WorldWideScience

Sample records for prostate cancer 3d-crt

  1. Dose escalation with 3-D CRT in prostate cancer: five year dose responses and optimal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanks, Gerald; Hanlon, Alexandra; Pinover, Wayne; Hunt, Margie; Movsas, Benjamin; Schultheiss, Timothy

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To report 5 yr dose responses in prostate cancer patients treated with 3D-CRT and describe optimal treatment based on dose response. Methods: Dose escalation was studied in 233 consecutive patients treated with 3D-CRT between 3/89 and 10/92. All surviving patients have >32 mo follow-up, the median follow-up is 55 mo. Estimated logistic cumulative distribution functions (logit response models) fit to 5 yr actuarial bNED outcome are reported for 3 dose groups in each of 3 pretreatment PSA groupings (10-19.9 ng/ml and 20+ ng/ml); no dose response is observed for patients with pretreatment PSA <10 ng/ml. Logit response models fit to 5 yr actuarial late morbidity rates (grade 2 GI, grade 2 GU, grade 3,4 GI) are also reported for 4 dose groups. Patients are treated with CT planned 4-field conformal technique where the PTV encompasses the CTV by 1.0 cm in all directions including the anterior rectal wall margin. Patients are followed at 6 mo intervals with PSA and DRE, and bNED failure is defined as PSA ≥1.5 ng/ml and rising on two consecutive measures. The Fox Chase modification of the LENT morbidity scale is used for GI morbidity including any blood transfusion and/or more than 2 coagulations as a grade 3 event. GU morbidity follows the RTOG scale. Results: The logit response models based on 5 yr bNED results have slopes of 27% and 18% for pretreatment PSA grouping 10-19.9 ng/ml and 20+ ng/ml, respectively. The 50% bNED response is observed at 71 Gy and 80 Gy respectively, while the 80% bNED response is observed at 76 Gy for the 10-19.9 ng/ml group and estimated at 88 Gy for the 20+ ng/ml group. Logit dose response models for grade 2 GI and grade 2 GU morbidity show markedly different slopes, 23% versus 4%, respectively. The slope for grade 3,4 GI is 12%. The dose response model indicates grade 3,4 GI complication rates at 5 yrs are 8% at 76 Gy and 12% at 80 Gy. Conclusion: Based on 5 yr results, we can draw some conclusions about appropriate dose from these

  2. Procedure for image acquisition and dosimetric planning for prostate cancer with 3D-CRT in the MIRS 3.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Velasquez, Reytel; Alvarez Zaldivar, Junior; Gonzalez Lopez, Nadia

    2009-01-01

    For over 30 years in the department of Radiotherapy of the Lenin Hospital has been doing conventional radiotherapy. In this paper we describe the dose planning procedure for patients with prostate cancer with 3D-CRT in the MIRS RTPS 3.0. The work ranges from imaging in the TAC including quality control of this, the definition of bodies radio therapists medical risk to the data to be transferred to processing machine. With this procedure we have established guidelines for planning 3D-CRT treatments for other locations. (author)

  3. Procedure for image acquisition and dose planning of prostate cancer with 3D-CRT in the MIRS 3.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Velasquez, Reytel; Alvarez Zaldivar, Junior; Gonzalez Lopez, Nadia

    2009-01-01

    For over 30 years in the department of Radiotherapy of the Lenin Hospital has been making conventional radiotherapy. In the present work is presented the procedure for dosimetric planning of patients with prostate cancer with 3D-CRT in the MIRS RTPS 3.0. The work ranges from image acquisition in the TAC, its including quality control, the definition of organs at risk by medical radiation therapists to the data to be transferred to the treatment machine. With this procedure has been possible to establish guidelines for planning 3D-CRT treatments for other locations. (author)

  4. Postoperative Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer: A Comparison of Four Consensus Guidelines and Dosimetric Evaluation of 3D-CRT Versus Tomotherapy IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, Shawn; Croke, Jennifer; Roustan-Delatour, Nicolas; Belanger, Eric; Avruch, Leonard; Malone, Colin; Morash, Christopher; Kayser, Cathleen; Underhill, Kathryn; Li Yan; Malone, Kyle; Nyiri, Balazs; Spaans, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the benefits of adjuvant radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy, approximately one-half of patients relapse. Four consensus guidelines have been published (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, Faculty of Radiation Oncology Genito-Urinary Group, Princess Margaret Hospital, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group) with the aim of standardizing the clinical target volume (CTV) delineation and improve outcomes. To date, no attempt has been made to compare these guidelines in terms of treatment volumes or organ at risk (OAR) irradiation. The extent to which the guideline-derived plans meet the dosimetric constraints of present trials or of the Quantitative Analysis of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (QUANTEC) trial is also unknown. Our study also explored the dosimetric benefits of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 20 patients treated with postoperative RT were included. The three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) plans were applied to cover the guideline-generated planning target volumes (66 Gy in 33 fractions). Dose–volume histograms (DVHs) were analyzed for CTV/planning target volume coverage and to evaluate OAR irradiation. The OAR DVHs were compared with the constraints proposed in the QUANTEC and Radiotherapy and Androgen Deprivation In Combination After Local Surgery (RADICALS) trials. 3D-CRT plans were compared with the tomotherapy plans for the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group planning target volume to evaluate the advantages of IMRT. Results: The CTV differed significantly between guidelines (p < 0.001). The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-CTVs were significantly smaller than the other CTVs (p < 0.001). Differences in prostate bed coverage superiorly accounted for the major volumetric differences between the guidelines. Using 3D-CRT, the DVHs rarely met the QUANTEC or RADICALS rectal constraints, independent of the guideline used. The RADICALS

  5. Results and DVH analysis of late rectal bleeding in patients treated with 3D-CRT or IMRT for localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Someya, Masanori; Hori, Masakazu; Tateoka, Kunihiko; Nakata, Kensei; Saito, Masato; Hirokawa, Naoki; Sakata, Koh-ichi; Takagi, Masaru; Hareyama, Masato

    2015-01-01

    In patients undergoing radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer, dose-volume histograms and clinical variables were examined to search for correlations between radiation treatment planning parameters and late rectal bleeding. We analyzed 129 patients with localized prostate cancer who were managed from 2002 to 2010 at our institution. They were treated with 3D conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT, 70 Gy/35 fractions, 55 patients) or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT, 76 Gy/38 fractions, 74 patients). All radiation treatment plans were retrospectively reconstructed, dose-volume histograms of the rectum were generated, and the doses delivered to the rectum were calculated. Time to rectal bleeding ranged from 9 - 53 months, with a median of 18.7 months. Of the 129 patients, 33 patients had Grade 1 bleeding and were treated with steroid suppositories, while 25 patients with Grade 2 bleeding received argon plasma laser coagulation therapy (APC). Three patients with Grade 3 bleeding required both APC and blood transfusion. The 5-year incidence rate of Grade 2 or 3 rectal bleeding was 21.8% for the 3D-CRT group and 21.6% for the IMRT group. Univariate analysis showed significant differences in the average values from V65 to V10 between Grades 0 - 1 and Grades 2 - 3. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that patients with V65 ≥ 17% had a significantly increased risk (P = 0.032) of Grade 2 or 3 rectal bleeding. Of the 28 patients of Grade 2 or 3 rectal bleeding, 17 patients (60.7%) were cured by a single session of APC, while the other 11 patients required two sessions. Thus, none of the patients had any further rectal bleeding after the second APC session. (author)

  6. Finding dose-volume constraints to reduce late rectal toxicity following 3D-conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greco, Carlo; Mazzetta, Chiara; Cattani, Federica; Tosi, Giampiero; Castiglioni, Simona; Fodor, Andrei; Orecchia, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: The rectum is known to display a dose-volume effect following high-dose 3D-conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). The aim of the study is to search for significant dose-volume combinations with the specific treatment technique and patient set-up currently used in our institution. Patients and methods: We retrospectively analyzed the dose-volume histograms (DVH) of 135 patients with stage T1b-T3b prostate cancer treated consecutively with 3D-CRT between 1996 and 2000 to a total dose of 76 Gy. The median follow-up was 28 months (range 12-62). All late rectal complications were scored using RTOG criteria. Time to late toxicity was assessed using the Kaplan-Meyer method. The association between variables at baseline and ≥2 rectal toxicity was tested using χ 2 test or Fisher's exact test. A multivariate analysis using logistic regression was performed. Results: Late rectal toxicity grade ≥2 was observed in 24 of the 135 patients (17.8%). A 'grey area' of increased risk has been identified. Average DVHs of the bleeding and non-bleeding patients were generated. The area under the percent volume DVH for the rectum of the bleeding patients was significantly higher than that of patients without late rectal toxicity. On multivariate analysis the correlation between the high risk DVHs and late rectal bleeding was confirmed. Conclusions: The present analysis confirms the role of the rectal DVH as a tool to discriminate patients undergoing high-dose 3D-CRT into a low and a high risk of developing late rectal bleeding. Based on our own results and taking into account the data published in the literature, we have been able to establish new dose-volume constraints for treatment planning: if possible, the percentage of rectal volume exposed to 40, 50, 60, 72 and 76 Gy should be limited to 60, 50, 25, 15 and 5%, respectively

  7. Development of a Set of Nomograms to Predict Acute Lower Gastrointestinal Toxicity for Prostate Cancer 3D-CRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdagni, Riccardo; Rancati, Tiziana; Fiorino, Claudio; Fellin, Gianni; Magli, Alessandro; Baccolini, Michela; Bianchi, Carla; Cagna, Emanuela; Greco, Carlo; Mauro, Flora A.; Monti, Angelo F.; Munoz, Fernando; Stasi, Michele; Franzone, Paola; Vavassori, Vittorio

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To predict acute Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG)/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and Subjective Objective Signs Management and Analysis/Late Effect of Normal Tissue (SOMA/LENT) toxicities of the lower gastrointestinal (LGI) syndrome in patients with prostate cancer undergoing three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy using a tool (nomogram) that takes into account clinical and dosimetric variables that proved to be significant in the Italian Association for Radiation Oncology (AIRO) Group on Prostate Cancer (AIROPROS) 0102 trial. Methods and Materials: Acute rectal toxicity was scored in 1,132 patients by using both the RTOG/EORTC scoring system and a 10-item self-assessed questionnaire. Correlation between clinical variables/dose-volume histogram constraints and rectal toxicity was investigated by means of multivariate logistic analyses. Multivariate logistic analyses results were used to create nomograms predicting the symptoms of acute LGI syndrome. Results: Mean rectal dose was a strong predictor of Grade 2-3 RTOG/EORTC acute LGI toxicity (p 0.0004; odds ratio (OR) = 1.035), together with hemorrhoids (p = 0.02; OR 1.51), use of anticoagulants/antiaggregants (p = 0.02; OR = 0.63), and androgen deprivation (AD) (p = 0.04; OR = 0.65). Diabetes (p = 0.34; OR 1.28) and pelvic node irradiation (p = 0.11; OR = 1.56) were significant variables to adjust toxicity prediction. Bleeding was related to hemorrhoids (p = 0.02; OR = 173), AD (p = 0.17; OR = 0.67), and mean rectal dose (p 0.009; OR = 1.024). Stool frequency was related to seminal vesicle irradiation (p = 0.07; OR = 6.46), AD administered for more than 3 months (p = 0.002; OR = 0.32), and the percent volume of rectum receiving more than 60 Gy (V60Gy) V60 (p = 0.02; OR = 1.02). Severe fecal incontinence depended on seminal vesicle irradiation (p = 0.14; OR = 4.5) and V70 (p = 0.033; OR 1.029). Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this work presents the

  8. Prediction of the cumulated dose for external beam irradiation of prostate cancer patients with 3D-CRT technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giżyńska Marta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays in radiotherapy, much effort is taken to minimize the irradiated volume and consequently minimize doses to healthy tissues. In our work, we tested the hypothesis that the mean dose distribution calculated from a few first fractions can serve as prediction of the cumulated dose distribution, representing the whole treatment. We made our tests for 25 prostate cancer patients treated with three orthogonal fields technique. We did a comparison of dose distribution calculated as a sum of dose distribution from each fraction with a dose distribution calculated with isocenter shifted for a mean setup error from a few first fractions. The cumulative dose distribution and predicted dose distributions are similar in terms of gamma (3 mm 3% analysis, under condition that we know setup error from seven first fractions. We showed that the dose distribution calculated for the original plan with the isocenter shifted to the point, defined as the original isocenter corrected of the mean setup error estimated from the first seven fractions supports our hypothesis, i.e. can serve as a prediction for cumulative dose distribution.

  9. Late rectal bleeding after 3D-CRT for prostate cancer: development of a neural-network-based predictive model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomatis, S.; Rancati, T.; Fiorino, C.; Vavassori, V.; Fellin, G.; Cagna, E.; Mauro, F. A.; Girelli, G.; Monti, A.; Baccolini, M.; Naldi, G.; Bianchi, C.; Menegotti, L.; Pasquino, M.; Stasi, M.; Valdagni, R.

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a model exploiting artificial neural networks (ANNs) to correlate dosimetric and clinical variables with late rectal bleeding in prostate cancer patients undergoing radical radiotherapy and to compare the ANN results with those of a standard logistic regression (LR) analysis. 718 men included in the AIROPROS 0102 trial were analyzed. This multicenter protocol was characterized by the prospective evaluation of rectal toxicity, with a minimum follow-up of 36 months. Radiotherapy doses were between 70 and 80 Gy. Information was recorded for comorbidity, previous abdominal surgery, use of drugs and hormonal therapy. For each patient, a rectal dose-volume histogram (DVH) of the whole treatment was recorded and the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) evaluated as an effective descriptor of the whole DVH. Late rectal bleeding of grade ≥ 2 was considered to define positive events in this study (52 of 718 patients). The overall population was split into training and verification sets, both of which were involved in model instruction, and a test set, used to evaluate the predictive power of the model with independent data. Fourfold cross-validation was also used to provide realistic results for the full dataset. The LR was performed on the same data. Five variables were selected to predict late rectal bleeding: EUD, abdominal surgery, presence of hemorrhoids, use of anticoagulants and androgen deprivation. Following a receiver operating characteristic analysis of the independent test set, the areas under the curves (AUCs) were 0.704 and 0.655 for ANN and LR, respectively. When evaluated with cross-validation, the AUC was 0.714 for ANN and 0.636 for LR, which differed at a significance level of p = 0.03. When a practical discrimination threshold was selected, ANN could classify data with sensitivity and specificity both equal to 68.0%, whereas these values were 61.5% for LR. These data provide reasonable evidence that results obtained with

  10. Comparison and Limitations of DVH-Based NTCP Models Derived From 3D-CRT and IMRT Data for Prediction of Gastrointestinal Toxicities in Prostate Cancer Patients by Using Propensity Score Matched Pair Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troeller, Almut [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich (Germany); Yan, Di, E-mail: dyan@beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Marina, Ovidiu; Schulze, Derek [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Alber, Markus [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Parodi, Katia [Department of Medical Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich (Germany); Belka, Claus; Söhn, Matthias [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich (Germany)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: This study compared normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) modeling of chronic gastrointestinal toxicities following prostate cancer treatment for 2 treatment modalities. Possible factors causing discrepancies in optimal NTCP model parameters between 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) and intensity modulated RT (IMRT) were analyzed and discussed, including the impact of patient characteristics, image guidance, toxicity scoring bias, and NTCP model limitations. Methods and Materials: Rectal wall dose-volume histograms of 1115 patients treated for prostate cancer under an adaptive radiation therapy protocol were used to model gastrointestinal toxicity grade ≥2 (according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events). A total of 457 patients were treated with 3D-CRT and 658 with IMRT. 3D-CRT patients were matched to IMRT patients based on various patient characteristics, using a propensity score–based algorithm. Parameters of the Lyman equivalent uniform dose and cut-off dose logistic regression NTCP models were estimated for the 2 matched treatment modalities and the combined group. Results: After they were matched, the 3D-CRT and IMRT groups contained 275 and 550 patients with a large discrepancy of 28.7% versus 7.8% toxicities, respectively (P<.001). For both NTCP models, optimal parameters found for the 3D-CRT groups did not fit the IMRT patients well and vice versa. Models developed for the combined data overestimated NTCP for the IMRT patients and underestimated NTCP for the 3D-CRT group. Conclusions: Our analysis did not reveal a single definitive cause for discrepancies of model parameters between 3D-CRT and IMRT. Patient characteristics and bias in toxicity scoring, as well as image guidance alone, are unlikely causes of the large discrepancy of toxicities. Whether the cause was inherent to the specific NTCP models used in this study needs to be verified by future investigations. Because IMRT is increasingly used

  11. Persistently better treatment planning results of intensity-modulated (IMRT) over conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) in prostate cancer patients with significant variation of clinical target volume and/or organs-at-risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenoglietto, Pascal; Laliberte, Benoit; Allaw, Ali; Ailleres, Norbert; Idri, Katia; Hay, Meng Huor; Moscardo, Carmen Llacer; Gourgou, Sophie; Dubois, Jean-Bernard; Azria, David

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the dose coverage of planning and clinical target volume (PTV, CTV), and organs-at-risk (OAR) between intensity-modulated (3D-IMRT) and conventional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) before and after internal organ variation in prostate cancer. Methods and materials: We selected 10 patients with clinically significant interfraction volume changes. Patients were treated with 3D-IMRT to 80 Gy (minimum PTV dose of 76 Gy, excluding rectum). Fictitious, equivalent 3D-CRT plans (80 Gy at isocenter, with 95% isodose (76 Gy) coverage of PTV, with rectal blocking above 76 Gy) were generated using the same planning CT data set ('CT planning'). The plans were then also applied to a verification CT scan ('CT verify') obtained at a different moment. PTV, CTV, and OAR dose coverage were compared using non-parametric tests statistics for V95, V90 (% of the volume receiving ≥95 or 90% of the dose) and D50 (dose to 50% of the volume). Results: Mean V95 of the PTV for 'CT planning' was 94.3% (range, 88-99) vs 89.1% (range, 84-94.5) for 3D-IMRT and 3D-CRT (p = 0.005), respectively. Mean V95 of the CTV for 'CT verify' was 97% for both 3D-IMRT and 3D-CRT. Mean D50 of the rectum for 'CT planning' was 26.8 Gy (range, 22-35) vs 43.5 Gy (range, 33.5-50.5) for 3D-IMRT and 3D-CRT (p = 0.0002), respectively. For 'CT verify', this D50 was 31.1 Gy (range, 16.5-44) vs 44.2 Gy (range, 34-55) for 3D-IMRT and 3D-CRT (p = 0.006), respectively. V95 of the rectum was 0% for both plans for 'CT planning', and 2.3% (3D-IMRT) vs 2.1% (3D-CRT) for 'CT verify' (p = non-sig.). Conclusion: Dose coverage of the PTV and OAR was better with 3D-IMRT for each patient and remained so after internal volume changes

  12. Three dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3d-crt) in prostate carcinoma: for whom and how?; La radiotherapie conformationnelle dans le cancer de la prostate: pour qui et comment?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bey, P.; Beckendorf, V.; Aletti, P.; Marchesi, V. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2002-05-01

    External radiotherapy is one of the modalities use o cure localized prostate carcinoma. Most of localized prostate carcinomas, specially those of the intermediate prognostic group, may benefit from escalated dose above 70 Gy at least as regard biochemical and clinical relapse free survival. 3D-CRT allows a reduction of the dose received by organs at risk and an increase of prostate dose over 70 Gy. It is on the way to become a standard. Intensity modulated radiation therapy increases dose homogeneity and reduces rectal dose. These methods necessitate rigorous procedures in reproducibility, delineation of volumes, dosimetry, daily treatment. They need also technological and human means. It is clear that localized prostate cancer is a good example for evaluation of these new radiotherapy modalities. (author)

  13. Predictors for Rectal and Intestinal Acute Toxicities During Prostate Cancer High-Dose 3D-CRT: Results of a Prospective Multicenter Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavassori, Vittorio; Fiorino, Claudio; Rancati, Tiziana; Magli, Alessandro; Fellin, Gianni; Baccolini, Michela; Bianchi, Carla; Cagna, Emanuela; Mauro, Flora A.; Monti, Angelo F.; Munoz, Fernando; Stasi, Michele; Franzone, Paola; Valdagni, Riccardo

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To find predictors for rectal and intestinal acute toxicity in patients with prostate cancer treated with ≥70 Gy conformal radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between July 2002 and March 2004, 1,132 patients were entered into a cooperative study (AIROPROS01-02). Toxicity was scored using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer scale and by considering the changes (before and after treatment) of the scores of a self-administered questionnaire on rectal/intestinal toxicity. The correlation with a number of parameters was assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Concerning the questionnaire, only moderate/severe complications were considered. Results: Of 1,132 patients, 1,123 were evaluable. Of these patients, 375, 265, and 28 had Grade 1, 2, and 3 Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer toxicity, respectively. The mean rectal dose was the most predictive parameter (p = 0.0004; odds ratio, 1.035) for Grade 2 or worse toxicity, and the use of anticoagulants/antiaggregants (p 0.02; odds ratio, 0.63) and hormonal therapy (p = 0.04, odds ratio, 0.65) were protective. The questionnaire-based scoring revealed that a greater mean rectal dose was associated with a greater risk of bleeding; larger irradiated volumes were associated with frequency, tenesmus, incontinence, and bleeding; hormonal therapy was protective against frequency and tenesmus; hemorrhoids were associated with a greater risk of tenesmus and bleeding; and diabetes associated highly with diarrhea. Conclusion: The mean rectal dose correlated with acute rectal/intestinal toxicity in three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer, and hormonal therapy and the use of anticoagulants/antiaggregants were protective. According to the moderate/severe injury scores on the self-assessed questionnaire, several clinical and dose-volume parameters were independently predictive for

  14. Simulation of 3D-CRT treatment for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thalhofer, Jardel L.; Silva, Ademir X. da; Junior, Juraci R.P.; Rebello, Wilson F.; Souza, Edmilson M.

    2013-01-01

    In radiotherapy treatment for lung cancer, occurs doses deposition in healthy organs. During the treatment planning are calculated some doses due to photons. This dose deposition in healthy organs could induce to the appearance of new cancers foci. The aim of this study was to analyze the equivalent doses in healthy organs of a patient treated by radiotherapy for lung cancer. In order to calculate the doses, was done a computer simulation of radiotherapy treatment for lung cancer, adopting database of the treatment performed by INCA. To perform the simulation was used several tools, among them, the radiation transport code MCNPX, in which was shaped the radiotherapy room and the head from the linear accelerator Varian 2300 C / D, the patient was simulated by Voxel male phantom in Rex,and the treatment protocol adopted considers a beam with energy of 6 MV focusing on three gantry tilt angles (0 deg, 180 deg and 45 deg). In addition, there was variation in the opening of the radiation field according to the angle of inclination. The results of this study point to the organs close to the irradiated area are predominantly affected by the dose due to photons, affecting organs from different body systems, such as esophagus, heart, thymus, spine and lymph nodes. The calculated values demonstrating that the angle of 0 deg was the most responsible for the deposit of unwanted dose. The results showed that the simulations in this paper is developed in accordance with the planning data described in different studies and literature. (author)

  15. Domestic comparison of radiation treatment techniques for breast cancer: 3D-CRT, IMRT and VMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bo Ram; Yoon, Myong Geun [Dept. of Bio-convergence Engineering, College of Health Science, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sun Young [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yusung Sun Medical Center, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to compare method in the treatment of breast cancer using dose index. And, it is to find the optimized treatment technique to the patient. The phantom filled with tissue-equivalent material were used simulation and treatment as techniques of 3D-CRT, IMRT, VMAT was planned using Eclipse v10. By using HI(homogeneity index), CI(Conformity index), OE (Organ equivalent dose), EAR(Excess Absolute Risk), were assessed for each treatment plans. HI and CI of 3D-CRT, IMRT, VMAT were calculated 16.89, 11.21, 9.55 and 0.59, 0.61, 0.83. The organ average doses of Lt lung, Rt lung, liver, heart, esophagus, cord, Lt breast, trachea and stomach were 0.01 ∼ 2.02 Gy, 0.36 ∼ 5.01 Gy, 0.25 ∼ 2.49 Gy, 0.14 ∼ 6.92 Gy, 0.03 ∼ 2.02 Gy, 0.01 ∼ 1.06 Gy, 0.25 ∼ 6.08 Gy, 0.08 ∼ 0.59 Gy, 0.01 ∼ 1.34 Gy, respectively. The OED, EAR of the IMRT and VMAT show higher than 3D-CRT. As the result of this study, we could confirm being higher dose index(HI, CI) in IMRT and VMAT than 3D-CRT, but doses of around normal organs was higher IMRT, VMAT than 3D-CRT.

  16. RAPIDARC (RA) in the uterine cervical cancer; dosimetric gain vs 3D-Crt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, J.; Garcia, B.; Quispe, K.; Gonzales, A.; Marquina, J.

    2014-08-01

    This work aims to quantitatively assess RAPIDARC (RA) treatments versus three dimensional-Conformal Radiation Therapy with field to field technique (3D-Crt-Fin F). 11 patients with cervical cancer treated at our institution radically or adjuvant clinical stages I-III B were evaluated. The prescribed dose was 50 Gy (2 Gy / Fr). The RA plans consisted of two isocentric complete arcs and conformational plans of 4 isocentric fields (previous, subsequent, right side and left side) with 3D-Crt-Fin F technique; both cases carried out ??in the Eclipse version 10 planner with calculation algorithm analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA) and volumetric optimization software (for VMAT plans). Homogeneity indices (Hi), conformity indices (CI) Sigma indices (S-Index), monitor units (MU) and the time required for each treatment were compared. The mean age was 52 years (32-65) of the 11 patients 9 were clinical stages I-II B. The Hi varied from 0.052 for RA to 0.163 for 3D-Crt-Fin F (p = 0.009), and the CI between 1.005 and 1.35 (p = 0.26), the S-index from 1.2 to 3.7 (p = 0.001) and the H-index of 1.08 to 1.15 (p = 0.24). All dose limits in risk organs were met with a significant difference in the RA plans versus 3D-Crt-Fin F. In patients with cervical cancer the treatment plans quality with the indices aforementioned seems to be better with the RA technique, being observed a significant reduction of radiation to surrounding organs. (author)

  17. Dose distribution of IMRT and 3D-CRT on treating central non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xiaoyang; Yu Guangwei

    2010-01-01

    3D-CRT and IMRT were used in the radiation therapy of Central Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and the dose difference of the methods was estimated. Thirty-two patients suffering with II class NSCLC were selected. Based on CT images, each patient was given 1 3D-CRT (3 dimensional conformal radiotherapy) and 2 IMRT(intensity modulated radiation therapy) treatment plans (5 fields and 7 fields), respectively, and the dose distribution was evaluated too. The results showed that PTVD mean and the PTV max , PTVD max (%) and CI of IMRT were both higher than those of 3D-CRT, but the uniformity was not as good as 3D-CRT. All indexes of lung and spinal cord treated with IMRT were lower than that treated with 3D-CRT. Moreover, there was no significance of the difference between 5 fields and 7 fields. In a conclusion, IMRT could not only decrease the target dose of NSCLC, but it can protect normal tissue from radiation damage effectively. And when IMRT was used, 5 fields might be enough. (authors)

  18. Class solution to decrease rectal dose in prostate radiotherapy treatments 3D-CRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres Rodriguez, C.; Tortosa Oliver, R.; Alonso Hernandez, D.; Mari Palacios, A.; Castillo Belmonte, A. del

    2011-01-01

    This paper contains a method developed in our center with conventional 3D radiotherapy techniques to increase the dose conformation around the target volume in prostate cancer treatments significantly reduced the doses to the rectum. To evaluate the goodness of the method, the results are compared with two classical techniques of treatment.

  19. RAPIDARC (RA) in the uterine cervical cancer; dosimetric gain vs 3D-Crt; RAPIDARC (RA) en el cancer de cervix uterino; ganancia dosimetrica vs 3D-CRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, J.; Garcia, B.; Quispe, K.; Gonzales, A.; Marquina, J., E-mail: jose.ramirez@aliada.com.pe [Clinica Aliada, Oncologia Integral, Av. Jose Galvez Barrenechea 1044, San Isidro, Lima (Peru)

    2014-08-15

    This work aims to quantitatively assess RAPIDARC (RA) treatments versus three dimensional-Conformal Radiation Therapy with field to field technique (3D-Crt-Fin F). 11 patients with cervical cancer treated at our institution radically or adjuvant clinical stages I-III B were evaluated. The prescribed dose was 50 Gy (2 Gy / Fr). The RA plans consisted of two isocentric complete arcs and conformational plans of 4 isocentric fields (previous, subsequent, right side and left side) with 3D-Crt-Fin F technique; both cases carried out ??in the Eclipse version 10 planner with calculation algorithm analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA) and volumetric optimization software (for VMAT plans). Homogeneity indices (Hi), conformity indices (CI) Sigma indices (S-Index), monitor units (MU) and the time required for each treatment were compared. The mean age was 52 years (32-65) of the 11 patients 9 were clinical stages I-II B. The Hi varied from 0.052 for RA to 0.163 for 3D-Crt-Fin F (p = 0.009), and the CI between 1.005 and 1.35 (p = 0.26), the S-index from 1.2 to 3.7 (p = 0.001) and the H-index of 1.08 to 1.15 (p = 0.24). All dose limits in risk organs were met with a significant difference in the RA plans versus 3D-Crt-Fin F. In patients with cervical cancer the treatment plans quality with the indices aforementioned seems to be better with the RA technique, being observed a significant reduction of radiation to surrounding organs. (author)

  20. Feasibility and efficacy of helical intensity-modulated radiotherapy for stage III non-small cell lung cancer in comparison with conventionally fractionated 3D-CRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jian; Huang, Yan; Chen, Yixing; Shi, Shiming; Ye, Luxi; Hu, Yong; Zhang, Jianying; Zeng, Zhaochong

    2016-05-01

    The standard treatment for stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is still 60 Gy in conventional fractions combined with concurrent chemotherapy; however, the resulting local controls are disappointing. The aim of this study was to compare and assess the feasibility and efficacy of hypofractionated chemoradiotherapy using helical tomotherapy (HT) with conventional fractionation as opposed to using three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for stage III NSCLC. Sixty-nine patients with stage III (AJCC 7th edition) NSCLC who underwent definitive radiation treatment at our institution between July 2011 and November 2013 were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively. A dose of 60 Gy in 20 fractions was delivered in the HT group (n=34), whereas 60 Gy in 30 fractions in the 3D-CRT group (n=35). Primary endpoints were toxicity, overall response rate, overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). The median follow-up period was 26.4 months. V20 (P=0.005), V30 (P=0.001), V40 (P=0.004), mean lung dose (P=0.000) and max dose of spinal cord (P=0.005) were significantly lower in the HT group than in the 3D-CRT group. There was no significant difference in the incidences of acute radiation pneumonitis (RP) ≥ grade 2 between the two groups, whereas the incidences of acute radiation esophagitis ≥ grade 2 were significantly lower in the HT group than in the 3D-CRT group (P=0.027). Two-year overall response rate was significantly higher in the HT group than in the 3D-CRT group (P=0.015). One- and 2-year OS rates were significantly higher in the HT group (95.0% and 68.7%, respectively) than in the 3D-CRT group (85.5% and 47.6%, respectively; P=0.0236). One- and 2-year PFS rates were significantly higher in the HT group (57.8% and 26.3%, respectively) than in the 3D-CRT group (32.7% and 11.4%, respectively; P=0.0351). Univariate analysis indicated that performance status (PS), T stage and radiotherapy technique were significant prognostic factors for both OS

  1. Optimized volumetric modulated arc therapy versus 3D-CRT for early stage mediastinal Hodgkin lymphoma without axillary involvement: a comparison of second cancers and heart disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, Andrea Riccardo; Ragona, Riccardo; Piva, Cristina; Scafa, Davide; Fiandra, Christian; Fusella, Marco; Giglioli, Francesca Romana; Lohr, Frank; Ricardi, Umberto

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risks of second cancers and cardiovascular diseases associated with an optimized volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) planning solution in a selected cohort of stage I/II Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients treated with either involved-node or involved-site radiation therapy in comparison with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT). Thirty-eight patients (13 males and 25 females) were included. Disease extent was mediastinum alone (n=8, 21.1%); mediastinum plus unilateral neck (n=19, 50%); mediastinum plus bilateral neck (n=11, 29.9%). Prescription dose was 30 Gy in 2-Gy fractions. Only 5 patients had mediastinal bulky disease at diagnosis (13.1%). Anteroposterior 3D-CRT was compared with a multiarc optimized VMAT solution. Lung, breast, and thyroid cancer risks were estimated by calculating a lifetime attributable risk (LAR), with a LAR ratio (LAR(VMAT)-to-LAR(3D-CRT)) as a comparative measure. Cardiac toxicity risks were estimated by calculating absolute excess risk (AER). The LAR ratio favored 3D-CRT for lung cancer induction risk in mediastinal alone (P=.004) and mediastinal plus unilateral neck (P=.02) presentations. LAR ratio for breast cancer was lower for VMAT in mediastinal plus bilateral neck presentations (P=.02), without differences for other sites. For thyroid cancer, no significant differences were observed, regardless of anatomical presentation. A significantly lower AER of cardiac (P=.038) and valvular diseases (Pdisease extent. In a cohort of patients with favorable characteristics in terms of disease extent at diagnosis (large prevalence of nonbulky presentations without axillary involvement), optimized VMAT reduced heart disease risk with comparable risks of thyroid and breast cancer, with an increase in lung cancer induction probability. The results are however strongly influenced by the different anatomical presentations, supporting an individualized approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  2. Optimized Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy Versus 3D-CRT for Early Stage Mediastinal Hodgkin Lymphoma Without Axillary Involvement: A Comparison of Second Cancers and Heart Disease Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippi, Andrea Riccardo, E-mail: andreariccardo.filippi@unito.it [Department of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Ragona, Riccardo; Piva, Cristina; Scafa, Davide; Fiandra, Christian [Department of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Fusella, Marco; Giglioli, Francesca Romana [Medical Physics, AOU Città della Salute e della Scienza Hospital, Torino (Italy); Lohr, Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Ricardi, Umberto [Department of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy)

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risks of second cancers and cardiovascular diseases associated with an optimized volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) planning solution in a selected cohort of stage I/II Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients treated with either involved-node or involved-site radiation therapy in comparison with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT). Methods and Materials: Thirty-eight patients (13 males and 25 females) were included. Disease extent was mediastinum alone (n=8, 21.1%); mediastinum plus unilateral neck (n=19, 50%); mediastinum plus bilateral neck (n=11, 29.9%). Prescription dose was 30 Gy in 2-Gy fractions. Only 5 patients had mediastinal bulky disease at diagnosis (13.1%). Anteroposterior 3D-CRT was compared with a multiarc optimized VMAT solution. Lung, breast, and thyroid cancer risks were estimated by calculating a lifetime attributable risk (LAR), with a LAR ratio (LAR{sub VMAT}-to-LAR{sub 3D-CRT}) as a comparative measure. Cardiac toxicity risks were estimated by calculating absolute excess risk (AER). Results: The LAR ratio favored 3D-CRT for lung cancer induction risk in mediastinal alone (P=.004) and mediastinal plus unilateral neck (P=.02) presentations. LAR ratio for breast cancer was lower for VMAT in mediastinal plus bilateral neck presentations (P=.02), without differences for other sites. For thyroid cancer, no significant differences were observed, regardless of anatomical presentation. A significantly lower AER of cardiac (P=.038) and valvular diseases (P<.0001) was observed for VMAT regardless of disease extent. Conclusions: In a cohort of patients with favorable characteristics in terms of disease extent at diagnosis (large prevalence of nonbulky presentations without axillary involvement), optimized VMAT reduced heart disease risk with comparable risks of thyroid and breast cancer, with an increase in lung cancer induction probability. The results are however strongly influenced by

  3. Factors of influence on acute skin toxicity of breast cancer patients treated with standard three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) after breast conserving surgery (BCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus-Tiefenbacher, Uta; Sfintizky, Andreas; Welzel, Grit; Simeonova, Anna; Sperk, Elena; Siebenlist, Kerstin; Mai, Sabine; Wenz, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    Standard 3D-CRT after BCS may cause skin toxicity with a wide range of intensity including acute effects like erythema or late effects. In order to reduce these side effects it is mandatory to identify potential factors of influence in breast cancer patients undergoing standard three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) of the breast and modern systemic therapy. Between 2006 and 2010 a total of 211 breast cancer patients (median age 52,4 years, range 24–77) after BCS consecutively treated in our institution with 3D-CRT (50 Gy whole breast photon radiotherapy followed by 16 Gy electron boost to the tumorbed) were evaluated with special focus on documented skin toxicity at the end of the 50 Gy-course. Standardized photodocumentation of the treated breast was done in each patient lying on the linac table with arms elevated. Skin toxicity was documented according to the common toxicity criteria (CTC)-score. Potential influencing factors were classified in three groups: patient-specific (smoking, age, breast size, body mass index = BMI, allergies), tumor-specific (tumorsize) and treatment-specific factors (antihormonal therapy with tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors, chemotherapy). Uni- and multivariate statistical analyses were done using IBM SPSS version 19. After 50 Gy 3D-CRT to the whole breast 28.9% of all 211 patients had no erythema, 62.2% showed erythema grade 1 (G1) and 8.5% erythema grade 2. None of the patients had grade 3/4 (G3/4) erythema. In univariate analyses a significant influence or trend on the development of acute skin toxicities (erythema G0 versus G1 versus G2) was observed for larger breast volumes (p=0,004), smoking during radiation therapy (p=0,064) and absence of allergies (p=0,014) as well as larger tumorsize (p=0,009) and antihormonal therapy (p=0.005). Neither patient age, BMI nor choice of chemotherapy showed any significant effect on higher grade toxicity. In the multivariate analysis, factors associated with higher grade

  4. Class solution to decrease rectal dose in prostate radiotherapy treatments 3D-CRT; Solucion de clase para disminuir dosis en recto en tratamientos de prostata con radioterapia 3D-CRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andres Rodriguez, C.; Tortosa Oliver, R.; Alonso Hernandez, D.; Mari Palacios, A.; Castillo Belmonte, A. del

    2011-07-01

    This paper contains a method developed in our center with conventional 3D radiotherapy techniques to increase the dose conformation around the target volume in prostate cancer treatments significantly reduced the doses to the rectum. To evaluate the goodness of the method, the results are compared with two classical techniques of treatment.

  5. Has 3-D conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT) improved the local tumour control for stage I non-small cell lung cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagerwaard, Frank J.; Senan, Suresh; Meerbeeck, Jan P. van; Graveland, Wilfried J.

    2002-01-01

    Aims and background: The high local failure rates observed after radiotherapy in stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may be improved by the use of 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT). Materials and methods: The case-records of 113 patients who were treated with curative 3D CRT between 1991 and 1999 were analysed. No elective nodal irradiation was performed, and doses of 60 Gy or more, in once-daily fractions of between 2 and 3 Gy, were prescribed. Results: The median actuarial survival of patients was 20 months, with 1-, 3- and 5-year survival of 71, 25 and 12%, respectively. Local disease progression was the cause of death in 30% of patients, and 22% patients died from distant metastases. Grade 2-3 acute radiation pneumonitis (SWOG) was observed in 6.2% of patients. The median actuarial local progression-free survival (LPFS) was 27 months, with 85 and 43% of patients free from local progression at 1 and 3 years, respectively. Endobronchial tumour extension significantly influenced LPFS, both on univariate (P=0.023) and multivariate analysis (P=0.023). The median actuarial cause-specific survival (CSS) was 19 months, and the respective 1- and 3-year rates were 72 and 30%. Multivariate analysis showed T2 classification (P=0.017) and the presence of endobronchial tumour extension (P=0.029) to be adverse prognostic factors for CSS. On multivariate analysis, T-stage significantly correlated with distant failure (P=0.005). Conclusions: Local failure rates remain substantial despite the use of 3D CRT for stage I NSCLC. Additional improvements in local control can come about with the use of radiation dose escalation and approaches to address the problem of tumour mobility

  6. Single-arc volumetric-modulated arc therapy (sVMAT) as adjuvant treatment for gastric cancer: Dosimetric comparisons with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Guangjun; Zhang, Yingjie; Bai, Sen; Xu, Feng; Wei, Yuquan; Gong, Youling

    2013-01-01

    To compare the dosimetric differences between the single-arc volumetric-modulated arc therapy (sVMAT), 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) techniques in treatment planning for gastric cancer as adjuvant radiotherapy. Twelve patients were retrospectively analyzed. In each patient's case, the parameters were compared based on the dose-volume histogram (DVH) of the sVMAT, 3D-CRT, and IMRT plans, respectively. Three techniques showed similar target dose coverage. The maximum and mean doses of the target were significantly higher in the sVMAT plans than that in 3D-CRT plans and in the 3D-CRT/IMRT plans, respectively, but these differences were clinically acceptable. The IMRT and sVMAT plans successfully achieved better target dose conformity, reduced the V 20/30 , and mean dose of the left kidney, as well as the V 20/30 of the liver, compared with the 3D-CRT plans. And the sVMAT technique reduced the V 20 of the liver much significantly. Although the maximum dose of the spinal cord were much higher in the IMRT and sVMAT plans, respectively (mean 36.4 vs 39.5 and 40.6 Gy), these data were still under the constraints. Not much difference was found in the analysis of the parameters of the right kidney, intestine, and heart. The IMRT and sVMAT plans achieved similar dose distribution to the target, but superior to the 3D-CRT plans, in adjuvant radiotherapy for gastric cancer. The sVMAT technique improved the dose sparings of the left kidney and liver, compared with the 3D-CRT technique, but showed few dosimetric advantages over the IMRT technique. Studies are warranted to evaluate the clinical benefits of the VMAT treatment for patients with gastric cancer after surgery in the future

  7. Design and implementation of a rotational radiotherapy technique for breast cancer treatment and their comparison with 3-D-Crt irradiation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez M, J. G.; Lopez V, A.; Rivera M, T.; Velazquez T, J. J.; Adame G, C. S.; Rubio N, O.; Chagoya G, A.; Hernandez G, J. C.

    2015-10-01

    Breast cancer is one of oncological diseases worldwide, as well in Mexico, which causes even more deaths than cervical cancer; this condition is the second death cause in women aged 30-54 years and threatens all socio-economic groups. The treatment is highly dependent on the stage which is detected and based on protocols that include a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This paper studies the main irradiation technique for patients with mastectomy, breast full cycle (irradiation of the chest well and supraclavicular nodes) in their mode Three Dimensional - Conformal Radiation Therapy (3-D-Crt), and compared with the Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) technique proposed in this paper. In both techniques the prescription was 50 Gy divided into 25 fractions. The techniques were applied in three female patients (being an initial study) with disease of the left side, the target volume and organs at risk were delineated by the medical treating radiation oncologist, the planning system used was Eclipse version 10; for quantitative comparison of both plans indexes of homogeneity were used, con formality, the target volume coverage and normal tissue, sub factors and overdosing, the conformation number and coverage quality. They were evaluated and compared the media, maximum and minimum dose of the organs at risk, based on the fact that the coverage of the target volume, dose gradient and dose at risk organs are acceptable (prescription dose greater that 90% coverage, gradient less that 20% and organs at risk in accordance with the Quantec limitations for both versions). (Author)

  8. Heart dose reduction in breast cancer treatment with simultaneous integrated boost. Comparison of treatment planning and dosimetry for a novel hybrid technique and 3D-CRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joest, Vincent; Kretschmer, Matthias; Sabatino, Marcello; Wuerschmidt, Florian; Dahle, Joerg; Lorenzen, Joern; Ueberle, Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    The present study compares in silico treatment plans of clinically established three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) with a hybrid technique consisting of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) during normally fractionated radiation of mammary carcinomas with simultaneous integrated boost on the basis of dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters. Radiation treatment planning was performed with a hybrid and a 3D-CRT treatment plan for 20 patients. Hybrid plans were implemented with two tangential IMRT fields and a VMAT field in the angular range of the tangents. Verification of the plan was performed with a manufacturer-independent measurement system consisting of a detector array and rotation unit. The mean values of the heart dose for the entire patient collective were 3.6 ± 2.5 Gy for 3D-CRT and 2.9 ± 2.1 Gy for the hybrid technique (p < 0.01). For the left side (n = 10), the mean values for the left anterior descending artery were 21.8 ± 7.4 Gy for 3D-CRT and 17.6 ± 7.4 Gy for the hybrid technique (p < 0.01). The mean values of the ipsilateral lung were 11.9 ± 1.6 Gy for 3D-CRT and 10.5 ± 1.3 Gy for the hybrid technique (p < 0.01). Calculated dose distributions in the hybrid arm were in good accordance with measured dose (on average 95.6 ± 0.5 % for γ < 1 and 3 %/3 mm). The difference of the mean treatment time per fraction was 7 s in favor of 3D-CRT. Compared with the established 3D-CRT technique, the hybrid technique allows for a decrease in dose, particularly of the mean heart and lung dose with comparable target volume acquisition and without disadvantageous low-dose load of contralateral structures. Uncomplicated implementation of the hybrid technique was demonstrated in this context. The hybrid technique combines the advantages of tangential IMRT with the superior sparing of organs at risk by VMAT. (orig.) [de

  9. Evaluation of dose coverage to target volume and normal tissue sparing in the adjuvant radiotherapy of gastric cancers: 3D-CRT compared with dynamic IMRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Kk; Shukeili, Ka; Kumar, Ss; Davis, Ca; Chandran, Rr; Namrata, S

    2010-01-01

    To assess the potential advantage of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) over 3D-conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) planning in postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy for patients with gastric carcinoma. In a retrospective study, for plan comparison, dose distribution was recalculated in 15 patients treated with 3D-CRT on the contoured structures of same CT images using an IMRT technique. 3D-conformal plans with three fields and four-fields were compared with seven-field dynamic IMRT plans. The different plans were compared by analyzing the dose coverage of planning target volume using TV(95), D(mean), uniformity index, conformity index and homogeneity index parameters. To assess critical organ sparing, D(mean), D(max), dose to one-third and two-third volumes of the OARs and percentage of volumes receiving more than their tolerance doses were compared. The average dose coverage values of PTV with 3F-CRT and 4F-CRT plans were comparable, where as IMRT plans achieved better target coverage(p3D-CRT plans. The doses to the liver and bowel reduced significantly (p3D-CRT plans. For all OARs the percentage of volumes receiving more than their tolerance doses were reduced with the IMRT plans. This study showed that a better target coverage and significant dose reduction to OARs could be achieved with the IMRT plans. The IMRT can be preferred with caution for organ motion. The authors are currently studying organ motion in the upper abdomen to use IMRT for patient treatment.

  10. Concurrent chemoradiation of metastases with capecitabine and oxaliplatin and 3D-CRT in patients with oligometastatic colorectal cancer: results of a phase I study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dellas Kathrin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Local control appears to be an important treatment aim in patients with limited metastases (oligometastases of colorectal cancer (CRC. Those patients show a favourable prognosis, if - in addition to the local effective treatment - an occurrence of new metastases may also be postponed by effective systemic therapy. The purpose of this dose escalation phase I study was to establish the efficacy of local radiotherapy (RT of oligometastatic CRC with a concurrent standard chemotherapy regimen. Methods Patients with first-, second- or third-line therapy of oligometastatic CRC (1–3 metastases or local recurrence plus max. 2 metastases received capecitabine (825 mg/m2/d BID d 1–14; 22–35 and oxaliplatin (50 mg/m2 d 1, 8, 22, 29. 3D-conformal RT of all metastatic lesions was delivered in 2.0 Gy up to 36 Gy to 50 Gy (3 dose levels. Primary endpoint was the maximal tolerable dose (MTD of RT defined as the level at which two or more of six patients experienced dose-limiting toxicity (DLT. Results Between 09/2004 and 08/2007, 9 patients (7 male, 2 female, 50–74 years were enrolled, 6 patients treated at dose level 1 (36 Gy, 3 patients at dose level 2 (44 Gy. 1 patient from the first cohort experienced DLT (oxaliplatin-related hypersensitivity reaction. No radiation-induced DLT occurred. 6/9 patients achieved objective response (partial remission. One year after initiation, all patients were alive, 6 patients survived (16 to 54 months patients died of tumor progression (14 to 23 months. The phase II part of the trial had to be closed due to recruitment failure. Conclusions Local 3D-CRT to metastatic lesions in addition to standard chemotherapy was feasible, DLT was not documented. 3/9 patients survived for a period of 3.5 to 4.4 years (time at the last evaluation. Radiotherapy of metastatic lesions should be incorporated into subsequent trials.

  11. Design and implementation of a rotational radiotherapy technique for breast cancer treatment and their comparison with 3-D-Crt irradiation technique; Diseno e implementacion de una tecnica de radioterapia rotacional para tratamiento de cancer de mama y su comparacion contra la tecnica 3D-CRT de irradiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez M, J. G.; Lopez V, A.; Rivera M, T. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Av. Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Velazquez T, J. J.; Adame G, C. S. [Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI, Hospital de Oncologia, Departamento de Fisica Medica, Av. Cuauhtemoc No. 330, Col. Doctores, 06720 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Rubio N, O.; Chagoya G, A.; Hernandez G, J. C., E-mail: jggm25@yahoo.com.mx [Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI, Hospital de Oncologia, Departamento de Radioterapia, Av. Cuauhtemoc No. 330, Col. Doctores, 06720 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Breast cancer is one of oncological diseases worldwide, as well in Mexico, which causes even more deaths than cervical cancer; this condition is the second death cause in women aged 30-54 years and threatens all socio-economic groups. The treatment is highly dependent on the stage which is detected and based on protocols that include a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This paper studies the main irradiation technique for patients with mastectomy, breast full cycle (irradiation of the chest well and supraclavicular nodes) in their mode Three Dimensional - Conformal Radiation Therapy (3-D-Crt), and compared with the Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) technique proposed in this paper. In both techniques the prescription was 50 Gy divided into 25 fractions. The techniques were applied in three female patients (being an initial study) with disease of the left side, the target volume and organs at risk were delineated by the medical treating radiation oncologist, the planning system used was Eclipse version 10; for quantitative comparison of both plans indexes of homogeneity were used, con formality, the target volume coverage and normal tissue, sub factors and overdosing, the conformation number and coverage quality. They were evaluated and compared the media, maximum and minimum dose of the organs at risk, based on the fact that the coverage of the target volume, dose gradient and dose at risk organs are acceptable (prescription dose greater that 90% coverage, gradient less that 20% and organs at risk in accordance with the Quantec limitations for both versions). (Author)

  12. Comparison of 3D CRT and IMRT Tratment Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakiu, Erjona; Telhaj, Ervis; Kozma, Elvisa; Ruçi, Ferdinand; Malkaj, Partizan

    2013-01-01

    Plans of patients with prostate tumor have been studied. These patients have been scanned in the CT simulator and the images have been sent to the Focal, the system where the doctor delineates the tumor and the organs at risk. After that in the treatment planning system XiO there are created for the same patients three dimensional conformal and intensity modulated radiotherapy treatment plans. The planes are compared according to the dose volume histograms. It is observed that the plans with IMRT technique conform better the isodoses to the planning target volume and protect more the organs at risk, but the time needed to create such plans and to control it is higher than 3D CRT. So it necessary to decide in which patients to do one or the other technique depending on the full dose given to PTV and time consuming in genereral. PMID:24167395

  13. Psa control for dose escalation with 3DCRT in the treatment of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Sosa, Amarilys; Rodriguez, Yaima; Perez Velasquez, Reytel

    2009-01-01

    In the detection of prostate cancer PSA carry out checks on patients between 40-50 years or more. The present work has as objective to establish the procedure 'in vivo' and i n vitro , based on ISO 9000, for assessment changes in PSA levels in patients who underwent scaling the dose through the 3D-CRT. The procedure provides the steps to follow from diagnostic evaluation to the completion of treatment with 3D-CRT. Finally This document is a valuable tool in assessing the effectiveness of treatment for prostate cancer with 3D-CRT. (author)

  14. Risk of isolated nodal failure for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with the elective nodal irradiation (ENI) using 3D-conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) techniques - A retrospective analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepka, Lucyna; Bujko, Krzysztof; Zolciak-Siwinska, Agnieszka

    2008-01-01

    Purpose. To estimate retrospectively the rate of isolated nodal failures (INF) in NSCLC patients treated with the elective nodal irradiation (ENI) using 3D-conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Materials/methods. One hundred and eighty-five patients with I-IIIB stage treated with 3D-CRT in consecutive clinical trials differing in an extent of the ENI were analyzed. According to the extent of the ENI, two groups were distinguished: extended (n=124) and limited (n=61) ENI. INF was defined as regional nodal failure occurring without local progression. Cumulative Incidence of INF (CIINF) was evaluated by univariate and multivariate analysis with regard to prognostic factors. Results. With a median follow up of 30 months, the two-year actuarial overall survival was 35%. The two-year CIINF rate was 12%. There were 16 (9%) INF, eight (6%) for extended and eight (13%) for limited ENI. In the univariate analysis bulky mediastinal disease (BMD), left side, higher N stage, and partial response to RT had a significant negative impact on the CIINF. BMD was the only independent predictor of the risk of incidence of the INF (p=0.001). Conclusions. INF is more likely to occur in case of more advanced nodal status

  15. Risk of isolated nodal failure for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with the elective nodal irradiation (ENI) using 3D-conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) techniques--a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepka, Lucyna; Bujko, Krzysztof; Zolciak-Siwinska, Agnieszka

    2008-01-01

    To estimate retrospectively the rate of isolated nodal failures (INF) in NSCLC patients treated with the elective nodal irradiation (ENI) using 3D-conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). One hundred and eighty-five patients with I-IIIB stage treated with 3D-CRT in consecutive clinical trials differing in an extent of the ENI were analyzed. According to the extent of the ENI, two groups were distinguished: extended (n = 124) and limited (n = 61) ENI. INF was defined as regional nodal failure occurring without local progression. Cumulative Incidence of INF (CIINF) was evaluated by univariate and multivariate analysis with regard to prognostic factors. With a median follow up of 30 months, the two-year actuarial overall survival was 35%. The two-year CIINF rate was 12%. There were 16 (9%) INF, eight (6%) for extended and eight (13%) for limited ENI. In the univariate analysis bulky mediastinal disease (BMD), left side, higher N stage, and partial response to RT had a significant negative impact on the CIINF. BMD was the only independent predictor of the risk of incidence of the INF (p = 0.001). INF is more likely to occur in case of more advanced nodal status.

  16. Comparing morbidity and cancer control after 3D-conformal (70/74 Gy) and intensity modulated radiotherapy (78/82 Gy) for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolezel, Martin; Odrazka, Karel; Zouhar, Milan; Jansa, Jan; Paluska, Petr; Vaculikova, Miloslava; Sefrova, Jana; Kohlova, Tereza; Vanasek, Jaroslav; Kovarik, Josef

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to compare toxicity and cancer control between patients with prostate cancer treated using three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and those treated using intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). A total of 553 patients with prostate cancer were treated with 3D-CRT 70-74 Gy (3D-CRT 70, 3D-CRT 74) or IMRT 78-82 Gy (IMRT 78, IMRT/SIB 82). Late toxicity was scored according to FC-RTOG/LENT criteria. Biochemical failure was defined using the Phoenix and ASTRO definitions. The 5-year risk of grade 2-4 genitourinary toxicity was 26.3 % (3D-CRT 70), 27.2 % (3D-CRT 74), 17.3 % (IMRT 78), and 25.1 % (IMRT/SIB 82) without statistical differences. The 5-year risk of grade 2-4 gastrointestinal toxicity was 19.4 % (3D-CRT 70), 42.1 % (3D-CRT 74), 20.5 % (IMRT 78), and 26.6 % (IMRT/SIB 82). The differences between 3D-CRT 74 and 3D-CRT 70 and between 3D-CRT 74 and IMRT 78 were statistically significant (log rank p = 0.03). The 5-year Phoenix PSA relapse-free survival (PSA-RFS) in low-risk, intermediate-risk, and high-risk patients treated using 3D-CRT were 89.4, 65.5, and 57.8 %, respectively. Patients treated with IMRT achieved the following results: 90.9, 89.4, and 83.9 %. Clinical relapse-free survival (C-RFS) in patients treated using 3D-CRT vs. IMRT for the aforementioned groups were 94.7 vs. 100 %, 86.8 vs. 98.6 %, and 84.4 vs. 94.5 %. Disease-free survival (DFS) for patients treated using 3D-CRT were 83.1, 70.9, and 71.5 %. The IMRT group reached 95.8, 89.1, and 87.6 %. The PSA-RFS for intermediate- and high-risk patients were statistically significant, while C-RFS and DFS were marginally better. Dose escalation with IMRT was associated with improved cancer control in intermediate- and high-risk patients in comparison with 3D-CRT, without compromising toxicity. (orig.) [de

  17. Postoperative Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in High Risk Prostate Cancer: A Dosimetric Comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digesu, Cinzia; Cilla, Savino; De Gaetano, Andrea; Massaccesi, Mariangela; Macchia, Gabriella; Ippolito, Edy; Deodato, Francesco; Panunzi, Simona; Iapalucci, Chiara; Mattiucci, Gian Carlo; D'Angelo, Elisa; Padula, Gilbert D.A.; Valentini, Vincenzo; Cellini, Numa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with 3D conformal technique (3D-CRT), with respect to target coverage and irradiation of organs at risk for high dose postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) of the prostate fossa. 3D-CRT and IMRT treatment plans were compared with respect to dose to the rectum and bladder. The dosimetric comparison was carried out in 15 patients considering 2 different scenarios: (1) exclusive prostate fossa irradiation, and (2) pelvic node irradiation followed by a boost on the prostate fossa. In scenario (1), a 3D-CRT plan (box technique) and an IMRT plan were calculated and compared for each patient. In scenario (2), 3 treatment plans were calculated and compared for each patient: (a) 3D-CRT box technique for both pelvic (prophylactic nodal irradiation) and prostate fossa irradiation (3D-CRT only); (b) 3D-CRT box technique for pelvic irradiation followed by an IMRT boost to the prostatic fossa (hybrid 3D-CRT and IMRT); and (c) IMRT for both pelvic and prostate fossa irradiation (IMRT only). For exclusive prostate fossa irradiation, IMRT significantly reduced the dose to the rectum (lower Dmean, V50%, V75%, V90%, V100%, EUD, and NTCP) and the bladder (lower Dmean, V50%, V90%, EUD and NTCP). When prophylactic irradiation of the pelvis was also considered, plan C (IMRT only) performed better than plan B (hybrid 3D-CRT and IMRT) as respect to both rectum and bladder irradiation (reduction of Dmean, V50%, V75%, V90%, equivalent uniform dose [EUD], and normal tissue complication probability [NTCP]). Plan (b) (hybrid 3D-CRT and IMRT) performed better than plan (a) (3D-CRT only) with respect to dose to the rectum (lower Dmean, V75%, V90%, V100%, EUD, and NTCP) and the bladder (Dmean, EUD, and NTCP). Postoperative IMRT in prostate cancer significantly reduces rectum and bladder irradiation compared with 3D-CRT.

  18. Late toxicity after conformal and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Impact of previous surgery for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odrazka, K.; Dolezel, M.; Vanasek, J.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to retrospectively compare late toxicity of conventional-dose three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) and high-dose intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer. A total of 340 patients with T1-3 prostate cancer were treated with 3D-CRT (n=228) and IMRT (n=112). The median follow-up time was 5.9 years and 3.0 years, respectively. The prescription dose was 70 Gy for 3D-CRT and 78 Gy for IMRT. Late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicities were graded according to the Fox Chase modification of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and Late Effects Normal Tissue Task Force criteria. There was no difference between 3D-CRT and IMRT in the incidence of GI and GU toxicity at 3 years. On multivariate analysis, transurethral resection of prostate/open transvesical prostatectomy (TURP/TVPE) for benign prostatic hyperplasia, carried out before radiotherapy, significantly increased the risk of Grade ≥2 GU toxicity (risk ratio 1.88). Among patients who experienced TURP/TVPE, the 5-year actuarial likelihood of Grade 2-3 urinary incontinence was 23%, compared with 9% for those without prostate surgery (P=0.01). Tolerance of 3D-CRT and IMRT was similar, despite the use of high radiation dose with IMRT. Previous TURP/TVPE increased the risk of GU toxicity. (author)

  19. Analysis of clinical and dosimetric factors associated with treatment-related pneumonitis (TRP) in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with concurrent chemotherapy and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shulian; Liao Zhongxing; Wei Xiong; Liu, Helen H.; Tucker, Susan L.; Hu Chaosu; Mohan, Rodhe; Cox, James D.; Komaki, Ritsuko

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate factors associated with treatment-related pneumonitis in non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from 223 patients treated with definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Treatment-related pneumonitis was graded according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictive factors. Results: Median follow-up was 10.5 months (range, 1.4-58 months). The actuarial incidence of Grade ≥3 pneumonitis was 22% at 6 months and 32% at 1 year. By univariate analyses, lung volume, gross tumor volume, mean lung dose, and relative V5 through V65, in increments of 5 Gy, were all found to be significantly associated with treatment-related pneumonitis. The mean lung dose and rV5-rV65 were highly correlated (p 42% were 3% and 38%, respectively (p = 0.001). Conclusions: In this study, a number of clinical and dosimetric factors were found to be significantly associated with treatment-related pneumonitis. However, rV5 was the only significant factor associated with this toxicity. Until it is better understood which dose range is most relevant, multiple clinical and dosimetric factors should be considered in treatment planning for non-small-cell lung cancer patients receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy

  20. Cost-benefit analysis of 3D conformal radiation therapy. Treatment of prostate cancer as a model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, K.H.; Khan, F.M.; Levitt, S.H.

    1999-01-01

    Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) is a promising new treatment technique based on the principle that improved precision in both tumor definition and dose delivery will enhance outcomes by maximizing dose to the tumor area while minimizing dose to normal tissue. Using a cost-benefit analysis, in terms of outcomes, we first examined the overall risks and benefits of 3D-CRT. We then used the treatment of prostate cancer as a model to compare actual clinical outcomes reported between 3D-CRT and standard radiation therapy (SRT). Our analysis shows that application of 3D-CRT to the clinical setting remains difficult because of the continual difficulties of target definition, and that dose escalation cannot yet be justified on the basis of the lack of benefit found, and suggested increased late toxicity, in most of the dose escalation series compared with SRT. (orig.)

  1. Three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy compared with permanent prostate implantation in low-risk prostate cancer based on endorectal magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging and prostate-specific antigen level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, Barby; Kurhanewicz, John; Pouliot, Jean; Weinberg, Vivian; Shinohara, Katsuto; Coakley, Fergus; Roach, Mack

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the metabolic response by comparing the time to resolution of spectroscopic abnormalities (TRSA) and the time to prostate-specific antigen level in low-risk prostate cancer patients after treatment with three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy (3D-CRT) compared with permanent prostate implantation (PPI). Recent studies have suggested that the treatment of low-risk prostate cancer yields similar results for patients treated with 3D-CRT or PPI. Methods and Materials: A total of 50 patients, 25 in each group, who had been treated with 3D-CRT or PPI, had undergone endorectal magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging before and/or at varying times after therapy. The 3D-CRT patients had received radiation doses of ≥72 Gy compared with 144 Gy for the PPI patients. The spectra from all usable voxels were examined for detectable levels of metabolic signal, and the percentages of atrophic and cancerous voxels were tabulated. Results: The median time to resolution of the spectroscopic abnormalities was 32.2 and 24.8 months and the time to the nadir prostate-specific antigen level was 52.4 and 38.0 months for the 3D-CRT and PPI patients, respectively. Of the 3D-CRT patients, 92% achieved negative endorectal magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging findings, with 40% having complete metabolic atrophy. All 25 PPI patients had negative endorectal magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging findings, with 60% achieving complete metabolic atrophy. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that metabolic and biochemical responses of the prostate are more pronounced after PPI. Our results have not proved PPI is more effective at curing prostate cancer, but they have demonstrated that it may be more effective at destroying prostate metabolism

  2. Strategies to evaluate the impact of rectal volume on prostate motion during three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poli, Ana Paula Diniz Fortuna, E-mail: anapaulafortuna@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (CAISM/UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Atencao Integrada a Saude da Mulher. Divisao de Radioterapia; Dias, Rodrigo Souza; Giordani, Adelmo Jose; Segreto, Helena Regina Comodo; Segreto, Roberto Araujo [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Divisao de Radioterapia

    2016-01-15

    Objective: To evaluate the rectal volume influence on prostate motion during three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Fifty-one patients with prostate cancer underwent a series of three computed tomography scans including an initial planning scan and two subsequent scans during 3D-CRT. The organs of interest were outlined. The prostate contour was compared with the initial CT images considering the anterior, posterior, superior, inferior and lateral edges of the organ. Variations in the anterior limits and volume of the rectum were assessed and correlated with prostate motion in the anteroposterior direction. Results: The maximum range of prostate motion was observed in the superoinferior direction, followed by the anteroposterior direction. A significant correlation was observed between prostate motion and rectal volume variation (p = 0.037). A baseline rectal volume superior to 70 cm{sup 3} had a significant influence on the prostate motion in the anteroposterior direction (p = 0.045). Conclusion: The present study showed a significant interfraction motion of the prostate during 3D-CRT with greatest variations in the superoinferior and anteroposterior directions, and that a large rectal volume influences the prostate motion with a cutoff value of 70 cm{sup 3}. Therefore, the treatment of patients with a rectal volume > 70 cm{sup 3} should be re-planned with appropriate rectal preparation. Keywords: Rectal volume; Prostate cancer; Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. (author)

  3. Comparison of 3D CRT and IMRT Tratment Plans

    OpenAIRE

    Bakiu, Erjona; Telhaj, Ervis; Kozma, Elvisa; Ru?i, Ferdinand; Malkaj, Partizan

    2013-01-01

    Plans of patients with prostate tumor have been studied. These patients have been scanned in the CT simulator and the images have been sent to the Focal, the system where the doctor delineates the tumor and the organs at risk. After that in the treatment planning system XiO there are created for the same patients three dimensional conformal and intensity modulated radiotherapy treatment plans. The planes are compared according to the dose volume histograms. It is observed that the plans with ...

  4. Strategies to evaluate the impact of rectal volume on prostate motion during three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Diniz Fortuna Poli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the rectal volume influence on prostate motion during three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT for prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Fifty-one patients with prostate cancer underwent a series of three computed tomography scans including an initial planning scan and two subsequent scans during 3D-CRT. The organs of interest were outlined. The prostate contour was compared with the initial CT images considering the anterior, posterior, superior, inferior and lateral edges of the organ. Variations in the anterior limits and volume of the rectum were assessed and correlated with prostate motion in the anteroposterior direction. Results: The maximum range of prostate motion was observed in the superoinferior direction, followed by the anteroposterior direction. A significant correlation was observed between prostate motion and rectal volume variation ( p = 0.037. A baseline rectal volume superior to 70 cm3 had a significant influence on the prostate motion in the anteroposterior direction ( p = 0.045. Conclusion: The present study showed a significant interfraction motion of the prostate during 3D-CRT with greatest variations in the superoinferior and anteroposterior directions, and that a large rectal volume influences the prostate motion with a cutoff value of 70 cm3. Therefore, the treatment of patients with a rectal volume > 70 cm3 should be re-planned with appropriate rectal preparation.

  5. Use of benchmark dose-volume histograms for selection of the optimal technique between three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Chunhui; Yang, Claus Chunli; Narayan, Samir; Stern, Robin L.; Perks, Julian; Goldberg, Zelanna; Ryu, Janice; Purdy, James A.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop and validate our own benchmark dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of bladder and rectum for both conventional three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and to evaluate quantitatively the benefits of using IMRT vs. 3D-CRT in treating localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: During the implementation of IMRT for prostate cancer, our policy was to plan each patient with both 3D-CRT and IMRT. This study included 31 patients with T1b to T2c localized prostate cancer, for whom we completed double-planning using both 3D-CRT and IMRT techniques. The target volumes included prostate, either with or without proximal seminal vesicles. Bladder and rectum DVH data were summarized to obtain an average DVH for each technique and then compared using two-tailed paired t test analysis. Results: For 3D-CRT our bladder doses were as follows: mean 28.8 Gy, v60 16.4%, v70 10.9%; rectal doses were: mean 39.3 Gy, v60 21.8%, v70 13.6%. IMRT plans resulted in similar mean dose values: bladder 26.4 Gy, rectum 34.9 Gy, but lower values of v70 for the bladder (7.8%) and rectum (9.3%). These benchmark DVHs have resulted in a critical evaluation of our 3D-CRT techniques over time. Conclusion: Our institution has developed benchmark DVHs for bladder and rectum based on our clinical experience with 3D-CRT and IMRT. We use these standards as well as differences in individual cases to make decisions on whether patients may benefit from IMRT treatment rather than 3D-CRT

  6. A dosimetric comparison of 3D-CRT, IMRT, and static tomotherapy with an SIB for large and small breast volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalski, Andrea [Department of Health Science (MRS), The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia); Central Coast Cancer Centre, Gosford Hospital, Gosford, New South Wales (Australia); Atyeo, John, E-mail: john.atyeo@sydney.edu.au [Department of Health Science (MRS), The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia); Cox, Jennifer [Department of Health Science (MRS), The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, New South Wales (Australia); Rinks, Marianne [Department of Health Science (MRS), The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia); Radiation Oncology, Cancer Services, Illawarra Shoalhaven Local Health District, Wollongong, New South Wales (Australia); Morgia, Marita; Lamoury, Gillian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, New South Wales (Australia)

    2014-07-01

    Radiation therapy to the breast is a complex task, with many different techniques that can be employed to ensure adequate dose target coverage while minimizing doses to the organs at risk. This study compares the dose planning outcomes of 3 radiation treatment modalities, 3 dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and static tomotherapy, for left-sided whole-breast radiation treatment with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB). Overall, 20 patients with left-sided breast cancer were separated into 2 cohorts, small and large, based on breast volume. Dose plans were produced for each patient using 3D-CRT, IMRT, and static tomotherapy. All patients were prescribed a dose of 45 Gy in 20 fractions to the breast with an SIB of 56 Gy in 20 fractions to the tumor bed and normalized so that D{sub 98%} > 95% of the prescription dose. Dosimetric comparisons were made between the 3 modalities and the interaction of patient size. All 3 modalities offered adequate planning target volume (PTV) coverage with D{sub 98%} > 95% and D{sub 2%} < 107%. Static tomotherapy offered significantly improved (p = 0.006) dose homogeneity to the PTV{sub boost} {sub eval} (0.079 ± 0.011) and breast minus the SIB volume (Breast{sub SIB}) (p < 0.001, 0.15 ± 0.03) compared with the PTV{sub boost} {sub eval} (0.085 ± 0.008, 0.088 ± 0.12) and Breast{sub SIB} (0.22 ± 0.05, 0.23 ± 0.03) for IMRT and 3D-CRT, respectively. Static tomotherapy also offered statistically significant reductions (p < 0.001) in doses to the ipsilateral lung mean dose of 6.79 ± 2.11 Gy compared with 7.75 ± 2.54 Gy and 8.29 ± 2.76 Gy for IMRT and 3D-CRT, respectively, and significantly (p < 0.001) reduced heart doses (mean = 2.83 ± 1.26 Gy) compared to both IMRT and 3D-CRT (mean = 3.70 ± 1.44 Gy and 3.91 ± 1.58 Gy). Static tomotherapy is the dosimetrically superior modality for the whole breast with an SIB compared with IMRT and 3D-CRT. IMRT is superior to 3D-CRT

  7. Clinical application analysis of 3D-CRT methods using tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Kang Chul; Kyum, Hun Kyum; Kim, Joo Ho; Ahn, Seung Kwon; Lee, Sang Kyoo; Yoon, Jong Won; Cho, Jeong Hee [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Seok; Yoo, Beong Gyu [Dept. of Radiotechnology, Wonkwang Health Science University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    This study investigates the case of clinical application for TomoDirect 3D-CRT(TD-3D) and TomoHelical 3D-CRT(TH-3D) with evaluating dose distribution for clinical application in each case. Treatment plans were created for 8 patients who had 3 dimensional conformal radiation therapy using TD-3D and TH-3D mode. Each patients were treated for sarcoma, CSI(craniospinal irradiation), breast, brain, pancreas, spine metastasis, SVC syndrome and esophagus. DVH(dose volume histogram) and isodose curve were used for comparison of each treatment modality. TD-3D shows better dose distribution over the irradiation field without junction effect because TD-3D was not influenced by target length for sarcoma and CSI case. In breast case, dosimetric results of CTV, the average value of D 99%, D 95% were 49.2±0.4 Gy, 49.9±0.4 Gy and V 105%, V 110% were 0%, respectively. TH-3D with the dosimetric block decreased dose of normal organ in brain, pancreas, spine metastasis case. SCV syndrome also effectively decreased dose of normal organ by using dose block to the critical organs(spinal cord <38 Gy). TH-3D combined with other treatment modalities was possible to boost irradiation and was total dose was reduced to spinal cord in esophagus case(spinal cord <45 Gy, lung V 20 <20%). 3D-CRT using Tomotherapy could overcomes some dosimetric limitations, when we faced Conventional Linac based CRT and shows clinically proper dose distribution. In conclusion, 3D-CRT using Tomotherapy will be one of the effective 3D-CRT techniques.

  8. Variation of clinical target volume definition in three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valicenti, Richard K.; Sweet, John W.; Hauck, Walter W.; Hudes, Richard S.; Lee, Tony; Dicker, Adam P.; Waterman, Frank M.; Anne, Pramila R.; Corn, Benjamin W.; Galvin, James M.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Currently, three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) planning relies on the interpretation of computed tomography (CT) axial images for defining the clinical target volume (CTV). This study investigates the variation among multiple observers to define the CTV used in 3D-CRT for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Seven observers independently delineated the CTVs (prostate ± seminal vesicles [SV]) from the CT simulation data of 10 prostate cancer patients undergoing 3D-CRT. Six patients underwent CT simulation without the use of contrast material and serve as a control group. The other 4 had urethral and bladder opacification with contrast medium. To determine interobserver variation, we evaluated the derived volume, the maximum dimensions, and the isocenter for each examination of CTV. We assessed the reliability in the CTVs among the observers by correlating the variation for each class of measurements. This was estimated by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), with 1.00 defining absolute correlation. Results: For the prostate volumes, the ICC was 0.80 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56-0.96). This changed to 0.92 (95% CI: 0.75-0.99) with the use of contrast material. Similarly, the maximal prostatic dimensions were reliable and improved. There was poor agreement in defining the SV. For this structure, the ICC never exceeded 0.28. The reliability of the isocenter was excellent, with the ICC exceeding 0.83 and 0.90 for the prostate ± SV, respectively. Conclusions: In 3D-CRT for prostate cancer, there was excellent agreement among multiple observers to define the prostate target volume but poor agreement to define the SV. The use of urethral and bladder contrast improved the reliability of localizing the prostate. For all CTVs, the isocenter was very reliable and should be used to compare the variation in 3D dosimetry among multiple observers

  9. Evidence-based review of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer: An ASTRO outcomes initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, David E.; Emami, Bahman; Mauch, Peter M.; Konski, Andre A.; Tao, May L.; Ng, Andrea K.; Klein, Eric A.; Mohideen, Najeeb; Hurwitz, Mark D.; Fraas, Bendick A.; Roach, Mack; Gore, Elizabeth M.; Tepper, Joel E.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To perform a systematic review of the evidence to determine the efficacy and effectiveness of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for localized prostate cancer; provide a clear presentation of the key clinical outcome questions related to the use of 3D-CRT in the treatment of localized prostate cancer that may be answered by a formal literature review; and provide concise information on whether 3D-CRT improves the clinical outcomes in the treatment of localized prostate cancer compared with conventional RT. Methods and Materials: We performed a systematic review of the literature through a structured process developed by the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology's Outcomes Committee that involved the creation of a multidisciplinary task force, development of clinical outcome questions, a formal literature review and data abstraction, data review, and outside peer review. Results: Seven key clinical questions were identified. The results and task force conclusions of the literature review for each question are reported. Conclusion: The technological goals of reducing morbidity with 3D-CRT have been achieved. Randomized trials and follow-up of completed trials remain necessary to address these clinical outcomes specifically with regard to patient subsets and the use of hormonal therapy

  10. Does hormonal therapy influence sexual function in men receiving 3D conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Christopher T.; Valicenti, Richard K.; Lu Jiandong; Derose, Troy; Dicker, Adam P.; Strup, Stephen E.; Mulholland, S. Grant; Hirsch, Irvin H.; McGinnis, David E.; Gomella, Leonard G.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: We evaluated the effect of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) with or without hormonal therapy (HT) on sexual function (SF) in prostate cancer patients whose SF was known before all treatment. Methods and Materials: Between March 1996 and March 1999, 144 patients received 3D-CRT (median dose = 70.2 Gy, range 66.6-79.2 Gy) for prostate cancer and had pre- and post-therapy SF data. All SF data were obtained with the O'Leary Brief SF Inventory, a self-administered, multidimensional, validated instrument. We defined total sexual potency as erections firm enough for penetration during intercourse. Mean follow-up time was 21 months (SD ± 11 months). The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to test for significance of the change from baseline. Results: Before 3D-CRT, 87 (60%) of 144 men were totally potent as compared to only 47 (47%) of 101 at 1-year follow-up. Of the 60 men totally potent at baseline and followed for at least 1 year, 35 (58%) remained totally potent. These changes corresponded to a significant reduction in SF (p<0.05). Patients who had 3D-CRT alone were more likely to be totally potent at 1 year than those receiving 3D-CRT with HT (56% vs. 31%, p=0.012); however, they were also more likely to be potent at baseline (71% vs. 44%, p=0.001). Although these two groups had a significant reduction in SF from baseline, their change was not significantly different from each other. Conclusion: These data indicate that 3D-CRT causes a significant reduction in total sexual potency as compared to pretreatment baseline. The addition of HT does not appear to increase the risk of sexual dysfunction

  11. Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast cancer (BRCA1 or BRCA2) or a very strong family history of breast cancer, your risk of prostate cancer may be higher. Obesity. Obese men diagnosed with prostate cancer may be more likely ...

  12. Comparison of radiotherapy dosimetry for 3D-CRT, IMRT, and SBRT based on electron density calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartutik, K; Pawiro, S A; Wibowo, W E

    2016-01-01

    Accurate calculation of dose distribution affected by inhomogeneity tissue is required in radiotherapy planning. This study was performed to determine the ratio between radiotherapy planning using 3D-CRT, IMRT, and SBRT based on a calibrated curve of CT-number in the lung for different target's shape in 3D-CRT, IMRT, and spinal cord for SBRT. Calibration curves of CT-number were generated under measurement basis and introduced into TPS, then planning was performed for 3D-CRT, IMRT, and SBRT with 7, and 15 radiation fields. Afterwards, planning evaluation was performed by comparing the DVH curve, HI, and CI. 3D-CRT and IMRT produced the lowest HI at calibration curve of CIRS 002LFC with the value 0.24 and 10. Whereas SBRT produced the lowest HI on a linear calibration curve with a value of 0.361. The highest CI in IMRT and SBRT technique achieved using a linear calibration curve was 0.97 and 1.77 respectively. For 3D-CRT, the highest CI was obtained by using calibration curve of CIRS 062M with the value of 0.45. From the results of CI and HI, it is concluded that the calibration curve of CT-number does not significantly differ with Schneider's calibrated curve, and inverse planning gives a better result than forward planning. (paper)

  13. Prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R.; Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results

  14. Prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R., Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results.

  15. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Causes Fewer Side Effects than Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy When Used in Combination With Brachytherapy for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsythe, Kevin; Blacksburg, Seth; Stone, Nelson; Stock, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To measure the benefits of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) compared with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) when used in combination with brachytherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective review of all patients with localized prostate cancer who received external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in combination with brachytherapy with at least 1 year follow-up (n = 812). Combination therapy consisted of 103 Pd or 125 I implant, followed by a course of EBRT. From 1993 to March 2003 521 patients were treated with 3D-CRT, and from April 2003 to March 2009 291 patients were treated with IMRT. Urinary symptoms were prospectively measured with the International Prostate Symptom Score questionnaire with a single quality of life (QOL) question; rectal bleeding was assessed per the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring Schema. The Pearson χ 2 test was used to compare toxicities experienced by patients who were treated with either IMRT or 3D-CRT. Logistic regression analyses were also performed to rule out possible confounding factors. Results: Within the first 3 months after treatment, patients treated with 3D-CRT scored their urinary symptoms as follows: 19% mild, 44% moderate, and 37% severe; patients treated with IMRT scored their urinary symptoms as follows: 36% mild, 47% moderate, and 17% severe (p < 0.001). The 3D-CRT patients rated their QOL as follows: 35% positive, 20% neutral, and 45% negative; IMRT patients rated their QOL as follows: 51% positive, 18% neutral, and 31% negative (p < 0.001). After 1 year of follow-up there was no longer any difference in urinary morbidity between the two groups. Logistic regression confirmed the differences in International Prostate Symptom Score and QOL in the acute setting (p < 0.001 for both). Grade ≥2 rectal bleeding was reported by 11% of 3D-CRT patients and 7

  16. Rapid Arc, helical tomotherapy, sliding window intensity modulated radiotherapy and three dimensional conformal radiation for localized prostate cancer: A dosimetric comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh A Kinhikar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the potential role of RapidArc (RA compared with helical tomotherapy (HT, sliding window intensity modulated radiotherapy (SW IMRT and three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D CRT for localized prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Prescription doses ranged from 60 Gy to planning target volume (PTV and 66.25 Gy for clinical target volume prostate (CTV-P over 25-30 fractions. PTV and CTV-P coverage were evaluated by conformity index (CI and homogeneity index (HI. Organ sparing comparison was done with mean doses to rectum and bladder. Results: CI 95 were 1.0 ± 0.01 (RA, 0.99 ± 0.01 (HT, 0.97 ± 0.02 (IMRT, 0.98 ± 0.02 (3D CRT for PTV and 1.0 ± 0.00 (RA, HT, SW IMRT and 3D CRT for CTV-P. HI was 0.11 ± 0.03 (RA, 0.16 ± 0.08 (HT, 0.12 ± 0.03 (IMRT, 0.06 ± 0.01 (3D CRT for PTV and 0.03 ± 0.00 (RA, 0.05 ± 0.01 (HT, 0.03 ± 0.01 (SW IMRT and 3D CRT for CTV-P. Mean dose to bladder were 23.68 ± 13.23 Gy (RA, 24.55 ± 12.51 Gy (HT, 19.82 ± 11.61 Gy (IMRT and 23.56 ± 12.81 Gy (3D CRT, whereas mean dose to rectum was 36.85 ± 12.92 Gy (RA, 33.18 ± 11.12 Gy (HT, IMRT and 38.67 ± 12.84 Gy (3D CRT. Conclusion: All studied intensity-modulated techniques yield treatment plans of significantly improved quality when compared with 3D CRT, with HT providing best organs at risk sparing and RA being the most efficient treatment option, reducing treatment time to 1.45-3.7 min and monitor unit to <400 for a 2 Gy fraction.

  17. Accuracy of Real-time Couch Tracking During 3-dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy, Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy, and Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilbert, Juergen; Baier, Kurt; Hermann, Christian; Flentje, Michael; Guckenberger, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of real-time couch tracking for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Intrafractional motion trajectories of 15 prostate cancer patients were the basis for this phantom study; prostate motion had been monitored with the Calypso System. An industrial robot moved a phantom along these trajectories, motion was detected via an infrared camera system, and the robotic HexaPOD couch was used for real-time counter-steering. Residual phantom motion during real-time tracking was measured with the infrared camera system. Film dosimetry was performed during delivery of 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), step-and-shoot intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Results: Motion of the prostate was largest in the anterior–posterior direction, with systematic (∑) and random (σ) errors of 2.3 mm and 2.9 mm, respectively; the prostate was outside a threshold of 5 mm (3D vector) for 25.0%±19.8% of treatment time. Real-time tracking reduced prostate motion to ∑=0.01 mm and σ = 0.55 mm in the anterior–posterior direction; the prostate remained within a 1-mm and 5-mm threshold for 93.9%±4.6% and 99.7%±0.4% of the time, respectively. Without real-time tracking, pass rates based on a γ index of 2%/2 mm in film dosimetry ranged between 66% and 72% for 3D-CRT, IMRT, and VMAT, on average. Real-time tracking increased pass rates to minimum 98% on average for 3D-CRT, IMRT, and VMAT. Conclusions: Real-time couch tracking resulted in submillimeter accuracy for prostate cancer, which transferred into high dosimetric accuracy independently of whether 3D-CRT, IMRT, or VMAT was used.

  18. A system for remote dosimetry audit of 3D-CRT, IMRT and VMAT based on lithium formate dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adolfsson, Emelie; Gustafsson, Håkan; Lund, Eva; Alm Carlsson, Gudrun; Olsson, Sara; Carlsson Tedgren, Åsa

    2014-01-01

    Summary: The aim of this work was to develop and test a remote end-to-end audit system using lithium formate EPR dosimeters. Four clinics were included in a pilot study, absorbed doses determined in the PTV agreed with TPS calculated doses within ±5% for 3D-CRT and ±7% (k = 1) for IMRT/VMAT dose plans

  19. Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  20. Long-term urinary toxicity after 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer in patients with prior history of transurethral resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandhu, Ajaypal S.; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Lee, Henry J.; Lombardi, Danna; Fuks, Zvi; Leibel, Steven A.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To report on the long-term urinary morbidity among prostate cancer patients with a prior history of a transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) treated with high-dose 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Methods and Materials: Between 1988 and 1997, 1100 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated with 3D-CRT. Of these, 120 patients (8%) were identified as having had a prior TURP and are the subjects of this analysis. The median age was 71 years (range: 49-83 years). The clinical stages of the patients were T1c: 33 (28%); T2a: 38 (32%); T2b: 15 (13%); and T3: 34 (27%). Neoadjuvant androgen ablation therapy was given to 39 (33%). The median radiation dose prescribed to the planning target volume was 75.6 Gy (range: 64.8-81 Gy). The median elapsed time from TURP to initiation of 3D-CRT was 69 months (range: 4-360 months). The median follow-up time was 51 months (range: 18-109 months). Results: Five patients of the 120 with a prior history of TURP (4%) developed a urethral stricture after 3D-CRT which was corrected with dilatation. The 5-year actuarial likelihood of ≥ Grade 2 late urinary toxicities was 9%. No Grade 4 urinary toxicities were observed in this group of patients. Among 110 patients who were completely continent of urine prior to 3D-CRT, 10 (9%) developed stress incontinence requiring 1 pad daily for protection or experienced occasional leakage (not requiring pad protection). The 5-year incidence of ≥ Grade 1 stress incontinence was 18% in patients who developed acute ≥ Grade 2 GU symptoms during the course of 3D-CRT compared to 7% for patients who experienced Grade 1 or no acute urinary symptoms (p = 0.05). The radiation dose (≥75.6 Gy vs. <75.6 Gy), the number of prior TURP procedures, or the volume of resected tissue at the time of TURP had no significant impact on the long-term urinary morbidity outcome. A multivariate analysis demonstrated that the presence of Grade 2 acute urinary symptoms was the

  1. Anal wall sparing effect of an endorectal balloon in 3D conformal and intensity-modulated prostate radiotherapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeenk, R.J.; Lin, E.N.J.T. van; Kollenburg, P. van; Kunze-Busch, M.C.; Kaanders, J.H.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To investigate the anal wall (Awall) sparing effect of an endorectal balloon (ERB) in 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 24 patients with localized prostate carcinoma, two planning

  2. Anal wall sparing effect of an endorectal balloon in 3D conformal and intensity-modulated prostate radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeenk, Robert Jan; Lin, Emile N.J.Th. van; Kollenburg, Peter van; Kunze-Busch, Martina; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: To investigate the anal wall (Awall) sparing effect of an endorectal balloon (ERB) in 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer. Materials and methods: In 24 patients with localized prostate carcinoma, two planning CT-scans were performed: with and without ERB. A prostate planning target volume (PTV) was defined, and the Awall was delineated, using two different methods. Three-field and 4-field 3D-CRT plans, and IMRT plans were generated with a prescription dose of 78 Gy. In 144 treatment plans, the minimum dose (D min ), maximum dose (D max ), and mean dose (D mean ) to the Awall were calculated, as well as the Awall volumes exposed to doses ranging from ≥20 Gy to ≥70 Gy (V 20 - V 70 , respectively). Results: In the 3D-CRT plans, an ERB significantly reduced D mean , D max , and V 30 - V 70 . For IMRT all investigated dose parameters were significantly reduced by the ERB. The absolute reduction of D mean was 12 Gy in 3D-CRT and was 7.5 Gy in IMRT for both methods of Awall delineation. Conclusions: Application of an ERB showed a significant Awall sparing effect in both 3D-CRT and IMRT. This may lead to reduced late anal toxicity in prostate radiotherapy.

  3. Anal wall sparing effect of an endorectal balloon in 3D conformal and intensity-modulated prostate radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeenk, Robert Jan; van Lin, Emile N J Th; van Kollenburg, Peter; Kunze-Busch, Martina; Kaanders, Johannes H A M

    2009-10-01

    To investigate the anal wall (Awall) sparing effect of an endorectal balloon (ERB) in 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer. In 24 patients with localized prostate carcinoma, two planning CT-scans were performed: with and without ERB. A prostate planning target volume (PTV) was defined, and the Awall was delineated, using two different methods. Three-field and 4-field 3D-CRT plans, and IMRT plans were generated with a prescription dose of 78Gy. In 144 treatment plans, the minimum dose (D(min)), maximum dose (D(max)), and mean dose (D(mean)) to the Awall were calculated, as well as the Awall volumes exposed to doses ranging from >or=20Gy to >or=70Gy (V(20)-V(70), respectively). In the 3D-CRT plans, an ERB significantly reduced D(mean), D(max), and V(30)-V(70). For IMRT all investigated dose parameters were significantly reduced by the ERB. The absolute reduction of D(mean) was 12Gy in 3D-CRT and was 7.5Gy in IMRT for both methods of Awall delineation. Application of an ERB showed a significant Awall sparing effect in both 3D-CRT and IMRT. This may lead to reduced late anal toxicity in prostate radiotherapy.

  4. Three-year outcomes of a once daily fractionation scheme for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using 3-D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, Sharad; Daroui, Parima; Khan, Atif J; Kearney, Thomas; Kirstein, Laurie; Haffty, Bruce G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report 3-year outcomes of toxicity, cosmesis, and local control using a once daily fractionation scheme (49.95 Gy in 3.33 Gy once daily fractions) for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Between July 2008 and August 2010, women aged ≥40 years with ductal carcinoma in situ or node-negative invasive breast cancer ≤3 cm in diameter, treated with breast-conserving surgery achieving negative margins, were accrued to a prospective study. Women were treated with APBI using 3–5 photon beams, delivering 49.95 Gy over 15 once daily fractions over 3 weeks. Patients were assessed for toxicities, cosmesis, and local control rates before APBI and at specified time points. Thirty-four patients (mean age 60 years) with Tis 0 (n = 9) and T1N0 (n = 25) breast cancer were treated and followed up for an average of 39 months. Only 3% (1/34) patients experienced a grade 3 subcutaneous fibrosis and breast edema and 97% of the patients had good/excellent cosmetic outcome at 3 years. The 3-year rate of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) was 0% while the rate of contralateral breast events was 6%. The 3-year disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) was 94%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. Our novel accelerated partial breast fractionation scheme of 15 once daily fractions of 3.33 Gy (49.95 Gy total) is a remarkably well-tolerated regimen of 3D-CRT-based APBI. A larger cohort of patients is needed to further ascertain the toxicity of this accelerated partial breast regimen

  5. Stages of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Prostate Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Prostate ...

  6. Prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spera, G.

    2010-01-01

    This work is about diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of prostate cancer. The techniques used are: transrectal ultrasound, laparascopy, bone scan, chest x-ray, radiography, chemoterapy and radiotherapy

  7. Prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bey, P.; Beckendorf, V.; Stines, J.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation therapy of prostate carcinoma with a curative intent implies to treat the whole prostate at high dose (at least 66 Gy). According to clinical stage, PSA level, Gleason's score, the clinical target volume may include seminal vesicles and less often pelvic lymph nodes. Microscopic extra-capsular extension is found in 15 to 60% of T1-T2 operated on, specially in apex tumors. On contrary, cancers developing from the transitional zone may stay limited to the prostate even with a big volume and with a high PSA level. Zonal anatomy of the prostate identifies internal prostate, including the transitional zone (5% of the prostate in young people). External prostate includes central and peripheral zones. The inferior limit of the prostate is not lower than the inferior border of the pubic symphysis. Clinical and radiological examination: ultrasonography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), CT-scan identify prognostic factors as tumor volume, capsule effraction, seminal vesicles invasion and lymph node extension. The identification of the clinical target volume is now done mainly by CT-Scan which identifies prostate and seminal vesicles. NMR could be helpful to identify more precisely prostate apex. The definition of margins around the clinical target volume has to take in account daily reproducibility and organ motion and of course the maximum tolerable dose for organs at risk. (authors)

  8. Prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Balslev, Ingegerd; Logager, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data.......To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data....

  9. Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) and erectile dysfunction following external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incrocci, Luca; Koper, Peter C.M.; Hop, Wim C.J.; Slob, A. Koos

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) in patients with erectile dysfunction after three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: 406 patients with complaints of erectile dysfunction and who completed radiation at least 6 months before the study were approached by mail. 3D-CRT had been delivered (mean dose 68 Gy). Sixty patients were included and entered a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study lasting 12 weeks. They received during 2 weeks 50 mg of sildenafil or placebo; at Week 2 the dose was increased to 100 mg in case of unsatisfactory erectile response. At Week 6, patients crossed over to the alternative treatment. Data were collected using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire, and side effects were recorded. Results: Mean age was 68 years. All patients completed the study. For most questions of the IIEF questionnaire there was a significant increase in mean scores from baseline with sildenafil, but not with placebo. Ninety percent of the patients needed a dose adjustment to 100 mg sildenafil. Side effects were mild or moderate. Conclusion: Sildenafil is well tolerated and effective in improving erectile function of patients with ED after 3D-CRT for prostate cancer

  10. Sexual Function After Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer: Results From a Dose-Escalation Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielen, Gerard J. van der; Putten, Wim van; Incrocci, Luca

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to provide information about sexual function (SF) after three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for prostate cancer while taking important factors into account that influence SF. Methods and Materials: Between June 1997 and February 2003, a total of 268 patients from a randomized dose-escalation trial comparing 68 Gy and 78 Gy agreed to participate in an additional part of the trial that evaluated SF. Results: At baseline 28% of patients had erectile dysfunction (ED). After 1 year, 27% of the pretreatment potent patients had developed ED. After 2 years this percentage had increased to 36%. After 3 years it almost stabilized at 38%. Satisfaction with sexual life was significantly correlated with ED. After 2 years one third of the pre-treatment potent patients still had considerable to very much sexual desire and found sex (very) important. No significant differences were found between the two dose-arms. Potency aids were used on a regular base by 14% of the patients. Conclusion: By taking adjuvant hormonal therapy (HT), HT during follow-up and potency aids into account, we found a lower percentage of ED after 3D-CRT than reported in previous prospective studies. A large group of patients still had sexual desire, considered sex important and 14% used potency aids after 3D-CRT

  11. Transabdominal ultrasonography, computed tomography and electronic portal imaging for 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jereczek-Fossa, B.A.; Orecchia, R.; Cattani, F.; Garibaldi, C.; Cambria, R.; Valenti, M.; Ciocca, M.; Zerini, D.; Boboc, G.I.; Vavassori, A.; Ivaldi, G.B.; Kowalczyk, A.; Matei, D.V.; Cobelli, O. de

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of daily B-mode acquisition and targeting ultrasound-based prostate localization (BAT trademark) and to compare it with computed tomography (CT) and electronic portal imaging (EPI) in 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3-D CRT) for prostate cancer. Patients and Methods: Ten patients were treated with 3-D CRT (72 Gy/30 fractions, 2.4 Gy/fraction, equivalent to 80 Gy/40 fractions, for α/β ratio of 1.5 Gy) and daily BAT-based prostate localization. For the first 5 fractions, CT and EPI were also performed in order to compare organ-motion and set-up error, respectively. Results: 287 BAT-, 50 CT- and 46 EPI-alignments were performed. The average BAT-determined misalignments in latero-lateral, antero-posterior and cranio-caudal directions were -0.9 mm ± 3.3 mm, 1.0 mm ± 4.0 mm and -0.9 mm ± 3.8 mm, respectively. The differences between BAT- and CT-determined organ-motion in latero-lateral, antero-posterior and cranio-caudal directions were 2.7 mm ± 1.9 mm, 3.9 ± 2.8 mm and 3.4 ± 3.0 mm, respectively. Weak correlation was found between BAT- and CT-determined misalignments in antero-posterior direction, while no correlation was observed in latero-lateral and cranio-caudal directions. The correlation was more significant when only data of good image-quality patients were analyzed (8 patients). Conclusion: BAT ensures the relative positions of target are the same during treatment and in treatment plan, however, the reliability of alignment is patient-dependent. The average BAT-determined misalignments were small, confirming the prevalence of random errors in 3-D CRT. Further study is warranted in order to establish the clinical value of BAT. (orig.)

  12. Prostate Cancer FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundraise for PCF: Many vs Cancer Contact Us Prostate Cancer FAQs Top 10 Things You Should Know About ... prostate cancer detected? What are the symptoms of prostate cancer? If the cancer is caught at its earliest ...

  13. Prostate Cancer Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundraise for PCF: Many vs Cancer Contact Us Prostate Cancer Symptoms and Signs Prostate Cancer Basics Risk Factors ... earlier. So what are the warning signs of prostate cancer? Unfortunately, there usually aren’t any early warning ...

  14. Prostate cancer - treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000403.htm Prostate cancer - treatment To use the sharing features on this page, ... drugs is recommended. References National Cancer Institute. Prostate cancer treatment (PDQ): Stages of prostate cancer. Updated July 31, ...

  15. Importance of protocol target definition on the ability to spare normal tissue: An IMRT and 3D-CRT planning comparison for intraorbital tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hein, Patrick A.; Gladstone, David J.; Bellerive, Marc R.; Hug, Eugen B.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: We selected five intraorbital tumor sites that are frequently found in clinical practice in children diagnosed with orbital rhabdomyosarcoma and performed three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and intensity-modulated photon radiotherapy (IMRT) planning. Results of target coverage and doses to critical structures were compared. The goal of this study was to evaluate and to document realistic expectations as to organ-sparing capabilities of modern radiation therapy planning technologies with a focus on lens-sparing irradiation. Furthermore, we investigated potential added benefits of IMRT compared with 3D-CRT and the influence of protocol volume criteria definitions on the ability to obtain normal tissue dose sparing using the orbit as an example of a complex anatomic site. Methods and Materials: The five intraorbital tumor sites were placed retrobulbar, temporal, nasal, in the upper inner and upper outer quadrant, the latter two more complex in shape. Gross tumor volume (GTV), clinical target volume (CTV), and planning target volume (PTV) were defined in image-fused computed tomography and magnetic resonance data sets. 3D-CRT and IMRT photon plans, using equal beam angles and collimation for direct comparison, were designed to 45 Gy prescription dose according to Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group-D9602 (IRSG-D9602) protocol (Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study V [IRS-V] protocol) for Stage I, Clinical Group 3 orbital rhabdomyosarcoma. To compare the impact of changed target definitions in IMRT planning, additional IMRT plans were generated using modified volume and dose coverage criteria. The minimum dose constraint (95%) of the PTV was substituted by a required minimum volume coverage (95%) with the prescribed dose. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were obtained, including target volumes, lens, optic nerves, optic chiasm, lacrimal gland, bony orbit, pituitary gland, frontal and temporal lobes. Results: Protocol target volume coverage criteria

  16. A pilot survey of sexual function and quality of life following 3D conformal radiotherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, Mack; Chinn, Daniel M.; Holland, John; Clarke, Michelle

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of high dose three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT) for prostate cancer on the sexual function-related quality of life of patients and their partners. Methods and Materials: Sixty of 124 consecutive patients (median age 72.3 years) treated with 3D CRT for localized prostate cancer were surveyed and reported being potent prior to treatment. The answers to survey questions assessing the impact of quality of life related to sexual function from these 60 patients and their partners forms the basis for this retrospective analysis. Results: Following 3D CRT, 37 of 60 patients (62%) retained sexual function sufficient for intercourse. Intercourse at least once per month was reduced from 71 to 40%, whereas intercourse less than once per year increased from 12 to 35%. Following treatment, 25% of patients reported that the change in sexual dysfunction negatively affected their relationship or resulted in poor self-esteem. This outcome was associated with impotence following treatment (p < 0.01). Patients who had partners and satisfactory sexual function appeared to be at a higher risk of having a negatively affected relationship or losing self-esteem if they become impotent (p < 0.05). Partners of patients who reported a negatively affected relationship or loss of self-esteem appear to be less likely to return the survey instrument used (p = 0.02). Conclusions: More work is needed to evaluate the impact of radiotherapy and other treatments on the quality of life of patients and their partners to allow adequate informed consent to be given

  17. Prostate Cancer Foundation News

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Finding a Doctor Treatment Options Side Effects Managing Prostate Cancer Treatment Related Side Effects Clinical Trials Patient Resources Guides Videos Prostate Cancer FAQs Information by Stage Newly Diagnosed with Prostate ...

  18. A critical evaluation of the planning target volume for 3-d conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinger, Alfred; Michalski, Jeff M.; Cheng, Abel; Low, Daniel A.; Zhu, Ron; Bosch, Walter R.; Purdy, James A.; Perez, Carlos A.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The goal was to determine an adequate planning target volume (PTV) margin for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT) of prostate cancer. The uncertainty in the internal positions of the prostate and seminal vesicles and the uncertainty in the treatment set-ups for a single group of patients was measured. Methods: Weekly computed tomography (CT) scans of the pelvis (n=38) and daily electronic portal images (n=1225) were reviewed for six patients who received seven-field 3D CRT for prostate cancer. The weekly CT scans were registered in three dimensions to the original treatment planning CT scan using commercially available software. This registration permitted measurement of the motion in the center-of-volume (COV) of the prostate and seminal vesicles throughout the course of therapy. The daily portal images (PI) were registered to the corresponding simulation films to measure the set-up displacement for each of the seven fields. The field displacements were then entered into a matrix program which calculated the isocenter displacement by a least squares method. The uncertainty in the internal positions of the prostate and seminal vesicles (standard deviation of the motions) was added to the uncertainty in the set-up (standard deviation of the isocenter displacements) in quadrature to arrive at a total uncertainty. Positive directions were defined in the left, anterior, and superior directions. A discussion of an adequate PTV was based on these results. Results: The mean magnitude of motion for the COV of the prostate ± the standard deviation was 0 ± 1 mm in the left-right (LR) direction, 0.5 ± 2.8 mm in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction, and 0.5 ± 3.5 mm in the superior-inferior (SI) direction. The mean magnitude of motion for the COV of the seminal vesicles ± the standard deviation was -0.3 ± 1.5 mm in the LR, 0.6 ± 4.1 mm in the AP, and 0.7 ± 2.3 mm in the SI directions, respectively. For all patients the mean isocenter

  19. Late Side Effects After Image Guided Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Compared to 3D-Conformal Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer: Results From 2 Prospective Cohorts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortel, Ruud C.; Incrocci, Luca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Pos, Floris J.; Heide, Uulke A. van der; Lebesque, Joos V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Aluwini, Shafak [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Witte, Marnix G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Heemsbergen, Wilma D., E-mail: w.heemsbergen@nki.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-06-01

    Purpose: Technical developments in the field of external beam radiation therapy (RT) enabled the clinical introduction of image guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT), which improved target conformity and allowed reduction of safety margins. Whether this had an impact on late toxicity levels compared to previously applied three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) is currently unknown. We analyzed late side effects after treatment with IG-IMRT or 3D-CRT, evaluating 2 prospective cohorts of men treated for localized prostate cancer to investigate the hypothesized reductions in toxicity. Methods and Materials: Patients treated with 3D-CRT (n=189) or IG-IMRT (n=242) to 78 Gy in 39 fractions were recruited from 2 Dutch randomized trials with identical toxicity scoring protocols. Late toxicity (>90 days after treatment) was derived from self-assessment questionnaires and case report forms, according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (RTOG-EORTC) scoring criteria. Grade ≥2 endpoints included gastrointestinal (GI) rectal bleeding, increased stool frequency, discomfort, rectal incontinence, proctitis, and genitourinary (GU) obstruction, increased urinary frequency, nocturia, urinary incontinence, and dysuria. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to compare grade ≥2 toxicities between both techniques, adjusting for other modifying factors. Results: The 5-year cumulative incidence of grade ≥2 GI toxicity was 24.9% for IG-IMRT and 37.6% following 3D-CRT (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 0.59, P=.005), with significant reductions in proctitis (HR: 0.37, P=.047) and increased stool frequency (HR: 0.23, P<.001). GU grade ≥2 toxicity levels at 5 years were comparable with 46.2% and 36.4% following IG-IMRT and 3D-CRT, respectively (adjusted HR: 1.19, P=.33). Other strong predictors (P<.01) of grade ≥2 late toxicity were baseline complaints, acute toxicity, and age

  20. Late Side Effects After Image Guided Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Compared to 3D-Conformal Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer: Results From 2 Prospective Cohorts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wortel, Ruud C.; Incrocci, Luca; Pos, Floris J.; Heide, Uulke A. van der; Lebesque, Joos V.; Aluwini, Shafak; Witte, Marnix G.; Heemsbergen, Wilma D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Technical developments in the field of external beam radiation therapy (RT) enabled the clinical introduction of image guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT), which improved target conformity and allowed reduction of safety margins. Whether this had an impact on late toxicity levels compared to previously applied three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) is currently unknown. We analyzed late side effects after treatment with IG-IMRT or 3D-CRT, evaluating 2 prospective cohorts of men treated for localized prostate cancer to investigate the hypothesized reductions in toxicity. Methods and Materials: Patients treated with 3D-CRT (n=189) or IG-IMRT (n=242) to 78 Gy in 39 fractions were recruited from 2 Dutch randomized trials with identical toxicity scoring protocols. Late toxicity (>90 days after treatment) was derived from self-assessment questionnaires and case report forms, according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (RTOG-EORTC) scoring criteria. Grade ≥2 endpoints included gastrointestinal (GI) rectal bleeding, increased stool frequency, discomfort, rectal incontinence, proctitis, and genitourinary (GU) obstruction, increased urinary frequency, nocturia, urinary incontinence, and dysuria. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to compare grade ≥2 toxicities between both techniques, adjusting for other modifying factors. Results: The 5-year cumulative incidence of grade ≥2 GI toxicity was 24.9% for IG-IMRT and 37.6% following 3D-CRT (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 0.59, P=.005), with significant reductions in proctitis (HR: 0.37, P=.047) and increased stool frequency (HR: 0.23, P<.001). GU grade ≥2 toxicity levels at 5 years were comparable with 46.2% and 36.4% following IG-IMRT and 3D-CRT, respectively (adjusted HR: 1.19, P=.33). Other strong predictors (P<.01) of grade ≥2 late toxicity were baseline complaints, acute toxicity, and age

  1. Prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Maria Carlsen; Andersen, Morten Heebøll; Høyer, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Background Active surveillance (AS) of low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) is an accepted alternative to active treatment. However, the conventional diagnostic trans-rectal ultrasound guided biopsies (TRUS-bx) underestimate PCa aggressiveness in almost half of the cases, when compared with the surgical...... lesions. Significant cancer was defined as GS > 6 or GS 6 (3 + 3) lesions with ≥ 6 mm maximal cancer core length (MCCL). Results A total of 78 patients were included and in 21 patients a total of 22 PIRADS-score 4 or 5 lesions were detected. MRGB pathology revealed that 17 (81%) of these and 22......% of the entire AS population harbored significant cancers at AS inclusion. In eight (38%) cases, the GS was upgraded. Also, nine patients (43%) had GS 6 (3 + 3) foci with MCCL ≥ 6 mm. Conclusion In an AS cohort based on TRUS and TRUS-bx diagnostic strategies, supplemental mpMRI and in-bore MRGB were able...

  2. 3-D conformal radiotherapy of localized prostate cancer: A subgroup analysis of rectoscopic findings prior to radiotherapy and acute/late rectal side effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldner, Gregor; Zimmermann, Frank; Feldmann, Horst; Glocker, Stefan; Wachter-Gerstner, Natascha; Geinitz, Hans; Becker, Gerd; Poetzi, Regina; Wambersie, Andre; Bamberg, Michael; Molls, Michael; Wachter, Stefan; Poetter, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: To identify endoscopic pathological findings prior to radiotherapy and a possible correlation with acute or chronic rectal side effects after three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for prostate cancer. Patients and methods: Between 03/99 and 07/02, a total of 298 patients, who consented in a voluntary rectoscopy prior to radiotherapy were included into the analysis. Patients were treated with a total dose of either 70 or 74 Gy. Pathological rectoscopic findings like hemorrhoids, polyps or diverticula were documented. Acute and late rectal side effects were scored using the EORTC/RTOG score. Results: The most frequent pathological endosopic findings were hemorrhoids (35%), polyps (24%) and diverticula (13%). Rectal toxicity was mostly low to moderate. Grade 0/1 cumulative acute and late rectal side effects were 82 and 84%, grade 2 were 18 and 17%, respectively. We could not identify any correlation between preexisting pathological findings and rectal side effects by statistical analysis. Conclusions: There is no evidence that prostate cancer patients presenting with endoscopic verified pathological findings in the rectal mucosa at diagnosis are at an increased risk to develop rectal side effects when treated with 3D-CRT of the prostatic region

  3. Prostate cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000397.htm Prostate cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... trials you may be able to join How Prostate Cancer Staging is Done Initial staging is based on ...

  4. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different tests to find those ... PSA level may be high if you have prostate cancer. It can also be high if you have ...

  5. Cryotherapy for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000907.htm Cryotherapy for prostate cancer To use the sharing features ... first treatment for prostate cancer. What Happens During Cryotherapy Before the procedure, you will be given medicine ...

  6. Prostate cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Friis, S; Kjaer, S K

    1998-01-01

    To review the trends in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality rates in Denmark during a 50-year period.......To review the trends in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality rates in Denmark during a 50-year period....

  7. A case study of radiotherapy planning for a bilateral metal hip prosthesis prostate cancer patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Andy; Reft, Chester; Rash, Carla; Price, Jennifer; Jani, Ashesh B.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to communicate the observed advantage of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in a patient with bilateral metallic hip prostheses. In this patient with early-stage low-risk disease, a dose of 74 Gy was planned in two phases-an initial 50 Gy to the prostate and seminal vesicles and an additional 24 Gy to the prostate alone. Each coplanar beam avoided the prosthesis in the beam's eye view. Using the same target expansions for each phase, IMRT and 3D-conformal radiotherapy (CRT) plans were compared for target coverage and inhomogeneity as well as dose to the bladder and rectum. The results of the analysis demonstrated that IMRT provided superior target coverage with reduced dose to normal tissues for both individual phases of the treatment plan as well as for the composite treatment plan. The dose to the rectum was significantly reduced with the IMRT technique, with a composite V80 of 35% for the IMRT plan versus 70% for 3D-CRT plan. Similarly, the dose to the bladder was significantly reduced with a V80 of 9% versus 20%. Overall, various dosimetric parameters revealed the corresponding 3D-CRT plan would not have been acceptable. The results indicate significant success with IMRT in a clinical scenario where there were no curative alternatives for local treatment other than external beam radiotherapy. Therefore, definitive external beam radiation of prostate cancer patients with bilateral prosthesis is made feasible with IMRT. The work described herein may also have applicability to other groups of patients, such as those with gynecological or other pelvic malignancies

  8. Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0185 TITLE: Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jonathan Melamed, MD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-2-0185 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...infrastructure and operations of the Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network (PCBN). The aim of the PCBN is to provide prostate researchers with high-quality

  9. 3D-CRT, Proton, or Brachytherapy APBI in Treating Patients With Invasive and Non-invasive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-29

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Grade 1 Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Grade 2 Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Grade 3 Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal and Lobular Carcinoma In Situ; Mucinous Breast Carcinoma; Tubular Breast Carcinoma

  10. Late rectal toxicity after conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer (I): multivariate analysis and dose-response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skwarchuk, Mark W.; Jackson, Andrew; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Venkatraman, Ennapadam S.; Cowen, Didier M.; Levegruen, Sabine; Burman, Chandra M.; Fuks, Zvi; Leibel, Steven A.; Ling, C. Clifton

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to use the outcome of a dose escalation protocol for three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) of prostate cancer to study the dose-response for late rectal toxicity and to identify anatomic, dosimetric, and clinical factors that correlate with late rectal bleeding in multivariate analysis. Methods and Materials: Seven hundred forty-three patients with T1c-T3 prostate cancer were treated with 3D-CRT with prescribed doses of 64.8 to 81.0 Gy. The 5-year actuarial rate of late rectal toxicity was assessed using Kaplan-Meier statistics. A retrospective dosimetric analysis was performed for patients treated to 70.2 Gy (52 patients) or 75.6 Gy (119 patients) who either exhibited late rectal bleeding (RTOG Grade 2/3) within 30 months after treatment (i.e., 70.2 Gy--13 patients, 75.6 Gy--36 patients) or were nonbleeding for at least 30 months (i.e., 70.2 Gy--39 patients, 75.6 Gy--83 patients). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed to correlate late rectal bleeding with several anatomic, dosimetric, and clinical variables. Results: A dose response for ≥ Grade 2 late rectal toxicity was observed. By multivariate analysis, the following factors were significantly correlated with ≥ Grade 2 late rectal bleeding for patients prescribed 70.2 Gy: 1) enclosure of the outer rectal contour by the 50% isodose on the isocenter slice (i.e., Iso50) (p max (p max

  11. Using decision analysis to determine the cost-effectiveness of intensity-modulated radiation therapy in the treatment of intermediate risk prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konski, Andre; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah; Feigenberg, Steven; Hanlon, Alexandra; Kulkarni, Sachin M.S.; Beck, J. Robert; Horwitz, Eric M.; Pollack, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Background: The specific aim of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) compared with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) in the treatment of a 70-year-old with intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Methods: A Markov model was designed with the following states; posttreatment, hormone therapy, chemotherapy, and death. Transition probabilities from one state to another were calculated from rates derived from the literature for IMRT and 3D-CRT. Utility values for each health state were obtained from preliminary studies of preferences conducted at Fox Chase Cancer Center. The analysis took a payer's perspective. Expected mean costs, cost-effectiveness scatterplots, and cost acceptability curves were calculated with commercially available software. Results: The expected mean cost of patients undergoing IMRT was $47,931 with a survival of 6.27 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). The expected mean cost of patients having 3D-CRT was $21,865 with a survival of 5.62 QALYs. The incremental cost-effectiveness comparing IMRT with CRT was $40,101/QALYs. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curve analysis revealed a 55.1% probability of IMRT being cost-effective at a $50,000/QALY willingness to pay. Conclusion: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy was found to be cost-effective, however, at the upper limits of acceptability. The results, however, are dependent on the assumptions of improved biochemical disease-free survival with fewer patients undergoing subsequent salvage therapy and improved quality of life after the treatment. In the absence of prospective randomized trials, decision analysis can help inform physicians and health policy experts on the cost-effectiveness of emerging technologies

  12. [Epigenetics of prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiao-Ming; Zhou, Wen-Quan

    2010-07-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in males, and its etiology and pathogenesis remain unclear. Epigenesis is involved in prostate cancer at all stages of the process, and closely related with its growth and metastasis. DNA methylation and histone modification are the most important manifestations of epigenetics in prostate cancer. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis of DNA methylation include whole-genome hypomethylation, aberrant local hypermethylation of promoters and genomic instability. DNA methylation is closely related to the process of prostate cancer, as in DNA damage repair, hormone response, tumor cell invasion/metastasis, cell cycle regulation, and so on. Histone modification causes corresponding changes in chromosome structure and the level of gene transcription, and it may affect the cycle, differentiation and apoptosis of cells, resulting in prostate cancer. Some therapies have been developed targeting the epigenetic changes in prostate cancer, including DNA methyltransferases and histone deacetylase inhibitors, and have achieved certain desirable results.

  13. On cribriform prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kweldam, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractThis general aim of the thesis is to study the clinical relevance, interobserver reproducibility, and genetics of cribriform growth in prostate cancer. More specifically, the aims and outline of this thesis are • To study the metastatic potential of modified Gleason score 3+3 prostate cancer in radical prostatectomies. (Chapter 2) • To examine the prognostic value of individual Gleason grade 4 patterns in prostate cancer in radical prostatectomy and diagnostic biopsy specimens...

  14. Prostate cancer epigenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinaranagari, Swathi; Sharma, Pankaj; Bowen, Nathan J; Chaudhary, Jaideep

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a major health burden within the ever-increasingly aging US population. The molecular mechanisms involved in prostate cancer are diverse and heterogeneous. In this context, epigenetic changes, both global and gene specific, are now an emerging alternate mechanism in disease initiation and progression. The three major risk factors in prostate cancer: age, geographic ancestry, and environment are all influenced by epigenetics and additional significant insight is required to gain an understanding of the underlying mechanisms. The androgen receptor and its downstream effector pathways, central to prostate cancer initiation and progression, are subject to a multitude of epigenetic alterations. In this review we focus on the global perspective of epigenetics and the use of recent next-generation sequencing platforms to interrogate epigenetic changes in the prostate cancer genome.

  15. Three dimensional conformal radiotherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer: low risk of chronic rectal morbidity observed in a large series of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandler, Howard M.; McLaughlin, P. William; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Addison, Heather; Forman, Jeffrey; Lichter, Allen

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Three dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT) may provide a technique to increase the dose delivered to target tissues while sparing uninvolved normal structures. To evaluate the role of 3D treatment in reducing the treatment toxicity, we analyzed the chronic rectal morbidity observed in a large group of patients undergoing radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: From 1987 through 1992, 721 prostate cancer patients were treated with 3D CRT at the University of Michigan or Providence Hospital. All had axial computed tomography (CT) specifically for RT planning, multiple structures contoured on the axial images, and beam's-eye-view conformal beams edited to provide 3D dose coverage. Using current American Joint Commission (AJCC) staging, 537 patients had T1-T2 tumors, 123 had T3-T4 tumors, and 60 were treated postprostatectomy. Pelvic lymph nodes were treated in 462 patients. Prostate boosts were delivered with four-field axial, six-field axial, or four-field oblique, nonaxial fields. The median dose was 68.40 Gy (range 59.4-80.4). Median follow-up was 20.4 months; 175 were followed more than 3 years. All complications have been graded conservatively using the RTOG system. Results: Using a Cox proportional hazard's model, patient age, T-stage, prescribed dose, pelvic treatment, and boost technique were analyzed. The factor most strongly related to risk of morbidity was dose (p = 0.05); however, the boost technique was also related: the four-field oblique field had the lowest relative risk. Most episodes of rectal morbidity have been mild: 82 Grade 1 or 2. There have been only 14 more serious complications including 12 Grade 3 and 2 Grade 4. The actuarial risk of a Grade 3 or 4 complication is 3% at 3 and 5 years. Conclusions: A very small proportion of patients treated with 3D CRT had significant rectal morbidity related to RT, supporting the use of conformal treatment planning and dose delivery as a mechanism to minimize complications

  16. Preliminary Toxicity Analysis of 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy Versus Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy on the High-Dose Arm of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0126 Prostate Cancer Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalski, Jeff M., E-mail: jmichalski@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology Washington University Medical Center, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Yan, Yan [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Watkins-Bruner, Deborah [Emory University School of Nursing, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Bosch, Walter R. [Department of Radiation Oncology Washington University Medical Center, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Winter, Kathryn [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Galvin, James M. [Department of Radiation Oncology Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Bahary, Jean-Paul [Department of Radiation Oncology Centre Hospitalier de l' Université de Montréal-Notre Dame, Montreal, QC (Canada); Morton, Gerard C. [Department of Radiation Oncology Toronto-Sunnybrook Regional Cancer Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada); Parliament, Matthew B. [Department of Oncology Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Sandler, Howard M. [Department of Radiation Oncology Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To give a preliminary report of clinical and treatment factors associated with toxicity in men receiving high-dose radiation therapy (RT) on a phase 3 dose-escalation trial. Methods and Materials: The trial was initiated with 3-dimensional conformal RT (3D-CRT) and amended after 1 year to allow intensity modulated RT (IMRT). Patients treated with 3D-CRT received 55.8 Gy to a planning target volume that included the prostate and seminal vesicles, then 23.4 Gy to prostate only. The IMRT patients were treated to the prostate and proximal seminal vesicles to 79.2 Gy. Common Toxicity Criteria, version 2.0, and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer late morbidity scores were used for acute and late effects. Results: Of 763 patients randomized to the 79.2-Gy arm of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0126 protocol, 748 were eligible and evaluable: 491 and 257 were treated with 3D-CRT and IMRT, respectively. For both bladder and rectum, the volumes receiving 65, 70, and 75 Gy were significantly lower with IMRT (all P<.0001). For grade (G) 2+ acute gastrointestinal/genitourinary (GI/GU) toxicity, both univariate and multivariate analyses showed a statistically significant decrease in G2+ acute collective GI/GU toxicity for IMRT. There were no significant differences with 3D-CRT or IMRT for acute or late G2+ or 3+ GU toxicities. Univariate analysis showed a statistically significant decrease in late G2+ GI toxicity for IMRT (P=.039). On multivariate analysis, IMRT showed a 26% reduction in G2+ late GI toxicity (P=.099). Acute G2+ toxicity was associated with late G3+ toxicity (P=.005). With dose–volume histogram data in the multivariate analysis, RT modality was not significant, whereas white race (P=.001) and rectal V70 ≥15% were associated with G2+ rectal toxicity (P=.034). Conclusions: Intensity modulated RT is associated with a significant reduction in acute G2+ GI/GU toxicity. There is a trend for a

  17. Epigenetics in Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Albany, Costantine; Alva, Ajjai S.; Aparicio, Ana M.; Singal, Rakesh; Yellapragada, Sarvari; Sonpavde, Guru; Hahn, Noah M.

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most commonly diagnosed nonskin malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer death among men in the United States. Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequences. Two common epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation and histone modification, have demonstrated critical roles in prostate cancer growth and metastasis. DNA hypermethylation of cytosine-guanine (CpG) rich sequ...

  18. Rectal dose sparing with a balloon catheter and ultrasound localization in conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Rakesh R.; Orton, Nigel; Tome, Wolfgang A.; Chappell, Rick; Ritter, Mark A.

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: To compare the rectal wall and bladder volume in the high dose region with or without the use of a balloon catheter with both three-dimensional (3D)-conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapy (CRT, IMRT) approaches in the treatment of prostate cancer. Material and methods: Five patients with a wide range of prostate volumes and treated with primary external beam radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer were selected for analysis. Pinnacle TM treatment plans were generated utilizing a 3D conformal six-field design and an IMRT seven coplanar-field plan with a novel, three-step optimization and with ultrasound localization. Separate plans were devised with a rectal balloon deflated or air inflated with and without inclusion of the seminal vesicles (SV) in the target volume. The prescription dose was 76 Gy in 38 fractions of 2 Gy each. Cumulative dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were analyzed for the planning target volume (PTV), rectal wall, and bladder with an inflated (60 cc air) or deflated balloon with and without SV included. The volumes of rectal wall and bladder above 60, 65, and 70 Gy with each treatment approach were evaluated. Results: Daily balloon placement was well-tolerated with good patient positional reproducibility. Inflation of the rectal balloon in all cases resulted in a significant decrease in the absolute volume of rectal wall receiving greater than 60, 65, or 70 Gy. The rectal sparing ratio (RSR), consisting of a structure's high dose volume with the catheter inflated, divided by the volume with the catheter deflated, was calculated for each patient with and without seminal vesicle inclusion for 3D-CRT and IMRT. For 3D-CRT, RSRs with SV included were 0.59, 0.59, and 0.56 and with SV excluded were 0.60, 0.58, and 0.54 at doses of greater than 60, 65, and 70 Gy, respectively. Similarly, for IMRT, the mean RSRs were 0.59, 0.59, and 0.63 including SV and 0.71, 0.66, and 0.67 excluding SV at these same dose levels

  19. CONSERVATIVE TREATMENT IN LOCALLY AND LOCALLY-ADVANCED PROSTATE CANCER USING CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachev Sergey Ivanovich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of androgen deprivation and radiotherapy increase the probability of diseases full regresses and survival rate. Modern technical and technological opportunities of 3D CRT allow to increase total dose to prostate up to 72-76Gy vs. radiotherapy of 66-70Gy. In this study we compare the rates of post radiation toxicity and the efficiency of treatment for the patients receiving conventional radiotherapy and 3D CRT. The use of 3D CRT has not only result to increase of 10-years recurrence free survival rate from 74% (I grope to 86,5% (II grope, р=0,01, but also to increase of 10-years overall survival, 70% versus 78,4% (р=0,04. The proposed version of conformal 3D CRT radiation therapy made ​​it possible compared to conventional 2D RT radiation therapy by increasing SOD radiation to the tumor, accuracy and compliance with the quality assurance of radiation therapy significantly reduce rates of recurrence and significantly increase the performance of 10-year overall and disease-free survival.

  20. Prostate Cancer Ambassadors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vines, Anissa I.; Hunter, Jaimie C.; Carlisle, Veronica A.; Richmond, Alan N.

    2016-01-01

    African American men bear a higher burden of prostate cancer than Caucasian men, but knowledge about how to make an informed decision about prostate cancer screening is limited. A lay health advisor model was used to train “Prostate Cancer Ambassadors” on prostate cancer risk and symptoms, how to make an informed decision for prostate-specific antigen screening, and how to deliver the information to members of their community. Training consisted of two, 6-hour interactive sessions and was implemented in three predominantly African American communities over an 8-month period between 2013 and 2014. Following training, Ambassadors committed to contacting at least 10 people within 3 months using a toolkit composed of wallet-sized informational cards for distribution, a slide presentation, and a flip chart. Thirty-two Ambassadors were trained, with more than half being females (59%) and half reporting a family history of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer knowledge improved significantly among Ambassadors (p ≤ .0001). Self-efficacy improved significantly for performing outreach tasks (p < .0001), and among women in helping a loved one with making an informed decision (p = .005). There was also an improvement in collective efficacy in team members (p = .0003). Twenty-nine of the Ambassadors fulfilled their commitment to reach at least 10 people (average number of contacts per Ambassador was 11). In total, 355 individuals were reached with the prostate cancer information. The Ambassador training program proved successful in training Ambassadors to reach communities about prostate cancer and how to make an informed decision about screening. PMID:27099348

  1. Epigenetics in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albany, Costantine; Alva, Ajjai S; Aparicio, Ana M; Singal, Rakesh; Yellapragada, Sarvari; Sonpavde, Guru; Hahn, Noah M

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most commonly diagnosed nonskin malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer death among men in the United States. Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequences. Two common epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation and histone modification, have demonstrated critical roles in prostate cancer growth and metastasis. DNA hypermethylation of cytosine-guanine (CpG) rich sequence islands within gene promoter regions is widespread during neoplastic transformation of prostate cells, suggesting that treatment-induced restoration of a "normal" epigenome could be clinically beneficial. Histone modification leads to altered tumor gene function by changing chromosome structure and the level of gene transcription. The reversibility of epigenetic aberrations and restoration of tumor suppression gene function have made them attractive targets for prostate cancer treatment with modulators that demethylate DNA and inhibit histone deacetylases.

  2. Epigenetics in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantine Albany

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the most commonly diagnosed nonskin malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer death among men in the United States. Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequences. Two common epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation and histone modification, have demonstrated critical roles in prostate cancer growth and metastasis. DNA hypermethylation of cytosine-guanine (CpG rich sequence islands within gene promoter regions is widespread during neoplastic transformation of prostate cells, suggesting that treatment-induced restoration of a “normal” epigenome could be clinically beneficial. Histone modification leads to altered tumor gene function by changing chromosome structure and the level of gene transcription. The reversibility of epigenetic aberrations and restoration of tumor suppression gene function have made them attractive targets for prostate cancer treatment with modulators that demethylate DNA and inhibit histone deacetylases.

  3. Imaging and prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, Lawrence H.

    1996-01-01

    The use of imaging in evaluating patients with prostate cancer is highly dependent upon the purpose of the evaluation. Ultrasound, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, TC-99m Bone Scanning, and Positron Emission Tomography may all be utilized for imaging in prostate cancer. The utility of each of these modalities depends upon the intended purpose: for instance, screening, staging, or evaluating for progression of disease in patients with prostate cancer. Transrectal ultrasound is performed by placing a 5MHz to 7.5 MHz transducer in the rectum and imaging the prostate in the coronal and sagittal planes. Prostate cancer generally appears as an area of diminished echogenocity in the peripheral zone of the prostate gland. However, up to 24% of prostate cancers are isoechoic and cannot be well distinguished from the remainder of the peripheral zone. In addition, the incidence of malignancy in a lesion judged to be suspicious on ultrasound is between 20% and 25%. Therefore, while ultrasound is the least expensive of the three cross sectional imaging modalities, its relatively low specificity precludes it from being used as a screening examination. Investigators have also looked at the ability of ultrasound to evaluate the presence and extent of extracapsular spread of prostate cancer. The RDOG (Radiology Diagnostic Oncology Group) multi-institutional cooperative trial reported a disappointing overall accuracy of ultrasound of 58% for staging prostate cancer. The accuracy was somewhat higher 63%, for patients with advanced disease. The other cross-sectional imaging modalities available for imaging the prostate include Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Computed Tomography is useful as an 'anatomic' imaging technique to detect lymph node enlargement. It is not sensitive in detecting microscopic nodal involvement with tumor, or tumor in non-enlarged pelvic lymph nodes. The primary prostate neoplasm is generally the same attenuation as the normal

  4. Targeting Quiescence in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0413 TITLE: Targeting Quiescence in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Laura Buttitta CONTRACTING...Quiescence in Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting uiescence in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0413 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT A major problem in prostate cancer is finding and eliminating the non-proliferating or “quiescent” cancer cells. This is because early

  5. TGFβ1 SNPs and radio-induced toxicity in prostate cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fachal, Laura; Gómez-Caamaño, Antonio; Sánchez-García, Manuel; Carballo, Ana; Peleteiro, Paula; Lobato-Busto, Ramón; Carracedo, Ángel; Vega, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: We have performed a case-control study in 413 prostate cancer patients to test for association between TGFβ1 and the development of late normal-tissue toxicity among prostate cancer patients treated with three-dimensional conformational radiotherapy (3D-CRT) Materials and methods: Late gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicities were assessed for at least two years after radiotherapy in 413 patients according to CTCAEvs3 scores. Codominant genotypic tests and haplotypic analyses were undertaken to evaluate the correlation between TGFβ1 SNPs rs1800469, rs1800470 and rs1800472 and radio-induced toxicity. Results: Neither the SNPs nor the haplotypes were found to be associated with the risk of late toxicity. Conclusions: We were able to exclude up to a 2-fold increase in the risk of developing late gastrointestinal and genitourinary radio-induced toxicity due to the TGFβ1 SNPs rs1800469 and rs1800470, as well as the two most frequent TGFβ1 haplotypes.

  6. Analysis of Biochemical Control and Prognostic Factors in Patients Treated With Either Low-Dose Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy or High-Dose Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vora, Sujay A.; Wong, William W.; Schild, Steven E.; Ezzell, Gary A.; Halyard, Michele Y.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To identify prognostic factors and evaluate biochemical control rates for patients with localized prostate cancer treated with either high-dose intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or conventional-dose three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy 3D-CRT. Methods: Four hundred sixteen patients with a minimum follow-up of 3 years (median, 5 years) were included. Two hundred seventy-one patients received 3D-CRT with a median dose of 68.4 Gy (range, 66-71 Gy). The next 145 patients received IMRT with a median dose of 75.6 Gy (range, 70.2-77.4 Gy). Biochemical control rates were calculated according to both American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) consensus definitions. Prognostic factors were identified using both univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: The 5-year biochemical control rate was 60.4% for 3D-CRT and 74.1% for IMRT (p < 0.0001, first ASTRO Consensus definition). Using the ASTRO Phoenix definition, the 5-year biochemical control rate was 74.4% and 84.6% with 3D-RT and IMRT, respectively (p = 0.0326). Univariate analyses determined that PSA level, T stage, Gleason score, perineural invasion, and radiation dose were predictive of biochemical control. On multivariate analysis, dose, Gleason score, and perineural invasion remained significant. Conclusion: On the basis of both ASTRO definitions, dose, Gleason score, and perineural invasion were predictive of biochemical control. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy allowed delivery of higher doses of radiation with very low toxicity, resulting in improved biochemical control

  7. Hyaluronan Biosynthesis in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, James B

    2006-01-01

    Despite advances in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer in the last several years metastasis represents the major cause of frustration and failure in the successful treatment of prostate cancer patients. Hyaluronan (HA...

  8. New Prostate Cancer Treatment Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have identified a potential alternative approach to blocking a key molecular driver of an advanced form of prostate cancer, called androgen-independent or castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  9. Late rectal toxicity: dose-volume effects of conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Eugene H.; Pollack, Alan; Levy, Larry; Starkschall, George; Lei Dong; Rosen, Isaac; Kuban, Deborah A.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To identify dosimetric, anatomic, and clinical factors that correlate with late rectal toxicity after three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed the dose-volume histograms and clinical records of 163 Stage T1b-T3c prostate cancer patients treated between 1992 and 1999 with 3D-CRT, to a total isocenter dose of 74-78 Gy at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The median follow-up was 62 months (range 24-102). All late rectal complications were scored using modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and Late Effects Normal Tissue Task Force criteria. The 6-year toxicity rate was assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log-rank test. A univariate proportional hazards regression model was used to test the correlation between Grade 2 or higher toxicity and the dosimetric, anatomic, and clinical factors. In a multivariate regression model, clinical factors were added to the dosimetric and anatomic variables to determine whether they significantly altered the risk of developing late toxicity. Results: At 6 years, the rate of developing Grade 2 or higher late rectal toxicity was 25%. A significant volume effect was observed at rectal doses of 60, 70, 75.6, and 78 Gy, and the risk of developing rectal complications increased exponentially as greater volumes were irradiated. Although the percentage of rectal volume treated correlated significantly with the incidence of rectal complications at all dose levels (p 3 of the rectum. Of the clinical variables tested, only a history of hemorrhoids correlated with rectal toxicity (p=0.003). Multivariate analysis showed that the addition of hemorrhoids increased the risk of toxicity for each dosimetric variable found to be significant on univariate analysis (p<0.05 for all comparisons). Conclusion: Dose-volume histogram analyses clearly indicated a volume effect on the probability of developing late rectal complications

  10. Osteoporosis and prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads Hvid; Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Abrahamsen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of osteoporosis and risk factors of osteoporotic fractures before androgen deprivation in Danish men. Treatment and prognosis of prostate cancer necessitate management of long-term consequences of androgen deprivation therapy...... (ADT), including accelerated bone loss resulting in osteoporosis. Osteoporotic fractures are associated with excess morbidity and mortality. Material and methods. Patients with prostate cancer awaiting initiation of ADT were consecutively included. Half of the patients had localized disease and were...... level was 30.5 g/l (1-5714 g/l). The average Gleason score was 7.8 (range 5-10, SD 1.1). Fifty patients had localized prostate cancer and the other 55 patients had disseminated disease. The prevalence of osteoporosis was 10% and the prevalence of osteopenia was 58% before ADT. There was no significant...

  11. Prostate Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HPV-Associated Lung Ovarian Skin Uterine Cancer Home Prostate Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English (US) ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of men getting prostate cancer or dying from prostate cancer varies by race ...

  12. Prostatic specific antigen for prostate cancer detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Nogueira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Prostate-specific antigen (PSA has been used for prostate cancer detection since 1994. PSA testing has revolutionized our ability to diagnose, treat, and follow-up patients. In the last two decades, PSA screening has led to a substantial increase in the incidence of prostate cancer (PC. This increased detection caused the incidence of advanced-stage disease to decrease at a dramatic rate, and most newly diagnosed PC today are localized tumors with a high probability of cure. PSA screening is associated with a 75% reduction in the proportion of men who now present with metastatic disease and a 32.5% reduction in the age-adjusted prostate cancer mortality rate through 2003. Although PSA is not a perfect marker, PSA testing has limited specificity for prostate cancer detection, and its appropriate clinical application remains a topic of debate. Due to its widespread use and increased over-detection, the result has been the occurrence of over-treatment of indolent cancers. Accordingly, several variations as regards PSA measurement have emerged as useful adjuncts for prostate cancer screening. These procedures take into consideration additional factors, such as the proportion of different PSA isoforms (free PSA, complexed PSA, pro-PSA and B PSA, the prostate volume (PSA density, and the rate of change in PSA levels over time (PSA velocity or PSA doubling time. The history and evidence underlying each of these parameters are reviewed in the following article.

  13. Prostatic specific antigen for prostate cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Lucas; Corradi, Renato; Eastham, James A

    2009-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been used for prostate cancer detection since 1994. PSA testing has revolutionized our ability to diagnose, treat, and follow-up patients. In the last two decades, PSA screening has led to a substantial increase in the incidence of prostate cancer (PC). This increased detection caused the incidence of advanced-stage disease to decrease at a dramatic rate, and most newly diagnosed PC today are localized tumors with a high probability of cure. PSA screening is associated with a 75% reduction in the proportion of men who now present with metastatic disease and a 32.5% reduction in the age-adjusted prostate cancer mortality rate through 2003. Although PSA is not a perfect marker, PSA testing has limited specificity for prostate cancer detection, and its appropriate clinical application remains a topic of debate. Due to its widespread use and increased over-detection, the result has been the occurrence of over-treatment of indolent cancers. Accordingly, several variations as regards PSA measurement have emerged as useful adjuncts for prostate cancer screening. These procedures take into consideration additional factors, such as the proportion of different PSA isoforms (free PSA, complexed PSA, pro-PSA and B PSA), the prostate volume (PSA density), and the rate of change in PSA levels over time (PSA velocity or PSA doubling time). The history and evidence underlying each of these parameters are reviewed in the following article.

  14. Dosimetric Evaluation of Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy and 4-Field 3-D Conformal Radiotherapy in Prostate Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bora Uysal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this dosimetric study is the targeted dose homogeneity and critical organ dose comparison of 7-field Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT and 3-D 4-field conformal radiotherapy. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Material and Methods: Twenty patients with low and moderate risk prostate cancer treated at Gülhane Military Medical School Radiation Oncology Department between January 2009 and December 2009 are included in this study. Two seperate dosimetric plans both for 7-field IMRT and 3D-CRT have been generated for each patient to comparatively evaluate the dosimetric status of both techniques and all the patients received 7-field IMRT. Results: Dose-comparative evaluation of two techniques revealed the superiority of IMRT technique with statistically significantly lower femoral head doses along with reduced critical organ dose-volume parameters of bladder V60 (the volume receiving 60 Gy and rectal V40 (the volume receiving 40 Gy and V60. Conclusion: It can be concluded that IMRT is an effective definitive management tool for prostate cancer with improved critical organ sparing and excellent dose homogenization in target organs of prostate and seminal vesicles.

  15. The Danish Prostate Cancer Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen-Nielsen, Mary; Høyer, Søren; Friis, Søren

    2016-01-01

    variables include Gleason scores, cancer staging, prostate-specific antigen values, and therapeutic measures (active surveillance, surgery, radiotherapy, endocrine therapy, and chemotherapy). DESCRIPTIVE DATA: In total, 22,332 patients with prostate cancer were registered in DAPROCAdata as of April 2015......AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Prostate Cancer Database (DAPROCAdata) is a nationwide clinical cancer database that has prospectively collected data on patients with incident prostate cancer in Denmark since February 2010. The overall aim of the DAPROCAdata is to improve the quality of prostate cancer...... care in Denmark by systematically collecting key clinical variables for the purposes of health care monitoring, quality improvement, and research. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish patients with histologically verified prostate cancer are included in the DAPROCAdata. MAIN VARIABLES: The DAPROCAdata...

  16. Tuberculous prostatitis: mimicking a cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, El Majdoub; Abdelhak, Khallouk; Hassan, Farih Moulay

    2016-01-01

    Genitourinary tuberculosis is a common type of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis . The kidneys, ureter, bladder or genital organs are usually involved. Tuberculosis of the prostate has mainly been described in immune-compromised patients. However, it can exceptionally be found as an isolated lesion in immune-competent patients. Tuberculosis of the prostate may be difficult to differentiate from carcinoma of the prostate and the chronic prostatitis when the prostate is hard and nodular on digital rectal examination and the urine is negative for tuberculosis bacilli. In many cases, a diagnosis of tuberculous prostatitis is made by the pathologist, or the disease is found incidentally after transurethral resection. Therefore, suspicion of tuberculous prostatitis requires a confirmatory biopsy of the prostate. We report the case of 60-year-old man who presented a low urinary tract syndrome. After clinical and biological examination, and imaging, prostate cancer was highly suspected. Transrectal needle biopsy of the prostate was performed and histological examination showed tuberculosis lesions.

  17. Review article: Prostate cancer screening using prostate specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Prostate cancer is the commonest cancer among men in Nigeria and early detection is key to cure and survival but its screening through prostate specific antigen (PSA) has remain controversial in literature. Screening with prostate specific antigen (PSA) has led to more men diagnosed with prostate cancer than ...

  18. Radiotherapy of intensity modulated VS conformational in the treatment of carcinoma of the prostate. A dosimetric comparison; Radioterapia de intensidad modulada VS conformacional en el tratamiento de carcinoma de prostata. Una camparacion dosimetrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Martin, G.; Garcia Vicente, F.; Zapatero Laborda, A.; Bermudez Luna, R.; Roch Gonzalez, M.; Perez Gonzalez, L.; Torres Escobar, J. J.

    2013-07-01

    The intensity modulated (IMRT) radiation therapy is a technique of high conformation which, by its nature, has as one of its main directions prostate cancer radiotherapy treatment. The purpose of this work is presents results of the dosimetric indicators collected in our hospital a number of patients of carcinoma of the prostate with standard three-dimensional Conformal technique (3D-CRT) and IMRT. Aims to demonstrate and quantify with a statistical methodology that, establishing an adequate Protocol of IMRT, significant reductions in risk organ doses can be obtained by keeping the same prescription to the white volume. (Author)

  19. Analysis of biopsy outcome after three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy of prostate cancer using dose-distribution variables and tumor control probability models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levegruen, Sabine; Jackson, Andrew; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Venkatraman, Ennapadam S.; Skwarchuk, Mark W.; Schlegel, Wolfgang; Fuks, Zvi; Leibel, Steven A.; Ling, C. Clifton

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate tumor control following three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) of prostate cancer and to identify dose-distribution variables that correlate with local control assessed through posttreatment prostate biopsies. Methods and Material: Data from 132 patients, treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), who had a prostate biopsy 2.5 years or more after 3D-CRT for T1c-T3 prostate cancer with prescription doses of 64.8-81 Gy were analyzed. Variables derived from the dose distribution in the PTV included: minimum dose (Dmin), maximum dose (Dmax), mean dose (Dmean), dose to n% of the PTV (Dn), where n = 1%, ..., 99%. The concept of the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) was evaluated for different values of the surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF 2 ). Four tumor control probability (TCP) models (one phenomenologic model using a logistic function and three Poisson cell kill models) were investigated using two sets of input parameters, one for low and one for high T-stage tumors. Application of both sets to all patients was also investigated. In addition, several tumor-related prognostic variables were examined (including T-stage, Gleason score). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. The ability of the logistic regression models (univariate and multivariate) to predict the biopsy result correctly was tested by performing cross-validation analyses and evaluating the results in terms of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results: In univariate analysis, prescription dose (Dprescr), Dmax, Dmean, dose to n% of the PTV with n of 70% or less correlate with outcome (p 2 : EUD correlates significantly with outcome for SF 2 of 0.4 or more, but not for lower SF 2 values. Using either of the two input parameters sets, all TCP models correlate with outcome (p 2 , is limited because the low dose region may not coincide with the tumor location. Instead, for MSKCC prostate cancer patients with their

  20. Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudit Verma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the etiology of a disease such as prostate cancer may help in identifying populations at high risk, timely intervention of the disease, and proper treatment. Biomarkers, along with exposure history and clinical data, are useful tools to achieve these goals. Individual risk and population incidence of prostate cancer result from the intervention of genetic susceptibility and exposure. Biochemical, epigenetic, genetic, and imaging biomarkers are used to identify people at high risk for developing prostate cancer. In cancer epidemiology, epigenetic biomarkers offer advantages over other types of biomarkers because they are expressed against a person’s genetic background and environmental exposure, and because abnormal events occur early in cancer development, which includes several epigenetic alterations in cancer cells. This article describes different biomarkers that have potential use in studying the epidemiology of prostate cancer. We also discuss the characteristics of an ideal biomarker for prostate cancer, and technologies utilized for biomarker assays. Among epigenetic biomarkers, most reports indicate GSTP1 hypermethylation as the diagnostic marker for prostate cancer; however, NKX2-5, CLSTN1, SPOCK2, SLC16A12, DPYS, and NSE1 also have been reported to be regulated by methylation mechanisms in prostate cancer. Current challenges in utilization of biomarkers in prostate cancer diagnosis and epidemiologic studies and potential solutions also are discussed.

  1. MRI diagnosis for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamada, Tsutomu; Nagai, Kiyohisa; Imai, Shigeki; Kajihara, Yasumasa; Jo, Yoshimasa; Tanaka, Hiroyoshi; Fukunaga, Masao (Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)); Matsuki, Takakazu

    1998-01-01

    Recently, in Japan, both the Westernization of life styles and the advent of an aged-society have led to an increase in the incidence of prostate cancer. In making a localizing diagnosis of prostate cancer, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which has excellent contrast resolution, and transrectal ultrasonography, are used clinically, and their usefulness is being established. MRI is employed in the diagnosis of prostate cancer to detect tumors, and to determine the stage of such tumors. For the visualization of prostate cancer by MRI, T2-weighted axial images are used exclusively. After becoming familiar with normal prostate images, it is important to evaluate the localization of a tumor, and the invasion of the capsule and seminal vesicles. Future applications of new techniques for MRI will undoubtedly be found. In this paper, the present state of MRI diagnosis of prostate cancer at Kawasaki Medical School Hospital will be reviewed. (author)

  2. MRI diagnosis for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamada, Tsutomu; Nagai, Kiyohisa; Imai, Shigeki; Kajihara, Yasumasa; Jo, Yoshimasa; Tanaka, Hiroyoshi; Fukunaga, Masao [Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan); Matsuki, Takakazu

    1998-12-31

    Recently, in Japan, both the Westernization of life styles and the advent of an aged-society have led to an increase in the incidence of prostate cancer. In making a localizing diagnosis of prostate cancer, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which has excellent contrast resolution, and transrectal ultrasonography, are used clinically, and their usefulness is being established. MRI is employed in the diagnosis of prostate cancer to detect tumors, and to determine the stage of such tumors. For the visualization of prostate cancer by MRI, T2-weighted axial images are used exclusively. After becoming familiar with normal prostate images, it is important to evaluate the localization of a tumor, and the invasion of the capsule and seminal vesicles. Future applications of new techniques for MRI will undoubtedly be found. In this paper, the present state of MRI diagnosis of prostate cancer at Kawasaki Medical School Hospital will be reviewed. (author)

  3. Epigenetic modifications in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngollo, Marjolaine; Dagdemir, Aslihan; Karsli-Ceppioglu, Seher; Judes, Gaelle; Pajon, Amaury; Penault-Llorca, Frederique; Boiteux, Jean-Paul; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Guy, Laurent; Bernard-Gallon, Dominique J

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men in France. Apart from the genetic alterations in prostate cancer, epigenetics modifications are involved in the development and progression of this disease. Epigenetic events are the main cause in gene regulation and the three most epigenetic mechanisms studied include DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNA expression. In this review, we summarized epigenetic mechanisms in prostate cancer. Epigenetic drugs that inhibit DNA methylation, histone methylation and histone acetylation might be able to reactivate silenced gene expression in prostate cancer. However, further understanding of interactions of these enzymes and their effects on transcription regulation in prostate cancer is needed and has become a priority in biomedical research. In this study, we summed up epigenetic changes with emphasis on pharmacologic epigenetic target agents.

  4. Prostate cancer brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, Carlos Eduardo Vita; Silva, Joao L. F.; Srougi, Miguel; Nesrallah, Adriano

    1999-01-01

    The transperineal brachytherapy with 125 I/Pd 103 seed implantation guided by transurethral ultrasound must be presented as therapeutical option of low urinary morbidity in patients with localized prostate cancer. The combined clinical staging - including Gleason and initial PSA - must be encouraged, for definition of a group of low risk and indication of exclusive brachytherapy. Random prospective studies are necessary in order to define the best role of brachytherapy, surgery and external beam radiation therapy

  5. The Early Prostate Cancer program: bicalutamide in nonmetastatic prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Peter; Roder, Martin Andreas; Røder, Martin Andreas

    2008-01-01

    The Early Prostate Cancer program is investigating the addition of bicalutamide 150 mg to standard care for localized or locally advanced, nonmetastatic prostate cancer. The third program analysis, at 7.4 years' median follow-up, has shown that bicalutamide 150 mg does not benefit patients...

  6. Blood lipids and prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Caroline J; Bonilla, Carolina; Holly, Jeff M P

    2016-01-01

    Genetic risk scores were used as unconfounded instruments for specific lipid traits (Mendelian randomization) to assess whether circulating lipids causally influence prostate cancer risk. Data from 22,249 prostate cancer cases and 22,133 controls from 22 studies within the international PRACTICAL...... into logistic regression models to estimate the presence (and direction) of any causal effect of each lipid trait on prostate cancer risk. There was weak evidence for an association between the LDL genetic score and cancer grade: the odds ratio (OR) per genetically instrumented standard deviation (SD) in LDL.......95, 3.00; P = 0.08). The rs12916-T variant in 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) was inversely associated with prostate cancer (OR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.00; P = 0.03). In conclusion, circulating lipids, instrumented by our genetic risk scores, did not appear to alter prostate cancer risk...

  7. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  8. Focal therapy in prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bos, W.

    2016-01-01

    Interesting developments took place in the treatment of prostate cancer including focal therapy for less aggressive organ-confined prostate cancer. Fortunately, curative treatment is often still an option for patients suffering from the lower staged tumors. In carefully selected patients, the

  9. Vitamin D in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Donald L; Aragon-Ching, Jeanny B

    2018-04-13

    Signaling through the vitamin D receptor has been shown to be biologically active and important in a number of preclinical studies in prostate and other cancers. Epidemiologic data also indicate that vitamin D signaling may be important in the cause and prognosis of prostate and other cancers. These data indicate that perturbation of vitamin D signaling may be a target for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. Large studies of vitamin D supplementation will be required to determine whether these observations can be translated into prevention strategies. This paper reviews the available data in the use of vitamin D compounds in the treatment of prostate cancer. Clinical data are limited which support the use of vitamin D compounds in the management of men with prostate cancer. However, clinical trials guided by existing preclinical data are limited.

  10. Vitamin D in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald L Trump

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Signaling through the vitamin D receptor has been shown to be biologically active and important in a number of preclinical studies in prostate and other cancers. Epidemiologic data also indicate that vitamin D signaling may be important in the cause and prognosis of prostate and other cancers. These data indicate that perturbation of vitamin D signaling may be a target for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. Large studies of vitamin D supplementation will be required to determine whether these observations can be translated into prevention strategies. This paper reviews the available data in the use of vitamin D compounds in the treatment of prostate cancer. Clinical data are limited which support the use of vitamin D compounds in the management of men with prostate cancer. However, clinical trials guided by existing preclinical data are limited.

  11. Vitamin D in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Donald L; Aragon-Ching, Jeanny B

    2018-01-01

    Signaling through the vitamin D receptor has been shown to be biologically active and important in a number of preclinical studies in prostate and other cancers. Epidemiologic data also indicate that vitamin D signaling may be important in the cause and prognosis of prostate and other cancers. These data indicate that perturbation of vitamin D signaling may be a target for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. Large studies of vitamin D supplementation will be required to determine whether these observations can be translated into prevention strategies. This paper reviews the available data in the use of vitamin D compounds in the treatment of prostate cancer. Clinical data are limited which support the use of vitamin D compounds in the management of men with prostate cancer. However, clinical trials guided by existing preclinical data are limited. PMID:29667615

  12. Prostate and seminal vesicle volume based consideration of prostate cancer patients for treatment with 3D-conformal or intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Nandanuri M. S.; Nori, Dattatreyudu; Chang, Hyesook; Lange, Christopher S.; Ravi, Akkamma

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article was to determine the suitability of the prostate and seminal vesicle volumes as factors to consider patients for treatment with image-guided 3D-conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), using common dosimetry parameters as comparison tools. Methods: Dosimetry of 3D and IMRT plans for 48 patients was compared. Volumes of prostate, SV, rectum, and bladder, and prescriptions were the same for both plans. For both 3D and IMRT plans, expansion margins to prostate+SV (CTV) and prostate were 0.5 cm posterior and superior and 1 cm in other dimensions to create PTV and CDPTV, respectively. Six-field 3D plans were prepared retrospectively. For 3D plans, an additional 0.5 cm margin was added to PTV and CDPTV. Prescription for both 3D and IMRT plans was the same: 45 Gy to CTV followed by a 36 Gy boost to prostate. Dosimetry parameters common to 3D and IMRT plans were used for comparison: Mean doses to prostate, CDPTV, SV, rectum, bladder, and femurs; percent volume of rectum and bladder receiving 30 (V30), 50 (V50), and 70 Gy (V70), dose to 30% of rectum and bladder, minimum and maximum point dose to CDPTV, and prescription dose covering 95% of CDPTV (D95). Results: When the data for all patients were combined, mean dose to prostate and CDPTV was higher with 3D than IMRT plans (P 0.2). On average, among all cases, the minimum point dose was less for 3D-CRT plans and the maximum point dose was greater for 3D-CRT than for IMRT (P 0.1). V30 was less (P 0.2), and V70 was more (P 0.2). Mean dose to femurs was more with 3D than IMRT plans (P 3 (39/48), respectively (P 3 , respectively, would be suitable for 3D-CRT. Patients with prostate and prostate+SV volumes >65 and 85 cm 3 , respectively, might get benefit from IMRT.

  13. Key papers in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney, Simon; Shah, Taimur Tariq; Patel, Hitendra R H; Arya, Manit

    2014-11-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer and second leading cause of death in men. The evidence base for the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer is continually changing. We aim to review and discuss past and contemporary papers on these topics to provoke debate and highlight key dilemmas faced by the urological community. We review key papers on prostate-specific antigen screening, radical prostatectomy versus surveillance strategies, targeted therapies, timing of radiotherapy and alternative anti-androgen therapeutics. Previously, the majority of patients, irrespective of risk, underwent radical open surgical procedures associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Evidence is emerging that not all prostate cancers are alike and that low-grade disease can be safely managed by surveillance strategies and localized treatment to the prostate. The question remains as to how to accurately stage the disease and ultimately choose which treatment pathway to follow.

  14. Use of EORTC Target Definition Guidelines for Dose-Intensified Salvage Radiation Therapy for Recurrent Prostate Cancer: Results of the Quality Assurance Program of the Randomized Trial SAKK 09/10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sassowsky, Manfred; Gut, Philipp; Hölscher, Tobias; Hildebrandt, Guido; Müller, Arndt-Christian; Najafi, Yousef; Kohler, Götz; Kranzbühler, Helmut; Guckenberger, Matthias; Zwahlen, Daniel R.; Azinwi, Ngwa C.; Plasswilm, Ludwig; Takacs, Istvan; Reuter, Christiane; Sumila, Marcin; Manser, Peter; Ost, Piet; Böhmer, Dirk; Pilop, Christiane; Aebersold, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Different international target volume delineation guidelines exist and different treatment techniques are available for salvage radiation therapy (RT) for recurrent prostate cancer, but less is known regarding their respective applicability in clinical practice. Methods and Materials: A randomized phase III trial testing 64 Gy vs 70 Gy salvage RT was accompanied by an intense quality assurance program including a site-specific and study-specific questionnaire and a dummy run (DR). Target volume delineation was performed according to the European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer guidelines, and a DR-based treatment plan was established for 70 Gy. Major and minor protocol deviations were noted, interobserver agreement of delineated target contours was assessed, and dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters of different treatment techniques were compared. Results: Thirty European centers participated, 43% of which were using 3-dimensional conformal RT (3D-CRT), with the remaining centers using intensity modulated RT (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc technique (VMAT). The first submitted version of the DR contained major deviations in 21 of 30 (70%) centers, mostly caused by inappropriately defined or lack of prostate bed (PB). All but 5 centers completed the DR successfully with their second submitted version. The interobserver agreement of the PB was moderate and was improved by the DR review, as indicated by an increased κ value (0.59 vs 0.55), mean sensitivity (0.64 vs 0.58), volume of total agreement (3.9 vs 3.3 cm 3 ), and decrease in the union volume (79.3 vs 84.2 cm 3 ). Rectal and bladder wall DVH parameters of IMRT and VMAT vs 3D-CRT plans were not significantly different. Conclusions: The interobserver agreement of PB delineation was moderate but was improved by the DR. Major deviations could be identified for the majority of centers. The DR has improved the acquaintance of the participating centers with the trial protocol

  15. Use of EORTC Target Definition Guidelines for Dose-Intensified Salvage Radiation Therapy for Recurrent Prostate Cancer: Results of the Quality Assurance Program of the Randomized Trial SAKK 09/10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassowsky, Manfred [Department of Radiation Oncology and Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Bern University Hospital (Switzerland); Gut, Philipp [Department of Radiation Oncology Kantonsspital Luzern (Switzerland); Hölscher, Tobias [University Hospital Dresden (Germany); Hildebrandt, Guido [University Hospital Rostock (Germany); Müller, Arndt-Christian [University Hospital Tübingen (Germany); Najafi, Yousef [University Hospital Zürich (Switzerland); Kohler, Götz [University Hospital Basel (Switzerland); Kranzbühler, Helmut [Stadtspital Triemli, Zürich (Switzerland); Guckenberger, Matthias [University Hospital Würzburg (Germany); Zwahlen, Daniel R. [Kantonsspital Graubünden, Chur (Switzerland); Azinwi, Ngwa C. [Istituto Oncologico della Svizzera Italiana, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Plasswilm, Ludwig [Kantonsspital St. Gallen (Switzerland); Takacs, Istvan [Kantonsspital Aarau (Switzerland); Reuter, Christiane [Kantonsspital Münsterlingen (Switzerland); Sumila, Marcin [Hirslanden Hospital Group, Zürich (Switzerland); Manser, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology and Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Bern University Hospital (Switzerland); Ost, Piet [Ghent University Hospital (Belgium); Böhmer, Dirk [Charité University Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Pilop, Christiane [Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research, Coordinating Center, Bern (Switzerland); Aebersold, Daniel M. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Bern University Hospital (Switzerland); and others

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: Different international target volume delineation guidelines exist and different treatment techniques are available for salvage radiation therapy (RT) for recurrent prostate cancer, but less is known regarding their respective applicability in clinical practice. Methods and Materials: A randomized phase III trial testing 64 Gy vs 70 Gy salvage RT was accompanied by an intense quality assurance program including a site-specific and study-specific questionnaire and a dummy run (DR). Target volume delineation was performed according to the European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer guidelines, and a DR-based treatment plan was established for 70 Gy. Major and minor protocol deviations were noted, interobserver agreement of delineated target contours was assessed, and dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters of different treatment techniques were compared. Results: Thirty European centers participated, 43% of which were using 3-dimensional conformal RT (3D-CRT), with the remaining centers using intensity modulated RT (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc technique (VMAT). The first submitted version of the DR contained major deviations in 21 of 30 (70%) centers, mostly caused by inappropriately defined or lack of prostate bed (PB). All but 5 centers completed the DR successfully with their second submitted version. The interobserver agreement of the PB was moderate and was improved by the DR review, as indicated by an increased κ value (0.59 vs 0.55), mean sensitivity (0.64 vs 0.58), volume of total agreement (3.9 vs 3.3 cm{sup 3}), and decrease in the union volume (79.3 vs 84.2 cm{sup 3}). Rectal and bladder wall DVH parameters of IMRT and VMAT vs 3D-CRT plans were not significantly different. Conclusions: The interobserver agreement of PB delineation was moderate but was improved by the DR. Major deviations could be identified for the majority of centers. The DR has improved the acquaintance of the participating centers with the trial

  16. Transitioning from conventional radiotherapy to intensity-modulated radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer. Changing focus from rectal bleeding to detailed quality of life analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hideya; Nakamura, Satoaki; Nishimura, Takuya; Yoshida, Ken; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Koizumi, Masahiko; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of modern radiation techniques, we have been able to deliver a higher prescribed radiotherapy dose for localized prostate cancer without severe adverse reactions. We reviewed and analyzed the change of toxicity profiles of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) from the literature. Late rectal bleeding is the main adverse effect, and an incidence of >20% of Grade ≥2 adverse events was reported for 2D conventional radiotherapy of up to 70 Gy. 3D conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) was found to reduce the incidence to ∼10%. Furthermore, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) reduced it further to a few percentage points. However, simultaneously, urological toxicities were enhanced by dose escalation using highly precise external radiotherapy. We should pay more attention to detailed quality of life (QOL) analysis, not only with respect to rectal bleeding but also other specific symptoms (such as urinary incontinence and impotence), for two reasons: (1) because of the increasing number of patients aged >80 years, and (2) because of improved survival with elevated doses of radiotherapy and/or hormonal therapy; age is an important prognostic factor not only for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) control but also for adverse reactions. Those factors shift the main focus of treatment purpose from survival and avoidance of PSA failure to maintaining good QOL, particularly in older patients. In conclusion, the focus of toxicity analysis after radiotherapy for prostate cancer patients is changing from rectal bleeding to total elaborate quality of life assessment. (author)

  17. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prostate. The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system located just below the bladder (the organ that ... up part of semen . Enlarge Anatomy of the male reproductive and urinary systems, showing the prostate, testicles, bladder, and other organs. ...

  18. Prostate cancer and social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Stacy; Katz, Matthew S; Langford, Aisha; Byrne, Nataliya; Ciprut, Shannon

    2018-04-11

    The use of social media is increasing globally and is employed in a variety of ways in the prostate cancer community. In addition to their use in research, advocacy, and awareness campaigns, social media offer vast opportunities for education and networking for patients with prostate cancer and health-care professionals, and many educational resources and support networks are available to patients with prostate cancer and their caregivers. Despite the considerable potential for social media to be employed in the field of prostate cancer, concerns remain - particularly regarding the maintenance of patient confidentiality, variable information quality, and possible financial conflicts of interest. A number of professional societies have, therefore, issued guidance regarding social media use in medicine. Social media are used extensively in other cancer communities, particularly among patients with breast cancer, and both the quantity and type of information available are expected to grow in the future.

  19. Changes in Treatment Volume of Hormonally Treated and Untreated Cancerous Prostate and its Impact on Rectal Dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilleby, Wolfgang; Dale, Einar; Olsen, Dag R.; Gude, Unn; Fossaa, Sophie D.

    2003-01-01

    Late chronic side effects of the rectum constitute one of the principal limiting factors for curative radiation therapy in patients with prostate cancer. The purpose of the study was to determine the impact of immediate androgen deprivation (IAD) prior to conformal radiotherapy on rectal volume exposed to high doses, as compared with a deferred treatment strategy (DAD). Twenty-five patients (13 in the IAD group and 12 in the DAD group) with bulky tumours of the prostate, T3pN1-2M0 from the prospective EORTC trial 30846 were analysed. Three-dimensional conformal radiation treatment plans (3D CRT) using a 4-field box technique were generated based on the digitized computed tomographic or magnetic resonance findings acquired during the first 9 months after inclusion in the EORTC trial. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were calculated for the prostate and rectum. In the DAD group, there was no obvious alteration in the mean size of the prostate or other evaluated structures. In the IAD patients, a statistically significant reduction of approximately 40% of the gross tumour volume (GTV) was reached after a 6 months' course of hormonal treatment (p<0.001). High-dose rectal volume was correlated with the volume changes of the GTV (p<0.001). Mean rectal volume receiving 95% or more of the target dose was significantly reduced by 20%. Our study confirms the effect of downsizing of locally advanced prostate tumours following AD treatment and demonstrates the interdependence of the high-dose rectal volume with the volume changes of the GTV. However, the mean beneficial sparing of rectal volume was outweighed in some patients by considerable inter-patient variations

  20. Investigation of normal tissue complication probabilities in prostate and partial breast irradiation radiotherapy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezak, E.; Takam, R.; Bensaleh, S.; Yeoh, E.; Marcu, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Normal- Tissue-Complication Probabilities of rectum, bladder and urethra following various radiation techniques for prostate cancer were evaluated using the relative-seriality and Lyman models. NTCPs of lungs, heart and skin, their dependence on sourceposition, balloon-deformation were also investigated for HDR mammosite brachytherapy. The prostate treatment techniques included external three dimentional conformal-radiotherapy, Low-Dose-Rate brachytherapy (1-125), High-Dose-Rate brachytherapy (Ir-I92). Dose- Volume-Histograms of critical structures for prostate and breast radiotherapy, retrieved from corresponding treatment planning systems, were converted to Biological Effective Dose (BEffD)-based and Equivalent Dose(Deq)-based DVHs to account for differences in radiation delivery and fractionation schedule. Literature-based model parameters were used to calculate NTCPs. Hypofractionated 3D-CRT (2.75 Gy/fraction, total dose 55 Gy) NTCPs of rectum, bladder and urethra were less than those for standard fractionated 4-field 3D-CRT (2-Gy/fraction, 64 Gy) and dose-escalated 4- and 5-field 3D-CRT (74 Gy). Rectal and bladder NTCPs (5.2% and 6.6%) following the dose-escalated 4-field 3D-CRT (74 Gy) were the highest among analyzed techniques. The average NTCP for rectum and urethra were 0.6% and 24.7% for LDRBT and 0.5% and 11.2% for HDR-BT. For Mammosite, NTCP was estimated to be 0.1 %, 0.1 %, 1.2% and 3.5% for skin desquamation, erythema, telangiectasia and fibrosis respectively (the source positioned at the balloon centre). A 4 mm Mammosite-balloon deformation leads to overdosing of PTV regions by ∼40%, resulting in excessive skin dose and increased NTCP. Conclusions Prostate brachytherapy resulted in NTCPs lower compared to external beam techniques. Mammosite-brachytherapy resulted in no heart/lung complications regardless of balloon deformation. However, 4 mm deformation caused 0.6% increase in tissue fibrosis NTCP.

  1. Chemotherapeutic prevention studies of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djavan, Bob; Zlotta, Alexandre; Schulman, Claude

    2004-01-01

    Despite advances in the detection and management of prostate cancer, this disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in men. Increasing attention has focused on the role of chemoprevention for prostate cancer, ie the administration of agents that inhibit 1 or more steps in the natural...... history of prostate carcinogenesis. We review prostate cancer chemoprevention studies in Europe....

  2. Human Prostate Cancer Hallmarks Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Dipamoy; Aftabuddin, Md.; Gupta, Dinesh Kumar; Raha, Sanghamitra; Sen, Prosenjit

    2016-01-01

    Human prostate cancer is a complex heterogeneous disease that mainly affects elder male population of the western world with a high rate of mortality. Acquisitions of diverse sets of hallmark capabilities along with an aberrant functioning of androgen receptor signaling are the central driving forces behind prostatic tumorigenesis and its transition into metastatic castration resistant disease. These hallmark capabilities arise due to an intense orchestration of several crucial factors, including deregulation of vital cell physiological processes, inactivation of tumor suppressive activity and disruption of prostate gland specific cellular homeostasis. The molecular complexity and redundancy of oncoproteins signaling in prostate cancer demands for concurrent inhibition of multiple hallmark associated pathways. By an extensive manual curation of the published biomedical literature, we have developed Human Prostate Cancer Hallmarks Map (HPCHM), an onco-functional atlas of human prostate cancer associated signaling and events. It explores molecular architecture of prostate cancer signaling at various levels, namely key protein components, molecular connectivity map, oncogenic signaling pathway map, pathway based functional connectivity map etc. Here, we briefly represent the systems level understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with prostate tumorigenesis by considering each and individual molecular and cell biological events of this disease process. PMID:27476486

  3. Radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, S.; Herfarth, K.

    2011-01-01

    With the development of modern radiation techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), a dose escalation in the definitive radiotherapy of prostate cancer and a consecutive improvement in biochemical recurrence-free survival (BFS) could be achieved. Among others, investigators at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) saw 5-year BFS rates of up to 98%. A further gain in effectiveness and safety is expected of hypofractionation schedules, as suggested by data published by Kupelian et al., who saw a low 5-year rate of grade ≥2 rectal side-effects of 4.5%. However, randomized studies are just beginning to mature. Patients with intermediate or high-risk tumors should receive neoadjuvant (NHT) and adjuvant (AHT) androgen deprivation. Bolla et al. could show an increase in 5-year overall survival from 62-78%. The inclusion of the whole pelvis in the treatment field (WPRT) is still controversial. The RTOG 94-13 study showed a significant advantage in disease-free survival after 60 months but long-term data did not yield significant differences between WPRT and irradiation of the prostate alone. The German Society of Urology strongly recommends adjuvant radiotherapy of the prostate bed for pT3 N0 tumors with positive margins. In a pT3 N0 R0 or pT2 N0 R+ situation, adjuvant radiotherapy should at least be considered. So far, no randomized data on NHT and AHT have been published, so androgen deprivation remains an individual decision in the postoperative setting. In a retrospective analysis Spiotto et al. reported a positive effect for adjuvant WPRT and biochemical control. This article summarizes the essential publications on definitive and adjuvant radiotherapy and discusses the additional use of androgen deprivation and WPRT. (orig.) [de

  4. Prostate Cancer Screening Results from PLCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn the results of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial, a large-scale clinical trial to determine whether certain cancer screening tests can help reduce deaths from prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer.

  5. Vitamins, metabolomics, and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondul, Alison M; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Albanes, Demetrius

    2017-06-01

    How micronutrients might influence risk of developing adenocarcinoma of the prostate has been the focus of a large body of research (especially regarding vitamins E, A, and D). Metabolomic profiling has the potential to discover molecular species relevant to prostate cancer etiology, early detection, and prevention, and may help elucidate the biologic mechanisms through which vitamins influence prostate cancer risk. Prostate cancer risk data related to vitamins E, A, and D and metabolomic profiling from clinical, cohort, and nested case-control studies, along with randomized controlled trials, are examined and summarized, along with recent metabolomic data of the vitamin phenotypes. Higher vitamin E serologic status is associated with lower prostate cancer risk, and vitamin E genetic variant data support this. By contrast, controlled vitamin E supplementation trials have had mixed results based on differing designs and dosages. Beta-carotene supplementation (in smokers) and higher circulating retinol and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D concentrations appear related to elevated prostate cancer risk. Our prospective metabolomic profiling of fasting serum collected 1-20 years prior to clinical diagnoses found reduced lipid and energy/TCA cycle metabolites, including inositol-1-phosphate, lysolipids, alpha-ketoglutarate, and citrate, significantly associated with lower risk of aggressive disease. Several active leads exist regarding the role of micronutrients and metabolites in prostate cancer carcinogenesis and risk. How vitamins D and A may adversely impact risk, and whether low-dose vitamin E supplementation remains a viable preventive approach, require further study.

  6. BTG2 Antiproliferative Gene and Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walden, Paul D

    2008-01-01

    .... During this study we showed that BTG2 protein expression is lost as an early event in prostate carcinogenesis and that prostate cancer cells degrade BTG2 at a greater rate than noncancerous prostate cells...

  7. Other biomarkers for detecting prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Lucas; Corradi, Renato; Eastham, James A

    2010-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been used for detecting prostate cancer since 1994. Although it is the best cancer biomarker available, PSA is not perfect. It lacks both the sensitivity and specificity to accurately detect the presence of prostate cancer. None of the PSA thresholds currently in use consistently identify patients with prostate cancer and exclude patients without cancer. Novel approaches to improve our ability to detect prostate cancer and predict the course of the disease are needed. Additional methods for detecting prostate cancer have been evaluated. Despite the discovery of many new biomarkers, only a few have shown some clinical value. These markers include human kallikrein 2, urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, prostate-specific membrane antigen, early prostate cancer antigen, PCA3, alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase and glutathione S-transferase pi hypermethylation. We review the reports on biomarkers for prostate cancer detection, and their possible role in the clinical practice.

  8. Expression of Ku70 predicts results of radiotherapy in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Tomokazu; Someya, Masanori; Hori, Masakazu; Nakata, Kensei; Kitagawa, Mio; Tsuchiya, Takaaki; Sakata, Koh-ichi [Sapporo Medical University School of medicine, Department of Radiology, Chuo-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Matsumoto, Yoshihisa [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Nojima, Masanori [The University of Tokyo, The Institute of Medical Science Hospital, Minatoku, Tokyo (Japan); Masumori, Naoya [Sapporo Medical University School of medicine, Department of Urology, Chuo-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Hasegawa, Tadashi [Sapporo Medical University School of medicine, Department of Surgical Pathology, Chuo-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2017-01-15

    Therapeutic strategy for prostate cancer is decided according to T stage, Gleason score, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. These clinical factors are not accurate enough to predict individual risk of local failure of prostate cancer after radiotherapy. Parameters involved with radiosensitivity are required to improve the predictive capability for local relapse. We analyzed 58 patients with localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate between August 2007 and October 2010 treated with 76 Gy of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) as a discovery cohort and 42 patients between March 2001 and May 2007 treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) as a validation cohort. Immunohistochemical examination for proteins involved in nonhomologous end-joining was performed using biopsy specimens. Ku70 expression was not correlated with various clinical parameters, such as the Gleason score and D'amico risk classification, indicating that Ku70 expression was an independent prognostic factor. The predictive value for PSA relapse was markedly improved after the combination of Gleason score and Ku70 expression, as compared with Gleason score alone. In patients treated with radiotherapy and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), no relapses were observed in patients with Gleason score ≤7 or low Ku70 expression. In contrast, patients with Gleason score ≥8 and high Ku70 expression had high PSA relapse rates. In the validation cohort, similar results were obtained. Treatment with 76 Gy and ADT can be effective for patients with Gleason score ≤7 or low Ku70 expression, but is not enough for patients with Gleason score ≥8 and high Ku70 expression and, thus, require other treatment approaches. (orig.) [German] Die Behandlung beim Prostatakarzinom ist abhaengig von T-Stadium, Gleason-Score und prostataspezifischem Antigen (PSA). Diese klinischen Faktoren sind jedoch zu ungenau, um das individuelle Lokalrezidivrisiko beim Prostatakarzinom nach

  9. Methylselenium and Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Junxuan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of the biochemical pathways and molecular targets for the selective induction of apoptosis signaling and execution of prostate cancer (PCa...

  10. Methylselenium and Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Junxuan

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of the biochemical pathways and molecular targets for the selective induction of apoptosis signaling and execution of prostate cancer (PCa...

  11. Methylselenium and Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Junxuan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of the biochemical pathways and molecular targets for the selective induction of apoptosis signaling and execution of prostate cancer (PCa...

  12. Methylselenium and Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Junxuan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of the biochemical pathways and molecular targets for the selective induction of apoptosis signaling and execution of prostate cancer (PCa...

  13. Contemporary Management of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Katherine; Konety, Badrinath; Ordonez, Maria A.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer represents a spectrum ranging from low-grade, localized tumors to devastating metastatic disease. We discuss the general options for treatment and recent developments in the field. PMID:26949522

  14. General Information about Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of bisphosphonate drugs to prevent or slow the growth of bone metastases is being studied in clinical trials. There are treatments for bone pain caused by bone metastases or hormone therapy. Prostate cancer that has spread to the ...

  15. Risk group dependence of dose-response for biopsy outcome after three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levegruen, Sabine; Jackson, Andrew; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Venkatraman, Ennapadam S.; Skwarchuk, Mark W.; Schlegel, Wolfgang; Fuks, Zvi; Leibel, Steven A.; Ling, C. Clifton

    2002-01-01

    Background and purpose: We fit phenomenological tumor control probability (TCP) models to biopsy outcome after three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) of prostate cancer patients to quantify the local dose-response of prostate cancer. Materials and methods: We analyzed the outcome after photon beam 3D-CRT of 103 patients with stage T1c-T3 prostate cancer treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) (prescribed target doses between 64.8 and 81 Gy) who had a prostate biopsy performed ≥2.5 years after end of treatment. A univariate logistic regression model based on D mean (mean dose in the planning target volume of each patient) was fit to the whole data set and separately to subgroups characterized by low and high values of tumor-related prognostic factors T-stage ( 6), and pre-treatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (≤10 ng/ml vs. >10 ng/ml). In addition, we evaluated five different classifications of the patients into three risk groups, based on all possible combinations of two or three prognostic factors, and fit bivariate logistic regression models with D mean and the risk group category to all patients. Dose-response curves were characterized by TCD 50 , the dose to control 50% of the tumors, and γ 50 , the normalized slope of the dose-response curve at TCD 50 . Results: D mean correlates significantly with biopsy outcome in all patient subgroups and larger values of TCD 50 are observed for patients with unfavorable compared to favorable prognostic factors. For example, TCD 50 for high T-stage patients is 7 Gy higher than for low T-stage patients. For all evaluated risk group definitions, D mean and the risk group category are independent predictors of biopsy outcome in bivariate analysis. The fit values of TCD 50 show a clear separation of 9-10.6 Gy between low and high risk patients. The corresponding dose-response curves are steeper (γ 50 =3.4-5.2) than those obtained when all patients are analyzed together (γ 50 =2

  16. Osteoblast-Prostate Cancer Cell Interaction in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Navone, Nora

    2001-01-01

    .... This suggests that prostate cancer cells interact with cells from the osteoblastic lineage. To understand the molecular bases of prostatic bone metastases, we established two prostate cancer cell lines, MDA PCa 2a and MDA PCa 2b (1...

  17. Immunotherapy in metastatic prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan F Slovin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prostate cancer remains a challenge as a target for immunological approaches. The approval of the first cell-based immune therapy, Sipuleucel-T for prostate cancer introduced prostate cancer as a solid tumor with the potential to be influenced by the immune system. Methods: We reviewed articles on immunological management of prostate cancer and challenges that lie ahead for such strategies. Results: Treatments have focused on the identification of novel cell surface antigens thought to be unique to prostate cancer. These include vaccines against carbohydrate and blood group antigens, xenogeneic and naked DNA vaccines, and pox viruses used as prime-boost or checkpoint inhibitors. No single vaccine construct to date has resulted in a dramatic antitumor effect. The checkpoint inhibitor, anti-CTLA-4 has resulted in several long-term remissions, but phase III trials have not demonstrated an antitumor effect or survival benefit. Conclusions: Multiple clinical trials suggest that prostate cancer may not be optimally treated by single agent immune therapies and that combination with biologic agents, chemotherapies, or radiation may offer some enhancement of benefit.

  18. Preliminary report of toxicity following 3D radiation therapy for prostate cancer on 3DOG/RTOG 9406

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalski, Jeff M.; Purdy, James A.; Winter, Kathryn; Roach, Mack; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Sandler, Howard M.; Markoe, Arnold M.; Ritter, Mark A.; Russell, Kenneth J.; Sailer, Scott; Harms, William B.; Perez, Carlos A.; Wilder, Richard B.; Hanks, Gerald E.; Cox, James D.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: A prospective Phase I dose escalation study was conducted to determine the maximally-tolerated radiation dose in men treated with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D CRT) for localized prostate cancer. This is a preliminary report of toxicity encountered on the 3DOG/RTOG 9406 study. Methods and Materials: Each participating institution was required to implement data exchange with the RTOG 3D quality assurance (QA) center at Washington University in St. Louis. 3D CRT capabilities were strictly defined within the study protocol. Patients were registered according to three stratification groups: Group 1 patients had clinically organ-confined disease (T1,2) with a calculated risk of seminal vesicle invasion of < 15%. Group 2 patients had clinical T1,2 disease with risk of SV invasion ≥ 15%. Group 3 (G3) patients had clinical local extension of tumor beyond the prostate capsule (T3). All patients were treated with 3D techniques with minimum doses prescribed to the planning target volume (PTV). The PTV margins were 5-10 mm around the prostate for patients in Group 1 and 5-10 mm around the prostate and SV for Group 2. After 55.8 Gy, the PTV was reduced in Group 2 patients to 5-10 mm around the prostate only. Minimum prescription dose began at 68.4 Gy (level I) and was escalated to 73.8 Gy (level II) and subsequently to 79.2 Gy (level III). This report describes the acute and late toxicity encountered in Group 1 and 2 patients treated to the first two study dose levels. Data from RTOG 7506 and 7706 allowed calculation of the expected probability of observing a ≥ grade 3 late effect more than 120 days after the start of treatment. RTOG toxicity scores were used. Results: Between August 23, 1994 and July 2, 1997, 304 Group 1 and 2 cases were registered; 288 cases were analyzable for toxicity. Acute toxicity was low, with 53-54% of Group 1 patients having either no or grade 1 toxicity at dose levels I and II, respectively. Sixty-two percent of Group

  19. Perceived causes of prostate cancer among prostate cancer survivors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, D.E.G.; Cremers, R.G.H.M.; Aben, K.K.H.; Oort, van I.M.; Kampman, E.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate self-reported causes of prostate cancer among prostate cancer survivors in the Netherlands to obtain insight into the common beliefs and perceptions of risk factors for prostate cancer. Materials and methods A total of 956 prostate cancer survivors,

  20. Multiple primary cancers: Simultaneously occurring prostate cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We also reviewed the existing literatures for possible biologic links between prostatic carcinoma and other primary tumors. ... The primary tumors co-existing with prostate cancer were colonic adenocarcinoma, rectal adenocarcinoma, urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma, primary liver cell carcinoma, and thyroid ...

  1. Tea, coffee and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andy H; Fraser, Michelle L; Binns, Colin W

    2009-02-01

    Worldwide, prostate cancer has the second highest incidence of all cancers in males with incidence and mortality being much higher in affluent developed countries. Risk and progression of the disease may be linked to both genetic and environmental factors, especially dietary factors. Tea and coffee are two of the most popular beverages in the world and have been investigated for possible effects on health outcomes, including cancer. However, very little dietary advice for their consumption exists. The evidence for a relationship between coffee or tea consumption and prostate cancer is reviewed in this paper. While current evidence indicates that coffee is a safe beverage, its consumption probably has no relationship with prostate cancer. Tea, especially green tea, has shown some potential in the prevention of prostate cancer. While evidence from epidemiologic studies is currently inconclusive, strong evidence has emerged from animal and in vitro studies. We also consider what level of evidence is required to make recommendations for preventive measures to the public. Although evidence on the relationship between coffee, tea and prostate cancer is not complete, we consider it strong enough to recommend tea as a healthier alternative to coffee.

  2. IGF-Regulated Genes in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Charles

    2003-01-01

    We hypothesized that genes that are differentially expressed as a result of the decreased IGF-I receptor gene expression seen in metastatic prostate cancer contribute to prostate cancer progression...

  3. IGF-Regulated Genes in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Charles T., Jr

    2005-01-01

    We hypothesized that genes that are differentially expressed as a result of the decreased IGF-I receptor gene expression seen in metastatic prostate cancer contribute to prostate cancer progression...

  4. Epigenetics of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Tawnya C; Tricoli, James V

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of novel technologies that can be applied to the investigation of the molecular underpinnings of human cancer has allowed for new insights into the mechanisms associated with tumor development and progression. They have also advanced the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of cancer. These technologies include microarray and other analysis methods for the generation of large-scale gene expression data on both mRNA and miRNA, next-generation DNA sequencing technologies utilizing a number of platforms to perform whole genome, whole exome, or targeted DNA sequencing to determine somatic mutational differences and gene rearrangements, and a variety of proteomic analysis platforms including liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis to survey alterations in protein profiles in tumors. One other important advancement has been our current ability to survey the methylome of human tumors in a comprehensive fashion through the use of sequence-based and array-based methylation analysis (Bock et al., Nat Biotechnol 28:1106-1114, 2010; Harris et al., Nat Biotechnol 28:1097-1105, 2010). The focus of this chapter is to present and discuss the evidence for key genes involved in prostate tumor development, progression, or resistance to therapy that are regulated by methylation-induced silencing.

  5. Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0226 TITLE: Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Rafael Fridman...AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0226 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...response to collagen in prostate cancer. The project’s goal is to define the expression and therapeutic potential of DDRs in prostate cancer. During

  6. The link between benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted, David Dynnes; Bojesen, Stig E

    2013-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer are among the most common diseases of the prostate gland and represent significant burdens for patients and health-care systems in many countries. The two diseases share traits such as hormone-dependent growth and response to antiandrogen...... therapy. Furthermore, risk factors such as prostate inflammation and metabolic disruption have key roles in the development of both diseases. Despite these commonalities, BPH and prostate cancer exhibit important differences in terms of histology and localization. Although large-scale epidemiological...... studies have shown that men with BPH have an increased risk of prostate cancer and prostate-cancer-related mortality, it remains unclear whether this association reflects a causal link, shared risk factors or pathophysiological mechanisms, or detection bias upon statistical analysis. Establishing BPH...

  7. Prostate cancer may trigger paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jakob Kristian; Zakharia, Elias Raja; Boysen, Anders Kindberg Fossø

    2013-01-01

    -Hu antibody test the patient was diagnosed with paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis related to prostate cancer. The patient died within 6 months. We review the literature on prostate cancer-related paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis. High-risk prostate cancer can trigger paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis...

  8. Mitochondrial mutations drive prostate cancer aggression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkins, Julia F.; Sabelnykova, Veronica Y.; Weischenfeldt, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear mutations are well known to drive tumor incidence, aggression and response to therapy. By contrast, the frequency and roles of mutations in the maternally inherited mitochondrial genome are poorly understood. Here we sequence the mitochondrial genomes of 384 localized prostate cancer...... in prostate cancer, and suggest interplay between nuclear and mitochondrial mutational profiles in prostate cancer....

  9. Prostate-specific antigen density: correlation with histological diagnosis of prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Iersel, M. P.; Witjes, W. P.; de la Rosette, J. J.; Oosterhof, G. O.

    1995-01-01

    To assess the additional value of prostate-specific antigen density in the diagnosis of prostate cancer in patients who undergo prostate biopsies. The study comprised 376 patients with symptoms of prostatism who were undergoing prostate biopsy. Digital rectal examination (DRE) and transrectal

  10. Radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Katsumasa

    2001-01-01

    In Japan, where the mortality rate of prostate cancer is lower than in Western countries, radical prostatectomy or hormonal therapy has been applied more frequently than radiation therapy. However, the number of patients with prostate cancer has been increasing recently and the importance of radiation therapy has rapidly been recognized. Although there have been no randomized trials, results from several institutions in Western countries suggest that similar results of cancer control are achieved with either radiation therapy or radical prostatectomy. For higher-risk cases, conformal high-dose therapy or adjuvant hormonal therapy is more appropriate. In this article, the results of radiation therapy for prostate cancer were reviewed, with a view to the appropriate choice of therapy in Japan. (author)

  11. Prostate Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing prostate cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  12. Synergistic interaction of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis on prostate cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, S-C; Lai, S-W; Tsai, P-Y; Chen, P-C; Wu, H-C; Lin, W-H; Sung, F-C

    2013-01-01

    Background: The incidence of prostate cancer is much lower in Asian men than in Western men. This study investigated whether prostate cancer is associated with prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and other medical conditions in the low-incidence population. Methods: From the claims data obtained from the universal National Health Insurance of Taiwan, we identified 1184 patients with prostate cancer diagnosed from 1997 to 2008. Controls comprised 4736 men randomly selected from a cancer-free population. Both groups were 50 years of age or above. Medical histories between the two groups were compared. Results: Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that prostatitis and BPH had stronger association with prostate cancer than the other medical conditions tested. Compared with men without prostatitis and BPH, a higher odds ratio (OR) for prostate cancer was associated with BPH (26.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 20.8–33.0) than with prostatitis (10.5, 95% CI=3.36–32.7). Men with both conditions had an OR of 49.2 (95% CI=34.7–69.9). Conclusion: Men with prostate cancer have strong association with prostatitis and/or BPH. Prostatitis interacts with BPH, resulting in higher estimated relative risk of prostate cancer in men suffering from both conditions. PMID:23612451

  13. Gene therapy for prostate cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tangney, Mark

    2012-01-31

    Cancer remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Despite advances in understanding, detection, and treatment, it accounts for almost one-fourth of all deaths per year in Western countries. Prostate cancer is currently the most commonly diagnosed noncutaneous cancer in men in Europe and the United States, accounting for 15% of all cancers in men. As life expectancy of individuals increases, it is expected that there will also be an increase in the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer may be inoperable at initial presentation, unresponsive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, or recur following appropriate treatment. At the time of presentation, patients may already have metastases in their tissues. Preventing tumor recurrence requires systemic therapy; however, current modalities are limited by toxicity or lack of efficacy. For patients with such metastatic cancers, the development of alternative therapies is essential. Gene therapy is a realistic prospect for the treatment of prostate and other cancers, and involves the delivery of genetic information to the patient to facilitate the production of therapeutic proteins. Therapeutics can act directly (eg, by inducing tumor cells to produce cytotoxic agents) or indirectly by upregulating the immune system to efficiently target tumor cells or by destroying the tumor\\'s vasculature. However, technological difficulties must be addressed before an efficient and safe gene medicine is achieved (primarily by developing a means of delivering genes to the target cells or tissue safely and efficiently). A wealth of research has been carried out over the past 20 years, involving various strategies for the treatment of prostate cancer at preclinical and clinical trial levels. The therapeutic efficacy observed with many of these approaches in patients indicates that these treatment modalities will serve as an important component of urological malignancy treatment in the clinic, either in isolation or

  14. Bone Morphogenetic Proteins, Antagonists and Receptors in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reddi, A

    2003-01-01

    ...? The predominant site of prostate cancer is bone. However, unlike the osteolytic lesions of breast cancer, prostate cancer causes osteoblastic osteosclerosis which leads ultimately to morbidity and mortality...

  15. Effectiveness of Educational Intervention on the Congruence of Prostate and Rectal Contouring as Compared With a Gold Standard in Three-Dimensional Radiotherapy for Prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szumacher, Ewa; Harnett, Nicole; Warner, Saar; Kelly, Valerie; Danjoux, Cyril; Barker, Ruth; Woo, Milton; Mah, Kathy; Ackerman, Ida; Dubrowski, Adam; Rose, Stuart; Crook, Juanita

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine effects of a teaching intervention on precise delineation of the prostate and rectum during planning of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A pretest, posttest, randomized controlled group design was used. During pretest all participants contoured prostate and rectum on planning CT. Afterward, they participated in two types of workshops. The experimental group engaged in an interactive teaching session focused on prostate and rectum MR anatomy compared with CT anatomy. The control group focused on 3D-CRT planning without mention of prostate or rectal contouring. The experimental group practiced on fused MR-CT images, whereas the control group practiced on CT images. All participants completed the posttest. Results: Thirty-one trainees (12 male, 19 female) were randomly assigned to two groups, 17 in the experimental arm, and 14 in the control group. Seventeen felt familiar or very familiar with pelvic organ contouring, 12 somewhat, and 2 had never done it. Thirteen felt confident with organ contouring, 13 somewhat, and 5 not confident. The demographics and composition of groups were analyzed with χ 2 and repeated-measures analysis of variance with the two groups (experimental or control) and two tests (pre- or posttest) as factors. Satisfaction with the course and long-term effects of the course on practice were assessed with immediate and delayed surveys. All performance variables showed a similar pattern of results. Conclusions: The training sessions improved the technical performance similarly in both groups. Participants were satisfied with the course content, and the delayed survey reflected that cognitively participants felt more confident with prostate and rectum contouring and would investigate opportunities to learn more about organ contouring.

  16. Prostatic paracoccidioidomycosis: differential diagnosis of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lima Lopes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Symptomatic prostatic paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is a very rare condition; however, it may express as a typical benign prostatic hyperplasia or a simulating prostatic adenocarcinoma. This case report presents PCM mimicking prostatic adenocarcinoma. The purpose of this paper is to call the general physician's attention to this important differential diagnosis.

  17. Inflammatory Genetic Markers of Prostate Cancer Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tindall, Elizabeth A.; Hayes, Vanessa M. [Cancer Genetics Group, Children’s Cancer Institute Australia for Medical Research, Lowy Cancer Research Centre, University of New South Wales, PO Box 81, Randwick, NSW 2031 (Australia); University of New South Wales, Kensington Campus, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Petersen, Desiree C., E-mail: dpetersen@ccia.unsw.edu.au [Cancer Genetics Group, Children’s Cancer Institute Australia for Medical Research, Lowy Cancer Research Centre, University of New South Wales, PO Box 81, Randwick, NSW 2031 (Australia)

    2010-06-08

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in Western society males, with incidence rates predicted to rise with global aging. Etiology of prostate cancer is however poorly understood, while current diagnostic tools can be invasive (digital rectal exam or biopsy) and/or lack specificity for the disease (prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing). Substantial histological, epidemiological and molecular genetic evidence indicates that inflammation is important in prostate cancer pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current status of inflammatory genetic markers influencing susceptibility to prostate cancer. The focus will be on inflammatory cytokines regulating T-helper cell and chemokine homeostasis, together with the Toll-like receptors as key players in the host innate immune system. Although association studies indicating a genetic basis for prostate cancer are presently limited mainly due to lack of replication, larger and more ethnically and clinically defined study populations may help elucidate the true contribution of inflammatory gene variants to prostate cancer risk.

  18. Inflammatory Genetic Markers of Prostate Cancer Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tindall, Elizabeth A.; Hayes, Vanessa M.; Petersen, Desiree C.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in Western society males, with incidence rates predicted to rise with global aging. Etiology of prostate cancer is however poorly understood, while current diagnostic tools can be invasive (digital rectal exam or biopsy) and/or lack specificity for the disease (prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing). Substantial histological, epidemiological and molecular genetic evidence indicates that inflammation is important in prostate cancer pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current status of inflammatory genetic markers influencing susceptibility to prostate cancer. The focus will be on inflammatory cytokines regulating T-helper cell and chemokine homeostasis, together with the Toll-like receptors as key players in the host innate immune system. Although association studies indicating a genetic basis for prostate cancer are presently limited mainly due to lack of replication, larger and more ethnically and clinically defined study populations may help elucidate the true contribution of inflammatory gene variants to prostate cancer risk

  19. Epigenetic Regulation in Prostate Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggero, Katia; Farran-Matas, Sonia; Martinez-Tebar, Adrian; Aytes, Alvaro

    2018-01-01

    An important number of newly identified molecular alterations in prostate cancer affect gene encoding master regulators of chromatin biology epigenetic regulation. This review will provide an updated view of the key epigenetic mechanisms underlying prostate cancer progression, therapy resistance, and potential actionable mechanisms and biomarkers. Key players in chromatin biology and epigenetic master regulators has been recently described to be crucially altered in metastatic CRPC and tumors that progress to AR independency. As such, epigenetic dysregulation represents a driving mechanism in the reprograming of prostate cancer cells as they lose AR-imposed identity. Chromatin integrity and accessibility for transcriptional regulation are key features altered in cancer progression, and particularly relevant in nuclear hormone receptor-driven tumors like prostate cancer. Understanding how chromatin remodeling dictates prostate development and how its deregulation contributes to prostate cancer onset and progression may improve risk stratification and treatment selection for prostate cancer patients.

  20. Radiation therapy of newly diagnosed, advanced prostatic cancer and hormonally relapsed prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Minoru; Fujiwara, Kazuhisa; Hayakawa, Katsumi; Hida, Shuichi

    1994-01-01

    Ten patients with newly diagnosed, advanced prostatic cancer were treated with radiotherapy and hormone therapy to improve tumor control and survival. Eight patients with hormonally relapsed prostatic cancer were treated with radiotherapy to improve their quality of life. Local control of the tumor was achieved in 9 of 10 patients with newly diagnosed, advanced prostatic cancer. Five of eight patients with hormonally relapsed prostatic cancer obtained improved quality of life. Combined radiotherapy and hormone therapy were effective in the treatment of newly diagnosed, advanced prostatic cancer, and radiotherapy was useful for improving the quality of life of patients with hormonally relapsed prostatic cancer. (author)

  1. BPH and prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Saiful; Catto, James

    2014-04-01

    With the exclusion of non-melanomatous skin malignancy, prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most prevalent cancer in men globally. It has been reported that the majority of men will develop benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) by the time they reach their 60s. Together, these prostatic diseases have a significant morbidity and mortality affecting over a billion men throughout the world. The risk of developing prostate cancer of men suffering BPH is one that has resulted in a healthy debate amongst the urological community. Here, we try to address this conundrum with clinical and basic science evidence. Data from an online search and contemporary data presented at international urological congresses was reviewed. BPH and PCa can be linked together at a molecular and cellular level on genetic, hormonal, and inflammatory platforms suggesting that these prostatic diseases have common pathophysiological driving factors. Epidemiological studies are weighted towards the presence of BPH having a greater risk for a man to develop PCa in his lifetime; however, a conclusion of causality cannot be confidently stated. The future workload healthcare practitioners will face regarding BPH, and PCa will substantially increase. Further basic science and large epidemiological studies using a global cohort of men are required prior to the urological community confidently counseling their patients with BPH with regards to their PCa risk.

  2. BPH and prostate cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Miah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With the exclusion of non-melanomatous skin malignancy, prostate cancer (PCa is the second most prevalent cancer in men globally. It has been reported that the majority of men will develop benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH by the time they reach their 60s. Together, these prostatic diseases have a significant morbidity and mortality affecting over a billion men throughout the world. The risk of developing prostate cancer of men suffering BPH is one that has resulted in a healthy debate amongst the urological community. Here, we try to address this conundrum with clinical and basic science evidence. Materials and Methods: Data from an online search and contemporary data presented at international urological congresses was reviewed. Results: BPH and PCa can be linked together at a molecular and cellular level on genetic, hormonal, and inflammatory platforms suggesting that these prostatic diseases have common pathophysiological driving factors. Epidemiological studies are weighted towards the presence of BPH having a greater risk for a man to develop PCa in his lifetime; however, a conclusion of causality cannot be confidently stated. Conclusion: The future workload healthcare practitioners will face regarding BPH, and PCa will substantially increase. Further basic science and large epidemiological studies using a global cohort of men are required prior to the urological community confidently counseling their patients with BPH with regards to their PCa risk.

  3. REVIEW ARTICLE: PROSTATE CANCER SCREENING USING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FOBUR

    ABSTRACT. Background: Prostate cancer is the commonest cancer among men in Nigeria and early detection is key to cure and survival but its screening through prostate specific antigen (PSA) has remain controversial in literature. Screening with prostate specific antigen (PSA) has led to more men diagnosed with ...

  4. Prostate and seminal vesicle volume based consideration of prostate cancer patients for treatment with 3D-conformal or intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Nandanuri M. S.; Nori, Dattatreyudu; Chang, Hyesook; Lange, Christopher S.; Ravi, Akkamma [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York Hospital Queens, Flushing, New York 11355 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York 11203 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, New York Hospital Queens, Flushing, New York 11355 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this article was to determine the suitability of the prostate and seminal vesicle volumes as factors to consider patients for treatment with image-guided 3D-conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), using common dosimetry parameters as comparison tools. Methods: Dosimetry of 3D and IMRT plans for 48 patients was compared. Volumes of prostate, SV, rectum, and bladder, and prescriptions were the same for both plans. For both 3D and IMRT plans, expansion margins to prostate+SV (CTV) and prostate were 0.5 cm posterior and superior and 1 cm in other dimensions to create PTV and CDPTV, respectively. Six-field 3D plans were prepared retrospectively. For 3D plans, an additional 0.5 cm margin was added to PTV and CDPTV. Prescription for both 3D and IMRT plans was the same: 45 Gy to CTV followed by a 36 Gy boost to prostate. Dosimetry parameters common to 3D and IMRT plans were used for comparison: Mean doses to prostate, CDPTV, SV, rectum, bladder, and femurs; percent volume of rectum and bladder receiving 30 (V30), 50 (V50), and 70 Gy (V70), dose to 30% of rectum and bladder, minimum and maximum point dose to CDPTV, and prescription dose covering 95% of CDPTV (D95). Results: When the data for all patients were combined, mean dose to prostate and CDPTV was higher with 3D than IMRT plans (P<0.01). Mean D95 to CDPTV was the same for 3D and IMRT plans (P>0.2). On average, among all cases, the minimum point dose was less for 3D-CRT plans and the maximum point dose was greater for 3D-CRT than for IMRT (P<0.01). Mean dose to 30% rectum with 3D and IMRT plans was comparable (P>0.1). V30 was less (P<0.01), V50 was the same (P>0.2), and V70 was more (P<0.01) for rectum with 3D than IMRT plans. Mean dose to bladder was less with 3D than IMRT plans (P<0.01). V30 for bladder with 3D plans was less than that of IMRT plans (P<0.01). V50 and V70 for 3D plans were the same for 3D and IMRT plans (P>0.2). Mean dose to femurs

  5. Dietary Phytoestrogens and Prostate Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kurzer, Mindy S; Slaton, Joel

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to evaluate the effects of soy phytoestrogens on reproductive hormones and prostate tissue markers of cell proliferation and androgen action in men at high risk of prostate cancer...

  6. Antibody Responses to Prostate-Associated Antigens in Patients with Prostatitis and Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maricque, Brett B.; Eickhoff, Jens C.; McNeel, Douglas G.

    2010-01-01

    Background An important focus of tumor immunotherapy has been the identification of appropriate antigenic targets. Serum-based screening approaches have led to the discovery of hundreds of tumor-associated antigens recognized by IgG. Our efforts to identify immunologically recognized proteins in prostate cancer have yielded a multitude of antigens, however prioritizing these antigens as targets for evaluation in immunotherapies has been challenging. In this report, we set out to determine whether the evaluation of multiple antigenic targets would allow the identification of a subset of antigens that are common immunologic targets in patients with prostate cancer. Methods Using a phage immunoblot approach, we evaluated IgG responses in patients with prostate cancer (n=126), patients with chronic prostatitis (n=45), and men without prostate disease (n=53). Results We found that patients with prostate cancer or prostatitis have IgG specific for multiple common antigens. A subset of 23 proteins was identified to which IgG were detected in 38% of patients with prostate cancer and 33% patients with prostatitis versus 6% of controls (pprostate and prostate cancer, and suggest that IgG responses to a panel of commonly recognized prostate antigens could be potentially used in the identification of patients at risk for prostate cancer or as a tool to identify immune responses elicited to prostate tissue. PMID:20632317

  7. Psychosocial Consequences of Overdiagnostic of Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sigrid Brisson

    Psychosocial Consequences of Overdiagnostic of Prostate Cancer Sigrid Brisson Nielsen & John Brodersen Introduction In Denmark there are approximately 4400 men diagnosed with prostate cancer each year and nearly 1200 men dies of this disease yearly. The incidence of prostate cancer has increased...... for the past twenty years and make up 24 % of all cancer incidents in men. However, the mortality of prostate cancer has not changed in line with this increase. Empirical evidence shows that the increase in incidence of prostate cancer in Denmark without an increase in the mortality is mostly caused...... by opportunistic PSA screening in General Practice. It is recommended that men ≥ 60 year old diagnosed with prostate cancer and a Gleason score ≤ 6 are monitored with active surveillance. This is due to the probability of this type of cancer metastasizing is very small as approximately 90 % of them is assumed...

  8. Prostate cancer and inflammation: the evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfanos, Karen S; De Marzo, Angelo M

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is now known to contribute to several forms of human cancer, with an estimated 20% of adult cancers attributable to chronic inflammatory conditions caused by infectious agents, chronic noninfectious inflammatory diseases and / or other environmental factors. Indeed, chronic inflammation is now regarded as an ‘enabling characteristic’ of human cancer. The aim of this review is to summarize the current literature on the evidence for a role for chronic inflammation in prostate cancer aetiology, with a specific focus on recent advances regarding the following: (i) potential stimuli for prostatic inflammation; (ii) prostate cancer immunobiology; (iii) inflammatory pathways and cytokines in prostate cancer risk and development; (iv) proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) as a risk factor lesion to prostate cancer development; and (v) the role of nutritional or other antiinflammatory compounds in reducing prostate cancer risk. PMID:22212087

  9. Radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Bridget F; Lee, W Robert

    2013-07-01

    Radiation therapy is an effective treatment for newly diagnosed prostate cancer, salvage treatment, or for palliation of advanced disease. Herein we briefly discuss the indications, results, and complications associated with brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy, when used as monotherapy and in combination with each other or androgen deprivation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network (PCBN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    are linked to clinical and outcome data and supported by an informatics infrastructure . In this 2nd year of operation the University of Washington...REPORT Unclassified b. ABSTRACT Unclassified c. THIS PAGE Unclassified Unclassified 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code ) Standard Form 298...informatics infrastructure . Keywords Biorepository, prostate cancer, patient derived xenografts, rapid autopsy, biomarkers. Accomplishments The

  11. Genetics Home Reference: prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jan;73(2):169-75. doi: 10.1002/pros.22552. Epub 2012 Jun 21. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central Nakagawa H. Prostate cancer genomics by high-throughput technologies: genome-wide association study and sequencing analysis. Endocr ...

  12. Ultrasonography and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in differential diagnosis of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechev, D.S.; Shcherbyina, O.V.; Yatsik, V.Yi.; Gladka, L.Yu.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the work is analysis of diagnostic possibilities of transrectal ultrasonography and PSA in differential diagnosis of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. 142 patients have been investigated by transrectal ultrasonography. he transrectal ultrasonography and PSA are sensible tests in diagnosis of prostate cancer and in differential diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

  13. Molecular Determinants of Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    receptor is no longer essential for survival, collectively termed androgen pathway independent prostate cancer (APIPC) (Nelson, 2012). A subset of these...Reciprocal feedback regulation of PI3K and androgen receptor signaling in PTEN-deficient prostate cancer . Cancer Cell. 2011 May 17;19(5):575-86. Chen J, Li...2005a). The androgen receptor and signal-transduction pathways in hormone-refractory prostate cancer . Part 1: Modifications to the androgen receptor

  14. Molecular pathology of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazares, L H; Drake, R R; Esquela-Kirscher, A; Lance, R S; Semmes, O J; Troyer, D A

    2010-01-01

    This chapter includes discussion of the molecular pathology of tissue, blood, urine, and expressed prostatic secretions. Because we are unable to reliably image the disease in vivo, a 12 core method that oversamples the peripheral zone is widely used. This generates large numbers of cores that need to be carefully processed and sampled. In spite of the large number of tissue cores, the amount of tumor available for study is often quite limited. This is a particular challenge for research, as new biomarker assays will need to preserve tissue architecture intact for histopathology. Methods of processing and reporting pathology are discussed. With the exception of ductal variants, recognized subtypes of prostate cancer are largely confined to research applications, and most prostate cancers are acinar. Biomarker discovery in urine and expressed prostatic secretions would be useful since these are readily obtained and are proximate fluids. The well-known challenges of biomarker discovery in blood and urine are referenced and discussed. Mediators of carcinogenesis can serve as biomarkers as exemplified by mutations in PTEN and TMPRSS2:ERG fusion. The use of proteomics in biomarker discovery with an emphasis on imaging mass spectroscopy of tissues is discussed. Small RNAs are of great interest, however, their usefulness as biomarkers in clinical decision making remains the subject of ongoing research. The chapter concludes with an overview of blood biomarkers such as circulating nucleic acids and tumor cells and bound/free isoforms of prostate specific antigen (PSA).

  15. Profiling Prostate Cancer Therapeutic Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron A. Wade; Natasha Kyprianou

    2018-01-01

    The major challenge in the treatment of patients with advanced lethal prostate cancer is therapeutic resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) and chemotherapy. Overriding this resistance requires understanding of the driving mechanisms of the tumor microenvironment, not just the androgen receptor (AR)-signaling cascade, that facilitate therapeutic resistance in order to identify new drug targets. The tumor microenvironment enables key signaling pathways promoting cancer cell survival ...

  16. Pancreatic Metastasis from Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The pancreas is an unusual location for metastases from other primary cancers. Rarely, pancreatic metastases from kidney or colorectal cancers have been reported. However, a variety of other cancers may also spread to the pancreas. We report an exceptional case of pancreatic metastasis from prostate cancer. Differences in management between primary and secondary pancreatic tumors make recognition of metastases to the pancreas an objective of first importance. Knowledge of unusual locations for metastatic spread will reduce diagnostic delay and lead to a timely delivery of an appropriate treatment.

  17. Estrogen receptors in the human male prostatic urethra and prostate in prostatic cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, A; Bruun, J; Balslev, E

    1999-01-01

    Estrogen receptors (ERs) in the prostate and prostatic urethra were examined in 33 men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and in 11 with prostate cancer (PC). The Abbot monoclonal ER-ICA assay was used for immunohistochemical investigation. In the BPH group, ERs were revealed in the prostatic...... demonstrated in the prostatic stroma and/or prostatic urethra in 6 out of 11 cases. In both BPH and PC patients, immunoreactivity was weak and confined to few cells, indicating low ER content in the prostate as well as in the prostatic urethra. Dextran-coated charcoal (DCC) analysis was used for detection...... and quanticization of cytosolic and nuclear ERs. In the BPH group, ERs were detected once in the prostate and prostatic urethra in the nuclear and cytosol, and additionally in the prostatic urethra in the cytosol fraction in three cases. In all cases, ER content was low, ranging from 10-15 fmol/mg protein. In the PC...

  18. Danish Prostate Cancer Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, J Thomas; Klemann, Nina; Røder, Martin Andreas

    2016-01-01

    of SNOMED codes were identified. A computer algorithm was developed to transcode SNOMED codes into an analyzable format including procedure (eg, biopsy, transurethral resection, etc), diagnosis, and date of diagnosis. For validation, ~55,000 pathological reports were manually reviewed. Prostate-specific...... antigen, vital status, causes of death, and tumor-node-metastasis classification were integrated from national registries. RESULTS: Of the 161,525 specimens from 113,801 males identified, 83,379 (51.6%) were sets of prostate biopsies, 56,118 (34.7%) were transurethral/transvesical resections......BACKGROUND: Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED) codes are computer-processable medical terms used to describe histopathological evaluations. SNOMED codes are not readily usable for analysis. We invented an algorithm that converts prostate SNOMED codes into an analyzable format. We...

  19. Immunotherapy and Immune Evasion in Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, Archana; Vaishampayan, Ulka; Lum, Lawrence G.

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic prostate cancer remains to this day a terminal disease. Prostatectomy and radiotherapy are effective for organ-confined diseases, but treatment for locally advanced and metastatic cancer remains challenging. Although advanced prostate cancers treated with androgen deprivation therapy achieves debulking of disease, responses are transient with subsequent development of castration-resistant and metastatic disease. Since prostate cancer is typically a slowly progressing disease, use of immune-based therapies offers an advantage to target advanced tumors and to induce antitumor immunity. This review will discuss the clinical merits of various vaccines and immunotherapies in castrate resistant prostate cancer and challenges to this evolving field of immune-based therapies

  20. Immunotherapy and Immune Evasion in Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, Archana, E-mail: thakur@karmanos.org; Vaishampayan, Ulka [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Lum, Lawrence G., E-mail: thakur@karmanos.org [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)

    2013-05-24

    Metastatic prostate cancer remains to this day a terminal disease. Prostatectomy and radiotherapy are effective for organ-confined diseases, but treatment for locally advanced and metastatic cancer remains challenging. Although advanced prostate cancers treated with androgen deprivation therapy achieves debulking of disease, responses are transient with subsequent development of castration-resistant and metastatic disease. Since prostate cancer is typically a slowly progressing disease, use of immune-based therapies offers an advantage to target advanced tumors and to induce antitumor immunity. This review will discuss the clinical merits of various vaccines and immunotherapies in castrate resistant prostate cancer and challenges to this evolving field of immune-based therapies.

  1. Diagnostic utility of DTI in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerses, Bengi, E-mail: bengur0@yahoo.com [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey); Tasdelen, Neslihan [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey); Yencilek, Faruk [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Urology, Istanbul (Turkey); Kilickesmez, N. Ozguer [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey); Alp, Turgut [Fatih Sultan Mehmet Training and Research Hospital, Division of Urology, Istanbul (Turkey); Firat, Zeynep [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey); Albayrak, M. Selami [Kartal Training and Research Hospital, Division of Urology, Istanbul (Turkey); Ulug, Aziz M. [Yeditepe University Department of Biomedical Engineering, Istanbul (Turkey); The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, New York (United States); Guermen, A. Nevzat [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the diffusion tensor parameters of prostate cancer, prostatitis and normal prostate tissue. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 patients with the suspicion of prostate cancer were included in the study. MRI was performed with 3 T system (Intera Achieva, Philips Medical Systems, The Netherlands). T2 TSE and DTI with ss-EPI were obtained in each subject. TRUS-guided prostate biopsy was performed after the MRI examination. Images were analyzed by two radiologists using a special software system. ROI's were drawn according to biopsy zones which are apex, midgland, base and central zone on each sides of the gland. FA and ADC values in areas of cancer, chronic prostatitis and normal prostate tissue were compared using Student's t-test. Results: Histopathological analysis revealed carcinoma in 68, chronic prostatitis in 67 and was reported as normal in 65 zones. The mean FA of cancerous tissue was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than the FA of chronic prostatitis and normal gland. The mean ADC of cancerous tissue was found to be significantly lower (p < 0.01), compared with non-cancerous tissue. Conclusion: Decreased ADC and increased FA are compatible with the hypercellular nature of prostate tumors. These differences may increase the accuracy of MRI in the detection of carcinoma and to differentiate between cancer and prostatitis.

  2. Diagnostic utility of DTI in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerses, Bengi; Tasdelen, Neslihan; Yencilek, Faruk; Kilickesmez, N. Ozguer; Alp, Turgut; Firat, Zeynep; Albayrak, M. Selami; Ulug, Aziz M.; Guermen, A. Nevzat

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the diffusion tensor parameters of prostate cancer, prostatitis and normal prostate tissue. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 patients with the suspicion of prostate cancer were included in the study. MRI was performed with 3 T system (Intera Achieva, Philips Medical Systems, The Netherlands). T2 TSE and DTI with ss-EPI were obtained in each subject. TRUS-guided prostate biopsy was performed after the MRI examination. Images were analyzed by two radiologists using a special software system. ROI's were drawn according to biopsy zones which are apex, midgland, base and central zone on each sides of the gland. FA and ADC values in areas of cancer, chronic prostatitis and normal prostate tissue were compared using Student's t-test. Results: Histopathological analysis revealed carcinoma in 68, chronic prostatitis in 67 and was reported as normal in 65 zones. The mean FA of cancerous tissue was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than the FA of chronic prostatitis and normal gland. The mean ADC of cancerous tissue was found to be significantly lower (p < 0.01), compared with non-cancerous tissue. Conclusion: Decreased ADC and increased FA are compatible with the hypercellular nature of prostate tumors. These differences may increase the accuracy of MRI in the detection of carcinoma and to differentiate between cancer and prostatitis.

  3. Granulomatous prostatitis after intravesical immunotherapy mimicking prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Białek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Intravesical immunotherapy with attenuated strains of Mycobacterium bovis is a widely used therapeutic option in patients with non-muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. A rare complication of intravesical therapy with the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine is granulomatous prostatitis, which due to increasing levels of prostate-specific antigen and abnormalities found in transrectal examination of the prostate may suggest concomitant prostate cancer. A case of extensive granulomatous prostatitis in a 61-year-old patient which occurred after the first course of a well-tolerated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy is presented. Due to abnormalities found in rectal examination and an abnormal transrectal ultrasound image of the prostate with extensive infiltration mimicking neoplastic hyperplasia a core biopsy of the prostate was performed. Histopathological examination revealed inflammatory infiltration sites of tuberculosis origin.

  4. Role of transurethral resection of the prostate in the management of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szollosi Attila

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prostate cancer is the second most diagnosed cancer in men, after lung cancer. The gold standard procedure in prostate cancer (PCa diagnosis is the ultrasound guided prostate biopsy. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP used in solving the bladder outlet obstruction, can have a role in detection of PCa. The aim of this retrospective study is to examine the role of transurethral resection of the prostate in the diagnosis and therapy of prostate cancer.

  5. Clinical survey of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Tsuyoshi; Hatano, Koji; Satoh, Mototaka; Tsujimoto, Yuichi; Honda, Masahito; Matsumiya, Kiyomi; Fujioka, Hideki

    2007-01-01

    Treatment trends and outcomes for prostate cancer in our hospital were reported. A total of 482 patients with prostate cancer treated in our hospital between January, 1990 and December, 2004. The age distribution was from 51 to 99 years-old, with the mean age of 72.9 years-old at onset. The number of prostate cancer patients, especially asymptomatic patients with prostatic specific antigen (PSA) elevation, have increased recently. As for the clinical stage, 92 cases (19.1%), 238 cases (49.4%), 48 cases (10.0%) and 104 cases (21.6%) were stage A, B, C and D, respectively. 425 cases (88.2%) received some form of endocrine therapy. Retropubic prostatectomy or external beam radiation therapy was performed in 77 and 57 cases, respectively all cases. The cause-specific 5-year survival rate of the 482 cases was 79.7%, comprising 100% for stage A1, 96.8% for stage A2, 89.4% for stage B, 79.9% for stage C and 42.9% for stage D. The cause-specific 5-year survival was significantly better in the latter patients (1997-2004) than the former patients (1990-1996) in stage C (p=0.0226), D (p=0.0448). In stage C patients, the retropubic prostatectomy (with endocrine therapy) group, increased in the latter period and showed longer cause-specific 5-year survival than the endocrine therapy group (p=0.0027). In stage D2 patients, chemo-endocrine therapy with etoposide (VP-16), adriamycin (ADM) and cisplatin (CDDP) refractory and cause-specific 5-year survival was longer than endocrine therapy alone (p=0.0467, P=0.0381). Our results suggest that retropubic prostatectomy with endocrine therapy and chemo-endocrine therapy are useful for stage C and D prostate cancer patients, respectively. (author)

  6. Prioritizing genes associated with prostate cancer development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorlov, Ivan P; Logothetis, Christopher J; Sircar, Kanishka; Zhao, Hongya; Maity, Sankar N; Navone, Nora M; Gorlova, Olga Y; Troncoso, Patricia; Pettaway, Curtis A; Byun, Jin Young

    2010-01-01

    The genetic control of prostate cancer development is poorly understood. Large numbers of gene-expression datasets on different aspects of prostate tumorigenesis are available. We used these data to identify and prioritize candidate genes associated with the development of prostate cancer and bone metastases. Our working hypothesis was that combining meta-analyses on different but overlapping steps of prostate tumorigenesis will improve identification of genes associated with prostate cancer development. A Z score-based meta-analysis of gene-expression data was used to identify candidate genes associated with prostate cancer development. To put together different datasets, we conducted a meta-analysis on 3 levels that follow the natural history of prostate cancer development. For experimental verification of candidates, we used in silico validation as well as in-house gene-expression data. Genes with experimental evidence of an association with prostate cancer development were overrepresented among our top candidates. The meta-analysis also identified a considerable number of novel candidate genes with no published evidence of a role in prostate cancer development. Functional annotation identified cytoskeleton, cell adhesion, extracellular matrix, and cell motility as the top functions associated with prostate cancer development. We identified 10 genes--CDC2, CCNA2, IGF1, EGR1, SRF, CTGF, CCL2, CAV1, SMAD4, and AURKA--that form hubs of the interaction network and therefore are likely to be primary drivers of prostate cancer development. By using this large 3-level meta-analysis of the gene-expression data to identify candidate genes associated with prostate cancer development, we have generated a list of candidate genes that may be a useful resource for researchers studying the molecular mechanisms underlying prostate cancer development

  7. Impact of radiation dose on achieving nadir PSA levels after 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for patients with localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelefsky, Michael J.; Leibel, Steven A.; Kelson, Suzanne; Fuks, Zvi

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Several reports have documented the prognostic value of a post-irradiation nadir PSA of ≤1 ng/ml in prostatic cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to determine which pre-treatment and treatment-related variables impact upon achieving such nadir levels. Materials and Methods: Between January 1987 and June 1995, 740 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated with 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). 214 (29%) patients were treated with neo-adjuvant androgen ablation prior to therapy and were excluded from this analysis. Among the 526 evaluable patients, the clinical stage were as follows: T 1 C=128 (24%); T 2 A=76 (14%); T 2 B=116 (22%); T 2 C=99 (19%) and T 3 =107 (21%). The prescription dose to the planning target volume (PTV) was 64.8-68.4 Gy in 87 patients (17%); 70.2 Gy in 191 (36%); 75.6 Gy in 209 (40%) and 81 Gy in 39 (7%). The median pre-treatment PSA value was 11.2 ng/ml (range 0.3-114). The median follow-up was 20 months (range: 6-76 months). Results: 242 patients (46%) had PSA levels which declined to ≤1.0 ng/ml. The median time to a nadir level of ≤1.0 was 15.6 months (range: 1-43 months) from completion of 3D-CRT. 154 (29%) patients continued to show declining PSA levels within the first 2 years after therapy, and 130 patients (25%) failed to nadir at PSA levels of ≤1.0 ng/ml. Among patients with nadir PSA levels ≤1, the 3 year PSA relapse-free survival was 91% compared to 29% for patients with nadir PSA levels >1 ng/ml (p<0.0001). A Cox-regression analysis demonstrated that nadir PSA ≤1 was the strongest predictor of PSA relapse-free survival (p<0.001) followed by Gleason score ≤ 6 (p<0.001) and stage< T3 (p=0.004). Among patients who received doses of ≥75.6 Gy, the likelihood of achieving PSA nadir levels ≤1.0 at 24 and 36 months was 86% and 93%, respectively, compared to 74 and 80%, respectively, among those who received lower doses (p<0.001). Doses of ≥75.6 Gy was the strongest

  8. Multiple Primary Cancers: Simultaneously Occurring Prostate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-20

    May 20, 2016 ... occurring prostate cancer and other primary tumors-our experience and literature ..... thyroid cancers, pancreatic tumors, renal cancers, and melanoma. ... Hsing AW, Yeboah E, Biritwum R, Tettey Y, De Marzo AM,. Adjei A, et ...

  9. Prostate Cancer Screening : The effect on prostate cancer mortality and incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. van Leeuwen (Pim)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAt first glance, deciding whether to get the PSA screening test for prostate cancer seems to be pretty straightforward and attractive. It’s a simple blood test that can pick up the prostate cancer long before your symptoms appear. After all, your prostate cancer is earlier treated

  10. Transrectal ultrasound imaging and prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossen, Tjerk; Wijkstra, Hessel

    2003-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most important causes of death from cancer in men. Ultrasound imaging is frequently used in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. This paper presents an overview of currently available ultrasound imaging techniques. The underlying principles and methods are discussed

  11. Vitamin D, Sunlight and Prostate Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Vanaja Donkena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second common cancer in men worldwide. The prevention of prostate cancer remains a challenge to researchers and clinicians. Here, we review the relationship of vitamin D and sunlight to prostate cancer risk. Ultraviolet radiation of the sunlight is the main stimulator for vitamin D production in humans. Vitamin D's antiprostate cancer activities may be involved in the actions through the pathways mediated by vitamin D metabolites, vitamin D metabolizing enzymes, vitamin D receptor (VDR, and VDR-regulated genes. Although laboratory studies including the use of animal models have shown that vitamin D has antiprostate cancer properties, whether it can effectively prevent the development and/or progression of prostate cancer in humans remains to be inconclusive and an intensively studied subject. This review will provide up-to-date information regarding the recent outcomes of laboratory and epidemiology studies on the effects of vitamin D on prostate cancer prevention.

  12. Estrogen receptors in the human male prostatic urethra and prostate in prostatic cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, A; Bruun, J; Balslev, E

    1999-01-01

    Estrogen receptors (ERs) in the prostate and prostatic urethra were examined in 33 men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and in 11 with prostate cancer (PC). The Abbot monoclonal ER-ICA assay was used for immunohistochemical investigation. In the BPH group, ERs were revealed in the prostatic...... stroma in eight cases and in the glandular epithelium in one. In four cases ERs were seen in the prostatic stroma and in the glandular epithelium. In the prostatic urethra, ERs were found in 19 cases located in the urothelium, lamina propria and/or periurethral glands. In the PC group, ERs were...... demonstrated in the prostatic stroma and/or prostatic urethra in 6 out of 11 cases. In both BPH and PC patients, immunoreactivity was weak and confined to few cells, indicating low ER content in the prostate as well as in the prostatic urethra. Dextran-coated charcoal (DCC) analysis was used for detection...

  13. Management of patients with advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillessen, S; Omlin, A; Attard, G

    2015-01-01

    The first St Gallen Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference (APCCC) Expert Panel identified and reviewed the available evidence for the ten most important areas of controversy in advanced prostate cancer (APC) management. The successful registration of several drugs for castration......-resistant prostate cancer and the recent studies of chemo-hormonal therapy in men with castration-naïve prostate cancer have led to considerable uncertainty as to the best treatment choices, sequence of treatment options and appropriate patient selection. Management recommendations based on expert opinion...

  14. Imaging Primary Prostate Cancer and Bone Metastasis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2004-01-01

    ... and androgen independent prostate cancer xenografted mice. Specific Aims: (1) Design, synthesize, and characterize positrori emitting bombesin analogs, labeled with copper-64 or fluorine-I 8; (2...

  15. Details of recurrence sites after elective nodal irradiation (ENI) using 3D-conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) combined with chemotherapy for thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma--a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Hideomi; Okuma, Kae; Wakui, Reiko; Kobayashi-Shibata, Shino; Ohtomo, Kuni; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2011-02-01

    To describe patterns of recurrence of elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) using 3D-conformal radiotherapy. One hundred and twenty-six consecutive patients with stages I-IVB thoracic esophageal SqCC newly diagnosed between June 2000 and July 2009 and treated with 3D-CRT in our institution were recruited from our database. Definitive CRT consisted of two cycles of nedaplatin/5FU repeated every 4 weeks, with concurrent radiation therapy of 50-50.4 Gy in 25-28 fractions. Until completion, radiotherapy was delivered to the N1 and M1a lymph nodes as ENI in addition to gross tumor volume. All 126 patients were included in this analysis, and their tumors were staged as follows: T1/T2/T3/T4, 28/18/54/26; N0/N1, 50/76; M0/M1a/M1b, 91/5/30. The mean follow-up period for the 63 surviving patients was 28.3 (±22.8) months. Eighty-seven patients (69%) achieved complete response (CR) without any residual tumor at least once after completion of CRT. After achieving CR, each of 40 patients experienced failures (local=20 and distant=20) and no patient experienced elective nodal failure without having any other site of recurrence. The upper thoracic esophageal carcinoma showed significantly more (34%) relapses at the local site than the middle (9%) or lower thoracic (11%) carcinomas. The 2-year and 3-year overall survival was 56% and 43%, respectively. The 1-year, 2-year and 3-year disease-free survival was 46%, 38% and 33%, respectively. In CRT for esophageal SqCC, ENI was effective for preventing regional nodal failure. The upper thoracic esophageal carcinomas had significantly more local recurrences than the middle or lower thoracic sites. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Punctuated evolution of prostate cancer genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, Sylvan C; Prandi, Davide; Lawrence, Michael S; Mosquera, Juan Miguel; Romanel, Alessandro; Drier, Yotam; Park, Kyung; Kitabayashi, Naoki; MacDonald, Theresa Y; Ghandi, Mahmoud; Van Allen, Eliezer; Kryukov, Gregory V; Sboner, Andrea; Theurillat, Jean-Philippe; Soong, T David; Nickerson, Elizabeth; Auclair, Daniel; Tewari, Ashutosh; Beltran, Himisha; Onofrio, Robert C; Boysen, Gunther; Guiducci, Candace; Barbieri, Christopher E; Cibulskis, Kristian; Sivachenko, Andrey; Carter, Scott L; Saksena, Gordon; Voet, Douglas; Ramos, Alex H; Winckler, Wendy; Cipicchio, Michelle; Ardlie, Kristin; Kantoff, Philip W; Berger, Michael F; Gabriel, Stacey B; Golub, Todd R; Meyerson, Matthew; Lander, Eric S; Elemento, Olivier; Getz, Gad; Demichelis, Francesca; Rubin, Mark A; Garraway, Levi A

    2013-04-25

    The analysis of exonic DNA from prostate cancers has identified recurrently mutated genes, but the spectrum of genome-wide alterations has not been profiled extensively in this disease. We sequenced the genomes of 57 prostate tumors and matched normal tissues to characterize somatic alterations and to study how they accumulate during oncogenesis and progression. By modeling the genesis of genomic rearrangements, we identified abundant DNA translocations and deletions that arise in a highly interdependent manner. This phenomenon, which we term "chromoplexy," frequently accounts for the dysregulation of prostate cancer genes and appears to disrupt multiple cancer genes coordinately. Our modeling suggests that chromoplexy may induce considerable genomic derangement over relatively few events in prostate cancer and other neoplasms, supporting a model of punctuated cancer evolution. By characterizing the clonal hierarchy of genomic lesions in prostate tumors, we charted a path of oncogenic events along which chromoplexy may drive prostate carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cancer of the prostate - role of PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shittu, O.B.

    1999-02-01

    Since 1979 when prostate specific antigen (PSA), found in the cytoplasm of benign and malignant prostatic cells, was first purified, it has attained world wide popularity in prostate cancer detection. It is also a sensitive test for skeletal meta states from carcinoma of the prostate. Prostate cancer has become the number one cancer in men and constitutes 11% of all cancers. Approximately 50% of men over 50 years have symptoms referable to the lower urinary tract. 50% or more of patients at Ibadan present an advanced stage of the disease and are therefore not curable. Thus, lacking the skill to manage advanced manifestations, early detection and screening programs are the best means to reduce mortality due to prostate cancer

  18. [Medical treatment of prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobel, B; Cipolla, B; Labrador, J

    1994-03-01

    Hormone dependence of prostate cancer is well known. In 80% of cases with metastases, hormone suppression leads to the reduction of tumour volume and related disorders. However the treatment is generally palliative because malignant process recurs after about around 16 months. Mean survival is less than 3 years in these forms. Lack of response come always together with a poor prognosis, and there is 90% mortality at 2 years. Advanced prostatic cancer should not be treated with hormones if the patient has few symptoms and his quality of life is satisfactory. Symptomatic forms require hormone manipulation. Orchidectomy or LH-RH are recommended. Total androgen ablation (combined treatment) leads rapidly to more relief of symptoms, but its drawbacks and especially high cost indicate that its use should be weighed individually. Estramustine is not a first-lune treatment. Presently, there is no criteria to predict response to treatment.

  19. Surveillance after prostate cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supiot, S.; Rio, E.; Clement-Colmou, K.; Bouchot, O.; Rigaud, J.

    2011-01-01

    Follow-up after prostate cancer radiotherapy aims at detecting local or metastatic relapse, as well as long-term toxicity, requiring adapted treatments. Several scientific societies have published guidelines including clinical, biological and imaging recommendations. More data suggest a role for aggressive salvage therapy in case of local failure following radiotherapy. An adequate follow-up is required for the sake of patients' safety, i.e. to a posteriori validate dose constraints and radiation technique in each radiotherapy department. (authors)

  20. Targeting Splicing in Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Effrosyni Antonopoulou; Michael Ladomery

    2018-01-01

    Over 95% of human genes are alternatively spliced, expressing splice isoforms that often exhibit antagonistic functions. We describe genes whose alternative splicing has been linked to prostate cancer; namely VEGFA, KLF6, BCL2L2, ERG, and AR. We discuss opportunities to develop novel therapies that target specific splice isoforms, or that target the machinery of splicing. Therapeutic approaches include the development of small molecule inhibitors of splice factor kinases, splice isoform speci...

  1. Prostate Cancer Biospecimen Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army...SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES...14. ABSTRACT The goal of the study is development of a Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network (PCBN) resource site with high quality and well

  2. Prostate cancer trends in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaza, Hideyuki; Onozawa, Mizuki; Hinotsu, Shiro

    2017-06-01

    Differences in the incidence and mortality rates for prostate cancer between East and West are clearly defined, with higher rates in the West and lower rates in the East. Treatment methods are generally selected in accordance with general practice guidelines, but the current reality in Asia is that there is not sufficient clinical data to set Asia-specific guidelines for treatment. This leads to a situation whereby for the large part guidelines based on scientific evidence accumulated in Western countries are followed, but from time to time cases are encountered when such guidelines may not be considered to be the most appropriate for the case at hand. Although there is a relatively large volume of clinical evidence relating to endocrine therapy in Asia, the treatment choices and effects differ to those in the West. These regional differences are thought to be due to various factors, including not only differences in genetic background, but also distinct differences in the living and healthcare environments. If the differences between East and West in terms of trends in prostate cancer could be examined, with positive aspects being adopted and negative aspects being improved, this could also be expected to be of use in developing a better treatment strategy for prostate cancer. The exchanging of information on a broader, global level will enable improvements in prevention, diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. It is in pursuit of this objective that it is important to promote high-quality clinical trials and joint epidemiological studies in Asia and work to accumulate data that are comparable to data available in Western countries.

  3. Precision medicine for advanced prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullane, Stephanie A; Van Allen, Eliezer M

    2016-05-01

    Precision cancer medicine, the use of genomic profiling of patient tumors at the point-of-care to inform treatment decisions, is rapidly changing treatment strategies across cancer types. Precision medicine for advanced prostate cancer may identify new treatment strategies and change clinical practice. In this review, we discuss the potential and challenges of precision medicine in advanced prostate cancer. Although primary prostate cancers do not harbor highly recurrent targetable genomic alterations, recent reports on the genomics of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer has shown multiple targetable alterations in castration-resistant prostate cancer metastatic biopsies. Therapeutic implications include targeting prevalent DNA repair pathway alterations with PARP-1 inhibition in genomically defined subsets of patients, among other genomically stratified targets. In addition, multiple recent efforts have demonstrated the promise of liquid tumor profiling (e.g., profiling circulating tumor cells or cell-free tumor DNA) and highlighted the necessary steps to scale these approaches in prostate cancer. Although still in the initial phase of precision medicine for prostate cancer, there is extraordinary potential for clinical impact. Efforts to overcome current scientific and clinical barriers will enable widespread use of precision medicine approaches for advanced prostate cancer patients.

  4. Cytogenetics of Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Konig (Josee)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractIn mosl Weslern counlries, proslale cancer (PC) is a common malignancy. In Ihe United Siaies cancer slatistics of 1994, PC has Ihe highesl incidence rale and is Ihe Ihird cause of cancer dealhs [Boring el al '94J. In Ihe Nelherlands, which lakes Ihe ninlh place on Ihe IIsl of PC

  5. Development of New Treatments for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPaola, R. S.; Abate-Shen, C.; Hait, W. N.

    2005-02-01

    The Dean and Betty Gallo Prostate Cancer Center (GPCC) was established with the goal of eradicating prostate cancer and improving the lives of men at risk for the disease through research, treatment, education and prevention. GPCC was founded in the memory of Dean Gallo, a beloved New Jersey Congressman who died tragically of prostate cancer diagnosed at an advanced stage. GPCC unites a team of outstanding researchers and clinicians who are committed to high-quality basic research, translation of innovative research to the clinic, exceptional patient care, and improving public education and awareness of prostate cancer. GPCC is a center of excellence of The Cancer Institute of New Jersey, which is the only NCI-designated comprehensive cancer center in the state. GPCC efforts are now integrated well as part of our Prostate Program at CINJ, in which Dr. Robert DiPaola and Dr. Cory Abate-Shen are co-leaders. The Prostate Program unites 19 investigators from 10 academic departments who have broad and complementary expertise in prostate cancer research. The overall goal and unifying theme is to elucidate basic mechanisms of prostate growth and oncogenesis, with the ultimate goal of promoting new and effective strategies for the eradication of prostate cancer. Members' wide range of research interests collectively optimize the chances of providing new insights into normal prostate biology and unraveling the molecular pathophysiology of prostate cancer. Cell culture and powerful animal models developed by program members recapitulate the various stages of prostate cancer progression, including prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, adenocarcinoma, androgen-independence, invasion and metastases. These models promise to further strengthen an already robust program of investigator-initiated therapeutic clinical trials, including studies adopted by national cooperative groups. Efforts to translate laboratory results into clinical studies of early detection and

  6. Genomic rearrangements of PTEN in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopheap ePhin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The phosphatase and tensin homolog gene on chromosome 10q23.3 (PTEN is a negative regulator of the PIK3/Akt survival pathway and is the most frequently deleted tumor suppressor gene in prostate cancer. Monoallelic loss of PTEN is present in up to 60% of localized prostate cancers and complete loss of PTEN in prostate cancer is linked to metastasis and androgen independent progression. Studies on the genomic status of PTEN in prostate cancer initially used a two-color fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH assay for PTEN copy number detection in formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue preparations. More recently, a four-color FISH assay containing two additional control probes flanking the PTEN locus with a lower false-positive rate was reported. Combined with the detection of other critical genomic biomarkers for prostate cancer such as ERG, AR, and MYC, the evaluation of PTEN genomic status has proven to be invaluable for patient stratification and management. Although less frequent than allelic deletions, point mutations in the gene and epigenetic silencing are also known to contribute to loss of PTEN function, and ultimately to prostate cancer initiation. Overall, it is clear that PTEN is a powerful biomarker for prostate cancer. Used as a companion diagnostic for emerging therapeutic drugs, FISH analysis of PTEN is promisingly moving human prostate cancer closer to more effective cancer management and therapies.

  7. Vietnam military service history and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritschi Lin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three decades after US and Australian forces withdrew from Vietnam, there has been much public interest in the health consequences of service in Vietnam. One controversial question is whether the risk of prostate cancer amongst Vietnam veterans is increased. This paper examines relationships between military history, family history and risk of prostate cancer in a population-based case control study. Methods Cases were selected from the Cancer Registry of Western Australia as incident cases of histologically-confirmed prostate cancer, and controls were age-matched and selected from the Western Australian electoral roll. Study participants were asked to report any military service history and details about that service. Results Between January 2001 and September 2002, 606 cases and 471 controls aged between 40–75 years were recruited. An increased prostate cancer risk was observed in men reporting they were deployed in Vietnam although this was not statistically significant (OR = 2.12; 95% CI 0.88–5.06. An increased risk was also observed in men reporting prostate cancer in fathers (OR = 1.90; 95% CI 1.20–3.00 or brothers (OR = 2.05; 95% CI 1.20–3.50 diagnosed with prostate cancer. Conclusion These findings support a positive association between prostate cancer and military service history in the Vietnam war and a first degree relative family history of prostate cancer.

  8. Multidisciplinary Functional MR Imaging for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Kon; Jang, Yun Jin; Cho, Gyung Goo

    2009-01-01

    Various functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques are used for evaluating prostate cancer including diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast- enhanced MR imaging, and MR spectroscopy. These techniques provide unique information that is helpful to differentiate prostate cancer from non-cancerous tissue and have been proven to improve the diagnostic performance of MRI not only for cancer detection, but also for staging, post-treatment monitoring, and guiding prostate biopsies. However, each functional MR imaging technique also has inherent challenges. Therefore, in order to make accurate diagnoses, it is important to comprehensively understand their advantages and limitations, histologic background related with image findings, and their clinical relevance for evaluating prostate cancer. This article will review the basic principles and clinical significance of functional MR imaging for evaluating prostate cancer

  9. Pubertal development and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonilla, Carolina; Lewis, Sarah J; Martin, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    , 0.91-1.00) and prostate cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio amongst cases, per tertile: 0.94; 95 % CI, 0.90-0.98), but not with disease grade. CONCLUSIONS: Older age at sexual maturation is causally linked to a reduced risk of later prostate cancer, especially aggressive disease.......BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have observed a positive association between an earlier age at sexual development and prostate cancer, but markers of sexual maturation in boys are imprecise and observational estimates are likely to suffer from a degree of uncontrolled confounding. To obtain...... to a difference of one Tanner stage between pubertal boys of the same age) was associated with a 77 % (95 % CI, 43-91 %) reduced odds of high Gleason prostate cancer. In PRACTICAL, the puberty genetic score was associated with prostate cancer stage (OR of advanced vs. localized cancer, per tertile: 0.95; 95 % CI...

  10. Acute Toxicity After Image-Guided Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Compared to 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy in Prostate Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortel, Ruud C.; Incrocci, Luca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Pos, Floris J.; Lebesque, Joos V.; Witte, Marnix G.; Heide, Uulke A. van der; Herk, Marcel van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Heemsbergen, Wilma D., E-mail: w.heemsbergen@nki.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) allows significant dose reductions to organs at risk in prostate cancer patients. However, clinical data identifying the benefits of IG-IMRT in daily practice are scarce. The purpose of this study was to compare dose distributions to organs at risk and acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity levels of patients treated to 78 Gy with either IG-IMRT or 3D-CRT. Methods and Materials: Patients treated with 3D-CRT (n=215) and IG-IMRT (n=260) receiving 78 Gy in 39 fractions within 2 randomized trials were selected. Dose surface histograms of anorectum, anal canal, and bladder were calculated. Identical toxicity questionnaires were distributed at baseline, prior to fraction 20 and 30 and at 90 days after treatment. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grade ≥1, ≥2, and ≥3 endpoints were derived directly from questionnaires. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were applied. Results: The median volumes receiving 5 to 75 Gy were significantly lower (all P<.001) with IG-IMRT for anorectum, anal canal, and bladder. The mean dose to the anorectum was 34.4 Gy versus 47.3 Gy (P<.001), 23.6 Gy versus 44.6 Gy for the anal canal (P<.001), and 33.1 Gy versus 43.2 Gy for the bladder (P<.001). Significantly lower grade ≥2 toxicity was observed for proctitis, stool frequency ≥6/day, and urinary frequency ≥12/day. IG-IMRT resulted in significantly lower overall RTOG grade ≥2 GI toxicity (29% vs 49%, respectively, P=.002) and overall GU grade ≥2 toxicity (38% vs 48%, respectively, P=.009). Conclusions: A clinically meaningful reduction in dose to organs at risk and acute toxicity levels was observed in IG-IMRT patients, as a result of improved technique and tighter margins. Therefore reduced late toxicity levels can be expected as well; additional research is needed to quantify such reductions.

  11. Association of a XRCC3 polymorphism and rectum mean dose with the risk of acute radio-induced gastrointestinal toxicity in prostate cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fachal, Laura; Gómez-Caamaño, Antonio; Peleteiro, Paula; Carballo, Ana; Calvo-Crespo, Patricia; Sánchez-García, Manuel; Lobato-Busto, Ramón; Carracedo, Ángel; Vega, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: We have performed a case–control study among prostate cancer patients treated with three-dimensional conformational radiotherapy (3D-CRT) in order to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), treatment and patient features with gastrointestinal and genitourinary acute toxicity. Material and methods: A total of 698 patients were screened for 14 SNPs located in the ATM, ERCC2, LIG4, MLH1 and XRCC3 genes. Gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicities were recorded prospectively using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0. Results: The XRCC3 SNP rs1799794 (G/G OR = 5.65; 95% CI: 1.95–16.38; G/A OR = 2.75; 95% CI: 1.25–6.05; uncorrected p-value = 2.8 × 10 −03 ; corrected p-value = 0.03; FDR q-value = 0.06) as well as the mean dose received by the rectum (OR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.02–1.1; uncorrected p-value = 2.49 × 10 −03 ; corrected p-value = 0.03; FDR q-value = 0.06) were significantly associated with gastrointestinal toxicity after correction for multiple testing. Those patients who undergone previous prostatectomy were less prone to develop genitourinary toxicity (OR = 0.38; 95% CI: 0.18–0.71; uncorrected p-value = 4.95 × 10 −03 ; corrected p-value = 0.03; FDR q-value = 0.08). Our study excludes the possibility of a >2-fold risk increase in genitourinary acute toxicity being due to rs1801516 ATM SNP, the rs1805386 and rs1805388 LIG4 markers, as well as all the SNPs evaluated in the ERCC2, MLH1 and XRCC3 genes. Conclusions: The XRCC3 rs1799794 SNP and the mean dose received by the rectum are associated with the development of gastrointestinal toxicity after 3D-CRT.

  12. Prostate Cancer Stem-Like Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death among men, killing an estimated 27,000 men each year in the United States. Men with advanced prostate cancer often become resistant to conventional therapies. Many researchers speculate that the emergence of resistance is due to the presence of cancer stem cells, which are believed to be a small subpopulation

  13. Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer ... because of timely detection and treatment of his prostate cancer. He participated in an NIH-sponsored clinical trial. ...

  14. Staging of prostate cancer: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallejos, J.; Alvarez, C.; Mariluis, C.; Paganini, L.; González, C.; De Luca, S.; Dieguez, A.; Villaronga, A.

    2013-01-01

    In our country prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in older men. An accurate staging is very important to establish treatment strategies.This article presents the 7th edition TNM staging system for prostate cancer, effective January 1, 2010. This has undergone major changes over the 6th edition. (authors) [es

  15. Androgen receptor profiling predicts prostate cancer outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Stelloo (Suzan); E. Nevedomskaya (Ekaterina); H.G. van der Poel (Henk G.); J. de Jong (Jeroen); G.J.H.L. Leenders (Geert); G.W. Jenster (Guido); L. Wessels (Lodewyk); A.M. Bergman (Andries); W. Zwart (Wilbert)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer is the second most prevalent malignancy in men. Biomarkers for outcome prediction are urgently needed, so that high-risk patients could be monitored more closely postoperatively. To identify prognostic markers and to determine causal players in prostate cancer

  16. [Practice guideline 'Prostate cancer: diagnosis and treatment'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijke, T.M. de; Battermann, J.J.; Moorselaar, R.J.A. van; Jong, I.J. de; Visser, A.P.; Burgers, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    --A national, multidisciplinary practice guideline was developed concerning diagnosis and treatment of patients with prostate cancer. Because of the lack of sufficient scientific evidence at this moment no practice guideline on screening is included. --The diagnosis of prostate cancer is made by

  17. Prostate Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  18. Baldness, benign prostate hyperplasia, prostate cancer and androgen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faydaci, Gökhan; Bilal, Eryildirim; Necmettin, Penpegül; Fatih, Tarhan; Asuman, Orçun; Uğur, Kuyumcuoğlu

    2008-12-01

    We evaluated the pattern of baldness and serum androgen levels in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer. BPH, prostate cancer and androgenic alopecia (AA) were somehow androgen dependent and affect large population of elderly men. A total of 152 patients, 108 patients with BPH and 44 patients with prostate cancer were included in the study. We measured serum total, free and bioavailable testosterone, FSH, LH, prolactin, estradiol, albumin and SHBG levels. Baldness classification was based on Norwood's classification and we categorised baldness as vertex and frontal baldness. The frequency of AA in BPH and prostate cancer groups were not different. We looked for some correlation between the two groups with respect to AA and hormone levels. We did not find any correlation between AA and total testosterone, free testosterone, bioavailable testosterone or SHBG levels in both groups. This prospective study with selected small group of patients showed that there is no difference of male pattern baldness in BPH and prostate cancer patients and also there is no correlation between pattern of baldness and serum androgen levels.

  19. Epidemiology of prostate cancer in Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Takahiro; Egawa, Shin

    2018-06-01

    The incidence of prostate cancer has been increasing worldwide in recent years. The GLOBOCAN project showed that prostate cancer was the second most frequently diagnosed cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer mortality among men worldwide in 2012. This trend has been growing even in Asian countries, where the incidence had previously been low. However, the accuracy of data about incidence and mortality as a result of prostate cancer in some Asian countries is limited. The cause of this increasing trend is multifactorial. One possible explanation is changes in lifestyles due to more Westernized diets. The incidence is also statistically biased by the wide implementation of early detection systems and the accuracy of national cancer registration systems, which are still immature in most Asian countries. Mortality rate decreases in Australia, New Zealand and Japan since the 1990s are possibly due to the improvements in treatment and/or early detection efforts employed. However, this rate is increasing in the majority of other Asian countries. Studies of latent and incidental prostate cancer provide less biased information. The prevalence of latent and incidental prostate cancer in contemporary Japan and Korea is similar to those in Western countries, suggesting the influence of lifestyle changes on carcinogenesis. Many studies reported evidence of both congenital and acquired risk factors for carcinogenesis of prostate cancer. Recent changes in the acquired risk factors might be associated with the increasing occurrence of prostate cancer in Asian countries. This trend could continue, especially in developing Asian countries. © 2018 The Japanese Urological Association.

  20. Prostate carcinomas; Cancer de la prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledano, A.; Chauveinc, L.; Flam, T.; Thiounn, N.; Solignac, S.; Timbert, M.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Cosset, J.M.; Ammor, A.; Bonnetain, F.; Brenier, J.P.; Maingon, P.; Peignaux, K.; Truc, G.; Bosset, M.; Crevoisier, R. de; Tucker, S.; Dong, L.; Cheung, R.; Kuban, D.; Azria, D.; Llacer Moscardo, C.; Ailleres, N.; Allaw, A.; Serre, A.; Fenoglietto, P.; Hay, M.H.; Thezenas, S.; Dubois, J.B.; Pommier, P.; Perol, D.; Lagrange, J.L.; Richaud, P.; Brune, D.; Le Prise, E.; Azria, D.; Beckendorf, V.; Chabaud, S.; Carrie, C.; Bosset, M.; Bosset, J.F.; Maingon, P.; Ammor, A.; Crehangen, G.; Truc, G.; Peignaux, K.; Bonnetain, F.; Keros, L.; Bernier, V.; Aletti, P.; Wolf, D.; Marchesia, V.; Noel, A.; Artignan, X.; Fourneret, P.; Bacconier, M.; Shestaeva, O.; Pasquier, D.; Descotes, J.L.; Balosso, J.; Bolla, M.; Burette, R.; Corbusier, A.; Germeau, F.; Crevoisier, R. de; Dong, L.; Bonnen, M.; Cheung, R.; Tucker, S.; Kuban, D.; Crevoisier, R. de; Melancon, A.; Kuban, D.; Cheung, R.; Dong, L.; Peignaux, K.; Brenier, J.P.; Truc, G.; Bosset, M.; Ammor, A.; Barillot, I.; Maingon, P.; Molines, J.C.; Berland, E.; Cornulier, J. de; Coulet-Parpillon, A.; Cohard, C.; Picone, M.; Fourneret, P.; Artignan, X.; Daanen, V.; Gastaldo, J.; Bolla, M.; Collomb, D.; Dusserre, A.; Descotes, J.L.; Troccaz, J.; Giraud, J.Y.; Quero, L.; Hennequin, C.; Ravery, V.; Desgrandschamps, F.; Maylin, C.; Boccon-Gibod, L.; Salem, N.; Bladou, F.; Gravis, G.; Tallet, A.; Simonian, M.; Serment, G.; Salem, N.; Bladou, F.; Gravis, G.; Simonian, M.; Rosello, R.; Serment, G

    2005-11-15

    Some short communications on the prostate carcinoma are given here. The impact of pelvic irradiation, conformation with intensity modulation, association of radiotherapy and chemotherapy reduction of side effects, imaging, doses escalation are such subjects studied and reported. (N.C.)

  1. Baseline prostate-specific antigen measurements and subsequent prostate cancer risk in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Signe Benzon; Brasso, Klaus; Iversen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening reduces mortality from prostate cancer, substantial over-diagnosis and subsequent overtreatment are concerns. Early screening of men for PSA may serve to stratify the male population by risk of future clinical prostate cancer.......Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening reduces mortality from prostate cancer, substantial over-diagnosis and subsequent overtreatment are concerns. Early screening of men for PSA may serve to stratify the male population by risk of future clinical prostate cancer....

  2. Targeting Stromal Recruitment by Prostate Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Ensinger, C., Tumer , Z., Tommerup, N. et al.: Hedgehog signaling in small-cell lung cancer : frequent in vivo but a rare event in vitro. Lung Cancer , 52...W81XWH-04-1-0157 TITLE: Targeting Stromal Recruitment by Prostate Cancer Cells PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jingxian Zhang, Ph.D...DATES COVERED (From - To) 15 Feb 2004 – 14 Feb 2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting Stromal Recruitment by Prostate Cancer

  3. Can the Mediterranean diet prevent prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itsiopoulos, Catherine; Hodge, Allison; Kaimakamis, Mary

    2009-02-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men worldwide. Despite the global importance of this cancer, until recently little was known about risk factors apart from the well-established factors: age, family history and country of birth. The large worldwide variation in prostate cancer risk and increased risk in migrants moving from low to high risk countries provides strong support for modifiable environmental factors. We have based our review on the findings of a systematic review undertaken by an expert panel on behalf of the World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research, and new data since then, linking identified foods and nutrients with prostate cancer. Evidence indicates that foods containing lycopene, as well as selenium and foods containing it, probably protect against prostate cancer, and excess consumption of foods or supplements containing calcium are a probable cause of this cancer. The expert panel also concluded that it is unlikely that beta-carotene (whether from foods or supplements) has a substantial effect on the risk of this cancer. A recent review on environmental factors in human prostate cancer also found that there were protective effects of vitamin E, pulses, soy foods and high plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels. The Mediterranean diet is abundant in foods that may protect against prostate cancer and is associated with longevity and reduced cardiovascular and cancer mortality. Compared with many Western countries Greece has lower prostate cancer mortality and Greek migrant men in Australia have retained their low risk for prostate cancer. Consumption of a traditional Mediterranean diet, rich in bioactive nutrients, may confer protection to Greek migrant men, and this dietary pattern offers a palatable alternative for prevention of this disease.

  4. Prostate cancer, prostate cancer death, and death from other causes, among men with metabolic aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggström, Christel; Stocks, Tanja; Nagel, Gabriele; Manjer, Jonas; Bjørge, Tone; Hallmans, Göran; Engeland, Anders; Ulmer, Hanno; Lindkvist, Björn; Selmer, Randi; Concin, Hans; Tretli, Steinar; Jonsson, Håkan; Stattin, Pär

    2014-11-01

    Few previous studies of metabolic aberrations and prostate cancer risk have taken into account the fact that men with metabolic aberrations have an increased risk of death from causes other than prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to calculate, in a real-life scenario, the risk of prostate cancer diagnosis, prostate cancer death, and death from other causes. In the Metabolic Syndrome and Cancer Project, prospective data on body mass index, blood pressure, glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides were collected from 285,040 men. Risks of prostate cancer diagnosis, prostate cancer death, and death from other causes were calculated by use of competing risk analysis for men with normal (bottom 84%) and high (top 16%) levels of each factor, and a composite score. During a mean follow-up period of 12 years, 5,893 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer, 1,013 died of prostate cancer, and 26,328 died of other causes. After 1996, when prostate-specific antigen testing was introduced, men up to age 80 years with normal metabolic levels had 13% risk of prostate cancer, 2% risk of prostate cancer death, and 30% risk of death from other causes, whereas men with metabolic aberrations had corresponding risks of 11%, 2%, and 44%. In contrast to recent studies using conventional survival analysis, in a real-world scenario taking risk of competing events into account, men with metabolic aberrations had lower risk of prostate cancer diagnosis, similar risk of prostate cancer death, and substantially higher risk of death from other causes compared with men who had normal metabolic levels.

  5. Relative Risks for Lethal Prostate Cancer Based on Complete Family History of Prostate Cancer Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Frederick S; Stephenson, Robert A; Agarwal, Neeraj; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A

    2017-01-01

    There are few published familial relative risks (RR) for lethal prostate cancer. This study estimates RRs for lethal prostate cancer based on comprehensive family history data, with the goal of improving identification of those men at highest risk of dying from prostate cancer. We used a population-based genealogical resource linked to a statewide electronic SEER cancer registry and death certificates to estimate relative risks (RR) for death from prostate cancer based upon family history. Over 600,000 male probands were analyzed, representing a variety of family history constellations of lethal prostate cancer. RR estimates were based on the ratio of the observed to the expected number of lethal prostate cancer cases using internal rates. RRs for lethal prostate cancer based on the number of affected first-degree relatives (FDR) ranged from 2.49 (95% CI: 2.27, 2.73) for exactly 1 FDR to 5.30 (2.13, 10.93) for ≥3 affected FDRs. In an absence of affected FDRs, increased risk was also significant for increasing numbers of affected second-degree or third degree relatives. Equivalent risks were observed for similar maternal and paternal family history. This study provides population-based estimates of lethal prostate cancer risk based on lethal prostate cancer family history. Many family history constellations associated with two to greater than five times increased risk for lethal prostate cancer were identified. These lethal prostate cancer risk estimates hold potential for use in identification, screening, early diagnosis, and treatment of men at high risk for death from prostate cancer. Prostate77:41-48, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Dosimetric comparison of helical tomotherapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy, volumetric-modulated arc therapy, and 3-dimensional conformal therapy for the treatment of T1N0 glottic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekici, Kemal; Pepele, Eda K.; Yaprak, Bahaddin; Temelli, Oztun; Eraslan, Aysun F.; Kucuk, Nadir; Altınok, Ayse Y.; Sut, Pelin A.; Alpak, Ozlem D.; Colak, Cemil; Mayadagli, Alpaslan

    2016-01-01

    Various radiotherapy planning methods for T1N0 laryngeal cancer have been proposed to decrease normal tissue toxicity. We compare helical tomotherapy (HT), linac-based intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT), and 3-D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) techniques for T1N0 laryngeal cancer. Overall, 10 patients with T1N0 laryngeal cancer were selected and evaluated. Furthermore, 10 radiotherapy treatment plans have been created for all 10 patients, including HT, IMRT, VMAT, and 3D-CRT. IMRT, VMAT, and HT plans vs 3D-CRT plans consistently provided superior planning target volume (PTV) coverage. Similar target coverage was observed between the 3 IMRT modalities. Compared with 3D-CRT, IMRT, HT, and VMAT significantly reduced the mean dose to the carotid arteries. VMAT resulted in the lowest mean dose to the submandibular and thyroid glands. Compared with 3D-CRT, IMRT, HT, and VMAT significantly increased the maximum dose to the spinal cord It was observed that the 3 IMRT modalities studied showed superior target coverage with less variation between each plan in comparison with 3D-CRT. The 3D-CRT plans performed better at the D max of the spinal cord. Clinical investigation is warranted to determine if these treatment approaches would translate into a reduction in radiation therapy–induced toxicities.

  7. Does Small Prostate Predict High Grade Prostate Cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caliskan, S.; Kaba, S.; Koca, O.; Ozturk, M. I.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The current study is aimed to assess the patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer and investigate the association between prostate size and adverse outcomes at final pathology. Study Design: Comparative, descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Turkey, from January 2008 to January 2016. Methodology: The patients treated with open radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer were reviewed. Patient characteristics including prostate specific antigen (PSA), free PSA levels, age, biopsy, and radical prostatectomy results were recorded. The patients whose data were complete or prostate weight was equal to or less than 80 gm, were included in the study. Patients with < 40 gm prostate weight was in group 1 and the patients in group 2 had a prostate weight from 40 to 80 gm. High grade prostate cancer was defined to have a Gleason score between 7 or higher at biopsy and final pathology. Pathology and biopsy results were compared within groups. MedCalc Statistical Software demo version was used for statistical analyses. Results: There were 162 patients in this study. Of these, 71 (43.82 percent) patients were in group 1 and 91 (56.17 percent) patients were in group 2. The age ranged from 49 to 76 years. Mean value of 62.70 +-6.82 and 65.82 +- 5.66 years in group 1 and 2, respectively. Fifty (70.42 percent) and 68 patients (74.74 percent) had a Gleason score of 6 in group 1 and 2, respectively. Organconfined disease was reported in 53 patients (74.64 percent) in group 1 and in 78 patients (85.71 percent) in group 2. Gleason score concordance between biopsy and prostatectomy was reported in 61 patients (67.03 percent) and downgrading was detected in 4 patients (4.4 percent) in group 2. The median tumor volume of the patients was 4.47 cm/sup 3/ in group 1 and 6 cm/sup 3/ in group 2 (p=0.502). High grade prostate cancer was reported in 52.11 percent and 45.05 percent of the patients in

  8. Comparison of intensity-modulated radiotherapy and 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy as adjuvant therapy for gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minn, A Yuriko; Hsu, Annie; La, Trang; Kunz, Pamela; Fisher, George A; Ford, James M; Norton, Jeffrey A; Visser, Brendan; Goodman, Karyn A; Koong, Albert C; Chang, Daniel T

    2010-08-15

    The current study was performed to compare the clinical outcomes and toxicity in patients treated with postoperative chemoradiotherapy for gastric cancer using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) versus 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT). Fifty-seven patients with gastric or gastroesophageal junction cancer were treated postoperatively: 26 with 3D CRT and 31 with IMRT. Concurrent chemotherapy was capecitabine (n=31), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) (n=25), or none (n=1). The median radiation dose was 45 Gy. Dose volume histogram parameters for kidney and liver were compared between treatment groups. The 2-year overall survival rates for 3D CRT versus IMRT were 51% and 65%, respectively (P=.5). Four locoregional failures occurred each in the 3D CRT (15%) and the IMRT (13%) patients. Grade>or=2 acute gastrointestinal toxicity was found to be similar between the 3D CRT and IMRT patients (61.5% vs 61.2%, respectively) but more treatment breaks were needed (3 vs 0, respectively). The median serum creatinine from before radiotherapy to most recent creatinine was unchanged in the IMRT group (0.80 mg/dL) but increased in the 3D CRT group from 0.80 mg/dL to 1.0 mg/dL (P=.02). The median kidney mean dose was higher in the IMRT versus the 3D CRT group (13.9 Gy vs 11.1 Gy; P=.05). The median kidney V20 was lower for the IMRT versus the 3D CRT group (17.5% vs 22%; P=.17). The median liver mean dose for IMRT and 3D CRT was 13.6 Gy and 18.6 Gy, respectively (P=.19). The median liver V30 was 16.1% and 28%, respectively (PCancer Society.

  9. Optimizing the Management of High-Risk, Localized Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sundi, Debasish; Jeong, Byong Chang; Lee, Seung Bae; Han, Misop

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer has a high prevalence and a rising incidence in many parts of the world. Although many screen-detected prostate cancers may be indolent, prostate cancer remains a major contributor to mortality in men. Therefore, the appropriate diagnosis and treatment of localized prostate cancer with lethal potential are of great importance. High-risk, localized prostate cancer has multiple definitions. Treatment options that should be individualized to each patient include observation, radi...

  10. Disparities in Prostate Cancer Treatment Modality and Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    producing hormones) 1 0 10 11 B8f. Watchful waiting (no treatment, wait and see if your prostate cancer grows) 1 0 10 11 B8g. Cryotherapy (process...your prostate cancer grows) 7 Cryotherapy (process to freeze and destroy prostate tissue) 8 Chemotherapy (use of anti- cancer drugs) 9 Any other...and attitudes concerning prostate cancer and preventative measures. Prostate Cancer Questionnaire IRB1012# – Version 3 08/01/08 33 Now, I

  11. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khankari, Nikhil K; Murff, Harvey J; Zeng, Chenjie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is a common cancer worldwide with no established modifiable lifestyle factors to guide prevention. The associations between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and prostate cancer risk have been inconsistent. Using Mendelian randomisation, we evaluated associations...... and prostate cancer risk. However, risk reductions were observed for short-chain PUFAs, linoleic (ORLA=0.95, 95%CI=0.92, 0.98) and α-linolenic acids (ORALA=0.96, 95%CI=0.93, 0.98), among men ...-chain PUFAs (i.e., arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosapentaenoic acids), increased risks were observed among men

  12. A feasibility study of using conventional jaws to deliver IMRT plans in the treatment of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yongbok; Verhey, Lynn J; Xia Ping

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using conventional jaws to deliver inverse planned intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans for patients with prostate cancer. For ten patients, each had one three-dimensional conformal plan (3D plan) and seven inverse IMRT plans using direct aperture optimization. For IMRT plans using conventional jaws (JO plans), the number of apertures per beam angle was set from two to seven while three apertures per beam angle were set for the multi-leaf collimator (MLC) plans. To evaluate each planning method, we compared average dose volume histograms (DVH), the conformal index (COIN), total number of segments and total number of monitor units. Among the JO plans with the number of apertures per beam angle varying from two to seven, no difference was observed in the average DVHs, and the plan conformal index became saturated after four apertures per beam angle. Subsequently, JO plans with four apertures per beam angle (JO-4A) were compared with 3D and MLC plans. Based on the average DVHs, no difference was found among 3D, JO-4A and MLC plans with regard to the planning target volume and rectum, but the DVHs for the bladder and penile bulb were significantly better with inverse IMRT plans than those with 3D plans. When compared with the plan conformity, the average COIN values for 3D, JO-4A and MLC plans were 0.61 ± 0.07, 0.73 ± 0.05 and 0.83 ± 0.05, respectively. In conclusion, inverse IMRT plans using conventional jaws are clinically feasible, achieving better plan quality than 3D-CRT plans

  13. Prostate cancer outcome in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yameogo Clotaire

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction African-American black men race is one of non-modifiable risk factors confirmed for prostate cancer. Many studies have been done in USA among African- American population to evaluate prostate cancer disparities. Compared to the USA very few data are available for prostate cancer in Sub-Saharan African countries. The objective of this study was to describe incident prostate cancer (PC diagnosis characteristics in Burkina Faso (West Africa. Methods We performed a prospective non randomized patient’s cohort study of new prostate cancer cases diagnosed by histological analysis of transrectal prostate biopsies in Burkina Faso. Study participants included 166 patients recruited at the urology division of the university hospital of Ouagadougou. Age of the patients, clinical symptoms, digital rectal examination (DRE result, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA level, histological characteristics and TNM classification were taking in account in this study. Results 166 transrectal prostate biopsies (TRPB were performed based on high PSA level or abnormal DRE. The prostate cancer rate on those TRPB was 63, 8 % (n=106. The mean age of the patients was 71, 5 years (52 to 86. Urinary retention was the first clinical patterns of reference in our institution (55, 7 %, n = 59. Most patients, 56, 6 % (n = 60 had a serum PSA level over than 100 ng/ml. All the patients had adenocarcinoma on histological study of prostate biopsy cores. The majority of cases (54, 7 % n = 58 had Gleason score equal or higher than 7. Conclusion Prostate cancer is diagnosed at later stages in our country. Very high serum PSA level and poorly differentiated tumors are the two major characteristics of PC at the time of diagnosis.

  14. Prostate atypia: does repeat biopsy detect clinically significant prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorin, Ryan P; Wiener, Scott; Harris, Cory D; Wagner, Joseph R

    2015-05-01

    While the treatment pathway in response to benign or malignant prostate biopsies is well established, there is uncertainty regarding the risk of subsequently diagnosing prostate cancer when an initial diagnosis of prostate atypia is made. As such, we investigated the likelihood of a repeat biopsy diagnosing prostate cancer (PCa) in patients in which an initial biopsy diagnosed prostate atypia. We reviewed our prospectively maintained prostate biopsy database to identify patients who underwent a repeat prostate biopsy within one year of atypia (atypical small acinar proliferation; ASAP) diagnosis between November 1987 and March 2011. Patients with a history of PCa were excluded. Chart review identified patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP), radiotherapy (RT), or active surveillance (AS). For some analyses, patients were divided into two subgroups based on their date of service. Ten thousand seven hundred and twenty patients underwent 13,595 biopsies during November 1987-March 2011. Five hundred and sixty seven patients (5.3%) had ASAP on initial biopsy, and 287 (50.1%) of these patients underwent a repeat biopsy within one year. Of these, 122 (42.5%) were negative, 44 (15.3%) had atypia, 19 (6.6%) had prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and 102 (35.6%) contained PCa. Using modified Epstein's criteria, 27/53 (51%) patients with PCa on repeat biopsy were determined to have clinically significant tumors. 37 (36.3%) proceeded to RP, 25 (24.5%) underwent RT, and 40 (39.2%) received no immediate treatment. In patients who underwent surgery, Gleason grade on final pathology was upgraded in 11 (35.5%), and downgraded 1 (3.2%) patient. ASAP on initial biopsy was associated with a significant risk of PCa on repeat biopsy in patients who subsequently underwent definitive local therapy. Patients with ASAP should be counseled on the probability of harboring both clinically significant and insignificant prostate cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Radiation therapy for prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Akira; Minowada, Shigeru; Tomoishi, Junzo; Kinoshita, Kenji; Matsuda, Tadayoshi

    1983-01-01

    A conformation radiotherapy system with collimators, whose openings can be controlled symmetrically by computerized techniques during rotational irradiation by a linear accelerator, has been developed for routine use in our hospital. Forty-four patients underwent radiation therapy, including this particular modality of radiotherapy, for prostatic cancer during the period of July 1976 through December 1981. Eight patients were classified as stage A, 10 stage B, 10 stage C, and 16 as stage D. Twenty-nine patients underwent conformation radiotherapy, two rotation radiotherapy, eight 2-port opposing technique radiotherapy, one 4-field radiotherapy, and four underwent a combination of 2-port opposing technique and conformation radiotherapy. Transient mild side effects such as diarrhea occurred in seven cases, while severe side effects such as rectal stricture or contracted bladder occurred in three cases. The latter occurred only in one case among 29 of conformation radiotherapy and in two among eight of 2-port opposing technique radiotherapy. The results of the treatment of short intervals in stage B, C, and D are as follows: prostatic size was reduced in 26 cases among 36, serum acid phosphatase level was reduced in 15 among 18 who had showed high acid phosphatase levels before treatment, although almost all cases underwent simultaneous hormonal therapy. The effects of radiotherapy alone were verified in two cases of stage B in which radiotherapy preceded hormonal therapy. Prostatic size and serum acid phosphatase level were reduced by radiotherapy alone. (author)

  16. Paraneoplastic jaundice and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Ana Claudia; Alvarenga, Maria Joana; Santos, Jose Carlos; Silva, Alberto Mello

    2017-04-22

    Cholestasis has numerous causes. We present the case of a 78-year-old man with a common diagnosis in this age group and gender but with an unusual presentation. There are only 11 articles published of patients with jaundice due to a paraneoplastic syndrome associated with prostate cancer. Interleukin 6 and other proinflammatory cytokines appear to contribute to the pathophysiology of this syndrome. Our patient remains symptom free 4 months after treatment initiation. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Presence of PSA auto-antibodies in men with prostate abnormalities (prostate cancer/benign prostatic hyperplasia/prostatitis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokant, M T; Naz, R K

    2015-04-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), produced by the prostate, liquefies post-ejaculate semen. PSA is detected in semen and blood. Increased circulating PSA levels indicate prostate abnormality [prostate cancer (PC), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostatitis (PTIS)], with variance among individuals. As the prostate has been proposed as an immune organ, we hypothesise that variation in PSA levels among men may be due to presence of auto-antibodies against PSA. Sera from healthy men (n = 28) and men having prostatitis (n = 25), BPH (n = 30) or PC (n = 29) were tested for PSA antibody presence using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) values converted to standard deviation (SD) units, and Western blotting. Taking ≥2 SD units as cut-off for positive immunoreactivity, 0% of normal men, 0% with prostatitis, 33% with BPH and 3.45% with PC demonstrated PSA antibodies. One-way analysis of variance (anova) performed on the mean absorbance values and SD units of each group showed BPH as significantly different (P prostatitis. All others were nonsignificant (P prostate abnormalities, especially differentiating BPH from prostate cancer and prostatitis. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Risks of Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prostate. The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system located just below the bladder (the organ that ... up part of semen . Enlarge Anatomy of the male reproductive and urinary systems, showing the prostate, testicles, bladder, and other organs. ...

  19. Comparison of telomerase activity in prostate cancer, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleiman Mahjoub

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Telomerase is a reverse transcriptase enzyme that synthesizes telomeric DNA on chromosome ends. The enzyme is important for the immortalization of cancer cells because it maintains the telomeres. METHODS: Telomerase activity (TA was measured by fluorescence-based telomeric repeat amplification protocol (FTRAP assay in prostate carcinoma and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. RESULTS: TA was present in 91.4% of 70 prostate cancers, 68.8% of 16 prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN, 43.3% of 30 BPH*, 21.4% of 14 atrophy and 20% of 15 normal samples adjacent to tumor. There was not any significant correlation between TA, histopathological tumor stage or gleason score. In contrast to high TA in the BPH* tissue from the cancer-bearing gland, only 6.3% of 32 BPH specimens from patients only diagnosed with BPH were telomerase activity-positive. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that TA is present in most prostate cancers. The high rate of TA in tissue adjacent to tumor may be attributed either to early molecular alteration of cancer that was histologically unapparent, or to the presence of occult cancer cells. Our findings suggest that the re-expression of telomerase activity could be one step in the transformation of BPH to PIN. KEY WORDS: Telomerase activity, prostate cancer, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  20. Current opinions on chemotherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luptak, J.

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men. Because of the long latency period of prostate cancer, and the economic burden and morbidity associated with its treatment, there is a strong rationale for interventions to reduce the risk of developing this malignancy. The terms „prevention“ or „chemo prevention“ refers to efforts to prevent or delay the development of cancer by taking medicines, vitamins or other agents. There are many agents that may decrease the risk of prostate cancer. It requires careful study of the agents in specific populations to determine whether risk is reduced, magnitude of the risk reduction and the spectrum of side effects associated with the agent. The ideal preventive agent will not significantly alter quality of life, is inexpensive, safe, well tolerated, and effective. The purpose of this article is to review recent developments in the field of prostate cancer prevention. (author)

  1. Development of the Meharry Medical College Prostate Cancer Research Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ukoli, Flora A. M

    2006-01-01

    African Americans (AA) are disproportionately affected by prostate cancer (PCa) for reasons including, biologic tumor differences, genetic predisposition, differential exposures, lack of access to prostate specific antigen (PSA...

  2. Targeting TMPRSS2-ERG in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0212 TITLE: Targeting TMPRSS2-ERG in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David Takeda CONTRACTING...ORGANIZATION: Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Boston, MA 02215 REPORT DATE: November 2017 TYPE OF REPORT: Final PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research...Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0212 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) David Takeda 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  3. Advances in MRI diagnosis of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Longmin; Liu Ailian

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in the world, and the incidence of prostate cancer in China shows an upward trend. MRI has high soft tissue resolution and multi-dimensional imaging advantages, and it can better show the anatomy of the prostate and adjacent tissue structures. With the development of MR technique, it plays a more and more important role in prostate cancer diagnosis. This review starts from the imaging performance of routine MRI sequence of prostate cancer, and a variety of functional MRI applications in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of prostate cancer are described in detail, such as MR perfusion-weighted imaging, MR spectroscopy, MR diffusion-weighted imaging, MR diffusion tensor imaging, intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging, MR susceptibility-weighted imaging. Meanwhile this review introduces that functional MRI has more advantages and can provide more image information than routine MRI sequence. According to a series of semi-quantitative and quantitative data, functional MRI can further provide the blood perfusion of prostate cancer, water molecule diffusion and microcirculation state, metabolism and biochemical composition change information. (authors)

  4. Progress in Gene Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Kamran A.; Davis, Brian J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Wilson, Torrence M. [Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Wiseman, Gregory A. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Federspiel, Mark J. [Department of Molecular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Morris, John C., E-mail: davis.brian@mayo.edu [Division of Endocrinology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2012-11-19

    Gene therapy has held promise to correct various disease processes. Prostate cancer represents the second leading cause of cancer death in American men. A number of clinical trials involving gene therapy for the treatment of prostate cancer have been reported. The ability to efficiently transduce tumors with effective levels of therapeutic genes has been identified as a fundamental barrier to effective cancer gene therapy. The approach utilizing gene therapy in prostate cancer patients at our institution attempts to address this deficiency. The sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) is responsible for the ability of the thyroid gland to transport and concentrate iodide. The characteristics of the NIS gene suggest that it could represent an ideal therapeutic gene for cancer therapy. Published results from Mayo Clinic researchers have indicated several important successes with the use of the NIS gene and prostate gene therapy. Studies have demonstrated that transfer of the human NIS gene into prostate cancer using adenovirus vectors in vitro and in vivo results in efficient uptake of radioactive iodine and significant tumor growth delay with prolongation of survival. Preclinical successes have culminated in the opening of a phase I trial for patients with advanced prostate disease which is currently accruing patients. Further study will reveal the clinical promise of NIS gene therapy in the treatment of prostate as well as other malignancies.

  5. Progress in Gene Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Kamran A.; Davis, Brian J.; Wilson, Torrence M.; Wiseman, Gregory A.; Federspiel, Mark J.; Morris, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Gene therapy has held promise to correct various disease processes. Prostate cancer represents the second leading cause of cancer death in American men. A number of clinical trials involving gene therapy for the treatment of prostate cancer have been reported. The ability to efficiently transduce tumors with effective levels of therapeutic genes has been identified as a fundamental barrier to effective cancer gene therapy. The approach utilizing gene therapy in prostate cancer patients at our institution attempts to address this deficiency. The sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) is responsible for the ability of the thyroid gland to transport and concentrate iodide. The characteristics of the NIS gene suggest that it could represent an ideal therapeutic gene for cancer therapy. Published results from Mayo Clinic researchers have indicated several important successes with the use of the NIS gene and prostate gene therapy. Studies have demonstrated that transfer of the human NIS gene into prostate cancer using adenovirus vectors in vitro and in vivo results in efficient uptake of radioactive iodine and significant tumor growth delay with prolongation of survival. Preclinical successes have culminated in the opening of a phase I trial for patients with advanced prostate disease which is currently accruing patients. Further study will reveal the clinical promise of NIS gene therapy in the treatment of prostate as well as other malignancies.

  6. Increase of Prostate Cancer Incidence in Martinique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Belpomme

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer incidence is steadily increasing in many developed countries. Because insular populations present unique ethnic, geographical, and environmental characteristics, we analyzed the evolution of prostate cancer age-adjusted world standardized incidence rates in Martinique in comparison with that of metropolitan France. We also compared prostate cancer incidence rates, and lifestyle-related and socioeconomic markers such as life expectancy, dietary energy, and fat supply and consumption, with those in other Caribbean islands, France, UK, Sweden, and USA. The incidence rate of prostate cancer in Martinique is one of the highest reported worldwide; it is continuously growing since 1985 in an exponential mode, and despite a similar screening detection process and lifestyle-related behaviour, it is constantly at a higher level than in metropolitan France. However, Caribbean populations that are genetically close to that of Martinique have generally much lower incidence of prostate cancer. We found no correlation between prostate cancer incidence rates, life expectancy, and diet westernization. Since the Caribbean African descent-associated genetic susceptibility factor would have remained constant during the 1980–2005, we suggest that in Martinique some environmental change including the intensive use of carcinogenic organochlorine pesticides might have occurred as key determinant of the persisting highly growing incidence of prostate cancer.

  7. Obesity, body composition, and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fowke Jay H

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Established risk factors for prostate cancer have not translated to effective prevention or adjuvant care strategies. Several epidemiologic studies suggest greater body adiposity may be a modifiable risk factor for high-grade (Gleason 7, Gleason 8-10 prostate cancer and prostate cancer mortality. However, BMI only approximates body adiposity, and may be confounded by centralized fat deposition or lean body mass in older men. Our objective was to use bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA to measure body composition and determine the association between prostate cancer and total body fat mass (FM fat-free mass (FFM, and percent body fat (%BF, and which body composition measure mediated the association between BMI or waist circumference (WC with prostate cancer. Methods The study used a multi-centered recruitment protocol targeting men scheduled for prostate biopsy. Men without prostate cancer at biopsy served as controls (n = 1057. Prostate cancer cases were classified as having Gleason 6 (n = 402, Gleason 7 (n = 272, or Gleason 8-10 (n = 135 cancer. BIA and body size measures were ascertained by trained staff prior to diagnosis, and clinical and comorbidity status were determined by chart review. Analyses utilized multivariable linear and logistic regression. Results Body size and composition measures were not significantly associated with low-grade (Gleason 6 prostate cancer. In contrast, BMI, WC, FM, and FFM were associated with an increased risk of Gleason 7 and Gleason 8-10 prostate cancer. Furthermore, BMI and WC were no longer associated with Gleason 8-10 (ORBMI = 1.039 (1.000, 1.081, ORWC = 1.016 (0.999, 1.033, continuous scales with control for total body FFM (ORBMI = 0.998 (0.946, 1.052, ORWC = 0.995 (0.974, 1.017. Furthermore, increasing FFM remained significantly associated with Gleason 7 (ORFFM = 1.030 (1.008, 1.052 and Gleason 8-10 (ORFFM = 1.044 (1.014, 1.074 after controlling for FM. Conclusions Our results

  8. The role of prostatitis in prostate cancer: meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyi Jiang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Use systematic review methods to quantify the association between prostatitis and prostate cancer, under both fixed and random effects model. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Case control studies of prostate cancer with information on prostatitis history. All studies published between 1990-2012, were collected to calculate a pooled odds ratio. SELECTION CRITERIA: the selection criteria are as follows: human case control studies; published from May 1990 to July 2012; containing number of prostatitis, and prostate cancer cases. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: In total, 20 case control studies were included. A significant association between prostatitis and prostate cancer was found, under both fixed effect model (pooled OR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.39-1.62, and random effects model (OR=1.64, 95%CI: 1.36-1.98. Personal interview based case control studies showed a high level of association (fixed effect model: pooled OR=1.59, 95%CI: 1.47-1.73, random effects model: pooled OR= 1.87, 95%CI: 1.52-2.29, compared with clinical based studies (fixed effect model: pooled OR=1.05, 95%CI: 0.86-1.28, random effects model: pooled OR= 0.98, 95%CI: 0.67-1.45. Additionally, pooled ORs, were calculated for each decade. In a fixed effect model: 1990's: OR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.35-1.84; 2000's: OR=1.59, 95% CI: 1.40-1.79; 2010's: OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.22-1.56. In a random effects model: 1990's: OR=1.98, 95% CI: 1.08-3.62; 2000's: OR=1.64, 95% CI: 1.23-2.19; 2010's: OR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.03-1.73. Finally a meta-analysis stratified by each country was conducted. In fixed effect models, U.S: pooled OR =1.45, 95%CI: 1.34-1.57; China: pooled OR =4.67, 95%CI: 3.08-7.07; Cuba: pooled OR =1.43, 95%CI: 1.00-2.04; Italy: pooled OR =0.61, 95%CI: 0.13-2.90. In random effects model, U.S: pooled OR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.25-1.80; China: pooled OR =4.67, 95%CI: 3.08-7.07; Cuba: pooled OR =1.43, 95%CI: 1.00-2.04; Italy: pooled OR =0.61, 95%CI: 0.13-2.90. CONCLUSIONS: the present meta-analysis provides the statistical

  9. Prospects in radionuclide imaging of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutje, Susanne; Boerman, Otto C.; van Rij, Catharina M.; Sedelaar, Michiel; Helfrich, Wijnand; Oyen, Wim J. G.; Mulders, Peter F. A.

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men in the Western world and represents a major health problem with substantial morbidity and mortality. Sensitivity and specificity of digital rectal examination (DRE) and evaluation of prostate specific antigen (PSA) are excellent methods for

  10. Role of Growth Hormone in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swanson, Steven M

    2007-01-01

    We have established a GH-deficient prostate cancer model (Tag/Ghdr/dr rat) indicating that a reduction in GH and/or IGF-I can significantly inhibit prostate carcinogenesis in this model in contrast to GH wild-type controls...

  11. PSA, PSA derivatives, proPSA and prostate health index in the diagnosis of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ayyıldız, Sema Nur; Ayyıldız, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Currently, prostate- specific antigen (PSA) is the most common oncological marker used for prostate cancer screening. However, high levels of PSA in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis decrease the specificity of PSA as a cancer marker. To increase the specificity of PSA, PSA derivatives and PSA kinetics have been used. However, these new techniques were not able to increase the diagnostic specificity for prostate cancer. Therefore, the search for new molecules and derivatives of PSA...

  12. Epigenetics in Breast and Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yanyuan; Sarkissyan, Marianna; Vadgama, Jaydutt V.

    2015-01-01

    Most recent investigations into cancer etiology have identified a key role played by epigenetics. Specifically, aberrant DNA and histone modifications which silence tumor suppressor genes or promote oncogenes have been demonstrated in multiple cancer models. While the role of epigenetics in several solid tumor cancers such as colorectal cancer are well established, there is emerging evidence that epigenetics also plays a critical role in breast and prostate cancer. In breast cancer, DNA methy...

  13. Are strict vegetarians protected against prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantamango-Bartley, Yessenia; Knutsen, Synnove F; Knutsen, Raymond; Jacobsen, Bjarne K; Fan, Jing; Beeson, W Lawrence; Sabate, Joan; Hadley, David; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Penniecook, Jason; Herring, Patti; Butler, Terry; Bennett, Hanni; Fraser, Gary

    2016-01-01

    According to the American Cancer Society, prostate cancer accounts for ∼27% of all incident cancer cases among men and is the second most common (noncutaneous) cancer among men. The relation between diet and prostate cancer is still unclear. Because people do not consume individual foods but rather foods in combination, the assessment of dietary patterns may offer valuable information when determining associations between diet and prostate cancer risk. This study aimed to examine the association between dietary patterns (nonvegetarian, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, vegan, and semi-vegetarian) and prostate cancer incidence among 26,346 male participants of the Adventist Health Study-2. In this prospective cohort study, cancer cases were identified by matching to cancer registries. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to estimate HRs by using age as the time variable. In total, 1079 incident prostate cancer cases were identified. Around 8% of the study population reported adherence to the vegan diet. Vegan diets showed a statistically significant protective association with prostate cancer risk (HR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.49, 0.85). After stratifying by race, the statistically significant association with a vegan diet remained only for the whites (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.86), but the multivariate HR for black vegans showed a similar but nonsignificant point estimate (HR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.41, 1.18). Vegan diets may confer a lower risk of prostate cancer. This lower estimated risk is seen in both white and black vegan subjects, although in the latter, the CI is wider and includes the null. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Comparison of sonographic features in benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Won Young; Hong, Hyun Sook; Kang, Eun Young; Seol, Hae Young; Suh, Won Hyuck

    1988-01-01

    Transrectal sonography of prostate was sensitive to textural changes produced by both benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancers. During recent 4 years, twenty cases of BPH and twenty cases of prostate cancers proven histologically were analyzed in their sonographic features, retrospectively, by using transrectal prostate sonography and suprapubic prostate sonography. The results were as follows: 1. Mean weights of BPH and prostate cancers was 40.4g and 47.6g, respectively. 2. Sonographic features of BPH revealed isoechogenecity in 11 cases, homogeneity in 18 cases, well defined capsular margins in 19 cases, and calcification in 16 cases. 3. Sonographic features of prostate cancers revealed mixed echogenecity in 14 cases, inhomogeneity in 15 cases, poorly defined capsular margin in 14 cases, and calcifications in 13 cases. 4. Authors concluded that prostate sonography were valuable diagnostic modality in the differentiation of BPH and prostate cancers.

  15. MR imaging of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuck, A.; Scheidler, J.; Sommer, B.; Graser, A.; Mueller-Lisse, U.G.; Massmann, J.

    2003-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis and staging of prostate cancer (PC) is developing into an important health care issue in light of the high incidence of PC and the improvements in stage-adapted therapy. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview on the current role of MR imaging and MR spectroscopy in the diagnosis and staging of PC.Material and methods Pertinent literature was searched and evaluated to collect information on current clinical indications, study techniques, diagnostic value, and limitations of magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. Major indications for MR imaging of patients with supected PC are to define tumor location before biopsy when clinical or TRUS findings are inconclusive, and to provide accurate staging of histologically proven PC to ascertain effective therapy. Current MR imaging techniques for the evaluation of PC include multiplanar high-resolution T2-weighted FSE and T1-weighted SE sequences using combined endorectal and phased-array coils. Using these techniques, the reported accuracy of MR imaging for the diagnosis of extracapsular tumor extension ranges between 82 and 88% with sensitivities between 80 and 95%, and specificities between 82 and 93%. Typical MR findings of PC in different stages of disease, as well as diagnostic problems, such as chronic prostatitis, biopsy-related hemorrhage and therapy-related changes of prostatic tissue are discussed. In addition, the current perspectives and limitations of MR spectroscopy in PC are summarized. Current MR imaging techniques provide important diagnostic information in the pretherapeutic workup of PC including a high staging accuracy, and is superior to TRUS. (orig.) [de

  16. Image guided prostate cancer treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bard, Robert L. [Bard Cancer Center, Biofoundation for Angiogenesis Research and Development, New York, NY (United States); Fuetterer, Jurgen J. [Radboud Univ. Nijmegen, Medical Centre (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology; Sperling, Dan (ed.) [Sperling Prostate Center, Alpha 3TMRI, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Systematic overview of the application of ultrasound and MRI in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lower urinary tract. Detailed information on image-guided therapies, including focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, and microwave and laser ablation. Numerous high-quality illustrations based on high-end equipment. Represents the state of the art in Non Invasive Imaging and Minimally Invasive Ablation Treatment (MIAT). Image-Guided Prostate Cancer Treatments is a comprehensive reference and practical guide on the technology and application of ultrasound and MRI in the male pelvis, with special attention to the prostate. The book is organized into three main sections, the first of which is devoted to general aspects of imaging and image-guided treatments. The second section provides a systematic overview of the application of ultrasound and MRI to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lower urinary tract. Performance of the ultrasound and MRI studies is explained, and the normal and abnormal pathological anatomy is reviewed. Correlation with the ultrasound in the same plane is provided to assist in understanding the MRI sequences. Biopsy and interventional procedures, ultrasound-MRI fusion techniques, and image-guided therapies, including focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, microwave and laser ablation, are all fully covered. The third section focuses on securing treatment effectiveness and the use of follow-up imaging to ensure therapeutic success and detect tumor recurrence at an early stage, which is vital given that prompt focal treatment of recurrence is very successful. Here, particular attention is paid to the role of Doppler ultrasound and DCE-MRI technologies. This book, containing a wealth of high-quality illustrations based on high-end equipment, will acquaint beginners with the basics of prostate ultrasound and MRI, while more advanced practitioners will learn new skills, means of avoiding pitfalls, and ways of effectively

  17. The bicalutamide Early Prostate Cancer Program. Demography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    See, W A.; McLeod, D; Iversen, P

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment for early prostate cancer has yet to be established. A well-tolerated hormonal therapy such as bicalutamide could be a useful treatment option in this setting, either as adjuvant or immediate therapy. A major collaborative clinical trials program was set up...... to investigate bicalutamide as a treatment option for local prostate cancer (localized or locally advanced disease). METHODS: The bicalutamide Early Prostate Cancer program comprises three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of similar design that are being conducted in distinct geographical...... areas (North America; Australia, Europe, Israel, South Africa and Mexico; and Scandinavia). Men with T1b-4N0-1M0 (TNM 1997) prostate cancer have been randomized on a 1:1 basis to receive bicalutamide 150 mg daily or placebo. Recruitment to the program closed in July 1998, and follow-up is ongoing. Study...

  18. Role of Mitochondria in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chowdhury, Subir K

    2006-01-01

    ... (LNCaP DU145 RC3 and CL1). Immunoblot Real Time RT-RCR polarographic and spectrophotometric analysis revealed that mGPDH abundance and activity was significantly elevated in prostate cancer cell lines when compared to normal...

  19. Role of Mitochondria in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chowdhury, Subir K

    2005-01-01

    ... (LNCaP, DU145, PC3, and CL1). Immunoblot, Real Time RTPCR, polarographic, and spectrophotometric analysis revealed that mGPDH abundance and activity was significantly elevated in prostate cancer cell lines when compared to normal...

  20. Biomarkers of Selenium Chemoprevention of Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dong, Yan

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the mechanism of selenium growth inhibition in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells Selenium retarded cell cycle progression at multiple transition points...

  1. Gene Delivery for Metastatic Prostate Cancer Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pang, Shen

    2001-01-01

    .... Enhanced by the bystander effect, the specific expression of the DTA gene causes significant cell death in prostate cancer cell cultures, with very low background cell eradication in control cell lines...

  2. Exploiting Epigenetic Alterations in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Simon J; Haendler, Bernard

    2017-05-09

    Prostate cancer affects an increasing number of men worldwide and is a leading cause of cancer-associated deaths. Beside genetic mutations, many epigenetic alterations including DNA and histone modifications have been identified in clinical prostate tumor samples. They have been linked to aberrant activity of enzymes and reader proteins involved in these epigenetic processes, leading to the search for dedicated inhibitory compounds. In the wake of encouraging anti-tumor efficacy results in preclinical models, epigenetic modulators addressing different targets are now being tested in prostate cancer patients. In addition, the assessment of microRNAs as stratification biomarkers, and early clinical trials evaluating suppressor microRNAs as potential prostate cancer treatment are being discussed.

  3. Exploiting Epigenetic Alterations in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J. Baumgart

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer affects an increasing number of men worldwide and is a leading cause of cancer-associated deaths. Beside genetic mutations, many epigenetic alterations including DNA and histone modifications have been identified in clinical prostate tumor samples. They have been linked to aberrant activity of enzymes and reader proteins involved in these epigenetic processes, leading to the search for dedicated inhibitory compounds. In the wake of encouraging anti-tumor efficacy results in preclinical models, epigenetic modulators addressing different targets are now being tested in prostate cancer patients. In addition, the assessment of microRNAs as stratification biomarkers, and early clinical trials evaluating suppressor microRNAs as potential prostate cancer treatment are being discussed.

  4. Effects of Presurgical Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, men diagnosed with androgen-sensitive prostate cancer with intermediate- or high-risk features will be examined with mpMRI, undergo targeted biopsies, and be treated with neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy.

  5. Fatty Acid Binding Proteins in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jett, Marti

    2000-01-01

    We have shown that there is a distinct pattern of fatty acid binding protein (FAEP) expression in prostate cancer vs normal cells and that finding has be confirmed in patient samples of biopsy specimens...

  6. Novel Therapeutic Approaches Toward Treating Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Kinases, Prostate Cancer, AKT inhibition, Mouse, Prostate Stem Cells 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES...Bearss 0, Wierda WG, Gandhi V (2009) Pim kinase inhibitor, 5GI-1776, induces apoptosis in CLL lymphocytes. Blood 114:4150--4157. 27. Grey R, et aL...PIM1 expression predict outcome in mantle cell lymphoma treated with high dose therapy, stem eel! transplantation and rituximab: a Cancer and Leukemia

  7. Reduction of Racial Disparities in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    African Americans and whites revealed increased risks among men who reported a history of gonorrhea or syphilis or who had positive serology for...cancer, of 1.49 to 2.64 for syphilis, and 1.16 to 1.50 for gonorrhea .16 The meta-analysis also found an association be- tween prostate cancer and...tients with prostatitis include Chlamydia trachoma- tis, Ureaplasma, Mycoplasma, Neisseria gonorrhea , Pseudomonas, Escherichia coli, and

  8. Molecular biology of prostate cancer progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Timothy C.; Sehgal, I.; Timme, T.L.; Rn, C.; Yang, G.; Park, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    Prostate cancer is now the most common form of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in American men (Boring C.C. et al, CA 44:7-26, 1994). As with other forms of cancer, prostate cancer is a multistep disease process that involves the acquisition of multiple genetic alternations (Armitage P and Doll K, Br J Cancer 8:1-12, 1954). For prostate cancer, alternations in specific dominantly acting oncogenes including ras and myc and tumor suppressor genes including p53 and Rb have been reported. However, a simple phenotype-genotype correlation for prostate cancer progression may not be readily accessible because prostate cancer demonstrates remarkable genetic heterogeneity. Recent clinical data indicate that this heterogeneity exists both among the multiple cancer foci as well as within individual cancer foci. Furthermore, based on chromosomal analysis, it has been suggested that metastases do not necessarily seed from the largest index cancer focus at the primary site. Such observations imply that abrupt changes in gene expression may trigger metastatic behavior in relatively small cohorts of malignant cells present at the local site. This pattern of progression may result from compromised function of specific 'control' genes which could affect the activity of multiple downstream genes involved in specific pathways of malignant progression. Such a mechanistic framework involving networks of gene expression could explain the acquisition of the complex metastatic phenotype. Using the mouse prostate reconstitution (MPR) model system (Thompson et al, Cell 56:917-930, 1989) we demonstrated that progression of experimental prostate cancer to metastasis was invariably associated with functional inactivation of p53 (Thompson el al, Oncogene 10:869-879, 1995). Southern blotting analyses revealed that metastases do not necessarily originate from the most abundant clone in the primary carcinoma. Furthermore, the role of p53 as a potential metastasis suppressor

  9. Regulating Cancer-Associated Fibroblast Biology in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0512 TITLE: Regulating Cancer-Associated Fibroblast Biology in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Andrew...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Regulating Cancer-Associated Fibroblast Biology in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0512 5c. PROGRAM...blocked by the addition of Pim inhibitors. These results suggest that the Pim protein kinase can regulate stromal cell biology to modulate epithelial

  10. The Role of Estrogen Receptor β in Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Christoforou, Paraskevi; Christopoulos, Panagiotis F; Koutsilieris, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although androgen receptor (AR) signaling is the main molecular tool regulating growth and function of the prostate gland, estrogen receptor β (ERβ) is involved in the differentiation of prostatic epithelial cells and numerous antiproliferative actions on prostate cancer cells. However, ERβ splice variants have been associated with prostate cancer initiation and progression mechanisms. ERβ is promising as an anticancer therapy and in the prevention of prostate cancer. Herein, we review the re...

  11. 78 FR 54745 - National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A... Cancer Awareness Month, we remember those lost to prostate cancer, offer our support to patients and... the laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim September 2013 as National Prostate Cancer Awareness...

  12. Alcohol consumption and prostate cancer incidence and progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner, Clair; Davies, Neil M; Martin, Richard M

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in developed countries, and is a target for risk reduction strategies. The effects of alcohol consumption on prostate cancer incidence and survival remain unclear, potentially due to methodological limitations of observational studies. In this stud...... consumption is unlikely to affect prostate cancer incidence, but it may influence disease progression....

  13. Interleukin-30: A novel microenvironmental hallmark of prostate cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Carlo, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in men worldwide. We have recently discovered that IL-30 shapes the microenvironment of prostate cancer and tumor-draining lymph nodes to favor tumor progression. IL-30 supports tumor growth in vitro, and IL-30 expression in prostate cancer patients is associated with high tumor grade and metastatic stage of disease. Thus, IL-30 may constitute a valuable target for modern therapeutic approaches to hamper prostate cancer progression.

  14. Multiparametric MRI in the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futterer, Jurgen J. [Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2017-08-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men aged 50 years and older in developed countries and the third leading cause of cancer-related death in men. Multiparametric prostate MR imaging is currently the most accurate imaging modality to detect, localize, and stage prostate cancer. The role of multi-parametric MR imaging in the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer are discussed. In addition, insights are provided in imaging techniques, protocol, and interpretation.

  15. Racial differences in the relationship between clinical prostatitis, presence of inflammation in benign prostate and subsequent risk of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybicki, B A; Kryvenko, O N; Wang, Y; Jankowski, M; Trudeau, S; Chitale, D A; Gupta, N S; Rundle, A; Tang, D

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiologic studies, primarily done in white men, suggest that a history of clinically-diagnosed prostatitis increases prostate cancer risk, but that histological prostate inflammation decreases risk. The relationship between a clinical history of prostatitis and histologic inflammation in terms of how these two manifestations of prostatic inflammation jointly contribute to prostate cancer risk and whether racial differences exist in this relationship is uncertain. Using a nested design within a cohort of men with benign prostate tissue specimens, we analyzed the data on both clinically-diagnosed prostatitis (NIH categories I-III) and histological inflammation in 574 prostate cancer case-control pairs (345 white, 229 African American). Clinical prostatitis was not associated with increased prostate cancer risk in the full sample, but showed a suggestive inverse association with prostate cancer in African Americans (odds ratio (OR)=0.47; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.27-0.81). In whites, clinical prostatitis increased risk by 40%, but was only associated with a significant increased prostate cancer risk in the absence of evidence of histological inflammation (OR=3.56; 95% CI=1.15-10.99). Moreover, PSA velocity (P=0.008) and frequency of PSA testing (P=0.003) were significant modifiers of risk. Clinical prostatitis increased risk of prostate cancer almost three-fold (OR=2.97; 95% CI=1.40-6.30) in white men with low PSA velocity and about twofold in white men with more frequent PSA testing (OR=1.91; 95% CI=1.09-3.35). In our cohort of men with benign prostate specimens, race, and histological inflammation were important cofactors in the relationship between clinical prostatitis and prostate cancer. Clinical prostatitis was associated with a slightly decreased risk for prostate cancer in African American men. In white men, the relationship between clinical prostatitis and prostate cancer risk was modified by histological prostatic inflammation, PSA velocity, and

  16. Risk of prostate cancer among cancer survivors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, D.E.G.; Schans, van de S.A.; Liu, L.; Kampman, E.; Coebergh, J.W.; Kiemeney, L.A.; Soerjomataram, I.; Aben, K.K.

    2013-01-01

    In parallel with increasing numbers of cancer patients and improving cancer survival, the occurrence of second primary cancers becomes a relevant issue. The aim of our study was to evaluate risk of prostate cancer as second primary cancer in a population-based setting. Methods Data from the

  17. The relationship between Prostate CAncer gene 3 (PCA3) and prostate cancer significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Poppel, Hein; Haese, Alexander; Graefen, Markus; de la Taille, Alexandre; Irani, Jacques; de Reijke, Theo; Remzi, Mesut; Marberger, Michael

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the relationship between Prostate CAncer gene 3 (PCA3) and prostate cancer significance. PATIENTS AND METHODS Clinical data from two multi-centre European open-label, prospective studies evaluating the clinical utility of the PCA3 assay in guiding initial and repeat biopsy

  18. Enzalutamide in metastatic prostate cancer before chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beer, Tomasz M; Armstrong, Andrew J; Rathkopf, Dana E

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Enzalutamide is an oral androgen-receptor inhibitor that prolongs survival in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer in whom the disease has progressed after chemotherapy. New treatment options are needed for patients with metastatic prostate cancer who have...... the most common clinically relevant adverse events associated with enzalutamide treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Enzalutamide significantly decreased the risk of radiographic progression and death and delayed the initiation of chemotherapy in men with metastatic prostate cancer. (Funded by Medivation and Astellas...... skeletal-related event (hazard ratio, 0.72), a complete or partial soft-tissue response (59% vs. 5%), the time until prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression (hazard ratio, 0.17), and a rate of decline of at least 50% in PSA (78% vs. 3%) (P

  19. Cytoreductive prostatectomy in metastatic prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Joachim Aidt; Berg, Kasper Drimer; Røder, Martin Andreas

    2018-01-01

    The impact of cytoreductive radical prostatectomy on oncological outcome in patients with prostate cancer and limited number of bone metastases is unclear. Data from cancer registries, multi-institutional databases and a single institutional case-control study indicate a possible benefit of combi......The impact of cytoreductive radical prostatectomy on oncological outcome in patients with prostate cancer and limited number of bone metastases is unclear. Data from cancer registries, multi-institutional databases and a single institutional case-control study indicate a possible benefit...

  20. A comparison of four patient immobilization devices in the treatment of prostate cancer patients with three dimensional conformal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Paul Y.; Washington, Maxine; Vaida, Florin; Hamilton, Russell; Spelbring, Danny; Wyman, Brenda; Harrison, Joanne; Chen, George T. Y.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the variability of patient positioning during three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for prostate cancer treated with no immobilization or one of four immobilization devices, and to determine the effects of patient body habitus and pelvic circumference on patient movement with each individual immobilization technique. Methods and Materials: To see whether our immobilization techniques have improved day-to-day patient movement, a retrospective analysis was carried out. A total of 62 patients treated at one facility on a single machine with 3D-CRT via a four-field box technique (anterior-posterior and opposed laterals) in the supine position with either no immobilization or one of four immobilization devices. Five groups of patients were compared: (a) group 1-no immobilization; (b) group 2-alpha cradle from the waist to upper thigh; (c) group 3-alpha cradle from waist to below the knees; (d) group 4-styrofoam leg immobilizer (below knees); and (e) group 5-aquaplast cast encompassing the entire abdomen and pelvis to midthigh with alpha cradle immobilization to their lower legs and feet. Prior to starting radiotherapy, portal films of all four treatment fields were obtained 1 day before treatment. Subsequently, portal films were then obtained at least once a week. Portal films were compared with the simulation films and appropriate changes were made and verified on the next day prior to treatment. A deviation of greater than 0.5 cm or greater was considered to be clinically significant in our analysis. We studied the difference among the types of immobilization and no immobilization by looking at the frequency of movements (overall, and on each of the three axes) that a patient had during the course of his treatment. Using a logistic regression model, the probability of overall and individual directional movement for each group was obtained. In addition, the effects of patient body habitus and pelvic circumference on movement were

  1. A feasibility dosimetric study on prostate cancer. Are we ready for a multicenter clinical trial on SBRT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, Carmelo; Bonanno, Elisa [Humanitas C.C.O., Catania (Italy); Villaggi, Elena [AUSL, Piacenza (Italy); Maggi, Giulia; Mancosu, Pietro [IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Research Center, Milan (Italy); Esposito, Marco [Azienda Sanitaria Firenze (Italy); Strigari, Lidia [Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy). Lab. of Medical Physics and Expert Systems; Borzi, Giusi R. [REM Radioterapia, Catania (Italy); Carbonini, Claudia [A.O. Ospedale Niguarda Ca' Granda, Milan (Italy); Consorti, Rita [ACO S. Filippo Neri, Rome (Italy); Fedele, David [Casa di Cura Privata San Rossore s.r.l., Pisa (Italy); Fiandra, Christian [Torino Univ. (Italy). Radiation Oncology Unit; Ielo, Isidora [A.O.U. Policlinico G. Martino, Messina (Italy); Malatesta, Tiziana [' ' S. Giovanni Calibita' ' Fatebenefratelli, Rome (Italy); Malisan, Maria Rosa [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Udine (Italy); Martinotti, Anna [Centro Diagnostico Italiano, Milan (Italy); Moretti, Renzo [Az. Ospedaliera Spedali Civili di Brescia (Italy); Nardiello, Barbara [UPMC San Pietro FBF, Rome (Italy); Oliviero, Caterina; Clemente, Stefania [IRCCS CROB Rieonero in Vulture, Potenza (Italy)

    2015-07-15

    The Italian Association of Medical Physics (AIFM) started a working group dedicated to stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) treatment. In this work, we performed a multicenter planning study on patients who were candidates for SBRT in the treatment of prostate cancer with the aim of evaluating the dosimetric consistency among the different hospitals. Fourteen centers were provided the contours of 5 patients. Plans were performed following the dose prescription and constraints for organs at risk (OARs) of a reference paper. The dose prescription was 35 Gy in five fractions for the planning target volume (PTV). Different techniques were used (3D-CRT, fixed-Field IMRT, VMAT, CyberKnife). Plans were compared in terms of dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters. Furthermore, the median DVH was calculated and one patient was re-planned. A total of 70 plans were compared. The maximum dose to the body was 107.9 ± 4.5 % (range 101.5-116.3 %). Dose at 98 % (D{sub 98} {sub %}) and mean dose to the clinical target volume (CTV) were 102.0 ± 0.9 % (global range 101.1-102.9 %) and 105.1 ± 0.6 % (range 98.6-124.6 %). Similar trends were found for D{sub 95} {sub %} and mean dose to the PTV. Important differences were found in terms of the homogeneity index. Doses to OARs were heterogeneous. The subgroups with the same treatment planning system showed differences comparable to the differences of the whole group. In the re-optimized plans, DVH differences among institutes were reduced and OAR sparing improved. Important dosimetric differences with possible clinical implications, in particular related to OARs, were found. Replanning allowed a reduction in the OAR dose and decreased standard deviations. Multicenter clinical trials on SBRT should require a preplanning study to standardize the optimization procedure. (orig.) [German] Der italienische Verband der Medizinphysiker (AIFM) hat eine Arbeitsgruppe gegruendet, die sich mit der Koerperstammstereotaxie (SBRT) befasst. Im Rahmen

  2. Prostate-specific antigen: does the current evidence support its use in prostate cancer screening?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    Although widely used, the value of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in screening asymptomatic men for prostate cancer is controversial. Reasons for the controversy relate to PSA being less than an ideal marker in detecting early prostate cancer, the possibility that screening for prostate cancer may result in the overdetection and thus overtreatment of indolent disease and the lack of clarity as to the definitive or best treatment for men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer. Although the results from some randomized prospective trials suggest that screening with PSA reduces mortality from prostate cancer, the overall benefit was modest. It is thus currently unclear as to whether the modest benefit of reduced mortality outweighs the harms of overdetection and overtreatment. Thus, prior to undergoing screening for prostate cancer, men should be informed of the risks and benefits of early detection. Newly emerging markers that may complement PSA in the early detection of prostate cancer include specific isoforms of PSA and PCA3.

  3. Multiparametric MR imaging in diagnosis of chronic prostatitis and its differentiation from prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Sah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic prostatitis is a heterogeneous condition with high prevalence rate. Chronic prostatitis has overlap in clinical presentation with other prostate disorders and is one of the causes of high serum prostate specific antigen (PSA level. Chronic prostatitis, unlike acute prostatitis, is difficult to diagnose reliably and accurately on the clinical grounds alone. Not only this, it is also challenging to differentiate chronic prostatitis from prostate cancer with imaging modalities like TRUS and conventional MR Imaging, as the findings can mimic those of prostate cancer. Even biopsy doesn't play promising role in the diagnosis of chronic prostatitis as it has limited sensitivity and specificity. As a result of this, chronic prostatitis may be misdiagnosed as a malignant condition and end up in aggressive surgical management resulting in increased morbidity. This warrants the need of reliable diagnostic tool which has ability not only to diagnose it reliably but also to differentiate it from the prostate cancer. Recently, it is suggested that multiparametric MR Imaging of the prostate could improve the diagnostic accuracy of the prostate cancer. This review is based on the critically published literature and aims to provide an overview of multiparamateric MRI techniques in the diagnosis of chronic prostatitis and its differentiation from prostate cancer.

  4. The epigenetic promise for prostate cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Neste, Leander; Herman, James G; Otto, Gaëtan; Bigley, Joseph W; Epstein, Jonathan I; Van Criekinge, Wim

    2012-08-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosis in men and a leading cause of death. Improvements in disease management would have a significant impact and could be facilitated by the development of biomarkers, whether for diagnostic, prognostic, or predictive purposes. The blood-based prostate biomarker PSA has been part of clinical practice for over two decades, although it is surrounded by controversy. While debates of usefulness are ongoing, alternatives should be explored. Particularly with recent recommendations against routine PSA-testing, the time is ripe to explore promising biomarkers to yield a more efficient and accurate screening for detection and management of prostate cancer. Epigenetic changes, more specifically DNA methylation, are amongst the most common alterations in human cancer. These changes are associated with transcriptional silencing of genes, leading to an altered cellular biology. One gene in particular, GSTP1, has been widely studied in prostate cancer. Therefore a meta-analysis has been conducted to examine the role of this and other genes and the potential contribution to prostate cancer management and screening refinement. More than 30 independent, peer reviewed studies have reported a consistently high sensitivity and specificity of GSTP1 hypermethylation in prostatectomy or biopsy tissue. The meta-analysis combined and compared these results. GSTP1 methylation detection can serve an important role in prostate cancer managment. The meta-analysis clearly confirmed a link between tissue DNA hypermethylation of this and other genes and prostate cancer. Detection of DNA methylation in genes, including GSTP1, could serve an important role in clinical practice. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. [Fish intake and risk of prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybkowska, Ewa; Świderski, Franciszek; Waszkiewicz-Robak, Bożena

    2014-10-17

    The aim of the study was to present the current state of knowledge concerning the relationship between the consumption of fish as materials rich in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA) omega-3, and the risk of prostate cancer. Many scientific reports confirm the health benefits from the consumption of fish and protective properties of LC PUFA omega-3 in relation to prostate cancer. However, there are reports that indicate a relationship of the high consumption of PUFA with the risk of prostate cancer. The way of processing and preservation of the fish, and other factors not included in previous studies, could have some importance in the etiology of this disease. High susceptibility of PUFA to oxidation changes and the technological fish processing (smoking, high-temperature cooking methods) contribute to the formation of many compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic amines - which may influence the formation of cancers - including prostate cancer. It is necessary to ensure an adequate amount of LC PUFA omega-3 in the diet through the consumption of proper quality fish and fish oils. Particular attention should be paid to the high susceptibility of PUFA to the oxidative processes, and the method of processing, preservation and storage of fish. Also pollution from the environment can significantly reduce the impact of health benefits of PUFA and fish, and even be the cause of cancers, including prostate cancer. Further research in this area should be more targeted to assess the impact of nutritional factors for the development of such tumors.

  6. Psychosocial Intervention In Prostate Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potočníková Jana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide for males, and the fifth most common cancer overall. Using of autogenic training could reduce the influence of ADT and raise quality of prostate cancer patients. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of autogenic training in patients with prostate cancer. Patients were divided to experimental and control group. Experimental group participated in fourteen weeks long autogenic training program. Control group performed usual daily activities. Every subject of research performed input and output diagnostics which monitored psychical states of patients by psychological standardized tests - Differential questionnaire of depression (DDF and Questionnaire of anxiety (STAI X1. Our data showed autogenic training program significant improved depressions symptoms and anxiety in experimental research group (p ≤ 0.05, however there was no main change of depression symptoms and anxiety values for control group (p = n.s..

  7. Genetics of Prostate Cancer (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Familial prostate cancer is associated with certain inherited gene mutations (variants). Learn about the hereditary prostate cancer genes, genetic testing, clinical management, and psychosocial issues in this expert-reviewed summary.

  8. Prostate Cancer Detection Using Near Infrared Spectral Polarization Imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alfano, R. R; Wang, W. B

    2005-01-01

    .... The technique is based on the spectral and polarization properties of light scattered, absorbed and emitted from prostate cancerous and normal tissues, and contrast agents targeted to the prostate cancers. Results of finding...

  9. CDK5 as a Therapeutic Target in Prostate Cancer Metastasis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelkin, Barry D

    2008-01-01

    We have recently found that CDK5 is active in prostate cancer cell lines and in almost all human metastatic prostate cancers, and inhibition of CDK5 activity resulted in reduction of spontaneous metastases by 79...

  10. CDK5 as a Therapeutic Target in Prostate Cancer Metastasis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelkin, Barry

    2007-01-01

    We have recently found that CDK5 is active in prostate cancer cell lines and in almost all human metastatic prostate cancers, and inhibition of CDK5 activity resulted in reduction of spontaneous metastases by 79...

  11. TRAIL: A Novel Therapeutic Agent for Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Honglin

    2002-01-01

    This study aims to elucidate the signaling pathway of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, and to examine the therapeutic effect of TRAIL on prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo...

  12. TRAIL: A Novel Therapeutic Agent for Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Honglin

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to elucidate the signaling pathway of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, and to examine the therapeutic effect of TRAIL on prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo...

  13. TRAIL: A Novel Therapeutic Agent for Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Honglin

    2003-01-01

    This study aims to elucidate the signaling pathway of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, and to examine the therapeutic effect of TRAIL on prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo...

  14. Neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Popescu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This review aims to provide practicing clinicians with the most recent knowledge of the biological nature of prostate cancer especially the information regarding neuroendocrine differentiation. Methods: Review of the literature using PubMed search and scientific journal publications. Results: Much progress has been made towards an understanding of the development and progression of prostate cancer. The prostate is a male accessory sex gland which produces a fraction of seminal fluid. The normal human prostate is composed of a stromal compartment (which contains: nerves, fibroblast, smooth muscle cells, macrophages surrounding glandular acins – epithelial cells. Neuroendocrine cells are one of the epithelial populations in the normal prostate and are believed to provide trophic signals trough the secretion of neuropeptides that diffuse and influence surrounding epithelial cells. Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in men. In prostate cancer, neuroendocrine cells can stimulate growth of surrounding prostate adenocarcinoma cells (proliferation of neighboring cancer cells in a paracrine manner by secretion of neuroendocrine products. Neuroendocrine prostate cancer is an aggressive variant of prostate cancer that commonly arises in later stages of castration resistant prostate cancer. The detection of neuroendocrine prostate cancer has clinical implications. These patients are often treated with platinum chemotherapy rather than with androgen receptor targeted therapies. Conclusion: This review shows the need to improve our knowledge regarding diagnostic and treatment methods of the Prostate Cancer, especially cancer cells with neuroendocrine phenotype.

  15. Prostate cancer epigenetics and its clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Normal cells have a level of epigenetic programming that is superimposed on the genetic code to establish and maintain their cell identity and phenotypes. This epigenetic programming can be thought as the architecture, a sort of cityscape, that is built upon the underlying genetic landscape. The epigenetic programming is encoded by a complex set of chemical marks on DNA, on histone proteins in nucleosomes, and by numerous context-specific DNA, RNA, protein interactions that all regulate the structure, organization, and function of the genome in a given cell. It is becoming increasingly evident that abnormalities in both the genetic landscape and epigenetic cityscape can cooperate to drive carcinogenesis and disease progression. Large-scale cancer genome sequencing studies have revealed that mutations in genes encoding the enzymatic machinery for shaping the epigenetic cityscape are among the most common mutations observed in human cancers, including prostate cancer. Interestingly, although the constellation of genetic mutations in a given cancer can be quite heterogeneous from person to person, there are numerous epigenetic alterations that appear to be highly recurrent, and nearly universal in a given cancer type, including in prostate cancer. The highly recurrent nature of these alterations can be exploited for development of biomarkers for cancer detection and risk stratification and as targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we explore the basic principles of epigenetic processes in normal cells and prostate cancer cells and discuss the potential clinical implications with regards to prostate cancer biomarker development and therapy.

  16. Prostate cancer epigenetics and its clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Yegnasubramanian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal cells have a level of epigenetic programming that is superimposed on the genetic code to establish and maintain their cell identity and phenotypes. This epigenetic programming can be thought as the architecture, a sort of cityscape, that is built upon the underlying genetic landscape. The epigenetic programming is encoded by a complex set of chemical marks on DNA, on histone proteins in nucleosomes, and by numerous context-specific DNA, RNA, protein interactions that all regulate the structure, organization, and function of the genome in a given cell. It is becoming increasingly evident that abnormalities in both the genetic landscape and epigenetic cityscape can cooperate to drive carcinogenesis and disease progression. Large-scale cancer genome sequencing studies have revealed that mutations in genes encoding the enzymatic machinery for shaping the epigenetic cityscape are among the most common mutations observed in human cancers, including prostate cancer. Interestingly, although the constellation of genetic mutations in a given cancer can be quite heterogeneous from person to person, there are numerous epigenetic alterations that appear to be highly recurrent, and nearly universal in a given cancer type, including in prostate cancer. The highly recurrent nature of these alterations can be exploited for development of biomarkers for cancer detection and risk stratification and as targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we explore the basic principles of epigenetic processes in normal cells and prostate cancer cells and discuss the potential clinical implications with regards to prostate cancer biomarker development and therapy.

  17. Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) Targeted Bio-orthogonal Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0595 TITLE: Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) Targeted Bio -orthogonal Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer...Sep 2016 - 14 Sep 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) Targeted Bio -orthogonal Therapy for Metastatic Prostate

  18. Combined androgen blockade in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer--an overview. The Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P

    1997-01-01

    The value of combined androgen blockade in the treatment of patients with advanced prostate cancer is still controversial. In this review by the Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group, the literature addressing the concept and its clinical use is critically reviewed....

  19. 77 FR 55099 - National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A... thousands of lives every year. During National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, we remember those we have... their lifetimes. As we mark National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, let us support the families who...

  20. 76 FR 55551 - National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A... observe National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, we renew our commitment to reducing the impact of prostate cancer on our country by raising awareness and supporting research that will lead to better ways...

  1. Expression of KLK2 gene in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Shafai

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The expression of KLK2 gene in people with prostate cancer is the higher than the healthy person; finally, according to the results, it could be mentioned that the KLK2 gene considered as a useful factor in prostate cancer, whose expression is associated with progression and development of the prostate cancer.

  2. P52 Activation and Enzalutamide Therapy in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    c-Myc:hnRNPA1 pathway regulates expression of androgen receptor splice variants and enzalutamide sensitivity in prostate cancer . Castration resistant... prostate cancer (CRPC) remains dependent on androgen receptor (AR) signaling. Alternative splicing of the AR to generate constitutively active... receptor splice variants and enzalutamide sensitivity in prostate cancer . • We discovered that quercetin, a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound

  3. Organoid cultures derived from patients with advanced prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Dong; Vela, Ian; Sboner, Andrea; Iaquinta, Phillip J; Karthaus, Wouter R; Gopalan, Anuradha; Dowling, Catherine; Wanjala, Jackline N; Undvall, Eva A; Arora, Vivek K; Wongvipat, John; Kossai, Myriam; Ramazanoglu, Sinan; Barboza, Luendreo P; Di, Wei; Cao, Zhen; Zhang, Qi Fan; Sirota, Inna; Ran, Leili; MacDonald, Theresa Y; Beltran, Himisha; Mosquera, Juan-Miguel; Touijer, Karim A; Scardino, Peter T; Laudone, Vincent P; Curtis, Kristen R; Rathkopf, Dana E; Morris, Michael J; Danila, Daniel C; Slovin, Susan F; Solomon, Stephen B; Eastham, James A; Chi, Ping; Carver, Brett; Rubin, Mark A; Scher, Howard I; Clevers, Hans; Sawyers, Charles L; Chen, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The lack of in vitro prostate cancer models that recapitulate the diversity of human prostate cancer has hampered progress in understanding disease pathogenesis and therapy response. Using a 3D organoid system, we report success in long-term culture of prostate cancer from biopsy specimens and

  4. Advanced research on separating prostate cancer stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Yumei; He Xin; Song Naling

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a common malignant tumor in male urinary system,and may easily develop into the hormone refractory prostate cancer which can hardly be cured. Recent studies had found that the prostate cancer stem cells may be the source of the prostate cancer's occurrence,development, metastasis and recurrence. The therapy targeting the prostate cancer stem cells may be the effective way to cure prostate cancer. But these cells is too low to be detected. The difficulty lies in the low separation efficiency of prostate cancer stem cell, so the effectively separating prostate cancer stem cells occupied the main position for the more in-depth research of prostate cancer stem cells. This paper reviews the research progress and existing problems on the several main separating methods of prostate cancer stem cells, includes the fluorescence activated cells sorting and magnetic activated cells sorting based on prostate cancer stem cell surface markers, the side-population sorting and serum-free medium sphere forming sorting based on prostate cancer stem cell's biology. (authors)

  5. Neck mass: An unusual presentation of prostate cancer metastasis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globally, prostate cancer is a disease of public health importance and it is most common among men between 60 to 70 years of age. Distant primaries involving supraclavicular nodes secondary to prostate cancer is very rare. This report is a case of an unusual presentation of prostate cancer manifesting as a huge neck ...

  6. Genomes of early onset prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischenfeldt, Joachim; Korbel, Jan O.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Prostate cancer is a disease of the elderly but a clinically relevant subset occurs early in life. In the current review, we discuss recent findings and the current understanding of the molecular underpinnings associated with early-onset prostate cancer (PCa) and the evidence...... supporting age-specific differences in the cancer genomes. Recent findings Recent surveys of PCa patient cohorts have provided novel age-dependent links between germline and somatic aberrations which points to differences in the molecular cause and treatment options. Summary Identifying the earliest...... receptor pathway....

  7. Prostatic sarcoma after treatment of rectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Andrew G

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between radiation exposure for treatment of cancer and occurrence of a second primary cancer at the irradiated site is well known. This phenomenon is however rare in prostate. Case presentation A 75-year-old farmer was treated for rectal cancer with preoperative 45 Gy of radiotherapy and abdominoperineal resection. Four years later he developed symptoms of bladder outlet obstruction and acute urinary retention. He underwent a transurethral resection of the prostate. Histological examination of the removed prostate tissue and immunohistochemistry revealed it to be a poorly differentiated sarcoma. Conclusion We believe this to be the first reported case of radiation-induced sarcoma following radiotherapy treatment for rectal cancer. Since radiotherapy plays a pivotal role in the contemporary treatment of rectal adenocarcinoma, it is relevant to be aware of the potential long-term carcinogenic complications of radiotherapy of the pelvis.

  8. COPING STRATEGIES IN PATIENTS WITH PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Gardanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostics of psycho-emotional disorders of patients with malignant diseases of the prostate is not doubt, because timely correction contributes to the shortening of rehabilitation period and restoration of the quality of life of patients after treatment. Detection and diagnosis of prostate cancer for many patients is stressful and causes changes in the affective sphere, and manifests itself in increased levels of anxiety and depression in men. To cope with stress is possible due to the used coping strategies.Purpose. Studying the coping mechanisms in prostate cancer patients.Materials and methods. 56 men treated in FGBU "LRTS" Russian Ministry of Health. The average age was 65.7 ± 6.1 years. The average duration of the disease prostate cancer is 3 ± 2 months. All men were subjected to the standard algorithm for the evaluation of hormonal status, the PSA, taking a history, inspection and physical examination, magnetic resonance imaging and scintigraphy of bones of a skeleton. All the patients underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Psychological testing with the use of the method of "Coping test" the scale of reactive and personal anxiety for the differentiated evaluation of anxiety. Results. The most common for prostate cancer revealed constructive coping strategies are "planning solve", "selfcontrol" and "search of social support". According to the scale Spielberg–Hanin a high level of situational anxiety was revealed.Conclusion. According to the results of the research, patients with prostate cancer are likely to use constructive coping strategies, that leads to stabilization of psycho-emotional state of men and promotes more effective adaptation in the terms of stress, that is caused by treatment of prostate cancer.

  9. The Role of Dietary Fat throughout the Prostate Cancer Trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie M. Di Sebastiano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer diagnosed world-wide; however, patients demonstrate exceptionally high survival rates. Many lifestyle factors, including obesity and diet, are considered risk factors for advanced prostate cancer. Dietary fat is a fundamental contributor to obesity and may be specifically important for prostate cancer patients. Prostate cancer treatment can result in changes in body composition, affecting quality of life for survivors by increasing the risk of co-morbidities, like cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We aim to examine dietary fat throughout the prostate cancer treatment trajectory, including risk, cancer development and survivorship. Focusing on one specific nutrient throughout the prostate cancer trajectory provides a unique perspective of dietary fat in prostate cancer and the mechanisms that may exacerbate prostate cancer risk, progression and recurrence. Through this approach, we noted that high intake of dietary fat, especially, high intake of animal and saturated fats, may be associated with increased prostate cancer risk. In contrast, a low-fat diet, specifically low in saturated fat, may be beneficial for prostate cancer survivors by reducing tumor angiogenesis and cancer recurrence. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF/Akt signaling pathway appears to be the key pathway moderating dietary fat intake and prostate cancer development and progression.

  10. Clinical Usefulness of the Histoculture Drug Response Assay for Prostate Cancer and Benign Prostate Hypertrophy (BPH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert M

    2018-01-01

    The histoculture drug response assay (HDRA) has been adapted to determine androgen sensitivity in Gelfoam histoculture of human benign prostatic tissue as well as prostate cancer. Gelfoam histoculture was used to measure androgen-independent and androgen-dependent growth of benign and malignant prostate tissue. The androgen-sensitivity index was significantly higher in 23 paired specimens of prostate cancer compared to benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH). Genistein decreased the androgen-sensitivity index of BPH and prostate cancer in Gelfoam ® histoculture in a dose-dependent manner.

  11. The Infectious Pathogenesis Of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    pyrimidine metabolism, and one-carbon folate , while pathways in the low-grade tumors were related to propanoate metabolism. Separating the cohorts...28. Brooks JD, et al.: CG island methylation changes near the GSTP1 gene in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 7(6...531-6, 1998. 29. Lee WH, et al.: CG island methylation changes near the GSTP1 gene in prostatic carcinoma cells detected using the polymerase chain

  12. Predictive value of prostate-specific antigen for prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepherd, Leah; Borges, Alvaro Humberto; Ravn, Lene

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although prostate cancer (PCa) incidence is lower in HIV+ men than in HIV- men, the usefulness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in this population is not well defined and may have higher false negative rates than in HIV- men. We aimed to describe the kinetics and predict......INTRODUCTION: Although prostate cancer (PCa) incidence is lower in HIV+ men than in HIV- men, the usefulness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in this population is not well defined and may have higher false negative rates than in HIV- men. We aimed to describe the kinetics...... and predictive value of PSA in HIV+ men. METHODS: Men with PCa (n=21) and up to two matched controls (n=40) with prospectively stored plasma samples before PCa (or matched date in controls) were selected. Cases and controls were matched on date of first and last sample, age, region of residence and CD4 count...... at first sample date. Total PSA (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA), testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured. Conditional logistic regression models investigated associations between markers and PCa. Sensitivity and specificity of using tPSA >4 µg/L to predict PCa was calculated. Mixed...

  13. Emerging Therapies in Metastatic Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenburg, Daniel W; Morgans, Alicia K

    2018-04-11

    In the last decade, there have been multiple landmark therapeutic advances for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer, both in the castration-resistant and hormone-sensitive setting. In this review, we highlight recent progress and ongoing trials for metastatic prostate cancer, including advances in chemotherapy, androgen receptor-directed therapy, targeted therapies, and immunotherapy. Several landmark studies for men with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer demonstrated improvement in overall survival with the addition of docetaxel chemotherapy or abiraterone acetate to standard androgen deprivation therapy. A single-arm phase 2 study of the PARP inhibitor olaparib demonstrated high response rates and more favorable progression-free and overall survival for men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer and DNA repair defects treated with olaparib compared with men without DNA repair defects. Multiple ongoing clinical trials are investigating novel hormonal therapies and combinations of chemotherapy, targeted small molecules, immunotherapy, and radiopharmaceuticals. Progress continues to be made in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer, and ongoing clinical trials continue to investigate novel agents and approaches to treatment.

  14. Super-Penetrant Androgen Receptor: Overcoming Enzalutamide Sensitivity in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Prostate Cancer Research Symposium- Prostate Cancer Epigenetic Reprogramming of the Androgen Receptor in Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer , May19... cancer cells rely critically on the androgen receptor (AR) for initiation, growth and progression to castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC...Androgen receptor, castration resistant prostate cancer , Enzalutamide , kinases. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER

  15. The Role of Prostatitis in Prostate Cancer: Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunxia, Zhang; Zhu, Hong; Liu, Junjiang; Pumill, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Objective Use systematic review methods to quantify the association between prostatitis and prostate cancer, under both fixed and random effects model. Evidence Acquisition Case control studies of prostate cancer with information on prostatitis history. All studies published between 1990-2012, were collected to calculate a pooled odds ratio. Selection criteria: the selection criteria are as follows: human case control studies; published from May 1990 to July 2012; containing number of prostatitis, and prostate cancer cases. Evidence Synthesis In total, 20 case control studies were included. A significant association between prostatitis and prostate cancer was found, under both fixed effect model (pooled OR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.39-1.62), and random effects model (OR=1.64, 95%CI: 1.36-1.98). Personal interview based case control studies showed a high level of association (fixed effect model: pooled OR=1.59, 95%CI: 1.47-1.73, random effects model: pooled OR= 1.87, 95%CI: 1.52-2.29), compared with clinical based studies (fixed effect model: pooled OR=1.05, 95%CI: 0.86-1.28, random effects model: pooled OR= 0.98, 95%CI: 0.67-1.45). Additionally, pooled ORs, were calculated for each decade. In a fixed effect model: 1990’s: OR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.35-1.84; 2000’s: OR=1.59, 95% CI: 1.40-1.79; 2010’s: OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.22-1.56. In a random effects model: 1990’s: OR=1.98, 95% CI: 1.08-3.62; 2000’s: OR=1.64, 95% CI: 1.23-2.19; 2010’s: OR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.03-1.73. Finally a meta-analysis stratified by each country was conducted. In fixed effect models, U.S: pooled OR =1.45, 95%CI: 1.34-1.57; China: pooled OR =4.67, 95%CI: 3.08-7.07; Cuba: pooled OR =1.43, 95%CI: 1.00-2.04; Italy: pooled OR =0.61, 95%CI: 0.13-2.90. In random effects model, U.S: pooled OR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.25-1.80; China: pooled OR =4.67, 95%CI: 3.08-7.07; Cuba: pooled OR =1.43, 95%CI: 1.00-2.04; Italy: pooled OR =0.61, 95%CI: 0.13-2.90.CONCLUSIONS: the present meta-analysis provides the statistical evidence that

  16. Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... compete with androgens for binding to the androgen receptor. By competing for binding to the androgen receptor, ...

  17. Unfoldomics of prostate cancer: on the abundance and roles of intrinsically disordered proteins in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Kevin S; Na, Insung; Schenck, Ryan O; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2016-01-01

    Prostatic diseases such as prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia are highly prevalent among men. The number of studies focused on the abundance and roles of intrinsically disordered proteins in prostate cancer is rather limited. The goal of this study is to analyze the prevalence and degree of disorder in proteins that were previously associated with the prostate cancer pathogenesis and to compare these proteins to the entire human proteome. The analysis of these datasets provides means for drawing conclusions on the roles of disordered proteins in this common male disease. We also hope that the results of our analysis can potentially lead to future experimental studies of these proteins to find novel pathways associated with this disease. PMID:27453073

  18. Prostate radiation in non-metastatic castrate refractory prostate cancer provides an interesting insight into biology of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascoe Abigail C

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The natural history of non-metastatic castrate refractory prostate cancer is unknown and treatment options are limited. We present a retrospective review of 13 patients with locally advanced or high risk prostate cancer, initially treated with hormone monotherapy and then treated with prostate radiation after becoming castration refractory. Findings Median PSA response following prostate radiation was 67.4%. Median time to biochemical progression following radiotherapy was 15 months and to detection of metastatic disease was 18.5 months. Median survival from castration resistance (to date of death or November 2011 was 60 months, with median survival from RT 42 months. Conclusion Prostate radiation appears to be beneficial even in patients with potential micrometastatic disease, which supports the hypothesis that the primary tumour is important in the progression of prostate cancer. These results are an interesting addition to the literature on the biology of prostate cancer especially as this data is unlikely to be available in the future due to combined prostate radiation and androgen deprivation therapy now being the standard of care.

  19. From Prostate to Bone: Key Players in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thobe, Megan N. [Section of Urology, Department of Surgery, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Clark, Robert J. [Department of Molecular Pathogenesis and Molecular Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bainer, Russell O. [Department of Human Genetics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Prasad, Sandip M.; Rinker-Schaeffer, Carrie W., E-mail: crinkers@uchicago.edu [Section of Urology, Department of Surgery, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2011-01-27

    Bone is the most common site for metastasis in human prostate cancer patients. Skeletal metastases are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and overall greatly affect the quality of life of prostate cancer patients. Despite advances in our understanding of the biology of primary prostate tumors, our knowledge of how and why secondary tumors derived from prostate cancer cells preferentially localize bone remains limited. The physiochemical properties of bone, and signaling molecules including specific chemokines and their receptors, are distinct in nature and function, yet play intricate and significant roles in prostate cancer bone metastasis. Examining the impact of these facets of bone metastasis in vivo remains a significant challenge, as animal models that mimic the natural history and malignant progression clinical prostate cancer are rare. The goals of this article are to discuss (1) characteristics of bone that most likely render it a favorable environment for prostate tumor cell growth, (2) chemokine signaling that is critical in the recruitment and migration of prostate cancer cells to the bone, and (3) current animal models utilized in studying prostate cancer bone metastasis. Further research is necessary to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the extravasation of disseminated prostate cancer cells into the bone and to provide a better understanding of the basis of cancer cell survival within the bone microenvironment. The development of animal models that recapitulate more closely the human clinical scenario of prostate cancer will greatly benefit the generation of better therapies.

  20. From Prostate to Bone: Key Players in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thobe, Megan N.; Clark, Robert J.; Bainer, Russell O.; Prasad, Sandip M.; Rinker-Schaeffer, Carrie W.

    2011-01-01

    Bone is the most common site for metastasis in human prostate cancer patients. Skeletal metastases are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and overall greatly affect the quality of life of prostate cancer patients. Despite advances in our understanding of the biology of primary prostate tumors, our knowledge of how and why secondary tumors derived from prostate cancer cells preferentially localize bone remains limited. The physiochemical properties of bone, and signaling molecules including specific chemokines and their receptors, are distinct in nature and function, yet play intricate and significant roles in prostate cancer bone metastasis. Examining the impact of these facets of bone metastasis in vivo remains a significant challenge, as animal models that mimic the natural history and malignant progression clinical prostate cancer are rare. The goals of this article are to discuss (1) characteristics of bone that most likely render it a favorable environment for prostate tumor cell growth, (2) chemokine signaling that is critical in the recruitment and migration of prostate cancer cells to the bone, and (3) current animal models utilized in studying prostate cancer bone metastasis. Further research is necessary to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the extravasation of disseminated prostate cancer cells into the bone and to provide a better understanding of the basis of cancer cell survival within the bone microenvironment. The development of animal models that recapitulate more closely the human clinical scenario of prostate cancer will greatly benefit the generation of better therapies

  1. Circulating Tumor Cells in Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Brian; Rochefort, Holly; Goldkorn, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can provide a non-invasive, repeatable snapshot of an individual patient’s tumor. In prostate cancer, CTC enumeration has been extensively studied and validated as a prognostic tool and has received FDA clearance for use in monitoring advanced disease. More recently, CTC analysis has been shifting from enumeration to more sophisticated molecular characterization of captured cells, which serve as a “liquid biopsy” of the tumor, reflecting molecular changes in an individual’s malignancy over time. Here we will review the main CTC studies in advanced and localized prostate cancer, highlighting the important gains as well as the challenges posed by various approaches, and their implications for advancing prostate cancer management

  2. Prostate cancer mortality in screen and clinically detected prostate cancer : Estimating the screening benefit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Pim J.; Connolly, David; Gavin, Anna; Roobol, Monique J.; Black, Amanda; Bangma, Chris H.; Schroder, Fritz H.

    Background: To estimate the benefits of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening on prostate cancer (Pca) metastasis and Pca-specific mortality, we compared two populations with a well-defined difference in intensity of screening. Methods: Between 1997 and 1999, a total of 11,970 men, aged 55-74

  3. Prostate cancer in renal transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A. Sherer

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT As patients with end-stage renal disease are receiving renal allografts at older ages, the number of male renal transplant recipients (RTRs being diagnosed with prostate cancer (CaP is increasing. Historically, the literature regarding the management of CaP in RTR's is limited to case reports and small case series. To date, there are no standardized guidelines for screening or management of CaP in these complex patients. To better understand the unique characteristics of CaP in the renal transplant population, we performed a literature review of PubMed, without date limitations, using a combination of search terms including prostate cancer, end stage renal disease, renal transplantation, prostate cancer screening, prostate specific antigen kinetics, immuno-suppression, prostatectomy, and radiation therapy. Of special note, teams facilitating the care of these complex patients must carefully and meticulously consider the altered anatomy for surgical and radiotherapeutic planning. Active surveillance, though gaining popularity in the general low risk prostate cancer population, needs further study in this group, as does the management of advance disease. This review provides a comprehensive and contemporary understanding of the incidence, screening measures, risk stratification, and treatment options for CaP in RTRs.

  4. [Radiotherapy in node-positive prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottke, D; Bartkowiak, D; Bolenz, C; Wiegel, T

    2016-03-01

    There are numerous randomized trials to guide the management of patients with localized (and metastatic) prostate cancer, but only a few (mostly retrospective) studies have specifically addressed node-positive patients. Therefore, there is uncertainty regarding optimal treatment in this situation. Current guidelines recommend long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) alone or radiotherapy plus long-term ADT as treatment options. This overview summarizes the existing literature on the use of radiotherapy for node-positive prostate cancer as definitive treatment and as adjuvant or salvage therapy after radical prostatectomy. In this context, we also discuss several PET tracers in the imaging evaluation of patients with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy. As for definitive treatment, retrospective studies suggest that ADT plus radiotherapy improves overall survival compared with ADT alone. These studies also consistently demonstrated that many patients with node-positive prostate cancer can achieve long-term survival - and are likely curable - with aggressive therapy. The beneficial impact of adjuvant radiotherapy on survival in patients with pN1 prostate cancer seems to be highly influenced by tumor characteristics. Men with ≤ 2 positive lymph nodes in the presence of intermediate- to high-grade disease, or positive margins, and those with 3 or 4 positive lymph nodes are the ideal candidates for adjuvant radiotherapy (plus long-term ADT) after surgery. There is a need for randomized trials to further examine the potential role of radiotherapy as either definitive or adjuvant treatment, for patients with node-positive prostate cancer.

  5. Concepts of epigenetics in prostate cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C S; Foster, C S

    2009-01-27

    Substantial evidence now supports the view that epigenetic changes have a role in the development of human prostate cancer. Analyses of the patterns of epigenetic alteration are providing important insights into the origin of this disease and have identified specific alterations that may serve as useful diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. Examination of cancer methylation patterns supports a stem cell origin of prostate cancer. It is well established that methylation of GSTpi is a marker of prostate cancer, and global patterns of histone marking appear to be linked to cancer prognosis with levels of acetylated histones H3K9, H3K18, and H4K12, and of dimethylated H4R3 and H3K4, dividing low-grade prostate cancer (Gleason 6 or less) into two prognostically separate groups. Elevated levels of several components of the polycomb group protein complex, EZH2, BMI1, and RING1, can also act as biomarkers of poor clinical outcome. Many components of the epigenetic machinery, including histone deacetylase (whose expression level is linked to the TMPRSS2:ERG translocation) and the histone methylase EZH2, are potential therapeutic targets. The recent discovery of the role of small RNAs in governing the epigenetic status of individual genes offers exciting new possibilities in therapeutics and chemoprevention.

  6. CXCL5 Promotes Prostate Cancer Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesa A Begley

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available CXCL5 is a proangiogenic CXC-type chemokine that is an inflammatory mediator and a powerful attractant for granulocytic immune cells. Unlike many other chemokines, CXCL5 is secreted by both immune (neutrophil, monocyte, and macrophage and nonimmune (epithelial, endothelial, and fibroblastic cell types. The current study was intended to determine which of these cell types express CXCL5 in normal and malignant human prostatic tissues, whether expression levels correlated with malignancy and whether CXCL5 stimulated biologic effects consistent with a benign or malignant prostate epithelial phenotype. The results of these studies show that CXCL5 protein expression levels are concordant with prostate tumor progression, are highly associated with inflammatory infiltrate, and are frequently detected in the lumens of both benign and malignant prostate glands. Exogenous administration of CXCL5 stimulates cellular proliferation and gene transcription in both nontransformed and transformed prostate epithelial cells and induces highly aggressive prostate cancer cells to invade through synthetic basement membrane in vitro. These findings suggest that the inflammatory mediator, CXCL5, may play multiple roles in the etiology of both benign and malignant proliferative diseases in the prostate.

  7. Diagnosis of prostate cancer using a radioimmunoassay for prostatic acid phosphatase in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lea, O.A.; Hoeisaeter, P.Aa.

    1981-01-01

    The paper describes the development and evaluation of a specific radioimmunoassay for the determination of prostatic acid phosphatase in serum as a useful aid in the detection of prostatic cancer. (Auth.)

  8. Characterization of adenoviral transduction profile in prostate cancer cells and normal prostate tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Jianzhong; Tai, Phillip W L; Lu, Yi; Li, Jia; Ma, Hong; Su, Qin; Wei, Qiang; Li, Hong; Gao, Guangping

    2017-09-01

    Prostate diseases are common in males worldwide with high morbidity. Gene therapy is an attractive therapeutic strategy for prostate diseases, however, it is currently underdeveloped. As well known, adeno virus (Ad) is the most widely used gene therapy vector. The aims of this study are to explore transduction efficiency of Ad in prostate cancer cells and normal prostate tissue, thus further providing guidance for future prostate pathophysiological studies and therapeutic development of prostate diseases. We produced Ad expressing enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP), and characterized the transduction efficiency of Ad in both human and mouse prostate cancer cell lines in vitro, as well as prostate tumor xenograft, and wild-type mouse prostate tissue in vivo. Ad transduction efficiency was determined by EGFP fluorescence using microscopy and flow cytometry. Cell type-specific transduction was examined by immunofluorescence staining of cell markers. Our data showed that Ad efficiently transduced human and mouse prostate cancer cells in vitro in a dose dependent manner. Following intratumoral and intraprostate injection, Ad could efficiently transduce prostate tumor xenograft and the major prostatic cell types in vivo, respectively. Our findings suggest that Ad can efficiently transduce prostate tumor cells in vitro as well as xenograft and normal prostate tissue in vivo, and further indicate that Ad could be a potentially powerful toolbox for future gene therapy of prostate diseases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Inuit are protected against prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dewailly, Eric; Mulvad, Gert; Pedersen, Henning Sloth

    2003-01-01

    Incidence and mortality rates for prostate cancer are reported to be low among Inuit, but this finding must be additionally supported given the difficulty of obtaining a precise medical diagnosis in the Arctic. We conducted an autopsy study in 1990–1994 among 61 deceased males representative of all...... deaths occurring in Greenland and found only one invasive prostate cancer. Histological data were available for 27 autopsies and revealed no latent carcinoma. Our results suggest that in situ carcinoma is rare among Inuit and that their traditional diet, which is rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty...

  10. Chemoprevention Trial of Selenium and Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    use in slowing the growth of prostate cancer. This study will not use selenium as a treatment option for the possible cure of prostate cancer...slice or 1 piece o Q rj Chocolate candy and candy bars o o o o o Q o o c 1 small bar or 1 ounce ._> . ■Q Hard candy, jam, jelly, honey , or...your stream? Have you noticed any stress incontinence? (leakage of urine when sneezing, coughing or laughing) _1 -NOT AT ALL _ 2-LESS THAN 1 IN 5

  11. TRPM4 protein expression in prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Kasper Drimer; Soldini, Davide; Jung, Maria

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 4 (TRPM4) messenger RNA (mRNA) has been shown to be upregulated in prostate cancer (PCa) and might be a new promising tissue biomarker. We evaluated TRPM4 protein expression and correlated the expression level.......79-2.62; p = 0.01-0.03 for the two observers) when compared to patients with a lower staining intensity. CONCLUSIONS: TRPM4 protein expression is widely expressed in benign and cancerous prostate tissue, with highest staining intensities found in PCa. Overexpression of TRPM4 in PCa (combination of high...

  12. Management of Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillessen, Silke; Attard, Gerhardt; Beer, Tomasz M

    2018-01-01

    some of these topics. OBJECTIVE: To present the report of APCCC 2017. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Ten important areas of controversy in APC management were identified: high-risk localised and locally advanced prostate cancer; "oligometastatic" prostate cancer; castration-naïve and castration...... literature review or meta-analysis. The outcomes of the voting had varying degrees of support, as reflected in the wording of this article, as well as in the detailed voting results recorded in Supplementary data. CONCLUSIONS: The presented expert voting results can be used for support in areas of management...

  13. PET/CT Imaging and Radioimmunotherapy of Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Tagawa, Scott T; Goldsmith, Stanley J

    2011-01-01

    disease (ideal for antigen access and antibody delivery). Furthermore, prostate cancer is also radiation sensitive. Prostate-specific membrane antigen is expressed by virtually all prostate cancers, and represents an attractive target for RIT. Antiprostate-specific membrane antigen RIT demonstrates......Prostate cancer is a common cancer in men and continues to be a major health problem. Imaging plays an important role in the clinical management of patients with prostate cancer. An important goal for prostate cancer imaging is more accurate disease characterization through the synthesis...... of anatomic, functional, and molecular imaging information. Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in oncology is emerging as an important imaging tool. The most common radiotracer for PET/CT in oncology, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), is not very useful in the imaging of prostate cancer...

  14. A Novel Therapeutic Modality for Advanced Stage Prostate Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Androgen Receptor Signaling Inhibitors Repress Prostate Cancer Growth by Downregulating Androgen Receptor Splice Variants, EZH2, and Src. Cancer ...research 2015;75(24):5309-17. 18. Wadosky KM, Koochekpour S. Androgen receptor splice variants and prostate cancer : From bench to bedside. Oncotarget...2017;8(11):18550-76. 19. Cao S, Zhan Y, Dong Y. Emerging data on androgen receptor splice variants in prostate cancer . Endocrine-related cancer

  15. Prostate Cancer Clinical Consortium Clinical Research Site: Targeted Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    prostate cancer . Cancer Res 70: 7992-8002, 2010 8. Nelson PS: Molecular states underlying an- drogen receptor activation: A framework for thera- peutics...targeting androgen signaling in prostate cancer . J Clin Oncol 30:644-646, 2012 9. Thadani-Mulero M, Nanus DM, Giannakakou P: Androgen receptor on the... prostate cancer . Clin Cancer Res 21:795-807, 2015 17. van Soest RJ, de Morrée ES, Kweldam CF, et al: Targeting the androgen receptor confers in vivo

  16. Prostate tissue metal levels and prostate cancer recurrence in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Kandegedara, Ashoka; Kryvenko, Oleksandr N; Gupta, Nilesh; Rogers, Craig; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Dou, Q Ping; Mitra, Bharati

    2014-02-01

    Although smoking is not associated with prostate cancer risk overall, smoking is associated with prostate cancer recurrence and mortality. Increased cadmium (Cd) exposure from smoking may play a role in progression of the disease. In this study, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to determine Cd, arsenic (As), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) levels in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tumor and tumor-adjacent non-neoplastic tissue of never- and ever-smokers with prostate cancer. In smokers, metal levels were also evaluated with regard to biochemical and distant recurrence of disease. Smokers (N = 25) had significantly higher Cd (median ppb, p = 0.03) and lower Zn (p = 0.002) in non-neoplastic tissue than never-smokers (N = 21). Metal levels were not significantly different in tumor tissue of smokers and non-smokers. Among smokers, Cd level did not differ by recurrence status. However, the ratio of Cd ppb to Pb ppb was significantly higher in both tumor and adjacent tissue of cases with distant recurrence when compared with cases without distant recurrence (tumor tissue Cd/Pb, 6.36 vs. 1.19, p = 0.009, adjacent non-neoplastic tissue Cd/Pb, 6.36 vs. 1.02, p = 0.038). Tissue Zn levels were also higher in smokers with distant recurrence (tumor, p = 0.039 and adjacent non-neoplastic, p = 0.028). These initial findings suggest that prostate tissue metal levels may differ in smokers with and without recurrence. If these findings are confirmed in larger studies, additional work will be needed to determine whether variations in metal levels are drivers of disease progression or are simply passengers of the disease process.

  17. Effect of endocrine treatment on voiding and prostate size in men with prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Louise L; Klarskov, Peter; Mommsen, Søren

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and quantify changes in voiding parameters and prostate size in men with prostate cancer from before the start of endocrine treatment and during long-term follow-up.......The aim of this study was to assess and quantify changes in voiding parameters and prostate size in men with prostate cancer from before the start of endocrine treatment and during long-term follow-up....

  18. Studies of rhodamine-123: effect on rat prostate cancer and human prostate cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcadi, J A; Narayan, K S; Techy, G; Ng, C P; Saroufeem, R M; Jones, L W

    1995-06-01

    The effect of the lipophilic, cationic dye, Rhodamine-123 (Rh-123), on prostate cancer in rats, and on three tumor cell lines in vitro is reported here. The general toxicity of Rh-123 in mice has been found to be minimal. Lobund-Wistar (L-W) rats with the autochthonous prostate cancer of Pollard were treated for six doses with Rh-123 at a dose of 15 mg/kg subcutaneously every other day. Microscopic examination of the tumors revealed cellular and acinar destruction. The effectiveness of Rh-123 as a cytotoxic agent was tested by clonogenic and viability assays in vitro with three human prostate cancer cell lines. Severe (60-95%) growth inhibition was observed following Rh-123 exposure for 2-5 days at doses as low as 1.6 micrograms/ml in all three prostate cancer cell lines.

  19. Does Core Length Taken per cc of Prostate Volume in Prostate Biopsy Affect the Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliktas, Hasan; Sahin, Hayrettin; Cetinkaya, Mehmet; Dere, Yelda; Erdogan, Omer; Baldemir, Ercan

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the minimal core length to be taken per cc of prostate volume for an effective prostate biopsy. A retrospective analysis was performed on the records of 379 patients who underwent a first prostate biopsy with 12 to 16 cores under transrectal ultrasound guidance between September 2012 and April 2015. For each patient, the core length per cc of the prostate and the percentage of sampled prostate volume were calculated, and these values were compared between the patients with and without prostate cancer. A total of 348 patients were included in the study. Cancer was determined in 26.4% of patients. The mean core length taken per cc of prostate and the percentage of sampled prostate volume were determined to be 3.40 ± 0.15 mm/cc (0.26%; range, 0.08-0.63 cc) in patients with cancer and 2.75 ± 0.08 mm/cc (0.20%; range, 0.04-0.66 cc) in patients without cancer (P = .000 and P = .000), respectively. Core length taken per cc of prostate of > 3.31 mm/cc was found to be related to an increase in the rates of prostate cancer diagnosis (odds ratio, 2.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.68-4.78). The rate of cancer determination for core length taken per cc of prostate of  3.31 mm/cc, 41.1%. Core length taken per cc of prostate and the percentage of sampled prostate volume are important morphometric parameters in the determination of prostate cancer. The results of study suggest a core length per cc of the prostate of > 3.31 mm/cc as a cutoff value for quality assurance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. URG11 Regulates Prostate Cancer Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Pan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Upregulated gene 11 (URG11, a new gene upregulated by hepatitis B virus X protein, is involved in the development and progression of several tumors, including liver, stomach, lung, and colon cancers. However, the role of URG11 in prostate cancer remains yet to be elucidated. By determined expression in human prostate cancer tissues, URG11 was found significantly upregulated and positively correlated with the severity of prostate cancer, compared with that in benign prostatic hyperplasia tissues. Further, the mRNA and protein levels of URG11 were significantly upregulated in human prostate cancer cell lines (DU145, PC3, and LNCaP, compared with human prostate epithelial cell line (RWPE-1. Moreover, by the application of siRNA against URG11, the proliferation, migration, and invasion of prostate cancer cells were markedly inhibited. Genetic knockdown of URG11 also induced cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase, induced apoptosis, and decreased the expression level of β-catenin in prostate cancer cells. Overexpression of URG11 promoted the expression of β-catenin, the growth, the migration, and invasion ability of prostate cancer cells. Taken together, this study reveals that URG11 is critical for the proliferation, migration, and invasion in prostate cancer cells, providing the evidence of URG11 to be a novel potential therapeutic target of prostate cancer.

  1. External beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forman, Jeffrey D.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The intent of this course is to review the issues involved in the management of non-metastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate. -- The value of pre-treatment prognostic factors including stage, grade and PSA value will be presented, and their value in determining therapeutic strategies will be discussed. -- Controversies involving the simulation process and treatment design will be presented. The value of CT scanning, Beams-Eye View, 3-D planning, intravesicle, intraurethral and rectal contrast will be presented. The significance of prostate and patient movement and strategies for dealing with them will be presented. -- The management of low stage, low to intermediate grade prostate cancer will be discussed. The dose, volume and timing of irradiation will be discussed as will the role of neo-adjuvant hormonal therapy, neutron irradiation and brachytherapy. The current status of radical prostatectomy and cryotherapy will be summarized. Treatment of locally advanced, poorly differentiated prostate cancer will be presented including a discussion of neo-adjuvant and adjuvant hormones, dose-escalation and neutron irradiation. -- Strategies for post-radiation failures will be presented including data on cryotherapy, salvage prostatectomy and hormonal therapy (immediate, delayed and/or intermittent). New areas for investigation will be reviewed. -- The management of patients post prostatectomy will be reviewed. Data on adjuvant radiation and therapeutic radiation for biochemical or clinically relapsed patients will be presented. This course hopes to present a realistic and pragmatic overview for treating patients with non-metastatic prostatic cancer

  2. Castration Induced Neuroendocrine Mediated Progression of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    independent prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 22, 3323–3329. [115] Tiffany NM, Wersinger EM, Garzotto M, and Beer TM (2004). Imatinib mesylate and zoledronic...Inhibition of Akt pathways EC Nelson et al 335 Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases addition, some Asian forms of fermented soy, such as miso, nattou and

  3. Prostate cancer metastasis to the mandible: case report | Parkins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prostate cancer is recognised to be the commonest type of malignancy in the male in many parts of the world. Prostate cancer has a propensity to metastasize to bone, however metastasis to the jaw is uncommon and indeed among metastatic tumours of the jaws which are a rarity, only about 9% originate from a prostatic ...

  4. Incidence of late rectal bleeding in high-dose conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer using equivalent uniform dose-based and dose-volume-based normal tissue complication probability models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soehn, Matthias; Yan Di; Liang Jian; Meldolesi, Elisa; Vargas, Carlos; Alber, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate modeling of rectal complications based on dose-volume histogram (DVH) data are necessary to allow safe dose escalation in radiotherapy of prostate cancer. We applied different equivalent uniform dose (EUD)-based and dose-volume-based normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models to rectal wall DVHs and follow-up data for 319 prostate cancer patients to identify the dosimetric factors most predictive for Grade ≥ 2 rectal bleeding. Methods and Materials: Data for 319 patients treated at the William Beaumont Hospital with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) under an adaptive radiotherapy protocol were used for this study. The following models were considered: (1) Lyman model and (2) logit-formula with DVH reduced to generalized EUD (3) serial reconstruction unit (RU) model (4) Poisson-EUD model, and (5) mean dose- and (6) cutoff dose-logistic regression model. The parameters and their confidence intervals were determined using maximum likelihood estimation. Results: Of the patients, 51 (16.0%) showed Grade 2 or higher bleeding. As assessed qualitatively and quantitatively, the Lyman- and Logit-EUD, serial RU, and Poisson-EUD model fitted the data very well. Rectal wall mean dose did not correlate to Grade 2 or higher bleeding. For the cutoff dose model, the volume receiving > 73.7 Gy showed most significant correlation to bleeding. However, this model fitted the data more poorly than the EUD-based models. Conclusions: Our study clearly confirms a volume effect for late rectal bleeding. This can be described very well by the EUD-like models, of which the serial RU- and Poisson-EUD model can describe the data with only two parameters. Dose-volume-based cutoff-dose models performed worse

  5. Alpha Particle Therapy in Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Sullivan, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a leading cause of cancer mortality among men in western countries. Although nearly 85% of patients present with localised disease, up to 40% will eventually develop metastatic disease during the course of illness. Of men dying from prostate cancer, more than 90% have bone metastases many with no other significant metastatic sites. Symptoms related to bone metastases and skeletal related events (SREs) account for the major cause of morbidity in these patients. Bone-seeking radionuclides have been used in the treatment of prostate cancer bone metastases for many years. The first bone seeking radionuclide drug approved by the FDA was Strontium-89. Other agents have also been used including Samarium-153 EDTMP, Rhenium-186 (-188)-HEDP. These radionuclides are all emit shortrange therapeutic beta radiation with bone marrow as the dose limiting toxicity. There is strong clinical trial evidence of benefit for these radionuclides in reducing pain in advanced prostate cancer; however, none of the drugs has been shown to improve survival, albeit none of the clinical trials were powered to detect differences in survival

  6. Fish intake and risk of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Dybkowska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to present the current state of knowledge concerning the relationship between the consumption of fish as materials rich in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA omega-3, and the risk of prostate cancer. Many scientific reports confirm the health benefits from the consumption of fish and protective properties of LC PUFA omega-3 in relation to prostate cancer. However, there are reports that indicate a relationship of the high consumption of PUFA with the risk of prostate cancer. The way of processing and preservation of the fish, and other factors not included in previous studies, could have some importance in the etiology of this disease. High susceptibility of PUFA to oxidation changes and the technological fish processing (smoking, high-temperature cooking methods contribute to the formation of many compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic amines – which may influence the formation of cancers – including prostate cancer. It is necessary to ensure an adequate amount of LC PUFA omega-3 in the diet through the consumption of proper quality fish and fish oils. Particular attention should be paid to the high susceptibility of PUFA to the oxidative processes, and the method of processing, preservation and storage of fish. Also pollution from the environment can significantly reduce the impact of health benefits of PUFA and fish, and even be the cause of cancers, including prostate cancer. Further research in this area should be more targeted to assess the impact of nutritional factors for the development of such tumors.

  7. Prostate specific antigen velocity does not aid prostate cancer detection in men with prior negative biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Andrew J; Wolters, Tineke; Savage, Caroline J; Cronin, Angel M; O'Brien, M Frank; Roobol, Monique J; Aus, Gunnar; Scardino, Peter T; Hugosson, Jonas; Schröder, Fritz H; Lilja, Hans

    2010-09-01

    Prostate specific antigen velocity has been proposed as a marker to aid in prostate cancer detection. We determined whether prostate specific antigen velocity could predict repeat biopsy results in men with persistently increased prostate specific antigen after initial negative biopsy. We identified 1,837 men who participated in the Göteborg or Rotterdam section of the European Randomized Screening study of Prostate Cancer and who underwent 1 or more subsequent prostate biopsies after an initial negative finding. We evaluated whether prostate specific antigen velocity improved predictive accuracy beyond that of prostate specific antigen alone. Of the 2,579 repeat biopsies 363 (14%) were positive for prostate cancer, of which 44 (1.7%) were high grade (Gleason score 7 or greater). Prostate specific antigen velocity was statistically associated with cancer risk but had low predictive accuracy (AUC 0.55, p <0.001). There was some evidence that prostate specific antigen velocity improved AUC compared to prostate specific antigen for high grade cancer. However, the small increase in risk associated with high prostate specific antigen velocity (from 1.7% to 2.8% as velocity increased from 0 to 1 ng/ml per year) had questionable clinical relevance. Men with prior negative biopsy are at lower risk for prostate cancer at subsequent biopsies with high grade disease particularly rare. We found little evidence to support prostate specific antigen velocity to aid in decisions about repeat biopsy for prostate cancer. 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sexual activity and the risk of prostate cancer: Review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Fouad Kotb

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexual activity can affect prostate cancer pathogenesis in a variety of ways; including the proposed high androgen status, risk of sexually transmitted infections and the potential effect of retained carcinogens within the prostatic cells. Methods: PubMed review of all publications concerning sexual activity and the risk of prostate cancer was done by two researchers. Results: Few publications could be detected and data were classified as a prostate cancer risk in association with either heterosexual or homosexual activities. Conclusion: Frequent ejaculation seems to be protective from the development of prostate cancer. Multiple sexual partners may be protective from prostate cancer, excluding the risk of sexually transmitted infections. Homosexual men are at a greater risk for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.

  9. PROSTVAC® targeted immunotherapy candidate for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Neal D

    2014-01-01

    Targeted immunotherapies represent a valid strategy for the treatment of metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer. A randomized, double-blind, Phase II clinical trial of PROSTVAC® demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in overall survival and a large, global, Phase III trial with overall survival as the primary end point is ongoing. PROSTVAC immunotherapy contains the transgenes for prostate-specific antigen and three costimulatory molecules (designated TRICOM). Research suggests that PROSTVAC not only targets prostate-specific antigen, but also other tumor antigens via antigen cascade. PROSTVAC is well tolerated and has been safely combined with other cancer therapies, including hormonal therapy, radiotherapy, another immunotherapy and chemotherapy. Even greater benefits of PROSTVAC may be recognized in earlier-stage disease and low-disease burden settings where immunotherapy can trigger a long-lasting immune response.

  10. Diagnostic characteristics of lethal prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, John Thomas; Røder, Martin Andreas; Klemann, Nina

    2017-01-01

    eventually died from PCa. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Based on the national database, the Danish Prostate Cancer Registry, a nationwide population-based study of all 19,487 men who died from PCa in Denmark between 1995 and 2013 was conducted. Trends in median survival and trends in age, prostate-specific antigen......BACKGROUND: The diagnostic characteristics of men who eventually die from prostate cancer (PCa) and the extent to which early diagnostic strategies have affected these characteristics are unclear. We aimed to investigate trends in survival and clinical presentation at diagnosis in men who...... significantly over time, parallelled by an increase in median survival. Taken together, this indicates a lead-time effect on survival, which presently, however, is not substantial enough to result in a reduced PCa-specific mortality....

  11. Stromal androgen receptor roles in the development of normal prostate, benign prostate hyperplasia, and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Simeng; Chang, Hong-Chiang; Tian, Jing; Shang, Zhiqun; Niu, Yuanjie; Chang, Chawnshang

    2015-02-01

    The prostate is an androgen-sensitive organ that needs proper androgen/androgen receptor (AR) signals for normal development. The progression of prostate diseases, including benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa), also needs proper androgen/AR signals. Tissue recombination studies report that stromal, but not epithelial, AR plays more critical roles via the mesenchymal-epithelial interactions to influence the early process of prostate development. However, in BPH and PCa, much more attention has been focused on epithelial AR roles. However, accumulating evidence indicates that stromal AR is also irreplaceable and plays critical roles in prostate disease progression. Herein, we summarize the roles of stromal AR in the development of normal prostate, BPH, and PCa, with evidence from the recent results of in vitro cell line studies, tissue recombination experiments, and AR knockout animal models. Current evidence suggests that stromal AR may play positive roles to promote BPH and PCa progression, and targeting stromal AR selectively with AR degradation enhancer, ASC-J9, may allow development of better therapies with fewer adverse effects to battle BPH and PCa. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dietary Lycopene, Angiogenesis, and Prostate Cancer: A Prospective Study in the Prostate-Specific Antigen Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of lycopene in prostate cancer prevention remains controversial. We examined the associations between dietary lycopene intake and prostate cancer, paying particular attention to the influence of prostate-specific antigen screening, and evaluated tissue biomarkers in prostate cancers in relation to lycopene intake. Methods Among 49898 male health professionals, we obtained dietary information through questionnaires and ascertained total and lethal prostate cancer cases from 1986 through January 31, 2010. Cox regression was used to estimate multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry were used to assess tumor biomarker expression in a subset of men. Two-sided χ2 tests were used to calculate the P values. Results Higher lycopene intake was inversely associated with total prostate cancer and more strongly with lethal prostate cancer (top vs bottom quintile: HR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.56 to 0.94; P trend = .04). In a restricted population of screened participants, the inverse associations became markedly stronger (for lethal prostate cancer: HR = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.29 to 0.75; P trend = .009). Comparing different measures of dietary lycopene, early intake, but not recent intake, was inversely associated with prostate cancer. Higher lycopene intake was associated with biomarkers in the cancer indicative of less angiogenic potential. Conclusions Dietary intake of lycopene was associated with reduced risk of lethal prostate cancer and with a lesser degree of angiogenesis in the tumor. Because angiogenesis is a strong progression factor, an endpoint of lethal prostate cancer may be more relevant than an endpoint of indolent prostate cancer for lycopene in the era of highly prevalent prostate-specific antigen screening. PMID:24463248

  13. SoyCaP: Soy and Prostate Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamilton-Reeves, Jill M; Kurzer, Mindy S; Slaton, Joel

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to evaluate the effects of soy phytoestrogens on reproductive hormones and prostate tissue markers of cell proliferation and androgen action in men at high risk of prostate cancer...

  14. PSA Velocity Does Not Improve Prostate Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid increase in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels is not grounds for automatically recommending a prostate biopsy, according to a study published online February 24, 2011, in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

  15. SoyCaP: Soy and Prostate Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamilton-Reeves, Jim M; Kurzer, Mindy S; Slaton, Joel

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to evaluate the effects of soy phytoestrogens on reproductive hormones and prostate tissue markers of cell proliferation and androgen action in men at high risk of prostate cancer...

  16. Prevalence of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer and its relative factors in Lanzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Ganping; Wang Jiaji; Yue Zhongjin; Chen Xuehong

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer in Lanzhou, an investigation of the incidence of BPH and prostate cancer in 1356 male inhabitants over 50 years of age has been carried out including I-PSS, life quality (L), volume of prostate (V) and digital rectal examination. Plasma testosterone (T) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) were assayed in 145 cases. The incidence of BPH was 35.03%, being 41.04% in urban and 30.05% in rural inhabitants. The increase of BPH has been higher in urban inhabitants (P<0.05). The incidence of prostate cancer was 2.05%, being 3.09% in urban and 2.02% in rural inhabitants, the increase of prostate cancer has been higher in urban inhabitants (P< 0.05). A significant increase of prostate specific antigen was noted in prostate cancer patients (P<0.05). Conclusions: The increase of BPH and prostate cancer has been higher in urban inhabitants. The age, diet and residential areas might associate with a higher incidence of BPH and prostate cancer

  17. The Role of MRI in Prostate Cancer Active Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda M. Johnson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosis in American men, excluding skin cancer. The clinical behavior of prostate cancer varies from low-grade, slow growing tumors to high-grade aggressive tumors that may ultimately progress to metastases and cause death. Given the high incidence of men diagnosed with prostate cancer, conservative treatment strategies such as active surveillance are critical in the management of prostate cancer to reduce therapeutic complications of radiation therapy or radical prostatectomy. In this review, we will review the role of multiparametric MRI in the selection and follow-up of patients on active surveillance.

  18. Childhood height, adult height, and the risk of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lise Geisler; Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: We previously showed that childhood height is positively associated with prostate cancer risk. It is, however, unknown whether childhood height exerts its effects independently of or through adult height. We investigated whether and to what extent childhood height has a direct effect...... on the risk of prostate cancer apart from adult height. METHODS: We included 5,871 men with height measured at ages 7 and 13 years in the Copenhagen School Health Records Register who also had adult (50-65 years) height measured in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study. Prostate cancer status was obtained...... through linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry. Direct and total effects of childhood height on prostate cancer risk were estimated from Cox regressions. RESULTS: From 1996 to 2012, 429 prostate cancers occurred. Child and adult heights were positively and significantly associated with prostate cancer risk...

  19. The impact of obesity on prostate cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roermund, J.G. van; Witjes, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing prevalence of obesity in many parts of the world emphasizes the importance of learning more about the relationship between obesity and prostate cancer (PC). The present paper reviews the impact of obesity on PC using knowledge obtained from the available literature. Search of published

  20. Clinical adenoviral gene therapy for prostate cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schenk, E.; Essand, M.; Bangma, Ch. H.; Barber, Ch.; Behr, J.-P.; Briggs, S.; Carlisle, R.; Cheng, W.-S.; Danielsson, A.; Dautzenberg, I. J. C.; Dzojic, H.; Erbacher, P.; Fisher, K.; Frazier, A.; Georgopoulos, L. J.; Hoeben, R.; Kochanek, S.; Koppers-Lalic, D.; Kraaij, R.; Kreppel, F.; Lindholm, L.; Magnusson, M.; Maitland, N.; Neuberg, P.; Nilsson, B.; Ogris, M.; Remy, J.-S.; Scaife, M.; Schooten, E.; Seymour, L.; Totterman, T.; Uil, T. G.; Ulbrich, Karel; Veldhoven-Zweistra, J. L. M.; de Vrij, J.; van Weerden, W.; Wagner, E.; Willemsen, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 7 (2010), s. 807-813 ISSN 1043-0342 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 512087 - GIANT Keywords : adenovirus * gene delivery * prostate cancer Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 4.829, year: 2010

  1. Promising Tools in Prostate Cancer Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonomo, Silvia; Hansen, Cecilie H; Petrunak, Elyse M

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1) is an important target in the treatment of prostate cancer because it produces androgens required for tumour growth. The FDA has approved only one CYP17A1 inhibitor, abiraterone, which contains a steroidal scaffold similar to the endogenous CYP17A1 substrates...

  2. Management of synchronous rectal and prostate cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kavanagh, D O

    2012-11-01

    Although well described, there is limited published data related to management on the coexistence of prostate and rectal cancer. The aim of this study was to describe a single institution\\'s experience with this and propose a treatment algorithm based on the best available evidence.

  3. The Role of YYI in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sui, Guangchao

    2008-01-01

    ...+/+ cells in the 3-D culture system. We used these cells in the renal grafting experiments to study the effect of YY1 expression to the prostate cancer formation in vivo. The renal grafts have been collected and further studies are in the process.

  4. Validation of Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer Prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    surgery and radiation therapy, result in well documented significant morbidities, including significant lower urinary tract symptoms such as incontinence ...and urinary urgency as well as sexual dysfunction. Furthermore, evidence from many sources suggests that most prostate cancers are relatively...pre-operative PSA (pɘ.0001). These analyses provide confidence in the clinical data because they are known factors associated with recurrence

  5. Prostate cancer: ESMO Consensus Conference Guidelines 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horwich, A.; Hugosson, J.; de Reijke, T.; Wiegel, T.; Fizazi, K.; Kataja, V.; Parker, Chris; Bellmunt, Joaquim; Berthold, Dominik; Bill-Axelson, Anna; Carlsson, Sigrid; Daugaard, Gedske; de Meerleer, Gert; Dearnaley, David; Fizazi, Karim; Fonteyne, Valérie; Gillessen, Silke; Heinrich, Daniel; Horwich, Alan; Hugosson, Jonas; Kataja, Vesa; Kwiatkowski, Maciej; Nilsson, Sten; Padhani, Anwar; Papandreou, Christos; Roobol, Monique; Sella, Avishay; Valdagni, Riccardo; van der Kwast, Theo; Verhagen, Paul; Wiegel, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The first ESMO Consensus Conference on prostate cancer was held in Zurich, Switzerland, on 17-19 November 2011, with the participation of a multidisciplinary panel of leading professionals including experts in methodological aspects. Before the conference, the expert panel prepared clinically

  6. Early prostate cancer: particularities of treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, F.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction of prostate cancer screening using PSA leads to a disproportional increase of cancer incidence. Most of those tumors are small and indolent in behavior. When diagnosed, they are usually managed by radical treatment modalities despite the growth of serious adverse events of such therapy. Active surveillance appears to be an alternative treatment approach for the majority of those patients. Author stresses on the particularities of the prostate cancer diagnosed in the PSA era. Show the importance of patient stratification and the utility of the use of nomograms in clinical praxis. The clinical importance of treatment choices based on life expectancy of patient, concomitant diseases on one side and cancer biological behavior in the other side is discussed. Critically discuss the new approach of radiation with proton beams advertising that it remains an experimental therapeutic choice. (author)

  7. PVAMU/XULA/BCM Summer Prostate Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    degradation of several cancer -related proteins, including the androgen receptor , which is dysregulated in certain prostate cancers . Overall, the goal of my...Behavior of Androgen Receptor Splice Variants in Androgen Dependent Prostate Cancer Cells Turner, Williamson D., Xavier University of Louisiana, Class...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0677 TITLE: PVAMU/XULA/BCM Summer Prostate Cancer Research Program PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Nancy L. Weigel

  8. Progesterone receptor in the prostate: A potential suppressor for benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, RuiQi; Yu, Yue; Dong, Xuesen

    2017-02-01

    Advanced prostate cancer undergoing androgen receptor pathway inhibition (ARPI) eventually progresses to castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), suggesting that (i) androgen receptor (AR) blockage is incomplete, and (ii) there are other critical molecular pathways contributing to prostate cancer (PCa) progression. Although most PCa occurs in the epithelium, prostate stroma is increasingly believed to play a crucial role in promoting tumorigenesis and facilitating tumor progression. In the stroma, sex steroid hormone receptors such as AR and estrogen receptor-α are implicated to have important functions, whereas the progesterone receptor (PR) remains largely under-investigated despite the high sequence and structural similarities between PR and AR. Stromal progesterone/PR signaling may play a critical role in PCa development and progression because not only progesterone is a critical precursor for de novo androgen steroidogenesis and an activator of mutant androgen receptors, but also PR functions in a ligand-independent manner in various important pathways. In fact, recent progress in our understanding of stromal PR function suggests that this receptor may exert an inhibitory effect on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), reactive stroma development, and PCa progression. These early findings of stromal PR warrant further investigations as this receptor could be a potential biomarker and therapeutic target in PCa management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonzi, Roberto [Marie Curie Research Wing, Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Rickmansworth Road, Northwood, Middlesex, HA6 2RN (United Kingdom)], E-mail: robertoalonzi@btinternet.com; Padhani, Anwar R. [Paul Strickland Scanner Centre, Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Rickmansworth Road, Northwood, Middlesex, HA6 2RN (United Kingdom); Synarc Inc. 575 Market Street, San Francisco, CA 94105 (United States)], E-mail: anwar.padhani@paulstrickland-scannercentre.org.uk; Allen, Clare [Department of Imaging, University College Hospital, London, 235 Euston Road, NW1 2BU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: clare.allen@uclh.nhs.uk

    2007-09-15

    Angiogenesis is an integral part of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), is associated with prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and is key to the growth and for metastasis of prostate cancer. Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) using small molecular weight gadolinium chelates enables non-invasive imaging characterization of tissue vascularity. Depending on the technique used, data reflecting tissue perfusion, microvessel permeability surface area product, and extracellular leakage space can be obtained. Two dynamic MRI techniques (T{sub 2}*-weighted or susceptibility based and T{sub 1}-weighted or relaxivity enhanced methods) for prostate gland evaluations are discussed in this review with reference to biological basis of observations, data acquisition and analysis methods, technical limitations and validation. Established clinical roles of T{sub 1}-weighted imaging evaluations will be discussed including lesion detection and localisation, for tumour staging and for the detection of suspected tumour recurrence. Limitations include inadequate lesion characterisation particularly differentiating prostatitis from cancer, and in distinguishing between BPH and central gland tumours.

  10. Is there a link between BPH and prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R T M; Kirby, Roger; Challacombe, B J

    2012-04-01

    BPH is one of the most common diseases of older men, with more than 70% of men over 70 years affected, and prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in the UK. Prostate cancer generally presents in one of three ways: asymptomatic patients who are screened (usually by a PSA test); men with LUTS who are investigated and undergo prostate biopsy; or patients with symptoms of metastasis such as bone pain. Men can be reassured that the main cause of LUTS is BPH. Only a small proportion of men have LUTS that are directly attributable to prostate cancer. Digital rectal examination (DRE) gives an evaluation of prostate size, which is relevant in particular to BPH management, and along with PSA testing it is one of the only ways of differentiating clinically between BPH and prostate cancer. If a nodular abnormality is present there is around a 50% chance of a diagnosis of prostate cancer being made on biopsy. Raised levels of serum PSA may be suggestive of prostate cancer, but diagnosis requires histological confirmation in almost every case. A normal PSA, PSA density and DRE can give reasonable confidence with regards to excluding clinically significant prostate cancer. BPH is not a known risk factor for prostate cancer, although the two frequently coexist. Age is the strongest predictor of prostate cancer risk, along with family history. BPH is not considered to be a precursor of prostate cancer. It is likely that although BPH may not make prostate cancer more likely to occur, it may increase the chance of diagnosing an incidental cancer.

  11. A review of pomegranate in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paller, C J; Pantuck, A; Carducci, M A

    2017-09-01

    Preclinical studies showing that pomegranate juice and its components inhibit prostate cancer led to multiple clinical trials to determine whether pomegranate products could slow the growth of prostate cancer. This review summarizes the preclinical data and discusses the results of the clinical trials. Trials targeted patients on active surveillance, neoadjuvant patients, patients with biochemical recurrence (BCR) following local therapy for prostate cancer, and patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). In the BCR patient population, early phase II trials of both pomegranate juice and extract showed significant lengthening of PSA doubling time (PSADT), and confirmed the safety of pomegranate products. While a placebo-controlled phase III trial determined that pomegranate extract did not significantly prolong PSADT in BCR patients, a preplanned subset analysis of patients with the manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) AA genotype showed greater PSADT lengthening on the pomegranate extract arm. In the neoadjuvant population, a large trial demonstrated a significant increase in urolithin A and a non-significant reduction in 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, a marker of oxidation in prostate cancer tissue, on the pomegranate arm vs the placebo arm. In addition, a randomized clinical trial of a polyphenol-rich multicomponent food supplement that included a 31.25% pomegranate extract found significant slowing of PSA increase in the food supplement arm vs placebo in men on active surveillance and those experiencing BCR. Pomegranate juice and extract are safe but did not significantly improve outcomes in BCR patients in a large placebo-controlled trial. However a subset of BCR patients with the MnSOD AA genotype appear to respond positively to the antioxidant effects of pomegranate treatment. Phase II trials of 100% pomegranate products in neoadjuvant patients and patients with mCRPC were negative. A multicomponent food supplement showed promising

  12. Prostate cancer in Saudi Arabia in 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosli, Hisham A.

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies revealed that there are variations in the geographic and ethnic distribution of cancer of prostate (CaP) gland. This cancer varies drmatically between being very common in black American men, to rare in Asian and Chinese men. Genetic, familial predisposition and environmental factors in addition to methods of cancer detection and reporting contribute to these variations. Prostate cancer is the 9th most commonly diagnosed cancer in the world yet stands first in USA where resources allow large epidemiological studies. The health policy makers take major decisions such as mass population screening according to data derived from such studies that include information on disease specific mortality rates and incidence rates for each of ethnic sub-population living in USA. Untill now we do not have similr information in KSA; therefore the policy decisions should consider the possibility of the difference in situations since genetic, familial and environmetal conditions are different.Our current local data indicates that prostate cancer occurs at lower incidence rate than western countries. The objective of this article is to provide all the available information on the different aspects of CaP gland in KSA. A second more important objective is to attract the attention of future expectations that need preparation since the possibility of disease prevention does exist. (author)

  13. Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents Symptoms Prostate cancer has no symptoms in its early stages. They ...

  14. Definition of molecular determinants of prostate cancer cell bone extravasation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, Steven R; Hays, Danielle L; Yazawa, Erika M; Opperman, Matthew; Walley, Kempland C; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Burdick, Monica M; Gillard, Bryan M; Moser, Michael T; Pantel, Klaus; Foster, Barbara A; Pienta, Kenneth J; Dimitroff, Charles J

    2013-01-15

    Advanced prostate cancer commonly metastasizes to bone, but transit of malignant cells across the bone marrow endothelium (BMEC) remains a poorly understood step in metastasis. Prostate cancer cells roll on E-selectin(+) BMEC through E-selectin ligand-binding interactions under shear flow, and prostate cancer cells exhibit firm adhesion to BMEC via β1, β4, and αVβ3 integrins in static assays. However, whether these discrete prostate cancer cell-BMEC adhesive contacts culminate in cooperative, step-wise transendothelial migration into bone is not known. Here, we describe how metastatic prostate cancer cells breach BMEC monolayers in a step-wise fashion under physiologic hemodynamic flow. Prostate cancer cells tethered and rolled on BMEC and then firmly adhered to and traversed BMEC via sequential dependence on E-selectin ligands and β1 and αVβ3 integrins. Expression analysis in human metastatic prostate cancer tissue revealed that β1 was markedly upregulated compared with expression of other β subunits. Prostate cancer cell breaching was regulated by Rac1 and Rap1 GTPases and, notably, did not require exogenous chemokines as β1, αVβ3, Rac1, and Rap1 were constitutively active. In homing studies, prostate cancer cell trafficking to murine femurs was dependent on E-selectin ligand, β1 integrin, and Rac1. Moreover, eliminating E-selectin ligand-synthesizing α1,3 fucosyltransferases in transgenic adenoma of mouse prostate mice dramatically reduced prostate cancer incidence. These results unify the requirement for E-selectin ligands, α1,3 fucosyltransferases, β1 and αVβ3 integrins, and Rac/Rap1 GTPases in mediating prostate cancer cell homing and entry into bone and offer new insight into the role of α1,3 fucosylation in prostate cancer development.

  15. Active surveillance for localized prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik B; Berg, Kasper D; Røder, M Andreas

    2015-01-01

    and costs of AS in patients with localized PCa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 317 PCa patients were followed in a prospective, single-arm AS cohort. The primary outcomes were number of patient contacts, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests, biopsies, hospital admissions due to biopsy complications......OBJECTIVE: Evidence supports active surveillance (AS) as a means to reduce overtreatment of low-risk prostate cancer (PCa). The consequences of close and long-standing follow-up with regard to outpatient visits, tests and repeated biopsies are widely unknown. This study investigated the trajectory...

  16. Active surveillance for localized prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thostrup, Mathias; Thomsen, Frederik B; Iversen, Peter

    2018-01-01

    risk of biochemical recurrence were investigated and compared in men with very low-risk, low-risk and intermediate-risk PCa in the cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 451 men were followed on AS and monitored with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests, digital rectal examinations and rebiopsies......OBJECTIVE: The purpose of active surveillance (AS) is to reduce overtreatment of men with localized prostate cancer (PCa) without compromising survival. The objective of this study was to update a large Scandinavian single-center AS cohort. Furthermore, the use of curative treatment and subsequent...

  17. Pomegranate and Its Components as Alternative Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Martins-Green, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men in the United States. There is a major need for less toxic but yet effective therapies to treat prostate cancer. Pomegranate fruit from the tree Punica granatum has been used for centuries for medicinal purposes and is described as “nature’s power fruit”. Recent research has shown that pomegranate juice (PJ) and/or pomegranate extracts (PE) significantly inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cells in culture. In preclinical murine models, PJ and/or PE inhibit growth and angiogenesis of prostate tumors. More recently, we have shown that three components of PJ, luteolin, ellagic acid and punicic acid together, have similar inhibitory effects on prostate cancer growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Results from clinical trials are also promising. PJ and/or PE significantly prolonged the prostate specific antigen (PSA) doubling time in patients with prostate cancer. In this review we discuss data on the effects of PJ and PE on prostate cancer. We also discuss the effects of specific components of the pomegranate fruit and how they have been used to study the mechanisms involved in prostate cancer progression and their potential to be used in deterring prostate cancer metastasis. PMID:25158234

  18. Elevated Prostate Health Index (phi) and Biopsy Reclassification During Active Surveillance of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Darian; Tosoian, Jeffrey J; Landis, Patricia; Wolf, Sacha; Glavaris, Stephanie; Lotan, Tamara L; Schaeffer, Edward M; Sokoll, Lori J; Ross, Ashley E

    2016-07-01

    The Prostate Health Index (phi) has been FDA approved for decision-making regarding prostate biopsy. Phi has additionally been shown to positively correlate with tumor volume, extraprostatic disease and higher Gleason grade tumors. Here we describe a case in which an elevated phi encouraged biopsy of a gentleman undergoing active surveillance leading to reclassification of his disease as high risk prostate cancer.

  19. TISSUE POLYPEPTIDE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN - A DISCRIMINATIVE PARAMETER BETWEEN PROSTATE-CANCER AND BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERTROPHY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MARRINK, J; OOSTEROM, R; BONFRER, HMG; SCHRODER, FH; MENSINK, HJA

    1993-01-01

    The serum concentration of the cell proliferation marker TPS (tissue polypeptide-specific antigen) was compared with the tumour marker PSA (prostate specific antigen). PSA was found elevated in 50% of the benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) patients, in 88% of the patients with active prostate cancer

  20. Characterization of Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) for Use in Therapeutic and Diagnostic Strategies Against Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Keefe, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) appears to be an ideal prostate cancer marker and potential therapeutic target, however there have been reports of PSMA expression in non-prostatic tissues, including brain, kidney and liver...

  1. Roswell Park Cancer Institute/ Howard University Prostate Cancer Scholars Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Regulation of Expression of Androgen Receptor in ABCG2+ CWR-R1 Prostate Cancer Cells” 4.) Morenike Olu, K Miller, I Gelman, Dept. Cancer Genetics ... rubric for the Directed Readings course sequence. Training in the use of the web conferencing software will be provided by the Project Director at

  2. The Proteome of Primary Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias-Gato, Diego; Wikström, Pernilla; Tyanova, Stefka

    2016-01-01

    for disease aggressiveness. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Mass spectrometry was used for genome-scale quantitative proteomic profiling of 28 prostate tumors (Gleason score 6-9) and neighboring nonmalignant tissue in eight cases, obtained from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded prostatectomy samples. Two...... changes occurring during prostate cancer (PCa) initiation and progression can result in clinically relevant discoveries. OBJECTIVES: To study cellular processes altered in PCa using system-wide quantitative analysis of changes in protein expression in clinical samples and to identify prognostic biomarkers......BACKGROUND: Clinical management of the prostate needs improved prognostic tests and treatment strategies. Because proteins are the ultimate effectors of most cellular reactions, are targets for drug actions and constitute potential biomarkers; a quantitative systemic overview of the proteome...

  3. Prostate cancer screening: and yet it moves!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Kwiatkowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The debate of prostate cancer (PCa screening has been shaped over decades. There is a plethora of articles in the literature supporting as well as declining prostate-specific antigen (PSA screening. Does screening decrease PCa mortality? With the long-term results of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate (ERSPC the answer is clearly YES. It moves! However, in medicine there are no benefits without any harm and thus, screening has to be performed in targeted and smart way-or in other words-in a risk-adapted fashion when compared with the way it was done in the past. Here, we discuss the main findings of the ERSPC trials and provide insights on how the future screening strategies should be implemented.

  4. Early prostate cancer antigen expression in predicting presence of prostate cancer in men with histologically negative biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansel, D E; DeMarzo, A M; Platz, E A; Jadallah, S; Hicks, J; Epstein, J I; Partin, A W; Netto, G J

    2007-05-01

    Early prostate cancer antigen is a nuclear matrix protein that was recently shown to be expressed in prostate adenocarcinoma and adjacent benign tissue. Previous studies have demonstrated early prostate cancer antigen expression in benign prostate tissue up to 5 years before a diagnosis of prostate carcinoma, suggesting that early prostate cancer antigen could be used as a potential predictive marker. We evaluated early prostate cancer antigen expression by immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal antibody (Onconome Inc., Seattle, Washington) on benign biopsies from 98 patients. Biopsies were obtained from 4 groups that included 39 patients with first time negative biopsy (group 1), 24 patients with persistently negative biopsies (group 2), 8 patients with initially negative biopsies who were subsequently diagnosed with prostate carcinoma (group 3) and negative biopsies obtained from 27 cases where other concurrent biopsies contained prostate carcinoma (group 4). Early prostate cancer antigen staining was assessed by 2 of the authors who were blind to the group of the examined sections. Staining intensity (range 0 to 3) and extent (range 1 to 3) scores were assigned. The presence of intensity 3 staining in any of the blocks of a biopsy specimen was considered as positive for early prostate cancer antigen for the primary outcome in the statistical analysis. In addition, as secondary outcomes we evaluated the data using the proportion of blocks with intensity 3 early prostate cancer antigen staining, the mean of the product of staining intensity and staining extent of all blocks within a biopsy, and the mean of the product of intensity 3 staining and extent. Primary outcome analysis revealed the proportion of early prostate cancer antigen positivity to be highest in group 3 (6 of 8, 75%) and lowest in group 2 (7 of 24, 29%, p=0.04 for differences among groups). A relatively higher than expected proportion of early prostate cancer antigen positivity was present in

  5. Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    STUDENT ENGAGEMENT Welcome 2 UNMC 3 Omaha 4 Arrival 5-6 Living 7 Events 8...Graduates 9-11 Channing Bunch, M.B.A Director of Recruitment and Student Engagement channing.bunch...Program, Eppley Institute, Office of Research and Development, and Recruitment and Student Engagement Responses to Nebraska Prostate

  6. Height, selected genetic markers and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia

    2017-01-01

    Background:Evidence on height and prostate cancer risk is mixed, however, recent studies with large data sets support a possible role for its association with the risk of aggressive prostate cancer.Methods:We analysed data from the PRACTICAL consortium consisting of 6207 prostate cancer cases...... and 6016 controls and a subset of high grade cases (2480 cases). We explored height, polymorphisms in genes related to growth processes as main effects and their possible interactions.Results:The results suggest that height is associated with high-grade prostate cancer risk. Men with height >180 cm...... are at a 22% increased risk as compared to men with height prostate cancer risk. The aggregate scores of the selected variants identified a significantly increased risk of overall prostate cancer...

  7. Efficacy of c-Met inhibitor for advanced prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, William H; Zhu, Chunfang; Clark, Curtis; Christensen, James G; Sun, Zijie

    2010-01-01

    Aberrant expression of HGF/SF and its receptor, c-Met, often correlates with advanced prostate cancer. Our previous study showed that expression of c-Met in prostate cancer cells was increased after attenuation of androgen receptor (AR) signalling. This suggested that current androgen ablation therapy for prostate cancer activates c-Met expression and may contribute to development of more aggressive, castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Therefore, we directly assessed the efficacy of c-Met inhibition during androgen ablation on the growth and progression of prostate cancer. We tested two c-Met small molecule inhibitors, PHA-665752 and PF-2341066, for anti-proliferative activity by MTS assay and cell proliferation assay on human prostate cancer cell lines with different levels of androgen sensitivity. We also used renal subcapsular and castrated orthotopic xenograft mouse models to assess the effect of the inhibitors on prostate tumor formation and progression. We demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibitory effect of PHA-665752 and PF-2341066 on the proliferation of human prostate cancer cells and the phosphorylation of c-Met. The effect on cell proliferation was stronger in androgen insensitive cells. The c-Met inhibitor, PF-2341066, significantly reduced growth of prostate tumor cells in the renal subcapsular mouse model and the castrated orthotopic mouse model. The effect on cell proliferation was greater following castration. The c-Met inhibitors demonstrated anti-proliferative efficacy when combined with androgen ablation therapy for advanced prostate cancer

  8. Case of prostate cancer with anterior localization multiparametric MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, A.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer most often originates from acinar epithelium. Most of the clinically palpable carcinomas are located predominantly in the rear/dorzo-lateraI zones of the gland, but the tumors in the transition zone anatomical may spread to the periphery. The detection of a neoplastic process in the front parts of the gland is rare and poses difficulties in diagnosis. We present a rare case of anterior location of prostate carcinoma with invasion of bladder, blood vessels and seminal vesicles. At present, diagnosis of prostate cancer in most men is demonstrated by elevated serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), or positive rectal examination or ultrasonography. Multi parametric MR study is a promising method for detecting prostate cancer. When used in conjunction with PSA values and rectal examination, MRI is increasingly accepted as a standard for the diagnosis and characterization of prostate carcinoma. Key words; Prostate Cancer. Anterior Localization. Multi Parametric MRI

  9. Screening for prostate cancer with the prostate-specific antigen test: are patients making informed decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, K J; Volk, R J; Cass, A R; Spann, S J

    1999-09-01

    The benefits of early detection of prostate cancer are uncertain, and the American College of Physicians and the American Academy of Family Physicians recommend individual decision making in prostate cancer screening. This study reports the knowledge of male primary care patients about prostate cancer and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing and examines how that knowledge is related to PSA testing, preferences for testing in the future, and desire for involvement in physician-patient decision making. The sample included 160 men aged 45 to 70 years with no history of prostate cancer who presented for care at a university-based family medicine clinic. Before scheduled office visits, patients completed a questionnaire developed for this study that included a 10-question measure of prostate cancer knowledge, the Deber-Kraestchmer Problem-Solving Decision-Making Scale, sociodemographic indicators, and questions on PSA testing. In general, patients who were college graduates were more knowledgeable about prostate cancer and early detection than those with a high school education or less. Aside from college graduates, most patients could not identify the principle advantages and disadvantages of PSA testing. Patients indicating previous or future plans for PSA testing demonstrated greater knowledge than other patients. Desire for involvement in decision making varied by patient education but was not related to past PSA testing. Patients lack knowledge about prostate cancer and early detection. This knowledge deficit may impede the early detection of prostate cancer and is a barrier to making an informed decision about undergoing PSA testing.

  10. New serum biomarkers for prostate cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Kailash C.; Miller, Austin; Nair, Bindukumar B.; Schwartz, Stanley A.; Trump, Donald L.; Underwood, Willie

    2014-01-01

    Background Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is currently used as a biomarker for diagnosis and management of prostate cancer (CaP). However, PSA typically lacks the sensitivity and specificity desired of a diagnostic marker. Objective The goal of this study was to identify an additional biomarker or a panel of biomarkers that is more sensitive and specific than PSA in differentiating benign versus malignant prostate disease and/or localized CaP versus metastatic CaP. Methods Concurrent measurements of circulating interleukin-8 (IL-8), Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptors 1 (sTNFR1) were obtained from four groups of men: (1) Controls (2) with elevated prostate-specific antigen with a negative prostate biopsy (elPSA_negBx) (3) with clinically localized CaP and (4) with castration resistant prostate cancer. Results TNF-α Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.93) and sTNFR1 (AUC = 0.97) were strong predictors of elPSA_negBx (vs. CaP). The best predictor of elPSA_negBx vs CaP was sTNFR1 and IL-8 combined (AUC = 0.997). The strongest single predictors of localized versus metastatic CaP were TNF-α (AUC = 0.992) and PSA (AUC = 0.963) levels. Conclusions The specificity and sensitivity of a PSA-based CaP diagnosis can be significantly enhanced by concurrent serum measurements of IL-8, TNF-α and sTNFR1. In view of the concerns about the ability of PSA to distinguish clinically relevant CaP from indolent disease, assessment of these biomarkers in the larger cohort is warranted. PMID:25593898

  11. Outcomes following negative prostate biopsy for patients with persistent disease after radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob H. Cohen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: When faced with biochemical recurrence after definitive radiotherapy for prostate cancer, clinicians must determine whether the recurrence is local or systemic. Post radiotherapy prostate biopsies to detect persistent local disease are difficult to interpret histopathologically and are subject to sampling error. Our study examines outcomes for patients with a negative prostate biopsy performed for rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels after prostate radiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 238 prostate cancer patients with a negative biopsy following definitive radiotherapy. Seventy-five of these patients had biochemical recurrence at the time of biopsy. A negative biopsy was defined as the absence of prostate cancer without radiation-treatment effect in the specimen. RESULTS: Patients underwent biopsy at a mean of 41 months after the completion of radiation. They had a mean PSA of 6. Patients were followed for an average of 63 months. Thirty-two patients (43% developed metastasis, and 11 (15% died of prostate cancer despite a negative post-radiation biopsy. Five of nine patients (56% with sequential biopsies had a positive second biopsy. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with PSA recurrence and a negative post-radiation biopsy have a high chance of persistent local disease, progression, and death from prostate cancer. Furthermore, an initial negative biopsy does not rule-out local recurrence. Patients with biochemical recurrence after radiotherapy for prostate cancer need to be evaluated earlier for local recurrence.

  12. Issues reporting PSA in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, Paul H.

    1996-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute Prostate; Lung; Colon; Ovarian Cancer Screening (PLCO) project is a multi-center trial developed to investigate the effectiveness of DRE and PSA testing in the early detection and outcome of patients with prostate cancer. Accordingly, the Prostate Cancer Intervention versus Observation Trial (PIVOT) has been launched and is a randomized trial comparing radical prostatectomy versus expectant management for ALCaP. PSA: Initially PSA was thought to be of little value for diagnosis because 20% of men undergoing radical prostatectomy have 'normal' PSA and patients with apparently only symptomatic BPH have 'elevated' levels as follows: 4-10 ng/ml (Tandem-R) - 20%, >10 ng/ml -3%. Yet, PSA has looked attractive as a diagnostic tool in many studies; for example, when PSA was used in a screening approach as the first test which then drove further evaluation (Catalona, Brawer). It was shown that the positive predictive value for PSA's between 4 and 10 is approximately 20% and > 10 approximately 55%. The value of serial PSA's (velocity) is unknown but is under intense study: one major issue is determination of what represents a significant rise (details to be presented). Studies have also revealed that a DRE and PSA are important for optimal results. About 18% of clinically detectable cancers are only DRE positive while about 25 - 30% are only PSA positive. When both a DRE and PSA are used together, very few clinically apparent cancers are missed (3-5%). Recent ROC curves suggest that 4 ng/ml is reasonable. Recently, PSA values for men without apparent cancer were stratified by age, and taking the 2SD, age specific reference values were generated as follows: age 40-49 (0-2.5 ng/ml), 50-59 (0-3.5), 60-69 (0-4.5), 70-70 (0-6.5). Finally, there is the issue about different PSA assays regarding the compatabilities/reliability of the upper limit of normal and serial values. Much of the confusion is because there is no international PSA standard and

  13. Potency after permanent prostate brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potters, Louis; Torre, Taryn; Fearn, Paul A.; Leibel, Steven A.; Kattan, Michael W.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The evaluation of potency preservation after treatment of localized prostate cancer with transperineal permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB) and the efficacy of sildenafil were studied. Methods and Materials: This study comprised 482 patients who were able to maintain an erection suitable for intercourse before treatment from a cohort of 1166 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer treated with PPB. All patients have been followed prospectively, and actuarial analysis was performed to assess potency preservation over time. Patients treated with sildenafil were evaluated as to its efficacy. Results: The median follow-up of this cohort was 34 months (6-92), with a median age of 68 years (47-80). Potency was preserved in 311 of the 482 patients, with a 5-year actuarial potency rate of 52.7%. The 5-year actuarial potency rate for patients treated with PPB as monotherapy was 76%, and, for those treated with combination external beam radiotherapy (EBT) + PPB, 56% (p=0.08). Patients treated with neoadjuvant androgen deprivation (NAAD) + PPB had a 5-year potency rate of 52%, whereas those with combination EBT + PPB + NAAD had a potency rate of 29% (p=0.13). Cox regression analysis identified that pretreatment use of NAAD and patient age predicted for impotence (p=0.0001 and 0.04, respectively). Of 84 patients treated with sildenafil, 52 had a successful outcome (62%). The response to sildenafil was significantly better in those patients not treated with NAAD (p=0.04). Conclusions: The actuarial potency rates at 5 years for patients treated with PPB are lower than generally acknowledged, except for those patients treated with PPB as monotherapy. Patients who received sildenafil exhibited improved potency in a majority of cases

  14. Targeting Siah2 as Novel Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    deprivation therapy (ADT) or androgen receptor (AR) pathway inhibition (ARPI) but eventually develops into lethal castration resistance prostate cancer ...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0553 TITLE: Targeting Siah2 as Novel Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Martin Gleave...Siah2 as Novel Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0553 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Martin Gleave 5d

  15. CDK5-A Novel Role in Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) Specific Aims: 1. Effect of dinaciclib on androgen receptor (AR) S81 phosphorylation and function. 2. Effect of...circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire profiling as biomarkers for men with oligometastatic prostate cancer treated with...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0670 TITLE: CDK5-A Novel Role in Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Barry Nelkin

  16. Molecular Epidemiology Investigation of Obesity and Lethal Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    epigenetic link between obesity and prostate cancer survival which will be explored in future studies. The support of the award has provided many...histone modifications in prostate cancer . Epigenetic inhibitors that target HDACs have been tested in clinical trials and approved by the US Food and...Drug Administration for use in treating specific cancers . Thus, understanding the specific role of obesity-related epigenetic events in prostate

  17. CDK5 A Novel Role in Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Parallel: No scientific or budgetary overlap 90091646 (PI: Drake) Title: Enhancing Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy through Epigenetic Reprogramming for...Enhancing Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy through Epigenetic Reprogramming for Optimal Activation of Specific Effector T-Cells Time commitment: 1.2 calendar...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0670 TITLE: CDK5-A Novel Role in Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Barry Nelkin

  18. Immune-Stimulating Combinatorial Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Overlap: None 20 90061946 (Drake) Title: Epigenetic Drugs and Immuno Therapy for Prostate Cancer (EDIT-PC) Effort: 1.2 calendar months (10% effort...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0667 TITLE: Immune-Stimulating Combinatorial Therapy for Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Robert Ivkov...Stimulating Combinatorial Therapy for Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0667 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  19. Evaluation of Multimodal Imaging Biomarkers of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    relationship prostate cancer growth, androgen receptor (AR) levels, hypoxia, and translocator protein (TSPO) levels. As described in the statement of work... bladder uptake) that enable robust detection of small prostate cancers . In contrast, high background and variable uptake of FDHT and FMISO confounded the...Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0245 TITLE: Evaluation of Multimodal Imaging Biomarkers of Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Christopher Chad

  20. Hormone-refractory prostate cancer and the skeleton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soerdjbalie-Maikoe, Vidija

    2006-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men in the UK. Androgen ablation with luteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonists (LHRH agonists) alone, or in combination with anti-androgens is the standard treatment for men with metastatic prostate cancer. Unfortunately, despite maximal

  1. Copenhagen uPAR prostate cancer (CuPCa) database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Solvej; Berg, Kasper D; Høyer-Hansen, Gunilla

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) plays a central role during cancer invasion by facilitating pericellular proteolysis. We initiated the prospective 'Copenhagen uPAR Prostate Cancer' study to investigate the significance of uPAR levels in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. METHODS...

  2. Early diagnosis of prostate cancer in the Western Cape | Heyns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Early stage prostate cancer does not cause symptoms, and even metastatic disease may exist for years without causing symptoms or signs. Whereas early stage prostate cancer can be cured with radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy, the prognosis of patients with locally advanced or metastatic cancer is ...

  3. Current state of prostate cancer treatment in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Belinda F; Aiken, William D; Mayhew, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the commonest cancer in Jamaica as well as the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. One report suggested that Jamaica has the highest incidence rate of prostate cancer in the world, with an age-standardised rate of 304/100,000 per year. The Caribbean region is reported to have the highest mortality rate of prostate cancer worldwide. Prostate cancer accounts for a large portion of the clinical practice for health-care practitioners in Jamaica. The Jamaica Urological Society is a professional body comprising 19 urologists in Jamaica who provide most of the care for men with prostate cancer in collaboration with medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, and a palliative care physician. The health-care system is structured in two tiers in Jamaica: public and private. The urologist-to-patient ratio is high, and this limits adequate urological care. Screening for prostate cancer is not a national policy in Jamaica. However, the Jamaica Urological Society and the Jamaica Cancer Society work synergistically to promote screening as well as to provide patient education for prostate cancer. Adequate treatment for localised prostate cancer is available in Jamaica in the forms of active surveillance, nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy, external beam radiation, and brachytherapy. However, there is a geographic maldistribution of centres that provide prostate cancer treatment, which leads to treatment delays. Also, there is difficulty in affording some treatment options in the private health-care sectors. Androgen deprivation therapy is available for treatment of locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer and is subsidised through a programme called the National Health Fund. Second-line hormonal agents and chemotherapeutic agents are available but are costly to most of the population. The infrastructure for treatment of prostate cancer in Jamaica is good, but it requires additional technological advances as well as additional specialist

  4. Development and external multicenter validation of Chinese Prostate Cancer Consortium prostate cancer risk calculator for initial prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Xie, Liping; Xue, Wei; Ye, Zhangqun; Ma, Lulin; Gao, Xu; Ren, Shancheng; Wang, Fubo; Zhao, Lin; Xu, Chuanliang; Sun, Yinghao

    2016-09-01

    Substantial differences exist in the relationship of prostate cancer (PCa) detection rate and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level between Western and Asian populations. Classic Western risk calculators, European Randomized Study for Screening of Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator, and Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator, were shown to be not applicable in Asian populations. We aimed to develop and validate a risk calculator for predicting the probability of PCa and high-grade PCa (defined as Gleason Score sum 7 or higher) at initial prostate biopsy in Chinese men. Urology outpatients who underwent initial prostate biopsy according to the inclusion criteria were included. The multivariate logistic regression-based Chinese Prostate Cancer Consortium Risk Calculator (CPCC-RC) was constructed with cases from 2 hospitals in Shanghai. Discriminative ability, calibration and decision curve analysis were externally validated in 3 CPCC member hospitals. Of the 1,835 patients involved, PCa was identified in 338/924 (36.6%) and 294/911 (32.3%) men in the development and validation cohort, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that 5 predictors (age, logPSA, logPV, free PSA ratio, and digital rectal examination) were associated with PCa (Model 1) or high-grade PCa (Model 2), respectively. The area under the curve of Model 1 and Model 2 was 0.801 (95% CI: 0.771-0.831) and 0.826 (95% CI: 0.796-0.857), respectively. Both models illustrated good calibration and substantial improvement in decision curve analyses than any single predictors at all threshold probabilities. Higher predicting accuracy, better calibration, and greater clinical benefit were achieved by CPCC-RC, compared with European Randomized Study for Screening of Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator and Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator in predicting PCa. CPCC-RC performed well in discrimination and calibration and decision curve analysis in external validation compared

  5. Diagnosis of prostate cancer with needle biopsy: Should all cases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The triad of digital rectal examination (DRE), serum prostate specific antigen, and transrectal ultrasound‑guided prostate biopsy is used in the detection of prostate cancer (PCa). It is recommended that all cases of PCa should be diagnosed with needle biopsy before treatment. The exclusion criteria for those ...

  6. Organoid culture systems for prostate epithelial and cancer tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drost, Jarno; Karthaus, Wouter R; Gao, Dong; Driehuis, Else; Sawyers, Charles L; Chen, Yu; Clevers, Hans

    This protocol describes a strategy for the generation of 3D prostate organoid cultures from healthy mouse and human prostate cells (either bulk or FACS-sorted single luminal and basal cells), metastatic prostate cancer lesions and circulating tumor cells. Organoids derived from healthy material

  7. Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) for prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Shinichi; Satake, Ichiro; Tujii, Toshihiko; Tari, Kiyonobu; Sakura, Mizuyoshi

    1988-01-01

    Between February 1982 and February 1986, 30 patients with prostatic cancer received intaoperative radiotherapy (IORT). First 10 cases were treated by the transperineal approach, and after April 1983, 20 cases were done by the retropubic approach. We chose the retropubic approach, because it has advantages over the transperineal approach, which has a risk of rectal damage, lymph-adenectomy can not be performed and the patient can not sit down for a long time after the operation. In the IORT procedure for prostatic cancer by the retropubic approach, a longitudinal lower abdominal incision is made, and pushing down the bladder, the treatment cone is inserted to the prostate. We performed lymph-adenectomy at the same operation, if hard and large lymph-nodes were touched. Of 30 patients, 2 had stage B disease, 10 had stage C and 18 had stage D disease. The overall 5-year survival rate (Kaplan-Meier method) after IORT was 42.6 % where as that the 31 cases seen (stage C : 6 cases, stage D : 25 cases) since the Center was founded (October 1975) until the introduction of IORT was 3.2 %. Although no definite conclusion can be drawn because all cases received multidisciplinary therapy, IORT appears useful for the treatment of carcinoma of the prostate. (author)

  8. Diagnosis of prostate cancer via nanotechnological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang BJ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Benedict J Kang,1,2,* Minhong Jeun,1,2,* Gun Hyuk Jang,1,2 Sang Hoon Song,3 In Gab Jeong,3 Choung-Soo Kim,3 Peter C Searson,4 Kwan Hyi Lee1,2 1KIST Biomedical Research Institute, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology (UST, 3Department of Urology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 4Institute for Nanobiotechnology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among the Caucasian adult males in Europe and the USA. Currently available diagnostic strategies for patients with prostate cancer are invasive and unpleasant and have poor accuracy. Many patients have been overly or underly treated resulting in a controversy regarding the reliability of current conventional diagnostic approaches. This review discusses the state-of-the-art research in the development of novel noninvasive prostate cancer diagnostics using nanotechnology coupled with suggested diagnostic strategies for their clinical implication.Keywords: bioassay, nanomaterial, nanodevice, PSA, non-PSA biomarker, bodily fluid

  9. An Embryonic Growth Pathway is Reactivated in Human Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bushman, Wade

    2005-01-01

    .... This research postulates that prostate cancer cells commandeer this normal epithelial-mesenchymal signaling pathway to recruit stromal cells to support abnormal tumor growth and tests the hypothesis...

  10. An Embryonic Growth Pathway is Reactivated in Human Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bushman, Wade

    2003-01-01

    .... This research postulates that prostate cancer cells commandeer this normal epithelial-mesenchymal signaling pathway to recruit stromal cells to support abnormal tumor growth and tests the hypothesis...

  11. Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education (PRIME) in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Marva M

    2006-01-01

    Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education in Prostate Cancer (PRIME) is a partnership between two nursing schools, Duke University School of Nursing and North Carolina Central University (NCCU...

  12. Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education (PRIME) in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Marva M

    2008-01-01

    Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education in Prostate Cancer (PRIME) was a partnership between two nursing schools, Duke University School of Nursing and North Carolina Central University (NCCU...

  13. Fatherhood and incident prostate cancer in a prospective US cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Michael L; Park, Yikyung; Brinton, Louise A; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Schatzkin, Arthur

    2011-04-01

    Fatherhood status has been hypothesized to affect prostate cancer risk but the current evidence is limited and contradictory. We prospectively evaluated the relationship between offspring number and the risk of prostate cancer in 161,823 men enrolled in the National Institues of Health - American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study. Participants were aged 50-71 years without a cancer diagnosis at baseline in 1995. Analysing 8134 cases of prostate cancer, Cox regression was used to estimate the association between offspring number and prostate cancer incidence while accounting for socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics. When examining the entire cohort, there was no relationship between fatherhood and incident prostate cancer [hazard ratio (HR) 0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86-1.02]. However, after stratifying for prostate cancer screening, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) unscreened childless men had a lower risk of prostate cancer (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.58-0.91) compared with fathers due to the interaction between PSA screening and fatherhood (P for interaction fatherhood status and offspring gender is associated with a man's prostate cancer risk.

  14. Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education (PRIME) in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Marva M

    2007-01-01

    Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education in Prostate Cancer (PRIME) is a partnership between two nursing schools, Duke University School of Nursing and North Carolina Central University (NCCU...

  15. Epigenetics in breast and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanyuan; Sarkissyan, Marianna; Vadgama, Jaydutt V

    2015-01-01

    Most recent investigations into cancer etiology have identified a key role played by epigenetics. Specifically, aberrant DNA and histone modifications which silence tumor suppressor genes or promote oncogenes have been demonstrated in multiple cancer models. While the role of epigenetics in several solid tumor cancers such as colorectal cancer are well established, there is emerging evidence that epigenetics also plays a critical role in breast and prostate cancer. In breast cancer, DNA methylation profiles have been linked to hormone receptor status and tumor progression. Similarly in prostate cancer, epigenetic patterns have been associated with androgen receptor status and response to therapy. The regulation of key receptor pathways and activities which affect clinical therapy treatment options by epigenetics renders this field high priority for elucidating mechanisms and potential targets. A new set of methylation arrays are now available to screen epigenetic changes and provide the cutting-edge tools needed to perform such investigations. The role of nutritional interventions affecting epigenetic changes particularly holds promise. Ultimately, determining the causes and outcomes from epigenetic changes will inform translational applications for utilization as biomarkers for risk and prognosis as well as candidates for therapy.

  16. Dosimetric Comparison of Three Dimensional Conformal Radiation Radiotherapy and Helical Tomotherapy Partial Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Woong; Kim, Jong Won; Choi, Yun Kyeong; Kim, Jung Soo; Hwang, Jae Woong; Jeong, Kyeong Sik; Choi, Gye Suk

    2008-01-01

    The goal of radiation treatment is to deliver a prescribed radiation dose to the target volume accurately while minimizing dose to normal tissues. In this paper, we comparing the dose distribution between three dimensional conformal radiation radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and helical tomotherapy (TOMO) plan for partial breast cancer. Twenty patients were included in the study, and plans for two techniques were developed for each patient (left breast:10 patients, right breast:10 patients). For each patient 3D-CRT planning was using pinnacle planning system, inverse plan was made using Tomotherapy Hi-Art system and using the same targets and optimization goals. We comparing the Homogeneity index (HI), Conformity index (CI) and sparing of the organs at risk for dose-volume histogram. Whereas the HI, CI of TOMO was significantly better than the other, 3D-CRT was observed to have significantly poorer HI, CI. The percentage ipsilateral non-PTV breast volume that was delivered 50% of the prescribed dose was 3D-CRT (mean: 40.4%), TOMO (mean: 18.3%). The average ipsilateral lung volume percentage receiving 20% of the PD was 3D-CRT (mean: 4.8%), TOMO (mean: 14.2), concerning the average heart volume receiving 20% and 10% of the PD during treatment of left breast cancer 3D-CRT (mean: 1.6%, 3.0%), TOMO (mean: 9.7%, 26.3%) In summary, 3D-CRT and TOMO techniques were found to have acceptable PTV coverage in our study. However, in TOMO, high conformity to the PTV and effective breast tissue sparing was achieved at the expense of considerable dose exposure to the lung and heart.

  17. Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) May 2014 2. REPORT TYPE Final Summary 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 15 Apr 2009 to 14 Apr 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Prostate...have only demonstrated limited antitumor effects. To improve this immunotherapeutic approach, we will use both bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG, a...circulating tumor cells before and after prostatectomy, and, more recently, helped to develop a prospective study of antibiotic prophylaxis for use in

  18. Prostatic MR imaging. Accuracy in differentiating cancer from other prostatic disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikonen, S.; Kivisaari, L.; Tervahartiala, P. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept of Radiology; Vehmas, T. [Finnish Inst. of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland); Taari, K.; Rannikko, S. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept of Urology

    2001-03-01

    Purpose: We assessed the accuracy of MR imaging in differentiating between cancer and other prostatic disorders, and evaluated the diagnostic criteria for various prostatic diseases. Material and Methods: A total of 74 endorectal coil MR studies were performed on 72 patients. Twenty patients had prostatic cancer, 20 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), 4 acute bacterial prostatitis, 5 chronic bacterial prostatitis (2 also belonging to the previous category), 19 chronic non-bacterial prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, and 6 were symptomless voluntary controls. All studies were interpreted by two experienced radiologists in random order. Radiologists were blinded to all clinical data including the age of the patients. Based on MR findings, both radiologists filled in a form covering diagnostic criteria and diagnosis. Results: Accuracy in diagnosing prostate cancer was 74%. Sensitivity was 50% and specificity 83%, and positive and negative predictive values were 53 and 82%, respectively. Bacterial prostatitis showed some features similar to carcinoma. Abundant BPH rendered cancer detection more difficult. No diagnostic criterion was clearly better than the others. Interobserver agreement on the MR diagnosis ranged from moderate to good. Conclusion: Without knowledge of accurate clinical data, MR seems to be too insensitive in detecting prostate cancer to be used as a primary diagnostic tool.

  19. Ureteral Metastasis Secondary to Prostate Cancer: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Morales

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is very frequent, but secondary ureteral metastasis are extremely rare. We present a 55 year old man with a 2 month history of right flank pain and lower urinary tract symptoms. Prostatic specific antigen of 11.3 ng/mL. Computed tomography showed right hydroureteronephrosis, a developing urinoma and right iliac adenopathies. He underwent right ureteronephrectomy, iliac lymphadenectomy and prostate biopsy. Pathology revealed prostatic carcinoma infiltrating the ureteral muscularis propria, without mucosal involvement. There are 46 reported cases of prostate cancer with ureteral metastases. Ureteral metastasis are a rare cause of renal colic and need of a high index of suspicion.

  20. Younger British men's understandings of prostate cancer: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, Sarah; Parlane, Victoria L; Buckley, Emily

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore young British men's understandings of prostate health and cancer of the prostate. A total of 16 White-British men between 31-50 years of age took part in interviews face-to-face or through computer-mediated communication. Thematic analysis broadly informed by grounded theory identified two key themes; 'limited knowledge about the prostate' and 'early detection & unpleasant procedures'. Accounts are discussed with reference to implications for improving men's understandings of prostate cancer, and likelihood of self-referral for prostate screening where necessary.

  1. A dosimetric comparison of 3D conformal vs intensity modulated vs volumetric arc radiation therapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foroudi Farshad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare 3 Dimensional Conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT with Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT with Volumetric-Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT for bladder cancer. Methods Radiotherapy plans for 15 patients with T2-T4N0M0 bladder cancer were prospectively developed for 3-DCRT, IMRT and VMAT using Varian Eclipse planning system. The same radiation therapist carried out all planning and the same clinical dosimetric constraints were used. 10 of the patients with well localised tumours had a simultaneous infield boost (SIB of the primary tumour planned for both IMRT and VMAT. Tumour control probabilities and normal tissue complication probabilities were calculated. Results Mean planning time for 3D-CRT, IMRT and VMAT was 30.0, 49.3, and 141.0 minutes respectively. The mean PTV conformity (CI index for 3D-CRT was 1.32, for IMRT 1.05, and for VMAT 1.05. The PTV Homogeneity (HI index was 0.080 for 3D-CRT, 0.073 for IMRT and 0.086 for VMAT. Tumour control and normal tissue complication probabilities were similar for 3D-CRT, IMRT and VMAT. The mean monitor units were 267 (range 250–293 for 3D-CRT; 824 (range 641–1083 for IMRT; and 403 (range 333–489 for VMAT (P  Conclusions VMAT is associated with similar dosimetric advantages as IMRT over 3D-CRT for muscle invasive bladder cancer. VMAT is associated with faster delivery times and less number of mean monitor units than IMRT. SIB is feasible in selected patients with localized tumours.

  2. Quality indicators for prostate radiotherapy: are patients disadvantaged by receiving treatment in a 'generalist' centre?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Amanda R; Roos, Daniel E; Kim, Laurence

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this retrospective review was to evaluate concordance with evidence-based quality indicator guidelines for prostate cancer patients treated radically in a 'generalist' (as distinct from 'sub-specialist') centre. We were concerned that the quality of treatment may be lower in a generalist centre. If so, the findings could have relevance for many radiotherapy departments that treat prostate cancer. Two hundred fifteen consecutive patients received external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and/or brachytherapy between 1.10.11 and 30.9.12. Treatment was deemed to be in line with evidence-based guidelines if the dose was: (i) 73.8-81 Gy at 1.8-2.0 Gy/fraction for EBRT alone (eviQ guidelines); (ii) 40-50 Gy (EBRT) for EBRT plus high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy boost (National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines); and (iii) 145 Gy for low dose rate (LDR) I-125 monotherapy (NCCN). Additionally, EBRT beam energy should be ≥6 MV using three-dimensional conformal RT (3D-CRT) or intensity-modulated RT (IMRT), and high-risk patients should receive neo-adjuvant androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) (eviQ/NCCN). Treatment of pelvic nodes was also assessed. One hundred four high-risk, 84 intermediate-risk and 27 low-risk patients (NCCN criteria) were managed by eight of nine radiation oncologists. Concordance with guideline doses was confirmed in: (i) 125 of 136 patients (92%) treated with EBRT alone; (ii) 32 of 34 patients (94%) treated with EBRT + HDR BRT boost; and (iii) 45 of 45 patients (100%) treated with LDR BRT alone. All EBRT patients were treated with ≥6 MV beams using 3D-CRT (78%) or IMRT (22%). 84%, 21% and 0% of high-risk, intermediate-risk and low-risk patients received ADT, respectively. Overall treatment modality choice (including ADT use and duration where assessable) was concordant with guidelines for 176/207 (85%) of patients. The vast majority of patients were treated concordant with evidence-based guidelines suggesting that

  3. Prostate Health Index improves multivariable risk prediction of aggressive prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Stacy; Shin, Sanghyuk S; Broyles, Dennis L; Wei, John T; Sanda, Martin; Klee, George; Partin, Alan W; Sokoll, Lori; Chan, Daniel W; Bangma, Chris H; van Schaik, Ron H N; Slawin, Kevin M; Marks, Leonard S; Catalona, William J

    2017-07-01

    To examine the use of the Prostate Health Index (PHI) as a continuous variable in multivariable risk assessment for aggressive prostate cancer in a large multicentre US study. The study population included 728 men, with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels of 2-10 ng/mL and a negative digital rectal examination, enrolled in a prospective, multi-site early detection trial. The primary endpoint was aggressive prostate cancer, defined as biopsy Gleason score ≥7. First, we evaluated whether the addition of PHI improves the performance of currently available risk calculators (the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial [PCPT] and European Randomised Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer [ERSPC] risk calculators). We also designed and internally validated a new PHI-based multivariable predictive model, and created a nomogram. Of 728 men undergoing biopsy, 118 (16.2%) had aggressive prostate cancer. The PHI predicted the risk of aggressive prostate cancer across the spectrum of values. Adding PHI significantly improved the predictive accuracy of the PCPT and ERSPC risk calculators for aggressive disease. A new model was created using age, previous biopsy, prostate volume, PSA and PHI, with an area under the curve of 0.746. The bootstrap-corrected model showed good calibration with observed risk for aggressive prostate cancer and had net benefit on decision-curve analysis. Using PHI as part of multivariable risk assessment leads to a significant improvement in the detection of aggressive prostate cancer, potentially reducing harms from unnecessary prostate biopsy and overdiagnosis. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacon, C.; Galli, M.; Meoli, P.; Mariani, L.; Novelli, L.; Gonzalez, G.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Objective: To analyze the feasibility of high dose assessing acute and late toxicities both rectal and genitourinary in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. Material and methods: Between April 2006 and April 2008 90 patients diagnosed with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated with MRT technique in the Department of Radiotherapy. The analysis included 80 patients, 10 of them in treatment. The total dose received was 80 Gy. One patient received 70.2 Gy (because of previous pelvic radiotherapy). Age average: 65 (r 43-85 years). Stage: T1c: 43 p (53.75%), T2: 35 p (43.75%), T3: 1 p (1.25%). Score of Gleason 10 ng/ml and [es

  5. Radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, W.J.; Richardson, G.; Hafermann, M.D.

    1979-01-01

    Since 1965, 401 patients with prostate cancer have received intensive local pelvic radiation therapy at the Virginia Mason Medical Center. Two hundred twenty-one of this series were in the Stage C category. The 36 Stage B cancers were either medically nonoperable, or advanced extent, or had high-grade histopathology. Ten patients each were in diffuse Stage A or Stage D groups, the latter receiving local palliative inensive treatment to the prostate area. The mean age of the patients was 67.6 years. The five year survival of the Stage C group was 57.7%. There was no apparent influence on the survival of irradiated Stage C patients who received estrogen therapy. Current treatment techniques employ 10 megavolt photon beam with whole pelvic nodal fields and bilateral are rotational boost fields. The incidence of reactions and complications is presented

  6. A recommender system for prostate cancer websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witteman, Holly; Chignell, Mark; Krahn, Murray

    2008-11-06

    One of the challenges for people seeking health information online is the difficulty in locating health Websites that are personally relevant, credible and useful. We developed a Web-based recommender system in order to help address this problem in the context of prostate cancer. We are conducting an online randomized controlled trial to evaluate the accuracy of its recommendations and to compare the efficacy of content-based and collaborative filtering.

  7. Calcium and Nuclear Signaling in Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan V. Maly; Wilma A. Hofmann

    2018-01-01

    Recently, there have been a number of developments in the fields of calcium and nuclear signaling that point to new avenues for a more effective diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. An example is the discovery of new classes of molecules involved in calcium-regulated nuclear import and nuclear calcium signaling, from the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and myosin families. This review surveys the new state of the calcium and nuclear signaling fields with the aim of identifying the un...

  8. The Genomic Evolution of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    the proposed project : 1. To continue to acquire a comprehensive understanding of prostate cancer genomics . 2. To develop an understanding of... Genetics I • ECEV 35901 Evolutionary Genomics • Fundamentals of Clinical Research • HGEN 47400 Introduction to Probability and Statistics for Geneticists...Marc Gillard,2 David M. Hatcher,5 Westin R. Tom,5 Walter M. Stadler2 and Kevin P. White1,2,3 1Institute for Genomics and Systems Biology , Departments of

  9. Calcium and Nuclear Signaling in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan V. Maly

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there have been a number of developments in the fields of calcium and nuclear signaling that point to new avenues for a more effective diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. An example is the discovery of new classes of molecules involved in calcium-regulated nuclear import and nuclear calcium signaling, from the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR and myosin families. This review surveys the new state of the calcium and nuclear signaling fields with the aim of identifying the unifying themes that hold out promise in the context of the problems presented by prostate cancer. Genomic perturbations, kinase cascades, developmental pathways, and channels and transporters are covered, with an emphasis on nuclear transport and functions. Special attention is paid to the molecular mechanisms behind prostate cancer progression to the malignant forms and the unfavorable response to anti-androgen treatment. The survey leads to some new hypotheses that connect heretofore disparate results and may present a translational interest.

  10. Nutrigenetics and prostate cancer: 2011 and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yinan; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer runs in families and shows a clear dietary involvement. Until recently, the key risk gene(s) have proved elusive. We summarise current understandings of nutrient-gene interactions in prostate cancer risk and progression. A MEDLINE-based literature search was conducted. Hypothesis-directed candidate gene approaches provide plausible, albeit statistically weak, nutrient-gene interactions. These are based on early understandings of factors likely to impact on carcinogenesis, including both nutrient and genetic effects on androgen biosynthesis and action, xenobiotic metabolism, DNA damage and DNA repair. Non-hypothesis-directed genome-wide association studies provide much stronger evidence for other genes, not hitherto suspected for involvement. Although only a few of these have been formally tested for dietary associations in well-designed epidemiologic studies, the nature of many of the genes suggests that their activity may be regulated by nutrients. These effects may not only be relevant to prostate cancer susceptibility, but also to disease progression. It will be important to move beyond studying single nucleotide polymorphisms, into more complex chromosomal rearrangements and to epigenetic changes. For future progress, large international cohorts will not only need to provide proof of individual nutrient-gene interactions, but also to relate these to more complex nutrient-gene-gene interactions, as parts of pathways. Bioinformatics and biostatistics will be increasingly important tools in nutrigenetic studies beyond 2011. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Roswell Park Cancer Institute/Howard University Prostate Cancer Scholars Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0531 TITLE: Roswell Park Cancer Institute/Howard University Prostate Cancer Scholars Program PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Roswell Park Cancer Institute/Howard University Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0531 Cancer Scholars Program 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Prostate Cancer Scholars Program is designed to encourage students from under-represented minority groups to enter graduate training and ultimately

  12. Prostate cancer incidence in Australia correlates inversely with solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Tim W; Seyfi, Doruk; Sevfi, Doruk; Khadra, Mohamed

    2011-11-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Increased sun exposure and blood levels of vitamin D have been postulated to be protective against prostate cancer. This is controversial. We investigated the relationship between prostate cancer incidence and solar radiation in non-urban Australia, and found a lower incidence in regions receiving more sunlight. In landmark ecological studies, prostate cancer mortality rates have been shown to be inversely related to ultraviolet radiation exposure. Investigators have hypothesised that ultraviolet radiation acts by increasing production of vitamin D, which inhibits prostate cancer cells in vitro. However, analyses of serum levels of vitamin D in men with prostate cancer have failed to support this hypothesis. This study has found an inverse correlation between solar radiation and prostate cancer incidence in Australia. Our population (previously unstudied) represents the third group to exhibit this correlation. Significantly, the demographics and climate of Australia differ markedly from those of previous studies conducted on men in the United Kingdom and the United States. • To ascertain if prostate cancer incidence rates correlate with solar radiation among non-urban populations of men in Australia. • Local government areas from each state and territory were selected using explicit criteria. Urban areas were excluded from analysis. • For each local government area, prostate cancer incidence rates and averaged long-term solar radiation were obtained. • The strength of the association between prostate cancer incidence and solar radiation was determined. • Among 70 local government areas of Australia, age-standardized prostate cancer incidence rates for the period 1998-2007 correlated inversely with daily solar radiation averaged over the last two decades. •  There exists an association between less solar radiation and higher prostate cancer incidence in Australia. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU

  13. Pilot Comparison of Stromal Gene Expression among Normal Prostate Tissues and Primary Prostate Cancer Tissues in White and Black Men

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bova, G. S

    2006-01-01

    ..., and expression analysis of prostate-stroma specific cells in normal and cancerous prostates, and aims to develop preliminary data sufficient to identify potential differences in stromal RNA expression in normal and cancerous...

  14. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durmus, T.; Baur, A.; Hamm, B.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men, but only about 10 % of patients die from that cancer. Recent studies suggest that not all patients benefit from a radical therapeutic approach. When prostate cancer is suspected, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can make an important contribution to cancer localization within the prostate. Many studies show that T2-weighted morphologic imaging should be supplemented by multiparametric MRI techniques including diffusion-weighted imaging, contrast-enhanced sequences, and MR spectroscopy. This approach detects aggressive prostate cancer with high sensitivity and specificity. The findings of multiparametric MRI additionally contribute information to the assessment of cancer aggressiveness. The use of these multiparametric MRI techniques will gain an increasing role in the clinical management of prostate cancer patients. They can help in establishing a definitive diagnosis with a minimum of invasiveness and may also contribute to optimal individualized treatment. This review article presents the different techniques of multiparametric MRI and discusses their contribution to the detection of prostate cancer. Moreover, this review outlines an objective approach to image interpretation and structured reporting of MRI findings using the PI-RADS criteria. The review concludes with an outline of approaches to prostate biopsy on the basis of MRI (transrectal ultrasound, direct MRI guidance of tissue sampling, and MRI-ultrasound fusion biopsy) and emerging future uses of MRI in the planning of focal treatment options and in the active surveillance of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. (orig.)

  15. Molecular diagnosis of prostate cancer: Topical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Knyazev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the second most common cancer and the fifth highest malignancy mortality rate in men worldwide. Although PC is detectable in 15-20% of men during life, its death risk is only about 3%. This means that not all PC cases require the same management tactics. The given review analyzes the current investigations searching for molecular biological markers to predict the course of PC and to choose its treatment policy, including that in the development of resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy.

  16. Prostate Cancer: Improving the Flow of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Colleen A F

    2018-04-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common nonskin cancer diagnosed in U.S. men and kills over 27 000 men annually. Thus, improving the outcomes for patients diagnosed with this disease is imperative. There has been a considerable amount of research done over the past several decades resulting in more cures than ever, but the death rate is still unacceptable. This oration addresses the progress that we have made over the past several decades and outlines the work yet to be done, as well as some processes to make that work happen. © RSNA, 2018.

  17. Sciatic neuropathy as first sign of metastasising prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Møller; Rastiemadabadi, Zoreh; Smith, Torben Aagaard

    2010-01-01

    idiopathic neuropathy. Here we describe a patient who was initially diagnosed with idiopathic sciatic neuropathy but who was eventually diagnosed with prostate cancer. This is an uncommon manifestation of prostate cancer, and the diagnostic was difficult because prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was normal...... and the positron emission tomography scan negative. Changes in PSA should always raise the suspicion of prostate cancer, just as idiopathic progressive neuropathy should always raise the suspicion of an underlying malignancy, even when standard diagnostics fail to explain the patient's symptoms....

  18. The value of prostate specific antigen and prostate specific antigen density in the diagnosis ad treatment of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Guoying; Yu Mingqi; Feng Xinli

    2001-01-01

    To study the clinical value of prostate specific antigen (PSA) and prostate specific antigen density (PSAD), the PSA levels of pre-and post-treatment were measured in 28 cases with prostate cancer (Pca) and 80 patients with being Prostate hyperplasia (BPH). PASD was measured in 18 cases Pca and 50 cases BPH of them. The results suggest that the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of diagnosis for Pca were 85.7%, 80.0% and 81.4%, respectively. The false positive rate was 20%. PSAD is superior to PSA in distinguishing prostate cancer from benign prostate hyperplasia. The false positive rate was only 6%. But in the clinical application, the authors should combine PASD with other materials. The regular observation of post therapeutic PSA is of great value to the earlier discovery of local recurrence and metastasis as well as the judgement of curative effect and prognosis

  19. Chromosomal radiosensitivity of prostate cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McRobbie, M.L.; Riches, A.; Baxby, K.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Radiosensitivity of peripheral blood lymphocytes from prostate cancer patients is being investigated using the G2 assay and the Cytokinesis Block Micronucleus(CBMN)assay. The G2 assay evaluates chromosomal damage caused by irradiating cells in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. The CBMN assay quantifies the post mitotic micronuclei, which are the expression of damage incurred during G0. An association between hypersensitivity to the chromosome damaging effects of ionising radiation and cancer predispostion has been demonstrated in a number of heritable conditions by using the aforementioned techniques. Recently, increased chromosomal radiosensitivity has been demonstrated in a significant proportion of patients with no obvious family history of malignancy. The aim of this study is to establish whether a group of prostatic carcinoma patients exists and if so whether there are any correlations between their G2 and G0 sensitivities. The study has shown there is no correlation between G2 and G0 sensitivity, confirming the general trend that individuals exhibiting chromosomal radiosensitivity are defective in only one mechanism and G2 and G0 sensitivity are largely independent. Current data indicates that there is an identifiable group of men within the prostate cancer population with increased chromosomal radiosensitivity. Using the G2 assay and the 90th percentile of the controls as a cut off point for sensitivity, no significant difference between the controls and the patient population has been found. However, using the CBMN assay and again the 90th percentile, approximately 11% of the control group are sensitive compared with approximately 40% of the carcinoma cases. The implications of this increased radiosensitivity are as yet unclear, but it is indicative of increased chromosomal fragility and therefore, possibly associated with malignant transformation. Hence, it may prove a useful tool in identifying individuals at increased risk of developing

  20. Long term results in radiotherapy of prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagshaw, M.A.; Ray, G.R.; Cox, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    Discounting skin cancer, prostatic cancer remains second only to lung cancer in incidence in the United States. Colon Cancer is a close third. The incidence of lung cancer has started to decline slightly in the male, while prostatic cancer continues to increase, no doubt related to the aging of the population. Radiation therapy was first used in the treatment of prostatic cancer in the United States about 1915, having been introduced as intracavitary radium treatments by the American urologist, Hugh Young. External beam irradiation was used in the 1930's, but mostly for palliation of ureteral and vascular obstruction. Definitive use was first described by other investigators in the 1940's' however, attention changed to hormonal manipulation following Huggin's discovery of the dependency of prostate cancer on male hormone. Improved radiation therapy sources were invented, such as Cobalt 60 units, linear accelerators and betatrons, stimulated a reinvestigation of the definitive use of radiation therapy to prostate cancer in the 1950's. According to the current American College of Surgeon's survey of patterns of care of patients with prostate cancer, the use of external beam irradiation for the treatment of prostatic cancer has doubled in the United States during the past decade; however, apparently in Europe, hormone deprivation remains the therapeutic standard

  1. Radiotherapy-induced secondary cancer risk for breast cancer: 3D conformal therapy versus IMRT versus VMAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Boram; Sung, Jiwon; Yoon, Myonggeun; Lee, Sunyoung

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the secondary cancer risk to various organs due to radiation treatment for breast cancer. Organ doses to an anthropomorphic phantom were measured using a photoluminescent dosimeter (PLD) for breast cancer treatment with 3D conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Cancer risk based on the measured dose was calculated using the BEIR (Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation) VII models. The secondary dose per treatment dose (50.4 Gy) to various organs ranged from 0.02 to 0.36 Gy for 3D-CRT, but from 0.07 to 8.48 Gy for IMRT and VMAT, indicating that the latter methods are associated with higher secondary radiation doses than 3D-CRT. The result of the homogeneity index in the breast target shows that the dose homogeneity of 3D-CRT was worse than those of IMRT and VMAT. The organ specific lifetime attributable risks (LARs) to the thyroid, contralateral breast and ipsilateral lung per 100 000 population were 0.02, 19.71, and 0.76 respectively for 3D-CRT, much lower than the 0.11, 463.56, and 10.59 respectively for IMRT and the 0.12, 290.32, and 12.28 respectively for VMAT. The overall estimation of LAR indicated that the radiation-induced cancer risk due to breast radiation therapy was lower with 3D-CRT than with IMRT or VMAT. (paper)

  2. Prostate cancer screening in Ghana - a clinical benefit? | Arthur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ghana and most African countries, prostate cancer is the most common cancer in males after hepatocellular carcinoma. Whereas in the advanced countries, screening for prostate specific antigen (PSA) has led to early detection and management of the disease, screening has been very low in Ghana, thus leading to low ...

  3. Increased survival with enzalutamide in prostate cancer after chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.I. Scher (Howard I.); K. Fizazi (Karim); F. Saad (Fred); M.-E. Taplin (Mary-Ellen); C.N. Sternberg (Cora); K. Miller (Kurt); R. de Wit (Ronald); P.F.A. Mulders (P. F A); K.N. Chi (Kim Nguyen); N.D. Shore (Neal); A.J. Armstrong (Andrew); T.W. Flaig (Thomas); A. Flechon (Aude); P. Mainwaring (Paul); M. Fleming; J.D. Hainsworth (John); M. Hirmand (Mohammad); B. Selby (Bryan); L. Seely (Lynn); J.S. de Bono (Johann)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Enzalutamide (formerly called MDV3100) targets multiple steps in the androgen-receptor-signaling pathway, the major driver of prostate-cancer growth. We aimed to evaluate whether enzalutamide prolongs survival in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer after

  4. Increased survival with enzalutamide in prostate cancer after chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scher, H.I.; Fizazi, K.; Saad, F.; Taplin, M.E.; Sternberg, C.N.; Miller, K.; de Wit, R.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Chi, K.N.; Shore, N.D.; Armstrong, A.J.; Flaig, T.W.; Flechon, A.; Mainwaring, P.; Fleming, M.; Hainsworth, J.D.; Hirmand, M.; Selby, B.; Seely, L.; Bono, J. De; Investigators, A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Enzalutamide (formerly called MDV3100) targets multiple steps in the androgen-receptor-signaling pathway, the major driver of prostate-cancer growth. We aimed to evaluate whether enzalutamide prolongs survival in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer after chemotherapy. METHODS:

  5. Diet and prostate cancer - a holistic approach to management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, Philippa J; Katz, Aaron E

    2011-10-01

    There is now increasing evidence from epidemiologic surveys and from laboratory, intervention, and case-control studies that diet and lifestyle plays a crucial role in prostate cancer biology and tumorigenesis. This applies to both the development and progression of prostate cancer, although in many cases the specific initiating factors in the diet are poorly understood. Conversely, many nutrients and herbs also show significant promise in helping to treat prostate cancer by slowing progression and reducing recurrence, ultimately reducing the risk of morbidity and mortality from the disease. Furthermore for all grades of prostate cancer, nutritional interventions complement conventional treatment to improve response and quality of life. Slowing or even reversing the progression of, high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia [HGPIN]). with chemo-preventative agents could be the best primary defense against prostate cancer, preventing it from occurring in the first place. The information given in this review about prostate cancer chemoprevention summarizes the key evidence for the role of different dietary components and their effect on prostate cancer prevention and progression. Most nutritional chemoprevention agents also have the added benefit of being beneficial for the cardiovascular system, bone health and for the prevention of other cancers.

  6. Awareness and knowledge of prostate cancer among men in Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cancer of the prostate is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly male population. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of prostate cancer among men in Benin City, Nigeria. This cross sectional study included 402 men above 40 years. A structured questionnaire was administered to each ...

  7. Prostate cancer in Port Harcourt, Nigeria: features and outcome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To present the clinical features and outcome of management of patients with prostate cancer in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Methods: A retrospective study of patients with prostate cancer managed in 14 years at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Results: Of 154,594 men above 40 years old who ...

  8. Unique Approaches to Androgen Effects on Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosner, W; Kahn, S. M

    2007-01-01

    Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a plasma protein that binds andrngens and it acts as a transducer of androgen signaling at the plasma membrane of prostate cancer cells The human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP in addition...

  9. Radiobiological Impact of Planning Techniques for Prostate Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of RapidArc planning techniques for prostate cancer in terms of TCP and normal NTCP. Subjects and Methods: A computed tomography data set of ten cases involving low.risk prostate cancer was selected for this retrospective study. For each case, two RapidArc plans were created in Eclipse treatment planning system.

  10. Quality of Life and Cost Effectiveness of Prostate Cancer Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jayadevappa, Ravishankar

    2007-01-01

    ...: Controlling for stage at diagnosis and co-morbidity, (1) analyze progression of cancer, HRQoL, incremental cost and satisfaction with care of prostate cancer patients across two ethnic groups, (2...

  11. Quality of Life and Cost Effectiveness of Prostate Cancer Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jayadevappa, Ravishankar

    2008-01-01

    ...: Controlling for stage at diagnosis and co-morbidity, (1) analyze progression of cancer, HRQoL, incremental cost and satisfaction with care of prostate cancer patients across two ethnic groups, (2...

  12. 3 CFR 8408 - Proclamation 8408 of August 31, 2009. National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2009 8408 Proclamation 8408 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8408 of August 31, 2009 Proc. 8408 National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2009By the President... will be diagnosed with prostate cancer. National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month is an opportunity to...

  13. Descriptive Epidemiology, Molecular Biology and Genetics of Hereditary Prostate Cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzon, Diem Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    A search for markers that can differentiate indolent prostate cancers from more aggressive forms. Assessment of clinical differences between hereditary and sporadicc prostate cancer.......A search for markers that can differentiate indolent prostate cancers from more aggressive forms. Assessment of clinical differences between hereditary and sporadicc prostate cancer....

  14. Influence of the neural microenvironment on prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coarfa, Christian; Florentin, Diego; Putluri, NagiReddy; Ding, Yi; Au, Jason; He, Dandan; Ragheb, Ahmed; Frolov, Anna; Michailidis, George; Lee, MinJae; Kadmon, Dov; Miles, Brian; Smith, Christopher; Ittmann, Michael; Rowley, David; Sreekumar, Arun; Creighton, Chad J; Ayala, Gustavo

    2018-02-01

    Nerves are key factors in prostate cancer (PCa), but the functional role of innervation in prostate cancer is poorly understood. PCa induced neurogenesis and perineural invasion (PNI), are associated with aggressive disease. We denervated rodent prostates chemically and physically, before orthotopically implanting cancer cells. We also performed a human neoadjuvant clinical trial using botulinum toxin type A (Botox) and saline in the same patient, before prostatectomy. Bilateral denervation resulted in reduced tumor incidence and size in mice. Botox treatment in humans resulted in increased apoptosis of cancer cells in the Botox treated side. A similar denervation gene array profile was identified in tumors arising in denervated rodent prostates, in spinal cord injury patients and in the Botox treated side of patients. Denervation induced exhibited a signature gene profile, indicating translation and bioenergetic shutdown. Nerves also regulate basic cellular functions of non-neoplastic epithelial cells. Nerves play a role in the homeostasis of normal epithelial tissues and are involved in prostate cancer tumor survival. This study confirms that interactions between human cancer and nerves are essential to disease progression. This work may make a major impact in general cancer treatment strategies, as nerve/cancer interactions are likely important in other cancers as well. Targeting the neural microenvironment may represent a therapeutic approach for the treatment of human prostate cancer. © 2017 The Authors. The Prostate Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Molecular Biomarkers in the Clinical Management of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udager, Aaron M; Tomlins, Scott A

    2018-01-08

    Prostate cancer, one of the most common noncutaneous malignancies in men, is a heterogeneous disease with variable clinical outcome. Although the majority of patients harbor indolent tumors that are essentially cured by local therapy, subsets of patients present with aggressive disease or recur/progress after primary treatment. With this in mind, modern clinical approaches to prostate cancer emphasize the need to reduce overdiagnosis and overtreatment via personalized medicine. Advances in our understanding of prostate cancer pathogenesis, coupled with recent technologic innovations, have facilitated the development and validation of numerous molecular biomarkers, representing a range of macromolecules assayed from a variety of patient sample types, to help guide the clinical management of prostate cancer, including early detection, diagnosis, prognostication, and targeted therapeutic selection. Herein, we review the current state of the art regarding prostate cancer molecular biomarkers, emphasizing those with demonstrated utility in clinical practice. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  16. Prostate Cancer Probability Prediction By Machine Learning Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jović, Srđan; Miljković, Milica; Ivanović, Miljan; Šaranović, Milena; Arsić, Milena

    2017-11-26

    The main goal of the study was to explore possibility of prostate cancer prediction by machine learning techniques. In order to improve the survival probability of the prostate cancer patients it is essential to make suitable prediction models of the prostate cancer. If one make relevant prediction of the prostate cancer it is easy to create suitable treatment based on the prediction results. Machine learning techniques are the most common techniques for the creation of the predictive models. Therefore in this study several machine techniques were applied and compared. The obtained results were analyzed and discussed. It was concluded that the machine learning techniques could be used for the relevant prediction of prostate cancer.

  17. A Novel Approach to Assay DNA Methylation in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    the underlying mechanism of which, however, remains elusive. In this report, using prostate can- cer cells as a model system, we demonstrated that...could be a critical target for cancer development and, cer - tainly, cancer treatment. It was not until recently, however, that chromosomal trans...mutated in hormone-dependent cancers, prostate cancer, and breast can- cer , is in concordance with its predominant role in directing AR/ER signaling to

  18. TPD52: A Novel Vaccine Target for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Chinnaiyan AM and Rubin MA. (2006). Defining aggressive prostate cancer using a 12- gene model. Neoplasia 8: 59-68. 12. Scanlan MJ, Gout I, Gordon CM...prostate cancer cells, isolated from patients undergoing radical prostatectomy, using differential gene expression analysis of our novel paired...sera from breast cancer patients to screen a library of expressed genes from breast cancers, demonstrating that TPD52 is capable of inducing IgG

  19. Internet-Based Education for Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    cells. n Hormone therapy: Certain hormones are given or removed. This helps to keep cancer cells from growing. n Cryotherapy : A special probe is placed...are many other diseases that are more deadly than prostate cancer . Talk to your doctor about how to prevent them. n As a result, most men with...prostate cancer ranks 5th, behind heart disease, lung cancer , stroke, and emphysema. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , National Canter for Health

  20. Prostate cancer: Doses and volumes of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennequin, C.; Rivera, S.; Quero, L.; Latorzeff, I.

    2010-01-01

    Radiotherapy is nowadays a major therapeutic option in prostate cancer. Technological improvements allowed dose escalation without increasing late toxicity. Some randomized trials have shown that dose escalation decreases the biochemical failure rate, without any benefit in survival with the present follow-up. However, some studies indicate that the distant metastases rate is also decreased. Most of these studies have been done without hormonal treatment, and the role of dose escalation in case of long-term androgen deprivation is unknown. The target volume encompassed the whole gland: however, complete or partial focal treatment of the prostate can be done with sophisticated IMRT technique and must be evaluated. Proximal part of the seminal vesicles must be included in the target volumes. The role of nodal irradiation is another debate, but it could be logically proposed for the unfavourable group. (authors)

  1. Can Prostate-Specific Antigen Kinetics before Prostate Biopsy Predict the Malignant Potential of Prostate Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Jin; Jeong, Tae Yoong; Yoo, Dae Seon; Park, Jinsung; Cho, Seok; Kang, Seok Ho; Lee, Sang Hyub; Jeon, Seung Hyun; Lee, Tchun Yong; Park, Sung Yul

    2015-11-01

    To predict the malignant potential of prostate cancer (PCa) according to prostate-specific antigen velocity (PSAV), PSA density (PSAD), free/total PSA ratio (%fPSA), and digital rectal examination (DRE). From January 2009 to December 2012, 548 adult male patients were diagnosed with PCa by prostate biopsy at four hospitals in Korea. We retrospectively analyzed 155 adult male patients with an initial PSA level≤10 ng/mL and whose PSA levels had been checked more than two times at least 6 months before they had been diagnosed with PCa, with test intervals of more than 3 months. Patients with a urinary tract infection, and patients who had previously undergone cystoscopy or surgery of the prostate were excluded. We separated patients into two groups according to Gleason sum [Gleason sum≤7 (n=134) or Gleason sum≥8 (n=21)] and the presence of extracapsular invasion [organ confined (n=129) or extracapsular invasion (n=26)]. Differences between the groups were compared. The group with a Gleason sum≥8 or extracapsular invasion of PCa showed high PSAV and significantly lower %fPSA. There were no significant differences in PSAD and the presence of an abnormality on DRE between two groups. In PCa patients treated with other therapies besides prostatectomy, a high PSA velocity and a low %fPSA may predict high grade PCa with a Gleason sum≥8 or the presence of extracapsular invasion.

  2. Role of genetic testing for inherited prostate cancer risk: Philadelphia prostate cancer consensus conference 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.N. Giri (Veda); Knudsen, K.E. (Karen E.); Kelly, W.K. (William K.); Abida, W. (Wassim); G.L. Andriole (Gerald); C.H. Bangma (Chris); Bekelman, J.E. (Justin E.); Benson, M.C. (Mitchell C.); A. Blanco (Amie); Burnett, A. (Arthur); Catalona, W.J. (William J.); Cooney, K.A. (Kathleen A.); M.R. Cooperberg (Matthew); D. Crawford (David); Den, R.B. (Robert B.); Dicker, A.P. (Adam P.); S. Eggener (Scott); N.E. Fleshner (Neil); Freedman, M.L. (Matthew L.); F. Hamdy (Freddie); Hoffman-Censits, J. (Jean); Hurwitz, M.D. (Mark D.); Hyatt, C. (Colette); Isaacs, W.B. (William B.); Kane, C.J. (Christopher J.); Kantoff, P. (Philip); R.J. Karnes (Jeffrey); Karsh, L.I. (Lawrence I.); Klein, E.A. (Eric A.); Lin, D.W. (Daniel W.); Loughlin, K.R. (Kevin R.); Lu-Yao, G. (Grace); Malkowicz, S.B. (S. Bruce); Mann, M.J. (Mark J.); Mark, J.R. (James R.); McCue, P.A. (Peter A.); Miner, M.M. (Martin M.); Morgan, T. (Todd); Moul, J.W. (Judd W.); Myers, R.E. (Ronald E.); Nielsen, S.M. (Sarah M.); Obeid, E. (Elias); Pavlovich, C.P. (Christian P.); Peiper, S.C. (Stephen C.); D.F. Penson (David F.); D.P. Petrylak (Daniel P); Pettaway, C.A. (Curtis A.); R. Pilarski (Robert); P. Pinto (Peter); Poage, W. (Wendy); Raj, G.V. (Ganesh V.); R. Rebbeck (Timothy); M. Robson (Mark); Rosenberg, M.T. (Matt T.); Sandler, H. (Howard); A.O. Sartor (Oliver); Schaeffer, E. (Edward); Schwartz, G.F. (Gordon F.); Shahin, M.S. (Mark S.); N.D. Shore (Neal); Shuch, B. (Brian); Soule, H.R. (Howard R.); S.A. Tomlins (Scott A); Trabulsi, E.J. (Edouard J.); Uzzo, R. (Robert); Griend, D.J.V. (Donald J. Vander); P.C. Walsh (Patrick); Weil, C.J. (Carol J.); Wender, R. (Richard); Gomella, L.G. (Leonard G.)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Guidelines are limited for genetic testing for prostate cancer (PCA). The goal of this conference was to develop an expert consensus-driven working framework for comprehensive genetic evaluation of inherited PCA in the multigene testing era addressing genetic counseling,

  3. Biomarkers for Early Detection of Clinically Relevant Prostate Cancer: A Multi-Institutional Validation Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    25 4 1. INTRODUCTION Although prostate - specific antigen (PSA) testing and the resulting treatment of...details of this work are described in the attached paper titled “Refined analysis of prostate specific antigen kinetics to predict prostate cancer...Wagner; Daniel W. Lin,; and Yingye Zheng. “Refined analysis of prostate specific antigen kinetics to predict prostate cancer active surveillance outcomes

  4. Predictors of participation in prostate cancer screening at worksites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrich, S P; Greiner, E; Reis-Starr, C; Yoon, S; Weinrich, M

    1998-01-01

    Unfortunately, African American men have a higher incidence of and a higher mortality rate for prostate cancer than White men but are less likely to participate in prostate cancer screening. This correlational survey research identifies predictors for participation in a free prostate cancer screening in 179 men, 64% of whom are African American. Each man was invited to see his personal physician for a free prostate cancer screening following a prostate cancer educational program given at his worksite. Forty-seven percent of the African American men went to their personal physician following the educational program and received a digital rectal examination (DRE) and a prostate specific antigen (PSA) screening. In the original cohort of educational program attendees, only 16% of the African Americans had obtained a DRE in the previous 12 months. However, 44% subsequently did participate in free DRE screening. Similarly, only 6% of the African American men had received a PSA screening in the previous 12 months, yet 42% obtained a PSA screening after the educational program, a sevenfold increase. Implications for allocating limited resources for education and screening to the high-risk group of African American men are discussed. This study's model of a prostate cancer educational program at worksites followed by attendees visiting their personal physician for screening could be replicated throughout the United States to increase African American men's participation in prostate cancer screening.

  5. Molecular Signaling Pathways Mediating Osteoclastogenesis Induced by Prostate Cancer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafiei, Shahrzad; Komarova, Svetlana V

    2013-01-01

    Advanced prostate cancer commonly metastasizes to bone leading to osteoblastic and osteolytic lesions. Although an osteolytic component governed by activation of bone resorbing osteoclasts is prominent in prostate cancer metastasis, the molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer-induced osteoclastogenesis are not well-understood. We studied the effect of soluble mediators released from human prostate carcinoma cells on osteoclast formation from mouse bone marrow and RAW 264.7 monocytes. Soluble factors released from human prostate carcinoma cells significantly increased viability of naïve bone marrow monocytes, as well as osteoclastogenesis from precursors primed with receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL). The prostate cancer-induced osteoclastogenesis was not mediated by RANKL as it was not inhibited by osteoprotegerin (OPG). However inhibition of TGFβ receptor I (TβRI), or macrophage-colony stimulating factor (MCSF) resulted in attenuation of prostate cancer-induced osteoclastogenesis. We characterized the signaling pathways induced in osteoclast precursors by soluble mediators released from human prostate carcinoma cells. Prostate cancer factors increased basal calcium levels and calcium fluctuations, induced nuclear localization of nuclear factor of activated t-cells (NFAT)c1, and activated prolonged phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in RANKL-primed osteoclast precursors. Inhibition of calcium signaling, NFATc1 activation, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation significantly reduced the ability of prostate cancer mediators to stimulate osteoclastogenesis. This study reveals the molecular mechanisms underlying the direct osteoclastogenic effect of prostate cancer derived factors, which may be beneficial in developing novel osteoclast-targeting therapeutic approaches

  6. Management of patients with advanced prostate cancer: recommendations of the St Gallen Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference (APCCC) 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillessen, S.; Omlin, A.; Attard, G.; Bono, J.S. de; Efstathiou, E.; Fizazi, K.; Halabi, S.; Nelson, P.S.; Sartor, O.; Smith, M.R.; Soule, H.R.; Akaza, H.; Beer, T.M.; Beltran, H.; Chinnaiyan, A.M.; Daugaard, G.; Davis, I.D.; Santis, M. de; Drake, C.G.; Eeles, R.A.; Fanti, S.; Gleave, M.E.; Heidenreich, A.; Hussain, M.; James, N.D.; Lecouvet, F.E.; Logothetis, C.J.; Mastris, K.; Nilsson, S.; Oh, W.K.; Olmos, D.; Padhani, A.R.; Parker, C.; Rubin, M.A.; Schalken, J.A.; Scher, H.I.; Sella, A.; Shore, N.D.; Small, E.J.; Sternberg, C.N.; Suzuki, H; Sweeney, C.J.; Tannock, I.F.; Tombal, B.

    2015-01-01

    The first St Gallen Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference (APCCC) Expert Panel identified and reviewed the available evidence for the ten most important areas of controversy in advanced prostate cancer (APC) management. The successful registration of several drugs for castration-resistant

  7. Activation of the hedgehog pathway in advanced prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCormick Frank

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hedgehog pathway plays a critical role in the development of prostate. However, the role of the hedgehog pathway in prostate cancer is not clear. Prostate cancer is the second most prevalent cause of cancer death in American men. Therefore, identification of novel therapeutic targets for prostate cancer has significant clinical implications. Results Here we report that activation of the hedgehog pathway occurs frequently in advanced human prostate cancer. We find that high levels of hedgehog target genes, PTCH1 and hedgehog-interacting protein (HIP, are detected in over 70% of prostate tumors with Gleason scores 8–10, but in only 22% of tumors with Gleason scores 3–6. Furthermore, four available metastatic tumors all have high expression of PTCH1 and HIP. To identify the mechanism of the hedgehog signaling activation, we examine expression of Su(Fu protein, a negative regulator of the hedgehog pathway. We find that Su(Fu protein is undetectable in 11 of 27 PTCH1 positive tumors, two of them contain somatic loss-of-function mutations of Su(Fu. Furthermore, expression of sonic hedgehog protein is detected in majority of PTCH1 positive tumors (24 out of 27. High levels of hedgehog target genes are also detected in four prostate cancer cell lines (TSU, DU145, LN-Cap and PC3. We demonstrate that inhibition of hedgehog signaling by smoothened antagonist, cyclopamine, suppresses hedgehog signaling, down-regulates cell invasiveness and induces apoptosis. In addition, cancer cells expressing Gli1 under the CMV promoter are resistant to cyclopamine-mediated apoptosis. All these data suggest a significant role of the hedgehog pathway for cellular functions of prostate cancer cells. Conclusion Our data indicate that activation of the hedgehog pathway, through loss of Su(Fu or overexpression of sonic hedgehog, may involve tumor progression and metastases of prostate cancer. Thus, targeted inhibition of hedgehog signaling may have

  8. Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    pathways underlying pathological cell proliferation in the setting of cancer. Current efforts are focused on selecting RNA aptamers to antigens...of restaurants ranging from fast food to fine dining. Application to the Program - Application forms, distributed with this brochure...pathological cell proliferation in the setting of cancer. Current efforts are focused on selecting RNA aptamers to antigens expressed on the surface of target

  9. Functional roles for Rad9 in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieberman, H.B.; Broustas, C.G.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this work is to understand the mechanistic relationship between high levels of Rad9 protein and prostate cancer. The study is based on several findings suggesting a role for Rad9 in this disease. Rad9 has all the hallmark features of an oncogene or tumor suppressor. It regulates genomic stability, multiple cell cycle checkpoints, apoptosis and DNA repair. In addition, it can transactivate downstream target genes via direct interaction with promoter DNA sequences. We found Rad9 protein levels were very high in prostate cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we examined 52 primary normal prostate and 339 prostate cancer specimens for Rad9 protein by immunohistochemical staining. Statistical significance for Rad9 positive staining versus cancer, and stain intensity versus Stage were tested. We get a p-value of <0.001 when comparing percentage positive by cancer Stage, or stain intensity by cancer Stage. Based on these data, we sought to define the nature of the relationship between Rad9 and prostate cancer. We demonstrate that Rad9 acts as an oncogene in prostate cancer by playing a critical role in tumor formation in a mouse xenograph model. We also show that Rad9 is important for cellular phenotypes essential for metastasis, including tumor cell migration, invasion and resistance to programmed cell death after detachment from extracellular matrix. Therefore, Rad9 is critical for several aspects of prostate tumor progression, and could serve as a novel target for anti-cancer therapy

  10. Prostate Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  11. Prostate Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  12. Alcohol consumption and prostate cancer: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizos, Ch; Papassava, M; Golias, Ch; Charalabopoulos, K

    2010-07-01

    Prostate cancer has become a major public health problem worldwide although the etiology of prostate cancer remains largely unknown. Dietary factors, dietary supplements, and physical activity might be important in the prevention of the disease. In the majority of studies published, it was observed that high consumption of meat, alcohol and dairy products has been linked to a greater risk. Specifically, alcohol use, and particularly heavy use, may cause cancers of liver, esophagus, larynx, pharynx and oral cavity, with risks for the aero-digestive cancers. Moderate use among women has been related with increases in breast cancer. Alcohol consumption is a modifiable lifestyle factor that may affect prostate cancer risk. Alcohol alters the hormonal environment and in parallel, containing chemical substances such as flavonoids (red wine), may alter tumor cell growth. In this mini review, the relation between alcohol consumption and prostate cancer risk is analyzed.

  13. Low-dose irradiation for controlling prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuttler, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer among North American men and the second leading cause of death in those aged 65 and over. The American Cancer Society recommends testing those over age 50 who are expected to live at least 10 years, even though the ability of early detection to decrease prostate cancer mortality has not been demonstrated. So controversy exists about the appropriateness of screening because of the considerable economic and social burden of diagnosing and treating prostate cancer, coupled with the projected large increase in the number of new cases as the population ages. This very important public health issue could be addressed at low cost by total-body low-dose irradiation therapy to stimulate the patient's own defences to prevent and control most cancers, including prostate cancer, with no symptomatic side effects. (author)

  14. About the Prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PCF: Many vs Cancer Contact Us About the Prostate Prostate Cancer Basics Risk Factors Prostate Cancer Prevention ... that connects to the anus. Ultrasound of the prostate Prostate Zones The prostate is divided into several ...

  15. Evaluation of homogeneity and dose conformity in IMRT planning in prostate radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Juliane S.; Leidens, Matheus; Estacio, Daniela R.; Razera, Ricardo A.Z.; Streck, Elaine E.; Silva, Ana M.M. da

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the dose distribution homogeneity and conformity of radiation therapy plans of prostate cancer using IMRT. Data from 34 treatment plans of Hospital Sao Lucas of PUCRS, where those plans were executed, were retrospectively analyzed. All of them were done with 6MV X-rays from a linear accelerator CLINAC IX, and the prescription doses varied between 60 and 74 Gy. Analyses showing the homogeneity and conformity indices for the dose distribution of those plans were made. During these analyses, some comparisons with the traditional radiation therapy planning technic, the 3D-CRT, were discussed. The results showed that there is no correlation between the prescribed dose and the homogeneity and conformity indices, indicating that IMRT works very well even for higher doses. Furthermore, a comparison between the results obtained and the recommendations of ICRU 83 was carried out. It has also been observed that the indices were really close to the ideal values. 82.4% of the cases showed a difference below 5% of the ideal value for the index of conformity, and 88.2% showed a difference below 10% for the homogeneity index. Concluding, it is possible to confirm the quality of the analyzed radiation therapy plans of prostate cancer using IMRT. (author)

  16. Comparison of prostate cancer gene 3 score, prostate health index and percentage free prostate-specific antigen for differentiating histological inflammation from prostate cancer and other non-neoplastic alterations of the prostate at initial biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Stefano; Passera, Roberto; Bollito, Enrico; Manfredi, Matteo; Scarpa, Roberto Mario; Sottile, Antonino; Randone, Donato Franco; Porpiglia, Francesco

    2014-12-01

    To determine if prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) score, Prostate Health Index (PHI), and percent free prostate-specific antigen (%fPSA) may be used to differentiate prostatitis from prostate cancer (PCa), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-PIN) in patients with elevated PSA and negative digital rectal examination (DRE). in the present prospective study, 274 patients, undergoing PCA3 score, PHI and %fPSA assessments before initial biopsy, were enrolled. Three multivariate logistic regression models were used to test PCA3 score, PHI and %fPSA as risk factors for prostatitis vs. PCa, vs. BPH, and vs. HG-PIN. All the analyses were performed for the whole patient cohort and for the 'gray zone' of PSA (4-10 ng/ml) cohort (188 individuals). The determinants for prostatitis vs. PCa were PCA3 score, PHI and %fPSA (Odds Ratio [OR]=0.97, 0.96 and 0.94, respectively). Unit increase of PHI was the only risk factor for prostatitis vs. BPH (OR=1.06), and unit increase of PCA3 score for HG-PIN vs. prostatitis (OR=0.98). In the 'gray zone' PSA cohort, the determinants for prostatitis vs. PCa were PCA3 score, PHI and %fPSA (OR=0.96, 0.94 and 0.92, respectively), PCA3 score and PHI for prostatitis vs. BPH (OR=0.96 and 1.08, respectively), and PCA3 score for prostatitis vs. HG-PIN (OR=0.97). The clinical benefit of using PCA3 score and PHI to estimate prostatitis vs. PCa was comparable; even %fPSA had good diagnostic performance, being a faster and cheaper marker. PHI was the only determinant for prostatitis vs. BPH, while PCA3 score for prostatitis vs. HG-PIN. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  17. [Molecular biology of castration-resistant prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Ludovic; Terrisse, Safae; Gauthier, Hélène; Pouessel, Damien; Le Maignan, Christine; Teixeira, Luis; Culine, Stéphane

    2015-06-01

    Castration-resistant prostate cancer was subjected to a paradigm switch from hormone resistance to androgen deprivation therapy resistance during the last decade. Indeed, new therapeutics targeting the androgen receptor showed clinical efficacy in patients with progressive disease under castration. Thus, it is a proof that the AR remains a dominant driver of oncogenesis in earlier-called hormone resistant prostate cancer. This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms involved in castration-resistant prostate cancer. Copyright © 2015 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Treatment planning aids in prostate cancer: fr