important objective is to attract the attention of future expectations that need preparation since the possibility of disease prevention does exist. (author)

  3. The link between benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted, David Dynnes; Bojesen, Stig E

    2013-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer are among the most common diseases of the prostate gland and represent significant burdens for patients and health-care systems in many countries. The two diseases share traits such as hormone-dependent growth and response to antiandrogen...... therapy. Furthermore, risk factors such as prostate inflammation and metabolic disruption have key roles in the development of both diseases. Despite these commonalities, BPH and prostate cancer exhibit important differences in terms of histology and localization. Although large-scale epidemiological...... studies have shown that men with BPH have an increased risk of prostate cancer and prostate-cancer-related mortality, it remains unclear whether this association reflects a causal link, shared risk factors or pathophysiological mechanisms, or detection bias upon statistical analysis. Establishing BPH...

  4. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty ... Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page This page was reviewed on ...

  5. Prostate cancer may trigger paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jakob Kristian; Zakharia, Elias Raja; Boysen, Anders Kindberg Fossø

    2013-01-01

    -Hu antibody test the patient was diagnosed with paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis related to prostate cancer. The patient died within 6 months. We review the literature on prostate cancer-related paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis. High-risk prostate cancer can trigger paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis...

  6. Mitochondrial mutations drive prostate cancer aggression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkins, Julia F.; Sabelnykova, Veronica Y.; Weischenfeldt, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear mutations are well known to drive tumor incidence, aggression and response to therapy. By contrast, the frequency and roles of mutations in the maternally inherited mitochondrial genome are poorly understood. Here we sequence the mitochondrial genomes of 384 localized prostate cancer...... in prostate cancer, and suggest interplay between nuclear and mitochondrial mutational profiles in prostate cancer....

  7. Prostate-specific antigen density: correlation with histological diagnosis of prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Iersel, M. P.; Witjes, W. P.; de la Rosette, J. J.; Oosterhof, G. O.

    1995-01-01

    To assess the additional value of prostate-specific antigen density in the diagnosis of prostate cancer in patients who undergo prostate biopsies. The study comprised 376 patients with symptoms of prostatism who were undergoing prostate biopsy. Digital rectal examination (DRE) and transrectal

  8. Radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Katsumasa

    2001-01-01

    In Japan, where the mortality rate of prostate cancer is lower than in Western countries, radical prostatectomy or hormonal therapy has been applied more frequently than radiation therapy. However, the number of patients with prostate cancer has been increasing recently and the importance of radiation therapy has rapidly been recognized. Although there have been no randomized trials, results from several institutions in Western countries suggest that similar results of cancer control are achieved with either radiation therapy or radical prostatectomy. For higher-risk cases, conformal high-dose therapy or adjuvant hormonal therapy is more appropriate. In this article, the results of radiation therapy for prostate cancer were reviewed, with a view to the appropriate choice of therapy in Japan. (author)

  9. Prostate Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancers are often adenocarcinomas. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia is often present in association with prostatic adenocarcinoma. Find evidence-based information on prostate cancer including treatment, causes and prevention, screening, research, genetics, and statistics.

  10. Male pattern baldness and the risk of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassa, M; Saliou, M; De Rycke, Y; Hemery, C; Henni, M; Bachaud, J M; Thiounn, N; Cosset, J M; Giraud, P

    2011-08-01

    Androgens play a role in the development of both androgenic alopecia, commonly known as male pattern baldness, and prostate cancer. We set out to study if early-onset androgenic alopecia was associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer later in life. A total of 669 subjects (388 with a history of prostate cancer and 281 without) were enrolled in this study. All subjects were asked to score their balding pattern at ages 20, 30 and 40. Statistical comparison was subsequently done between both groups of patients. Our study revealed that patients with prostate cancer were twice as likely to have androgenic alopecia at age 20 [odds ratio (OR) 2.01, P = 0.0285]. The pattern of hair loss was not a predictive factor for the development of cancer. There was no association between early-onset alopecia and an earlier diagnosis of prostate cancer or with the development of more aggressive tumors. This study shows an association between early-onset androgenic alopecia and the development of prostate cancer. Whether this population can benefit from routine prostate cancer screening or systematic use of 5-alpha reductase inhibitors as primary prevention remains to be determined.

  11. Screening for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Efron, Jonathan E

    2011-01-01

    March is national colorectal cancer awareness month. It is estimated that as many as 60% of colorectal cancer deaths could be prevented if all men and women aged 50 years or older were screened routinely. In 2000, Katie Couric's televised colonoscopy led to a 20% increase in screening colonoscopies across America, a stunning rise called the "Katie Couric Effect". This event demonstrated how celebrity endorsement affects health behavior. Currently, discussion is ongoing about the optimal strategy for CRC screening, particularly the costs of screening colonoscopy. The current CRC screening guidelines are summarized in Table 2. Debates over the optimum CRC screening test continue in the face of evidence that 22 million Americans aged 50 to 75 years are not screened for CRC by any modality and 25,000 of those lives may have been saved if they had been screened for CRC. It is clear that improving screening rates and reducing disparities in underscreened communities and population subgroups could further reduce colorectal cancer morbidity and mortality. National Institutes of Health consensus identified the following priority areas to enhance the use and quality of colorectal cancer screening: Eliminate financial barriers to colorectal cancer screening and appropriate follow-up of positive results of colorectal cancer screening. Develop systems to ensure the high quality of colorectal cancer screening programs. Conduct studies to determine the comparative effectiveness of the various colorectal cancer screening methods in usual practice settings. Encouraging population adherence to screening tests and allowing patients to select the tests they prefer may do more good (as long as they choose something) than whatever procedure is chosen by the medical profession as the preferred test.

  12. Synergistic interaction of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis on prostate cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, S-C; Lai, S-W; Tsai, P-Y; Chen, P-C; Wu, H-C; Lin, W-H; Sung, F-C

    2013-01-01

    Background: The incidence of prostate cancer is much lower in Asian men than in Western men. This study investigated whether prostate cancer is associated with prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and other medical conditions in the low-incidence population. Methods: From the claims data obtained from the universal National Health Insurance of Taiwan, we identified 1184 patients with prostate cancer diagnosed from 1997 to 2008. Controls comprised 4736 men randomly selected from a cancer-free population. Both groups were 50 years of age or above. Medical histories between the two groups were compared. Results: Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that prostatitis and BPH had stronger association with prostate cancer than the other medical conditions tested. Compared with men without prostatitis and BPH, a higher odds ratio (OR) for prostate cancer was associated with BPH (26.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 20.8–33.0) than with prostatitis (10.5, 95% CI=3.36–32.7). Men with both conditions had an OR of 49.2 (95% CI=34.7–69.9). Conclusion: Men with prostate cancer have strong association with prostatitis and/or BPH. Prostatitis interacts with BPH, resulting in higher estimated relative risk of prostate cancer in men suffering from both conditions. PMID:23612451

  13. Gene therapy for prostate cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tangney, Mark

    2012-01-31

    Cancer remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Despite advances in understanding, detection, and treatment, it accounts for almost one-fourth of all deaths per year in Western countries. Prostate cancer is currently the most commonly diagnosed noncutaneous cancer in men in Europe and the United States, accounting for 15% of all cancers in men. As life expectancy of individuals increases, it is expected that there will also be an increase in the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer may be inoperable at initial presentation, unresponsive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, or recur following appropriate treatment. At the time of presentation, patients may already have metastases in their tissues. Preventing tumor recurrence requires systemic therapy; however, current modalities are limited by toxicity or lack of efficacy. For patients with such metastatic cancers, the development of alternative therapies is essential. Gene therapy is a realistic prospect for the treatment of prostate and other cancers, and involves the delivery of genetic information to the patient to facilitate the production of therapeutic proteins. Therapeutics can act directly (eg, by inducing tumor cells to produce cytotoxic agents) or indirectly by upregulating the immune system to efficiently target tumor cells or by destroying the tumor\\'s vasculature. However, technological difficulties must be addressed before an efficient and safe gene medicine is achieved (primarily by developing a means of delivering genes to the target cells or tissue safely and efficiently). A wealth of research has been carried out over the past 20 years, involving various strategies for the treatment of prostate cancer at preclinical and clinical trial levels. The therapeutic efficacy observed with many of these approaches in patients indicates that these treatment modalities will serve as an important component of urological malignancy treatment in the clinic, either in isolation or

  14. Bone Morphogenetic Proteins, Antagonists and Receptors in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reddi, A

    2003-01-01

    ...? The predominant site of prostate cancer is bone. However, unlike the osteolytic lesions of breast cancer, prostate cancer causes osteoblastic osteosclerosis which leads ultimately to morbidity and mortality...

  15. Prostate MR imaging for patients with elevated serum PSA levels. The clinical value of diffusion-weighted and dynamic MR imaging in cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Akihiro; Shinmoto, Hiroshi; Kuribayasi, Sachio; Nakashima, Jun; Kohno, Hidaka; Murai, Masaru

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in combination with T 2 -weighted imaging (T 2 W) for the detection of prostate cancer. Eighty-three patients with elevated serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (>4.0 ng/mL) were evaluated by T 2 W, DWI, and dynamic MRI at 1.5T prior to needle biopsy. The data from the results of the T 2 W alone (protocol A), combination of T 2 W and DWI (protocol B), and combination of T 2 W+DWI and dynamic MRI (protocol C) were entered into a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Prostate cancer was detected by pathology in 44 of 83 patients. The sensitivity, respective specificity, accuracy, and Az (the area under the ROC curve) for the detection of prostate cancer were 73%, 54%, 64%, and 0.71 in protocol A; 84%, 85%, 84%, and 0.90 in protocol B; and 95%, 74%, 86%, and 0.97 in protocol C. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were significantly different among the 3 protocols (p 2 W, DWI, and dynamic MRI may be valuable for detecting prostate cancer and avoiding unnecessary biopsy. (author)

  16. Prostatic paracoccidioidomycosis: differential diagnosis of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lima Lopes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Symptomatic prostatic paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is a very rare condition; however, it may express as a typical benign prostatic hyperplasia or a simulating prostatic adenocarcinoma. This case report presents PCM mimicking prostatic adenocarcinoma. The purpose of this paper is to call the general physician's attention to this important differential diagnosis.

  17. Inflammatory Genetic Markers of Prostate Cancer Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tindall, Elizabeth A.; Hayes, Vanessa M. [Cancer Genetics Group, Children’s Cancer Institute Australia for Medical Research, Lowy Cancer Research Centre, University of New South Wales, PO Box 81, Randwick, NSW 2031 (Australia); University of New South Wales, Kensington Campus, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Petersen, Desiree C., E-mail: dpetersen@ccia.unsw.edu.au [Cancer Genetics Group, Children’s Cancer Institute Australia for Medical Research, Lowy Cancer Research Centre, University of New South Wales, PO Box 81, Randwick, NSW 2031 (Australia)

    2010-06-08

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in Western society males, with incidence rates predicted to rise with global aging. Etiology of prostate cancer is however poorly understood, while current diagnostic tools can be invasive (digital rectal exam or biopsy) and/or lack specificity for the disease (prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing). Substantial histological, epidemiological and molecular genetic evidence indicates that inflammation is important in prostate cancer pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current status of inflammatory genetic markers influencing susceptibility to prostate cancer. The focus will be on inflammatory cytokines regulating T-helper cell and chemokine homeostasis, together with the Toll-like receptors as key players in the host innate immune system. Although association studies indicating a genetic basis for prostate cancer are presently limited mainly due to lack of replication, larger and more ethnically and clinically defined study populations may help elucidate the true contribution of inflammatory gene variants to prostate cancer risk.

  18. Inflammatory Genetic Markers of Prostate Cancer Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tindall, Elizabeth A.; Hayes, Vanessa M.; Petersen, Desiree C.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in Western society males, with incidence rates predicted to rise with global aging. Etiology of prostate cancer is however poorly understood, while current diagnostic tools can be invasive (digital rectal exam or biopsy) and/or lack specificity for the disease (prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing). Substantial histological, epidemiological and molecular genetic evidence indicates that inflammation is important in prostate cancer pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current status of inflammatory genetic markers influencing susceptibility to prostate cancer. The focus will be on inflammatory cytokines regulating T-helper cell and chemokine homeostasis, together with the Toll-like receptors as key players in the host innate immune system. Although association studies indicating a genetic basis for prostate cancer are presently limited mainly due to lack of replication, larger and more ethnically and clinically defined study populations may help elucidate the true contribution of inflammatory gene variants to prostate cancer risk

  19. Epigenetic Regulation in Prostate Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggero, Katia; Farran-Matas, Sonia; Martinez-Tebar, Adrian; Aytes, Alvaro

    2018-01-01

    An important number of newly identified molecular alterations in prostate cancer affect gene encoding master regulators of chromatin biology epigenetic regulation. This review will provide an updated view of the key epigenetic mechanisms underlying prostate cancer progression, therapy resistance, and potential actionable mechanisms and biomarkers. Key players in chromatin biology and epigenetic master regulators has been recently described to be crucially altered in metastatic CRPC and tumors that progress to AR independency. As such, epigenetic dysregulation represents a driving mechanism in the reprograming of prostate cancer cells as they lose AR-imposed identity. Chromatin integrity and accessibility for transcriptional regulation are key features altered in cancer progression, and particularly relevant in nuclear hormone receptor-driven tumors like prostate cancer. Understanding how chromatin remodeling dictates prostate development and how its deregulation contributes to prostate cancer onset and progression may improve risk stratification and treatment selection for prostate cancer patients.

  20. Screening for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans J.; Jakobsen, Karen V.; Christensen, Ib J.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging results indicate that screening improves survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Therefore, screening programs are already implemented or are being considered for implementation in Asia, Europe and North America. At present, a great variety of screening methods are available including...... into improvements of screening for colorectal cancer includes blood-based biological markers, such as proteins, DNA and RNA in combination with various demographically and clinically parameters into a "risk assessment evaluation" (RAE) test. It is assumed that such a test may lead to higher acceptance among...... procedures for colorectal cancer. Therefore, results of present research, validating RAE tests, are awaited with interest....

  1. Exploring prostate cancer literacy and family cancer awareness in college students: getting ahead of the curve in cancer education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lisa C; McClain, Jasmyne

    2013-12-01

    Cancer literacy and family cancer experiences have not been widely researched from the perspective of young adults. This study examined health literacy related to prostate cancer and family cancer awareness among a sample of 146 male and female college students. Results supported conventional wisdom that males would be more knowledgeable about the anatomical location of the prostate as compared to females. More notably, across the sample participants had limited knowledge of comprehensive prostate cancer screening but were generally aware of the prostate specific antigen blood test, as well as age and diet as risk factors for prostate cancer. Emerging associations between sexual health history and prostate cancer risk were not widely known by the sample as a whole and perceived availability of prostate health education in college was low. Finally, gender differences in family communication about cancer and racial differences in the number of family members with cancer were observed, which could have implications for perpetuating existing gender and racial gaps in health literacy and cancer awareness. A lifespan approach to cancer education research is suggested to identify ways to promote lifelong learning about cancer, promote prevention behaviors and informed screening in young adulthood, and beyond and better prepare adults to face a family or personal cancer diagnosis should that occur in the future.

  2. Obesity and Cancer Screening according to Race and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Bittner Fagan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between obesity and cancer screening varies by screening test, race, and gender. Most studies on cervical cancer screening found a negative association between increasing weight and screening, and this negative association was most consistent in white women. Recent literature on mammography reports no association with weight. However, some studies show a negative association in white, but not black, women. In contrast, obese/overweight men reported higher rates of prostate-specific antigen (PSA testing. Comparison of prostate cancer screening, mammography, and Pap smears implies a gender difference in the relationship between screening behavior and weight. In colorectal cancer (CRC screening, the relationship between weight and screening in men is inconsistent, while there is a trend towards lower CRC screening in higher weight women.

  3. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Quintero, Enrique; Saito, Yutaka; Hassan, Cessare; Senore, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer, which is the leading cancer in Singapore, can be prevented by increased use of screening and polypectomy. A range of screening strategies such as stool-based tests, flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy and computed tomography colonography are available, each with different strengths and limitations. Primary care physicians should discuss appropriate screening modalities with their patients, tailored to their individual needs. Physicians, patients and the government should wo...

  4. Colorectal cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Plumb, A. A.; Halligan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health burden worldwide. There is clear-cut evidence that screening will reduce colorectal cancer mortality and the only contentious issue is which screening tool to use. Most evidence points towards screening with fecal occult blood testing. The immunochemical fecal occult blood tests have a higher sensitivity than the guaiac-based tests. In addition, their automation and haemoglobin quantification allows a threshold for colonoscopy to be selected that can...

  5. Radiation therapy of newly diagnosed, advanced prostatic cancer and hormonally relapsed prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Minoru; Fujiwara, Kazuhisa; Hayakawa, Katsumi; Hida, Shuichi

    1994-01-01

    Ten patients with newly diagnosed, advanced prostatic cancer were treated with radiotherapy and hormone therapy to improve tumor control and survival. Eight patients with hormonally relapsed prostatic cancer were treated with radiotherapy to improve their quality of life. Local control of the tumor was achieved in 9 of 10 patients with newly diagnosed, advanced prostatic cancer. Five of eight patients with hormonally relapsed prostatic cancer obtained improved quality of life. Combined radiotherapy and hormone therapy were effective in the treatment of newly diagnosed, advanced prostatic cancer, and radiotherapy was useful for improving the quality of life of patients with hormonally relapsed prostatic cancer. (author)

  6. BPH and prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Saiful; Catto, James

    2014-04-01

    With the exclusion of non-melanomatous skin malignancy, prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most prevalent cancer in men globally. It has been reported that the majority of men will develop benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) by the time they reach their 60s. Together, these prostatic diseases have a significant morbidity and mortality affecting over a billion men throughout the world. The risk of developing prostate cancer of men suffering BPH is one that has resulted in a healthy debate amongst the urological community. Here, we try to address this conundrum with clinical and basic science evidence. Data from an online search and contemporary data presented at international urological congresses was reviewed. BPH and PCa can be linked together at a molecular and cellular level on genetic, hormonal, and inflammatory platforms suggesting that these prostatic diseases have common pathophysiological driving factors. Epidemiological studies are weighted towards the presence of BPH having a greater risk for a man to develop PCa in his lifetime; however, a conclusion of causality cannot be confidently stated. The future workload healthcare practitioners will face regarding BPH, and PCa will substantially increase. Further basic science and large epidemiological studies using a global cohort of men are required prior to the urological community confidently counseling their patients with BPH with regards to their PCa risk.

  7. BPH and prostate cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Miah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With the exclusion of non-melanomatous skin malignancy, prostate cancer (PCa is the second most prevalent cancer in men globally. It has been reported that the majority of men will develop benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH by the time they reach their 60s. Together, these prostatic diseases have a significant morbidity and mortality affecting over a billion men throughout the world. The risk of developing prostate cancer of men suffering BPH is one that has resulted in a healthy debate amongst the urological community. Here, we try to address this conundrum with clinical and basic science evidence. Materials and Methods: Data from an online search and contemporary data presented at international urological congresses was reviewed. Results: BPH and PCa can be linked together at a molecular and cellular level on genetic, hormonal, and inflammatory platforms suggesting that these prostatic diseases have common pathophysiological driving factors. Epidemiological studies are weighted towards the presence of BPH having a greater risk for a man to develop PCa in his lifetime; however, a conclusion of causality cannot be confidently stated. Conclusion: The future workload healthcare practitioners will face regarding BPH, and PCa will substantially increase. Further basic science and large epidemiological studies using a global cohort of men are required prior to the urological community confidently counseling their patients with BPH with regards to their PCa risk.

  8. Breast Cancer Screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altaf, Fadwa J.

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a very common health problem in Saudi females that can be reduced by early detection through introducing breast cancer screening. Literature review reveals significant reduction in breast cancer incidence and outcome after the beginning of breast cancer screening. The objectives of this article are to highlight the significance of breast cancer screening in different international societies and to write the major guidelines of breast cancer screening in relation to other departments involved with more emphasis on the Pathology Department guidelines in tissue handling, diagnostic criteria and significance of the diagnosis. This article summaries and acknowledges major work carried out before, and recommends similar modified work in order to meet the requirement for the Saudi society. (author)

  9. Implications of false-positive results for future cancer screenings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taksler, Glen B; Keating, Nancy L; Rothberg, Michael B

    2018-06-01

    False-positive cancer screening results may affect a patient's willingness to obtain future screening. The authors conducted logistic regression analysis of 450,484 person-years of electronic medical records (2006-2015) in 92,405 individuals aged 50 to 75 years. Exposures were false-positive breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer screening test results (repeat breast imaging or negative breast biopsy ≤3 months after screening mammography, repeat prostate-specific antigen [PSA] test ≤3 months after PSA test result ≥4.0 ng/mL or negative prostate biopsy ≤3 months after any PSA result, or negative colonoscopy [without biopsy/polypectomy] ≤6 months after a positive fecal occult blood test). Outcomes were up-to-date status with breast or colorectal cancer screening. Covariates included prior screening history, clinical information (eg, family history, obesity, and smoking status), comorbidity, and demographics. Women were more likely to be up to date with breast cancer screening if they previously had false-positive mammography findings (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.43 [95% confidence interval, 1.34-1.51] without breast biopsy and AOR, 2.02 [95% confidence interval, 1.56-2.62] with breast biopsy; both Pfalse-positive PSA testing were more likely to be up to date with colorectal cancer screening (AOR, 1.22 [P = .039] without prostate imaging/biopsy and AOR, 1.60 [P = .028] with imaging/biopsy). Results were stronger for individuals with more false-positive results (all P≤.005). However, women with previous false-positive colorectal cancer fecal occult blood test screening results were found to be less likely to be up to date with breast cancer screening (AOR, 0.73; Pfalse-positive breast or prostate cancer screening test were more likely to engage in future screening. Cancer 2018;124:2390-8. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  10. Epigenetics in breast and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanyuan; Sarkissyan, Marianna; Vadgama, Jaydutt V

    2015-01-01

    Most recent investigations into cancer etiology have identified a key role played by epigenetics. Specifically, aberrant DNA and histone modifications which silence tumor suppressor genes or promote oncogenes have been demonstrated in multiple cancer models. While the role of epigenetics in several solid tumor cancers such as colorectal cancer are well established, there is emerging evidence that epigenetics also plays a critical role in breast and prostate cancer. In breast cancer, DNA methylation profiles have been linked to hormone receptor status and tumor progression. Similarly in prostate cancer, epigenetic patterns have been associated with androgen receptor status and response to therapy. The regulation of key receptor pathways and activities which affect clinical therapy treatment options by epigenetics renders this field high priority for elucidating mechanisms and potential targets. A new set of methylation arrays are now available to screen epigenetic changes and provide the cutting-edge tools needed to perform such investigations. The role of nutritional interventions affecting epigenetic changes particularly holds promise. Ultimately, determining the causes and outcomes from epigenetic changes will inform translational applications for utilization as biomarkers for risk and prognosis as well as candidates for therapy.

  11. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) as a possible biomarker in non-prostatic cancer: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ibave, Diana Cristina; Burciaga-Flores, Carlos Horacio; Elizondo-Riojas, Miguel-Ángel

    2018-06-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a serine protease produced by epithelial prostatic cells and its main function is to liquefy seminal coagulum. Currently, PSA is a biomarker for the diagnosis and screening of prostate cancer and it was the first cancer biomarker approved by the FDA. The quantity and serum isoforms of male PSA, allows distinguishing between carcinoma and benign inflammatory disease of the prostate. Initially, it was thought that PSA was produced only by the prostate, and thus, a protein that was expressed exclusively in men. However, several authors report that PSA is a protein that is expressed by multiple non-prostatic tissues not only in men but also in women. Some authors also report that in women, the expression of this protein is highly related to breast and colon cancer and therefore can act as a possible biomarker for early detection, diagnosis and prognosis of these cancers in women. In this review, we will focus on the characteristics of the PSA at a molecular level, its current clinical implications, the expression of this protein in non-prostatic tissues, and its relationship with cancer, especially in women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of a novel androgen receptor (AR) coregulator RIPK1 and related chemicals that suppress AR-mediated prostate cancer growth via peptide and chemical screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Cheng-Lung; Liu, Jai-Shin; Lin, Ting-Wei; Chang, Ying-Hsu; Kuo, Yung-Chia; Lin, An-Chi; Ting, Huei-Ju; Pang, See-Tong; Lee, Li-Yu; Ma, Wen-Lung; Lin, Chun-Cheng; Wu, Wen-Guey

    2017-09-19

    Using bicalutamide-androgen receptor (AR) DNA binding domain-ligand binding domain as bait, we observed enrichment of FxxFY motif-containing peptides. Protein database searches revealed the presence of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) harboring one FxxFY motif. RIPK1 interacted directly with AR and suppressed AR transactivation in a dose-dependent manner. Domain mapping experiments showed that the FxxFY motif in RIPK1 is critical for interactions with AR and the death domain of RIPK1 plays a crucial role in its inhibitory effect on transactivation. In terms of tissue expression, RIPK1 levels were markedly higher in benign prostate hyperplasia and non-cancerous tissue regions relative to the tumor area. With the aid of computer modeling for screening of chemicals targeting activation function 2 (AF-2) of AR, we identified oxadiazole derivatives as good candidates and subsequently generated a small library of these compounds. A number of candidates could effectively suppress AR transactivation and AR-related functions in vitro and in vivo with tolerable toxicity via inhibiting AR-peptide, AR-coregulator and AR N-C interactions. Combination of these chemicals with antiandrogen had an additive suppressive effect on AR transcriptional activity. Our collective findings may pave the way in creating new strategies for the development and design of anti-AR drugs.

  13. Gender Identity Disparities in Cancer Screening Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaac, Ariella R; Sutter, Megan E; Wall, Catherine S J; Baker, Kellan E

    2018-03-01

    Transgender (trans) and gender-nonconforming adults have reported reduced access to health care because of discrimination and lack of knowledgeable care. This study aimed to contribute to the nascent cancer prevention literature among trans and gender-nonconforming individuals by ascertaining rates of breast, cervical, prostate, and colorectal cancer screening behaviors by gender identity. Publicly available de-identified data from the 2014-2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys were utilized to evaluate rates of cancer screenings by gender identity, while controlling for healthcare access, sociodemographics, and survey year. Analyses were conducted in 2017. Weighted chi-square tests identified significant differences in the proportion of cancer screening behaviors by gender identity among lifetime colorectal cancer screenings, Pap tests, prostate-specific antigen tests, discussing prostate-specific antigen test advantages/disadvantages with their healthcare provider, and up-to-date colorectal cancer screenings and Pap tests (pgender identity were fully explained by covariates, trans women had reduced odds of having up-to-date colorectal cancer screenings compared to cisgender (cis) men (AOR=0.20) and cis women (AOR=0.24), whereas trans men were more likely to ever receive a sigmoidoscopy/colonoscopy as compared to cis men (AOR=2.76) and cis women (AOR=2.65). Trans women were more likely than cis men to have up-to-date prostate-specific antigen tests (AOR=3.19). Finally, trans men and gender-nonconforming individuals had reduced odds of lifetime Pap tests versus cis women (AOR=0.14 and 0.08, respectively), and gender-nonconforming individuals had lower odds of discussing prostate-specific antigen tests than cis men (AOR=0.09; all pgender identity disparities in cancer screenings persist beyond known sociodemographic and healthcare factors. It is critical that gender identity questions are included in cancer and other health-related surveillance

  14. Dietary Phytoestrogens and Prostate Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kurzer, Mindy S; Slaton, Joel

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to evaluate the effects of soy phytoestrogens on reproductive hormones and prostate tissue markers of cell proliferation and androgen action in men at high risk of prostate cancer...

  15. Prostate cancer and inflammation: the evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfanos, Karen S; De Marzo, Angelo M

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is now known to contribute to several forms of human cancer, with an estimated 20% of adult cancers attributable to chronic inflammatory conditions caused by infectious agents, chronic noninfectious inflammatory diseases and / or other environmental factors. Indeed, chronic inflammation is now regarded as an ‘enabling characteristic’ of human cancer. The aim of this review is to summarize the current literature on the evidence for a role for chronic inflammation in prostate cancer aetiology, with a specific focus on recent advances regarding the following: (i) potential stimuli for prostatic inflammation; (ii) prostate cancer immunobiology; (iii) inflammatory pathways and cytokines in prostate cancer risk and development; (iv) proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) as a risk factor lesion to prostate cancer development; and (v) the role of nutritional or other antiinflammatory compounds in reducing prostate cancer risk. PMID:22212087

  16. Combination of Autoantibody Signature with PSA Level Enables a Highly Accurate Blood-Based Differentiation of Prostate Cancer Patients from Patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Leidinger

    Full Text Available Although an increased level of the prostate-specific antigen can be an indication for prostate cancer, other reasons often lead to a high rate of false positive results. Therefore, an additional serological screening of autoantibodies in patients' sera could improve the detection of prostate cancer. We performed protein macroarray screening with sera from 49 prostate cancer patients, 70 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and 28 healthy controls and compared the autoimmune response in those groups. We were able to distinguish prostate cancer patients from normal controls with an accuracy of 83.2%, patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia from normal controls with an accuracy of 86.0% and prostate cancer patients from patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia with an accuracy of 70.3%. Combining seroreactivity pattern with a PSA level of higher than 4.0 ng/ml this classification could be improved to an accuracy of 84.1%. For selected proteins we were able to confirm the differential expression by using luminex on 84 samples. We provide a minimally invasive serological method to reduce false positive results in detection of prostate cancer and according to PSA screening to distinguish men with prostate cancer from men with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  17. Radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Bridget F; Lee, W Robert

    2013-07-01

    Radiation therapy is an effective treatment for newly diagnosed prostate cancer, salvage treatment, or for palliation of advanced disease. Herein we briefly discuss the indications, results, and complications associated with brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy, when used as monotherapy and in combination with each other or androgen deprivation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network (PCBN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    are linked to clinical and outcome data and supported by an informatics infrastructure . In this 2nd year of operation the University of Washington...REPORT Unclassified b. ABSTRACT Unclassified c. THIS PAGE Unclassified Unclassified 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code ) Standard Form 298...informatics infrastructure . Keywords Biorepository, prostate cancer, patient derived xenografts, rapid autopsy, biomarkers. Accomplishments The

  19. Genetics Home Reference: prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jan;73(2):169-75. doi: 10.1002/pros.22552. Epub 2012 Jun 21. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central Nakagawa H. Prostate cancer genomics by high-throughput technologies: genome-wide association study and sequencing analysis. Endocr ...

  20. Ultrasonography and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in differential diagnosis of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechev, D.S.; Shcherbyina, O.V.; Yatsik, V.Yi.; Gladka, L.Yu.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the work is analysis of diagnostic possibilities of transrectal ultrasonography and PSA in differential diagnosis of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. 142 patients have been investigated by transrectal ultrasonography. he transrectal ultrasonography and PSA are sensible tests in diagnosis of prostate cancer and in differential diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

  1. Issues reporting PSA in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, Paul H.

    1996-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute Prostate; Lung; Colon; Ovarian Cancer Screening (PLCO) project is a multi-center trial developed to investigate the effectiveness of DRE and PSA testing in the early detection and outcome of patients with prostate cancer. Accordingly, the Prostate Cancer Intervention versus Observation Trial (PIVOT) has been launched and is a randomized trial comparing radical prostatectomy versus expectant management for ALCaP. PSA: Initially PSA was thought to be of little value for diagnosis because 20% of men undergoing radical prostatectomy have 'normal' PSA and patients with apparently only symptomatic BPH have 'elevated' levels as follows: 4-10 ng/ml (Tandem-R) - 20%, >10 ng/ml -3%. Yet, PSA has looked attractive as a diagnostic tool in many studies; for example, when PSA was used in a screening approach as the first test which then drove further evaluation (Catalona, Brawer). It was shown that the positive predictive value for PSA's between 4 and 10 is approximately 20% and > 10 approximately 55%. The value of serial PSA's (velocity) is unknown but is under intense study: one major issue is determination of what represents a significant rise (details to be presented). Studies have also revealed that a DRE and PSA are important for optimal results. About 18% of clinically detectable cancers are only DRE positive while about 25 - 30% are only PSA positive. When both a DRE and PSA are used together, very few clinically apparent cancers are missed (3-5%). Recent ROC curves suggest that 4 ng/ml is reasonable. Recently, PSA values for men without apparent cancer were stratified by age, and taking the 2SD, age specific reference values were generated as follows: age 40-49 (0-2.5 ng/ml), 50-59 (0-3.5), 60-69 (0-4.5), 70-70 (0-6.5). Finally, there is the issue about different PSA assays regarding the compatabilities/reliability of the upper limit of normal and serial values. Much of the confusion is because there is no international PSA standard and

  2. Molecular Determinants of Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    receptor is no longer essential for survival, collectively termed androgen pathway independent prostate cancer (APIPC) (Nelson, 2012). A subset of these...Reciprocal feedback regulation of PI3K and androgen receptor signaling in PTEN-deficient prostate cancer . Cancer Cell. 2011 May 17;19(5):575-86. Chen J, Li...2005a). The androgen receptor and signal-transduction pathways in hormone-refractory prostate cancer . Part 1: Modifications to the androgen receptor

  3. Molecular pathology of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazares, L H; Drake, R R; Esquela-Kirscher, A; Lance, R S; Semmes, O J; Troyer, D A

    2010-01-01

    This chapter includes discussion of the molecular pathology of tissue, blood, urine, and expressed prostatic secretions. Because we are unable to reliably image the disease in vivo, a 12 core method that oversamples the peripheral zone is widely used. This generates large numbers of cores that need to be carefully processed and sampled. In spite of the large number of tissue cores, the amount of tumor available for study is often quite limited. This is a particular challenge for research, as new biomarker assays will need to preserve tissue architecture intact for histopathology. Methods of processing and reporting pathology are discussed. With the exception of ductal variants, recognized subtypes of prostate cancer are largely confined to research applications, and most prostate cancers are acinar. Biomarker discovery in urine and expressed prostatic secretions would be useful since these are readily obtained and are proximate fluids. The well-known challenges of biomarker discovery in blood and urine are referenced and discussed. Mediators of carcinogenesis can serve as biomarkers as exemplified by mutations in PTEN and TMPRSS2:ERG fusion. The use of proteomics in biomarker discovery with an emphasis on imaging mass spectroscopy of tissues is discussed. Small RNAs are of great interest, however, their usefulness as biomarkers in clinical decision making remains the subject of ongoing research. The chapter concludes with an overview of blood biomarkers such as circulating nucleic acids and tumor cells and bound/free isoforms of prostate specific antigen (PSA).

  4. Profiling Prostate Cancer Therapeutic Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron A. Wade; Natasha Kyprianou

    2018-01-01

    The major challenge in the treatment of patients with advanced lethal prostate cancer is therapeutic resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) and chemotherapy. Overriding this resistance requires understanding of the driving mechanisms of the tumor microenvironment, not just the androgen receptor (AR)-signaling cascade, that facilitate therapeutic resistance in order to identify new drug targets. The tumor microenvironment enables key signaling pathways promoting cancer cell survival ...

  5. Pancreatic Metastasis from Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The pancreas is an unusual location for metastases from other primary cancers. Rarely, pancreatic metastases from kidney or colorectal cancers have been reported. However, a variety of other cancers may also spread to the pancreas. We report an exceptional case of pancreatic metastasis from prostate cancer. Differences in management between primary and secondary pancreatic tumors make recognition of metastases to the pancreas an objective of first importance. Knowledge of unusual locations for metastatic spread will reduce diagnostic delay and lead to a timely delivery of an appropriate treatment.

  6. Screening for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitender, Solanki; Sarika, Gupta; Varada, Hiremath R; Omprakash, Yadav; Mohsin, Khan

    2016-11-01

    Oral cancer is considered as a serious health problem resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Early detection and prevention play a key role in controlling the burden of oral cancer worldwide. The five-year survival rate of oral cancer still remains low and delayed diagnosis is considered as one of the major reasons. This increases the demand for oral screening. Currently, screening of oral cancer is largely based on visual examination. Various evidence strongly suggest the validity of visual inspection in reducing mortality in patients at risk for oral cancer. Simple visual examination is accompanied with adjunctive techniques for subjective interpretation of dysplastic changes. These include toluidine blue staining, brush biopsy, chemiluminescence and tissue autofluorescence. This review highlights the efficacy of various diagnostic methods in screening of oral cancer. © 2016 Old City Publishing, Inc.

  7. Estrogen receptors in the human male prostatic urethra and prostate in prostatic cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, A; Bruun, J; Balslev, E

    1999-01-01

    Estrogen receptors (ERs) in the prostate and prostatic urethra were examined in 33 men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and in 11 with prostate cancer (PC). The Abbot monoclonal ER-ICA assay was used for immunohistochemical investigation. In the BPH group, ERs were revealed in the prostatic...... demonstrated in the prostatic stroma and/or prostatic urethra in 6 out of 11 cases. In both BPH and PC patients, immunoreactivity was weak and confined to few cells, indicating low ER content in the prostate as well as in the prostatic urethra. Dextran-coated charcoal (DCC) analysis was used for detection...... and quanticization of cytosolic and nuclear ERs. In the BPH group, ERs were detected once in the prostate and prostatic urethra in the nuclear and cytosol, and additionally in the prostatic urethra in the cytosol fraction in three cases. In all cases, ER content was low, ranging from 10-15 fmol/mg protein. In the PC...

  8. Danish Prostate Cancer Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, J Thomas; Klemann, Nina; Røder, Martin Andreas

    2016-01-01

    of SNOMED codes were identified. A computer algorithm was developed to transcode SNOMED codes into an analyzable format including procedure (eg, biopsy, transurethral resection, etc), diagnosis, and date of diagnosis. For validation, ~55,000 pathological reports were manually reviewed. Prostate-specific...... antigen, vital status, causes of death, and tumor-node-metastasis classification were integrated from national registries. RESULTS: Of the 161,525 specimens from 113,801 males identified, 83,379 (51.6%) were sets of prostate biopsies, 56,118 (34.7%) were transurethral/transvesical resections......BACKGROUND: Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED) codes are computer-processable medical terms used to describe histopathological evaluations. SNOMED codes are not readily usable for analysis. We invented an algorithm that converts prostate SNOMED codes into an analyzable format. We...

  9. Immunotherapy and Immune Evasion in Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, Archana; Vaishampayan, Ulka; Lum, Lawrence G.

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic prostate cancer remains to this day a terminal disease. Prostatectomy and radiotherapy are effective for organ-confined diseases, but treatment for locally advanced and metastatic cancer remains challenging. Although advanced prostate cancers treated with androgen deprivation therapy achieves debulking of disease, responses are transient with subsequent development of castration-resistant and metastatic disease. Since prostate cancer is typically a slowly progressing disease, use of immune-based therapies offers an advantage to target advanced tumors and to induce antitumor immunity. This review will discuss the clinical merits of various vaccines and immunotherapies in castrate resistant prostate cancer and challenges to this evolving field of immune-based therapies

  10. Immunotherapy and Immune Evasion in Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, Archana, E-mail: thakur@karmanos.org; Vaishampayan, Ulka [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Lum, Lawrence G., E-mail: thakur@karmanos.org [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)

    2013-05-24

    Metastatic prostate cancer remains to this day a terminal disease. Prostatectomy and radiotherapy are effective for organ-confined diseases, but treatment for locally advanced and metastatic cancer remains challenging. Although advanced prostate cancers treated with androgen deprivation therapy achieves debulking of disease, responses are transient with subsequent development of castration-resistant and metastatic disease. Since prostate cancer is typically a slowly progressing disease, use of immune-based therapies offers an advantage to target advanced tumors and to induce antitumor immunity. This review will discuss the clinical merits of various vaccines and immunotherapies in castrate resistant prostate cancer and challenges to this evolving field of immune-based therapies.

  11. Diagnostic utility of DTI in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerses, Bengi, E-mail: bengur0@yahoo.com [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey); Tasdelen, Neslihan [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey); Yencilek, Faruk [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Urology, Istanbul (Turkey); Kilickesmez, N. Ozguer [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey); Alp, Turgut [Fatih Sultan Mehmet Training and Research Hospital, Division of Urology, Istanbul (Turkey); Firat, Zeynep [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey); Albayrak, M. Selami [Kartal Training and Research Hospital, Division of Urology, Istanbul (Turkey); Ulug, Aziz M. [Yeditepe University Department of Biomedical Engineering, Istanbul (Turkey); The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, New York (United States); Guermen, A. Nevzat [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the diffusion tensor parameters of prostate cancer, prostatitis and normal prostate tissue. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 patients with the suspicion of prostate cancer were included in the study. MRI was performed with 3 T system (Intera Achieva, Philips Medical Systems, The Netherlands). T2 TSE and DTI with ss-EPI were obtained in each subject. TRUS-guided prostate biopsy was performed after the MRI examination. Images were analyzed by two radiologists using a special software system. ROI's were drawn according to biopsy zones which are apex, midgland, base and central zone on each sides of the gland. FA and ADC values in areas of cancer, chronic prostatitis and normal prostate tissue were compared using Student's t-test. Results: Histopathological analysis revealed carcinoma in 68, chronic prostatitis in 67 and was reported as normal in 65 zones. The mean FA of cancerous tissue was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than the FA of chronic prostatitis and normal gland. The mean ADC of cancerous tissue was found to be significantly lower (p < 0.01), compared with non-cancerous tissue. Conclusion: Decreased ADC and increased FA are compatible with the hypercellular nature of prostate tumors. These differences may increase the accuracy of MRI in the detection of carcinoma and to differentiate between cancer and prostatitis.

  12. Diagnostic utility of DTI in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerses, Bengi; Tasdelen, Neslihan; Yencilek, Faruk; Kilickesmez, N. Ozguer; Alp, Turgut; Firat, Zeynep; Albayrak, M. Selami; Ulug, Aziz M.; Guermen, A. Nevzat

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the diffusion tensor parameters of prostate cancer, prostatitis and normal prostate tissue. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 patients with the suspicion of prostate cancer were included in the study. MRI was performed with 3 T system (Intera Achieva, Philips Medical Systems, The Netherlands). T2 TSE and DTI with ss-EPI were obtained in each subject. TRUS-guided prostate biopsy was performed after the MRI examination. Images were analyzed by two radiologists using a special software system. ROI's were drawn according to biopsy zones which are apex, midgland, base and central zone on each sides of the gland. FA and ADC values in areas of cancer, chronic prostatitis and normal prostate tissue were compared using Student's t-test. Results: Histopathological analysis revealed carcinoma in 68, chronic prostatitis in 67 and was reported as normal in 65 zones. The mean FA of cancerous tissue was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than the FA of chronic prostatitis and normal gland. The mean ADC of cancerous tissue was found to be significantly lower (p < 0.01), compared with non-cancerous tissue. Conclusion: Decreased ADC and increased FA are compatible with the hypercellular nature of prostate tumors. These differences may increase the accuracy of MRI in the detection of carcinoma and to differentiate between cancer and prostatitis.

  13. Granulomatous prostatitis after intravesical immunotherapy mimicking prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Białek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Intravesical immunotherapy with attenuated strains of Mycobacterium bovis is a widely used therapeutic option in patients with non-muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. A rare complication of intravesical therapy with the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine is granulomatous prostatitis, which due to increasing levels of prostate-specific antigen and abnormalities found in transrectal examination of the prostate may suggest concomitant prostate cancer. A case of extensive granulomatous prostatitis in a 61-year-old patient which occurred after the first course of a well-tolerated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy is presented. Due to abnormalities found in rectal examination and an abnormal transrectal ultrasound image of the prostate with extensive infiltration mimicking neoplastic hyperplasia a core biopsy of the prostate was performed. Histopathological examination revealed inflammatory infiltration sites of tuberculosis origin.

  14. Role of transurethral resection of the prostate in the management of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szollosi Attila

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prostate cancer is the second most diagnosed cancer in men, after lung cancer. The gold standard procedure in prostate cancer (PCa diagnosis is the ultrasound guided prostate biopsy. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP used in solving the bladder outlet obstruction, can have a role in detection of PCa. The aim of this retrospective study is to examine the role of transurethral resection of the prostate in the diagnosis and therapy of prostate cancer.

  15. Breast cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenbroucke, A.

    1987-01-01

    Many studies have shown that breast cancer screening is able to reduce breast cancer mortality, including the HIP study, the Swedish Trial and the Netherlands studies. Mammography is considered as the most effective method for breast cancer screening but it might be unfeasible for some reasons: - the population acceptability of the method might be low. Indeed, most populations of the South of Europe are less compliant to mass screening than populations of the North of Europe; - the medical equipment and personnel - radiologists and pathologists - might be insufficient; - it might be too costly for the National Health Service, specially where the incidence rate of breast cancer is relatively low (i.e. Greece, Portugal). The validity of screening tests is judged by their sensitivity and their specificity

  16. Clinical survey of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Tsuyoshi; Hatano, Koji; Satoh, Mototaka; Tsujimoto, Yuichi; Honda, Masahito; Matsumiya, Kiyomi; Fujioka, Hideki

    2007-01-01

    Treatment trends and outcomes for prostate cancer in our hospital were reported. A total of 482 patients with prostate cancer treated in our hospital between January, 1990 and December, 2004. The age distribution was from 51 to 99 years-old, with the mean age of 72.9 years-old at onset. The number of prostate cancer patients, especially asymptomatic patients with prostatic specific antigen (PSA) elevation, have increased recently. As for the clinical stage, 92 cases (19.1%), 238 cases (49.4%), 48 cases (10.0%) and 104 cases (21.6%) were stage A, B, C and D, respectively. 425 cases (88.2%) received some form of endocrine therapy. Retropubic prostatectomy or external beam radiation therapy was performed in 77 and 57 cases, respectively all cases. The cause-specific 5-year survival rate of the 482 cases was 79.7%, comprising 100% for stage A1, 96.8% for stage A2, 89.4% for stage B, 79.9% for stage C and 42.9% for stage D. The cause-specific 5-year survival was significantly better in the latter patients (1997-2004) than the former patients (1990-1996) in stage C (p=0.0226), D (p=0.0448). In stage C patients, the retropubic prostatectomy (with endocrine therapy) group, increased in the latter period and showed longer cause-specific 5-year survival than the endocrine therapy group (p=0.0027). In stage D2 patients, chemo-endocrine therapy with etoposide (VP-16), adriamycin (ADM) and cisplatin (CDDP) refractory and cause-specific 5-year survival was longer than endocrine therapy alone (p=0.0467, P=0.0381). Our results suggest that retropubic prostatectomy with endocrine therapy and chemo-endocrine therapy are useful for stage C and D prostate cancer patients, respectively. (author)

  17. Prioritizing genes associated with prostate cancer development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorlov, Ivan P; Logothetis, Christopher J; Sircar, Kanishka; Zhao, Hongya; Maity, Sankar N; Navone, Nora M; Gorlova, Olga Y; Troncoso, Patricia; Pettaway, Curtis A; Byun, Jin Young

    2010-01-01

    The genetic control of prostate cancer development is poorly understood. Large numbers of gene-expression datasets on different aspects of prostate tumorigenesis are available. We used these data to identify and prioritize candidate genes associated with the development of prostate cancer and bone metastases. Our working hypothesis was that combining meta-analyses on different but overlapping steps of prostate tumorigenesis will improve identification of genes associated with prostate cancer development. A Z score-based meta-analysis of gene-expression data was used to identify candidate genes associated with prostate cancer development. To put together different datasets, we conducted a meta-analysis on 3 levels that follow the natural history of prostate cancer development. For experimental verification of candidates, we used in silico validation as well as in-house gene-expression data. Genes with experimental evidence of an association with prostate cancer development were overrepresented among our top candidates. The meta-analysis also identified a considerable number of novel candidate genes with no published evidence of a role in prostate cancer development. Functional annotation identified cytoskeleton, cell adhesion, extracellular matrix, and cell motility as the top functions associated with prostate cancer development. We identified 10 genes--CDC2, CCNA2, IGF1, EGR1, SRF, CTGF, CCL2, CAV1, SMAD4, and AURKA--that form hubs of the interaction network and therefore are likely to be primary drivers of prostate cancer development. By using this large 3-level meta-analysis of the gene-expression data to identify candidate genes associated with prostate cancer development, we have generated a list of candidate genes that may be a useful resource for researchers studying the molecular mechanisms underlying prostate cancer development

  18. Multiple Primary Cancers: Simultaneously Occurring Prostate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-20

    May 20, 2016 ... occurring prostate cancer and other primary tumors-our experience and literature ..... thyroid cancers, pancreatic tumors, renal cancers, and melanoma. ... Hsing AW, Yeboah E, Biritwum R, Tettey Y, De Marzo AM,. Adjei A, et ...

  19. Prostate screening uptake in Australian BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKinley Joanne M

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Men who carry mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are at increased risk for prostate cancer. However the efficacy of prostate screening in this setting is uncertain and limited data exists on the uptake of prostate screening by mutation carriers. This study prospectively evaluated uptake of prostate cancer screening in a multi-institutional cohort of mutation carriers. Subjects were unaffected male BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, aged 40–69 years, enrolled in the Kathleen Cuningham Consortium for Research into Familial Breast Cancer (kConFab and who had completed a mailed, self-report follow-up questionnaire 3 yearly after study entry. Of the 75 male carriers in this study, only 26 (35% had elected to receive their mutation result. Overall, 51 (68% did not recall having received a recommendation to have prostate screening because of their family history, but 41 (55% had undergone a prostate specific antigen (PSA test and 32 (43% a digital rectal examination (DRE in the previous 3 years. Those who were aware of their mutation result were more likely to have received a recommendation for prostate screening (43 vs. 6%, p = 0.0001, and to have had a PSA test (77 vs. 43%, p = 0.005 and a DRE (69 vs. 29%, p = 0.001 in the previous 3 years. The majority of unaffected males enrolled in kConFab with a BRCA1/2 mutation have not sought out their mutation result. However, of those aware of their positive mutation status, most have undergone at least one round of prostate screening in the previous 3 years.

  20. Association of PSA, free-PSA and testosteron levels in serum of patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiwin Mailana; Kristina Dwi P; Sri Insani WW; Puji Widayati

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer screening can be done by measuring the concentration levels of PSA, free-PSA and testosterone in serum that examined with radioimmunoassay (RIA). A total of 30 patients of 45-81 years old had enrolled in this study and were taken their venous blood. The aim of research is to know the relationship between PSA and testosterone free-PSA with BPH and prostate cancer. Results showed that there was no correlation between age with BPH and prostate cancer (p = 0.06), but there is a relationship between PSA with BPH and prostate cancer (p = 0.002), the relationship between free-PSA with BPH and prostate cancer (p = 0.001). No correlation was found between PSA ratio with BPH and prostate cancer as well as the absence of a relationship between testosterone with BPH and prostate cancer (p = 0.924). (author)

  1. Impact of Prostate-specific Antigen (PSA) Screening Trials and Revised PSA Screening Guidelines on Rates of Prostate Biopsy and Postbiopsy Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Boris; Van Houten, Holly K; Herrin, Jeph; Moreira, Daniel M; Kim, Simon P; Shah, Nilay D; Karnes, R Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Prostate biopsy and postbiopsy complications represent important risks of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening. Although landmark randomized trials and updated guidelines have challenged routine PSA screening, it is unclear whether these publications have affected rates of biopsy or postbiopsy complications. To evaluate whether publication of the 2008 and 2012 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendations, the 2009 European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer and the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, or the 2013 American Urological Association (AUA) guidelines was associated with changes in rates of biopsy or postbiopsy complications, and to identify predictors of postbiopsy complications. This quasiexperimental study used administrative claims of 5279315 commercially insured US men aged ≥40 yr from 2005 to 2014, of whom 104584 underwent biopsy. Publications on PSA screening. Interrupted time-series analysis was used to evaluate the association of publications with rates of biopsy and 30-d complications. Logistic regression was performed to identify predictors of complications. From 2005 to 2014, biopsy rates fell 33% from 64.1 to 42.8 per 100000 person-months, with immediate reductions following the 2008 USPSTF recommendations (-10.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], -17.1 to -3.0; pprostate-specific antigen screening; however, the relative morbidity of biopsy continues to increase. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Transrectal ultrasound imaging and prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossen, Tjerk; Wijkstra, Hessel

    2003-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most important causes of death from cancer in men. Ultrasound imaging is frequently used in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. This paper presents an overview of currently available ultrasound imaging techniques. The underlying principles and methods are discussed

  3. Vitamin D, Sunlight and Prostate Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Vanaja Donkena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second common cancer in men worldwide. The prevention of prostate cancer remains a challenge to researchers and clinicians. Here, we review the relationship of vitamin D and sunlight to prostate cancer risk. Ultraviolet radiation of the sunlight is the main stimulator for vitamin D production in humans. Vitamin D's antiprostate cancer activities may be involved in the actions through the pathways mediated by vitamin D metabolites, vitamin D metabolizing enzymes, vitamin D receptor (VDR, and VDR-regulated genes. Although laboratory studies including the use of animal models have shown that vitamin D has antiprostate cancer properties, whether it can effectively prevent the development and/or progression of prostate cancer in humans remains to be inconclusive and an intensively studied subject. This review will provide up-to-date information regarding the recent outcomes of laboratory and epidemiology studies on the effects of vitamin D on prostate cancer prevention.

  4. [Early detection in prostate cancer and shared decision making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, A F

    2005-09-28

    Screening of prostate cancer with PSA is a challenge for the aid to decision. Beside the rather mediocre characteristics of the screening test, there the additional problem of the peculiar biology of this cancer, with its late development and its ability to remain latent for a prolonged period. On the other hand, the treatment (surgery, irradiation) is associated with important side-effects: impotence and urinary leakage. Several studies, which appear to be a form of aid to information than aid to shared decision, have been carried out to analyse the effect of various modes of information on the behaviour of potential candidates to screening of prostate cancer, with the following results: better knowledge of the problem, lower rate of acceptance of PSA testing and trend towards watchful waiting rather than surgery in case of discovery of cancer.

  5. PSA-Based Screening Outcomes, Dietary Heterocyclic Amine Exposure, and Prostate Cancer Risk in African-Americans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bogen, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    ... as more abnormal results from screening tests that correlate with current or eventual PC. A 3-year prospective clinic-based study is studying the performance of current (PSA and DRE) vs. (% free PSA...

  6. PREVALENCE OF BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA AND PROSTATE CANCER IN AFRICANS AND AFRICANS IN THE DIASPORA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeboah, E D

    2016-01-01

    There have been several publications on population or community prevalence of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer from various countries and races but few reports are from Africa on Africans. A review on the prevalence of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer in Africans and other races. The current literature on prevalence of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostate cancer (PC), and benign prostatic hyperplasia co-existing with prostate cancer in Africans and other races is reviewed. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) prevalence in Ghana is responsible for 60% acute retention of urine and 28.6% of haematuria. Worldwide prevalence of BPH varies from 20 - 62% in men over 50 years and this includes USA, UK, Japan and Ghana. Reports from South Africa indicate prevalence of over 50% in adult males of 60 years. BPH co-existing with PC - Reports from USA, UK and Japan and Ghana reveal moderate association of BPH and PC. The co-existence of PC in patients being treated for BPH is 3 - 20% Prostate Cancer prevalence - There is high prevalence in USA, Scandinavian Countries, African Americans (AA) and Caribbean blacks. Ghana, Trinidad & Tobago have reported high prevalence of 6 -10% in men aged 50 years and above but others reported low prevalence in Africans from Africa. The low reporting from Africa of 10 - 40:100,000 is attributable to under reporting, absence of PSA screening/testing, lack of reliable cancer registries and poor medical facilities. Economic Costs of BPH and PC: BPH in the USA national direct costs are estimated at U$4Billion and individual costs of US$1536 annually. In Ghana, individual costs for BPH medications range from US$300 - 550 per year and cost for simple prostatectomy/TURP is estimated at US$1100. For prostate cancer, individual direct costs from Europe range from 6,575 - 12,000 euros, £2818.00 UK and over U$12,000 - 20,000 in USA per annum. In Ghana, individual direct costs ranges, for radical prostatectomy and

  7. Estrogen receptors in the human male prostatic urethra and prostate in prostatic cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, A; Bruun, J; Balslev, E

    1999-01-01

    Estrogen receptors (ERs) in the prostate and prostatic urethra were examined in 33 men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and in 11 with prostate cancer (PC). The Abbot monoclonal ER-ICA assay was used for immunohistochemical investigation. In the BPH group, ERs were revealed in the prostatic...... stroma in eight cases and in the glandular epithelium in one. In four cases ERs were seen in the prostatic stroma and in the glandular epithelium. In the prostatic urethra, ERs were found in 19 cases located in the urothelium, lamina propria and/or periurethral glands. In the PC group, ERs were...... demonstrated in the prostatic stroma and/or prostatic urethra in 6 out of 11 cases. In both BPH and PC patients, immunoreactivity was weak and confined to few cells, indicating low ER content in the prostate as well as in the prostatic urethra. Dextran-coated charcoal (DCC) analysis was used for detection...

  8. Management of patients with advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillessen, S; Omlin, A; Attard, G

    2015-01-01

    The first St Gallen Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference (APCCC) Expert Panel identified and reviewed the available evidence for the ten most important areas of controversy in advanced prostate cancer (APC) management. The successful registration of several drugs for castration......-resistant prostate cancer and the recent studies of chemo-hormonal therapy in men with castration-naïve prostate cancer have led to considerable uncertainty as to the best treatment choices, sequence of treatment options and appropriate patient selection. Management recommendations based on expert opinion...

  9. Imaging Primary Prostate Cancer and Bone Metastasis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2004-01-01

    ... and androgen independent prostate cancer xenografted mice. Specific Aims: (1) Design, synthesize, and characterize positrori emitting bombesin analogs, labeled with copper-64 or fluorine-I 8; (2...

  10. Screening for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Infante, Maurizio V; Pedersen, Jesper H

    2010-01-01

    In lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT), the proportion of stage I disease is 50-85%, and the survival rate for resected stage I disease can exceed 90%, but proof of real benefit in terms of lung cancer mortality reduction must come from the several randomized...

  11. New Strategy for Prostate Cancer Prevention Based on Selenium Suppression of Androgen Receptor Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    combination in prostate cancer chemoprevention. Emodin is a phytochemical that has been shown to induce AR degradation (18). We hypothesize that the...Since the induction of PSA screening , the majority of the prostate cancers diagnosed are asymptomatic, early-stage, small volume diseases. Current

  12. Lung cancer screening: Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyea Young [Dept. of Radiology, Center for Lung Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers.

  13. Lung cancer screening: Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyea Young

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers

  14. Male Oncology Research and Education program for men at high risk for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorentz, J; Liu, S K; Vesprini, D

    2018-04-01

    Three groups of men are at high risk of developing prostate cancer: men with a strong family history of prostate cancer, men of West African or Caribbean ancestry, and men with a germline pathogenic variant in a prostate cancer-associated gene. Despite the fact that those men constitute a significant portion of the male population in North America, few recommendations for prostate cancer screening specific to them have been developed. For men at general population risk for prostate cancer, screening based on prostate-specific antigen (psa) has remained controversial despite the abundance of literature on the topic. As a result, recommendations made by major screening authorities are inconsistent (ranging from no psa screening to baseline psa screening at age 45), allowing physicians to pick and choose how to screen their patients. The Male Oncology Research and Education (more) program is an observational research program that serves as an academic platform for multiple research foci. For its participants, serum and dna are biobanked, medical information is collected, and contact for relevant research-related opportunities is maintained. This research program is paired with a specialized clinic called the more clinic, where men at high risk are regularly screened for prostate cancer in a standard approach that includes physical examination and serum psa measurement. In this article, we describe the goals, participant accrual to date, and projects specific to this unique program.

  15. Punctuated evolution of prostate cancer genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, Sylvan C; Prandi, Davide; Lawrence, Michael S; Mosquera, Juan Miguel; Romanel, Alessandro; Drier, Yotam; Park, Kyung; Kitabayashi, Naoki; MacDonald, Theresa Y; Ghandi, Mahmoud; Van Allen, Eliezer; Kryukov, Gregory V; Sboner, Andrea; Theurillat, Jean-Philippe; Soong, T David; Nickerson, Elizabeth; Auclair, Daniel; Tewari, Ashutosh; Beltran, Himisha; Onofrio, Robert C; Boysen, Gunther; Guiducci, Candace; Barbieri, Christopher E; Cibulskis, Kristian; Sivachenko, Andrey; Carter, Scott L; Saksena, Gordon; Voet, Douglas; Ramos, Alex H; Winckler, Wendy; Cipicchio, Michelle; Ardlie, Kristin; Kantoff, Philip W; Berger, Michael F; Gabriel, Stacey B; Golub, Todd R; Meyerson, Matthew; Lander, Eric S; Elemento, Olivier; Getz, Gad; Demichelis, Francesca; Rubin, Mark A; Garraway, Levi A

    2013-04-25

    The analysis of exonic DNA from prostate cancers has identified recurrently mutated genes, but the spectrum of genome-wide alterations has not been profiled extensively in this disease. We sequenced the genomes of 57 prostate tumors and matched normal tissues to characterize somatic alterations and to study how they accumulate during oncogenesis and progression. By modeling the genesis of genomic rearrangements, we identified abundant DNA translocations and deletions that arise in a highly interdependent manner. This phenomenon, which we term "chromoplexy," frequently accounts for the dysregulation of prostate cancer genes and appears to disrupt multiple cancer genes coordinately. Our modeling suggests that chromoplexy may induce considerable genomic derangement over relatively few events in prostate cancer and other neoplasms, supporting a model of punctuated cancer evolution. By characterizing the clonal hierarchy of genomic lesions in prostate tumors, we charted a path of oncogenic events along which chromoplexy may drive prostate carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Colorectal cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    McLoughlin, Monica Ramona

    2008-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health burden and is the most common cause of mortality from cancer in Europe. Over the last two decades robust evidence from randomised clinical trials and case-control series have confirmed that the mortality from colorectal cancer can be reduced by screening. The challenge over the next decade is how to implement this in clinical practice. This is what we set out to answer with this thesis. Not all individuals are equal when it comes to screening and tho...

  17. Celebrity endorsements of cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robin J; Woloshin, Steven; Schwartz, Lisa M; Welch, H Gilbert

    2005-05-04

    Celebrities often promote cancer screening by relating personal anecdotes about their own diagnosis or that of a loved one. We used data obtained from a random-digit dialing survey conducted in the United States from December 2001 through July 2002 to examine the extent to which adults of screening age without a history of cancer had seen or heard or been influenced by celebrity endorsements of screening mammography, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, or sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy. The survey response rate was 72% among those known to be eligible and 51% among potentially eligible people accounting for those who could not be contacted. A total of 360 women aged 40 years or older and 140 men aged 50 years or older participated in the survey. Most respondents reported they "had seen or heard a celebrity talk about" mammography (73% of women aged 40 years or older), PSA testing (63% of men aged 50 years or older), or sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy (52% of adults aged 50 years or older). At least one-fourth of respondents who had seen or heard a celebrity endorsement said that the endorsement made them more likely to undergo mammography (25%), PSA testing (31%), or sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy (37%).

  18. Screening for skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfand, M; Mahon, S M; Eden, K B; Frame, P S; Orleans, C T

    2001-04-01

    Malignant melanoma is often lethal, and its incidence in the United States has increased rapidly over the past 2 decades. Nonmelanoma skin cancer is seldom lethal, but, if advanced, can cause severe disfigurement and morbidity. Early detection and treatment of melanoma might reduce mortality, while early detection and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer might prevent major disfigurement and to a lesser extent prevent mortality. Current recommendations from professional societies regarding screening for skin cancer vary. To examine published data on the effectiveness of routine screening for skin cancer by a primary care provider, as part of an assessment for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. We searched the MEDLINE database for papers published between 1994 and June 1999, using search terms for screening, physical examination, morbidity, and skin neoplasms. For information on accuracy of screening tests, we used the search terms sensitivity and specificity. We identified the most important studies from before 1994 from the Guide to Clinical Preventive Services, second edition, and from high-quality reviews. We used reference lists and expert recommendations to locate additional articles. Two reviewers independently reviewed a subset of 500 abstracts. Once consistency was established, the remainder were reviewed by one reviewer. We included studies if they contained data on yield of screening, screening tests, risk factors, risk assessment, effectiveness of early detection, or cost effectiveness. We abstracted the following descriptive information from full-text published studies of screening and recorded it in an electronic database: type of screening study, study design, setting, population, patient recruitment, screening test description, examiner, advertising targeted at high-risk groups or not targeted, reported risk factors of participants, and procedure for referrals. We also abstracted the yield of screening data including probabilities and numbers

  19. [Medical treatment of prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobel, B; Cipolla, B; Labrador, J

    1994-03-01

    Hormone dependence of prostate cancer is well known. In 80% of cases with metastases, hormone suppression leads to the reduction of tumour volume and related disorders. However the treatment is generally palliative because malignant process recurs after about around 16 months. Mean survival is less than 3 years in these forms. Lack of response come always together with a poor prognosis, and there is 90% mortality at 2 years. Advanced prostatic cancer should not be treated with hormones if the patient has few symptoms and his quality of life is satisfactory. Symptomatic forms require hormone manipulation. Orchidectomy or LH-RH are recommended. Total androgen ablation (combined treatment) leads rapidly to more relief of symptoms, but its drawbacks and especially high cost indicate that its use should be weighed individually. Estramustine is not a first-lune treatment. Presently, there is no criteria to predict response to treatment.

  20. Surveillance after prostate cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supiot, S.; Rio, E.; Clement-Colmou, K.; Bouchot, O.; Rigaud, J.

    2011-01-01

    Follow-up after prostate cancer radiotherapy aims at detecting local or metastatic relapse, as well as long-term toxicity, requiring adapted treatments. Several scientific societies have published guidelines including clinical, biological and imaging recommendations. More data suggest a role for aggressive salvage therapy in case of local failure following radiotherapy. An adequate follow-up is required for the sake of patients' safety, i.e. to a posteriori validate dose constraints and radiation technique in each radiotherapy department. (authors)

  1. Targeting Splicing in Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Effrosyni Antonopoulou; Michael Ladomery

    2018-01-01

    Over 95% of human genes are alternatively spliced, expressing splice isoforms that often exhibit antagonistic functions. We describe genes whose alternative splicing has been linked to prostate cancer; namely VEGFA, KLF6, BCL2L2, ERG, and AR. We discuss opportunities to develop novel therapies that target specific splice isoforms, or that target the machinery of splicing. Therapeutic approaches include the development of small molecule inhibitors of splice factor kinases, splice isoform speci...

  2. Prostate Cancer Biospecimen Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army...SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES...14. ABSTRACT The goal of the study is development of a Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network (PCBN) resource site with high quality and well

  3. Prostate cancer trends in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaza, Hideyuki; Onozawa, Mizuki; Hinotsu, Shiro

    2017-06-01

    Differences in the incidence and mortality rates for prostate cancer between East and West are clearly defined, with higher rates in the West and lower rates in the East. Treatment methods are generally selected in accordance with general practice guidelines, but the current reality in Asia is that there is not sufficient clinical data to set Asia-specific guidelines for treatment. This leads to a situation whereby for the large part guidelines based on scientific evidence accumulated in Western countries are followed, but from time to time cases are encountered when such guidelines may not be considered to be the most appropriate for the case at hand. Although there is a relatively large volume of clinical evidence relating to endocrine therapy in Asia, the treatment choices and effects differ to those in the West. These regional differences are thought to be due to various factors, including not only differences in genetic background, but also distinct differences in the living and healthcare environments. If the differences between East and West in terms of trends in prostate cancer could be examined, with positive aspects being adopted and negative aspects being improved, this could also be expected to be of use in developing a better treatment strategy for prostate cancer. The exchanging of information on a broader, global level will enable improvements in prevention, diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. It is in pursuit of this objective that it is important to promote high-quality clinical trials and joint epidemiological studies in Asia and work to accumulate data that are comparable to data available in Western countries.

  4. Cancer screening with FDG-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, M.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: This study is based on medical health check-up and cancer screening on of a medical health club using PET, MRI, spiral CT and other conventional examinations. Methods: Between October 1994 and June 2005, 9357 asymptomatic members of the health club participated in 24772 screening session (5693 men and 3664 women, mean age 52.2±10.4 years). Results: Malignant tumors were discovered in 296 of the 9357 participants (3.16%) and 24772 screening sessions (1.19%). The detection rate of our program is much higher than that of mass screening in Japan. The thyroid, lung, colon and breast cancers were PET positive, but the prostate, renal and bladder cancers were generally PET negative. Conclusion: FDG-PET has the potential to detect a wide variety of cancers at curable stages in asymptomatic individuals. To reduce false-positive and false-negative results of PET examination, there is a need of experienced radiologist and/or oncologists who had training in the wide aspect of FDG-PET. FDG-PET has limitations in the detection of urological cancers, cancers of low cell density, small cancers and hypo metabolic or FDG non-avid cancers. Therefore, conventional examinations and/or PET/CT are also needed for cancer screening in association with FDG-PET

  5. Precision medicine for advanced prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullane, Stephanie A; Van Allen, Eliezer M

    2016-05-01

    Precision cancer medicine, the use of genomic profiling of patient tumors at the point-of-care to inform treatment decisions, is rapidly changing treatment strategies across cancer types. Precision medicine for advanced prostate cancer may identify new treatment strategies and change clinical practice. In this review, we discuss the potential and challenges of precision medicine in advanced prostate cancer. Although primary prostate cancers do not harbor highly recurrent targetable genomic alterations, recent reports on the genomics of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer has shown multiple targetable alterations in castration-resistant prostate cancer metastatic biopsies. Therapeutic implications include targeting prevalent DNA repair pathway alterations with PARP-1 inhibition in genomically defined subsets of patients, among other genomically stratified targets. In addition, multiple recent efforts have demonstrated the promise of liquid tumor profiling (e.g., profiling circulating tumor cells or cell-free tumor DNA) and highlighted the necessary steps to scale these approaches in prostate cancer. Although still in the initial phase of precision medicine for prostate cancer, there is extraordinary potential for clinical impact. Efforts to overcome current scientific and clinical barriers will enable widespread use of precision medicine approaches for advanced prostate cancer patients.

  6. Risk of early-onset prostate cancer associated with occupation in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes Barry, Kathryn; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Alavanja, Michael C. R.

    2017-01-01

    -49 and those aged 50 or older. We also conducted separate analyses by period of follow-up, 1961-1985 and 1986-2005, corresponding to pre- and post-prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening. RESULTS: For early-onset prostate cancer (n = 1521), we observed the highest SIRs for public safety workers (e......BACKGROUND: Early-onset prostate cancer is often more aggressive and may have a different aetiology than later-onset prostate cancer, but has been relatively little studied to date. We evaluated occupation in relation to early- and later-onset prostate cancer in a large pooled study. METHODS: We...... used occupational information from census data in five Nordic countries from 1960 to 1990. We identified prostate cancer cases diagnosed from 1961 to 2005 by linkage of census information to national cancer registries and calculated standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) separately for men aged 30...

  7. Cytogenetics of Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Konig (Josee)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractIn mosl Weslern counlries, proslale cancer (PC) is a common malignancy. In Ihe United Siaies cancer slatistics of 1994, PC has Ihe highesl incidence rale and is Ihe Ihird cause of cancer dealhs [Boring el al '94J. In Ihe Nelherlands, which lakes Ihe ninlh place on Ihe IIsl of PC

  8. Development of New Treatments for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPaola, R. S.; Abate-Shen, C.; Hait, W. N.

    2005-02-01

    The Dean and Betty Gallo Prostate Cancer Center (GPCC) was established with the goal of eradicating prostate cancer and improving the lives of men at risk for the disease through research, treatment, education and prevention. GPCC was founded in the memory of Dean Gallo, a beloved New Jersey Congressman who died tragically of prostate cancer diagnosed at an advanced stage. GPCC unites a team of outstanding researchers and clinicians who are committed to high-quality basic research, translation of innovative research to the clinic, exceptional patient care, and improving public education and awareness of prostate cancer. GPCC is a center of excellence of The Cancer Institute of New Jersey, which is the only NCI-designated comprehensive cancer center in the state. GPCC efforts are now integrated well as part of our Prostate Program at CINJ, in which Dr. Robert DiPaola and Dr. Cory Abate-Shen are co-leaders. The Prostate Program unites 19 investigators from 10 academic departments who have broad and complementary expertise in prostate cancer research. The overall goal and unifying theme is to elucidate basic mechanisms of prostate growth and oncogenesis, with the ultimate goal of promoting new and effective strategies for the eradication of prostate cancer. Members' wide range of research interests collectively optimize the chances of providing new insights into normal prostate biology and unraveling the molecular pathophysiology of prostate cancer. Cell culture and powerful animal models developed by program members recapitulate the various stages of prostate cancer progression, including prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, adenocarcinoma, androgen-independence, invasion and metastases. These models promise to further strengthen an already robust program of investigator-initiated therapeutic clinical trials, including studies adopted by national cooperative groups. Efforts to translate laboratory results into clinical studies of early detection and

  9. Genomic rearrangements of PTEN in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopheap ePhin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The phosphatase and tensin homolog gene on chromosome 10q23.3 (PTEN is a negative regulator of the PIK3/Akt survival pathway and is the most frequently deleted tumor suppressor gene in prostate cancer. Monoallelic loss of PTEN is present in up to 60% of localized prostate cancers and complete loss of PTEN in prostate cancer is linked to metastasis and androgen independent progression. Studies on the genomic status of PTEN in prostate cancer initially used a two-color fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH assay for PTEN copy number detection in formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue preparations. More recently, a four-color FISH assay containing two additional control probes flanking the PTEN locus with a lower false-positive rate was reported. Combined with the detection of other critical genomic biomarkers for prostate cancer such as ERG, AR, and MYC, the evaluation of PTEN genomic status has proven to be invaluable for patient stratification and management. Although less frequent than allelic deletions, point mutations in the gene and epigenetic silencing are also known to contribute to loss of PTEN function, and ultimately to prostate cancer initiation. Overall, it is clear that PTEN is a powerful biomarker for prostate cancer. Used as a companion diagnostic for emerging therapeutic drugs, FISH analysis of PTEN is promisingly moving human prostate cancer closer to more effective cancer management and therapies.

  10. Vietnam military service history and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritschi Lin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three decades after US and Australian forces withdrew from Vietnam, there has been much public interest in the health consequences of service in Vietnam. One controversial question is whether the risk of prostate cancer amongst Vietnam veterans is increased. This paper examines relationships between military history, family history and risk of prostate cancer in a population-based case control study. Methods Cases were selected from the Cancer Registry of Western Australia as incident cases of histologically-confirmed prostate cancer, and controls were age-matched and selected from the Western Australian electoral roll. Study participants were asked to report any military service history and details about that service. Results Between January 2001 and September 2002, 606 cases and 471 controls aged between 40–75 years were recruited. An increased prostate cancer risk was observed in men reporting they were deployed in Vietnam although this was not statistically significant (OR = 2.12; 95% CI 0.88–5.06. An increased risk was also observed in men reporting prostate cancer in fathers (OR = 1.90; 95% CI 1.20–3.00 or brothers (OR = 2.05; 95% CI 1.20–3.50 diagnosed with prostate cancer. Conclusion These findings support a positive association between prostate cancer and military service history in the Vietnam war and a first degree relative family history of prostate cancer.

  11. A Novel High Content Imaging-Based Screen Identifies the Anti-Helminthic Niclosamide as an Inhibitor of Lysosome Anterograde Trafficking and Prostate Cancer Cell Invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena L Circu

    Full Text Available Lysosome trafficking plays a significant role in tumor invasion, a key event for the development of metastasis. Previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that the anterograde (outward movement of lysosomes to the cell surface in response to certain tumor microenvironment stimulus, such as hepatocyte growth factor (HGF or acidic extracellular pH (pHe, increases cathepsin B secretion and tumor cell invasion. Anterograde lysosome trafficking depends on sodium-proton exchanger activity and can be reversed by blocking these ion pumps with Troglitazone or EIPA. Since these drugs cannot be advanced into the clinic due to toxicity, we have designed a high-content assay to discover drugs that block peripheral lysosome trafficking with the goal of identifying novel drugs that inhibit tumor cell invasion. An automated high-content imaging system (Cellomics was used to measure the position of lysosomes relative to the nucleus. Among a total of 2210 repurposed and natural product drugs screened, 18 "hits" were identified. One of the compounds identified as an anterograde lysosome trafficking inhibitor was niclosamide, a marketed human anti-helminthic drug. Further studies revealed that niclosamide blocked acidic pHe, HGF, and epidermal growth factor (EGF-induced anterograde lysosome redistribution, protease secretion, motility, and invasion of DU145 castrate resistant prostate cancer cells at clinically relevant concentrations. In an effort to identify the mechanism by which niclosamide prevented anterograde lysosome movement, we found that this drug exhibited no significant effect on the level of ATP, microtubules or actin filaments, and had minimal effect on the PI3K and MAPK pathways. Niclosamide collapsed intralysosomal pH without disruption of the lysosome membrane, while bafilomycin, an agent that impairs lysosome acidification, was also found to induce JLA in our model. Taken together, these data suggest that niclosamide promotes

  12. Multidisciplinary Functional MR Imaging for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Kon; Jang, Yun Jin; Cho, Gyung Goo

    2009-01-01

    Various functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques are used for evaluating prostate cancer including diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast- enhanced MR imaging, and MR spectroscopy. These techniques provide unique information that is helpful to differentiate prostate cancer from non-cancerous tissue and have been proven to improve the diagnostic performance of MRI not only for cancer detection, but also for staging, post-treatment monitoring, and guiding prostate biopsies. However, each functional MR imaging technique also has inherent challenges. Therefore, in order to make accurate diagnoses, it is important to comprehensively understand their advantages and limitations, histologic background related with image findings, and their clinical relevance for evaluating prostate cancer. This article will review the basic principles and clinical significance of functional MR imaging for evaluating prostate cancer

  13. Pubertal development and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonilla, Carolina; Lewis, Sarah J; Martin, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    , 0.91-1.00) and prostate cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio amongst cases, per tertile: 0.94; 95 % CI, 0.90-0.98), but not with disease grade. CONCLUSIONS: Older age at sexual maturation is causally linked to a reduced risk of later prostate cancer, especially aggressive disease.......BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have observed a positive association between an earlier age at sexual development and prostate cancer, but markers of sexual maturation in boys are imprecise and observational estimates are likely to suffer from a degree of uncontrolled confounding. To obtain...... to a difference of one Tanner stage between pubertal boys of the same age) was associated with a 77 % (95 % CI, 43-91 %) reduced odds of high Gleason prostate cancer. In PRACTICAL, the puberty genetic score was associated with prostate cancer stage (OR of advanced vs. localized cancer, per tertile: 0.95; 95 % CI...

  14. Original article Prostate Screening Practices Among Male Staff of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-11-03

    Nov 3, 2010 ... leading cause of cancer related death in the world. ... Objective: This study assessed the knowledge, attitude and practice of prostate cancer ... method known by these respondents was serum Prostate Specific Antigen ... Asia (1.9 cases per 100.000 in China) and ... Nigeria, is a tertiary academic institution.

  15. Prostate Cancer Stem-Like Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death among men, killing an estimated 27,000 men each year in the United States. Men with advanced prostate cancer often become resistant to conventional therapies. Many researchers speculate that the emergence of resistance is due to the presence of cancer stem cells, which are believed to be a small subpopulation

  16. Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer ... because of timely detection and treatment of his prostate cancer. He participated in an NIH-sponsored clinical trial. ...

  17. The role of cannabinoids in prostate cancer: Basic science perspective and potential clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Ramos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is a global public health problem, and it is the most common cancer in American men and the second cause for cancer-related death. Experimental evidence shows that prostate tissue possesses cannabinoid receptors and their stimulation results in anti-androgenic effects. To review currently relevant findings related to effects of cannabinoid receptors in prostate cancer. PubMed search utilizing the terms "cannabis," "cannabinoids," "prostate cancer," and "cancer pain management," giving preference to most recent publications was done. Articles identified were screened for their relevance to the field of prostate cancer and interest to both urologist and pain specialists. Prostate cancer cells possess increased expression of both cannabinoid 1 and 2 receptors, and stimulation of these results in decrease in cell viability, increased apoptosis, and decreased androgen receptor expression and prostate-specific antigen excretion. It would be of interest to conduct clinical studies utilizing cannabinoids for patients with metastatic prostate cancer, taking advantage not only of its beneficial effects on prostate cancer but also of their analgesic properties for bone metastatic cancer pain.

  18. Staging of prostate cancer: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallejos, J.; Alvarez, C.; Mariluis, C.; Paganini, L.; González, C.; De Luca, S.; Dieguez, A.; Villaronga, A.

    2013-01-01

    In our country prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in older men. An accurate staging is very important to establish treatment strategies.This article presents the 7th edition TNM staging system for prostate cancer, effective January 1, 2010. This has undergone major changes over the 6th edition. (authors) [es

  19. Androgen receptor profiling predicts prostate cancer outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Stelloo (Suzan); E. Nevedomskaya (Ekaterina); H.G. van der Poel (Henk G.); J. de Jong (Jeroen); G.J.H.L. Leenders (Geert); G.W. Jenster (Guido); L. Wessels (Lodewyk); A.M. Bergman (Andries); W. Zwart (Wilbert)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer is the second most prevalent malignancy in men. Biomarkers for outcome prediction are urgently needed, so that high-risk patients could be monitored more closely postoperatively. To identify prognostic markers and to determine causal players in prostate cancer

  20. Comorbidities and the Risk of Late-Stage Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven T. Fleming

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The degree to which comorbidities affect the diagnosis of prostate cancer is not clear. The purpose of this study was to determine how comorbidities affect the stage at which prostate cancer is diagnosed in elderly white and black men. We obtained data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program of the National Cancer Institute merged with Medicare claims data. For each patient, we estimated associations between stage of disease at diagnosis and each of the 27 comorbidities. The sample included 2,489 black and 2,587 white men with staged prostate cancer. Coronary artery disease, benign hypertension, and dyslipidemia reduced the odds of late-stage prostate cancer. A prior diagnosis of peripheral vascular disease, severe renal disease, or substance abuse increased the odds of being diagnosed with late-stage disease. The study shows some effect modification by race, particularly among white men with substance abuse, cardiac conduction disorders, and other neurologic conditions. The strongest predictors of late-stage prostate cancer diagnosis for both white and black men were age at diagnosis of at least 80 years and lack of PSA screening. Comorbidities do affect stage at diagnosis, although in different ways. Four hypotheses are discussed to explain these findings.

  1. Use of Digital Rectal Examination as an Adjunct to Prostate Specific Antigen in the Detection of Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Joshua A; Oromendia, Clara; Shoag, Jonathan E; Mittal, Sameer; Cosiano, Michael F; Ballman, Karla V; Vickers, Andrew J; Hu, Jim C

    2018-04-01

    Guidelines from the NCCN ® (National Comprehensive Cancer Network®) advocate digital rectal examination screening only in men with elevated prostate specific antigen. We investigated the effect of prostate specific antigen on the association of digital rectal examination and clinically significant prostate cancer in a large American cohort. We evaluated the records of the 35,350 men who underwent digital rectal examination in the screening arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening trial for the development of clinically significant prostate cancer (Gleason 7 or greater). Followup was 343,273 person-years. The primary outcome was the rate of clinically significant prostate cancer among men with vs without suspicious digital rectal examination. We performed competing risks regression to evaluate the interaction between time varying suspicious digital rectal examination and prostate specific antigen. A total of 1,713 clinically significant prostate cancers were detected with a 10-year cumulative incidence of 5.9% (95% CI 5.6-6.2). Higher risk was seen for suspicious vs nonsuspicious digital rectal examination. Increases in absolute risk were small and clinically irrelevant for normal (less than 2 ng/ml) prostate specific antigen (1.5% vs 0.7% risk of clinically significant prostate cancer at 10 years), clinically relevant for elevated (3 ng/ml or greater) prostate specific antigen (23.0% vs 13.7%) and modestly clinically relevant for equivocal (2 to 3 ng/ml) prostate specific antigen (6.5% vs 3.5%). Digital rectal examination demonstrated prognostic usefulness when prostate specific antigen was greater than 3 ng/ml, limited usefulness for less than 2 ng/ml and marginal usefulness for 2 to 3 ng/ml. These findings support the restriction of digital rectal examination to men with higher prostate specific antigen as a reflex test to improve specificity. It should not be used as a primary screening modality to improve sensitivity. Copyright

  2. Prostate Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  3. Baldness, benign prostate hyperplasia, prostate cancer and androgen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faydaci, Gökhan; Bilal, Eryildirim; Necmettin, Penpegül; Fatih, Tarhan; Asuman, Orçun; Uğur, Kuyumcuoğlu

    2008-12-01

    We evaluated the pattern of baldness and serum androgen levels in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer. BPH, prostate cancer and androgenic alopecia (AA) were somehow androgen dependent and affect large population of elderly men. A total of 152 patients, 108 patients with BPH and 44 patients with prostate cancer were included in the study. We measured serum total, free and bioavailable testosterone, FSH, LH, prolactin, estradiol, albumin and SHBG levels. Baldness classification was based on Norwood's classification and we categorised baldness as vertex and frontal baldness. The frequency of AA in BPH and prostate cancer groups were not different. We looked for some correlation between the two groups with respect to AA and hormone levels. We did not find any correlation between AA and total testosterone, free testosterone, bioavailable testosterone or SHBG levels in both groups. This prospective study with selected small group of patients showed that there is no difference of male pattern baldness in BPH and prostate cancer patients and also there is no correlation between pattern of baldness and serum androgen levels.

  4. Epidemiology of prostate cancer in Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Takahiro; Egawa, Shin

    2018-06-01

    The incidence of prostate cancer has been increasing worldwide in recent years. The GLOBOCAN project showed that prostate cancer was the second most frequently diagnosed cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer mortality among men worldwide in 2012. This trend has been growing even in Asian countries, where the incidence had previously been low. However, the accuracy of data about incidence and mortality as a result of prostate cancer in some Asian countries is limited. The cause of this increasing trend is multifactorial. One possible explanation is changes in lifestyles due to more Westernized diets. The incidence is also statistically biased by the wide implementation of early detection systems and the accuracy of national cancer registration systems, which are still immature in most Asian countries. Mortality rate decreases in Australia, New Zealand and Japan since the 1990s are possibly due to the improvements in treatment and/or early detection efforts employed. However, this rate is increasing in the majority of other Asian countries. Studies of latent and incidental prostate cancer provide less biased information. The prevalence of latent and incidental prostate cancer in contemporary Japan and Korea is similar to those in Western countries, suggesting the influence of lifestyle changes on carcinogenesis. Many studies reported evidence of both congenital and acquired risk factors for carcinogenesis of prostate cancer. Recent changes in the acquired risk factors might be associated with the increasing occurrence of prostate cancer in Asian countries. This trend could continue, especially in developing Asian countries. © 2018 The Japanese Urological Association.

  5. Point/Counterpoint: early detection of prostate cancer: do the benefits outweigh the consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Peter R; Vickers, Andrew J

    2014-05-01

    Few clinical issues have polarized the oncology community as much as screening for prostate cancer, with advocates of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing vocal on one side and skeptics just as vocal on the other. At the NCCN 19th Annual Conference, Dr. Peter R. Carroll and Dr. Andrew J. Vickers tackled the controversy surrounding early detection of prostate cancer, focusing attention on the randomized trial results at the heart of the matter; over-detection (the Achilles' heel of screening); and the rationale behind the new, streamlined 2014 NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Prostate Cancer Early Detection, which emphasize selective early detection and treatment and are tightly aligned with the NCCN Guidelines for Prostate Cancer. Copyright © 2014 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  6. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test ...

  7. Prostate carcinomas; Cancer de la prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledano, A.; Chauveinc, L.; Flam, T.; Thiounn, N.; Solignac, S.; Timbert, M.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Cosset, J.M.; Ammor, A.; Bonnetain, F.; Brenier, J.P.; Maingon, P.; Peignaux, K.; Truc, G.; Bosset, M.; Crevoisier, R. de; Tucker, S.; Dong, L.; Cheung, R.; Kuban, D.; Azria, D.; Llacer Moscardo, C.; Ailleres, N.; Allaw, A.; Serre, A.; Fenoglietto, P.; Hay, M.H.; Thezenas, S.; Dubois, J.B.; Pommier, P.; Perol, D.; Lagrange, J.L.; Richaud, P.; Brune, D.; Le Prise, E.; Azria, D.; Beckendorf, V.; Chabaud, S.; Carrie, C.; Bosset, M.; Bosset, J.F.; Maingon, P.; Ammor, A.; Crehangen, G.; Truc, G.; Peignaux, K.; Bonnetain, F.; Keros, L.; Bernier, V.; Aletti, P.; Wolf, D.; Marchesia, V.; Noel, A.; Artignan, X.; Fourneret, P.; Bacconier, M.; Shestaeva, O.; Pasquier, D.; Descotes, J.L.; Balosso, J.; Bolla, M.; Burette, R.; Corbusier, A.; Germeau, F.; Crevoisier, R. de; Dong, L.; Bonnen, M.; Cheung, R.; Tucker, S.; Kuban, D.; Crevoisier, R. de; Melancon, A.; Kuban, D.; Cheung, R.; Dong, L.; Peignaux, K.; Brenier, J.P.; Truc, G.; Bosset, M.; Ammor, A.; Barillot, I.; Maingon, P.; Molines, J.C.; Berland, E.; Cornulier, J. de; Coulet-Parpillon, A.; Cohard, C.; Picone, M.; Fourneret, P.; Artignan, X.; Daanen, V.; Gastaldo, J.; Bolla, M.; Collomb, D.; Dusserre, A.; Descotes, J.L.; Troccaz, J.; Giraud, J.Y.; Quero, L.; Hennequin, C.; Ravery, V.; Desgrandschamps, F.; Maylin, C.; Boccon-Gibod, L.; Salem, N.; Bladou, F.; Gravis, G.; Tallet, A.; Simonian, M.; Serment, G.; Salem, N.; Bladou, F.; Gravis, G.; Simonian, M.; Rosello, R.; Serment, G

    2005-11-15

    Some short communications on the prostate carcinoma are given here. The impact of pelvic irradiation, conformation with intensity modulation, association of radiotherapy and chemotherapy reduction of side effects, imaging, doses escalation are such subjects studied and reported. (N.C.)

  8. Targeting Stromal Recruitment by Prostate Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Ensinger, C., Tumer , Z., Tommerup, N. et al.: Hedgehog signaling in small-cell lung cancer : frequent in vivo but a rare event in vitro. Lung Cancer , 52...W81XWH-04-1-0157 TITLE: Targeting Stromal Recruitment by Prostate Cancer Cells PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jingxian Zhang, Ph.D...DATES COVERED (From - To) 15 Feb 2004 – 14 Feb 2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting Stromal Recruitment by Prostate Cancer

  9. [Organized breast cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouëssé, Jacques; Sancho-Garnier, Hélèn

    2014-02-01

    Breast screening programs are increasingly controversial, especially regarding two points: the number of breast cancer deaths they avoid, and the problem of over-diagnosis and over-treatment. The French national breast cancer screening program was extended to cover the whole country in 2004. Ten years later it is time to examine the risk/benefit ratio of this program and to discuss the need for change. Like all forms of cancer management, screening must be regularly updated, taking into account the state of the art, new evidence, and uncertainties. All screening providers should keep themselves informed of the latest findings. In the French program, women aged 50-74 with no major individual or familial risk factors for breast cancer are offered screening mammography and clinical breast examination every two years. Images considered non suspicious of malignancy by a first reader are re-examined by a second reader. The devices and procedures are subjected to quality controls. Participating radiologists (both public and private) are required to read at least 500 mammographies per year. The program's national participation rate was 52.7 % in 2012. When individual screening outside of the national program is taken into account (nearly 15 % of women), coverage appears close to the European recommendation of 65 %. Breast cancer mortality has been falling in France by 0.6 % per year for over 30 years, starting before mass screening was implemented, and by 1.5 % since 2005. This decline can be attributed in part to earlier diagnosis and better treatment, so that the specific impact of screening cannot easily be measured. Over-treatment, defined as the detection and treatment of low-malignancy tumors that would otherwise not have been detected in a person's lifetime, is a major negative effect of screening, but its frequency is not precisely known (reported to range from 1 % to 30 %). In view of these uncertainties, it would be advisable to modify the program in order to

  10. Risk factors for the onset of prostatic cancer: age, location, and behavioral correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leitzmann MF

    2012-01-01

    testing for prostate cancer, and the possibility that certain behavioral factors are systematically related to the likelihood of undergoing screening examinations. In addition, several genes may modify the study results, but data concerning specific gene–environment interactions are currently sparse. Despite large improvements in our understanding of prostate cancer risk factors in the past two decades, present knowledge does not allow definitive recommendations for specific preventative behavioral interventions.Keywords: prostate cancer, risk factors, etiology, epidemiology

  11. African and Afro-Caribbean men's experiences of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Beverley; Marshall-Lucette, Sylvie

    It is well documented that prostate cancer presents a significant health problem for middle-aged and elderly men in the UK, with further evidence suggesting that the disease is more prevalent in men of African and Afro-Caribbean (AAC) ethnicity. There is also evidence that these men are diagnosed much later and that the disease is more aggressive than in Caucasian men. To explore AAC men's experiences of prostate cancer and their understanding of its associated risks. The purpose was to gain an insight from these men's perspectives and ascertain whether a more focused health promotion strategy, and specific UK-based research, was needed in this area. A purposive sample of seven AAC men was recruited from a hospital trust's patient list after gaining approval from a research ethics committee. In-depth face-to-face interviews were carried out and the transcripts analysed thematically. The four main themes that emerged were: disease-prompted awareness, checking up as a necessary evil, defining and constructing factors influencing prostate cancer screening uptake, and appraising perceived myths about prostate cancer through personal beliefs. Among this group of AAC men, socioeconomic status, such as education and professional background, were factors that influenced their level of awareness of prostate cancer and prompted their decisions to seek help. However, it is evident from these men's perspectives that a more specific health education strategy that promotes early detection and management, targeting AAC men, would help in demystifying prostate cancer and encourage them to seek help earlier. Further research studies and health education in prominent social outlets are recommended in increasing AAC men's awareness of prostate cancer and its associated risks.

  12. Patient Preferences for Outcomes Associated with Surgical Management of Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Catalona, WIlliam

    2001-01-01

    .... We used utility assessment to quantify patient preferences. We measured preferences in 209 community volunteers enrolled in a prostate cancer screening study who had radical prostatectomies between 1994 and 1998...

  13. Applying strategies from libertarian paternalism to decision making for prostate specific antigen (PSA) screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, David C; Szymanski, Konrad M; Black, Amanda; Nelson, David E

    2011-04-21

    Despite the recent publication of results from two randomized clinical trials, prostate specific antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer remains a controversial issue. There is lack of agreement across studies that PSA screening significantly reduces prostate cancer mortality. In spite of these facts, the widespread use of PSA testing in the United States leads to overdetection and overtreatment of clinically indolent prostate cancer, and its associated harms of incontinence and impotence. Given the inconclusive results from clinical trials and incongruent PSA screening guidelines, the decision to screen for prostate cancer with PSA testing is an uncertain one for patients and health care providers. Screening guidelines from some health organizations recommend an informed decision making (IDM) or shared decision making (SDM) approach for deciding on PSA screening. These approaches aim to empower patients to choose among the available options by making them active participants in the decision making process. By increasing involvement of patients in the clinical decision-making process, IDM/SDM places more of the responsibility for a complex decision on the patient. Research suggests, however, that patients are not well-informed of the harms and benefits associated with prostate cancer screening and are also subject to an assortment of biases, emotion, fears, and irrational thought that interferes with making an informed decision. In response, the IDM/SDM approaches can be augmented with strategies from the philosophy of libertarian paternalism (LP) to improve decision making. LP uses the insights of behavioural economics to help people better make better choices. Some of the main strategies of LP applicable to PSA decision making are a default decision rule, framing of decision aids, and timing of the decision. In this paper, we propose that applying strategies from libertarian paternalism can help with PSA screening decision-making. Our proposal to augment IDM

  14. Can the Mediterranean diet prevent prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itsiopoulos, Catherine; Hodge, Allison; Kaimakamis, Mary

    2009-02-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men worldwide. Despite the global importance of this cancer, until recently little was known about risk factors apart from the well-established factors: age, family history and country of birth. The large worldwide variation in prostate cancer risk and increased risk in migrants moving from low to high risk countries provides strong support for modifiable environmental factors. We have based our review on the findings of a systematic review undertaken by an expert panel on behalf of the World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research, and new data since then, linking identified foods and nutrients with prostate cancer. Evidence indicates that foods containing lycopene, as well as selenium and foods containing it, probably protect against prostate cancer, and excess consumption of foods or supplements containing calcium are a probable cause of this cancer. The expert panel also concluded that it is unlikely that beta-carotene (whether from foods or supplements) has a substantial effect on the risk of this cancer. A recent review on environmental factors in human prostate cancer also found that there were protective effects of vitamin E, pulses, soy foods and high plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels. The Mediterranean diet is abundant in foods that may protect against prostate cancer and is associated with longevity and reduced cardiovascular and cancer mortality. Compared with many Western countries Greece has lower prostate cancer mortality and Greek migrant men in Australia have retained their low risk for prostate cancer. Consumption of a traditional Mediterranean diet, rich in bioactive nutrients, may confer protection to Greek migrant men, and this dietary pattern offers a palatable alternative for prevention of this disease.

  15. Prostate cancer, prostate cancer death, and death from other causes, among men with metabolic aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggström, Christel; Stocks, Tanja; Nagel, Gabriele; Manjer, Jonas; Bjørge, Tone; Hallmans, Göran; Engeland, Anders; Ulmer, Hanno; Lindkvist, Björn; Selmer, Randi; Concin, Hans; Tretli, Steinar; Jonsson, Håkan; Stattin, Pär

    2014-11-01

    Few previous studies of metabolic aberrations and prostate cancer risk have taken into account the fact that men with metabolic aberrations have an increased risk of death from causes other than prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to calculate, in a real-life scenario, the risk of prostate cancer diagnosis, prostate cancer death, and death from other causes. In the Metabolic Syndrome and Cancer Project, prospective data on body mass index, blood pressure, glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides were collected from 285,040 men. Risks of prostate cancer diagnosis, prostate cancer death, and death from other causes were calculated by use of competing risk analysis for men with normal (bottom 84%) and high (top 16%) levels of each factor, and a composite score. During a mean follow-up period of 12 years, 5,893 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer, 1,013 died of prostate cancer, and 26,328 died of other causes. After 1996, when prostate-specific antigen testing was introduced, men up to age 80 years with normal metabolic levels had 13% risk of prostate cancer, 2% risk of prostate cancer death, and 30% risk of death from other causes, whereas men with metabolic aberrations had corresponding risks of 11%, 2%, and 44%. In contrast to recent studies using conventional survival analysis, in a real-world scenario taking risk of competing events into account, men with metabolic aberrations had lower risk of prostate cancer diagnosis, similar risk of prostate cancer death, and substantially higher risk of death from other causes compared with men who had normal metabolic levels.

  16. Genetic variation in IL-16 miRNA target site and time to prostate cancer diagnosis in African American men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Lucinda; Ruth, Karen; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Giri, Veda N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Men with a family history of prostate cancer and African American men are at high risk for prostate cancer and in need of personalized risk estimates to inform screening decisions. This study evaluated genetic variants in genes encoding microRNA (miRNA) binding sites for informing of time to prostate cancer diagnosis among ethnically-diverse, high-risk men undergoing prostate cancer screening. Methods The Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment Program (PRAP) is a longitudinal screening program for high-risk men. Eligibility includes men ages 35-69 with a family history of prostate cancer or African descent. Participants with ≥ 1 follow-up visit were included in the analyses (n=477). Genetic variants in regions encoding miRNA binding sites in four target genes (ALOX15, IL-16, IL-18, and RAF1) previously implicated in prostate cancer development were evaluated. Genotyping methods included Taqman® SNP Genotyping Assay (Applied Biosystems) or pyrosequencing. Cox models were used to assess time to prostate cancer diagnosis by risk genotype. Results Among 256 African Americans with ≥ one follow-up visit, the TT genotype at rs1131445 in IL-16 was significantly associated with earlier time to prostate cancer diagnosis vs. the CC/CT genotypes (p=0.013), with a suggestive association after correction for false-discovery (p=0.065). Hazard ratio after controlling for age and PSA for TT vs. CC/CT among African Americans was 3.0 (95% CI 1.26-7.12). No association to time to diagnosis was detected among Caucasians by IL-16 genotype. No association to time to prostate cancer diagnosis was found for the other miRNA target genotypes. Conclusions Genetic variation in IL-16 encoding miRNA target site may be informative of time to prostate cancer diagnosis among African American men enrolled in prostate cancer risk assessment, which may inform individualized prostate cancer screening strategies in the future. PMID:24061634

  17. Does Small Prostate Predict High Grade Prostate Cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caliskan, S.; Kaba, S.; Koca, O.; Ozturk, M. I.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The current study is aimed to assess the patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer and investigate the association between prostate size and adverse outcomes at final pathology. Study Design: Comparative, descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Turkey, from January 2008 to January 2016. Methodology: The patients treated with open radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer were reviewed. Patient characteristics including prostate specific antigen (PSA), free PSA levels, age, biopsy, and radical prostatectomy results were recorded. The patients whose data were complete or prostate weight was equal to or less than 80 gm, were included in the study. Patients with < 40 gm prostate weight was in group 1 and the patients in group 2 had a prostate weight from 40 to 80 gm. High grade prostate cancer was defined to have a Gleason score between 7 or higher at biopsy and final pathology. Pathology and biopsy results were compared within groups. MedCalc Statistical Software demo version was used for statistical analyses. Results: There were 162 patients in this study. Of these, 71 (43.82 percent) patients were in group 1 and 91 (56.17 percent) patients were in group 2. The age ranged from 49 to 76 years. Mean value of 62.70 +-6.82 and 65.82 +- 5.66 years in group 1 and 2, respectively. Fifty (70.42 percent) and 68 patients (74.74 percent) had a Gleason score of 6 in group 1 and 2, respectively. Organconfined disease was reported in 53 patients (74.64 percent) in group 1 and in 78 patients (85.71 percent) in group 2. Gleason score concordance between biopsy and prostatectomy was reported in 61 patients (67.03 percent) and downgrading was detected in 4 patients (4.4 percent) in group 2. The median tumor volume of the patients was 4.47 cm/sup 3/ in group 1 and 6 cm/sup 3/ in group 2 (p=0.502). High grade prostate cancer was reported in 52.11 percent and 45.05 percent of the patients in

  18. Current state of the art, multimodality research and future visions for the treatment of patients with prostate cancer: consensus results from "Challenges and Chances in Prostate Cancer Research Meeting 2013".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Stephanie E; Debus, Jürgen; Feick, Günter; Hadaschik, Boris; Hohenfellner, Markus; Schüle, Roland; Zacharias, Jens-Peter; Schwardt, Malte

    2014-11-04

    A brainstorming and consensus meeting organized by the German Cancer Aid focused on modern treatment of prostate cancer and promising innovative techniques and research areas. Besides optimization of screening algorithms, molecular-based stratification and individually tailored treatment regimens will be the future of multimodal prostate cancer management. Effective interdisciplinary structures, including biobanking and data collection mechanisms are the basis for such developments.

  19. Risks of Endometrial Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health history and certain medicines can affect the risk of developing endometrial cancer. Anything that increases your ... have abnormal vaginal bleeding, check with your doctor. Risks of Endometrial Cancer Screening Key Points Screening tests ...

  20. Risks of Esophageal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alcohol use, and Barrett esophagus can affect the risk of developing esophageal cancer. Anything that increases the ... tissue gives off less light than normal tissue. Risks of Esophageal Cancer Screening Key Points Screening tests ...

  1. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... women. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the major risk factor for cervical cancer. Although most women with ... clinical trials is available from the NCI website . Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening Key Points Screening tests ...

  2. Detection rate of prostate cancer using prostate specific antigen in patients presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chavan P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Need for undertaking prostate biopsies for detection of prostate cancer is often decided on the basis of serum levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA. Aim: To evaluate the case detection rate of prostate cancer among patients presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS on the basis of PSA levels and to assess the scope of prostate biopsy in these patients. Setting and Design: A retrospective study from a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: The clinical and histopathological data of 922 patients presenting with LUTS in the last five years was obtained from the medical record section. They had been screened for prostate cancer using PSA and /or digital rectal examination examination followed by confirmation with prostate biopsy. Statistical Analysis Used: Detection rate and receiver operating characteristic curve were performed using SPSS 16 and Medcalc softwares. Results: The detection rate of prostate cancer according to the PSA levels was 0.6%, 2.3%, 2.5%, 34.1% and 54.9% in the PSA range of 0-4, 4-10, 10-20, 20-50 and> 50 ng/ml, respectively. Maximum prostate cancer cases were detected beyond a PSA value of 20 ng/ml whereas no significant difference in the detection rate was observed in the PSA range of 0-4, 4-10 and 10-20 ng/ml. Conclusion: A low detection rate of prostate cancer observed in the PSA range of 4-20 ng/ml in LUTS patients indicates the need for use of higher cutoff values of PSA in such cases. Therefore we recommend a cutoff of 20 ng/ml of PSA for evaluation of detection rate of prostate cancer among patients presenting with LUTS.

  3. Enzalutamide for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Wijdan H; Kabbara, Wissam K; Al Basiouni Al Masri, Hiba S

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review and evaluate current literature on the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug enzalutamide (XTANDI®) in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Data sources Literature search was done through PubMed using the terms enzalutamide, MDV3100, abiraterone, and castration-resistant prostate cancer. Data from FDA product labels were also used. Study selection and data extraction Recent and relevant studies were included in the review. Collected clinical trials were screened and evaluated. Data synthesis Enzalutamide is an androgen receptor (AR) inhibitor with high selectivity and affinity to the AR. It was approved by the FDA to treat metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer in patients previously treated with docetaxel, after a Phase III trial (AFFIRM) that showed a 4.8-month survival benefit in this population. Recently, the FDA expanded the approval of enzalutamide as first-line therapy for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) who did not receive chemotherapy. Moreover, enzalutamide is shown to be associated with an acceptable safety profile. Conclusion Enzalutamide has been shown to be both safe and effective in improving overall survival in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer postchemotherapy with docetaxel and as a first line treatment before initiation of chemotherapy. However, additional studies and head-to-head trials are needed. PMID:25945058

  4. Disparities in Prostate Cancer Treatment Modality and Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    producing hormones) 1 0 10 11 B8f. Watchful waiting (no treatment, wait and see if your prostate cancer grows) 1 0 10 11 B8g. Cryotherapy (process...your prostate cancer grows) 7 Cryotherapy (process to freeze and destroy prostate tissue) 8 Chemotherapy (use of anti- cancer drugs) 9 Any other...and attitudes concerning prostate cancer and preventative measures. Prostate Cancer Questionnaire IRB1012# – Version 3 08/01/08 33 Now, I

  5. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khankari, Nikhil K; Murff, Harvey J; Zeng, Chenjie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is a common cancer worldwide with no established modifiable lifestyle factors to guide prevention. The associations between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and prostate cancer risk have been inconsistent. Using Mendelian randomisation, we evaluated associations...... and prostate cancer risk. However, risk reductions were observed for short-chain PUFAs, linoleic (ORLA=0.95, 95%CI=0.92, 0.98) and α-linolenic acids (ORALA=0.96, 95%CI=0.93, 0.98), among men ...-chain PUFAs (i.e., arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosapentaenoic acids), increased risks were observed among men

  6. Prostate cancer outcome in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yameogo Clotaire

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction African-American black men race is one of non-modifiable risk factors confirmed for prostate cancer. Many studies have been done in USA among African- American population to evaluate prostate cancer disparities. Compared to the USA very few data are available for prostate cancer in Sub-Saharan African countries. The objective of this study was to describe incident prostate cancer (PC diagnosis characteristics in Burkina Faso (West Africa. Methods We performed a prospective non randomized patient’s cohort study of new prostate cancer cases diagnosed by histological analysis of transrectal prostate biopsies in Burkina Faso. Study participants included 166 patients recruited at the urology division of the university hospital of Ouagadougou. Age of the patients, clinical symptoms, digital rectal examination (DRE result, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA level, histological characteristics and TNM classification were taking in account in this study. Results 166 transrectal prostate biopsies (TRPB were performed based on high PSA level or abnormal DRE. The prostate cancer rate on those TRPB was 63, 8 % (n=106. The mean age of the patients was 71, 5 years (52 to 86. Urinary retention was the first clinical patterns of reference in our institution (55, 7 %, n = 59. Most patients, 56, 6 % (n = 60 had a serum PSA level over than 100 ng/ml. All the patients had adenocarcinoma on histological study of prostate biopsy cores. The majority of cases (54, 7 % n = 58 had Gleason score equal or higher than 7. Conclusion Prostate cancer is diagnosed at later stages in our country. Very high serum PSA level and poorly differentiated tumors are the two major characteristics of PC at the time of diagnosis.

  7. Prostate atypia: does repeat biopsy detect clinically significant prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorin, Ryan P; Wiener, Scott; Harris, Cory D; Wagner, Joseph R

    2015-05-01

    While the treatment pathway in response to benign or malignant prostate biopsies is well established, there is uncertainty regarding the risk of subsequently diagnosing prostate cancer when an initial diagnosis of prostate atypia is made. As such, we investigated the likelihood of a repeat biopsy diagnosing prostate cancer (PCa) in patients in which an initial biopsy diagnosed prostate atypia. We reviewed our prospectively maintained prostate biopsy database to identify patients who underwent a repeat prostate biopsy within one year of atypia (atypical small acinar proliferation; ASAP) diagnosis between November 1987 and March 2011. Patients with a history of PCa were excluded. Chart review identified patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP), radiotherapy (RT), or active surveillance (AS). For some analyses, patients were divided into two subgroups based on their date of service. Ten thousand seven hundred and twenty patients underwent 13,595 biopsies during November 1987-March 2011. Five hundred and sixty seven patients (5.3%) had ASAP on initial biopsy, and 287 (50.1%) of these patients underwent a repeat biopsy within one year. Of these, 122 (42.5%) were negative, 44 (15.3%) had atypia, 19 (6.6%) had prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and 102 (35.6%) contained PCa. Using modified Epstein's criteria, 27/53 (51%) patients with PCa on repeat biopsy were determined to have clinically significant tumors. 37 (36.3%) proceeded to RP, 25 (24.5%) underwent RT, and 40 (39.2%) received no immediate treatment. In patients who underwent surgery, Gleason grade on final pathology was upgraded in 11 (35.5%), and downgraded 1 (3.2%) patient. ASAP on initial biopsy was associated with a significant risk of PCa on repeat biopsy in patients who subsequently underwent definitive local therapy. Patients with ASAP should be counseled on the probability of harboring both clinically significant and insignificant prostate cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A genome-wide RNAi screen identifies FOXO4 as a metastasis-suppressor through counteracting PI3K/AKT signal pathway in prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Su

    Full Text Available Activation of the PI3K/AKT signal pathway is a known driving force for the progression to castration-recurrent prostate cancer (CR-CaP, which constitutes the major lethal phenotype of CaP. Here, we identify using a genomic shRNA screen the PI3K/AKT-inactivating downstream target, FOXO4, as a potential CaP metastasis suppressor. FOXO4 protein levels inversely correlate with the invasive potential of a panel of human CaP cell lines, with decreased mRNA levels correlating with increased incidence of clinical metastasis. Knockdown (KD of FOXO4 in human LNCaP cells causes increased invasion in vitro and lymph node (LN metastasis in vivo without affecting indices of proliferation or apoptosis. Increased Matrigel invasiveness was found by KD of FOXO1 but not FOXO3. Comparison of differentially expressed genes affected by FOXO4-KD in LNCaP cells in culture, in primary tumors and in LN metastases identified a panel of upregulated genes, including PIP, CAMK2N1, PLA2G16 and PGC, which, if knocked down by siRNA, could decrease the increased invasiveness associated with FOXO4 deficiency. Although only some of these genes encode FOXO promoter binding sites, they are all RUNX2-inducible, and RUNX2 binding to the PIP promoter is increased in FOXO4-KD cells. Indeed, the forced expression of FOXO4 reversed the increased invasiveness of LNCaP/shFOXO4 cells; the forced expression of FOXO4 did not alter RUNX2 protein levels, yet it decreased RUNX2 binding to the PIP promoter, resulting in PIP downregulation. Finally, there was a correlation between FOXO4, but not FOXO1 or FOXO3, downregulation and decreased metastasis-free survival in human CaP patients. Our data strongly suggest that increased PI3K/AKT-mediated metastatic invasiveness in CaP is associated with FOXO4 loss, and that mechanisms to induce FOXO4 re-expression might suppress CaP metastatic aggressiveness.

  9. Design and synthesis of prostate cancer antigen-1 (PCA-1/ALKBH3) inhibitors as anti-prostate cancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Syuhei; Mabuchi, Miyuki; Shimizu, Tadashi; Itoh, Yoshihiro; Takeuchi, Yuko; Ueda, Masahiro; Mizuno, Hiroaki; Shigi, Naoko; Ohshio, Ikumi; Jinguji, Kentaro; Ueda, Yuko; Yamamoto, Masatatsu; Furukawa, Tatsuhiko; Aoki, Shunji; Tsujikawa, Kazutake; Tanaka, Akito

    2014-02-15

    A series of 1-aryl-3,4-substituted-1H-pyrazol-5-ol derivatives was synthesized and evaluated as prostate cancer antigen-1 (PCA-1/ALKBH3) inhibitors to obtain a novel anti-prostate cancer drug. After modifying 1-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-3,4-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-5-ol (1), a hit compound found during random screening using a recombinant PCA-1/ALKBH3, 1-(1H-5-methylbenzimidazol-2-yl)-4-benzyl-3-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-ol (35, HUHS015), was obtained as a potent PCA-1/ALKBH3 inhibitor both in vitro and in vivo. The bioavailability (BA) of 35 was 7.2% in rats after oral administration. As expected, continuously administering 35 significantly suppressed the growth of DU145 cells, which are human hormone-independent prostate cancer cells, in a mouse xenograft model without untoward effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Radiation therapy for prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Akira; Minowada, Shigeru; Tomoishi, Junzo; Kinoshita, Kenji; Matsuda, Tadayoshi

    1983-01-01

    A conformation radiotherapy system with collimators, whose openings can be controlled symmetrically by computerized techniques during rotational irradiation by a linear accelerator, has been developed for routine use in our hospital. Forty-four patients underwent radiation therapy, including this particular modality of radiotherapy, for prostatic cancer during the period of July 1976 through December 1981. Eight patients were classified as stage A, 10 stage B, 10 stage C, and 16 as stage D. Twenty-nine patients underwent conformation radiotherapy, two rotation radiotherapy, eight 2-port opposing technique radiotherapy, one 4-field radiotherapy, and four underwent a combination of 2-port opposing technique and conformation radiotherapy. Transient mild side effects such as diarrhea occurred in seven cases, while severe side effects such as rectal stricture or contracted bladder occurred in three cases. The latter occurred only in one case among 29 of conformation radiotherapy and in two among eight of 2-port opposing technique radiotherapy. The results of the treatment of short intervals in stage B, C, and D are as follows: prostatic size was reduced in 26 cases among 36, serum acid phosphatase level was reduced in 15 among 18 who had showed high acid phosphatase levels before treatment, although almost all cases underwent simultaneous hormonal therapy. The effects of radiotherapy alone were verified in two cases of stage B in which radiotherapy preceded hormonal therapy. Prostatic size and serum acid phosphatase level were reduced by radiotherapy alone. (author)

  11. Paraneoplastic jaundice and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Ana Claudia; Alvarenga, Maria Joana; Santos, Jose Carlos; Silva, Alberto Mello

    2017-04-22

    Cholestasis has numerous causes. We present the case of a 78-year-old man with a common diagnosis in this age group and gender but with an unusual presentation. There are only 11 articles published of patients with jaundice due to a paraneoplastic syndrome associated with prostate cancer. Interleukin 6 and other proinflammatory cytokines appear to contribute to the pathophysiology of this syndrome. Our patient remains symptom free 4 months after treatment initiation. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Leveraging the Family Influence of Women in Prostate Cancer Efforts Targeting African American Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, O N; Rutherford, C A; Witherspoon, S F

    2017-08-25

    Incidence rate of prostate cancer among African American (AA) men is 1.6 times that in White men. Prevention efforts in this population have typically been through faith-based organizations and barber shops, with a few including significant others. Culturally, women are known to have a strong influence in the AA family. The current study assessed prostate cancer knowledge and explored perceptions on the roles of women in prostate cancer prevention. To assess prostate cancer knowledge, a 25-item questionnaire was administered to convenience samples of AA women (n = 297) and men (n = 199). Four focus groups were conducted to explore perceptions on the role of women in prostate cancer prevention. Men had a higher mean score (13.2; max of 25) than women (11.4) for knowledge of prostate cancer. For the men, higher knowledge scores were associated with having a family member diagnosed with prostate cancer and likelihood to engage healthcare providers about prostate cancer (p men to seek regular primary care. This affords men opportunities for dialog with healthcare providers about prostate cancer and informed decision making regarding screening.

  13. Presence of PSA auto-antibodies in men with prostate abnormalities (prostate cancer/benign prostatic hyperplasia/prostatitis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokant, M T; Naz, R K

    2015-04-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), produced by the prostate, liquefies post-ejaculate semen. PSA is detected in semen and blood. Increased circulating PSA levels indicate prostate abnormality [prostate cancer (PC), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostatitis (PTIS)], with variance among individuals. As the prostate has been proposed as an immune organ, we hypothesise that variation in PSA levels among men may be due to presence of auto-antibodies against PSA. Sera from healthy men (n = 28) and men having prostatitis (n = 25), BPH (n = 30) or PC (n = 29) were tested for PSA antibody presence using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) values converted to standard deviation (SD) units, and Western blotting. Taking ≥2 SD units as cut-off for positive immunoreactivity, 0% of normal men, 0% with prostatitis, 33% with BPH and 3.45% with PC demonstrated PSA antibodies. One-way analysis of variance (anova) performed on the mean absorbance values and SD units of each group showed BPH as significantly different (P prostatitis. All others were nonsignificant (P prostate abnormalities, especially differentiating BPH from prostate cancer and prostatitis. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Comparison of telomerase activity in prostate cancer, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleiman Mahjoub

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Telomerase is a reverse transcriptase enzyme that synthesizes telomeric DNA on chromosome ends. The enzyme is important for the immortalization of cancer cells because it maintains the telomeres. METHODS: Telomerase activity (TA was measured by fluorescence-based telomeric repeat amplification protocol (FTRAP assay in prostate carcinoma and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. RESULTS: TA was present in 91.4% of 70 prostate cancers, 68.8% of 16 prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN, 43.3% of 30 BPH*, 21.4% of 14 atrophy and 20% of 15 normal samples adjacent to tumor. There was not any significant correlation between TA, histopathological tumor stage or gleason score. In contrast to high TA in the BPH* tissue from the cancer-bearing gland, only 6.3% of 32 BPH specimens from patients only diagnosed with BPH were telomerase activity-positive. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that TA is present in most prostate cancers. The high rate of TA in tissue adjacent to tumor may be attributed either to early molecular alteration of cancer that was histologically unapparent, or to the presence of occult cancer cells. Our findings suggest that the re-expression of telomerase activity could be one step in the transformation of BPH to PIN. KEY WORDS: Telomerase activity, prostate cancer, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  15. Current opinions on chemotherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luptak, J.

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men. Because of the long latency period of prostate cancer, and the economic burden and morbidity associated with its treatment, there is a strong rationale for interventions to reduce the risk of developing this malignancy. The terms „prevention“ or „chemo prevention“ refers to efforts to prevent or delay the development of cancer by taking medicines, vitamins or other agents. There are many agents that may decrease the risk of prostate cancer. It requires careful study of the agents in specific populations to determine whether risk is reduced, magnitude of the risk reduction and the spectrum of side effects associated with the agent. The ideal preventive agent will not significantly alter quality of life, is inexpensive, safe, well tolerated, and effective. The purpose of this article is to review recent developments in the field of prostate cancer prevention. (author)

  16. Development of the Meharry Medical College Prostate Cancer Research Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ukoli, Flora A. M

    2006-01-01

    African Americans (AA) are disproportionately affected by prostate cancer (PCa) for reasons including, biologic tumor differences, genetic predisposition, differential exposures, lack of access to prostate specific antigen (PSA...

  17. CT screening for lung cancer. Update 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henschke, C.I.; Yip, R.; Yankelevitz, D.F.

    2009-01-01

    Screening for a cancer should be considered when the cancer is significant in terms of incidence and mortality, treatment of early stage disease is better than treatment of late stage disease, and there is a screening regimen that provides for earlier diagnosis rather than later, symptom-prompted diagnosis. Lung cancer qualifies as it kills more people than any other cancer worldwide. In the United States it kills more people than colon, breast, and prostate cancer combined and more women than breast cancer. The fundamental concepts of screening are presented. Screening for a cancer is a repetitive process, starting with the baseline round followed by repeat rounds of screening at set intervals. The regimen of screening defines the initial diagnostic test and the sequence of tests to be performed leading to a rule-in diagnosis of the cancer. The regimen should provide lead time of the diagnosis of the cancer. The regimen for the first, baseline round may be different from the regimen for the repeat rounds as the former is inherently different from the subsequent repeat rounds. Baseline screening identifies a greater proportion of cancers with a longer latent (asymptomatic) phase than repeat screening, called length bias. Length bias exists for any screening program, regardless of the design of the study or the cancer. Repeat rounds of screening identify the same proportion of cancer diagnoses found in absence of screening for people having the same risk of the cancer and these repeat rounds of screening can be pooled. It is also a consequence of length bias that cancers found in repeat rounds are earlier in their latent phase than those of the baseline round, a less frequently mentioned consequence. Overdiagnosis bias, another bias of screening, can occur in two ways: a cancer' detected by the screening, pathologically proven, that is not life-threatening even when not resected and a genuine life-threatening cancer that is diagnosed and treated but the person dies

  18. Targeting TMPRSS2-ERG in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0212 TITLE: Targeting TMPRSS2-ERG in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David Takeda CONTRACTING...ORGANIZATION: Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Boston, MA 02215 REPORT DATE: November 2017 TYPE OF REPORT: Final PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research...Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0212 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) David Takeda 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  19. Advances in MRI diagnosis of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Longmin; Liu Ailian

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in the world, and the incidence of prostate cancer in China shows an upward trend. MRI has high soft tissue resolution and multi-dimensional imaging advantages, and it can better show the anatomy of the prostate and adjacent tissue structures. With the development of MR technique, it plays a more and more important role in prostate cancer diagnosis. This review starts from the imaging performance of routine MRI sequence of prostate cancer, and a variety of functional MRI applications in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of prostate cancer are described in detail, such as MR perfusion-weighted imaging, MR spectroscopy, MR diffusion-weighted imaging, MR diffusion tensor imaging, intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging, MR susceptibility-weighted imaging. Meanwhile this review introduces that functional MRI has more advantages and can provide more image information than routine MRI sequence. According to a series of semi-quantitative and quantitative data, functional MRI can further provide the blood perfusion of prostate cancer, water molecule diffusion and microcirculation state, metabolism and biochemical composition change information. (authors)

  20. Progress in Gene Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Kamran A.; Davis, Brian J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Wilson, Torrence M. [Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Wiseman, Gregory A. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Federspiel, Mark J. [Department of Molecular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Morris, John C., E-mail: davis.brian@mayo.edu [Division of Endocrinology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2012-11-19

    Gene therapy has held promise to correct various disease processes. Prostate cancer represents the second leading cause of cancer death in American men. A number of clinical trials involving gene therapy for the treatment of prostate cancer have been reported. The ability to efficiently transduce tumors with effective levels of therapeutic genes has been identified as a fundamental barrier to effective cancer gene therapy. The approach utilizing gene therapy in prostate cancer patients at our institution attempts to address this deficiency. The sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) is responsible for the ability of the thyroid gland to transport and concentrate iodide. The characteristics of the NIS gene suggest that it could represent an ideal therapeutic gene for cancer therapy. Published results from Mayo Clinic researchers have indicated several important successes with the use of the NIS gene and prostate gene therapy. Studies have demonstrated that transfer of the human NIS gene into prostate cancer using adenovirus vectors in vitro and in vivo results in efficient uptake of radioactive iodine and significant tumor growth delay with prolongation of survival. Preclinical successes have culminated in the opening of a phase I trial for patients with advanced prostate disease which is currently accruing patients. Further study will reveal the clinical promise of NIS gene therapy in the treatment of prostate as well as other malignancies.

  1. Progress in Gene Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Kamran A.; Davis, Brian J.; Wilson, Torrence M.; Wiseman, Gregory A.; Federspiel, Mark J.; Morris, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Gene therapy has held promise to correct various disease processes. Prostate cancer represents the second leading cause of cancer death in American men. A number of clinical trials involving gene therapy for the treatment of prostate cancer have been reported. The ability to efficiently transduce tumors with effective levels of therapeutic genes has been identified as a fundamental barrier to effective cancer gene therapy. The approach utilizing gene therapy in prostate cancer patients at our institution attempts to address this deficiency. The sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) is responsible for the ability of the thyroid gland to transport and concentrate iodide. The characteristics of the NIS gene suggest that it could represent an ideal therapeutic gene for cancer therapy. Published results from Mayo Clinic researchers have indicated several important successes with the use of the NIS gene and prostate gene therapy. Studies have demonstrated that transfer of the human NIS gene into prostate cancer using adenovirus vectors in vitro and in vivo results in efficient uptake of radioactive iodine and significant tumor growth delay with prolongation of survival. Preclinical successes have culminated in the opening of a phase I trial for patients with advanced prostate disease which is currently accruing patients. Further study will reveal the clinical promise of NIS gene therapy in the treatment of prostate as well as other malignancies.

  2. Sociodemographic status, stress, and risk of prostate cancer. A prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Naja Rod; Kristensen, Tage S; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: The social gradient in prostate cancer incidence observed in several studies may be a result of differential access to prostate cancer screening. We aim to assess if socioeconomic status, stress, and marital status are associated with prostate cancer risk in a population with free access...... to health care. METHODS: The 5,496 men who participated in the Copenhagen City Heart Study were asked about their income, educational level, stress level, and marital status during 1981-1983. These men were prospectively followed up in the Danish Cancer Registry until the end of 2002 and fewer than 0...... in prostate cancer risk according to stress (HR = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.90-1.09) or marital status. CONCLUSION: In a racially homogeneous population of Caucasians with free access to health care, we found no evidence of a relation between sociodemographic variables or stress and subsequent risk of prostate cancer....

  3. The Stockholm-3 (STHLM3) Model can Improve Prostate Cancer Diagnostics in Men Aged 50-69 yr Compared with Current Prostate Cancer Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Martin; Nordström, Tobias; Aly, Markus; Adolfsson, Jan; Wiklund, Peter; Brandberg, Yvonne; Thompson, James; Wiklund, Fredrik; Lindberg, Johan; Presti, Joseph C; StLezin, Mark; Clements, Mark; Egevad, Lars; Grönberg, Henrik

    2016-11-23

    Prostate cancer screening is associated with low specificity, unnecessary biopsies, and overdiagnosis. We have previously shown that the Stockholm-3 model (S3M) can reduce biopsies compared with using prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≥3ng/ml as an indication for biopsy. Urologists in today's current prostate cancer testing (CPT) have access to numerous variables in addition to PSA (eg, age, ethnicity, family history, free PSA, PSA velocity, digital rectal examination, and prostate volume) to support biopsy decisions. We estimated the number of prostate cancers diagnosed and prostate biopsies performed if S3M replaced CPT in Stockholm, Sweden, by comparing biopsy results in 56 282 men who underwent PSA testing according to CPT in Stockholm in 2011 with the 47 688 men enrolled in the STHLM3 validation cohort 2012-2015. With the same sensitivity as CPT to diagnose Gleason score ≥7 prostate cancer, S3M was estimated to reduce the number of men biopsied by 53% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 41-65%), avoid 76% (95% CI: 67-81%) of negative biopsies, and reduce Gleason score 6 cancers by 23% (95% CI: 6-40%). S3M has the potential to improve prostate cancer diagnostics by better selecting men with high risk of GS ≥7 prostate cancer. We modeled the effect the Stockholm-3 model would have on prostate cancer diagnostics if it replaced current clinical practice. We found that Stockholm-3 model may substantially reduce the number of biopsies, while maintaining the same sensitivity to diagnose clinically significant prostate cancer. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Developments in Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Colorectal Cancer Developments in Colorectal Cancer Screening Past Issues / Summer 2016 Table of ... at the National Cancer Institute, shared developments in colorectal cancer screening methods with NIH MedlinePlus magazine. What ...

  5. SPOP Mutations in Prostate Cancer across Demographically Diverse Patient Cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Blattner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recurrent mutations in the Speckle-Type POZ Protein (SPOP gene occur in up to 15% of prostate cancers. However, the frequency and features of cancers with these mutations across different populations is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate SPOP mutations across diverse cohorts and validate a series of assays employing high-resolution melting (HRM analysis and Sanger sequencing for mutational analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded material. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: 720 prostate cancer samples from six international cohorts spanning Caucasian, African American, and Asian patients, including both prostate-specific antigen-screened and unscreened populations, were screened for their SPOP mutation status. Status of SPOP was correlated to molecular features (ERG rearrangement, PTEN deletion, and CHD1 deletion as well as clinical and pathologic features. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Overall frequency of SPOP mutations was 8.1% (4.6% to 14.4%, SPOP mutation was inversely associated with ERG rearrangement (P < .01, and SPOP mutant (SPOPmut cancers had higher rates of CHD1 deletions (P < .01. There were no significant differences in biochemical recurrence in SPOPmut cancers. Limitations of this study include missing mutational data due to sample quality and lack of power to identify a difference in clinical outcomes. CONCLUSION: SPOP is mutated in 4.6% to 14.4% of patients with prostate cancer across different ethnic and demographic backgrounds. There was no significant association between SPOP mutations with ethnicity, clinical, or pathologic parameters. Mutual exclusivity of SPOP mutation with ERG rearrangement as well as a high association with CHD1 deletion reinforces SPOP mutation as defining a distinct molecular subclass of prostate cancer.

  6. PSA testing for men at average risk of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce K Armstrong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Prostate-specific antigen (PSA testing of men at normal risk of prostate cancer is one of the most contested issues in cancer screening. There is no formal screening program, but testing is common – arguably a practice that ran ahead of the evidence. Public and professional communication about PSA screening has been highly varied and potentially confusing for practitioners and patients alike. There has been much research and policy activity relating to PSA testing in recent years. Landmark randomised controlled trials have been reported; authorities – including the 2013 Prostate Cancer World Congress, the Prostate Cancer Foundation of Australia, Cancer Council Australia, and the National Health and Medical Research Council – have made or endorsed public statements and/or issued clinical practice guidelines; and the US Preventive Services Task Force is revising its recommendations. But disagreement continues. The contention is partly over what the new evidence means. It is also a result of different valuing and prioritisation of outcomes that are hard to compare: prostate cancer deaths prevented (a small and disputed number; prevention of metastatic disease (somewhat more common; and side-effects of treatment such as incontinence, impotence and bowel trouble (more common again. A sizeable proportion of men diagnosed through PSA testing (somewhere between 20% and 50% would never have had prostate cancer symptoms sufficient to prompt investigation; many of these men are older, with competing comorbidities. It is a complex picture. Below are four viewpoints from expert participants in the evolving debate, commissioned for this cancer screening themed issue of Public Health Research & Practice. We asked the authors to respond to the challenge of PSA testing of asymptomatic, normal-risk men. They raise important considerations: uncertainty, harms, the trustworthiness and interpretation of the evidence, cost (e.g. of using multiparametric

  7. Obesity, body composition, and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fowke Jay H

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Established risk factors for prostate cancer have not translated to effective prevention or adjuvant care strategies. Several epidemiologic studies suggest greater body adiposity may be a modifiable risk factor for high-grade (Gleason 7, Gleason 8-10 prostate cancer and prostate cancer mortality. However, BMI only approximates body adiposity, and may be confounded by centralized fat deposition or lean body mass in older men. Our objective was to use bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA to measure body composition and determine the association between prostate cancer and total body fat mass (FM fat-free mass (FFM, and percent body fat (%BF, and which body composition measure mediated the association between BMI or waist circumference (WC with prostate cancer. Methods The study used a multi-centered recruitment protocol targeting men scheduled for prostate biopsy. Men without prostate cancer at biopsy served as controls (n = 1057. Prostate cancer cases were classified as having Gleason 6 (n = 402, Gleason 7 (n = 272, or Gleason 8-10 (n = 135 cancer. BIA and body size measures were ascertained by trained staff prior to diagnosis, and clinical and comorbidity status were determined by chart review. Analyses utilized multivariable linear and logistic regression. Results Body size and composition measures were not significantly associated with low-grade (Gleason 6 prostate cancer. In contrast, BMI, WC, FM, and FFM were associated with an increased risk of Gleason 7 and Gleason 8-10 prostate cancer. Furthermore, BMI and WC were no longer associated with Gleason 8-10 (ORBMI = 1.039 (1.000, 1.081, ORWC = 1.016 (0.999, 1.033, continuous scales with control for total body FFM (ORBMI = 0.998 (0.946, 1.052, ORWC = 0.995 (0.974, 1.017. Furthermore, increasing FFM remained significantly associated with Gleason 7 (ORFFM = 1.030 (1.008, 1.052 and Gleason 8-10 (ORFFM = 1.044 (1.014, 1.074 after controlling for FM. Conclusions Our results

  8. The role of prostatitis in prostate cancer: meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyi Jiang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Use systematic review methods to quantify the association between prostatitis and prostate cancer, under both fixed and random effects model. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Case control studies of prostate cancer with information on prostatitis history. All studies published between 1990-2012, were collected to calculate a pooled odds ratio. SELECTION CRITERIA: the selection criteria are as follows: human case control studies; published from May 1990 to July 2012; containing number of prostatitis, and prostate cancer cases. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: In total, 20 case control studies were included. A significant association between prostatitis and prostate cancer was found, under both fixed effect model (pooled OR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.39-1.62, and random effects model (OR=1.64, 95%CI: 1.36-1.98. Personal interview based case control studies showed a high level of association (fixed effect model: pooled OR=1.59, 95%CI: 1.47-1.73, random effects model: pooled OR= 1.87, 95%CI: 1.52-2.29, compared with clinical based studies (fixed effect model: pooled OR=1.05, 95%CI: 0.86-1.28, random effects model: pooled OR= 0.98, 95%CI: 0.67-1.45. Additionally, pooled ORs, were calculated for each decade. In a fixed effect model: 1990's: OR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.35-1.84; 2000's: OR=1.59, 95% CI: 1.40-1.79; 2010's: OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.22-1.56. In a random effects model: 1990's: OR=1.98, 95% CI: 1.08-3.62; 2000's: OR=1.64, 95% CI: 1.23-2.19; 2010's: OR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.03-1.73. Finally a meta-analysis stratified by each country was conducted. In fixed effect models, U.S: pooled OR =1.45, 95%CI: 1.34-1.57; China: pooled OR =4.67, 95%CI: 3.08-7.07; Cuba: pooled OR =1.43, 95%CI: 1.00-2.04; Italy: pooled OR =0.61, 95%CI: 0.13-2.90. In random effects model, U.S: pooled OR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.25-1.80; China: pooled OR =4.67, 95%CI: 3.08-7.07; Cuba: pooled OR =1.43, 95%CI: 1.00-2.04; Italy: pooled OR =0.61, 95%CI: 0.13-2.90. CONCLUSIONS: the present meta-analysis provides the statistical

  9. Prospects in radionuclide imaging of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutje, Susanne; Boerman, Otto C.; van Rij, Catharina M.; Sedelaar, Michiel; Helfrich, Wijnand; Oyen, Wim J. G.; Mulders, Peter F. A.

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men in the Western world and represents a major health problem with substantial morbidity and mortality. Sensitivity and specificity of digital rectal examination (DRE) and evaluation of prostate specific antigen (PSA) are excellent methods for

  10. Role of Growth Hormone in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swanson, Steven M

    2007-01-01

    We have established a GH-deficient prostate cancer model (Tag/Ghdr/dr rat) indicating that a reduction in GH and/or IGF-I can significantly inhibit prostate carcinogenesis in this model in contrast to GH wild-type controls...

  11. Epigenetics in Breast and Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yanyuan; Sarkissyan, Marianna; Vadgama, Jaydutt V.

    2015-01-01

    Most recent investigations into cancer etiology have identified a key role played by epigenetics. Specifically, aberrant DNA and histone modifications which silence tumor suppressor genes or promote oncogenes have been demonstrated in multiple cancer models. While the role of epigenetics in several solid tumor cancers such as colorectal cancer are well established, there is emerging evidence that epigenetics also plays a critical role in breast and prostate cancer. In breast cancer, DNA methy...

  12. Are strict vegetarians protected against prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantamango-Bartley, Yessenia; Knutsen, Synnove F; Knutsen, Raymond; Jacobsen, Bjarne K; Fan, Jing; Beeson, W Lawrence; Sabate, Joan; Hadley, David; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Penniecook, Jason; Herring, Patti; Butler, Terry; Bennett, Hanni; Fraser, Gary

    2016-01-01

    According to the American Cancer Society, prostate cancer accounts for ∼27% of all incident cancer cases among men and is the second most common (noncutaneous) cancer among men. The relation between diet and prostate cancer is still unclear. Because people do not consume individual foods but rather foods in combination, the assessment of dietary patterns may offer valuable information when determining associations between diet and prostate cancer risk. This study aimed to examine the association between dietary patterns (nonvegetarian, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, vegan, and semi-vegetarian) and prostate cancer incidence among 26,346 male participants of the Adventist Health Study-2. In this prospective cohort study, cancer cases were identified by matching to cancer registries. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to estimate HRs by using age as the time variable. In total, 1079 incident prostate cancer cases were identified. Around 8% of the study population reported adherence to the vegan diet. Vegan diets showed a statistically significant protective association with prostate cancer risk (HR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.49, 0.85). After stratifying by race, the statistically significant association with a vegan diet remained only for the whites (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.86), but the multivariate HR for black vegans showed a similar but nonsignificant point estimate (HR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.41, 1.18). Vegan diets may confer a lower risk of prostate cancer. This lower estimated risk is seen in both white and black vegan subjects, although in the latter, the CI is wider and includes the null. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Prostate cancer incidence rates in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lisa W; Ritchey, Jamie; Devesa, Susan S; Quraishi, Sabah M; Zhang, Hongmei; Hsing, Ann W

    2011-01-01

    African American men have among the highest prostate cancer incidence rates in the world yet rates among their African counterparts are unclear. In this paper, we compared reported rates among black men of Sub-Saharan African descent using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program for 1973-2007. Although population-based data in Africa are quite limited, the available data from IARC showed that rates among blacks were highest in the East (10.7-38.1 per 100,000 man-years, age-adjusted world standard) and lowest in the West (4.7-19.8). These rates were considerably lower than those of 80.0-195.3 observed among African Americans. Rates in Africa increased over time (1987-2002) and have been comparable to those for distant stage in African Americans. These patterns are likely due to differences between African and African American men in medical care access, screening, registry quality, genetic diversity, and Westernization. Incidence rates in Africa will likely continue to rise with improving economies and increasing Westernization, warranting the need for more high-quality population-based registration to monitor cancer incidence in Africa.

  14. Comparison of sonographic features in benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Won Young; Hong, Hyun Sook; Kang, Eun Young; Seol, Hae Young; Suh, Won Hyuck

    1988-01-01

    Transrectal sonography of prostate was sensitive to textural changes produced by both benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancers. During recent 4 years, twenty cases of BPH and twenty cases of prostate cancers proven histologically were analyzed in their sonographic features, retrospectively, by using transrectal prostate sonography and suprapubic prostate sonography. The results were as follows: 1. Mean weights of BPH and prostate cancers was 40.4g and 47.6g, respectively. 2. Sonographic features of BPH revealed isoechogenecity in 11 cases, homogeneity in 18 cases, well defined capsular margins in 19 cases, and calcification in 16 cases. 3. Sonographic features of prostate cancers revealed mixed echogenecity in 14 cases, inhomogeneity in 15 cases, poorly defined capsular margin in 14 cases, and calcifications in 13 cases. 4. Authors concluded that prostate sonography were valuable diagnostic modality in the differentiation of BPH and prostate cancers.

  15. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density in the diagnostic algorithm of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, Tobias; Akre, Olof; Aly, Markus; Grönberg, Henrik; Eklund, Martin

    2018-04-01

    Screening for prostate cancer using prostate-specific antigen (PSA) alone leads to un-necessary biopsying and overdiagnosis. PSA density is easily accessible, but early evidence on its use for biopsy decisions was conflicting and use of PSA density is not commonly recommended in guidelines. We analyzed biopsy outcomes in 5291 men in the population-based STHLM3 study with PSA ≥ 3 ng/ml and ultrasound-guided prostate volume measurements by using percentages and regression models. PSA density was calculated as total PSA (ng/ml) divided by prostate volume (ml). Main endpoint was clinically significant cancer (csPCa) defined as Gleason Score ≥ 7. The median PSA-density was 0.10 ng/ml 2 (IQR 0.075-0.14). PSA-density was associated with the risk of finding csPCa both with and without adjusting for the additional clinical information age, family history, previous biopsies, total PSA and free/total PSA (OR 1.06; 95% CI:1.05-1.07 and OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.06-1.08). Discrimination for csPCa was better when PSA density was added to a model with additional clinical information (AUC 0.75 vs. 0.73, P PSA-density. Omitting prostate biopsy for men with PSA-density ≤0.07 ng/ml 2 would save 19.7% of biopsy procedures, while missing 6.9% of csPCa. PSA-density cutoffs of 0.10 ng/ml 2 and 0.15 ng/ml 2 resulted in detection of 77% (729/947) and 49% (461/947) of Gleason Score ≥7 tumors. PSA-density might inform biopsy decisions, and spare some men from the morbidity associated with a prostate biopsy and diagnosis of low-grade prostate cancer.

  16. MR imaging of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuck, A.; Scheidler, J.; Sommer, B.; Graser, A.; Mueller-Lisse, U.G.; Massmann, J.

    2003-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis and staging of prostate cancer (PC) is developing into an important health care issue in light of the high incidence of PC and the improvements in stage-adapted therapy. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview on the current role of MR imaging and MR spectroscopy in the diagnosis and staging of PC.Material and methods Pertinent literature was searched and evaluated to collect information on current clinical indications, study techniques, diagnostic value, and limitations of magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. Major indications for MR imaging of patients with supected PC are to define tumor location before biopsy when clinical or TRUS findings are inconclusive, and to provide accurate staging of histologically proven PC to ascertain effective therapy. Current MR imaging techniques for the evaluation of PC include multiplanar high-resolution T2-weighted FSE and T1-weighted SE sequences using combined endorectal and phased-array coils. Using these techniques, the reported accuracy of MR imaging for the diagnosis of extracapsular tumor extension ranges between 82 and 88% with sensitivities between 80 and 95%, and specificities between 82 and 93%. Typical MR findings of PC in different stages of disease, as well as diagnostic problems, such as chronic prostatitis, biopsy-related hemorrhage and therapy-related changes of prostatic tissue are discussed. In addition, the current perspectives and limitations of MR spectroscopy in PC are summarized. Current MR imaging techniques provide important diagnostic information in the pretherapeutic workup of PC including a high staging accuracy, and is superior to TRUS. (orig.) [de

  17. Image guided prostate cancer treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bard, Robert L. [Bard Cancer Center, Biofoundation for Angiogenesis Research and Development, New York, NY (United States); Fuetterer, Jurgen J. [Radboud Univ. Nijmegen, Medical Centre (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology; Sperling, Dan (ed.) [Sperling Prostate Center, Alpha 3TMRI, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Systematic overview of the application of ultrasound and MRI in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lower urinary tract. Detailed information on image-guided therapies, including focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, and microwave and laser ablation. Numerous high-quality illustrations based on high-end equipment. Represents the state of the art in Non Invasive Imaging and Minimally Invasive Ablation Treatment (MIAT). Image-Guided Prostate Cancer Treatments is a comprehensive reference and practical guide on the technology and application of ultrasound and MRI in the male pelvis, with special attention to the prostate. The book is organized into three main sections, the first of which is devoted to general aspects of imaging and image-guided treatments. The second section provides a systematic overview of the application of ultrasound and MRI to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lower urinary tract. Performance of the ultrasound and MRI studies is explained, and the normal and abnormal pathological anatomy is reviewed. Correlation with the ultrasound in the same plane is provided to assist in understanding the MRI sequences. Biopsy and interventional procedures, ultrasound-MRI fusion techniques, and image-guided therapies, including focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, microwave and laser ablation, are all fully covered. The third section focuses on securing treatment effectiveness and the use of follow-up imaging to ensure therapeutic success and detect tumor recurrence at an early stage, which is vital given that prompt focal treatment of recurrence is very successful. Here, particular attention is paid to the role of Doppler ultrasound and DCE-MRI technologies. This book, containing a wealth of high-quality illustrations based on high-end equipment, will acquaint beginners with the basics of prostate ultrasound and MRI, while more advanced practitioners will learn new skills, means of avoiding pitfalls, and ways of effectively

  18. The bicalutamide Early Prostate Cancer Program. Demography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    See, W A.; McLeod, D; Iversen, P

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment for early prostate cancer has yet to be established. A well-tolerated hormonal therapy such as bicalutamide could be a useful treatment option in this setting, either as adjuvant or immediate therapy. A major collaborative clinical trials program was set up...... to investigate bicalutamide as a treatment option for local prostate cancer (localized or locally advanced disease). METHODS: The bicalutamide Early Prostate Cancer program comprises three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of similar design that are being conducted in distinct geographical...... areas (North America; Australia, Europe, Israel, South Africa and Mexico; and Scandinavia). Men with T1b-4N0-1M0 (TNM 1997) prostate cancer have been randomized on a 1:1 basis to receive bicalutamide 150 mg daily or placebo. Recruitment to the program closed in July 1998, and follow-up is ongoing. Study...

  19. Role of Mitochondria in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chowdhury, Subir K

    2006-01-01

    ... (LNCaP DU145 RC3 and CL1). Immunoblot Real Time RT-RCR polarographic and spectrophotometric analysis revealed that mGPDH abundance and activity was significantly elevated in prostate cancer cell lines when compared to normal...

  20. Role of Mitochondria in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chowdhury, Subir K

    2005-01-01

    ... (LNCaP, DU145, PC3, and CL1). Immunoblot, Real Time RTPCR, polarographic, and spectrophotometric analysis revealed that mGPDH abundance and activity was significantly elevated in prostate cancer cell lines when compared to normal...

  1. Biomarkers of Selenium Chemoprevention of Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dong, Yan

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the mechanism of selenium growth inhibition in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells Selenium retarded cell cycle progression at multiple transition points...

  2. Gene Delivery for Metastatic Prostate Cancer Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pang, Shen

    2001-01-01

    .... Enhanced by the bystander effect, the specific expression of the DTA gene causes significant cell death in prostate cancer cell cultures, with very low background cell eradication in control cell lines...

  3. Exploiting Epigenetic Alterations in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Simon J; Haendler, Bernard

    2017-05-09

    Prostate cancer affects an increasing number of men worldwide and is a leading cause of cancer-associated deaths. Beside genetic mutations, many epigenetic alterations including DNA and histone modifications have been identified in clinical prostate tumor samples. They have been linked to aberrant activity of enzymes and reader proteins involved in these epigenetic processes, leading to the search for dedicated inhibitory compounds. In the wake of encouraging anti-tumor efficacy results in preclinical models, epigenetic modulators addressing different targets are now being tested in prostate cancer patients. In addition, the assessment of microRNAs as stratification biomarkers, and early clinical trials evaluating suppressor microRNAs as potential prostate cancer treatment are being discussed.

  4. Exploiting Epigenetic Alterations in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J. Baumgart

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer affects an increasing number of men worldwide and is a leading cause of cancer-associated deaths. Beside genetic mutations, many epigenetic alterations including DNA and histone modifications have been identified in clinical prostate tumor samples. They have been linked to aberrant activity of enzymes and reader proteins involved in these epigenetic processes, leading to the search for dedicated inhibitory compounds. In the wake of encouraging anti-tumor efficacy results in preclinical models, epigenetic modulators addressing different targets are now being tested in prostate cancer patients. In addition, the assessment of microRNAs as stratification biomarkers, and early clinical trials evaluating suppressor microRNAs as potential prostate cancer treatment are being discussed.

  5. Effects of Presurgical Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, men diagnosed with androgen-sensitive prostate cancer with intermediate- or high-risk features will be examined with mpMRI, undergo targeted biopsies, and be treated with neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy.

  6. Fatty Acid Binding Proteins in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jett, Marti

    2000-01-01

    We have shown that there is a distinct pattern of fatty acid binding protein (FAEP) expression in prostate cancer vs normal cells and that finding has be confirmed in patient samples of biopsy specimens...

  7. Novel Therapeutic Approaches Toward Treating Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Kinases, Prostate Cancer, AKT inhibition, Mouse, Prostate Stem Cells 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES...Bearss 0, Wierda WG, Gandhi V (2009) Pim kinase inhibitor, 5GI-1776, induces apoptosis in CLL lymphocytes. Blood 114:4150--4157. 27. Grey R, et aL...PIM1 expression predict outcome in mantle cell lymphoma treated with high dose therapy, stem eel! transplantation and rituximab: a Cancer and Leukemia

  8. Reduction of Racial Disparities in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    African Americans and whites revealed increased risks among men who reported a history of gonorrhea or syphilis or who had positive serology for...cancer, of 1.49 to 2.64 for syphilis, and 1.16 to 1.50 for gonorrhea .16 The meta-analysis also found an association be- tween prostate cancer and...tients with prostatitis include Chlamydia trachoma- tis, Ureaplasma, Mycoplasma, Neisseria gonorrhea , Pseudomonas, Escherichia coli, and

  9. Psychological distress associated with cancer screening: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chad-Friedman, Emma; Coleman, Sarah; Traeger, Lara N; Pirl, William F; Goldman, Roberta; Atlas, Steven J; Park, Elyse R

    2017-10-15

    Current national cancer screening recommendations include the potential risk of psychological harm related to screening. However, data on the relation of psychological distress to cancer screening is limited. The authors conducted a systematic review to assess psychological distress associated with cancer screening procedures. Studies that administered measures of psychological distress between 2 weeks before and 1 month after the screening procedure were included. In total, 22 eligible studies met criteria for review, including 13 observational trials and 9 randomized controlled trials. Eligible studies used a broad range of validated and unvalidated measures. Anxiety was the most commonly assessed construct and was measured using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory. Studies included breast, colorectal, prostate, lung, and cervical screening procedures. Distress was low across procedures, with the exception of colorectal screening. Distress did not vary according to the time at which distress was measured. None of the studies were conducted exclusively with the intention of assessing distress at the time of screening. Evidence of low distress during the time of cancer screening suggests that distress might not be a widespread barrier to screening among adults who undergo screening. However, more studies are needed using validated measures of distress to further understand the extent to which screening may elicit psychological distress and impede adherence to national screening recommendations. Cancer 2017;123:3882-94. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  10. Molecular biology of prostate cancer progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Timothy C.; Sehgal, I.; Timme, T.L.; Rn, C.; Yang, G.; Park, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    Prostate cancer is now the most common form of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in American men (Boring C.C. et al, CA 44:7-26, 1994). As with other forms of cancer, prostate cancer is a multistep disease process that involves the acquisition of multiple genetic alternations (Armitage P and Doll K, Br J Cancer 8:1-12, 1954). For prostate cancer, alternations in specific dominantly acting oncogenes including ras and myc and tumor suppressor genes including p53 and Rb have been reported. However, a simple phenotype-genotype correlation for prostate cancer progression may not be readily accessible because prostate cancer demonstrates remarkable genetic heterogeneity. Recent clinical data indicate that this heterogeneity exists both among the multiple cancer foci as well as within individual cancer foci. Furthermore, based on chromosomal analysis, it has been suggested that metastases do not necessarily seed from the largest index cancer focus at the primary site. Such observations imply that abrupt changes in gene expression may trigger metastatic behavior in relatively small cohorts of malignant cells present at the local site. This pattern of progression may result from compromised function of specific 'control' genes which could affect the activity of multiple downstream genes involved in specific pathways of malignant progression. Such a mechanistic framework involving networks of gene expression could explain the acquisition of the complex metastatic phenotype. Using the mouse prostate reconstitution (MPR) model system (Thompson et al, Cell 56:917-930, 1989) we demonstrated that progression of experimental prostate cancer to metastasis was invariably associated with functional inactivation of p53 (Thompson el al, Oncogene 10:869-879, 1995). Southern blotting analyses revealed that metastases do not necessarily originate from the most abundant clone in the primary carcinoma. Furthermore, the role of p53 as a potential metastasis suppressor

  11. Regulating Cancer-Associated Fibroblast Biology in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0512 TITLE: Regulating Cancer-Associated Fibroblast Biology in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Andrew...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Regulating Cancer-Associated Fibroblast Biology in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0512 5c. PROGRAM...blocked by the addition of Pim inhibitors. These results suggest that the Pim protein kinase can regulate stromal cell biology to modulate epithelial

  12. The Role of Estrogen Receptor β in Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Christoforou, Paraskevi; Christopoulos, Panagiotis F; Koutsilieris, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although androgen receptor (AR) signaling is the main molecular tool regulating growth and function of the prostate gland, estrogen receptor β (ERβ) is involved in the differentiation of prostatic epithelial cells and numerous antiproliferative actions on prostate cancer cells. However, ERβ splice variants have been associated with prostate cancer initiation and progression mechanisms. ERβ is promising as an anticancer therapy and in the prevention of prostate cancer. Herein, we review the re...

  13. 78 FR 54745 - National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A... Cancer Awareness Month, we remember those lost to prostate cancer, offer our support to patients and... the laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim September 2013 as National Prostate Cancer Awareness...

  14. Alcohol consumption and prostate cancer incidence and progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner, Clair; Davies, Neil M; Martin, Richard M

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in developed countries, and is a target for risk reduction strategies. The effects of alcohol consumption on prostate cancer incidence and survival remain unclear, potentially due to methodological limitations of observational studies. In this stud...... consumption is unlikely to affect prostate cancer incidence, but it may influence disease progression....

  15. Interleukin-30: A novel microenvironmental hallmark of prostate cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Carlo, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in men worldwide. We have recently discovered that IL-30 shapes the microenvironment of prostate cancer and tumor-draining lymph nodes to favor tumor progression. IL-30 supports tumor growth in vitro, and IL-30 expression in prostate cancer patients is associated with high tumor grade and metastatic stage of disease. Thus, IL-30 may constitute a valuable target for modern therapeutic approaches to hamper prostate cancer progression.

  16. Multiparametric MRI in the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futterer, Jurgen J. [Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2017-08-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men aged 50 years and older in developed countries and the third leading cause of cancer-related death in men. Multiparametric prostate MR imaging is currently the most accurate imaging modality to detect, localize, and stage prostate cancer. The role of multi-parametric MR imaging in the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer are discussed. In addition, insights are provided in imaging techniques, protocol, and interpretation.

  17. [Primary cervical cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Hernández, Víctor Manuel; Vargas-Aguilar, Víctor Manuel; Tovar-Rodríguez, José María

    2015-01-01

    Cervico-uterine cancer screening with cytology decrease incidence by more than 50%. The cause of this cancer is the human papilloma virus high risk, and requires a sensitive test to provide sufficient sensitivity and specificity for early detection and greater interval period when the results are negative. The test of the human papilloma virus high risk, is effective and safe because of its excellent sensitivity, negative predictive value and optimal reproducibility, especially when combined with liquid-based cytology or biomarkers with viral load, with higher sensitivity and specificity, by reducing false positives for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or greater injury, with excellent clinical benefits to cervical cancer screening and related infection of human papilloma virus diseases, is currently the best test for early detection infection of human papillomavirus and the risk of carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  18. Racial differences in the relationship between clinical prostatitis, presence of inflammation in benign prostate and subsequent risk of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybicki, B A; Kryvenko, O N; Wang, Y; Jankowski, M; Trudeau, S; Chitale, D A; Gupta, N S; Rundle, A; Tang, D

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiologic studies, primarily done in white men, suggest that a history of clinically-diagnosed prostatitis increases prostate cancer risk, but that histological prostate inflammation decreases risk. The relationship between a clinical history of prostatitis and histologic inflammation in terms of how these two manifestations of prostatic inflammation jointly contribute to prostate cancer risk and whether racial differences exist in this relationship is uncertain. Using a nested design within a cohort of men with benign prostate tissue specimens, we analyzed the data on both clinically-diagnosed prostatitis (NIH categories I-III) and histological inflammation in 574 prostate cancer case-control pairs (345 white, 229 African American). Clinical prostatitis was not associated with increased prostate cancer risk in the full sample, but showed a suggestive inverse association with prostate cancer in African Americans (odds ratio (OR)=0.47; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.27-0.81). In whites, clinical prostatitis increased risk by 40%, but was only associated with a significant increased prostate cancer risk in the absence of evidence of histological inflammation (OR=3.56; 95% CI=1.15-10.99). Moreover, PSA velocity (P=0.008) and frequency of PSA testing (P=0.003) were significant modifiers of risk. Clinical prostatitis increased risk of prostate cancer almost three-fold (OR=2.97; 95% CI=1.40-6.30) in white men with low PSA velocity and about twofold in white men with more frequent PSA testing (OR=1.91; 95% CI=1.09-3.35). In our cohort of men with benign prostate specimens, race, and histological inflammation were important cofactors in the relationship between clinical prostatitis and prostate cancer. Clinical prostatitis was associated with a slightly decreased risk for prostate cancer in African American men. In white men, the relationship between clinical prostatitis and prostate cancer risk was modified by histological prostatic inflammation, PSA velocity, and

  19. Supporting Informed Decision Making in Prevention of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantino MARTINS

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Identifying and making the correct decision on the best health treatment or screening test option can become a difficult task. Therefore is important that the patients get all types of information appropriate to manage their health. Decision aids can be very useful when there is more than one reasonable option about a treatment or uncertain associated with screening tests. The decision aids tools help people to understand their clinical condition, through the description of the different options available. The purpose of this paper is to present the project “Supporting Informed Decision Making In Prevention of Prostate Cancer” (SIDEMP. This project is focused on the creation of a Web-based decision platform specifically directed to screening prostate cancer, that will support the patient in the process of making an informed decision

  20. People's willingness to accept overdetection in cancer screening: population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bruel, Ann; Jones, Caroline; Yang, Yaling; Oke, Jason; Hewitson, Paul

    2015-03-03

    To describe the level of overdetection people would find acceptable in screening for breast, prostate, and bowel cancer and whether acceptability is influenced by the magnitude of the benefit from screening and the cancer specific harms from overdetection. Online survey. Women were presented with scenarios on breast and bowel cancer, men with scenarios on prostate and bowel cancer. For each particular cancer, we presented epidemiological information and described the treatment and its consequences. Secondly, we presented two different scenarios of benefit: one indicating a 10% reduction in cancer specific mortality and the second indicating a 50% reduction. Online survey of the population in the United Kingdom. Respondents were part of an existing panel of people who volunteer for online research and were invited by email or online marketing. We recruited 1000 respondents, representative for age and sex for the UK population. Number of cases of overdetection people were willing to accept, ranging from 0-1000 (complete screened population) for each cancer modality and each scenario of benefit. There was large variability between respondents in the level of overdetection they would find acceptable, with medians ranging from 113 to 313 cases of overdetection per 1000 people screened. Across all scenarios, 4-7% of respondents indicated they would accept no overdetection at all compared with 7-14% who thought that it would be acceptable for the entire screened population to be overdetected. Acceptability in screening for bowel cancer was significantly lower than for breast and prostate cancer. People aged 50 or over accepted significantly less overdetection, whereas people with higher education levels accepted more; 29% of respondents had heard of overdetection before. Acceptability of overdetection in cancer screening is variable. Invitations for screening should include clear information on the likelihood and consequences of overdetection to allow people to make an

  1. Risk of prostate cancer among cancer survivors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, D.E.G.; Schans, van de S.A.; Liu, L.; Kampman, E.; Coebergh, J.W.; Kiemeney, L.A.; Soerjomataram, I.; Aben, K.K.

    2013-01-01

    In parallel with increasing numbers of cancer patients and improving cancer survival, the occurrence of second primary cancers becomes a relevant issue. The aim of our study was to evaluate risk of prostate cancer as second primary cancer in a population-based setting. Methods Data from the

  2. The relationship between Prostate CAncer gene 3 (PCA3) and prostate cancer significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Poppel, Hein; Haese, Alexander; Graefen, Markus; de la Taille, Alexandre; Irani, Jacques; de Reijke, Theo; Remzi, Mesut; Marberger, Michael

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the relationship between Prostate CAncer gene 3 (PCA3) and prostate cancer significance. PATIENTS AND METHODS Clinical data from two multi-centre European open-label, prospective studies evaluating the clinical utility of the PCA3 assay in guiding initial and repeat biopsy

  3. The influence of physician recommendation on prostate-specific antigen screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucheril, Daniel; Dalela, Deepansh; Sammon, Jesse; Sood, Akshay; Sun, Maxine; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Menon, Mani; Abdollah, Firas

    2015-10-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening is controversial, and little is known regarding a physician's effect on a patient's decision to undergo screening. This study's objective was to evaluate the effect of a patient's understanding of the risks and benefits of screening compared to the final recommendation of the provider on the patient's decision to undergo PSA screening. Using the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, men older than 55 years who did not have a history of prostate cancer/prostate "problem" and who reported a PSA test within the preceding year were considered to have undergone screening. The percentages of men informed and not informed of the risks and benefits of screening and the percentage men receiving recommendations for PSA screening from their provider were reported. Multivariable complex-sample logistic regression calculated the odds of undergoing screening. In all, 75% of men were informed of screening benefits; however, 32% were informed of screening risks. After being informed of both, 56% of men opted for PSA screening if the provider recommended it, compared with only 21% when not recommended. Men receiving a recommendation to undergo PSA testing had higher odds of undergoing screening (odds ratio [OR] = 4.98, 95% CI: 4.53-5.48) compared with those who were only informed about screening benefits (OR = 2.40, 95% CI: 2.18-2.65) or risks (OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.86-0.98). Significant limitations include recall and nonresponse bias. Patients' decision to undergo or forgo PSA screening is heavily influenced by the recommendation of their physician; it is imperative that physicians are cognizant of their biases and facilitate a shared decision-making process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Testicular Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... undescended testicle) is a risk factor for testicular cancer. Testicular cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... Testicular Cancer Treatment for more information about testicular cancer. Testicular cancer is the most common cancer in men ...

  5. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty ... if a patient is at high risk for cancer. In this case, a biopsy is performed and ...

  6. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the prostate. help diagnose the cause of a man's infertility. A transrectal ultrasound of the prostate gland is typically used to help diagnose symptoms such as: a nodule felt by a physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated ...

  7. Enzalutamide in metastatic prostate cancer before chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beer, Tomasz M; Armstrong, Andrew J; Rathkopf, Dana E

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Enzalutamide is an oral androgen-receptor inhibitor that prolongs survival in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer in whom the disease has progressed after chemotherapy. New treatment options are needed for patients with metastatic prostate cancer who have...... the most common clinically relevant adverse events associated with enzalutamide treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Enzalutamide significantly decreased the risk of radiographic progression and death and delayed the initiation of chemotherapy in men with metastatic prostate cancer. (Funded by Medivation and Astellas...... skeletal-related event (hazard ratio, 0.72), a complete or partial soft-tissue response (59% vs. 5%), the time until prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression (hazard ratio, 0.17), and a rate of decline of at least 50% in PSA (78% vs. 3%) (P

  8. Frequency of carcinoma of prostate in clinically benign prostatic hyperplasia and role of different screening tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasool, M.; Saeed, M.; Ali, S.; Saleem, M.S.; Saleem, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the frequency of carcinoma in clinically benign prostatic hyperplasia and role. of digital rectal examination (DRE) and prostatic specific antigen (PSA) in assessment of these patients. Data source: Patients admitted to the Department of Urology and Renal Transplantation with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to enlarged prostate. Design of study: Descriptive Study Place and Duration of Study: Department of Urology and Renal Transplantation, Quaid-e-Azam Medical College Bahawal Victoria Hospital, Bahawalpur, from January 2007 to December 2010. Patients and Methods: Patients presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms over the age of 50 years were evaluated on International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS), clinically examined and post-voiding residual urine determined on abdominal ultrasonography. The selection criteria were; Refractory retention of urine, Severe IPSS, absence of signs of malignancy on Digital Rectal Examination (DRE) and post-voiding residual urine more than 100 mI. Thus a total 300 patients were selected. Patient's blood sample was sent to laboratory to assess Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) level pre-operatively. All these patients underwent either transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) or transvesical prostatectomy (TVP) and prostatic tissue was sent for histopathology. Results: In this study, 13.33% patients were found to have carcinoma of prostate in spite of being clinically benign prostates in all patients, irrespective of PSA range. The PSA value was found 4ngjml. In this study, 9.95% patients had carcinoma prostate in spite having normal PSA and benign prostate on DRE while with rising PSA levels and normal DRE, chances of malignancy detection increases (66.67% ). Conclusion: We conclude that although frequency is low the possibility of malignancy in clinically benign enlarged prostate should be borne in mind whenever subjecting the patient for screening, assessment and treatment. DRE alone is insufficient

  9. Cytoreductive prostatectomy in metastatic prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Joachim Aidt; Berg, Kasper Drimer; Røder, Martin Andreas

    2018-01-01

    The impact of cytoreductive radical prostatectomy on oncological outcome in patients with prostate cancer and limited number of bone metastases is unclear. Data from cancer registries, multi-institutional databases and a single institutional case-control study indicate a possible benefit of combi......The impact of cytoreductive radical prostatectomy on oncological outcome in patients with prostate cancer and limited number of bone metastases is unclear. Data from cancer registries, multi-institutional databases and a single institutional case-control study indicate a possible benefit...

  10. Role of miRNA Let-7 and Its Major Targets in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried Wagner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is worldwide the sixth leading cause of cancer related death in men thus early detection and successful treatment are still of major interest. The commonly performed screening of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA is controversially discussed, as in many patients the prostate-specific antigen levels are chronically elevated in the absence of cancer. Due to the unsatisfying efficiency of available prostate cancer screening markers and the current treatment outcome of the aggressive hormone refractory prostate cancer, the evaluation of novel molecular markers and targets is considered an issue of high importance. MicroRNAs are relatively stable in body fluids orchestrating simultaneously the expression of many genes. These molecules are currently discussed to bear a greater diagnostic potential than protein-coding genes, being additionally promising therapeutic drugs and/or targets. Herein we review the potential impact of the microRNA let-7 family on prostate cancer and show how deregulation of several of its target genes could influence the cellular equilibrium in the prostate gland, promoting cancer development as they do in a variety of other human malignant neoplasias.

  11. Impact of awareness of cancer among acquaintances on cancer screening attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisinger, François; Blay, Jean-Yves; Morère, Jean-François; Coscas, Yvan; Calazel-Benque, Anne; Roussel, Claire; Pivot, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Two nationwide observational surveys were carried out in France in 2005 and 2008 with the aim of assessing the impact on attitudes towards cancer screening of a positive history of cancer among a person's close circle of acquaintances (relatives, friends or colleagues). In 2005, 67% (993/1482) of people interviewed reported having someone in their close circle of acquaintances affected by cancer and in 2008, the rate was 80% (1158/1454). In 2008, having someone within a person's close circle of acquaintances affected by cancer did not increase the rate of screening for breast cancer (already high at >80%). However, it did increase the rate of screening for colorectal cancer [odds ratio (OR)=2.3; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.6-3.3] and prostate cancer (OR=2.2; 95% CI=1.4-3.5). Knowing someone affected by cancer within the close circle of acquaintances clearly increases awareness, and thus could be an incentive for undergoing cancer screening. With regard to cancer types, such as prostate cancer, for which there is no national programme or media communication, this awareness might be the main source of information and motivation. The impact of awareness on screening behaviour seems to be greatest for the same cancer location as that in the affected acquaintance, as opposed to cancers at other sites. Increased awareness as observed in our survey, which may be attributable to less social stigma associated with a diagnosis of cancer, might increase the rate of screening attendance in the general population.

  12. Screening diagnostic program breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portnoj, L.M.; Zhakova, I.I.; Budnikova, N.V.; Rukhlyadko, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    The authors propose their screening program for detection of breast cancer. It includes the entire complex of present-day screening diagnostic methods, starting from an original system for the formation of groups at risk of breast cancer and completed by the direct diagnostic model of detection of the condition, oriented at a differentiated approach to the use of mammographic techniques. The proposed organizational and methodologic screening measures are both economic and diagnostically effective, thus meeting the principal requirements to screening programs. Screening of 8541 risk-groups patients helped detect 867 nodular formations, 244 of which were cancer and 623 benign formations. 8 refs., 3 figs.,

  13. Multiparametric MR imaging in diagnosis of chronic prostatitis and its differentiation from prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Sah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic prostatitis is a heterogeneous condition with high prevalence rate. Chronic prostatitis has overlap in clinical presentation with other prostate disorders and is one of the causes of high serum prostate specific antigen (PSA level. Chronic prostatitis, unlike acute prostatitis, is difficult to diagnose reliably and accurately on the clinical grounds alone. Not only this, it is also challenging to differentiate chronic prostatitis from prostate cancer with imaging modalities like TRUS and conventional MR Imaging, as the findings can mimic those of prostate cancer. Even biopsy doesn't play promising role in the diagnosis of chronic prostatitis as it has limited sensitivity and specificity. As a result of this, chronic prostatitis may be misdiagnosed as a malignant condition and end up in aggressive surgical management resulting in increased morbidity. This warrants the need of reliable diagnostic tool which has ability not only to diagnose it reliably but also to differentiate it from the prostate cancer. Recently, it is suggested that multiparametric MR Imaging of the prostate could improve the diagnostic accuracy of the prostate cancer. This review is based on the critically published literature and aims to provide an overview of multiparamateric MRI techniques in the diagnosis of chronic prostatitis and its differentiation from prostate cancer.

  14. [Fish intake and risk of prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybkowska, Ewa; Świderski, Franciszek; Waszkiewicz-Robak, Bożena

    2014-10-17

    The aim of the study was to present the current state of knowledge concerning the relationship between the consumption of fish as materials rich in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA) omega-3, and the risk of prostate cancer. Many scientific reports confirm the health benefits from the consumption of fish and protective properties of LC PUFA omega-3 in relation to prostate cancer. However, there are reports that indicate a relationship of the high consumption of PUFA with the risk of prostate cancer. The way of processing and preservation of the fish, and other factors not included in previous studies, could have some importance in the etiology of this disease. High susceptibility of PUFA to oxidation changes and the technological fish processing (smoking, high-temperature cooking methods) contribute to the formation of many compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic amines - which may influence the formation of cancers - including prostate cancer. It is necessary to ensure an adequate amount of LC PUFA omega-3 in the diet through the consumption of proper quality fish and fish oils. Particular attention should be paid to the high susceptibility of PUFA to the oxidative processes, and the method of processing, preservation and storage of fish. Also pollution from the environment can significantly reduce the impact of health benefits of PUFA and fish, and even be the cause of cancers, including prostate cancer. Further research in this area should be more targeted to assess the impact of nutritional factors for the development of such tumors.

  15. Psychosocial Intervention In Prostate Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potočníková Jana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide for males, and the fifth most common cancer overall. Using of autogenic training could reduce the influence of ADT and raise quality of prostate cancer patients. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of autogenic training in patients with prostate cancer. Patients were divided to experimental and control group. Experimental group participated in fourteen weeks long autogenic training program. Control group performed usual daily activities. Every subject of research performed input and output diagnostics which monitored psychical states of patients by psychological standardized tests - Differential questionnaire of depression (DDF and Questionnaire of anxiety (STAI X1. Our data showed autogenic training program significant improved depressions symptoms and anxiety in experimental research group (p ≤ 0.05, however there was no main change of depression symptoms and anxiety values for control grou