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Sample records for prostate cancer management

  1. Management of patients with advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillessen, S; Omlin, A; Attard, G

    2015-01-01

    The first St Gallen Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference (APCCC) Expert Panel identified and reviewed the available evidence for the ten most important areas of controversy in advanced prostate cancer (APC) management. The successful registration of several drugs for castration......-resistant prostate cancer and the recent studies of chemo-hormonal therapy in men with castration-naïve prostate cancer have led to considerable uncertainty as to the best treatment choices, sequence of treatment options and appropriate patient selection. Management recommendations based on expert opinion...

  2. Contemporary Management of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Katherine; Konety, Badrinath; Ordonez, Maria A.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer represents a spectrum ranging from low-grade, localized tumors to devastating metastatic disease. We discuss the general options for treatment and recent developments in the field. PMID:26949522

  3. Management of Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillessen, Silke; Attard, Gerhardt; Beer, Tomasz M

    2018-01-01

    some of these topics. OBJECTIVE: To present the report of APCCC 2017. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Ten important areas of controversy in APC management were identified: high-risk localised and locally advanced prostate cancer; "oligometastatic" prostate cancer; castration-naïve and castration...... literature review or meta-analysis. The outcomes of the voting had varying degrees of support, as reflected in the wording of this article, as well as in the detailed voting results recorded in Supplementary data. CONCLUSIONS: The presented expert voting results can be used for support in areas of management...

  4. Management of synchronous rectal and prostate cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kavanagh, D O

    2012-11-01

    Although well described, there is limited published data related to management on the coexistence of prostate and rectal cancer. The aim of this study was to describe a single institution\\'s experience with this and propose a treatment algorithm based on the best available evidence.

  5. Prostate Cancer Foundation News

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Finding a Doctor Treatment Options Side Effects Managing Prostate Cancer Treatment Related Side Effects Clinical Trials Patient Resources Guides Videos Prostate Cancer FAQs Information by Stage Newly Diagnosed with Prostate ...

  6. Molecular Biomarkers in the Clinical Management of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udager, Aaron M; Tomlins, Scott A

    2018-01-08

    Prostate cancer, one of the most common noncutaneous malignancies in men, is a heterogeneous disease with variable clinical outcome. Although the majority of patients harbor indolent tumors that are essentially cured by local therapy, subsets of patients present with aggressive disease or recur/progress after primary treatment. With this in mind, modern clinical approaches to prostate cancer emphasize the need to reduce overdiagnosis and overtreatment via personalized medicine. Advances in our understanding of prostate cancer pathogenesis, coupled with recent technologic innovations, have facilitated the development and validation of numerous molecular biomarkers, representing a range of macromolecules assayed from a variety of patient sample types, to help guide the clinical management of prostate cancer, including early detection, diagnosis, prognostication, and targeted therapeutic selection. Herein, we review the current state of the art regarding prostate cancer molecular biomarkers, emphasizing those with demonstrated utility in clinical practice. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  7. Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast cancer (BRCA1 or BRCA2) or a very strong family history of breast cancer, your risk of prostate cancer may be higher. Obesity. Obese men diagnosed with prostate cancer may be more likely ...

  8. Management of patients with advanced prostate cancer: recommendations of the St Gallen Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference (APCCC) 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillessen, S.; Omlin, A.; Attard, G.; Bono, J.S. de; Efstathiou, E.; Fizazi, K.; Halabi, S.; Nelson, P.S.; Sartor, O.; Smith, M.R.; Soule, H.R.; Akaza, H.; Beer, T.M.; Beltran, H.; Chinnaiyan, A.M.; Daugaard, G.; Davis, I.D.; Santis, M. de; Drake, C.G.; Eeles, R.A.; Fanti, S.; Gleave, M.E.; Heidenreich, A.; Hussain, M.; James, N.D.; Lecouvet, F.E.; Logothetis, C.J.; Mastris, K.; Nilsson, S.; Oh, W.K.; Olmos, D.; Padhani, A.R.; Parker, C.; Rubin, M.A.; Schalken, J.A.; Scher, H.I.; Sella, A.; Shore, N.D.; Small, E.J.; Sternberg, C.N.; Suzuki, H; Sweeney, C.J.; Tannock, I.F.; Tombal, B.

    2015-01-01

    The first St Gallen Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference (APCCC) Expert Panel identified and reviewed the available evidence for the ten most important areas of controversy in advanced prostate cancer (APC) management. The successful registration of several drugs for castration-resistant

  9. Optimizing the Management of High-Risk, Localized Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sundi, Debasish; Jeong, Byong Chang; Lee, Seung Bae; Han, Misop

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer has a high prevalence and a rising incidence in many parts of the world. Although many screen-detected prostate cancers may be indolent, prostate cancer remains a major contributor to mortality in men. Therefore, the appropriate diagnosis and treatment of localized prostate cancer with lethal potential are of great importance. High-risk, localized prostate cancer has multiple definitions. Treatment options that should be individualized to each patient include observation, radi...

  10. Management of severe urethral complications of prostate cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sean P; McAninch, Jack W; Chi, Thomas; Doyle, Sean M; Master, Viraj A

    2006-12-01

    We present our management of urethral stenosis and rectourinary fistula resulting from prostate cancer therapy. We concentrated on cases refractory to minimally invasive treatment, such as dilation, urethrotomy, and urinary and/or fecal diversion. In our prospectively collected urethral reconstruction database we identified patients who underwent reconstruction of urethral stenosis or rectourinary fistula who also received prior treatment for prostate cancer. We documented demographics, prostate cancer pretreatment characteristics, prostate cancer therapy type, urethral reconstruction type and success. A total of 48 patients met the inclusion criteria, including 16 with rectourinary fistula and 32 with urethral stenosis. Urethral complications followed prior radical prostatectomy, brachytherapy, external beam radiotherapy, cryotherapy, thermal ablation and any combination of these procedures. Stenosis repair was successful in 23 of 32 cases (73%) and it differed little between anterior and posterior urethral stenosis. Repair was accomplished by anastomotic urethroplasty in 19 cases, flap urethroplasty in 2, perineal urethrostomy in 2 and a urethral stent in 9. Prior external beam radiotherapy was a risk factor for urethral reconstruction failure. Fistula repair was successful in 14 of 15 patients (93%), excluding 1 who died postoperatively. The complexity of fistula management was dictated by fistula size and the presence or absence of coincident urethral stenosis. Urethral stenosis or rectourethral fistula following prostate cancer therapy can be managed by urethral reconstruction, such that normal voiding via the urethra is maintained, rather than abandoning the urethral outlet and performing heterotopic diversion. This can be accomplished with an acceptable rate of failure, given the complexity of the cases.

  11. Prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R.; Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results

  12. Prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R., Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results.

  13. The curative management of synchronous rectal and prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Dara O; Martin, Joseph; Small, Cormac; Joyce, Myles R; Faul, Clare M; Kelly, Paul J; O'Riordain, Michael; Gillham, Charles M; Armstrong, John G; Salib, Osama; McNamara, Deborah A; McVey, Gerard; O'Neill, Brian D P

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Neoadjuvant “long-course” chemoradiation is considered a standard of care in locally advanced rectal cancer. In addition to prostatectomy, external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy with or without androgen suppression (AS) are well established in prostate cancer management. A retrospective review of ten cases was completed to explore the feasibility and safety of applying these standards in patients with dual pathology. To our knowledge, this is the largest case series of synchronous rectal and prostate cancers treated with curative intent. Methods: Eligible patients had synchronous histologically proven locally advanced rectal cancer (defined as cT3-4Nx; cTxN1-2) and non-metastatic prostate cancer (pelvic nodal disease permissible). Curative treatment was delivered to both sites simultaneously. Follow-up was as per institutional guidelines. Acute and late toxicities were reviewed, and a literature search performed. Results: Pelvic external beam radiotherapy (RT) 45–50.4 Gy was delivered concurrent with 5-fluorouracil (5FU). Prostate total dose ranged from 70.0 to 79.2 Gy. No acute toxicities occurred, excluding AS-induced erectile dysfunction. Nine patients proceeded to surgery, and one was managed expectantly. Three relapsed with metastatic colorectal cancer, two with metastatic prostate cancer. Five patients have no evidence of recurrence, and four remain alive with metastatic disease. With a median follow-up of 2.2 years (range 1.2–6.3 years), two significant late toxicities occurred; G3 proctitis in a patient receiving palliative bevacizumab and a G3 anastomotic stricture precluding stoma reversal. Conclusion: Patients proceeding to synchronous radical treatment of both primary sites should receive 45–50.4 Gy pelvic RT with infusional 5FU. Prostate dose escalation should be given with due consideration to the potential impact of prostate cancer on patient survival, as increasing dose may result in significant late morbidity

  14. Role of transurethral resection of the prostate in the management of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szollosi Attila

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prostate cancer is the second most diagnosed cancer in men, after lung cancer. The gold standard procedure in prostate cancer (PCa diagnosis is the ultrasound guided prostate biopsy. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP used in solving the bladder outlet obstruction, can have a role in detection of PCa. The aim of this retrospective study is to examine the role of transurethral resection of the prostate in the diagnosis and therapy of prostate cancer.

  15. The management of localized and locally advanced prostate cancer - 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forman, Jeffrey D.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The intent of this course is to review the issues involved in the management of non-metastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate. - The value of pre-treatment prognostic factors including stage, grade and PSA value will be presented, and their value in determining therapeutic strategies will be discussed. - Controversies involving the simulation process and treatment design will be presented. The value of CT scanning, Beams-Eye View, 3-D planning, intravesicle, intraurethral and rectal contrast will be presented. The significance of prostate and patient movement and strategies for dealing with them will be presented. - The management of low stage, low to intermediate grade prostate cancer will be discussed. The dose, volume and timing of irradiation will be discussed as will the role of neo-adjuvant hormonal therapy, neutron irradiation and brachy therapy. The current status of radical prostatectomy and cryotherapy will be summarized. - Treatment of locally advanced, poorly differentiated prostate cancer will be presented including a discussion of neo-adjuvant and adjuvant hormones, dose-escalation and neutron irradiation. - Strategies for post-radiation failures will be presented including data on cryotherapy, salvage prostatectomy and hormonal therapy (immediate, delayed and/or intermittent). New areas for investigation will be reviewed. - The management of patients post prostatectomy will be reviewed. Data on adjuvant radiation and therapeutic radiation for biochemical or clinically relapsed patients will be presented. This course hopes to present a realistic and pragmatic overview for treating patients with non-metastatic prostatic cancer

  16. Management of low (favourable)-risk prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, H Ballentine

    2011-12-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Most men who are diagnosed with favourable-risk prostate cancer undergo some form of active intervention, despite evidence that treatment will not improve health outcomes for many. The decision to undergo treatment after diagnosis is, in part, related to the inability to precisely determine the long-term risk of harm without treatment. Nevertheless, physicians should consider patient age, overall health, and preferences for living with cancer and the potential side effects of curative treatments, before recommending a management option. This is especially important for older men, given the high level of evidence that those with low-risk disease are unlikely to accrue any benefit from curative intervention. What is known on the subject: Over treatment of favourable-risk prostate cancer is common, especially among older men. What does the study add: A review of the natural history of favourable-risk prostate cancer in the context of choices for management of the disease. • The management of favourable-risk prostate cancer is controversial, and in the absence of controlled trials to inform best practice, choices are driven by personal beliefs with resultant wide variation in practice patterns. • Men with favourable-risk prostate cancer diagnosed today often undergo treatments that will not improve overall health outcomes. • A shared-decision approach for selecting optimal management of favourable-risk disease should account for patient age, overall health, and preferences for living with cancer and the potential side effects of curative treatments. © 2011 THE AUTHOR. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2011 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  17. Quality Indicators for Global Benchmarking of Localized Prostate Cancer Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampurno, Fanny; Zheng, Jia; Di Stefano, Lydia; Millar, Jeremy L; Foster, Claire; Fuedea, Ferran; Higano, Celestia; Hulan, Hartwig; Mark, Stephen; Moore, Caroline; Richardson, Alison; Sullivan, Frank; Wenger, Neil S; Wittmann, Daniela; Evans, Sue

    2018-03-01

    We sought to develop a core set of clinical indicators to enable international benchmarking of localized prostate cancer management using data available in the TrueNTH (True North) Global Registry. An international expert panel completed an online survey and participated in a face to face meeting. Participants included 3 urologists, 3 radiation oncologists, 2 psychologists, 1 medical oncologist, 1 nurse and 1 epidemiologist with prostate cancer expertise from a total of 7 countries. Current guidelines on prostate cancer treatment and potential quality indicators were identified from a literature review. These potential indicators were refined and developed through a modified Delphi process during which each panelist independently and repeatedly rated each indicator based on importance (satisfying the indicator demonstrated a provision of high quality care) and feasibility (the likelihood that data used to construct the indicator could be collected at a population level). The main outcome measure was items with panel agreement indicted by a disagreement index less 1, median importance 8.5 or greater and median feasibility 9 or greater. The expert panel endorsed 33 indicators. Seven of these 33 prostate cancer quality indicators assessed care relating to diagnosis, 7 assessed primary treatment, 1 assessed salvage treatment and 18 assessed health outcomes. We developed a set of quality indicators to measure prostate cancer care using numerous international evidence-based clinical guidelines. These indicators will be pilot tested in the TrueNTH Global Registry. Reports comparing indicator performance will subsequently be distributed to groups at participating sites with the purpose of improving the consistency and quality of prostate cancer management on a global basis. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  19. Evaluation of degarelix in the management of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Van Poppel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hendrik Van PoppelDepartment of Urology, University Hospitals Leuven, Campus Gasthuisberg, Leuven, BelgiumAbstract: Medical castration using gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH receptor agonists currently provides the mainstay of androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. Although effective, these agents only reduce testosterone levels after a delay of 14 to 21 days; they also cause an initial surge in testosterone that can stimulate the cancer and lead to exacerbation of symptoms (“clinical flare” in patients with advanced disease. Phase III trial data for the recently approved GnRH receptor blocker, degarelix, demonstrated that it is as effective and well tolerated as GnRH agonists. However, it has a pharmacological profile more closely matching orchiectomy, with an immediate onset of action and faster testosterone and PSA suppression, without a testosterone surge or microsurges following repeated injections. As a consequence, with this GnRH blocker, there is no risk of clinical flare and no need for concomitant antiandrogen flare protection. Degarelix therefore provides a useful addition to the hormonal armamentarium for prostate cancer and offers a valuable new treatment option for patients with hormone-sensitive advanced disease. Here, we review key preclinical and clinical data for degarelix, and look at patient-focused perspectives in the management of prostate cancer.Keywords: degarelix, GnRH receptor antagonist, GnRH receptor blocker, prostate cancer

  20. Current Management Strategy for Active Surveillance in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Jamil S; Javier-Desloges, Juan; Tatzel, Stephanie; Bhagat, Ansh; Nguyen, Kevin A; Hwang, Kevin; Kim, Sarah; Sprenkle, Preston C

    2017-02-01

    Active surveillance has been increasingly utilized as a strategy for the management of favorable-risk, localized prostate cancer. In this review, we describe contemporary management strategies of active surveillance, with a focus on traditional stratification schemes, new prognostic tools, and patient outcomes. Patient selection, follow-up strategy, and indication for delayed intervention for active surveillance remain centered around PSA, digital rectal exam, and biopsy findings. Novel tools which include imaging, biomarkers, and genetic assays have been investigated as potential prognostic adjuncts; however, their role in active surveillance remains institutionally dependent. Although 30-50% of patients on active surveillance ultimately undergo delayed treatment, the vast majority will remain free of metastasis with a low risk of dying from prostate cancer. The optimal method for patient selection into active surveillance is unknown; however, cancer-specific mortality rates remain excellent. New prognostication tools are promising, and long-term prospective, randomized data regarding their use in active surveillance will be beneficial.

  1. Stages of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Prostate Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Prostate ...

  2. Prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spera, G.

    2010-01-01

    This work is about diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of prostate cancer. The techniques used are: transrectal ultrasound, laparascopy, bone scan, chest x-ray, radiography, chemoterapy and radiotherapy

  3. Evaluation of degarelix in the management of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Poppel, Hendrik

    2010-01-01

    Medical castration using gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor agonists currently provides the mainstay of androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. Although effective, these agents only reduce testosterone levels after a delay of 14 to 21 days; they also cause an initial surge in testosterone that can stimulate the cancer and lead to exacerbation of symptoms (“clinical flare”) in patients with advanced disease. Phase III trial data for the recently approved GnRH receptor blocker, degarelix, demonstrated that it is as effective and well tolerated as GnRH agonists. However, it has a pharmacological profile more closely matching orchiectomy, with an immediate onset of action and faster testosterone and PSA suppression, without a testosterone surge or microsurges following repeated injections. As a consequence, with this GnRH blocker, there is no risk of clinical flare and no need for concomitant antiandrogen flare protection. Degarelix therefore provides a useful addition to the hormonal armamentarium for prostate cancer and offers a valuable new treatment option for patients with hormone-sensitive advanced disease. Here, we review key preclinical and clinical data for degarelix, and look at patient-focused perspectives in the management of prostate cancer

  4. Prostate Cancer in Transgender Women: Incidence, Etiopathogenesis, and Management Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deebel, Nicholas A; Morin, Jacqueline P; Autorino, Riccardo; Vince, Randy; Grob, Baruch; Hampton, Lance J

    2017-12-01

    To critically analyze the available evidence regarding the incidence, etiopathogenesis, and management of prostate cancer (CaP) in transgender women. In addition, this article aims to present a recent case report of a transgender woman with a unique presentation at the author's institution. An electronic nonsystematic literature search was performed to identify pertinent studies. PubMed search engine was queried by using the following search terms: "prostate cancer," "male to female transsexual," "transgender patient," "androgen + prostate cancer," "estrogen therapy + prostate cancer," and "health care barrier." In addition, a clinical case managed at our institution was reviewed and critically discussed. Including our case, there have been only 10 documented cases of CaP in transgender women. Additionally, an emerging body of literature has questioned the role of androgens in the development of CaP and suggested that estrogen therapy may not be as protective as initially thought. Therefore, the current evidence suggests that the transgender woman should be screened for CaP the same as a nontransgender men. Barriers to care in the transgender female population include accessing resources, medical knowledge deficits, ethics of transition-related medical care, diagnosing vs pathologizing transgender patients, financial restrictions of the patient, and health system determinants. Although rare, CaP in transgender women has been documented. Both the mechanism and the impact of receiving a bilateral orchiectomy on disease development are unclear. Future study is needed to examine these factors, and to further shape the treatment and screening regimen for these patients. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Diet and prostate cancer - a holistic approach to management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, Philippa J; Katz, Aaron E

    2011-10-01

    There is now increasing evidence from epidemiologic surveys and from laboratory, intervention, and case-control studies that diet and lifestyle plays a crucial role in prostate cancer biology and tumorigenesis. This applies to both the development and progression of prostate cancer, although in many cases the specific initiating factors in the diet are poorly understood. Conversely, many nutrients and herbs also show significant promise in helping to treat prostate cancer by slowing progression and reducing recurrence, ultimately reducing the risk of morbidity and mortality from the disease. Furthermore for all grades of prostate cancer, nutritional interventions complement conventional treatment to improve response and quality of life. Slowing or even reversing the progression of, high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia [HGPIN]). with chemo-preventative agents could be the best primary defense against prostate cancer, preventing it from occurring in the first place. The information given in this review about prostate cancer chemoprevention summarizes the key evidence for the role of different dietary components and their effect on prostate cancer prevention and progression. Most nutritional chemoprevention agents also have the added benefit of being beneficial for the cardiovascular system, bone health and for the prevention of other cancers.

  6. The need for hospital care of patients with clinically localized prostate cancer managed by noncurative intent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, Klaus; Friis, S; Juel, K

    2000-01-01

    We studied the need for hospital care of patients 74 years old or younger with clinically localized prostate cancer managed by deferred endocrine therapy.......We studied the need for hospital care of patients 74 years old or younger with clinically localized prostate cancer managed by deferred endocrine therapy....

  7. Management of elderly patients with prostate cancer without metastatic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Naotaka; Akitake, Masakazu; Ikoma, Saya; Ri, Ken; Masuda, Katsuaki; Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Iguchi, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    In order to assess the optimal management for elderly patients with localized and locally advanced prostate cancer (clinical stage: T1-T4N0M0), we reviewed the prognoses. From April 2000 to December 2008, we treated and followed up 175 patients aged 75 years, or older. In almost all of the patients above 79 years of age, endocrine therapy was selected. Among the 75 to 79-year-old patients, the proportion of radiation therapy, including external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-brachytherapy), as well as radical prostatectomy increased. The follow-up period for all the patients was 0 to 106 months (median, 32 months). In the low- and intermediate-risk group, the actuarial biochemical control rate at 60 months for radical prostatectomy and endocrine therapy was 100% and 90%, respectively, and no patients with EBRT combined with endocrine therapy, and HDR-brachytherapy had biochemical failure at 34 and 46 months, respectively. In the high-risk group with 75 to 79-year-old patients, the actuarial biochemical control rate at 60 months for EBRT combined with endocrine therapy, radical prostatectomy and endocrine therapy was 71.4%, 69.0% and 55.7%, respectively, while the actuarial biochemical control rate at 48 months for HDR-brachytherapy was 40.9%. In the high-risk group with patients above 79 years of age, the actuarial biochemical control rate at 60 months for endocrine therapy was 64.5%. Prostate cancer death was recognized only in 1 patient within the high-risk group, treated by endocrine therapy. In all the patients, the overall survival rate at 60 months for EBRT combined with endocrine therapy, HDR-brachytherapy, radical prostatectomy and endocrine therapy was 100%, 100%, 76.4% and 89.5%, respectively. The actuarial biochemical control rate and overall survival rate were not significant among the management options in each risk group. However, the 75 to 79-year-old patients within the high-risk group, who were treated with

  8. Prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bey, P.; Beckendorf, V.; Stines, J.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation therapy of prostate carcinoma with a curative intent implies to treat the whole prostate at high dose (at least 66 Gy). According to clinical stage, PSA level, Gleason's score, the clinical target volume may include seminal vesicles and less often pelvic lymph nodes. Microscopic extra-capsular extension is found in 15 to 60% of T1-T2 operated on, specially in apex tumors. On contrary, cancers developing from the transitional zone may stay limited to the prostate even with a big volume and with a high PSA level. Zonal anatomy of the prostate identifies internal prostate, including the transitional zone (5% of the prostate in young people). External prostate includes central and peripheral zones. The inferior limit of the prostate is not lower than the inferior border of the pubic symphysis. Clinical and radiological examination: ultrasonography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), CT-scan identify prognostic factors as tumor volume, capsule effraction, seminal vesicles invasion and lymph node extension. The identification of the clinical target volume is now done mainly by CT-Scan which identifies prostate and seminal vesicles. NMR could be helpful to identify more precisely prostate apex. The definition of margins around the clinical target volume has to take in account daily reproducibility and organ motion and of course the maximum tolerable dose for organs at risk. (authors)

  9. Prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Balslev, Ingegerd; Logager, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data.......To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data....

  10. Contemporary Management of Prostate Cancer [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Cotter

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer represents a spectrum ranging from low-grade, localized tumors to devastating metastatic disease. We discuss the general options for treatment and recent developments in the field.

  11. Real-Time Motion Management of Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommer, Tobias

    , and for prostate cancer treatments, the proximity of the bladder and rectum makes radiotherapy treatment of this site a challenging task. Furthermore, the prostate may move during the radiation delivery and treatment margins are necessary to ensure that it is still receiving the intended dose. The main aim...... of the MLC on the performance of DMLC tracking were investigated. We found that for prostate motion, the main tracking error arose from the finite leaf width affecting the MLCs ability to construct the desired shape. Furthermore, we also attempted to model prostate motion using a random walk model. We found...... that for the slow and drifting motion, the model could satisfactory replicate the motion of the prostate, while the rapid and transient prostate motion observed in some cases was challenging for the model. We therefore added simulated transient motion to the random walk model, which slightly improved the results...

  12. Surgical management of prostate cancer metastatic to the spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brian J; Fox, Benjamin D; Sciubba, Daniel M; Suki, Dima; Tu, Shi Ming; Kuban, Deborah; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Rhines, Laurence D; Rao, Ganesh

    2009-05-01

    Significant improvements in neurological function and pain relief are the benefits of aggressive surgical management of spinal metastatic disease. However, there is limited literature regarding the management of tumors with specific histological features. In this study, a series of patients undergoing spinal surgery for metastatic prostate cancer were reviewed to identify predictors of survival and functional outcome. The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of all patients who were treated with surgery for prostate cancer metastases to the spine between 1993 and 2005 at a single institution. Particular attention was given to initial presentation, operative management, clinical and neurological outcomes, and factors associated with complications and overall survival. Forty-four patients underwent a total of 47 procedures. The median age at spinal metastasis was 66 years (range 50-84 years). Twenty-four patients had received previous external-beam radiation to the site of spinal involvement, with a median dose of 70 Gy (range 30-74 Gy). Frankel scores on discharge were significantly improved when compared with preoperative scores (p = 0.001). Preoperatively, 32 patients (73%) were walking and 33 (75%) were continent. On discharge, 36 (86%) of 42 patients were walking, and 37 (88%) of 42 were continent. Preoperatively, 40 patients (91%) were taking narcotics, with a median morphine equivalent dose of 21.5 mg/day, and 28 patients (64%) were taking steroids, with a median dose of 16 mg/day. At discharge, the median postoperative morphine equivalent dose was 12 mg/day, and the median steroid dose was 0 mg/day (p or = 65 years at the time of surgery was an independent predictor of a postoperative complication (p = 0.005). In selected patients with prostate cancer metastases to the spine, aggressive surgical decompression and spinal reconstruction is a useful treatment option. The results show that on average, neurological outcome is improved and use of analgesics

  13. Prostate Cancer FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundraise for PCF: Many vs Cancer Contact Us Prostate Cancer FAQs Top 10 Things You Should Know About ... prostate cancer detected? What are the symptoms of prostate cancer? If the cancer is caught at its earliest ...

  14. Real-Time Motion Management of Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommer, Tobias

    of this thesis is to manage prostate motion in real-time by aligning the radiation beam to the prostate using the novel dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) tracking method. Specifically, the delivered dose with tracking was compared to the planned dose, and the impact of treatment plan complexity and limitations...

  15. Prostate Cancer Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundraise for PCF: Many vs Cancer Contact Us Prostate Cancer Symptoms and Signs Prostate Cancer Basics Risk Factors ... earlier. So what are the warning signs of prostate cancer? Unfortunately, there usually aren’t any early warning ...

  16. Prostate cancer - treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000403.htm Prostate cancer - treatment To use the sharing features on this page, ... drugs is recommended. References National Cancer Institute. Prostate cancer treatment (PDQ): Stages of prostate cancer. Updated July 31, ...

  17. Management Options in Advanced Prostate Cancer: What is the Role for Sipuleucel-T?

    OpenAIRE

    Bitting, Rhonda L.; Armstrong, Andrew J.; George, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Most prostate cancer-related deaths occur in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Until recently, only therapy with docetaxel and prednisone has been shown to prolong survival in men with metastatic CRPC. With the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) approvals of sipuleucel-T, cabazitaxel, and abiraterone acetate, all based on improvement in overall survival, the landscape for management of men with metastatic CRPC has dramatically changed. In this review ...

  18. Chemotherapeutic prevention studies of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djavan, Bob; Zlotta, Alexandre; Schulman, Claude

    2004-01-01

    Despite advances in the detection and management of prostate cancer, this disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in men. Increasing attention has focused on the role of chemoprevention for prostate cancer, ie the administration of agents that inhibit 1 or more steps in the natural...... history of prostate carcinogenesis. We review prostate cancer chemoprevention studies in Europe....

  19. Novel agents in the management of castration resistant prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Chaturvedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is a leading cause of cancer mortality in men and despite high cure rates with surgery and/or radiation, 30-40% of patients will eventually develop advanced disease. Androgen deprivation is the first line therapy for standard of care for men with advanced disease. Eventually however all men will progress to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC. Insight into the molecular mechanisms of androgen resistance has led to the development of alternative novel hormonal agents. Newer hormonal agents such as abiraterone, enzalutamide and TOK-001; and the first cancer vaccine, Sipuleucel T have been approved for use in men with CRPC. The recognition of the importance of bone health and morbidity associated with skeletal related events has led to the introduction of the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B-ligand inhibitor denosumab. Other molecularly targeted therapies have shown promise in pre-clinical studies, but this has not consistently translated into clinical efficacy. It is increasingly evident that CRPC is a heterogeneous disease and an individualized approach directed at identifying primary involvement of specific pathways could maximize the benefit from targeted therapies. This review focuses on targeted therapy for PCa with special emphasis on therapies that have been Food and Drug Administration approved for use in men with CRPC.

  20. PSA testing anxiety, psychological morbidity, and PSA utility in the management of prostate cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Micsunescu, Anamaria Elia

    2017-01-01

    Anecdotal reports from urologists and medical oncologists have suggested that patients with prostate cancer (PCa) often present with anxiety related to ongoing monitoring of their PSA levels as part of their disease management. The purpose of the current study, therefore, was to determine the prevalence and severity of prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing anxiety in a population of patients with either localised or metastatic PCa living in Australia. Other aspects of psychological morbidit...

  1. Symptom management strategies for men with early-stage prostate cancer: results from the Prostate Cancer Patient Education Program (PC PEP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vij, Alok; Kowalkowski, Marc A; Hart, Tae; Goltz, Heather Honoré; Hoffman, David J; Knight, Sara J; Caroll, Peter R; Latini, David M

    2013-12-01

    While the literature on prostate cancer health-related quality of life has grown extensively, little is known about symptom management strategies used by men to manage treatment-related side effects and the effectiveness of those strategies. We collected 628 symptom management reports from 98 men treated for localized prostate cancer. Participants were recruited from email lists and a prostate cancer clinic in Northern California. Data were collected using the Critical Incident Technique. Symptom management reports were assigned to categories of urinary, sexual, bowel, mental health, systemic, or "other." We calculated descriptive statistics by symptom type and management strategy effectiveness. The most common symptoms were urinary (26 %) and sexual (23 %). Participants' symptom management strategies varied widely, from medical and surgical interventions (20 %) to behavioral strategies (11 %) to diet and lifestyle interventions (12 %). The effectiveness of symptom management strategies varied, with sexual symptoms being managed effectively only 47 % of the time to mental health symptom management strategies considered effective 89 % of the time. Doing nothing was a commonly reported (15 %) response to symptoms and was effective only 14 % of the time. Men report the least effectiveness in symptom management for sexual dysfunction after prostate cancer treatment. Including men's experience with managing treatment side effects may be an important way to improve survivorship programs and make them more acceptable to men. More work is needed to find out why men frequently do nothing in response to symptoms when effective solutions exist and how providers can successfully engage such men.

  2. A Novel Role for Raloxifene Nanomicelles in Management of Castrate Resistant Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Taurin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Of patients with castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC, less than 25–33% survive more than five years. Recent studies have implicated estrogen, acting either alone or synergistically with androgens in the development of castrate resistant prostate cancer. Several in vitro and in vivo studies, as well as a limited number of clinical trials, have highlighted the potential of selective estrogen receptor modulators, such as raloxifene (Ral for the treatment of castrate resistant prostate cancer. However, the poor oral bioavailability and metabolism of selective estrogen receptor modulators limit their efficiency in clinical application. To overcome these limitations, we have used styrene co-maleic acid (SMA micelle to encapsulate raloxifene. Compared to free drug, SMA-Ral micelles had 132 and 140% higher cytotoxicity against PC3 and DU 145 prostate cell lines, respectively. SMA-Ral effectively inhibits cell cycle progression, increases apoptosis, and alters the integrity of tumor spheroid models. In addition, the micellar system induced changes in expression and localization of estrogen receptors, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, and downstream effectors associated with cell proliferation and survival. Finally, SMA-Ral treatment decreased migration and invasion of castrate resistant prostate cancer cell lines. In conclusion, SMA-Ral micelles can potentially benefit new strategies for clinical management of castrate resistant prostate cancer.

  3. Prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Maria Carlsen; Andersen, Morten Heebøll; Høyer, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Background Active surveillance (AS) of low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) is an accepted alternative to active treatment. However, the conventional diagnostic trans-rectal ultrasound guided biopsies (TRUS-bx) underestimate PCa aggressiveness in almost half of the cases, when compared with the surgical...... lesions. Significant cancer was defined as GS > 6 or GS 6 (3 + 3) lesions with ≥ 6 mm maximal cancer core length (MCCL). Results A total of 78 patients were included and in 21 patients a total of 22 PIRADS-score 4 or 5 lesions were detected. MRGB pathology revealed that 17 (81%) of these and 22......% of the entire AS population harbored significant cancers at AS inclusion. In eight (38%) cases, the GS was upgraded. Also, nine patients (43%) had GS 6 (3 + 3) foci with MCCL ≥ 6 mm. Conclusion In an AS cohort based on TRUS and TRUS-bx diagnostic strategies, supplemental mpMRI and in-bore MRGB were able...

  4. The contemporary management of prostate cancer in the United States: lessons from the cancer of the prostate strategic urologic research endeavor (CapSURE), a national disease registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperberg, Matthew R; Broering, Jeanette M; Litwin, Mark S; Lubeck, Deborah P; Mehta, Shilpa S; Henning, James M; Carroll, Peter R

    2004-04-01

    The epidemiology and treatment of prostate cancer have changed dramatically in the prostate specific antigen era. A large disease registry facilitates the longitudinal observation of trends in disease presentation, management and outcomes. The Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor (CaPSURE) is a national disease registry of more than 10000 men with prostate cancer accrued at 31 primarily community based sites across the United States. Demographic, clinical, quality of life and resource use variables are collected on each patient. We reviewed key findings from the data base in the last 8 years in the areas of disease management trends, and oncological and quality of life outcomes. Prostate cancer is increasingly diagnosed with low risk clinical characteristics. With time patients have become less likely to receive pretreatment imaging tests, less likely to pursue watchful waiting and more likely to receive brachytherapy or hormonal therapy. Relatively few patients treated with radical prostatectomy in the database are under graded or under staged before surgery, whereas the surgical margin rate is comparable to that in academic series. CaPSURE data confirm the usefulness of percent positive biopsies in risk assessment and they have further been used to validate multiple preoperative nomograms. CaPSURE results strongly affirm the necessity of patient reported quality of life assessment. Multiple studies have compared the quality of life impact of various treatment options, particularly in terms of urinary and sexual function, and bother. The presentation and management of prostate cancer have changed substantially in the last decade. CaPSURE will continue to track these trends as well as oncological and quality of life outcomes, and will continue to be an invaluable resource for the study of prostate cancer at the national level.

  5. National Economic Conditions and Patient Insurance Status Predict Prostate Cancer Diagnosis Rates and Management Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Adam B; Conti, Rena M; Eggener, Scott E

    2016-05-01

    The recent Great Recession from December 2007 to June 2009 presents a unique opportunity to examine whether the incidence of nonpalpable prostate cancer decreases while conservative management for nonpalpable prostate cancer increases during periods of national economic hardship. We derived rates of national monthly diagnosis and conservative management for screen detected, nonpalpable prostate cancer and patient level insurance status from the SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results) database from 2004 to 2011. We derived monthly statistics on national unemployment rates, inflation, median household income and S&P 500® closing values from government sources. Using linear and logistic multivariable regression we measured the correlation of national macroeconomic conditions with prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment patterns. We evaluated patient level predictors of conservative management to determine whether being insured by Medicaid or uninsured increased the use of conservative management. Diagnosis rates correlated positively with the S&P 500 monthly close (coefficient 24.90, 95% CI 6.29-43.50, p = 0.009). Conservative management correlated negatively with median household income (coefficient -49.13, 95% CI -69.29--28.98, p management compared to that in men with private insurance. As indicated by a significant interaction term being diagnosed during the Great Recession increased the Medicaid insurance predictive value of conservative management (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.02-1.68, p = 0.037). National economic hardship was associated with decreased diagnosis rates of nonpalpable prostate cancer and increased conservative management. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Osteoporosis and prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads Hvid; Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Abrahamsen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of osteoporosis and risk factors of osteoporotic fractures before androgen deprivation in Danish men. Treatment and prognosis of prostate cancer necessitate management of long-term consequences of androgen deprivation therapy...... (ADT), including accelerated bone loss resulting in osteoporosis. Osteoporotic fractures are associated with excess morbidity and mortality. Material and methods. Patients with prostate cancer awaiting initiation of ADT were consecutively included. Half of the patients had localized disease and were...... level was 30.5 g/l (1-5714 g/l). The average Gleason score was 7.8 (range 5-10, SD 1.1). Fifty patients had localized prostate cancer and the other 55 patients had disseminated disease. The prevalence of osteoporosis was 10% and the prevalence of osteopenia was 58% before ADT. There was no significant...

  7. Saw Palmetto for Symptom Management During Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Gwen K; Sikorskii, Alla; Safikhani, Abolfazl; McVary, Kevin T; Herman, James

    2016-06-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs) affect 75%-80% of men undergoing radiation therapy (RT) for prostate cancer. To determine the safety, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), and preliminary efficacy of Serenoa repens commonly known as saw palmetto (SP) for management of LUTS during RT for prostate cancer. The dose finding phase used the time-to-event continual reassessment method to evaluate safety of three doses (320, 640, and 960 mg) of SP. Dose-limiting toxicities were assessed for 22 weeks using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events for nausea, gastritis, and anorexia. The exploratory randomized controlled trial phase assessed preliminary efficacy of the MTD against placebo. The primary outcome of LUTS was measured over 22 weeks using the International Prostate Symptom Score. Additional longitudinal assessments included quality of life measured with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate. The dose finding phase was completed by 27 men who reported no dose-limiting toxicities and with 20 participants at the MTD of 960 mg daily. The exploratory randomized controlled trial phase included 21 men, and no statistically significant differences in the International Prostate Symptom Score were observed. The prostate-specific concerns score of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate improved in the SP group (P = 0.03). Of 11 men in the placebo group, two received physician-prescribed medications to manage LUTS compared with none of the 10 men in the SP group. SP at 960 mg may be a safe herbal supplement, but its efficacy in managing LUTS during RT needs further investigation. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Aspirin in the Management of Patients with Prostate Cancer Undergoing Radiotherapy: Friend or Foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascan, Bianca; Marignol, Laure

    2018-04-01

    Aspirin has cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2)-mediated anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant properties that may confer a positive effect in preventing and limiting the progression of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer has been shown to have poor treatment outcomes due to therapeutic resistance; therefore, COX2 inhibition caused by aspirin could represent an opportunity to augment current therapies. This is particularly of interest to patients undergoing radiation therapy (RT) where inflammation is a common side-effect. This review discusses the evidence for the potential role of aspirin in the management of patients with prostate cancer undergoing RT. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  9. Genetics and Genomics: Discovery, Validation, and Utility of Novel Tools for management of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan W. Shindel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomics is the science of how genes influence human health and disease states. It differs from traditional genetic screening in that the transcriptional activity (or other markers in full panels of related genes are studied. Compared to simple genetic testing, assessment of expression levels in a panel of genes provides a more nuanced and holistic understanding of genetic modulation of human disease. Genomic testing may be used to great effect in resolving controversial questions on detection and treatment of prostate cancer. Genomic tests are currently in use for numerous facets of prostate cancer care, including screening, biopsy, and treatment planning. The clinical validity (predictive capacity of these assays has been well established; studies on clinical utility (i.e. usefulness of these tests in guiding patient/provider decisions have shown promising results. Men’s health specialists should be familiar with the role genomic testing will play in contemporary management of prostate cancer.

  10. Saudi Oncology Society and Saudi Urology Association combined clinical management guidelines for prostate cancer 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljubran, Ali; Abusamra, Ashraf; Alkhateeb, Sultan; Alotaibi, Mohammed; Rabah, Danny; Bazarbashi, Shouki; Alkushi, Hussain; Al-Mansour, Mubarak; Alharbi, Hulayel; Eltijani, Amin; Alghamdi, Abdullah; Alsharm, Abdullah; Ahmad, Imran; Murshid, Esam

    2018-01-01

    This is an update to the previously published Saudi guidelines for the evaluation and medical and surgical management of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is categorized according to the stage of the disease using the tumor node metastasis staging system 7 th edition. The guidelines are presented with supporting evidence levels based on a comprehensive literature review, several internationally recognized guidelines, and the collective expertise of the guidelines committee members (authors) who were selected by the Saudi Oncology Society and Saudi Urological Association. Local factors, such as availability, logistic feasibility, and familiarity of various treatment modalities, have been taken into consideration. These guidelines should serve as a roadmap for the urologists, oncologists, general physicians, support groups, and health-care policymakers in the management of patients diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the prostate.

  11. Prostate cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000397.htm Prostate cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... trials you may be able to join How Prostate Cancer Staging is Done Initial staging is based on ...

  12. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different tests to find those ... PSA level may be high if you have prostate cancer. It can also be high if you have ...

  13. Cryotherapy for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000907.htm Cryotherapy for prostate cancer To use the sharing features ... first treatment for prostate cancer. What Happens During Cryotherapy Before the procedure, you will be given medicine ...

  14. Prostate cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Friis, S; Kjaer, S K

    1998-01-01

    To review the trends in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality rates in Denmark during a 50-year period.......To review the trends in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality rates in Denmark during a 50-year period....

  15. Prognostic Biomarkers Used for Localised Prostate Cancer Management: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Pierre-Jean; Allory, Yves; Gauchez, Anne-Sophie; Asselain, Bernard; Beuzeboc, Philippe; de Cremoux, Patricia; Fontugne, Jacqueline; Georges, Agnès; Hennequin, Christophe; Lehmann-Che, Jacqueline; Massard, Christophe; Millet, Ingrid; Murez, Thibaut; Schlageter, Marie-Hélène; Rouvière, Olivier; Kassab-Chahmi, Diana; Rozet, François; Descotes, Jean-Luc; Rébillard, Xavier

    2017-03-07

    Prostate cancer stratification is based on tumour size, pretreatment PSA level, and Gleason score, but it remains imperfect. Current research focuses on the discovery and validation of novel prognostic biomarkers to improve the identification of patients at risk of aggressive cancer or of tumour relapse. This systematic review by the Intergroupe Coopérateur Francophone de Recherche en Onco-urologie (ICFuro) analysed new evidence on the analytical validity and clinical validity and utility of six prognostic biomarkers (PHI, 4Kscore, MiPS, GPS, Prolaris, Decipher). All available data for the six biomarkers published between January 2002 and April 2015 were systematically searched and reviewed. The main endpoints were aggressive prostate cancer prediction, additional value compared to classical prognostic parameters, and clinical benefit for patients with localised prostate cancer. The preanalytical and analytical validations were heterogeneous for all tests and often not adequate for the molecular signatures. Each biomarker was studied for specific indications (candidates for a first or second biopsy, and potential candidates for active surveillance, radical prostatectomy, or adjuvant treatment) for which the level of evidence (LOE) was variable. PHI and 4Kscore were the biomarkers with the highest LOE for discriminating aggressive and indolent tumours in different indications. Blood biomarkers (PHI and 4Kscore) have the highest LOE for the prediction of more aggressive prostate cancer and could help clinicians to manage patients with localised prostate cancer. The other biomarkers show a potential prognostic value; however, they should be evaluated in additional studies to confirm their clinical validity. We reviewed studies assessing the value of six prognostic biomarkers for prostate cancer. On the basis of the available evidence, some biomarkers could help in discriminating between aggressive and non-aggressive tumours with an additional value compared to the

  16. Clinical characteristics and primary management of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer between 2007 and 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik B; Mikkelsen, Marta K; Hansen, Rikke B

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Danish Cancer Registry holds information on all prostate cancers (PCa) cases, including diagnostic TNM. However, stratification according to contemporary risk classification is not possible because histopathological grading and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level...

  17. An overview of the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prostate cancer was previously perceived to be low in Africa. Recent studies have shown that Africa has a high prevalence up to 300 per 100,000. This is close to that found among African Americans who have the highest incidence of prostate cancer in the world. In many African countries, prostate cancer is the leading ...

  18. Vitamin D in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Donald L; Aragon-Ching, Jeanny B

    2018-04-13

    Signaling through the vitamin D receptor has been shown to be biologically active and important in a number of preclinical studies in prostate and other cancers. Epidemiologic data also indicate that vitamin D signaling may be important in the cause and prognosis of prostate and other cancers. These data indicate that perturbation of vitamin D signaling may be a target for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. Large studies of vitamin D supplementation will be required to determine whether these observations can be translated into prevention strategies. This paper reviews the available data in the use of vitamin D compounds in the treatment of prostate cancer. Clinical data are limited which support the use of vitamin D compounds in the management of men with prostate cancer. However, clinical trials guided by existing preclinical data are limited.

  19. Vitamin D in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald L Trump

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Signaling through the vitamin D receptor has been shown to be biologically active and important in a number of preclinical studies in prostate and other cancers. Epidemiologic data also indicate that vitamin D signaling may be important in the cause and prognosis of prostate and other cancers. These data indicate that perturbation of vitamin D signaling may be a target for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. Large studies of vitamin D supplementation will be required to determine whether these observations can be translated into prevention strategies. This paper reviews the available data in the use of vitamin D compounds in the treatment of prostate cancer. Clinical data are limited which support the use of vitamin D compounds in the management of men with prostate cancer. However, clinical trials guided by existing preclinical data are limited.

  20. Vitamin D in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Donald L; Aragon-Ching, Jeanny B

    2018-01-01

    Signaling through the vitamin D receptor has been shown to be biologically active and important in a number of preclinical studies in prostate and other cancers. Epidemiologic data also indicate that vitamin D signaling may be important in the cause and prognosis of prostate and other cancers. These data indicate that perturbation of vitamin D signaling may be a target for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. Large studies of vitamin D supplementation will be required to determine whether these observations can be translated into prevention strategies. This paper reviews the available data in the use of vitamin D compounds in the treatment of prostate cancer. Clinical data are limited which support the use of vitamin D compounds in the management of men with prostate cancer. However, clinical trials guided by existing preclinical data are limited. PMID:29667615

  1. Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0185 TITLE: Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jonathan Melamed, MD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-2-0185 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...infrastructure and operations of the Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network (PCBN). The aim of the PCBN is to provide prostate researchers with high-quality

  2. Key papers in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney, Simon; Shah, Taimur Tariq; Patel, Hitendra R H; Arya, Manit

    2014-11-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer and second leading cause of death in men. The evidence base for the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer is continually changing. We aim to review and discuss past and contemporary papers on these topics to provoke debate and highlight key dilemmas faced by the urological community. We review key papers on prostate-specific antigen screening, radical prostatectomy versus surveillance strategies, targeted therapies, timing of radiotherapy and alternative anti-androgen therapeutics. Previously, the majority of patients, irrespective of risk, underwent radical open surgical procedures associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Evidence is emerging that not all prostate cancers are alike and that low-grade disease can be safely managed by surveillance strategies and localized treatment to the prostate. The question remains as to how to accurately stage the disease and ultimately choose which treatment pathway to follow.

  3. Management of Biochemical Recurrence after Primary Localized Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, Oussama M.; Raj, Ganesh V.

    2012-01-01

    Clinically localized prostate cancer is typically managed by well established therapies like radical prostatectomy, brachytherapy, and external beam radiation therapy. While many patients can be cured with definitive local therapy, some will have biochemical recurrence (BCR) of disease detected by a rising serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Management of these patients is nuanced and controversial. The natural history indicates that a majority of patients with BCR will not die from prostate cancer but from other causes. Despite this, a vast majority of patients with BCR are empirically treated with non-curable systemic androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), with its myriad of real and potential side effects. In this review article, we examined the very definition of BCR after definitive local therapy, the current status of imaging studies in its evaluation, the need for additional therapies, and the factors involved in the decision making in the choice of additional therapies. This review aims to help clinicians with the management of patients with BCR. The assessment of prognostic factors including absolute PSA level, time to recurrence, PSA kinetics, multivariable nomograms, imaging, and biopsy of the prostatic bed may help stratify the patients into localized or systemic recurrence. Patients with low-risk of systemic disease may be cured by a salvage local therapy, while those with higher risk of systemic disease may be offered the option of ADT or a clinical trial. An algorithm incorporating these factors is presented.

  4. Radiotherapy in the management of non-metastatic prostate cancer: Current standards and future opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forman, Jeffrey D.

    1997-01-01

    Objectives: The intent of this course is to review issues involved in the management of non-metastatic prostate cancer and to clarify the role of external beam radiotherapy, the use of neo-adjuvant and adjuvant hormonal therapy in conjunction with the radiation, the management of patients with regional metastases and recurrent disease following surgery and radiation. At the end of this course, participants should be able to fluently discuss management issues and strategies across the entire spectrum of non-metastatic prostate cancer. - Pre-treatment prognostic factors including clinical stage, grade, and pre-treatment PSA, will be presented and their relative value in determining therapeutic strategies will be discussed. Strategies to be discussed include standard dose radiation, escalated dose radiation, particle radiation and the use of adjuvant and neo-adjuvant hormonal therapy. - The process of simulation and field design will be presented, the value of CT-based treatment planning, beams-eye view design and the relative value of three-dimensional treatment planning will be discussed. - The significance of prostate and patient movement and strategies for dealing with this will also be presented so that what constitutes an adequate simulation and margin of treatment can be clarified. - The management of newly diagnosed patients, covering the range of low stage/low grade to locally advanced prostate cancer will be discussed. - The relative value of increasing dose, the relative value of using neo-adjuvant and/or adjuvant hormone therapy and the indications for escalated dose will be presented. - Strategies for managing post-prostatectomy patients will be reviewed. Data on adjuvant and therapeutic irradiation for biochemical failure will be presented and a strategy for management will be discussed. - How to deal with patients with residual disease post radiation will be discussed and the relative value of cryotherapy, salvage prostatectomy or hormonal therapy will

  5. [Epigenetics of prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiao-Ming; Zhou, Wen-Quan

    2010-07-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in males, and its etiology and pathogenesis remain unclear. Epigenesis is involved in prostate cancer at all stages of the process, and closely related with its growth and metastasis. DNA methylation and histone modification are the most important manifestations of epigenetics in prostate cancer. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis of DNA methylation include whole-genome hypomethylation, aberrant local hypermethylation of promoters and genomic instability. DNA methylation is closely related to the process of prostate cancer, as in DNA damage repair, hormone response, tumor cell invasion/metastasis, cell cycle regulation, and so on. Histone modification causes corresponding changes in chromosome structure and the level of gene transcription, and it may affect the cycle, differentiation and apoptosis of cells, resulting in prostate cancer. Some therapies have been developed targeting the epigenetic changes in prostate cancer, including DNA methyltransferases and histone deacetylase inhibitors, and have achieved certain desirable results.

  6. Early quality of life outcomes in patients with prostate cancer managed by high-dose-rate brachytherapy as monotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiya, Akira; Fujiuchi, Yasuyoshi; Ito, Takatoshi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the early quality of life outcomes in prostate cancer patients managed by high-dose-rate brachytherapy as monotherapy. A total of 51 patients with cT1c-T3aN0M0 prostate cancer treated between July 2007 and January 2010 were included in this study. The average age was 69?years, and the average initial serum prostate-specific antigen was 10.98?ng/mL. A total of 25, 18 and eight patients were considered to be low, intermediate and high risk, respectively. All patients received one implant of Ir-192 and seven fractions of 6.5?Gy within 3.5?days for a total prescribed dose of 45.5?Gy. For high-risk prostate cancer, neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy was carried out for at least 6?months, and continued after high-dose-rate brachytherapy. Quality of life outcomes were measured by using the International Prostate Symptom Score, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate and the International Index of Erectile Function Questionnaire. The oncological outcome was assessed by serum prostate-specific antigen and diagnostic imaging. Adverse events were also recorded. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate scores decreased for a few months after high-dose-rate brachytherapy, and recovered to pretreatment condition thereafter. The International Prostate Symptom Score significantly increased 2?weeks after treatment for each of its items and their sum, and it returned to baseline after 12?weeks. Sexual function decreased at 2 and 4?weeks, and recovered after 12?weeks. Severe complications were rare. Within a median follow up of 17.2?months, two patients showed a prostate-specific antigen recurrence. High-dose-rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer is a feasible treatment modality with acceptable toxicity and only a limited impact on the quality of life. (author)

  7. On cribriform prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kweldam, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractThis general aim of the thesis is to study the clinical relevance, interobserver reproducibility, and genetics of cribriform growth in prostate cancer. More specifically, the aims and outline of this thesis are • To study the metastatic potential of modified Gleason score 3+3 prostate cancer in radical prostatectomies. (Chapter 2) • To examine the prognostic value of individual Gleason grade 4 patterns in prostate cancer in radical prostatectomy and diagnostic biopsy specimens...

  8. Management of early prostatic cancer in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, P M; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B; Heggestad, T

    1995-01-01

    To explore the treatment of patients with early localized prostatic carcinoma, we surveyed the departments of urology and general surgery in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Clinical policies and physicians' attitudes toward the radical treatment options varied widely between the countries. ...

  9. In-vitro radioimmunoassay of prostate specific antigen (PSA) for the screening and management of prostate cancer in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Ezzi, Asmahan; El Ahmadiyeh, Nabil

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Immunoassays for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) are used to detect early-stage prostate cancer, monitor disease progress, and evaluate therapeutic response. At least two forms of PSA, free PSA (F-PSA) and PSA complexed to alpha-1 anti-chymotrypsin (PSA-ACT) are detected by commercial PSA assays. The fraction of F-PSA is shown to be smaller in patients with untreated prostate cancer than in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). Thus, combined measurements of both total and free PSA are used for a better discrimination between BPH and prostate cancer. Detection of PSA for screening of prostate cancer has been a subject of debate for many years. The reason of this debate is mainly because screening for prostate cancer is not cost-effective, as was shown by studies undertaken in Europe and United States. In Lebanon, no previous programs of screening for prostate cancer were done and so the incidence of this cancer is not known. Recently, the cancer registry in Lebanon found that lung and prostate are the highest cancers in the Lebanese men. The Lebanese association of urologists noted that 80% of men suffering from prostate cancer consult their urologists when the cancer is spread outside the prostate capsule. There is a socio-economic barrier behind this delay. We decided to undertake this study for the screening of prostate cancer in Lebanon, taking into consideration the above-mentioned facts and the experience of other countries. Volunteer men aged 45 and above, who were not visitors of a urology clinic, were selected randomly. A blood sample was withdrawn from each man, then a rectal examination was done and a questionnaire was filled. The blood serum separated was assayed for total PSA first and where abnormal or borderline, was assayed for free PSA. The percentage of free to total PSA was calculated. Men having borderline or abnormal results did undergo more investigations for the definitive diagnosis of their samples. IRMA

  10. Nuclear medicine and the management of prostate cancer in Yaounde - Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong a Zok, F.; Mbodj, M.; Assiga Ahanda, Y.M.; Angwafor, F.

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequent neoplasm affecting males above 50 years old in developed countries. Previous studies carried out in Cameroon have shown that, this condition is not infrequent. Late diagnosis is equally common. The advent of nuclear medicine technology in the year 2000 has enabled the possibility of prostate specific antigen (P.S.A.) assay and imaging by bone scintigraphy. In this study, we aimed at assessing the contributions of P.S.A. assay and bone scintigraphy in the management of prostate cancer in Cameroon. Within a 5 years period (January 2003 - December 2007) 360 patients had biopsy proven (Gleason score) prostate adenocarcinoma. The age ranged from 50 to 85 years with a mean of 67 years. Those aged between 60 to 69 years were more affected. The patients were divided into 2 groups: a first one accruing of 250 patients with a previous bone scintigraphy carried out before treatment and a second group of patients who underwent a bone scintigraphy during treatment. Clinical features digital rectal examination, endorectal echography were noted. P.S.A. levels and bone scintigraphy results were also noted. Most of these patients (80.56%) presented with advanced lesions with metastases. Orchiectomy and hormonotherapy were the most used methods of treatment due to late diagnosis. Bone scintigraphy-evidenced lesions were mainly located (92.25%) at the dorso-lumbar region of the spine. There is a correlation between the following variables: clinical features, namely, digital rectal examinations, P.S.A. blood levels, ultrasound, histology and bone scintigraphy. Therefore, we can conclude that, P.S.A. is an important marker of prostate cancer. Its association with bone scintigraphy is appropriate for the detection of bone metastases. (authors)

  11. The case for focal brachytherapy for the management of low grade prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, B.J.; Enari, E.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Radical therapy of low to intermediate prostate cancer patients can cause substantial adverse events relating to genitourinary and rectal toxicity. Yet there is little evidence that such treatment results in increased life expectancy. On the other hand, watchful waiting is associated with active surveillance and the patient must accept that the cancer remains untreated and has a risk of progression. Focal therapy of low grade prostate cancer provides an intermediate approach to the management of this cancer. The approach is to treat only those positive segments on biopsy and so reduce the likelihood of adverse events. However, continued surveillance is required because of the increased risk of disease progression. Focal therapy needs to be evaluated using available ablative therapies. Recent studies of focal HIFU for 20 patients showed PSA reduced from 7.3 to 1.5 ng/mL at 12 months. 1/20 patients had inadequate erections and 2120 required pads. 17/19 had no histological evidence of cancer and none had evidence of high volume or Gleason = 7 cancer in the treated lobe. Seed brachytherapy is commonly used for radical prostate treatment of low volume disease. As the same template can be used for seed therapy as is used for biopsy, the technique is ideally suited for focal brachytherapy. As any treatment involving less than the entire gland involves the risk of leaving viable cancer cells outside the treatment zone, a phase 3 randomised clinical trial between radical and focal brachytherapy is advocated to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of the latter relative to radical therapy.

  12. Describing a nurse case manager intervention to empower low-income men with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliski, Sally L; Clerkin, Barbara; Litwin, Mark S

    2004-01-01

    Describe and categorize nurse case manager (NCM) interventions for low-income, uninsured men with prostate cancer. Descriptive, retrospective record review. Statewide free prostate cancer treatment program in which each patient is assigned an NCM. 7 NCMs who developed interventions based on empowerment through increasing self-efficacy. NCM entries were extracted and coded from 10 electronic patient records, line by line, to reveal initial themes. Themes were grouped under categories. Investigators then reviewed and expanded these categories and their descriptions and postulated linkages. Linkages and relationships among categories were empirically verified with the original data. NCM entries from another 20 records were prepared in the same manner as the original records. Modifications were made until the categories contained all of the data and no new categories emerged. Categories were verified for content validity with the NCMs and reviewed for completeness and representation. NCM interventions. Categories of NCM interventions emerged as assessment, coordination, advocacy, facilitation, teaching, support, collaborative problem solving, and keeping track. Categories overlapped and supported each other. NCMs tailored interventions by combining categories for each patient. The skillful tailoring and execution of intervention strategies depended on the knowledge, experience, and skill that each NCM brought to the clinical situation. NCM categories were consistent with the tenets of the self-efficacy theory. The model, based on NCM interventions, provides a guide for the care of underserved men with prostate cancer. Components of the model need to be tested.

  13. Immunotherapy in metastatic prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan F Slovin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prostate cancer remains a challenge as a target for immunological approaches. The approval of the first cell-based immune therapy, Sipuleucel-T for prostate cancer introduced prostate cancer as a solid tumor with the potential to be influenced by the immune system. Methods: We reviewed articles on immunological management of prostate cancer and challenges that lie ahead for such strategies. Results: Treatments have focused on the identification of novel cell surface antigens thought to be unique to prostate cancer. These include vaccines against carbohydrate and blood group antigens, xenogeneic and naked DNA vaccines, and pox viruses used as prime-boost or checkpoint inhibitors. No single vaccine construct to date has resulted in a dramatic antitumor effect. The checkpoint inhibitor, anti-CTLA-4 has resulted in several long-term remissions, but phase III trials have not demonstrated an antitumor effect or survival benefit. Conclusions: Multiple clinical trials suggest that prostate cancer may not be optimally treated by single agent immune therapies and that combination with biologic agents, chemotherapies, or radiation may offer some enhancement of benefit.

  14. Prostate cancer epigenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinaranagari, Swathi; Sharma, Pankaj; Bowen, Nathan J; Chaudhary, Jaideep

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a major health burden within the ever-increasingly aging US population. The molecular mechanisms involved in prostate cancer are diverse and heterogeneous. In this context, epigenetic changes, both global and gene specific, are now an emerging alternate mechanism in disease initiation and progression. The three major risk factors in prostate cancer: age, geographic ancestry, and environment are all influenced by epigenetics and additional significant insight is required to gain an understanding of the underlying mechanisms. The androgen receptor and its downstream effector pathways, central to prostate cancer initiation and progression, are subject to a multitude of epigenetic alterations. In this review we focus on the global perspective of epigenetics and the use of recent next-generation sequencing platforms to interrogate epigenetic changes in the prostate cancer genome.

  15. The influence of family history on prostate cancer risk : implications for clinical management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madersbacher, Stephan; Alcaraz, Antonio; Emberton, Mark; Hammerer, Peter; Ponholzer, Anton; Schroeder, Fritz H.; Tubaro, Andrea

    A family history of prostate cancer has long been identified as an important risk factor for developing the disease. This risk factor can be easily assessed in clinical practice and current guidelines recommend to initiate prostate cancer early detection 5 years earlier (i.e. around the age of 40

  16. Does Specialty Bias Trump Evidence in the Management of High-risk Prostate Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishan, Amar U; Duchesne, Gillian; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Rwigema, Jean-Claude M; Saigal, Christopher; Rettig, Matthew; Steinberg, Michael L; King, Christopher R

    2018-06-01

    The objective was to query how specialty influences treatment recommendations for high-risk prostate cancer in 3 clinical settings: upfront management, postoperative management, and management of biochemical recurrences (BCRs) after radiotherapy (RT). We hypothesized that specialty bias would manifest in all settings, trumping available evidence. A survey of practicing urologists and radiation oncologists was distributed through electronic mail. Questions pertained to upfront management, postoperative treatment, and local salvage for postradiation BCRs. The associations between 26 selected categorical responses and specialty were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Training level/expertise, practice setting, percentage of consultation caseload consisting of prostate cancer, and nationality were set as effect modifiers. One thousand two hundred fifty-three physicians (846 radiation oncologists and 407 urologists) completed the survey. Radiation oncologists were more likely to recommend adjuvant RT and consider it to be underutilized, and more likely to recommend salvage RT at lower prostate-specific antigen thresholds (P<0.0001). Urologists were more likely to recommend salvage radical prostatectomy or cryoablation for local salvage after RT, whereas radiation oncologists were more likely to recommend RT-based modalities and more likely to report that local salvage was underutilized after RT (P<0.0001). Urologists were more likely to report that upfront radical prostatectomy was a better definitive treatment (P<0.0001), whereas radiation oncologists were more likely to report the opposite (P=0.005). Specialty biases permeate recommendations for upfront management and management in the postoperative and post-RT BCR setting, irrespective of available evidence. These data reveal the critical need for multidisciplinary clinics and cross-specialty training as potential solutions for overcoming specialty bias.

  17. Predictive Factors and Management of Rectal Bleeding Side Effects Following Prostate Cancer Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Jeremy G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York (United States); Stone, Nelson N. [Department of Urology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York (United States); Stock, Richard G., E-mail: Richard.Stock@mountsinai.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To report on the incidence, nature, and management of rectal toxicities following individual or combination brachytherapy following treatment for prostate cancer over a 17-year period. We also report the patient and treatment factors predisposing to acute ≥grade 2 proctitis. Methods and Materials: A total of 2752 patients were treated for prostate cancer between October 1990 and April 2007 with either low-dose-rate brachytherapy alone or in combination with androgen depletion therapy (ADT) or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and were followed for a median of 5.86 years (minimum 1.0 years; maximum 19.19 years). We investigated the 10-year incidence, nature, and treatment of acute and chronic rectal toxicities following BT. Using univariate, and multivariate analyses, we determined the treatment and comorbidity factors predisposing to rectal toxicities. We also outline the most common and effective management for these toxicities. Results: Actuarial risk of ≥grade 2 rectal bleeding was 6.4%, though notably only 0.9% of all patients required medical intervention to manage this toxicity. The majority of rectal bleeding episodes (72%) occurred within the first 3 years following placement of BT seeds. Of the 27 patients requiring management for their rectal bleeding, 18 underwent formalin treatment and nine underwent cauterization. Post-hoc univariate statistical analysis revealed that coronary artery disease (CAD), biologically effective dose, rectal volume receiving 100% of the prescription dose (RV100), and treatment modality predict the likelihood of grade ≥2 rectal bleeding. Only CAD, treatment type, and RV100 fit a Cox regression multivariate model. Conclusions: Low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy is very well tolerated and rectal bleeding toxicities are either self-resolving or effectively managed by medical intervention. Treatment planning incorporating adjuvant ADT while minimizing RV100 has yielded the best toxicity-free survival following

  18. Clinical Management and Burden of Prostate Cancer: A Markov Monte Carlo Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Chiranjeev; Aprikian, Armen; Cury, Fabio; Chevalier, Simone; Dragomir, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common non-skin cancer among men in developed countries. Several novel treatments have been adopted by healthcare systems to manage PCa. Most of the observational studies and randomized trials on PCa have concurrently evaluated fewer treatments over short follow-up. Further, preceding decision analytic models on PCa management have not evaluated various contemporary management options. Therefore, a contemporary decision analytic model was necessary to address limitations to the literature by synthesizing the evidence on novel treatments thereby forecasting short and long-term clinical outcomes. Objectives To develop and validate a Markov Monte Carlo model for the contemporary clinical management of PCa, and to assess the clinical burden of the disease from diagnosis to end-of-life. Methods A Markov Monte Carlo model was developed to simulate the management of PCa in men 65 years and older from diagnosis to end-of-life. Health states modeled were: risk at diagnosis, active surveillance, active treatment, PCa recurrence, PCa recurrence free, metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer, overall and PCa death. Treatment trajectories were based on state transition probabilities derived from the literature. Validation and sensitivity analyses assessed the accuracy and robustness of model predicted outcomes. Results Validation indicated model predicted rates were comparable to observed rates in the published literature. The simulated distribution of clinical outcomes for the base case was consistent with sensitivity analyses. Predicted rate of clinical outcomes and mortality varied across risk groups. Life expectancy and health adjusted life expectancy predicted for the simulated cohort was 20.9 years (95%CI 20.5–21.3) and 18.2 years (95% CI 17.9–18.5), respectively. Conclusion Study findings indicated contemporary management strategies improved survival and quality of life in patients with PCa. This model could be used

  19. HDR Brachytherapy in the Management of High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Masson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High-dose-rate (HDR brachytherapy is used with increasing frequency for the treatment of prostate cancer. It is a technique which allows delivery of large individual fractions to the prostate without exposing adjacent normal tissues to unacceptable toxicity. This approach is particularly favourable in prostate cancer where tumours are highly sensitive to dose escalation and to increases in radiotherapy fraction size, due to the unique radiobiological behaviour of prostate cancers in contrast with other malignancies. In this paper we discuss the rationale and the increasing body of clinical evidence for the use of this technique in patients with high-risk prostate cancer, where it is combined with external beam radiotherapy. We highlight practical aspects of delivering treatment and discuss toxicity and limitations, with particular reference to current practice in the United Kingdom.

  20. Epigenetics in Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Albany, Costantine; Alva, Ajjai S.; Aparicio, Ana M.; Singal, Rakesh; Yellapragada, Sarvari; Sonpavde, Guru; Hahn, Noah M.

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most commonly diagnosed nonskin malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer death among men in the United States. Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequences. Two common epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation and histone modification, have demonstrated critical roles in prostate cancer growth and metastasis. DNA hypermethylation of cytosine-guanine (CpG) rich sequ...

  1. Strategies for the Management of Localized Prostate Cancer: A Guide for Radiation Oncologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a serious health issue, especially considering the recent epidemiological trend and its corresponding socioeconomic impact. Challenges encountered by treating physicians include the long natural history of the disease, the fact that it is more prevalent in the elderly and the difficulty in performing a complete critical review of medical evidence due to the plethora of available information. In addition, the difficulty in deciding if and when therapeutic intervention should be initiated is an important issue pertaining to this type of malignancy. However, there is one area where there is a uniform consensus: the applicability of the multidisciplinary approach in the management of prostate cancer. Clinical guidelines are systematically developed statements designed to help practitioners, managers and patients make decisions about appropriate health care for specific circumstances. Clinicians need simple, patient specific, user friendly guidelines. The main purposes of clinical guidelines are to: (a) provide recommendations for the treatment of individual patients by practitioners; (b) help develop standards to assess the individual practice of health professionals; (c) be used in the education and training of health professionals; (d) assist patients in making informed decisions; and (e) improve communication between patients and health professionals. Clinical guidelines for the management of prostate cancer exist in the published literature. However, these guidelines have usually been developed in and for affluent health care environments where all modern diagnostic and treatment modalities are available. In limited resource environments, the radiation oncologist is faced with the question of what the minimum acceptable (evidence based) line of action would be, considering the limited resources available. Clinical guidelines focusing on low to middle income countries aim to provide these practitioners with a practical tool. This publication is

  2. Strategies for the Management of Localized Prostate Cancer: A Guide for Radiation Oncologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-09-15

    Prostate cancer is a serious health issue, especially considering the recent epidemiological trend and its corresponding socioeconomic impact. Challenges encountered by treating physicians include the long natural history of the disease, the fact that it is more prevalent in the elderly and the difficulty in performing a complete critical review of medical evidence due to the plethora of available information. In addition, the difficulty in deciding if and when therapeutic intervention should be initiated is an important issue pertaining to this type of malignancy. However, there is one area where there is a uniform consensus: the applicability of the multidisciplinary approach in the management of prostate cancer. Clinical guidelines are systematically developed statements designed to help practitioners, managers and patients make decisions about appropriate health care for specific circumstances. Clinicians need simple, patient specific, user friendly guidelines. The main purposes of clinical guidelines are to: (a) provide recommendations for the treatment of individual patients by practitioners; (b) help develop standards to assess the individual practice of health professionals; (c) be used in the education and training of health professionals; (d) assist patients in making informed decisions; and (e) improve communication between patients and health professionals. Clinical guidelines for the management of prostate cancer exist in the published literature. However, these guidelines have usually been developed in and for affluent health care environments where all modern diagnostic and treatment modalities are available. In limited resource environments, the radiation oncologist is faced with the question of what the minimum acceptable (evidence based) line of action would be, considering the limited resources available. Clinical guidelines focusing on low to middle income countries aim to provide these practitioners with a practical tool. This publication is

  3. Prostate Cancer Ambassadors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vines, Anissa I.; Hunter, Jaimie C.; Carlisle, Veronica A.; Richmond, Alan N.

    2016-01-01

    African American men bear a higher burden of prostate cancer than Caucasian men, but knowledge about how to make an informed decision about prostate cancer screening is limited. A lay health advisor model was used to train “Prostate Cancer Ambassadors” on prostate cancer risk and symptoms, how to make an informed decision for prostate-specific antigen screening, and how to deliver the information to members of their community. Training consisted of two, 6-hour interactive sessions and was implemented in three predominantly African American communities over an 8-month period between 2013 and 2014. Following training, Ambassadors committed to contacting at least 10 people within 3 months using a toolkit composed of wallet-sized informational cards for distribution, a slide presentation, and a flip chart. Thirty-two Ambassadors were trained, with more than half being females (59%) and half reporting a family history of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer knowledge improved significantly among Ambassadors (p ≤ .0001). Self-efficacy improved significantly for performing outreach tasks (p < .0001), and among women in helping a loved one with making an informed decision (p = .005). There was also an improvement in collective efficacy in team members (p = .0003). Twenty-nine of the Ambassadors fulfilled their commitment to reach at least 10 people (average number of contacts per Ambassador was 11). In total, 355 individuals were reached with the prostate cancer information. The Ambassador training program proved successful in training Ambassadors to reach communities about prostate cancer and how to make an informed decision about screening. PMID:27099348

  4. Contemporary management of prostate cancer: a practice survey of Ontario genitourinary radiation oncologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, George; D'Souza, David; Crook, Juanita; Malone, Shawn; Sathya, Jinka; Morton, Gerard

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To survey radiation oncology practice in the utilization of hormonal and radiation therapy in the primary, adjuvant and salvage treatment of localized prostate cancer. Materials and methods: Genitourinary radiation oncologists practicing in Ontario were invited to participate in a practice survey examining staging, hormonal and radiation management, and radiation technique for a variety of common clinical scenarios. Background demographic information was collected on all respondents. The survey consisted of three cases relating to the hormonal/radiation management of low-, intermediate-, and high-risk prostate cancer as well as two adjuvant and one salvage post-prostatectomy scenarios. The survey response rate was 70% (26/37). Results: Clinicians were more likely to utilize laboratory and imaging studies for staging as the risk categorization increased. Low-risk disease was managed with radiation alone in 26/26 (70 Gy in 65%, 74-79.8 Gy in 35%). Intermediate-risk disease was managed with radiation (70 Gy in 46%, 74-79.8 Gy in 54%) with neoadjuvant hormones in 58%. All respondents managed high-risk disease with adjuvant hormones in addition to radiation therapy (70-71 Gy in 85%, and 76 Gy in 15%). In the pT3a, margin negative (PSA undetectable) scenario, most individuals would not recommend adjuvant radiation (73%). If margins were positive, 30% would still not recommend adjuvant radiation. In the salvage scenario (slowly rising PSA 4 years post-prostatectomy for pT2a close margin disease), all respondents would manage with radiation therapy. Hormones were not routinely recommended in the initial management of the adjuvant and salvage scenarios. Radiation doses utilized for both adjuvant and salvage treatment ranged from 60-70 Gy (median 66 Gy). Conclusions: General agreement exists for the management of low- and high-risk disease and in the post-prostatectomy salvage setting. Use of dose-escalation and neoadjuvant hormones in the intermediate

  5. Genetics of Prostate Cancer (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Familial prostate cancer is associated with certain inherited gene mutations (variants). Learn about the hereditary prostate cancer genes, genetic testing, clinical management, and psychosocial issues in this expert-reviewed summary.

  6. Ozone Therapy in the Management of Persistent Radiation-Induced Rectal Bleeding in Prostate Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardino Clavo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Persistent radiation-induced proctitis and rectal bleeding are debilitating complications with limited therapeutic options. We present our experience with ozone therapy in the management of such refractory rectal bleeding. Methods. Patients (n=12 previously irradiated for prostate cancer with persistent or severe rectal bleeding without response to conventional treatment were enrolled to receive ozone therapy via rectal insufflations and/or topical application of ozonized-oil. Ten (83% patients had Grade 3 or Grade 4 toxicity. Median follow-up after ozone therapy was 104 months (range: 52–119. Results. Following ozone therapy, the median grade of toxicity improved from 3 to 1 (p<0.001 and the number of endoscopy treatments from 37 to 4 (p=0.032. Hemoglobin levels changed from 11.1 (7–14 g/dL to 13 (10–15 g/dL, before and after ozone therapy, respectively (p=0.008. Ozone therapy was well tolerated and no adverse effects were noted, except soft and temporary flatulence for some hours after each session. Conclusions. Ozone therapy was effective in radiation-induced rectal bleeding in prostate cancer patients without serious adverse events. It proved useful in the management of rectal bleeding and merits further evaluation.

  7. Understanding requirements of novel healthcare information systems for management of advanced prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagholikar, Amol S; Fung, Maggie; Nelson, Colleen C

    2012-01-01

    Effective management of chronic diseases is a global health priority. A healthcare information system offers opportunities to address challenges of chronic disease management. However, the requirements of health information systems are often not well understood. The accuracy of requirements has a direct impact on the successful design and implementation of a health information system. Our research describes methods used to understand the requirements of health information systems for advanced prostate cancer management. The research conducted a survey to identify heterogeneous sources of clinical records. Our research showed that the General Practitioner was the common source of patient's clinical records (41%) followed by the Urologist (14%) and other clinicians (14%). Our research describes a method to identify diverse data sources and proposes a novel patient journey browser prototype that integrates disparate data sources.

  8. Epigenetics in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albany, Costantine; Alva, Ajjai S; Aparicio, Ana M; Singal, Rakesh; Yellapragada, Sarvari; Sonpavde, Guru; Hahn, Noah M

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most commonly diagnosed nonskin malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer death among men in the United States. Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequences. Two common epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation and histone modification, have demonstrated critical roles in prostate cancer growth and metastasis. DNA hypermethylation of cytosine-guanine (CpG) rich sequence islands within gene promoter regions is widespread during neoplastic transformation of prostate cells, suggesting that treatment-induced restoration of a "normal" epigenome could be clinically beneficial. Histone modification leads to altered tumor gene function by changing chromosome structure and the level of gene transcription. The reversibility of epigenetic aberrations and restoration of tumor suppression gene function have made them attractive targets for prostate cancer treatment with modulators that demethylate DNA and inhibit histone deacetylases.

  9. Epigenetics in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantine Albany

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the most commonly diagnosed nonskin malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer death among men in the United States. Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequences. Two common epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation and histone modification, have demonstrated critical roles in prostate cancer growth and metastasis. DNA hypermethylation of cytosine-guanine (CpG rich sequence islands within gene promoter regions is widespread during neoplastic transformation of prostate cells, suggesting that treatment-induced restoration of a “normal” epigenome could be clinically beneficial. Histone modification leads to altered tumor gene function by changing chromosome structure and the level of gene transcription. The reversibility of epigenetic aberrations and restoration of tumor suppression gene function have made them attractive targets for prostate cancer treatment with modulators that demethylate DNA and inhibit histone deacetylases.

  10. Cancer of the prostate - role of PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shittu, O.B.

    1999-02-01

    Since 1979 when prostate specific antigen (PSA), found in the cytoplasm of benign and malignant prostatic cells, was first purified, it has attained world wide popularity in prostate cancer detection. It is also a sensitive test for skeletal meta states from carcinoma of the prostate. Prostate cancer has become the number one cancer in men and constitutes 11% of all cancers. Approximately 50% of men over 50 years have symptoms referable to the lower urinary tract. 50% or more of patients at Ibadan present an advanced stage of the disease and are therefore not curable. Thus, lacking the skill to manage advanced manifestations, early detection and screening programs are the best means to reduce mortality due to prostate cancer

  11. A novel computer based expert decision making model for prostate cancer disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Martin B; Forman, Ernest H; Bayazit, Yildirim; Einstein, Douglas B; Resnick, Martin I; Stovsky, Mark D

    2005-12-01

    We propose a strategic, computer based, prostate cancer decision making model based on the analytic hierarchy process. We developed a model that improves physician-patient joint decision making and enhances the treatment selection process by making this critical decision rational and evidence based. Two groups (patient and physician-expert) completed a clinical study comparing an initial disease management choice with the highest ranked option generated by the computer model. Participants made pairwise comparisons to derive priorities for the objectives and subobjectives related to the disease management decision. The weighted comparisons were then applied to treatment options to yield prioritized rank lists that reflect the likelihood that a given alternative will achieve the participant treatment goal. Aggregate data were evaluated by inconsistency ratio analysis and sensitivity analysis, which assessed the influence of individual objectives and subobjectives on the final rank list of treatment options. Inconsistency ratios less than 0.05 were reliably generated, indicating that judgments made within the model were mathematically rational. The aggregate prioritized list of treatment options was tabulated for the patient and physician groups with similar outcomes for the 2 groups. Analysis of the major defining objectives in the treatment selection decision demonstrated the same rank order for the patient and physician groups with cure, survival and quality of life being more important than controlling cancer, preventing major complications of treatment, preventing blood transfusion complications and limiting treatment cost. Analysis of subobjectives, including quality of life and sexual dysfunction, produced similar priority rankings for the patient and physician groups. Concordance between initial treatment choice and the highest weighted model option differed between the groups with the patient group having 59% concordance and the physician group having only 42

  12. Patient Preferences for Outcomes Associated with Surgical Management of Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Catalona, WIlliam

    2001-01-01

    .... We used utility assessment to quantify patient preferences. We measured preferences in 209 community volunteers enrolled in a prostate cancer screening study who had radical prostatectomies between 1994 and 1998...

  13. Imaging and prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, Lawrence H.

    1996-01-01

    The use of imaging in evaluating patients with prostate cancer is highly dependent upon the purpose of the evaluation. Ultrasound, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, TC-99m Bone Scanning, and Positron Emission Tomography may all be utilized for imaging in prostate cancer. The utility of each of these modalities depends upon the intended purpose: for instance, screening, staging, or evaluating for progression of disease in patients with prostate cancer. Transrectal ultrasound is performed by placing a 5MHz to 7.5 MHz transducer in the rectum and imaging the prostate in the coronal and sagittal planes. Prostate cancer generally appears as an area of diminished echogenocity in the peripheral zone of the prostate gland. However, up to 24% of prostate cancers are isoechoic and cannot be well distinguished from the remainder of the peripheral zone. In addition, the incidence of malignancy in a lesion judged to be suspicious on ultrasound is between 20% and 25%. Therefore, while ultrasound is the least expensive of the three cross sectional imaging modalities, its relatively low specificity precludes it from being used as a screening examination. Investigators have also looked at the ability of ultrasound to evaluate the presence and extent of extracapsular spread of prostate cancer. The RDOG (Radiology Diagnostic Oncology Group) multi-institutional cooperative trial reported a disappointing overall accuracy of ultrasound of 58% for staging prostate cancer. The accuracy was somewhat higher 63%, for patients with advanced disease. The other cross-sectional imaging modalities available for imaging the prostate include Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Computed Tomography is useful as an 'anatomic' imaging technique to detect lymph node enlargement. It is not sensitive in detecting microscopic nodal involvement with tumor, or tumor in non-enlarged pelvic lymph nodes. The primary prostate neoplasm is generally the same attenuation as the normal

  14. Targeting Quiescence in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0413 TITLE: Targeting Quiescence in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Laura Buttitta CONTRACTING...Quiescence in Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting uiescence in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0413 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT A major problem in prostate cancer is finding and eliminating the non-proliferating or “quiescent” cancer cells. This is because early

  15. Genomic rearrangements of PTEN in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopheap ePhin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The phosphatase and tensin homolog gene on chromosome 10q23.3 (PTEN is a negative regulator of the PIK3/Akt survival pathway and is the most frequently deleted tumor suppressor gene in prostate cancer. Monoallelic loss of PTEN is present in up to 60% of localized prostate cancers and complete loss of PTEN in prostate cancer is linked to metastasis and androgen independent progression. Studies on the genomic status of PTEN in prostate cancer initially used a two-color fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH assay for PTEN copy number detection in formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue preparations. More recently, a four-color FISH assay containing two additional control probes flanking the PTEN locus with a lower false-positive rate was reported. Combined with the detection of other critical genomic biomarkers for prostate cancer such as ERG, AR, and MYC, the evaluation of PTEN genomic status has proven to be invaluable for patient stratification and management. Although less frequent than allelic deletions, point mutations in the gene and epigenetic silencing are also known to contribute to loss of PTEN function, and ultimately to prostate cancer initiation. Overall, it is clear that PTEN is a powerful biomarker for prostate cancer. Used as a companion diagnostic for emerging therapeutic drugs, FISH analysis of PTEN is promisingly moving human prostate cancer closer to more effective cancer management and therapies.

  16. Management of advanced prostate cancer in senior adults: the new landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aapro, Matti S

    2012-01-01

    The landscape of treatment for advanced prostate cancer is continually evolving as new therapies are developed and guidelines are constantly updated. However, the management of older men with advanced disease is not optimal. Many men are denied chemotherapy based on their chronological age, not their health status. Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) remains the mainstay of first-line treatment of advanced disease. Once the disease becomes resistant to castration, docetaxel-based chemotherapy is the regulatory-approved standard of care, irrespective of age. The place of weekly docetaxel in patients with poor performance status and signs of frailty has to be further evaluated in clinical studies. New treatments are now available, or on the horizon, for disease that progresses during or after docetaxel therapy. Cabazitaxel and abiraterone have been shown to prolong survival, irrespective of age, and are already in clinical use having received regulatory approval. The optimal sequence for these two agents is still unknown, although there is some indication that in patients predicted to be poor responders to abiraterone (high Gleason score, progression during docetaxel therapy, rapid progression to castrate-resistant prostate cancer with ADT) cabazitaxel should be the preferred choice. Further advances are being investigated, with promising data reported from phase III trials.

  17. Management of bladder neck stenosis and urethral stricture and stenosis following treatment for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Helen L; Al-Hakeem, Yasser; Maldonado, Javier J; Tse, Vincent

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this review is to examine all urethral strictures and stenoses subsequent to treatment for prostate cancer, including radical prostatectomy (RP), radiotherapy, high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and cryotherapy. The overall majority respond to endoscopic treatment, including dilatation, direct visual internal urethrotomy (DVIU) or bladder neck incision (BNI). There are adjunct treatments to endoscopic management, including injections of corticosteroids and mitomycin C (MMC) and urethral stents, which remain controversial and are not currently mainstay of treatment. Recalcitrant strictures are most commonly managed with urethroplasty, while recalcitrant stenosis is relatively rare yet almost always associated with bothersome urinary incontinence, requiring bladder neck reconstruction and subsequent artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) implantation, or urinary diversion for the devastated outlet.

  18. Costs of conservative management of early-stage prostate cancer compared to radical prostatectomy–a claims data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Brandes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to widespread PSA testing incidence rates of localized prostate cancer increase but curative treatment is often not required. Overtreatment imposes a substantial economic burden on health care systems. We compared the direct medical costs of conservative management and radical therapy for the management of early-stage prostate cancer in routine care. Methods An observational study design is chosen based on claims data of a German statutory health insurance fund for the years 2008–2011. Three hundred fifty-three age-matched men diagnosed with prostate cancer and treated with conservative management and radical prostatectomy, are included. Individuals with diagnoses of metastases or treatment of advanced prostate cancer are excluded. In an excess cost approach direct medical costs are considered from an insured community perspective for in- and outpatient care, pharmaceuticals, physiotherapy, and assistive technologies. Generalized linear models adjust for comorbidity by Charlson comorbidity score and recycled predictions method calculates per capita costs per treatment strategy. Results After follow-up of 2.5 years per capita costs of conservative management are €6611 lower than costs of prostatectomy ([−9734;−3547], p < 0.0001. Complications increase costs of assistive technologies by 30% (p = 0.0182, but do not influence any other costs. Results are robust to cost outliers and incidence of prostate cancer diagnosis. The short time horizon does not allow assessing long-term consequences of conservative management. Conclusions At a time horizon of 2.5 years, conservative management is preferable to radical prostatectomy in terms of costs. Claims data analysis is limited in the selection of comparable treatment groups, as clinical information is scarce and bias due to non-randomization can only be partly mitigated by matching and confounder adjustment.

  19. Hyaluronan Biosynthesis in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, James B

    2006-01-01

    Despite advances in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer in the last several years metastasis represents the major cause of frustration and failure in the successful treatment of prostate cancer patients. Hyaluronan (HA...

  20. New Prostate Cancer Treatment Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have identified a potential alternative approach to blocking a key molecular driver of an advanced form of prostate cancer, called androgen-independent or castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  1. Current Challenges in Prostate Cancer Management and the Rationale behind Targeted Focal Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al B. Barqawi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Among men, prostate cancer has a high prevalence, with relatively lower cancer-specific mortality risk compared to lung and colon cancer. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA screening has increased prostate cancer awareness since its implementation as a screening tool almost 25 years ago, but, due to the largely indolent course of this disease and the unspecific nature of the PSA test, increased incidence has largely been associated with cancers that would not go on to cause death (clinically insignificant, leading to an overdiagnosis challenge and an ensuing overtreatment consequences. The overtreatment problem is exacerbated by the high risk of side effects that current treatment techniques have, putting patients’ quality of life at risk with little or no survival benefit. The goals of this paper are to evaluate the rise, prevalence, and impact of the overdiagnosis and ensuing overtreatment problems, as well as highlight potential solutions. In this effort, a review of major epidemiological and screening studies, cancer statistics from the advent of prostate-specific antigen screening to the present, and reports on patient concerns and treatment outcomes was conducted to present the dominant factors that underlie current challenges in prostate cancer treatment and illuminate potential solutions.

  2. Pancreatic Metastasis from Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The pancreas is an unusual location for metastases from other primary cancers. Rarely, pancreatic metastases from kidney or colorectal cancers have been reported. However, a variety of other cancers may also spread to the pancreas. We report an exceptional case of pancreatic metastasis from prostate cancer. Differences in management between primary and secondary pancreatic tumors make recognition of metastases to the pancreas an objective of first importance. Knowledge of unusual locations for metastatic spread will reduce diagnostic delay and lead to a timely delivery of an appropriate treatment.

  3. Critical analysis of salvage radical prostatectomy in the management of radioresistant prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seabra, Daniel; Faria, Eliney; Dauster, Breno; Rodrigues, Gunther; Fava, Gilberto [Pio XII Foundation, Barretos, SP (Brazil). Section of Urology], e-mail: daniel.seabra@terra.com.br

    2009-01-15

    Purpose: To critically evaluate salvage radical prostatectomy (SRP) in the treatment of patients with recurrent prostate cancer (PCa). Materials and Methods: From January 2005 to June 2007, we assessed patients with recurrent localized PCa. Recurrence was suspected when there were three or more successive increases in prostate specific antigen (PSA) after nadir. After the routine imagery examinations, and once localized PCa was confirmed, patients were offered SRP. Following surgery, we evaluated bleeding, rectal injury, urinary incontinence or obstruction and impotence. PSA values were measured at 1, 3, 6, months and thereafter twice a year. Results: Forty-two patients underwent SRP. The average age was 61 years. Following radiotherapy , the mean PSA nadir was 1.5 ng/mL (0.57-5.5). The mean prostate specific antigen doubling time (PSA-DT) was 14 months (6-20). Prior to SRP, the mean PSA was 5.7 ng/mL (2.9-18). The pathologic staging was pT2a: 13%; pT2b: 34%; pT2c: 27%; pT3a: 13%; and pT3b: 13%. Bleeding > 600 mL occurred in 14% of the cases; urethral stenosis in 50%; and urinary incontinence (two or more pads/day) in 72%. The mean follow-up post-SRP ranged from 6 to 30 months. The PSA level rose in 9, of which 6 had PSA-DT < 10 months. Conclusions: SRP is a feasible method in the management of localized radioresistant PCa. PSA-DT has shown to be important for the selection and SRP should not be performed if PSA-DT > 10 months. Due to its increased morbidity, SRP should be only offered to the patients who are more concerned about survival rather than quality of life. (author)

  4. Locoregional symptoms in patients with de novo metastatic prostate cancer: Morbidity, management, and disease outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrikidou, Anna; Brureau, Laurent; Casenave, Julien; Albiges, Laurence; Di Palma, Mario; Patard, Jean-Jacques; Baumert, Hervé; Blanchard, Pierre; Bossi, Alberto; Kitikidou, Kyriaki; Massard, Christophe; Fizazi, Karim; Blanchet, Pascal; Loriot, Yohann

    2015-05-01

    The paradigm change observed over the last few years in several solid tumors emphasizes the value of locoregional treatment in the presence of metastatic disease, currently ignored in de novo prostate cancer (CaP). We investigated the effect of the primary tumor that is left untreated on prostate cancer-specific morbidity and mortality, time to castration resistance, and overall survival (OS). We performed a bicentric cohort study. The overall population included de novo metastatic CaP managed at the Genito-Urinary Oncology Unit of the Gustave Roussy Institute and the Urology Clinic of the University Hospital of Pointe-à-Pitre, France. Descriptive statistical and outcome analyses were performed in the overall cohort and also separately in the N+M0 and M+subgroups. The overall cohort included 263 patients. Approximately two-thirds of patients (64%) presented with locoregional symptoms at diagnosis, and 78% throughout the disease. Of the symptomatic patients, 59% required a locoregional procedure. Median OS of patients with locoregional symptoms at diagnosis was shorter than in those who were asymptomatic (47 vs. 86 mo, P = 0.0007); this difference was maintained in the N+M0 and M+subgroups. Median OS and time to castration resistance showed a nonsignificant trend in favor of patients undergoing a locoregional treatment at diagnosis. The presence of symptoms due to locoregional disease in de novo metastatic CaP entails significant morbidity and even mortality and requires active management. Randomized prospective trials are needed to evaluate the role of initial definite locoregional treatment in these patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prostate Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HPV-Associated Lung Ovarian Skin Uterine Cancer Home Prostate Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English (US) ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of men getting prostate cancer or dying from prostate cancer varies by race ...

  6. Prostatic specific antigen for prostate cancer detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Nogueira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Prostate-specific antigen (PSA has been used for prostate cancer detection since 1994. PSA testing has revolutionized our ability to diagnose, treat, and follow-up patients. In the last two decades, PSA screening has led to a substantial increase in the incidence of prostate cancer (PC. This increased detection caused the incidence of advanced-stage disease to decrease at a dramatic rate, and most newly diagnosed PC today are localized tumors with a high probability of cure. PSA screening is associated with a 75% reduction in the proportion of men who now present with metastatic disease and a 32.5% reduction in the age-adjusted prostate cancer mortality rate through 2003. Although PSA is not a perfect marker, PSA testing has limited specificity for prostate cancer detection, and its appropriate clinical application remains a topic of debate. Due to its widespread use and increased over-detection, the result has been the occurrence of over-treatment of indolent cancers. Accordingly, several variations as regards PSA measurement have emerged as useful adjuncts for prostate cancer screening. These procedures take into consideration additional factors, such as the proportion of different PSA isoforms (free PSA, complexed PSA, pro-PSA and B PSA, the prostate volume (PSA density, and the rate of change in PSA levels over time (PSA velocity or PSA doubling time. The history and evidence underlying each of these parameters are reviewed in the following article.

  7. Prostatic specific antigen for prostate cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Lucas; Corradi, Renato; Eastham, James A

    2009-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been used for prostate cancer detection since 1994. PSA testing has revolutionized our ability to diagnose, treat, and follow-up patients. In the last two decades, PSA screening has led to a substantial increase in the incidence of prostate cancer (PC). This increased detection caused the incidence of advanced-stage disease to decrease at a dramatic rate, and most newly diagnosed PC today are localized tumors with a high probability of cure. PSA screening is associated with a 75% reduction in the proportion of men who now present with metastatic disease and a 32.5% reduction in the age-adjusted prostate cancer mortality rate through 2003. Although PSA is not a perfect marker, PSA testing has limited specificity for prostate cancer detection, and its appropriate clinical application remains a topic of debate. Due to its widespread use and increased over-detection, the result has been the occurrence of over-treatment of indolent cancers. Accordingly, several variations as regards PSA measurement have emerged as useful adjuncts for prostate cancer screening. These procedures take into consideration additional factors, such as the proportion of different PSA isoforms (free PSA, complexed PSA, pro-PSA and B PSA), the prostate volume (PSA density), and the rate of change in PSA levels over time (PSA velocity or PSA doubling time). The history and evidence underlying each of these parameters are reviewed in the following article.

  8. Interactive statistical packages to assist in radiotherapy management of prostate cancer. 148

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altschuler, M.D.; Whittington, R.

    1987-01-01

    Selecting the treatment most likely to produce a satisfactory outcome is one of the major challenges in managing disease. Treatment decisions are influenced by institutional policy, personal experience, and patient characteristics. Expert systems based on a priori if-then rules are not suitable for the management of prostate cancer because of (1) a lack of general agreement among experts, (2) the large number of patient parameter possibilities that must be covered by rules, and (3) the difficulty for a clinician to state (even fuzzy) rules for each patient variable or variable combination. In this paper we describe an interactive statistical package that (1) learns an expert's decisions on cases generated by a random case simulator, (2) analyzes and explains new cases in the manner of the teaching expert, (3) can be individualized for each physician, (4) can be setup, modified, or verified quickly, and (5) can be networked with the individualized systems of other experts. An expert can use the system as a memory aid or to compare his decisions with those of his colleagues. A non-expert physician can inform his patient of the expert's likely approach. An institution can determine the domains of patient parameter space about which experts disagree and focus research resources there. Based on sampling statistics, the system weighs the relative preference for each decision path in a tree of questions specified by the expert and then integrates this information. Only statistically significant patient parametes are used for each question. The final result is a probability of each treatment option being selected by the expert. The use of the ISP will be shown for the management of prostate carcinoma. 5 refs.; 1 figure

  9. Contemporary management of men with high-risk localized prostate cancer in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, A B; Matulewicz, R S; Schaeffer, E M; Liauw, S L; Feinglass, J M; Eggener, S E

    2017-09-01

    Surgery and radiation-based therapies are standard management options for men with clinically localized high-risk prostate cancer (PCa). Contemporary patterns of care are unknown. We hypothesize the use of surgery has steadily increased in more recent years. Using the National Cancer Data Base for 2004-2013, all men diagnosed with high-risk localized PCa were identified using National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria. Temporal trends in initial management were assessed. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate demographic and clinical factors associated with undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP). In total, 127 391 men were identified. Use of RP increased from 26% in 2004 to 42% in 2013 (adjusted risk ratio (RR) 1.51, 95% CI 1.42-1.60, P<0.001), while external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) decreased from 49% to 42% (P<0.001). African American men had lower odds of undergoing RP (unadjusted rate of 28%, adjusted RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.66-0.72, <0.001) compared to White men (37%). Age was inversely associated with likelihood of receiving RP. Having private insurance was significantly associated with the increased use of RP (vs Medicare, adjusted odds ratio 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.08, P=0.015). Biopsy Gleason scores 8-10 with and without any primary Gleason 5 pattern were associated with decreased odds of RP (vs Gleason score ⩽6, both P<0.001). Academic and comprehensive cancer centers were more likely to perform RP compared to community hospitals (both P<0.001). The likelihood of receiving RP for high-risk PCa dramatically increased from 2004 to 2013. By 2013, the use of RP and EBRT were similar. African American men, elderly men and those without private insurance were less likely to receive RP.

  10. Out of the black box: expansion of a theory-based intervention to self-manage the uncertainty associated with active surveillance (AS) for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazer, Meredith Wallace; Bailey, Donald E; Whittemore, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Active surveillance (AS) (sometimes referred to as watchful waiting) is an alternative approach to managing low-risk forms of prostate cancer. This management approach allows men to avoid expensive prostate cancer treatments and their well-documented adverse events of erectile dysfunction and incontinence. However, AS is associated with illness uncertainty and reduced quality of life (QOL; Wallace, 2003). An uncertainty management intervention (UMI) was developed by Mishel et al. (2002) to manage uncertainty in women treated for breast cancer and men treated for prostate cancer. However, the UMI was not developed for men undergoing AS for prostate cancer and has not been adequately tested in this population. This article reports on the expansion of a theory-based intervention to manage the uncertainty associated with AS for prostate cancer. Intervention Theory (Sidani & Braden, 1998) is discussed as a framework for revising the UMI intervention for men undergoing AS for prostate cancer (UMI-AS). The article concludes with plans for testing of the expanded intervention and implications for the extended theory.

  11. Impact of (18)F-Fluoride PET on Intended Management of Patients with Cancers Other Than Prostate Cancer: Results from the National Oncologic PET Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillner, Bruce E; Siegel, Barry A; Hanna, Lucy; Duan, Fenghai; Shields, Anthony F; Quinn, Bruce; Coleman, R Edward

    2014-07-01

    The National Oncologic PET Registry prospectively assessed the impact of PET with (18)F-sodium fluoride (NaF PET) on intended management of Medicare patients with suspected or known osseous metastasis. We report our findings for cancers other than prostate and make selected comparisons to our previously reported prostate cancer cohort. Data were collected from both referring and interpreting physicians before and after NaF PET in patients (age ≥ 65 y) stratified for initial staging (IS; n = 570), for suspected first osseous metastasis (FOM; n = 1,814; breast, 781 [43%]; lung, 380 [21%]; and all other cancers, 653 [36%]), and for suspected progression of osseous metastasis (POM; n = 435). The dominant indication was bone pain. If NaF PET were unavailable, conventional bone scintigraphy would have been ordered in 85% of patients. In IS, 28% of patients had suspected or confirmed nonosseous metastasis. If neither conventional bone scintigraphy nor NaF PET were available, referring physicians would have ordered other advanced imaging more than 70% of the time rather than initiate treatment for suspected FOM (11%-16%) or POM (18%-22%). When intended management was classified as either treatment or nontreatment, the intended management change for each cancer type was highest in POM, lower in IS, and lowest in FOM. For suspected FOM, intended management change was lower in breast (24%), lung (36%), or other cancers (31%), compared with prostate cancer (44%) (P definite metastases) frequencies were similar across cancer types. After normal/benign/equivocal PET results, 15% of breast, 30% lung, and 38% prostate cancer patients had treatment, likely reflecting differences in management of nonosseous disease. For patients with definite metastasis on NaF PET, nonprostate, compared with prostate, cancer patients had post-PET plans for more frequent biopsy, alternative imaging, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. In the smaller IS and POM cohorts, differences among cancer types

  12. Multiparametric MR imaging in diagnosis of chronic prostatitis and its differentiation from prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Sah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic prostatitis is a heterogeneous condition with high prevalence rate. Chronic prostatitis has overlap in clinical presentation with other prostate disorders and is one of the causes of high serum prostate specific antigen (PSA level. Chronic prostatitis, unlike acute prostatitis, is difficult to diagnose reliably and accurately on the clinical grounds alone. Not only this, it is also challenging to differentiate chronic prostatitis from prostate cancer with imaging modalities like TRUS and conventional MR Imaging, as the findings can mimic those of prostate cancer. Even biopsy doesn't play promising role in the diagnosis of chronic prostatitis as it has limited sensitivity and specificity. As a result of this, chronic prostatitis may be misdiagnosed as a malignant condition and end up in aggressive surgical management resulting in increased morbidity. This warrants the need of reliable diagnostic tool which has ability not only to diagnose it reliably but also to differentiate it from the prostate cancer. Recently, it is suggested that multiparametric MR Imaging of the prostate could improve the diagnostic accuracy of the prostate cancer. This review is based on the critically published literature and aims to provide an overview of multiparamateric MRI techniques in the diagnosis of chronic prostatitis and its differentiation from prostate cancer.

  13. The Danish Prostate Cancer Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen-Nielsen, Mary; Høyer, Søren; Friis, Søren

    2016-01-01

    variables include Gleason scores, cancer staging, prostate-specific antigen values, and therapeutic measures (active surveillance, surgery, radiotherapy, endocrine therapy, and chemotherapy). DESCRIPTIVE DATA: In total, 22,332 patients with prostate cancer were registered in DAPROCAdata as of April 2015......AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Prostate Cancer Database (DAPROCAdata) is a nationwide clinical cancer database that has prospectively collected data on patients with incident prostate cancer in Denmark since February 2010. The overall aim of the DAPROCAdata is to improve the quality of prostate cancer...... care in Denmark by systematically collecting key clinical variables for the purposes of health care monitoring, quality improvement, and research. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish patients with histologically verified prostate cancer are included in the DAPROCAdata. MAIN VARIABLES: The DAPROCAdata...

  14. Advances in magnetic resonance imaging: how they are changing the management of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sciarra, A.; Barentsz, J.O.; Bjartell, A.; Eastham, J.; Hricak, H.; Panebianco, V.; Witjes, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXT: Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is emerging as the most commonly used imaging modality for prostate cancer (PCa) detection, treatment planning, and follow-up, its acceptance has not been uniform. Recently, great interest has been shown in multiparametric MRI, which combines

  15. Hip fractures and pain following proton therapy for management of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valery, Raul; Mendenhall, Nancy P.; Nichols, Romaine C. Jr.; Henderson, Randal; Morris, Christopher G.; Su, Zhong; Li, Zuofeng; Hoppe, Bradford S.; Mendenhall, William M.; Williams, Christopher R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Proton therapy (PT) for prostate cancer reduces rectal and bladder dose, but increases dose to the femoral necks. We assessed the risk of hip fracture and pain in men treated with PT for prostate cancer. Material and methods: From 2006 to 2008, 382 men were treated for prostate cancer and evaluated at six-month intervals after PT for toxicities at Univ. of Florida Proton Therapy Institute (UFPTI). The WHO Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) generated annual hip-fracture risk for the cohort. The WHO FRAX tool was utilized to generate the expected number of patients with hip fractures and the observed-to-expected ratio; confidence intervals and p-value were generated with the mid-P exact test. Univariate analysis of hip pain as a function of several prognostic factors was accomplished with Fisher's exact test. Results. Median follow-up was four years (range, 0.1-5.5 years). Per FRAX, 3.02 patients were expected to develop a hip fracture without PT. Three PT patients actually developed fractures for a rate of 0.21 fractures per 100 person-years of follow-up. There was an observed-expected ratio of 0.99 (p-value not significant). Forty-eight patients (13%) reported new pain in the hip during follow-up; three required prescription analgesics. Conclusion. PT for prostate cancer did not increase hip-fractures in the first four years after PT compared to expected rates in untreated men

  16. Tuberculous prostatitis: mimicking a cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, El Majdoub; Abdelhak, Khallouk; Hassan, Farih Moulay

    2016-01-01

    Genitourinary tuberculosis is a common type of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis . The kidneys, ureter, bladder or genital organs are usually involved. Tuberculosis of the prostate has mainly been described in immune-compromised patients. However, it can exceptionally be found as an isolated lesion in immune-competent patients. Tuberculosis of the prostate may be difficult to differentiate from carcinoma of the prostate and the chronic prostatitis when the prostate is hard and nodular on digital rectal examination and the urine is negative for tuberculosis bacilli. In many cases, a diagnosis of tuberculous prostatitis is made by the pathologist, or the disease is found incidentally after transurethral resection. Therefore, suspicion of tuberculous prostatitis requires a confirmatory biopsy of the prostate. We report the case of 60-year-old man who presented a low urinary tract syndrome. After clinical and biological examination, and imaging, prostate cancer was highly suspected. Transrectal needle biopsy of the prostate was performed and histological examination showed tuberculosis lesions.

  17. Review article: Prostate cancer screening using prostate specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Prostate cancer is the commonest cancer among men in Nigeria and early detection is key to cure and survival but its screening through prostate specific antigen (PSA) has remain controversial in literature. Screening with prostate specific antigen (PSA) has led to more men diagnosed with prostate cancer than ...

  18. Study of dyadic communication in couples managing prostate cancer: a longitudinal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lixin; Northouse, Laurel L; Zhang, Lingling; Braun, Thomas M; Cimprich, Bernadine; Ronis, David L; Mood, Darlene W

    2012-01-01

    Cancer patients and partners often report inadequate communication about illness-related issues, although it is essential for mutual support and informal caregiving. This study examined the patterns of change in dyadic communication between patients with prostate cancer and their partners, and also determined if certain factors affected their communication over time. Using multilevel modeling, this study analyzed longitudinal data obtained from a randomized clinical trial with prostate cancer patients and their partners, to examine their communication over time. Patients and partners (N=134 pairs) from the usual-care control group independently completed baseline demographic assessment and measures of social support, uncertainty, symptom distress, and dyadic communication at baseline, and 4-, 8-, and 12-month follow-ups. The results indicated that (1) patients and partners reported similar levels of open communication at the time of diagnosis. Communication reported by patients and partners decreased over time in a similar trend, regardless of phase of illness; (2) phase of illness affected couples' open communication at diagnosis but not patterns of change over time; and (3) couples' perceived communication increased as they reported more social support, less uncertainty, and fewer hormonal symptoms in patients. Couples' demographic factors and general symptoms, and patients' prostate cancer-specific symptoms did not affect their levels of open communication. Perceived open communication between prostate cancer patients and partners over time is affected by certain baseline and time-varying psychosocial and cancer-related factors. The results provide empirical evidence that may guide the development of strategies to facilitate couples' interaction and mutual support during survivorship. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. What is the optimal management of high risk, clinically localized prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastham, James A; Evans, Christopher P; Zietman, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    To summarize the presentations and debate regarding the optimal treatment of localized high-risk prostate cancer as presented at the 2009 Spring Meeting of the Society of Urologic Oncology. The debate was centered on presentations arguing for radical prostatectomy (RP) or radiotherapy as the optimal treatment for this condition. The meeting presentations are summarized by their respective presenters herein. Dr. James Eastham presents the varied definitions for "high-risk" prostate cancer as strongly influencing which patients end up in this cohort. Based upon this, between 3% and 38% of patients with high-risk features could be defined as "high-risk". Despite that, these men do not have a uniformly poor prognosis after RP, and attention to surgical principles as outlined improve outcomes. Disease-specific survival at 12 years is excellent and up to one-half of these men may not need adjuvant or salvage therapies, depending on their specific disease characteristics. Adjuvant or salvage radiotherapies improve outcomes and are part of a sequential approach to treating these patients. Dr. Anthony Zietman presented radiotherapy as the gold-standard based upon large, randomized clinical trials of intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer patients. Compared with androgen deprivation alone, the addition of radiotherapy provided a 12% cancer-specific survival advantage and 10% overall survival advantage. Dose escalation seems to confer further improvements in cancer control without significant escalation of toxicities, with more data forthcoming. There are no randomized trials comparing RP to radiotherapy for any risk category. In high-risk prostate cancer patients, both approaches have potential benefits and cumulative toxicities that must be matched to disease characteristics and patient expectations in selecting a treatment course. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. PET/CT Imaging and Radioimmunotherapy of Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Tagawa, Scott T; Goldsmith, Stanley J

    2011-01-01

    disease (ideal for antigen access and antibody delivery). Furthermore, prostate cancer is also radiation sensitive. Prostate-specific membrane antigen is expressed by virtually all prostate cancers, and represents an attractive target for RIT. Antiprostate-specific membrane antigen RIT demonstrates......Prostate cancer is a common cancer in men and continues to be a major health problem. Imaging plays an important role in the clinical management of patients with prostate cancer. An important goal for prostate cancer imaging is more accurate disease characterization through the synthesis...... of anatomic, functional, and molecular imaging information. Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in oncology is emerging as an important imaging tool. The most common radiotracer for PET/CT in oncology, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), is not very useful in the imaging of prostate cancer...

  1. Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudit Verma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the etiology of a disease such as prostate cancer may help in identifying populations at high risk, timely intervention of the disease, and proper treatment. Biomarkers, along with exposure history and clinical data, are useful tools to achieve these goals. Individual risk and population incidence of prostate cancer result from the intervention of genetic susceptibility and exposure. Biochemical, epigenetic, genetic, and imaging biomarkers are used to identify people at high risk for developing prostate cancer. In cancer epidemiology, epigenetic biomarkers offer advantages over other types of biomarkers because they are expressed against a person’s genetic background and environmental exposure, and because abnormal events occur early in cancer development, which includes several epigenetic alterations in cancer cells. This article describes different biomarkers that have potential use in studying the epidemiology of prostate cancer. We also discuss the characteristics of an ideal biomarker for prostate cancer, and technologies utilized for biomarker assays. Among epigenetic biomarkers, most reports indicate GSTP1 hypermethylation as the diagnostic marker for prostate cancer; however, NKX2-5, CLSTN1, SPOCK2, SLC16A12, DPYS, and NSE1 also have been reported to be regulated by methylation mechanisms in prostate cancer. Current challenges in utilization of biomarkers in prostate cancer diagnosis and epidemiologic studies and potential solutions also are discussed.

  2. MRI diagnosis for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamada, Tsutomu; Nagai, Kiyohisa; Imai, Shigeki; Kajihara, Yasumasa; Jo, Yoshimasa; Tanaka, Hiroyoshi; Fukunaga, Masao (Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)); Matsuki, Takakazu

    1998-01-01

    Recently, in Japan, both the Westernization of life styles and the advent of an aged-society have led to an increase in the incidence of prostate cancer. In making a localizing diagnosis of prostate cancer, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which has excellent contrast resolution, and transrectal ultrasonography, are used clinically, and their usefulness is being established. MRI is employed in the diagnosis of prostate cancer to detect tumors, and to determine the stage of such tumors. For the visualization of prostate cancer by MRI, T2-weighted axial images are used exclusively. After becoming familiar with normal prostate images, it is important to evaluate the localization of a tumor, and the invasion of the capsule and seminal vesicles. Future applications of new techniques for MRI will undoubtedly be found. In this paper, the present state of MRI diagnosis of prostate cancer at Kawasaki Medical School Hospital will be reviewed. (author)

  3. MRI diagnosis for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamada, Tsutomu; Nagai, Kiyohisa; Imai, Shigeki; Kajihara, Yasumasa; Jo, Yoshimasa; Tanaka, Hiroyoshi; Fukunaga, Masao [Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan); Matsuki, Takakazu

    1998-12-31

    Recently, in Japan, both the Westernization of life styles and the advent of an aged-society have led to an increase in the incidence of prostate cancer. In making a localizing diagnosis of prostate cancer, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which has excellent contrast resolution, and transrectal ultrasonography, are used clinically, and their usefulness is being established. MRI is employed in the diagnosis of prostate cancer to detect tumors, and to determine the stage of such tumors. For the visualization of prostate cancer by MRI, T2-weighted axial images are used exclusively. After becoming familiar with normal prostate images, it is important to evaluate the localization of a tumor, and the invasion of the capsule and seminal vesicles. Future applications of new techniques for MRI will undoubtedly be found. In this paper, the present state of MRI diagnosis of prostate cancer at Kawasaki Medical School Hospital will be reviewed. (author)

  4. Epigenetic modifications in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngollo, Marjolaine; Dagdemir, Aslihan; Karsli-Ceppioglu, Seher; Judes, Gaelle; Pajon, Amaury; Penault-Llorca, Frederique; Boiteux, Jean-Paul; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Guy, Laurent; Bernard-Gallon, Dominique J

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men in France. Apart from the genetic alterations in prostate cancer, epigenetics modifications are involved in the development and progression of this disease. Epigenetic events are the main cause in gene regulation and the three most epigenetic mechanisms studied include DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNA expression. In this review, we summarized epigenetic mechanisms in prostate cancer. Epigenetic drugs that inhibit DNA methylation, histone methylation and histone acetylation might be able to reactivate silenced gene expression in prostate cancer. However, further understanding of interactions of these enzymes and their effects on transcription regulation in prostate cancer is needed and has become a priority in biomedical research. In this study, we summed up epigenetic changes with emphasis on pharmacologic epigenetic target agents.

  5. Prostate cancer brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, Carlos Eduardo Vita; Silva, Joao L. F.; Srougi, Miguel; Nesrallah, Adriano

    1999-01-01

    The transperineal brachytherapy with 125 I/Pd 103 seed implantation guided by transurethral ultrasound must be presented as therapeutical option of low urinary morbidity in patients with localized prostate cancer. The combined clinical staging - including Gleason and initial PSA - must be encouraged, for definition of a group of low risk and indication of exclusive brachytherapy. Random prospective studies are necessary in order to define the best role of brachytherapy, surgery and external beam radiation therapy

  6. The Role of MRI in Prostate Cancer Active Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda M. Johnson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosis in American men, excluding skin cancer. The clinical behavior of prostate cancer varies from low-grade, slow growing tumors to high-grade aggressive tumors that may ultimately progress to metastases and cause death. Given the high incidence of men diagnosed with prostate cancer, conservative treatment strategies such as active surveillance are critical in the management of prostate cancer to reduce therapeutic complications of radiation therapy or radical prostatectomy. In this review, we will review the role of multiparametric MRI in the selection and follow-up of patients on active surveillance.

  7. The epigenetic promise for prostate cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Neste, Leander; Herman, James G; Otto, Gaëtan; Bigley, Joseph W; Epstein, Jonathan I; Van Criekinge, Wim

    2012-08-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosis in men and a leading cause of death. Improvements in disease management would have a significant impact and could be facilitated by the development of biomarkers, whether for diagnostic, prognostic, or predictive purposes. The blood-based prostate biomarker PSA has been part of clinical practice for over two decades, although it is surrounded by controversy. While debates of usefulness are ongoing, alternatives should be explored. Particularly with recent recommendations against routine PSA-testing, the time is ripe to explore promising biomarkers to yield a more efficient and accurate screening for detection and management of prostate cancer. Epigenetic changes, more specifically DNA methylation, are amongst the most common alterations in human cancer. These changes are associated with transcriptional silencing of genes, leading to an altered cellular biology. One gene in particular, GSTP1, has been widely studied in prostate cancer. Therefore a meta-analysis has been conducted to examine the role of this and other genes and the potential contribution to prostate cancer management and screening refinement. More than 30 independent, peer reviewed studies have reported a consistently high sensitivity and specificity of GSTP1 hypermethylation in prostatectomy or biopsy tissue. The meta-analysis combined and compared these results. GSTP1 methylation detection can serve an important role in prostate cancer managment. The meta-analysis clearly confirmed a link between tissue DNA hypermethylation of this and other genes and prostate cancer. Detection of DNA methylation in genes, including GSTP1, could serve an important role in clinical practice. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The Early Prostate Cancer program: bicalutamide in nonmetastatic prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Peter; Roder, Martin Andreas; Røder, Martin Andreas

    2008-01-01

    The Early Prostate Cancer program is investigating the addition of bicalutamide 150 mg to standard care for localized or locally advanced, nonmetastatic prostate cancer. The third program analysis, at 7.4 years' median follow-up, has shown that bicalutamide 150 mg does not benefit patients...

  9. Blood lipids and prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Caroline J; Bonilla, Carolina; Holly, Jeff M P

    2016-01-01

    Genetic risk scores were used as unconfounded instruments for specific lipid traits (Mendelian randomization) to assess whether circulating lipids causally influence prostate cancer risk. Data from 22,249 prostate cancer cases and 22,133 controls from 22 studies within the international PRACTICAL...... into logistic regression models to estimate the presence (and direction) of any causal effect of each lipid trait on prostate cancer risk. There was weak evidence for an association between the LDL genetic score and cancer grade: the odds ratio (OR) per genetically instrumented standard deviation (SD) in LDL.......95, 3.00; P = 0.08). The rs12916-T variant in 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) was inversely associated with prostate cancer (OR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.00; P = 0.03). In conclusion, circulating lipids, instrumented by our genetic risk scores, did not appear to alter prostate cancer risk...

  10. Role of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy in the management of high-risk prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay Sood

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the role of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP in the management of high-risk prostate cancer (PCa, with a focus on oncological, functional and perioperative outcomes. Further, we also aimed to briefly describe our novel modification to conventional RARP that allows immediate organ retrieval and examination for intra-operative surgical margin assessment. A literature search of PubMed was performed for articles on the management of high-risk PCa. Papers written in English and concerning clinical outcomes following RARP for locally advanced and high-risk PCa were selected. Outcomes data from our own center were also included. A total of 10 contemporary series were evaluated. Biopsy Gleason score ≥ 8 was the most common cause for classification of patients into the high-risk PCa group. Biochemical failure rate, in the few series that looked at long-term follow-up, varied from 9% to 26% at 1 year. The positive surgical margin rate varied from 12% to 53.3%. Urinary continence rates varied from 78% to 92% at 1 year. The overall complication rates varied from 2.4% to 30%, with anastomotic leak and lymphocele being the most common complications. Long-term data on oncological control following RARP in high-risk patients is lacking. Short-term oncological outcomes and functional outcomes are equivalent to open radical prostatectomy (RP. Safety outcomes are better in patients undergoing RARP when compared with open RP. Improved tools for predicting the presence of organ-confined disease (OCD are available. High-risk patients with OCD would be ideal candidates for RARP and would benefit most from surgery alone.

  11. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  12. Focal therapy in prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bos, W.

    2016-01-01

    Interesting developments took place in the treatment of prostate cancer including focal therapy for less aggressive organ-confined prostate cancer. Fortunately, curative treatment is often still an option for patients suffering from the lower staged tumors. In carefully selected patients, the

  13. Management of Localized Prostate Cancer by Focal Transurethral Resection of Prostate Cancer: An Application of Radical TUR-PCa to Focal Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Morita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We analyzed radical TUR-PCa against localized prostate cancer. Patients and Methods. Seventy-nine out of 209 patients with prostate cancer in one lobe were studied. Patients’ age ranged from 58 to 91 years and preoperative PSA, 0.70 to 17.30 ng/mL. In other 16 additional patients we performed focal TUR-PCa. Patients’ age ranged from 51 to 87 years and preoperative PSA, 1.51 to 25.74 ng/mL. Results. PSA failure in radical TUR-PCa was 5.1% during the mean follow-up period of 58.9 months. The actuarial biochemical non-recurrence rate was 98.2% for pT2a and 90.5% for pT2b. Bladder neck contracture occurred in 28 patients (35.4%. In 209 patients, pathological study revealed prostate cancer of the peripheral zone near the neurovascular bundle bilaterally in 25%, unilaterally in 39% and no cancer bilaterally in 35%, suggesting the possibility of focal TUR-PCa. Postoperative PSA of 16 patients treated by focal TUR-PCa was stable between 0.007 and 0.406 ng/mL at 24.2 months’ follow-up. No patients suffered from urinary incontinence. Bladder neck contracture developed in only 1 patient and all 5 patients underwent nerve-preserving TUR-PCa did not show erectile dysfunction. Conclusion. Focal TUR-PCa was considered to be a promising option among focal therapies against localized prostate cancer.

  14. Management of Localized Prostate Cancer by Focal Transurethral Resection of Prostate Cancer: An Application of Radical TUR-PCa to Focal Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Masaru; Matsuura, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Background. We analyzed radical TUR-PCa against localized prostate cancer. Patients and Methods. Seventy-nine out of 209 patients with prostate cancer in one lobe were studied. Patients' age ranged from 58 to 91 years and preoperative PSA, 0.70 to 17.30 ng/mL. In other 16 additional patients we performed focal TUR-PCa. Patients' age ranged from 51 to 87 years and preoperative PSA, 1.51 to 25.74 ng/mL. Results. PSA failure in radical TUR-PCa was 5.1% during the mean follow-up period of 58.9 months. The actuarial biochemical non-recurrence rate was 98.2% for pT2a and 90.5% for pT2b. Bladder neck contracture occurred in 28 patients (35.4%). In 209 patients, pathological study revealed prostate cancer of the peripheral zone near the neurovascular bundle bilaterally in 25%, unilaterally in 39% and no cancer bilaterally in 35%, suggesting the possibility of focal TUR-PCa. Postoperative PSA of 16 patients treated by focal TUR-PCa was stable between 0.007 and 0.406 ng/mL at 24.2 months' follow-up. No patients suffered from urinary incontinence. Bladder neck contracture developed in only 1 patient and all 5 patients underwent nerve-preserving TUR-PCa did not show erectile dysfunction. Conclusion. Focal TUR-PCa was considered to be a promising option among focal therapies against localized prostate cancer.

  15. Assessment of the quality of medical care among patients with early stage prostate cancer undergoing expectant management in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Jamie; Gay, E Greer; Spencer, Benjamin A; Miller, David C; Wallner, Lauren P; Stewart, Andrew K; Dunn, Rodney L; Litwin, Mark S; Wei, John T

    2012-09-01

    Given the increased attention to the quality and cost of medical care, the Institute of Medicine and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services have called for performance measurement and reporting. The clinical management of prostate cancer has been outlined, yet is not intended to describe quality prostate cancer care. Therefore, RAND researchers developed quality indicators for early stage prostate cancer. The ACoS (American College of Surgeons) used these indicators to perform the first national assessment to our knowledge of the quality of care among men with early stage prostate cancer undergoing expectant management. Information from medical records was abstracted for evidence of compliance with the RAND indicators (structure and process). Weighted and stratified proportions were calculated to assess indicator compliance. Logistic regression models were fit and evaluated by hospital type and patient factors. A weighted and stratified total of 13,876 early stage prostate cancer cases on expectant management in 2000 to 2001 were investigated. Compliance with structural indicators was high (greater than 80%) and compliance with process indicators varied (19% to 87%). Differences in process indicators were observed from models by hospital type and comorbid conditions, but not for age, race or insurance status. Using the RAND quality indicators this study revealed several process areas for quality improvement among men with early stage prostate cancer on expectant management in the United States. Efforts to improve the quality of early stage prostate cancer care need to move beyond the paradigm of age, race and insurance status. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The role of metastasis-directed therapy and local therapy of the primary tumor in the management of oligometastatic prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongchan; Park, Jee Soo; Ham, Won Sik

    2017-09-01

    Oligometastasis has been proposed as an intermediate stage of cancer spread between localized disease and widespread metastasis. Oligometastatic malignancy is now being diagnosed more frequently as the result of improvements in diagnostic modalities such as functional imaging. The importance of oligometastasis in managing metastatic prostate cancer is that it is possible to treat with a curative aim by metastasis-directed or local therapy in selected patients. Many studies have shown that these aggressive treatments lead to improved survival in other oligometastatic malignancies. However, few studies have shown definitive benefits of metastasis-directed or local therapy in oligometastatic prostate cancer. Review of the available studies suggests that stereotactic radiotherapy (RT) of metastatic lesions in oligorecurrent disease is a feasible and safe modality for managing oligometastatic prostate cancer. Also, stereotactic RT can delay the start of androgen deprivation therapy. Many retrospective studies of metastatic prostate cancer have shown that patients undergoing local therapy seem to have superior overall and cancer-specific survival compared with patients not receiving local therapy. Ongoing prospective randomized trials would be helpful to evaluate the role of local therapy in oligometastatic prostate cancer.

  17. The role of metastasis-directed therapy and local therapy of the primary tumor in the management of oligometastatic prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongchan Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Oligometastasis has been proposed as an intermediate stage of cancer spread between localized disease and widespread metas-tasis. Oligometastatic malignancy is now being diagnosed more frequently as the result of improvements in diagnostic modalities such as functional imaging. The importance of oligometastasis in managing metastatic prostate cancer is that it is possible to treat with a curative aim by metastasis-directed or local therapy in selected patients. Many studies have shown that these aggressive treatments lead to improved survival in other oligometastatic malignancies. However, few studies have shown definitive benefits of metastasis-directed or local therapy in oligometastatic prostate cancer. Review of the available studies suggests that stereotac-tic radiotherapy (RT of metastatic lesions in oligorecurrent disease is a feasible and safe modality for managing oligometastatic prostate cancer. Also, stereotactic RT can delay the start of androgen deprivation therapy. Many retrospective studies of metastatic prostate cancer have shown that patients undergoing local therapy seem to have superior overall and cancer-specific survival compared with patients not receiving local therapy. Ongoing prospective randomized trials would be helpful to evaluate the role of local therapy in oligometastatic prostate cancer.

  18. Prostate cancer in Port Harcourt, Nigeria: features and outcome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To present the clinical features and outcome of management of patients with prostate cancer in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Methods: A retrospective study of patients with prostate cancer managed in 14 years at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Results: Of 154,594 men above 40 years old who ...

  19. Survival After Conservative Management Versus External Beam Radiation Therapy in Elderly Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dell' Oglio, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.delloglio@gmail.com [Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Québec (Canada); Department of Urology and Division of Experimental Oncology, Urological Research Institute, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Boehm, Katharina [Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Québec (Canada); Martini-Clinic, Prostate Cancer Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Trudeau, Vincent [Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Québec (Canada); Department of Urology, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Québec (Canada); Tian, Zhe [Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Québec (Canada); Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, Québec (Canada); Larcher, Alessandro [Department of Urology and Division of Experimental Oncology, Urological Research Institute, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Leyh-Bannurah, Sami-Ramzi [Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Québec (Canada); Martini-Clinic, Prostate Cancer Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Moschini, Marco; Capitanio, Umberto [Department of Urology and Division of Experimental Oncology, Urological Research Institute, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Shariat, Shahrokh F. [Department of Urology, Medical University of Vienna and General Hospital, Vienna (Austria); and others

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: To compare survival in elderly men with clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa) according to treatment type, defined as radiation therapy (RT) with or without androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) versus conservative management (observation). Methods and Materials: In the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)–Medicare linked database, we identified 23,790 patients aged 80 years or more with clinically localized PCa treated with either RT or observation between 1991 and 2009. Competing risks analyses focused on cancer-specific mortality and other-cause mortality, after accounting for confounders. All analyses were repeated after stratification according to grade (well-differentiated vs moderately differentiated vs poorly differentiated disease), race, and United States region, in patients with no comorbidities and in patients with at least 1 comorbidity. Analyses were repeated within most contemporary patients, namely those treated between 2001 and 2009. Results: Radiation therapy was associated with more favorable cancer-specific mortality rates than observation in patients with moderately differentiated disease (hazard ratio [HR] 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.66-0.94; P=.009) and in patients with poorly differentiated disease (HR 0.58; 95% CI 0.49-0.69; P<.001). Conversely, the benefit of RT was not observed in well-differentiated disease. The benefit of RT was confirmed in black men (HR 0.54; 95% CI 0.35-0.83; P=.004), across all United States regions (all P≤.004), in the subgroups of the healthiest patients (HR 0.67; 95% CI 0.57-0.78; P<.001), in patients with at least 1 comorbidity (HR 0.69; 95% CI 0.56-0.83; P<.001), and in most contemporary patients (HR 0.55; 95% CI 0.46-0.66; P<.001). Conclusions: Radiation therapy seems to be associated with a reduction in the risk of death from PCa relative to observation in elderly patients with clinically localized PCa, except for those with well-differentiated disease.

  20. Survival After Conservative Management Versus External Beam Radiation Therapy in Elderly Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell'Oglio, Paolo; Boehm, Katharina; Trudeau, Vincent; Tian, Zhe; Larcher, Alessandro; Leyh-Bannurah, Sami-Ramzi; Moschini, Marco; Capitanio, Umberto; Shariat, Shahrokh F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To compare survival in elderly men with clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa) according to treatment type, defined as radiation therapy (RT) with or without androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) versus conservative management (observation). Methods and Materials: In the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)–Medicare linked database, we identified 23,790 patients aged 80 years or more with clinically localized PCa treated with either RT or observation between 1991 and 2009. Competing risks analyses focused on cancer-specific mortality and other-cause mortality, after accounting for confounders. All analyses were repeated after stratification according to grade (well-differentiated vs moderately differentiated vs poorly differentiated disease), race, and United States region, in patients with no comorbidities and in patients with at least 1 comorbidity. Analyses were repeated within most contemporary patients, namely those treated between 2001 and 2009. Results: Radiation therapy was associated with more favorable cancer-specific mortality rates than observation in patients with moderately differentiated disease (hazard ratio [HR] 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.66-0.94; P=.009) and in patients with poorly differentiated disease (HR 0.58; 95% CI 0.49-0.69; P<.001). Conversely, the benefit of RT was not observed in well-differentiated disease. The benefit of RT was confirmed in black men (HR 0.54; 95% CI 0.35-0.83; P=.004), across all United States regions (all P≤.004), in the subgroups of the healthiest patients (HR 0.67; 95% CI 0.57-0.78; P<.001), in patients with at least 1 comorbidity (HR 0.69; 95% CI 0.56-0.83; P<.001), and in most contemporary patients (HR 0.55; 95% CI 0.46-0.66; P<.001). Conclusions: Radiation therapy seems to be associated with a reduction in the risk of death from PCa relative to observation in elderly patients with clinically localized PCa, except for those with well-differentiated disease.

  1. Piper betel leaf extract: anticancer benefits and bio-guided fractionation to identify active principles for prostate cancer management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjpe, Rutugandha; Gundala, Sushma R; Lakshminarayana, N; Sagwal, Arpana; Asif, Ghazia; Pandey, Anjali; Aneja, Ritu

    2013-07-01

    Plant extracts, a concoction of bioactive non-nutrient phytochemicals, have long served as the most significant source of new leads for anticancer drug development. Explored for their unique medicinal properties, the leaves of Piper betel, an evergreen perennial vine, are a reservoir of phenolics with antimutagenic, antitumor and antioxidant activities. Here, we show that oral feeding of betel leaf extract (BLE) significantly inhibited the growth of human prostate xenografts implanted in nude mice compared with vehicle-fed controls. To gain insights into the 'active principles', we performed a bioactivity-guided fractionation of methanolic BLE employing solvents of different polarity strengths using classical column chromatography. This approach yielded 15 fractions, which were then pooled to 10 using similar retention factors on thin-layer chromatographs. Bioactivity assays demonstrated that one fraction in particular, F2, displayed a 3-fold better in vitro efficacy to inhibit proliferation of prostate cancer cells than the parent BLE. The presence of phenols, hydroxychavicol (HC) and chavibetol (CHV), was confirmed in F2 by nuclear magnetic resonance, high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy. Further, the HC containing F2 subfraction was found to be ~8-fold more potent than the F2 subfraction that contained CHV, in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells as evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. Removing CHV from F2 remarkably decreased the IC50 of this fraction, indicating that HC is perhaps the major bioactive constituent, which is present to an extent of 26.59% in BLE. These data provide evidence that HC is a potential candidate for prostate cancer management and warrants further preclinical evaluation.

  2. Defining an outcomes management program for definitive irradiation of prostate cancer: preliminary considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seltzer, Jonathan; Valicenti, Richard K.; Dlutowski, Mark; Corn, Benjamin W.

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: The advent of managed medical care presents challenges to health care providers who strive to maintain a high quality of patient care at a reasonable cost. The goals of clinical guidelines and paths are to improve the quality of patient care by using outcomes to redefine the path and to eliminate ineffective steps in the clinical algorithm. The purpose of the current endeavor was to systematically develop a clinical pathway for the radiation therapy of prostate cancer which can serve as 1) a measurement tool of operational variables such as cost and utilization, 2) a treatment tool to measure satisfaction and toxicity, 3) a research framework from which questions of efficacy can be investigated. METHODS: An initial path was constructed by the physicians based on recommendations from consensus conference of the Patterns of Care Study (PCS), and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). The program was initiated by a core group of 2 attending radiation oncologists, a radiation physicist, a clinical nurse specialist, a dosimetrist, a simulation technologist, a treatment technologist, and a medical social worker. These data served as a baseline from which clinical pathway development could begin using the method of Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) as described by Berwick (New Engl J Med 320: 53, 1989). Following the creation of a draft path, the document was circulated to other staff members of the team. Simultaneously, the Clinical Financial Management System (Transition Systems Incorporated, Boston, MA) was applied to departmental and institutional records to determine treatment patterns, utilization, toxicity, and cost for prostate cancer patients irradiated between July 1, 1995 and December 31, 1995. The aforementioned staff team as well as a seven person patient group were queried by a CQI facilitator to identify process and quality factors to be included in the clinical path. RESULTS: During the period of study, 51 patients were definitively

  3. Impact of 68Ga-PSMA PET on the Management of Patients with Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sangwon; Woo, Sungmin; Kim, Yeon Joo; Suh, Chong Hyun

    2018-04-18

    68 Gallium prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography ( 68 Ga-PSMA PET) is an emerging imaging modality for assessment of prostate cancer. Recent studies show promising results regarding its ability to detect recurrent or metastatic prostate cancer superior to that of conventional imaging modalities. However, the impact of 68 Ga-PSMA PET on management of patients with prostate cancer has not been well established. To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the impact of 68 Ga-PSMA PET on management of patients with prostate cancer. Pubmed and EMBASE databases were searched up to January 20, 2018. We included studies that reported proportion of management change after 68 Ga-PSMA PET in patients with prostate cancer. The quality of the studies was evaluated using the GRADE system. The proportion of management changes were pooled using random-effects model. Subgroup analyses and meta-regression analyses were performed to explore heterogeneity. Fifteen studies (1163 patients) were included. The pooled proportion of management changes was 54% (95% confidence interval 47-60%). At meta-regression analyses, PET positivity (%) was a significant factor of heterogeneity (p=0.0486). For patients with biochemical failure, the proportion of radiotherapy (from 56% to 61%), surgery (from 1% to 7%), focal therapy (from 1% to 2%), and multimodal treatment (from 2% to 6%) increased, whereas that of systemic treatment (from 26% to 12%) and no treatment (from 14% to 11%) decreased with 68 Ga-PSMA PET. 68 Ga-PSMA PET had a large impact on the management of patients with prostate cancer. Greater PET positivity was associated with higher proportion of management changes. We reviewed all previous studies assessing the impact of 68 Gallium prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography ( 68 Ga-PSMA PET) in patients with prostate cancer. We found that 68 Ga-PSMA PET altered the management in approximately half of the patients. Copyright

  4. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prostate. The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system located just below the bladder (the organ that ... up part of semen . Enlarge Anatomy of the male reproductive and urinary systems, showing the prostate, testicles, bladder, and other organs. ...

  5. Prostate cancer and social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Stacy; Katz, Matthew S; Langford, Aisha; Byrne, Nataliya; Ciprut, Shannon

    2018-04-11

    The use of social media is increasing globally and is employed in a variety of ways in the prostate cancer community. In addition to their use in research, advocacy, and awareness campaigns, social media offer vast opportunities for education and networking for patients with prostate cancer and health-care professionals, and many educational resources and support networks are available to patients with prostate cancer and their caregivers. Despite the considerable potential for social media to be employed in the field of prostate cancer, concerns remain - particularly regarding the maintenance of patient confidentiality, variable information quality, and possible financial conflicts of interest. A number of professional societies have, therefore, issued guidance regarding social media use in medicine. Social media are used extensively in other cancer communities, particularly among patients with breast cancer, and both the quantity and type of information available are expected to grow in the future.

  6. The role of brachytherapy in the definitive management of prostate cancer; Place de la curietherapie dans le traitement du cancer prostatique localise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crook, J. [British Columbia Cancer Agency, Center for the Southern Interior, 399, Royal Avenue, Kelowna, British Columbia, V1Y 5L33 (Canada)

    2011-06-15

    Over the past two decades, brachytherapy has played an ever expanding role in the definitive radiotherapy of prostate cancer. Brachytherapy surpasses external beam radiotherapy in its ability to deliver intense intra-prostatic dose escalation. Although initially low dose rate permanent seed brachytherapy was favored for favorable risk prostate cancers, and high dose rate temporary brachytherapy for intermediate and advanced disease, both types of brachytherapy now have a place across all the risk groups of localized prostate cancer. This article will review indications and patient selection, planning and technical aspects, toxicity and efficacy for both low and high dose rate prostate brachytherapy. (author)

  7. Human Prostate Cancer Hallmarks Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Dipamoy; Aftabuddin, Md.; Gupta, Dinesh Kumar; Raha, Sanghamitra; Sen, Prosenjit

    2016-01-01

    Human prostate cancer is a complex heterogeneous disease that mainly affects elder male population of the western world with a high rate of mortality. Acquisitions of diverse sets of hallmark capabilities along with an aberrant functioning of androgen receptor signaling are the central driving forces behind prostatic tumorigenesis and its transition into metastatic castration resistant disease. These hallmark capabilities arise due to an intense orchestration of several crucial factors, including deregulation of vital cell physiological processes, inactivation of tumor suppressive activity and disruption of prostate gland specific cellular homeostasis. The molecular complexity and redundancy of oncoproteins signaling in prostate cancer demands for concurrent inhibition of multiple hallmark associated pathways. By an extensive manual curation of the published biomedical literature, we have developed Human Prostate Cancer Hallmarks Map (HPCHM), an onco-functional atlas of human prostate cancer associated signaling and events. It explores molecular architecture of prostate cancer signaling at various levels, namely key protein components, molecular connectivity map, oncogenic signaling pathway map, pathway based functional connectivity map etc. Here, we briefly represent the systems level understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with prostate tumorigenesis by considering each and individual molecular and cell biological events of this disease process. PMID:27476486

  8. Is there a link between BPH and prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R T M; Kirby, Roger; Challacombe, B J

    2012-04-01

    BPH is one of the most common diseases of older men, with more than 70% of men over 70 years affected, and prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in the UK. Prostate cancer generally presents in one of three ways: asymptomatic patients who are screened (usually by a PSA test); men with LUTS who are investigated and undergo prostate biopsy; or patients with symptoms of metastasis such as bone pain. Men can be reassured that the main cause of LUTS is BPH. Only a small proportion of men have LUTS that are directly attributable to prostate cancer. Digital rectal examination (DRE) gives an evaluation of prostate size, which is relevant in particular to BPH management, and along with PSA testing it is one of the only ways of differentiating clinically between BPH and prostate cancer. If a nodular abnormality is present there is around a 50% chance of a diagnosis of prostate cancer being made on biopsy. Raised levels of serum PSA may be suggestive of prostate cancer, but diagnosis requires histological confirmation in almost every case. A normal PSA, PSA density and DRE can give reasonable confidence with regards to excluding clinically significant prostate cancer. BPH is not a known risk factor for prostate cancer, although the two frequently coexist. Age is the strongest predictor of prostate cancer risk, along with family history. BPH is not considered to be a precursor of prostate cancer. It is likely that although BPH may not make prostate cancer more likely to occur, it may increase the chance of diagnosing an incidental cancer.

  9. Radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, S.; Herfarth, K.

    2011-01-01

    With the development of modern radiation techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), a dose escalation in the definitive radiotherapy of prostate cancer and a consecutive improvement in biochemical recurrence-free survival (BFS) could be achieved. Among others, investigators at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) saw 5-year BFS rates of up to 98%. A further gain in effectiveness and safety is expected of hypofractionation schedules, as suggested by data published by Kupelian et al., who saw a low 5-year rate of grade ≥2 rectal side-effects of 4.5%. However, randomized studies are just beginning to mature. Patients with intermediate or high-risk tumors should receive neoadjuvant (NHT) and adjuvant (AHT) androgen deprivation. Bolla et al. could show an increase in 5-year overall survival from 62-78%. The inclusion of the whole pelvis in the treatment field (WPRT) is still controversial. The RTOG 94-13 study showed a significant advantage in disease-free survival after 60 months but long-term data did not yield significant differences between WPRT and irradiation of the prostate alone. The German Society of Urology strongly recommends adjuvant radiotherapy of the prostate bed for pT3 N0 tumors with positive margins. In a pT3 N0 R0 or pT2 N0 R+ situation, adjuvant radiotherapy should at least be considered. So far, no randomized data on NHT and AHT have been published, so androgen deprivation remains an individual decision in the postoperative setting. In a retrospective analysis Spiotto et al. reported a positive effect for adjuvant WPRT and biochemical control. This article summarizes the essential publications on definitive and adjuvant radiotherapy and discusses the additional use of androgen deprivation and WPRT. (orig.) [de

  10. Prostate cancer in renal transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A. Sherer

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT As patients with end-stage renal disease are receiving renal allografts at older ages, the number of male renal transplant recipients (RTRs being diagnosed with prostate cancer (CaP is increasing. Historically, the literature regarding the management of CaP in RTR's is limited to case reports and small case series. To date, there are no standardized guidelines for screening or management of CaP in these complex patients. To better understand the unique characteristics of CaP in the renal transplant population, we performed a literature review of PubMed, without date limitations, using a combination of search terms including prostate cancer, end stage renal disease, renal transplantation, prostate cancer screening, prostate specific antigen kinetics, immuno-suppression, prostatectomy, and radiation therapy. Of special note, teams facilitating the care of these complex patients must carefully and meticulously consider the altered anatomy for surgical and radiotherapeutic planning. Active surveillance, though gaining popularity in the general low risk prostate cancer population, needs further study in this group, as does the management of advance disease. This review provides a comprehensive and contemporary understanding of the incidence, screening measures, risk stratification, and treatment options for CaP in RTRs.

  11. Prostate Cancer Screening Results from PLCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn the results of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial, a large-scale clinical trial to determine whether certain cancer screening tests can help reduce deaths from prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer.

  12. Vitamins, metabolomics, and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondul, Alison M; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Albanes, Demetrius

    2017-06-01

    How micronutrients might influence risk of developing adenocarcinoma of the prostate has been the focus of a large body of research (especially regarding vitamins E, A, and D). Metabolomic profiling has the potential to discover molecular species relevant to prostate cancer etiology, early detection, and prevention, and may help elucidate the biologic mechanisms through which vitamins influence prostate cancer risk. Prostate cancer risk data related to vitamins E, A, and D and metabolomic profiling from clinical, cohort, and nested case-control studies, along with randomized controlled trials, are examined and summarized, along with recent metabolomic data of the vitamin phenotypes. Higher vitamin E serologic status is associated with lower prostate cancer risk, and vitamin E genetic variant data support this. By contrast, controlled vitamin E supplementation trials have had mixed results based on differing designs and dosages. Beta-carotene supplementation (in smokers) and higher circulating retinol and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D concentrations appear related to elevated prostate cancer risk. Our prospective metabolomic profiling of fasting serum collected 1-20 years prior to clinical diagnoses found reduced lipid and energy/TCA cycle metabolites, including inositol-1-phosphate, lysolipids, alpha-ketoglutarate, and citrate, significantly associated with lower risk of aggressive disease. Several active leads exist regarding the role of micronutrients and metabolites in prostate cancer carcinogenesis and risk. How vitamins D and A may adversely impact risk, and whether low-dose vitamin E supplementation remains a viable preventive approach, require further study.

  13. BTG2 Antiproliferative Gene and Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walden, Paul D

    2008-01-01

    .... During this study we showed that BTG2 protein expression is lost as an early event in prostate carcinogenesis and that prostate cancer cells degrade BTG2 at a greater rate than noncancerous prostate cells...

  14. Other biomarkers for detecting prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Lucas; Corradi, Renato; Eastham, James A

    2010-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been used for detecting prostate cancer since 1994. Although it is the best cancer biomarker available, PSA is not perfect. It lacks both the sensitivity and specificity to accurately detect the presence of prostate cancer. None of the PSA thresholds currently in use consistently identify patients with prostate cancer and exclude patients without cancer. Novel approaches to improve our ability to detect prostate cancer and predict the course of the disease are needed. Additional methods for detecting prostate cancer have been evaluated. Despite the discovery of many new biomarkers, only a few have shown some clinical value. These markers include human kallikrein 2, urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, prostate-specific membrane antigen, early prostate cancer antigen, PCA3, alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase and glutathione S-transferase pi hypermethylation. We review the reports on biomarkers for prostate cancer detection, and their possible role in the clinical practice.

  15. Equivalent 5 year bNED in select prostate cancer patients managed with surgery or radiation therapy despite exclusion of the seminal vesicles from the clinical target volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amico, A. V.; Whittington, R.; Kaplan, I.; Beard, C.; Schultz, D.; Malkowicz, S.B.; Tomaszewski, J.E.; Wein, A.; Coleman, C.N.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) failure free survival was determined for select prostate cancer patients treated definitively with external beam radiation therapy to the prostate only or a radical retropubic prostatectomy. Materials and Methods: A logistic regression multivariable analysis evaluating the variables of PSA, biopsy Gleason score, and clinical stage was used to evaluate the endpoint of pathologic seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) in 749 consecutive prostate cancer patients treated with a radical retropubic prostatectomy. In a subgroup of 325 surgically and 197 radiation managed patients who did not have the clinical predictors of SVI, PSA failure free survival (bNED) was determined. Comparisons were made using the log rank test. Radiation managed patients in this subgroup were treated to a median dose of 66 Gray (66 - 70 Gray) in 2 Gray fractions to the prostate only. A 95% normalization was used routinely. Results: The pre-treatment PSA (> 10 ng/ml), biopsy Gleason score (≥ 7), and clinical stage (T 2b,2c,3 versus T 1,2a ) were found to be significant independent predictors (p 1,2a , PSA < 10 ng/ml, and biopsy Gleason ≤ 6 prostate cancer

  16. Equivalent 5-year bNED in select prostate cancer patients managed with surgery or radiation therapy despite exclusion of the seminal vesicles from the CTV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'amico, Anthony V.; Whittington, Richard; Kaplan, Irving; Beard, Clair; Schultz, Delray; Malkowicz, S. Bruce; Tomaszewski, John E.; Wein, Alan; Coleman, C. Norman

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) failure free survival was determined for select prostate cancer patients managed definitively with external beam radiation therapy to the prostate only or radical retropubic prostatectomy. Methods and Materials: A logistic regression multivariable analysis evaluating the variables of PSA, biopsy Gleason score, and clinical stage was used to evaluate the endpoint of pathologic seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) in 749 consecutive prostate cancer patients managed with a radical retropubic prostatectomy. In a subgroup of 332 surgically and 197 radiation managed patients who did not have the clinical predictors of SVI, PSA failure free survival (bNED) was determined. Comparisons were made using the log rank test between surgically and radiation managed patients in this subgroup. In this subgroup, radiation managed patients were treated to a median dose of 66 Gy (66-70 Gy) to the prostate only. Results: The pretreatment PSA (> 10 ng/ml), biopsy Gleason score (≥7), and clinical stage (T2b, 2c, or 3) were found to be significant independent predictors (p < 0.001) of SVI. Only 2% of patients without any of these factors had SVI and 17% had extracapsular extension (15% microscopic; 2% macroscopic). In this subgroup the 5-year bNED rates were equivalent [84 vs. 89% (p = 0.67)] for surgically and radiation managed patients, respectively. Conclusions: Conventional dose external beam radiation therapy directed at the prostate alone resulted in 5-year bNED rates equivalent to surgery on retrospective comparison in patients with clinical stage T1,2a, PSA ≤ 10 ng/ml, and biopsy Gleason ≤ 6 prostate cancer

  17. Lycopene Supplementation in the Complementary Management of PSA Failure: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial for Prostate Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    N Wells, JA Smith, Jr. and MS Cookson. Intrarectal Lidocaine During Transrectal Prostate Biopsy. Journal of Urology 166: 2178-2180, 2001. -113...steroid hormone and growth factor activation/ synthesis and signaling in the prostate (55, 56). These ability to reduce normal and cancerous cell

  18. Prostate cancer screening in Ghana - a clinical benefit? | Arthur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ghana and most African countries, prostate cancer is the most common cancer in males after hepatocellular carcinoma. Whereas in the advanced countries, screening for prostate specific antigen (PSA) has led to early detection and management of the disease, screening has been very low in Ghana, thus leading to low ...

  19. Methylselenium and Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Junxuan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of the biochemical pathways and molecular targets for the selective induction of apoptosis signaling and execution of prostate cancer (PCa...

  20. Methylselenium and Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Junxuan

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of the biochemical pathways and molecular targets for the selective induction of apoptosis signaling and execution of prostate cancer (PCa...

  1. Methylselenium and Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Junxuan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of the biochemical pathways and molecular targets for the selective induction of apoptosis signaling and execution of prostate cancer (PCa...

  2. Methylselenium and Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Junxuan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of the biochemical pathways and molecular targets for the selective induction of apoptosis signaling and execution of prostate cancer (PCa...

  3. General Information about Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of bisphosphonate drugs to prevent or slow the growth of bone metastases is being studied in clinical trials. There are treatments for bone pain caused by bone metastases or hormone therapy. Prostate cancer that has spread to the ...

  4. Osteoblast-Prostate Cancer Cell Interaction in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Navone, Nora

    2001-01-01

    .... This suggests that prostate cancer cells interact with cells from the osteoblastic lineage. To understand the molecular bases of prostatic bone metastases, we established two prostate cancer cell lines, MDA PCa 2a and MDA PCa 2b (1...

  5. External beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forman, Jeffrey D.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The intent of this course is to review the issues involved in the management of non-metastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate. -- The value of pre-treatment prognostic factors including stage, grade and PSA value will be presented, and their value in determining therapeutic strategies will be discussed. -- Controversies involving the simulation process and treatment design will be presented. The value of CT scanning, Beams-Eye View, 3-D planning, intravesicle, intraurethral and rectal contrast will be presented. The significance of prostate and patient movement and strategies for dealing with them will be presented. -- The management of low stage, low to intermediate grade prostate cancer will be discussed. The dose, volume and timing of irradiation will be discussed as will the role of neo-adjuvant hormonal therapy, neutron irradiation and brachytherapy. The current status of radical prostatectomy and cryotherapy will be summarized. Treatment of locally advanced, poorly differentiated prostate cancer will be presented including a discussion of neo-adjuvant and adjuvant hormones, dose-escalation and neutron irradiation. -- Strategies for post-radiation failures will be presented including data on cryotherapy, salvage prostatectomy and hormonal therapy (immediate, delayed and/or intermittent). New areas for investigation will be reviewed. -- The management of patients post prostatectomy will be reviewed. Data on adjuvant radiation and therapeutic radiation for biochemical or clinically relapsed patients will be presented. This course hopes to present a realistic and pragmatic overview for treating patients with non-metastatic prostatic cancer

  6. Circulating Tumor Cells in Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Brian; Rochefort, Holly; Goldkorn, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can provide a non-invasive, repeatable snapshot of an individual patient’s tumor. In prostate cancer, CTC enumeration has been extensively studied and validated as a prognostic tool and has received FDA clearance for use in monitoring advanced disease. More recently, CTC analysis has been shifting from enumeration to more sophisticated molecular characterization of captured cells, which serve as a “liquid biopsy” of the tumor, reflecting molecular changes in an individual’s malignancy over time. Here we will review the main CTC studies in advanced and localized prostate cancer, highlighting the important gains as well as the challenges posed by various approaches, and their implications for advancing prostate cancer management

  7. Lycopene Supplementation in the Complementary Management of PSA Failure: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial for Prostate Cancer Survivors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ukoli, Flora A; Kucuk, Omer; Fowke, Jay H

    2007-01-01

    ...) or whole-food supplement (Lyc-O-Mato(Registered)) in control of biochemical (PSA) failure in 78 African-American prostate cancer survivors treated initially by radical prostatectomy or radiation...

  8. Perceived causes of prostate cancer among prostate cancer survivors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, D.E.G.; Cremers, R.G.H.M.; Aben, K.K.H.; Oort, van I.M.; Kampman, E.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate self-reported causes of prostate cancer among prostate cancer survivors in the Netherlands to obtain insight into the common beliefs and perceptions of risk factors for prostate cancer. Materials and methods A total of 956 prostate cancer survivors,

  9. Multiple primary cancers: Simultaneously occurring prostate cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We also reviewed the existing literatures for possible biologic links between prostatic carcinoma and other primary tumors. ... The primary tumors co-existing with prostate cancer were colonic adenocarcinoma, rectal adenocarcinoma, urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma, primary liver cell carcinoma, and thyroid ...

  10. Radical perineal prostatectomy: cost efficient, outcome effective, minimally invasive prostate cancer management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michael J

    2003-09-01

    Localized prostate cancer is a common disease for which minimally invasive treatment methods are being explored. Perineal prostatectomy, as a historical open procedure, is modified to incorporate contemporary surgical ideas. There is relatively little in the literature regarding modern adaptations of perineal prostatectomy. This method of anatomic radical perineal prostatectomy has been developed to accomplish a minimally invasive method of achieving goals of disease control and preservation of genito-urinary functions. Prospective outcome data is accumulated on 508 consecutive radical perineal prostatectomies by a single surgeon. Pathologic stage and PSA detectability are measures of cancer control. Pad use and ability to complete intercourse measure urinary and sexual function. General complications and other outcome measures are evaluated. Freedom from PSA detectability by pathologic stage is 96.3%, 79.4%, and 69.4% for organ confined, specimen confined and margin positive in the absence of seminal vesical invasion with an average 4 years follow up (3-114 months). Margins are positive in 18% of cases. The average cancer size is 9.4g and 36% of cases have extracapsular invasion. By the first, third, sixth months and one year, 38%, 65%, 88% and 96% are free of pad use and report being dry. While over 80% of nerve-spared patients enjoy the return of spontaneous erectile function, the men with bilateral nerve preservation note earlier and more complete return of function. There are no cardiopulmonary complications or deaths. Transfusions occurred in 1%, none in the past 400 cases. Average total hospital charges are USD$4889.00 in 1999 and 2000. Anterior urethral strictures, anastomotic strictures and fecal urgency/stress flatus occur 2%, 2% and 2-4%, respectively. This method of prostatectomy is able to achieve complete cancer resection while preserving urinary and sexual function as well as laparoscopic or retropubic prostatectomy. The simplicity and minimally

  11. Mortality among men with locally advanced prostate cancer managed with noncurative intent: a nationwide study in PCBaSe Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akre, Olof; Garmo, Hans; Adolfsson, Jan; Lambe, Mats; Bratt, Ola; Stattin, Pär

    2011-09-01

    There are limited prognostic data for locally advanced prostate cancer PCa to guide in the choice of treatment. To assess mortality in different prognostic categories among men with locally advanced PCa managed with noncurative intent. We conducted a register-based nationwide cohort study within the Prostate Cancer DataBase Sweden. The entire cohort of locally advanced PCa included 14 908 men. After the exclusion of 2724 (18%) men treated with curative intent, 12 184 men with locally advanced PCa either with local clinical stage T3 or T4 or with T2 with serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) between 50 and 99 ng/ml and without signs of metastases remained for analysis. We followed up the patient cohort in the Cause of Death Register for ≤ 11 yr and assessed cumulative incidence of PCa -specific death stratified by age and clinical characteristics. The PCa -specific mortality at 8 yr of follow-up was 28% (95% confidence interval [CI], 25-32%) for Gleason score (GS) 2-6, 41% (95% CI, 38-44%) for GS 7, 52% (95% CI, 47-57%) for GS 8, and 64% (95% CI, 59-69%) for GS 9-10. Even for men aged >85 yr at diagnosis with GS 8-10, PCa was a major cause of death: 42% (95% CI, 37-47%). Men with locally advanced disease and a PSAadvanced PCa, suggesting undertreatment, particularly among men in older age groups. Our results underscore the need for more studies of treatment with curative intent for locally advanced tumors. Copyright © 2011 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Tea, coffee and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andy H; Fraser, Michelle L; Binns, Colin W

    2009-02-01

    Worldwide, prostate cancer has the second highest incidence of all cancers in males with incidence and mortality being much higher in affluent developed countries. Risk and progression of the disease may be linked to both genetic and environmental factors, especially dietary factors. Tea and coffee are two of the most popular beverages in the world and have been investigated for possible effects on health outcomes, including cancer. However, very little dietary advice for their consumption exists. The evidence for a relationship between coffee or tea consumption and prostate cancer is reviewed in this paper. While current evidence indicates that coffee is a safe beverage, its consumption probably has no relationship with prostate cancer. Tea, especially green tea, has shown some potential in the prevention of prostate cancer. While evidence from epidemiologic studies is currently inconclusive, strong evidence has emerged from animal and in vitro studies. We also consider what level of evidence is required to make recommendations for preventive measures to the public. Although evidence on the relationship between coffee, tea and prostate cancer is not complete, we consider it strong enough to recommend tea as a healthier alternative to coffee.

  13. IGF-Regulated Genes in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Charles

    2003-01-01

    We hypothesized that genes that are differentially expressed as a result of the decreased IGF-I receptor gene expression seen in metastatic prostate cancer contribute to prostate cancer progression...

  14. IGF-Regulated Genes in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Charles T., Jr

    2005-01-01

    We hypothesized that genes that are differentially expressed as a result of the decreased IGF-I receptor gene expression seen in metastatic prostate cancer contribute to prostate cancer progression...

  15. Lifestyle guidelines for managing adverse effects on bone health and body composition in men treated with androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, P J; Daly, R M; Livingston, P M; Fraser, S F

    2017-06-01

    Men treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer are prone to multiple treatment-induced adverse effects, particularly with regard to a deterioration in bone health and altered body composition including decreased lean tissue mass and increased fat mass. These alterations may partially explain the marked increased risk in osteoporosis, falls, fracture and cardiometabolic risk that has been observed in this population. A review was conducted that assessed standard clinical guidelines for the management of ADT-induced adverse effects on bone health and body composition in men with prostate cancer. Currently, standard clinical guidelines exist for the management of various bone and metabolic ADT-induced adverse effects in men with prostate cancer. However, an evaluation of the effectiveness of these guidelines into routine practice revealed that men continued to experience increased central adiposity, and, unless pharmacotherapy was instituted, accelerated bone loss and worsening glycaemia occurred. This review discusses the current guidelines and some of the limitations, and proposes new recommendations based on emerging evidence regarding the efficacy of lifestyle interventions, particularly with regard to exercise and nutritional factors, to manage ADT-related adverse effects on bone health and body composition in men with prostate cancer.

  16. Epigenetics of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Tawnya C; Tricoli, James V

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of novel technologies that can be applied to the investigation of the molecular underpinnings of human cancer has allowed for new insights into the mechanisms associated with tumor development and progression. They have also advanced the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of cancer. These technologies include microarray and other analysis methods for the generation of large-scale gene expression data on both mRNA and miRNA, next-generation DNA sequencing technologies utilizing a number of platforms to perform whole genome, whole exome, or targeted DNA sequencing to determine somatic mutational differences and gene rearrangements, and a variety of proteomic analysis platforms including liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis to survey alterations in protein profiles in tumors. One other important advancement has been our current ability to survey the methylome of human tumors in a comprehensive fashion through the use of sequence-based and array-based methylation analysis (Bock et al., Nat Biotechnol 28:1106-1114, 2010; Harris et al., Nat Biotechnol 28:1097-1105, 2010). The focus of this chapter is to present and discuss the evidence for key genes involved in prostate tumor development, progression, or resistance to therapy that are regulated by methylation-induced silencing.

  17. Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0226 TITLE: Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Rafael Fridman...AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0226 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...response to collagen in prostate cancer. The project’s goal is to define the expression and therapeutic potential of DDRs in prostate cancer. During

  18. [Radiotherapy in node-positive prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottke, D; Bartkowiak, D; Bolenz, C; Wiegel, T

    2016-03-01

    There are numerous randomized trials to guide the management of patients with localized (and metastatic) prostate cancer, but only a few (mostly retrospective) studies have specifically addressed node-positive patients. Therefore, there is uncertainty regarding optimal treatment in this situation. Current guidelines recommend long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) alone or radiotherapy plus long-term ADT as treatment options. This overview summarizes the existing literature on the use of radiotherapy for node-positive prostate cancer as definitive treatment and as adjuvant or salvage therapy after radical prostatectomy. In this context, we also discuss several PET tracers in the imaging evaluation of patients with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy. As for definitive treatment, retrospective studies suggest that ADT plus radiotherapy improves overall survival compared with ADT alone. These studies also consistently demonstrated that many patients with node-positive prostate cancer can achieve long-term survival - and are likely curable - with aggressive therapy. The beneficial impact of adjuvant radiotherapy on survival in patients with pN1 prostate cancer seems to be highly influenced by tumor characteristics. Men with ≤ 2 positive lymph nodes in the presence of intermediate- to high-grade disease, or positive margins, and those with 3 or 4 positive lymph nodes are the ideal candidates for adjuvant radiotherapy (plus long-term ADT) after surgery. There is a need for randomized trials to further examine the potential role of radiotherapy as either definitive or adjuvant treatment, for patients with node-positive prostate cancer.

  19. The link between benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted, David Dynnes; Bojesen, Stig E

    2013-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer are among the most common diseases of the prostate gland and represent significant burdens for patients and health-care systems in many countries. The two diseases share traits such as hormone-dependent growth and response to antiandrogen...... therapy. Furthermore, risk factors such as prostate inflammation and metabolic disruption have key roles in the development of both diseases. Despite these commonalities, BPH and prostate cancer exhibit important differences in terms of histology and localization. Although large-scale epidemiological...... studies have shown that men with BPH have an increased risk of prostate cancer and prostate-cancer-related mortality, it remains unclear whether this association reflects a causal link, shared risk factors or pathophysiological mechanisms, or detection bias upon statistical analysis. Establishing BPH...

  20. To treat or not to treat with testosterone replacement therapy: a contemporary review of management of late-onset hypogonadism and critical issues related to prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kava, Bruce R

    2014-07-01

    Over the last 10 years there has been a dramatic increase in the number of patients identified and treated with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) for late-onset hypogonadism (LOH). By virtue of age, race, and family history, many of these patients are concurrently at risk for harboring indolent prostate cancer. Other men are at increased risk for prostate cancer as a result of an elevated serum PSA level or having had a prior prostate biopsy showing prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) or atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP). The clinician is often challenged with the decision whether to initiate TRT in these patients. This review presents a contemporary overview of the rationale for TRT, as well as the relationship between testosterone (endogenous and exogenous) and premalignant and malignant lesions of the prostate. We will discuss preliminary data from several recent series demonstrating that TRT may be safely administered in select patients with certain premalignant and bona fide malignant tumors of the prostate. In the absence of a large randomized clinical trial with long-term outcome data evaluating TRT, we hope that this overview will provide clinicians with an evidence-based approach to managing these anxiety-provoking - and often frustrating - clinical scenarios.

  1. Prostate cancer may trigger paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jakob Kristian; Zakharia, Elias Raja; Boysen, Anders Kindberg Fossø

    2013-01-01

    -Hu antibody test the patient was diagnosed with paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis related to prostate cancer. The patient died within 6 months. We review the literature on prostate cancer-related paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis. High-risk prostate cancer can trigger paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis...

  2. Mitochondrial mutations drive prostate cancer aggression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkins, Julia F.; Sabelnykova, Veronica Y.; Weischenfeldt, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear mutations are well known to drive tumor incidence, aggression and response to therapy. By contrast, the frequency and roles of mutations in the maternally inherited mitochondrial genome are poorly understood. Here we sequence the mitochondrial genomes of 384 localized prostate cancer...... in prostate cancer, and suggest interplay between nuclear and mitochondrial mutational profiles in prostate cancer....

  3. Prostate-specific antigen density: correlation with histological diagnosis of prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Iersel, M. P.; Witjes, W. P.; de la Rosette, J. J.; Oosterhof, G. O.

    1995-01-01

    To assess the additional value of prostate-specific antigen density in the diagnosis of prostate cancer in patients who undergo prostate biopsies. The study comprised 376 patients with symptoms of prostatism who were undergoing prostate biopsy. Digital rectal examination (DRE) and transrectal

  4. Radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Katsumasa

    2001-01-01

    In Japan, where the mortality rate of prostate cancer is lower than in Western countries, radical prostatectomy or hormonal therapy has been applied more frequently than radiation therapy. However, the number of patients with prostate cancer has been increasing recently and the importance of radiation therapy has rapidly been recognized. Although there have been no randomized trials, results from several institutions in Western countries suggest that similar results of cancer control are achieved with either radiation therapy or radical prostatectomy. For higher-risk cases, conformal high-dose therapy or adjuvant hormonal therapy is more appropriate. In this article, the results of radiation therapy for prostate cancer were reviewed, with a view to the appropriate choice of therapy in Japan. (author)

  5. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durmus, T.; Baur, A.; Hamm, B.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men, but only about 10 % of patients die from that cancer. Recent studies suggest that not all patients benefit from a radical therapeutic approach. When prostate cancer is suspected, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can make an important contribution to cancer localization within the prostate. Many studies show that T2-weighted morphologic imaging should be supplemented by multiparametric MRI techniques including diffusion-weighted imaging, contrast-enhanced sequences, and MR spectroscopy. This approach detects aggressive prostate cancer with high sensitivity and specificity. The findings of multiparametric MRI additionally contribute information to the assessment of cancer aggressiveness. The use of these multiparametric MRI techniques will gain an increasing role in the clinical management of prostate cancer patients. They can help in establishing a definitive diagnosis with a minimum of invasiveness and may also contribute to optimal individualized treatment. This review article presents the different techniques of multiparametric MRI and discusses their contribution to the detection of prostate cancer. Moreover, this review outlines an objective approach to image interpretation and structured reporting of MRI findings using the PI-RADS criteria. The review concludes with an outline of approaches to prostate biopsy on the basis of MRI (transrectal ultrasound, direct MRI guidance of tissue sampling, and MRI-ultrasound fusion biopsy) and emerging future uses of MRI in the planning of focal treatment options and in the active surveillance of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. (orig.)

  6. Prostate Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing prostate cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  7. Early prostate cancer: particularities of treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, F.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction of prostate cancer screening using PSA leads to a disproportional increase of cancer incidence. Most of those tumors are small and indolent in behavior. When diagnosed, they are usually managed by radical treatment modalities despite the growth of serious adverse events of such therapy. Active surveillance appears to be an alternative treatment approach for the majority of those patients. Author stresses on the particularities of the prostate cancer diagnosed in the PSA era. Show the importance of patient stratification and the utility of the use of nomograms in clinical praxis. The clinical importance of treatment choices based on life expectancy of patient, concomitant diseases on one side and cancer biological behavior in the other side is discussed. Critically discuss the new approach of radiation with proton beams advertising that it remains an experimental therapeutic choice. (author)

  8. Synergistic interaction of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis on prostate cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, S-C; Lai, S-W; Tsai, P-Y; Chen, P-C; Wu, H-C; Lin, W-H; Sung, F-C

    2013-01-01

    Background: The incidence of prostate cancer is much lower in Asian men than in Western men. This study investigated whether prostate cancer is associated with prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and other medical conditions in the low-incidence population. Methods: From the claims data obtained from the universal National Health Insurance of Taiwan, we identified 1184 patients with prostate cancer diagnosed from 1997 to 2008. Controls comprised 4736 men randomly selected from a cancer-free population. Both groups were 50 years of age or above. Medical histories between the two groups were compared. Results: Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that prostatitis and BPH had stronger association with prostate cancer than the other medical conditions tested. Compared with men without prostatitis and BPH, a higher odds ratio (OR) for prostate cancer was associated with BPH (26.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 20.8–33.0) than with prostatitis (10.5, 95% CI=3.36–32.7). Men with both conditions had an OR of 49.2 (95% CI=34.7–69.9). Conclusion: Men with prostate cancer have strong association with prostatitis and/or BPH. Prostatitis interacts with BPH, resulting in higher estimated relative risk of prostate cancer in men suffering from both conditions. PMID:23612451

  9. Utilization of Patient-Reported Outcomes to Guide Symptom Management during Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malika Danner

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionUtilization of patient-reported outcomes (PROs to guide symptom management during radiation therapy is increasing. This study focuses on the use of the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite for Clinical Practice (EPIC-CP as a tool to assess urinary and bowel bother during stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT and its utility in guiding medical management.MethodsBetween September 2015 and January 2017, 107 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated with 35–36.25 Gy via SBRT in five fractions. PROs were assessed using EPIC-CP 1 h prior to the first fraction and after each subsequent fraction. Symptom management medications were prescribed based on the physician clinical judgment or if patients reported a moderate to big problem. Clinical significance was assessed using a minimally important difference of 1/2 SD from baseline score.ResultsA median baseline EPIC-CP urinary symptom score of 1.5 significantly increased to 3.7 on the day of the final treatment (p < 0.0001. Prior to treatment, 9.3% of men felt that their overall urinary function was a moderate to big problem that increased to 28% by the end of the fifth treatment. A median baseline EPIC-CP bowel symptom score of 0.3 significantly increased to 1.4 on the day of the final treatment (p < 0.0001. Prior to treatment, 1.9% of men felt that their overall bowel function was a moderate to big problem that increased to 3.7% by the end of the fifth treatment. The percentage of patients requiring an increased dose of alpha-antagonist increased to 47% by the end of treatment, and an additional 28% of patients required a short steroid taper to manage moderate to big urinary problems. Similarly, the percentage of patients requiring antidiarrheals reached 12% by the fifth treatment.ConclusionDuring the course of SBRT, an increasing percentage of patients experienced clinically significant symptoms many of which required medical management

  10. Gene therapy for prostate cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tangney, Mark

    2012-01-31

    Cancer remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Despite advances in understanding, detection, and treatment, it accounts for almost one-fourth of all deaths per year in Western countries. Prostate cancer is currently the most commonly diagnosed noncutaneous cancer in men in Europe and the United States, accounting for 15% of all cancers in men. As life expectancy of individuals increases, it is expected that there will also be an increase in the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer may be inoperable at initial presentation, unresponsive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, or recur following appropriate treatment. At the time of presentation, patients may already have metastases in their tissues. Preventing tumor recurrence requires systemic therapy; however, current modalities are limited by toxicity or lack of efficacy. For patients with such metastatic cancers, the development of alternative therapies is essential. Gene therapy is a realistic prospect for the treatment of prostate and other cancers, and involves the delivery of genetic information to the patient to facilitate the production of therapeutic proteins. Therapeutics can act directly (eg, by inducing tumor cells to produce cytotoxic agents) or indirectly by upregulating the immune system to efficiently target tumor cells or by destroying the tumor\\'s vasculature. However, technological difficulties must be addressed before an efficient and safe gene medicine is achieved (primarily by developing a means of delivering genes to the target cells or tissue safely and efficiently). A wealth of research has been carried out over the past 20 years, involving various strategies for the treatment of prostate cancer at preclinical and clinical trial levels. The therapeutic efficacy observed with many of these approaches in patients indicates that these treatment modalities will serve as an important component of urological malignancy treatment in the clinic, either in isolation or

  11. Bone Morphogenetic Proteins, Antagonists and Receptors in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reddi, A

    2003-01-01

    ...? The predominant site of prostate cancer is bone. However, unlike the osteolytic lesions of breast cancer, prostate cancer causes osteoblastic osteosclerosis which leads ultimately to morbidity and mortality...

  12. Progesterone receptor in the prostate: A potential suppressor for benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, RuiQi; Yu, Yue; Dong, Xuesen

    2017-02-01

    Advanced prostate cancer undergoing androgen receptor pathway inhibition (ARPI) eventually progresses to castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), suggesting that (i) androgen receptor (AR) blockage is incomplete, and (ii) there are other critical molecular pathways contributing to prostate cancer (PCa) progression. Although most PCa occurs in the epithelium, prostate stroma is increasingly believed to play a crucial role in promoting tumorigenesis and facilitating tumor progression. In the stroma, sex steroid hormone receptors such as AR and estrogen receptor-α are implicated to have important functions, whereas the progesterone receptor (PR) remains largely under-investigated despite the high sequence and structural similarities between PR and AR. Stromal progesterone/PR signaling may play a critical role in PCa development and progression because not only progesterone is a critical precursor for de novo androgen steroidogenesis and an activator of mutant androgen receptors, but also PR functions in a ligand-independent manner in various important pathways. In fact, recent progress in our understanding of stromal PR function suggests that this receptor may exert an inhibitory effect on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), reactive stroma development, and PCa progression. These early findings of stromal PR warrant further investigations as this receptor could be a potential biomarker and therapeutic target in PCa management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Challenges in the sequencing of therapies for the management of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Phillip; Parnis, Francis; Gurney, Howard

    2014-09-01

    Prior to 2010, docetaxel was the standard option for chemotherapy in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Today, the picture is vastly different: several additional therapies have each demonstrated a survival benefit such that we now have chemotherapy (cabazitaxel), androgen suppressive agents (abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide), a cellular vaccine (sipuleucel-T) and radium-233 (for symptomatic bone metastases). With several other agents in the pipeline for late-stage disease, the future looks promising for mCRPC. As the available data are not able to inform as to the optimum sequencing of therapy, this remains a challenge. This paper draws on insights from published and ongoing clinical studies to provide a practical patient-focused approach to maximize the benefits of the current therapeutic armamentarium. Preliminary sequencing suggestions are made based on clinical trial criteria. But until more data become available, clinical gestalt, experience, cost and individual patient preferences will continue to drive choices. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Prostatic paracoccidioidomycosis: differential diagnosis of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lima Lopes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Symptomatic prostatic paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is a very rare condition; however, it may express as a typical benign prostatic hyperplasia or a simulating prostatic adenocarcinoma. This case report presents PCM mimicking prostatic adenocarcinoma. The purpose of this paper is to call the general physician's attention to this important differential diagnosis.

  15. Inflammatory Genetic Markers of Prostate Cancer Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tindall, Elizabeth A.; Hayes, Vanessa M. [Cancer Genetics Group, Children’s Cancer Institute Australia for Medical Research, Lowy Cancer Research Centre, University of New South Wales, PO Box 81, Randwick, NSW 2031 (Australia); University of New South Wales, Kensington Campus, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Petersen, Desiree C., E-mail: dpetersen@ccia.unsw.edu.au [Cancer Genetics Group, Children’s Cancer Institute Australia for Medical Research, Lowy Cancer Research Centre, University of New South Wales, PO Box 81, Randwick, NSW 2031 (Australia)

    2010-06-08

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in Western society males, with incidence rates predicted to rise with global aging. Etiology of prostate cancer is however poorly understood, while current diagnostic tools can be invasive (digital rectal exam or biopsy) and/or lack specificity for the disease (prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing). Substantial histological, epidemiological and molecular genetic evidence indicates that inflammation is important in prostate cancer pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current status of inflammatory genetic markers influencing susceptibility to prostate cancer. The focus will be on inflammatory cytokines regulating T-helper cell and chemokine homeostasis, together with the Toll-like receptors as key players in the host innate immune system. Although association studies indicating a genetic basis for prostate cancer are presently limited mainly due to lack of replication, larger and more ethnically and clinically defined study populations may help elucidate the true contribution of inflammatory gene variants to prostate cancer risk.

  16. Inflammatory Genetic Markers of Prostate Cancer Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tindall, Elizabeth A.; Hayes, Vanessa M.; Petersen, Desiree C.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in Western society males, with incidence rates predicted to rise with global aging. Etiology of prostate cancer is however poorly understood, while current diagnostic tools can be invasive (digital rectal exam or biopsy) and/or lack specificity for the disease (prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing). Substantial histological, epidemiological and molecular genetic evidence indicates that inflammation is important in prostate cancer pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current status of inflammatory genetic markers influencing susceptibility to prostate cancer. The focus will be on inflammatory cytokines regulating T-helper cell and chemokine homeostasis, together with the Toll-like receptors as key players in the host innate immune system. Although association studies indicating a genetic basis for prostate cancer are presently limited mainly due to lack of replication, larger and more ethnically and clinically defined study populations may help elucidate the true contribution of inflammatory gene variants to prostate cancer risk

  17. Epigenetic Regulation in Prostate Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggero, Katia; Farran-Matas, Sonia; Martinez-Tebar, Adrian; Aytes, Alvaro

    2018-01-01

    An important number of newly identified molecular alterations in prostate cancer affect gene encoding master regulators of chromatin biology epigenetic regulation. This review will provide an updated view of the key epigenetic mechanisms underlying prostate cancer progression, therapy resistance, and potential actionable mechanisms and biomarkers. Key players in chromatin biology and epigenetic master regulators has been recently described to be crucially altered in metastatic CRPC and tumors that progress to AR independency. As such, epigenetic dysregulation represents a driving mechanism in the reprograming of prostate cancer cells as they lose AR-imposed identity. Chromatin integrity and accessibility for transcriptional regulation are key features altered in cancer progression, and particularly relevant in nuclear hormone receptor-driven tumors like prostate cancer. Understanding how chromatin remodeling dictates prostate development and how its deregulation contributes to prostate cancer onset and progression may improve risk stratification and treatment selection for prostate cancer patients.

  18. Seminal vesicle biopsy and laparoscopic pelvic lymph node dissection: implications for patient selection in the radiotherapeutic management of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stock, Richard G.; Stone, Nelson N.; Ianuzzi, Christopher; Unger, Pamela

    1995-01-01

    , combined Gleason grade, PSA, and stage on the detection of positive nodes were tested using a stepwise logistic regression analysis. Seminal vesicle biopsy was the most significant predictor of positive nodes (p <0.0001), while combined grade and PSA were also significant predictors (p = 0.0006 and p = 0.005, respectively). Positive nodes were found in 50% (9 out of 18) of patients with positive SVB compared to 0% (0 out of 69) of patients with a negative SVB (p <0.0001). Positive nodes were found in 35% (8 out of 23) of patients with a combined grade of 7 or greater compared to 2% (1 out of 64) of patients with a combined grade less than 7 (p <0.0001). Laparoscopic pelvic lymph node dissection revealed positive nodes in 3% (2 out of 58) of patients with PSA levels < = 20 compared to 24% (7 out of 29) of patients with PSA levels greater than 20 (p = 0.003). Laparoscopic pelvic lymph node dissection was associated with a hospital stay of one night and a minor complication rate of 4%. There were no major complications. Conclusions: Seminal vesicle biopsy should be performed before treatment in all patients, except those with low risk factors, undergoing radiation therapy for prostate cancer, due to its ability to upstage patients, select patients for LPLND, and alter radiotherapeutic management. Laparoscopic pelvic lymph node dissection should be considered in patients with high risk features, especially in patients with positive SVB where the likelihood of encountering positive nodes is 50%

  19. Radiation therapy of newly diagnosed, advanced prostatic cancer and hormonally relapsed prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Minoru; Fujiwara, Kazuhisa; Hayakawa, Katsumi; Hida, Shuichi

    1994-01-01

    Ten patients with newly diagnosed, advanced prostatic cancer were treated with radiotherapy and hormone therapy to improve tumor control and survival. Eight patients with hormonally relapsed prostatic cancer were treated with radiotherapy to improve their quality of life. Local control of the tumor was achieved in 9 of 10 patients with newly diagnosed, advanced prostatic cancer. Five of eight patients with hormonally relapsed prostatic cancer obtained improved quality of life. Combined radiotherapy and hormone therapy were effective in the treatment of newly diagnosed, advanced prostatic cancer, and radiotherapy was useful for improving the quality of life of patients with hormonally relapsed prostatic cancer. (author)

  20. BPH and prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Saiful; Catto, James

    2014-04-01

    With the exclusion of non-melanomatous skin malignancy, prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most prevalent cancer in men globally. It has been reported that the majority of men will develop benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) by the time they reach their 60s. Together, these prostatic diseases have a significant morbidity and mortality affecting over a billion men throughout the world. The risk of developing prostate cancer of men suffering BPH is one that has resulted in a healthy debate amongst the urological community. Here, we try to address this conundrum with clinical and basic science evidence. Data from an online search and contemporary data presented at international urological congresses was reviewed. BPH and PCa can be linked together at a molecular and cellular level on genetic, hormonal, and inflammatory platforms suggesting that these prostatic diseases have common pathophysiological driving factors. Epidemiological studies are weighted towards the presence of BPH having a greater risk for a man to develop PCa in his lifetime; however, a conclusion of causality cannot be confidently stated. The future workload healthcare practitioners will face regarding BPH, and PCa will substantially increase. Further basic science and large epidemiological studies using a global cohort of men are required prior to the urological community confidently counseling their patients with BPH with regards to their PCa risk.

  1. BPH and prostate cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Miah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With the exclusion of non-melanomatous skin malignancy, prostate cancer (PCa is the second most prevalent cancer in men globally. It has been reported that the majority of men will develop benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH by the time they reach their 60s. Together, these prostatic diseases have a significant morbidity and mortality affecting over a billion men throughout the world. The risk of developing prostate cancer of men suffering BPH is one that has resulted in a healthy debate amongst the urological community. Here, we try to address this conundrum with clinical and basic science evidence. Materials and Methods: Data from an online search and contemporary data presented at international urological congresses was reviewed. Results: BPH and PCa can be linked together at a molecular and cellular level on genetic, hormonal, and inflammatory platforms suggesting that these prostatic diseases have common pathophysiological driving factors. Epidemiological studies are weighted towards the presence of BPH having a greater risk for a man to develop PCa in his lifetime; however, a conclusion of causality cannot be confidently stated. Conclusion: The future workload healthcare practitioners will face regarding BPH, and PCa will substantially increase. Further basic science and large epidemiological studies using a global cohort of men are required prior to the urological community confidently counseling their patients with BPH with regards to their PCa risk.

  2. REVIEW ARTICLE: PROSTATE CANCER SCREENING USING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FOBUR

    ABSTRACT. Background: Prostate cancer is the commonest cancer among men in Nigeria and early detection is key to cure and survival but its screening through prostate specific antigen (PSA) has remain controversial in literature. Screening with prostate specific antigen (PSA) has led to more men diagnosed with ...

  3. Biopsy and treatment decisions in the initial management of prostate cancer and the role of PCA3; a systematic analysis of expert opinion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tombal, Bertrand; Ameye, Filip; de la Taille, Alexandre; de Reijke, Theo; Gontero, Paolo; Haese, Alexander; Kil, Paul; Perrin, Paul; Remzi, Mesut; Schröder, Jörg; Speakman, Mark; Volpe, Alessandro; Meesen, Bianca; Stoevelaar, Herman

    2012-01-01

    The Prostate CAncer gene 3 (PCA3) assay may guide prostate biopsy decisions and predict prostate cancer (PCa) aggressiveness. This study explored the appropriateness of (1) PCA3 testing; (2) biopsy; (3) active surveillance (AS) and the value of the PCA3 Score for biopsy and AS decisions. Using the

  4. The Proteome of Primary Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias-Gato, Diego; Wikström, Pernilla; Tyanova, Stefka

    2016-01-01

    for disease aggressiveness. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Mass spectrometry was used for genome-scale quantitative proteomic profiling of 28 prostate tumors (Gleason score 6-9) and neighboring nonmalignant tissue in eight cases, obtained from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded prostatectomy samples. Two...... changes occurring during prostate cancer (PCa) initiation and progression can result in clinically relevant discoveries. OBJECTIVES: To study cellular processes altered in PCa using system-wide quantitative analysis of changes in protein expression in clinical samples and to identify prognostic biomarkers......BACKGROUND: Clinical management of the prostate needs improved prognostic tests and treatment strategies. Because proteins are the ultimate effectors of most cellular reactions, are targets for drug actions and constitute potential biomarkers; a quantitative systemic overview of the proteome...

  5. Dietary Phytoestrogens and Prostate Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kurzer, Mindy S; Slaton, Joel

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to evaluate the effects of soy phytoestrogens on reproductive hormones and prostate tissue markers of cell proliferation and androgen action in men at high risk of prostate cancer...

  6. Antibody Responses to Prostate-Associated Antigens in Patients with Prostatitis and Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maricque, Brett B.; Eickhoff, Jens C.; McNeel, Douglas G.

    2010-01-01

    Background An important focus of tumor immunotherapy has been the identification of appropriate antigenic targets. Serum-based screening approaches have led to the discovery of hundreds of tumor-associated antigens recognized by IgG. Our efforts to identify immunologically recognized proteins in prostate cancer have yielded a multitude of antigens, however prioritizing these antigens as targets for evaluation in immunotherapies has been challenging. In this report, we set out to determine whether the evaluation of multiple antigenic targets would allow the identification of a subset of antigens that are common immunologic targets in patients with prostate cancer. Methods Using a phage immunoblot approach, we evaluated IgG responses in patients with prostate cancer (n=126), patients with chronic prostatitis (n=45), and men without prostate disease (n=53). Results We found that patients with prostate cancer or prostatitis have IgG specific for multiple common antigens. A subset of 23 proteins was identified to which IgG were detected in 38% of patients with prostate cancer and 33% patients with prostatitis versus 6% of controls (pprostate and prostate cancer, and suggest that IgG responses to a panel of commonly recognized prostate antigens could be potentially used in the identification of patients at risk for prostate cancer or as a tool to identify immune responses elicited to prostate tissue. PMID:20632317

  7. Psychosocial Consequences of Overdiagnostic of Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sigrid Brisson

    Psychosocial Consequences of Overdiagnostic of Prostate Cancer Sigrid Brisson Nielsen & John Brodersen Introduction In Denmark there are approximately 4400 men diagnosed with prostate cancer each year and nearly 1200 men dies of this disease yearly. The incidence of prostate cancer has increased...... for the past twenty years and make up 24 % of all cancer incidents in men. However, the mortality of prostate cancer has not changed in line with this increase. Empirical evidence shows that the increase in incidence of prostate cancer in Denmark without an increase in the mortality is mostly caused...... by opportunistic PSA screening in General Practice. It is recommended that men ≥ 60 year old diagnosed with prostate cancer and a Gleason score ≤ 6 are monitored with active surveillance. This is due to the probability of this type of cancer metastasizing is very small as approximately 90 % of them is assumed...

  8. Prostate cancer and inflammation: the evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfanos, Karen S; De Marzo, Angelo M

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is now known to contribute to several forms of human cancer, with an estimated 20% of adult cancers attributable to chronic inflammatory conditions caused by infectious agents, chronic noninfectious inflammatory diseases and / or other environmental factors. Indeed, chronic inflammation is now regarded as an ‘enabling characteristic’ of human cancer. The aim of this review is to summarize the current literature on the evidence for a role for chronic inflammation in prostate cancer aetiology, with a specific focus on recent advances regarding the following: (i) potential stimuli for prostatic inflammation; (ii) prostate cancer immunobiology; (iii) inflammatory pathways and cytokines in prostate cancer risk and development; (iv) proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) as a risk factor lesion to prostate cancer development; and (v) the role of nutritional or other antiinflammatory compounds in reducing prostate cancer risk. PMID:22212087

  9. Radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Bridget F; Lee, W Robert

    2013-07-01

    Radiation therapy is an effective treatment for newly diagnosed prostate cancer, salvage treatment, or for palliation of advanced disease. Herein we briefly discuss the indications, results, and complications associated with brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy, when used as monotherapy and in combination with each other or androgen deprivation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network (PCBN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    are linked to clinical and outcome data and supported by an informatics infrastructure . In this 2nd year of operation the University of Washington...REPORT Unclassified b. ABSTRACT Unclassified c. THIS PAGE Unclassified Unclassified 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code ) Standard Form 298...informatics infrastructure . Keywords Biorepository, prostate cancer, patient derived xenografts, rapid autopsy, biomarkers. Accomplishments The

  11. Genetics Home Reference: prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jan;73(2):169-75. doi: 10.1002/pros.22552. Epub 2012 Jun 21. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central Nakagawa H. Prostate cancer genomics by high-throughput technologies: genome-wide association study and sequencing analysis. Endocr ...

  12. Ultrasonography and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in differential diagnosis of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechev, D.S.; Shcherbyina, O.V.; Yatsik, V.Yi.; Gladka, L.Yu.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the work is analysis of diagnostic possibilities of transrectal ultrasonography and PSA in differential diagnosis of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. 142 patients have been investigated by transrectal ultrasonography. he transrectal ultrasonography and PSA are sensible tests in diagnosis of prostate cancer and in differential diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

  13. Molecular Determinants of Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    receptor is no longer essential for survival, collectively termed androgen pathway independent prostate cancer (APIPC) (Nelson, 2012). A subset of these...Reciprocal feedback regulation of PI3K and androgen receptor signaling in PTEN-deficient prostate cancer . Cancer Cell. 2011 May 17;19(5):575-86. Chen J, Li...2005a). The androgen receptor and signal-transduction pathways in hormone-refractory prostate cancer . Part 1: Modifications to the androgen receptor

  14. Molecular pathology of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazares, L H; Drake, R R; Esquela-Kirscher, A; Lance, R S; Semmes, O J; Troyer, D A

    2010-01-01

    This chapter includes discussion of the molecular pathology of tissue, blood, urine, and expressed prostatic secretions. Because we are unable to reliably image the disease in vivo, a 12 core method that oversamples the peripheral zone is widely used. This generates large numbers of cores that need to be carefully processed and sampled. In spite of the large number of tissue cores, the amount of tumor available for study is often quite limited. This is a particular challenge for research, as new biomarker assays will need to preserve tissue architecture intact for histopathology. Methods of processing and reporting pathology are discussed. With the exception of ductal variants, recognized subtypes of prostate cancer are largely confined to research applications, and most prostate cancers are acinar. Biomarker discovery in urine and expressed prostatic secretions would be useful since these are readily obtained and are proximate fluids. The well-known challenges of biomarker discovery in blood and urine are referenced and discussed. Mediators of carcinogenesis can serve as biomarkers as exemplified by mutations in PTEN and TMPRSS2:ERG fusion. The use of proteomics in biomarker discovery with an emphasis on imaging mass spectroscopy of tissues is discussed. Small RNAs are of great interest, however, their usefulness as biomarkers in clinical decision making remains the subject of ongoing research. The chapter concludes with an overview of blood biomarkers such as circulating nucleic acids and tumor cells and bound/free isoforms of prostate specific antigen (PSA).

  15. Profiling Prostate Cancer Therapeutic Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron A. Wade; Natasha Kyprianou

    2018-01-01

    The major challenge in the treatment of patients with advanced lethal prostate cancer is therapeutic resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) and chemotherapy. Overriding this resistance requires understanding of the driving mechanisms of the tumor microenvironment, not just the androgen receptor (AR)-signaling cascade, that facilitate therapeutic resistance in order to identify new drug targets. The tumor microenvironment enables key signaling pathways promoting cancer cell survival ...

  16. Protocols for Migration and Invasion Studies in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Merbel, Arjanneke F; van der Horst, Geertje; Buijs, Jeroen T; van der Pluijm, Gabri

    2018-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy diagnosed in men in the western world. The development of distant metastases and therapy resistance are major clinical problems in the management of prostate cancer patients. In order for prostate cancer to metastasize to distant sites in the human body, prostate cancer cells have to migrate and invade neighboring tissue. Cancer cells can acquire a migratory and invasive phenotype in several ways, including single cell and collective migration. As a requisite for migration, epithelial prostate cancer cells often need to acquire a motile, mesenchymal-like phenotype. This way prostate cancer cells often lose polarity and epithelial characteristics (e.g., expression of E-cadherin homotypic adhesion receptor), and acquire mesenchymal phenotype (for example, cytoskeletal rearrangements, enhanced expression of proteolytic enzymes and other repertory of integrins). This process is referred to as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Cellular invasion, one of the hallmarks of cancer, is characterized by the movement of cells through a three-dimensional matrix, resulting in remodeling of the cellular environment. Cellular invasion requires adhesion, proteolysis of the extracellular matrix, and migration of cells. Studying the migratory and invasive ability of cells in vitro represents a useful tool to assess the aggressiveness of solid cancers, including those of the prostate.This chapter provides a comprehensive description of the Transwell migration assay, a commonly used technique to investigate the migratory behavior of prostate cancer cells in vitro. Furthermore, we will provide an overview of the adaptations to the Transwell migration protocol to study the invasive capacity of prostate cancer cells, i.e., the Transwell invasion assay. Finally, we will present a detailed description of the procedures required to stain the Transwell filter inserts and quantify the migration and/or invasion.

  17. Estrogen receptors in the human male prostatic urethra and prostate in prostatic cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, A; Bruun, J; Balslev, E

    1999-01-01

    Estrogen receptors (ERs) in the prostate and prostatic urethra were examined in 33 men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and in 11 with prostate cancer (PC). The Abbot monoclonal ER-ICA assay was used for immunohistochemical investigation. In the BPH group, ERs were revealed in the prostatic...... demonstrated in the prostatic stroma and/or prostatic urethra in 6 out of 11 cases. In both BPH and PC patients, immunoreactivity was weak and confined to few cells, indicating low ER content in the prostate as well as in the prostatic urethra. Dextran-coated charcoal (DCC) analysis was used for detection...... and quanticization of cytosolic and nuclear ERs. In the BPH group, ERs were detected once in the prostate and prostatic urethra in the nuclear and cytosol, and additionally in the prostatic urethra in the cytosol fraction in three cases. In all cases, ER content was low, ranging from 10-15 fmol/mg protein. In the PC...

  18. Dietary flavonoid fisetin: A novel dual inhibitor of PI3K/Akt and mTOR for prostate cancer management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhami, Vaqar Mustafa; Syed, Deeba; Khan, Naghma; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic and case control population based studies over the past few decades have identified diet as an important determinant of cancer risk. This evidence has kindled an interest into research on bioactive food components and has till date resulted in the identification of many compounds with cancer preventive and therapeutic potential. Among such compounds has been fisetin (3,7,3’,4’-tetrahydroxyflavone), a flavonol and a member of the flavonoid polyphenols that also include quercetin, myricetin and kaempferol. Fisetin is commonly found in many fruits and vegetables such as apples, persimmons, grapes, kiwis, strawberries, onions and cucumbers. We evaluated the effects of fisetin against melanoma and cancers of the prostate, pancreas and the lungs. Using prostate and lung adenocarcinoma cells, we observed that fisetin acts as a dual inhibitor of the PI3K/Akt and the mTOR pathways. This is a significant finding considering the fact that mTOR is phosphorylated and its activation is more frequent in tumors with overexpression of PI3K/Akt. Dual inhibitors of PI3K/Akt and mTOR signaling have been suggested as valuable agents for treating such cancers. Here, we summarize our findings on the dietary flavonoid fisetin and its effects on cancer with particular focus on prostate cancer. Our observations and findings from other laboratories suggest that fisetin could be a useful chemotherapeutic agent that could be used either alone or as an adjuvant with conventional chemotherapeutic drugs for the management of prostate and other cancers. PMID:22842629

  19. Danish Prostate Cancer Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, J Thomas; Klemann, Nina; Røder, Martin Andreas

    2016-01-01

    of SNOMED codes were identified. A computer algorithm was developed to transcode SNOMED codes into an analyzable format including procedure (eg, biopsy, transurethral resection, etc), diagnosis, and date of diagnosis. For validation, ~55,000 pathological reports were manually reviewed. Prostate-specific...... antigen, vital status, causes of death, and tumor-node-metastasis classification were integrated from national registries. RESULTS: Of the 161,525 specimens from 113,801 males identified, 83,379 (51.6%) were sets of prostate biopsies, 56,118 (34.7%) were transurethral/transvesical resections......BACKGROUND: Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED) codes are computer-processable medical terms used to describe histopathological evaluations. SNOMED codes are not readily usable for analysis. We invented an algorithm that converts prostate SNOMED codes into an analyzable format. We...

  20. Immunotherapy and Immune Evasion in Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, Archana; Vaishampayan, Ulka; Lum, Lawrence G.

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic prostate cancer remains to this day a terminal disease. Prostatectomy and radiotherapy are effective for organ-confined diseases, but treatment for locally advanced and metastatic cancer remains challenging. Although advanced prostate cancers treated with androgen deprivation therapy achieves debulking of disease, responses are transient with subsequent development of castration-resistant and metastatic disease. Since prostate cancer is typically a slowly progressing disease, use of immune-based therapies offers an advantage to target advanced tumors and to induce antitumor immunity. This review will discuss the clinical merits of various vaccines and immunotherapies in castrate resistant prostate cancer and challenges to this evolving field of immune-based therapies

  1. Immunotherapy and Immune Evasion in Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, Archana, E-mail: thakur@karmanos.org; Vaishampayan, Ulka [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Lum, Lawrence G., E-mail: thakur@karmanos.org [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)

    2013-05-24

    Metastatic prostate cancer remains to this day a terminal disease. Prostatectomy and radiotherapy are effective for organ-confined diseases, but treatment for locally advanced and metastatic cancer remains challenging. Although advanced prostate cancers treated with androgen deprivation therapy achieves debulking of disease, responses are transient with subsequent development of castration-resistant and metastatic disease. Since prostate cancer is typically a slowly progressing disease, use of immune-based therapies offers an advantage to target advanced tumors and to induce antitumor immunity. This review will discuss the clinical merits of various vaccines and immunotherapies in castrate resistant prostate cancer and challenges to this evolving field of immune-based therapies.

  2. Diagnostic utility of DTI in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerses, Bengi, E-mail: bengur0@yahoo.com [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey); Tasdelen, Neslihan [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey); Yencilek, Faruk [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Urology, Istanbul (Turkey); Kilickesmez, N. Ozguer [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey); Alp, Turgut [Fatih Sultan Mehmet Training and Research Hospital, Division of Urology, Istanbul (Turkey); Firat, Zeynep [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey); Albayrak, M. Selami [Kartal Training and Research Hospital, Division of Urology, Istanbul (Turkey); Ulug, Aziz M. [Yeditepe University Department of Biomedical Engineering, Istanbul (Turkey); The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, New York (United States); Guermen, A. Nevzat [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the diffusion tensor parameters of prostate cancer, prostatitis and normal prostate tissue. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 patients with the suspicion of prostate cancer were included in the study. MRI was performed with 3 T system (Intera Achieva, Philips Medical Systems, The Netherlands). T2 TSE and DTI with ss-EPI were obtained in each subject. TRUS-guided prostate biopsy was performed after the MRI examination. Images were analyzed by two radiologists using a special software system. ROI's were drawn according to biopsy zones which are apex, midgland, base and central zone on each sides of the gland. FA and ADC values in areas of cancer, chronic prostatitis and normal prostate tissue were compared using Student's t-test. Results: Histopathological analysis revealed carcinoma in 68, chronic prostatitis in 67 and was reported as normal in 65 zones. The mean FA of cancerous tissue was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than the FA of chronic prostatitis and normal gland. The mean ADC of cancerous tissue was found to be significantly lower (p < 0.01), compared with non-cancerous tissue. Conclusion: Decreased ADC and increased FA are compatible with the hypercellular nature of prostate tumors. These differences may increase the accuracy of MRI in the detection of carcinoma and to differentiate between cancer and prostatitis.

  3. Diagnostic utility of DTI in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerses, Bengi; Tasdelen, Neslihan; Yencilek, Faruk; Kilickesmez, N. Ozguer; Alp, Turgut; Firat, Zeynep; Albayrak, M. Selami; Ulug, Aziz M.; Guermen, A. Nevzat

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the diffusion tensor parameters of prostate cancer, prostatitis and normal prostate tissue. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 patients with the suspicion of prostate cancer were included in the study. MRI was performed with 3 T system (Intera Achieva, Philips Medical Systems, The Netherlands). T2 TSE and DTI with ss-EPI were obtained in each subject. TRUS-guided prostate biopsy was performed after the MRI examination. Images were analyzed by two radiologists using a special software system. ROI's were drawn according to biopsy zones which are apex, midgland, base and central zone on each sides of the gland. FA and ADC values in areas of cancer, chronic prostatitis and normal prostate tissue were compared using Student's t-test. Results: Histopathological analysis revealed carcinoma in 68, chronic prostatitis in 67 and was reported as normal in 65 zones. The mean FA of cancerous tissue was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than the FA of chronic prostatitis and normal gland. The mean ADC of cancerous tissue was found to be significantly lower (p < 0.01), compared with non-cancerous tissue. Conclusion: Decreased ADC and increased FA are compatible with the hypercellular nature of prostate tumors. These differences may increase the accuracy of MRI in the detection of carcinoma and to differentiate between cancer and prostatitis.

  4. Feasibility of an interactive ICT-platform for early assessment and management of patient-reported symptoms during radiotherapy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Kay; Eklöf, Ann Langius; Blomberg, Karin; Isaksson, Ann-Kristin; Wengström, Yvonne

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of an Information and Communication Technology platform for assessing and managing patient reported symptoms during radiotherapy for prostate cancer. In cooperation with a health management company, using a patient experience co-design, we developed the platform operated by an interactive application for reporting and managing symptoms in real time. Nine patients diagnosed with prostate cancer and receiving radiotherapy were recruited from two university hospitals in Sweden. Evidence-based symptoms and related self-care advice specific to prostate cancer were implemented in the application based on a literature review and interviews with patients and health care professionals. In the test of the platform the patients reported symptoms, via a mobile phone, daily for two weeks and were afterwards interviewed about their experiences. Overall, the patients found the symptom questionnaire and the self-care advice relevant and the application user friendly. The alert system was activated on several occasions when the symptoms were severe leading to a nurse contact and support so the patients felt safe and well cared for. The platform enabled increased patient involvement and facilitated symptom assessment and communication between the patient and the health care provider. The study's results support further development of the platform, as well as tests in full-scale studies and in other populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Granulomatous prostatitis after intravesical immunotherapy mimicking prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Białek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Intravesical immunotherapy with attenuated strains of Mycobacterium bovis is a widely used therapeutic option in patients with non-muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. A rare complication of intravesical therapy with the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine is granulomatous prostatitis, which due to increasing levels of prostate-specific antigen and abnormalities found in transrectal examination of the prostate may suggest concomitant prostate cancer. A case of extensive granulomatous prostatitis in a 61-year-old patient which occurred after the first course of a well-tolerated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy is presented. Due to abnormalities found in rectal examination and an abnormal transrectal ultrasound image of the prostate with extensive infiltration mimicking neoplastic hyperplasia a core biopsy of the prostate was performed. Histopathological examination revealed inflammatory infiltration sites of tuberculosis origin.

  6. Clinical survey of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Tsuyoshi; Hatano, Koji; Satoh, Mototaka; Tsujimoto, Yuichi; Honda, Masahito; Matsumiya, Kiyomi; Fujioka, Hideki

    2007-01-01

    Treatment trends and outcomes for prostate cancer in our hospital were reported. A total of 482 patients with prostate cancer treated in our hospital between January, 1990 and December, 2004. The age distribution was from 51 to 99 years-old, with the mean age of 72.9 years-old at onset. The number of prostate cancer patients, especially asymptomatic patients with prostatic specific antigen (PSA) elevation, have increased recently. As for the clinical stage, 92 cases (19.1%), 238 cases (49.4%), 48 cases (10.0%) and 104 cases (21.6%) were stage A, B, C and D, respectively. 425 cases (88.2%) received some form of endocrine therapy. Retropubic prostatectomy or external beam radiation therapy was performed in 77 and 57 cases, respectively all cases. The cause-specific 5-year survival rate of the 482 cases was 79.7%, comprising 100% for stage A1, 96.8% for stage A2, 89.4% for stage B, 79.9% for stage C and 42.9% for stage D. The cause-specific 5-year survival was significantly better in the latter patients (1997-2004) than the former patients (1990-1996) in stage C (p=0.0226), D (p=0.0448). In stage C patients, the retropubic prostatectomy (with endocrine therapy) group, increased in the latter period and showed longer cause-specific 5-year survival than the endocrine therapy group (p=0.0027). In stage D2 patients, chemo-endocrine therapy with etoposide (VP-16), adriamycin (ADM) and cisplatin (CDDP) refractory and cause-specific 5-year survival was longer than endocrine therapy alone (p=0.0467, P=0.0381). Our results suggest that retropubic prostatectomy with endocrine therapy and chemo-endocrine therapy are useful for stage C and D prostate cancer patients, respectively. (author)

  7. Cannabinoid Receptors: A Novel Target for Therapy of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    study could be to develop nonhabit-forming cannabi - noid agonist (s) for the management of prostate cancer . REFERENCES 1. Jemal, A., Siegel, R.W...for Therapy of Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Prof. Hasan Mukhtar, Ph.D (PI) Dr. Farrukh Afaq, Ph.D (Co-Investigator...REPORT DATE: February 2007 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command

  8. Prioritizing genes associated with prostate cancer development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorlov, Ivan P; Logothetis, Christopher J; Sircar, Kanishka; Zhao, Hongya; Maity, Sankar N; Navone, Nora M; Gorlova, Olga Y; Troncoso, Patricia; Pettaway, Curtis A; Byun, Jin Young

    2010-01-01

    The genetic control of prostate cancer development is poorly understood. Large numbers of gene-expression datasets on different aspects of prostate tumorigenesis are available. We used these data to identify and prioritize candidate genes associated with the development of prostate cancer and bone metastases. Our working hypothesis was that combining meta-analyses on different but overlapping steps of prostate tumorigenesis will improve identification of genes associated with prostate cancer development. A Z score-based meta-analysis of gene-expression data was used to identify candidate genes associated with prostate cancer development. To put together different datasets, we conducted a meta-analysis on 3 levels that follow the natural history of prostate cancer development. For experimental verification of candidates, we used in silico validation as well as in-house gene-expression data. Genes with experimental evidence of an association with prostate cancer development were overrepresented among our top candidates. The meta-analysis also identified a considerable number of novel candidate genes with no published evidence of a role in prostate cancer development. Functional annotation identified cytoskeleton, cell adhesion, extracellular matrix, and cell motility as the top functions associated with prostate cancer development. We identified 10 genes--CDC2, CCNA2, IGF1, EGR1, SRF, CTGF, CCL2, CAV1, SMAD4, and AURKA--that form hubs of the interaction network and therefore are likely to be primary drivers of prostate cancer development. By using this large 3-level meta-analysis of the gene-expression data to identify candidate genes associated with prostate cancer development, we have generated a list of candidate genes that may be a useful resource for researchers studying the molecular mechanisms underlying prostate cancer development

  9. Multiple Primary Cancers: Simultaneously Occurring Prostate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-20

    May 20, 2016 ... occurring prostate cancer and other primary tumors-our experience and literature ..... thyroid cancers, pancreatic tumors, renal cancers, and melanoma. ... Hsing AW, Yeboah E, Biritwum R, Tettey Y, De Marzo AM,. Adjei A, et ...

  10. New serum biomarkers for prostate cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Kailash C.; Miller, Austin; Nair, Bindukumar B.; Schwartz, Stanley A.; Trump, Donald L.; Underwood, Willie

    2014-01-01

    Background Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is currently used as a biomarker for diagnosis and management of prostate cancer (CaP). However, PSA typically lacks the sensitivity and specificity desired of a diagnostic marker. Objective The goal of this study was to identify an additional biomarker or a panel of biomarkers that is more sensitive and specific than PSA in differentiating benign versus malignant prostate disease and/or localized CaP versus metastatic CaP. Methods Concurrent measurements of circulating interleukin-8 (IL-8), Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptors 1 (sTNFR1) were obtained from four groups of men: (1) Controls (2) with elevated prostate-specific antigen with a negative prostate biopsy (elPSA_negBx) (3) with clinically localized CaP and (4) with castration resistant prostate cancer. Results TNF-α Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.93) and sTNFR1 (AUC = 0.97) were strong predictors of elPSA_negBx (vs. CaP). The best predictor of elPSA_negBx vs CaP was sTNFR1 and IL-8 combined (AUC = 0.997). The strongest single predictors of localized versus metastatic CaP were TNF-α (AUC = 0.992) and PSA (AUC = 0.963) levels. Conclusions The specificity and sensitivity of a PSA-based CaP diagnosis can be significantly enhanced by concurrent serum measurements of IL-8, TNF-α and sTNFR1. In view of the concerns about the ability of PSA to distinguish clinically relevant CaP from indolent disease, assessment of these biomarkers in the larger cohort is warranted. PMID:25593898

  11. Prostate Cancer Screening : The effect on prostate cancer mortality and incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. van Leeuwen (Pim)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAt first glance, deciding whether to get the PSA screening test for prostate cancer seems to be pretty straightforward and attractive. It’s a simple blood test that can pick up the prostate cancer long before your symptoms appear. After all, your prostate cancer is earlier treated

  12. Are we sleeping on the job? Insomnia among men with prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Josephine Drummond

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in men and almost half of male cancer survivors in the US have had a prostate cancer diagnosis. Insomnia is common among cancer patients and survivors. There is evidence that cognitive behavioural therapy can be used to effectively manage insomnia among women with breast cancer. The aim of this review was to investigate the prevalence, risk factors and management of insomnia among men with prostate cancer. The effect of insomnia on the psychological health and health-related quality of life of these patients and/or survivors is also discussed. Increased awareness and knowledge of this symptom among men with prostate cancer may facilitate improved diagnosis, and management of insomnia in this large population. This in turn may improve the health-related quality of life of these men. Therefore, research into the effective management of insomnia among men with prostate cancer is essential.

  13. Src: marker or actor of prostate cancer aggressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie eVlaeminck-Guillem

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A key question for urologic practitioners is whether an apparently organ-confined prostate cancer is actually aggressive or not. The dilemma is to specifically identify among all prostate tumors the very aggressive high-grade cancers that will become life-threatening by developing extra-prostatic invasion and metastatic potential and the indolent cancers that will never modify a patient’s life expectancy. A choice must be made between several therapeutic options to achieve the optimal personalized management of the disease that causes as little harm as possible to patients. Reliable clinical, biological or pathological markers that would enable distinctions to be made between aggressive and indolen prostate cancers in routine practice at the time of initial diagnosis are still lacking. The molecular mechanisms that explain why a prostate cancer is aggressive or not are also poorly understood. Among the potential markers and/or actors in prostate cancer aggressiveness, Src and other members of the Src kinase family, are valuable candidates. Activation of Src-dependent intracellular pathways is frequently observed in prostate cancer. Indeed, Src is at the cross-roads of several pathways (including androgen receptor, TGFbeta, Bcl-2, Akt/PTEN or MAPK and ERK …, and is now known to influence some of the cellular and tissular events that accompany tumor progression: cell proliferation, cell motility, invasion, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, resistance to apoptosis, angiogenesis, neuroendocrine differentiation, and metastatic spread. Recent work even suggests that Src could also play a part in prostate cancer initiation in coordination with the androgen receptor. The aim of this review is to gather data that explores the links between the Src kinase family and prostate cancer progression and aggressiveness.

  14. Transrectal ultrasound imaging and prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossen, Tjerk; Wijkstra, Hessel

    2003-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most important causes of death from cancer in men. Ultrasound imaging is frequently used in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. This paper presents an overview of currently available ultrasound imaging techniques. The underlying principles and methods are discussed

  15. The lived experience of men diagnosed with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumwiede, Kelly A; Krumwiede, Norma

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the lived experience of prostate cancer from a patient perspective. Descriptive, qualitative. Community setting. 10 men with prostate cancer aged 62-70 years. A hermeneutic phenomenologic method using semistructured, open-ended questions addressing the lived experience. Phenomenology of praxis proposed by van Manen guided the data analysis and transformed personal experiences into disciplinary understanding. The use of van Manen's method of inquiry and analysis has contributed to the findings of the study by providing a way to explore the meaning of the lived experiences in an attempt to understand living with prostate cancer. Several themes were identified: living in the unknown, yearning to understand and know, struggling with unreliability of body, bearing the diagnosis of cancer, shifting priorities in the gap, and feeling comfort in the presence of others. Oncology nurses can use van Manen's four fundamental existentials-lived space (spatiality), lived body (corporeality), lived time (temporality), and lived other (relationality)-to understand the lived experience of prostate cancer. Nurses have many opportunities to impact the lives of men diagnosed with prostate cancer, including diagnosis, management of physical integrity, management of psychosocial integrity, and providing education. Nurses may encourage men to describe their diagnosis story and illness experience to better understand the meaning of the prostate cancer experience and to provide appropriate nursing care.

  16. Vitamin D, Sunlight and Prostate Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Vanaja Donkena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second common cancer in men worldwide. The prevention of prostate cancer remains a challenge to researchers and clinicians. Here, we review the relationship of vitamin D and sunlight to prostate cancer risk. Ultraviolet radiation of the sunlight is the main stimulator for vitamin D production in humans. Vitamin D's antiprostate cancer activities may be involved in the actions through the pathways mediated by vitamin D metabolites, vitamin D metabolizing enzymes, vitamin D receptor (VDR, and VDR-regulated genes. Although laboratory studies including the use of animal models have shown that vitamin D has antiprostate cancer properties, whether it can effectively prevent the development and/or progression of prostate cancer in humans remains to be inconclusive and an intensively studied subject. This review will provide up-to-date information regarding the recent outcomes of laboratory and epidemiology studies on the effects of vitamin D on prostate cancer prevention.

  17. Molecular diagnosis of prostate cancer: Topical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Knyazev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the second most common cancer and the fifth highest malignancy mortality rate in men worldwide. Although PC is detectable in 15-20% of men during life, its death risk is only about 3%. This means that not all PC cases require the same management tactics. The given review analyzes the current investigations searching for molecular biological markers to predict the course of PC and to choose its treatment policy, including that in the development of resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy.

  18. Issues reporting PSA in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, Paul H.

    1996-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute Prostate; Lung; Colon; Ovarian Cancer Screening (PLCO) project is a multi-center trial developed to investigate the effectiveness of DRE and PSA testing in the early detection and outcome of patients with prostate cancer. Accordingly, the Prostate Cancer Intervention versus Observation Trial (PIVOT) has been launched and is a randomized trial comparing radical prostatectomy versus expectant management for ALCaP. PSA: Initially PSA was thought to be of little value for diagnosis because 20% of men undergoing radical prostatectomy have 'normal' PSA and patients with apparently only symptomatic BPH have 'elevated' levels as follows: 4-10 ng/ml (Tandem-R) - 20%, >10 ng/ml -3%. Yet, PSA has looked attractive as a diagnostic tool in many studies; for example, when PSA was used in a screening approach as the first test which then drove further evaluation (Catalona, Brawer). It was shown that the positive predictive value for PSA's between 4 and 10 is approximately 20% and > 10 approximately 55%. The value of serial PSA's (velocity) is unknown but is under intense study: one major issue is determination of what represents a significant rise (details to be presented). Studies have also revealed that a DRE and PSA are important for optimal results. About 18% of clinically detectable cancers are only DRE positive while about 25 - 30% are only PSA positive. When both a DRE and PSA are used together, very few clinically apparent cancers are missed (3-5%). Recent ROC curves suggest that 4 ng/ml is reasonable. Recently, PSA values for men without apparent cancer were stratified by age, and taking the 2SD, age specific reference values were generated as follows: age 40-49 (0-2.5 ng/ml), 50-59 (0-3.5), 60-69 (0-4.5), 70-70 (0-6.5). Finally, there is the issue about different PSA assays regarding the compatabilities/reliability of the upper limit of normal and serial values. Much of the confusion is because there is no international PSA standard and

  19. Estrogen receptors in the human male prostatic urethra and prostate in prostatic cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, A; Bruun, J; Balslev, E

    1999-01-01

    Estrogen receptors (ERs) in the prostate and prostatic urethra were examined in 33 men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and in 11 with prostate cancer (PC). The Abbot monoclonal ER-ICA assay was used for immunohistochemical investigation. In the BPH group, ERs were revealed in the prostatic...... stroma in eight cases and in the glandular epithelium in one. In four cases ERs were seen in the prostatic stroma and in the glandular epithelium. In the prostatic urethra, ERs were found in 19 cases located in the urothelium, lamina propria and/or periurethral glands. In the PC group, ERs were...... demonstrated in the prostatic stroma and/or prostatic urethra in 6 out of 11 cases. In both BPH and PC patients, immunoreactivity was weak and confined to few cells, indicating low ER content in the prostate as well as in the prostatic urethra. Dextran-coated charcoal (DCC) analysis was used for detection...

  20. Imaging Primary Prostate Cancer and Bone Metastasis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2004-01-01

    ... and androgen independent prostate cancer xenografted mice. Specific Aims: (1) Design, synthesize, and characterize positrori emitting bombesin analogs, labeled with copper-64 or fluorine-I 8; (2...

  1. Punctuated evolution of prostate cancer genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, Sylvan C; Prandi, Davide; Lawrence, Michael S; Mosquera, Juan Miguel; Romanel, Alessandro; Drier, Yotam; Park, Kyung; Kitabayashi, Naoki; MacDonald, Theresa Y; Ghandi, Mahmoud; Van Allen, Eliezer; Kryukov, Gregory V; Sboner, Andrea; Theurillat, Jean-Philippe; Soong, T David; Nickerson, Elizabeth; Auclair, Daniel; Tewari, Ashutosh; Beltran, Himisha; Onofrio, Robert C; Boysen, Gunther; Guiducci, Candace; Barbieri, Christopher E; Cibulskis, Kristian; Sivachenko, Andrey; Carter, Scott L; Saksena, Gordon; Voet, Douglas; Ramos, Alex H; Winckler, Wendy; Cipicchio, Michelle; Ardlie, Kristin; Kantoff, Philip W; Berger, Michael F; Gabriel, Stacey B; Golub, Todd R; Meyerson, Matthew; Lander, Eric S; Elemento, Olivier; Getz, Gad; Demichelis, Francesca; Rubin, Mark A; Garraway, Levi A

    2013-04-25

    The analysis of exonic DNA from prostate cancers has identified recurrently mutated genes, but the spectrum of genome-wide alterations has not been profiled extensively in this disease. We sequenced the genomes of 57 prostate tumors and matched normal tissues to characterize somatic alterations and to study how they accumulate during oncogenesis and progression. By modeling the genesis of genomic rearrangements, we identified abundant DNA translocations and deletions that arise in a highly interdependent manner. This phenomenon, which we term "chromoplexy," frequently accounts for the dysregulation of prostate cancer genes and appears to disrupt multiple cancer genes coordinately. Our modeling suggests that chromoplexy may induce considerable genomic derangement over relatively few events in prostate cancer and other neoplasms, supporting a model of punctuated cancer evolution. By characterizing the clonal hierarchy of genomic lesions in prostate tumors, we charted a path of oncogenic events along which chromoplexy may drive prostate carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychosocial and Patient Education Needs of Prostate Cancers Selecting Watchful Waiting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knight, Sara J; Latini, David M

    2006-01-01

    ... of this approach to disease management. We propose to gather data from prostate cancer patients selecting watchful waiting in lieu of an active treatment for their cancer in order to understand the psychosocial and symptom management...

  3. Enhancing Survivorship Care Planning for Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer Using a Couple-Focused mHealth Symptom Self-Management Program: Protocol for a Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lixin; Dunlap, Kaitlyn L; Tan, Xianming; Chen, Ronald C; Nielsen, Matthew E; Rabenberg, Rebecca L; Asafu-Adjei, Josephine K; Koontz, Bridget F; Birken, Sarah A; Northouse, Laurel L; Mayer, Deborah K

    2018-02-26

    This project explores a new model of care that enhances survivorship care planning and promotes health for men with localized prostate cancer transitioning to posttreatment self-management. Survivorship care planning is important for patients with prostate cancer because of its high incidence rate in the United States, the frequent occurrence of treatment-related side effects, and reduced quality of life (QOL) for both men and their partners. A key component of comprehensive survivorship care planning is survivorship care plans (SCPs), documents that summarize cancer diagnosis, treatment, and plans for follow-up care. However, research concerning the effectiveness of SCPs on patient outcomes or health service use has thus far been inconclusive. SCPs that are tailored to individual patients' needs for information and care may improve effectiveness. This study aims to examine the feasibility of an enhanced survivorship care plan (ESCP) that integrates a symptom self-management mHealth program called Prostate Cancer Education and Resources for Couples (PERC) into the existing standardized SCP. The specific aims are to (1) examine the feasibility of delivering ESCPs and (2) to estimate the magnitude of benefit of ESCPs. We will use a two-group randomized controlled pretest-posttest design and collect data at baseline (T1) and 4 months later (T2) among 50 patients completing initial treatment for localized prostate cancer and their partners. First, we will assess the feasibility of ESCP by recruitment, enrollment, and retention rates; program satisfaction with the ESCP; and perceived ease of use of the ESCP. To achieve the secondary aim, we will compare the ESCP users with the standardized SCP users and assess their primary outcomes of QOL (overall, physical, emotional, and social QOL); secondary outcomes (reduction in negative appraisals and improvement in self-efficacy, social support, and health behaviors to manage symptoms); and number of visits to posttreatment

  4. The epigenome as a therapeutic target in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Antoinette S; Watson, R William G; Lawler, Mark; Hollywood, Donal

    2010-12-01

    During cancer development and progression, tumor cells undergo abnormal epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation, histone deacetylation and nucleosome remodeling. Collectively, these aberrations promote genomic instability and lead to silencing of tumor-suppressor genes and reactivation of oncogenic retroviruses. Epigenetic modifications, therefore, provide exciting new avenues for prostate cancer research. Promoter hypermethylation is widespread during neoplastic transformation of prostate cells, which suggests that restoration of a 'normal' epigenome through treatment with inhibitors of the enzymes involved could be clinically beneficial. Global patterns of histone modifications are also being defined and have been associated with clinical and pathologic predictors of prostate cancer outcome. Although treatment for localized prostate cancer can be curative, the development of successful therapies for the management of castration-resistant metastatic disease is urgently needed. Reactivation of tumor-suppressor genes by demethylating agents and histone deacetylase inhibitors could be a potential treatment option for patients with advanced disease.

  5. [Medical treatment of prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobel, B; Cipolla, B; Labrador, J

    1994-03-01

    Hormone dependence of prostate cancer is well known. In 80% of cases with metastases, hormone suppression leads to the reduction of tumour volume and related disorders. However the treatment is generally palliative because malignant process recurs after about around 16 months. Mean survival is less than 3 years in these forms. Lack of response come always together with a poor prognosis, and there is 90% mortality at 2 years. Advanced prostatic cancer should not be treated with hormones if the patient has few symptoms and his quality of life is satisfactory. Symptomatic forms require hormone manipulation. Orchidectomy or LH-RH are recommended. Total androgen ablation (combined treatment) leads rapidly to more relief of symptoms, but its drawbacks and especially high cost indicate that its use should be weighed individually. Estramustine is not a first-lune treatment. Presently, there is no criteria to predict response to treatment.

  6. Surveillance after prostate cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supiot, S.; Rio, E.; Clement-Colmou, K.; Bouchot, O.; Rigaud, J.

    2011-01-01

    Follow-up after prostate cancer radiotherapy aims at detecting local or metastatic relapse, as well as long-term toxicity, requiring adapted treatments. Several scientific societies have published guidelines including clinical, biological and imaging recommendations. More data suggest a role for aggressive salvage therapy in case of local failure following radiotherapy. An adequate follow-up is required for the sake of patients' safety, i.e. to a posteriori validate dose constraints and radiation technique in each radiotherapy department. (authors)

  7. Targeting Splicing in Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Effrosyni Antonopoulou; Michael Ladomery

    2018-01-01

    Over 95% of human genes are alternatively spliced, expressing splice isoforms that often exhibit antagonistic functions. We describe genes whose alternative splicing has been linked to prostate cancer; namely VEGFA, KLF6, BCL2L2, ERG, and AR. We discuss opportunities to develop novel therapies that target specific splice isoforms, or that target the machinery of splicing. Therapeutic approaches include the development of small molecule inhibitors of splice factor kinases, splice isoform speci...

  8. Prostate Cancer Biospecimen Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army...SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES...14. ABSTRACT The goal of the study is development of a Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network (PCBN) resource site with high quality and well

  9. Prostate cancer trends in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaza, Hideyuki; Onozawa, Mizuki; Hinotsu, Shiro

    2017-06-01

    Differences in the incidence and mortality rates for prostate cancer between East and West are clearly defined, with higher rates in the West and lower rates in the East. Treatment methods are generally selected in accordance with general practice guidelines, but the current reality in Asia is that there is not sufficient clinical data to set Asia-specific guidelines for treatment. This leads to a situation whereby for the large part guidelines based on scientific evidence accumulated in Western countries are followed, but from time to time cases are encountered when such guidelines may not be considered to be the most appropriate for the case at hand. Although there is a relatively large volume of clinical evidence relating to endocrine therapy in Asia, the treatment choices and effects differ to those in the West. These regional differences are thought to be due to various factors, including not only differences in genetic background, but also distinct differences in the living and healthcare environments. If the differences between East and West in terms of trends in prostate cancer could be examined, with positive aspects being adopted and negative aspects being improved, this could also be expected to be of use in developing a better treatment strategy for prostate cancer. The exchanging of information on a broader, global level will enable improvements in prevention, diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. It is in pursuit of this objective that it is important to promote high-quality clinical trials and joint epidemiological studies in Asia and work to accumulate data that are comparable to data available in Western countries.

  10. Precision medicine for advanced prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullane, Stephanie A; Van Allen, Eliezer M

    2016-05-01

    Precision cancer medicine, the use of genomic profiling of patient tumors at the point-of-care to inform treatment decisions, is rapidly changing treatment strategies across cancer types. Precision medicine for advanced prostate cancer may identify new treatment strategies and change clinical practice. In this review, we discuss the potential and challenges of precision medicine in advanced prostate cancer. Although primary prostate cancers do not harbor highly recurrent targetable genomic alterations, recent reports on the genomics of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer has shown multiple targetable alterations in castration-resistant prostate cancer metastatic biopsies. Therapeutic implications include targeting prevalent DNA repair pathway alterations with PARP-1 inhibition in genomically defined subsets of patients, among other genomically stratified targets. In addition, multiple recent efforts have demonstrated the promise of liquid tumor profiling (e.g., profiling circulating tumor cells or cell-free tumor DNA) and highlighted the necessary steps to scale these approaches in prostate cancer. Although still in the initial phase of precision medicine for prostate cancer, there is extraordinary potential for clinical impact. Efforts to overcome current scientific and clinical barriers will enable widespread use of precision medicine approaches for advanced prostate cancer patients.

  11. Localised prostate cancer and hemophilia A (AHA: Case report and management of the disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Celestino

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acquired Hemophilia A (AHA is a rare bleeding diathesis characterized by the development of autoantibodies against factor VIII (FVIII. About half of the cases are idiopathic and the other half are associated with autoimmune diseases, postpartum problems, infections, inflammatory bowel disease, drugs, lymphoproliferative disorders or solid tumors . AHA is associated with malignancies in 7-15% of cases. We report a case of AHA in a 65 year old patient with prostatic carcinoma, who underwent retropubic radical prostatectomy (RP.

  12. Cytogenetics of Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Konig (Josee)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractIn mosl Weslern counlries, proslale cancer (PC) is a common malignancy. In Ihe United Siaies cancer slatistics of 1994, PC has Ihe highesl incidence rale and is Ihe Ihird cause of cancer dealhs [Boring el al '94J. In Ihe Nelherlands, which lakes Ihe ninlh place on Ihe IIsl of PC

  13. Development of New Treatments for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPaola, R. S.; Abate-Shen, C.; Hait, W. N.

    2005-02-01

    The Dean and Betty Gallo Prostate Cancer Center (GPCC) was established with the goal of eradicating prostate cancer and improving the lives of men at risk for the disease through research, treatment, education and prevention. GPCC was founded in the memory of Dean Gallo, a beloved New Jersey Congressman who died tragically of prostate cancer diagnosed at an advanced stage. GPCC unites a team of outstanding researchers and clinicians who are committed to high-quality basic research, translation of innovative research to the clinic, exceptional patient care, and improving public education and awareness of prostate cancer. GPCC is a center of excellence of The Cancer Institute of New Jersey, which is the only NCI-designated comprehensive cancer center in the state. GPCC efforts are now integrated well as part of our Prostate Program at CINJ, in which Dr. Robert DiPaola and Dr. Cory Abate-Shen are co-leaders. The Prostate Program unites 19 investigators from 10 academic departments who have broad and complementary expertise in prostate cancer research. The overall goal and unifying theme is to elucidate basic mechanisms of prostate growth and oncogenesis, with the ultimate goal of promoting new and effective strategies for the eradication of prostate cancer. Members' wide range of research interests collectively optimize the chances of providing new insights into normal prostate biology and unraveling the molecular pathophysiology of prostate cancer. Cell culture and powerful animal models developed by program members recapitulate the various stages of prostate cancer progression, including prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, adenocarcinoma, androgen-independence, invasion and metastases. These models promise to further strengthen an already robust program of investigator-initiated therapeutic clinical trials, including studies adopted by national cooperative groups. Efforts to translate laboratory results into clinical studies of early detection and

  14. Vietnam military service history and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritschi Lin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three decades after US and Australian forces withdrew from Vietnam, there has been much public interest in the health consequences of service in Vietnam. One controversial question is whether the risk of prostate cancer amongst Vietnam veterans is increased. This paper examines relationships between military history, family history and risk of prostate cancer in a population-based case control study. Methods Cases were selected from the Cancer Registry of Western Australia as incident cases of histologically-confirmed prostate cancer, and controls were age-matched and selected from the Western Australian electoral roll. Study participants were asked to report any military service history and details about that service. Results Between January 2001 and September 2002, 606 cases and 471 controls aged between 40–75 years were recruited. An increased prostate cancer risk was observed in men reporting they were deployed in Vietnam although this was not statistically significant (OR = 2.12; 95% CI 0.88–5.06. An increased risk was also observed in men reporting prostate cancer in fathers (OR = 1.90; 95% CI 1.20–3.00 or brothers (OR = 2.05; 95% CI 1.20–3.50 diagnosed with prostate cancer. Conclusion These findings support a positive association between prostate cancer and military service history in the Vietnam war and a first degree relative family history of prostate cancer.

  15. Multidisciplinary Functional MR Imaging for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Kon; Jang, Yun Jin; Cho, Gyung Goo

    2009-01-01

    Various functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques are used for evaluating prostate cancer including diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast- enhanced MR imaging, and MR spectroscopy. These techniques provide unique information that is helpful to differentiate prostate cancer from non-cancerous tissue and have been proven to improve the diagnostic performance of MRI not only for cancer detection, but also for staging, post-treatment monitoring, and guiding prostate biopsies. However, each functional MR imaging technique also has inherent challenges. Therefore, in order to make accurate diagnoses, it is important to comprehensively understand their advantages and limitations, histologic background related with image findings, and their clinical relevance for evaluating prostate cancer. This article will review the basic principles and clinical significance of functional MR imaging for evaluating prostate cancer

  16. Pubertal development and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonilla, Carolina; Lewis, Sarah J; Martin, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    , 0.91-1.00) and prostate cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio amongst cases, per tertile: 0.94; 95 % CI, 0.90-0.98), but not with disease grade. CONCLUSIONS: Older age at sexual maturation is causally linked to a reduced risk of later prostate cancer, especially aggressive disease.......BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have observed a positive association between an earlier age at sexual development and prostate cancer, but markers of sexual maturation in boys are imprecise and observational estimates are likely to suffer from a degree of uncontrolled confounding. To obtain...... to a difference of one Tanner stage between pubertal boys of the same age) was associated with a 77 % (95 % CI, 43-91 %) reduced odds of high Gleason prostate cancer. In PRACTICAL, the puberty genetic score was associated with prostate cancer stage (OR of advanced vs. localized cancer, per tertile: 0.95; 95 % CI...

  17. The Prostate Cancer Registry: monitoring patterns and quality of care for men diagnosed with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sue M; Millar, Jeremy L; Wood, Julie M; Davis, Ian D; Bolton, Damien; Giles, Graham G; Frydenberg, Mark; Frauman, Albert; Costello, Antony; McNeil, John J

    2013-04-01

    To establish a pilot population-based clinical registry with the aim of monitoring the quality of care provided to men diagnosed with prostate cancer. All men aged >18 years from the contributing hospitals in Victoria, Australia, who have a diagnosis of prostate cancer confirmed by histopathology report notified to the Victorian Cancer Registry are eligible for inclusion in the Prostate Cancer Registry (PCR). A literature review was undertaken aiming to identify existing quality indicators and source evidence-based guidelines from both Australia and internationally. A Steering Committee was established to determine the minimum dataset, select quality indicators to be reported back to clinicians, identify the most effective recruitment strategy, and provide a governance structure for data requests; collection, analysis and reporting of data; and managing outliers. A minimum dataset comprising 72 data items is collected by the PCR, enabling ten quality indicators to be collected and reported. Outcome measures are risk adjusted according to the established National Comprehensive Cancer Network and Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment Score (surgery only) risk stratification model. Recruitment to the PCR occurs concurrently with mandatory notification to the state-based Cancer Registry. The PCR adopts an opt-out consent process to maximize recruitment. The data collection approach is standardized, using a hybrid of data linkage and manual collection, and data collection forms are electronically scanned into the PCR. A data access policy and escalation policy for mortality outliers has been developed. The PCR provides potential for high-quality population-based data to be collected and managed within a clinician-led governance framework. This approach satisfies the requirement for health services to establish quality assessment, at the same time as providing clinically credible data to clinicians to drive practice improvement. © 2012 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL

  18. Prostate Cancer Stem-Like Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death among men, killing an estimated 27,000 men each year in the United States. Men with advanced prostate cancer often become resistant to conventional therapies. Many researchers speculate that the emergence of resistance is due to the presence of cancer stem cells, which are believed to be a small subpopulation

  19. Adherence to Report and Patient Perception of an Interactive App for Managing Symptoms During Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer: Descriptive Study of Logged and Interview Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langius-Eklöf, Ann; Christiansen, Mats; Lindström, Veronica; Blomberg, Karin; Hälleberg Nyman, Maria; Wengström, Yvonne; Sundberg, Kay

    2017-10-31

    Patients undergoing radiotherapy for prostate cancer experience symptoms related to both the cancer itself and its treatment, and it is evident that patients with prostate cancer have unmet supportive care needs related to their disease. Over the past decade, there has been an increase in the amount of research within the field of mobile health and the use of apps as tools for managing illness. The main challenge is to develop a mobile technology to its full potential of being interactive in real time. The interactive app Interaktor, which aims to identify and manage symptoms in real time includes (1) a function for patients' assessment of the occurrence, frequency, and distress of symptoms; (2) a connection to a monitoring Web interface; (3) a risk assessment model that sends alerts via text message to health care providers; (4) continuous access to evidence-based self-care advice and links to relevant websites for more information; and (5) graphs for the patients and health care providers to view the history of symptom reporting. The aim of the study was to investigate user behavior, adherence to reporting, and the patients' experiences of using Interaktor during radiotherapy for localized advanced prostate cancer. The patients were instructed to report daily during the time of treatment and then for an additional 3 weeks. Logged data from patients' use of the app were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Interview data about experiences of using the app were analyzed with content analysis. A total of 66 patients participated in the study. Logged data showed that adherence to daily reporting of symptoms was high (87%). The patients used all the symptoms included in the app. Of the reports, 15.6% generated alerts to the health care providers. Overall, the patients found that it was easy and not particularly time-consuming to send a daily report, and many described it as becoming a routine. Reporting symptoms facilitated reflection on their symptoms and gave them

  20. Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer ... because of timely detection and treatment of his prostate cancer. He participated in an NIH-sponsored clinical trial. ...

  1. Staging of prostate cancer: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallejos, J.; Alvarez, C.; Mariluis, C.; Paganini, L.; González, C.; De Luca, S.; Dieguez, A.; Villaronga, A.

    2013-01-01

    In our country prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in older men. An accurate staging is very important to establish treatment strategies.This article presents the 7th edition TNM staging system for prostate cancer, effective January 1, 2010. This has undergone major changes over the 6th edition. (authors) [es

  2. Androgen receptor profiling predicts prostate cancer outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Stelloo (Suzan); E. Nevedomskaya (Ekaterina); H.G. van der Poel (Henk G.); J. de Jong (Jeroen); G.J.H.L. Leenders (Geert); G.W. Jenster (Guido); L. Wessels (Lodewyk); A.M. Bergman (Andries); W. Zwart (Wilbert)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer is the second most prevalent malignancy in men. Biomarkers for outcome prediction are urgently needed, so that high-risk patients could be monitored more closely postoperatively. To identify prognostic markers and to determine causal players in prostate cancer

  3. [Practice guideline 'Prostate cancer: diagnosis and treatment'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijke, T.M. de; Battermann, J.J.; Moorselaar, R.J.A. van; Jong, I.J. de; Visser, A.P.; Burgers, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    --A national, multidisciplinary practice guideline was developed concerning diagnosis and treatment of patients with prostate cancer. Because of the lack of sufficient scientific evidence at this moment no practice guideline on screening is included. --The diagnosis of prostate cancer is made by

  4. Prostate Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  5. Baldness, benign prostate hyperplasia, prostate cancer and androgen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faydaci, Gökhan; Bilal, Eryildirim; Necmettin, Penpegül; Fatih, Tarhan; Asuman, Orçun; Uğur, Kuyumcuoğlu

    2008-12-01

    We evaluated the pattern of baldness and serum androgen levels in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer. BPH, prostate cancer and androgenic alopecia (AA) were somehow androgen dependent and affect large population of elderly men. A total of 152 patients, 108 patients with BPH and 44 patients with prostate cancer were included in the study. We measured serum total, free and bioavailable testosterone, FSH, LH, prolactin, estradiol, albumin and SHBG levels. Baldness classification was based on Norwood's classification and we categorised baldness as vertex and frontal baldness. The frequency of AA in BPH and prostate cancer groups were not different. We looked for some correlation between the two groups with respect to AA and hormone levels. We did not find any correlation between AA and total testosterone, free testosterone, bioavailable testosterone or SHBG levels in both groups. This prospective study with selected small group of patients showed that there is no difference of male pattern baldness in BPH and prostate cancer patients and also there is no correlation between pattern of baldness and serum androgen levels.

  6. Epidemiology of prostate cancer in Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Takahiro; Egawa, Shin

    2018-06-01

    The incidence of prostate cancer has been increasing worldwide in recent years. The GLOBOCAN project showed that prostate cancer was the second most frequently diagnosed cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer mortality among men worldwide in 2012. This trend has been growing even in Asian countries, where the incidence had previously been low. However, the accuracy of data about incidence and mortality as a result of prostate cancer in some Asian countries is limited. The cause of this increasing trend is multifactorial. One possible explanation is changes in lifestyles due to more Westernized diets. The incidence is also statistically biased by the wide implementation of early detection systems and the accuracy of national cancer registration systems, which are still immature in most Asian countries. Mortality rate decreases in Australia, New Zealand and Japan since the 1990s are possibly due to the improvements in treatment and/or early detection efforts employed. However, this rate is increasing in the majority of other Asian countries. Studies of latent and incidental prostate cancer provide less biased information. The prevalence of latent and incidental prostate cancer in contemporary Japan and Korea is similar to those in Western countries, suggesting the influence of lifestyle changes on carcinogenesis. Many studies reported evidence of both congenital and acquired risk factors for carcinogenesis of prostate cancer. Recent changes in the acquired risk factors might be associated with the increasing occurrence of prostate cancer in Asian countries. This trend could continue, especially in developing Asian countries. © 2018 The Japanese Urological Association.

  7. Cardiovascular risk during hormonal treatment in patients with prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Poppel, Hein; Tombal, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this review is to provide information on cardiovascular risk following androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) in prostate cancer patients and to suggest potential prevention and management strategies. Androgen deprivation therapy can cause peripheral insulin resistance, increase fat mass and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and induce type 2 diabetes. While recent studies have reported an association in patients with prostate cancer between ADT and increased risk of cardiovascular events, other studies have not detected the association. However, at this time, it is plausible that ADT could increase cardiovascular risk because of the adverse effect of ADT on risk factors for cardiovascular disease. It is advisable that prostate cancer patients in whom ADT is initiated be referred to their physician, who will carefully monitor them for potential metabolic effects. Therefore, physicians should be informed about these potential side effects. This especially applies to men aged >65 years and those with pre-existing cardiovascular comorbidities. Adopting a healthy lifestyle including a balanced diet and regular physical activity is recommended. Patients with cardiovascular disease should receive appropriate preventive therapies, including lipid-lowering, antihypertensive, glucose-lowering, and antiplatelet therapy. ADT should preferably not be unnecessarily administered to prostate cancer patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease, certainly not to those in whom the risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality is low. The physician should carefully weigh the potential benefits of ADT against the possible risks in individual patients with prostate cancer

  8. Prostate carcinomas; Cancer de la prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledano, A.; Chauveinc, L.; Flam, T.; Thiounn, N.; Solignac, S.; Timbert, M.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Cosset, J.M.; Ammor, A.; Bonnetain, F.; Brenier, J.P.; Maingon, P.; Peignaux, K.; Truc, G.; Bosset, M.; Crevoisier, R. de; Tucker, S.; Dong, L.; Cheung, R.; Kuban, D.; Azria, D.; Llacer Moscardo, C.; Ailleres, N.; Allaw, A.; Serre, A.; Fenoglietto, P.; Hay, M.H.; Thezenas, S.; Dubois, J.B.; Pommier, P.; Perol, D.; Lagrange, J.L.; Richaud, P.; Brune, D.; Le Prise, E.; Azria, D.; Beckendorf, V.; Chabaud, S.; Carrie, C.; Bosset, M.; Bosset, J.F.; Maingon, P.; Ammor, A.; Crehangen, G.; Truc, G.; Peignaux, K.; Bonnetain, F.; Keros, L.; Bernier, V.; Aletti, P.; Wolf, D.; Marchesia, V.; Noel, A.; Artignan, X.; Fourneret, P.; Bacconier, M.; Shestaeva, O.; Pasquier, D.; Descotes, J.L.; Balosso, J.; Bolla, M.; Burette, R.; Corbusier, A.; Germeau, F.; Crevoisier, R. de; Dong, L.; Bonnen, M.; Cheung, R.; Tucker, S.; Kuban, D.; Crevoisier, R. de; Melancon, A.; Kuban, D.; Cheung, R.; Dong, L.; Peignaux, K.; Brenier, J.P.; Truc, G.; Bosset, M.; Ammor, A.; Barillot, I.; Maingon, P.; Molines, J.C.; Berland, E.; Cornulier, J. de; Coulet-Parpillon, A.; Cohard, C.; Picone, M.; Fourneret, P.; Artignan, X.; Daanen, V.; Gastaldo, J.; Bolla, M.; Collomb, D.; Dusserre, A.; Descotes, J.L.; Troccaz, J.; Giraud, J.Y.; Quero, L.; Hennequin, C.; Ravery, V.; Desgrandschamps, F.; Maylin, C.; Boccon-Gibod, L.; Salem, N.; Bladou, F.; Gravis, G.; Tallet, A.; Simonian, M.; Serment, G.; Salem, N.; Bladou, F.; Gravis, G.; Simonian, M.; Rosello, R.; Serment, G

    2005-11-15

    Some short communications on the prostate carcinoma are given here. The impact of pelvic irradiation, conformation with intensity modulation, association of radiotherapy and chemotherapy reduction of side effects, imaging, doses escalation are such subjects studied and reported. (N.C.)

  9. Baseline prostate-specific antigen measurements and subsequent prostate cancer risk in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Signe Benzon; Brasso, Klaus; Iversen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening reduces mortality from prostate cancer, substantial over-diagnosis and subsequent overtreatment are concerns. Early screening of men for PSA may serve to stratify the male population by risk of future clinical prostate cancer.......Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening reduces mortality from prostate cancer, substantial over-diagnosis and subsequent overtreatment are concerns. Early screening of men for PSA may serve to stratify the male population by risk of future clinical prostate cancer....

  10. Targeting Stromal Recruitment by Prostate Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Ensinger, C., Tumer , Z., Tommerup, N. et al.: Hedgehog signaling in small-cell lung cancer : frequent in vivo but a rare event in vitro. Lung Cancer , 52...W81XWH-04-1-0157 TITLE: Targeting Stromal Recruitment by Prostate Cancer Cells PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jingxian Zhang, Ph.D...DATES COVERED (From - To) 15 Feb 2004 – 14 Feb 2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting Stromal Recruitment by Prostate Cancer

  11. Morbidity in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer managed with non-curative intent. A population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, Klaus; Friis, S; Juel, K

    1999-01-01

    . When prostate cancer-related admissions were excluded, the relative risk of admission was reduced to 1.35 (1.3-1.4) and 0.86 (0.83-0.89), respectively. The estimated costs associated with deferred therapy in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer exceeded the estimated cost in age...

  12. Can the Mediterranean diet prevent prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itsiopoulos, Catherine; Hodge, Allison; Kaimakamis, Mary

    2009-02-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men worldwide. Despite the global importance of this cancer, until recently little was known about risk factors apart from the well-established factors: age, family history and country of birth. The large worldwide variation in prostate cancer risk and increased risk in migrants moving from low to high risk countries provides strong support for modifiable environmental factors. We have based our review on the findings of a systematic review undertaken by an expert panel on behalf of the World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research, and new data since then, linking identified foods and nutrients with prostate cancer. Evidence indicates that foods containing lycopene, as well as selenium and foods containing it, probably protect against prostate cancer, and excess consumption of foods or supplements containing calcium are a probable cause of this cancer. The expert panel also concluded that it is unlikely that beta-carotene (whether from foods or supplements) has a substantial effect on the risk of this cancer. A recent review on environmental factors in human prostate cancer also found that there were protective effects of vitamin E, pulses, soy foods and high plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels. The Mediterranean diet is abundant in foods that may protect against prostate cancer and is associated with longevity and reduced cardiovascular and cancer mortality. Compared with many Western countries Greece has lower prostate cancer mortality and Greek migrant men in Australia have retained their low risk for prostate cancer. Consumption of a traditional Mediterranean diet, rich in bioactive nutrients, may confer protection to Greek migrant men, and this dietary pattern offers a palatable alternative for prevention of this disease.

  13. Prostate cancer, prostate cancer death, and death from other causes, among men with metabolic aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggström, Christel; Stocks, Tanja; Nagel, Gabriele; Manjer, Jonas; Bjørge, Tone; Hallmans, Göran; Engeland, Anders; Ulmer, Hanno; Lindkvist, Björn; Selmer, Randi; Concin, Hans; Tretli, Steinar; Jonsson, Håkan; Stattin, Pär

    2014-11-01

    Few previous studies of metabolic aberrations and prostate cancer risk have taken into account the fact that men with metabolic aberrations have an increased risk of death from causes other than prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to calculate, in a real-life scenario, the risk of prostate cancer diagnosis, prostate cancer death, and death from other causes. In the Metabolic Syndrome and Cancer Project, prospective data on body mass index, blood pressure, glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides were collected from 285,040 men. Risks of prostate cancer diagnosis, prostate cancer death, and death from other causes were calculated by use of competing risk analysis for men with normal (bottom 84%) and high (top 16%) levels of each factor, and a composite score. During a mean follow-up period of 12 years, 5,893 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer, 1,013 died of prostate cancer, and 26,328 died of other causes. After 1996, when prostate-specific antigen testing was introduced, men up to age 80 years with normal metabolic levels had 13% risk of prostate cancer, 2% risk of prostate cancer death, and 30% risk of death from other causes, whereas men with metabolic aberrations had corresponding risks of 11%, 2%, and 44%. In contrast to recent studies using conventional survival analysis, in a real-world scenario taking risk of competing events into account, men with metabolic aberrations had lower risk of prostate cancer diagnosis, similar risk of prostate cancer death, and substantially higher risk of death from other causes compared with men who had normal metabolic levels.

  14. Relative Risks for Lethal Prostate Cancer Based on Complete Family History of Prostate Cancer Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Frederick S; Stephenson, Robert A; Agarwal, Neeraj; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A

    2017-01-01

    There are few published familial relative risks (RR) for lethal prostate cancer. This study estimates RRs for lethal prostate cancer based on comprehensive family history data, with the goal of improving identification of those men at highest risk of dying from prostate cancer. We used a population-based genealogical resource linked to a statewide electronic SEER cancer registry and death certificates to estimate relative risks (RR) for death from prostate cancer based upon family history. Over 600,000 male probands were analyzed, representing a variety of family history constellations of lethal prostate cancer. RR estimates were based on the ratio of the observed to the expected number of lethal prostate cancer cases using internal rates. RRs for lethal prostate cancer based on the number of affected first-degree relatives (FDR) ranged from 2.49 (95% CI: 2.27, 2.73) for exactly 1 FDR to 5.30 (2.13, 10.93) for ≥3 affected FDRs. In an absence of affected FDRs, increased risk was also significant for increasing numbers of affected second-degree or third degree relatives. Equivalent risks were observed for similar maternal and paternal family history. This study provides population-based estimates of lethal prostate cancer risk based on lethal prostate cancer family history. Many family history constellations associated with two to greater than five times increased risk for lethal prostate cancer were identified. These lethal prostate cancer risk estimates hold potential for use in identification, screening, early diagnosis, and treatment of men at high risk for death from prostate cancer. Prostate77:41-48, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Does Small Prostate Predict High Grade Prostate Cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caliskan, S.; Kaba, S.; Koca, O.; Ozturk, M. I.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The current study is aimed to assess the patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer and investigate the association between prostate size and adverse outcomes at final pathology. Study Design: Comparative, descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Turkey, from January 2008 to January 2016. Methodology: The patients treated with open radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer were reviewed. Patient characteristics including prostate specific antigen (PSA), free PSA levels, age, biopsy, and radical prostatectomy results were recorded. The patients whose data were complete or prostate weight was equal to or less than 80 gm, were included in the study. Patients with < 40 gm prostate weight was in group 1 and the patients in group 2 had a prostate weight from 40 to 80 gm. High grade prostate cancer was defined to have a Gleason score between 7 or higher at biopsy and final pathology. Pathology and biopsy results were compared within groups. MedCalc Statistical Software demo version was used for statistical analyses. Results: There were 162 patients in this study. Of these, 71 (43.82 percent) patients were in group 1 and 91 (56.17 percent) patients were in group 2. The age ranged from 49 to 76 years. Mean value of 62.70 +-6.82 and 65.82 +- 5.66 years in group 1 and 2, respectively. Fifty (70.42 percent) and 68 patients (74.74 percent) had a Gleason score of 6 in group 1 and 2, respectively. Organconfined disease was reported in 53 patients (74.64 percent) in group 1 and in 78 patients (85.71 percent) in group 2. Gleason score concordance between biopsy and prostatectomy was reported in 61 patients (67.03 percent) and downgrading was detected in 4 patients (4.4 percent) in group 2. The median tumor volume of the patients was 4.47 cm/sup 3/ in group 1 and 6 cm/sup 3/ in group 2 (p=0.502). High grade prostate cancer was reported in 52.11 percent and 45.05 percent of the patients in

  16. Nomogram incorporating PSA level to predict cancer-specific survival for men with clinically localized prostate cancer managed without curative intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattan, Michael W.; Cuzick, Jack; Fisher, Gabrielle; Berney, Daniel M.; Oliver, Tim; Foster, Christopher S.; Møller, Henrik; Reuter, Victor; Fearn, Paul; Eastham, James; Scardino, Peter T.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The prognosis of men with clinically localized prostate cancer is highly variable, and it is difficult to counsel a man who may be considering avoiding, or delaying, aggressive therapy. After collecting data on a large cohort of men who received no initial active prostate cancer therapy, we sought to develop, and to internally validate, a nomogram for prediction of disease-specific survival. Methods Working with 6 cancer registries within England and numerous hospitals in the region, we constructed a population-based cohort of men diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1990 and 1996. All men had baseline serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) measurements, centralized pathologic grading, and centralized review of clinical stage assignment. Based upon the clinical and pathological data from 1,911 men, we developed and validated a statistical model that served as the basis for the nomogram. The discrimination and calibration of the nomogram were assessed with use of one third of the men, who were omitted from modeling and used as a test sample. Results The median age of the included men was 70.4 years. The 25th and 75th percentiles of PSA were 7.3 and 32.6 ng/ml respectively, and the median was 15.4 ng/ml. Forty-two percent of the men had high grade disease. The nomogram predicted well with a concordance index of 0.73 and had good calibration. Conclusions We have developed an accurate tool for predicting the probability that a man with clinically localized prostate cancer will survive his disease for 120 months if the cancer is not treated with curative intent immediately. The tool should be helpful for patient counseling and clinical trial design. PMID:18000803

  17. Differential expression of VEGF ligands and receptors in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollard, David J; Opeskin, Kenneth; Coso, Sanja; Wu, Di; Baldwin, Megan E; Williams, Elizabeth D

    2013-05-01

    Prostate cancer disseminates to regional lymph nodes, however the molecular mechanisms responsible for lymph node metastasis are poorly understood. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) ligand and receptor family have been implicated in the growth and spread of prostate cancer via activation of the blood vasculature and lymphatic systems. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively examine the expression pattern of VEGF ligands and receptors in the glandular epithelium, stroma, lymphatic vasculature and blood vessels in prostate cancer. The localization of VEGF-A, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-1, VEGFR-2, and VEGFR-3 was examined in cancerous and adjacent benign prostate tissue from 52 subjects representing various grades of prostate cancer. Except for VEGFR-2, extensive staining was observed for all ligands and receptors in the prostate specimens. In epithelial cells, VEGF-A and VEGFR-1 expression was higher in tumor tissue compared to benign tissue. VEGF-D and VEGFR-3 expression was significantly higher in benign tissue compared to tumor in the stroma and the endothelium of lymphatic and blood vessels. In addition, the frequency of lymphatic vessels, but not blood vessels, was lower in tumor tissue compared with benign tissue. These results suggest that activation of VEGFR-1 by VEGF-A within the carcinoma, and activation of lymphatic endothelial cell VEGFR-3 by VEGF-D within the adjacent benign stroma may be important signaling mechanisms involved in the progression and subsequent metastatic spread of prostate cancer. Thus inhibition of these pathways may contribute to therapeutic strategies for the management of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Disparities in Prostate Cancer Treatment Modality and Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    producing hormones) 1 0 10 11 B8f. Watchful waiting (no treatment, wait and see if your prostate cancer grows) 1 0 10 11 B8g. Cryotherapy (process...your prostate cancer grows) 7 Cryotherapy (process to freeze and destroy prostate tissue) 8 Chemotherapy (use of anti- cancer drugs) 9 Any other...and attitudes concerning prostate cancer and preventative measures. Prostate Cancer Questionnaire IRB1012# – Version 3 08/01/08 33 Now, I

  19. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khankari, Nikhil K; Murff, Harvey J; Zeng, Chenjie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is a common cancer worldwide with no established modifiable lifestyle factors to guide prevention. The associations between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and prostate cancer risk have been inconsistent. Using Mendelian randomisation, we evaluated associations...... and prostate cancer risk. However, risk reductions were observed for short-chain PUFAs, linoleic (ORLA=0.95, 95%CI=0.92, 0.98) and α-linolenic acids (ORALA=0.96, 95%CI=0.93, 0.98), among men ...-chain PUFAs (i.e., arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosapentaenoic acids), increased risks were observed among men

  20. Prostate cancer outcome in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yameogo Clotaire

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction African-American black men race is one of non-modifiable risk factors confirmed for prostate cancer. Many studies have been done in USA among African- American population to evaluate prostate cancer disparities. Compared to the USA very few data are available for prostate cancer in Sub-Saharan African countries. The objective of this study was to describe incident prostate cancer (PC diagnosis characteristics in Burkina Faso (West Africa. Methods We performed a prospective non randomized patient’s cohort study of new prostate cancer cases diagnosed by histological analysis of transrectal prostate biopsies in Burkina Faso. Study participants included 166 patients recruited at the urology division of the university hospital of Ouagadougou. Age of the patients, clinical symptoms, digital rectal examination (DRE result, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA level, histological characteristics and TNM classification were taking in account in this study. Results 166 transrectal prostate biopsies (TRPB were performed based on high PSA level or abnormal DRE. The prostate cancer rate on those TRPB was 63, 8 % (n=106. The mean age of the patients was 71, 5 years (52 to 86. Urinary retention was the first clinical patterns of reference in our institution (55, 7 %, n = 59. Most patients, 56, 6 % (n = 60 had a serum PSA level over than 100 ng/ml. All the patients had adenocarcinoma on histological study of prostate biopsy cores. The majority of cases (54, 7 % n = 58 had Gleason score equal or higher than 7. Conclusion Prostate cancer is diagnosed at later stages in our country. Very high serum PSA level and poorly differentiated tumors are the two major characteristics of PC at the time of diagnosis.

  1. Prostate atypia: does repeat biopsy detect clinically significant prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorin, Ryan P; Wiener, Scott; Harris, Cory D; Wagner, Joseph R

    2015-05-01

    While the treatment pathway in response to benign or malignant prostate biopsies is well established, there is uncertainty regarding the risk of subsequently diagnosing prostate cancer when an initial diagnosis of prostate atypia is made. As such, we investigated the likelihood of a repeat biopsy diagnosing prostate cancer (PCa) in patients in which an initial biopsy diagnosed prostate atypia. We reviewed our prospectively maintained prostate biopsy database to identify patients who underwent a repeat prostate biopsy within one year of atypia (atypical small acinar proliferation; ASAP) diagnosis between November 1987 and March 2011. Patients with a history of PCa were excluded. Chart review identified patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP), radiotherapy (RT), or active surveillance (AS). For some analyses, patients were divided into two subgroups based on their date of service. Ten thousand seven hundred and twenty patients underwent 13,595 biopsies during November 1987-March 2011. Five hundred and sixty seven patients (5.3%) had ASAP on initial biopsy, and 287 (50.1%) of these patients underwent a repeat biopsy within one year. Of these, 122 (42.5%) were negative, 44 (15.3%) had atypia, 19 (6.6%) had prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and 102 (35.6%) contained PCa. Using modified Epstein's criteria, 27/53 (51%) patients with PCa on repeat biopsy were determined to have clinically significant tumors. 37 (36.3%) proceeded to RP, 25 (24.5%) underwent RT, and 40 (39.2%) received no immediate treatment. In patients who underwent surgery, Gleason grade on final pathology was upgraded in 11 (35.5%), and downgraded 1 (3.2%) patient. ASAP on initial biopsy was associated with a significant risk of PCa on repeat biopsy in patients who subsequently underwent definitive local therapy. Patients with ASAP should be counseled on the probability of harboring both clinically significant and insignificant prostate cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. MANAGEMENT AND SURVIVAL IN ADVANCED PROSTATE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-05-05

    May 5, 2000 ... Patients: Fifty nine patients with advanced cancer of prostate (extra prostatic locally advanced and metastatic ... Conclusion: Survival in the undifferentiated and poorly differentiated prostrate cancer. Gleasons grades 4 and 5 .... with its pulsatile release from the hypothalamus and desensitises the pituitary ...

  3. Radiation therapy for prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Akira; Minowada, Shigeru; Tomoishi, Junzo; Kinoshita, Kenji; Matsuda, Tadayoshi

    1983-01-01

    A conformation radiotherapy system with collimators, whose openings can be controlled symmetrically by computerized techniques during rotational irradiation by a linear accelerator, has been developed for routine use in our hospital. Forty-four patients underwent radiation therapy, including this particular modality of radiotherapy, for prostatic cancer during the period of July 1976 through December 1981. Eight patients were classified as stage A, 10 stage B, 10 stage C, and 16 as stage D. Twenty-nine patients underwent conformation radiotherapy, two rotation radiotherapy, eight 2-port opposing technique radiotherapy, one 4-field radiotherapy, and four underwent a combination of 2-port opposing technique and conformation radiotherapy. Transient mild side effects such as diarrhea occurred in seven cases, while severe side effects such as rectal stricture or contracted bladder occurred in three cases. The latter occurred only in one case among 29 of conformation radiotherapy and in two among eight of 2-port opposing technique radiotherapy. The results of the treatment of short intervals in stage B, C, and D are as follows: prostatic size was reduced in 26 cases among 36, serum acid phosphatase level was reduced in 15 among 18 who had showed high acid phosphatase levels before treatment, although almost all cases underwent simultaneous hormonal therapy. The effects of radiotherapy alone were verified in two cases of stage B in which radiotherapy preceded hormonal therapy. Prostatic size and serum acid phosphatase level were reduced by radiotherapy alone. (author)

  4. Paraneoplastic jaundice and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Ana Claudia; Alvarenga, Maria Joana; Santos, Jose Carlos; Silva, Alberto Mello

    2017-04-22

    Cholestasis has numerous causes. We present the case of a 78-year-old man with a common diagnosis in this age group and gender but with an unusual presentation. There are only 11 articles published of patients with jaundice due to a paraneoplastic syndrome associated with prostate cancer. Interleukin 6 and other proinflammatory cytokines appear to contribute to the pathophysiology of this syndrome. Our patient remains symptom free 4 months after treatment initiation. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Presence of PSA auto-antibodies in men with prostate abnormalities (prostate cancer/benign prostatic hyperplasia/prostatitis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokant, M T; Naz, R K

    2015-04-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), produced by the prostate, liquefies post-ejaculate semen. PSA is detected in semen and blood. Increased circulating PSA levels indicate prostate abnormality [prostate cancer (PC), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostatitis (PTIS)], with variance among individuals. As the prostate has been proposed as an immune organ, we hypothesise that variation in PSA levels among men may be due to presence of auto-antibodies against PSA. Sera from healthy men (n = 28) and men having prostatitis (n = 25), BPH (n = 30) or PC (n = 29) were tested for PSA antibody presence using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) values converted to standard deviation (SD) units, and Western blotting. Taking ≥2 SD units as cut-off for positive immunoreactivity, 0% of normal men, 0% with prostatitis, 33% with BPH and 3.45% with PC demonstrated PSA antibodies. One-way analysis of variance (anova) performed on the mean absorbance values and SD units of each group showed BPH as significantly different (P prostatitis. All others were nonsignificant (P prostate abnormalities, especially differentiating BPH from prostate cancer and prostatitis. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Risks of Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prostate. The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system located just below the bladder (the organ that ... up part of semen . Enlarge Anatomy of the male reproductive and urinary systems, showing the prostate, testicles, bladder, and other organs. ...

  7. Comparison of telomerase activity in prostate cancer, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleiman Mahjoub

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Telomerase is a reverse transcriptase enzyme that synthesizes telomeric DNA on chromosome ends. The enzyme is important for the immortalization of cancer cells because it maintains the telomeres. METHODS: Telomerase activity (TA was measured by fluorescence-based telomeric repeat amplification protocol (FTRAP assay in prostate carcinoma and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. RESULTS: TA was present in 91.4% of 70 prostate cancers, 68.8% of 16 prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN, 43.3% of 30 BPH*, 21.4% of 14 atrophy and 20% of 15 normal samples adjacent to tumor. There was not any significant correlation between TA, histopathological tumor stage or gleason score. In contrast to high TA in the BPH* tissue from the cancer-bearing gland, only 6.3% of 32 BPH specimens from patients only diagnosed with BPH were telomerase activity-positive. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that TA is present in most prostate cancers. The high rate of TA in tissue adjacent to tumor may be attributed either to early molecular alteration of cancer that was histologically unapparent, or to the presence of occult cancer cells. Our findings suggest that the re-expression of telomerase activity could be one step in the transformation of BPH to PIN. KEY WORDS: Telomerase activity, prostate cancer, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  8. Current opinions on chemotherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luptak, J.

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men. Because of the long latency period of prostate cancer, and the economic burden and morbidity associated with its treatment, there is a strong rationale for interventions to reduce the risk of developing this malignancy. The terms „prevention“ or „chemo prevention“ refers to efforts to prevent or delay the development of cancer by taking medicines, vitamins or other agents. There are many agents that may decrease the risk of prostate cancer. It requires careful study of the agents in specific populations to determine whether risk is reduced, magnitude of the risk reduction and the spectrum of side effects associated with the agent. The ideal preventive agent will not significantly alter quality of life, is inexpensive, safe, well tolerated, and effective. The purpose of this article is to review recent developments in the field of prostate cancer prevention. (author)

  9. Development of the Meharry Medical College Prostate Cancer Research Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ukoli, Flora A. M

    2006-01-01

    African Americans (AA) are disproportionately affected by prostate cancer (PCa) for reasons including, biologic tumor differences, genetic predisposition, differential exposures, lack of access to prostate specific antigen (PSA...

  10. Targeting TMPRSS2-ERG in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0212 TITLE: Targeting TMPRSS2-ERG in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David Takeda CONTRACTING...ORGANIZATION: Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Boston, MA 02215 REPORT DATE: November 2017 TYPE OF REPORT: Final PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research...Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0212 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) David Takeda 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  11. Advances in MRI diagnosis of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Longmin; Liu Ailian

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in the world, and the incidence of prostate cancer in China shows an upward trend. MRI has high soft tissue resolution and multi-dimensional imaging advantages, and it can better show the anatomy of the prostate and adjacent tissue structures. With the development of MR technique, it plays a more and more important role in prostate cancer diagnosis. This review starts from the imaging performance of routine MRI sequence of prostate cancer, and a variety of functional MRI applications in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of prostate cancer are described in detail, such as MR perfusion-weighted imaging, MR spectroscopy, MR diffusion-weighted imaging, MR diffusion tensor imaging, intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging, MR susceptibility-weighted imaging. Meanwhile this review introduces that functional MRI has more advantages and can provide more image information than routine MRI sequence. According to a series of semi-quantitative and quantitative data, functional MRI can further provide the blood perfusion of prostate cancer, water molecule diffusion and microcirculation state, metabolism and biochemical composition change information. (authors)

  12. Progress in Gene Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Kamran A.; Davis, Brian J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Wilson, Torrence M. [Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Wiseman, Gregory A. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Federspiel, Mark J. [Department of Molecular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Morris, John C., E-mail: davis.brian@mayo.edu [Division of Endocrinology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2012-11-19

    Gene therapy has held promise to correct various disease processes. Prostate cancer represents the second leading cause of cancer death in American men. A number of clinical trials involving gene therapy for the treatment of prostate cancer have been reported. The ability to efficiently transduce tumors with effective levels of therapeutic genes has been identified as a fundamental barrier to effective cancer gene therapy. The approach utilizing gene therapy in prostate cancer patients at our institution attempts to address this deficiency. The sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) is responsible for the ability of the thyroid gland to transport and concentrate iodide. The characteristics of the NIS gene suggest that it could represent an ideal therapeutic gene for cancer therapy. Published results from Mayo Clinic researchers have indicated several important successes with the use of the NIS gene and prostate gene therapy. Studies have demonstrated that transfer of the human NIS gene into prostate cancer using adenovirus vectors in vitro and in vivo results in efficient uptake of radioactive iodine and significant tumor growth delay with prolongation of survival. Preclinical successes have culminated in the opening of a phase I trial for patients with advanced prostate disease which is currently accruing patients. Further study will reveal the clinical promise of NIS gene therapy in the treatment of prostate as well as other malignancies.

  13. Progress in Gene Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Kamran A.; Davis, Brian J.; Wilson, Torrence M.; Wiseman, Gregory A.; Federspiel, Mark J.; Morris, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Gene therapy has held promise to correct various disease processes. Prostate cancer represents the second leading cause of cancer death in American men. A number of clinical trials involving gene therapy for the treatment of prostate cancer have been reported. The ability to efficiently transduce tumors with effective levels of therapeutic genes has been identified as a fundamental barrier to effective cancer gene therapy. The approach utilizing gene therapy in prostate cancer patients at our institution attempts to address this deficiency. The sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) is responsible for the ability of the thyroid gland to transport and concentrate iodide. The characteristics of the NIS gene suggest that it could represent an ideal therapeutic gene for cancer therapy. Published results from Mayo Clinic researchers have indicated several important successes with the use of the NIS gene and prostate gene therapy. Studies have demonstrated that transfer of the human NIS gene into prostate cancer using adenovirus vectors in vitro and in vivo results in efficient uptake of radioactive iodine and significant tumor growth delay with prolongation of survival. Preclinical successes have culminated in the opening of a phase I trial for patients with advanced prostate disease which is currently accruing patients. Further study will reveal the clinical promise of NIS gene therapy in the treatment of prostate as well as other malignancies.

  14. Increase of Prostate Cancer Incidence in Martinique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Belpomme

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer incidence is steadily increasing in many developed countries. Because insular populations present unique ethnic, geographical, and environmental characteristics, we analyzed the evolution of prostate cancer age-adjusted world standardized incidence rates in Martinique in comparison with that of metropolitan France. We also compared prostate cancer incidence rates, and lifestyle-related and socioeconomic markers such as life expectancy, dietary energy, and fat supply and consumption, with those in other Caribbean islands, France, UK, Sweden, and USA. The incidence rate of prostate cancer in Martinique is one of the highest reported worldwide; it is continuously growing since 1985 in an exponential mode, and despite a similar screening detection process and lifestyle-related behaviour, it is constantly at a higher level than in metropolitan France. However, Caribbean populations that are genetically close to that of Martinique have generally much lower incidence of prostate cancer. We found no correlation between prostate cancer incidence rates, life expectancy, and diet westernization. Since the Caribbean African descent-associated genetic susceptibility factor would have remained constant during the 1980–2005, we suggest that in Martinique some environmental change including the intensive use of carcinogenic organochlorine pesticides might have occurred as key determinant of the persisting highly growing incidence of prostate cancer.

  15. The integrated proactive surveillance system for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibin; Yatawara, Mahendra; Huang, Shao-Chi; Dudley, Kevin; Szekely, Christine; Holden, Stuart; Piantadosi, Steven

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design and implementation of the integrated proactive surveillance system for prostate cancer (PASS-PC). The integrated PASS-PC is a multi-institutional web-based system aimed at collecting a variety of data on prostate cancer patients in a standardized and efficient way. The integrated PASS-PC was commissioned by the Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) and built through the joint of efforts by a group of experts in medical oncology, genetics, pathology, nutrition, and cancer research informatics. Their main goal is facilitating the efficient and uniform collection of critical demographic, lifestyle, nutritional, dietary and clinical information to be used in developing new strategies in diagnosing, preventing and treating prostate cancer.The integrated PASS-PC is designed based on common industry standards - a three tiered architecture and a Service- Oriented Architecture (SOA). It utilizes open source software and programming languages such as HTML, PHP, CSS, JQuery, Drupal and MySQL. We also use a commercial database management system - Oracle 11g. The integrated PASS-PC project uses a "confederation model" that encourages participation of any interested center, irrespective of its size or location. The integrated PASS-PC utilizes a standardized approach to data collection and reporting, and uses extensive validation procedures to prevent entering erroneous data. The integrated PASS-PC controlled vocabulary is harmonized with the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Thesaurus. Currently, two cancer centers in the USA are participating in the integrated PASS-PC project.THE FINAL SYSTEM HAS THREE MAIN COMPONENTS: 1. National Prostate Surveillance Network (NPSN) website; 2. NPSN myConnect portal; 3. Proactive Surveillance System for Prostate Cancer (PASS-PC). PASS-PC is a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG) compatible product. The integrated PASS-PC provides a foundation for collaborative prostate cancer research. It has been built to

  16. Activation of β-catenin signaling in androgen receptor-negative prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xinhai; Liu, Jie; Lu, Jing-Fang; Tzelepi, Vassiliki; Yang, Jun; Starbuck, Michael W; Diao, Lixia; Wang, Jing; Efstathiou, Eleni; Vazquez, Elba S; Troncoso, Patricia; Maity, Sankar N; Navone, Nora M

    2012-02-01

    To study Wnt/β-catenin in castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and understand its function independently of the β-catenin-androgen receptor (AR) interaction. We carried out β-catenin immunocytochemical analysis, evaluated TOP-flash reporter activity (a reporter of β-catenin-mediated transcription), and sequenced the β-catenin gene in MDA prostate cancer 118a, MDA prostate cancer 118b, MDA prostate cancer 2b, and PC-3 prostate cancer cells. We knocked down β-catenin in AR-negative MDA prostate cancer 118b cells and carried out comparative gene-array analysis. We also immunohistochemically analyzed β-catenin and AR in 27 bone metastases of human CRPCs. β-Catenin nuclear accumulation and TOP-flash reporter activity were high in MDA prostate cancer 118b but not in MDA prostate cancer 2b or PC-3 cells. MDA prostate cancer 118a and MDA prostate cancer 118b cells carry a mutated β-catenin at codon 32 (D32G). Ten genes were expressed differently (false discovery rate, 0.05) in MDA prostate cancer 118b cells with downregulated β-catenin. One such gene, hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2), synthesizes hyaluronan, a core component of the extracellular matrix. We confirmed HAS2 upregulation in PC-3 cells transfected with D32G-mutant β-catenin. Finally, we found nuclear localization of β-catenin in 10 of 27 human tissue specimens; this localization was inversely associated with AR expression (P = 0.056, Fisher's exact test), suggesting that reduced AR expression enables Wnt/β-catenin signaling. We identified a previously unknown downstream target of β-catenin, HAS2, in prostate cancer, and found that high β-catenin nuclear localization and low or no AR expression may define a subpopulation of men with bone metastatic prostate cancer. These findings may guide physicians in managing these patients.

  17. Radiotherapy in prostate cancer. Innovative techniques and current controversies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geinitz, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Examines in detail the role of innovative radiation techniques in the management of prostate cancer, including IMRT, IGRT, BART, and modern brachytherapy. Explores a range of current controversies in patient treatment. Intended for both radiation oncologists and urologists. Radiation treatment is rapidly evolving owing to the coordinated research of physicists, engineers, computer and imaging specialists, and physicians. Today, the arsenal of ''high-precision'' or ''targeted'' radiotherapy includes multimodal imaging, in vivo dosimetry, Monte Carlo techniques for dose planning, patient immobilization techniques, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), biologically adapted radiotherapy (BART), quality assurance methods, novel methods of brachytherapy, and, at the far end of the scale, particle beam radiotherapy using protons and carbon ions. These approaches are like pieces of a puzzle that need to be put together to provide the prostate cancer patient with high-level optimized radiation treatment. This book examines in detail the role of the above-mentioned innovative radiation techniques in the management of prostate cancer. In addition, a variety of current controversies regarding treatment are carefully explored, including whether prophylactic treatment of the pelvic lymphatics is essential, the magnitude of the effect of dose escalation, whether a benefit accrues from hypofractionation, and what evidence exists for the superiority of protons or heavy ions. Radiotherapy in Prostate Cancer: Innovative Techniques and Current Controversies is intended for both radiation oncologists and urologists with an interest in the up-to-date capabilities of modern radiation oncology for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  18. Obesity, body composition, and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fowke Jay H

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Established risk factors for prostate cancer have not translated to effective prevention or adjuvant care strategies. Several epidemiologic studies suggest greater body adiposity may be a modifiable risk factor for high-grade (Gleason 7, Gleason 8-10 prostate cancer and prostate cancer mortality. However, BMI only approximates body adiposity, and may be confounded by centralized fat deposition or lean body mass in older men. Our objective was to use bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA to measure body composition and determine the association between prostate cancer and total body fat mass (FM fat-free mass (FFM, and percent body fat (%BF, and which body composition measure mediated the association between BMI or waist circumference (WC with prostate cancer. Methods The study used a multi-centered recruitment protocol targeting men scheduled for prostate biopsy. Men without prostate cancer at biopsy served as controls (n = 1057. Prostate cancer cases were classified as having Gleason 6 (n = 402, Gleason 7 (n = 272, or Gleason 8-10 (n = 135 cancer. BIA and body size measures were ascertained by trained staff prior to diagnosis, and clinical and comorbidity status were determined by chart review. Analyses utilized multivariable linear and logistic regression. Results Body size and composition measures were not significantly associated with low-grade (Gleason 6 prostate cancer. In contrast, BMI, WC, FM, and FFM were associated with an increased risk of Gleason 7 and Gleason 8-10 prostate cancer. Furthermore, BMI and WC were no longer associated with Gleason 8-10 (ORBMI = 1.039 (1.000, 1.081, ORWC = 1.016 (0.999, 1.033, continuous scales with control for total body FFM (ORBMI = 0.998 (0.946, 1.052, ORWC = 0.995 (0.974, 1.017. Furthermore, increasing FFM remained significantly associated with Gleason 7 (ORFFM = 1.030 (1.008, 1.052 and Gleason 8-10 (ORFFM = 1.044 (1.014, 1.074 after controlling for FM. Conclusions Our results

  19. The role of cannabinoids in prostate cancer: Basic science perspective and potential clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Ramos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is a global public health problem, and it is the most common cancer in American men and the second cause for cancer-related death. Experimental evidence shows that prostate tissue possesses cannabinoid receptors and their stimulation results in anti-androgenic effects. To review currently relevant findings related to effects of cannabinoid receptors in prostate cancer. PubMed search utilizing the terms "cannabis," "cannabinoids," "prostate cancer," and "cancer pain management," giving preference to most recent publications was done. Articles identified were screened for their relevance to the field of prostate cancer and interest to both urologist and pain specialists. Prostate cancer cells possess increased expression of both cannabinoid 1 and 2 receptors, and stimulation of these results in decrease in cell viability, increased apoptosis, and decreased androgen receptor expression and prostate-specific antigen excretion. It would be of interest to conduct clinical studies utilizing cannabinoids for patients with metastatic prostate cancer, taking advantage not only of its beneficial effects on prostate cancer but also of their analgesic properties for bone metastatic cancer pain.

  20. The role of prostatitis in prostate cancer: meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyi Jiang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Use systematic review methods to quantify the association between prostatitis and prostate cancer, under both fixed and random effects model. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Case control studies of prostate cancer with information on prostatitis history. All studies published between 1990-2012, were collected to calculate a pooled odds ratio. SELECTION CRITERIA: the selection criteria are as follows: human case control studies; published from May 1990 to July 2012; containing number of prostatitis, and prostate cancer cases. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: In total, 20 case control studies were included. A significant association between prostatitis and prostate cancer was found, under both fixed effect model (pooled OR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.39-1.62, and random effects model (OR=1.64, 95%CI: 1.36-1.98. Personal interview based case control studies showed a high level of association (fixed effect model: pooled OR=1.59, 95%CI: 1.47-1.73, random effects model: pooled OR= 1.87, 95%CI: 1.52-2.29, compared with clinical based studies (fixed effect model: pooled OR=1.05, 95%CI: 0.86-1.28, random effects model: pooled OR= 0.98, 95%CI: 0.67-1.45. Additionally, pooled ORs, were calculated for each decade. In a fixed effect model: 1990's: OR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.35-1.84; 2000's: OR=1.59, 95% CI: 1.40-1.79; 2010's: OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.22-1.56. In a random effects model: 1990's: OR=1.98, 95% CI: 1.08-3.62; 2000's: OR=1.64, 95% CI: 1.23-2.19; 2010's: OR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.03-1.73. Finally a meta-analysis stratified by each country was conducted. In fixed effect models, U.S: pooled OR =1.45, 95%CI: 1.34-1.57; China: pooled OR =4.67, 95%CI: 3.08-7.07; Cuba: pooled OR =1.43, 95%CI: 1.00-2.04; Italy: pooled OR =0.61, 95%CI: 0.13-2.90. In random effects model, U.S: pooled OR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.25-1.80; China: pooled OR =4.67, 95%CI: 3.08-7.07; Cuba: pooled OR =1.43, 95%CI: 1.00-2.04; Italy: pooled OR =0.61, 95%CI: 0.13-2.90. CONCLUSIONS: the present meta-analysis provides the statistical

  1. Prospects in radionuclide imaging of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutje, Susanne; Boerman, Otto C.; van Rij, Catharina M.; Sedelaar, Michiel; Helfrich, Wijnand; Oyen, Wim J. G.; Mulders, Peter F. A.

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men in the Western world and represents a major health problem with substantial morbidity and mortality. Sensitivity and specificity of digital rectal examination (DRE) and evaluation of prostate specific antigen (PSA) are excellent methods for

  2. Role of Growth Hormone in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swanson, Steven M

    2007-01-01

    We have established a GH-deficient prostate cancer model (Tag/Ghdr/dr rat) indicating that a reduction in GH and/or IGF-I can significantly inhibit prostate carcinogenesis in this model in contrast to GH wild-type controls...

  3. African and Afro-Caribbean men's experiences of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Beverley; Marshall-Lucette, Sylvie

    It is well documented that prostate cancer presents a significant health problem for middle-aged and elderly men in the UK, with further evidence suggesting that the disease is more prevalent in men of African and Afro-Caribbean (AAC) ethnicity. There is also evidence that these men are diagnosed much later and that the disease is more aggressive than in Caucasian men. To explore AAC men's experiences of prostate cancer and their understanding of its associated risks. The purpose was to gain an insight from these men's perspectives and ascertain whether a more focused health promotion strategy, and specific UK-based research, was needed in this area. A purposive sample of seven AAC men was recruited from a hospital trust's patient list after gaining approval from a research ethics committee. In-depth face-to-face interviews were carried out and the transcripts analysed thematically. The four main themes that emerged were: disease-prompted awareness, checking up as a necessary evil, defining and constructing factors influencing prostate cancer screening uptake, and appraising perceived myths about prostate cancer through personal beliefs. Among this group of AAC men, socioeconomic status, such as education and professional background, were factors that influenced their level of awareness of prostate cancer and prompted their decisions to seek help. However, it is evident from these men's perspectives that a more specific health education strategy that promotes early detection and management, targeting AAC men, would help in demystifying prostate cancer and encourage them to seek help earlier. Further research studies and health education in prominent social outlets are recommended in increasing AAC men's awareness of prostate cancer and its associated risks.

  4. PSA, PSA derivatives, proPSA and prostate health index in the diagnosis of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ayyıldız, Sema Nur; Ayyıldız, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Currently, prostate- specific antigen (PSA) is the most common oncological marker used for prostate cancer screening. However, high levels of PSA in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis decrease the specificity of PSA as a cancer marker. To increase the specificity of PSA, PSA derivatives and PSA kinetics have been used. However, these new techniques were not able to increase the diagnostic specificity for prostate cancer. Therefore, the search for new molecules and derivatives of PSA...

  5. Do men with prostate cancer and their partners receive the information they need for optimal illness self-management in the immediate post-diagnostic phase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Janelle V; Lambert, Sylvie D; Girgis, Afaf; Turner, Jane; McElduff, Patrick; Kayser, Karen

    2015-01-01

    To (a) determine whether the information provided to men with prostate cancer and their partners in the immediate postdiagnostic phase met their needs; and (b) examine patient and partner satisfaction with the information received. Pre-intervention survey data from a pilot randomized controlled trial of a self-directed coping skills intervention involving 42 patients with prostate cancer, and their partners were collected to examine their psychosocial concerns/needs. The main concerns for patients and partners were psychosocial in nature such as managing emotions, concern about the future, and losing control. Overall, patients and partners received most information about tests and treatment options. Partners reported receiving significantly less information about support services ( P = 0.03) and self-care strategies ( P = 0.03) compared to patients. Partners also reported being significantly less satisfied with the information they received ( P = 0.007). Whereas medical information is routinely given, patients and partners may benefit from greater information about psychosocial issues arising from cancer. Despite increased recognition of partner's information needs these still remain unmet.

  6. Do men with prostate cancer and their partners receive the information they need for optimal illness self-management in the immediate post-diagnostic phase?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janelle V Levesque

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To (a determine whether the information provided to men with prostate cancer and their partners in the immediate postdiagnostic phase met their needs; and (b examine patient and partner satisfaction with the information received. Methods: Pre-intervention survey data from a pilot randomized controlled trial of a self-directed coping skills intervention involving 42 patients with prostate cancer, and their partners were collected to examine their psychosocial concerns/needs. Results: The main concerns for patients and partners were psychosocial in nature such as managing emotions, concern about the future, and losing control. Overall, patients and partners received most information about tests and treatment options. Partners reported receiving significantly less information about support services (P = 0.03 and self-care strategies (P = 0.03 compared to patients. Partners also reported being significantly less satisfied with the information they received (P = 0.007. Conclusions: Whereas medical information is routinely given, patients and partners may benefit from greater information about psychosocial issues arising from cancer. Despite increased recognition of partner′s information needs these still remain unmet.

  7. Epigenetics in Breast and Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yanyuan; Sarkissyan, Marianna; Vadgama, Jaydutt V.

    2015-01-01

    Most recent investigations into cancer etiology have identified a key role played by epigenetics. Specifically, aberrant DNA and histone modifications which silence tumor suppressor genes or promote oncogenes have been demonstrated in multiple cancer models. While the role of epigenetics in several solid tumor cancers such as colorectal cancer are well established, there is emerging evidence that epigenetics also plays a critical role in breast and prostate cancer. In breast cancer, DNA methy...

  8. Are strict vegetarians protected against prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantamango-Bartley, Yessenia; Knutsen, Synnove F; Knutsen, Raymond; Jacobsen, Bjarne K; Fan, Jing; Beeson, W Lawrence; Sabate, Joan; Hadley, David; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Penniecook, Jason; Herring, Patti; Butler, Terry; Bennett, Hanni; Fraser, Gary

    2016-01-01

    According to the American Cancer Society, prostate cancer accounts for ∼27% of all incident cancer cases among men and is the second most common (noncutaneous) cancer among men. The relation between diet and prostate cancer is still unclear. Because people do not consume individual foods but rather foods in combination, the assessment of dietary patterns may offer valuable information when determining associations between diet and prostate cancer risk. This study aimed to examine the association between dietary patterns (nonvegetarian, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, vegan, and semi-vegetarian) and prostate cancer incidence among 26,346 male participants of the Adventist Health Study-2. In this prospective cohort study, cancer cases were identified by matching to cancer registries. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to estimate HRs by using age as the time variable. In total, 1079 incident prostate cancer cases were identified. Around 8% of the study population reported adherence to the vegan diet. Vegan diets showed a statistically significant protective association with prostate cancer risk (HR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.49, 0.85). After stratifying by race, the statistically significant association with a vegan diet remained only for the whites (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.86), but the multivariate HR for black vegans showed a similar but nonsignificant point estimate (HR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.41, 1.18). Vegan diets may confer a lower risk of prostate cancer. This lower estimated risk is seen in both white and black vegan subjects, although in the latter, the CI is wider and includes the null. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Comparison of sonographic features in benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Won Young; Hong, Hyun Sook; Kang, Eun Young; Seol, Hae Young; Suh, Won Hyuck

    1988-01-01

    Transrectal sonography of prostate was sensitive to textural changes produced by both benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancers. During recent 4 years, twenty cases of BPH and twenty cases of prostate cancers proven histologically were analyzed in their sonographic features, retrospectively, by using transrectal prostate sonography and suprapubic prostate sonography. The results were as follows: 1. Mean weights of BPH and prostate cancers was 40.4g and 47.6g, respectively. 2. Sonographic features of BPH revealed isoechogenecity in 11 cases, homogeneity in 18 cases, well defined capsular margins in 19 cases, and calcification in 16 cases. 3. Sonographic features of prostate cancers revealed mixed echogenecity in 14 cases, inhomogeneity in 15 cases, poorly defined capsular margin in 14 cases, and calcifications in 13 cases. 4. Authors concluded that prostate sonography were valuable diagnostic modality in the differentiation of BPH and prostate cancers.

  10. State-of-the-Art Management for the Patient with Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Much progress has been made in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), and multiple new U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved survival-prolonging drugs are now available. In 2004, docetaxel/prednisone was the first therapy shown to prolong survival. In 2010 and 2011, sipuleucel-T, cabazitaxel/prednisone, and abiraterone/prednisone were FDA approved. Two new agents, radium-223 and MDV-3100, have recently reported large phase III trials prolonging overall survival and will be submitted for regulatory approval in 2012. One can now begin to ask, is there an optimal sequence for therapies in metastatic CRPC? Despite the recent progress, there is much we do not know and virtually no information on this important question. We know that abiraterone/prednisone and cabazitaxel/prednisone are appropriate choices for a patient after receiving docetaxel, but we do not know what, if anything, represents the optimal sequence for abiraterone and cabazitaxel. In fact we do not understand how one therapy may affect the response to a subsequent therapy. We are also aware that the pre- and postdocetaxel spaces represent regulatory rather than biologic divisions. In addition, despite the proven role of docetaxel/prednisone, many patients with CRPC are not considered to be suitable for chemotherapy, and worldwide many never receive any form of chemotherapy. What is the optimal management for these patients? Taken together it is reasonable to assess patient preferences, prior therapies and response/tolerance to prior therapies, burden of disease, comorbidities, current symptoms, drug toxicities, out-of-pocket costs, etc., in clinical decision making. Given the many factors we do not know, it is hard to be dogmatic in approaching the therapeutic options for the patient with CRPC. We will likely soon move beyond the current sequencing paradigm and begin to assess new combinations in a systematic and rational fashion. Perhaps one day, in the not too distant future

  11. MR imaging of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuck, A.; Scheidler, J.; Sommer, B.; Graser, A.; Mueller-Lisse, U.G.; Massmann, J.

    2003-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis and staging of prostate cancer (PC) is developing into an important health care issue in light of the high incidence of PC and the improvements in stage-adapted therapy. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview on the current role of MR imaging and MR spectroscopy in the diagnosis and staging of PC.Material and methods Pertinent literature was searched and evaluated to collect information on current clinical indications, study techniques, diagnostic value, and limitations of magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. Major indications for MR imaging of patients with supected PC are to define tumor location before biopsy when clinical or TRUS findings are inconclusive, and to provide accurate staging of histologically proven PC to ascertain effective therapy. Current MR imaging techniques for the evaluation of PC include multiplanar high-resolution T2-weighted FSE and T1-weighted SE sequences using combined endorectal and phased-array coils. Using these techniques, the reported accuracy of MR imaging for the diagnosis of extracapsular tumor extension ranges between 82 and 88% with sensitivities between 80 and 95%, and specificities between 82 and 93%. Typical MR findings of PC in different stages of disease, as well as diagnostic problems, such as chronic prostatitis, biopsy-related hemorrhage and therapy-related changes of prostatic tissue are discussed. In addition, the current perspectives and limitations of MR spectroscopy in PC are summarized. Current MR imaging techniques provide important diagnostic information in the pretherapeutic workup of PC including a high staging accuracy, and is superior to TRUS. (orig.) [de

  12. Image guided prostate cancer treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bard, Robert L. [Bard Cancer Center, Biofoundation for Angiogenesis Research and Development, New York, NY (United States); Fuetterer, Jurgen J. [Radboud Univ. Nijmegen, Medical Centre (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology; Sperling, Dan (ed.) [Sperling Prostate Center, Alpha 3TMRI, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Systematic overview of the application of ultrasound and MRI in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lower urinary tract. Detailed information on image-guided therapies, including focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, and microwave and laser ablation. Numerous high-quality illustrations based on high-end equipment. Represents the state of the art in Non Invasive Imaging and Minimally Invasive Ablation Treatment (MIAT). Image-Guided Prostate Cancer Treatments is a comprehensive reference and practical guide on the technology and application of ultrasound and MRI in the male pelvis, with special attention to the prostate. The book is organized into three main sections, the first of which is devoted to general aspects of imaging and image-guided treatments. The second section provides a systematic overview of the application of ultrasound and MRI to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lower urinary tract. Performance of the ultrasound and MRI studies is explained, and the normal and abnormal pathological anatomy is reviewed. Correlation with the ultrasound in the same plane is provided to assist in understanding the MRI sequences. Biopsy and interventional procedures, ultrasound-MRI fusion techniques, and image-guided therapies, including focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, microwave and laser ablation, are all fully covered. The third section focuses on securing treatment effectiveness and the use of follow-up imaging to ensure therapeutic success and detect tumor recurrence at an early stage, which is vital given that prompt focal treatment of recurrence is very successful. Here, particular attention is paid to the role of Doppler ultrasound and DCE-MRI technologies. This book, containing a wealth of high-quality illustrations based on high-end equipment, will acquaint beginners with the basics of prostate ultrasound and MRI, while more advanced practitioners will learn new skills, means of avoiding pitfalls, and ways of effectively

  13. Comprehensive Molecular Profiling of African-American Prostate Cancer to Inform on Prognosis and Disease Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    including suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations...2% Movember-Prostate Cancer Foundation $250,000/yr Challenge Award Interrogating DNA Repair Defects to Improve Management...Improve Treatment for Advanced Prostate Cancer Goal(s): Comprehensively interrogate DNA repair alterations in both AR-positive and AR-negative CRPC

  14. Study design and protocol for a culturally adapted cognitive behavioral stress and self-management intervention for localized prostate cancer: The Encuentros de Salud study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penedo, Frank J; Antoni, Michael H; Moreno, Patricia I; Traeger, Lara; Perdomo, Dolores; Dahn, Jason; Miller, Gregory E; Cole, Steve; Orjuela, Julian; Pizarro, Edgar; Yanez, Betina

    2018-06-14

    Almost 2.8 million men in the U.S. are living with prostate cancer (PC), accounting for 40% of all male cancer survivors. Men diagnosed with prostate cancer may experience chronic and debilitating treatment side effects, including sexual and urinary dysfunction, pain and fatigue. Side effects can be stressful and can also lead to poor psychosocial functioning. Prior trials reveal that group-based cognitive behavioral stress and self-management (CBSM) is effective in reducing stress and mitigating some of these symptoms, yet little is known about the effects of culturally-translated CBSM among Spanish-speaking men with PC. This manuscript describes the rationale and study design of a multi-site, randomized controlled trial to determine whether participation in a culturally adapted cognitive behavioral stress management (C-CBSM) intervention leads to significantly greater reductions in symptom burden and improvements in health-related quality of life relative to participation in a non-culturally adapted cognitive behavioral stress management (CBSM) intervention. Participants (N = 260) will be Spanish-speaking Hispanic/Latino men randomized to the standard, non-culturally adapted CBSM intervention (e.g., cognitive behavioral strategies, stress management, and health maintenance) or the culturally adapted C-CBSM intervention (e.g., content adapted to be compatible with Hispanic/Latino cultural patterns and belief systems, meanings, values and social context) for 10 weeks. Primary outcomes (i.e., disease-specific symptom burden and health-related quality of life) will be assessed across time. We hypothesize that a culturally adapted C-CBSM intervention will be more efficacious in reducing symptom burden and improving health-related quality of life among Hispanic/Latino men when compared to a non-culturally adapted CBSM intervention. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. The bicalutamide Early Prostate Cancer Program. Demography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    See, W A.; McLeod, D; Iversen, P

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment for early prostate cancer has yet to be established. A well-tolerated hormonal therapy such as bicalutamide could be a useful treatment option in this setting, either as adjuvant or immediate therapy. A major collaborative clinical trials program was set up...... to investigate bicalutamide as a treatment option for local prostate cancer (localized or locally advanced disease). METHODS: The bicalutamide Early Prostate Cancer program comprises three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of similar design that are being conducted in distinct geographical...... areas (North America; Australia, Europe, Israel, South Africa and Mexico; and Scandinavia). Men with T1b-4N0-1M0 (TNM 1997) prostate cancer have been randomized on a 1:1 basis to receive bicalutamide 150 mg daily or placebo. Recruitment to the program closed in July 1998, and follow-up is ongoing. Study...

  16. Role of Mitochondria in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chowdhury, Subir K

    2006-01-01

    ... (LNCaP DU145 RC3 and CL1). Immunoblot Real Time RT-RCR polarographic and spectrophotometric analysis revealed that mGPDH abundance and activity was significantly elevated in prostate cancer cell lines when compared to normal...

  17. Role of Mitochondria in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chowdhury, Subir K

    2005-01-01

    ... (LNCaP, DU145, PC3, and CL1). Immunoblot, Real Time RTPCR, polarographic, and spectrophotometric analysis revealed that mGPDH abundance and activity was significantly elevated in prostate cancer cell lines when compared to normal...

  18. Biomarkers of Selenium Chemoprevention of Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dong, Yan

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the mechanism of selenium growth inhibition in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells Selenium retarded cell cycle progression at multiple transition points...

  19. Gene Delivery for Metastatic Prostate Cancer Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pang, Shen

    2001-01-01

    .... Enhanced by the bystander effect, the specific expression of the DTA gene causes significant cell death in prostate cancer cell cultures, with very low background cell eradication in control cell lines...

  20. Exploiting Epigenetic Alterations in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Simon J; Haendler, Bernard

    2017-05-09

    Prostate cancer affects an increasing number of men worldwide and is a leading cause of cancer-associated deaths. Beside genetic mutations, many epigenetic alterations including DNA and histone modifications have been identified in clinical prostate tumor samples. They have been linked to aberrant activity of enzymes and reader proteins involved in these epigenetic processes, leading to the search for dedicated inhibitory compounds. In the wake of encouraging anti-tumor efficacy results in preclinical models, epigenetic modulators addressing different targets are now being tested in prostate cancer patients. In addition, the assessment of microRNAs as stratification biomarkers, and early clinical trials evaluating suppressor microRNAs as potential prostate cancer treatment are being discussed.

  1. Exploiting Epigenetic Alterations in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J. Baumgart

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer affects an increasing number of men worldwide and is a leading cause of cancer-associated deaths. Beside genetic mutations, many epigenetic alterations including DNA and histone modifications have been identified in clinical prostate tumor samples. They have been linked to aberrant activity of enzymes and reader proteins involved in these epigenetic processes, leading to the search for dedicated inhibitory compounds. In the wake of encouraging anti-tumor efficacy results in preclinical models, epigenetic modulators addressing different targets are now being tested in prostate cancer patients. In addition, the assessment of microRNAs as stratification biomarkers, and early clinical trials evaluating suppressor microRNAs as potential prostate cancer treatment are being discussed.

  2. Effects of Presurgical Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, men diagnosed with androgen-sensitive prostate cancer with intermediate- or high-risk features will be examined with mpMRI, undergo targeted biopsies, and be treated with neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy.

  3. Fatty Acid Binding Proteins in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jett, Marti

    2000-01-01

    We have shown that there is a distinct pattern of fatty acid binding protein (FAEP) expression in prostate cancer vs normal cells and that finding has be confirmed in patient samples of biopsy specimens...

  4. Novel Therapeutic Approaches Toward Treating Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Kinases, Prostate Cancer, AKT inhibition, Mouse, Prostate Stem Cells 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES...Bearss 0, Wierda WG, Gandhi V (2009) Pim kinase inhibitor, 5GI-1776, induces apoptosis in CLL lymphocytes. Blood 114:4150--4157. 27. Grey R, et aL...PIM1 expression predict outcome in mantle cell lymphoma treated with high dose therapy, stem eel! transplantation and rituximab: a Cancer and Leukemia

  5. Reduction of Racial Disparities in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    African Americans and whites revealed increased risks among men who reported a history of gonorrhea or syphilis or who had positive serology for...cancer, of 1.49 to 2.64 for syphilis, and 1.16 to 1.50 for gonorrhea .16 The meta-analysis also found an association be- tween prostate cancer and...tients with prostatitis include Chlamydia trachoma- tis, Ureaplasma, Mycoplasma, Neisseria gonorrhea , Pseudomonas, Escherichia coli, and

  6. Molecular biology of prostate cancer progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Timothy C.; Sehgal, I.; Timme, T.L.; Rn, C.; Yang, G.; Park, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    Prostate cancer is now the most common form of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in American men (Boring C.C. et al, CA 44:7-26, 1994). As with other forms of cancer, prostate cancer is a multistep disease process that involves the acquisition of multiple genetic alternations (Armitage P and Doll K, Br J Cancer 8:1-12, 1954). For prostate cancer, alternations in specific dominantly acting oncogenes including ras and myc and tumor suppressor genes including p53 and Rb have been reported. However, a simple phenotype-genotype correlation for prostate cancer progression may not be readily accessible because prostate cancer demonstrates remarkable genetic heterogeneity. Recent clinical data indicate that this heterogeneity exists both among the multiple cancer foci as well as within individual cancer foci. Furthermore, based on chromosomal analysis, it has been suggested that metastases do not necessarily seed from the largest index cancer focus at the primary site. Such observations imply that abrupt changes in gene expression may trigger metastatic behavior in relatively small cohorts of malignant cells present at the local site. This pattern of progression may result from compromised function of specific 'control' genes which could affect the activity of multiple downstream genes involved in specific pathways of malignant progression. Such a mechanistic framework involving networks of gene expression could explain the acquisition of the complex metastatic phenotype. Using the mouse prostate reconstitution (MPR) model system (Thompson et al, Cell 56:917-930, 1989) we demonstrated that progression of experimental prostate cancer to metastasis was invariably associated with functional inactivation of p53 (Thompson el al, Oncogene 10:869-879, 1995). Southern blotting analyses revealed that metastases do not necessarily originate from the most abundant clone in the primary carcinoma. Furthermore, the role of p53 as a potential metastasis suppressor

  7. New possibilities and view for treatment of castration resistant prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barilla, R.; Andrasina, I.

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer is currently known as the most common cancer and the second leading cause of death from cancer in men in Western population. Advanced prostate cancer is initially sensitive to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) but later on progresses to castration resistant state. Understanding the mechanisms that transform prostate cancer (PCA) into a castration-resistant state enables investigators to explore suppression of extraresticular andronegs and other critical pathways to suggest appropriate and rational therapeutic design. Docetaxel based chemotherapy is established as the standard first line chemotherapy in patients with metastatic castration-resistant advanced prostate cancer with improved survival. However, prognosis remains poor and median survival is usually not longer than 2 years. Several Phase III studies have been completed recently, e.g. with new antiandrogens, new taxanes, immunotherapy and therapeutic antibodies. Multidisciplinary management and optimization of their role and and the most appropriate timing is the most important task in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. (author)

  8. Regulating Cancer-Associated Fibroblast Biology in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0512 TITLE: Regulating Cancer-Associated Fibroblast Biology in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Andrew...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Regulating Cancer-Associated Fibroblast Biology in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0512 5c. PROGRAM...blocked by the addition of Pim inhibitors. These results suggest that the Pim protein kinase can regulate stromal cell biology to modulate epithelial

  9. The Role of Estrogen Receptor β in Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Christoforou, Paraskevi; Christopoulos, Panagiotis F; Koutsilieris, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although androgen receptor (AR) signaling is the main molecular tool regulating growth and function of the prostate gland, estrogen receptor β (ERβ) is involved in the differentiation of prostatic epithelial cells and numerous antiproliferative actions on prostate cancer cells. However, ERβ splice variants have been associated with prostate cancer initiation and progression mechanisms. ERβ is promising as an anticancer therapy and in the prevention of prostate cancer. Herein, we review the re...

  10. 78 FR 54745 - National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A... Cancer Awareness Month, we remember those lost to prostate cancer, offer our support to patients and... the laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim September 2013 as National Prostate Cancer Awareness...

  11. Alcohol consumption and prostate cancer incidence and progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner, Clair; Davies, Neil M; Martin, Richard M

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in developed countries, and is a target for risk reduction strategies. The effects of alcohol consumption on prostate cancer incidence and survival remain unclear, potentially due to methodological limitations of observational studies. In this stud...... consumption is unlikely to affect prostate cancer incidence, but it may influence disease progression....

  12. Interleukin-30: A novel microenvironmental hallmark of prostate cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Carlo, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in men worldwide. We have recently discovered that IL-30 shapes the microenvironment of prostate cancer and tumor-draining lymph nodes to favor tumor progression. IL-30 supports tumor growth in vitro, and IL-30 expression in prostate cancer patients is associated with high tumor grade and metastatic stage of disease. Thus, IL-30 may constitute a valuable target for modern therapeutic approaches to hamper prostate cancer progression.

  13. Multiparametric MRI in the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futterer, Jurgen J. [Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2017-08-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men aged 50 years and older in developed countries and the third leading cause of cancer-related death in men. Multiparametric prostate MR imaging is currently the most accurate imaging modality to detect, localize, and stage prostate cancer. The role of multi-parametric MR imaging in the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer are discussed. In addition, insights are provided in imaging techniques, protocol, and interpretation.

  14. When Prostate Cancer Circulates in the Bloodstream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Vlaeminck-Guillem

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Management of patients with prostate cancer is currently based on imperfect clinical, biological, radiological and pathological evaluation. Prostate cancer aggressiveness, including metastatic potential, remains difficult to accurately estimate. In an attempt to better adapt therapeutics to an individual (personalized medicine, reliable evaluation of the intrinsic molecular biology of the tumor is warranted, and particularly for all tumor sites (primary tumors and secondary sites at any time of the disease progression. As a consequence of their natural tendency to grow (passive invasion or as a consequence of an active blood vessel invasion by metastase-initiating cells, tumors shed various materials into the bloodstream. Major efforts have been recently made to develop powerful and accurate methods able to detect, quantify and/or analyze all these circulating tumor materials: circulating tumors cells, disseminating tumor cells, extracellular vesicles (including exosomes, nucleic acids, etc. The aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge about these circulating tumor materials and their applications in translational research.

  15. Tumor clone dynamics in lethal prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Suzanne; Romanel, Alessandro; Goodall, Jane; Grist, Emily; Ferraldeschi, Roberta; Miranda, Susana; Prandi, Davide; Lorente, David; Frenel, Jean-Sebastien; Pezaro, Carmel; Omlin, Aurelius; Rodrigues, Daniel Nava; Flohr, Penelope; Tunariu, Nina; S de Bono, Johann; Demichelis, Francesca; Attard, Gerhardt

    2014-09-17

    It is unclear whether a single clone metastasizes and remains dominant over the course of lethal prostate cancer. We describe the clonal architectural heterogeneity at different stages of disease progression by sequencing serial plasma and tumor samples from 16 ERG-positive patients. By characterizing the clonality of commonly occurring deletions at 21q22, 8p21, and 10q23, we identified multiple independent clones in metastatic disease that are differentially represented in tissue and circulation. To exemplify the clinical utility of our studies, we then showed a temporal association between clinical progression and emergence of androgen receptor (AR) mutations activated by glucocorticoids in about 20% of patients progressing on abiraterone and prednisolone or dexamethasone. Resistant clones showed a complex dynamic with temporal and spatial heterogeneity, suggesting distinct mechanisms of resistance at different sites that emerged and regressed depending on treatment selection pressure. This introduces a management paradigm requiring sequential monitoring of advanced prostate cancer patients with plasma and tumor biopsies to ensure early discontinuation of agents when they become potential disease drivers. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Racial differences in the relationship between clinical prostatitis, presence of inflammation in benign prostate and subsequent risk of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybicki, B A; Kryvenko, O N; Wang, Y; Jankowski, M; Trudeau, S; Chitale, D A; Gupta, N S; Rundle, A; Tang, D

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiologic studies, primarily done in white men, suggest that a history of clinically-diagnosed prostatitis increases prostate cancer risk, but that histological prostate inflammation decreases risk. The relationship between a clinical history of prostatitis and histologic inflammation in terms of how these two manifestations of prostatic inflammation jointly contribute to prostate cancer risk and whether racial differences exist in this relationship is uncertain. Using a nested design within a cohort of men with benign prostate tissue specimens, we analyzed the data on both clinically-diagnosed prostatitis (NIH categories I-III) and histological inflammation in 574 prostate cancer case-control pairs (345 white, 229 African American). Clinical prostatitis was not associated with increased prostate cancer risk in the full sample, but showed a suggestive inverse association with prostate cancer in African Americans (odds ratio (OR)=0.47; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.27-0.81). In whites, clinical prostatitis increased risk by 40%, but was only associated with a significant increased prostate cancer risk in the absence of evidence of histological inflammation (OR=3.56; 95% CI=1.15-10.99). Moreover, PSA velocity (P=0.008) and frequency of PSA testing (P=0.003) were significant modifiers of risk. Clinical prostatitis increased risk of prostate cancer almost three-fold (OR=2.97; 95% CI=1.40-6.30) in white men with low PSA velocity and about twofold in white men with more frequent PSA testing (OR=1.91; 95% CI=1.09-3.35). In our cohort of men with benign prostate specimens, race, and histological inflammation were important cofactors in the relationship between clinical prostatitis and prostate cancer. Clinical prostatitis was associated with a slightly decreased risk for prostate cancer in African American men. In white men, the relationship between clinical prostatitis and prostate cancer risk was modified by histological prostatic inflammation, PSA velocity, and

  17. Active surveillance strategy for patients with localised prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik Birkebæk

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Active surveillance - an initial observational strategy - offers a tailored management of patients with localised prostate cancer. The aim of the strategy is to appoint patients with potentially lethal prostate cancer to curatively intended treatment, while patients with slowly evolving...... measurements, repeated biopsies, and regular digital rectal examinations. The programme recommended change of management from active surveillance to curatively intended treatment based on PSA doubling time, deteriorating histopathology in repeated prostatic biopsies, and increased clinical tumour category...... with defined final histopathological findings at radical prostatectomy that was perceived as unacceptable for a continued observational strategy. CONCLUSION: The thesis has demonstrated that active surveillance is feasible and reduces the number of patients undergoing curative intended treatment. However...

  18. Risk of prostate cancer among cancer survivors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, D.E.G.; Schans, van de S.A.; Liu, L.; Kampman, E.; Coebergh, J.W.; Kiemeney, L.A.; Soerjomataram, I.; Aben, K.K.

    2013-01-01

    In parallel with increasing numbers of cancer patients and improving cancer survival, the occurrence of second primary cancers becomes a relevant issue. The aim of our study was to evaluate risk of prostate cancer as second primary cancer in a population-based setting. Methods Data from the

  19. The relationship between Prostate CAncer gene 3 (PCA3) and prostate cancer significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Poppel, Hein; Haese, Alexander; Graefen, Markus; de la Taille, Alexandre; Irani, Jacques; de Reijke, Theo; Remzi, Mesut; Marberger, Michael

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the relationship between Prostate CAncer gene 3 (PCA3) and prostate cancer significance. PATIENTS AND METHODS Clinical data from two multi-centre European open-label, prospective studies evaluating the clinical utility of the PCA3 assay in guiding initial and repeat biopsy

  20. Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs towards management of men with locally advanced prostate cancer following radical prostatectomy: an Australian survey of urologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Bernadette; Young, Jane; Kneebone, Andrew B; Brooks, Andrew J; Dominello, Amanda; Haines, Mary

    2016-04-01

    To investigate Australian urologists' knowledge, attitudes and beliefs, and the association of these with treatment preferences relating to guideline-recommended adjuvant radiotherapy for men with adverse pathologic features following radical prostatectomy. A nationwide mailed and web-based survey of Australian urologist members of the Urological Society of Australia and New Zealand (USANZ). 157 surveys were included in the analysis (45% response rate). Just over half of respondents (54%) were aware of national clinical practice guidelines for the management of prostate cancer. Urologists' attitudes and beliefs towards the specific recommendation for post-operative adjuvant radiotherapy for men with locally advanced prostate cancer were mixed. Just over half agreed the recommendation is based on a valid interpretation of the underpinning evidence (54.1%, 95% CI [46%, 62.2%]) but less than one third agreed adjuvant radiotherapy will lead to improved patient outcomes (30.2%, 95% CI [22.8%, 37.6%]). Treatment preferences were varied, demonstrating clinical equipoise. A positive attitude towards the clinical practice recommendation was significantly associated with treatment preference for adjuvant radiotherapy (rho = 0.520, P towards clinical practice guidelines in general were positive. There remains clinical equipoise among Australian urologists in relation to adjuvant radiotherapy for men with adverse pathologic features following radical prostatectomy. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Enzalutamide in metastatic prostate cancer before chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beer, Tomasz M; Armstrong, Andrew J; Rathkopf, Dana E

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Enzalutamide is an oral androgen-receptor inhibitor that prolongs survival in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer in whom the disease has progressed after chemotherapy. New treatment options are needed for patients with metastatic prostate cancer who have...... the most common clinically relevant adverse events associated with enzalutamide treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Enzalutamide significantly decreased the risk of radiographic progression and death and delayed the initiation of chemotherapy in men with metastatic prostate cancer. (Funded by Medivation and Astellas...... skeletal-related event (hazard ratio, 0.72), a complete or partial soft-tissue response (59% vs. 5%), the time until prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression (hazard ratio, 0.17), and a rate of decline of at least 50% in PSA (78% vs. 3%) (P

  2. Cytoreductive prostatectomy in metastatic prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Joachim Aidt; Berg, Kasper Drimer; Røder, Martin Andreas

    2018-01-01

    The impact of cytoreductive radical prostatectomy on oncological outcome in patients with prostate cancer and limited number of bone metastases is unclear. Data from cancer registries, multi-institutional databases and a single institutional case-control study indicate a possible benefit of combi......The impact of cytoreductive radical prostatectomy on oncological outcome in patients with prostate cancer and limited number of bone metastases is unclear. Data from cancer registries, multi-institutional databases and a single institutional case-control study indicate a possible benefit...

  3. A qualitative metasynthesis exploring the impact of prostate cancer and its management on younger, unpartnered and gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, L; Watson, E K; Nayoan, J; Wagland, R; Glaser, A; Gavin, A; Wright, P; Rivas, C

    2017-11-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) can negatively impact on men's sexual, urinary and emotional functioning, affecting quality of life. Most men with PCa are older (≥65 years), married and heterosexual and little is known about the impact on men who are younger, unpartnered or gay. We aimed to synthesise existing qualitative research on these three groups of men. A systematic metasynthesis was undertaken that included data on the unique impacts of PCa on younger (identity-illustrating the multiple threats to men's work, sexual and social identities; shifting into different communities of practice-such as the shift from being part of a sexually active community to celibacy. These findings suggest that PCa can have a particular impact on the quality of life of younger, unpartnered and gay men. This has implications for the provision of tailored support and information to these potentially marginalised groups. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Identification of prostate cancer biomarkers in urinary exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øverbye, Anders; Skotland, Tore; Koehler, Christian J; Thiede, Bernd; Seierstad, Therese; Berge, Viktor; Sandvig, Kirsten; Llorente, Alicia

    2015-10-06

    Exosomes have recently appeared as a novel source of non-invasive cancer biomarkers since tumour-specific molecules can be found in exosomes isolated from biological fluids. We have here investigated the proteome of urinary exosomes by using mass spectrometry to identify proteins differentially expressed in prostate cancer patients compared to healthy male controls. In total, 15 control and 16 prostate cancer samples of urinary exosomes were analyzed. Importantly, 246 proteins were differentially expressed in the two groups. The majority of these proteins (221) were up-regulated in exosomes from prostate cancer patients. These proteins were analyzed according to specific criteria to create a focus list that contained 37 proteins. At 100% specificity, 17 of these proteins displayed individual sensitivities above 60%. Even though several of these proteins showed high sensitivity and specificity for prostate cancer as individual biomarkers, combining them in a multi-panel test has the potential for full differentiation of prostate cancer from non-disease controls. The highest sensitivity, 94%, was observed for transmembrane protein 256 (TM256; chromosome 17 open reading frame 61). LAMTOR proteins were also distinctly enriched with very high specificity for patient samples. TM256 and LAMTOR1 could be used to augment the sensitivity to 100%. Other prominent proteins were V-type proton ATPase 16 kDa proteolipid subunit (VATL), adipogenesis regulatory factor (ADIRF), and several Rab-class members and proteasomal proteins. In conclusion, this study clearly shows the potential of using urinary exosomes in the diagnosis and clinical management of prostate cancer.

  5. Prostate-specific antigen: does the current evidence support its use in prostate cancer screening?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    Although widely used, the value of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in screening asymptomatic men for prostate cancer is controversial. Reasons for the controversy relate to PSA being less than an ideal marker in detecting early prostate cancer, the possibility that screening for prostate cancer may result in the overdetection and thus overtreatment of indolent disease and the lack of clarity as to the definitive or best treatment for men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer. Although the results from some randomized prospective trials suggest that screening with PSA reduces mortality from prostate cancer, the overall benefit was modest. It is thus currently unclear as to whether the modest benefit of reduced mortality outweighs the harms of overdetection and overtreatment. Thus, prior to undergoing screening for prostate cancer, men should be informed of the risks and benefits of early detection. Newly emerging markers that may complement PSA in the early detection of prostate cancer include specific isoforms of PSA and PCA3.

  6. Contemporary Management of Prostate Cancer Patients Suitable for Active Surveillance: A North American Population-based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschini, Marco; Fossati, Nicola; Sood, Akshay; Lee, Justin K; Sammon, Jesse; Sun, Maxine; Pucheril, Dan; Dalela, Deepansh; Montorsi, Francesco; Karnes, R Jeffrey; Briganti, Alberto; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Menon, Mani; Abdollah, Firas

    2016-06-14

    Active surveillance (AS) is increasingly recognized as a recommended treatment option for prostate cancer (PCa) patients with clinically localized, low-risk disease; however, previous studies suggested that its utilization is uncommon in the United States. We evaluated the nationwide utilization rate of AS in the contemporary era. We relied on the 2010-2011 Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database using all 18 SEER-based registries. We identified 9049 patients that fulfilled the University of California, San Francisco AS criteria (prostate-specific antigen level <10ng/ml, clinical T stage ≤2a, Gleason score ≤6 [no pattern 4 or 5], and percentage of positive biopsy cores <33%). Logistic regression analysis tested the relationship between receiving local treatment and all available predictors. Only 32% of AS candidates did not receive any active local treatment. This proportion varied widely among the SEER-based registries, ranging from 13% to 49% (p<0.001). In multivariable analyses, clinical stage T2a (odds ratio [OR]: 1.23; p=0.04) and percentage of positive cores (OR: 1.10 for each 2% increase; p<0.001) were associated with a higher probability of receiving local treatment. Conversely, older age (OR: 0.89 for each 2-yr increase; p<0.001), not being married (OR: 0.64; p<0.001), and uninsured status (OR: 0.55; p=0.008) were associated with a lower probability of receiving active local treatment. The study is limited by the fact that SEER does not distinguish among patients undergoing observation, AS, watchful waiting, or initial hormonal therapy. In the United States, a considerable proportion of patients suitable for AS receive local treatment for PCa. Proportions differ significantly among SEER registries. Having more extensive and palpable disease, having medical insurance, being married, and being younger are associated with an increased probability of receiving local treatment for low-risk prostate cancer. Copyright © 2016 European

  7. [Fish intake and risk of prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybkowska, Ewa; Świderski, Franciszek; Waszkiewicz-Robak, Bożena

    2014-10-17

    The aim of the study was to present the current state of knowledge concerning the relationship between the consumption of fish as materials rich in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA) omega-3, and the risk of prostate cancer. Many scientific reports confirm the health benefits from the consumption of fish and protective properties of LC PUFA omega-3 in relation to prostate cancer. However, there are reports that indicate a relationship of the high consumption of PUFA with the risk of prostate cancer. The way of processing and preservation of the fish, and other factors not included in previous studies, could have some importance in the etiology of this disease. High susceptibility of PUFA to oxidation changes and the technological fish processing (smoking, high-temperature cooking methods) contribute to the formation of many compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic amines - which may influence the formation of cancers - including prostate cancer. It is necessary to ensure an adequate amount of LC PUFA omega-3 in the diet through the consumption of proper quality fish and fish oils. Particular attention should be paid to the high susceptibility of PUFA to the oxidative processes, and the method of processing, preservation and storage of fish. Also pollution from the environment can significantly reduce the impact of health benefits of PUFA and fish, and even be the cause of cancers, including prostate cancer. Further research in this area should be more targeted to assess the impact of nutritional factors for the development of such tumors.

  8. Psychosocial Intervention In Prostate Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potočníková Jana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide for males, and the fifth most common cancer overall. Using of autogenic training could reduce the influence of ADT and raise quality of prostate cancer patients. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of autogenic training in patients with prostate cancer. Patients were divided to experimental and control group. Experimental group participated in fourteen weeks long autogenic training program. Control group performed usual daily activities. Every subject of research performed input and output diagnostics which monitored psychical states of patients by psychological standardized tests - Differential questionnaire of depression (DDF and Questionnaire of anxiety (STAI X1. Our data showed autogenic training program significant improved depressions symptoms and anxiety in experimental research group (p ≤ 0.05, however there was no main change of depression symptoms and anxiety values for control group (p = n.s..

  9. Prostate Cancer Detection Using Near Infrared Spectral Polarization Imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alfano, R. R; Wang, W. B

    2005-01-01

    .... The technique is based on the spectral and polarization properties of light scattered, absorbed and emitted from prostate cancerous and normal tissues, and contrast agents targeted to the prostate cancers. Results of finding...

  10. CDK5 as a Therapeutic Target in Prostate Cancer Metastasis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelkin, Barry D

    2008-01-01

    We have recently found that CDK5 is active in prostate cancer cell lines and in almost all human metastatic prostate cancers, and inhibition of CDK5 activity resulted in reduction of spontaneous metastases by 79...

  11. CDK5 as a Therapeutic Target in Prostate Cancer Metastasis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelkin, Barry

    2007-01-01

    We have recently found that CDK5 is active in prostate cancer cell lines and in almost all human metastatic prostate cancers, and inhibition of CDK5 activity resulted in reduction of spontaneous metastases by 79...

  12. TRAIL: A Novel Therapeutic Agent for Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Honglin

    2002-01-01

    This study aims to elucidate the signaling pathway of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, and to examine the therapeutic effect of TRAIL on prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo...

  13. TRAIL: A Novel Therapeutic Agent for Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Honglin

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to elucidate the signaling pathway of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, and to examine the therapeutic effect of TRAIL on prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo...

  14. TRAIL: A Novel Therapeutic Agent for Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Honglin

    2003-01-01

    This study aims to elucidate the signaling pathway of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, and to examine the therapeutic effect of TRAIL on prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo...

  15. Neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Popescu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This review aims to provide practicing clinicians with the most recent knowledge of the biological nature of prostate cancer especially the information regarding neuroendocrine differentiation. Methods: Review of the literature using PubMed search and scientific journal publications. Results: Much progress has been made towards an understanding of the development and progression of prostate cancer. The prostate is a male accessory sex gland which produces a fraction of seminal fluid. The normal human prostate is composed of a stromal compartment (which contains: nerves, fibroblast, smooth muscle cells, macrophages surrounding glandular acins – epithelial cells. Neuroendocrine cells are one of the epithelial populations in the normal prostate and are believed to provide trophic signals trough the secretion of neuropeptides that diffuse and influence surrounding epithelial cells. Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in men. In prostate cancer, neuroendocrine cells can stimulate growth of surrounding prostate adenocarcinoma cells (proliferation of neighboring cancer cells in a paracrine manner by secretion of neuroendocrine products. Neuroendocrine prostate cancer is an aggressive variant of prostate cancer that commonly arises in later stages of castration resistant prostate cancer. The detection of neuroendocrine prostate cancer has clinical implications. These patients are often treated with platinum chemotherapy rather than with androgen receptor targeted therapies. Conclusion: This review shows the need to improve our knowledge regarding diagnostic and treatment methods of the Prostate Cancer, especially cancer cells with neuroendocrine phenotype.

  16. Prostate cancer epigenetics and its clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Normal cells have a level of epigenetic programming that is superimposed on the genetic code to establish and maintain their cell identity and phenotypes. This epigenetic programming can be thought as the architecture, a sort of cityscape, that is built upon the underlying genetic landscape. The epigenetic programming is encoded by a complex set of chemical marks on DNA, on histone proteins in nucleosomes, and by numerous context-specific DNA, RNA, protein interactions that all regulate the structure, organization, and function of the genome in a given cell. It is becoming increasingly evident that abnormalities in both the genetic landscape and epigenetic cityscape can cooperate to drive carcinogenesis and disease progression. Large-scale cancer genome sequencing studies have revealed that mutations in genes encoding the enzymatic machinery for shaping the epigenetic cityscape are among the most common mutations observed in human cancers, including prostate cancer. Interestingly, although the constellation of genetic mutations in a given cancer can be quite heterogeneous from person to person, there are numerous epigenetic alterations that appear to be highly recurrent, and nearly universal in a given cancer type, including in prostate cancer. The highly recurrent nature of these alterations can be exploited for development of biomarkers for cancer detection and risk stratification and as targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we explore the basic principles of epigenetic processes in normal cells and prostate cancer cells and discuss the potential clinical implications with regards to prostate cancer biomarker development and therapy.

  17. Prostate cancer epigenetics and its clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Yegnasubramanian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal cells have a level of epigenetic programming that is superimposed on the genetic code to establish and maintain their cell identity and phenotypes. This epigenetic programming can be thought as the architecture, a sort of cityscape, that is built upon the underlying genetic landscape. The epigenetic programming is encoded by a complex set of chemical marks on DNA, on histone proteins in nucleosomes, and by numerous context-specific DNA, RNA, protein interactions that all regulate the structure, organization, and function of the genome in a given cell. It is becoming increasingly evident that abnormalities in both the genetic landscape and epigenetic cityscape can cooperate to drive carcinogenesis and disease progression. Large-scale cancer genome sequencing studies have revealed that mutations in genes encoding the enzymatic machinery for shaping the epigenetic cityscape are among the most common mutations observed in human cancers, including prostate cancer. Interestingly, although the constellation of genetic mutations in a given cancer can be quite heterogeneous from person to person, there are numerous epigenetic alterations that appear to be highly recurrent, and nearly universal in a given cancer type, including in prostate cancer. The highly recurrent nature of these alterations can be exploited for development of biomarkers for cancer detection and risk stratification and as targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we explore the basic principles of epigenetic processes in normal cells and prostate cancer cells and discuss the potential clinical implications with regards to prostate cancer biomarker development and therapy.

  18. Fear of prostate biopsy: a limitation in the management of prostate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of prostate cancer is increasing in the country and now constitutes 11% of allmale cancers. For diagnosis of prostate cancer, a histological diagnosis is necessary and this requires that a prostate biopsy be performed but patientsmay not readily accept this invasive procedure. A 2-year retrospective study was ...

  19. Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) Targeted Bio-orthogonal Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0595 TITLE: Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) Targeted Bio -orthogonal Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer...Sep 2016 - 14 Sep 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) Targeted Bio -orthogonal Therapy for Metastatic Prostate

  20. Combined androgen blockade in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer--an overview. The Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P

    1997-01-01

    The value of combined androgen blockade in the treatment of patients with advanced prostate cancer is still controversial. In this review by the Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group, the literature addressing the concept and its clinical use is critically reviewed....

  1. Effects of Brassicaceae Isothiocyanates on Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Novío

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the major progress made in the field of cancer biology, cancer is still one of the leading causes of mortality, and prostate cancer (PCa is one of the most encountered malignancies among men. The effective management of this disease requires developing better anticancer agents with greater efficacy and fewer side effects. Nature is a large source for the development of chemotherapeutic agents, with more than 50% of current anticancer drugs being of natural origin. Isothiocyanates (ITCs are degradation products from glucosinolates that are present in members of the family Brassicaceae. Although they are known for a variety of therapeutic effects, including antioxidant, immunostimulatory, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and antibacterial properties, nowadays, cell line and animal studies have additionally indicated the chemopreventive action without causing toxic side effects of ITCs. In this way, they can induce cell cycle arrest, activate apoptosis pathways, increase the sensitivity of resistant PCa to available chemodrugs, modulate epigenetic changes and downregulate activated signaling pathways, resulting in the inhibition of cell proliferation, progression and invasion-metastasis. The present review summarizes the chemopreventive role of ITCs with a particular emphasis on specific molecular targets and epigenetic alterations in in vitro and in vivo cancer animal models.

  2. Moving beyond the prostate: benefits in broadening the scope of research on men and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Lisa M; Oliffe, John L

    2013-03-01

    As researchers recognize the value in considering gender dynamics within the cancer experience, a majority of the masculinities work has centered on men with prostate cancer. This focus has positioned prostate cancer as the flagship of men's cancer (and perhaps men's health). There is value in this research. However, as 78% of men experience cancers of a different type, a narrow focus on prostate cancer does not necessarily account for broader intersections of cancer and masculinity. Argued here are the benefits to expanding the focus of research on men's cancer experiences. As researchers consider patterns and diversities among men managing an array of cancers, there is opportunity to broaden understanding of the challenges "cancer" can present for men, disrupt assumptions that the study of men's gendered experience of cancer must be tethered to male sex-specific biology, and enhance the relevance and impact of psychosocial interventions for men living with cancer.

  3. 77 FR 55099 - National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A... thousands of lives every year. During National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, we remember those we have... their lifetimes. As we mark National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, let us support the families who...

  4. 76 FR 55551 - National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A... observe National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, we renew our commitment to reducing the impact of prostate cancer on our country by raising awareness and supporting research that will lead to better ways...

  5. Expression of KLK2 gene in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Shafai

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The expression of KLK2 gene in people with prostate cancer is the higher than the healthy person; finally, according to the results, it could be mentioned that the KLK2 gene considered as a useful factor in prostate cancer, whose expression is associated with progression and development of the prostate cancer.

  6. P52 Activation and Enzalutamide Therapy in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    c-Myc:hnRNPA1 pathway regulates expression of androgen receptor splice variants and enzalutamide sensitivity in prostate cancer . Castration resistant... prostate cancer (CRPC) remains dependent on androgen receptor (AR) signaling. Alternative splicing of the AR to generate constitutively active... receptor splice variants and enzalutamide sensitivity in prostate cancer . • We discovered that quercetin, a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound

  7. Organoid cultures derived from patients with advanced prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Dong; Vela, Ian; Sboner, Andrea; Iaquinta, Phillip J; Karthaus, Wouter R; Gopalan, Anuradha; Dowling, Catherine; Wanjala, Jackline N; Undvall, Eva A; Arora, Vivek K; Wongvipat, John; Kossai, Myriam; Ramazanoglu, Sinan; Barboza, Luendreo P; Di, Wei; Cao, Zhen; Zhang, Qi Fan; Sirota, Inna; Ran, Leili; MacDonald, Theresa Y; Beltran, Himisha; Mosquera, Juan-Miguel; Touijer, Karim A; Scardino, Peter T; Laudone, Vincent P; Curtis, Kristen R; Rathkopf, Dana E; Morris, Michael J; Danila, Daniel C; Slovin, Susan F; Solomon, Stephen B; Eastham, James A; Chi, Ping; Carver, Brett; Rubin, Mark A; Scher, Howard I; Clevers, Hans; Sawyers, Charles L; Chen, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The lack of in vitro prostate cancer models that recapitulate the diversity of human prostate cancer has hampered progress in understanding disease pathogenesis and therapy response. Using a 3D organoid system, we report success in long-term culture of prostate cancer from biopsy specimens and

  8. Advanced research on separating prostate cancer stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Yumei; He Xin; Song Naling

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a common malignant tumor in male urinary system,and may easily develop into the hormone refractory prostate cancer which can hardly be cured. Recent studies had found that the prostate cancer stem cells may be the source of the prostate cancer's occurrence,development, metastasis and recurrence. The therapy targeting the prostate cancer stem cells may be the effective way to cure prostate cancer. But these cells is too low to be detected. The difficulty lies in the low separation efficiency of prostate cancer stem cell, so the effectively separating prostate cancer stem cells occupied the main position for the more in-depth research of prostate cancer stem cells. This paper reviews the research progress and existing problems on the several main separating methods of prostate cancer stem cells, includes the fluorescence activated cells sorting and magnetic activated cells sorting based on prostate cancer stem cell surface markers, the side-population sorting and serum-free medium sphere forming sorting based on prostate cancer stem cell's biology. (authors)

  9. Neck mass: An unusual presentation of prostate cancer metastasis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globally, prostate cancer is a disease of public health importance and it is most common among men between 60 to 70 years of age. Distant primaries involving supraclavicular nodes secondary to prostate cancer is very rare. This report is a case of an unusual presentation of prostate cancer manifesting as a huge neck ...

  10. Sexual dysfunctions after prostate cancer radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droupy, S.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual dysfunctions are a quality of life main concern following prostate cancer treatment. After both radiotherapy and brachytherapy, sexual function declines progressively, the onset of occurrence of erectile dysfunction being 12-18 months after both treatments. The pathophysiological pathways by which radiotherapy and brachytherapy cause erectile dysfunction are multi-factorial, as patient co-morbidities, arterial damage, exposure of neurovascular bundle to high levels of radiation, and radiation dose received by the corpora cavernosa at the crurae of the penis may be important in the aetiology of erectile dysfunction. Diagnosis and treatment of postradiation sexual dysfunctions must integrate pre-therapeutic evaluation and information to provide to the patient and his partner a multidisciplinary sexual medicine management. (authors)

  11. Genomes of early onset prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischenfeldt, Joachim; Korbel, Jan O.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Prostate cancer is a disease of the elderly but a clinically relevant subset occurs early in life. In the current review, we discuss recent findings and the current understanding of the molecular underpinnings associated with early-onset prostate cancer (PCa) and the evidence...... supporting age-specific differences in the cancer genomes. Recent findings Recent surveys of PCa patient cohorts have provided novel age-dependent links between germline and somatic aberrations which points to differences in the molecular cause and treatment options. Summary Identifying the earliest...... receptor pathway....

  12. Prostatic sarcoma after treatment of rectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Andrew G

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between radiation exposure for treatment of cancer and occurrence of a second primary cancer at the irradiated site is well known. This phenomenon is however rare in prostate. Case presentation A 75-year-old farmer was treated for rectal cancer with preoperative 45 Gy of radiotherapy and abdominoperineal resection. Four years later he developed symptoms of bladder outlet obstruction and acute urinary retention. He underwent a transurethral resection of the prostate. Histological examination of the removed prostate tissue and immunohistochemistry revealed it to be a poorly differentiated sarcoma. Conclusion We believe this to be the first reported case of radiation-induced sarcoma following radiotherapy treatment for rectal cancer. Since radiotherapy plays a pivotal role in the contemporary treatment of rectal adenocarcinoma, it is relevant to be aware of the potential long-term carcinogenic complications of radiotherapy of the pelvis.

  13. Preparation and management of complications in prostate biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang Jeng Tyng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Transrectal ultrasonography-guided biopsy plays a key role in prostate sampling for cancer detection. Among interventional procedures, it is one of the most frequent procedures performed by radiologists. Despite the safety and low morbidity of such procedure, possible complications should be promptly assessed and treated. The standardization of protocols and of preprocedural preparation is aimed at minimizing complications as well as expediting their management. The authors have made a literature review describing the possible complications related to transrectal ultrasonography-guided prostate biopsy, and discuss their management and guidance to reduce the incidence of such complications.

  14. COPING STRATEGIES IN PATIENTS WITH PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Gardanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostics of psycho-emotional disorders of patients with malignant diseases of the prostate is not doubt, because timely correction contributes to the shortening of rehabilitation period and restoration of the quality of life of patients after treatment. Detection and diagnosis of prostate cancer for many patients is stressful and causes changes in the affective sphere, and manifests itself in increased levels of anxiety and depression in men. To cope with stress is possible due to the used coping strategies.Purpose. Studying the coping mechanisms in prostate cancer patients.Materials and methods. 56 men treated in FGBU "LRTS" Russian Ministry of Health. The average age was 65.7 ± 6.1 years. The average duration of the disease prostate cancer is 3 ± 2 months. All men were subjected to the standard algorithm for the evaluation of hormonal status, the PSA, taking a history, inspection and physical examination, magnetic resonance imaging and scintigraphy of bones of a skeleton. All the patients underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Psychological testing with the use of the method of "Coping test" the scale of reactive and personal anxiety for the differentiated evaluation of anxiety. Results. The most common for prostate cancer revealed constructive coping strategies are "planning solve", "selfcontrol" and "search of social support". According to the scale Spielberg–Hanin a high level of situational anxiety was revealed.Conclusion. According to the results of the research, patients with prostate cancer are likely to use constructive coping strategies, that leads to stabilization of psycho-emotional state of men and promotes more effective adaptation in the terms of stress, that is caused by treatment of prostate cancer.

  15. The Role of Dietary Fat throughout the Prostate Cancer Trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie M. Di Sebastiano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer diagnosed world-wide; however, patients demonstrate exceptionally high survival rates. Many lifestyle factors, including obesity and diet, are considered risk factors for advanced prostate cancer. Dietary fat is a fundamental contributor to obesity and may be specifically important for prostate cancer patients. Prostate cancer treatment can result in changes in body composition, affecting quality of life for survivors by increasing the risk of co-morbidities, like cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We aim to examine dietary fat throughout the prostate cancer treatment trajectory, including risk, cancer development and survivorship. Focusing on one specific nutrient throughout the prostate cancer trajectory provides a unique perspective of dietary fat in prostate cancer and the mechanisms that may exacerbate prostate cancer risk, progression and recurrence. Through this approach, we noted that high intake of dietary fat, especially, high intake of animal and saturated fats, may be associated with increased prostate cancer risk. In contrast, a low-fat diet, specifically low in saturated fat, may be beneficial for prostate cancer survivors by reducing tumor angiogenesis and cancer recurrence. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF/Akt signaling pathway appears to be the key pathway moderating dietary fat intake and prostate cancer development and progression.

  16. Clinical Usefulness of the Histoculture Drug Response Assay for Prostate Cancer and Benign Prostate Hypertrophy (BPH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert M

    2018-01-01

    The histoculture drug response assay (HDRA) has been adapted to determine androgen sensitivity in Gelfoam histoculture of human benign prostatic tissue as well as prostate cancer. Gelfoam histoculture was used to measure androgen-independent and androgen-dependent growth of benign and malignant prostate tissue. The androgen-sensitivity index was significantly higher in 23 paired specimens of prostate cancer compared to benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH). Genistein decreased the androgen-sensitivity index of BPH and prostate cancer in Gelfoam ® histoculture in a dose-dependent manner.

  17. The Infectious Pathogenesis Of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    pyrimidine metabolism, and one-carbon folate , while pathways in the low-grade tumors were related to propanoate metabolism. Separating the cohorts...28. Brooks JD, et al.: CG island methylation changes near the GSTP1 gene in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 7(6...531-6, 1998. 29. Lee WH, et al.: CG island methylation changes near the GSTP1 gene in prostatic carcinoma cells detected using the polymerase chain

  18. Castration-resistant prostate cancer: AUA Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Michael S; Roth, Bruce J; Dahm, Philipp; Engstrom, Christine; Freedland, Stephen J; Hussain, Maha; Lin, Daniel W; Lowrance, William T; Murad, Mohammad Hassan; Oh, William K; Penson, David F; Kibel, Adam S

    2013-08-01

    This Guideline is intended to provide a rational basis for the management of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer based on currently available published data. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the published literature was conducted using controlled vocabulary supplemented with keywords relating to the relevant concepts of prostate cancer and castration resistance. The search strategy was developed and executed by reference librarians and methodologists to create an evidence report limited to English-language, published peer-reviewed literature. This review yielded 303 articles published from 1996 through 2013 that were used to form a majority of the guideline statements. Clinical Principles and Expert Opinions were used for guideline statements lacking sufficient evidence-based data. Guideline statements were created to inform clinicians on the appropriate use of observation, androgen-deprivation and antiandrogen therapy, androgen synthesis inhibitors, immunotherapy, radionuclide therapy, systemic chemotherapy, palliative care and bone health. These were based on six index patients developed to represent the most common scenarios encountered in clinical practice. As a direct result of the significant increase in FDA-approved therapeutic agents for use in patients with metastatic CRPC, clinicians are challenged with a multitude of treatment options and potential sequencing of these agents that, consequently, make clinical decision-making more complex. Given the rapidly evolving nature of this field, this guideline should be used in conjunction with recent systematic literature reviews and an understanding of the individual patient's treatment goals. In all cases, patients' preferences and personal goals should be considered when choosing management strategies. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Brachytherapy in early prostate cancer--early experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, B O; Bailen, J L; Albrink, F H; Steinbock, G S; Cornett, M S; Benson, D C; Schmied, W K; Medley, R N; Spanos, W J; Paris, K J; Koerner, P D; Gatenby, R A; Wilson, D L; Meyer, R

    1999-01-01

    Use of brachytherapy with radioactive seeds in the management of early prostate cancer is commonly used in the United States. The early experience has been reported from the prostate treatment centers in Seattle for the last 10 years. In this manuscript we are reporting our early experience of 150 radioactive seed implantations in early stage prostate cancer using either Iodine 125 or Palladium 103 seeds. The average age of the patient is 66 years and the median Gleason score is 5.4 with a median PSA of 6. A brief description of the evolution of the treatment of prostate cancer as well as the preparation for the seed implantation using the volume study with ultrasound of the prostate, pubic arch study using CT scan of the pelvis and the complete planning using the treatment planning computers are discussed. We also have described the current technique which is used in our experience based on the Seattle guidelines. We plan a follow-up report with the results of the studies with longer follow-up.

  20. Current state of the art, multimodality research and future visions for the treatment of patients with prostate cancer: consensus results from "Challenges and Chances in Prostate Cancer Research Meeting 2013".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Stephanie E; Debus, Jürgen; Feick, Günter; Hadaschik, Boris; Hohenfellner, Markus; Schüle, Roland; Zacharias, Jens-Peter; Schwardt, Malte

    2014-11-04

    A brainstorming and consensus meeting organized by the German Cancer Aid focused on modern treatment of prostate cancer and promising innovative techniques and research areas. Besides optimization of screening algorithms, molecular-based stratification and individually tailored treatment regimens will be the future of multimodal prostate cancer management. Effective interdisciplinary structures, including biobanking and data collection mechanisms are the basis for such developments.

  1. Predictive value of prostate-specific antigen for prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepherd, Leah; Borges, Alvaro Humberto; Ravn, Lene

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although prostate cancer (PCa) incidence is lower in HIV+ men than in HIV- men, the usefulness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in this population is not well defined and may have higher false negative rates than in HIV- men. We aimed to describe the kinetics and predict......INTRODUCTION: Although prostate cancer (PCa) incidence is lower in HIV+ men than in HIV- men, the usefulness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in this population is not well defined and may have higher false negative rates than in HIV- men. We aimed to describe the kinetics...... and predictive value of PSA in HIV+ men. METHODS: Men with PCa (n=21) and up to two matched controls (n=40) with prospectively stored plasma samples before PCa (or matched date in controls) were selected. Cases and controls were matched on date of first and last sample, age, region of residence and CD4 count...... at first sample date. Total PSA (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA), testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured. Conditional logistic regression models investigated associations between markers and PCa. Sensitivity and specificity of using tPSA >4 µg/L to predict PCa was calculated. Mixed...

  2. Oligometastatic prostate cancer: definitions, clinical outcomes, and treatment considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosoian, Jeffrey J.; Gorin, Michael A.; Ross, Ashley E.; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Tran, Phuoc T.; Schaeffer, Edward M.

    2018-01-01

    The oligometastatic state has been proposed as an intermediate stage of cancer spread between localized disease and widespread metastases. With improvements in diagnostic modalities such as functional imaging, oligometastatic prostate cancer is being diagnosed with greater frequency than ever before. Furthermore, the paradigm for treatment of advanced prostate cancers is shifting toward a more aggressive approach. Many questions surround the understanding of the process and consequences of oligometastasis, meaning that the contemporary literature offers a wide variety of definitions of oligometastatic prostate cancer. Until genomic data exist to provide a biological component to the definition of oligometastatic disease, a clinical diagnosis made on the basis of up to five extrapelvic lesions is reasonable for use. Retrospective studies suggest that interventions such as radical prostatectomy and local or metastasis-directed radiotherapy can be performed in the metastatic setting with minimal risk of toxic effects. These therapies seem to decrease the need for subsequent palliative interventions, but insufficient data are available to draw reliable conclusions regarding their effect on survival. Thus, a protocol for clinicians to manage the patient presenting with oligometastatic prostate cancer would be a useful clinical tool. PMID:27725639

  3. Emerging Therapies in Metastatic Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenburg, Daniel W; Morgans, Alicia K

    2018-04-11

    In the last decade, there have been multiple landmark therapeutic advances for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer, both in the castration-resistant and hormone-sensitive setting. In this review, we highlight recent progress and ongoing trials for metastatic prostate cancer, including advances in chemotherapy, androgen receptor-directed therapy, targeted therapies, and immunotherapy. Several landmark studies for men with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer demonstrated improvement in overall survival with the addition of docetaxel chemotherapy or abiraterone acetate to standard androgen deprivation therapy. A single-arm phase 2 study of the PARP inhibitor olaparib demonstrated high response rates and more favorable progression-free and overall survival for men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer and DNA repair defects treated with olaparib compared with men without DNA repair defects. Multiple ongoing clinical trials are investigating novel hormonal therapies and combinations of chemotherapy, targeted small molecules, immunotherapy, and radiopharmaceuticals. Progress continues to be made in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer, and ongoing clinical trials continue to investigate novel agents and approaches to treatment.

  4. Super-Penetrant Androgen Receptor: Overcoming Enzalutamide Sensitivity in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Prostate Cancer Research Symposium- Prostate Cancer Epigenetic Reprogramming of the Androgen Receptor in Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer , May19... cancer cells rely critically on the androgen receptor (AR) for initiation, growth and progression to castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC...Androgen receptor, castration resistant prostate cancer , Enzalutamide , kinases. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER

  5. The Role of Prostatitis in Prostate Cancer: Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunxia, Zhang; Zhu, Hong; Liu, Junjiang; Pumill, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Objective Use systematic review methods to quantify the association between prostatitis and prostate cancer, under both fixed and random effects model. Evidence Acquisition Case control studies of prostate cancer with information on prostatitis history. All studies published between 1990-2012, were collected to calculate a pooled odds ratio. Selection criteria: the selection criteria are as follows: human case control studies; published from May 1990 to July 2012; containing number of prostatitis, and prostate cancer cases. Evidence Synthesis In total, 20 case control studies were included. A significant association between prostatitis and prostate cancer was found, under both fixed effect model (pooled OR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.39-1.62), and random effects model (OR=1.64, 95%CI: 1.36-1.98). Personal interview based case control studies showed a high level of association (fixed effect model: pooled OR=1.59, 95%CI: 1.47-1.73, random effects model: pooled OR= 1.87, 95%CI: 1.52-2.29), compared with clinical based studies (fixed effect model: pooled OR=1.05, 95%CI: 0.86-1.28, random effects model: pooled OR= 0.98, 95%CI: 0.67-1.45). Additionally, pooled ORs, were calculated for each decade. In a fixed effect model: 1990’s: OR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.35-1.84; 2000’s: OR=1.59, 95% CI: 1.40-1.79; 2010’s: OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.22-1.56. In a random effects model: 1990’s: OR=1.98, 95% CI: 1.08-3.62; 2000’s: OR=1.64, 95% CI: 1.23-2.19; 2010’s: OR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.03-1.73. Finally a meta-analysis stratified by each country was conducted. In fixed effect models, U.S: pooled OR =1.45, 95%CI: 1.34-1.57; China: pooled OR =4.67, 95%CI: 3.08-7.07; Cuba: pooled OR =1.43, 95%CI: 1.00-2.04; Italy: pooled OR =0.61, 95%CI: 0.13-2.90. In random effects model, U.S: pooled OR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.25-1.80; China: pooled OR =4.67, 95%CI: 3.08-7.07; Cuba: pooled OR =1.43, 95%CI: 1.00-2.04; Italy: pooled OR =0.61, 95%CI: 0.13-2.90.CONCLUSIONS: the present meta-analysis provides the statistical evidence that

  6. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) management in the primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Anil

    2012-10-01

    Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) occurs in up to 50% of men by age 50, and the incidence increases with age. This common clinical problem is diagnosed by history, including the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire, and physical examination by digital rectal examination (DRE). Initial management for BPH includes lifestyle modification, and smooth muscle relaxant alpha blocker therapy. Alpha blockers usually take effect quickly within 3-5 days, and have minimal side effects. Current commonly used alpha blockers include the selective alpha blockers tamsulosin (Flomax), alfusosin (Xatral), and silodosin (Rapaflo). For patients with larger prostates, the 5-alpha reductase inhibitor class (finasteride (Proscar) and dutasteride (Avodart)) work effectively to shrink prostate stroma resulting in improved voiding. The 5-ARI class of drugs, in addition to reducing prostate size, also reduce the need for future BPH-related surgery, and reduce the risk of future urinary retention. Drugs from the phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor class may now be considered for treating BPH. Once daily 5 mg tadalafil has been shown to improve BPH-related symptoms and is currently approved to treat patients with BPH. Referral to a urologist can be considered for patients with a rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA), especially while on 5-ARI, failure of urinary symptom control despite maximal medical therapy, suspicion of prostate cancer, hematuria, recurrent urinary infections, urinary retention, or renal failure. Currently the primary care physician is armed with multiple treatment options to effectively treat men with symptomatic BPH.

  7. Morbidity in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer managed with non-curative intent. A population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Friis, S; Juel, K

    1999-01-01

    clinically localized prostate cancer reported to the Danish Cancer Registry in the period 1977-1992. Morbidity in patients and age-matched controls was extracted from The Danish Hospital Discharge Registry. Admissions were stratified by discharge diagnosis. Overall 4744 patients were hospitalized for 251...

  8. Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... compete with androgens for binding to the androgen receptor. By competing for binding to the androgen receptor, ...

  9. Prostate cancer metastasis-driving genes: hurdles and potential approaches in their identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ting Chiang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic prostate cancer is currently incurable. Metastasis is thought to result from changes in the expression of specific metastasis-driving genes in nonmetastatic prostate cancer tissue, leading to a cascade of activated downstream genes that set the metastatic process in motion. Such genes could potentially serve as effective therapeutic targets for improved management of the disease. They could be identified by comparative analysis of gene expression profiles of patient-derived metastatic and nonmetastatic prostate cancer tissues to pinpoint genes showing altered expression, followed by determining whether silencing of such genes can lead to inhibition of metastatic properties. Various hurdles encountered in this approach are discussed, including (i the need for clinically relevant, nonmetastatic and metastatic prostate cancer tissues such as xenografts of patients' prostate cancers developed via subrenal capsule grafting technology and (ii limitations in the currently available methodology for identification of master regulatory genes.

  10. GC-MS-Based Endometabolome Analysis Differentiates Prostate Cancer from Normal Prostate Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Lima

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is an important health problem worldwide. Diagnosis and management of PCa is very complex because the detection of serum prostate specific antigen (PSA has several drawbacks. Metabolomics brings promise for cancer biomarker discovery and for better understanding PCa biochemistry. In this study, a gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS based metabolomic profiling of PCa cell lines was performed. The cell lines include 22RV1 and LNCaP from PCa with androgen receptor (AR expression, DU145 and PC3 (which lack AR expression, and one normal prostate cell line (PNT2. Regarding the metastatic potential, PC3 is from an adenocarcinoma grade IV with high metastatic potential, DU145 has a moderate metastatic potential, and LNCaP has a low metastatic potential. Using multivariate analysis, alterations in levels of several intracellular metabolites were detected, disclosing the capability of the endometabolome to discriminate all PCa cell lines from the normal prostate cell line. Discriminant metabolites included amino acids, fatty acids, steroids, and sugars. Six stood out for the separation of all the studied PCa cell lines from the normal prostate cell line: ethanolamine, lactic acid, β-Alanine, L-valine, L-leucine, and L-tyrosine.

  11. Management of advanced prostate cancer Tratamento do câncer de próstata avançado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. Kaliks

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Geriatricians and general practitioners often follow patients with metastatic prostate cancer. The epidemiology and basic treatment principles of metastatic prostate cancer are discussed aiming to update the topic for the non-oncologist. Hormone manipulation remains the basis of treatment, usually up to a second line of therapy. Selected cases are treated successfully with intermittent androgen ablation. When new hormone-independent clones arise, chemotherapy should be added to therapy that confers improved survival as well as better quality of life when based on taxanes. In specific situations, additional measures such as bisphosphonates and radiation therapy should be included in the treatment. As a rule, the public health system makes available the necessary medication to ensure treatment for the vast majority of patients in Brazil.Pacientes com câncer de prostata metastático estão freqüentemente sob os cuidados de geriatras e clínicos gerais. Discutimos a epidemiologia e os princípios básicos do tratamento do câncer de próstata metastático, visando atualizar o não-oncologista no assunto. A base do tratamento continua sendo a manipulação hormonal, inclusive como tratamento de segunda linha. Casos selecionados podem ser tratados com ablação androgênica intermitente de maneira eficaz. Quando se desenvolvem clones de células hormônio-independentes, quimioterápicos são incorporados na terapia. A quimioterapia confere não só benefício em sobrevida, mas também na qualidade de vida, quando baseado em taxanos. Medidas adicionais como o uso de bisfosfonados e radioterapia devem ser incorporadas no tratamento em situações especiais. De modo geral, o sistema público de saúde do Brasil disponibiliza todas as medicações necessárias ao adequado tratamento dos pacientes no país.

  12. Unfoldomics of prostate cancer: on the abundance and roles of intrinsically disordered proteins in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Kevin S; Na, Insung; Schenck, Ryan O; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2016-01-01

    Prostatic diseases such as prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia are highly prevalent among men. The number of studies focused on the abundance and roles of intrinsically disordered proteins in prostate cancer is rather limited. The goal of this study is to analyze the prevalence and degree of disorder in proteins that were previously associated with the prostate cancer pathogenesis and to compare these proteins to the entire human proteome. The analysis of these datasets provides means for drawing conclusions on the roles of disordered proteins in this common male disease. We also hope that the results of our analysis can potentially lead to future experimental studies of these proteins to find novel pathways associated with this disease. PMID:27453073

  13. Prostate radiation in non-metastatic castrate refractory prostate cancer provides an interesting insight into biology of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascoe Abigail C

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The natural history of non-metastatic castrate refractory prostate cancer is unknown and treatment options are limited. We present a retrospective review of 13 patients with locally advanced or high risk prostate cancer, initially treated with hormone monotherapy and then treated with prostate radiation after becoming castration refractory. Findings Median PSA response following prostate radiation was 67.4%. Median time to biochemical progression following radiotherapy was 15 months and to detection of metastatic disease was 18.5 months. Median survival from castration resistance (to date of death or November 2011 was 60 months, with median survival from RT 42 months. Conclusion Prostate radiation appears to be beneficial even in patients with potential micrometastatic disease, which supports the hypothesis that the primary tumour is important in the progression of prostate cancer. These results are an interesting addition to the literature on the biology of prostate cancer especially as this data is unlikely to be available in the future due to combined prostate radiation and androgen deprivation therapy now being the standard of care.

  14. From Prostate to Bone: Key Players in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thobe, Megan N. [Section of Urology, Department of Surgery, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Clark, Robert J. [Department of Molecular Pathogenesis and Molecular Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bainer, Russell O. [Department of Human Genetics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Prasad, Sandip M.; Rinker-Schaeffer, Carrie W., E-mail: crinkers@uchicago.edu [Section of Urology, Department of Surgery, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2011-01-27

    Bone is the most common site for metastasis in human prostate cancer patients. Skeletal metastases are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and overall greatly affect the quality of life of prostate cancer patients. Despite advances in our understanding of the biology of primary prostate tumors, our knowledge of how and why secondary tumors derived from prostate cancer cells preferentially localize bone remains limited. The physiochemical properties of bone, and signaling molecules including specific chemokines and their receptors, are distinct in nature and function, yet play intricate and significant roles in prostate cancer bone metastasis. Examining the impact of these facets of bone metastasis in vivo remains a significant challenge, as animal models that mimic the natural history and malignant progression clinical prostate cancer are rare. The goals of this article are to discuss (1) characteristics of bone that most likely render it a favorable environment for prostate tumor cell growth, (2) chemokine signaling that is critical in the recruitment and migration of prostate cancer cells to the bone, and (3) current animal models utilized in studying prostate cancer bone metastasis. Further research is necessary to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the extravasation of disseminated prostate cancer cells into the bone and to provide a better understanding of the basis of cancer cell survival within the bone microenvironment. The development of animal models that recapitulate more closely the human clinical scenario of prostate cancer will greatly benefit the generation of better therapies.

  15. From Prostate to Bone: Key Players in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thobe, Megan N.; Clark, Robert J.; Bainer, Russell O.; Prasad, Sandip M.; Rinker-Schaeffer, Carrie W.

    2011-01-01

    Bone is the most common site for metastasis in human prostate cancer patients. Skeletal metastases are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and overall greatly affect the quality of life of prostate cancer patients. Despite advances in our understanding of the biology of primary prostate tumors, our knowledge of how and why secondary tumors derived from prostate cancer cells preferentially localize bone remains limited. The physiochemical properties of bone, and signaling molecules including specific chemokines and their receptors, are distinct in nature and function, yet play intricate and significant roles in prostate cancer bone metastasis. Examining the impact of these facets of bone metastasis in vivo remains a significant challenge, as animal models that mimic the natural history and malignant progression clinical prostate cancer are rare. The goals of this article are to discuss (1) characteristics of bone that most likely render it a favorable environment for prostate tumor cell growth, (2) chemokine signaling that is critical in the recruitment and migration of prostate cancer cells to the bone, and (3) current animal models utilized in studying prostate cancer bone metastasis. Further research is necessary to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the extravasation of disseminated prostate cancer cells into the bone and to provide a better understanding of the basis of cancer cell survival within the bone microenvironment. The development of animal models that recapitulate more closely the human clinical scenario of prostate cancer will greatly benefit the generation of better therapies

  16. Prostate cancer mortality in screen and clinically detected prostate cancer : Estimating the screening benefit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Pim J.; Connolly, David; Gavin, Anna; Roobol, Monique J.; Black, Amanda; Bangma, Chris H.; Schroder, Fritz H.

    Background: To estimate the benefits of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening on prostate cancer (Pca) metastasis and Pca-specific mortality, we compared two populations with a well-defined difference in intensity of screening. Methods: Between 1997 and 1999, a total of 11,970 men, aged 55-74

  17. Concepts of epigenetics in prostate cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C S; Foster, C S

    2009-01-27

    Substantial evidence now supports the view that epigenetic changes have a role in the development of human prostate cancer. Analyses of the patterns of epigenetic alteration are providing important insights into the origin of this disease and have identified specific alterations that may serve as useful diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. Examination of cancer methylation patterns supports a stem cell origin of prostate cancer. It is well established that methylation of GSTpi is a marker of prostate cancer, and global patterns of histone marking appear to be linked to cancer prognosis with levels of acetylated histones H3K9, H3K18, and H4K12, and of dimethylated H4R3 and H3K4, dividing low-grade prostate cancer (Gleason 6 or less) into two prognostically separate groups. Elevated levels of several components of the polycomb group protein complex, EZH2, BMI1, and RING1, can also act as biomarkers of poor clinical outcome. Many components of the epigenetic machinery, including histone deacetylase (whose expression level is linked to the TMPRSS2:ERG translocation) and the histone methylase EZH2, are potential therapeutic targets. The recent discovery of the role of small RNAs in governing the epigenetic status of individual genes offers exciting new possibilities in therapeutics and chemoprevention.

  18. Radiotherapy in prostate cancer. Innovative techniques and current controversies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geinitz, Hans [Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Schwestern, Linz (Austria). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Linz Univ. (Austria). Medical Faculty; Roach, Mack III [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Van As, Nicholas (ed.) [The Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    Examines in detail the role of innovative radiation techniques in the management of prostate cancer, including IMRT, IGRT, BART, and modern brachytherapy. Explores a range of current controversies in patient treatment. Intended for both radiation oncologists and urologists. Radiation treatment is rapidly evolving owing to the coordinated research of physicists, engineers, computer and imaging specialists, and physicians. Today, the arsenal of ''high-precision'' or ''targeted'' radiotherapy includes multimodal imaging, in vivo dosimetry, Monte Carlo techniques for dose planning, patient immobilization techniques, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), biologically adapted radiotherapy (BART), quality assurance methods, novel methods of brachytherapy, and, at the far end of the scale, particle beam radiotherapy using protons and carbon ions. These approaches are like pieces of a puzzle that need to be put together to provide the prostate cancer patient with high-level optimized radiation treatment. This book examines in detail the role of the above-mentioned innovative radiation techniques in the management of prostate cancer. In addition, a variety of current controversies regarding treatment are carefully explored, including whether prophylactic treatment of the pelvic lymphatics is essential, the magnitude of the effect of dose escalation, whether a benefit accrues from hypofractionation, and what evidence exists for the superiority of protons or heavy ions. Radiotherapy in Prostate Cancer: Innovative Techniques and Current Controversies is intended for both radiation oncologists and urologists with an interest in the up-to-date capabilities of modern radiation oncology for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  19. Molecular imaging of prostate cancer: translating molecular biology approaches into the clinical realm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Hebert Alberto; Grimm, Jan; F Donati, Olivio; Sala, Evis; Hricak, Hedvig

    2015-05-01

    The epidemiology of prostate cancer has dramatically changed since the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in the 1980's. Most prostate cancers today are detected at early stages of the disease and are considered 'indolent'; however, some patients' prostate cancers demonstrate a more aggressive behaviour which leads to rapid progression and death. Increasing understanding of the biology underlying the heterogeneity that characterises this disease has led to a continuously evolving role of imaging in the management of prostate cancer. Functional and metabolic imaging techniques are gaining importance as the impact on the therapeutic paradigm has shifted from structural tumour detection alone to distinguishing patients with indolent tumours that can be managed conservatively (e.g., by active surveillance) from patients with more aggressive tumours that may require definitive treatment with surgery or radiation. In this review, we discuss advanced imaging techniques that allow direct visualisation of molecular interactions relevant to prostate cancer and their potential for translation to the clinical setting in the near future. The potential use of imaging to follow molecular events during drug therapy as well as the use of imaging agents for therapeutic purposes will also be discussed. • Advanced imaging techniques allow direct visualisation of molecular interactions in prostate cancer. • MRI/PET, optical and Cerenkov imaging facilitate the translation of molecular biology. • Multiple compounds targeting PSMA expression are currently undergoing clinical translation. • Other targets (e.g., PSA, prostate-stem cell antigen, GRPR) are in development.

  20. Outcomes in men with large prostates ({>=}60 cm{sup 3}) treated with definitive proton therapy for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcgee, Lisa; Mendenhall, William M. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Florida Coll. of Medicine, Gainesville (United States); Mendenhall, Nancy P.; Morris, Christopher G.; Marcus, Robert J. Jr. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Florida Coll. of Medicine, Gainesville (United States); Univ. of Florida Proton Therapy Inst., Jacksonville (United States); Henderson, Randal H.; Nichols, Romaine C. Jr.; Li, Zuofeng; Williams, Christopher R.; Hoppe, Bradford S. [Univ. of Florida Proton Therapy Inst., Jacksonville (United States)], e-mail: bhoppe@floridaproton.org

    2013-04-15

    Background: Large prostate size is associated with higher rates of genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicities after definitive treatment for prostate cancer, and because of this many men will undergo cytoreduction with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) before definitive therapy, which results in its own unique toxicities and worsens quality of life. This series investigates genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity in men with large prostates (> 60 cm{sup 3}) undergoing definitive proton therapy (PT) for prostate cancer. Material and methods: From 2006 to 2010, 186 men with prostates {>=}60 cm{sup 3} were treated with definitive PT (median dose, 78 CGE) for low- (47%), intermediate- (37%) and high-risk (16%) prostate cancer. Median prostate size was 76 cm{sup 3} (range, 60-143 cm{sup 3}) and pretreatment IPSS was > 15 in 27%. At baseline, 51% were managed for obstructive symptoms with transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) (9.7%) or medical management with {alpha} blockers (32%), 5 {alpha}-reductase inhibitors (15%), and/or saw palmetto (11%). Fourteen men received ADT for cytoreduction. Results: Median follow-up was two years. Grade 3 genitourinary toxicities occurred in 14 men, including temporary catheterization (n = 7), TURP (n = 6), and balloon dilation for urethral stricture (n = 1). Multivariate analysis demonstrated pretreatment medical management (p = 0.0065) and pretreatment TURP (p 0.0002) were significantly associated with grade 3 genitourinary toxicity. One man experienced grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity and 15 men had grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. On multivariate analysis, dose > 78 CGE was associated with increased grade 2 + gastrointestinal toxicity (p = 0.0142). Conclusion: Definitive management of men with large prostates without ADT was associated with low rates of genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity.

  1. Outcomes in men with large prostates (≥60 cm3) treated with definitive proton therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcgee, Lisa; Mendenhall, William M.; Mendenhall, Nancy P.; Morris, Christopher G.; Marcus, Robert J. Jr.; Henderson, Randal H.; Nichols, Romaine C. Jr.; Li, Zuofeng; Williams, Christopher R.; Hoppe, Bradford S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Large prostate size is associated with higher rates of genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicities after definitive treatment for prostate cancer, and because of this many men will undergo cytoreduction with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) before definitive therapy, which results in its own unique toxicities and worsens quality of life. This series investigates genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity in men with large prostates (> 60 cm 3 ) undergoing definitive proton therapy (PT) for prostate cancer. Material and methods: From 2006 to 2010, 186 men with prostates ≥60 cm 3 were treated with definitive PT (median dose, 78 CGE) for low- (47%), intermediate- (37%) and high-risk (16%) prostate cancer. Median prostate size was 76 cm 3 (range, 60-143 cm 3 ) and pretreatment IPSS was > 15 in 27%. At baseline, 51% were managed for obstructive symptoms with transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) (9.7%) or medical management with α blockers (32%), 5 α-reductase inhibitors (15%), and/or saw palmetto (11%). Fourteen men received ADT for cytoreduction. Results: Median follow-up was two years. Grade 3 genitourinary toxicities occurred in 14 men, including temporary catheterization (n = 7), TURP (n = 6), and balloon dilation for urethral stricture (n = 1). Multivariate analysis demonstrated pretreatment medical management (p = 0.0065) and pretreatment TURP (p 0.0002) were significantly associated with grade 3 genitourinary toxicity. One man experienced grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity and 15 men had grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. On multivariate analysis, dose > 78 CGE was associated with increased grade 2 + gastrointestinal toxicity (p = 0.0142). Conclusion: Definitive management of men with large prostates without ADT was associated with low rates of genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity

  2. CXCL5 Promotes Prostate Cancer Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesa A Begley

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available CXCL5 is a proangiogenic CXC-type chemokine that is an inflammatory mediator and a powerful attractant for granulocytic immune cells. Unlike many other chemokines, CXCL5 is secreted by both immune (neutrophil, monocyte, and macrophage and nonimmune (epithelial, endothelial, and fibroblastic cell types. The current study was intended to determine which of these cell types express CXCL5 in normal and malignant human prostatic tissues, whether expression levels correlated with malignancy and whether CXCL5 stimulated biologic effects consistent with a benign or malignant prostate epithelial phenotype. The results of these studies show that CXCL5 protein expression levels are concordant with prostate tumor progression, are highly associated with inflammatory infiltrate, and are frequently detected in the lumens of both benign and malignant prostate glands. Exogenous administration of CXCL5 stimulates cellular proliferation and gene transcription in both nontransformed and transformed prostate epithelial cells and induces highly aggressive prostate cancer cells to invade through synthetic basement membrane in vitro. These findings suggest that the inflammatory mediator, CXCL5, may play multiple roles in the etiology of both benign and malignant proliferative diseases in the prostate.

  3. Dietary intervention strategies to modulate prostate cancer risk and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedland, Stephen J; Aronson, William J

    2009-05-01

    There is increasing interest in complementary and holistic approaches for cancer prevention and management. We sought to review the latest literature regarding dietary interventions for prostate cancer with a special emphasis on dietary fat and carbohydrate intake for modulating prognosis among men with prostate cancer. Several recent prospective trials have investigated various dietary and lifestyle investigations on malignant prostate tissue biology. These interventions included a very low-fat (12% fat kcals) vegan diet with various supplements and lifestyle changes, a more traditional low-fat diet (25% fat kcals) with flaxseed supplementation, and a low-glycemic index diet. Low-glycemic index and very low-fat vegan diets (with supplements and lifestyle changes) alter tumor biology as assessed by tumor gene expression changes, with a common mechanism perhaps being weight loss whereas no effects were seen with a traditional low-fat diet. In mice, either very low-fat or low-carbohydrate diets significantly slow tumor growth independent of weight loss. Epidemiologic and preclinical data also suggest cholesterol intake and serum cholesterol levels may be linked with the development and progression of prostate cancer. Small clinical trials suggest that tumor biology can be altered by either a vegan low-fat diet or eliminating simple carbohydrates accompanied by weight loss. Larger and longer term studies are needed to determine the clinical relevance of these findings.

  4. Diagnosis of prostate cancer using a radioimmunoassay for prostatic acid phosphatase in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lea, O.A.; Hoeisaeter, P.Aa.

    1981-01-01

    The paper describes the development and evaluation of a specific radioimmunoassay for the determination of prostatic acid phosphatase in serum as a useful aid in the detection of prostatic cancer. (Auth.)

  5. Characterization of adenoviral transduction profile in prostate cancer cells and normal prostate tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Jianzhong; Tai, Phillip W L; Lu, Yi; Li, Jia; Ma, Hong; Su, Qin; Wei, Qiang; Li, Hong; Gao, Guangping

    2017-09-01

    Prostate diseases are common in males worldwide with high morbidity. Gene therapy is an attractive therapeutic strategy for prostate diseases, however, it is currently underdeveloped. As well known, adeno virus (Ad) is the most widely used gene therapy vector. The aims of this study are to explore transduction efficiency of Ad in prostate cancer cells and normal prostate tissue, thus further providing guidance for future prostate pathophysiological studies and therapeutic development of prostate diseases. We produced Ad expressing enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP), and characterized the transduction efficiency of Ad in both human and mouse prostate cancer cell lines in vitro, as well as prostate tumor xenograft, and wild-type mouse prostate tissue in vivo. Ad transduction efficiency was determined by EGFP fluorescence using microscopy and flow cytometry. Cell type-specific transduction was examined by immunofluorescence staining of cell markers. Our data showed that Ad efficiently transduced human and mouse prostate cancer cells in vitro in a dose dependent manner. Following intratumoral and intraprostate injection, Ad could efficiently transduce prostate tumor xenograft and the major prostatic cell types in vivo, respectively. Our findings suggest that Ad can efficiently transduce prostate tumor cells in vitro as well as xenograft and normal prostate tissue in vivo, and further indicate that Ad could be a potentially powerful toolbox for future gene therapy of prostate diseases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Inuit are protected against prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dewailly, Eric; Mulvad, Gert; Pedersen, Henning Sloth

    2003-01-01

    Incidence and mortality rates for prostate cancer are reported to be low among Inuit, but this finding must be additionally supported given the difficulty of obtaining a precise medical diagnosis in the Arctic. We conducted an autopsy study in 1990–1994 among 61 deceased males representative of all...... deaths occurring in Greenland and found only one invasive prostate cancer. Histological data were available for 27 autopsies and revealed no latent carcinoma. Our results suggest that in situ carcinoma is rare among Inuit and that their traditional diet, which is rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty...

  7. Chemoprevention Trial of Selenium and Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    use in slowing the growth of prostate cancer. This study will not use selenium as a treatment option for the possible cure of prostate cancer...slice or 1 piece o Q rj Chocolate candy and candy bars o o o o o Q o o c 1 small bar or 1 ounce ._> . ■Q Hard candy, jam, jelly, honey , or...your stream? Have you noticed any stress incontinence? (leakage of urine when sneezing, coughing or laughing) _1 -NOT AT ALL _ 2-LESS THAN 1 IN 5

  8. TRPM4 protein expression in prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Kasper Drimer; Soldini, Davide; Jung, Maria

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 4 (TRPM4) messenger RNA (mRNA) has been shown to be upregulated in prostate cancer (PCa) and might be a new promising tissue biomarker. We evaluated TRPM4 protein expression and correlated the expression level.......79-2.62; p = 0.01-0.03 for the two observers) when compared to patients with a lower staining intensity. CONCLUSIONS: TRPM4 protein expression is widely expressed in benign and cancerous prostate tissue, with highest staining intensities found in PCa. Overexpression of TRPM4 in PCa (combination of high...

  9. A Novel Therapeutic Modality for Advanced Stage Prostate Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Androgen Receptor Signaling Inhibitors Repress Prostate Cancer Growth by Downregulating Androgen Receptor Splice Variants, EZH2, and Src. Cancer ...research 2015;75(24):5309-17. 18. Wadosky KM, Koochekpour S. Androgen receptor splice variants and prostate cancer : From bench to bedside. Oncotarget...2017;8(11):18550-76. 19. Cao S, Zhan Y, Dong Y. Emerging data on androgen receptor splice variants in prostate cancer . Endocrine-related cancer

  10. Prostate Cancer Clinical Consortium Clinical Research Site: Targeted Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    prostate cancer . Cancer Res 70: 7992-8002, 2010 8. Nelson PS: Molecular states underlying an- drogen receptor activation: A framework for thera- peutics...targeting androgen signaling in prostate cancer . J Clin Oncol 30:644-646, 2012 9. Thadani-Mulero M, Nanus DM, Giannakakou P: Androgen receptor on the... prostate cancer . Clin Cancer Res 21:795-807, 2015 17. van Soest RJ, de Morrée ES, Kweldam CF, et al: Targeting the androgen receptor confers in vivo

  11. Overview of current multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging approach in the diagnosis and staging of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Aydın

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is primarily based on the utility and validity of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis and staging of prostate gland tumors. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging is an emerging, useful approach for evaluating and detecting prostate cancers. It also aids in the management of a tumor and improve the care and follow-up of patients.

  12. Prostate tissue metal levels and prostate cancer recurrence in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Kandegedara, Ashoka; Kryvenko, Oleksandr N; Gupta, Nilesh; Rogers, Craig; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Dou, Q Ping; Mitra, Bharati

    2014-02-01

    Although smoking is not associated with prostate cancer risk overall, smoking is associated with prostate cancer recurrence and mortality. Increased cadmium (Cd) exposure from smoking may play a role in progression of the disease. In this study, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to determine Cd, arsenic (As), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) levels in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tumor and tumor-adjacent non-neoplastic tissue of never- and ever-smokers with prostate cancer. In smokers, metal levels were also evaluated with regard to biochemical and distant recurrence of disease. Smokers (N = 25) had significantly higher Cd (median ppb, p = 0.03) and lower Zn (p = 0.002) in non-neoplastic tissue than never-smokers (N = 21). Metal levels were not significantly different in tumor tissue of smokers and non-smokers. Among smokers, Cd level did not differ by recurrence status. However, the ratio of Cd ppb to Pb ppb was significantly higher in both tumor and adjacent tissue of cases with distant recurrence when compared with cases without distant recurrence (tumor tissue Cd/Pb, 6.36 vs. 1.19, p = 0.009, adjacent non-neoplastic tissue Cd/Pb, 6.36 vs. 1.02, p = 0.038). Tissue Zn levels were also higher in smokers with distant recurrence (tumor, p = 0.039 and adjacent non-neoplastic, p = 0.028). These initial findings suggest that prostate tissue metal levels may differ in smokers with and without recurrence. If these findings are confirmed in larger studies, additional work will be needed to determine whether variations in metal levels are drivers of disease progression or are simply passengers of the disease process.

  13. Effect of endocrine treatment on voiding and prostate size in men with prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Louise L; Klarskov, Peter; Mommsen, Søren

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and quantify changes in voiding parameters and prostate size in men with prostate cancer from before the start of endocrine treatment and during long-term follow-up.......The aim of this study was to assess and quantify changes in voiding parameters and prostate size in men with prostate cancer from before the start of endocrine treatment and during long-term follow-up....

  14. Studies of rhodamine-123: effect on rat prostate cancer and human prostate cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcadi, J A; Narayan, K S; Techy, G; Ng, C P; Saroufeem, R M; Jones, L W

    1995-06-01

    The effect of the lipophilic, cationic dye, Rhodamine-123 (Rh-123), on prostate cancer in rats, and on three tumor cell lines in vitro is reported here. The general toxicity of Rh-123 in mice has been found to be minimal. Lobund-Wistar (L-W) rats with the autochthonous prostate cancer of Pollard were treated for six doses with Rh-123 at a dose of 15 mg/kg subcutaneously every other day. Microscopic examination of the tumors revealed cellular and acinar destruction. The effectiveness of Rh-123 as a cytotoxic agent was tested by clonogenic and viability assays in vitro with three human prostate cancer cell lines. Severe (60-95%) growth inhibition was observed following Rh-123 exposure for 2-5 days at doses as low as 1.6 micrograms/ml in all three prostate cancer cell lines.

  15. Does Core Length Taken per cc of Prostate Volume in Prostate Biopsy Affect the Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliktas, Hasan; Sahin, Hayrettin; Cetinkaya, Mehmet; Dere, Yelda; Erdogan, Omer; Baldemir, Ercan

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the minimal core length to be taken per cc of prostate volume for an effective prostate biopsy. A retrospective analysis was performed on the records of 379 patients who underwent a first prostate biopsy with 12 to 16 cores under transrectal ultrasound guidance between September 2012 and April 2015. For each patient, the core length per cc of the prostate and the percentage of sampled prostate volume were calculated, and these values were compared between the patients with and without prostate cancer. A total of 348 patients were included in the study. Cancer was determined in 26.4% of patients. The mean core length taken per cc of prostate and the percentage of sampled prostate volume were determined to be 3.40 ± 0.15 mm/cc (0.26%; range, 0.08-0.63 cc) in patients with cancer and 2.75 ± 0.08 mm/cc (0.20%; range, 0.04-0.66 cc) in patients without cancer (P = .000 and P = .000), respectively. Core length taken per cc of prostate of > 3.31 mm/cc was found to be related to an increase in the rates of prostate cancer diagnosis (odds ratio, 2.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.68-4.78). The rate of cancer determination for core length taken per cc of prostate of  3.31 mm/cc, 41.1%. Core length taken per cc of prostate and the percentage of sampled prostate volume are important morphometric parameters in the determination of prostate cancer. The results of study suggest a core length per cc of the prostate of > 3.31 mm/cc as a cutoff value for quality assurance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. URG11 Regulates Prostate Cancer Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Pan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Upregulated gene 11 (URG11, a new gene upregulated by hepatitis B virus X protein, is involved in the development and progression of several tumors, including liver, stomach, lung, and colon cancers. However, the role of URG11 in prostate cancer remains yet to be elucidated. By determined expression in human prostate cancer tissues, URG11 was found significantly upregulated and positively correlated with the severity of prostate cancer, compared with that in benign prostatic hyperplasia tissues. Further, the mRNA and protein levels of URG11 were significantly upregulated in human prostate cancer cell lines (DU145, PC3, and LNCaP, compared with human prostate epithelial cell line (RWPE-1. Moreover, by the application of siRNA against URG11, the proliferation, migration, and invasion of prostate cancer cells were markedly inhibited. Genetic knockdown of URG11 also induced cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase, induced apoptosis, and decreased the expression level of β-catenin in prostate cancer cells. Overexpression of URG11 promoted the expression of β-catenin, the growth, the migration, and invasion ability of prostate cancer cells. Taken together, this study reveals that URG11 is critical for the proliferation, migration, and invasion in prostate cancer cells, providing the evidence of URG11 to be a novel potential therapeutic target of prostate cancer.

  17. Castration Induced Neuroendocrine Mediated Progression of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    independent prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 22, 3323–3329. [115] Tiffany NM, Wersinger EM, Garzotto M, and Beer TM (2004). Imatinib mesylate and zoledronic...Inhibition of Akt pathways EC Nelson et al 335 Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases addition, some Asian forms of fermented soy, such as miso, nattou and

  18. Prostate cancer metastasis to the mandible: case report | Parkins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prostate cancer is recognised to be the commonest type of malignancy in the male in many parts of the world. Prostate cancer has a propensity to metastasize to bone, however metastasis to the jaw is uncommon and indeed among metastatic tumours of the jaws which are a rarity, only about 9% originate from a prostatic ...

  19. Alpha Particle Therapy in Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Sullivan, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a leading cause of cancer mortality among men in western countries. Although nearly 85% of patients present with localised disease, up to 40% will eventually develop metastatic disease during the course of illness. Of men dying from prostate cancer, more than 90% have bone metastases many with no other significant metastatic sites. Symptoms related to bone metastases and skeletal related events (SREs) account for the major cause of morbidity in these patients. Bone-seeking radionuclides have been used in the treatment of prostate cancer bone metastases for many years. The first bone seeking radionuclide drug approved by the FDA was Strontium-89. Other agents have also been used including Samarium-153 EDTMP, Rhenium-186 (-188)-HEDP. These radionuclides are all emit shortrange therapeutic beta radiation with bone marrow as the dose limiting toxicity. There is strong clinical trial evidence of benefit for these radionuclides in reducing pain in advanced prostate cancer; however, none of the drugs has been shown to improve survival, albeit none of the clinical trials were powered to detect differences in survival

  20. Fish intake and risk of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Dybkowska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to present the current state of knowledge concerning the relationship between the consumption of fish as materials rich in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA omega-3, and the risk of prostate cancer. Many scientific reports confirm the health benefits from the consumption of fish and protective properties of LC PUFA omega-3 in relation to prostate cancer. However, there are reports that indicate a relationship of the high consumption of PUFA with the risk of prostate cancer. The way of processing and preservation of the fish, and other factors not included in previous studies, could have some importance in the etiology of this disease. High susceptibility of PUFA to oxidation changes and the technological fish processing (smoking, high-temperature cooking methods contribute to the formation of many compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic amines – which may influence the formation of cancers – including prostate cancer. It is necessary to ensure an adequate amount of LC PUFA omega-3 in the diet through the consumption of proper quality fish and fish oils. Particular attention should be paid to the high susceptibility of PUFA to the oxidative processes, and the method of processing, preservation and storage of fish. Also pollution from the environment can significantly reduce the impact of health benefits of PUFA and fish, and even be the cause of cancers, including prostate cancer. Further research in this area should be more targeted to assess the impact of nutritional factors for the development of such tumors.

  1. Cannabinoid Receptors: A Novel Target for Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    experiments, the long term implications of our study could be to develop nonhabit-forming cannabi - noid agonist (s) for the management of prostate cancer ...Corbacho, C., Velasco, G., Galve-Roperh, I., Huffman, J. W., Ramon, y ., Cajal. S., and Guzman, M. (2001) Cancer Res. 61, 5784–5789 7. Casanova,M. L...Nithipatikom, K., Endsley, M. P., Isbell, M. A., Falck, J. R., Iwamoto, Y ., Hillard, C. J., and Campbell, W. B. (2004) Cancer Res. 64, 8826–8830 29. Bisogno, T

  2. Prostate specific antigen velocity does not aid prostate cancer detection in men with prior negative biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Andrew J; Wolters, Tineke; Savage, Caroline J; Cronin, Angel M; O'Brien, M Frank; Roobol, Monique J; Aus, Gunnar; Scardino, Peter T; Hugosson, Jonas; Schröder, Fritz H; Lilja, Hans

    2010-09-01

    Prostate specific antigen velocity has been proposed as a marker to aid in prostate cancer detection. We determined whether prostate specific antigen velocity could predict repeat biopsy results in men with persistently increased prostate specific antigen after initial negative biopsy. We identified 1,837 men who participated in the Göteborg or Rotterdam section of the European Randomized Screening study of Prostate Cancer and who underwent 1 or more subsequent prostate biopsies after an initial negative finding. We evaluated whether prostate specific antigen velocity improved predictive accuracy beyond that of prostate specific antigen alone. Of the 2,579 repeat biopsies 363 (14%) were positive for prostate cancer, of which 44 (1.7%) were high grade (Gleason score 7 or greater). Prostate specific antigen velocity was statistically associated with cancer risk but had low predictive accuracy (AUC 0.55, p <0.001). There was some evidence that prostate specific antigen velocity improved AUC compared to prostate specific antigen for high grade cancer. However, the small increase in risk associated with high prostate specific antigen velocity (from 1.7% to 2.8% as velocity increased from 0 to 1 ng/ml per year) had questionable clinical relevance. Men with prior negative biopsy are at lower risk for prostate cancer at subsequent biopsies with high grade disease particularly rare. We found little evidence to support prostate specific antigen velocity to aid in decisions about repeat biopsy for prostate cancer. 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. MicroRNAs in prostate cancer: Functional role as biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwal, Rajnee; Plaga, Alexis R; Liu, Xiaoqi; Shukla, Girish C; Gupta, Sanjay

    2017-10-28

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous non-coding molecules that alters gene expression through post-transcriptional regulation of messenger RNA. Compelling evidence suggest the role of miRNA in cancer biology having potential as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers. This review summarizes the current knowledge on miRNA deregulated in prostate cancer and their role as oncogene, tumor suppressor and metastasis regulators. The emerging information elucidating the biological function of miRNA is promising and may lead to their potential usefulness as diagnostic/prognostic markers and development as effective therapeutic tools for management of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sexual activity and the risk of prostate cancer: Review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Fouad Kotb

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexual activity can affect prostate cancer pathogenesis in a variety of ways; including the proposed high androgen status, risk of sexually transmitted infections and the potential effect of retained carcinogens within the prostatic cells. Methods: PubMed review of all publications concerning sexual activity and the risk of prostate cancer was done by two researchers. Results: Few publications could be detected and data were classified as a prostate cancer risk in association with either heterosexual or homosexual activities. Conclusion: Frequent ejaculation seems to be protective from the development of prostate cancer. Multiple sexual partners may be protective from prostate cancer, excluding the risk of sexually transmitted infections. Homosexual men are at a greater risk for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.

  5. PROSTVAC® targeted immunotherapy candidate for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Neal D

    2014-01-01

    Targeted immunotherapies represent a valid strategy for the treatment of metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer. A randomized, double-blind, Phase II clinical trial of PROSTVAC® demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in overall survival and a large, global, Phase III trial with overall survival as the primary end point is ongoing. PROSTVAC immunotherapy contains the transgenes for prostate-specific antigen and three costimulatory molecules (designated TRICOM). Research suggests that PROSTVAC not only targets prostate-specific antigen, but also other tumor antigens via antigen cascade. PROSTVAC is well tolerated and has been safely combined with other cancer therapies, including hormonal therapy, radiotherapy, another immunotherapy and chemotherapy. Even greater benefits of PROSTVAC may be recognized in earlier-stage disease and low-disease burden settings where immunotherapy can trigger a long-lasting immune response.

  6. Diagnostic characteristics of lethal prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, John Thomas; Røder, Martin Andreas; Klemann, Nina

    2017-01-01

    eventually died from PCa. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Based on the national database, the Danish Prostate Cancer Registry, a nationwide population-based study of all 19,487 men who died from PCa in Denmark between 1995 and 2013 was conducted. Trends in median survival and trends in age, prostate-specific antigen......BACKGROUND: The diagnostic characteristics of men who eventually die from prostate cancer (PCa) and the extent to which early diagnostic strategies have affected these characteristics are unclear. We aimed to investigate trends in survival and clinical presentation at diagnosis in men who...... significantly over time, parallelled by an increase in median survival. Taken together, this indicates a lead-time effect on survival, which presently, however, is not substantial enough to result in a reduced PCa-specific mortality....

  7. Stromal androgen receptor roles in the development of normal prostate, benign prostate hyperplasia, and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Simeng; Chang, Hong-Chiang; Tian, Jing; Shang, Zhiqun; Niu, Yuanjie; Chang, Chawnshang

    2015-02-01

    The prostate is an androgen-sensitive organ that needs proper androgen/androgen receptor (AR) signals for normal development. The progression of prostate diseases, including benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa), also needs proper androgen/AR signals. Tissue recombination studies report that stromal, but not epithelial, AR plays more critical roles via the mesenchymal-epithelial interactions to influence the early process of prostate development. However, in BPH and PCa, much more attention has been focused on epithelial AR roles. However, accumulating evidence indicates that stromal AR is also irreplaceable and plays critical roles in prostate disease progression. Herein, we summarize the roles of stromal AR in the development of normal prostate, BPH, and PCa, with evidence from the recent results of in vitro cell line studies, tissue recombination experiments, and AR knockout animal models. Current evidence suggests that stromal AR may play positive roles to promote BPH and PCa progression, and targeting stromal AR selectively with AR degradation enhancer, ASC-J9, may allow development of better therapies with fewer adverse effects to battle BPH and PCa. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dietary Lycopene, Angiogenesis, and Prostate Cancer: A Prospective Study in the Prostate-Specific Antigen Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of lycopene in prostate cancer prevention remains controversial. We examined the associations between dietary lycopene intake and prostate cancer, paying particular attention to the influence of prostate-specific antigen screening, and evaluated tissue biomarkers in prostate cancers in relation to lycopene intake. Methods Among 49898 male health professionals, we obtained dietary information through questionnaires and ascertained total and lethal prostate cancer cases from 1986 through January 31, 2010. Cox regression was used to estimate multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry were used to assess tumor biomarker expression in a subset of men. Two-sided χ2 tests were used to calculate the P values. Results Higher lycopene intake was inversely associated with total prostate cancer and more strongly with lethal prostate cancer (top vs bottom quintile: HR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.56 to 0.94; P trend = .04). In a restricted population of screened participants, the inverse associations became markedly stronger (for lethal prostate cancer: HR = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.29 to 0.75; P trend = .009). Comparing different measures of dietary lycopene, early intake, but not recent intake, was inversely associated with prostate cancer. Higher lycopene intake was associated with biomarkers in the cancer indicative of less angiogenic potential. Conclusions Dietary intake of lycopene was associated with reduced risk of lethal prostate cancer and with a lesser degree of angiogenesis in the tumor. Because angiogenesis is a strong progression factor, an endpoint of lethal prostate cancer may be more relevant than an endpoint of indolent prostate cancer for lycopene in the era of highly prevalent prostate-specific antigen screening. PMID:24463248

  9. Local Progression among Men with Conservatively Treated Localized Prostate Cancer: Results from the Transatlantic Prostate Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastham, James A.; Kattan, Michael W.; Fearn, Paul; Fisher, Gabrielle; Berney, Daniel M.; Oliver, Tim; Foster, Christopher S.; Møller, Henrik; Reuter, Victor; Cuzick, Jack; Scardino, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Men with clinically detected localized prostate cancer treated without curative intent are at risk of complications from local tumor growth. We investigated rates of local progression and need for local therapy among such men. Methods Men diagnosed with prostate cancer during 1990–1996 were identified from cancer registries throughout the United Kingdom. Inclusion criteria were age ≤76 yr at diagnosis, PSA level ≤100 ng/ml, and, within 6 mo after diagnosis, no radiation therapy, radical prostatectomy, evidence of metastatic disease, or death. Local progression was defined as increase in clinical stage from T1/2 to T3/T4 disease, T3 to T4 disease, and/or need for transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) to relieve symptoms >6 mo after cancer diagnosis. Results The study included 2333 men with median follow-up of 85 mo (range: 6–174). Diagnosis was by TURP in 1255 men (54%), needle biopsy in 1039 (45%), and unspecified in 39 (2%). Only 29% were treated with hormonal therapy within 6 mo of diagnosis. Local progression occurred in 335 men, including 212 undergoing TURP. Factors most predictive of local progression on multivariable analysis were PSA at diagnosis and Gleason score of the diagnostic tissue (detrimental), and early hormonal therapy (protective). We present a nomogram that predicts the likelihood of local progression within 120 mo after diagnosis. Conclusions Men with clinically detected localized prostate cancer managed without curative intent have an approximately 15% risk for local progression within 10 yr of diagnosis. Among those with progression, the need for treatment is common, even among men diagnosed by TURP. When counseling men who are candidates for management without curative intent, the likelihood of symptoms from local progression must be considered. PMID:17544572

  10. SoyCaP: Soy and Prostate Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamilton-Reeves, Jill M; Kurzer, Mindy S; Slaton, Joel

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to evaluate the effects of soy phytoestrogens on reproductive hormones and prostate tissue markers of cell proliferation and androgen action in men at high risk of prostate cancer...

  11. PSA Velocity Does Not Improve Prostate Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid increase in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels is not grounds for automatically recommending a prostate biopsy, according to a study published online February 24, 2011, in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

  12. SoyCaP: Soy and Prostate Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamilton-Reeves, Jim M; Kurzer, Mindy S; Slaton, Joel

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to evaluate the effects of soy phytoestrogens on reproductive hormones and prostate tissue markers of cell proliferation and androgen action in men at high risk of prostate cancer...

  13. Prevalence of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer and its relative factors in Lanzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Ganping; Wang Jiaji; Yue Zhongjin; Chen Xuehong

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer in Lanzhou, an investigation of the incidence of BPH and prostate cancer in 1356 male inhabitants over 50 years of age has been carried out including I-PSS, life quality (L), volume of prostate (V) and digital rectal examination. Plasma testosterone (T) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) were assayed in 145 cases. The incidence of BPH was 35.03%, being 41.04% in urban and 30.05% in rural inhabitants. The increase of BPH has been higher in urban inhabitants (P<0.05). The incidence of prostate cancer was 2.05%, being 3.09% in urban and 2.02% in rural inhabitants, the increase of prostate cancer has been higher in urban inhabitants (P< 0.05). A significant increase of prostate specific antigen was noted in prostate cancer patients (P<0.05). Conclusions: The increase of BPH and prostate cancer has been higher in urban inhabitants. The age, diet and residential areas might associate with a higher incidence of BPH and prostate cancer

  14. Childhood height, adult height, and the risk of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lise Geisler; Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: We previously showed that childhood height is positively associated with prostate cancer risk. It is, however, unknown whether childhood height exerts its effects independently of or through adult height. We investigated whether and to what extent childhood height has a direct effect...... on the risk of prostate cancer apart from adult height. METHODS: We included 5,871 men with height measured at ages 7 and 13 years in the Copenhagen School Health Records Register who also had adult (50-65 years) height measured in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study. Prostate cancer status was obtained...... through linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry. Direct and total effects of childhood height on prostate cancer risk were estimated from Cox regressions. RESULTS: From 1996 to 2012, 429 prostate cancers occurred. Child and adult heights were positively and significantly associated with prostate cancer risk...

  15. Prognostic DNA Methylation Markers for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siri H. Strand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the most commonly diagnosed neoplasm and the third most common cause of cancer-related death amongst men in the Western world. PC is a clinically highly heterogeneous disease, and distinction between aggressive and indolent disease is a major challenge for the management of PC. Currently, no biomarkers or prognostic tools are able to accurately predict tumor progression at the time of diagnosis. Thus, improved biomarkers for PC prognosis are urgently needed. This review focuses on the prognostic potential of DNA methylation biomarkers for PC. Epigenetic changes are hallmarks of PC and associated with malignant initiation as well as tumor progression. Moreover, DNA methylation is the most frequently studied epigenetic alteration in PC, and the prognostic potential of DNA methylation markers for PC has been demonstrated in multiple studies. The most promising methylation marker candidates identified so far include PITX2, C1orf114 (CCDC181 and the GABRE~miR-452~miR-224 locus, in addition to the three-gene signature AOX1/C1orf114/HAPLN3. Several other biomarker candidates have also been investigated, but with less stringent clinical validation and/or conflicting evidence regarding their possible prognostic value available at this time. Here, we review the current evidence for the prognostic potential of DNA methylation markers in PC.

  16. The impact of obesity on prostate cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roermund, J.G. van; Witjes, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing prevalence of obesity in many parts of the world emphasizes the importance of learning more about the relationship between obesity and prostate cancer (PC). The present paper reviews the impact of obesity on PC using knowledge obtained from the available literature. Search of published

  17. Clinical adenoviral gene therapy for prostate cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schenk, E.; Essand, M.; Bangma, Ch. H.; Barber, Ch.; Behr, J.-P.; Briggs, S.; Carlisle, R.; Cheng, W.-S.; Danielsson, A.; Dautzenberg, I. J. C.; Dzojic, H.; Erbacher, P.; Fisher, K.; Frazier, A.; Georgopoulos, L. J.; Hoeben, R.; Kochanek, S.; Koppers-Lalic, D.; Kraaij, R.; Kreppel, F.; Lindholm, L.; Magnusson, M.; Maitland, N.; Neuberg, P.; Nilsson, B.; Ogris, M.; Remy, J.-S.; Scaife, M.; Schooten, E.; Seymour, L.; Totterman, T.; Uil, T. G.; Ulbrich, Karel; Veldhoven-Zweistra, J. L. M.; de Vrij, J.; van Weerden, W.; Wagner, E.; Willemsen, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 7 (2010), s. 807-813 ISSN 1043-0342 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 512087 - GIANT Keywords : adenovirus * gene delivery * prostate cancer Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 4.829, year: 2010

  18. Promising Tools in Prostate Cancer Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonomo, Silvia; Hansen, Cecilie H; Petrunak, Elyse M

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1) is an important target in the treatment of prostate cancer because it produces androgens required for tumour growth. The FDA has approved only one CYP17A1 inhibitor, abiraterone, which contains a steroidal scaffold similar to the endogenous CYP17A1 substrates...

  19. The Role of YYI in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sui, Guangchao

    2008-01-01

    ...+/+ cells in the 3-D culture system. We used these cells in the renal grafting experiments to study the effect of YY1 expression to the prostate cancer formation in vivo. The renal grafts have been collected and further studies are in the process.

  20. Validation of Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer Prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    surgery and radiation therapy, result in well documented significant morbidities, including significant lower urinary tract symptoms such as incontinence ...and urinary urgency as well as sexual dysfunction. Furthermore, evidence from many sources suggests that most prostate cancers are relatively...pre-operative PSA (pɘ.0001). These analyses provide confidence in the clinical data because they are known factors associated with recurrence

  1. Prostate cancer: ESMO Consensus Conference Guidelines 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horwich, A.; Hugosson, J.; de Reijke, T.; Wiegel, T.; Fizazi, K.; Kataja, V.; Parker, Chris; Bellmunt, Joaquim; Berthold, Dominik; Bill-Axelson, Anna; Carlsson, Sigrid; Daugaard, Gedske; de Meerleer, Gert; Dearnaley, David; Fizazi, Karim; Fonteyne, Valérie; Gillessen, Silke; Heinrich, Daniel; Horwich, Alan; Hugosson, Jonas; Kataja, Vesa; Kwiatkowski, Maciej; Nilsson, Sten; Padhani, Anwar; Papandreou, Christos; Roobol, Monique; Sella, Avishay; Valdagni, Riccardo; van der Kwast, Theo; Verhagen, Paul; Wiegel, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The first ESMO Consensus Conference on prostate cancer was held in Zurich, Switzerland, on 17-19 November 2011, with the participation of a multidisciplinary panel of leading professionals including experts in methodological aspects. Before the conference, the expert panel prepared clinically

  2. PVAMU/XULA/BCM Summer Prostate Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    degradation of several cancer -related proteins, including the androgen receptor , which is dysregulated in certain prostate cancers . Overall, the goal of my...Behavior of Androgen Receptor Splice Variants in Androgen Dependent Prostate Cancer Cells Turner, Williamson D., Xavier University of Louisiana, Class...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0677 TITLE: PVAMU/XULA/BCM Summer Prostate Cancer Research Program PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Nancy L. Weigel

  3. Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonzi, Roberto [Marie Curie Research Wing, Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Rickmansworth Road, Northwood, Middlesex, HA6 2RN (United Kingdom)], E-mail: robertoalonzi@btinternet.com; Padhani, Anwar R. [Paul Strickland Scanner Centre, Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Rickmansworth Road, Northwood, Middlesex, HA6 2RN (United Kingdom); Synarc Inc. 575 Market Street, San Francisco, CA 94105 (United States)], E-mail: anwar.padhani@paulstrickland-scannercentre.org.uk; Allen, Clare [Department of Imaging, University College Hospital, London, 235 Euston Road, NW1 2BU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: clare.allen@uclh.nhs.uk

    2007-09-15

    Angiogenesis is an integral part of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), is associated with prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and is key to the growth and for metastasis of prostate cancer. Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) using small molecular weight gadolinium chelates enables non-invasive imaging characterization of tissue vascularity. Depending on the technique used, data reflecting tissue perfusion, microvessel permeability surface area product, and extracellular leakage space can be obtained. Two dynamic MRI techniques (T{sub 2}*-weighted or susceptibility based and T{sub 1}-weighted or relaxivity enhanced methods) for prostate gland evaluations are discussed in this review with reference to biological basis of observations, data acquisition and analysis methods, technical limitations and validation. Established clinical roles of T{sub 1}-weighted imaging evaluations will be discussed including lesion detection and localisation, for tumour staging and for the detection of suspected tumour recurrence. Limitations include inadequate lesion characterisation particularly differentiating prostatitis from cancer, and in distinguishing between BPH and central gland tumours.

  4. A review of pomegranate in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paller, C J; Pantuck, A; Carducci, M A

    2017-09-01

    Preclinical studies showing that pomegranate juice and its components inhibit prostate cancer led to multiple clinical trials to determine whether pomegranate products could slow the growth of prostate cancer. This review summarizes the preclinical data and discusses the results of the clinical trials. Trials targeted patients on active surveillance, neoadjuvant patients, patients with biochemical recurrence (BCR) following local therapy for prostate cancer, and patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). In the BCR patient population, early phase II trials of both pomegranate juice and extract showed significant lengthening of PSA doubling time (PSADT), and confirmed the safety of pomegranate products. While a placebo-controlled phase III trial determined that pomegranate extract did not significantly prolong PSADT in BCR patients, a preplanned subset analysis of patients with the manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) AA genotype showed greater PSADT lengthening on the pomegranate extract arm. In the neoadjuvant population, a large trial demonstrated a significant increase in urolithin A and a non-significant reduction in 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, a marker of oxidation in prostate cancer tissue, on the pomegranate arm vs the placebo arm. In addition, a randomized clinical trial of a polyphenol-rich multicomponent food supplement that included a 31.25% pomegranate extract found significant slowing of PSA increase in the food supplement arm vs placebo in men on active surveillance and those experiencing BCR. Pomegranate juice and extract are safe but did not significantly improve outcomes in BCR patients in a large placebo-controlled trial. However a subset of BCR patients with the MnSOD AA genotype appear to respond positively to the antioxidant effects of pomegranate treatment. Phase II trials of 100% pomegranate products in neoadjuvant patients and patients with mCRPC were negative. A multicomponent food supplement showed promising

  5. Prostate cancer in Saudi Arabia in 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosli, Hisham A.

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies revealed that there are variations in the geographic and ethnic distribution of cancer of prostate (CaP) gland. This cancer varies drmatically between being very common in black American men, to rare in Asian and Chinese men. Genetic, familial predisposition and environmental factors in addition to methods of cancer detection and reporting contribute to these variations. Prostate cancer is the 9th most commonly diagnosed cancer in the world yet stands first in USA where resources allow large epidemiological studies. The health policy makers take major decisions such as mass population screening according to data derived from such studies that include information on disease specific mortality rates and incidence rates for each of ethnic sub-population living in USA. Untill now we do not have similr information in KSA; therefore the policy decisions should consider the possibility of the difference in situations since genetic, familial and environmetal conditions are different.Our current local data indicates that prostate cancer occurs at lower incidence rate than western countries. The objective of this article is to provide all the available information on the different aspects of CaP gland in KSA. A second more important objective is to attract the attention of future expectations that need preparation since the possibility of disease prevention does exist. (author)

  6. Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents Symptoms Prostate cancer has no symptoms in its early stages. They ...

  7. Definition of molecular determinants of prostate cancer cell bone extravasation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, Steven R; Hays, Danielle L; Yazawa, Erika M; Opperman, Matthew; Walley, Kempland C; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Burdick, Monica M; Gillard, Bryan M; Moser, Michael T; Pantel, Klaus; Foster, Barbara A; Pienta, Kenneth J; Dimitroff, Charles J

    2013-01-15

    Advanced prostate cancer commonly metastasizes to bone, but transit of malignant cells across the bone marrow endothelium (BMEC) remains a poorly understood step in metastasis. Prostate cancer cells roll on E-selectin(+) BMEC through E-selectin ligand-binding interactions under shear flow, and prostate cancer cells exhibit firm adhesion to BMEC via β1, β4, and αVβ3 integrins in static assays. However, whether these discrete prostate cancer cell-BMEC adhesive contacts culminate in cooperative, step-wise transendothelial migration into bone is not known. Here, we describe how metastatic prostate cancer cells breach BMEC monolayers in a step-wise fashion under physiologic hemodynamic flow. Prostate cancer cells tethered and rolled on BMEC and then firmly adhered to and traversed BMEC via sequential dependence on E-selectin ligands and β1 and αVβ3 integrins. Expression analysis in human metastatic prostate cancer tissue revealed that β1 was markedly upregulated compared with expression of other β subunits. Prostate cancer cell breaching was regulated by Rac1 and Rap1 GTPases and, notably, did not require exogenous chemokines as β1, αVβ3, Rac1, and Rap1 were constitutively active. In homing studies, prostate cancer cell trafficking to murine femurs was dependent on E-selectin ligand, β1 integrin, and Rac1. Moreover, eliminating E-selectin ligand-synthesizing α1,3 fucosyltransferases in transgenic adenoma of mouse prostate mice dramatically reduced prostate cancer incidence. These results unify the requirement for E-selectin ligands, α1,3 fucosyltransferases, β1 and αVβ3 integrins, and Rac/Rap1 GTPases in mediating prostate cancer cell homing and entry into bone and offer new insight into the role of α1,3 fucosylation in prostate cancer development.

  8. Active surveillance for localized prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik B; Berg, Kasper D; Røder, M Andreas

    2015-01-01

    and costs of AS in patients with localized PCa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 317 PCa patients were followed in a prospective, single-arm AS cohort. The primary outcomes were number of patient contacts, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests, biopsies, hospital admissions due to biopsy complications......OBJECTIVE: Evidence supports active surveillance (AS) as a means to reduce overtreatment of low-risk prostate cancer (PCa). The consequences of close and long-standing follow-up with regard to outpatient visits, tests and repeated biopsies are widely unknown. This study investigated the trajectory...

  9. Active surveillance for localized prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thostrup, Mathias; Thomsen, Frederik B; Iversen, Peter

    2018-01-01

    risk of biochemical recurrence were investigated and compared in men with very low-risk, low-risk and intermediate-risk PCa in the cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 451 men were followed on AS and monitored with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests, digital rectal examinations and rebiopsies......OBJECTIVE: The purpose of active surveillance (AS) is to reduce overtreatment of men with localized prostate cancer (PCa) without compromising survival. The objective of this study was to update a large Scandinavian single-center AS cohort. Furthermore, the use of curative treatment and subsequent...

  10. Pomegranate and Its Components as Alternative Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Martins-Green, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men in the United States. There is a major need for less toxic but yet effective therapies to treat prostate cancer. Pomegranate fruit from the tree Punica granatum has been used for centuries for medicinal purposes and is described as “nature’s power fruit”. Recent research has shown that pomegranate juice (PJ) and/or pomegranate extracts (PE) significantly inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cells in culture. In preclinical murine models, PJ and/or PE inhibit growth and angiogenesis of prostate tumors. More recently, we have shown that three components of PJ, luteolin, ellagic acid and punicic acid together, have similar inhibitory effects on prostate cancer growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Results from clinical trials are also promising. PJ and/or PE significantly prolonged the prostate specific antigen (PSA) doubling time in patients with prostate cancer. In this review we discuss data on the effects of PJ and PE on prostate cancer. We also discuss the effects of specific components of the pomegranate fruit and how they have been used to study the mechanisms involved in prostate cancer progression and their potential to be used in deterring prostate cancer metastasis. PMID:25158234

  11. Elevated Prostate Health Index (phi) and Biopsy Reclassification During Active Surveillance of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Darian; Tosoian, Jeffrey J; Landis, Patricia; Wolf, Sacha; Glavaris, Stephanie; Lotan, Tamara L; Schaeffer, Edward M; Sokoll, Lori J; Ross, Ashley E

    2016-07-01

    The Prostate Health Index (phi) has been FDA approved for decision-making regarding prostate biopsy. Phi has additionally been shown to positively correlate with tumor volume, extraprostatic disease and higher Gleason grade tumors. Here we describe a case in which an elevated phi encouraged biopsy of a gentleman undergoing active surveillance leading to reclassification of his disease as high risk prostate cancer.

  12. TISSUE POLYPEPTIDE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN - A DISCRIMINATIVE PARAMETER BETWEEN PROSTATE-CANCER AND BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERTROPHY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MARRINK, J; OOSTEROM, R; BONFRER, HMG; SCHRODER, FH; MENSINK, HJA

    1993-01-01

    The serum concentration of the cell proliferation marker TPS (tissue polypeptide-specific antigen) was compared with the tumour marker PSA (prostate specific antigen). PSA was found elevated in 50% of the benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) patients, in 88% of the patients with active prostate cancer

  13. Characterization of Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) for Use in Therapeutic and Diagnostic Strategies Against Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Keefe, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) appears to be an ideal prostate cancer marker and potential therapeutic target, however there have been reports of PSMA expression in non-prostatic tissues, including brain, kidney and liver...

  14. Roswell Park Cancer Institute/ Howard University Prostate Cancer Scholars Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Regulation of Expression of Androgen Receptor in ABCG2+ CWR-R1 Prostate Cancer Cells” 4.) Morenike Olu, K Miller, I Gelman, Dept. Cancer Genetics ... rubric for the Directed Readings course sequence. Training in the use of the web conferencing software will be provided by the Project Director at

  15. Prostate cancer in East Asia: evolving trend over the last decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Zhu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is now becoming an emerging health priority in East Asia. Most of our current knowledge on Prostate cancer has been generated from studies conducted in Western population; however, there is considerable heterogeneity of Prostate cancer between East and West. In this article, we reviewed epidemiologic trends, risk factors, disease characteristics and management of Prostate cancer in East Asian population over the last decade. Growing evidence from East Asia suggests an important role of genetic and environmental risk factors interactions in the carcinogenesis of Prostate cancer. Exposure to westernized diet and life style and improvement in health care in combination contribute substantially to the increasing epidemic in this region. Diagnostic and treatment guidelines in East Asia are largely based on Western knowledge. Although there is a remarkable improvement in the outcome over the last decade, ample evidence suggests an inneglectable difference in diagnostic accuracy, treatment efficacy and adverse events between different populations. The knowledge from western countries should be calibrated in the Asian setting to provide a better race-based treatment approach. In this review, we intend to reveal the evolving trend of Prostate cancer in the last decade, in order to gain evidence to improve Prostate cancer prevention and control in East Asia.

  16. Current status of theranostics in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virgolini, Irene; Decristoforo, Clemens; Uprimny, Christian [Medical University of Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Haug, Alexander [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Fanti, Stefano [University of Bologna, S. Orsola Hospital Bologna, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Bologna (Italy)

    2018-03-15

    The aim of this review is to report on the current status of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-directed theranostics in prostate cancer (PC) patients. The value of {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-directed PET imaging as a diagnostic procedure for primary and recurrent PC as well as the role of evolving PSMA radioligand therapy (PRLT) in castration-resistant (CR)PC is assessed. The most eminent data from mostly retrospective studies currently available on theranostics of prostate cancer are discussed. The current knowledge on {sup 68}Ga-PSMA PET/CT implicates that primary staging with PET/CT is meaningful in patients with high-risk PC and that the combination with pelvic multi parametric (mp)MR (or PET/mpMR) reaches the highest impact on patient management. There may be a place for {sup 68}Ga-PSMA PET/CT in intermediate-risk PC patients as well, however, only a few data are available at the moment. In secondary staging for local recurrence, {sup 68}Ga-PSMA PET/mpMR is superior to PET/CT, whereas for distant recurrence, PET/CT has equivalent results and is faster and cheaper compared to PET/mpMR. {sup 68}Ga-PSMA PET/CT is superior to {sup 18}F / {sup 11}Choline PET/CT in primary staging as well as in secondary staging. In patients with biochemical relapse, PET/CT positivity is directly associated with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) increase and amounts to roughly 50% when PSA is raised to ≤0.5 ng/ml and to ≥90% above 1 ng/ml. Significant clinical results have so far been achieved with the subsequent use of radiolabeled PSMA ligands in the treatment of CRPC. Accumulated activities of 30 to 50 GBq of {sup 177}Lu-PSMA ligands seem to be clinically safe with biochemical response and PERCIST/RECIST response in around 75% of patients along with xerostomia in 5-10% of patients as the only notable side effect. On the basis of the current literature, we conclude that PSMA-directed theranostics do have a major clinical impact in diagnosis and therapy of PC patients. We recommend

  17. Prostate-specific antigen doubling time as a progression criterion in an active surveillance programme for patients with localized prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik Birkebaek; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Brasso, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the role of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) doubling time (PSAdt) as a progression criterion in patients with low-risk prostate cancer managed by active surveillance (AS). To assess the correlation between PSAdt during AS and final histopathology after radical prostatectomy...

  18. Increasing Early Detection of Prostate Cancer in African American Men through a Culturally Targeted Print Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    and brittle bones . 8 INFORM YOUR DOCTOR Certain activities, conditions, and substances can also affect PSA levels, including: • medicines (such as...Growth rates for this type of cancer can vary. Studies have shown that prostate tumors grow at different rates in different people . While some...This is one reason why early detection may be important. • When the cancer spreads beyond the prostate, it becomes more difficult to manage and the

  19. Clinical performance of serum [-2]proPSA derivatives, %p2PSA and PHI, in the detection and management of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Ya-Qiang; Sun, Tong; Zhong, Wei-De; Wu, Chin-Lee

    2014-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been widely used as a serum marker for prostate cancer (PCa) screening or progression monitoring, which dramatically increased rate of early detection while significantly reduced PCa-specific mortality. However, a number of limitations of PSA have been noticed. Low specificity of PSA may lead to overtreatment in men who presenting with a total PSA (tPSA) level of < 10 ng/mL. As a type of free PSA (fPSA), [-2]proPSA is differentially expressed in peripheral ...

  20. Prostate cancer screening: and yet it moves!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Kwiatkowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The debate of prostate cancer (PCa screening has been shaped over decades. There is a plethora of articles in the literature supporting as well as declining prostate-specific antigen (PSA screening. Does screening decrease PCa mortality? With the long-term results of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate (ERSPC the answer is clearly YES. It moves! However, in medicine there are no benefits without any harm and thus, screening has to be performed in targeted and smart way-or in other words-in a risk-adapted fashion when compared with the way it was done in the past. Here, we discuss the main findings of the ERSPC trials and provide insights on how the future screening strategies should be implemented.

  1. Early prostate cancer antigen expression in predicting presence of prostate cancer in men with histologically negative biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansel, D E; DeMarzo, A M; Platz, E A; Jadallah, S; Hicks, J; Epstein, J I; Partin, A W; Netto, G J

    2007-05-01

    Early prostate cancer antigen is a nuclear matrix protein that was recently shown to be expressed in prostate adenocarcinoma and adjacent benign tissue. Previous studies have demonstrated early prostate cancer antigen expression in benign prostate tissue up to 5 years before a diagnosis of prostate carcinoma, suggesting that early prostate cancer antigen could be used as a potential predictive marker. We evaluated early prostate cancer antigen expression by immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal antibody (Onconome Inc., Seattle, Washington) on benign biopsies from 98 patients. Biopsies were obtained from 4 groups that included 39 patients with first time negative biopsy (group 1), 24 patients with persistently negative biopsies (group 2), 8 patients with initially negative biopsies who were subsequently diagnosed with prostate carcinoma (group 3) and negative biopsies obtained from 27 cases where other concurrent biopsies contained prostate carcinoma (group 4). Early prostate cancer antigen staining was assessed by 2 of the authors who were blind to the group of the examined sections. Staining intensity (range 0 to 3) and extent (range 1 to 3) scores were assigned. The presence of intensity 3 staining in any of the blocks of a biopsy specimen was considered as positive for early prostate cancer antigen for the primary outcome in the statistical analysis. In addition, as secondary outcomes we evaluated the data using the proportion of blocks with intensity 3 early prostate cancer antigen staining, the mean of the product of staining intensity and staining extent of all blocks within a biopsy, and the mean of the product of intensity 3 staining and extent. Primary outcome analysis revealed the proportion of early prostate cancer antigen positivity to be highest in group 3 (6 of 8, 75%) and lowest in group 2 (7 of 24, 29%, p=0.04 for differences among groups). A relatively higher than expected proportion of early prostate cancer antigen positivity was present in

  2. Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    STUDENT ENGAGEMENT Welcome 2 UNMC 3 Omaha 4 Arrival 5-6 Living 7 Events 8...Graduates 9-11 Channing Bunch, M.B.A Director of Recruitment and Student Engagement channing.bunch...Program, Eppley Institute, Office of Research and Development, and Recruitment and Student Engagement Responses to Nebraska Prostate

  3. Height, selected genetic markers and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia

    2017-01-01

    Background:Evidence on height and prostate cancer risk is mixed, however, recent studies with large data sets support a possible role for its association with the risk of aggressive prostate cancer.Methods:We analysed data from the PRACTICAL consortium consisting of 6207 prostate cancer cases...... and 6016 controls and a subset of high grade cases (2480 cases). We explored height, polymorphisms in genes related to growth processes as main effects and their possible interactions.Results:The results suggest that height is associated with high-grade prostate cancer risk. Men with height >180 cm...... are at a 22% increased risk as compared to men with height prostate cancer risk. The aggregate scores of the selected variants identified a significantly increased risk of overall prostate cancer...

  4. Metabolic syndrome, endocrine disruptors and prostate cancer associations: biochemical and pathophysiological evidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quagliariello, Vincenzo; Rossetti, Sabrina; Cavaliere, Carla; Di Palo, Rossella; Lamantia, Elvira; Castaldo, Luigi; Nocerino, Flavia; Ametrano, Gianluca; Cappuccio, Francesca; Malzone, Gabriella; Montanari, Micaela; Vanacore, Daniela; Romano, Francesco Jacopo; Piscitelli, Raffaele; Iovane, Gelsomina; Pepe, Maria Filomena; Berretta, Massimiliano; D'Aniello, Carmine; Perdonà, Sisto; Muto, Paolo; Botti, Gerardo; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Veneziani, Bianca Maria; De Falco, Francesco; Maiolino, Piera; Caraglia, Michele; Montella, Maurizio; Iaffaioli, Rosario Vincenzo; Facchini, Gaetano

    2017-01-01

    This review summarizes the main pathophysiological basis of the relationship between metabolic syndrome, endocrine disruptor exposure and prostate cancer that is the most common cancer among men in industrialized countries. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic and hormonal factors having a central role in the initiation and recurrence of many western chronic diseases including hormonal-related cancers and it is considered as the worlds leading health problem in the coming years. Many biological factors correlate metabolic syndrome to prostate cancer and this review is aimed to focus, principally, on growth factors, cytokines, adipokines, central obesity, endocrine abnormalities and exposure to specific endocrine disruptors, a cluster of chemicals, to which we are daily exposed, with a hormone-like structure influencing oncogenes, tumor suppressors and proteins with a key role in metabolism, cell survival and chemo-resistance of prostate cancer cells. Finally, this review will analyze, from a molecular point of view, how specific foods could reduce the relative risk of incidence and recurrence of prostate cancer or inhibit the biological effects of endocrine disruptors on prostate cancer cells. On the basis of these considerations, prostate cancer remains a great health problem in terms of incidence and prevalence and interventional studies based on the treatment of metabolic syndrome in cancer patients, minimizing exposure to endocrine disruptors, could be a key point in the overall management of this disease. PMID:28389628

  5. Efficacy of c-Met inhibitor for advanced prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, William H; Zhu, Chunfang; Clark, Curtis; Christensen, James G; Sun, Zijie

    2010-01-01

    Aberrant expression of HGF/SF and its receptor, c-Met, often correlates with advanced prostate cancer. Our previous study showed that expression of c-Met in prostate cancer cells was increased after attenuation of androgen receptor (AR) signalling. This suggested that current androgen ablation therapy for prostate cancer activates c-Met expression and may contribute to development of more aggressive, castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Therefore, we directly assessed the efficacy of c-Met inhibition during androgen ablation on the growth and progression of prostate cancer. We tested two c-Met small molecule inhibitors, PHA-665752 and PF-2341066, for anti-proliferative activity by MTS assay and cell proliferation assay on human prostate cancer cell lines with different levels of androgen sensitivity. We also used renal subcapsular and castrated orthotopic xenograft mouse models to assess the effect of the inhibitors on prostate tumor formation and progression. We demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibitory effect of PHA-665752 and PF-2341066 on the proliferation of human prostate cancer cells and the phosphorylation of c-Met. The effect on cell proliferation was stronger in androgen insensitive cells. The c-Met inhibitor, PF-2341066, significantly reduced growth of prostate tumor cells in the renal subcapsular mouse model and the castrated orthotopic mouse model. The effect on cell proliferation was greater following castration. The c-Met inhibitors demonstrated anti-proliferative efficacy when combined with androgen ablation therapy for advanced prostate cancer

  6. Case of prostate cancer with anterior localization multiparametric MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, A.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer most often originates from acinar epithelium. Most of the clinically palpable carcinomas are located predominantly in the rear/dorzo-lateraI zones of the gland, but the tumors in the transition zone anatomical may spread to the periphery. The detection of a neoplastic process in the front parts of the gland is rare and poses difficulties in diagnosis. We present a rare case of anterior location of prostate carcinoma with invasion of bladder, blood vessels and seminal vesicles. At present, diagnosis of prostate cancer in most men is demonstrated by elevated serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), or positive rectal examination or ultrasonography. Multi parametric MR study is a promising method for detecting prostate cancer. When used in conjunction with PSA values and rectal examination, MRI is increasingly accepted as a standard for the diagnosis and characterization of prostate carcinoma. Key words; Prostate Cancer. Anterior Localization. Multi Parametric MRI

  7. Sexual dysfunctions after prostate cancer radiation therapy; Dysfonctions sexuelles apres irradiation pour cancer de la prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droupy, S. [Service d' urologie-andrologie, CHU Caremeau, 30 - Nimes (France)

    2010-10-15

    Sexual dysfunctions are a quality of life main concern following prostate cancer treatment. After both radiotherapy and brachytherapy, sexual function declines progressively, the onset of occurrence of erectile dysfunction being 12-18 months after both treatments. The pathophysiological pathways by which radiotherapy and brachytherapy cause erectile dysfunction are multi-factorial, as patient co-morbidities, arterial damage, exposure of neurovascular bundle to high levels of radiation, and radiation dose received by the corpora cavernosa at the crurae of the penis may be important in the aetiology of erectile dysfunction. Diagnosis and treatment of postradiation sexual dysfunctions must integrate pre-therapeutic evaluation and information to provide to the patient and his partner a multidisciplinary sexual medicine management. (authors)

  8. Screening for prostate cancer with the prostate-specific antigen test: are patients making informed decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, K J; Volk, R J; Cass, A R; Spann, S J

    1999-09-01

    The benefits of early detection of prostate cancer are uncertain, and the American College of Physicians and the American Academy of Family Physicians recommend individual decision making in prostate cancer screening. This study reports the knowledge of male primary care patients about prostate cancer and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing and examines how that knowledge is related to PSA testing, preferences for testing in the future, and desire for involvement in physician-patient decision making. The sample included 160 men aged 45 to 70 years with no history of prostate cancer who presented for care at a university-based family medicine clinic. Before scheduled office visits, patients completed a questionnaire developed for this study that included a 10-question measure of prostate cancer knowledge, the Deber-Kraestchmer Problem-Solving Decision-Making Scale, sociodemographic indicators, and questions on PSA testing. In general, patients who were college graduates were more knowledgeable about prostate cancer and early detection than those with a high school education or less. Aside from college graduates, most patients could not identify the principle advantages and disadvantages of PSA testing. Patients indicating previous or future plans for PSA testing demonstrated greater knowledge than other patients. Desire for involvement in decision making varied by patient education but was not related to past PSA testing. Patients lack knowledge about prostate cancer and early detection. This knowledge deficit may impede the early detection of prostate cancer and is a barrier to making an informed decision about undergoing PSA testing.

  9. Ginger phytochemicals exhibit synergy to inhibit prostate cancer cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmbhatt, Meera; Gundala, Sushma R.; Asif, Ghazia; Shamsi, Shahab A; Aneja, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    Dietary phytochemicals offer non-toxic therapeutic management as well as chemopreventive intervention for slow-growing prostate cancers. However, the limited success of several single-agent clinical trials suggest a paradigm shift that the health benefits of fruits and vegetables are not ascribable due to individual phytochemicals rather may be ascribed to but to synergistic interactions among them. We recently reported growth-inhibiting and apoptosis-inducing properties of ginger extract (GE) in in vitro and in vivo prostate cancer models. Nevertheless, the nature of interactions among the constituent ginger biophenolics, viz. 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogoal, remains elusive. Here we show antiproliferative efficacy of the most-active GE biophenolics as single-agents and in binary combinations, and investigate the nature of their interactions using the Chou-Talalay combination-index (CI) method. Our data demonstrate that binary combinations of ginger phytochemicals synergistically inhibit proliferation of PC-3 cells with CI values ranging from 0.03-0.88. To appreciate synergy among phytochemicals present in GE, the natural abundance of ginger biophenolics was quantitated using LC-UV/MS. Interestingly, combining GE with its constituents (in particular, 6-gingerol) resulted in significant augmentation of GE’s antiproliferative activity. These data generate compelling grounds for further preclinical evaluation of GE alone and in combination with individual ginger biophenols for prostate cancer management. PMID:23441614

  10. Outcomes following negative prostate biopsy for patients with persistent disease after radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob H. Cohen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: When faced with biochemical recurrence after definitive radiotherapy for prostate cancer, clinicians must determine whether the recurrence is local or systemic. Post radiotherapy prostate biopsies to detect persistent local disease are difficult to interpret histopathologically and are subject to sampling error. Our study examines outcomes for patients with a negative prostate biopsy performed for rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels after prostate radiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 238 prostate cancer patients with a negative biopsy following definitive radiotherapy. Seventy-five of these patients had biochemical recurrence at the time of biopsy. A negative biopsy was defined as the absence of prostate cancer without radiation-treatment effect in the specimen. RESULTS: Patients underwent biopsy at a mean of 41 months after the completion of radiation. They had a mean PSA of 6. Patients were followed for an average of 63 months. Thirty-two patients (43% developed metastasis, and 11 (15% died of prostate cancer despite a negative post-radiation biopsy. Five of nine patients (56% with sequential biopsies had a positive second biopsy. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with PSA recurrence and a negative post-radiation biopsy have a high chance of persistent local disease, progression, and death from prostate cancer. Furthermore, an initial negative biopsy does not rule-out local recurrence. Patients with biochemical recurrence after radiotherapy for prostate cancer need to be evaluated earlier for local recurrence.

  11. Extreme Hypofractionated Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Greco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An emerging body of data suggests that hypofractionated radiation schedules, where a higher dose per fraction is delivered in a smaller number of sessions, may be superior to conventional fractionation schemes in terms of both tumour control and toxicity profile in the management of adenocarcinoma of the prostate. However, the optimal hypofractionation scheme is still the subject of scientific debate. Modern computer-driven technology enables the safe implementation of extreme hypo fractionation (often referred to as stereotactic body radiation therapy [SBRT]. Several studies are currently being conducted to clarify the yet unresolved issues regarding treatment techniques and fractionation regimens. Recently, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO issued a model policy indicating that data supporting the use of SBRT for prostate cancer have matured to a point where SBRT could be considered an appropriate alternative for select patients with low-to-intermediate risk disease. The present article reviews some of the currently available data and examines the impact of tracking technology to mitigate intra-fraction target motion, thus, potentially further improving the clinical outcomes of extreme hypofractionated radiation therapy in appropriately selected prostate cancer patients. The Champalimaud Centre for the Unknown (CCU’s currently ongoing Phase I feasibility study is described; it delivers 45 Gy in five fractions using prostate fixation via a rectal balloon, and urethral sparing via catheter placement with on-line intra-fractional motion tracking through beacon transponder technology.

  12. Potency after permanent prostate brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potters, Louis; Torre, Taryn; Fearn, Paul A.; Leibel, Steven A.; Kattan, Michael W.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The evaluation of potency preservation after treatment of localized prostate cancer with transperineal permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB) and the efficacy of sildenafil were studied. Methods and Materials: This study comprised 482 patients who were able to maintain an erection suitable for intercourse before treatment from a cohort of 1166 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer treated with PPB. All patients have been followed prospectively, and actuarial analysis was performed to assess potency preservation over time. Patients treated with sildenafil were evaluated as to its efficacy. Results: The median follow-up of this cohort was 34 months (6-92), with a median age of 68 years (47-80). Potency was preserved in 311 of the 482 patients, with a 5-year actuarial potency rate of 52.7%. The 5-year actuarial potency rate for patients treated with PPB as monotherapy was 76%, and, for those treated with combination external beam radiotherapy (EBT) + PPB, 56% (p=0.08). Patients treated with neoadjuvant androgen deprivation (NAAD) + PPB had a 5-year potency rate of 52%, whereas those with combination EBT + PPB + NAAD had a potency rate of 29% (p=0.13). Cox regression analysis identified that pretreatment use of NAAD and patient age predicted for impotence (p=0.0001 and 0.04, respectively). Of 84 patients treated with sildenafil, 52 had a successful outcome (62%). The response to sildenafil was significantly better in those patients not treated with NAAD (p=0.04). Conclusions: The actuarial potency rates at 5 years for patients treated with PPB are lower than generally acknowledged, except for those patients treated with PPB as monotherapy. Patients who received sildenafil exhibited improved potency in a majority of cases

  13. Long term results of ultrasonically guided implantation of 125-I seeds combined with external irradiation in localized prostatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iversen, P; Rasmussen, F; Holm, H H [Depts. of Urology and Ultrasound, Herlev Hospital, Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1991-01-01

    Transperineal 125-iodine seed implantation guided by transrectal ultrasonography and subsequent external beam irradiation was employed in the treatment of 32 patients with localized prostatic carcinoma (16 poorly differentiated). Follow-up is currently 35-98 months with a median of 65 months. Distant metastases have developed in 18 patients, of whom 11 have died from prostatic cancer. Median change in prostatic volume was a reduction of 35%. Re-biopsy or transurethral resection of the prostate was performed in 25 patients after 1-4 years, revealing still malignant histology in 10 (40%), of whom 8 have developed distant metastases or died from prostatic cancer. Fourteen patients suffered from late complications of which surgical intervention was indicated in five cases. Nine patients are presently free of progression and prostate specific antigen is bigger than 0.5 ng/ml in 8 of these. The future role of ultrasonically guided implantation in the management of prostatic cancer is discussed. (au).

  14. Androgen Deprivation Therapy Does Not Impact Cause-Specific or Overall Survival in High-Risk Prostate Cancer Managed With Brachytherapy and Supplemental External Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrick, Gregory S.; Butler, Wayne M.; Wallner, Kent E.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Allen, Zachariah A.; Adamovich, Edward; Lief, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine cause-specific survival (CSS), biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS), and overall survival (OS) in high-risk prostate cancer patients undergoing brachytherapy with or without supplemental therapies. Methods and Materials: Between April 1995 and July 2002, 204 patients with high-risk prostate cancer (Gleason score ≥8 or prostate-specific antigen [PSA] >20 ng/mL or clinical stage ≥T2c) underwent brachytherapy. Median follow-up was 7.0 years. The bPFS was defined by a PSA ≤0.40 ng/mL after nadir. Multiple clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters were evaluated for the impact on survival. Results: The 10-year CSS, bPFS, and OS were 88.9%, 86.6%, and 68.6%, respectively. A statistically significant difference in bPFS was discerned between hormone naive, ADT ≤6 months, and ADT >6 month cohorts (79.7% vs. 95.% vs. 89.9%, p = 0.032). Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) did not impact CSS or OS. For bPFS patients, the median posttreatment PSA was <0.04 ng/mL. A Cox linear regression analysis demonstrated that Gleason score was the best predictor of CSS, whereas percent positive biopsies and duration of ADT best predicted for bPFS. The OS was best predicted by Gleason score and diabetes. Thirty-eight patients have died, with 26 of the deaths from cardiovascular/pulmonary disease or second malignancy. Eleven patients have died of metastatic prostate cancer. Conclusions: The ADT improved 10-year bPFS without statistical impact on CSS or OS. Death as a result of cardiovascular/pulmonary disease and second malignancies were more than twice as common as prostate cancer deaths. Strategies to improve cardiovascular health should positively impact OS

  15. Targeting Siah2 as Novel Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    deprivation therapy (ADT) or androgen receptor (AR) pathway inhibition (ARPI) but eventually develops into lethal castration resistance prostate cancer ...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0553 TITLE: Targeting Siah2 as Novel Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Martin Gleave...Siah2 as Novel Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0553 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Martin Gleave 5d

  16. CDK5-A Novel Role in Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) Specific Aims: 1. Effect of dinaciclib on androgen receptor (AR) S81 phosphorylation and function. 2. Effect of...circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire profiling as biomarkers for men with oligometastatic prostate cancer treated with...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0670 TITLE: CDK5-A Novel Role in Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Barry Nelkin

  17. Molecular Epidemiology Investigation of Obesity and Lethal Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    epigenetic link between obesity and prostate cancer survival which will be explored in future studies. The support of the award has provided many...histone modifications in prostate cancer . Epigenetic inhibitors that target HDACs have been tested in clinical trials and approved by the US Food and...Drug Administration for use in treating specific cancers . Thus, understanding the specific role of obesity-related epigenetic events in prostate

  18. CDK5 A Novel Role in Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Parallel: No scientific or budgetary overlap 90091646 (PI: Drake) Title: Enhancing Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy through Epigenetic Reprogramming for...Enhancing Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy through Epigenetic Reprogramming for Optimal Activation of Specific Effector T-Cells Time commitment: 1.2 calendar...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0670 TITLE: CDK5-A Novel Role in Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Barry Nelkin

  19. Immune-Stimulating Combinatorial Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Overlap: None 20 90061946 (Drake) Title: Epigenetic Drugs and Immuno Therapy for Prostate Cancer (EDIT-PC) Effort: 1.2 calendar months (10% effort...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0667 TITLE: Immune-Stimulating Combinatorial Therapy for Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Robert Ivkov...Stimulating Combinatorial Therapy for Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0667 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  20. Evaluation of Multimodal Imaging Biomarkers of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    relationship prostate cancer growth, androgen receptor (AR) levels, hypoxia, and translocator protein (TSPO) levels. As described in the statement of work... bladder uptake) that enable robust detection of small prostate cancers . In contrast, high background and variable uptake of FDHT and FMISO confounded the...Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0245 TITLE: Evaluation of Multimodal Imaging Biomarkers of Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Christopher Chad

  1. Hormone-refractory prostate cancer and the skeleton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soerdjbalie-Maikoe, Vidija

    2006-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men in the UK. Androgen ablation with luteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonists (LHRH agonists) alone, or in combination with anti-androgens is the standard treatment for men with metastatic prostate cancer. Unfortunately, despite maximal

  2. Copenhagen uPAR prostate cancer (CuPCa) database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Solvej; Berg, Kasper D; Høyer-Hansen, Gunilla

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) plays a central role during cancer invasion by facilitating pericellular proteolysis. We initiated the prospective 'Copenhagen uPAR Prostate Cancer' study to investigate the significance of uPAR levels in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. METHODS...

  3. Early diagnosis of prostate cancer in the Western Cape | Heyns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Early stage prostate cancer does not cause symptoms, and even metastatic disease may exist for years without causing symptoms or signs. Whereas early stage prostate cancer can be cured with radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy, the prognosis of patients with locally advanced or metastatic cancer is ...

  4. Current state of prostate cancer treatment in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Belinda F; Aiken, William D; Mayhew, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the commonest cancer in Jamaica as well as the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. One report suggested that Jamaica has the highest incidence rate of prostate cancer in the world, with an age-standardised rate of 304/100,000 per year. The Caribbean region is reported to have the highest mortality rate of prostate cancer worldwide. Prostate cancer accounts for a large portion of the clinical practice for health-care practitioners in Jamaica. The Jamaica Urological Society is a professional body comprising 19 urologists in Jamaica who provide most of the care for men with prostate cancer in collaboration with medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, and a palliative care physician. The health-care system is structured in two tiers in Jamaica: public and private. The urologist-to-patient ratio is high, and this limits adequate urological care. Screening for prostate cancer is not a national policy in Jamaica. However, the Jamaica Urological Society and the Jamaica Cancer Society work synergistically to promote screening as well as to provide patient education for prostate cancer. Adequate treatment for localised prostate cancer is available in Jamaica in the forms of active surveillance, nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy, external beam radiation, and brachytherapy. However, there is a geographic maldistribution of centres that provide prostate cancer treatment, which leads to treatment delays. Also, there is difficulty in affording some treatment options in the private health-care sectors. Androgen deprivation therapy is available for treatment of locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer and is subsidised through a programme called the National Health Fund. Second-line hormonal agents and chemotherapeutic agents are available but are costly to most of the population. The infrastructure for treatment of prostate cancer in Jamaica is good, but it requires additional technological advances as well as additional specialist

  5. Development and external multicenter validation of Chinese Prostate Cancer Consortium prostate cancer risk calculator for initial prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Xie, Liping; Xue, Wei; Ye, Zhangqun; Ma, Lulin; Gao, Xu; Ren, Shancheng; Wang, Fubo; Zhao, Lin; Xu, Chuanliang; Sun, Yinghao

    2016-09-01

    Substantial differences exist in the relationship of prostate cancer (PCa) detection rate and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level between Western and Asian populations. Classic Western risk calculators, European Randomized Study for Screening of Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator, and Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator, were shown to be not applicable in Asian populations. We aimed to develop and validate a risk calculator for predicting the probability of PCa and high-grade PCa (defined as Gleason Score sum 7 or higher) at initial prostate biopsy in Chinese men. Urology outpatients who underwent initial prostate biopsy according to the inclusion criteria were included. The multivariate logistic regression-based Chinese Prostate Cancer Consortium Risk Calculator (CPCC-RC) was constructed with cases from 2 hospitals in Shanghai. Discriminative ability, calibration and decision curve analysis were externally validated in 3 CPCC member hospitals. Of the 1,835 patients involved, PCa was identified in 338/924 (36.6%) and 294/911 (32.3%) men in the development and validation cohort, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that 5 predictors (age, logPSA, logPV, free PSA ratio, and digital rectal examination) were associated with PCa (Model 1) or high-grade PCa (Model 2), respectively. The area under the curve of Model 1 and Model 2 was 0.801 (95% CI: 0.771-0.831) and 0.826 (95% CI: 0.796-0.857), respectively. Both models illustrated good calibration and substantial improvement in decision curve analyses than any single predictors at all threshold probabilities. Higher predicting accuracy, better calibration, and greater clinical benefit were achieved by CPCC-RC, compared with European Randomized Study for Screening of Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator and Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator in predicting PCa. CPCC-RC performed well in discrimination and calibration and decision curve analysis in external validation compared

  6. Diagnosis of prostate cancer with needle biopsy: Should all cases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The triad of digital rectal examination (DRE), serum prostate specific antigen, and transrectal ultrasound‑guided prostate biopsy is used in the detection of prostate cancer (PCa). It is recommended that all cases of PCa should be diagnosed with needle biopsy before treatment. The exclusion criteria for those ...

  7. Organoid culture systems for prostate epithelial and cancer tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drost, Jarno; Karthaus, Wouter R; Gao, Dong; Driehuis, Else; Sawyers, Charles L; Chen, Yu; Clevers, Hans

    This protocol describes a strategy for the generation of 3D prostate organoid cultures from healthy mouse and human prostate cells (either bulk or FACS-sorted single luminal and basal cells), metastatic prostate cancer lesions and circulating tumor cells. Organoids derived from healthy material

  8. Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) for prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Shinichi; Satake, Ichiro; Tujii, Toshihiko; Tari, Kiyonobu; Sakura, Mizuyoshi

    1988-01-01

    Between February 1982 and February 1986, 30 patients with prostatic cancer received intaoperative radiotherapy (IORT). First 10 cases were treated by the transperineal approach, and after April 1983, 20 cases were done by the retropubic approach. We chose the retropubic approach, because it has advantages over the transperineal approach, which has a risk of rectal damage, lymph-adenectomy can not be performed and the patient can not sit down for a long time after the operation. In the IORT procedure for prostatic cancer by the retropubic approach, a longitudinal lower abdominal incision is made, and pushing down the bladder, the treatment cone is inserted to the prostate. We performed lymph-adenectomy at the same operation, if hard and large lymph-nodes were touched. Of 30 patients, 2 had stage B disease, 10 had stage C and 18 had stage D disease. The overall 5-year survival rate (Kaplan-Meier method) after IORT was 42.6 % where as that the 31 cases seen (stage C : 6 cases, stage D : 25 cases) since the Center was founded (October 1975) until the introduction of IORT was 3.2 %. Although no definite conclusion can be drawn because all cases received multidisciplinary therapy, IORT appears useful for the treatment of carcinoma of the prostate. (author)

  9. Diagnosis of prostate cancer via nanotechnological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang BJ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Benedict J Kang,1,2,* Minhong Jeun,1,2,* Gun Hyuk Jang,1,2 Sang Hoon Song,3 In Gab Jeong,3 Choung-Soo Kim,3 Peter C Searson,4 Kwan Hyi Lee1,2 1KIST Biomedical Research Institute, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology (UST, 3Department of Urology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 4Institute for Nanobiotechnology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among the Caucasian adult males in Europe and the USA. Currently available diagnostic strategies for patients with prostate cancer are invasive and unpleasant and have poor accuracy. Many patients have been overly or underly treated resulting in a controversy regarding the reliability of current conventional diagnostic approaches. This review discusses the state-of-the-art research in the development of novel noninvasive prostate cancer diagnostics using nanotechnology coupled with suggested diagnostic strategies for their clinical implication.Keywords: bioassay, nanomaterial, nanodevice, PSA, non-PSA biomarker, bodily fluid

  10. An Embryonic Growth Pathway is Reactivated in Human Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bushman, Wade

    2005-01-01

    .... This research postulates that prostate cancer cells commandeer this normal epithelial-mesenchymal signaling pathway to recruit stromal cells to support abnormal tumor growth and tests the hypothesis...

  11. An Embryonic Growth Pathway is Reactivated in Human Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bushman, Wade

    2003-01-01

    .... This research postulates that prostate cancer cells commandeer this normal epithelial-mesenchymal signaling pathway to recruit stromal cells to support abnormal tumor growth and tests the hypothesis...

  12. Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education (PRIME) in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Marva M

    2006-01-01

    Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education in Prostate Cancer (PRIME) is a partnership between two nursing schools, Duke University School of Nursing and North Carolina Central University (NCCU...

  13. Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education (PRIME) in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Marva M

    2008-01-01

    Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education in Prostate Cancer (PRIME) was a partnership between two nursing schools, Duke University School of Nursing and North Carolina Central University (NCCU...

  14. Fatherhood and incident prostate cancer in a prospective US cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Michael L; Park, Yikyung; Brinton, Louise A; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Schatzkin, Arthur

    2011-04-01

    Fatherhood status has been hypothesized to affect prostate cancer risk but the current evidence is limited and contradictory. We prospectively evaluated the relationship between offspring number and the risk of prostate cancer in 161,823 men enrolled in the National Institues of Health - American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study. Participants were aged 50-71 years without a cancer diagnosis at baseline in 1995. Analysing 8134 cases of prostate cancer, Cox regression was used to estimate the association between offspring number and prostate cancer incidence while accounting for socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics. When examining the entire cohort, there was no relationship between fatherhood and incident prostate cancer [hazard ratio (HR) 0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86-1.02]. However, after stratifying for prostate cancer screening, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) unscreened childless men had a lower risk of prostate cancer (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.58-0.91) compared with fathers due to the interaction between PSA screening and fatherhood (P for interaction fatherhood status and offspring gender is associated with a man's prostate cancer risk.

  15. Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education (PRIME) in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Marva M

    2007-01-01

    Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education in Prostate Cancer (PRIME) is a partnership between two nursing schools, Duke University School of Nursing and North Carolina Central University (NCCU...

  16. The relationship between intolerance of uncertainty and anxiety in men on active surveillance for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hung-Jui; Marks, Leonard S.; Hoyt, Michael A.; Kwan, Lorna; Filson, Christopher P.; Macairan, Malu; Lieu, Patricia; Litwin, Mark S.; Stanton, Annette L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Anxiety may serve as a major barrier to participation in AS. Intolerance of uncertainty—the tendency to perceive the potential for negative events as threatening—has been linked to cancer-related worry. Accordingly, we explored prospectively the relationship of intolerance of uncertainty with anxiety along with other clinical factors among men managed with AS for prostate cancer. Materials and Methods From 2011–2014, 119 men with D’Amico low-risk prostate cancer participating in active surveillance completed the HADS, MAX-PC, IUS, and IPSS surveys. We evaluated the relationship between anxiety and IUS score after adjusting for patient characteristics, cancer information, and IPSS score using bivariable and multivariable analyses. Results A number of men reported clinically significant anxiety on the generalized (n=18, 15.1%) and prostate-cancer-specific (n=17, 14.3%) scales. In bivariable analyses, men with moderate/severe urinary symptoms and higher IUS scores reported more generalized and prostate-cancer-specific anxiety than men with mild urinary symptoms and lower IUS scores, respectively (p≤0.008). Men with depressive symptoms (p=0.024) or family history of prostate cancer (p=0.006) experienced greater generalized anxiety. In multivariable analysis, IUS score was significantly associated with generalized (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.09–1.38) and prostate-cancerspecific anxiety (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.13–1.49) while moderate/severe urinary symptoms were associated with prostate-cancer-specific anxiety (OR 6.89, 95% CI 1.33–35.68). Conclusions Intolerance of uncertainty and urinary symptoms may promote anxiety among men on AS for prostate cancer. Patient education, management of lower urinary tract symptoms, and behavioral interventions may lessen anxiety related to uncertainty intolerance and help maintain patient engagement in AS. PMID:26872841

  17. Epigenetics in breast and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanyuan; Sarkissyan, Marianna; Vadgama, Jaydutt V

    2015-01-01

    Most recent investigations into cancer etiology have identified a key role played by epigenetics. Specifically, aberrant DNA and histone modifications which silence tumor suppressor genes or promote oncogenes have been demonstrated in multiple cancer models. While the role of epigenetics in several solid tumor cancers such as colorectal cancer are well established, there is emerging evidence that epigenetics also plays a critical role in breast and prostate cancer. In breast cancer, DNA methylation profiles have been linked to hormone receptor status and tumor progression. Similarly in prostate cancer, epigenetic patterns have been associated with androgen receptor status and response to therapy. The regulation of key receptor pathways and activities which affect clinical therapy treatment options by epigenetics renders this field high priority for elucidating mechanisms and potential targets. A new set of methylation arrays are now available to screen epigenetic changes and provide the cutting-edge tools needed to perform such investigations. The role of nutritional interventions affecting epigenetic changes particularly holds promise. Ultimately, determining the causes and outcomes from epigenetic changes will inform translational applications for utilization as biomarkers for risk and prognosis as well as candidates for therapy.

  18. Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) May 2014 2. REPORT TYPE Final Summary 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 15 Apr 2009 to 14 Apr 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Prostate...have only demonstrated limited antitumor effects. To improve this immunotherapeutic approach, we will use both bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG, a...circulating tumor cells before and after prostatectomy, and, more recently, helped to develop a prospective study of antibiotic prophylaxis for use in

  19. Prostatic MR imaging. Accuracy in differentiating cancer from other prostatic disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikonen, S.; Kivisaari, L.; Tervahartiala, P. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept of Radiology; Vehmas, T. [Finnish Inst. of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland); Taari, K.; Rannikko, S. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept of Urology

    2001-03-01

    Purpose: We assessed the accuracy of MR imaging in differentiating between cancer and other prostatic disorders, and evaluated the diagnostic criteria for various prostatic diseases. Material and Methods: A total of 74 endorectal coil MR studies were performed on 72 patients. Twenty patients had prostatic cancer, 20 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), 4 acute bacterial prostatitis, 5 chronic bacterial prostatitis (2 also belonging to the previous category), 19 chronic non-bacterial prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, and 6 were symptomless voluntary controls. All studies were interpreted by two experienced radiologists in random order. Radiologists were blinded to all clinical data including the age of the patients. Based on MR findings, both radiologists filled in a form covering diagnostic criteria and diagnosis. Results: Accuracy in diagnosing prostate cancer was 74%. Sensitivity was 50% and specificity 83%, and positive and negative predictive values were 53 and 82%, respectively. Bacterial prostatitis showed some features similar to carcinoma. Abundant BPH rendered cancer detection more difficult. No diagnostic criterion was clearly better than the others. Interobserver agreement on the MR diagnosis ranged from moderate to good. Conclusion: Without knowledge of accurate clinical data, MR seems to be too insensitive in detecting prostate cancer to be used as a primary diagnostic tool.

  20. Ureteral Metastasis Secondary to Prostate Cancer: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Morales

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is very frequent, but secondary ureteral metastasis are extremely rare. We present a 55 year old man with a 2 month history of right flank pain and lower urinary tract symptoms. Prostatic specific antigen of 11.3 ng/mL. Computed tomography showed right hydroureteronephrosis, a developing urinoma and right iliac adenopathies. He underwent right ureteronephrectomy, iliac lymphadenectomy and prostate biopsy. Pathology revealed prostatic carcinoma infiltrating the ureteral muscularis propria, without mucosal involvement. There are 46 reported cases of prostate cancer with ureteral metastases. Ureteral metastasis are a rare cause of renal colic and need of a high index of suspicion.