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Sample records for prostate aspirin increases

  1. Transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate: aspirin increases the incidence of minor bleeding complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliwell, O.T.; Yadegafar, G.; Lane, C.; Dewbury, K.C.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To assess whether patients taking aspirin were more likely to experience bleeding complications after transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy. Materials and methods: Three hundred and eighty-seven patients taking aspirin who underwent prostate biopsy over a 3.5 year period and 731 patients not taking aspirin over a 2 year period returned a questionnaire assessing the incidence and severity of bleeding complications. Results: Patients taking aspirin had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of haematuria and rectal bleeding, but not of haemospermia. They also had a longer mean duration of bleeding, but no increase in bleeding severity. Severe bleeding was very uncommon in both groups and no patients required intervention for bleeding complications. Conclusion: Aspirin exacerbates minor bleeding complications in patients undergoing TRUS guided biopsy of the prostate, but in this large group of aspirin-taking patients no dangerous bleeding complications were encountered. It may be that the risks associated with aspirin cessation outweigh the risks of haemorrhagic complications

  2. Transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate: aspirin increases the incidence of minor bleeding complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halliwell, O.T. [Department of Radiology, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton (United Kingdom)], E-mail: hallo99@doctors.org.uk; Yadegafar, G. [Public Health Sciences and Medical Statistics Division, School of Medicine, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton University, Southampton (United Kingdom); Lane, C.; Dewbury, K.C. [Department of Radiology, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-15

    Aim: To assess whether patients taking aspirin were more likely to experience bleeding complications after transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy. Materials and methods: Three hundred and eighty-seven patients taking aspirin who underwent prostate biopsy over a 3.5 year period and 731 patients not taking aspirin over a 2 year period returned a questionnaire assessing the incidence and severity of bleeding complications. Results: Patients taking aspirin had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of haematuria and rectal bleeding, but not of haemospermia. They also had a longer mean duration of bleeding, but no increase in bleeding severity. Severe bleeding was very uncommon in both groups and no patients required intervention for bleeding complications. Conclusion: Aspirin exacerbates minor bleeding complications in patients undergoing TRUS guided biopsy of the prostate, but in this large group of aspirin-taking patients no dangerous bleeding complications were encountered. It may be that the risks associated with aspirin cessation outweigh the risks of haemorrhagic complications.

  3. Should warfarin or aspirin be stopped prior to prostate biopsy? An analysis of bleeding complications related to increasing sample number regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, R.; Abbas, A.; Idriz, S.; Hoy, A.; Rutherford, E.E.; Smart, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy with increased sampling numbers are more likely to experience bleeding complications and whether warfarin or low-dose aspirin are independent risk factors. Materials and methods: 930 consecutive patients with suspected prostatic cancer were followed up after biopsy. Warfarin/low-dose aspirin was not stopped prior to the procedure. An eight to 10 sample regime TRUS-guided prostate biopsy was performed and patients were offered a questionnaire to complete 10 days after the procedure, to determine any immediate or delayed bleeding complications. Results: 902 patients returned completed questionnaires. 579 (64.2%) underwent eight core biopsies, 47 (5.2%) underwent nine, and 276 (30.6%) underwent 10. 68 were taking warfarin [mean international normalized ratio (INR) = 2.5], 216 were taking low-dose aspirin, one was taking both, and 617 were taking neither. 27.9% of those on warfarin and 33.8% of those on aspirin experienced haematuria. 37% of those on no blood-thinning medication experienced haematuria. 13.2% of those on warfarin and 14.4% of those on aspirin experienced rectal bleeding. 11.5% of those on no blood-thinning medication experienced rectal bleeding. 7.4% of those on warfarin and 12% of those on aspirin experienced haematospermia. 13.8% of those on neither experienced haematospermia. Regression analysis showed a significant association between increasing sampling number and occurrence of all bleeding complication types. There was no significant association between minor bleeding complications and warfarin use; however, there was a significant association between minor bleeding complications and low-dose aspirin use. There was no severe bleeding complication. Conclusion: There is an increased risk of bleeding complications following TRUS-guided prostate biopsy with increased sampling numbers but these are minor. There is also an increased risk with low

  4. Low-dose aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Charlotte; Dehlendorff, Christian; Borre, Michael

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Increasing evidence suggests that aspirin use may protect against prostate cancer. In a nationwide case-control study, using Danish high-quality registry data, we evaluated the association between the use of low-dose aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs......) and the risk of prostate cancer. METHODS: We identified 35,600 patients (cases) with histologically verified prostate cancer during 2000-2012. Cases were matched to 177,992 population controls on age and residence by risk-set sampling. Aspirin and nonaspirin NSAID exposure was defined by type, estimated dose......, duration, and consistency of use. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs), with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs), for prostate cancer associated with low-dose aspirin (75-150 mg) or nonaspirin NSAID use, adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Use of low-dose aspirin...

  5. Aspirin increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uppala, Radha; Dudiak, Brianne; Beck, Megan E.; Bharathi, Sivakama S.; Zhang, Yuxun; Stolz, Donna B.; Goetzman, Eric S.

    2017-01-01

    The metabolic effects of salicylates are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of aspirin on fatty acid oxidation. Aspirin increased mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation, but inhibited peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, in two different cell lines. Aspirin increased mitochondrial protein acetylation and was found to be a stronger acetylating agent in vitro than acetyl-CoA. However, aspirin-induced acetylation did not alter the activity of fatty acid oxidation proteins, and knocking out the mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 did not affect the induction of long-chain fatty acid oxidation by aspirin. Aspirin did not change oxidation of medium-chain fatty acids, which can freely traverse the mitochondrial membrane. Together, these data indicate that aspirin does not directly alter mitochondrial matrix fatty acid oxidation enzymes, but most likely exerts its effects at the level of long-chain fatty acid transport into mitochondria. The drive on mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation may be a compensatory response to altered mitochondrial morphology and inhibited electron transport chain function, both of which were observed after 24 h incubation of cells with aspirin. These studies provide insight into the pathophysiology of Reye Syndrome, which is known to be triggered by aspirin ingestion in patients with fatty acid oxidation disorders. - Highlights: • Aspirin increases mitochondrial—but inhibits peroxisomal—fatty acid oxidation. • Aspirin acetylates mitochondrial proteins including fatty acid oxidation enzymes. • SIRT3 does not influence the effect of aspirin on fatty acid oxidation. • Increased fatty acid oxidation is likely due to altered mitochondrial morphology and respiration.

  6. Increased platelet expression of glycoprotein IIIa following aspirin treatment in aspirin-resistant but not aspirin-sensitive subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Christopher N; Goodman, Timothy; Becker, Silke; Chen, Nan; Mustafa, Agnesa; Schofield, Emma; Campbell, James; Ward, Malcolm; Sharma, Pankaj; Ferro, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Aims Aspirin is widely used as an anti-platelet agent for cardiovascular prophylaxis. Despite aspirin treatment, many patients experience recurrent thrombotic events, and aspirin resistance may contribute to this. We examined the prevalence of aspirin resistance in a healthy population, and investigated whether the platelet proteome differed in aspirin-resistant subjects. Methods Ninety-three healthy subjects received aspirin 300 mg daily for 28 days. Before and at the end of treatment, urine was taken to determine 11-dehydrothromboxane B2, and blood was taken to measure arachidonic acid (AA)-induced aggregation of platelet-rich plasma and to interrogate the platelet proteome by mass spectrometric analysis with further confirmation of findings using Western blotting. Results In two of the 93 subjects, neither AA-induced aggregation nor urinary 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 was effectively suppressed by aspirin, despite measurable plasma salicylate concentrations, suggesting the presence of true aspirin resistance. Despite no detectable differences in the platelet proteome at baseline, following aspirin a marked increase was seen in platelet glycoprotein IIIa expression in the aspirin-resistant but not aspirin-sensitive subjects. An increase in platelet glycoprotein IIIa expression with aspirin resistance was confirmed in a separate cohort of 17 patients with stable coronary artery disease on long term aspirin treatment, four of whom exhibited aspirin resistance. Conclusions In a healthy population, true aspirin resistance is uncommon but exists. Resistance is associated with an increase in platelet glycoprotein IIIa expression in response to aspirin. These data shed new light on the mechanism of aspirin resistance, and provide the potential to identify aspirin-resistant subjects using a novel biomarker. PMID:25099258

  7. Safety of ultrasound-guided transrectal extended prostate biopsy in patients receiving low-dose aspirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Kariotis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine whether the peri-procedural administration of low-dose aspirin increases the risk of bleeding complications for patients undergoing extended prostate biopsies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From February 2007 to September 2008, 530 men undergoing extended needle biopsies were divided in two groups; those receiving aspirin and those not receiving aspirin. The morbidity of the procedure, with emphasis on hemorrhagic complications, was assessed prospectively using two standardized questionnaires. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the mean number of biopsy cores (12.9 ± 1.6 vs. 13.1 ± 1.2 cores, p = 0.09. No major biopsy-related complications were noted. Statistical analysis did not demonstrate significant differences in the rate of hematuria (64.5% vs. 60.6%, p = 0.46, rectal bleeding (33.6% vs. 25.9%, p = 0.09 or hemospermia (90.1% vs. 86.9%, p = 0.45. The mean duration of hematuria and rectal bleeding was significantly greater in the aspirin group compared to the control group (4.45 ± 2.7 vs. 2.4 ± 2.6, p = < 0.001 and 3.3 ± 1.3 vs. 1.9 ± 0.7, p < 0.001. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that only younger patients (mean age 60.1 ± 5.8 years with a lower body mass index (< 25 kg/m2 receiving aspirin were at a higher risk (odds ratio = 3.46, p = 0.047 for developing hematuria and rectal bleeding after the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: The continuing use of low-dose aspirin in patients undergoing extended prostatic biopsy is a relatively safe option since it does not increase the morbidity of the procedure.

  8. Duration of increased bleeding tendency after cessation of aspirin therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cahill, Ronan A

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Aspirin has a significant effect on hemostasis, so it is often recommended that patients taking aspirin discontinue treatment before elective surgery. While off aspirin, these patients may be at risk of thrombosis. The optimum period of time that aspirin should be withheld is controversial. The aim of this study was to establish the duration of the antihemostatic effect of prolonged aspirin therapy. STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective study, 51 healthy volunteers were randomly assigned into 3 groups, each receiving an identical tablet for 14 days. One group received a placebo tablet; individuals in the other two groups received either 75 mg or 300 mg of aspirin once a day. Template bleeding times and specific platelet function testing (using the PFA-100; Dade Behring) were carried out on subjects before therapy and again after its completion until they returned to baseline. RESULTS: Thirty-eight volunteers complied sufficiently with the protocol to provide useful results. All bleeding times normalized within 96 hours and all platelet function tests within 144 hours after stopping aspirin. There was no demonstrable hemostatic defect in any volunteer persisting by or beyond the sixth day after treatment cessation. There was no apparent difference in duration of effect between those taking either 75 mg or 300 mg of aspirin. CONCLUSIONS: This study uses sensitive measures of platelet function to demonstrate the duration of increased bleeding tendency after withdrawal of aspirin therapy. It supports discontinuation of aspirin therapy 5 days before elective surgery (with the operation being performed on the sixth day).

  9. Aspirin in the Management of Patients with Prostate Cancer Undergoing Radiotherapy: Friend or Foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascan, Bianca; Marignol, Laure

    2018-04-01

    Aspirin has cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2)-mediated anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant properties that may confer a positive effect in preventing and limiting the progression of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer has been shown to have poor treatment outcomes due to therapeutic resistance; therefore, COX2 inhibition caused by aspirin could represent an opportunity to augment current therapies. This is particularly of interest to patients undergoing radiation therapy (RT) where inflammation is a common side-effect. This review discusses the evidence for the potential role of aspirin in the management of patients with prostate cancer undergoing RT. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  10. Aspirin and Statin Nonuse Associated With Early Biochemical Failure After Prostate Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaorsky, Nicholas G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Buyyounouski, Mark K., E-mail: mark.buyyounouski@fccc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Li, Tianyu [Department of Biostatistics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Horwitz, Eric M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To present the largest retrospective series investigating the effect of aspirin and statins, which are hypothesized to have antineoplastic properties, on biochemical failure (nadir plus 2 ng/mL) after prostate radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Between 1989 and 2006, 2051 men with clinically localized prostate cancer received definitive RT alone (median dose, 76 Gy). The rates of aspirin use and statin use (defined as any use at the time of RT or during follow-up) were 36% and 34%, respectively. The primary endpoint of the study was an interval to biochemical failure (IBF) of less than 18 months, which has been shown to be the single strongest predictor of distant metastasis, prostate cancer survival, and overall survival after RT. Patient demographic characteristics and tumor staging factors were assessed with regard to associations with the endpoint. Univariate analysis was performed with the {chi}{sup 2} test for categorical variables and the Wilcoxon test for continuous variables. Multivariable analysis was performed with a multiple logistic regression. Results: The median follow-up was 75 months. Univariate analysis showed that an IBF of less than 18 months was associated with aspirin nonuse (P<.0001), statin nonuse (P<.0001), anticoagulant nonuse (P=.0006), cardiovascular disease (P=.0008), and prostate-specific antigen (continuous) (P=.008) but not with Gleason score, age, RT dose, or T stage. On multivariate analysis, only aspirin nonuse (P=.0012; odds ratio, 2.052 [95% confidence interval, 1.328-3.172]) and statin nonuse (P=.0002; odds ratio, 2.465 [95% confidence interval, 1.529-3.974]) were associated with an IBF of less than 18 months. Conclusions: In patients who received RT for prostate cancer, aspirin or statin nonuse was associated with early biochemical failure, a harbinger of distant metastasis and death. Further study is needed to confirm these findings and to determine the optimal dosing and schedule, as well as the relative

  11. Aspirin and Statin Nonuse Associated With Early Biochemical Failure After Prostate Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaorsky, Nicholas G.; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Li, Tianyu; Horwitz, Eric M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To present the largest retrospective series investigating the effect of aspirin and statins, which are hypothesized to have antineoplastic properties, on biochemical failure (nadir plus 2 ng/mL) after prostate radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Between 1989 and 2006, 2051 men with clinically localized prostate cancer received definitive RT alone (median dose, 76 Gy). The rates of aspirin use and statin use (defined as any use at the time of RT or during follow-up) were 36% and 34%, respectively. The primary endpoint of the study was an interval to biochemical failure (IBF) of less than 18 months, which has been shown to be the single strongest predictor of distant metastasis, prostate cancer survival, and overall survival after RT. Patient demographic characteristics and tumor staging factors were assessed with regard to associations with the endpoint. Univariate analysis was performed with the χ 2 test for categorical variables and the Wilcoxon test for continuous variables. Multivariable analysis was performed with a multiple logistic regression. Results: The median follow-up was 75 months. Univariate analysis showed that an IBF of less than 18 months was associated with aspirin nonuse (P<.0001), statin nonuse (P<.0001), anticoagulant nonuse (P=.0006), cardiovascular disease (P=.0008), and prostate-specific antigen (continuous) (P=.008) but not with Gleason score, age, RT dose, or T stage. On multivariate analysis, only aspirin nonuse (P=.0012; odds ratio, 2.052 [95% confidence interval, 1.328-3.172]) and statin nonuse (P=.0002; odds ratio, 2.465 [95% confidence interval, 1.529-3.974]) were associated with an IBF of less than 18 months. Conclusions: In patients who received RT for prostate cancer, aspirin or statin nonuse was associated with early biochemical failure, a harbinger of distant metastasis and death. Further study is needed to confirm these findings and to determine the optimal dosing and schedule, as well as the relative

  12. Study shows aspirin reduces the risk and recurrence of prostate cancer in African-American men | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    African-American men who take a daily dose of aspirin experience a significantly lower risk of developing advanced prostate cancer – the aggressive and deadly form of the disease – than African-American men who do not regularly use aspirin, according to a study from the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) Laboratory of Human Carcinogenesis. Learn more...

  13. Simultaneous Treatment with Statins and Aspirin Reduces the Risk of Prostate Cancer Detection and Tumorigenic Properties in Prostate Cancer Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivan, M.; Rigau, M.; Colás, E.; Garcia, M.; Montes, M.; Sequeiros, T.; Regis, L.; Celma, A.; Planas, J.; Placer, J.; Reventós, J.; de Torres, I.; Doll, A.; Morote, J.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays prostate cancer is the most common solid tumor in men from industrialized countries and the second leading cause of death. At the ages when PCa is usually diagnosed, mortality related to cardiovascular morbidity is high; therefore, men at risk for PCa frequently receive chronic lipid-lowering and antiplatelet treatment. The aim of this study was to analyze how chronic treatment with statins, aspirin, and their combination influenced the risk of PCa detection. The tumorigenic properties of these treatments were evaluated by proliferation, colony formation, invasion, and migration assays using different PCa cell lines, in order to assess how these treatments act at molecular level. The results showed that a combination of statins and aspirin enhances the effect of individual treatments and seems to reduce the risk of PCa detection (OR: 0.616 (95% CI: 0.467–0.812), P < 0.001). However, if treatments are maintained, aspirin (OR: 1.835 (95% CI: 1.068–3.155), P = 0.028) or the combination of both drugs (OR: 3.059 (95% CI: 1.894–4.939), P < 0.001) represents an increased risk of HGPCa. As observed at clinical level, these beneficial effects in vitro are enhanced when both treatments are administered simultaneously, suggesting that chronic, concomitant treatment with statins and aspirin has a protective effect on PCa incidence. PMID:25649906

  14. Aspirin provocation increases 8-iso-PGE2 in exhaled breath condensate of aspirin-hypersensitive asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Lucyna; Januszek, Rafał; Kaszuba, Marek; Wójcik, Krzysztof; Celejewska-Wójcik, Natalia; Gielicz, Anna; Plutecka, Hanna; Oleś, Krzysztof; Stręk, Paweł; Sanak, Marek

    2015-09-01

    Isoprostanes are bioactive compounds formed by non-enzymatic oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, mostly arachidonic, and markers of free radical generation during inflammation. In aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), asthmatic symptoms are precipitated by ingestion of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs capable for pharmacologic inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 isoenzyme. We investigated whether aspirin-provoked bronchoconstriction is accompanied by changes of isoprostanes in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). EBC was collected from 28 AERD subjects and 25 aspirin-tolerant asthmatics before and after inhalatory aspirin challenge. Concentrations of 8-iso-PGF2α, 8-iso-PGE2, and prostaglandin E2 were measured using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Leukotriene E4 was measured by immunoassay in urine samples collected before and after the challenge. Before the challenge, exhaled 8-iso-PGF2α, 8-iso-PGE2, and PGE2 levels did not differ between the study groups. 8-iso-PGE2 level increased in AERD group only (p=0.014) as a result of the aspirin challenge. Urinary LTE4 was elevated in AERD, both in baseline and post-challenge samples. Post-challenge airways 8-iso-PGE2 correlated positively with urinary LTE4 level (p=0.046), whereas it correlated negatively with the provocative dose of aspirin (p=0.027). A significant increase of exhaled 8-iso-PGE2 after inhalatory challenge with aspirin was selective and not present for the other isoprostane measured. This is a novel finding in AERD, suggesting that inhibition of cyclooxygenase may elicit 8-iso-PGE2 production in a specific mechanism, contributing to bronchoconstriction and systemic overproduction of cysteinyl leukotrienes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Preoperative Aspirin Does Not Increase Transfusion or Reoperation in Isolated Valve Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhammer, Jordan E; Herman, Corey R; Berguson, Mark W; Torjman, Marc C; Epstein, Richard H; Sun, Jian-Zhong

    2017-10-01

    Preoperative aspirin has been studied in patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery. However, there is a paucity of clinical data available evaluating perioperative aspirin in other cardiac surgical procedures. This study was designed to investigate the effects of aspirin on bleeding and transfusion in patients undergoing non-emergent, isolated, heart valve repair or replacement. Retrospective, cohort study. Academic medical center. A total of 694 consecutive patients having non-emergent, isolated, valve repair or replacement surgery at an academic medical center were identified. Of the 488 patients who met inclusion criteria, 2 groups were defined based on their preoperative use of aspirin: those taking (n = 282), and those not taking (n = 206) aspirin within 5 days of surgery. Binary logistic regression was used to examine relationships among demographic and clinical variables. No significant difference was found between the aspirin and non-aspirin groups with respect to the percentage receiving red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, mean RBC units transfused in those who required transfusion, massive transfusion of RBC, or amounts of fresh frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate, or platelets. Aspirin was not associated with an increase in the rate of re-exploration for bleeding (5.3% v 6.3%, p = 0.478). Major adverse cardiocerebral events (MACE), 30-day mortality, and 30-day readmission rates were not statistically different between the aspirin-and non-aspirin-treated groups. Preoperative aspirin therapy in elective, isolated, valve surgery did not result in an increase in transfusion or reoperation for bleeding and was not associated with reduced readmission rate, MACE, or 30-day mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Aspirin Increases the Solubility of Cholesterol in Lipid Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, Richard; Barrett, Matthew; Zheng, Sonbo; Dies, Hannah; Rheinstadter, Maikel

    2014-03-01

    Aspirin (ASA) is often prescribed for patients with high levels of cholesterol for the secondary prevention of myocardial events, a regimen known as the Low-Dose Aspirin Therapy. We have recently shown that Aspirin partitions in lipid bilayers. However, a direct interplay between ASA and cholesterol has not been investigated. Cholesterol is known to insert itself into the membrane in a dispersed state at moderate concentrations (under ~37.5%) and decrease fluidity of membranes. We prepared model lipid membranes containing varying amounts of both ASA and cholesterol molecules. The structure of the bilayers as a function of ASA and cholesterol concentration was determined using high-resolution X-ray diffraction. At cholesterol levels of more than 40mol%, immiscible cholesterol plaques formed. Adding ASA to the membranes was found to dissolve the cholesterol plaques, leading to a fluid lipid bilayer structure. We present first direct evidence for an interaction between ASA and cholesterol on the level of the cell membrane.

  17. Increase of Prostate Cancer Incidence in Martinique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Belpomme

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer incidence is steadily increasing in many developed countries. Because insular populations present unique ethnic, geographical, and environmental characteristics, we analyzed the evolution of prostate cancer age-adjusted world standardized incidence rates in Martinique in comparison with that of metropolitan France. We also compared prostate cancer incidence rates, and lifestyle-related and socioeconomic markers such as life expectancy, dietary energy, and fat supply and consumption, with those in other Caribbean islands, France, UK, Sweden, and USA. The incidence rate of prostate cancer in Martinique is one of the highest reported worldwide; it is continuously growing since 1985 in an exponential mode, and despite a similar screening detection process and lifestyle-related behaviour, it is constantly at a higher level than in metropolitan France. However, Caribbean populations that are genetically close to that of Martinique have generally much lower incidence of prostate cancer. We found no correlation between prostate cancer incidence rates, life expectancy, and diet westernization. Since the Caribbean African descent-associated genetic susceptibility factor would have remained constant during the 1980–2005, we suggest that in Martinique some environmental change including the intensive use of carcinogenic organochlorine pesticides might have occurred as key determinant of the persisting highly growing incidence of prostate cancer.

  18. The Long-Term Benefits of Increased Aspirin Use by At-Risk Americans Aged 50 and Older.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Agus

    Full Text Available The usefulness of aspirin to defend against cardiovascular disease in both primary and secondary settings is well recognized by the medical profession. Multiple studies also have found that daily aspirin significantly reduces cancer incidence and mortality. Despite these proven health benefits, aspirin use remains low among populations targeted by cardiovascular prevention guidelines. This article seeks to determine the long-term economic and population-health impact of broader use of aspirin by older Americans at higher risk for cardiovascular disease.We employ the Future Elderly Model, a dynamic microsimulation that follows Americans aged 50 and older, to project their lifetime health and spending under the status quo and in various scenarios of expanded aspirin use. The model is based primarily on data from the Health and Retirement Study, a large, representative, national survey that has been ongoing for more than two decades. Outcomes are chosen to provide a broad perspective of the individual and societal impacts of the interventions and include: heart disease, stroke, cancer, life expectancy, quality-adjusted life expectancy, disability-free life expectancy, and medical costs. Eligibility for increased aspirin use in simulations is based on the 2011-2012 questionnaire on preventive aspirin use of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. These data reveal a large unmet need for daily aspirin, with over 40% of men and 10% of women aged 50 to 79 presenting high cardiovascular risk but not taking aspirin. We estimate that increased use by high-risk older Americans would improve national life expectancy at age 50 by 0.28 years (95% CI 0.08-0.50 and would add 900,000 people (95% CI 300,000-1,400,000 to the American population by 2036. After valuing the quality-adjusted life-years appropriately, Americans could expect $692 billion (95% CI 345-975 in net health benefits over that period.Expanded use of aspirin by older Americans with

  19. The Long-Term Benefits of Increased Aspirin Use by At-Risk Americans Aged 50 and Older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agus, David B; Gaudette, Étienne; Goldman, Dana P; Messali, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The usefulness of aspirin to defend against cardiovascular disease in both primary and secondary settings is well recognized by the medical profession. Multiple studies also have found that daily aspirin significantly reduces cancer incidence and mortality. Despite these proven health benefits, aspirin use remains low among populations targeted by cardiovascular prevention guidelines. This article seeks to determine the long-term economic and population-health impact of broader use of aspirin by older Americans at higher risk for cardiovascular disease. We employ the Future Elderly Model, a dynamic microsimulation that follows Americans aged 50 and older, to project their lifetime health and spending under the status quo and in various scenarios of expanded aspirin use. The model is based primarily on data from the Health and Retirement Study, a large, representative, national survey that has been ongoing for more than two decades. Outcomes are chosen to provide a broad perspective of the individual and societal impacts of the interventions and include: heart disease, stroke, cancer, life expectancy, quality-adjusted life expectancy, disability-free life expectancy, and medical costs. Eligibility for increased aspirin use in simulations is based on the 2011-2012 questionnaire on preventive aspirin use of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. These data reveal a large unmet need for daily aspirin, with over 40% of men and 10% of women aged 50 to 79 presenting high cardiovascular risk but not taking aspirin. We estimate that increased use by high-risk older Americans would improve national life expectancy at age 50 by 0.28 years (95% CI 0.08-0.50) and would add 900,000 people (95% CI 300,000-1,400,000) to the American population by 2036. After valuing the quality-adjusted life-years appropriately, Americans could expect $692 billion (95% CI 345-975) in net health benefits over that period. Expanded use of aspirin by older Americans with elevated risk

  20. Aspirin Does Not Increase Heart Failure Events in Heart Failure Patients: From the WARCEF Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerlink, John R; Qian, Min; Bello, Natalie A; Freudenberger, Ronald S; Levin, Bruce; Di Tullio, Marco R; Graham, Susan; Mann, Douglas L; Sacco, Ralph L; Mohr, J P; Lip, Gregory Y H; Labovitz, Arthur J; Lee, Seitetz C; Ponikowski, Piotr; Lok, Dirk J; Anker, Stefan D; Thompson, John L P; Homma, Shunichi

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether aspirin increases heart failure (HF) hospitalization or death in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction receiving an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB). Because of its cyclooxygenase inhibiting properties, aspirin has been postulated to increase HF events in patients treated with ACE inhibitors or ARBs. However, no large randomized trial has addressed the clinical relevance of this issue. We compared aspirin and warfarin for HF events (hospitalization, death, or both) in the 2,305 patients enrolled in the WARCEF (Warfarin versus Aspirin in Reduced Cardiac Ejection Fraction) trial (98.6% on ACE inhibitor or ARB treatment), using conventional Cox models for time to first event (489 events). In addition, to examine multiple HF hospitalizations, we used 2 extended Cox models, a conditional model and a total time marginal model, in time to recurrent event analyses (1,078 events). After adjustment for baseline covariates, aspirin- and warfarin-treated patients did not differ in time to first HF event (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.87; 95% confidence interval: 0.72 to 1.04; p = 0.117) or first hospitalization alone (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.88; 95% confidence interval: 0.73 to 1.06; p = 0.168). The extended Cox models also found no significant differences in all HF events or in HF hospitalizations alone after adjustment for covariates. Among patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction in the WARCEF trial, there was no significant difference in risk of HF events between the aspirin and warfarin-treated patients. (Warfarin Versus Aspirin in Reduced Cardiac Ejection Fraction trial [WARCEF]; NCT00041938). Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. All rights reserved.

  1. Aspirin Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nerve Decompression Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) Disclosure Statement Printer Friendly Aspirin Desensitization Kevin C. Welch, MD Zara Patel, MD Introduction The term "aspirin-sensitive asthma" (also known as "aspirin triad" or " ...

  2. Aspirin overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002542.htm Aspirin overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An overdose of aspirin means you have too much aspirin in your ...

  3. Aspirin-mediated acetylation of haemoglobin increases in presence of high glucose concentration and decreases protein glycation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Finamore

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Glycation represents the first stage in the development of diabetic complications. Aspirin was shown to prevent sugars reacting with proteins, but the exact mechanism of this interaction was not well defined. We performed a quantitative analysis to calculate the levels of acetylation and glycation of haemoglobin, among others red blood cell (RBC proteins, using a label free approach. After glucose incubation, increases in the acetylation levels were seen for several haemoglobin subunits, while a parallel decrease of their glycation levels was observed after aspirin incubation. These results suggest that, a mutual influence between these two modifications, occur at protein level.

  4. Aspirin is associated with an increased risk of subdural hematoma in normal-pressure hydrocephalus patients following shunt implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkeland, Peter; Lauritsen, Jens; Poulsen, Frantz Rom

    2015-01-01

    OBJECT: In this paper the authors investigate whether shunt-treated patients with normal-pressure hydrocephalus receiving aspirin therapy are at increased risk of developing subdural hematoma (SDH). METHODS: Records from 80 consecutive patients who had undergone implantation of a cerebrospinal...

  5. Aspirin for Primary Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Ilana B; Owens, Douglas K

    2017-07-01

    Aspirin reduces the risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction and stroke, and the risk of colorectal cancer. Aspirin increases the risk of gastrointestinal and intracranial bleeding. The best available evidence supports initiating aspirin in select populations. In 2016, the US Preventive Services Task Force recommended initiating aspirin for the primary prevention of both cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer among adults ages 50 to 59 who are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Adults 60 to 69 who are at increased cardiovascular disease risk may also benefit. There remains considerable uncertainty about whether younger and older patients may benefit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Subchorionic hematomas are increased in early pregnancy in women taking low-dose aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Ashley; Sayago, M Mercedes; Kutteh, William H; Ke, Raymond W

    2016-05-01

    To determine the frequency of subchorionic hematomas (SCH) in first-trimester ultrasound examinations of patients with infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) and in patients from a general obstetric population. To determine if the method of assisted reproduction utilized or the use of anticoagulants, such as heparin and aspirin (ASA), influenced frequency of SCH. Prospective, cohort study. Fertility clinic and general obstetrics clinic. Five hundred and thirty-three women who were pregnant in the first-trimester. Not applicable. Frequencies of subchorionic hematomas in women based on diagnosis, use of anticoagulants, and fertility treatment. SCH were identified in 129/321 (40.2%) in the study group compared to 23/212 (10.9%) in the control group. Fertility diagnosis and the use of heparin did not appear to affect the frequency of SCH in the first trimester; however, SCH occurred at an almost four-fold increase in patients taking ASA compared to those not taking ASA, regardless of fertility diagnosis or method of fertility treatment. The use of ASA may be associated with an increased risk of developing a SCH during the first trimester. The increased frequencies of SCH in pregnancies of patients attending a fertility clinic compared to women from a general obstetrical practice was highly correlated with the use of ASA. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Aspirin and colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grancher, Adrien; Michel, Pierre; Di Fiore, Frédéric; Sefrioui, David

    2018-02-01

    Colorectal cancer is a worldwide public health problem. Aspirin has been identified as a protective factor against the apparition of colorectal cancer. There are several mechanisms about the actions by aspirin on colorectal tumorogenesis. These are not perfectly known nowadays. On one hand, there are direct mechanisms on colorectal mucosa, on the other hand there are indirect mechanisms through platelet functions. Aspirin also plays a role by its anti-inflammatory action and the stimulation of antitumor immunity. Several studies show that long-term treatment with low-doses of aspirin decreases the incidence of adenomas and colorectal cancers. In the United States, aspirin is currently recommended for primary prevention of the risk of colorectal cancer in all patients aged 50 to 59, with a 10-year risk of cardiovascular event greater than 10 %. However, primary prevention with aspirin should not be a substitute for screening in colorectal cancer. Furthermore, aspirin seems to be beneficial when used in post-diagnosis of colorectal cancer. It could actually decrease the risk of metastasis in case of a localized colorectal cancer, and increase the survival in particular, concerning PIK3CA mutated tumors. The association of aspirin with neoadjuvant treatment of colorectal cancer by radiochimiotherapy seems to have beneficial effects. French prospective randomized study is currently being conducted to investigate postoperative aspirin in colorectal cancers with a PIK3CA mutation. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Aspirin in Alzheimer's Disease Increased Risk of Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Cause for Concern?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoonsen, Hanneke; Richard, Edo; Bentham, Peter; Gray, Richard; van Geloven, Nan; de Haan, Rob J.; van Gool, Willem A.; Nederkoorn, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose-In a randomized controlled trial in Alzheimer's disease (AD), we found a higher number of intracerebral hemorrhages (ICHs) in patients randomized to aspirin treatment. Here, we evaluate the literature on the risk of ICH as a complication in patients with AD treated with

  9. The IL1B-511 Polymorphism (rs16944 AA Genotype) Is Increased in Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease in Mexican Population

    OpenAIRE

    Falf?n-Valencia, Ramc?s; Pav?n-Romero, Gandhi F.; Camarena, Angel; Garc?a, Mar?a de la Luz; Galicia-Negrete, Gustavo; Negrete-Garc?a, Mar?a Cristina; Teran, Luis Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is characterized by chronic hyperplastic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyposis, asthma, and aspirin sensitivity. The mechanisms which produce these manifestations of intolerance are not fully defined, current research focuses on cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) inhibition, metabolism of arachidonic acid, and the COX pathway to the lipoxygenase (LO) route, inducing increased synthesis of leukotrienes (LT). The biological plausibility of this model has led to th...

  10. Hyaluronan in aged collagen matrix increases prostate epithelial cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodarasamy, Mamatha; Vernon, Robert B.; Chan, Christina K.; Plymate, Stephen R.; Wight, Thomas N.

    2015-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of the prostate, which is comprised primarily of collagen, becomes increasingly disorganized with age, a property that may influence the development of hyperplasia and cancer. Collageous ECM extracted from the tails of aged mice exhibits many characteristics of collagen in aged tissues, including the prostate. When polymerized into a 3-dimensional (3D) gel, these collagen extracts can serve as models for the study of specific cell-ECM interactions. In the present study, we examined the behaviors of human prostatic epithelial cell lines representing normal prostate epithelial cells (PEC), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH-1), and adenocarcinoma (LNCaP) cultured in contact with 3D gels made from collagen extracts of young and aged mice. We found that proliferation of PEC, BPH-1, and LNCaP cells were all increased by culture on aged collagen gels relative to young collagen gels. In examining age-associated differences in the composition of the collagen extracts, we found that aged and young collagen had a similar amount of several collagen-associated ECM components, but aged collagen had a much greater content of the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) than young collagen. The addition of HA (of similar size and concentration to that found in aged collagen extracts) to cells placed in young collagen elicited significantly increased proliferation in BPH-1 cells, but not in PEC or LNCaP cells, relative to controls not exposed to HA. Of note, histochemical analyses of human prostatic tissues showed significantly higher expression of HA in BPH and prostate cancer stroma relative to stroma of normal prostate. Collectively, these results suggest that changes in ECM involving increased levels of HA contribute to the growth of prostatic epithelium with aging. PMID:25124870

  11. Increase in salivary cysteinyl-leukotriene concentration in patients with aspirin-intolerant asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Emiko; Taniguchi, Masami; Higashi, Noritaka; Mita, Haruhisa; Yamaguchi, Hiromichi; Tatsuno, Sayaka; Fukutomi, Yuma; Tanimoto, Hidenori; Sekiya, Kiyoshi; Oshikata, Chiyako; Tsuburai, Takahiro; Tsurikisawa, Naomi; Otomo, Mamoru; Maeda, Yuji; Hasegawa, Maki; Miyazaki, Eishi; Kumamoto, Toshihide; Akiyama, Kazuo

    2011-03-01

    Cysteinyl-leukotrienes (CysLTs; LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4) play a considerable role in the pathophysiology of aspirin-intolerant asthma (AIA). Saliva has recently been validated as novel, simple, and noninvasive method for investigating inflammation in patients with asthma. The aim of this study is to clarify the molecular species of CysLT in saliva and to evaluate the CysLT and LTB4 concentrations in saliva in AIA patients. We also examined how the CysLT concentration in saliva reflects that of their corresponding urinary metabolite. We preformed an analytical cross-sectional study. CysLT and LTB4 concentrations in saliva were quantified by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) following purification by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). 1. When analyzed by EIA in combination with HPLC, saliva was found to consist of LTC4, LTD4 and LTE4 in similar amounts. 2. In saliva analysis among the three groups (AIA patients, aspirin-tolerant asthma [ATA] patients, and healthy subjects), both the concentrations of CysLTs and LTB4 were significantly higher in AIA patients than in ATA patients and healthy subjects. 3. We found significant correlations between CysLT concentration and LTB4 concentration in saliva in each group. 4. No significant correlation was found between the concentration of LTE4 in urine and that of CysLTs in saliva. In this study, we found higher concentrations of CysLTs and LTB4 in saliva from AIA patients than in saliva from ATA patients, suggesting that the quantification of CysLT and LTB4 concentrations in saliva may be another diagnostic strategy for AIA.

  12. Prostate-specific antigen increase during dutasteride to indicate the need for prostate biopsy: influence of prostatic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarra, Alessandro; Maggi, Martina; Fasulo, Andrea; Salciccia, Stefano; Gentile, Vincenzo; Cattarino, Susanna; Gentilucci, Alessandro

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the significance of an increase in total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) serum levels despite dutasteride treatment as a predictor of prostate cancer (PC) at biopsy. We focused our attention on the rate of the first PSA increase and on the influence of prostatic inflammation. From 2011 to 2016, 365 men with a previous negative prostate biopsy and persistent elevated PSA levels received dutasteride treatment. The population was followed for a range of 12-48 months. One hundred twelve cases with a confirmed PSA increase >0.5 ng/ml over the nadir value during the follow-up were included in Group A and underwent a new prostate biopsy. In Group A, the PSA increase was associated with PC at the re-biopsy in 66% of cases. The percentage of PSA reduction after 6 months of treatment was not a significant indicator of the risk for PC. The distribution of inflammatory infiltrates significantly (pprostate biopsies. The relative risk for PC at biopsy significantly increased according to PSA level during dutasteride. Treatment with dutasteride can help to analyze PSA kinetic. A persistent prostatic inflammation is a factor able to reduce the performance of PSA kinetic during dutasteride treatment.

  13. Continuous Aspirin Use Does Not Increase Bleeding Risk of Split-Thickness Skin Transplantation Repair to Chronic Wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanwei; Wang, Yibing; Li, Liang; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Ning; Wu, Dan

    Discontinuation of aspirin therapy before cutaneous surgery may cause serious complications. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the bleeding risk of split-thickness skin transplantation repair to chronic wounds in patients on aspirin therapy. A total of 97 patients who underwent split-thickness skin transplantation surgery of chronic wounds during a 2-year period were enrolled. They were categorized on the basis of aspirin therapies. The primary outcome was postoperative bleeding and bleeding complications. Univariate analysis was performed to examine the association between aspirin and bleeding complications. Among the 26 patients taking aspirin continuously in group A, there were 5 bleeding complications (19.23%). Among the 55 nonusers in group B, there were 10 bleeding complications (18.18%). Among the 16 discontinuous patients in group C, there were 3 bleeding complications (18.75%). No statistical differences were found among the groups ( P = .956). Univariate analysis showed that continuous aspirin use was not significantly associated with bleeding complications (odds ratio, 0.933; 95% confidence interval, 0.283-3.074; P = .910 in the aspirin and control groups) and that discontinuous aspirin use was not significantly associated with bleeding complications (odds ratio, 0.963; 95% confidence interval, 0.230-4.025; P = .959 in the aspirin and control groups; odds ratio, 0.969; 95% confidence interval, 0.198-4.752; P = .969 in the aspirin and discontinuous groups). Continuous aspirin use does not produce an additional bleeding risk in patients who undergo split-thickness skin transplantation repair of chronic wounds.

  14. Low-Dose Aspirin Use Does Not Increase Survival in 2 Independent Population-Based Cohorts of Patients With Esophageal or Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Andrew D; Busby, John; Johnston, Brian T; Baron, John A; Hughes, Carmel M; Coleman, Helen G; Cardwell, Chris R

    2018-03-01

    esophageal cancer (pooled adjusted HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.85-1.25) or gastric cancer (pooled adjusted HR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.85-1.32). In analyses of 2 large independent cohorts in the United Kingdom, low-dose aspirin usage was not associated with increased survival of patients diagnosed with esophageal or gastric cancer. Copyright © 2018 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Autoantibody signatures as biomarkers to distinguish prostate cancer from benign prostatic hyperplasia in patients with increased serum prostate specific antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Dennis J; DiJohnson, Daniel A; Caiazzo, Robert J; Nelson, James C; Ure, David; O'Leary, Michael P; Richie, Jerome P; Liu, Brian C-S

    2012-03-22

    Serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) concentrations lack the specificity to differentiate prostate cancer from benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), resulting in unnecessary biopsies. We identified 5 autoantibody signatures to specific cancer targets which might be able to differentiate prostate cancer from BPH in patients with increased serum PSA. To identify autoantibody signatures as biomarkers, a native antigen reverse capture microarray platform was used. Briefly, well-characterized monoclonal antibodies were arrayed onto nanoparticle slides to capture native antigens from prostate cancer cells. Prostate cancer patient serum samples (n=41) and BPH patient samples (collected starting at the time of initial diagnosis) with a mean follow-up of 6.56 y without the diagnosis of cancer (n=39) were obtained. One hundred micrograms of IgGs were purified and labeled with a Cy3 dye and incubated on the arrays. The arrays were scanned for fluorescence and the intensity was quantified. Receiver operating characteristic curves were produced and the area under the curve (AUC) was determined. Using our microarray platform, we identified autoantibody signatures capable of distinguishing between prostate cancer and BPH. The top 5 autoantibody signatures were TARDBP, TLN1, PARK7, LEDGF/PSIP1, and CALD1. Combining these signatures resulted in an AUC of 0.95 (sensitivity of 95% at 80% specificity) compared to AUC of 0.5 for serum concentration PSA (sensitivity of 12.2% at 80% specificity). Our preliminary results showed that we were able to identify specific autoantibody signatures that can differentiate prostate cancer from BPH, and may result in the reduction of unnecessary biopsies in patients with increased serum PSA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Aspirin and Omeprazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    The combination of aspirin and omeprazole is used to reduce the risk of stroke or heart attack in patients who have had or ... risk of developing a stomach ulcer when taking aspirin. Aspirin is in a class of medications called ...

  17. The IL1B-511 Polymorphism (rs16944 AA Genotype) Is Increased in Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease in Mexican Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falfán-Valencia, Ramcés; Pavón-Romero, Gandhi F; Camarena, Angel; García, María de la Luz; Galicia-Negrete, Gustavo; Negrete-García, María Cristina; Teran, Luis Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is characterized by chronic hyperplastic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyposis, asthma, and aspirin sensitivity. The mechanisms which produce these manifestations of intolerance are not fully defined, current research focuses on cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) inhibition, metabolism of arachidonic acid, and the COX pathway to the lipoxygenase (LO) route, inducing increased synthesis of leukotrienes (LT). The biological plausibility of this model has led to the search for polymorphisms in genes responsible for proinflammatory cytokines synthesis, such as IL1B and IL8. We performed a genetic association study between IL8-251 (rs4073) and IL1B-511 (rs16944) polymorphisms in AERD, aspirin-tolerant asthma (ATA), and healthy control subjects. Using allelic discrimination by real-time PCR, we found statistically nonsignificant associations between AERD, ATA, and healthy control subjects for the GG and GA genotypes of IL1B (rs16944). Interestingly, the AA genotype showed an increased frequency in the AERD patients versus the ATA group (GF = 0.19 versus 0.07, p = 0.018, OR 2.98, and 95% CI 1.17-7.82). This is the first observation that IL1B polymorphisms are involved in AERD. Thus, future studies must investigate whether interleukin-1β is released in the airways of AERD patients and whether it relates to genetic polymorphisms in the IL1B gene.

  18. Aspirin resistance following pediatric cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholette, Jill M; Mamikonian, Lara; Alfieris, George M; Blumberg, Neil; Lerner, Norma B

    2010-09-01

    Aspirin is often used to prevent thrombosis in pediatric cardiac surgery. The primary study aim was to assess aspirin resistance in this context. Secondary aims were to evaluate (1) the relationship between elevated inflammatory markers and thrombosis and (2) aspirin's effect on these levels. This was a prospective observational study of children undergoing cardiac surgery managed with and without aspirin. Aspirin response was assessed using the VerifyNow system and urinary 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 (uTxB2) measurements. Laboratory studies of inflammation were also obtained. 101 subjects were studied; 50 received aspirin. Six subjects (5.9%), 5 aspirin-treated, experienced symptomatic thrombosis. When measured by VerifyNow resistance was 43% after aspirin suppositories and 14% after additional days of oral aspirin. There was no correlation with thrombosis. Upper quartile post-operative day (POD) #5 uTxB2 was correlated with thrombosis in aspirin treated subjects (pchildren with high levels of uTxB2 despite aspirin therapy and/or those with elevated preoperative CRP are at increased risk for thrombosis. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Underutilization of aspirin in people living with human immunodeficiency virus at increased risk for acute myocardial infarction: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Pak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: With the increased availability of potent combination antiretroviral therapies, the life expectancy of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV has greatly increased. This rapid improvement in lifespan has served as a catalyst for a paradigm shift in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV care. The focus of HIV care models has transitioned from the sole treatment of acute opportunistic infections to comprehensive management of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD. Multiple studies have demonstrated that PLHIV are 50% more likely to develop acute myocardial infarction (AMI, compared to the general population. Cardiovascular risk prevention is becoming an essential component of the overarching HIV treatment plan. Aims: This meta-analysis aims to compare the rate of aspirin use for AMI prevention in indicated patients between PLHIV and general population. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and MEDLINE databases were used to identify observational cohort trials. Studies were assessed by two reviewers for inclusion criteria. Two separate random-effects meta-analyses' models were performed using the DerSimonian and Laird method. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 value. Meta-regression with study level variables was used to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. The funnel-plot-based trim-and-fill method was applied to detect and adjust for potential publication bias. Statistical tests were two-sided and P< 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 13 studies were included for analysis. In these trials, 30.4% of PLHIV with increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD used aspirin for AMI prevention, compared to 36.9% of patients at risk of CHD in the general population. Conclusions: The results of this meta-analysis provide evidence that aspirin is underutilized in both PLHIV and the general population across broad geographical zones. Aspirin use

  20. Prostatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostatitis Overview Prostatitis is swelling and inflammation of the prostate gland, a walnut-sized gland situated directly below the bladder in ... produces fluid (semen) that nourishes and transports sperm. Prostatitis often causes painful or difficult urination. Other symptoms ...

  1. Aspirin as a Chemopreventive Agent for Cancer: a New Hope?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isnatin Miladiyah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: inflammation has been shown to play a major role in the pathogenesis of cancer. Inflammatory process activates the immune system through pro-inflammatory mediators and subsequent triggers transformation into malignant cells. Some tumors or cancers has been associated with chronic infections, such as hepatitis B and C viruses (hepatocellular carcinoma, human papilloma virus (cervical cancer, Helicobacter pylori (gastric cancer and lymphoma, and prostatitis (prostate cancer. A considerable study have investigated the benefits of aspirin for the prevention and treatment of cancer or tumors. Objectives: This paper aims to describe the relationship between inflammation and cancer incidence, so that use of aspirin as an anti-inflammatory agent is a rational choice in the treatment and prevention of cancer. Conclusion: Aspirin potential for chemoprevention of various types of cancer. Considering the high risk of side effects of aspirin, aspirin is not intended as a routine therapy to prevent the occurrence of cancer.

  2. Influence of aspirin and non-aspirin NSAID use on ovarian and endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdoodt, F.; Kjaer, S. K.; Friis, S.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports a role for aspirin use in reducing the incidence and mortality of several cancer types. This has spurred a new wave of interest in this widely used drug. In this review, we present and evaluate the epidemiologic evidence of the association between the use of aspirin....... Overall, observational studies indicate modest reductions in risk of ovarian and endometrial cancer with aspirin use, whereas the results for non-aspirin NSAID use are equivocal. The strongest inverse associations have been reported for long-term consistent aspirin use, notably among subgroups of users (e.......g., those with high body mass index). Few studies have evaluated the influence of NSAID use on the mortality of ovarian or endometrial cancer, and substantial heterogeneity of study characteristics and results preclude any conclusions. Additional studies of aspirin and non-aspirin NSAID use and ovarian...

  3. Elevated insulin and reduced insulin like growth factor binding protein-3/prostate specific antigen ratio with increase in prostate size in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasulu, Karli; Nandeesha, Hanumanthappa; Dorairajan, Lalgudi Narayanan; Rajappa, Medha; Vinayagam, Vickneshwaran

    2017-06-01

    Insulin and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) have growth promoting effects, while insulin like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) has growth inhibitory effects. The present study was designed to assess the concentrations of insulin, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and their association with prostate size in patients with BPH. Ninety 90 BPH cases and 90 controls were enrolled in the study. Insulin, IGF-1, IGFBP-3, PSA, testosterone and estradiol were estimated in both the groups. Insulin, IGF-1 and estradiol were increased and IGFBP-3/PSA was decreased in BPH cases when compared with controls. Insulin (r=0.64, p=0.001) and IGF-1 (r=0.22, p=0.03) were positively correlated and IGFBP-3/PSA (r=-0.316, p=0.002) were negatively correlated with prostate size in BPH. Multivariate analysis showed that insulin (p=0.001) and IGFBP-3/PSA (p=0.004) predicts the prostate size in patients with BPH. Insulin was increased and IGFBP-3/PSA was reduced in BPH patients with increased prostate size. At a cutoff concentration of 527.52, IGFBP-3/PSA ratio was found to differentiate benign growth of prostate from normal prostate with 96% sensitivity and 96% specificity. Insulin is elevated and IGFBP-3/PSA is reduced with increase prostate size in BPH cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Increased DHT levels in androgenic alopecia have been selected for to protect men from prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Shiva

    2014-04-01

    Androgenic alopecia, a condition characterized by increased levels of DHT could have been selected for due to the benefits that prostaglandin D2 (PGD(2)) has on the prostate. A DHT metabolite can increase the transcription of prostaglandin D2 synthase through estrogen receptor beta. The increase of PGD(2) can decrease the risk of prostate cancer and proliferation of prostate cancer cells. Therefore, the mechanisms behind male pattern baldness may also curtail the advancement of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased survival with enzalutamide in prostate cancer after chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.I. Scher (Howard I.); K. Fizazi (Karim); F. Saad (Fred); M.-E. Taplin (Mary-Ellen); C.N. Sternberg (Cora); K. Miller (Kurt); R. de Wit (Ronald); P.F.A. Mulders (P. F A); K.N. Chi (Kim Nguyen); N.D. Shore (Neal); A.J. Armstrong (Andrew); T.W. Flaig (Thomas); A. Flechon (Aude); P. Mainwaring (Paul); M. Fleming; J.D. Hainsworth (John); M. Hirmand (Mohammad); B. Selby (Bryan); L. Seely (Lynn); J.S. de Bono (Johann)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Enzalutamide (formerly called MDV3100) targets multiple steps in the androgen-receptor-signaling pathway, the major driver of prostate-cancer growth. We aimed to evaluate whether enzalutamide prolongs survival in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer after

  6. Increased survival with enzalutamide in prostate cancer after chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scher, H.I.; Fizazi, K.; Saad, F.; Taplin, M.E.; Sternberg, C.N.; Miller, K.; de Wit, R.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Chi, K.N.; Shore, N.D.; Armstrong, A.J.; Flaig, T.W.; Flechon, A.; Mainwaring, P.; Fleming, M.; Hainsworth, J.D.; Hirmand, M.; Selby, B.; Seely, L.; Bono, J. De; Investigators, A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Enzalutamide (formerly called MDV3100) targets multiple steps in the androgen-receptor-signaling pathway, the major driver of prostate-cancer growth. We aimed to evaluate whether enzalutamide prolongs survival in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer after chemotherapy. METHODS:

  7. Aspirin, Butalbital, and Caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The combination of aspirin, butalbital, and caffeine comes as a capsule and tablet to take by mouth. It usually is taken every 4 ... explain any part you do not understand. Take aspirin, butalbital, and caffeine exactly as directed. Do not ...

  8. Childhood height increases the risk of prostate cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, J; Gamborg, M; Cook, M B

    2015-01-01

    cancers. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed. RESULTS: 630 men had prostate cancer recorded as the underlying cause of death. Childhood height at age 13years was positively associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio [HR]per z-score=1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-1.3......). Associations were significant at all other childhood ages. Growth analyses showed that height at age 13years had a stronger association with prostate cancer-specific mortality than height at age 7, suggesting the association at age 7 is largely mediated through later childhood height. The tallest boys at age...... 13years had a significantly worse survival, but only when restricted to a diagnosis at years of age (HRz-score of 1=1.7, 95% CI: 1.3-2.4). These associations were significant at all other childhood ages. Childhood BMI was not associated with prostate cancer mortality or survival. CONCLUSION...

  9. Sarcosine induces increase in HER2/neu expression in androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Malin; Bouchelouche, Pierre; Kramer-Marek, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) is involved in progression of prostate cancer. Recently, sarcosine was reported to be highly increased during prostate cancer progression, and exogenous sarcosine induces an invasive phenotype in benign prostate...... epithelial cells. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of sarcosine on HER2/neu expression in prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP (androgen dependent), PC-3 and DU145 (both androgen independent). Relative amounts of HER2/neu and androgen receptor (AR) transcripts were determined using RT...... that sarcosine is involved in the regulation of the oncoprotein HER2/neu. Thus, sarcosine may induce prostate cancer progression by increased HER2/neu expression. However, detailed information on cellular mechanisms remains to be elucidated....

  10. Does increased local bone resorption secondary to breast and prostate cancer result in increased cartilage degradation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeming, Diana J; Byrjalsen, Inger; Qvist, Per

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast and prostate cancer patients often develop lesions of locally high bone turnover, when the primary tumor metastasizes to the bone causing an abnormal high bone resorption at this site. The objective of the present study was to determine whether local increased bone turnover in ...... experiments revealed that osteoclasts released CTXI fragments but not CTXII from bone specimens. The same was observed for cathepsin K. CONCLUSION: Data suggest that an uncoupling between bone resorption and cartilage degradation occurs in breast and lung cancer patient....

  11. Free Base Lysine Increases Survival and Reduces Metastasis in Prostate Cancer Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim-Hashim, Arig; Wojtkowiak, Jonathan W; de Lourdes Coelho Ribeiro, Maria; Estrella, Veronica; Bailey, Kate M; Cornnell, Heather H; Gatenby, Robert A; Gillies, Robert J

    2011-11-19

    Malignant tumor cells typically metabolize glucose anaerobically to lactic acid even under normal oxygen tension, a phenomenon called aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect. This results in increased acid production and the acidification of the extracellular microenvironment in solid tumors. H + ions tend to flow along concentration gradients into peritumoral normal tissue causing extracellular matrix degradation and increased tumor cell motility thus promoting invasion and metastasis. We have shown that reducing this acidity with sodium bicarbonate buffer decreases the metastatic fitness of circulating tumor cells in prostate cancer and other cancer models. Mathematical models of the tumor-host dynamics predicted that buffers with a pka around 7 will be more effective in reducing intra- and peri-tumoral acidosis and, thus, and possibly more effective in inhibiting tumor metastasis than sodium bicarbonate which has a pKa around 6. Here we test this prediction the efficacy of free base lysine; a non-bicarbonate/non-volatile buffer with a higher pKa (~10), on prostate tumor metastases model. Oxygen consumption and acid production rate of PC3M prostate cancer cells and normal prostate cells were determined using the Seahorse Extracellular Flux (XF-96) analyzer. In vivo effect of 200 mM lysine started four days prior to inoculation on inhibition of metastasis was examined in PC3M-LUC-C6 prostate cancer model using SCID mice. Metastases were followed by bioluminescence imaging. PC3M prostate cancer cells are highly acidic in comparison to a normal prostate cell line indicating that reduction of intra- and perit-tumoral acidosis should inhibit metastases formation. In vivo administration of 200 mM free base lysine increased survival and reduced metastasis. PC3M prostate cancer cells are highly glycolytic and produce large amounts of acid when compared to normal prostate cells. Administration of non-volatile buffer decreased growth of metastases and improved survival

  12. Further evidence for increased macrophage migration inhibitory factor expression in prostate cancer

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    Iczkowski Kenneth A

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF is a cytokine associated with prostate cancer, based on histologic evidence and circulating (serum levels. Recent studies from another laboratory failed to document these results. This study's aims were to extend and confirm our previous data, as well as to define possible mechanisms for the discrepant results. Additional aims were to examine MIF expression, as well as the location of MIF's receptor, CD74, in human prostatic adenocarcinoma compared to matched benign prostate. Methods MIF amounts were determined in random serum samples remaining following routine PSA screening by ELISA. Native, denaturing and reducing polyacrylamide gels and Western blot analyses determined the MIF form in serum. Prostate tissue arrays were processed for MIF in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry for MIF and CD74. MIF released into culture medium from normal epithelial, LNCaP and PC-3 cells was detected by Western blot analysis. Results Median serum MIF amounts were significantly elevated in prostate cancer patients (5.87 ± 3.91 ng/ml; ± interquartile range; n = 115 compared with patients with no documented diagnosis of prostate cancer (2.19 ± 2.65 ng/ml; n = 158. ELISA diluent reagents that included bovine serum albumin (BSA significantly reduced MIF serum detection (p Conclusion Increased serum MIF was associated with prostate cancer. Diluent reagents that included BSA resulted in MIF serum immunoassay interference. In addition, significant amounts of complexed MIF (180 kDa under denaturing conditions by Western blot found in the serum do not bind to the MIF capture antibody. Increased MIF mRNA expression was observed in prostatic adenocarcinoma compared to benign tissue from matched samples, supporting our earlier finding of increased MIF gene expression in prostate cancer.

  13. Enhancement of aspirin capsulation by porous particles including iron hydrous oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kenji; Koishi, Masumi; Hosoi, Fumio; Makuuchi, Keizo.

    1986-01-01

    Polymer-coated porous particles containing aspirin as a drug were prepared and the release of rate of aspirin was studied. The impregnation of aspirin was carried out by post-graft polymerization, where methyl methacrylate containing aspirin was treated with porous particles including iron oxide, pre-irradiated with γ-ray form Co-60. Release of aspirin from modified particles was examined with 50 % methanol solution. The amount of aspirin absorbed in porous particles increased by grafting of methyl methacrylate. The particles treated with iron hydrous oxide sols before irradiation led to the increment of aspirin absorption. Diffusion of aspirin through the polymer matrix and the gelled layer was the limiting process in the aspirin release from particles. The rate of aspirin released from modified particles including iron hydrous oxide wasn't affected by the grafting of methyl methacrylate. (author)

  14. Further evidence for increased macrophage migration inhibitory factor expression in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer-Siegler, Katherine L; Iczkowski, Kenneth A; Vera, Pedro L

    2005-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a cytokine associated with prostate cancer, based on histologic evidence and circulating (serum) levels. Recent studies from another laboratory failed to document these results. This study's aims were to extend and confirm our previous data, as well as to define possible mechanisms for the discrepant results. Additional aims were to examine MIF expression, as well as the location of MIF's receptor, CD74, in human prostatic adenocarcinoma compared to matched benign prostate. MIF amounts were determined in random serum samples remaining following routine PSA screening by ELISA. Native, denaturing and reducing polyacrylamide gels and Western blot analyses determined the MIF form in serum. Prostate tissue arrays were processed for MIF in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry for MIF and CD74. MIF released into culture medium from normal epithelial, LNCaP and PC-3 cells was detected by Western blot analysis. Median serum MIF amounts were significantly elevated in prostate cancer patients (5.87 ± 3.91 ng/ml; ± interquartile range; n = 115) compared with patients with no documented diagnosis of prostate cancer (2.19 ± 2.65 ng/ml; n = 158). ELISA diluent reagents that included bovine serum albumin (BSA) significantly reduced MIF serum detection (p < 0.01). MIF mRNA was localized to prostatic epithelium in all samples, but cancer showed statistically greater MIF expression. MIF and its receptor (CD74) were localized to prostatic epithelium. Increased secreted MIF was detected in culture medium from prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP and PC-3). Increased serum MIF was associated with prostate cancer. Diluent reagents that included BSA resulted in MIF serum immunoassay interference. In addition, significant amounts of complexed MIF (180 kDa under denaturing conditions by Western blot) found in the serum do not bind to the MIF capture antibody. Increased MIF mRNA expression was observed in prostatic

  15. Epidermal growth factor increases LRF/Pokemon expression in human prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Himanshu; Aggarwal, Anshu; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2011-10-01

    Leukemia/lymphoma related factor/POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor (LRF/Pokemon) is a member of the POK family of proteins that promotes oncogenesis in several forms of cancer. Recently, we found higher LRF expression in human breast and prostate carcinomas compared to the corresponding normal tissues. The aim of this study was to examine the regulation of LRF expression in human prostate cells. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptors mediate several tumorigenic cascades that regulate cell differentiation, proliferation, migration and survival of prostate cancer cells. There was significantly higher level of LRF expression in the nucleus of LNCaP and PC-3 cells than RWPE-1 cells. A significant increase in LRF expression was observed with increasing doses of EGF in more aggressive and androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells suggesting that EGF signaling pathway is critical in upregulating the expression of LRF/Pokemon to promote oncogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Safety and feasibility of liver resection with continued antiplatelet therapy using aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monden, Kazuteru; Sadamori, Hiroshi; Hioki, Masayoshi; Ohno, Satoshi; Saneto, Hiromi; Ueki, Toru; Yabushita, Kazuhisa; Ono, Kazumi; Sakaguchi, Kousaku; Takakura, Norihisa

    2017-07-01

    Aspirin is widely used for the secondary prevention of ischemic stroke and cardiovascular disease. Perioperative aspirin may decrease thrombotic morbidity, but may also increase hemorrhagic morbidity. In particular, liver resection carries risks of bleeding, leading to higher risks of hemorrhagic morbidity. Our institution has continued aspirin therapy perioperatively in patients undergoing liver resection. This study examined the safety and feasibility of liver resection while continuing aspirin. We retrospectively evaluated 378 patients who underwent liver resection between January 2010 and January 2016. Patients were grouped according to preoperative aspirin prescription: patients with aspirin therapy (aspirin users, n = 31); and patients without use of aspirin (aspirin non-users, n = 347). Aspirin users were significantly older (P aspirin users than among aspirin non-users, no significant difference was identified. No postoperative hemorrhage was seen among aspirin users. Liver resection can be safely performed while continuing aspirin therapy without increasing hemorrhagic morbidity. Our results suggest that interruption of aspirin therapy is unnecessary for patients undergoing liver resection. © 2017 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  17. Diffusion-weighted MRI for detecting prostate tumour in men at increased genetic risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Nandita M. de; Morgan, Veronica A.; Bancroft, Elizabeth; Sohaib, S. Aslam; Giles, Sharon L.; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Castro, Elena; Hazell, Steven; Jafar, Maysam; Eeles, Rosalind

    2014-01-01

    •Endorectal T2W + DW-MRI is potentially useful for prostate cancer screening.•MRI is specific for detecting prostate cancer in men with increased genetic risk.•Detection of prostate cancer in men at genetically low risk with MRI is limited. Endorectal T2W + DW-MRI is potentially useful for prostate cancer screening. MRI is specific for detecting prostate cancer in men with increased genetic risk. Detection of prostate cancer in men at genetically low risk with MRI is limited. Diffusion-weighted (DW)-MRI is invaluable in detecting prostate cancer. We determined its sensitivity and specificity and established interobserver agreement for detecting tumour in men with a family history of prostate cancer stratified by genetic risk. 51 men with a family history of prostate cancer underwent T2-W + DW-endorectal MRI at 3.0 T. Presence of tumour was noted at right and left apex, mid and basal prostate sextants by 2 independent observers, 1 experienced and the other inexperienced in endorectal MRI. Sensitivity and specificity against a 10-core sampling technique (lateral and medial cores at each level considered together) in men with >2× population risk based on 71 SNP analysis versus those with lower genetic risk scores was established. Interobserver agreement was determined at a subject level. Biopsies indicated cancer in 28 sextants in 13/51 men; 32 of 51 men had twice the population risk (>0.25) based on 71 SNP profiling. Sensitivity/specificity per-subject for patients was 90.0%/86.4% (high-risk) vs. 66.7%/100% (low-risk, observer 1) and 60.0%/86.3% (high-risk) vs. 33.3%/93.8% (low-risk, observer 2) with moderate overall inter-observer agreement (kappa = 0.42). Regional sensitivities/specificities for high-risk vs. low-risk for observer 1 apex 72.2%/100% [33.3%/100%], mid 100%/93.1% [100%/97.3%], base 16.7%/98.3% [0%/100%] and for observer 2 apex 36.4%/98.1% [0%/100%], mid 28.6%/96.5% [100%/100%], base 20%/100% [0%/97.3%] were poorer as they failed to detect

  18. Clopidogrel plus aspirin versus aspirin alone for preventing cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squizzato, Alessandro; Bellesini, Marta; Takeda, Andrea; Middeldorp, Saskia; Donadini, Marco Paolo

    2017-12-14

    coronary stent is associated with a reduction in the risk of myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke, and an increased risk of major and minor bleeding compared with aspirin alone. According to GRADE criteria, the quality of evidence was moderate for all outcomes except all-cause mortality (low quality evidence) and adverse events (very low quality evidence).

  19. A Review on the Relationship between Aspirin and Bone Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Yong Chin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin is a cyclooxygenase inhibitor commonly used in primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Its users are elderly population susceptible to osteoporosis. It also inhibits the synthesis of prostaglandin E2 essential in bone remodeling. This prompts the question whether it can influence bone health among users. This review aimed to summarize the current literature on the use of aspirin on bone health. A literature search on experimental and clinical evidence on the effects of aspirin on bone health was performed using major scientific databases. In vitro studies showed that aspirin could enhance the survival of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, the progenitors of osteoblasts, and stimulate the differentiation of preosteoblasts. Aspirin also inhibited the nuclear factor kappa-B (NFκB pathway and decreased the expression of receptor activator of NFκB ligand, thus suppressing the formation of osteoclast. Aspirin could prevent bone loss in animal models of osteoporosis. Despite a positive effect on bone mineral density, the limited human epidemiological studies revealed that aspirin could not reduce fracture risk. A study even suggested that the use of aspirin increased fracture risk. As a conclusion, aspirin may increase bone mineral density but its effect on fracture prevention is inconclusive. More data are needed to determine the effects of aspirin and bone health in human.

  20. Effects of increasing the PSA cutoff to perform additional biomarker tests before prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, Tobias; Adolfsson, Jan; Grönberg, Henrik; Eklund, Martin

    2017-10-03

    Multi-step testing might enhance performance of the prostate cancer diagnostic pipeline. Using PSA >1 ng/ml for first-line risk stratification and the Stockholm 3 Model (S3M) blood-test >10% risk of Gleason Score > 7 prostate cancer to inform biopsy decisions has been suggested. We aimed to determine the effects of changing the PSA cutoff to perform reflex testing with S3M and the subsequent S3M cutoff to recommend prostate biopsy while maintaining the sensitivity to detect Gleason Score ≥ 7 prostate cancer. We used data from the prospective, population-based, paired, diagnostic Stockholm 3 (STHLM3) study with participants invited by date of birth from the Swedish Population Register during 2012-2014. All participants underwent testing with PSA and S3M (a combination of plasma protein biomarkers [PSA, free PSA, intact PSA, hK2, MSMB, MIC1], genetic polymorphisms, and clinical variables [age, family, history, previous prostate biopsy, prostate exam]). Of 47,688 men in the STHLM3 main study, we used data from 3133 men with S3M >10% and prostate biopsy data. Logistic regression models were used to calculate prostate cancer detection rates and proportion saved biopsies. 44.2%, 62.5% and 67.9% of the participants had PSA PSA cut-off for additional work-up from 1 ng/ml to 1.5 ng/ml would thus save 18.3% of the performed tests, 4.9% of the biopsies and 1.3% (10/765) of Gleason Grade ≥ 7 cancers would be un-detected. By lowering the S3M cutoff to recommend biopsy, sensitivity to high-grade prostate cancer can be restored, to the cost of increasing the number of performed biopsies modestly. The sensitivity to detect prostate cancer can be maintained when using different PSA cutoffs to perform additional testing. Biomarker cut-offs have implications on number of tests and prostate biopsies performed. A PSA cutoff of 1.5 ng/ml to perform additional testing such as the S3M test might be considered. ISRCTN84445406 .

  1. Antibiotic and anti-inflammatory use and the risk of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bent Stephen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate inflammation or infection may increase the risk of prostate cancer. Antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are used to treat prostatitis and urinary tract infections (UTIs. The objective of our study was to assess whether their use decreases the risk of prostate cancer. Methods We conducted a case-control study among men with incident prostate cancer (N = 65 cases and without prostate cancer (N = 195 controls at the San Francisco Veteran Affairs medical center (VAMC between June 1996 and June 2006. Cases were all patients who had prostate biopsies positive for cancer. We matched controls to cases on age group and race at a 3:1 ratio, and each matched pair was given an identical index date. Total antibiotic, aspirin, and NSAID use (number of prescriptions was computed for each participant by drug type and was restricted to a fill date at least 1 year before the index date. Logistic regression was used for analysis. We adjusted for the matching variables (age group and race and potential confounders (years of VAMC enrollment and number of clinic visits. Results Neither total antibiotic use nor total anti-inflammatory use reduces the risk of prostate cancer (P > 0.05. Conclusion Our analysis did not reveal a relation between use of antibiotics, aspirin, or NSAIDs and the risk of prostate cancer.

  2. Prostatic irradiation is not associated with any measurable increase in the risk of subsequent rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendal, Wayne S.; Eapen, Libni; MacRae, Robert; Malone, Shawn; Nicholas, Garth

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate a putative increased risk of rectal cancer subsequent to prostatic radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: In an analysis of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry, we compared men who had radiotherapy for prostatic carcinoma with those treated surgically and those treated with neither modality. Kaplan-Meier analyses for the time to failure from rectal cancer were performed between age-matched subgroups of the three cohorts. Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed to ascertain what influences might affect the incidence of subsequent rectal cancer. Results: In all, 33,831 men were irradiated, 167,607 were treated surgically, and 36,335 received neither modality. Rectal cancers developed in 243 (0.7%) of those irradiated (mean age, 70.7 years), 578 (0.3%) of those treated surgically (68.7 years), and 227 (0.8%) of those treated with neither modality (74.2 years). When age effects and the differences between the surgical and untreated cohorts were controlled for, we were unable to demonstrate any significant increased incidence of rectal cancer in men irradiated for prostatic cancer. Conclusions: An increased frequency of rectal cancer after prostatic irradiation, apparent on crude analysis, could be attributed to age confounding and other unmeasured confounders associated with prostate cancer treatment and rectal cancer risk

  3. Comparative effect of clopidogrel plus aspirin and aspirin monotherapy on hematological parameters using propensity score matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayasaka M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Masatoshi Hayasaka,1 Yasuo Takahashi,2 Yayoi Nishida,2 Yoshikazu Yoshida,1 Shinji Hidaka,3 Satoshi Asai41Department of Pharmacy, Nihon University Itabashi Hospital, Tokyo, 2Division of Genomic Epidemiology and Clinical Trials, Clinical Trials Research Center, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 3Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Regulatory Science, Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Nihon University, Chiba, 4Division of Pharmacology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Clopidogrel and aspirin are antiplatelet agents that are recommended to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke and other cardiovascular events. Dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin has been shown to increase the risk of hemorrhage, but the effects of the drugs on laboratory parameters have not been well studied in real-world clinical settings. Therefore, we evaluated and compared the effects of combination therapy with clopidogrel plus aspirin and aspirin monotherapy on laboratory parameters.Methods: We used data from the Nihon University School of Medicine Clinical Data Warehouse obtained between November 2004 and May 2011 to identify cohorts of new users (n = 130 of clopidogrel (75 mg/day plus aspirin (100 mg/day and a propensity score matched sample of new users (n = 130 of aspirin alone (100 mg/day. We used a multivariate regression model to compare serum levels of creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase, as well as hematological parameters including hemoglobin level, hematocrit, and white blood cell, red blood cell, and platelet counts up to 2 months after the start of administration of the study drugs.Results: There were no significant differences for any characteristics and baseline laboratory parameters between users of clopidogrel plus aspirin and users of aspirin alone. Reductions in white blood cell and red blood cell counts, hemoglobin levels, and

  4. [Midline Cyst of the Prostate with Increased Urinary Frequency and Urgency : A Case Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Kosuke; Kiuchi, Hiroshi; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Tsujimura, Akira; Nonomura, Norio

    2018-02-01

    A 40-year-old man presented to our institution with a few-month history of increased urinary frequency, urgency and voiding difficulty. He had severe lower urinary tract symptoms with an International Prostate Symptom Score of 28 and quality of life score of 6. The mean urinary frequency and voided volume was 20 times per day and 150 ml, respectively. Abdominal ultrasonography and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging revealed the prostate measuring 15 cm3 with a 3 cm midline cyst which compressed the posterior of the bladder wall. A subsequent examination indicated that his lower urinary tract symptoms could be attributed to the cystic mass which mainly affected his storage symptoms. The patient underwent transurethral unroofing of the prostate cyst. Immediately after the surgery, his storage symptoms were improved greatly. The voiding volume was increased to 250 ml, and the frequency of urination was decreased to 8 times. No recurrent symptoms were found for seven months after the surgery.

  5. Aspirin and heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000092.htm Aspirin and heart disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... healthy people who are at low risk for heart disease. You provider will consider your overall medical condition ...

  6. Medications Containing Aspirin (Acetylsalicylate) and Aspirin-Like Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    updated 3/10/08 Medications Containing Aspirin (Acetylsalicylate) and Aspirin-Like Products © National Reye's Syndrome Foundation Inc. 2008 Epidemiologic research has shown an association between the development of Reye's ...

  7. Aspirin Risks in Perspective: A Comparison against Marathon Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    Aspirin has public health potential to reduce the risk of ischaemic vascular events and sporadic cancer. One objection to the wider use of aspirin for primary prevention, however, is the undesirable effects of the medicine, which include increasing risk of bleeding and haemorrhagic stroke. Marathons also carry risks of serious events such as…

  8. Increased oxidative/nitrosative stress and decreased antioxidant enzyme activities in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsova-Sarafinovska, Zorica; Eken, Ayse; Matevska, Nadica; Erdem, Onur; Sayal, Ahmet; Savaser, Ayhan; Banev, Saso; Petrovski, Daniel; Dzikova, Sonja; Georgiev, Vladimir; Sikole, Aleksandar; Ozgök, Yaşar; Suturkova, Ljubica; Dimovski, Aleksandar J; Aydin, Ahmet

    2009-08-01

    The study was aimed to evaluate the oxidative/nitrosative stress status in prostate cancer (CaP) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). 312 men from two different populations were included: 163 men from Macedonia (73 CaP patients, 67 BPH patients and 23 control subjects) and 149 men from Turkey (34 prostate cancer patients, 100 BPH patients and 15 control subjects). We measured erythrocyte malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, erythrocyte activities of superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT); plasma nitrite/nitrate (NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-)), cGMP and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels. A similar pattern of alteration in the oxidative/nitrosative stress-related parameters was found in both, Macedonian and Turkish studied samples: higher MDA concentrations with lower GPX and CuZn-SOD activities in CaP patients versus controls and BPH groups. The CAT activity was decreased in the CaP patients versus controls in the Turkish studied sample. Furthermore, CaP patients had increased plasma NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) and cGMP levels versus controls and BPH groups in both studied samples. This study has confirmed an imbalance in the oxidative stress/antioxidant status and revealed an altered nitrosative status in prostate cancer patients.

  9. Effect of aspirin on tumour cell colony formation and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodarz, Dominik; Goel, Ajay; Boland, C Richard; Komarova, Natalia L

    2017-09-01

    Aspirin is known to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In a previous study, we quantified the in vitro growth kinetics of different CRC tumour cell lines treated with varying doses of aspirin, measuring the rate of cell division and cell death. Here, we use these measured parameters to calculate the chances of successful clonal expansion and to determine the evolutionary potential of the tumour cell lines in the presence and absence of aspirin. The calculations indicate that aspirin increases the probability that a single tumour cell fails to clonally expand. Further, calculations suggest that aspirin increases the evolutionary potential of an expanding tumour cell colony. An aspirin-treated tumour cell population is predicted to result in the accumulation of more mutations (and is thus more virulent and more difficult to treat) than a cell population of the same size that grew without aspirin. This indicates a potential trade-off between delaying the onset of cancer and increasing its evolutionary potential through chemoprevention. Further work needs to investigate to what extent these findings apply to in vivo settings, and to what degree they contribute to the epidemiologically documented aspirin-mediated protection. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. Performing Aspirin Desensitization in Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldram, Jeremy D; Simon, Ronald A

    2016-11-01

    Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is characterized by chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, asthma, and reactions to cyclooxygenase-1-inhibiting drugs. This condition is often refractory to standard medical treatments and results in aggressive nasal polyposis that often requires multiple sinus surgeries. Aspirin desensitization followed by daily aspirin therapy is an important treatment option, and its efficacy has been validated in multiple research studies. Aspirin desensitization is not without risk, but specific protocols and recommendations exist to mitigate the risk. Most patients with AERD can undergo aspirin desensitization in an outpatient setting under the supervision of an allergist. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Endogenous and exogenous testosterone and the risk of prostate cancer and increased prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Peter; Koechlin, Alice; Bota, Maria; d'Onofrio, Alberto; Zaridze, David G; Perrin, Paul; Fitzpatrick, John; Burnett, Arthur L; Boniol, Mathieu

    2016-11-01

    To review and quantify the association between endogenous and exogenous testosterone and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate cancer. Literature searches were performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Prospective cohort studies that reported data on the associations between endogenous testosterone and prostate cancer, and placebo-controlled randomized trials of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) that reported data on PSA and/or prostate cancer cases were retained. Meta-analyses were performed using random-effects models, with tests for publication bias and heterogeneity. Twenty estimates were included in a meta-analysis, which produced a summary relative risk (SRR) of prostate cancer for an increase of 5 nmol/L of testosterone of 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96, 1.02) without heterogeneity (I² = 0%). Based on 26 trials, the overall difference in PSA levels after onset of use of TRT was 0.10 ng/mL (-0.28, 0.48). Results were similar when conducting heterogeneity analyses by mode of administration, region, age at baseline, baseline testosterone, trial duration, type of patients and type of TRT. The SRR of prostate cancer as an adverse effect from 11 TRT trials was 0.87 (95% CI 0.30; 2.50). Results were consistent across studies. Prostate cancer appears to be unrelated to endogenous testosterone levels. TRT for symptomatic hypogonadism does not appear to increase PSA levels nor the risk of prostate cancer development. The current data are reassuring, although some caution is essential until multiple studies with longer follow-up are available. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Plasma cell-free DNA and its DNA integrity as biomarker to distinguish prostate cancer from benign prostatic hyperplasia in patients with increased serum prostate-specific antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiang; Gang, Feng; Li, Xiao; Jin, Tang; Houbao, Huang; Yu, Cao; Guorong, Li

    2013-08-01

    To investigate whether plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) or its integrity could differentiate prostate cancer from benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) in patients with serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≥ 4 ng/ml. Ninety-six patients with prostate cancer and 112 patients with BPH were enrolled. cfDNA levels in plasma before prostate biopsy were quantified by real-time PCR amplification of ALU gene (product size of 115 bp), and quantitative ratio of ALU (247 bp) to ALU (115 bp) reflected the integrity of cfDNA. In patients with serum PSA ≥ 4 ng/ml, there were significant differences in plasma cfDNA or its integrity between the patients with prostate cancer (19.74 ± 4.43, 0.34 ± 0.05) and patients with BPH (7.36 ± 1.58, 0.19 ± 0.03; P Prostate cancer could be differentiated with a sensitivity of 73.2 % and a specificity of 72.7 % by cfDNA (AUC = 0.864). The integrity of cfDNA had a sensitivity of 81.7 % and a specificity of 78.8 % for the distinguishing prostate cancer from BPH (AUC = 0.910). cfDNA and its integrity could be applied to differentiate prostate cancer from BPH in patients with serum PSA ≥ 4 ng/ml.

  13. Mice deficient in transmembrane prostatic acid phosphatase display increased GABAergic transmission and neurological alterations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi O Nousiainen

    Full Text Available Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP, the first diagnostic marker and present therapeutic target for prostate cancer, modulates nociception at the dorsal root ganglia (DRG, but its function in the central nervous system has remained unknown. We studied expression and function of TMPAP (the transmembrane isoform of PAP in the brain by utilizing mice deficient in TMPAP (PAP-/- mice. Here we report that TMPAP is expressed in a subpopulation of cerebral GABAergic neurons, and mice deficient in TMPAP show multiple behavioral and neurochemical features linked to hyperdopaminergic dysregulation and altered GABAergic transmission. In addition to increased anxiety, disturbed prepulse inhibition, increased synthesis of striatal dopamine, and augmented response to amphetamine, PAP-deficient mice have enlarged lateral ventricles, reduced diazepam-induced loss of righting reflex, and increased GABAergic tone in the hippocampus. TMPAP in the mouse brain is localized presynaptically, and colocalized with SNARE-associated protein snapin, a protein involved in synaptic vesicle docking and fusion, and PAP-deficient mice display altered subcellular distribution of snapin. We have previously shown TMPAP to reside in prostatic exosomes and we propose that TMPAP is involved in the control of GABAergic tone in the brain also through exocytosis, and that PAP deficiency produces a distinct neurological phenotype.

  14. The impact of increasing dose on overall survival in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Matthew D.; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Smith, David D.; Tseng, Bertrand P.; Wong, Jeffrey Y. C.

    2015-01-01

    To assess the impact of increasing dose on overall survival (OS) for prostate cancer patients. Treatment data were obtained on more than 20,000 patients in the National Oncology Data Alliance®, a proprietary database of merged tumor registries, who were treated for prostate cancer with definitive radiotherapy between 1995 and 2006. Eligible patients had complete data on total dose, T stage, use and timing of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), and treatment start date (n = 20,028). Patients with prior malignancies were excluded. On multivariate analysis, dose, T stage, grade, marital status, age, and neoadjuvant ADT were significant predictors of OS. Hazard ratios for OS declined monotonically with increasing dose, reaching 0.63 (95 % Confidence Interval 0.53–0.76) at ≥80 Gy. On subset analysis, neoadjuvant ADT significantly improved OS in high risk patients but was not significant in lower risk patients. The dose response was maintained across all risk groups. Medical comorbidities were balanced across all dose strata and sensitivity analysis demonstrated that other prognostic factors were unlikely to explain the observed dose response. This study suggests that increasing dose significantly improves OS in prostate cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13014-015-0419-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  15. Increased aPKC Expression Correlates with Prostatic Adenocarcinoma Gleason Score and Tumor Stage in the Japanese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony S. Perry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Levels of the protein kinase aPKC have been previously correlated with prostate cancer prognosis in a British cohort. However, prostate cancer incidence and progression rates, as well as genetic changes in this disease, show strong ethnic variance, particularly in Asian populations. Objective. The aim of this study was to validate association of aPKC expression with prostatic adenocarcinoma stages in a Japanese cohort. Methods. Tissue microarrays consisting of 142 malignant prostate cancer cases and 21 benign prostate tissues were subject to immunohistological staining for aPKC. aPKC staining intensity was scored by three independent pathologists and categorized as absent (0, dim (1+, intermediate (2+, and bright (3+. aPKC staining intensities were correlated with Gleason score and tumor stage. Results. Increased aPKC staining was observed in malignant prostate cancer, in comparison to benign tissue. Additionally, aPKC staining levels correlated with Gleason score and tumor stage. Our results extend the association of aPKC with prostate cancer to a Japanese population and establish the suitability of aPKC as a universal prostate cancer biomarker that performs consistently across ethnicities.

  16. Is there an increased risk of second primaries following prostate irradiation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Movsas, Benjamin; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Pinover, Wayne; Hanks, Gerald E.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the risk of developing a second primary cancer following prostate irradiation compared to the underlying risk in patients with prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: The baseline rate of secondary cancers following prostate cancer was obtained from a study of 18,135 patients from the Connecticut Tumor Registry, of whom only 12.5% received radiotherapy. These patients, with a mean age of 72 and a mean follow-up of 3.9 years, were compared to a cohort of 543 patients (median age 70) with similar follow-up (median 3.9 years), all of whom were treated with definitive radiotherapy at Fox Chase Cancer Center. The possible association between various covariates (age, dose, palpation stage, field size, Gleason score, pretreatment PSA) and the development of a secondary cancer was assessed. Results: 1,053 of 18,135 patients (5.8%) in the Connecticut Tumor Registry developed a second primary cancer compared with 31 of 543 (5.7%) patients treated with prostate radiation (p = 0.99). Although this risk increases gradually over time, it is not significantly different, at any time period, between the two groups of patients. Of the 31 secondary primaries in the irradiated group, 82% had a history of tobacco and/or alcohol use. Only melanomas were significantly increased compared to the expected rate in an age-matched population (p <0.001). Five of the 31 secondary cancers occurred within the radiation field (four bladder, one colon), four within 3 years and only one occurred 9 years after radiotherapy. No association was found between age (<70 vs. ≥70 and as a continuous variable), dose (<74 vs. ≥74 Gy), palpation stage (< T2C vs. ≥T2C), field size (prostate vs. pelvic), radiation technique (conventional vs. conformal), Gleason score (2-6 vs. 7-10), or pretreatment PSA (<15 vs. ≥15 and as a continuous variable) and the risk of developing a second primary. Although a lower radiation dose (as a continuous variable) correlated with an increased risk of

  17. Increased level of miRNA 30b-3p in patients with prostatic hyperplasia and testosterone with high-level of prostate-specific antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasnaa Jumaa Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prostate cancer (PCa is the most common causing cancer-related in death in men and lack of reliable diagnostic tool. MicroRNAs are small molecules single-stranded RNA that affecting protein expression at the level of translation and dysregulation can dramatically affect cell metabolism. However, the using of circulating miRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers for diagnosis of PCa is still unknown. Methods: Ten patients with prostatic hyperplasia with high-level of PSA and 10 healthy controls were conducted in this study. The reverse transcription of miRNA based on quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR were used for evaluating the dysregulation of miRNA 30b-3p and using of ELISA to evaluate the level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA and testosterone hormone. Results: Circulating miRNA 30b-3p level was increased in patients with prostatic hyperplasia with higher level of PSA as compared with healthy controls. Also, the testosterone hormone was increased in those patients as compared with normal level of testosterone in healthy individuals. Conclusion: The serum miRNA 30b-3p level increased in patients with hyperplasia in prostate and may be one of potential biomarker for diagnosis of PCa.

  18. Up-regulation of Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor in Astrocytes by Aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Khushbu K.; Sendtner, Michael; Pahan, Kalipada

    2013-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a promyelinating trophic factor, and the mechanisms by which CNTF expression could be increased in the brain are poorly understood. Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) is one of the most widely used analgesics. Interestingly, aspirin increased mRNA and protein expression of CNTF in primary mouse and human astrocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Aspirin induced the activation of protein kinase A (PKA) but not protein kinase C (PKC). H-89, an inhibitor of PKA, abrogated aspirin-induced expression of CNTF. The activation of cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB), but not NF-κB, by aspirin, the abrogation of aspirin-induced expression of CNTF by siRNA knockdown of CREB, the presence of a consensus cAMP-response element in the promoter of CNTF, and the recruitment of CREB and CREB-binding protein to the CNTF promoter by aspirin suggest that aspirin increases the expression of the Cntf gene via the activation of CREB. Furthermore, we demonstrate that aspirin-induced astroglial CNTF was also functionally active and that supernatants of aspirin-treated astrocytes of wild type, but not Cntf null, mice increased myelin-associated proteins in oligodendrocytes and protected oligodendrocytes from TNF-α insult. These results highlight a new and novel myelinogenic property of aspirin, which may be of benefit for multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating disorders. PMID:23653362

  19. Antibiotics may not decrease prostate-specific antigen levels or prevent unnecessary prostate biopsy in patients with moderately increased prostate-specific antigen levels: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lu; Zhu, Yuchun; Tang, Zhuang; Chen, Yongji; Gao, Liang; Liu, Liangren; Han, Ping; Li, Xiang; Wei, Qiang

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of empiric antibiotics on decreasing prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and the possibility of avoiding unnecessary prostate biopsies (PBs). A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library was performed to identify all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared effects of empiric antibiotics with no treatment or placebo on lowering PSA levels and minimizing unnecessary PBs in patients with moderately increased PSA levels. The Cochrane Collaboration Review Manager software (RevMan 5.1.4) was used for statistical analysis. The inclusion criteria for the study were met by 6 RCTs (1 placebo controlled and 5 no treatment controlled) involving 656 patients. The synthesized data from these RCTs indicated that there were no significant differences between the antibiotic and control groups in the PSA levels after treatment (mean difference [MD] = 0.15, 95% CI:-0.50 to 0.81, P = 0.65], number of patients with decreased PSA levels after treatment (relative risk [RR] = 1.22, 95% CI: 0.90-1.65, P = 0.20], prostate-specific antigen density levels after treatment (MD =-0.04, 95% CI:-0.15 to 0.07, P = 0.47), f/t% PSA after treatment (MD =-1.47, 95% CI:-4.65 to 1.71, P = 0.37), number of patients with responsive PSA (RR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.58-1.81, P = 0.94), and individual Pca-positiverate in these patients (RR = 1.07, 95% CI: 0.53-2.16, P = 0.86), and Pca-positiverates (RR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.48-1.50, P = 0.57). However, the antibiotic group had a significant change in the net PSA decrease after treatment compared with the control group (MD = 1.44, 95% CI: 0.70-2.17, P = 0.0001). The use of empiric antibiotics may not significantly decrease PSA levels or avoid unnecessary PBs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Aspirin in the Chemoprevention of Colorectal Neoplasia: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Andrew T.; Arber, Nadir; Burn, John; Chia, John Whay-Kuang; Elwood, Peter; Hull, Mark A.; Logan, Richard F.; Rothwell, Peter M.; Schrör, Karsten; Baron, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Considerable evidence supports the effectiveness of aspirin for chemoprevention of colorectal cancer (CRC) in addition to its well-established benefits in the prevention of vascular disease. Epidemiologic studies have consistently observed an inverse association between aspirin use and risk of CRC. A recent pooled analysis of a long-term post-trial follow-up of nearly 14,000 patients from 4 randomized, cardiovascular disease prevention trials showed that daily aspirin treatment for about 5 years was associated with a 34% reduction in 20-year CRC mortality. A separate meta-analysis of nearly 3,000 patients with a history of colorectal adenoma or cancer in 4 randomized adenoma prevention trials demonstrated that aspirin reduced the occurrence of advanced adenomas by 28% and any adenoma by 17%. Aspirin has also been shown to be beneficial in a clinical trial of patients with Lynch syndrome, a hereditary CRC syndrome; in those treated with aspirin for at least 2 years, there was a ≥ 50% reduction in the risk of CRC commencing 5 years after randomization and after aspirin had been discontinued. A few observational studies have shown an increase in survival among patients with CRC who use aspirin. Taken together, these findings strengthen the case for consideration of long-term aspirin use in CRC prevention. Despite these compelling data, there is a lack of consensus about the balance of risks and benefits associated with long-term aspirin use, particularly in low-risk populations. The optimal dose to use for cancer prevention and the precise mechanism underlying aspirin’s anticancer effect require further investigation. PMID:22084361

  1. Telomere Length Polymorphisms: A Potential Factor Underlying Increased Risk of Prostate Cancer in African American Men and Familial Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meeker, Alan K

    2007-01-01

    .... To test this hypothesis, telomere content in genomic DNA isolated from blood samples of relevant cohorts will be determined and assessed for associations with either racial background or prostate...

  2. Evaluation of prostate cancer prevalence in Iranian male population with increased PSA level, a one center experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moslemi, Mohammad Kazem; Lotfi, Fariborz; Tahvildar, Seyed Ali

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the incidence of prostate cancer (PCa) in Iranian male patients with increased prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and normal or abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE) that underwent prostate biopsy. From March 2006 to April 2009, a total of 346 consecutive males suspected of having PCa due to increased PSA levels underwent transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided sextant biopsy of the prostate. The total PSA (tPSA), demographic data, incidence of PCa, benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), and prostatitis were assessed. The patients were divided into two groups according to their PSA values (group A serum tPSA level, 4–10 ng/mL; group B serum tPSA level, 10.1–20.0 ng/mL). Of the 346 biopsied cases, 193 cases (56%) had PCa, 80 cases (23%) had BPH, and 73 cases (21%) had prostatitis. The mean PSA and the age of the carcinoma group were significantly higher than those of the benign group (P < 0.01). The biopsy results were grouped as PCa, BPH, and prostatitis. Incidence of PCa for group A and group B cases were 115 cases (51%), and 78 cases (65%), respectively. In the case of PCa, BPH, and prostatitis, the mean PSAs were 10.02 ng/mL, 8.76 ng/mL, and 8.41 ng/mL, respectively (P < 0.40). TRUS-guided prostate biopsy and interpretation by a skilled team is highly recommended for early detection of PCa or its ruling-out. It seems that a PSA cutoff value of 4 ng/mL may be applied to the Iranian population. Although the chance of PCa is high in the PSA levels of 4–10 ng/mL, the combination of some data, like age and prostate volume, can decrease the rate of unnecessary prostate biopsies. We recommend prostate biopsy when PSA and/or DRE is elevated in symptomatic patients with obstructive and/or irritative lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) such as dysuria, frequency, or nocturia. Due to the very high incidence of PCa in the patients with PSA greater than 10 ng/mL, TRUS-guided biopsy is indicated, whatever the findings on DRE and

  3. Mechanisms of aspirin-sensitive asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Ying

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It is now widely accepted that aspirin, along with other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, may precipitate asthma attacks in a minority of susceptible individuals. The syndrome is part of a mucosal inflammatory disease that typically affects the nasal, as well as the bronchial, mucosa and sometimes the gut and skin also. Although the mucosal cellular infiltrate in aspirin-sensitive asthma and rhinitis resembles that of asthma and rhinitis in general, there is evidence of increased expression of asthma-relevant cytokines, such as interleukin-5 and granulocyte–macrophage colony stimulating factor, and a more intense infiltrate of mast cells and eosinophils. One key feature of aspirin-sensitive asthma is thought to be the overproduction of cysteinyl leukotrienes, principally by these local mast cells and eosinophils, but whether this represents a fundamental abnormality or is simply a consequence of greater numbers and activation of inflammatory cells is unclear. Genetic polymorphisms of the leukotriene C4 synthase gene, which result in elevated expression of this enzyme, may also play a role. In addition, overexpression of cysteinyl leukotriene receptors, particularly CysLT1, may contribute to an enhanced response of local inflammatory and structural cells to cysteinyl leukotrienes. Aspirin challenge in these patients is accompanied by acute further elevation of the already elevated baseline cysteinyl leukotriene synthesis, a phenomenon that is most closely related to the ability of aspirin and related NSAIDs to inhibit the cyclooxygenase enzyme COX-1. The reason for this is unknown, although it has been suggested that the COX-1 product prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 serves as a ‘brake’ to leukotriene synthesis and that somehow this mechanism is deficient in aspirin-sensitive asthmatics. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of aspirin-sensitive asthma will undoubtedly lead to better approaches to treatment. Aside from the use of

  4. Multidrug Resistance Protein-4 Influences Aspirin Toxicity in Human Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Massimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Overexpression of efflux transporters, in human cells, is a mechanism of resistance to drug and also to chemotherapy. We found that multidrug resistance protein-4 (MRP4 overexpression has a role in reducing aspirin action in patients after bypass surgery and, very recently, we found that aspirin enhances platelet MRP4 levels through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPARα. In the present paper, we verified whether exposure of human embryonic kidney-293 cells (Hek-293 to aspirin modifies MRP4 gene expression and its correlation with drug elimination and cell toxicity. We first investigated the effect of high-dose aspirin in Hek-293 and we showed that aspirin is able to increase cell toxicity dose-dependently. Furthermore, aspirin effects, induced at low dose, already enhance MRP4 gene expression. Based on these findings, we compared cell viability in Hek-293, after high-dose aspirin treatment, in MRP4 overexpressing cells, either after aspirin pretreatment or in MRP4 transfected cells; in both cases, a decrease of selective aspirin cell growth inhibition was observed, in comparison with the control cultures. Altogether, these data suggest that exposing cells to low nontoxic aspirin dosages can induce gene expression alterations that may lead to the efflux transporter protein overexpression, thus increasing cellular detoxification of aspirin.

  5. Should modest elevations in prostate-specific antigen, International Prostate Symptom Score, or their rates of increase over time be used as surrogate measures of incident benign prostatic hyperplasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Jeannette M; Hunter-Merrill, Rachel; Zheng, Yingye; Etzioni, Ruth; Gulati, Roman; Tangen, Catherine; Thompson, Ian M; Kristal, Alan R

    2013-09-01

    Although surrogate measures of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are often used in epidemiologic studies, their performance characteristics are unknown. Using data from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (n = 5,986), we evaluated prostate-specific antigen (PSA), International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), and their rates of change as predictors of incident BPH. BPH (n = 842 cases) was defined as medical or surgical treatment or at least 2 IPSS of 15 or higher. Proportional hazards models were used to measure the associations of baseline PSA, IPSS, and their velocities over 2 years with BPH risk, and time-dependent receiver-operating characteristic curves were used to measure their discriminatory performance. Unit increases in PSA, IPSS, and IPSS velocity were associated with 34%, 35%, and 29% (all P specificity were both above 75%. We concluded that moderate elevations in PSA, IPSS, or their rates of change should not be used as surrogate measures of incident BPH.

  6. Androgen receptor and nutrient signaling pathways coordinate the demand for increased amino acid transport during prostate cancer progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qian; Bailey, Charles G; Ng, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    was sufficient to decrease cell growth and mTORC1 signaling in prostate cancer cells. These cells maintained levels of amino acid influx through androgen receptor-mediated regulation of LAT3 expression and ATF4 regulation of LAT1 expression after amino acid deprivation. These responses remained intact in primary......L-Type amino acid transporters such as LAT1 and LAT3 mediate the uptake of essential amino acids. Here, we report that prostate cancer cells coordinate the expression of LAT1 and LAT3 to maintain sufficient levels of leucine needed for mTORC1 signaling and cell growth. Inhibiting LAT function...... prostate cancer, as indicated by high levels of LAT3 in primary disease, and by increased levels of LAT1 after hormone ablation and in metastatic lesions. Taken together, our results show how prostate cancer cells respond to demands for increased essential amino acids by coordinately activating amino acid...

  7. Increased PSA expression on prostate cancer exosomes in in vitro condition and in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logozzi, Mariantonia; Angelini, Daniela F; Iessi, Elisabetta; Mizzoni, Davide; Di Raimo, Rossella; Federici, Cristina; Lugini, Luana; Borsellino, Giovanna; Gentilucci, Alessandro; Pierella, Federico; Marzio, Vittorio; Sciarra, Alessandro; Battistini, Luca; Fais, Stefano

    2017-09-10

    Prostate specific antigen (PSA) test is the most common, clinically validated test for the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). While neoplastic lesions of the prostate may cause aberrant levels of PSA in the blood, the quantitation of free or complexed PSA poorly discriminates cancer patients from those developing benign lesions, often leading to invasive and unnecessary surgical procedures. Microenvironmental acidity increases exosome release by cancer cells. In this study we evaluated whether acidity, a critical phenotype of malignancy, could influence exosome release and increase the PSA expression in nanovesicles released by PCa cells. To this aim, we exploited Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA), an immunocapture-based ELISA, and nanoscale flow-cytometry. The results show that microenvironmental acidity induces an increased release of nanovesicles expressing both PSA and the exosome marker CD81. In order to verify whether the changes induced by the local selective pressure of extracellular acidity may correspond to a clinical pathway we used the same approach to evaluate the levels of PSA-expressing exosomes in the plasma of PCa patients and controls, including subjects with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). The results show that only PCa patients have high levels of nanovesicles expressing both CD81 and PSA. This study shows that tumor acidity exerts a selective pressure leading to the release of extracellular vesicles that express both PSA and exosome markers. A comparable scenario was shown in the plasma of prostate cancer patients as compared to both BPH and healthy controls. These results suggest that microenvironmental acidity may represent a key factor which determines qualitatively and quantitatively the release of extracellular vesicles by malignant tumors, including prostate cancer. This condition leads to the spill-over of nanovesicles into the peripheral blood of prostate cancer patients, where the levels of tumor biomarkers expressed by

  8. Clopidogrel plus aspirin versus aspirin alone for preventing cardiovascular events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Squizzato, Alessandro; Bellesini, Marta; Takeda, Andrea; Middeldorp, Saskia; Donadini, Marco Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Aspirin is the prophylactic antiplatelet drug of choice for people with cardiovascular disease. Adding a second antiplatelet drug to aspirin may produce additional benefit for people at high risk and people with established cardiovascular disease. This is an update to a previously published review

  9. Clopidogrel plus aspirin versus aspirin alone for preventing cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Squizzato, Alessandro; Keller, Tymen; Romualdi, Erica; Middeldorp, Saskia

    2011-01-01

    Aspirin is the prophylactic antiplatelet drug of choice for people with cardiovascular disease. Adding a second antiplatelet drug to aspirin may produce additional benefit for those at high risk and those with established cardiovascular disease. To quantify the benefit and harm of adding clopidogrel

  10. A Framework for the Identification of Men at Increased Risk for Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roobol, Monique J.; Schroder, Fritz H.; Crawford, E. David; Freedland, Stephen J.; Sartor, A. Oliver; Fleshner, Neil; Andriole, Gerald L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: We assessed the risk of prostate cancer over time, and the implications for screening strategies and potential risk reduction approaches to provide a framework for clinical use of this approach concordant with the use of prostate specific antigen as a marker of current prostate cancer risk.

  11. A Framework for the Identification of Men at Increased Risk for Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roobol, Monique J.; Schroder, Fritz H.; Crawford, E. David; Freedland, Stephen J.; Sartor, A. Oliver; Fleshner, Neil; Andriole, Gerald L.

    Purpose: We assessed the risk of prostate cancer over time, and the implications for screening strategies and potential risk reduction approaches to provide a framework for clinical use of this approach concordant with the use of prostate specific antigen as a marker of current prostate cancer risk.

  12. Redundant prepuce increases the odds of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yang Zhao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Some published evidence has revealed that the dendritic cells can interact with pathogens that exist in the inner foreskin. This information provides a new vision that pathogens could play a role through the redundant prepuce; numerous studies have failed to find pathogens in prostates of patients who had chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS. However, no studies have reported an association between foreskin length and CP/CPPS. Hence, we conducted a retrospective case-control study of clinical data from 322 CP/CPPS patients (case group and 341 nonCP/CPPS patients (control group. Demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and foreskin lengths were collected and analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was adopted to calculate the odds of foreskin length for CP/CPPS. According to the multivariate logistic regression results, when the foreskin length covered up more than half of the glans penis, the odds for CP/CPPS were higher with an increased foreskin (odds ratio (OR: 1.66, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.04-2.66. In comparison, when the glans penis was completely covered by the foreskin, the OR value increased to 1.86 (95% CI, 1.2-2.88. The study results showed an association between foreskin length and the odds of CP/CPPS. When the foreskin length covered up more than half of the glans penis, there were greater odds for CP/CPPS. This possible mechanism might result from interaction between pathogens and DCs in the inner foreskin, consequently activating T-cells to mediate allergic inflammation in the prostate and producing the autoimmunizations causing CP/CPPS.

  13. Redundant prepuce increases the odds of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu-Yang; Xu, Dong-Liang; Zhao, Fu-Jun; Han, Bang-Min; Shao, Yi; Zhao, Wei; Xia, Shu-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Some published evidence has revealed that the dendritic cells can interact with pathogens that exist in the inner foreskin. This information provides a new vision that pathogens could play a role through the redundant prepuce; numerous studies have failed to find pathogens in prostates of patients who had chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). However, no studies have reported an association between foreskin length and CP/CPPS. Hence, we conducted a retrospective case-control study of clinical data from 322 CP/CPPS patients (case group) and 341 nonCP/CPPS patients (control group). Demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and foreskin lengths were collected and analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was adopted to calculate the odds of foreskin length for CP/CPPS. According to the multivariate logistic regression results, when the foreskin length covered up more than half of the glans penis, the odds for CP/CPPS were higher with an increased foreskin (odds ratio (OR): 1.66, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-2.66). In comparison, when the glans penis was completely covered by the foreskin, the OR value increased to 1.86 (95% CI, 1.2-2.88). The study results showed an association between foreskin length and the odds of CP/CPPS. When the foreskin length covered up more than half of the glans penis, there were greater odds for CP/CPPS. This possible mechanism might result from interaction between pathogens and DCs in the inner foreskin, consequently activating T-cells to mediate allergic inflammation in the prostate and producing the autoimmunizations causing CP/CPPS.

  14. Increasing Use of Dose-Escalated External Beam Radiation Therapy for Men With Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swisher-McClure, Samuel; Mitra, Nandita; Woo, Kaitlin; Smaldone, Marc; Uzzo, Robert; Bekelman, Justin E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine recent practice patterns, using a large national cancer registry, to understand the extent to which dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) has been incorporated into routine clinical practice for men with prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective observational cohort study using the National Cancer Data Base, a nationwide oncology outcomes database in the United States. We identified 98,755 men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer between 2006 and 2011 who received definitive EBRT and classified patients into National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) risk groups. We defined dose-escalated EBRT as total prescribed dose of ≥75.6 Gy. Using multivariable logistic regression, we examined the association of patient, clinical, and demographic characteristics with the use of dose-escalated EBRT. Results: Overall, 81.6% of men received dose-escalated EBRT during the study period. The use of dose-escalated EBRT did not vary substantially by NCCN risk group. Use of dose-escalated EBRT increased from 70.7% of patients receiving treatment in 2006 to 89.8% of patients receiving treatment in 2011. On multivariable analysis, year of diagnosis and use of intensity modulated radiation therapy were significantly associated with receipt of dose-escalated EBRT. Conclusions: Our study results indicate that dose-escalated EBRT has been widely adopted by radiation oncologists treating prostate cancer in the United States. The proportion of patients receiving dose-escalated EBRT increased nearly 20% between 2006 and 2011. We observed high utilization rates of dose-escalated EBRT within all disease risk groups. Adoption of intensity modulated radiation therapy was strongly associated with use of dose-escalated treatment

  15. ESPRIT: is aspirin plus dipyridamole superior to aspirin alone in TIA or minor stroke patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhl, R P W; Lodder, J

    2008-11-01

    Transient ischemic attack (TIA) or a (minor) ischemic stroke increases the risk of a recurrent stroke or death. Antiplatelet therapy with aspirin or clopidogrel is, in the absence of a potential cardiac embolic source, common practice to lower this risk. Until recently, adjuvant dipyridamole or low intensity oral anticoagulation were not generally prescribed in secondary prevention. In this article, we will summarize and discuss the published results of the European/Australasian Stroke Prevention in Reversible Ischemia Trial (ESPRIT). In this trial, treatments with anticoagulants, aspirin alone and the combination of aspirin plus dipyridamole were compared, in a multicenter, three-armed, randomized, open-label study in patients with TIA or minor stroke.

  16. Prophylactic low-dose aspirin is effective antithrombotic therapy for combination treatments of thalidomide or lenalidomide in myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesvizky, Ruben; Martínez-Baños, Déborah; Jalbrzikowski, Jessica; Christos, Paul; Furst, Jessica; De Sancho, Maria; Mark, Tomer; Pearse, Roger; Mazumdar, Madhu; Zafar, Faiza; Pekle, Karen; Leonard, John; Jayabalan, David; Coleman, Morton

    2007-12-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) patients have a propensity for thromboembolic events (TE), and treatment with thalidomide/dexamethasone or lenalidomide/dexamethasone increases this risk. This report describes the use of low-dose aspirin (81 mg) as primary thromboprophylaxis in three series of MM patients receiving thalidomide or lenalidomide with other drugs. In the first regimen (clarithromycin, thalidomide, dexamethasone), initiation of low-dose aspirin negated the occurrence of any further TE. In a second study, prophylactic aspirin given with thalidomide/dexamethasone resulted in a rate of TE similar to that seen with dexamethasone alone (without aspirin). A third study (n = 72) evaluated thrombosis rates with aspirin and a lenalidomide-containing regimen (clarithromycin, lenalidomide, dexamethasone). Of nine occurrences of thromboembolism, five were associated with aspirin interruption or poor compliance. Low-dose aspirin appears to reduce the incidence of thrombosis with these regimens. Routine use of aspirin as antithrombotic prophylaxis in MM patients receiving immunomodulatory drugs with corticosteroids is warranted.

  17. Preventive Aspirin and Other Antiplatelet Medication Use Among U.S. Adults Aged ≥40 Years: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Charles F.; Eberhardt, Mark S.; Wright, Jacqueline D.; Burt, Vicki L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We estimated the prevalence of preventive aspirin and/or other antiplatelet medication use and the dosage of aspirin use in the U.S. adult population. Methods We conducted cross-sectional analyses of a representative sample (n=3,599) of U.S. adults aged ≥40 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011–2012. Results In 2011–2012, one-third of U.S. adults aged ≥40 years reported taking preventive aspirin and/or other antiplatelet medications, 97% of whom indicated preventive aspirin use. Preventive aspirin use increased with age (from 11% of those aged 40–49 years to 54% of those ≥80 years of age, paspirin than non-Hispanic Asian (20%, paspirin. Among those with cardiovascular disease, 76% reported taking preventive aspirin and/or other antiplatelet medications, of whom 91% were taking preventive aspirin. Among adults without cardiovascular disease, 28% reported taking preventive aspirin. Adherence rates to medically recommended aspirin use were 82% overall, 91% for secondary prevention, and 79% for primary prevention. Among current preventive aspirin users, 70% were taking 81 milligrams (mg) of aspirin daily and 13% were taking 325 mg of aspirin daily. Conclusion The vast majority of antiplatelet therapy is preventive aspirin use. A health-care provider's recommendation to take preventive aspirin is an important determinant of current preventive aspirin use. PMID:26556936

  18. Increasing Fractional Doses Increases the Probability of Benign PSA Bounce in Patients Undergoing Definitive HDR Brachytherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauck, Carlin R.; Ye, Hong; Chen, Peter Y.; Gustafson, Gary S.; Limbacher, Amy; Krauss, Daniel J., E-mail: Daniel.krauss@beaumont.edu

    2017-05-01

    Purpose: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounce is a temporary elevation of the PSA level above a prior nadir. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the frequency of a PSA bounce following high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer is associated with individual treatment fraction size. Methods and Materials: Between 1999 and 2014, 554 patients underwent treatment of low- or intermediate-risk prostate cancer with definitive HDR brachytherapy as monotherapy and had ≥3 subsequent PSA measurements. Four different fraction sizes were used: 950 cGy × 4 fractions, 1200 cGy × 2 fractions, 1350 cGy × 2 fractions, 1900 cGy × 1 fraction. Four definitions of PSA bounce were applied: ≥0.2, ≥0.5, ≥1.0, and ≥2.0 ng/mL above the prior nadir with a subsequent return to the nadir. Results: The median follow-up period was 3.7 years. The actuarial 3-year rate of PSA bounce for the entire cohort was 41.3%, 28.4%, 17.4%, and 6.8% for nadir +0.2, +0.5, +1.0, and +2.0 ng/mL, respectively. The 3-year rate of PSA bounce >0.2 ng/mL was 42.2%, 32.1%, 41.0%, and 59.1% for the 950-, 1200-, 1350-, and 1900-cGy/fraction levels, respectively (P=.002). The hazard ratio for bounce >0.2 ng/mL for patients receiving a single fraction of 1900 cGy compared with those receiving treatment in multiple fractions was 1.786 (P=.024). For patients treated with a single 1900-cGy fraction, the 1-, 2-, and 3-year rates of PSA bounce exceeding the Phoenix biochemical failure definition (nadir +2 ng/mL) were 4.5%, 18.7%, and 18.7%, respectively, higher than the rates for all other administered dose levels (P=.025). Conclusions: The incidence of PSA bounce increases with single-fraction HDR treatment. Knowledge of posttreatment PSA kinetics may aid in decision making regarding management of potential biochemical failures.

  19. Increasing Fractional Doses Increases the Probability of Benign PSA Bounce in Patients Undergoing Definitive HDR Brachytherapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauck, Carlin R.; Ye, Hong; Chen, Peter Y.; Gustafson, Gary S.; Limbacher, Amy; Krauss, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounce is a temporary elevation of the PSA level above a prior nadir. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the frequency of a PSA bounce following high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer is associated with individual treatment fraction size. Methods and Materials: Between 1999 and 2014, 554 patients underwent treatment of low- or intermediate-risk prostate cancer with definitive HDR brachytherapy as monotherapy and had ≥3 subsequent PSA measurements. Four different fraction sizes were used: 950 cGy × 4 fractions, 1200 cGy × 2 fractions, 1350 cGy × 2 fractions, 1900 cGy × 1 fraction. Four definitions of PSA bounce were applied: ≥0.2, ≥0.5, ≥1.0, and ≥2.0 ng/mL above the prior nadir with a subsequent return to the nadir. Results: The median follow-up period was 3.7 years. The actuarial 3-year rate of PSA bounce for the entire cohort was 41.3%, 28.4%, 17.4%, and 6.8% for nadir +0.2, +0.5, +1.0, and +2.0 ng/mL, respectively. The 3-year rate of PSA bounce >0.2 ng/mL was 42.2%, 32.1%, 41.0%, and 59.1% for the 950-, 1200-, 1350-, and 1900-cGy/fraction levels, respectively (P=.002). The hazard ratio for bounce >0.2 ng/mL for patients receiving a single fraction of 1900 cGy compared with those receiving treatment in multiple fractions was 1.786 (P=.024). For patients treated with a single 1900-cGy fraction, the 1-, 2-, and 3-year rates of PSA bounce exceeding the Phoenix biochemical failure definition (nadir +2 ng/mL) were 4.5%, 18.7%, and 18.7%, respectively, higher than the rates for all other administered dose levels (P=.025). Conclusions: The incidence of PSA bounce increases with single-fraction HDR treatment. Knowledge of posttreatment PSA kinetics may aid in decision making regarding management of potential biochemical failures.

  20. Employment of the porous particles for preparation of the capsules containing aspirin and drug release property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoi, Fumio; Makuuchi, Keizo; Saito, Kenji; Koishi, Masumi.

    1985-01-01

    Polymer-coated porous particles containing aspirin as a drug were prepared and the rate of release of aspirin was studied. The impregnation of aspirin was carried out by post-graft polymerization, where methyl methacrylate or methacrylic acid was treated with porous particles, pre-irradiated with γ-ray from 60 Co, in the presence of aspirin. Release of aspirin from modified particles was tested with 50 % methanol solution and/or pH 5.2 buffer solution of acetic acid. The amount of aspirin released from capsules increased with time and reached a constant values after 140 h. The amount of aspirin absorbed in porous particles was increased with graft polymerization. In addition, absorption of aspirin in porous particles was significantly enhanced by treating the particle surface with TiO 2 before irradiation. The amount of aspirin released was linearly to the square root of time. It was concluded that the diffusion of aspirin through the polymer matrix was the rate limiting step. (author)

  1. Neonatal exposure to ethinylestradiol increases ventral prostate growth and promotes epithelial hyperplasia and inflammation in adult male gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falleiros-Júnior, Luiz R; Perez, Ana P S; Taboga, Sebastião R; Dos Santos, Fernanda C A; Vilamaior, Patrícia S L

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse morphologically the ventral prostate of adult Mongolian gerbils exposed to ethinylestradiol (EE) during the first week of postnatal development. Lactating females received daily, by gavage, doses of 10 μg/kg of EE diluted in 100 μl of mineral oil from the 1st to 10th postnatal day of the pups (EE group). In the control group (C), the lactating females received only the vehicle. Upon completing 120 days of age, the male offspring were euthanized and the prostates collected for analyses. We employed morphological, stereological-morphometrical, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural methods. The results showed that the postnatal exposure to EE doubled the prostatic complex weight, increasing the epithelial and stromal compartments, in addition to the secretory activity of the ventral lobe of the prostate. All glands exposed to EE showed strong stromal remodelling, and some foci of epithelial hyperplasia and inflammatory infiltrate in both luminal and epithelial or stromal compartments. Cells positive for anti-AR and anti-PCNA reactions increased into the epithelial and stromal tissues. ERα-positive cells, which are normally found in the stromal compartment of intact prostates, were frequently observed in the prostatic epithelium of treated animals. This study demonstrated that the exposure to EE during postnatal development causes histophysiological alterations in this gland, predisposing to the development of prostatic lesions during life. These results are important for public health, considering that women worldwide have commonly used EE. Moreover, the bioaccumulation of this chemical has increased in different ecosystems. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2016 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  2. Resveratrol sensitization of DU145 prostate cancer cells to ionizing radiation is associated to ceramide increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlatti, Francesca; Sala, Giusy; Ricci, Clara; Maioli, Claudio; Milani, Franco; Minella, Marco; Botturi, Marco; Ghidoni, Riccardo

    2007-08-08

    Radiotherapy is an established therapeutic modality for prostate cancer. Since it is well known that radiotherapy is limited due to its severe toxicity towards normal cells at high dose and minimal effect at low dose, the search for biological compounds that increase the sensitivity of tumors cells to radiation may improve the efficacy of therapy. Resveratrol, a natural antioxidant, was shown to inhibit carcinogenesis in animal models, and to block the process of tumor initiation and progression. The purpose of this study was to examine whether or not resveratrol can sensitize DU145, an androgen-independent human prostate cancer cell line, to ionizing radiation. We report here that DU145 cells are resistant to ionizing radiation-induced cell death, but pretreatment with resveratrol significantly enhances cell death. Resveratrol acts synergistically with ionizing radiation to inhibit cell survival in vitro. Resveratrol also potentiates ionizing radiation-induced ceramide accumulation, by promoting its de novo biosynthesis. This confirms ceramide as an effective mediator of the anticancer potential induced by resveratrol.

  3. Aspirin induces morphological transformation to the secretory state in isolated rabbit parietal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, U K; Levine, R A

    1991-08-01

    The morphological response of rabbit parietal cells to aspirin was evaluated by grading several ultra-structural features including the extent of the tubulovesicular system, intracellular secretory canaliculi, and microvilli. After exposure of isolated parietal cells and gastric glands to aspirin or histamine, there was an approximately twofold increase in the ratio of secretory to nonsecretory parietal cells, and depletion of extracellular Ca2+ abolished the aspirin-induced morphological changes. Morphometry in parietal cells showed that aspirin induced a sixfold increase in secretory canalicular membrane elaboration. Aspirin potentiated histamine-induced parietal cell respiration and aminopyrine uptake ratio but did not increase basal respiration or aminopyrine uptake, suggesting an apparent dissociation from aspirin-induced morphological changes.

  4. Comparative bioequivalence assessment of aspirin tablets marketed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: In the last few years, aspirin has become a life saver against cardiovascular accidents. This investigation was carried out to determine possible bioequivalence between regular aspirin and soluble aspirin tablets marketed in Nigeria. Methods: The in vivo bioavailability profiles of three commercial brands of aspirin ...

  5. Taking Aspirin to Protect Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toolkit No. 23 Taking Aspirin to Protect Your Heart What can taking aspirin do for me? If you are at high risk for or if you have heart disease, taking a low dose aspirin every day may help. Aspirin can also help ...

  6. Effect of Aspirin Supplementation on Hemodynamics in Older Firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Ranadive, Sushant M; Yan, Huimin; Kappus, Rebecca M; Sun, Peng; Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Smith, Denise L; Horn, Gavin P; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Fernhall, B O

    2015-12-01

    Cardiovascular events are the leading cause of line-of-duty fatality for firefighters. Aspirin reduces the risk of cardiovascular events in men and may reduce fatalities in older (>40 yr) firefighters. We hypothesized that both chronic and acute aspirin supplementation would improve vascular function after live firefighting but that chronic supplementation would also improve resting hemodynamics. Twenty-four firefighters (40-60 yr) were randomly assigned to acute or chronic aspirin supplementation or placebo in a balanced, crossover design. Arterial stiffness, brachial and central blood pressures, as well as forearm vasodilatory capacity and blood flow were measured at rest and immediately after live firefighting. Total hyperemic blood flow (area under the curve (AUC)) was increased (P 0.05 for interaction). Arterial stiffness/central blood pressure increased (P < 0.04) with no effect of aspirin (from 0.0811 ± 0.001 to 0.0844 ± 0.003 m·s·mm⁻¹ Hg⁻¹ in aspirin condition versus 0.0802 ± 0.002 to 0.0858 ± 0.002 m·s⁻¹·mm Hg⁻¹ in placebo condition), whereas peripheral and central systolic and pulse pressures decreased after firefighting across conditions (P < 0.05). Live firefighting resulted in increased AUC and pressure-controlled arterial stiffness and decreased blood pressure in older firefighters, but aspirin supplementation did not affect macro- or microvascular responsiveness at rest or after firefighting.

  7. Should This Patient Receive Aspirin?: Grand Rounds Discussion From Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Risa B; Graham, Kelly; Sawhney, Mandeep S; Reynolds, Eileen E

    2017-12-05

    Aspirin exerts antiplatelet effects through irreversible inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1, whereas its anticancer effects may be due to inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 and other pathways. In 2009, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force endorsed aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, aspirin's role in cancer prevention is still emerging, and no groups currently recommend its use for this purpose. To help physicians balance the benefits and harms of aspirin in primary disease prevention, the Task Force issued a guideline titled, "Aspirin Use for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Colorectal Cancer" in 2016. In the evidence review conducted for the guideline, cardiovascular disease mortality and colorectal cancer mortality were significantly reduced among persons taking aspirin. However, there was no difference in nonfatal stroke, cardiovascular disease mortality, or all-cause mortality, nor in total cancer mortality, among those taking aspirin. Aspirin users were found to be at increased risk for major gastrointestinal bleeding. In this Beyond the Guidelines, the guideline is reviewed and 2 experts discuss how they would apply it to a 57-year-old man considering starting aspirin for primary prevention. Our experts review the data on which the guideline is based, discuss how they would balance the benefits and harms of aspirin therapy, and explain how they would incorporate shared decision making into clinical practice.

  8. Therapeutic utility of aspirin in the ApcMin/+ murine model of colon carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, Brian K; Zhang, Xiao-Jing; Miller, Mark JS

    2002-01-01

    In recent years it has become evident that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, in particular aspirin represent a potential class of cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Despite the wealth of knowledge gained from epidemiological, clinical and animal studies, the effectiveness of aspirin to treat established gastrointestinal cancer has not been determined. The present study examines the ability of aspirin to treat established polyposis in Min/+ mice. Min/+ mice with established polyposis were treated orally once daily from 12–16 weeks of age with either drug vehicle or aspirin (25 mg/kg). Upon completion of treatment, the number, location and size of intestinal tumours was determined. Additional variables examined were the number of apoptotic cells within tumours and COX activity. Administration of aspirin for 4 weeks to Min/+ mice produce no effect on tumour number compared to vehicle-treated Min/+ mice (65 ± 8 vs. 63 ± 9, respectively). In addition, aspirin had no effect on tumour size or location. However, aspirin treatment produced a greater than 2-fold (p < 0.05) increase in the number of apoptotic positive cells within tumours and significantly decreased hepatic PGE 2 content. Aspirin was found to have no effect on tumour number and size when administered to Min/+ mice with established polyposis. The findings in the present study call in to question the utility of aspirin as a stand-alone treatment for established GI cancer. However, aspirin's ability to significantly promote apoptosis may render it suitable for use in combinatorial chemotherapy

  9. The use of preoperative aspirin in cardiac surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboul-Hassan, Sleiman Sebastian; Stankowski, Tomasz; Marczak, Jakub; Peksa, Maciej; Nawotka, Marcin; Stanislawski, Ryszard; Kryszkowski, Bartosz; Cichon, Romuald

    2017-12-01

    Despite the fact that aspirin is of benefit to patients following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), continuation or administration of preoperative aspirin before CABG or any cardiac surgical procedure remains controversial. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the influence of preoperative aspirin administration on patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Medline database was searched using OVID SP interface. Similar searches were performed separately in EMBASE, PubMed, and Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials. Twelve randomized controlled trials and 28 observational studies met our inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. The use of preoperative aspirin in patients undergoing CABG at any dose is associated with reduced early mortality as well as a reduced incidence of postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI). Low-dose aspirin (≤160 mg/d) is associated with a decreased incidence of perioperative myocardial infarction (MI). Administration of preoperative aspirin at any dose in patients undergoing cardiac surgery increases postoperative bleeding. Despite this effect of preoperative aspirin, it did not increase the rates of surgical re-exploration due to excessive postoperative bleeding nor did it increase the rates of packed red blood cell transfusions (PRBC) when preoperative low-dose aspirin (≤160 mg/d) was administered. Preoperative aspirin increases the risk for postoperative bleeding. However, this did not result in an increased need for chest re-exploration and did not increase the rates of PRBC transfusion when preoperative low-dose (≤160 mg/d) aspirin was administered. Aspirin at any dose is associated with decreased mortality and AKI and low-dose aspirin (≤160 mg/d) decreases the incidence of perioperative MI. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. 24-hour antiplatelet effect of aspirin in patients with previous definite stent thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz, Morten; Hvas, Anne-Mette; Jensen, Lisette O

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Once-daily aspirin is standard treatment, but recent studies point towards increased platelet function at the end of the dosing interval. Stent thrombosis (ST) has been linked with reduced antiplatelet effect of aspirin, so we investigated if platelet inhibition by aspirin declines...... with 100 patients with stable coronary artery disease and 50 healthy volunteers. All participants were on aspirin 75 mg/day mono antiplatelet therapy. Platelet aggregation was measured 1 and 24 h after aspirin intake using platelet aggregometry (Multiplate® Analyzer). Cyclooxygenase-1 activity, platelet...... activation, immature platelets, and thrombopoietin were measured. RESULTS: Platelet aggregation increased by 109±150 (arachidonic acid) and 47±155 (collagen) aggregation units per minute from 1 to 24 h after aspirin intake (p-values

  11. Systemic aspirin and systemic vitamin E in senile cataracts : cataract V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Y

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available We undertook a prospective study in senile cataract patients using systemic aspirin and systemic vitamin E. Vitamin E treated eyes did show less progression of PSC opacities extent and less new nuclear opacities during the follow-up, but overall vitamin E treated eyes did no better than the control group eyes. More eyes in systemic aspirin treated group maintained the initial vision and loss of vision in the aspirin group was also less marked. Aspirin also caused a significant less mean increase in cortical opacity extent, nuclear/opacity and density and PSC opacity extent and density as well as in ophthalmoscopically graded opacity extent and density. We suggest that aspirin is a potential drug which should be further evaluated in large double blind photodocumentated studies. The present data does not justify the recommendation that aspirin be prescribed for slowing down cataract progression. This must await large studies and confirmation.

  12. Canine prostate carcinoma: epidemiological evidence of an increased risk in castrated dogs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teske, E.; Naan, E.C.; Dijk, E.M. van; Garderen, E. van; Schalken, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    The present retrospective study investigated the frequency of prostate carcinoma (PCA) among prostate abnormalities in dogs and determined whether castration influences the incidence of PCA in dogs. During the years 1993-1998, 15363 male dogs were admitted to the Utrecht University Clinic of

  13. Image-guided diagnosis of prostate cancer can increase detection of tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the largest prospective study to date of image-guided technology for identifying suspicious regions of the prostate to biopsy, researchers compared the ability of this technology to detect high-risk prostate cancer with that of the current standard of

  14. Plasma levels of trefoil factors are increased in patients with advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, E.M.; Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2006-01-01

    Through cDNA array analyses and immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays, trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) was recently shown to be overexpressed in prostate cancer. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of using the levels of trefoil factors as a plasma marker for prostate cancer....

  15. Betulinic acid selectively increases protein degradation and enhances prostate cancer-specific apoptosis: possible role for inhibition of deubiquitinase activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresita Reiner

    Full Text Available Inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS of protein degradation is a valid anti-cancer strategy and has led to the approval of bortezomib for the treatment of multiple myeloma. However, the alternative approach of enhancing the degradation of oncoproteins that are frequently overexpressed in cancers is less developed. Betulinic acid (BA is a plant-derived small molecule that can increase apoptosis specifically in cancer but not in normal cells, making it an attractive anti-cancer agent. Our results in prostate cancer suggested that BA inhibited multiple deubiquitinases (DUBs, which resulted in the accumulation of poly-ubiquitinated proteins, decreased levels of oncoproteins, and increased apoptotic cell death. In normal fibroblasts, however, BA did not inhibit DUB activity nor increased total poly-ubiquitinated proteins, which was associated with a lack of effect on cell death. In the TRAMP transgenic mouse model of prostate cancer, treatment with BA (10 mg/kg inhibited primary tumors, increased apoptosis, decreased angiogenesis and proliferation, and lowered androgen receptor and cyclin D1 protein. BA treatment also inhibited DUB activity and increased ubiquitinated proteins in TRAMP prostate cancer but had no effect on apoptosis or ubiquitination in normal mouse tissues. Overall, our data suggests that BA-mediated inhibition of DUBs and induction of apoptotic cell death specifically in prostate cancer but not in normal cells and tissues may provide an effective non-toxic and clinically selective agent for chemotherapy.

  16. Increased risk of benign prostate hyperplasia in sleep apnea patients: a nationwide population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Song Chou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleep apnea (SA is a common sleep disorder characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH. Chronic IH induces systemic inflammatory processes, which can cause tissue damage and contribute to prostatic enlargement. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH and SA in a Taiwanese population. METHODS: The study population was identified from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD and contained 202 SA patients and 1010 control patients. The study cohort consisted of men aged ≥ 30 years who were newly diagnosed with SA between January 1997 and December 2005. Each patient was monitored for 5 years from the index date for the development of BPH. A Cox regression analysis was used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs for BPH in the SA and control patients. RESULTS: During the 5-year follow-up, 18 SA patients (8.9% and 32 non-SA control patients (3.2% developed BPH. The adjusted HR for BPH was 2.35-fold higher in the patients with SA than in the control patients (95% confidence interval (CI 1.28-4.29, P<.01. We further divided the SA patients into 4 age groups. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the highest adjusted HR for BPH in the SA patients compared with the control patients was 5.59 (95% CI = 2.19-14.31, P<.001 in the patients aged between 51 and 65 years. CONCLUSION: Our study results indicate that patients with SA are associated with increased longitudinal risk of BPH development, and that the effects of SA on BPH development are age-dependent.

  17. The difference in association between aspirin use and other thrombocyte aggregation inhibitors and survival in patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouws, M A; Rademaker, E; Bastiaannet, E; van Herk-Sukel, M P P; Lemmens, V E; Van de Velde, C J H; Portielje, J E A; Liefers, G J

    2017-05-01

    Several studies have suggested that the association between aspirin and improved cancer survival is mediated through the mechanism of aspirin as thrombocyte aggregation inhibitors (TAI). The aim of this study was to provide epidemiological evidence for this mechanism assessing the association between overall survival and the use of aspirin and non-aspirin TAI in patients with colorectal cancer. In this observational study, data from the Netherlands Comprehensive Cancer Organisation were linked to PHARMO Database Network. Patients using aspirin or aspirin in combination with non-aspirin TAI (dual users) were selected and compared with non-users. The association between overall survival and the use of (non-)aspirin TAI was analysed using Cox regression models with the use of (non-)aspirin TAI as a time-varying covariate. In total, 9196 patients were identified with colorectal cancer and 1766 patients used TAI after diagnosis. Non-aspirin TAI were mostly clopidogrel and dipyridamole. Aspirin use was associated with a significant increased overall survival and hazard ratio (HR) 0.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.37-0.47), and the use of non-aspirin TAI was not associated with survival of HR 0.92 (95% CI 0.70-1.22). Dual users did not have an improved overall survival when compared with patients using solely aspirin. Aspirin use after diagnosis of colorectal cancer was associated with significantly lower mortality rates and this effect remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders. No additional survival benefit was observed in patients using both aspirin and another TAI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Daily Aspirin Therapy: Understand the Benefits and Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily aspirin therapy: Understand the benefits and risks Daily aspirin therapy can be a lifesaving option, but it's not ... everyone. Get the facts before considering a daily aspirin. By Mayo Clinic Staff Daily aspirin therapy may ...

  19. Aspirin and Risk of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Kevin; Moore, Justin M; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Ogilvy, Christopher S; Thomas, Ajith J

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the use of low-dose aspirin may reduce the risk of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). We aimed to evaluate any association between aspirin use and risk of aSAH based on the literature, and whether this is influenced by duration or frequency of aspirin use. A search of electronic databases was done from inception to September 2016. For each study, data on risk of aSAH in aspirin versus nonaspirin users were used to generate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals, and combined using inverse variance-weighted averages of logarithmic odds ratios in a random-effects models. From 7 included studies, no significant difference was noted between aspirin use of any duration or frequency and nonaspirin users (odds ratio, 1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.24; P =0.99). We found a significant association between short-term use of aspirin (3 years of durations of use. No significant association was found between infrequent aspirin use (≤2× per week) or frequent use (≥3× per week) with risk of aSAH. Current evidence suggests that short-term (aspirin is associated with increased risk of aSAH. Limitations include substantial heterogenity of the included studies. The role of long-term aspirin in reducing risk of aSAH remains unclear and ideally should be addressed by an appropriately designed randomized controlled trial. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Synergistically killing activity of aspirin and histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) on hepatocellular cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaofei; Zhu, Yanshuang [Department of Infectious Diseases, Yiwu Central Hospita, 519 Nan men Street, Yiwu, Jinhua, Zhejing 322000 (China); He, Huabin [Department of Orthopedics, Yiwu Central Hospita, 519 Nan men Street, Yiwu, Jinhua, Zhejing 322000 (China); Lou, Lianqing; Ye, Weiwei; Chen, Yongxin [Department of Infectious Diseases, Yiwu Central Hospita, 519 Nan men Street, Yiwu, Jinhua, Zhejing 322000 (China); Wang, Jinghe, E-mail: Xiaofeili2000@163.com [Department of Infectious Diseases, Yiwu Central Hospita, 519 Nan men Street, Yiwu, Jinhua, Zhejing 322000 (China)

    2013-06-28

    Highlights: •Novel combination therapy using aspirin and valproic acid (VPA). •Combination of aspirin and VPA elicits synergistic cytotoxic effects. •Combination of aspirin and VPA significantly reduces the drug dosage required alone. •Combination of aspirin and VPA significantly inhibit tumor growth. •Lower dose of aspirin in combination therapy will minimize side effects of aspirin. -- Abstract: Aspirin and valproic acid (VPA) have been extensively studied for inducing various malignancies growth inhibition respectively, despite their severe side effects. Here, we developed a novel combination by aspirin and VPA on hepatocellular cancer cells (HCCs). The viability of HCC lines were analyzed by MTT assay, apoptotic analysis of HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cell was performed. Real time-PCR and Western blotting were performed to determine the expression of apoptosis related genes and proteins such as Survivin, Bcl-2/Bax, Cyclin D1 and p15. Moreover, orthotopic xenograft tumors were challenged in nude mice to establish murine model, and then therapeutic effect was analyzed after drug combination therapy. The viability of HCC lines’ significantly decreased after drug combination treatment, and cancer cell apoptosis in combination group increasingly induced compared with single drug use. Therapeutic effect was significantly enhanced by combination therapy in tumor volume and tumor weight decrease. From the data shown here, aspirin and VPA combination have a synergistic killing effect on hepatocellular cancers cells proliferation and apoptosis.

  1. Synergistically killing activity of aspirin and histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) on hepatocellular cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaofei; Zhu, Yanshuang; He, Huabin; Lou, Lianqing; Ye, Weiwei; Chen, Yongxin; Wang, Jinghe

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Novel combination therapy using aspirin and valproic acid (VPA). •Combination of aspirin and VPA elicits synergistic cytotoxic effects. •Combination of aspirin and VPA significantly reduces the drug dosage required alone. •Combination of aspirin and VPA significantly inhibit tumor growth. •Lower dose of aspirin in combination therapy will minimize side effects of aspirin. -- Abstract: Aspirin and valproic acid (VPA) have been extensively studied for inducing various malignancies growth inhibition respectively, despite their severe side effects. Here, we developed a novel combination by aspirin and VPA on hepatocellular cancer cells (HCCs). The viability of HCC lines were analyzed by MTT assay, apoptotic analysis of HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cell was performed. Real time-PCR and Western blotting were performed to determine the expression of apoptosis related genes and proteins such as Survivin, Bcl-2/Bax, Cyclin D1 and p15. Moreover, orthotopic xenograft tumors were challenged in nude mice to establish murine model, and then therapeutic effect was analyzed after drug combination therapy. The viability of HCC lines’ significantly decreased after drug combination treatment, and cancer cell apoptosis in combination group increasingly induced compared with single drug use. Therapeutic effect was significantly enhanced by combination therapy in tumor volume and tumor weight decrease. From the data shown here, aspirin and VPA combination have a synergistic killing effect on hepatocellular cancers cells proliferation and apoptosis

  2. Overexpression of 15-lipoxygenase-1 in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells increases tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelavkar, U P; Nixon, J B; Cohen, C; Dillehay, D; Eling, T E; Badr, K F

    2001-11-01

    The effect of overexpression of 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LO-1) was studied in the human prostate cancer cell line, PC-3. Stable PC-3 cell lines were generated by transfection with 15-LO-1-sense (15-LOS), 15-LO-1-antisense (15-LOAS) or vector (Zeo) and selection with Zeocin. After characterization by RT-PCR, western and HPLC, a PC3-15LOS clone was selected that possessed 10-fold 15-LO-1 enzyme activity compared with parental PC-3 cells. The PC3-15LOAS clone displayed little or no 15-LO-1 activity. These PC-3 cell lines were characterized for properties of tumorigenesis. The proliferation rates of the cell lines were as follows: PC3-15LOS > PC-3 = PC3-Zeo > PC3-15LOAS. Addition of a specific 15-LO-1 inhibitor, PD146176, caused a dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation in vitro. Overexpression of 15-LO-1 also caused [(3)H]thymidine incorporation to increase by 4.0-fold (P < 0.01). Compared with parental and PC-3-Zeo cells, PC3-15LOS enhanced whereas PC3-15LOAS reduced the ability of PC-3 cells to grow in an anchorage-independent manner, as assessed by colony formation in soft agar. These data suggested a pro-tumorigenic role for 15-LO-1 in PC-3 cells in vitro. Therefore, to clarify the role of 15-LO-1 in vivo, the effect of 15-LO-1 expression on the growth of tumors in nude mice was investigated. The PC-3 cell lines were inoculated subcutaneously into athymic nude mice. The frequency of tumor formation was increased and the sizes of the tumors formed were much larger in the PC3-15LOS compared with PC3-15LOAS, parental PC-3 and PC-3-Zeo cells. Immunohistochemistry for 15-LO-1 confirmed expression throughout the duration of the experiment. The expression of factor VIII, an angiogenesis marker, in tumor sections was increased in tumors derived from PC3-15LOS cells and decreased in those from PC3-15LOAS cells compared with tumors from parental or Zeo cells. These data further supported the evaluation by ELISA of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion by PC-3

  3. Electromagnetic Transponders Indicate Prostate Size Increase Followed by Decrease During the Course of External Beam Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Benjamin L.; Butler, Wayne M.; Merrick, Gregory S.; Kurko, Brian S.; Reed, Joshua L.; Murray, Brian C.; Wallner, Kent E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Real-time image guidance enables more accurate radiation therapy by tracking target movement. This study used transponder positions to monitor changes in prostate volume that may be a source of dosimetric and target inaccuracy. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four men with biopsy-proven T1c-T3a prostate cancer each had three electromagnetic transponders implanted transperineally. Their coordinates were recorded by the Calypso system, and the perimeter of the triangle formed by the transponders was used to calculate prostate volumes at sequential time points throughout the course of radiation therapy to a dose of 81 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions. Results: There was a significant decrease in mean prostate volume of 10.9% from the first to the final day of radiation therapy. The volume loss did not occur monotonically but increased in most patients (75%) during the first several weeks to a median maximum on Day 7. The volume increased by a mean of 6.1% before decreasing by a mean maximum difference of 18.4% to nadir (p < 0.001 for both increase and decrease). Glandular shrinkage was asymmetric, with the apex to right base dimension varying more than twice that of the lateral dimension. For all dimensions, the mean change was <0.5 cm. Conclusion: Real-time transponder positions indicated a volume increase during the initial days of radiation therapy and then significant and asymmetric shrinkage by the final day. Understanding and tracking volume fluctuations of the prostate during radiation therapy can help real-time imaging technology perform to its fullest potential.

  4. Safety of continuing aspirin therapy during spinal surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenggui; Wang, Guodong; Liu, Xiaoyang; Li, Yang; Sun, Jianmin

    2017-11-01

    Questions whether to continue or discontinue aspirin administration in the perioperative period of spinal surgery has not been systematically evaluated. The present systematic review is carried out to assess the impact of continuing aspirin administration on the bleeding and cardiovascular events in perispinal surgery period. Studies were retrieved through MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Springer Link Databases (search terms, aspirin, continue or discontinue, and spinal fusion), bibliographies of the articles retrieved, and the authors' reference files. We included studies that enrolled patients who underwent spinal surgery who were anticoagulated with aspirin alone and that reported bleeding or cardiovascular events as an outcome. Study quality was assessed using a validated form. 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was pooled to give summary estimates of bleeding and cardiovascular risk. We identified 4 studies assessing bleeding risk associated with aspirin continuation or cardiovascular risk with aspirin discontinuation during spinal surgery. The continuation of aspirin will not increase the risk of blood loss during the spinal surgery (95% CI, -111.72 to -0.59; P = .05). Also, there was no observed increase in the operative time (95% CI, -33.29 to -3.89; P = .01) and postoperative blood transfusion (95% CI, 0.00-0.27; P = .05). But as for the cardiovascular risk without aspirin continuation and mean hospital length of stay with aspirin continuation, we did not get enough samples to make an accurate decision about their relations with aspirin. Patients undergoing spinal surgery with continued aspirin administration do not have an increased risk for bleeding. In addition, there is no observed increase in the operation time and postoperative blood transfusion.

  5. Increasing Early Detection of Prostate Cancer in African American Men through a Culturally Targeted Print Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    and brittle bones . 8 INFORM YOUR DOCTOR Certain activities, conditions, and substances can also affect PSA levels, including: • medicines (such as...Growth rates for this type of cancer can vary. Studies have shown that prostate tumors grow at different rates in different people . While some...This is one reason why early detection may be important. • When the cancer spreads beyond the prostate, it becomes more difficult to manage and the

  6. A Western Dietary Pattern Increases Prostate Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiani, Roberto; Minelli, Liliana; Bertarelli, Gaia; Bacci, Silvia

    2016-10-12

    Dietary patterns were recently applied to examine the relationship between eating habits and prostate cancer (PC) risk. While the associations between PC risk with the glycemic index and Mediterranean score have been reviewed, no meta-analysis is currently available on dietary patterns defined by "a posteriori" methods. A literature search was carried out (PubMed, Web of Science) to identify studies reporting the relationship between dietary patterns and PC risk. Relevant dietary patterns were selected and the risks estimated were calculated by a random-effect model. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs), for a first-percentile increase in dietary pattern score, were combined by a dose-response meta-analysis. Twelve observational studies were included in the meta-analysis which identified a "Healthy pattern" and a "Western pattern". The Healthy pattern was not related to PC risk (OR = 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88-1.04) while the Western pattern significantly increased it (OR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.08-1.65). In addition, the "Carbohydrate pattern", which was analyzed in four articles, was positively associated with a higher PC risk (OR = 1.64; 95% CI: 1.35-2.00). A significant linear trend between the Western ( p = 0.011) pattern, the Carbohydrate ( p = 0.005) pattern, and the increment of PC risk was observed. The small number of studies included in the meta-analysis suggests that further investigation is necessary to support these findings.

  7. Overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor C increases growth and alters the metastatic pattern of orthotopic PC-3 prostate tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuomela, Johanna; Valta, Maija; Seppänen, Jani; Tarkkonen, Kati; Väänänen, H Kalervo; Härkönen, Pirkko

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer metastasizes to regional lymph nodes and distant sites but the roles of lymphatic and hematogenous pathways in metastasis are not fully understood. We studied the roles of VEGF-C and VEGFR3 in prostate cancer metastasis by blocking VEGFR3 using intravenous adenovirus-delivered VEGFR3-Ig fusion protein (VEGFR3-Ig) and by ectopic expression of VEGF-C in PC-3 prostate tumors in nude mice. VEGFR3-Ig decreased the density of lymphatic capillaries in orthotopic PC-3 tumors (p < 0.05) and inhibited metastasis to iliac and sacral lymph nodes. In addition, tumor volumes were smaller in the VEGFR3-Ig-treated group compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Transfection of PC-3 cells with the VEGF-C gene led to a high level of 29/31 kD VEGF-C expression in PC-3 cells. The size of orthotopic and subcutaneous PC-3/VEGF-C tumors was significantly greater than that of PC-3/mock tumors (both p < 0.001). Interestingly, while most orthotopic PC-3 and PC-3/mock tumors grown for 4 weeks metastasized to prostate-draining lymph nodes, orthotopic PC-3/VEGF-C tumors primarily metastasized to the lungs. PC-3/VEGF-C tumors showed highly angiogenic morphology with an increased density of blood capillaries compared with PC-3/mock tumors (p < 0.001). The data suggest that even though VEGF-C/VEGFR3 pathway is primarily required for lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis, an increased level of VEGF-C can also stimulate angiogenesis, which is associated with growth of orthotopic prostate tumors and a switch from a primary pattern of lymph node metastasis to an increased proportion of metastases at distant sites

  8. Aspirin to Zoloft: Ways Medicines Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Aspirin to Zoloft: Ways Medicines Work By Emily Carlson ... biology of how cancer cells grow. Antihistamines, Antidepressants, Aspirin Adrenergic receptor with carazolol, a beta-blocker. View ...

  9. Effect of Ticagrelor Plus Aspirin, Ticagrelor Alone, or Aspirin Alone on Saphenous Vein Graft Patency 1 Year After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiang; Zhu, Yunpeng; Xu, Zhiyun; Cheng, Zhaoyun; Mei, Ju; Chen, Xin; Wang, Xiaowei

    2018-04-24

    ticagrelor + aspirin; 2 with ticagrelor alone). Among patients undergoing elective CABG with saphenous vein grafting, ticagrelor + aspirin significantly increased graft patency after 1 year vs aspirin alone; there was no significant difference between ticagrelor alone and aspirin alone. Further research with more patients is needed to assess comparative bleeding risks. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02201771.

  10. Low dose combinations of 2-methoxyestradiol and docetaxel block prostate cancer cells in mitosis and increase apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Teresita; de las Pozas, Alicia; Gomez, Lourdes A; Perez-Stable, Carlos

    2009-04-08

    Clinical trials have shown that chemotherapy with docetaxel (Doc) combined with prednisone can improve survival of patients with androgen-independent prostate cancer (AI-PC). It is likely that the combination of Doc with other novel agents would also improve the survival of AI-PC patients. We investigated whether the combination of Doc and 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2), an endogenous metabolite of estradiol promising for cancer therapy, can increase apoptotic cell death in prostate cancer cells. Low concentration 2ME2 (0.5-1 microM)+Doc (0.05-0.1 nM) combinations inhibit cell growth, increase G2/M cell cycle arrest, and increase apoptosis more effectively than the single concentrations in a variety of human AI-PC cells. Effects on apoptosis were associated with an increase in p53 protein and a decrease in cyclin A-dependent kinase activity. We then investigated whether the combination of 2ME2+Doc can increase apoptotic cell death and inhibit the growth of prostate tumors in the FG/Tag transgenic mouse model of AI-PC. Doses of 2ME2 and Doc that increase mitotic cell cycle arrest result in an increase in apoptosis and lower primary prostate tumor weights in FG/Tag mice. High dose 2ME2+Doc combinations did not increase G2/M cell cycle arrest or apoptosis in AI-PC cell lines and in the FG/Tag mice more than the single drugs. Overall, our data indicate that low dose 2ME2+Doc combinations may provide a treatment strategy that can improve therapeutic efficacy against AI-PC while reducing toxicity often seen in patients treated with Doc.

  11. UP-REGULATION OF ANTITHROMBOTIC ECTONUCLEOTIDASES BY ASPIRIN IN HUMAN ENDOTHELIAL-CELLS IN-VITRO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CHEUNG, PK; VISSER, J; BAKKER, WW

    1994-01-01

    Ecto ATP-diphosphohydrolase (apyrase) activity of human endothelial cells following aspirin treatment has been studied in-vitro. It was shown by HPLC analysis of supernatant samples that pre-incubation of the cultures with aspirin resulted in a significantly increased turnover of supplemented ATP

  12. Aspirin attenuates spontaneous recurrent seizures in the chronically epileptic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kun; Hu, Ming; Yuan, Bo; Liu, Jian-Xin; Liu, Yong

    2017-08-01

    Neuroinflammatory processes are pathologic hallmarks of both experimental and human epilepsy, and could be implicated in the neuronal hyperexcitability. Aspirin represents one of the non-selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with fewer side effects in long-term application. This study was carried out to assess the anti-epileptic effects of aspirin when administered during the chronic stage of temporal lobe epilepsy [TLE] in mice. The alteration of hippocampal neurogenesis was also examined for raising a possible mechanism underlying the protective effect of anti-inflammatory treatment in the TLE. Two months after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus, the chronically epileptic mice were treated with aspirin (20 mg, 60 mg or 80 mg/kg) once a day for 10 weeks. Spontaneous recurrent seizures were monitored by video camera for 2 weeks. To evaluate the profile of hippocampal neurogenesis, the newly generated cells in the dentate gyrus were labeled by the proliferation marker BrdU. The newborn neurons that extended axons to CA3 area were visualized by cholera toxin B subunit retrograde tracing. Administration of aspirin with a dosage of 60 mg or 80 mg/kg initiated at 2 months after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus significantly reduced the frequency and duration of spontaneous recurrent seizures. Aspirin treatment also increased the number of newborn neurons with anatomic integration through improving the survival of the newly generated cells. Aspirin treatment during the chronic stage of TLE could attenuate the spontaneous recurrent seizures in mice. Promotion of hippocampal neurogenesis and inhibition of COX-PGE2 pathway might partly contribute to this anti-epileptic effect. Highlights • Aspirin attenuates spontaneous recurrent seizures of chronically epileptic mice • Aspirin increases neurogenesis of chronically epileptic hippocampus by improving the survival of newly generated cells • Promotion of hippocampal neurogenesis and inhibition

  13. Use and Misuse of Aspirin in Primary Cardiovascular Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Coccheri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of low-dose aspirin in primary prevention of cardiovascular (CV events in healthy or apparently healthy people is a widely debated topic. Many arguments indicate that “primary prevention” is only a conventional definition and that the transition from primary to secondary prevention represents a continuum of increasing levels of CV risk. Although there are no direct proofs of a different efficacy of aspirin at different CV risk levels, in low-risk populations aspirin will appear to be less efficient. In fact, the lower number of events occurring in patients at low risk yields lower absolute numbers of events prevented. As many as 6 meta-analyses of trials of primary CV prevention with aspirin versus placebo, performed between 2009 and 2016, confirmed the above concepts and showed a concordant, significant reduction in nonfatal myocardial infarction, with no significant effects on stroke, as well as on CV and all-cause mortality. The recent demonstration of a moderate protective effect of aspirin on cancer (especially colorectal confers, however, additional value to the use of aspirin, although unusually long durations of treatment and optimal daily compliance seem to be necessary. Because aspirin increases the bleeding risk, the evaluation of its net clinical benefit is an important point of debate. Thus, it is justified to search for a cutoff level of global CV risk above which the net clinical benefit of aspirin becomes evident. Such a threshold value has been calculated considering the data of 9 primary prevention trials, by the Thrombosis Group of the European Society of Cardiology, and has been indicated as a risk value of 2 or more major CV events per 100 persons per year. Also, in the recent 2016 US Guidelines, the main criterion adopted for the indication of aspirin is the level of global CV risk (suggested cutoff is 1 or more major CV events per 100 persons per year. Beyond the different values selected, it is seems very

  14. Perineural Invasion Predicts Increased Recurrence, Metastasis, and Death From Prostate Cancer Following Treatment With Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Felix Y. [University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ann Arbor Veteran Affairs Medical System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Qian Yushen; Stenmark, Matthew H.; Halverson, Schuyler; Blas, Kevin; Vance, Sean [University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Sandler, Howard M. [Cedars Sinai Medical System, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Hamstra, Daniel A., E-mail: dhamm@med.umich.edu [University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To assess the prognostic value of perineural invasion (PNI) for patients treated with dose-escalated external-beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Outcomes were analyzed for 651 men treated for prostate cancer with EBRT to a minimum dose {>=}75 Gy. We assessed the impact of PNI as well as pretreatment and treatment-related factors on freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF), freedom from metastasis (FFM), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival. Results: PNI was present in 34% of specimens at biopsy and was significantly associated with higher Gleason score (GS), T stage, and prostate-specific antigen level. On univariate and multivariate analysis, the presence of PNI was associated with worse FFBF (hazard ratio = 1.7, p <0.006), FFM (hazard ratio = 1.8, p <0.03), and CSS (HR = 1.4, p <0.05) compared with absence of PNI; there was no difference in overall survival. Seven-year rates of FFBF, FFM, and CCS were 64% vs. 80%, 84% vs. 92%, and 91% vs. 95% for those patients with and without PNI, respectively. On recursive partitioning analysis, PNI predicted for worse FFM and CSS in patients with GS 8-10, with FFM of 67% vs. 89% (p <0.02), and CSS of 69% vs. 91%, (p <0.04) at 7 years for those with and without PNI, respectively. Conclusions: The presence of PNI in the prostate biopsy predicts worse clinical outcome for patients treated with dose-escalated external-beam radiation therapy. Particularly in patients with GS 8-10 disease, the presence of PNI suggests an increased risk of metastasis and prostate cancer death.

  15. Perineural Invasion Predicts Increased Recurrence, Metastasis, and Death From Prostate Cancer Following Treatment With Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Felix Y.; Qian Yushen; Stenmark, Matthew H.; Halverson, Schuyler; Blas, Kevin; Vance, Sean; Sandler, Howard M.; Hamstra, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the prognostic value of perineural invasion (PNI) for patients treated with dose-escalated external-beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Outcomes were analyzed for 651 men treated for prostate cancer with EBRT to a minimum dose ≥75 Gy. We assessed the impact of PNI as well as pretreatment and treatment-related factors on freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF), freedom from metastasis (FFM), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival. Results: PNI was present in 34% of specimens at biopsy and was significantly associated with higher Gleason score (GS), T stage, and prostate-specific antigen level. On univariate and multivariate analysis, the presence of PNI was associated with worse FFBF (hazard ratio = 1.7, p <0.006), FFM (hazard ratio = 1.8, p <0.03), and CSS (HR = 1.4, p <0.05) compared with absence of PNI; there was no difference in overall survival. Seven-year rates of FFBF, FFM, and CCS were 64% vs. 80%, 84% vs. 92%, and 91% vs. 95% for those patients with and without PNI, respectively. On recursive partitioning analysis, PNI predicted for worse FFM and CSS in patients with GS 8–10, with FFM of 67% vs. 89% (p <0.02), and CSS of 69% vs. 91%, (p <0.04) at 7 years for those with and without PNI, respectively. Conclusions: The presence of PNI in the prostate biopsy predicts worse clinical outcome for patients treated with dose-escalated external-beam radiation therapy. Particularly in patients with GS 8–10 disease, the presence of PNI suggests an increased risk of metastasis and prostate cancer death.

  16. Technetium-aspirin molecule complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shahawy, A.S.; Mahfouz, R.M.; Aly, A.A.M.; El-Zohry, M.

    1993-01-01

    Technetium-aspirin and technetium-aspirin-like molecule complexes were prepared. The structure of N-acetylanthranilic acid (NAA) has been decided through CNDO calculations. The ionization potential and electron affinity of the NAA molecule as well as the charge densities were calculated. The electronic absorption spectra of Tc(V)-Asp and Tc(V)-ATS complexes have two characteristic absorption bands at 450 and 600 nm, but the Tc(V)-NAA spectrum has one characteristic band at 450 nm. As a comparative study, Mo-ATS complex was prepared and its electronic absorption spectrum is comparable with the Tc-ATS complex spectrum. (author)

  17. By inhibiting PFKFB3, aspirin overcomes sorafenib resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sainan; Dai, Weiqi; Mo, Wenhui; Li, Jingjing; Feng, Jiao; Wu, Liwei; Liu, Tong; Yu, Qiang; Xu, Shizan; Wang, Wenwen; Lu, Xiya; Zhang, Qinghui; Chen, Kan; Xia, Yujing; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Fan, Xiaoming; Xu, Ling; Guo, Chuanyong

    2017-12-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the few cancers with a continuous increase in incidence and mortality. Drug resistance is a major problem in the treatment of HCC. In this study, two sorafenib-resistant HCC cell lines and a nude mouse subcutaneously tumor model were used to explore the possible mechanisms leading to sorafenib resistance, and to investigate whether aspirin could increase the sensitivity of hepatoma cells to sorafenib. The combination of aspirin and sorafenib resulted in a synergistic antitumor effect against liver tumors both in vitro and in vivo. High glycolysis and PFKFB3 overexpression occupied a dominant position in sorafenib resistance, and can be targeted and overcome by aspirin. Aspirin plus sorafenib induced apoptosis in tumors without inducing weight loss, hepatotoxicity or inflammation. Our results suggest that aspirin overcomes sorafenib resistance and their combination may be an effective treatment approach for HCC. © 2017 UICC.

  18. Perceived Workplace Stress Is Associated with an Increased Risk of Prostate Cancer before Age 65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc-Lapierre, Audrey; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Parent, Marie-Elise

    2017-01-01

    Evidence is lacking regarding the potential role of chronic psychological stress on cancer incidence. The workplace is reported to be the main source of stress among Canadian men. We examined the association between perceived lifetime workplace stress and prostate cancer (PCa) risk in a large case-control study. Cases were 1,933 men, aged ≤ 75 years, newly diagnosed with PCa in 2005-2009 across hospitals in Montreal, Canada. Concurrently, 1994 population controls frequency-matched on age were randomly selected from the electoral list based on cases' residential districts. Detailed lifestyle and work histories (including perceived stress, from any type of work stressor, for each job held) were collected during in-person interviews. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between work-related stress and PCa risk in multivariate analyses. Over the lifetime, 58% of subjects reported at least one job as stressful. Occupations described as stressful were most often among white-collar workers. Perceived workplace stress duration was associated with a higher risk of PCa (OR = 1.12, 95% CI:1.04-1.20 per 10-year increase) among men younger than 65 years, but not among older men. Associations were similar irrespective of PCa aggressiveness. Frequent or recent screening for PCa, age at first exposure and time since exposure to work-related stress, and socioeconomic and lifestyle factors, had little influence on risk estimates. Findings are in line with an association between reporting prolonged workplace stress and an increase in risk of PCa before age 65.

  19. Epidemiology of prostatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, John N.; Lee, Shaun Wen Huey; Jeon, Jeonseong; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Liong, Men Long; Riley, Donald E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Prostatitis describes a combination of infectious diseases (acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis), chronic pelvic pain syndrome, and asymptomatic inflammation. Materials and methods We employed evidence-based methods to review the epidemiology of prostatitis syndromes. Results The prevalence of prostatitis symptoms could be compared in five studies surveying 10 617 men. Overall, 873 participants met various criteria for prostatitis, representing an overall rate of 8.2%, with prevalence ranging from 2.2 to 9.7%. A history of sexually transmitted diseases was associated with an increased risk for prostatitis symptoms. Men reporting a history of prostatitis symptoms had a substantially increased rate of benign prostatic hyperplasia, lower urinary tract symptoms and prostate cancer. In one study, the incidence of physician-diagnosed prostatitis was 4.9 cases per 1000 person-years. Two studies suggest that about one-third of men reporting prostatitis symptoms had resolution after 1 year. Patients with previous episodes and more severe symptoms are at higher risk for chronic pelvic pain. Discussion The prevalence of prostatitis symptoms is high, comparable to rates of ischamic heart disease and diabetes. Clinical evaluation appears necessary to verify that prostatitis is responsible for patients’ symptoms. Prostatitis symptoms may increase a man’s risk for benign prostate hypertrophy, lower urinary tract symptoms and prostate cancer. We need to define natural history and consequences of prostatitis, develop better algorithms for diagnosis and treatment, and develop strategies for prevention. PMID:18164907

  20. Effect of chronic aspirin ingestion on epithelial proliferation in rat fundus, antrum, and duodenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastwood, G.L.; Quimby, G.F.

    1972-01-01

    We studied the effect of chronic aspirin ingestion on gastroduodenal epithelial proliferation by feeding rats aspirin in the drinking water. A control group of rats received plain water. At the end of 4 wk, [3H]-thymidine was given intravenously to label proliferating cells, and the rats were killed 1 h later. Sections of fundus, antrum, and proximal duodenum were processed for light autoradiography. We found that chronic aspirin ingestion stimulated epithelial proliferation in fundic mucosa but had no effect in the antrum. In the duodenum, aspirin increased proliferation in the lowest four crypt-cell positions, which most likely indicates an increase in stem-cell production. None of the tissues contained evidence of inflammation or ulceration. The proliferative effects of aspirin may help explain the previously observed phenomenon of mucosal adaptation in the rat after repeated exposure to aspirin. Further, if human gastroduodenal epithelium responds in a similar manner to chronic aspirin exposure, the effects on proliferation may explain in part the distribution of aspirin-associated ulcers

  1. Compound list: aspirin [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aspirin ASA 00014 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/aspirin....Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/aspirin....Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/aspirin....Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/aspirin.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ...

  2. A computational prospect to aspirin side effects: aspirin and COX-1 interaction analysis based on non-synonymous SNPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjan, Mojtabavi Naeini; Hamzeh, Mesrian Tanha; Rahman, Emamzadeh; Sadeq, Vallian

    2014-08-01

    Aspirin (ASA) is a commonly used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), which exerts its therapeutic effects through inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) isoform 2 (COX-2), while the inhibition of COX-1 by ASA leads to apparent side effects. In the present study, the relationship between COX-1 non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) and aspirin related side effects was investigated. The functional impacts of 37 nsSNPs on aspirin inhibition potency of COX-1 with COX-1/aspirin molecular docking were computationally analyzed, and each SNP was scored based on DOCK Amber score. The data predicted that 22 nsSNPs could reduce COX-1 inhibition, while 15 nsSNPs showed increasing inhibition level in comparison to the regular COX-1 protein. In order to perform a comparing state, the Amber scores for two Arg119 mutants (R119A and R119Q) were also calculated. Moreover, among nsSNP variants, rs117122585 represented the closest Amber score to R119A mutant. A separate docking computation validated the score and represented a new binding position for ASA that acetyl group was located within the distance of 3.86Å from Ser529 OH group. This could predict an associated loss of activity of ASA through this nsSNP variant. Our data represent a computational sub-population pattern for aspirin COX-1 related side effects, and provide basis for further research on COX-1/ASA interaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Increased risk of biochemical and local failure in patients with distended rectum on the planning CT for prostate cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crevoisier, Renaud de; Tucker, Susan L.; Dong Lei; Mohan, Radhe; Cheung, Rex; Cox, James D.; Kuban, Deborah A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively test the hypothesis that rectal distension on the planning computed tomography (CT) scan is associated with an increased risk of biochemical and local failure among patients irradiated for prostate carcinoma when a daily repositioning technique based on direct prostate-organ localization is not used. Methods and Materials: This study included 127 patients who received definitive three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer to a total dose of 78 Gy at University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. Rectal distension was assessed by calculation of the average cross-sectional rectal area (CSA; defined as the rectal volume divided by length) and measuring three rectal diameters on the planning CT. The impact of rectal distension on biochemical control, 2-year prostate biopsy results, and incidence of Grade 2 or greater late rectal bleeding was assessed. Results: The incidence of biochemical failure was significantly higher among patients with distended rectums (CSA >11.2 cm 2 ) on the planning CT scan (p 0.0009, log-rank test). Multivariate analysis indicates that rectal distension and high-risk disease are independent risk factors for biochemical failure, with hazard ratios of 3.89 (95% C.I. 1.58 to 9.56, p = 0.003) and 2.45 (95% C.I. 1.18 to 5.08, p = 0.016), respectively. The probability of residual tumor without evidence of radiation treatment (as scored by the pathologist) increased significantly with rectal distension (p = 0.010, logistic analysis), and a lower incidence of Grade 2 or greater late rectal bleeding within 2 years was simultaneously observed with higher CSA values (p = 0.031, logistic analysis). Conclusions: We found strong evidence that rectal distension on the treatment-planning CT scan decreased the probability of biochemical control, local control, and rectal toxicity in patients who were treated without daily image-guided prostate localization, presumably because of geographic misses. Therefore, an

  4. Dietary flavonoid fisetin increases abundance of high-molecular-mass hyaluronan conferring resistance to prostate oncogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, Rahul K; Syed, Deeba N; Khan, Mohammad Imran; Adhami, Vaqar M; Gong, Yuansheng; Lucey, John A; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2016-09-01

    We and others have shown previously that fisetin, a plant flavonoid, has therapeutic potential against many cancer types. Here, we examined the probable mechanism of its action in prostate cancer (PCa) using a global metabolomics approach. HPLC-ESI-MS analysis of tumor xenografts from fisetin-treated animals identified several metabolic targets with hyaluronan (HA) as the most affected. Efficacy of fisetin on HA was then evaluated in vitro and also in vivo in the transgenic TRAMP mouse model of PCa. Size exclusion chromatography-multiangle laser light scattering (SEC-MALS) was performed to analyze the molar mass (Mw) distribution of HA. Fisetin treatment downregulated intracellular and secreted HA levels both in vitro and in vivo Fisetin inhibited HA synthesis and degradation enzymes, which led to cessation of HA synthesis and also repressed the degradation of the available high-molecular-mass (HMM)-HA. SEC-MALS analysis of intact HA fragment size revealed that cells and animals have more abundance of HMM-HA and less of low-molecular-mass (LMM)-HA upon fisetin treatment. Elevated HA levels have been shown to be associated with disease progression in certain cancer types. Biological responses triggered by HA mainly depend on the HA polymer length where HMM-HA represses mitogenic signaling and has anti-inflammatory properties whereas LMM-HA promotes proliferation and inflammation. Similarly, Mw analysis of secreted HA fragment size revealed less HMM-HA is secreted that allowed more HMM-HA to be retained within the cells and tissues. Our findings establish that fisetin is an effective, non-toxic, potent HA synthesis inhibitor, which increases abundance of antiangiogenic HMM-HA and could be used for the management of PCa. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Aspirin in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devereaux, P J; Mrkobrada, Marko; Sessler, Daniel I

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is substantial variability in the perioperative administration of aspirin in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, both among patients who are already on an aspirin regimen and among those who are not. METHODS: Using a 2-by-2 factorial trial design, we randomly assigned 10......,010 patients who were preparing to undergo noncardiac surgery and were at risk for vascular complications to receive aspirin or placebo and clonidine or placebo. The results of the aspirin trial are reported here. The patients were stratified according to whether they had not been taking aspirin before...... the study (initiation stratum, with 5628 patients) or they were already on an aspirin regimen (continuation stratum, with 4382 patients). Patients started taking aspirin (at a dose of 200 mg) or placebo just before surgery and continued it daily (at a dose of 100 mg) for 30 days in the initiation stratum...

  6. Increased Antioxidant Quality Versus Lower Quantity Of High Density Lipoprotein In Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydin Ozgur

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of every human disease. To understand its possible role in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, we measured the overall oxidative status of patients with BPH and the serum activity of the high density lipoprotein (HDL-related antioxidant enzymes paraoxonase 1 (PON1 and arylesterase (ARE.

  7. Larger Maximum Tumor Diameter at Radical Prostatectomy Is Associated With Increased Biochemical Failure, Metastasis, and Death From Prostate Cancer After Salvage Radiation for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Skyler B.; Hamstra, Daniel A.; Jackson, William C.; Zhou, Jessica; Foster, Benjamin; Foster, Corey; Song, Yeohan; Li, Darren; Palapattu, Ganesh S.; Kunju, Lakshmi; Mehra, Rohit; Sandler, Howard; Feng, Felix Y.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the maximum tumor diameter (MTD) of the dominant prostate cancer nodule in the radical prostatectomy specimen as a prognostic factor for outcome in patients treated with salvage external beam radiation therapy (SRT) for a rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value after radical prostatectomy. Methods and Materials: From an institutional cohort of 575 patients treated with SRT, data on MTD were retrospectively collected. The impact of MTD on biochemical failure (BF), metastasis, and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) was assessed on univariate and multivariate analysis using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models. Results: In the 173 patients with MTD data available, median follow-up was 77 months (interquartile range, 47-104 months) after SRT, and median MTD was 18 mm (interquartile range, 13-22 mm). Increasing MTD correlated with increasing pT stage, Gleason score, presence of seminal vesicle invasion, and lymph node invasion. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis identified MTD of >14 mm to be the optimal cut-point. On univariate analysis, MTD >14 mm was associated with an increased risk of BF (P=.02, hazard ratio [HR] 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-2.8), metastasis (P=.002, HR 4.0, 95% CI 2.1-7.5), and PCSM (P=.02, HR 8.0, 95% CI 2.9-21.8). On multivariate analysis MTD >14 mm remained associated with increased BF (P=.02, HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.2), metastasis (P=.02, HR 3.4, 95% CI 1.2-9.2), and PCSM (P=.05, HR 9.7, 95% CI 1.0-92.4), independent of extracapsular extension, seminal vesicle invasion, positive surgical margins, pre-RT PSA value, Gleason score, and pre-RT PSA doubling time. Conclusions: For patients treated with SRT for a rising PSA value after prostatectomy, MTD at time of radical prostatectomy is independently associated with BF, metastasis, and PCSM. Maximum tumor diameter should be incorporated into clinical decision making and future clinical risk assessment tools for those patients

  8. The Impact of Increased Bladder Blood Flow on Storage Symptoms after Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Saito

    Full Text Available In order to investigate how holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP improves urinary storage symptoms, we assessed blood flow in the urinary bladder mucosa of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH before and after laser surgery. Seventy-four consecutive patients with BPH (median age 69 years, range; 53-88 underwent HoLEP at our institution and are included in this study. We prospectively assessed the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS, IPSS-QOL Score, the Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS, uroflowmetry, and blood flow in the urinary bladder, before and after surgery. Blood flow in the bladder mucosa was measured using the OMEGA FLOW (OMEGAWAVE, Tokyo, Japan laser Doppler flowmeter. The median volume of the enucleated adenomas was 45.0 g (range: 25.0 to 83.2. The median IPSS improved significantly from 20 (range: 6-35 to 3 (0-22 (p < 0.001; Wilcoxon signed-rank test, as did the storage symptoms score, which decreased from 13 (2-20 to 3 (1-8 (p < 0.001. Median bladder blood flow increased at the trigone from 9.57 ± 0.83 ml/sec to 17.60 ± 1.08 ml/sec. Multiple regression analysis for the improved storage symptom score eliminated all explanatory variables except increased bladder perfusion. The data suggest that HoLEP improves blood flow in the bladder mucosa, which independently leads to the improvement of storage symptoms.

  9. The Impact of Increased Bladder Blood Flow on Storage Symptoms after Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Hisamitsu; Aoki, Hiroaki; Muto, Satoru; Yamaguchi, Raizo; Tsujimura, Akira; Horie, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate how holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) improves urinary storage symptoms, we assessed blood flow in the urinary bladder mucosa of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) before and after laser surgery. Seventy-four consecutive patients with BPH (median age 69 years, range; 53–88) underwent HoLEP at our institution and are included in this study. We prospectively assessed the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), IPSS-QOL Score, the Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS), uroflowmetry, and blood flow in the urinary bladder, before and after surgery. Blood flow in the bladder mucosa was measured using the OMEGA FLOW (OMEGAWAVE, Tokyo, Japan) laser Doppler flowmeter. The median volume of the enucleated adenomas was 45.0 g (range: 25.0 to 83.2). The median IPSS improved significantly from 20 (range: 6–35) to 3 (0–22) (p<0.001; Wilcoxon signed-rank test), as did the storage symptoms score, which decreased from 13 (2–20) to 3 (1–8) (p<0.001). Median bladder blood flow increased at the trigone from 9.57±0.83 ml/sec to 17.60±1.08 ml/sec. Multiple regression analysis for the improved storage symptom score eliminated all explanatory variables except increased bladder perfusion. The data suggest that HoLEP improves blood flow in the bladder mucosa, which independently leads to the improvement of storage symptoms. PMID:26090819

  10. Effect of Aspirin in Postoperative Management of Adult Ischemic Moyamoya Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yahui; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Dong; Zhao, Yuanli

    2017-09-01

    Aspirin has been implicated in the postoperative management of moyamoya disease (MMD) in order to avoid bypass failure and decrease the incidence of subsequent stroke. However, its effect has not been completely determined yet. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed data of 184 adult patients (197 hemispheres) presented with ischemic-onset MMD who had undergone direct or combined revascularization in our hospital, to clarify the effect of postoperative aspirin therapy in the management of moyamoya disease. Fifty-nine hemispheres that had been administered with aspirin (100 mg/day) after bypass surgery were defined as the "aspirin group," whereas 138 that hadn't been given aspirin postoperatively were defined as the "control group". Among 197 hemispheres, the mortality rate was 0. The incidence of postoperative newly developed infarction, transient ischemic attack, and hemorrhage were not significantly different between the aspirin and control groups. The patency rate of bypass graft was not significantly different between the groups, either. Notably, more patients experienced major stroke in the control group (9/138) than the aspirin group (1/59), but no statistical difference was found (P > 0.05). In the aspirin group, more patients had improved outcome than the control group (P = 0.04). Our findings showed that aspirin might not decrease the incidence of postoperative ischemic stroke or increase patency rate of bypass graft, but it does not increase the risk of hemorrhages, either. Also, postoperative aspirin therapy might improve outcome. More studies are needed to provide evidence for postoperative antiplatelet therapy in MMD management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of aspirin nanoemulsion on TNFα and iNOS in gastric tissue in comparison with conventional aspirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud FA

    2015-08-01

    increase in TNFα, iNOS, prostaglandin E2, and malondialdehyde levels, and also a significant decrease in glutathione, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. In the aspirin-treated group compared to the control group, the NE had a protective effect on the stomach and caused less injury than aspirin, indicated by significant decreases in TNFα, iNOS, prostaglandin E2, and malondialdehyde levels, and also significant increases in glutathione, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. The biochemical results were confirmed by histopathological studies.Conclusion: Aspirin nanoemulsion has less toxic effect on the gastric mucosa compared to ordinary aspirin. This can be indicated by the increase of the antioxidant activity and the decrease of the inflammatory mediators in the gastric tissue.Keywords: aspirin, aspirin nanoemulsion, blank nanoemulsion, stomach

  12. Influence of aspirin and non-aspirin NSAID use on ovarian and endometrial cancer: Summary of epidemiologic evidence of cancer risk and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdoodt, F; Kjaer, S K; Friis, S

    2017-06-01

    Increasing evidence supports a role for aspirin use in reducing the incidence and mortality of several cancer types. This has spurred a new wave of interest in this widely used drug. In this review, we present and evaluate the epidemiologic evidence of the association between the use of aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and the incidence and prognosis of ovarian and endometrial cancer. The evidence of a preventive effect of NSAID use on risk of ovarian or endometrial cancer is based primarily on results from observational studies and, consequently, is only suggestive. Overall, observational studies indicate modest reductions in risk of ovarian and endometrial cancer with aspirin use, whereas the results for non-aspirin NSAID use are equivocal. The strongest inverse associations have been reported for long-term consistent aspirin use, notably among subgroups of users (e.g., those with high body mass index). Few studies have evaluated the influence of NSAID use on the mortality of ovarian or endometrial cancer, and substantial heterogeneity of study characteristics and results preclude any conclusions. Additional studies of aspirin and non-aspirin NSAID use and ovarian or endometrial cancer risk and prognosis are warranted. In the present review, we discuss the importance of comprehensive exposure definitions (i.e., duration, timing, consistency and intensity/dose) and evaluation of potential effect modification according to user characteristics, with the aim of identifying women who may experience the largest benefit of aspirin or non-aspirin NSAID use on risk or prognosis of ovarian and endometrial cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Endogenous and exogenous testosterone and prostate cancer: decreased-, increased- or null-risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advani, Shailesh; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Wang, Run; Canfield, Steven

    2017-01-01

    For more than 70 years, the contention that high levels of testosterone or that the use of testosterone therapy (TTh) increases the development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa) has been widely accepted and practiced. Yet, the increasing and emerging evidence on testosterone research seems to challenge that contention. To review literature on the associations of endogenous and exogenous testosterone with decreased-, increased-, or null-risk of PCa, and to further evaluate only those studies that reported magnitude of associations from multivariable modeling as it minimizes confounding effects. We conducted a literature search to identify studies that investigated the association of endogenous total testosterone [continuous (per 1 unit increment and 5 nmol/L increment) and categorical (high vs. low)] and use of TTh with PCa events [1990–2016]. Emphasis was given to studies/analyses that reported magnitude of associations [odds ratio (OR), relative risk (RR) and hazard ratios (HRs)] from multivariable analyses to determine risk of PCa and their statistical significance. Most identified studies/analyses included observational and randomized placebo-controlled trials. This review was organized in three parts: (I) association of endogenous total testosterone (per 1 unit increment and 5 nmol/L increment) with PCa; (II) relationship of endogenous total testosterone (categorical high vs. low) with PCa; and (III) association of use of TTh with PCa in meta-analyses of randomized placebo-controlled trials. The first part included 31 observational studies [20 prospective (per 5 nmol/L increment) and 11 prospective and retrospective cohort studies (per 1 unit increment)]. None of the 20 prospective studies found a significant association between total testosterone (5 nmol/L increment) and increased- or decreased-risk of PCa. Two out of the 11 studies/analyses showed a significant decreased-risk of PCa for total testosterone per 1 unit increment, but also two other

  14. Endogenous and exogenous testosterone and prostate cancer: decreased-, increased- or null-risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, David S; Advani, Shailesh; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Wang, Run; Canfield, Steven

    2017-06-01

    For more than 70 years, the contention that high levels of testosterone or that the use of testosterone therapy (TTh) increases the development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa) has been widely accepted and practiced. Yet, the increasing and emerging evidence on testosterone research seems to challenge that contention. To review literature on the associations of endogenous and exogenous testosterone with decreased-, increased-, or null-risk of PCa, and to further evaluate only those studies that reported magnitude of associations from multivariable modeling as it minimizes confounding effects. We conducted a literature search to identify studies that investigated the association of endogenous total testosterone [continuous (per 1 unit increment and 5 nmol/L increment) and categorical (high vs. low)] and use of TTh with PCa events [1990-2016]. Emphasis was given to studies/analyses that reported magnitude of associations [odds ratio (OR), relative risk (RR) and hazard ratios (HRs)] from multivariable analyses to determine risk of PCa and their statistical significance. Most identified studies/analyses included observational and randomized placebo-controlled trials. This review was organized in three parts: (I) association of endogenous total testosterone (per 1 unit increment and 5 nmol/L increment) with PCa; (II) relationship of endogenous total testosterone (categorical high vs. low) with PCa; and (III) association of use of TTh with PCa in meta-analyses of randomized placebo-controlled trials. The first part included 31 observational studies [20 prospective (per 5 nmol/L increment) and 11 prospective and retrospective cohort studies (per 1 unit increment)]. None of the 20 prospective studies found a significant association between total testosterone (5 nmol/L increment) and increased- or decreased-risk of PCa. Two out of the 11 studies/analyses showed a significant decreased-risk of PCa for total testosterone per 1 unit increment, but also two other

  15. Aspirin for Prophylaxis Against Venous Thromboembolism After Orthopaedic Oncologic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Gregory M; Patel, Yash M; Ricketti, Daniel A; Gaughan, John P; Lackman, Richard D; Kim, Tae Won B

    2017-12-06

    Patients who undergo orthopaedic oncologic surgical procedures are at increased risk of developing a venous thromboembolism (VTE). Guidelines from surgical societies are shifting to include aspirin as a postoperative VTE prophylactic agent. The purpose of this study was to review our experience using aspirin as postoperative VTE prophylaxis for orthopaedic oncologic surgical procedures. This study was a retrospective review of patients diagnosed with a primary malignant soft-tissue or bone tumor or metastatic carcinoma. Demographic information, histopathologic diagnosis, VTE history, surgical procedure, and VTE prophylaxis were analyzed. VTE rates in the overall and prophylactic-specific cohorts were recorded and compared. A total of 142 distinct surgical procedures in 130 patients were included. VTE prophylaxis with aspirin was used after 103 procedures, and non-aspirin prophylaxis was used after 39. In 33 cases, imaging was used to investigate for VTE because of clinical signs and symptoms. VTE developed after 7 (4.9%) of the 142 procedures. There were 6 deep venous thromboses (DVTs) and 1 pulmonary embolism, and 2 of the VTEs presented in patients with a VTE history. VTE developed in 2.9% (3) of the 103 aspirin cases and 10.3% (4) of the 39 non-aspirin cases. No patient in the aspirin group who had been diagnosed with metastatic carcinoma, malignant soft-tissue sarcoma, lymphoma, or multiple myeloma developed a VTE. Risk factors for VTE development included diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR] = 10.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.61 to 67.30), a history of VTE (OR = 7.26, 95% CI = 1.19 to 44.25), postoperative transfusion (OR = 34.50, 95% CI = 3.94 to 302.01), and estimated blood losses of 250 mL (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.11 to 2.03), 500 mL (OR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.23 to 4.13), and 1,000 mL (OR = 5.10, 95% CI = 1.52 to 17.04). Aspirin may be a suitable and effective option for VTE chemoprophylaxis in patients treated with orthopaedic oncologic surgery, especially

  16. Aspirin Versus Aspirin Plus Clopidogrel as Antithrombotic Treatment Following Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement With a Balloon-Expandable Valve: The ARTE (Aspirin Versus Aspirin + Clopidogrel Following Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation) Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodés-Cabau, Josep; Masson, Jean-Bernard; Welsh, Robert C; Garcia Del Blanco, Bruno; Pelletier, Marc; Webb, John G; Al-Qoofi, Faisal; Généreux, Philippe; Maluenda, Gabriel; Thoenes, Martin; Paradis, Jean-Michel; Chamandi, Chekrallah; Serra, Vicenç; Dumont, Eric; Côté, Mélanie

    2017-07-10

    The aim of this study was to compare aspirin plus clopidogrel with aspirin alone as antithrombotic treatment following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) for the prevention of ischemic events, bleeding events, and death. Few data exist on the optimal antithrombotic therapy following TAVR. This was a randomized controlled trial comparing aspirin (80 to 100 mg/day) plus clopidogrel (75 mg/day) (dual antiplatelet therapy [DAPT]) versus aspirin alone (single-antiplatelet therapy [SAPT]) in patients undergoing TAVR with a balloon-expandable valve. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of death, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke or transient ischemic attack, or major or life-threatening bleeding (according to Valve Academic Research Consortium 2 definitions) within the 3 months following the procedure. The trial was prematurely stopped after the inclusion of 74% of the planned study population. A total of 222 patients were included, 111 allocated to DAPT and 111 to SAPT. The composite of death, MI, stroke or transient ischemic attack, or major or life-threatening bleeding tended to occur more frequently in the DAPT group (15.3% vs. 7.2%, p = 0.065). There were no differences between groups in the occurrence of death (DAPT, 6.3%; SAPT, 3.6%; p = 0.37), MI (DAPT, 3.6%; SAT, 0.9%; p = 0.18), or stroke or transient ischemic attack (DAPT, 2.7%; SAPT, 0.9%; p = 0.31) at 3 months. DAPT was associated with a higher rate of major or life-threatening bleeding events (10.8% vs. 3.6% in the SAPT group, p = 0.038). There were no differences between groups in valve hemodynamic status post-TAVR. This small trial showed that SAPT (vs. DAPT) tended to reduce the occurrence of major adverse events following TAVR. SAPT reduced the risk for major or life-threatening events while not increasing the risk for MI or stroke. Larger studies are needed to confirm these results. (Aspirin Versus Aspirin + Clopidogrel Following Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: The ARTE

  17. AMPK-mediated up-regulation of mTORC2 and MCL-1 compromises the anti-cancer effects of aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Hui; Yin, Yancun; Wang, Jiao; Luo, Ting; Jiang, Yangfu

    2016-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important energy sensor that may inhibit cell proliferation or promote cell survival during stresses. Besides cyclooxygenase, AMPK is another target of the nonsteroid anti-inflammatory agent aspirin. Preclinical and clinical investigations demonstrate that aspirin can inhibit several types of cancer such as colorectal adenomas and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, little is known about the cellular response to aspirin that may lead to aspirin resistance. Here, we show that aspirin induces the expression of MCL-1 in HepG2 and SW480 cells through AMPK-mTOR-Akt/ERK axis. Treatment of HepG2 and SW480 cells with aspirin leads to increased MCL-1 expression, Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Inhibition of Akt/MEK abrogates the induction of MCL-1 by aspirin. Aspirin activates AMPK, which in turn up-regulates mTORC2 activity, Akt, ERK1/2 phosphorylation and MCL-1 expression. MCL-1 knockdown sensitizes cancer cells to aspirin-induced apoptosis. Combination of aspirin and AMPK, Akt or MEK inhibitor results in more significant inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis than single agent. Moreover, sorafenib blocks aspirin-induced MCL-1 up-regulation. Combination of aspirin and sorafenib leads to much more cell death and less cell proliferation than each drug alone. Treatment of HCC and colon cancer xenografts with both aspirin and sorafenib results in more significant tumor suppression than single agent. These data demonstrate that AMPK-mediated up-regulation of mTORC2 and MCL-1 may compromise the anticancer effects of aspirin. Combination of aspirin and sorafenib may be an effective regimen to treat HCC and colon cancer. PMID:26918349

  18. Prophylactic effect of rebamipide on aspirin-induced gastric lesions and disruption of tight junctional protein zonula occludens-1 distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takahiro; Yoshida, Norimasa; Nakabe, Nami; Isozaki, Yutaka; Kajikawa, Hirokazu; Takagi, Tomohisa; Handa, Osamu; Kokura, Satoshi; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Naito, Yuji; Matsui, Hirofumi; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2008-03-01

    Aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents are known to induce gastroduodenal complications such as ulcer, bleeding, and dyspepsia. In this study, we examined the prophylactic effect of rebamipide, an anti-ulcer agent with free-radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory effect, on acidified aspirin-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. In addition, we investigated the mucosal barrier functions disrupted by aspirin. Oral administration of acidified aspirin resulted in linear hemorrhagic erosions with increasing myeloperoxidase activity and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance concentrations in the gastric mucosa. Rebamipide suppressed these acidified aspirin-induced gastric lesions and inflammatory changes significantly, and its protective effect was more potent in the case of repeated (twice daily for 3 days) treatment than single treatment before aspirin administration. Immunostaining of zonula occludens (ZO)-1, one of the tight junctional proteins, was strengthened in rat gastric mucosa after repeated administration of rebamipide. In addition, aspirin induced the increasing transport of fluorescine isothiocyanate-labeled dextrans with localized disruption and decreased expression of ZO-1 protein on rat gastric mucosal cell line RGM-1. Rebamipide effectively prevented aspirin-induced permeability changes and disruption of ZO-1 distribution. These results suggest that rebamipide protects against aspirin-induced gastric mucosal lesions by preserving gastric epithelial cell-to cell integrity in addition to the anti-inflammatory effects.

  19. Bleeding Risk with Long-Term Low-Dose Aspirin: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Rodríguez, Luis A.; Martín-Pérez, Mar; Hennekens, Charles H.; Rothwell, Peter M.; Lanas, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Background Low-dose aspirin has proven effectiveness in secondary and primary prevention of cardiovascular events, but is also associated with an increased risk of major bleeding events. For primary prevention, this absolute risk must be carefully weighed against the benefits of aspirin; such assessments are currently limited by a lack of data from general populations. Methods Systematic searches of Medline and Embase were conducted to identify observational studies published between 1946 and 4 March 2015 that reported the risks of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding or intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) with long-term, low-dose aspirin (75–325 mg/day). Pooled estimates of the relative risk (RR) for bleeding events with aspirin versus non-use were calculated using random-effects models, based on reported estimates of RR (including odds ratios, hazard ratios, incidence rate ratios and standardized incidence ratios) in 39 articles. Findings The incidence of GI bleeding with low-dose aspirin was 0.48–3.64 cases per 1000 person-years, and the overall pooled estimate of the RR with low-dose aspirin was 1.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2–1.7). For upper and lower GI bleeding, the RRs with low-dose aspirin were 2.3 (2.0–2.6) and 1.8 (1.1–3.0), respectively. Neither aspirin dose nor duration of use had consistent effects on RRs for upper GI bleeding. The estimated RR for ICH with low-dose aspirin was 1.4 (1.2–1.7) overall. Aspirin was associated with increased bleeding risks when combined with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, clopidogrel and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors compared with monotherapy. By contrast, concomitant use of proton pump inhibitors decreased upper GI bleeding risks relative to aspirin monotherapy. Conclusions The risks of major bleeding with low-dose aspirin in real-world settings are of a similar magnitude to those reported in randomized trials. These data will help inform clinical judgements regarding the use of low-dose aspirin

  20. Talk with Your Doctor about Taking Aspirin Every Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t sure why this works. Can taking aspirin every day cause any side effects? Taking aspirin isn't ... read these benefits and risks of taking aspirin every day . Next section Talk with Your Doctor Previous section ...

  1. Aspirin in polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia: current facts and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolfi, R; Patrono, C

    1996-09-01

    The role of aspirin in the antithrombotic strategy of patients with polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythemia (ET) is highly controversial. Long considered unsafe on the basis of a single clinical trial testing very high doses in PV patients, aspirin is being increasingly used at lower dosage. The rationale for the use of aspirin in patients with PV and ET is provided by the efficacy of this agent in the treatment of microcirculatory disturbances of thrombocythemic states associated with myeloproliferative disorders and by recent evidence that asymptomatic PV and ET patients have persistently increased thromboxane (TX) A2-biosynthesis. This increase, which most likely reflects enhanced platelet activation in vivo, is independent of the platelet mass and blood viscosity and largely supressed by a short term low-dose aspirin regimen (50 mg/day for 7 days). Since enhanced TXA2 biosynthesis may play a role in transducing the increased thrombotic risk associated with PV and ET, long-term low-dose aspirin administration has been proposed as a possible antithombotic strategy in these subjects. The safety of this treatment in PV patients has been recently reassessed by the Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Policitemia Vera (GISP) which has followed for over one year 112 patients randomized to receive 40 mg/day aspirin or placebo. In the same study, serum TXB2 measurements provided evidence that the low-dose aspirin regimen tested was fully effective in inhibiting platelet cyclooxygenase activity. On this basis, a large scale trial aimed at assessing the antithrombotic efficacy of this approach is currently being organized. In patients with ET both the minimal aspirin dose required for complete inhibition of platelet cyclooxygenase and the safety of long-term aspirin administration need to be established prior to extensive clinical evaluation of this strategy.

  2. Increasing Age and Treatment Modality Are Predictors for Subsequent Diagnosis of Bladder Cancer Following Prostate Cancer Diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Anurag K.; Mashtare, Terry L.; McCloskey, Susan A.; Seixas-Mikelus, Stefanie A.; Kim, Hyung L.; May, Kilian Salerno

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of prostate cancer therapy (surgery or external beam irradiation, or both or none) on the actuarial incidence of subsequent bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry from 1973 to 2005 was analyzed. Treatment was stratified as radiotherapy, surgery, both surgery and adjuvant radiation, and neither modality. Brachytherapy was excluded. Results: In all, 555,337 prostate carcinoma patients were identified; 124,141 patients were irradiated; 235,341 patients were treated surgically; 32,744 patients had both surgery and radiation; and 163,111 patients received neither modality. Bladder cancers were diagnosed in: 1,836 (1.48%) men who were irradiated (mean age, 69.4 years), 2,753 (1.09%) men who were treated surgically (mean age, 66.9 years); 683 (2.09%) men who received both modalities (mean age, 67.4 years), and 1,603 (0.98%) men who were treated with neither modality (mean age, 71.8 years). In each treatment cohort, Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that increasing age (by decade) was a significant predictor of developing bladder cancer (p < 0.0001). Incidence of bladder cancer was significantly different for either radiation or surgery alone versus no treatment, radiation versus surgery alone, and both surgery and radiation versus either modality alone (p < 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, age and irradiation were highly significant predictors of being diagnosed with bladder cancer. Conclusions: Following prostate cancer, increasing age and irradiation were highly significant predictors of being diagnosed with bladder cancer. While use of radiation increased the risk of bladder cancer compared to surgery alone or no treatment, the overall incidence of subsequent bladder cancer remained low. Routine bladder cancer surveillance is not warranted.

  3. Radiotherapy does not cause increase psychological fatigue in prostate cancer patients: a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monga, Uma; Kerrigan, Anthony J.; Monga, Trilok N.

    1997-01-01

    Objectives: The origin of fatigue, a common symptom in cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy(RT), remains unresolved. The objectives of this study were to evaluate subjective fatigue in patients with localized prostate cancer utilizing validated instruments and to examine the relationship of fatigue with radiotherapy. Methods: Instruments used included: Piper Fatigue Scale (PFS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Prostate (FACT-P). Patients are evaluated before radiation therapy (PRT), at 4 weeks' (RT4), at completion of RT (7-8 weeks, RTC) of radiotherapy, and at 4 weeks follow-up (RTF). Seventeen prostate cancer subjects with a mean age of 64.6 years (range 55-73) were assessed. Results: PRT median scores on BDI, PFS, ESS, FACT(G), and FACT (P) were 4.00, 2.41, 6.0, 94, and 130 respectively. No significant changes in these scores were noted at RT4, RTC and RTF. Significant negative relationship was noted between PFS and physical well being sub-scale of FACT (G) at PRT(r=-0.76), RTC(r=-0.58), and RTF(r=-0.86). On BDI, four subjects reported depressive symptoms PRT. Two of these four subjects also scored higher on PFS. However, no significant changes were noted on their BDI and PFS scores during the study. No other patients reported depressive symptoms during treatment. Conclusions: These findings indicate: (1) No significant change in the baseline scores of fatigue and psychological measures during radiotherapy. (2) Self reported fatigue is not common in our patient population. (3) A significant relationship exists between scores on PFS and Physical well being sub-scale of FACT (G). Relationship between PFS, FACT-P and psychological functioning, severity of disease and PSA levels will also be presented

  4. Aspirin Augments IgE-Mediated Histamine Release from Human Peripheral Basophils via Syk Kinase Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Matsuo

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Aspirin enhanced histamine release from basophils via increased Syk kinase activation, and that the augmentation of histamine release by NSAIDs or FAs may be one possible cause of worsening symptoms in patients with chronic urticaria and FDEIA.

  5. of aspirin The use of renal enzymes indication of renal toxicity dose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-04-30

    Apr 30, 1983 ... analysis revealed that aspirin significantly increased the output of both ... Acetylsalicylic acid (Disprin) I500 mg wa administered 3 times a day .... completely removing salicylic acid and metabolites from the urine, as could be ...

  6. Study Shows Aspirin Reduces Colorectal Cancer in Those at High Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findings from the first large clinical trial of its kind indicate that taking high doses of aspirin daily for at least 2 years substantially reduces the risk of colorectal cancer among people at increased risk of the disease.

  7. Elastic properties of aspirin in its crystalline and glassy phases studied by micro-Brillouin scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jae-Hyeon; Lee, Kwang-Sei; Ike, Yuji; Kojima, Seiji

    2008-11-01

    The acoustic waves propagating along the direction perpendicular to the (1 0 0) cleavage plane of aspirin crystal were investigated using micro-Brillouin spectroscopy from which C11, C55 and C66 were obtained. The temperature dependence of the longitudinal acoustic waves could be explained by normal anharmonic lattice models, while the transverse acoustic waves showed an abnormal increase in the hypersonic attenuation at low temperatures indicating their coupling to local remnant dynamics. The sound velocity as well as the attenuation of the longitudinal acoustic waves of glassy aspirin showed a substantial change at ˜235 K confirming a transition from glassy to supercooled liquid state in vitreous aspirin.

  8. The effect of aspirin on blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients with femoral neck fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Manning, Brian J

    2012-02-03

    Although it is widely accepted that aspirin will increase the risk of intra- and post-operative bleeding, clinical studies have not consistently supported this assumption. We aimed to assess the effect of pre-operative aspirin on blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients undergoing emergency fixation of femoral neck fractures. A prospective case-control study was undertaken in patients presenting with femoral neck fractures. Parameters recorded included intra-operative blood loss, post-operative blood loss, transfusion requirements and peri-operative reduction in haemoglobin concentration. Of 89 patients presenting with femoral neck fractures 32 were on long-term aspirin therapy. Pre-operative aspirin ingestion did not significantly affect peri-operative blood loss, or change in haemoglobin concentration or haematocrit. However those patients taking aspirin pre-operatively had a significantly lower haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit and were more likely to be anaemic at presentation than those who were not receiving aspirin. Patients taking aspirin were also more likely to receive blood transfusion post-operatively.

  9. Failure of ethamsylate to reduce aspirin-induced gastric mucosal bleeding in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshmend, T K; Stein, A G; Bhaskar, N K; Hawkey, C J

    1989-07-01

    1. We investigated the effect of the haemostatic agent ethamsylate on aspirin-induced gastric mucosal bleeding. 2. Eighteen healthy subjects were studied three times: at the end of 48 h periods of treatment with (a) placebo, (b) aspirin 600 mg four times daily, (9 doses) and (c) aspirin 600 mg four times daily with each dose preceded by ethamsylate 500 mg. 3. At the end of each treatment period gastric mucosal bleeding into timed gastric washings was quantified using the orthotolidine reaction. 4. Aspirin increased bleeding from a rate on placebo of 1.2 microliters 10 min-1 geometric mean (95% confidence limits) (0.7-1.8) microliters 10 min-1 to 20.0 (11.6-34.2) microliters 10 min-1, (P less than 0.01). The rate of bleeding after aspirin preceded by ethamsylate [14.1 (8.5-23.4) microliters 10 min-1] was not significantly different from that after aspirin alone. 5. We conclude that ethamsylate does not reduce acute aspirin-induced gastric mucosal bleeding in healthy humans.

  10. The transcription factor ERG increases expression of neurotransmitter receptors on prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kissick, Haydn T.; On, Seung T.; Dunn, Laura K.; Sanda, Martin G.; Asara, John M.; Pellegrini, Kathryn L.; Noel, Jonathan K.; Arredouani, Mohamed S.

    2015-01-01

    The TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion occurs in about half of prostate cancer (PCa) cases and results in overexpression of the transcription factor ERG. Overexpression of ERG has many effects on cellular function. However, how these changes enhance cell growth and promote tumor development is unclear. To investigate the role of ERG, LNCaP and PC3 cells were transfected with ERG and gene expression and metabolic profile were analyzed. Our data show that expression of ERG induces overexpression of many nicotinicacetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). In addition, metabolic profiling by LC-MS/MS revealed elevated production of several neurotransmitters in cells expressing ERG. Consistently, treatment of ERG-expressing cells with nicotine induced elevated calcium influx, GSK3β (Ser9) phosphorylation and cell proliferation. Finally, we show that PCa patientswho are smokers have larger tumors if their tumors are TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion positive. Collectively, our data suggest that ERG sensitizes prostate tumor cells to neurotransmitter receptor agonists like nicotine. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1612-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  11. Increased expression of bHLH transcription factor E2A (TCF3) in prostate cancer promotes proliferation and confers resistance to doxorubicin induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Divya; Chaudhary, Jaideep

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► E2A, considered as a tumor suppressor is highly expressed in prostate cancer. ► Silencing of E2A attenuates cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis. ► E2A regulates c-myc, Id1, Id3 and CDKN1A expression. ► Loss of E2A promotes doxorubicin dependent apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. ► Results suggest that E2A acts as a tumor promoter at least in prostate cancer. -- Abstract: E2A (TCF3) is a multifunctional basic helix loop helix (bHLH), transcription factor. E2A regulates transcription of target genes by homo- or heterodimerization with cell specific bHLH proteins. In general, E2A promotes cell differentiation, acts as a negative regulator of cell proliferation in normal cells and cancer cell lines and is required for normal B-cell development. Given the diverse biological pathways regulated/influenced by E2A little is known about its expression in cancer. In this study we investigated the expression of E2A in prostate cancer. Unexpectedly, E2A immuno-histochemistry demonstrated increased E2A expression in prostate cancer as compared to normal prostate. Silencing of E2A in prostate cancer cells DU145 and PC3 led to a significant reduction in proliferation due to G1 arrest that was in part mediated by increased CDKN1A(p21) and decreased Id1, Id3 and c-myc. E2A silencing in prostate cancer cell lines also resulted in increased apoptosis due to increased mitochondrial permeability and caspase 3/7 activation. Moreover, silencing of E2A increased sensitivity to doxorubicin induced apoptosis. Based on our results, we propose that E2A could be an upstream regulator of Id1 and c-Myc which are highly expressed in prostate cancer. These results for the first time demonstrate that E2A could in fact acts as a tumor promoter at least in prostate cancer.

  12. Spinal cholinergic involvement after treatment with aspirin and paracetamol in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Kommalage, Mahinda; Höglund, A Urban

    2004-01-01

    Aspirin and paracetamol have been shown to suppress non-inflammatory pain conditions like thermal, visceral and mechanical pain in mice and rats. The non-inflammatory antinociception appears to be mediated by central receptor mechanisms, such as the cholinergic system. In this study, we tested...... the hypothesis that the non-inflammatory antinociception of aspirin and paracetamol could be mediated by an increase of intraspinal acetylcholine release. Microdialysis probes were placed intraspinally in anesthetized rats for acetylcholine sampling. Subcutaneously administered aspirin 100 and 300 mg....../kg increased, while paracetamol 300 mg/kg decreased intraspinal acetylcholine release. Intraspinal drug administration did not affect acetylcholine release. Our results suggest that an increased intraspinal acetylcholine release could be involved in part of the non-inflammatory pain suppression by aspirin...

  13. Ghrelin inhibits proliferation and increases T-type Ca2+ channel expression in PC-3 human prostate carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Lezama, Nundehui; Hernandez-Elvira, Mariana; Sandoval, Alejandro; Monroy, Alma; Felix, Ricardo; Monjaraz, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Ghrelin decreases prostate carcinoma PC-3 cells proliferation. → Ghrelin favors apoptosis in PC-3 cells. → Ghrelin increase in intracellular free Ca 2+ levels in PC-3 cells. → Grelin up-regulates expression of T-type Ca 2+ channels in PC-3 cells. → PC-3 cells express T-channels of the Ca V 3.1 and Ca V 3.2 subtype. -- Abstract: Ghrelin is a multifunctional peptide hormone with roles in growth hormone release, food intake and cell proliferation. With ghrelin now recognized as important in neoplastic processes, the aim of this report is to present findings from a series of in vitro studies evaluating the cellular mechanisms involved in ghrelin regulation of proliferation in the PC-3 human prostate carcinoma cells. The results showed that ghrelin significantly decreased proliferation and induced apoptosis. Consistent with a role in apoptosis, an increase in intracellular free Ca 2+ levels was observed in the ghrelin-treated cells, which was accompanied by up-regulated expression of T-type voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels. Interestingly, T-channel antagonists were able to prevent the effects of ghrelin on cell proliferation. These results suggest that ghrelin inhibits proliferation and may promote apoptosis by regulating T-type Ca 2+ channel expression.

  14. The Effect of Combined Aspirin and Clopidogrel Treatment on Cancer Incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leader, Avi; Zelikson-Saporta, Ravit; Pereg, David; Spectre, Galia; Rozovski, Uri; Raanani, Pia; Hermoni, Doron; Lishner, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Multiple studies have shown an association between aspirin treatment and a reduction in newly diagnosed cancer. Conversely, there are conflicting clinical and laboratory data on the effect of combined clopidogrel and aspirin therapy on cancer incidence, including analyses suggesting an increased cancer risk. No large-scale cohort study has been performed to address this issue in a heterogeneous real-world scenario. We investigated the effect of clopidogrel and aspirin on cancer incidence compared with aspirin alone and no antiplatelet therapy. A population-based historical cohort study of subjects aged ≥50 years covered by Clalit Health Services, an Israeli health maintenance organization, was performed. Patients treated with the newer antiplatelet drugs, prasugrel or ticagrelor, which, like clopidogrel, inhibit adenosine diphosphate receptors, and those with prior cancer were excluded. Prescription records of antiplatelet medication were retrieved. The cohort included 183,912 subjects diagnosed with 21,974 cancer cases based upon the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision. Dual aspirin and clopidogrel was prescribed in 9.6%, while 49% received aspirin alone and 41% used neither. Compared with nonusers, there was a lower risk of cancer in subjects exposed to aspirin with (hazard ratio [HR] 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.44-0.49) or without clopidogrel (HR 0.54; 95% CI, 0.52-0.56), on long-term follow-up. Combined treatment was associated with a lower cancer risk than the aspirin-only group (HR 0.92; 95% CI, 0.86-0.97). Dual clopidogrel and aspirin treatment is safe regarding the cancer risk. This study generates the hypothesis that clopidogrel may reduce cancer incidence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Aspirin desensitization for patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilzadeh, Hossein; Nabavi, Mohammad; Aryan, Zahra; Arshi, Saba; Bemanian, Mohammad Hassan; Fallahpour, Morteza; Mortazavi, Negar

    2015-10-01

    The effect of aspirin desensitization (AD) on immunologic profile of patients with AERD has been poorly understood. This study is aimed at investigating the effect of AD on clinical and immunological markers of patients with AERD. This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial comprised 34 adult patients (67.6% female) with chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyps, and aspirin-intolerant asthma. The active group underwent AD over a 2-day period with increasing doses of aspirin (60, 125, 325, and 625 mg), followed by receiving aspirin 625 mg twice daily for 6 months. Symptom scores and medication needs of patients with AERD who have undergone AD were significantly lower compared to the placebo group after 6 months (7.5 ± 3.5 vs. 10.6 ± 3.8 and 9.3 ± 2.0 vs. 11.0 ± 3.1, respectively, all p < 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed in serum concentration of IL-10, IFN-γ, and TGF-β between two groups neither at baseline nor at the end of study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of addition of clopidogrel to aspirin on subdural hematoma: meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakheet, Majid F; Pearce, Lesly A; Hart, Robert G

    2015-06-01

    Clopidogrel combined with aspirin is routinely prescribed after coronary artery stenting, in patients with acute coronary syndromes, and recently to prevent stroke in patients with acute minor ischemic stroke and TIA. Subdural hematomas are an important complication of antithrombotic treatment, but the risk associated with clopidogrel plus aspirin has not been previously defined. To quantify the risk of subdural hematoma associated with dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel plus aspirin. Randomized clinical trials comparing clopidogrel plus aspirin with aspirin alone were identified by searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from 1990 to 2014, and restricted to those with more than 7 days of treatment. Two reviewers independently extracted data about subdural hematomas. Of 24 randomized trials testing clopidogrel added to aspirin, results for subdural hematoma were available for 11 trials, of which eight did not identify any subdural hematomas. The three trials reporting subdural hematomas were double-blind and included patients with recent lacunar stroke, acute coronary syndromes or atrial fibrillation with a total of 23,136 patients (mean age 66 years) and reported 39 subdural hematomas during a mean follow-up 2.1 years per patient. Clopidogrel plus aspirin was associated with a significantly increased risk of subdural hematoma compared with aspirin alone (risk ratio 2.0, 95% CI 1.0, 3.8; P = 0.04; fixed effects model; I2 for heterogeneity of 0%, P = 0.51). The average absolute incidence of subdural hematoma averaged 1.1 (95% CI 0.7,1.6) per 1000 patient - years among those assigned clopidogrel plus aspirin in 11 randomized trials. The absolute rate of subdural hematoma during dual antiplatelet therapy is low, averaging 1.1 per 1000 patient-years. Chronic treatment with clopidogrel plus aspirin significantly increases the risk of subdural hematoma compared with aspirin alone. © 2014 World Stroke Organization.

  17. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is planned, you may be told to avoid aspirin and other blood thinners for seven to 10 ... instructed to avoid taking blood thinners, such as aspirin, for seven to 10 days prior to the ...

  18. Effects of low dose aspirin (50 mg/day), low dose aspirin plus dipyridamole, and oral anticoagulant agents after internal mammary artery bypass grafting: patency and clinical outcome at 1 year. CABADAS Research Group of the Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of The Netherlands. Prevention of Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Occlusion by Aspirin, Dipyridamole and Acenocoumarol/Phenprocoumon Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, J.; Brutel de la Rivière, A.; van Gilst, W. H.; Hillege, H. L.; Pfisterer, M.; Kootstra, G. J.; Dunselman, P. H.; Mulder, B. J.; Lie, K. I.

    1994-01-01

    This study was performed to compare the efficacy and safety of aspirin, aspirin plus dipyridamole, and oral anticoagulant agents in the prevention of internal mammary artery graft occlusion. Antithrombotic drugs increase vein graft patency after coronary artery bypass surgery. Their benefit after

  19. Clinical significance of increased gelatinolytic activity in the rectal mucosa during external beam radiation therapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovdenak, Nils; Wang Junru; Sung, C.-C.; Kelly, Thomas; Fajardo, Luis F.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Rectal toxicity (proctitis) is a dose-limiting factor in pelvic radiation therapy. Mucosal atrophy, i.e., net extracellular matrix degradation, is a prominent feature of radiation proctitis, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. We prospectively examined changes in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 (gelatinase A and B) in the rectal mucosa during radiation therapy of prostate cancer, as well as the relationships of these changes with symptomatic, structural, and cellular evidence of radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients scheduled for external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer were prospectively enrolled. Symptoms of gastrointestinal toxicity were recorded, and endoscopy with biopsy of the rectal mucosa was performed before radiation therapy, as well as 2 and 6 weeks into the treatment course. Radiation proctitis was assessed by endoscopic scoring, quantitative histology, and quantitative immunohistochemistry. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were localized immunohistochemically, and activities were determined by gelatin zymography. Results: Symptoms, endoscopic scores, histologic injury, and mucosal macrophages and neutrophils increased from baseline to 2 weeks. Symptoms increased further from 2 weeks to 6 weeks, whereas endoscopic and cellular evidence of proctitis did not. Compared to pretreatment values, there was increased total gelatinolytic activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 at 2 weeks (p=0.02 and p=0.004, respectively) and 6 weeks (p=0.006 and p=0.001, respectively). Active MMP-2 was increased at both time points (p=0.0001 and p=0.002). Increased MMP-9 and MMP-2 at 6 weeks was associated with radiation-induced diarrhea (p=0.007 and p=0.02, respectively) and with mucosal neutrophil infiltration (rho=0.62). Conclusions: Pelvic radiation therapy causes increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in the rectal mucosa. These changes correlate with radiation-induced diarrhea and granulocyte infiltration and may contribute to abnormal

  20. Use of paracetamol, ibuprofen or aspirin in pregnancy and risk of cerebral palsy in the child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tanja Gram; Liew, Zeyan; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie

    2018-01-01

    Background: It has been debated whether mild analgesics, mainly paracetamol, adversely affect aspects of neurodevelopment. We examined whether mother's use of paracetamol, aspirin or ibuprofen in pregnancy is associated with increased risk of cerebral palsy (CP) in the child. Method: We included...... registers. We estimated the average causal effect of analgesics on risk of CP using marginal structural models with stabilized inverse probability weights. Results: Paracetamol use was reported in 49% of all pregnancies, aspirin in 3% and ibuprofen in 4%. Prenatal exposure to paracetamol ever in pregnancy......% CI: 1.0-2.5). Children ever prenatally exposed to aspirin in pregnancy had an elevated risk of bilateral spastic CP (aOR 2.4, 95% CI: 1.1-5.3) compared with unexposed. Conclusion: We observed an increased risk of spastic CP in children prenatally exposed to paracetamol and aspirin. Although we...

  1. Role of Aspirin in Breast Cancer Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wendy Y; Holmes, Michelle D

    2017-07-01

    Chemotherapy and hormonal therapy have significantly decreased breast cancer mortality, although with considerable side effects and financial costs. In the USA, over three million women are living after a breast cancer diagnosis and are eager for new treatments that are low in toxicity and cost. Multiple observational studies have reported improved breast cancer survival with regular aspirin use. Furthermore, pooled data from five large randomized trials of aspirin for cardiovascular disease showed that subjects on aspirin had decreased risk of cancer mortality and decreased risk of metastatic cancer. Although the potential mechanism for aspirin preventing breast cancer is not known, possible pathways may involve platelets, inflammation, cyclooxygenase (COX) 2, hormones, or PI3 kinase. This review article summarizes the current epidemiologic and clinical trial evidence as well as possible underlying mechanisms that justify current phase III randomized trials of aspirin to improve breast cancer survival.

  2. Prostate Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... know the exact cause of your prostate problem. Prostatitis The cause of prostatitis depends on whether you ... prostate problem in men older than age 50. Prostatitis If you have a UTI, you may be ...

  3. Increased chemopreventive effect by combining arctigenin, green tea polyphenol and curcumin in prostate and breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Piwen; Wang, Bin; Chung, Seyung; Wu, Yanyuan; Henning, Susanne M.; Vadgama, Jaydutt V.

    2014-01-01

    The low bioavailability of most flavonoids limits their application as anti-carcinogenic agents in humans. A novel approach of treatment with a mixture of bioactive compounds that share molecular anti-carcinogenic targets may enhance the effect on these targets at low concentrations of individual compound, thereby overcoming the limitations of reduced bioavailability. We therefore investigated whether a combination of three natural products arctigenin (Arc), a novel anti-inflammatory lignan from the seeds of Arctium lappa, green tea polyphenol (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and curcumin (Cur) increases the chemopreventive potency of individual compounds. LNCaP prostate cancer and MCF-7 breast cancer cells were treated with 2–4 mg/L (about 5–10μM) Cur, 1μM Arc and 40μM EGCG alone or in combination for 48h. In both cell lines treatment with the mixture of Cur, Arc and EGCG synergistically increased the antiproliferative effect. In LNCaP cells both Arc and EGCG increased the pro-apoptotic effect of Cur. Whereas in MCF-7 cells Arc increased the cell apoptosis of Cur while EGCG enhanced cell cycle arrest of Cur at G0/G1 phase. The strongest effects on cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were achieved by combining all three compounds in both cell lines. The combination treatment significantly increased the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 proteins, decreased the activation of NFκB, PI3K/Akt and Stat3 pathways and cell migration compared to individual treatment. These results warrant in vivo studies to confirm the efficacy of this novel regimen by combining Arc and EGCG with Cur to enhance chemoprevention in both prostate and breast cancer. PMID:25243063

  4. Cytoprotective effects of essential oil of Pinus halepensis L. against aspirin-induced toxicity in IEC-6 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzenna, Hafsia; Hfaiedh, Najla; Bouaziz, Mouhamed; Giroux-Metges, Marie-Agnès; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Talarmin, Hélène

    2017-12-01

    Essential oils from Pinus species have been reported to have various therapeutic properties. This study was undertaken to identify the chemical composition and cytoprotective effects of the essential oil of Pinus halepensis L. against aspirin-induced damage in cells in vitro. The cytoprotection of the oil against toxicity of aspirin on the small intestine epithelial cells IEC-6 was tested. The obtained results have shown that 35 different compounds were identified. Aspirin induced a decrease in cell viability, and exhibited significant damage to their morphology and an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. However, the co-treatment of aspirin with the essential oil of Pinus induced a significant increase in cell viability and a decrease in SOD and CAT activities. Overall, these finding suggest that the essential oil of Pinus halepensis L. has potent cytoprotective effect against aspirin-induced toxicity in IEC-6 cells.

  5. The analgesic effect of different antidepressants combined with aspirin on thermally induced pain in Albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla S. Elhwuegi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:Combination analgesics provide more effective pain relief for a broader spectrum of pain. This research examines the possible potentiation of the analgesic effect of different classes of antidepressants when combined with aspirin in thermal model of pain using Albino mice.Methods:Different groups of six animals each were injected intraperitoneally by different doses of aspirin (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg, imipramine (2.5, 7.5, 15 or 30 mg/kg, fluoxetine (1.25, 2.5, 5 or 7.5 mg/kg, mirtazapine (1.25, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg and a combination of a fixed dose of aspirin (100 mg/kg with the different doses of the three antidepressants. One hour later the analgesic effect of these treatments were evaluated against thermally induced pain. All data were subjected to statistical analysis using unpaired Student's t-test.Results:Aspirin had no analgesic effect in thermally induced pain. The three selected antidepressants produced dose dependent analgesia. The addition of a fixed dose of aspirin to imipramine significantly increased the reaction time (RT of the lowest dose (by 23% and the highest dose (by 20%. The addition of the fixed dose of aspirin to fluoxetine significantly increased RT by 13% of the dose 2.5 mg/Kg. Finally, the addition of the fixed dose of aspirin significantly potentiated the antinociceptive effect of the different doses of mirtazapine (RT was increased by 24, 54 and 38% respectively.Conclusion:Combination of aspirin with an antidepressant might produce better analgesia, increasing the efficacy of pain management and reduces side effects by using smaller doses of each drug.

  6. Effects of Ramadan fasting on aspirin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouida, Wahid; Beltaief, Kaouthar; Baccouche, Houda; Sassi, Mouna; Dridi, Zohra; Trabelsi, Imen; Laaouiti, Kamel; Chakroun, Taher; Hellara, Ilhem; Boukef, Riadh; Sakly, Nabil; Hassine, Mohsen; Added, Faouzi; Razgallah, Rabie; Najjar, Fadhel; Nouira, Semir

    2018-01-01

    Ramadan fasting (RF) may affect aspirin resistance. We conducted this study in patients with cardiovascular risk (CVR) factors to assess the effect of RF on aspirin resistance and explore whether type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) would influence this effect. A total of 177 stable patients with ≥2 CVR factors were recruited. All patients observed RF and were taking aspirin. Physical exam and standard biological tests including glycaemia and serum lipids data were performed before Ramadan (Pre-R), at the last week of Ramadan (R) and four weeks after the end of Ramadan (Post-R). In the same visits caloric intake was calculated and platelet reactivity to aspirin was assessed using Verify Now point-of-care assay. In the overall population, there was no significant change in absolute aspirin reaction unit (ARU) values and in metabolic parameters. In DM patients (n = 127), ARU change from Pre-R values was+19.7 (p = 0.01) and +14.4 (p = 0.02) respectively at R and Post-R. During Ramadan, glycaemia, triglycerides, and cholesterol levels increased significantly and returned to Pre-R values thereafter. These changes were not observed in non-DM patients. During RF aspirin resistance increased only in DM patients. This effect persisted one month after Ramadan. Simultaneous alteration of glycemic control and increase of serum lipids levels could potentially be a favorable factor. The protocol was registered at clinicaltrials.gov under: NCT02720133.

  7. Effects of Ramadan fasting on aspirin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouida, Wahid; Beltaief, Kaouthar; Baccouche, Houda; Sassi, Mouna; Dridi, Zohra; Trabelsi, Imen; Laaouiti, Kamel; Chakroun, Taher; Hellara, Ilhem; Boukef, Riadh; Sakly, Nabil; Hassine, Mohsen; Added, Faouzi; Razgallah, Rabie; Najjar, Fadhel; Nouira, Semir

    2018-01-01

    Aims Ramadan fasting (RF) may affect aspirin resistance. We conducted this study in patients with cardiovascular risk (CVR) factors to assess the effect of RF on aspirin resistance and explore whether type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) would influence this effect. Methods A total of 177 stable patients with ≥2 CVR factors were recruited. All patients observed RF and were taking aspirin. Physical exam and standard biological tests including glycaemia and serum lipids data were performed before Ramadan (Pre-R), at the last week of Ramadan (R) and four weeks after the end of Ramadan (Post-R). In the same visits caloric intake was calculated and platelet reactivity to aspirin was assessed using Verify Now point-of-care assay. Results In the overall population, there was no significant change in absolute aspirin reaction unit (ARU) values and in metabolic parameters. In DM patients (n = 127), ARU change from Pre-R values was+19.7 (p = 0.01) and +14.4 (p = 0.02) respectively at R and Post-R. During Ramadan, glycaemia, triglycerides, and cholesterol levels increased significantly and returned to Pre-R values thereafter. These changes were not observed in non-DM patients. Conclusions During RF aspirin resistance increased only in DM patients. This effect persisted one month after Ramadan. Simultaneous alteration of glycemic control and increase of serum lipids levels could potentially be a favorable factor. Study registration The protocol was registered at clinicaltrials.gov under: NCT02720133. PMID:29529091

  8. Effect of acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin) and Prostaglandins on thyroid tissue and carbohydrate metabolism in liver of male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, A.; Ramakrishnan, S.

    1979-01-01

    Aspirin, both in chronic and acute doses, led to a considerable decrease in percentage uptake of labelled iodine (Na 131 I) and serum protein-bound iodine by the thyroid gland whereas prostaglandins (PGs) did not exhibit any significant effect on both the parameters. Simultaneous administration of aspirin and PGs caused a significant decrease in the two parameters, and on withdrawal of aspirin from the diet the two parameters were restored to normal levels, thus suggesting that the effect of aspirin on thyroid is direct and reversible. Aspirin, both in acute and chronic doses, effected decrease in glycogen levels, in vivo and in vitro incorporation of [U- 14 C] glucose into glycogen, and glycogen synthetase activity in the liver of both fed, and fasting, rat. Prostaglandins, on the other hand, resulted in a significant increase in the three parameters, thus enhancing the rate of liver glycogenesis. Normal levels were restored when both aspirin and PGs were given together. Withdrawal of aspirin also restored normal hepatic glycogenesis. Significant reduction in the activities of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes, viz. glucose 6-phosphatase, fructose 1,6-diphosphatase, phosphopyruvate carboxylase, pyruvate carboxylase, aspartate aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase was observed due to chronic and acute administration of aspirin and PGs were devoid of any significant effect on gluconeogenic enzymes, thus ruling out the mediation of PGs. (auth.)

  9. Effect of acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin) and Prostaglandins on thyroid tissue and carbohydrate metabolism in liver of male albino rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, A; Ramakrishnan, S [Jawaharlal Inst. of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Pondicherry (India)

    1979-04-01

    Aspirin, both in chronic and acute doses, led to a considerable decrease in percentage uptake of labelled iodine (Na/sup 131/I) and serum protein-bound iodine by the thyroid gland whereas prostaglandins (PGs) did not exhibit any significant effect on both the parameters. Simultaneous administration of aspirin and PGs caused a significant decrease in the two parameters, and on withdrawal of aspirin from the diet the two parameters were restored to normal levels, thus suggesting that the effect of aspirin on thyroid is direct and reversible. Aspirin, both in acute and chronic doses, effected decrease in glycogen levels, in vivo and in vitro incorporation of (U-/sup 14/C) glucose into glycogen, and glycogen synthetase activity in the liver of both fed, and fasting, rat. Prostaglandins, on the other hand, resulted in a significant increase in the three parameters, thus enhancing the rate of liver glycogenesis. Normal levels were restored when both aspirin and PGs were given together. Withdrawal of aspirin also restored normal hepatic glycogenesis. Significant reduction in the activities of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes, viz. glucose 6-phosphatase, fructose 1,6-diphosphatase, phosphopyruvate carboxylase, pyruvate carboxylase, aspartate aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase was observed due to chronic and acute administration of aspirin and PGs were devoid of any significant effect on gluconeogenic enzymes, thus ruling out the mediation of PGs.

  10. [Low-dose aspirin in patients with diabete melitus: risks and benefits regarding macro and microvascular complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Eduardo G; Gross, Jorge Luiz; Weinert, Letícia S; Lavinsky, Joel; Silveiro, Sandra P

    2007-04-01

    Aspirin is recommended as cardiovascular disease prevention in patients with diabetes mellitus. Due to the increased risk of bleeding and because of the hypothesis that there could be a worsening of microvascular complications related to aspirin, there has been observed an important underutilization of the drug. However, it is now known that aspirin is not associated with a deleterious effect on diabetic retinopathy and there is evidence indicating that it also does not affect renal function with usual doses (150 mg/d). On the other hand, higher doses may prove necessary, since recent data suggest that diabetic patients present the so called "aspirin resistance". The mechanisms of this resistance are not yet fully understood, being probably related to an abnormal intrinsic platelet activity. The employment of alternative antiplatelet strategies or the administration of higher aspirin doses (150-300 mg/d) should be better evaluated regarding effective cardiovascular disease prevention in diabetes as well as the possible effects on microvascular complications.

  11. Aspirin augments the expression of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli protein by suppression of IKKβ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashida, Noboru; Kishihata, Masako; Tien, Dat Nguyen; Kamei, Kaeko; Kimura, Takeshi; Yokode, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Clinical studies revealed aspirin inhibits cancer, but the mechanism is not known. • Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) is a well-known tumor-suppressing gene. • We found aspirin up-regulates the protein of APC. • Aspirin suppressed the expression of IKKβ, an essential kinase in NFκB activation. • The deletion of IKKβ significantly increases the expression of APC protein. - Abstract: Aspirin has been widely used as analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory medicine for long. In addition to these traditional effects, clinical studies suggest that aspirin can protect against cancer, but its mechanism has not been explored. To unveil it, we identified the proteins up- or down-regulated after incubation with aspirin by using proteomics analysis with Nano-flow LC/MALDI-TOF system. Interestingly, the analysis identified the protein of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) as one of the most up-regulated protein. APC regulates cell proliferation or angiogenesis, and is widely known as a tumor-suppressing gene which can cause colorectal cancer when it is mutated. Western blots confirmed this result, and real-time PCR indicated it is transcriptionally regulated. We further tried to elucidate the molecular mechanism with focusing on IKKβ. IKKβ is the essential kinase in activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), major transcriptional factors that regulate genes responsible for inflammation or immune response. Previous reports indicated that aspirin specifically inhibits IKKβ activity, and constitutively active form of IKKβ accelerates APC loss. We found that aspirin suppressed the expression of IKKβ, and the deletion of IKKβ by siRNA increases the expression of APC in HEK294 cells. Finally, we observed similar effects of aspirin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Taken together, these results reveal that aspirin up-regulates the expression of APC via the suppression of IKKβ. This can be a mechanism how aspirin prevents cancer at

  12. Aspirin augments the expression of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli protein by suppression of IKKβ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashida, Noboru, E-mail: nashida@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Innovative Medicine, Institute for Advancement of Clinical and Translational Science, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Kishihata, Masako [Department of Clinical Innovative Medicine, Institute for Advancement of Clinical and Translational Science, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Tien, Dat Nguyen [Department of Clinical Innovative Medicine, Institute for Advancement of Clinical and Translational Science, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kamei, Kaeko [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kimura, Takeshi [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Yokode, Masayuki [Department of Clinical Innovative Medicine, Institute for Advancement of Clinical and Translational Science, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • Clinical studies revealed aspirin inhibits cancer, but the mechanism is not known. • Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) is a well-known tumor-suppressing gene. • We found aspirin up-regulates the protein of APC. • Aspirin suppressed the expression of IKKβ, an essential kinase in NFκB activation. • The deletion of IKKβ significantly increases the expression of APC protein. - Abstract: Aspirin has been widely used as analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory medicine for long. In addition to these traditional effects, clinical studies suggest that aspirin can protect against cancer, but its mechanism has not been explored. To unveil it, we identified the proteins up- or down-regulated after incubation with aspirin by using proteomics analysis with Nano-flow LC/MALDI-TOF system. Interestingly, the analysis identified the protein of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) as one of the most up-regulated protein. APC regulates cell proliferation or angiogenesis, and is widely known as a tumor-suppressing gene which can cause colorectal cancer when it is mutated. Western blots confirmed this result, and real-time PCR indicated it is transcriptionally regulated. We further tried to elucidate the molecular mechanism with focusing on IKKβ. IKKβ is the essential kinase in activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), major transcriptional factors that regulate genes responsible for inflammation or immune response. Previous reports indicated that aspirin specifically inhibits IKKβ activity, and constitutively active form of IKKβ accelerates APC loss. We found that aspirin suppressed the expression of IKKβ, and the deletion of IKKβ by siRNA increases the expression of APC in HEK294 cells. Finally, we observed similar effects of aspirin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Taken together, these results reveal that aspirin up-regulates the expression of APC via the suppression of IKKβ. This can be a mechanism how aspirin prevents cancer at

  13. Impact of aspirin on fetal growth in diabetic pregnancies according to White classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Katlynn; Allshouse, Amanda A; Metz, Torri D; Heyborne, Kent D

    2017-10-01

    association of aspirin with higher birthweight Z-score was confined to neonates of women with nonvascular diabetes (0.341; 95% confidence interval, 0.677-0.006; P = .044). An opposite but nonsignificant effect was observed among neonates from women with vascular diabetes (-0.416; 95% confidence interval, -1.335 to 0.503; P = .6). This difference in the relationship of aspirin and birthweight Z-score by vascular group was significant at P = .046. Aspirin-randomized women with nonvascular diabetes had more large-for-gestational-age births than those treated with placebo (40.2 vs 26.6%; P = .005). Small-for-gestational-age births occurred at the same frequency with aspirin vs placebo randomization in the overall cohort (8% in each group) and in each vascular group. Inconsistent with our hypothesis, aspirin did not reduce small-for-gestational-age births in the overall cohort or either group. The increased incidence of large-for-gestational-age infants in aspirin-treated diabetic gestations is of potential concern given the known increased maternal and neonatal morbidity associated with macrosomia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Increased signal intensity of prostate lesions on high b-value diffusion-weighted images as a predictive sign of malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quentin, Michael; Schimmoeller, Lars; Antoch, Gerald; Blondin, Dirk; Arsov, Christian; Rabenalt, Robert; Albers, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of lesions detected in prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with increased signal intensity (SI) on high b-value diffusion-weighted images as a sign of malignancy. One hundred and three consecutive patients with prostate MRI examination and MRI-guided in-bore biopsy were retrospectively included in the study. MRI-guided in-bore biopsy histologically confirmed prostate cancer in 50 patients (n = 92 lesions). The other 53 patients (n = 122 lesions) had negative bioptical results. In patients with histologically confirmed prostate cancer, 46 of the 92 lesions had visually increased SI on the high b-value images compared with the peripheral zone (SI = +27 ± 16%) or the central gland (SI = +37 ± 19%, P < 0.001 respectively). In patients with a negative biopsy, ten of the 122 lesions had visually increased SI (compared with the peripheral zone, SI = +29 ± 18%, and with the central gland, SI = +41 ± 15%, P < 0.001 respectively). Neither the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values nor the Gleason Score of lesions with increased SI were significantly different from lesions without increased SI. Visually increased SI on the high b-value images of diffusion-weighted imaging using standard b-values is a sign of malignancy but can occasionally also be a feature of benign lesions. However, it does not indicate more aggressive tumours. (orig.)

  15. Adrenomedullin increases the short-circuit current in the rat prostate: Receptors, chloride channels, the effects of cAMP and calcium ions and implications on fluid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, S B; Cheung, K H; Cheung, M P L; Wong, P F; O, W S; Tang, F

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we have investigated the effects of adrenomedullin on chloride and fluid secretion in the rat prostate. The presence of adrenomedullin (ADM) in rat prostate was confirmed using immunostaining, and the molecular species was determined using gel filtration chromatography coupled with an enzyme-linked assay for ADM. The effects of ADM on fluid secretion were studied by short-circuit current technique in a whole mount preparation of the prostate in an Ussing chamber. The results indicated that the ADM level was higher in the ventral than the dorso-lateral prostate and the major molecular species was the active peptide. ADM increased the short-circuit current through both the cAMP- and calcium-activated chloride channels in the ventral lobe, but only through the calcium-activated channels in the dorso-lateral lobe. These stimulatory effects were blocked by the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist, hCGRP8-37. We conclude that ADM may regulate prostatic fluid secretion through the chloride channels, which may affect the composition of the seminal plasma bathing the spermatozoa and hence fertility. © 2014 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  16. Chronic use of low-dose aspirin is not associated with lower bone mineral density in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonten, T N; de Mutsert, R; Rosendaal, F R; Jukema, J W; van der Bom, J G; de Jongh, R T; den Heijer, M

    2017-10-01

    Low-dose aspirin is the cornerstone of secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Previous studies suggested that the use of aspirin is associated with an increased fracture risk. However, there is uncertainty whether this is due to an effect of aspirin on bone mineral density (BMD). Between 2008 and 2012, information on medication use and dual X-ray absorptiometry measured vertebral and femoral BMD of 916 participants was collected in the Netherland Epidemiology of Obesity study. The cross-sectional association between chronic low-dose aspirin use and BMD was estimated using linear regression, controlling for demography, body composition, comorbidity and other medication use which could affect BMD. A subgroup analysis in postmenopausal women (n=329) was conducted. After full adjustment, there was no difference between aspirin users and non-users for vertebral BMD (adjusted mean difference: 0.036 (95% CI -0.027 to 0.100) g/cm 2 ) and femoral BMD (adjusted mean difference: 0.001 (-0.067 to 0.069) g/cm 2 ). Also in the subgroup of postmenopausal women, aspirin use was not associated with lower vertebral (adjusted mean difference: 0.069 (-0.046 to 0.184) g/cm 2 ) or femoral BMD (adjusted mean difference: -0.055 (-0.139;0.029) g/cm 2 ). Chronic use of low-dose aspirin is not associated with lower BMD in the general population. The increased risk of fractures observed in aspirin users in previous studies is therefore more likely to be the result of common causes of aspirin use and fractures, but not of direct effects of aspirin on BMD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Early growth inhibition is followed by increased metastatic disease with vitamin D (calcitriol treatment in the TRAMP model of prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebusola Alagbala Ajibade

    Full Text Available The active metabolite of vitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol has antiproliferative effects in non-aggressive prostate cancer, however, its effects in more aggressive model systems are still unclear. In these studies, effects of calcitriol and a less-calcemic vitamin D analog, QW-1624F2-2 (QW, were tested in vivo, using the aggressive autochthonous transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP model. To study prevention of androgen-stimulated prostate cancer, vehicle, calcitriol (20 µg/kg, or QW (50 µg/kg were administered to 4 week-old TRAMP mice intraperitoneal (i.p. 3×/week on a MWF schedule for 14 weeks. Calcitriol and QW slowed progression of prostate cancer as indicated by reduced urogenital tract (p = 0.0022, calcitriol; p = 0.0009, QW and prostate weights (p = 0.0178, calcitriol; p = 0.0086, QW. However, only calcitriol increased expression of the pro-differentiation marker, cadherin 1 (p = 0.0086, and reduced tumor proliferation (p = 0.0467. By contrast, neither vitamin D analog had any effect on castration resistant prostate cancer in mice treated pre- or post-castration. Interestingly, although vitamin D showed inhibitory activity against primary tumors in hormone-intact mice, distant organ metastases seemed to be enhanced following treatment (p = 0.0823. Therefore, TRAMP mice were treated long-term with calcitriol to further examine effects on metastasis. Calcitriol significantly increased the number of distant organ metastases when mice were treated from 4 weeks-of-age until development of palpable tumors (20-25 weeks-of-age(p = 0.0003. Overall, data suggest that early intervention with vitamin D in TRAMP slowed androgen-stimulated tumor progression, but prolonged treatment resulted in development of a resistant and more aggressive disease associated with increased distant organ metastasis.

  18. Aspirin-induced AMP-activated protein kinase activation regulates the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells from spontaneously hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Jin Young; Choi, Hyoung Chul

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Aspirin-induced AMPK phosphorylation was greater in VSMC from SHR than WKY. → Aspirin-induced AMPK phosphorylation inhibited proliferation of VSMC from SHR. → Low basal AMPK phosphorylation in SHR elicits increased VSMC proliferation. → Inhibition of AMPK restored decreased VSMC proliferation by aspirin in SHR. → Aspirin exerts anti-proliferative effect through AMPK activation in VSMC from SHR. -- Abstract: Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), used to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease, plays an important role in the regulation of cellular proliferation. However, mechanisms responsible for aspirin-induced growth inhibition are not fully understood. Here, we investigated whether aspirin may exert therapeutic effects via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from wistar kyoto rats (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Aspirin increased AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphorylation in a time- and dose-dependent manner in VSMCs from WKY and SHR, but with greater efficacy in SHR. In SHR, a low basal phosphorylation status of AMPK resulted in increased VSMC proliferation and aspirin-induced AMPK phosphorylation inhibited proliferation of VSMCs. Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, and AMPK siRNA reduced the aspirin-mediated inhibition of VSMC proliferation, this effect was more pronounced in SHR than in WKY. In VSMCs from SHR, aspirin increased p53 and p21 expression and inhibited the expression of cell cycle associated proteins, such as p-Rb, cyclin D, and cyclin E. These results indicate that in SHR VSMCs aspirin exerts anti-proliferative effects through the induction of AMPK phosphorylation.

  19. Aspirin-induced AMP-activated protein kinase activation regulates the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells from spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Jin Young [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyoung Chul, E-mail: hcchoi@med.yu.ac.kr [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-06

    Highlights: {yields} Aspirin-induced AMPK phosphorylation was greater in VSMC from SHR than WKY. {yields} Aspirin-induced AMPK phosphorylation inhibited proliferation of VSMC from SHR. {yields} Low basal AMPK phosphorylation in SHR elicits increased VSMC proliferation. {yields} Inhibition of AMPK restored decreased VSMC proliferation by aspirin in SHR. {yields} Aspirin exerts anti-proliferative effect through AMPK activation in VSMC from SHR. -- Abstract: Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), used to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease, plays an important role in the regulation of cellular proliferation. However, mechanisms responsible for aspirin-induced growth inhibition are not fully understood. Here, we investigated whether aspirin may exert therapeutic effects via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from wistar kyoto rats (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Aspirin increased AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphorylation in a time- and dose-dependent manner in VSMCs from WKY and SHR, but with greater efficacy in SHR. In SHR, a low basal phosphorylation status of AMPK resulted in increased VSMC proliferation and aspirin-induced AMPK phosphorylation inhibited proliferation of VSMCs. Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, and AMPK siRNA reduced the aspirin-mediated inhibition of VSMC proliferation, this effect was more pronounced in SHR than in WKY. In VSMCs from SHR, aspirin increased p53 and p21 expression and inhibited the expression of cell cycle associated proteins, such as p-Rb, cyclin D, and cyclin E. These results indicate that in SHR VSMCs aspirin exerts anti-proliferative effects through the induction of AMPK phosphorylation.

  20. Aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reduce fever and to relieve mild to moderate pain from headaches, menstrual periods, arthritis, colds, toothaches, and muscle aches. Nonprescription ... weekly pill minders and those for eye drops, creams, patches, and inhalers) are not child-resistant and ...

  1. Aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Association Science Volunteer Warning Signs Search for this keyword Search Advanced Search Donate Home About this Journal ... Sign In Join Sign out Search for this keyword Search Advanced search Header Publisher Menu American Heart ...

  2. Aspirin induces IL-4 production: augmented IL-4 production in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Su-Kang; Soo Kim, Byung; Gi Uhm, Tae; Soo Chang, Hun; Sook Park, Jong; Woo Park, Sung; Park, Choon-Sik; Chung, Il Yup

    2016-01-01

    Aspirin hypersensitivity is a hallmark of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), a clinical syndrome characterized by the severe inflammation of the respiratory tract after ingestion of cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitors. We investigated the capacity of aspirin to induce interleukin-4 (IL-4) production in inflammatory cells relevant to AERD pathogenesis and examined the associated biochemical and molecular pathways. We also compared IL-4 production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with AERD vs aspirin-tolerant asthma (ATA) upon exposure to aspirin. Aspirin induced IL-4 expression and activated the IL-4 promoter in a report assay. The capacity of aspirin to induce IL-4 expression correlated with its activity to activate mitogen-activated protein kinases, to form DNA–protein complexes on P elements in the IL-4 promoter and to synthesize nuclear factor of activated T cells, critical transcription factors for IL-4 transcription. Of clinical importance, aspirin upregulated IL-4 production twice as much in PBMCs from patients with AERD compared with PBMCs from patients with ATA. Our results suggest that IL-4 is an inflammatory component mediating intolerance reactions to aspirin, and thus is crucial for AERD pathogenesis. PMID:27534531

  3. Cumulative inhibitory effect of low-dose aspirin on vascular prostacyclin and platelet thromboxane production in patients with atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weksler, B B; Tack-Goldman, K; Subramanian, V A; Gay, W A

    1985-02-01

    The relationship between the antithrombotic and antiplatelet effects of aspirin is complex, since aspirin influences other systems that protect against thrombosis as well as inhibiting platelet function. We investigated possible cumulative effects of low-dose aspirin on vascular production of prostacyclin in patients with documented atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Candidates for coronary artery vein graft bypass ingested 20 mg of aspirin daily during the week before surgery, and platelet aggregation, platelet formation of thromboxane A2 (TXA2), aortic and saphenous vein production of prostacyclin (PGI2), and hemostatic status were measured at the time of the bypass surgery. Low-dose aspirin markedly inhibited platelet aggregation responses and reduced TXA2 generation by greater than 90%, effects similar to those observed with much higher doses of aspirin. Both aortic and saphenous vein production of PGI2 were inhibited by 50% compared with PGI2 produced by vascular tissues of control subjects who received no aspirin preoperatively (51 +/- 10 pg 6-keto-PGF1 alpha/mg aortic wet weight [mean +/- SEM] in aspirin-treated subjects vs 130 +/- 16 pg/mg in control subjects, and 71 +/- 8 pg/mg saphenous vein wet weight vs 131 +/- 17 pg/mg). Blood loss at surgery was not significantly increased by preoperative low-dose aspirin as measured by chest tube drainage (754 +/- 229 ml in aspirin-treated subjects vs 645 +/- 271 ml in control subjects), hematocrit nadir (31.2 +/- 1.9% vs 31.8 +/- 1.7%), or transfusions (2.2 +/- 1.3 units of red blood cells vs 2.2 +/- 1.7 units).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Contemporary Reflections on the Safety of Long-Term Aspirin Treatment for the Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanaroff, Alexander C.; Roe, Matthew T.

    2018-01-01

    Aspirin has been the cornerstone of therapy for the secondary prevention treatment of patients with cardiovascular disease since landmark trials were completed in the late 1970s and early 1980s that demonstrated the efficacy of aspirin for reducing the risk of ischemic events. Notwithstanding the consistent benefits demonstrated with apirin for both acute and chronic cardiovascular disease, there are a number of toxicities associated with aspirin that have been showcased by recent long-term clinical trials that have included an aspirin monotherapy arm. As an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase, aspirin impairs gastric mucosal protective mechanisms. Prior trials have shown that up to 15–20% of patients developed gastrointestinal symptoms with aspirin monotherapy and roughly 1% of patients per year had a clinically significant bleeding event, including 1 in 1000 patients who suffered an intracranial or fatal bleed. These risks have been shown to be compounded for patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), who are also treated with other anti-thrombotic agents during the acute care/procedural period, as well as for an extended time period afterwards. Given observations of substantial increases in bleeding rates from many prior long-term clinical trials that have evaluated aspirin together with other oral platelet inhibitors or oral anti-coagulants, the focus of contemporary research has pivoted towards tailored anti-thrombotic regimens that attempt to either shorten the duration of exposure to aspirin or replace aspirin with an alternative anti-thrombotic agent. While these shifts are occurring, the safety profile of aspirin when used for the secondary prevention treatment of patients with established cardiovascular disease deserves further consideration. PMID:27028617

  5. Nullification of aspirin induced gastrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity by prior administration of wheat germ oil in Mus musculus: histopathological, ultrastructural and molecular studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, H R H; Hamad, S R

    2017-08-30

    Aspirin (acetyl salicylic acid) is used worldwide to treat various inflammatory conditions and prevent cardiovascular disease, along with reducing the risk of cancer. However, administration of aspirin causes toxic effects, especially in the stomach and liver. Thus, our study examined the protective effect of wheat germ oil on aspirin-induced toxicity in the stomach and liver tissues of Swiss albino mice. Administration of wheat germ oil before aspirin has restored normal hepatic and gastric tissue architecture and DNA integrity has become better than that of a negative health control group compared with the aspirin only treated group. The elevated gastric nitric oxide content in the aspirin only treated group was significantly decreased by wheat germ oil prior administration as a result of reduced the expression of inducible nitric synthase and increased the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase compared to their expression in the aspirin administered group. Wheat germ oil pre-administration significantly reduced the level of malondialdehyde, increased the level of glutathione and catalase and superoxide dismutase activities compared with those in aspirin only treated group. We conclude that wheat germ oil has a potential protective effect against aspirin induced gastro- and hepato-toxicity because of its free radical scavenging ability.

  6. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound or with a rectal examination, an ultrasound-guided biopsy can be performed. This procedure involves advancing ... of the Prostate) Prostate Cancer Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy Images related to Ultrasound - Prostate Sponsored ...

  7. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is enlarged, also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) , with measurements acquired as needed for any treatment ... caption Related Articles and Media Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) (Enlargement of the Prostate) Prostate Cancer Ultrasound- and ...

  8. Increased expression of Golgi phosphoprotein-3 is associated with tumor aggressiveness and poor prognosis of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Xing

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the expression of Golgi phosphoprotein-3 (GOLPH3 in prostate cancer and determine its prognostic value. Methods Immunohistochemical staining for GOLPH3 was performed on tissue microarrays of 342 prostate patients. The correlation between GOLPH3 expression with its clinicopathologic factors was also analyzed in order to determine its prognostic significance. Results GOLPH3 expression of normal prostate tissues, benign prostate hyperplasia, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and hormone-dependent prostate cancer (HDPC did not show any statistically significant difference. In contrast, statistically significant difference was reported in moderate/intense GOLPH3 expression in cases diagnosed with HDPC and castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC (P P = 0.012, higher Gleason score (P = 0.017, bone metastasis (P = 0.024, higher baseline prostate-specific antigen (PSA (P = 0.038, and higher PSA nadir (P = 0.032. A significantly negative correlation was found between moderate/intense GOLPH3 expression and disease-free survival (DFS (HR = 0.28, P = 0.012 and overall survival (OS (HR = 0.42, P = 0.027. Univariated analysis indicated that moderate/intense GOLPH3 expression created a significantly prognostic impact in patients with CRPC. On the other hand, multivariate analysis indicated that GOLPH3 was a significantly independent prognostic factor of DFS (P = 0.027 in all prostate cancer patients. Conclusions In this study, it was discovered that the overexpression of GOLPH3 is associated with the transition of prostate cancer from hormone sensitive phase to hormone refractory phase. GOLPH3 might be an important prognostic factor of DFS and OS in patients with prostate cancer. In totality, GOLPH3 could be used as a novel candidate in devising a more effective therapeutic strategy to tackle CRPC. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here

  9. NOSH-aspirin (NBS-1120), a novel nitric oxide- and hydrogen sulfide-releasing hybrid has enhanced chemo-preventive properties compared to aspirin, is gastrointestinal safe with all the classic therapeutic indications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodela, Ravinder; Chattopadhyay, Mitali; Velázquez-Martínez, Carlos A.; Kashfi, Khosrow

    2015-01-01

    Aspirin is chemopreventive; however, side effects preclude its long-term use. NOSH-aspirin (NBS-1120), a novel hybrid that releases nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide, was designed to be a safer alternative. Here we compare the gastrointestinal safety, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, anti-platelet, and chemopreventive properties of aspirin and NBS-1120 administered orally to rats at equimolar doses. Gastrointestinal safety: 6h post-administration, the number and size of hemorrhagic lesions in stomachs were counted; tissue samples were frozen for PGE2, SOD, and MDA determination. Anti-inflammatory: 1h after drug administration, the volume of carrageenan-induced rat paw edemas was measured for 5h. Anti-pyretic: fever was induced by LPS (ip) an hour before administration of the test drugs, core body temperature was measured hourly for 5h. Analgesic: time-dependent analgesic effects were evaluated by carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia. Antiplatelet: anti-aggregatory effects were studied on collagen-induced platelet aggregation of human platelet-rich plasma. Chemoprevention: Nude mice were gavaged daily for 25 days with vehicle, aspirin or NBS-1120. After one week, each mouse was inoculated subcutaneously in the right flank with HT-29 human colon cancer cells. Both agents reduced PGE2 levels in stomach tissue; however, NBS-1120 did not cause any stomach ulcers, whereas aspirin caused significant bleeding. Lipid peroxidation induced by aspirin was higher than that exerted by NBS-1120. SOD activity was significantly inhibited by aspirin but increased by NBS-1120. Both agents showed similar anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-pyretic, and anti-platelet activities. Aspirin increased plasma TNFα more than NBS-1120-treated animals. NBS-1120 was better than aspirin as a chemopreventive agent; it dose-dependently inhibited tumor growth and tumor mass. PMID:26394025

  10. Aspirin plus dipyridamole versus aspirin alone after cerebral ischaemia of arterial origin (ESPRIT): randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkes, P H A; van Gijn, J; Kappelle, L J; Koudstaal, P J; Algra, A

    2006-05-20

    Results of trials of aspirin and dipyridamole combined versus aspirin alone for the secondary prevention of vascular events after ischaemic stroke of presumed arterial origin are inconsistent. Our aim was to resolve this uncertainty. We did a randomised controlled trial in which we assigned patients to aspirin (30-325 mg daily) with (n=1363) or without (n=1376) dipyridamole (200 mg twice daily) within 6 months of a transient ischaemic attack or minor stroke of presumed arterial origin. Our primary outcome event was the composite of death from all vascular causes, non-fatal stroke, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or major bleeding complication, whichever happened first. Treatment was open, but auditing of outcome events was blinded. Primary analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial (number ISRCTN73824458) and with (NCT00161070). Mean follow-up was 3.5 years (SD 2.0). Median aspirin dose was 75 mg in both treatment groups (range 30-325); extended-release dipyridamole was used by 83% (n=1131) of patients on the combination regimen. Primary outcome events arose in 173 (13%) patients on aspirin and dipyridamole and in 216 (16%) on aspirin alone (hazard ratio 0.80, 95% CI 0.66-0.98; absolute risk reduction 1.0% per year, 95% CI 0.1-1.8). Addition of the ESPRIT data to the meta-analysis of previous trials resulted in an overall risk ratio for the composite of vascular death, stroke, or myocardial infarction of 0.82 (95% CI 0.74-0.91). Patients on aspirin and dipyridamole discontinued trial medication more often than those on aspirin alone (470 vs 184), mainly because of headache. The ESPRIT results, combined with the results of previous trials, provide sufficient evidence to prefer the combination regimen of aspirin plus dipyridamole over aspirin alone as antithrombotic therapy after cerebral ischaemia of arterial origin.

  11. Role of p38 MAPK in enhanced human cancer cells killing by the combination of aspirin and ABT-737

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chong; Shi, Jing; Mao, Shi-ying; Xu, Ya-si; Zhang, Dan; Feng, Lin-yi; Zhang, Bo; Yan, You-you; Wang, Si-cong; Pan, Jian-ping; Yang, You-ping; Lin, Neng-ming

    2015-01-01

    Regular use of aspirin after diagnosis is associated with longer survival among patients with mutated-PIK3CA colorectal cancer, but not among patients with wild-type PIK3CA cancer. In this study, we showed that clinically achievable concentrations of aspirin and ABT-737 in combination could induce a synergistic growth arrest in several human PIK3CA wild-type cancer cells. In addition, our results also demonstrated that long-term combination treatment with aspirin and ABT-737 could synergistically induce apoptosis both in A549 and H1299 cells. In the meanwhile, short-term aspirin plus ABT-737 combination treatment induced a greater autophagic response than did either drug alone and the combination-induced autophagy switched from a cytoprotective signal to a death-promoting signal. Furthermore, we showed that p38 acted as a switch between two different types of cell death (autophagy and apoptosis) induced by aspirin plus ABT-737. Moreover, the increased anti-cancer efficacy of aspirin combined with ABT-737 was further validated in a human lung cancer A549 xenograft model. We hope that this synergy may contribute to failure of aspirin cancer therapy and ultimately lead to efficacious regimens for cancer therapy. PMID:25388762

  12. Caffeine and Aspirin Protecting Albino Rats A gainst Biochemical and Histological Disorders Induced by Whole Body Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Rahman, N.A.; Sherif, N.H.

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine is an alkaloid (purine derivative) that contains flavonoids, where as aspirin, natural component of mammalian tissue ( acetylsalicylic acid) is one of the most commonly used non steroidal anti - inflammatory , and it is a necessary factor in the utilization of long - chain fatty acids to produce energy. Furthermore, it has been shown to protect cells from per oxidative stress. Th e objective of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of caffeine (1,3,7 - trimethyl xanthine) 80 mg/kg b.wt. a nd aspirin ( acetylsalicylic acid) in the amelioration of the physiological and histological changes in stomach and intestine of rats exposed to gamma irradiation . Male albino rats were divided into 8 groups. 1 - Control group: rats not subject to any treatment, 2 - Caffeine group: rats received caffeine ( 80 ml/Kg body weight )via intraperitoneal injection for 21 days, 3 - Aspirin group: rats received aspirin (150 mg / kg body) via intraperitoneal injection for 21 days , 4 - Caffeine + Aspirin group: rats received caffeine a nd aspirin treatment, 5 - Radiation groups: rats were whole body gamma irradiated at 8 Gy , 6 - Caffeine + Radiation group: rats received caffeine for 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation at 8 Gy, 7 - Aspirin + Radiation group: rats received aspirin during 21 days before w hole body gamma irradiation , 8 - Caffeine + Aspirin + Radiation group: rats received caffeine parallel to aspirin for 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation. Animals were sacrificed 24 hrs post irradiation. The results demonstrated that rats exposed to whole body gamma irradiation showed a significant increase in alanine amino transferase (AL ) , aspartate amino transferase ( AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and a significant decrease in total protein indicating liver injury. A significant increase in urea, creatinine, Na + ,and K + were recorded indicating kidney damage. Alteration of liver and kidney functions was accompanied by a significant

  13. Lethal outcome after pelvic salvage radiotherapy in a patient with prostate cancer due to increased radiosensitivity. Case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahrig, Antje; Koch, T.; Lenhart, M.; Rieckmann, P.; Fietkau, R.; Distel, Luitpold; Schuster, B.

    2018-01-01

    In general, late side effects after salvage radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer are below 10%. Patients with impaired DNA repair ability and genetic instability can have significantly increased reactions after RT. We present a patient who experienced severe side effects after additive RT for prostate cancer and died from the complications 25 months after RT. Imaging (MR) is shown as well as three-color fluorescence in situ hybridization. The blood sample testing revealed that radiosensitivity was increased by 35-55%. We undertook a review of the literature to give an overview over the tests established that are currently considered useful. This case highlights that the identification of patients with increased radiosensitivity is an important task in radiation protection. Groups of patients who should be screened have to be found and corresponding research facilities have to be set up. (orig.) [de

  14. Combined aspirin and cilostazol treatment is associated with reduced platelet aggregation and prevention of exercise-induced platelet activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleanthis, M; Bhattacharya, V; Smout, J; Ashour, H; Stansby, G

    2009-05-01

    Cilostazol has proven efficacy in increasing walking distance in claudicants, but it has not been demonstrated to be more effective than placebo in secondary cardiovascular prevention. The direct effect of exercise on platelet function remains less well defined. We have investigated the effect of combination treatment with aspirin and cilostazol on platelet activity in claudicants subjected to repeated treadmill exercise. Nineteen claudicants completed a double-blind, randomised, controlled, cross-over trial. Each subject received a 2-week course of aspirin (75mg) and placebo and aspirin and cilostazol (100mg twice daily). Following each 2-week treatment period, patients participated in a standardised treadmill test (3.2kmh(-1), 10 degrees incline) walking to maximal claudication distance. The exercise was repeated thrice in total, and blood was sampled before and after exercise. Platelet activation was measured using free platelet counting aggregation, flow cytometry for surface markers of platelet activation and soluble P-selectin assay. Compared to aspirin and placebo, combination treatment with aspirin and cilostazol was associated with reduced arachidonic-acid-induced platelet aggregation (pWilcoxon signed-rank test). Aspirin and placebo treatment were associated with elevated P-selectin expression, platelet-monocyte aggregation and reduced CD42b expression (pWilcoxon signed-rank test) post-exercise. No difference was seen in spontaneous platelet aggregation whilst soluble P-selectin was reduced post-exercise with combination treatment with aspirin and cilostazol (pWilcoxon signed-rank test). Combination treatment with aspirin and cilostazol results in suppression of platelet activation and reduces the effect of exercise on platelets. The benefit seen may be a result of cilostazol enhancing the inhibitory effect of aspirin on the cyclo-oxygenase pathway.

  15. Increased Expression of Herpes Virus-Encoded hsv1-miR-H18 and hsv2-miR-H9-5p in Cancer-Containing Prostate Tissue Compared to That in Benign Prostate Hyperplasia Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok Joong Yun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Previously, we reported the presence of virus-encoded microRNAs (miRNAs in the urine of prostate cancer (CaP patients. In this study, we investigated the expression of two herpes virus-encoded miRNAs in prostate tissue. Methods: A total of 175 tissue samples from noncancerous benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, 248 tissue samples from patients with CaP and BPH, and 50 samples from noncancerous surrounding tissues from these same patients were analyzed for the expression of two herpes virus-encoded miRNAs by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR and immunocytochemistry using nanoparticles as molecular beacons. Results: Real-time reverse transcription-PCR results revealed significantly higher expression of hsv1-miR-H18 and hsv2-miRH9- 5p in surrounding noncancerous and CaP tissues than that in BPH tissue (each comparison, P<0.001. Of note, these miRNA were expressed equivalently in the CaP tissues and surrounding noncancerous tissues. Moreover, immunocytochemistry clearly demonstrated a significant enrichment of both hsv1-miR-H18 and hsv2-miR-H9 beacon-labeled cells in CaP and surrounding noncancerous tissue compared to that in BPH tissue (each comparison, P<0.05 for hsv1-miR-H18 and hsv2- miR-H9. Conclusions: These results suggest that increased expression of hsv1-miR-H18 and hsv2-miR-H95p might be associated with tumorigenesis in the prostate. Further studies will be required to elucidate the role of these miRNAs with respect to CaP and herpes viral infections.

  16. Long-term sinonasal outcomes of aspirin desensitization in aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyu-Sup; Soudry, Ethan; Psaltis, Alkis J; Nadeau, Kari C; McGhee, Sean A; Nayak, Jayakar V; Hwang, Peter H

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to assess sinonasal outcomes in patients with aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) undergoing aspirin desensitization following endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Case series with chart review. University hospital. A retrospective review of sinonasal outcomes was conducted for 30 AERD patients undergoing aspirin desensitization and maintenance therapy following ESS. Sinonasal outcomes were prospectively assessed by the Sinonasal Outcomes Test-22 (SNOT-22) and endoscopic polyp grading system. Data were collected preoperatively, 1 and 4 weeks postsurgery (before desensitization), and 1, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 months after aspirin desensitization. Twenty-eight of 30 patients (93.3%) successfully completed aspirin desensitization, whereas 2 of 30 (6.7%) were unable to complete desensitization due to respiratory intolerance. Of the 21 patients who successfully completed a minimum of 24 weeks of follow-up, 20 (95.2%) patients demonstrated sustained endoscopic and symptomatic improvement for a median follow-up period of 33 months. After surgical treatment but before desensitization, patients experienced significant reductions in SNOT-22 and polyp grade scores. In the first 6 months after aspirin desensitization, patients experienced further significant reductions in SNOT-22 scores, whereas polyp grade remained stable. The improvements in symptom endoscopic scores were preserved throughout the follow-up period after desensitization. No patients required additional sinus surgery. One patient had to discontinue aspirin therapy due to gastrointestinal side effects. No other adverse reactions to aspirin were noted. Aspirin desensitization following ESS appears to be a well-tolerated and effective adjunctive therapy for long-term control of nasal polyposis in patients with AERD. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  17. 21 CFR 520.1409 - Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. 520.1409... Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 0.5 milligram of methylprednisolone and 300 milligrams of aspirin. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000009 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) NAS/NRC...

  18. A critical appraisal of the phenomenon of aspirin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup Poulsen, Tina; Risom Kristensen, Søren; Atar, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Aspirin is the mainstay antiplatelet treatment in patients with high risk of cardiovascular atherothrombotic events, and its beneficial effect is documented in several clinical trials. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of aspirin has been questioned by the emergence of the concept of 'aspirin...

  19. Loss of TGF-β signaling in osteoblasts increases basic-FGF and promotes prostate cancer bone metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangqi; Vander Ark, Alexandra; Daft, Paul; Woodford, Erica; Wang, Jie; Madaj, Zachary; Li, Xiaohong

    2018-04-01

    TGF-β plays a central role in prostate cancer (PCa) bone metastasis, and it is crucial to understand the bone cell-specific role of TGF-β signaling in this process. Thus, we used knockout (KO) mouse models having deletion of the Tgfbr2 gene specifically in osteoblasts (Tgfbr2 Col1CreERT KO) or in osteoclasts (Tgfbr2 LysMCre KO). We found that PCa-induced bone lesion development was promoted in the Tgfbr2 Col1CreERT KO mice, but was inhibited in the Tgfbr2 LysMCre KO mice, relative to their respective control Tgfbr2 FloxE2 littermates. Since metastatic PCa cells attach to osteoblasts when colonized in the bone microenvironment, we focused on the mechanistic studies using the Tgfbr2 Col1CreERT KO mouse model. We found that bFGF was upregulated in osteoblasts from PC3-injected tibiae of Tgfbr2 Col1CreERT KO mice and correlated with increased tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis, amounts of cancer-associated fibroblasts and osteoclasts. In vitro studies showed that osteoblastogenesis was inhibited, osteoclastogenesis was stimulated, but PC3 viability was not affected, by bFGF treatments. Lastly, the increased PC3-induced bone lesions in Tgfbr2 Col1CreERT KO mice were significantly attenuated by blocking bFGF using neutralizing antibody, suggesting bFGF is a promising target inhibiting bone metastasis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A prospective study of aspirin use and the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding in men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward S Huang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Data regarding the influence of dose and duration of aspirin use on risk of gastrointestinal bleeding are conflicting.We conducted a prospective cohort study of 32,989 men enrolled in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS in 1994 who provided biennial aspirin data. We estimated relative risk of major gastrointestinal bleeding requiring hospitalization or a blood transfusion.During 14 years of follow-up, 707 men reported an episode of major gastrointestinal bleeding over 377,231 person-years. After adjusting for risk factors, regular aspirin use (≥2 times/week had a multivariate relative risk (RR of gastrointestinal bleeding of 1.32 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-1.55 compared to non-regular use. The association was particularly evident for upper gastrointestinal bleeding (multivariate RR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.16-1.92. Compared to men who denied any aspirin use, multivariate RRs of upper gastrointestinal bleeding were 1.05 (95% CI 0.71-1.52 for men who used 0.5-1.5 standard tablets/week, 1.31 (95% CI 0.88-1.95 for 2-5 aspirin/week, 1.63 (95% CI, 1.15-2.32 for 6-14 aspirin/week and 2.40 (95% CI, 1.10-5.22 for >14 aspirin/week (P(trend<0.001. The relative risk also appeared to be dose-dependent among short-term users <5 years; P(trend<.001 and long-term users (≥5 years; P(trend = 0.015. In contrast, after controlling for dose, increasing duration of use did not appear to be associated with risk (P(trend = 0.749.Regular aspirin use increases the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding, especially from the upper tract. However, risk of bleeding appears to be more strongly related to dose than to duration of use. Risk of bleeding should be minimized by using the lowest effective dose among short-term and long-term aspirin users.

  1. Edema-induced increase in tumour cell survival for 125I and 103Pd prostate permanent seed implants - a bio-mathematical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Ning; Chen Zhe; Nath, Ravinder

    2002-01-01

    Edema caused by the surgical procedure of prostate seed implantation expands the source-to-point distances within the prostate and hence decreases the dose coverage. The decrease of dose coverage results in an increase in tumour cell survival. To investigate the effects of edema on tumour cell survival, a bio-mathematical model of edema and the corresponding cell killing by continuous low dose rate irradiation (CLDRI) was developed so that tumour cell surviving fractions can be estimated in an edematous prostate for both 125 I and 103 Pd seed implants. The dynamic nature of edema and its resolution were modelled with an exponential function V(T)=V p (1+M exp(-0.693T/T e )) where V p is the prostate volume before implantation, M is the edema magnitude and T e is edema half-life (EHL). The dose rate of a radioactive seed was calculated according to AAPM TG43, i.e. D radical S k Δg(r) φ-bar an /r 2 , where r is the distance between a seed and a given point. The distance r is now a function of time because of edema. The g(r) was approximated as 1/r 0.4 and 1/r 0.8 for 125 I and 103 Pd, respectively. By expanding the mathematical expression of the resultant dose rate in a Taylor series of exponential functions of time, the dose rate was made equivalent to that produced from multiple fictitious radionuclides of different decay constants and strengths. The biologically effective dose (BED) for an edematous prostate implant was then calculated using a generalized Dale equation. The cell surviving fraction was computed as exp(-αBED), where α is the linear coefficient of the survival curve. The tumour cell survival was calculated for both 125 I and 103 Pd seed implants and for different tumour potential doubling time (TPDT) (from 5 days to 30 days) and for edemas of different magnitudes (from 0% to 95%) and edema half-lives (from 4 days to 30 days). Tumour cell survival increased with the increase of edema magnitude and EHL. For a typical edema of a half-life of 10 days

  2. ESR investigation of gamma-irradiated Aspirin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozar, O.; Chis, V.; David, L.; Damian, G.; Barbur, I.

    1997-01-01

    Electron spin resonance spectroscopy was used to investigate the radiation damage in a powder of 2-acetoxybenzoic acid (Aspirin). Three types of radicals occur by γ-irradiation of Aspirin at room temperature. Two of them are result of hydrogen abstraction while the third is produced by hydrogen addition at one of the carbon atoms of the ring. The relative yielding of the free radicals as a function of absorbed dose in the range of 2.4 kGy to 160 kGy is also discussed. (author)

  3. Long-term efficacy of aspirin desensitization in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease. Review of two clinical cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Cambray-Gutiérrez

    2016-05-01

    Clinical cases: two patients diagnosed with respiratory disease exacerbated by aspirin, with poor asthma control and need for multiple polypectomies, despite optimal pharmacological management, carrying out protocol desensitization to aspirin (AAS successful, now after 4 years of having carried out, they have adequate asthma control without need for polypectomies with a maintenance dose of aspirin 150 mg/day.

  4. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering studies of the slow dynamics of supercooled and glassy aspirin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yang; Mamontov, Eugene; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is not only a wonderful drug, but also a good glass former. Therefore, it serves as an important molecular system to study the near-arrest and arrested phenomena. In this paper, a high-resolution quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) technique is used to investigate the slow dynamics of supercooled liquid and glassy aspirin from 410 down to 350 K. The measured QENS spectra can be analyzed with a stretched exponential model. We find that (i) the stretched exponent β(Q) is independent of the wavevector transfer Q in the measured Q range and (ii) the structural relaxation time τ(Q) follows a power-law dependence on Q. Consequently, the Q-independent structural relaxation time τ 0 can be extracted for each temperature to characterize the slow dynamics of aspirin. The temperature dependence of τ 0 can be fitted with the mode-coupling power law, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation and a universal equation for fragile glass forming liquids recently proposed by Tokuyama in the measured temperature range. The calculated dynamic response function χ T (Q, t) using the experimentally determined self-intermediate scattering function of the hydrogen atoms of aspirin shows direct evidence of the enhanced dynamic fluctuations as the aspirin is increasingly supercooled, in agreement with the fixed-time mean squared displacement (x 2 ) and the non-Gaussian parameter α 2 extracted from the elastic scattering.

  5. Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering Studies of the Slow Dynamics of Supercooled and Glassy Aspirin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yang [ORNL; Tyagi, M. [NCNR and University of Maryland; Mamontov, Eugene [ORNL; Chen, Sow-hsin H [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is not only a wonderful drug, but also a good glass former. Therefore, it serves as an important molecular system to study the near-arrest and arrested phenomena. In this paper, a high-resolution quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) technique is used to investigate the slow dynamics of supercooled liquid and glassy aspirin from 410 K down to 350 K. The measured QENS spectra can be analyzed with a stretched exponential model. We find that (i) the stretched exponent (Q) is independent of the wave vector transfer Q in the measured Q-range, and (ii) the structural relaxation time (Q) follows a power law dependence on Q. Consequently, the Q-independent structural relaxation time 0 can be extracted for each temperature to characterize the slow dynamics of aspirin. The temperature dependence of 0 can be fitted with the mode coupling power law, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation and a universal equation for fragile glass forming liquids recently proposed by M. Tokuyama in the measured temperature range. The calculated dynamic response function T(Q,t) using the experimentally determined self-intermediate scattering function of the hydrogen atoms of aspirin shows a direct evidence of the enhanced dynamic fluctuations as the aspirin is increasingly supercooled, in agreement with the fixed-time mean squared displacement x2 and non-Gaussian parameter 2 extracted from the elastic scattering.

  6. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering studies of the slow dynamics of supercooled and glassy aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Mamontov, Eugene; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2012-02-01

    Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is not only a wonderful drug, but also a good glass former. Therefore, it serves as an important molecular system to study the near-arrest and arrested phenomena. In this paper, a high-resolution quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) technique is used to investigate the slow dynamics of supercooled liquid and glassy aspirin from 410 down to 350 K. The measured QENS spectra can be analyzed with a stretched exponential model. We find that (i) the stretched exponent β(Q) is independent of the wavevector transfer Q in the measured Q range and (ii) the structural relaxation time τ(Q) follows a power-law dependence on Q. Consequently, the Q-independent structural relaxation time τ0 can be extracted for each temperature to characterize the slow dynamics of aspirin. The temperature dependence of τ0 can be fitted with the mode-coupling power law, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation and a universal equation for fragile glass forming liquids recently proposed by Tokuyama in the measured temperature range. The calculated dynamic response function χT(Q, t) using the experimentally determined self-intermediate scattering function of the hydrogen atoms of aspirin shows direct evidence of the enhanced dynamic fluctuations as the aspirin is increasingly supercooled, in agreement with the fixed-time mean squared displacement langx2rang and the non-Gaussian parameter α2 extracted from the elastic scattering.

  7. Effect of aspirin and prostaglandins on the carbohydrate metabolism in albino rats.: glucose oxidation through different pathways and glycolytic enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, A.; Ramakrishnan, S.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of chronic and acute doses of aspirin and prostaglandins F2α and E2 individually on the oxidation of glucose through Embden Meyerhof-TCA cycle and pentose phosphate pathways and some key glycolytic enzymes of liver were studied in male albino rats. Studies were extended to find the combined effect of PGF2α and E2 with an acute dose of aspirin. There was increased utilisation of both 1- 14 C glucose and 6- 14 C glucose on aspirin treatment. However, the metabolism through the EM-TCA pathway was more pronounced as shown by a reduced ratio of 14 CO 2 from 1- 14 C and 6- 14 C glucose. Two hepatic key glycolytic enzymes viz. hexokinase and pyruvate kinase were increased due to aspirin treatment. Withdrawal of aspirin corrected the above impaired carbohydrate metabolism in liver. Prostaglandin F2α also caused a reduction in the utilisation of 1- 14 C glucose, while PGE2 recorded an increase in the utilisation of both 1- 14 C and 6- 14 C glucose when compared to controls, indicating that different members of prostaglandins could affect metabolisms and differently. Administration of the PGs and aspirin together showed an increase in the utilisation of 6- 14 C glucose. (auth.)

  8. Electrochemical oxidation of drug residues in water by the example of tetracycline, gentamicin and Aspirin {sup trademark}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weichgrebe, D.; Danilova, E.; Rosenwinkel, K.H. [Inst. of Water Quality and Waste Management, Univ. of Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Vedenjapin, A.; Baturova, M. [Inst. of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2003-07-01

    The electrochemical oxidation as a method to destroy drug residues like Aspirin {sup trademark}, tetracycline or gentamicin in water was investigated with C-Anode (modified by manganese oxides) and Pt Anode. The mechanism of Aspirin {sup trademark} and tetracycline oxidation and the influence of the biocide effect was observed using GC-MS and three different microbiological tests. In general the biological availability increases with progressive oxidation of the antibiotics. (orig.)

  9. SU-E-T-245: MR Guided Focused Ultrasound Increased PARP Related Apoptosis On Prostate Cancer in Vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L; Chen, X; Cvetkovic, D; Gupta, R; Yang, D; Ma, C

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Our previous study demonstrated that significant tumor growth delay was observed in the mice treated with pulsed high intensity focused ultrasound (pHIFU). The purpose of this study is to understand the cell killing mechanisms of pHIFU. Methods: Prostate cancer cells (LNCaP), were grown orthotopically in 17 nude mice. Tumor-bearing mice were treated using pHIFU with an acoustic power of 25W, pulse width 100msec and 300 pulses in one sonication under MR guidance. Mutiple sonications were used to cover the whole tumor volume. Temperature (less than 40 degree centigrade in the focal spot) was monitored using MR thermometry. Animals were euthanized at pre-determined time points (n=2) after treatment: 0 hours; 6 hrs; 24 hrs; 48 hrs; 4 days and 7 days. Two tumorbearing mice were used as control. Three tumor-bearing mice were treated with radiation (RT, 2 Gy) using 6 MV photon beams. RT treated mice were euthanized at 0 hr, 6 hrs and 24 hrs. The tumors were processed for immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for PARP (a surrogate of apoptosis). A multispectral imaging analysis system was used to quantify the expression of PARP staining. Cell apoptosis was calculated based on the PARP expression level, which is the intensity of the DAB reaction. Results: Our data showed that PARP related apoptosis peaked at 48 hrs and 7 days in pHIFU treated mice, which is comparable to that for the RT group at 24 hrs. The preliminary results from this study were consistent with our previous study on tumor growth delay using pHIFU. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that non-thermal pHIFU increased apoptotic tumor cell death through the PARP related pathway. MR guided pHIFU may have a great potential as a safe, noninvasive treatment modality for cancer therapy. This treatment modality might be able to synergize with PARP inhibitors to achieve better result

  10. The Prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Prostate Cancer This booklet is about prostate cancer. Learning about medical care for your cancer ... ePub This booklet covers: The anatomy of the prostate and basics about prostate cancer Treatments for prostate ...

  11. Aspirin for the prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism: the INSPIRE collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simes, John; Becattini, Cecilia; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Eikelboom, John W; Kirby, Adrienne C; Mister, Rebecca; Prandoni, Paolo; Brighton, Timothy A

    2014-09-23

    In patients with a first unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE) the risk of recurrent VTE remains high after anticoagulant treatment is discontinued. The Aspirin for the Prevention of Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism (the Warfarin and Aspirin [WARFASA]) and the Aspirin to Prevent Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism (ASPIRE) trials showed that aspirin reduces this risk, but they were not individually powered to detect treatment effects for particular outcomes or subgroups. An individual patient data analysis of these trials was planned, before their results were known, to assess the effect of aspirin versus placebo on recurrent VTE, major vascular events (recurrent VTE, myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular disease death) and bleeding, overall and within predefined subgroups. The primary analysis, for VTE, was by intention to treat using time-to-event data. Of 1224 patients, 193 had recurrent VTE over 30.4 months' median follow-up. Aspirin reduced recurrent VTE (7.5%/yr versus 5.1%/yr; hazard ratio [HR], 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51-0.90; P=0.008), including both deep-vein thrombosis (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.47-0.92; P=0.01) and pulmonary embolism (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.41-1.06; P=0.08). Aspirin reduced major vascular events (8.7%/yr versus 5.7%/yr; HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.50-0.86; P=0.002). The major bleeding rate was low (0.4%/yr for placebo and 0.5%/yr for aspirin). After adjustment for treatment adherence, recurrent VTE was reduced by 42% (HR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40-0.85; P=0.005). Prespecified subgroup analyses indicate similar relative, but larger absolute, risk reductions in men and older patients. Aspirin after anticoagulant treatment reduces the overall risk of recurrence by more than a third in a broad cross-section of patients with a first unprovoked VTE, without significantly increasing the risk of bleeding. www.anzctr.org.au. Unique identifier: ACTRN12611000684921. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Aspirin challenge and desensitization: how, when and why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortellini, Gabriele; Caruso, Cristiano; Romano, Antonino

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the current approach to aspirin challenge (drug provocation) and/or desensitization in patients with histories of hypersensitivity reactions to it, particularly in those with cardiovascular diseases. The literature indicates that patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), including those with an acute coronary syndrome, may safely undergo low-dose aspirin challenge and/or desensitization. Recently, flowcharts regarding challenge/desensitization procedures with aspirin in patients with CAD and histories of aspirin hypersensitivity reactions have become available. Aspirin desensitization and continuous aspirin therapy constitute an effective option in patients with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-exacerbated respiratory diseases (NERD) who have suboptimally controlled asthma or rhinosinusitis, or require multiple revision polypectomies. The use of aspirin has proven to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with CAD. There is a general consensus on aspirin's effectiveness in secondary prevention of CAD. Therefore, aspirin desensitization is necessary in patients with CAD and histories of hypersensitivity reactions to it. The effectiveness of aspirin desensitization and continuous therapy in patients with NERD has been shown in numerous studies. However, shared selection criteria of candidates for aspirin challenge/desensitization procedures, and simple and homogeneous protocols are necessary. Moreover, preventive safety measures are still needed in order to reduce the potential risks of these procedures.

  13. Rivaroxaban with or without aspirin in stable cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eikelboom, John W; Connolly, Stuart J; Bosch, Jackie

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We evaluated whether rivaroxaban alone or in combination with aspirin would be more effective than aspirin alone for secondary cardiovascular prevention. METHODS: In this double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 27,395 participants with stable atherosclerotic vascular disease to receive...... rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) plus aspirin (100 mg once daily), rivaroxaban (5 mg twice daily), or aspirin (100 mg once daily). The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death, stroke, or myocardial infarction. The study was stopped for superiority of the rivaroxaban-plus-aspirin group after...... a mean follow-up of 23 months. RESULTS: The primary outcome occurred in fewer patients in the rivaroxaban-plus-aspirin group than in the aspirin-alone group (379 patients [4.1%] vs. 496 patients [5.4%]; hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 0.86; P

  14. Aspirin degradation in surface-charged TEMPO-oxidized mesoporous crystalline nanocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Daniel O; Hua, Kai; Forsgren, Johan; Mihranyan, Albert

    2014-01-30

    TEMPO-mediated surface oxidation of mesoporous highly crystalline Cladophora cellulose was used to introduce negative surface charges onto cellulose nanofibrils without significantly altering other structural characteristics. This enabled the investigation of the influence of mesoporous nanocellulose surface charges on aspirin chemical stability to be conducted. The negative surface charges (carboxylate content 0.44±0.01 mmol/g) introduced on the mesoporous crystalline nanocellulose significantly accelerated aspirin degradation, compared to the starting material which had significantly less surface charge (0.06±0.01 mmol/g). This effect followed from an increased aspirin amorphisation ability in mesopores of the oxidized nanocellulose. These results highlight the importance of surface charges in formulating nanocellulose for drug delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of exercise on platelet activation during aspirin or clopidogrel intake in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth Madsen, Esben; Christiansen, Morten Krogh; Schmidt, Erik Berg

    2009-01-01

    aggregometry. A significant increase in plasma von Willebrand Factor was also found in response to exercise. In conclusion, platelet activation occurs during exercise in healthy individuals. This activation is not prevented by use of aspirin or clopidogrel, and may partly be explained by an increase in plasma...

  16. Topical diclofenac does not affect the antiplatelet properties of aspirin as compared to the intermediate effects of oral diclofenac: A prospective, randomized, complete crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowcliffe, M; Nezami, B; Westphal, E S; Rainka, M; Janda, M; Bates, V; Gengo, F

    2016-04-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) adversely interact with aspirin, diminishing its antiplatelet effect and potentially placing patients at an increased risk for recurrent thrombotic events. This crossover study aimed to determine whether the topical NSAID diclofenac epolamine 1.3% patch or oral diclofenac 50 mg interfered with the antiplatelet effects of aspirin 325 mg. Twelve healthy men and women aged 18-50 were included. Participants were randomized into 5 treatment arms: aspirin, diclofenac potassium 50 mg, diclofenac patch, diclofenac potassium plus ASA 325 mg, and diclofenac patch plus aspirin. Platelet responsiveness was determined using whole-blood impedance aggregation (WBA) to collagen 1 μg/mL and arachidonic acid (AA) 0.5 mM and was sampled every 2 hours. No significant difference in platelet function was observed following the diclofenac patch and aspirin vs aspirin alone. Oral diclofenac produced a mixed effect with significant reduction in platelet inhibition at hour 2 and hour 8 following aspirin administration. Topical diclofenac does not significantly interfere with the antiplatelet effects of aspirin and may be a safer alternative to the oral formulation. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  17. Prostate Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Prostate Diseases Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic ... body. Approximately 3 million American men have some type of prostate disease. The most common prostate diseases ...

  18. Prostate brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Implant therapy - prostate cancer; Radioactive seed placement; Internal radiation therapy - prostate; High dose radiation (HDR) ... place the seeds that deliver radiation into your prostate. The seeds are placed with needles or special ...

  19. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of the prostate uses sound waves to ... Ultrasound Imaging? What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Prostate? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces pictures ...

  20. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Z Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of the prostate uses sound waves to produce pictures of a man’s prostate ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  1. Effect of aspirin treatment on chondromalacia patellae.

    OpenAIRE

    Bentley, G; Leslie, I J; Fischer, D

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-nine patients (21 females and 8 males) with chondromalacia patellae diagnosed by arthroscopy were randomly allocated to receive aspirin or placebo for 3 months. Clinical and arthroscopic examination after 3 months showed no significant change in symptoms, signs, or macroscopic appearances in either group. Surgical treatment was performed in 14 patients for deteriorating symptoms.

  2. Effect of aspirin treatment on chondromalacia patellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, G; Leslie, I J; Fischer, D

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-nine patients (21 females and 8 males) with chondromalacia patellae diagnosed by arthroscopy were randomly allocated to receive aspirin or placebo for 3 months. Clinical and arthroscopic examination after 3 months showed no significant change in symptoms, signs, or macroscopic appearances in either group. Surgical treatment was performed in 14 patients for deteriorating symptoms. Images PMID:7008711

  3. Aspirin in pregnancy : clinical and biochemical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A. Bremer (Henk)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractAspirin, acetylsalicylic acid, is the most frequently consumed drug in pregnancy,47 mostly taken without a prescription because of headache or a minor ailment. 226,277 Numerous preparations containing acetylsalicylic acid are freely available over the counter under a variety of

  4. Aspirin augments hyaluronidase induced adhesion inhibition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Postoperative adhesions occur after virtually all abdomino-pelvic surgery and are the leading cause of intestinal obstruction and other gynaecologic problems. We used an animal model to test the efficacy of combined administration of aspirin and hyaluronidase on adhesion formation. Adhesions were induced using ...

  5. Van der Waals Interactions in Aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Anthony; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2015-03-01

    The ability of molecules to yield multiple solid forms, or polymorphs, has significance for diverse applications ranging from drug design and food chemistry to nonlinear optics and hydrogen storage. In particular, aspirin has been used and studied for over a century, but has only recently been shown to have an additional polymorphic form, known as form II. Since the two observed solid forms of aspirin are degenerate in terms of lattice energy, kinetic effects have been suggested to determine the metastability of the less abundant form II. Here, first-principles calculations provide an alternative explanation based on free-energy differences at room temperature. The explicit consideration of many-body van der Waals interactions in the free energy demonstrates that the stability of the most abundant form of aspirin is due to a subtle coupling between collective electronic fluctuations and quantized lattice vibrations. In addition, a systematic analysis of the elastic properties of the two forms of aspirin rules out mechanical instability of form II as making it metastable.

  6. Protective effects of essential oil of Citrus limon against aspirin-induced toxicity in IEC-6 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzenna, Hafsia; Hfaiedh, Najla; Giroux-Metges, Marie-Agnès; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Talarmin, Hélène

    2017-05-01

    Aspirin, one of the widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, is the most highly consumed pharmaceutical product in the world. However, it has several side effects in cells. This study was designed to investigate the antioxidative activity and cytoprotective effects of essential oil of Citrus limon (EOC) extracted from leaves against aspirin-induced damages in the rat small intestine epithelial cells (IEC-6). Biochemical indicators were used to assess cytotoxicity and oxidative damages caused by aspirin treatment on IEC-6. Our results showed that the chemical characterization of EOC identified 25 compounds representing 98.19% of the total oil. The major compounds from this oil were z-citral (53.21%), neryl acetate (13.06%), geranyl acetate (10.33%), and limonene (4.23%). Aspirin induced a decrease in cell viability as well as an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. Contrariwise, the co-exposure of cells to aspirin and EOC alleviated every above syndrome by an increase in cell survival and decrease in SOD and CAT activities. In conclusion, the essential oil of C. limon has a potent cytoprotective effect against aspirin-induced toxicity in IEC-6 cells.

  7. Low-dose aspirin and risk of intracranial bleeds: An observational study in UK general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cea Soriano, Lucía; Gaist, David; Soriano-Gabarró, Montse; Bromley, Susan; García Rodríguez, Luis A

    2017-11-28

    To quantify the risk of intracranial bleeds (ICBs) associated with new use of prophylactic low-dose aspirin using a population-based primary care database in the United Kingdom. A cohort of new users of low-dose aspirin (75-300 mg; n = 199,079) aged 40-84 years and a 1:1 matched cohort of nonusers of low-dose aspirin at baseline were followed (maximum 14 years, median 5.4 years) to identify incident cases of ICB, with validation by manual review of patient records or linkage to hospitalization data. Using 10,000 frequency-matched controls, adjusted rate ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for current low-dose aspirin use (0-7 days before the index date [ICB date for cases, random date for controls]); reference group was never used. There were 1,611 cases of ICB (n = 743 for intracerebral hemorrhage [ICH], n = 483 for subdural hematoma [SDH], and n = 385 for subarachnoid hemorrhage [SAH]). RRs (95% CI) were 0.98 (0.84-1.13) for all ICB, 0.98 (0.80-1.20) for ICH, 1.23 (0.95-1.59) for SDH, and 0.77 (0.58-1.01) for SAH. No duration of use or dose-response association was apparent. RRs (95% CI) for ≥1 year of low-dose aspirin use were 0.90 (0.72-1.13) for ICH, 1.20 (0.91-1.57) for SDH, and 0.69 (0.50-0.94) for SAH. Low-dose aspirin is not associated with an increased risk of any type of ICB and is associated with a significantly decreased risk of SAH when used for ≥1 year. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  8. Low-Dose Aspirin Treatment Alleviates Gamma Irradiation Impaired Fertility in Female Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, M.F.

    2013-01-01

    Recent experimental evidence suggests that Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), the extensively prescribed analgesic, can improve female fertility by suppressing the prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis and modulating the uterine circulation. Aspirin has also been found to exhibit a protective ability on the radiation induced oxidative stress. Thus the present work aims to investigate the effect of oral low-dose Aspirin treatment on the radiation induced female reproductive disturbance. Adult female rats were used in the current experiment. All rat group treatments started at the onset of the proestrus phase and terminated at the diestrus encompassing 2 complete estrus cycles. Subsequently, the rats were divided into 4 equal groups: Group 1-Control: female rats receiving distilled water via an oral gavage; Group 2- Irradiation: female rats subjected to 6 Gy gamma rays at the proestrus cycle and receiving distilled water; Group 3-Aspirin: rats orally administered a daily dose of 7mg/kg body weight aspirin dissolved in distilled water via an oral gavage and Group 4- Irradiation + Aspirin: female rats irradiated as group 2 and receiving aspirin treatment. A number of rats from each experimental group were allowed to mate following every treatment to serve as Control mated (Subgroup 1), Irradiated mated (Subgroup 2), Aspirin administered mated (Subgroup 3) and Irradiated + Aspirin treated mated (Subgroup 4). At the assigned day of the second estrus cycle completion, blood was collected from Groups 1-4 for subsequent hormonal assay, lipid peroxides and glutathione (GSH) estimation whereas Subgroups 1-4 were carefully monitored for reproduction and infertility rates. Results have shown that the 6 Gy γ- irradiation of the rats at the proestrus cycle (Group 2) caused a decrease in follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL) and estradiol (E2) levels associated with a drastic increase in the progesterone levels in addition to the significant

  9. Prostatic specific antigen for prostate cancer detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Nogueira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Prostate-specific antigen (PSA has been used for prostate cancer detection since 1994. PSA testing has revolutionized our ability to diagnose, treat, and follow-up patients. In the last two decades, PSA screening has led to a substantial increase in the incidence of prostate cancer (PC. This increased detection caused the incidence of advanced-stage disease to decrease at a dramatic rate, and most newly diagnosed PC today are localized tumors with a high probability of cure. PSA screening is associated with a 75% reduction in the proportion of men who now present with metastatic disease and a 32.5% reduction in the age-adjusted prostate cancer mortality rate through 2003. Although PSA is not a perfect marker, PSA testing has limited specificity for prostate cancer detection, and its appropriate clinical application remains a topic of debate. Due to its widespread use and increased over-detection, the result has been the occurrence of over-treatment of indolent cancers. Accordingly, several variations as regards PSA measurement have emerged as useful adjuncts for prostate cancer screening. These procedures take into consideration additional factors, such as the proportion of different PSA isoforms (free PSA, complexed PSA, pro-PSA and B PSA, the prostate volume (PSA density, and the rate of change in PSA levels over time (PSA velocity or PSA doubling time. The history and evidence underlying each of these parameters are reviewed in the following article.

  10. Prostatic specific antigen for prostate cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Lucas; Corradi, Renato; Eastham, James A

    2009-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been used for prostate cancer detection since 1994. PSA testing has revolutionized our ability to diagnose, treat, and follow-up patients. In the last two decades, PSA screening has led to a substantial increase in the incidence of prostate cancer (PC). This increased detection caused the incidence of advanced-stage disease to decrease at a dramatic rate, and most newly diagnosed PC today are localized tumors with a high probability of cure. PSA screening is associated with a 75% reduction in the proportion of men who now present with metastatic disease and a 32.5% reduction in the age-adjusted prostate cancer mortality rate through 2003. Although PSA is not a perfect marker, PSA testing has limited specificity for prostate cancer detection, and its appropriate clinical application remains a topic of debate. Due to its widespread use and increased over-detection, the result has been the occurrence of over-treatment of indolent cancers. Accordingly, several variations as regards PSA measurement have emerged as useful adjuncts for prostate cancer screening. These procedures take into consideration additional factors, such as the proportion of different PSA isoforms (free PSA, complexed PSA, pro-PSA and B PSA), the prostate volume (PSA density), and the rate of change in PSA levels over time (PSA velocity or PSA doubling time). The history and evidence underlying each of these parameters are reviewed in the following article.

  11. Presence of PSA auto-antibodies in men with prostate abnormalities (prostate cancer/benign prostatic hyperplasia/prostatitis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokant, M T; Naz, R K

    2015-04-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), produced by the prostate, liquefies post-ejaculate semen. PSA is detected in semen and blood. Increased circulating PSA levels indicate prostate abnormality [prostate cancer (PC), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostatitis (PTIS)], with variance among individuals. As the prostate has been proposed as an immune organ, we hypothesise that variation in PSA levels among men may be due to presence of auto-antibodies against PSA. Sera from healthy men (n = 28) and men having prostatitis (n = 25), BPH (n = 30) or PC (n = 29) were tested for PSA antibody presence using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) values converted to standard deviation (SD) units, and Western blotting. Taking ≥2 SD units as cut-off for positive immunoreactivity, 0% of normal men, 0% with prostatitis, 33% with BPH and 3.45% with PC demonstrated PSA antibodies. One-way analysis of variance (anova) performed on the mean absorbance values and SD units of each group showed BPH as significantly different (P prostatitis. All others were nonsignificant (P prostate abnormalities, especially differentiating BPH from prostate cancer and prostatitis. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Chemotherapeutic prevention studies of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djavan, Bob; Zlotta, Alexandre; Schulman, Claude

    2004-01-01

    Despite advances in the detection and management of prostate cancer, this disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in men. Increasing attention has focused on the role of chemoprevention for prostate cancer, ie the administration of agents that inhibit 1 or more steps in the natural...... history of prostate carcinogenesis. We review prostate cancer chemoprevention studies in Europe....

  13. Cytokine expression before and after aspirin desensitization therapy in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Ayse; Kurt, Emel; Gulbas, Zafer

    2013-12-01

    Aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is induced by acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and/or nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Effects of desensitization on many mediators have been examined previously, but few studies addressed the influence of desensitization on T lymphocytes and T lymphocyte-derived cytokines. This study was performed to examine peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) cytokine expression in aspirin-sensitive patients who have asthma before and after aspirin desensitization. In this study, the release of interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) by CD4+ T lymphocytes prior to aspirin desensitization were also measured at intracellular levels, and expression of these cytokines after 1 month aspirin desensitization was evaluated. Twelve patients with AERD were included in the study. Two different control groups were formed, one consisted of 15 healthy people and second 12 aspirin tolerant asthmatic (ATA) patients using aspirin. A blood sample was collected prior to desensitization, and the tests were repeated by taking a second blood sample 1 month after the 4-day desensitization treatment. The proportion of lymphocytes secreting IFN-γ in the study group was 15.61 ± 4.40 % before desensitization and 15.08 ± 5.89 % after desensitization. The rate of IFN-γ secreting CD4+ T lymphocytes was 20.51 ± 4.41 % in the normal control group and 16.07 ± 5.7 % in the ATA group (p = 0.021). The ratio of CD4+ T lymphocyte secreting IFN-γ was reduced in patients with AERD before desensitization compared to normal control group (p = 0.040). The levels of IL-2, IL-4, and the subsets of lymphocyte were not different before and after desensitization compared to control groups.

  14. Neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPCa) increased the neighboring PCa chemo-resistance via altering the PTHrP/p38/Hsp27/androgen receptor (AR)/p21 signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yun; Sun, Yin; Hu, Shuai; Luo, Jie; Li, Lei; Li, Xin; Yeh, Shuyuan; Jin, Jie; Chang, Chawnshang

    2016-01-01

    Prostatic neuroendocrine cells (NE) are an integral part of prostate cancer (PCa) that are associated with PCa progression. As the current androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) with anti-androgens may promote the neuroendocrine PCa (NEPCa) development, and few therapies can effectively suppress NEPCa, understanding the impact of NEPCa on PCa progression may help us to develop better therapies to battle PCa. Here we found NEPCa cells could increase the docetaxel-resistance of their neighboring PCa cells. Mechanism dissection revealed that through secretion of PTHrP, NEPCa cells could alter the p38/MAPK/Hsp27 signals in their neighboring PCa cells that resulted in increased androgen receptor (AR) activity via promoting AR nuclear translocation. The consequences of increased AR function might then increase docetaxel-resistance via increasing p21 expression. In vivo xenograft mice experiments also confirmed NEPCa could increase the docetaxel-resistance of neighboring PCa, and targeting this newly identified PTHrP/p38/Hsp27/AR/p21 signaling pathway with either p38 inhibitor (SB203580) or sh-PTHrP may result in improving/restoring the docetaxel sensitivity to better suppress PCa. PMID:27375022

  15. Doxorubicin increases the effectiveness of Apo2L/TRAIL for tumor growth inhibition of prostate cancer xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zawahry, Ahmed; McKillop, John; Voelkel-Johnson, Christina

    2005-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a significant health problem among American men. Treatment strategies for androgen-independent cancer are currently not available. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (Apo2L/TRAIL) is a death receptor ligand that can induce apoptosis in a variety of cancer cell lines, including androgen-independent PC3 prostate carcinoma cells. In vitro, TRAIL-mediated apoptosis of prostate cancer cell lines can be enhanced by doxorubicin and correlates with the downregulation of the anti-apoptotic protein c-FLIP. This study evaluated the effects of doxorubicin on c-FLIP expression and tumor growth in combination with Apo2L/TRAIL in a xenograft model. In vitro cytotoxic effects of TRAIL were measured using a MTS-based viability assay. For in vivo studies, PC3 prostate carcinoma cells were grown subcutaneously in athymic nude mice and tumor growth was measured following treatment with doxorubicin and/or Apo2L/TRAIL. c-FLIP expression was determined by western blot analysis. Apoptosis in xenografts was detected using TUNEL. Statistical analysis was performed using the student t-test. In vitro experiments show that PC3 cells are partially susceptible to Apo2L/TRAIL and that susceptibility is enhanced by doxorubicin. In mice, doxorubicin did not significantly affect the growth of PC3 xenografts but reduced c-FLIP expression in tumors. Expression of c-FLIP in mouse heart was decreased only at the high doxorubicin concentration (8 mg/kg). Combination of doxorubicin with Apo2L/TRAIL resulted in more apoptotic cell death and tumor growth inhibition than Apo2L/TRAIL alone. Combination of doxorubicin and Apo2L/TRAIL is more effective in growth inhibition of PC3 xenografts in vivo than either agent alone and could present a novel treatment strategy against hormone-refractory prostate cancer. The intracellular mechanism by which doxorubicin enhances the effect of Apo2L/TRAIL on PC3 xenografts may be by reducing expression of c-FLIP

  16. Contemporary Primary Prevention Aspirin Use by Cardiovascular Disease Risk: Impact of US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendations, 2007-2015: A Serial, Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van't Hof, Jeremy R; Duval, Sue; Walts, Adrienne; Kopecky, Stephen L; Luepker, Russell V; Hirsch, Alan T

    2017-10-03

    No previous study has evaluated the impact of past US Preventive Services Task Force statements on primary prevention (PP) aspirin use in a primary care setting. The aim of this study was to evaluate temporal changes in PP aspirin use in a primary care population, stratifying patients by their 10-year global cardiovascular disease risk, in response to the 2009 statement. This study estimated biannual aspirin use prevalence using electronic health record data from primary care clinics within the Fairview Health System (Minnesota) from 2007 to 2015. A total of 94 270 patient encounters had complete data to estimate a 10-year cardiovascular disease risk score using the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association global risk estimator. Patients were stratified into low- (aspirin use averaged 43%. When stratified by low, intermediate and high risk, average PP aspirin use was 41%, 63%, and 73%, respectively. Average PP aspirin use decreased after the publication of the 2009 US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement: from 45% to 40% in the low-risk group; from 66% to 62% in the intermediate-risk group; and from 76% to 73% in the high-risk group, before and after the guideline. Publication of the 2009 US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation was not associated with an increase in aspirin use. High risk PP patients utilized aspirin at high rates. Patients at intermediate risk were less intensively treated, and patients at low risk used aspirin at relatively high rates. These data may inform future aspirin guideline dissemination. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  17. MR imaging of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asbach, P.; Haas, M.; Hamm, B.

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer in men in Germany; however, there is a distinct difference between incidence and mortality. The detection of prostate cancer is based on clinical and laboratory testing using serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and transrectal ultrasound with randomized biopsy. Multiparametric MR imaging of the prostate can provide valuable diagnostic information for detection of prostate cancer, especially after negative results of a biopsy prior to repeat biopsy. In addition the use of MR ultrasound fusion-guided biopsy has gained in diagnostic importance and has increased the prostate cancer detection rate. The prostate imaging reporting and data system (PI-RADS) classification has standardized the reporting of prostate MRI which has positively influenced the acceptance by urologists. (orig.) [de

  18. Increased serum C-reactive protein level is associated with increased storage lower urinary tract symptoms in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Fa Hung

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Chronic inflammation is considered as one of the contributing mechanisms of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP level is the widely used biomarker of inflammatory status. This study investigated the association between serum CRP level in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS before and after medical treatment. METHODS: A total of 853 men with BPH and LUTS were enrolled. All patients completed the International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS questionnaire and urological examinations. The parameters of uroflowmetry (maximum flow rate, Qmax; voided volume, VV, post-void residual (PVR, total prostate volume (TPV and transition zone index (TZI, serum prostate specific antigen (PSA, and serum CRP levels were obtained. All patients were treated with alpha-blocker or antimuscarinic agent based on the IPSS voiding to storage subscore ratio (IPSS-V/S. Correlation analyses were performed between serum CRP levels with age, IPSS, TPV, TZI, Qmax, PVR, VV, PSA and between baseline and post treatment. RESULTS: The mean age was 66.9 ± 11.6 years old and the mean serum CRP levels were 0.31 ± 0.43 mg/dL. Univariate analyses revealed serum CRP levels were significantly associated with age (p<0.001, PSA levels (p = 0.005 and VV (p = 0.017, but not significantly associated with TPV (p = 0.854 or PVR (p = 0.068. CRP levels were positively associated with urgency (p<0.001 and nocturia (p<0.001 subscore of IPSS, total IPSS (p = 0.008 and storage IPSS (p<0.001 and negatively associated with IPSS- V/S ratio (p = 0.014. Multivariate analyses revealed that serum CRP levels were significantly associated with age (p = 0.004 and storage IPSS subscore p<0.001. Patients with IPSS-V/S<1 and treated with tolterodine for 3 months had significant decrease of CRP levels after treatment. CONCLUSION: Serum CRP levels are associated with storage LUTS and sensory bladder disorders, suggesting chronic

  19. Aspirin overutilization for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VanWormer JJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey J VanWormer,1 Aaron W Miller,2 Shereif H Rezkalla3 1Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Population Health, 2Biomedical Informatics Research Center, Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation, Marshfield, WI, USA; 3Department of Cardiology, Marshfield Clinic, Marshfield, WI, USA Background: Aspirin is commonly used for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD in the US. Previous research has observed significant levels of inappropriate aspirin use for primary CVD prevention in some European populations, but the degree to which aspirin is overutilized in the US remains unknown. This study examined the association between regular aspirin use and demographic/clinical factors in a population-based sample of adults without a clinical indication for aspirin for primary prevention.Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was performed using 2010–2012 data from individuals aged 30–79 years in the Marshfield Epidemiologic Study Area (WI, USA. Regular aspirin users included those who took aspirin at least every other day.Results: There were 16,922 individuals who were not clinically indicated for aspirin therapy for primary CVD prevention. Of these, 19% were regular aspirin users. In the final adjusted model, participants who were older, male, lived in northern Wisconsin, had more frequent medical visits, and had greater body mass index had significantly higher odds of regular aspirin use (P<0.001 for all. Race/ethnicity, health insurance, smoking, blood pressure, and lipid levels had negligible influence on aspirin use. A sensitivity analysis found a significant interaction between age and number of medical visits, indicating progressively more aspirin use in older age groups who visited their provider frequently.Conclusion: There was evidence of aspirin overutilization in this US population without CVD. Older age and more frequent provider visits were the strongest predictors of inappropriate aspirin use. Obesity was the only significant

  20. Comparison and analysis on the serum-binding characteristics of aspirin-zinc complex and aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua-Xin; Zhang, Qun; Wang, Hong-Lin; Li, Li-Wei

    2017-09-01

    This study was designed to compare the protein-binding characteristics of aspirin-zinc complex (AZN) with those of aspirin itself. AZN was synthesized and interacted with a model transport protein, human serum albumin (HSA). Three-dimensional fluorescence, ultraviolet-visible and circular dichroism (CD) spectra were used to characterize the interaction of AZN with HSA under physiological conditions. The interaction mechanism was explored using a fluorescence quenching method and thermodynamic calculation. The binding site and binding locality of AZN on HSA were demonstrated using a fluorescence probe technique and Förster non-radiation energy transfer theory. Synchronous fluorescence and CD spectra were employed to reveal the effect of AZN on the native conformation of the protein. The HSA-binding results for AZN were compared with those for aspirin under consistent experimental conditions, and indicated that aspirin acts as a guide in AZN when binding to Sudlow's site I, in subdomain IIA of the HSA molecule. Moreover, compared with aspirin, AZN showed greater observed binding constants with, but smaller changes in the α-helicity of, HSA, which proved that AZN might be easier to transport and have less toxicity in vivo. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Low-Dose Aspirin Discontinuation and Risk of Cardiovascular Events: A Swedish Nationwide, Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundström, Johan; Hedberg, Jakob; Thuresson, Marcus; Aarskog, Pernilla; Johannesen, Kasper Munk; Oldgren, Jonas

    2017-09-26

    There are increasing concerns about risks associated with aspirin discontinuation in the absence of major surgery or bleeding. We investigated whether long-term low-dose aspirin discontinuation and treatment gaps increase the risk of cardiovascular events. We performed a cohort study of 601 527 users of low-dose aspirin for primary or secondary prevention in the Swedish prescription register between 2005 and 2009 who were >40 years of age, were free from previous cancer, and had ≥80% adherence during the first observed year of treatment. Cardiovascular events were identified with the Swedish inpatient and cause-of-death registers. The first 3 months after a major bleeding or surgical procedure were excluded from the time at risk. During a median of 3.0 years of follow-up, 62 690 cardiovascular events occurred. Patients who discontinued aspirin had a higher rate of cardiovascular events than those who continued (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio, 1.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-1.41), corresponding to an additional cardiovascular event observed per year in 1 of every 74 patients who discontinue aspirin. The risk increased shortly after discontinuation and did not appear to diminish over time. In long-term users, discontinuation of low-dose aspirin in the absence of major surgery or bleeding was associated with a >30% increased risk of cardiovascular events. Adherence to low-dose aspirin treatment in the absence of major surgery or bleeding is likely an important treatment goal. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. The Role of Aspirin in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittaman, Sunitha V.; VanWormer, Jeffrey J.; Rezkalla, Shereif H.

    2014-01-01

    Aspirin therapy is well-accepted as an agent for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events and current guidelines also define a role for aspirin in primary prevention. In this review, we describe the seminal trials of aspirin use in the context of current guidelines, discuss factors that may influence the effectiveness of aspirin therapy for cardiovascular disease prevention, and briefly examine patterns of use. The body of evidence supports a role for aspirin in both secondary and primary prevention of cardiovascular events in selected population groups, but practice patterns may be suboptimal. As a simple and inexpensive prophylactic measure for cardiovascular disease, aspirin use should be carefully considered in all at-risk adult patients, and further measures, including patient education, are necessary to ensure its proper use. PMID:24573704

  3. Antiplatelet therapy: aspirin resistance and all that jazz!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divani, Afshin A; Zantek, Nicole D; Borhani-Haghighi, Afshin; Rao, Gundu H R

    2013-01-01

    Platelets play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and stroke. Aspirin used alone or in combination with other antiplatelet drugs has been shown to offer significant benefit to patients at high risk of vascular events. Resistance to the action of aspirin may decrease this benefit. Aspirin resistance has been defined by clinical and/or laboratory criteria; however, detection by laboratory methods prior to experiencing a clinical event will likely provide the greatest opportunity for intervention. Numerous laboratory methods with different cutoff points have been used to evaluate the resistance. Noncompliance with aspirin treatment has also confounded studies. A single assay is currently insufficient to establish resistance. Combinations of results to confirm compliance and platelet inhibition may identify "at-risk" individuals who truly have aspirin resistance. The most effective strategy for managing patients with aspirin resistance is unknown; however, studies are currently underway to address this issue.

  4. Chronic exposure to arsenic, estrogen, and their combination causes increased growth and transformation in human prostate epithelial cells potentially by hypermethylation-mediated silencing of MLH1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treas, Justin; Tyagi, Tulika; Singh, Kamaleshwar P

    2013-11-01

    Chronic exposure to arsenic and estrogen is associated with risk of prostate cancer, but their mechanism is not fully understood. Additionally, the carcinogenic effects of their co-exposure are not known. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic exposure to arsenic, estrogen, and their combination, on cell growth and transformation, and identify the mechanism behind these effects. RWPE-1 human prostate epithelial cells were chronically exposed to arsenic and estrogen alone and in combination. Cell growth was measured by cell count and cell cycle, whereas cell transformation was evaluated by colony formation assay. Gene expression was measured by quantitative real-time PCR and confirmed at protein level by Western blot analysis. MLH1 promoter methylation was determined by pyrosequencing method. Exposure to arsenic, estrogen, and their combinations increases cell growth and transformation in RWPE-1 cells. Increased expression of Cyclin D1 and Bcl2, whereas decreased expression of mismatch repair genes MSH4, MSH6, and MLH1 was also observed. Hypermethylation of MLH1 promoter further suggested the epigenetic inactivation of MLH1 expression in arsenic and estrogen treated cells. Arsenic and estrogen combination caused greater changes than their individual treatments. Findings of this study for the first time suggest that arsenic and estrogen exposures cause increased cell growth and survival potentially through epigenetic inactivation of MLH1 resulting in decreased MLH1-mediated apoptotic response, and consequently increased cellular transformation. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1/GDF15 slows cancer development but increases metastases in TRAMP prostate cancer prone mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Husaini

    Full Text Available Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1/GDF15, a divergent member of the TGF-β superfamily, is over-expressed by many common cancers including those of the prostate (PCa and its expression is linked to cancer outcome. We have evaluated the effect of MIC-1/GDF15 overexpression on PCa development and spread in the TRAMP transgenic model of spontaneous prostate cancer. TRAMP mice were crossed with MIC-1/GDF15 overexpressing mice (MIC-1(fms to produce syngeneic TRAMP(fmsmic-1 mice. Survival rate, prostate tumor size, histopathological grades and extent of distant organ metastases were compared. Metastasis of TC1-T5, an androgen independent TRAMP cell line that lacks MIC-1/GDF15 expression, was compared by injecting intravenously into MIC-1(fms and syngeneic C57BL/6 mice. Whilst TRAMP(fmsmic-1 survived on average 7.4 weeks longer, had significantly smaller genitourinary (GU tumors and lower PCa histopathological grades than TRAMP mice, more of these mice developed distant organ metastases. Additionally, a higher number of TC1-T5 lung tumor colonies were observed in MIC-1(fms mice than syngeneic WT C57BL/6 mice. Our studies strongly suggest that MIC-1/GDF15 has complex actions on tumor behavior: it limits local tumor growth but may with advancing disease, promote metastases. As MIC-1/GDF15 is induced by all cancer treatments and metastasis is the major cause of cancer treatment failure and cancer deaths, these results, if applicable to humans, may have a direct impact on patient care.

  6. Aspirin for Reducing Your Risk of Heart Attack and Stroke: Know the Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the-Counter Medicines Safe Daily Use of Aspirin Aspirin for Reducing Your Risk of Heart Attack and ... any pharmacy, grocery or convenience store and buy aspirin without a prescription. The Drug Facts label on ...

  7. Rivaroxaban with or without Aspirin in Stable Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikelboom, John W; Connolly, Stuart J; Bosch, Jackie; Dagenais, Gilles R; Hart, Robert G; Shestakovska, Olga; Diaz, Rafael; Alings, Marco; Lonn, Eva M; Anand, Sonia S; Widimsky, Petr; Hori, Masatsugu; Avezum, Alvaro; Piegas, Leopoldo S; Branch, Kelley R H; Probstfield, Jeffrey; Bhatt, Deepak L; Zhu, Jun; Liang, Yan; Maggioni, Aldo P; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; O'Donnell, Martin; Kakkar, Ajay K; Fox, Keith A A; Parkhomenko, Alexander N; Ertl, Georg; Störk, Stefan; Keltai, Matyas; Ryden, Lars; Pogosova, Nana; Dans, Antonio L; Lanas, Fernando; Commerford, Patrick J; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Guzik, Tomek J; Verhamme, Peter B; Vinereanu, Dragos; Kim, Jae-Hyung; Tonkin, Andrew M; Lewis, Basil S; Felix, Camilo; Yusoff, Khalid; Steg, P Gabriel; Metsarinne, Kaj P; Cook Bruns, Nancy; Misselwitz, Frank; Chen, Edmond; Leong, Darryl; Yusuf, Salim

    2017-10-05

    We evaluated whether rivaroxaban alone or in combination with aspirin would be more effective than aspirin alone for secondary cardiovascular prevention. In this double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 27,395 participants with stable atherosclerotic vascular disease to receive rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) plus aspirin (100 mg once daily), rivaroxaban (5 mg twice daily), or aspirin (100 mg once daily). The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death, stroke, or myocardial infarction. The study was stopped for superiority of the rivaroxaban-plus-aspirin group after a mean follow-up of 23 months. The primary outcome occurred in fewer patients in the rivaroxaban-plus-aspirin group than in the aspirin-alone group (379 patients [4.1%] vs. 496 patients [5.4%]; hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 0.86; Paspirin group (288 patients [3.1%] vs. 170 patients [1.9%]; hazard ratio, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.40 to 2.05; Paspirin group as compared with 378 (4.1%) in the aspirin-alone group (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.96; P=0.01; threshold P value for significance, 0.0025). The primary outcome did not occur in significantly fewer patients in the rivaroxaban-alone group than in the aspirin-alone group, but major bleeding events occurred in more patients in the rivaroxaban-alone group. Among patients with stable atherosclerotic vascular disease, those assigned to rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) plus aspirin had better cardiovascular outcomes and more major bleeding events than those assigned to aspirin alone. Rivaroxaban (5 mg twice daily) alone did not result in better cardiovascular outcomes than aspirin alone and resulted in more major bleeding events. (Funded by Bayer; COMPASS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01776424 .).

  8. Prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R.; Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results

  9. Prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R., Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results.

  10. Aspirin-induced asthma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botey, J; Navarro, C; Marín, A; Eseverri, J L

    1988-01-01

    Since Cooke first described bronchospasm induced by acetyl salicylic acid in asthmatic patients in 1919, numerous studies have been done with the objective of understanding the pathology, treatment and incidence of aspirin-induced asthma. The incidence is difficult to establish but according to two recent studies, the percentage in the infantile asthmatic population was estimated at 13% and 28%. This prevalence is greater than that suspected at first and reveals the necessity of reviewing this problem. In this study we present 4 pediatric patients, 2 atopics and 2 non-atopics affected with aspirin-induced asthma. A detailed clinical history, oral provocation test to acetyl salicylic acid, other non-steroid anti-inflammatory analgesics and additives was performed. The oral provocation test with acetyl salicylic acid was positive in all 4 cases. The oral provocation with non-steroid anti-inflammatory analgesics and other additives was negative in 2 patients. In the remaining 2 patients, one demonstrated sensitivity only to tartrazine and the other to tartrazine, red coccine, mefenamic acid and benorylate. In conclusion, aspirin-induced asthma is not infrequent in infancy. Therefore, it is important to bear it always in mind and to diagnose it through oral provocation besides looking for possible cross reactions.

  11. Anaesthesia in aspirin-induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celiker, V; Basgül, E

    2003-01-01

    The triad of bronchial asthma, nasal polyposis, and intolerance to aspirin and aspirin-like chemicals are designated aspirin-induced asthma (AIA) or Samter's syndrome. The exact mechanism of the disease is unknown but it is thought to be a disorder of arachidonic acid metabolism. These patients are frequently referred to allergy clinics for preoperative evaluation for possible anesthetic agent sensitivity, requiring anesthesia for nasal polypectomy or several other reasons. Anesthetists must be aware of their pulmonary dysfunction, because the anesthetic management of asthma requires a specific approach. Marked cross-sensitivity with NSAIDs, which may also precipitate severe bronchospasm and adverse reactions, is the main problem faced by anesthetists in postoperative pain management. This article discusses the relationship between AIA and anesthesia. We also present our experience with 47 patients diagnosed with AIA between 1991 and 2003 in the department of chest diseases and adult allergy unit who underwent surgery requiring general anesthesia. In conclusion, preoperative evaluation of these patients and collaboration between the allergists and anesthesiologists is essential to prevent preoperative, perioperative and postoperative complications.

  12. Reduction of aspirin-induced fecal blood loss with low-dose misoprostol tablets in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.M.; Clark, L.; Armstrong, L.; D'Souza, J.

    1985-01-01

    Misoprostol (SC-29333), a synthetic prostaglandin E1 methyl ester analog, was given simultaneously with acetylsalicylic acid in a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized prospective study of 32 healthy human male subjects. Fecal blood loss was measured for eight days using the 51 Cr-labeled red blood cell technique. Aspirin (650 mg qid) and misoprostol (25 micrograms qid) or placebo were given during days 3, 4, and 5. There was a significant (P less than 0.05) increase in median blood loss (modified Friedman test) from 0.81 to 6.05 ml/day in the aspirin with placebo group (N = 16). Median blood loss was increased (from 0.75 to 3.75 ml/day) in the aspirin with misoprostol group (N = 16), but this was significantly less (Mann-Whitney U test, P less than 0.01) than the placebo group. Mean serum salicylate concentrations in the placebo and misoprostol groups were similar (7.8 and 6.8 micrograms/ml, respectively). There were no significant changes in laboratory values in any of the subjects studied, nor were any major side-effects encountered. This study demonstrates that oral misoprostol reduces aspirin-induced gastrointestinal bleeding even when administered simultaneously and at a dose level below its threshold for significant acid inhibition. This indicates a potential role for misoprostol in the prevention of gastric mucosal damage in selected patients

  13. Exploring clinicians' attitudes about using aspirin for risk reduction in people with Lynch Syndrome with no personal diagnosis of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanni; Peate, Michelle; Kaur, Rajneesh; Meiser, Bettina; Wong, Tim; Kirk, Judy; Ward, Robyn L; Goodwin, Annabel; Macrae, Finlay; Hiller, Janet; Trainer, Alison H; Mitchell, Gillian

    2017-01-01

    /83 (78 %) of health professionals. Eighty-seven percent of health professionals reported a need for patient educational materials about aspirin. Continuing training is needed to increase clinicians' confidence in their knowledge of the literature on the use of aspirin as a RRM. Patient education materials may be helpful in improving consistency in patient care and facilitate communication between clinicians and people living with Lynch Syndrome.

  14. About the Prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PCF: Many vs Cancer Contact Us About the Prostate Prostate Cancer Basics Risk Factors Prostate Cancer Prevention ... that connects to the anus. Ultrasound of the prostate Prostate Zones The prostate is divided into several ...

  15. Effect of misoprostol on patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease undergoing aspirin challenge and desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Kristen M; Simon, Ronald A; Woessner, Katharine M; Wineinger, Nathan E; White, Andrew A

    2017-07-01

    Prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) is an anti-inflammatory compound that inhibits 5-lipoxygenase activity. Diminished PGE 2 regulation in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) leads to respiratory reactions on cyclooxygenase 1 inhibition. In vitro studies have found that exogenous PGE 2 stabilizes inflammatory mediator release. To examine whether misoprostol (oral prostaglandin E 1 analogue) use during aspirin challenge and desensitization might decrease the severity of aspirin-induced symptoms and make desensitization safer for patients with AERD. Forty-five patients undergoing aspirin challenge and/or desensitization were randomized to misoprostol (n = 30) or placebo (n = 15) and compared with a group of historical controls (n = 31). Misoprostol (200 μg) was administered at 30 minutes, 90 minutes, and 4 hours after the first dose of nasal ketorolac. Measured end points included change in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ), peak nasal inspiratory flow rate (PNIF), number of treatments received for induced reactions, and adverse gastrointestinal effects. A difference in FEV 1 and PNIF reduction was detected between misoprostol and placebo (P = .03) and misoprostol and historical controls (P = .01), respectively, during nasal ketorolac challenge. No difference was detected among aspirin reactors. Among all reactors, no difference in magnitude was found for FEV 1 (P = .13) or PNIF (P = .07) reduction across all 3 groups. Total treatment requirement was similar (P = .14). Patients receiving misoprostol were more likely to report adverse gastrointestinal effects (P = .02). The addition of misoprostol to current aspirin challenge and/or desensitization protocols reveals no protective effect in reducing the intensity of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced symptoms and is not recommended based on the findings in this study. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Medium intensity oral anticoagulants versus aspirin after cerebral ischaemia of arterial origin (ESPRIT): a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkes, P H A; van Gijn, J; Kappelle, L J; Koudstaal, P J; Algra, A

    2007-02-01

    anticoagulants (target INR range 2.0-3.0) are not more effective than aspirin for secondary prevention after transient ischaemic attack or minor stroke of arterial origin. A possible protective effect against ischaemic events is offset by increased bleeding complications.

  17. Increase in Bcl2 expression of penile and prostate cells of Sprague Dawley male rats following treatment with buceng (combination of Pimpinella alpina molk with Eurycoma longifolia Jack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufiqurrachman Nasihun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment with buceng combination of Eurycoma longifolia Jack and Pimpinella alpine Molk has been proven to increase testosterone level, decrease apoptosis and caspase3 expression. Bcl2 is an antiapoptotic protein found in cytoplasm which inhibits cells apoptosis. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of buceng on Bcl2 expression on penile and prostate tissues of the rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 24 male Sprague Dawley rats of 90 days old, weighing ± 300 grams, were randomly assigned into four groups. Group A, normal rats. Group B, castrated rats and treated with buceng 100 mg/day, per oral (Cast-Bcg; Group C, castrated rats and treated with 2 ml of water as placebo against buceng (Cast-Plac. Group D, castrated rats, treated with mesterolone 6.75 mg/day, per oral, as exogenous testosterone (Cast-Mest. All rats were treated for 30 days. Manova test was used to analyze the different expression of Bcl2 among groups with significance level at p ≤ 0.05. Results: Castration was associated with significant decrease of Bcl2 expression in the penile and prostate tissues (53.0 and 50.9%, respectively compared to normal rats (82.6 and 84.2%, respectively, p < 0.001. Treatment with mesterolone reversed Bcl2 expression (77.1 and 78.1% to a near normal level. The same level of Bcl2 expression was also observed with buceng treatment (73.8 and 78.2%.Conclusion: The treatment with buceng could enhance Bcl2 expression in penile and prostate tissues, comparable to normal rats and mesterolone treated rats.

  18. Increased frequency and nocturia in a middle aged male may not always be due to Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy (BPH): a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaurav, Kumar; Fitch, Jamie; Panda, Mukta

    2009-10-27

    Primary signet ring cell carcinoma of urinary bladder is a rare type of bladder tumor and carries a very high mortality rate. It may have a clinical presentation similar to common diseases like Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy (BPH) and the management options are extremely limited. We report a case of 58 year old Caucasian male who presented with a 5 month history of increased frequency of urination, nocturia and weight loss without any fever or hematuria. He was found to have an increased creatinine of 2.8 mg/dl and a prostate specific antigen level of 0.18 ng/ml. His azotemia was thought to be secondary to BPH. A foley catheter was initially placed with a plan for outpatient follow up. On removal of the catheter his problems persisted and he returned to the hospital. Diagnostic work up including abdominal ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT) scan, retrograde pyelogram, cystography and cystoscopic biopsies revealed the diagnosis of primary signet ring cell carcinoma of urinary bladder. Although cystectomy was planned, our patient passed away before this could be done.

  19. Increased frequency and nocturia in a middle aged male may not always be due to benign prostatic hypertrophy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaurav, Kumar; Fitch, Jamie; Panda, Mukta

    2009-09-15

    Primary signet ring cell carcinoma of urinary bladder is a rare type of bladder tumor and carries a very high mortality rate. It may have a clinical presentation similar to common diseases like benign prostatic hypertrophy and the management options are extremely limited. We report a case of 58-year-old Caucasian male who presented with a 5 month history of increased frequency of urination, nocturia and weight loss without any fever or hematuria. He was found to have an increased creatinine of 2.8 mg/dl and a prostate specific antigen level of 0.18 ng/ml. His azotemia was thought to be secondary to BPH. A Foley catheter was initially placed with a plan for outpatient follow up. On removal of the catheter his problems persisted and he returned to the hospital. Diagnostic work up including abdominal ultrasonography, computed tomography scan, retrograde pyelogram, cystography and cystoscopic biopsies revealed the diagnosis of primary signet ring cell carcinoma of urinary bladder. Although cystectomy was planned, our patient passed away before this could be done.

  20. Ghrelin inhibits proliferation and increases T-type Ca{sup 2+} channel expression in PC-3 human prostate carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Lezama, Nundehui; Hernandez-Elvira, Mariana [Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, Institute of Physiology, Autonomous University of Puebla (BUAP), Puebla (Mexico); Sandoval, Alejandro [School of Medicine FES Iztacala, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), Tlalnepantla (Mexico); Monroy, Alma; Felix, Ricardo [Department of Cell Biology, Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute (Cinvestav-IPN), Mexico City (Mexico); Monjaraz, Eduardo, E-mail: emguzman@siu.buap.mx [Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, Institute of Physiology, Autonomous University of Puebla (BUAP), Puebla (Mexico)

    2010-12-03

    Research highlights: {yields} Ghrelin decreases prostate carcinoma PC-3 cells proliferation. {yields} Ghrelin favors apoptosis in PC-3 cells. {yields} Ghrelin increase in intracellular free Ca{sup 2+} levels in PC-3 cells. {yields} Grelin up-regulates expression of T-type Ca{sup 2+} channels in PC-3 cells. {yields} PC-3 cells express T-channels of the Ca{sub V}3.1 and Ca{sub V}3.2 subtype. -- Abstract: Ghrelin is a multifunctional peptide hormone with roles in growth hormone release, food intake and cell proliferation. With ghrelin now recognized as important in neoplastic processes, the aim of this report is to present findings from a series of in vitro studies evaluating the cellular mechanisms involved in ghrelin regulation of proliferation in the PC-3 human prostate carcinoma cells. The results showed that ghrelin significantly decreased proliferation and induced apoptosis. Consistent with a role in apoptosis, an increase in intracellular free Ca{sup 2+} levels was observed in the ghrelin-treated cells, which was accompanied by up-regulated expression of T-type voltage-gated Ca{sup 2+} channels. Interestingly, T-channel antagonists were able to prevent the effects of ghrelin on cell proliferation. These results suggest that ghrelin inhibits proliferation and may promote apoptosis by regulating T-type Ca{sup 2+} channel expression.

  1. Racial differences in the relationship between clinical prostatitis, presence of inflammation in benign prostate and subsequent risk of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybicki, B A; Kryvenko, O N; Wang, Y; Jankowski, M; Trudeau, S; Chitale, D A; Gupta, N S; Rundle, A; Tang, D

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiologic studies, primarily done in white men, suggest that a history of clinically-diagnosed prostatitis increases prostate cancer risk, but that histological prostate inflammation decreases risk. The relationship between a clinical history of prostatitis and histologic inflammation in terms of how these two manifestations of prostatic inflammation jointly contribute to prostate cancer risk and whether racial differences exist in this relationship is uncertain. Using a nested design within a cohort of men with benign prostate tissue specimens, we analyzed the data on both clinically-diagnosed prostatitis (NIH categories I-III) and histological inflammation in 574 prostate cancer case-control pairs (345 white, 229 African American). Clinical prostatitis was not associated with increased prostate cancer risk in the full sample, but showed a suggestive inverse association with prostate cancer in African Americans (odds ratio (OR)=0.47; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.27-0.81). In whites, clinical prostatitis increased risk by 40%, but was only associated with a significant increased prostate cancer risk in the absence of evidence of histological inflammation (OR=3.56; 95% CI=1.15-10.99). Moreover, PSA velocity (P=0.008) and frequency of PSA testing (P=0.003) were significant modifiers of risk. Clinical prostatitis increased risk of prostate cancer almost three-fold (OR=2.97; 95% CI=1.40-6.30) in white men with low PSA velocity and about twofold in white men with more frequent PSA testing (OR=1.91; 95% CI=1.09-3.35). In our cohort of men with benign prostate specimens, race, and histological inflammation were important cofactors in the relationship between clinical prostatitis and prostate cancer. Clinical prostatitis was associated with a slightly decreased risk for prostate cancer in African American men. In white men, the relationship between clinical prostatitis and prostate cancer risk was modified by histological prostatic inflammation, PSA velocity, and

  2. Aspirin inhibits interleukin 1-induced prostaglandin H synthase expression in cultured endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, K.K.; Sanduja, R.; Tsai, A.L.; Ferhanoglu, B.; Loose-Mitchell, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    Prostaglandin H (PGH) synthase is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxane, and prostacyclin. In cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells, interleukin 1 (IL-1) is known to induce the synthesis of this enzyme, thereby raising the level of PGH synthase protein severalfold over the basal level. Pretreatment with aspirin at low concentrations inhibited more than 60% of the enzyme mass and also the cyclooxygenase activity in IL-1-induced cells with only minimal effects on the basal level of the synthase enzyme in cells without IL-1. Sodium salicylate exhibited a similar inhibitory action whereas indomethacin had no apparent effect. Similarly low levels of aspirin inhibited the increased L-[ 35 S]methionine incorporation into PGH synthase that was induced by IL0-1 and also suppressed expression of the 2.7-kilobase PGH synthase mRNA. These results suggest that in cultured endothelial cells a potent inhibition of eicosanoid biosynthetic capacity can be effected by aspirin or salicylate at the level of PGH synthase gene expression. The aspirin effect may well be due to degradation of salicylate

  3. Chemotherapeutic potential of diazeniumdiolate-based aspirin prodrugs in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basudhar, Debashree; Cheng, Robert C; Bharadwaj, Gaurav; Ridnour, Lisa A; Wink, David A; Miranda, Katrina M

    2015-06-01

    Diazeniumdiolate-based aspirin prodrugs have previously been shown to retain the anti-inflammatory properties of aspirin while protecting against the common side effect of stomach ulceration. Initial analysis of two new prodrugs of aspirin that also release either nitroxyl (HNO) or nitric oxide (NO) demonstrated increased cytotoxicity toward human lung carcinoma cells compared to either aspirin or the parent nitrogen oxide donor. In addition, cytotoxicity was significantly lower in endothelial cells, suggesting cancer-specific sensitivity. To assess the chemotherapeutic potential of these new prodrugs in treatment of breast cancer, we studied their effect both in cultured cells and in a nude mouse model. Both prodrugs reduced growth of breast adenocarcinoma cells more effectively than the parent compounds while not being appreciably cytotoxic in a related nontumorigenic cell line (MCF-10A). The HNO donor also was more cytotoxic than the related NO donor. The basis for the observed specificity was investigated in terms of impact on metabolism, DNA damage and repair, apoptosis, angiogenesis and metastasis. The results suggest a significant pharmacological potential for treatment of breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Prostate cancer epigenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinaranagari, Swathi; Sharma, Pankaj; Bowen, Nathan J; Chaudhary, Jaideep

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a major health burden within the ever-increasingly aging US population. The molecular mechanisms involved in prostate cancer are diverse and heterogeneous. In this context, epigenetic changes, both global and gene specific, are now an emerging alternate mechanism in disease initiation and progression. The three major risk factors in prostate cancer: age, geographic ancestry, and environment are all influenced by epigenetics and additional significant insight is required to gain an understanding of the underlying mechanisms. The androgen receptor and its downstream effector pathways, central to prostate cancer initiation and progression, are subject to a multitude of epigenetic alterations. In this review we focus on the global perspective of epigenetics and the use of recent next-generation sequencing platforms to interrogate epigenetic changes in the prostate cancer genome.

  5. Maximum Urine Flow Rate of Less than 15ml/Sec Increasing Risk of Urine Retention and Prostate Surgery among Patients with Alpha-1 Blockers: A 10-Year Follow Up Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Ho Liu

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the subsequent risk of acute urine retention and prostate surgery in patients receiving alpha-1 blockers treatment and having a maximum urinary flow rate of less than 15ml/sec.We identified patients who were diagnosed with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH and had a maximum uroflow rate of less than 15ml/sec between 1 January, 2002 to 31 December, 2011 from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database into study group (n = 303. The control cohort included four BPH/LUTS patients without 5ARI used for each study group, randomly selected from the same dataset (n = 1,212. Each patient was monitored to identify those who subsequently developed prostate surgery and acute urine retention.Prostate surgery and acute urine retention are detected in 5.9% of control group and 8.3% of study group during 10-year follow up. Compared with the control group, there was increase in the risk of prostate surgery and acute urine retention in the study group (HR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.16 to 2.91 after adjusting for age, comorbidities, geographic region and socioeconomic status.Maximum urine flow rate of less than 15ml/sec is a risk factor of urinary retention and subsequent prostate surgery in BPH patients receiving alpha-1 blocker therapy. This result can provide a reference for clinicians.

  6. PSA, PSA derivatives, proPSA and prostate health index in the diagnosis of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ayyıldız, Sema Nur; Ayyıldız, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Currently, prostate- specific antigen (PSA) is the most common oncological marker used for prostate cancer screening. However, high levels of PSA in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis decrease the specificity of PSA as a cancer marker. To increase the specificity of PSA, PSA derivatives and PSA kinetics have been used. However, these new techniques were not able to increase the diagnostic specificity for prostate cancer. Therefore, the search for new molecules and derivatives of PSA...

  7. Decreased proinflammatory cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from vitiligo patients following aspirin treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zailaie, Mohammad Z.

    2005-01-01

    Limited studies have shown that treatment of cells with aspirin modulates their cytokine production. Consequently, the aim of the present study is to investigate the pattern of important proinflammatory cytokines production by stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients with active vitiligo following long-term treatment with low-dose oral aspirin. The study was conducted at the Vitiligo Unit, King Abdul-Aziz University Medical Center, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between March and October 2003. Thirty-two patients (18 females and 14 males) with non-segmental vitiligo were divided into 2 equal groups, one group received a daily single dose of oral aspirin (300 mg) and the other group received placebo for a period of 12 weeks. The concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were determined in the supernatant of isolated cultured PMBC after being stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), before the start of aspirin treatment and at end of treatment period. Cytokine levels were measured using the quantitative sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique, utilizing commercially available kits. The proinflammatory cytokine production by the PBMC of patients with active vitiligo was significantly increased compared to normal controls. Thus, the relative percentage increase in the production of IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha was: 39.4%, 110.5% (p<0.05), 91.5% (p<0.01), and 37% (p<0.05). At the end of treatment, proinflammatory cytokine production in the aspirin-treated group of active vitiligo patients was significantly decreased compared to the placebo group. Thus, the relative percentage decrease in the production of IL-1beta IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha was: 42.5%, 45.2% (p<0.05), 30.8% (p<0.01), and 50.6% (p<0.05). The vitiligo activity was arrested in all aspirin-treated patients, while 2 patients demonstrated significant repigmentation.Chronic administration of

  8. The link between benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted, David Dynnes; Bojesen, Stig E

    2013-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer are among the most common diseases of the prostate gland and represent significant burdens for patients and health-care systems in many countries. The two diseases share traits such as hormone-dependent growth and response to antiandrogen...... therapy. Furthermore, risk factors such as prostate inflammation and metabolic disruption have key roles in the development of both diseases. Despite these commonalities, BPH and prostate cancer exhibit important differences in terms of histology and localization. Although large-scale epidemiological...... studies have shown that men with BPH have an increased risk of prostate cancer and prostate-cancer-related mortality, it remains unclear whether this association reflects a causal link, shared risk factors or pathophysiological mechanisms, or detection bias upon statistical analysis. Establishing BPH...

  9. Granulomatous prostatitis after intravesical immunotherapy mimicking prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Białek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Intravesical immunotherapy with attenuated strains of Mycobacterium bovis is a widely used therapeutic option in patients with non-muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. A rare complication of intravesical therapy with the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine is granulomatous prostatitis, which due to increasing levels of prostate-specific antigen and abnormalities found in transrectal examination of the prostate may suggest concomitant prostate cancer. A case of extensive granulomatous prostatitis in a 61-year-old patient which occurred after the first course of a well-tolerated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy is presented. Due to abnormalities found in rectal examination and an abnormal transrectal ultrasound image of the prostate with extensive infiltration mimicking neoplastic hyperplasia a core biopsy of the prostate was performed. Histopathological examination revealed inflammatory infiltration sites of tuberculosis origin.

  10. Early aspirin use and the development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Miae; Bergmark, Brian A; Zelniker, Thomas A; Mehra, Mandeep R; Stewart, Garrick C; Page, Deborah S; Woodcome, Erica L; Smallwood, Jennifer A; Gabardi, Steven; Givertz, Michael M

    2017-12-01

    Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT). Little is known about the influence of aspirin on clinical expression of CAV. We followed 120 patients with OHT at a single center for a median of 7 years and categorized them by the presence or absence of early aspirin therapy post-transplant (aspirin treatment ≥6 months in the first year). The association between aspirin use and time to the primary end-point of angiographic moderate or severe CAV (International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation grade ≥2) was investigated. Propensity scores for aspirin treatment were estimated using boosting models and applied by inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). Despite a preponderance of risk factors for CAV among patients receiving aspirin (male sex, ischemic heart disease as the etiology of heart failure, and smoking), aspirin therapy was associated with a lower rate of moderate or severe CAV at 5 years. Event-free survival was 95.9% for patients exposed to aspirin compared with 79.6% for patients without aspirin exposure (log-rank p = 0.005). IPTW-weighted Cox regression revealed a powerful inverse association between aspirin use and moderate to severe CAV (adjusted hazard ratio 0.13; 95% confidence interval 0.03-0.59), which was directionally consistent for CAV of any severity (adjusted hazard ratio 0.50; 95% confidence interval 0.23-1.08). This propensity score-based comparative observational analysis suggests that early aspirin exposure may be associated with a reduced risk of development of moderate to severe CAV. These findings warrant prospective validation in controlled investigations. Copyright © 2017 International Society for the Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A novel pleiotropic effect of aspirin: Beneficial regulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory mechanisms in microglial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kata, Diana; Földesi, Imre; Feher, Liliana Z; Hackler, Laszlo; Puskas, Laszlo G; Gulya, Karoly

    2017-06-01

    Aspirin, one of the most widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, has extensively studied effects on the cardiovascular system. To reveal further pleiotropic, beneficial effects of aspirin on a number of pro- and anti-inflammatory microglial mechanisms, we performed morphometric and functional studies relating to phagocytosis, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-10, respectively) and analyzed the expression of a number of inflammation-related genes, including those related to the above functions, in pure microglial cells. We examined the effects of aspirin (0.1mM and 1mM) in unchallenged (control) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged secondary microglial cultures. Aspirin affected microglial morphology and functions in a dose-dependent manner as it inhibited LPS-elicited microglial activation by promoting ramification and the inhibition of phagocytosis in both concentrations. Remarkably, aspirin strongly reduced the pro-inflammatory IL-1β and TNF-α production, while it increased the anti-inflammatory IL-10 level in LPS-challenged cells. Moreover, aspirin differentially regulated the expression of a number of inflammation-related genes as it downregulated such pro-inflammatory genes as Nos2, Kng1, IL1β, Ptgs2 or Ccr1, while it upregulated some anti-inflammatory genes such as IL10, Csf2, Cxcl1, Ccl5 or Tgfb1. Thus, the use of aspirin could be beneficial for the prophylaxis of certain neurodegenerative disorders as it effectively ameliorates inflammation in the brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Reduced Antiplatelet Effect of Aspirin Does Not Predict Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Sanne Bøjet; Grove, Erik Lerkevang; Neergaard-Petersen, Søs; Würtz, Morten; Hvas, Anne-Mette; Kristensen, Steen Dalby

    2017-08-05

    Increased platelet aggregation during antiplatelet therapy may predict cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease. The majority of these patients receive aspirin monotherapy. We aimed to investigate whether high platelet-aggregation levels predict cardiovascular events in stable coronary artery disease patients treated with aspirin. We included 900 stable coronary artery disease patients with either previous myocardial infarction, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or both. All patients received single antithrombotic therapy with 75 mg aspirin daily. Platelet aggregation was evaluated 1 hour after aspirin intake using the VerifyNow Aspirin Assay (Accriva Diagnostics) and Multiplate Analyzer (Roche; agonists: arachidonic acid and collagen). Adherence to aspirin was confirmed by serum thromboxane B 2 . The primary end point was the composite of nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and cardiovascular death. At 3-year follow-up, 78 primary end points were registered. The primary end point did not occur more frequently in patients with high platelet-aggregation levels (first versus fourth quartile) assessed by VerifyNow (hazard ratio: 0.5 [95% CI, 0.3-1.1], P =0.08) or Multiplate using arachidonic acid (hazard ratio: 1.0 [95% CI, 0.5-2.1], P =0.92) or collagen (hazard ratio: 1.4 [95% CI, 0.7-2.8], P =0.38). Similar results were found for the composite secondary end point (nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, stent thrombosis, and all-cause death) and the single end points. Thromboxane B 2 levels did not predict any end points. Renal insufficiency was the only clinical risk factor predicting the primary and secondary end points. This study is the largest to investigate platelet aggregation in stable coronary artery disease patients receiving aspirin as single antithrombotic therapy. We found that high platelet-aggregation levels did not predict cardiovascular events. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart

  13. Effect of Low-Dose Aspirin on Chronic Acid Reflux Esophagitis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Takahiro; Yano, Fumiaki; Omura, Nobuo; Tsuboi, Kazuto; Hoshino, Masato; Yamamoto, Se Ryung; Akimoto, Shunsuke; Kashiwagi, Hideyuki; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2018-01-01

    Clinical role of low-dose aspirin (LDA) in pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease is by far controversial. This can be attributed to the paucity of basic research detailing the mechanism of LDA-induced esophageal mucosal injury (EI) on underlying chronic acid reflux esophagitis (RE). The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of LDA on chronic RE in rats. Esophagitis was induced in 8-week-old male Wistar rats by ligating the border between forestomach and glandular portion with a 2-0 silk tie and covering the duodenum with a small piece of 18-Fr Nélaton catheter. Seventy-eight chronic RE rat models were divided into five treatment groups, consisting of orally administered vehicle (controls), and aspirin doses of 2, 5, 50 or 100 mg/kg once daily for 28 days. EI was assessed by gross area of macroscopic mucosal injury, severity grade of esophagitis and microscopic depth of infiltration by inflammatory cells. Area of esophagitis in animals with aspirin dose of 100 mg/kg/day showed a 36.5% increase compared with controls, although it failed to achieve statistical significance (p = 0.812). Additionally, the rate of severe EI was increased in animals with aspirin dose of 100 mg/kg/day as compared with controls (p aspirin (100 mg/kg/day) contributed in exacerbating preexisting EI. LDA (2 and 5 mg/kg/day), on the other hand, did not affect chronic RE in this model. LDA seems to be safe for use in patients with chronic RE.

  14. Increased prostate cancer specific mortality following radical prostatectomy in men presenting with voiding symptoms-A whole of population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Anthony D; Papa, Nathan P; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Millar, Jeremy L; Syme, Rodney; Giles, Graham G; Bolton, Damien M

    2015-09-01

    Whole of population studies reporting long-term outcomes following radical prostatectomy (RP) are scarce. We aimed to evaluate the long-term outcomes in men with prostate cancer (PC) treated with RP in a whole of population cohort. A secondary objective was to evaluate the influence of mode of presentation on PC specific mortality (PCSM). A prospective database of all cases of RP performed in Victoria, Australia between 1995 and 2000 was established within the Victorian Cancer Registry. Specimen histopathology reports and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values were obtained by record linkage to pathology laboratories. Mode of presentation was recorded as either PSA screened (PSA testing offered in absence of voiding symptoms) or symptomatic (diagnosis of PC following presentation with voiding symptoms). Multivariate Cox and competing risk regression models were fitted to analyze all-cause mortality, biochemical recurrence, and PCSM. Between 1995 and 2000, 2,154 men underwent RP in Victoria. During median follow up of 10.2 years (range 0.26-13.5 years), 74 men died from PC. In addition to Gleason score and pathological stage, symptomatic presentation was associated with PCSM. After adjusting for stage and PSA, no difference in PCSM was found between men with Gleason score ≤ 6 and Gleason score 3 + 4 = 7. Men with Gleason score 4 + 3 had significantly greater cumulative incidence of PCSM compared with men with Gleason score 3 + 4. Primary Gleason pattern in Gleason 7 PC is an important prognosticator of survival. Our findings suggest that concomitant voiding symptoms should be considered in the work-up and treatment of PC.

  15. Association of increased urine brain derived neurotrophic factor with lower urinary tract symptoms in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long-Wang; Li, Jian-Long; Yu, Yi; Xiao, Rui-Hai; Huang, Hong-Wei; Kuang, Ren-Rui; Hai, Bo

    2017-08-01

    Urinary brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an ubiquitous neurotrophin, was found to rise in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We hypothesized that the urinary level of BDNF could be a potential biomarker for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in patients with BPH. Totally, 76 patients with BPH-caused LUTS and 32 male control subjects without BPH were enrolled. International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) was applied to assess the symptom severity of LUTS. Urodynamic tests were performed for the diagnosis of underlying detrusor overactivity (DO) in the patients with BPH. Urine samples were collected from all subjects. Urinary BDNF levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and normalized by urinary creatinine (Cr) levels. Seventy-six BPH patients were divided into moderate LUTS group (n=51, 720) according to the IPSS. Of the 76 BPH patients, DO was present in 34 (44.7%) according to the urodynamic test. The urinary BDNF/Cr levels were significantly higher in BPH patients with moderate LUTS (8.29±3.635, PBDNF/Cr levels than patients with moderate LUTS (11.8±6.44 vs. 8.29±3.635, P=0.000). The conditions of BPH with LUTS correlated with elevated urinary BDNF levels, and urinary BDNF levels were even higher in BPH-DO patients. The results of this study have provided evidence to suggest that urinary BDNF level test could evaluate the severity of LUTS in BPH patients, and BDNF level can be used as a biomarker for the diagnosis of DO in BPH patients.

  16. Imaging of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turgut, A.

    2012-01-01

    technique, cancerous tissue can be differentiated from benign tissues depending on the hardness gradient and degree of elasticity loss. Nevertheless, the technique is not sufficient yet to preclude the requirement for systematic prostate biopsies. TRUS-guided prostate biopsy has been accepted as the 'gold standard' tool for the detection of prostate cancer. Currently, extended sampling protocols involving 10-12 cores with additional laterally directed cores at the aforementioned levels have been used to increase the diagnostic yield. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful for prostate cancer detection primarily in patients with persisting suspicion for undisclosed cancer, despite having negative transrectal US and biopsy findings. MRI can also be used for the localization of cancer within the prostate and in local and distant staging of the disease. Technically, fast spin echo imaging preferably with the combination of endorectal and pelvic phased array coils is recommended for an ideal prostate MRI examination. MRI also aids in the local staging of prostate cancer, as it enables the assessment of the capsular penetration, extracapsular spread and local and distant metastasis. Accordingly, the data derived from endorectal MRI can be used with Partin nomograms to predict extracapsular spread of prostate cancer, in intermediate and high risk patients. MRI is a complementary technique to improve tumor detection by the assessment of tumor metabolism. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, on the other hand, enables direct assessment of the angiogenesis associated with prostate cancer and relative peak enhancement has been accepted as the most accurate perfusion parameter for cancer detection. Diffusion- Weighted Imaging is based on the restriction of diffusion and elevation of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in cancerous tissue compared to the normal prostate tissue. However, the diagnostic accuracy of the technique is diminished by the variability of the ADC values

  17. The role of aspirin desensitization in patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, Jonas Willian; Valera, Fabiana Cardoso Pereira; Cordeiro, Daniel Loiola; de Mendonça, Taís Nociti; Leite, Marcelo Gonçalves Junqueira; Tamashiro, Edwin; Arruda, Luiza Karla; Anselmo-Lima, Wilma Terezinha

    2016-01-01

    Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) consists of a classic tetrad: moderate/severe asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyps, and intolerance to aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Clinical control with drugs, surgery, and desensitization are treatment options. To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of aspirin desensitization in patients with AERD. Periodic symptom assessment and endoscopy in patients with AERD undergoing surgery who were desensitized. Seventeen patients were desensitized. Eight patients completed the desensitization and were followed for a minimum of a one-year period (mean 3.1 years). These patients showed improvement in all symptoms. Moreover, surgical reassessment was not indicated in any of these patients and there was a decrease in costs with medication and procedures. Eight patients did not complete desensitization, mainly due to procedure intolerance and uncontrolled asthma, whereas another patient was lost to follow-up. Aspirin desensitization, when tolerated, was effective in patients with AERD and with poor clinical/surgical response. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Baseline placental growth factor levels for the prediction of benefit from early aspirin prophylaxis for preeclampsia prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Gaea S; Allshouse, Amanda A; Winn, Virginia D; Galan, Henry L; Heyborne, Kent D

    2015-10-01

    Placental growth factor (PlGF) levels early in pregnancy are lower in women who ultimately develop preeclampsia. Early initiation of low-dose aspirin reduces preeclampsia risk in some high risk women. We hypothesized that low PlGF levels may identify women at increased risk for preeclampsia who would benefit from aspirin. Secondary analysis of the MFMU High-Risk Aspirin study including singleton pregnancies randomized to aspirin 60mg/d (n=102) or placebo (n=72), with PlGF collected at 13w 0d-16w 6d. Within the placebo group, we estimated the probability of preeclampsia by PlGF level using logistic regression analysis, then determined a potential PlGF threshold for preeclampsia prediction using ROC analysis. We performed logistic regression modeling for potential confounders. ROC analysis indicated 87.71pg/ml as the threshold between high and low PlGF for preeclampsia-prediction. Within the placebo group high PlGF weakly predicted preeclampsia (AUC 0.653, sensitivity/specificity 63%/66%). We noted a 2.6-fold reduction in preeclampsia with aspirin in the high-PlGF group (12.15% aspirin vs 32.14% placebo, p=0.057), but no significant differences in preeclampsia in the low PlGF group (21.74% vs 15.91%, p=0.445). Unlike other studies, we found that high rather than low PlGF levels were associated with an increased preeclampsia risk. Low PlGF neither identified women at increased risk of preeclampsia nor women who benefitted from aspirin. Further research is needed to determine whether aspirin is beneficial in women with high PlGF, and whether the paradigm linking low PlGF and preeclampsia needs to be reevaluated. High-risk women with low baseline PlGF, a risk factor for preeclampsia, did not benefit from early initiation of low-dose aspirin. Copyright © 2015 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) did not affect cell viability despite increased androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen gene expression in the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, P; Cardenas, H; Orihuela, P A

    2016-10-01

    We examined whether aqueous extract of Lepidium meyenii (red Maca) could inhibit growth, potentiate apoptotic activity of two anticancer drugs Taxol and 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME) or change mRNA expression for the androgen target genes, androgen receptor (Ar) and prostate-specific antigen (Psa) in the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. Red Maca aqueous extract at 0, 10, 20, 40 or 80 μg/ml was added to LNCaP cells, and viability was evaluated by the MTS assay at 24 or 48 hr after treatment. Furthermore, LNCaP cells were treated with 80 μg/ml of red Maca plus Taxol or 2ME 5 μM and viability was assessed 48 hr later. Finally, LNCaP cells were treated with red Maca 0, 20, 40 or 80 μg/ml, and 12 hr later, mRNA level for Ar or Psa was assessed by real-time PCR. Treatment with red Maca did not affect viability of LNCaP cells. Apoptotic activity induced by Taxol and 2ME in LNCaP cells was not altered with red Maca treatment. Relative expression of the mRNA for Ar and Psa increased with red Maca 20 and 40 μg/ml, but not at 80 μg/ml. We conclude that red Maca aqueous extract does not have toxic effects, but stimulates androgen signalling in LNCaP cells. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Use of Aspirin postdiagnosis improves survival for colon cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Bastiaannet (Esther); K. Sampieri (K.); O.M. Dekkers (Olaf); A.J. de Craen (Anton); M.P.P. van Herk-Sukel (Myrthe); V.E.P.P. Lemmens (Valery); C.B.M. van den Broek (Colette); J.W.W. Coebergh (Jan Willem); R.M.C. Herings (Ron); C.J.H. van de Velde (Cornelis); R. Fodde (Riccardo); G.-J. Liefers (Gerrit-Jan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The preventive role of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and aspirin, in particular, on colorectal cancer is well established. More recently, it has been suggested that aspirin may also have a therapeutic role. Aim of the present observational population-based

  1. Aspirin and lipid mediators in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrör, Karsten; Rauch, Bernhard H

    2015-09-01

    Aspirin is an unique compound because it bears two active moieties within one and the same molecule: a reactive acetyl group and the salicylate metabolite. Salicylate has some effects similar to aspirin, however only at higher concentrations, usually in the millimolar range, which are not obtained at conventional antiplatelet aspirin doses of 100-300 mg/day. Pharmacological actions of aspirin in the cardiovascular system at these doses are largely if not entirely due to target structure acetylation. Several classes of lipid mediators become affected: Best known is the cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) in platelets with subsequent inhibition of thromboxane and, possibly, thrombin formation. By this action, aspirin also inhibits paracrine thromboxane functions on other lipid mediators, such as the platelet storage product sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), an inflammatory mediator. Acetylation of COX-2 allows for generation of 15-(R)HETE and subsequent formation of "aspirin-triggered lipoxin" (ATL) by interaction with white cell lipoxygenases. In the cardiovascular system, aspirin also acetylates eNOS with subsequent upregulation of NO formation and enhanced expression of the antioxidans heme-oxygenase-1. This action is possibly also COX-2/ATL mediated. Many more acetylation targets have been identified in live cells by quantitative acid-cleavable activity-based protein profiling and might result in discovery of even more aspirin targets in the near future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Aspirin Metabolomics in Colorectal Cancer Chemoprevention | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substantial evidence supports the effectiveness of aspirin for cancer chemoprevention in addition to its well-established role in cardiovascular protection. In recent meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials in humans, daily aspirin use reduced incidence, metastasis and mortality from several common types of cancer, especially colorectal cancer. The mechanism(s) by which

  3. Rivaroxaban with or without Aspirin in Stable Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikelboom, John W.; Connolly, Stuart J.; Bosch, Jackie; Dagenais, Gilles R.; Hart, Robert G.; Shestakovska, Olga; Diaz, Rafael; Alings, Marco; Lonn, Eva M.; Anand, Sonia S.; Widimsky, Petr; Hori, Masatsugu; Avezum, Alvaro; Piegas, Leopoldo S.; Branch, Kelley R. H.; Probstfield, Jeffrey; Bhatt, Deepak L.; Zhu, Jun; Liang, Yan; Maggioni, Aldo P.; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; O'Donnell, Martin; Kakkar, Ajay K.; Fox, Keith A. A.; Parkhomenko, Alexander N.; Ertl, Georg; Störk, Stefan; Keltai, Matyas; Ryden, Lars; Pogosova, Nana; Dans, Antonio L.; Lanas, Fernando; Commerford, Patrick J.; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Guzik, Tomek J.; Verhamme, Peter B.; Vinereanu, Dragos; Kim, Jae-Hyung; Tonkin, Andrew M.; Lewis, Basil S.; Felix, Camilo; Yusoff, Khalid; Steg, P. Gabriel; Metsarinne, Kaj P.; Cook Bruns, Nancy; Misselwitz, Frank; Chen, Edmond; Leong, Darryl; Hashimoto, S.; Maas, M.

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated whether rivaroxaban alone or in combination with aspirin would be more effective than aspirin alone for secondary cardiovascular prevention. In this double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 27,395 participants with stable atherosclerotic vascular disease to receive rivaroxaban (2.5 mg

  4. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of aspirin and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr J. T. Ekanem

    Novel complexes of Co (11), Ni (11) and Fe (111) with aspirin and paracetamol have synthesized and characterized using infrared, electronic and Hnmr spectral, melting point and conductivity measurements. The two ligands have been found to act as bidentate chelating agents. Aspirin complexes coordinate through the ...

  5. Aspirin Has Antitumor Effects via Expression of Calpain Gene in Cervical Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Koo Lee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs show efficacy in the prevention of cancers. It is known that they can inhibit cyclooxygenases, and some studies have shown that they can induce apoptosis. Our objective in this study was to investigate the mechanism by which aspirin exerts its apoptosis effects in human cervical cancer HeLa cells. The effect of aspirin on the gene expression was studied by differential mRNA display RT-PCR. Among the isolated genes, mu-type calpain gene was upregulated by aspirin treatment. To examine whether calpain mediates the antitumor effects, HeLa cells were stably transfected with the mammalian expression vector pCR3.1 containing mu-type calpain cDNA (pCRCAL/HeLa, and tumor formations were measured in nude mice. When tumor burden was measured by day 49, HeLa cells and pCR/HeLa cells (vector control produced tumors of 2126 mm3 and 1638 mm3, respectively, while pCRCAL/HeLa cells produced markedly smaller tumor of 434 mm3 in volume. The caspase-3 activity was markedly elevated in pCRCAL/HeLa cells. The increased activity levels of caspase-3 in pCRCAL/HeLa cells, in parallel with the decreased tumor formation, suggest a correlation between caspase-3 activity and calpain protein. Therefore, we conclude that aspirin-induced calpain mediates an antitumor effect via caspase-3 in cervical cancer cells.

  6. Dutasteride reduces prostate size and prostate specific antigen in older hypogonadal men with benign prostatic hyperplasia undergoing testosterone replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Stephanie T; Hirano, Lianne; Gilchriest, Janet; Dighe, Manjiri; Amory, John K; Marck, Brett T; Matsumoto, Alvin M

    2011-07-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia and hypogonadism are common disorders in aging men. There is concern that androgen replacement in older men may increase prostate size and symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia. We examined whether combining dutasteride, which inhibits testosterone to dihydrotestosterone conversion, with testosterone treatment in older hypogonadal men with benign prostatic hyperplasia reduces androgenic stimulation of the prostate compared to testosterone alone. We conducted a double-blind, placebo controlled trial of 53 men 51 to 82 years old with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostate volume 30 cc or greater and serum total testosterone less than 280 ng/dl (less than 9.7 nmol/l). Subjects were randomized to daily transdermal 1% T gel plus oral placebo or dutasteride for 6 months. Testosterone dosing was adjusted to a serum testosterone of 500 to 1,000 ng/dl. The primary outcomes were prostate volume measured by magnetic resonance imaging, serum prostate specific antigen and androgen levels. A total of 46 subjects completed all procedures. Serum testosterone increased similarly into the mid-normal range in both groups. Serum dihydrotestosterone increased in the testosterone only but decreased in the testosterone plus dutasteride group. In the testosterone plus dutasteride group prostate volume and prostate specific antigen (mean ± SEM) decreased 12% ± 2.5% and 35% ± 5%, respectively, compared to the testosterone only group in which prostate volume and prostate specific antigen increased 7.5% ± 3.3% and 19% ± 7% (p = 0.03 and p = 0.008), respectively, after 6 months of treatment. Prostate symptom scores improved in both groups. Combined treatment with testosterone plus dutasteride reduces prostate volume and prostate specific antigen compared to testosterone only. Coadministration of a 5α-reductase inhibitor with testosterone appears to spare the prostate from androgenic stimulation during testosterone replacement in older

  7. Monitoring aspirin therapy with the Platelet Function Analyzer-100

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jette; Poulsen, Tina Svenstrup; Grove, Erik Lerkevang

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Low platelet response to aspirin has been reported to be associated with a high incidence of vascular events. The reported prevalence of aspirin low-responsiveness varies, which may be explained by poor reproducibility of the methods used to evaluate aspirin response and low compliance....... The Platelet Function Analyzer-100 (PFA-100) is a commonly used platelet function test. We aimed to assess the reproducibility of the PFA-100 and the agreement with optical platelet aggregometry (OPA) in healthy volunteers and in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) treated with low-dose aspirin....... MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-one healthy volunteers and 43 patients with CAD took part in the study. During treatment with aspirin 75 mg daily, all participants had platelet function assessed in duplicate with the PFA-100 and OPA on 4 consecutive days. Additionally, platelet function was assessed before...

  8. Aspirin decreases platelet uptake on Dacron vascular grafts in baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, W.C.; Connolly, R.J.; Callow, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of a single dose of aspirin (5.4-7.4 mg/kg) on platelet uptake on 4-mm Dacron interposition grafts was studied in a baboon model using gamma camera scanning for 111-Indium labeled platelets. In vitro assessment of platelet function after aspirin administration revealed that in the baboon, as in the human, aspirin abolished arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation, prolonged the lag time between exposure to collagen and aggregation, and decreased plasma thromboxane B2 levels. Aspirin also prolonged the template bleeding time. Scans for 111-Indium labeled platelets revealed that pretreatment with a single dose of aspirin decreased platelet uptake on 4-mm Dacron carotid interposition grafts. This decrease in platelet uptake was associated with a significant improvement in 2-hour graft patency and with a trend toward improved 2-week patency

  9. Prostatitis - nonbacterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    NBP; Prostatodynia; Pelvic pain syndrome; CPPS; Chronic nonbacterial prostatitis; Chronic genitourinary pain ... Possible causes of nonbacterial prostatitis include: A past ... common types of bacteria Irritation caused by a backup of urine ...

  10. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty ... Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page This page was reviewed on ...

  11. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pictures of a man’s prostate gland and to help diagnose symptoms such as difficulty urinating or an ... Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Prostate ultrasound, ...

  12. Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  13. Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast cancer (BRCA1 or BRCA2) or a very strong family history of breast cancer, your risk of prostate cancer may be higher. Obesity. Obese men diagnosed with prostate cancer may be more likely ...

  14. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page ... to Ultrasound - Prostate Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ...

  15. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery Radiologist and patient consultation. View full size with caption Related Articles and Media Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) (Enlargement of the Prostate) ...

  16. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... uses sound waves to produce pictures of a man’s prostate gland and to help diagnose symptoms such ... also called transrectal ultrasound, provides images of a man's prostate gland and surrounding tissue. The exam typically ...

  17. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is used to guide the biopsy to specific regions of the prostate gland. When the examination is ... is relatively insensitive to the pain in the region of the prostate. A biopsy will add time ...

  18. Safety of aspirin desensitization in patients with reported aspirin allergy and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, Kathryn L; Wedner, H James

    2013-01-01

    Aspirin (ASA) is the drug of choice in patients with coronary artery disease for primary and secondary prevention. This poses a problem for those patients reporting hypersensitivity to this drug or class of drugs. Desensitization to ASA may be carried out safely and effectively in patients with reported ASA or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) hypersensitivity needing ASA for cardiac indications. Our 7-step protocol is one choice for a rapid desensitization protocol. A retrospective chart review was conducted evaluating ASA desensitization in patients with reported ASA or NSAID hypersensitivity and a cardiac indication for ASA. In 160 evaluations over 15 years, 89 desensitizations were performed in both the inpatient and outpatient setting with only 16 reactions (18%). Eleven of these 16 patients (68.7%) were able to take daily ASA. Twenty-six desensitization procedures were performed with our 7-step rapid desensitization protocol in 10 inpatients and 16 outpatients with 3 reactions (18.75% of reactions). Initial reaction to ASA involving angioedema and reacting to ASA within the past year increased the risk of having a reaction to desensitization. Desensitization may be safely performed in patients with reported ASA or NSAID hypersensitivity and a cardiac indication for ASA. Our 7-step rapid protocol may be used in both the inpatient and outpatient setting to desensitize these patients. Patients who had angioedema with ASA ingestion or a reaction to ASA within the past year are at higher risk for reaction during the desensitization protocol. The authors have no funding, financial relationships, or conflicts of interest to disclose. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Acetyl salicyclic acid (aspirin) improves synthesis of maspin and lowers incidence of metastasis in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, M.; Girish, G.V.; Ghosh, R.; Chakraborty, S.; Sinha, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    Maspin, a 42 kDa protein produced in normal breast cells, has been shown to inhibit the invasion and metastasis of breast cancer in an animal model. Ingestion of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) by breast cancer patients has been reported to restore the systemic synthesis of maspin through the stimulation of systemic nitric oxide production. Studies were carried out to determine the effect of aspirin on the incidence of breast cancer metastasis, which is reported to occur in 50% of patients who have previously received chemotherapy, radiation, and/or surgery. Thirty-five female patients (aged 41-65 years) with breast cancer who had previously received these therapies took one 75 mg/70 kg body weight enteric-coated aspirin tablet every 24 h, after an adequate meal, for 3 years. Their plasma nitric oxide and maspin levels were measured. The occurrence of metastasis was ascertained monthly by a qualified oncologist, and confirmed, if necessary, by biopsy. Daily ingestion of aspirin by participants resulted in an increase in maspin levels from 0.95±0.04 to 4.63±0.05 nM after 24 h. These levels were maintained for 3 years. These studies suggest that daily ingestion of aspirin might significantly reduce the incidence of breast cancer metastasis in patients who have previously received anticancer therapies. (author)

  20. Specific recognition and fluorescent determination of aspirin by using core-shell CdTe quantum dot-imprinted polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Xiao; Zhou, Zhiping; Hao, Tongfan; Lu, Kai; Dai, Jiangdong; Xu, Yeqing; Li, Hongji; Zheng, Xudong; Gao, Lin; Wang, Jixiang; Yan, Yongsheng; Zhu, Yanzhuo

    2015-01-01

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was deposited on the surface of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) to act as a recognition element for aspirin. The MIP was synthesized from 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane as the functional monomer, aspirin as the template, and tetraethoxysilane as the cross-linker via a sol–gel process that leads to surface imprinting. It is shown that the fraction of QDs and the polymerization process affect size and morphology of the MIP-coated QDs. The optical stability, effects of pH, detection time and selective determination of aspirin were optimized. The fluorescence intensity of the particles (photoexcited at 400 nm and measured at 628 nm) decreases linearly with increasing concentration of aspirin in the 2.0–50 μmol L −1 range. The limit of detection (at an S/N of 3) is 0.25 μmol L −1 . The method was successfully applied to the determination of aspirin in human urine and saliva. (author)

  1. Bacterial prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Bradley C; Shoskes, Daniel A

    2016-02-01

    The review provides the infectious disease community with a urologic perspective on bacterial prostatitis. Specifically, the article briefly reviews the categorization of prostatitis by type and provides a distillation of new findings published on bacterial prostatitis over the past year. It also highlights key points from the established literature. Cross-sectional prostate imaging is becoming more common and may lead to more incidental diagnoses of acute bacterial prostatitis. As drug resistance remains problematic in this condition, the reemergence of older antibiotics such as fosfomycin, has proven beneficial. With regard to chronic bacterial prostatitis, no clear clinical risk factors emerged in a large epidemiological study. However, bacterial biofilm formation has been associated with more severe cases. Surgery has a limited role in bacterial prostatitis and should be reserved for draining of a prostatic abscess or the removal of infected prostatic stones. Prostatitis remains a common and bothersome clinical condition. Antibiotic therapy remains the basis of treatment for both acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Further research into improving prostatitis treatment is indicated.

  2. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the prostate. help diagnose the cause of a man's infertility. A transrectal ultrasound of the prostate gland is typically used to help diagnose symptoms such as: a nodule felt by a physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated ...

  3. Prostate Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prostate is a gland in men. It helps make semen, the fluid that contains sperm. The prostate surrounds the tube that carries urine away from ... and out of the body. A young man's prostate is about the size of a walnut. It ...

  4. Pifithrin-μ, an inhibitor of heat-shock protein 70, can increase the antitumor effects of hyperthermia against human prostate cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumasa Sekihara

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia (HT improves the efficacy of anti-cancer radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, HT also inevitably evokes stress responses and increases the expression of heat-shock proteins (HSPs in cancer cells. Among the HSPs, HSP70 is known as a pro-survival protein. In this study, we investigated the sensitizing effect of pifithrin (PFT-μ, a small molecule inhibitor of HSP70, when three human prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP, PC-3, and DU-145 were treated with HT (43°C for 2 h. All cell lines constitutively expressed HSP70, and HT further increased its expression in LNCaP and DU-145. Knockdown of HSP70 with RNA interference decreased the viability and colony-forming ability of cancer cells. PFT-μ decreased the viabilities of all cell lines at one-tenth the dose of Quercetin, a well-known HSP inhibitor. The combination therapy with suboptimal doses of PFT-μ and HT decreased the viability of cancer cells most effectively when PFT-μ was added immediately before HT, and this combination effect was abolished by pre-knockdown of HSP70, suggesting that the effect was mediated via HSP70 inhibition. The combination therapy induced cell death, partially caspase-dependent, and decreased proliferating cancer cells, with decreased expression of c-Myc and cyclin D1 and increased expression of p21(WAF1/Cip, indicating arrest of cell growth. Additionally, the combination therapy significantly decreased the colony-forming ability of cancer cells compared to therapy with either alone. Furthermore, in a xenograft mouse model, the combination therapy significantly inhibited PC-3 tumor growth. These findings suggest that PFT-μ can effectively enhance HT-induced antitumor effects via HSP70 inhibition by inducing cell death and arrest of cell growth, and that PFT-μ is a promising agent for use in combination with HT to treat prostate cancer.

  5. Lethal outcome after pelvic salvage radiotherapy in a patient with prostate cancer due to increased radiosensitivity. Case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahrig, Antje; Koch, T. [Klinikum Bamberg, Sozialstiftung Bamberg, Klinik und Praxis fuer Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie, Bamberg (Germany); Lenhart, M. [Klinikum Bamberg, Sozialstiftung Bamberg, Klinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Bamberg (Germany); Rieckmann, P. [Klinikum Bamberg, Sozialstiftung Bamberg, Neurologische Klinik, Bamberg (Germany); Fietkau, R.; Distel, Luitpold; Schuster, B. [Universitaetsklinikum Erlangen, Strahlenklinik, Erlangen (Germany)

    2018-01-15

    In general, late side effects after salvage radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer are below 10%. Patients with impaired DNA repair ability and genetic instability can have significantly increased reactions after RT. We present a patient who experienced severe side effects after additive RT for prostate cancer and died from the complications 25 months after RT. Imaging (MR) is shown as well as three-color fluorescence in situ hybridization. The blood sample testing revealed that radiosensitivity was increased by 35-55%. We undertook a review of the literature to give an overview over the tests established that are currently considered useful. This case highlights that the identification of patients with increased radiosensitivity is an important task in radiation protection. Groups of patients who should be screened have to be found and corresponding research facilities have to be set up. (orig.) [German] Generell sind spaete Nebenwirkungen nach additiver Radiotherapie (RT) beim Prostatakarzinom mit deutlich unter 10 % selten. Allerdings haben Patienten mit eingeschraenkter DNA-Reparatur-Kapazitaet und genetischer Instabilitaet ein signifikant erhoehtes Nebenwirkungsrisiko. In diesem Fallbeispiel stellen wir einen Patienten vor, der nach additiver RT wegen Prostatakarzinom massive Nebenwirkungen erlitt und 25 Monate nach der RT daran verstarb. Wir zeigen die Ergebnisse der konsekutiven MR-Untersuchungen und 3-Farben-Fluoreszenz-in-situ-Hybridisierung. Die Blutuntersuchung ergab eine um 35-55 % erhoehte Strahlenempfindlichkeit. Eine aktuelle Literaturrecherche ergab, dass mittlerweile verschiedene Testverfahren zur Untersuchung der Strahlenempfindlichkeit etabliert sind. Das Fallbeispiel zeigt, dass die Identifikation besonders strahlenempfindlicher Patienten ein wichtiges Arbeitsziel im Strahlenschutz ist. Patientenparameter fuer eine erforderliche Testung ueber die bekannten Syndrome hinaus sollten identifizierbar werden. Entsprechende Forschungseinrichtungen sind

  6. TNFα-mediated loss of β-catenin/E-cadherin association and subsequent increase in cell migration is partially restored by NKX3.1 expression in prostate cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Debelec-Butuner

    Full Text Available Inflammation-induced carcinogenesis is associated with increased proliferation and migration/invasion of various types of tumor cells. In this study, altered β-catenin signaling upon TNFα exposure, and relation to loss of function of the tumor suppressor NKX3.1 was examined in prostate cancer cells. We used an in vitro prostate inflammation model to demonstrate altered sub-cellular localization of β-catenin following increased phosphorylation of Akt(S473 and GSK3β(S9. Consistently, we observed that subsequent increase in β-catenin transactivation enhanced c-myc, cyclin D1 and MMP2 expressions. Consequently, it was also observed that the β-catenin-E-cadherin association at the plasma membrane was disrupted during acute cytokine exposure. Additionally, it was demonstrated that disrupting cell-cell interactions led to increased migration of LNCaP cells in real-time migration assay. Nevertheless, ectopic expression of NKX3.1, which is degraded upon proinflammatory cytokine exposure in inflammation, was found to induce the degradation of β-catenin by inhibiting Akt(S473 phosphorylation, therefore, partially rescued the disrupted β-catenin-E-cadherin interaction as well as the cell migration in LNCaP cells upon cytokine exposure. As, the disrupted localization of β-catenin at the cell membrane as well as increased Akt(S308 priming phosphorylation was observed in human prostate tissues with prostatic inflammatory atrophy (PIA, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (H-PIN and carcinoma lesions correlated with loss of NKX3.1 expression. Thus, the data indicate that the β-catenin signaling; consequently sub-cellular localization is deregulated in inflammation, associates with prostatic atrophy and PIN pathology.

  7. Inhibition of Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer by Estrogenic Compounds Is Associated with Increased Expression of Immune-Related Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilsa M. Coleman

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The clinical utility of estrogens for treating prostate cancer (CaP was established in the 1940s by Huggins. The classic model of the anti-CaP activity of estrogens postulates an indirect mechanism involving the suppression of androgen production. However, clinical, preclinical studies have shown that estrogens exert growth-inhibitory effects on CaP under low-androgen conditions, suggesting additional modes whereby estrogens affect CaP cells and/or the microenvironment. Here we have investigated the activity of 17β estradiol (E2 against androgen-independent CaP, identified molecular alterations in tumors exposed to E2. E2 treatment inhibited the growth of all four androgen-independent CaP xenografts studied (LuCaP 35V, LuCaP 23.1AI, LuCaP 49, LuCaP 58 in castrated male mice. The molecular basis of growth suppression was studied by cDNA microarray analysis, which indicated that multiple pathways are altered by E2 treatment. Of particular interest are changes in transcripts encoding proteins that mediate immune responses, regulate androgen receptor signaling. In conclusion, our data show that estrogens have powerful inhibitory effects on CaP in vivo in androgendepleted environments, suggest novel mechanisms of estrogen-mediated antitumor activity. These results indicate that incorporating estrogens into CaP treatment protocols could enhance therapeutic efficacy even in cases of advanced disease.

  8. Clinician-led improvement in cancer care (CLICC) - testing a multifaceted implementation strategy to increase evidence-based prostate cancer care: phased randomised controlled trial - study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical practice guidelines have been widely developed and disseminated with the aim of improving healthcare processes and patient outcomes but the uptake of evidence-based practice remains haphazard. There is a need to develop effective implementation methods to achieve large-scale adoption of proven innovations and recommended care. Clinical networks are increasingly being viewed as a vehicle through which evidence-based care can be embedded into healthcare systems using a collegial approach to agree on and implement a range of strategies within hospitals. In Australia, the provision of evidence-based care for men with prostate cancer has been identified as a high priority. Clinical audits have shown that fewer than 10% of patients in New South Wales (NSW) Australia at high risk of recurrence after radical prostatectomy receive guideline recommended radiation treatment following surgery. This trial will test a clinical network-based intervention to improve uptake of guideline recommended care for men with high-risk prostate cancer. Methods/Design In Phase I, a phased randomised cluster trial will test a multifaceted intervention that harnesses the NSW Agency for Clinical Innovation (ACI) Urology Clinical Network to increase evidence-based care for men with high-risk prostate cancer following surgery. The intervention will be introduced in nine NSW hospitals over 10 months using a stepped wedge design. Outcome data (referral to radiation oncology for discussion of adjuvant radiotherapy in line with guideline recommended care or referral to a clinical trial of adjuvant versus salvage radiotherapy) will be collected through review of patient medical records. In Phase II, mixed methods will be used to identify mechanisms of provider and organisational change. Clinicians’ knowledge and attitudes will be assessed through surveys. Process outcome measures will be assessed through document review. Semi-structured interviews will be conducted to elucidate

  9. Multiparametric MR imaging in diagnosis of chronic prostatitis and its differentiation from prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Sah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic prostatitis is a heterogeneous condition with high prevalence rate. Chronic prostatitis has overlap in clinical presentation with other prostate disorders and is one of the causes of high serum prostate specific antigen (PSA level. Chronic prostatitis, unlike acute prostatitis, is difficult to diagnose reliably and accurately on the clinical grounds alone. Not only this, it is also challenging to differentiate chronic prostatitis from prostate cancer with imaging modalities like TRUS and conventional MR Imaging, as the findings can mimic those of prostate cancer. Even biopsy doesn't play promising role in the diagnosis of chronic prostatitis as it has limited sensitivity and specificity. As a result of this, chronic prostatitis may be misdiagnosed as a malignant condition and end up in aggressive surgical management resulting in increased morbidity. This warrants the need of reliable diagnostic tool which has ability not only to diagnose it reliably but also to differentiate it from the prostate cancer. Recently, it is suggested that multiparametric MR Imaging of the prostate could improve the diagnostic accuracy of the prostate cancer. This review is based on the critically published literature and aims to provide an overview of multiparamateric MRI techniques in the diagnosis of chronic prostatitis and its differentiation from prostate cancer.

  10. Effect of aspirin desensitization on T-cell cytokines and plasma lipoxins in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksu, Kurtuluş; Kurt, Emel; Alatas, Özkan; Gülbas, Zafer

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is thought to be based on, mainly, overproduction of eicosanoid lipid mediators and on defective anti-inflammatory regulators. Aspirin desensitization treatment, the mainstay of controlling asthma and rhinitis in AERD patients, however, is the least understood aspect of the disease. The study was designed to determine the effect of aspirin desensitization on T-lymphocyte cytokine expression and on plasma lipoxin levels in AERD. Spirometry, skin-prick test and asthma control test were documented and intracellular cytokine expression in T lymphocytes and plasma lipoxin levels were measured in 23 AERD patients, 17 aspirin-tolerant asthmatic (ATA) patients, and 16 healthy controls. In the AERD group nasal symptom and smell scores were assessed. Of the 23 AERD patients 15 accepted to undergo aspirin desensitization protocol and 14 of them were desensitized successfully. In the desensitized AERD group, cytokine and lipoxin measurements were repeated after 1-month aspirin treatment. CD4(+) IL-10 levels were higher in AERD patients than in healthy controls and CD4(+) interferon (IFN) gamma levels were higher in AERD and ATA patients than in controls. Plasma lipoxin-A4 and 15-epi-lipoxin-A4 levels were similar among the three study groups. In the AERD group, subjects underwent aspirin desensitization followed by a 1-month aspirin treatment. Clinical parameters improved and CD4(+) IFN-gamma levels decreased significantly. No significant change in lipoxin levels was recorded. CD4(+) IFN-gamma and CD4(+) IL-10 levels in AERD patients after 1-month aspirin desensitization treatment were similar to the healthy controls. The study confirms aspirin desensitization is effective clinically in AERD patients and suggests that IFN gamma and IL-10 expression in CD4(+) T lymphocytes may be related to the mechanism of action.

  11. Venous thromboembolic prophylaxis after simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty: aspirin versus warfarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, R; Fleischman, A N; Tan, T; Sterbis, E; Huang, R; Higuera, C; Parvizi, J; Rothman, R H

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the efficacy of two agents, aspirin and warfarin, for the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty (SBTKA), and to elucidate the risk of VTE conferred by this procedure compared with unilateral TKA (UTKA). A retrospective, multi-institutional study was conducted on 18 951 patients, 3685 who underwent SBTKA and 15 266 who underwent UTKA, using aspirin or warfarin as VTE prophylaxis. Each patient was assigned an individualised baseline VTE risk score based on a system using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Symptomatic VTE, including pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT), were identified in the first 90 days post-operatively. Statistical analyses were performed with logistic regression accounting for baseline VTE risk. The adjusted incidence of PE following SBTKA was 1.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86 to 1.2) with aspirin and 2.2% (95% CI 2.0 to 2.4) with warfarin. Similarly, the adjusted incidence of VTE following SBTKA was 1.6% (95% CI 1.1 to 2.3) with aspirin and 2.5% (95% CI 1.9 to 3.3) with warfarin. The risk of PE and VTE were reduced by 66% (odds ratio (OR) 0.44, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.78) and 38% (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.38 to 1.0), respectively, using aspirin. In addition, the risk of PE was 204% higher for patients undergoing SBTKA relative to those undergoing UTKA. For each ten-point increase in baseline VTE risk, the risk of PE increased by 25.5% for patients undergoing SBTKA compared with 10.5% for those undergoing UTKA. Patients with a history of myocardial infarction or peripheral vascular disease had the greatest increase in risk from undergoing SBTKA instead of UTKA. Aspirin is more effective than warfarin for the prevention of VTE following SBTKA, and serves as the more appropriate agent for VTE prophylaxis for patients in all risk categories. Furthermore, patients undergoing SBTKA are at a substantially increased risk of VTE, even more so for

  12. Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Cancer Death in the Finnish Prostate Cancer Screening Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thea Veitonmäki

    Full Text Available Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, especially aspirin, have been associated with lowered cancer incidence and mortality. We examined overall cancer mortality and mortality from specific cancer sites among the 80,144 men in the Finnish Prostate Cancer Screening Trial. Information on prescription drug use was acquired from the national drug reimbursement database. Over-the-counter use information was gathered by a questionnaire. Hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI by prescription and over-the-counter NSAID use for overall and specific cancer deaths were calculated using Cox regression. During the median follow-up time of 15 years, 7,008 men died from cancer. Men with prescription NSAID use had elevated cancer mortality (HR 2.02 95% CI 1.91-2.15 compared to non-users. The mortality risk was increased for lung, colorectal and pancreas cancer mortality (HR 2.68, 95%CI 2.40-2.99, HR 1.91, 95% CI 1.57-2.32 and HR 1.93, 95% CI 1.58-2.37, respectively. The increased risk remained in competing risks regression (HR 1.11, 95% CI 1.05-1.18. When the usage during the last three years of follow-up was excluded, the effect was reversed (HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.65-0.73. Cancer mortality was not decreased for prescription or over-the-counter aspirin use. However, in the competing risk regression analysis combined prescription and over-the-counter aspirin use was associated with decreased overall cancer mortality (HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.70-0.82. Cancer mortality was increased for NSAID users. However, the risk disappeared when the last 3 years were excluded.

  13. Stages of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Prostate Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Prostate ...

  14. Cost-Effectiveness of Antibiotic Prophylaxis Strategies for Transrectal Prostate Biopsy in an Era of Increasing Antimicrobial Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyueun; Drekonja, Dimitri M; Enns, Eva A

    2018-03-01

    To determine the optimal antibiotic prophylaxis strategy for transrectal prostate biopsy (TRPB) as a function of the local antibiotic resistance profile. We developed a decision-analytic model to assess the cost-effectiveness of four antibiotic prophylaxis strategies: ciprofloxacin alone, ceftriaxone alone, ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone in combination, and directed prophylaxis selection based on susceptibility testing. We used a payer's perspective and estimated the health care costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) associated with each strategy for a cohort of 66-year-old men undergoing TRPB. Costs and benefits were discounted at 3% annually. Base-case resistance prevalence was 29% to ciprofloxacin and 7% to ceftriaxone, reflecting susceptibility patterns observed at the Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Health Care System. Resistance levels were varied in sensitivity analysis. In the base case, single-agent prophylaxis strategies were dominated. Directed prophylaxis strategy was the optimal strategy at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000/QALY gained. Relative to the directed prophylaxis strategy, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of the combination strategy was $123,333/QALY gained over the lifetime time horizon. In sensitivity analysis, single-agent prophylaxis strategies were preferred only at extreme levels of resistance. Directed or combination prophylaxis strategies were optimal for a wide range of resistance levels. Facilities using single-agent antibiotic prophylaxis strategies before TRPB should re-evaluate their strategies unless extremely low levels of antimicrobial resistance are documented. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Bleeding Risks With Aspirin Use for Primary Prevention in Adults: A Systematic Review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Evelyn P; Burda, Brittany U; Williams, Selvi B; Guirguis-Blake, Janelle M; Evans, Corinne V

    2016-06-21

    The balance between potential aspirin-related risks and benefits is critical in primary prevention. To evaluate the risk for serious bleeding with regular aspirin use in cardiovascular disease (CVD) primary prevention. PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2010 through 6 January 2015), and relevant references from other reviews. Randomized, controlled trials; cohort studies; and meta-analyses comparing aspirin with placebo or no treatment to prevent CVD or cancer in adults. One investigator abstracted data, another checked for accuracy, and 2 assessed study quality. In CVD primary prevention studies, very-low-dose aspirin use (≤100 mg daily or every other day) increased major gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding risk by 58% (odds ratio [OR], 1.58 [95% CI, 1.29 to 1.95]) and hemorrhagic stroke risk by 27% (OR, 1.27 [CI, 0.96 to 1.68]). Projected excess bleeding events with aspirin depend on baseline assumptions. Estimated excess major bleeding events were 1.39 (CI, 0.70 to 2.28) for GI bleeding and 0.32 (CI, -0.05 to 0.82) for hemorrhagic stroke per 1000 person-years of aspirin exposure using baseline bleeding rates from a community-based observational sample. Such events could be greater among older persons, men, and those with CVD risk factors that also increase bleeding risk. Power to detect effects on hemorrhagic stroke was limited. Harms other than serious bleeding were not examined. Consideration of the safety of primary prevention with aspirin requires an individualized assessment of aspirin's effects on bleeding risks and expected benefits because absolute bleeding risk may vary considerably by patient. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

  16. Effects of aspirin in combination with EPA and DHA on HDL-C cholesterol and ApoA1 exchange in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Robert C; Holub, Ashley; Abdolahi, Amir; Tu, Xin M; Mousa, Shaker A; Oda, Michael N

    2017-11-01

    Low-dose aspirin is an effective drug for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events but individuals with diabetes mellitus can be subject to 'aspirin resistance'. Thus, aspirin's effect in these individuals is controversial. Higher blood levels of seafood-derived omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) also have beneficial effects in reducing risk of CVD events but few studies have examined the interaction of plasma EPA and DHA with aspirin ingestion. Our study examined the combinatory effects of EPA, DHA, and aspirin ingestion on HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and apoA-I exchange (shown to be associated with CVD event risk). 30 adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus ingested aspirin (81mg/day) for 7 consecutive days, EPA+DHA (2.6g/day) for 28 days, then both for 7 days. Plasma was collected at baseline and at 5 subsequent visits including 4h after each aspirin ingestion. Mixed model methods were used to determine HDL-C-concentrations and apoA-I exchange compared to the baseline visit values. LOWESS curves were used for non-linear analyses of outcomes to help discern change patterns, which was followed by piecewise linear functions for formal testing of curvilinear relationships. Significant changes (p aspirin-only ingestion, apoA-I exchange was significantly modified by increasing levels of DHA concentration, with increased apoA-I exchange observed up until log(DHA) of 4.6 and decreased exchange thereafter (p = 0.03). These LOWESS curve effects were not observed for EPA or HDL-C (p > 0.05). Aspirin's effects on apoA-I exchange were the greatest when EPA or DHA concentrations were moderate compared to high or low. Comparison of EPA, DHA, and EPA+DHA LOWESS curves, demonstrated that the majority of the effect is due to DHA. Our results strongly suggest that plasma concentrations of EPA and DHA influence aspirin effects on lipid mediators of CVD event risk where their concentrations are most beneficial

  17. Increased expression of heparin binding EGF (HB-EGF), amphiregulin, TGF alpha and epiregulin in androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Niels; Sørensen, Boe Sandahl; Nexø, Ebba

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The proliferation of androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines has previously been shown to be influenced by an autocrine loop of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) system. This observation has alerted us to study the expression of ligands and receptors from the EGF......-system in prostate cell lines. METHODS: The expression of the EGF system was determined by quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA in the normal prostate epithelial cell line (PNT1A), in the androgen sensitive-(LNCaP), and the androgen-independent (DU145 and PC3) prostate cancer cell lines. RESULTS: The expression of m...... which exhibit low expression of HER1. Similar results were obtained by ELISA. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicates a selective up-regulation of a subclass of ligands of the EGF-system in androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines. We suggest this could be a mechanism to escape androgen dependence...

  18. Is Daily Low-Dose Aspirin Safe to Take Following Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass for Obesity Surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xian; Hong, Dennis; Anvari, Mehran; Tiboni, Maria; Amin, Nalin; Gmora, Scott

    2017-05-01

    Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) surgery is a safe and effective procedure for patients with severe obesity. One potential complication of LRYGB is the development of marginal ulcers (MUs). Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are known to significantly increase the likelihood of developing marginal ulcers after surgery. However, the risk associated with low-dose aspirin consumption is not well defined. We examined the impact of daily low-dose aspirin (81 mg) on the development of marginal ulcers following LRYGB. A retrospective cohort design studied patients undergoing LRYGB surgery, between January 2009 and January 2013, at a single, high-volume bariatric center in Ontario, Canada. The marginal ulcer rate of patients taking low-dose aspirin after surgery was compared to that of the control patients who did not take any NSAID. Diagnosis of MU was confirmed by upper endoscopy in patients presenting with symptoms and a history indicative of marginal ulceration. A chi-square test of independence was performed to examine the difference in marginal ulcer rates. A total of 1016 patients underwent LRYGB. Patients taking aspirin were more likely to be male, older, and have diabetes than patients not taking NSAIDs. Of the 1016 patients, 145 (14.3%) took low-dose aspirin following LRYGB and the rest did not (n = 871, 85.7%). The incidence of marginal ulceration was not significantly different between the two treatment groups (12/145, 8.3% versus 90/871, 10.3%; p = 0.45). Patients treated with LRYGB at our institution were not at increased risk of marginal ulcer formation when taking low-dose aspirin after surgery.

  19. Depletion of intrinsic expression of Interleukin-8 in prostate cancer cells causes cell cycle arrest, spontaneous apoptosis and increases the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokeshwar Bal L

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The progression of all cancers is characterized by increased-cell proliferation and decreased-apoptosis. The androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC is the terminal stage of the disease. Many chemokines and cytokines are suspects to cause this increased tumor cell survival that ultimately leads to resistance to therapy and demise of the host. The AIPC cells, but not androgen-responsive cells, constitutively express abundant amount of the pro-inflammatory chemokine, Interleukin-8 (IL-8. The mechanism of IL-8 mediated survival and therapeutic resistance in AIPC cells is unclear at present. The purpose of this report is to show the pervasive role of IL-8 in malignant progression of androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC and to provide a potential new therapeutic avenue, using RNA interference. Results The functional consequence of IL-8 depletion in AIPC cells was investigated by RNA interference in two IL-8 secreting AIPC cell lines, PC-3 and DU145. The non-IL-8 secreting LNCaP and LAPC-4 cells served as controls. Cells were transfected with RISC-free siRNA (control or validated-pool of IL-8 siRNA. Transfection with 50 nM IL-8 siRNA caused >95% depletion of IL-8 mRNA and >92% decrease in IL-8 protein. This reduction in IL-8 led to cell cycle arrest at G1/S boundary and decreases in cell cycle-regulated proteins: Cyclin D1 and Cyclin B1 (both decreased >50% and inhibition of ERK1/2 activity by >50%. Further, the spontaneous apoptosis was increased by >43% in IL-8 depleted cells, evidenced by increases in caspase-9 activation and cleaved-PARP. IL-8 depletion caused significant decreases in anti-apoptotic proteins, BCL-2, BCL-xL due to decrease in both mRNA and post-translational stability, and increased levels of pro-apoptotic BAX and BAD proteins. More significantly, depletion of intracellular IL-8 increased the cytotoxic activity of multiple chemotherapeutic drugs. Specifically, the cytotoxicity of Docetaxel

  20. Pattern of Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Failure Dictates the Probability of a Positive Bone Scan in Patients With an Increasing PSA After Radical Prostatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotan, Zohar A.; Bianco, Fernando J.; Rabbani, Farhang; Eastham, James A.; Fearn, Paul; Scher, Howard I.; Kelly, Kevin W.; Chen, Hui-Ni; Schöder, Heiko; Hricak, Hedvig; Scardino, Peter T.; Kattan, Michael W.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Physicians often order periodic bone scans (BS) to check for metastases in patients with an increasing prostate-specific antigen (PSA; biochemical recurrence [BCR]) after radical prostatectomy (RP), but most scans are negative. We studied patient characteristics to build a predictive model for a positive scan. Patients and Methods From our prostate cancer database we identified all patients with detectable PSA after RP. We analyzed the following features at the time of each bone scan for association with a positive BS: preoperative PSA, time to BCR, pathologic findings of the RP, PSA before the BS (trigger PSA), PSA kinetics (PSA doubling time, PSA slope, and PSA velocity), and time from BCR to BS. The results were incorporated into a predictive model. Results There were 414 BS performed in 239 patients with BCR and no history of androgen deprivation therapy. Only 60 (14.5%) were positive for metastases. In univariate analysis, preoperative PSA (P = .04), seminal vesicle invasion (P = .02), PSA velocity (P < .001), and trigger PSA (P < .001) predicted a positive BS. In multivariate analysis, only PSA slope (odds ratio [OR], 2.71; P = .03), PSA velocity (OR, 0.93; P = .003), and trigger PSA (OR, 1.022; P < .001) predicted a positive BS. A nomogram for predicting the bone scan result was constructed with an overfit-corrected concordance index of 0.93. Conclusion Trigger PSA, PSA velocity, and slope were associated with a positive BS. A highly discriminating nomogram can be used to select patients according to their risk for a positive scan. Omitting scans in low-risk patients could reduce substantially the number of scans ordered. PMID:15774789

  1. Aspirin and clonidine in non-cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garg, Amit; Kurz, Andrea; Sessler, Daniel I

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Perioperative Ischaemic Evaluation-2 (POISE-2) is an international 2×2 factorial randomised controlled trial of low-dose aspirin versus placebo and low-dose clonidine versus placebo in patients who undergo non-cardiac surgery. Perioperative aspirin (and possibly clonidine) may reduce...... and preoperative chronic aspirin use. At the time of randomisation, a subpopulation agreed to a single measurement of serum creatinine between 3 and 12 months after surgery, and the authors will examine intervention effects on this outcome. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The authors were competitively awarded a grant...

  2. [Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug and Aspirin-induced Peptic Ulcer Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Young Kwang; Kim, Nayoung

    2016-06-25

    Despite decreasing Helicobacter pylori prevalence, the prevalence of peptic ulcer disease is increasing in the aged population, mainly due to increasing use of NSAIDs to manage pain and inflammation. In addition, low dose aspirin is employed as an anti-coagulant for those who have suffered or are at high risk of ischemic stroke and cardiovascular disease. However, NSAIDs and aspirin are injurious to mucosa of stomach and duodenum. NSAID-induced inhibition of mucosal prostaglandin synthesis is thought to be a major mechanism of gastrointestinal mucosal injury. The proportion of elderly has increased rapidly in Korea, with the proportion over 65 years old expected to be 24.3% in 2030. In this higher-risk population, the strategy to reduce the incidence of NSAID-related peptic ulcers and complications such as bleeding, obstruction and perforation is very important. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) with cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor can be used for reducing the risk of NSAID-related ulcers and upper gastrointestinal (GI) complications. However, continuous use of PPI has several problems. In addition, NSAID-related problems in the lower GI tract have increased, in contrast to the decrease of NSAID-related upper GI disease. The aim of this review is to provide an evidence-based knowledge regarding the mechanism, complications of treatment, and prevention strategies for NSAID- or aspirin-related peptic ulcer disease in Korea.

  3. Comparative effects of aspirin and enteric-coated aspirin on loss of chromium 51-labeled erythrocytes from the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, D.C.; Schwartz, R.S.; Kutny, K.; Vallejo, G.; Horton, E.S.; Cotter, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Sodium chromate Cr 51 was used to label red blood cells of 19 healthy male volunteers, whose stools were collected for four days before and four days during oral administration of either uncoated (N . 9) or enteric-coated (N . 10) aspirin. Each subject received 2.925 gm/day of aspirin, in three equal doses separated by eight-hour intervals, for a total of seven days. During drug use, stools were collected on days 4 through 7. Fecal blood content, estimated by measuring radioactivity in the stools, was significantly higher (P less than 0.001) during use of either type of aspirin than at baseline, but losses measured during use of the coated aspirin (mean, 1.54 ml/day) were significantly lower (P less than 0.001) than those measured during use of the uncoated aspirin (mean, 4.33 ml/day). The two types of aspirin produced equivalent serum concentrations of salicylates. We conclude that enteric-coated aspirin reduces gastrointestinal blood loss

  4. Prostate-specific antigen velocity is not better than total prostate-specific antigen in predicting prostate biopsy diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorday, William; Sadrzadeh, Hossein; de Koning, Lawrence; Naugler, Christopher T

    2015-12-01

    1.) Identify whether prostate-specific antigen velocity improves the ability to predict prostate biopsy diagnosis. 2.) Test whether there is an increase in the predictive capability of models when Gleason 7 prostate cancers are separated into a 3+4 and a 4+3 group. Calgary Laboratory Services' Clinical Laboratory Information System was searched for prostate biopsies reported between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. Total prostate-specific antigen tests were recorded for each patient from January 1, 2007 to the most recent test before their recorded prostate biopsy. The data set was divided into the following three groups for comparison; benign, all prostate cancer and Gleason 7-10. The Gleason grade 7-10 group was further divided into 4+3 and 3+4 Gleason 7 prostate cancers. Prostate-specific antigen velocity was calculated using four different methods found in the literature. Receiver operator curves were used to assess operational characteristics of the tests. 4622 men between the ages of 40-89 with a prostate biopsy were included for analysis. Combining prostate-specific antigen velocity with total prostate-specific antigen (AUC=0.570-0.712) resulted in small non-statistically significant changes to the area under the curve compared to the area under the curve of total prostate-specific antigen alone (AUC=0.572-0.699). There were marked increases in the area under curves when 3+4 and 4+3 Gleason 7 cancers were separated. Prostate-specific antigen velocity does not add predictive value for prostate biopsy diagnosis. The clinical significance of the prostate specific antigen test can be improved by separating Gleason 7 prostate cancers into a 3+4 and 4+3 group. Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bey, P.; Beckendorf, V.; Stines, J.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation therapy of prostate carcinoma with a curative intent implies to treat the whole prostate at high dose (at least 66 Gy). According to clinical stage, PSA level, Gleason's score, the clinical target volume may include seminal vesicles and less often pelvic lymph nodes. Microscopic extra-capsular extension is found in 15 to 60% of T1-T2 operated on, specially in apex tumors. On contrary, cancers developing from the transitional zone may stay limited to the prostate even with a big volume and with a high PSA level. Zonal anatomy of the prostate identifies internal prostate, including the transitional zone (5% of the prostate in young people). External prostate includes central and peripheral zones. The inferior limit of the prostate is not lower than the inferior border of the pubic symphysis. Clinical and radiological examination: ultrasonography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), CT-scan identify prognostic factors as tumor volume, capsule effraction, seminal vesicles invasion and lymph node extension. The identification of the clinical target volume is now done mainly by CT-Scan which identifies prostate and seminal vesicles. NMR could be helpful to identify more precisely prostate apex. The definition of margins around the clinical target volume has to take in account daily reproducibility and organ motion and of course the maximum tolerable dose for organs at risk. (authors)

  6. MRI diagnosis for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamada, Tsutomu; Nagai, Kiyohisa; Imai, Shigeki; Kajihara, Yasumasa; Jo, Yoshimasa; Tanaka, Hiroyoshi; Fukunaga, Masao (Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)); Matsuki, Takakazu

    1998-01-01

    Recently, in Japan, both the Westernization of life styles and the advent of an aged-society have led to an increase in the incidence of prostate cancer. In making a localizing diagnosis of prostate cancer, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which has excellent contrast resolution, and transrectal ultrasonography, are used clinically, and their usefulness is being established. MRI is employed in the diagnosis of prostate cancer to detect tumors, and to determine the stage of such tumors. For the visualization of prostate cancer by MRI, T2-weighted axial images are used exclusively. After becoming familiar with normal prostate images, it is important to evaluate the localization of a tumor, and the invasion of the capsule and seminal vesicles. Future applications of new techniques for MRI will undoubtedly be found. In this paper, the present state of MRI diagnosis of prostate cancer at Kawasaki Medical School Hospital will be reviewed. (author)

  7. MRI diagnosis for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamada, Tsutomu; Nagai, Kiyohisa; Imai, Shigeki; Kajihara, Yasumasa; Jo, Yoshimasa; Tanaka, Hiroyoshi; Fukunaga, Masao [Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan); Matsuki, Takakazu

    1998-12-31

    Recently, in Japan, both the Westernization of life styles and the advent of an aged-society have led to an increase in the incidence of prostate cancer. In making a localizing diagnosis of prostate cancer, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which has excellent contrast resolution, and transrectal ultrasonography, are used clinically, and their usefulness is being established. MRI is employed in the diagnosis of prostate cancer to detect tumors, and to determine the stage of such tumors. For the visualization of prostate cancer by MRI, T2-weighted axial images are used exclusively. After becoming familiar with normal prostate images, it is important to evaluate the localization of a tumor, and the invasion of the capsule and seminal vesicles. Future applications of new techniques for MRI will undoubtedly be found. In this paper, the present state of MRI diagnosis of prostate cancer at Kawasaki Medical School Hospital will be reviewed. (author)

  8. Therapeutic dosages of aspirin counteract the IL-6 induced pro-tumorigenic effects by slowing down the ribosome biogenesis rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighenti, Elisa; Giannone, Ferdinando Antonino; Fornari, Francesca; Onofrillo, Carmine; Govoni, Marzia; Montanaro, Lorenzo; Treré, Davide; Derenzini, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for the onset of cancer and the regular use of aspirin reduces the risk of cancer development. Here we showed that therapeutic dosages of aspirin counteract the pro-tumorigenic effects of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin(IL)-6 in cancer and non-cancer cell lines, and in mouse liver in vivo. We found that therapeutic dosages of aspirin prevented IL-6 from inducing the down-regulation of p53 expression and the acquisition of the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotypic changes in the cell lines. This was the result of a reduction in c-Myc mRNA transcription which was responsible for a down-regulation of the ribosomal protein S6 expression which, in turn, slowed down the rRNA maturation process, thus reducing the ribosome biogenesis rate. The perturbation of ribosome biogenesis hindered the Mdm2-mediated proteasomal degradation of p53, throughout the ribosomal protein-Mdm2-p53 pathway. P53 stabilization hindered the IL-6 induction of the EMT changes. The same effects were observed in livers from mice stimulated with IL-6 and treated with aspirin. It is worth noting that aspirin down-regulated ribosome biogenesis, stabilized p53 and up-regulated E-cadherin expression in unstimulated control cells also. In conclusion, these data showed that therapeutic dosages of aspirin increase the p53-mediated tumor-suppressor activity of the cells thus being in this way able to reduce the risk of cancer onset, either or not linked to chronic inflammatory processes. PMID:27557515

  9. Therapeutic dosages of aspirin counteract the IL-6 induced pro-tumorigenic effects by slowing down the ribosome biogenesis rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighenti, Elisa; Giannone, Ferdinando Antonino; Fornari, Francesca; Onofrillo, Carmine; Govoni, Marzia; Montanaro, Lorenzo; Treré, Davide; Derenzini, Massimo

    2016-09-27

    Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for the onset of cancer and the regular use of aspirin reduces the risk of cancer development. Here we showed that therapeutic dosages of aspirin counteract the pro-tumorigenic effects of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin(IL)-6 in cancer and non-cancer cell lines, and in mouse liver in vivo. We found that therapeutic dosages of aspirin prevented IL-6 from inducing the down-regulation of p53 expression and the acquisition of the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotypic changes in the cell lines. This was the result of a reduction in c-Myc mRNA transcription which was responsible for a down-regulation of the ribosomal protein S6 expression which, in turn, slowed down the rRNA maturation process, thus reducing the ribosome biogenesis rate. The perturbation of ribosome biogenesis hindered the Mdm2-mediated proteasomal degradation of p53, throughout the ribosomal protein-Mdm2-p53 pathway. P53 stabilization hindered the IL-6 induction of the EMT changes. The same effects were observed in livers from mice stimulated with IL-6 and treated with aspirin. It is worth noting that aspirin down-regulated ribosome biogenesis, stabilized p53 and up-regulated E-cadherin expression in unstimulated control cells also. In conclusion, these data showed that therapeutic dosages of aspirin increase the p53-mediated tumor-suppressor activity of the cells thus being in this way able to reduce the risk of cancer onset, either or not linked to chronic inflammatory processes.

  10. Microparticle Shedding by Erythrocytes, Monocytes and Vascular Smooth Muscular Cells Is Reduced by Aspirin in Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Suades, Rosa; Padró, Teresa; Vilahur, Gemma; Peña, Esther; Ybarra, Juan; Pou, Jose M; Badimon, Lina

    2016-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with an enhanced risk for cardiovascular disease and its prevalence is increasing. Diabetes induces metabolic stress on blood and vascular cells, promoting platelet activation and vascular dysfunction. The level of vascular cell activation can be measured by the number and phenotype of microparticles found in the circulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a platelet-inhibitory dose of aspirin on the number and type of microparticles shed to the circulation. Forty-three diabetic patients were enrolled in the study and received a daily dose of 100mg of aspirin for 10 days to cover the average platelet life-span in the circulation. Before and after the intervention period, circulating microparticles were characterized and quantified by flow cytometry. Type 1 diabetic patients had about twice the number of tissue factor-positive circulating microparticles (derived both from platelets and monocytes) and endothelial-derived E-selectin positive microparticles than type 2 diabetic patients. Aspirin therapy significantly inhibited platelets since cyclooxygenase 1 derived thromboxane generation levels were reduced by 99%. Microparticles derived from erythrocytes, activated monocytes, and smooth muscle cells were significantly reduced after 10 days of aspirin administration. These results indicate that: a) vascular and blood cells in type 1 diabetic patients are exposed to more sustained stress shown by their specific microparticle origin and levels; b) aspirin therapy inhibits vascular wall cell activation and microparticle shedding, and c) the effects of aspirin are similar in type 1 and 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Aspirin in the Treatment of Cancer: Reductions in Metastatic Spread and in Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of Published Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Low-dose aspirin has been shown to reduce the incidence of cancer, but its role in the treatment of cancer is uncertain. Objectives We conducted a systematic search of the scientific literature on aspirin taken by patients following a diagnosis of cancer, together with appropriate meta-analyses. Methods Searches were completed in Medline and Embase in December 2015 using a pre-defined search strategy. References and abstracts of all the selected papers were scanned and expert colleagues were contacted for additional studies. Two reviewers applied pre-determined eligibility criteria (cross-sectional, cohort and controlled studies, and aspirin taken after a diagnosis of cancer), assessed study quality and extracted data on cancer cause-specific deaths, overall mortality and incidence of metastases. Random effects meta-analyses and planned sub-group analyses were completed separately for observational and experimental studies. Heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed in sensitivity analyses and appropriate omissions made. Papers were examined for any reference to bleeding and authors of the papers were contacted and questioned. Results Five reports of randomised trials were identified, together with forty two observational studies: sixteen on colorectal cancer, ten on breast and ten on prostate cancer mortality. Pooling of eleven observational reports of the effect of aspirin on cause-specific mortality from colon cancer, after the omission of one report identified on the basis of sensitivity analyses, gave a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.76 (95% CI 0.66, 0.88) with reduced heterogeneity (P = 0.04). The cause specific mortality in five reports of patients with breast cancer showed significant heterogeneity (Paspirin, and in five the effect is statistically significant. There were no significant differences between the pooled HRs for the three main cancers and after the omission of three reports already identified in sensitivity analyses heterogeneity was

  12. Glucose impairs aspirin inhibition in platelets through a NAD(P)H oxidase signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobzar, Gennadi; Mardla, Vilja; Samel, Nigulas

    2017-07-01

    Hyperglycemia has been suggested to play a role in the increased platelet resistance to antiplatelet therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus. Exposure to high glucose impairs platelet inhibition by aspirin. It has been found that antioxidant agents reduce the effect of glucose, confirming the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the effect of glucose. The aim of the study was to examine the mechanism of ROS increase by high glucose in aspirin-treated platelets. Platelet aggregation was measured by the optical method, and the production of ROS was detected using luminol-dependent horseradish peroxidase-enhanced chemiluminescence. We found that glucose did not affect ADP-induced platelet aggregation. However, it reduced the effect of aspirin on platelet aggregation, which was accompanied by an increase in ROS generation. The inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase (NOX) prevented the glucose effect and ROS generation. The same result was recorded after the inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK), phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) or 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX). The inhibition of TxA 2 receptor did not decrease the effect of glucose indicating that the effect was not caused by activation of TxA 2 receptors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Aspirin Allergy Desensitization in Cerebrovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Scott L; Seder, David B; Tsujiura, Crystiana; Cushing, Deborah; Gallup, Holly; Mocco, J; Hanel, Richard A; Ecker, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    Summary Aspirin (ASA) is the mainstay of treatment in cerebrovascular and systemic vascular disease. ASA hypersensitivity can pose a challenge to achieving optimum medical management prior to and after neurointerventional treatment. Desensitization to ASA is well described in the allergy and cardiovascular literature, but there are no similar discussions specific to neurointervention. The purpose of our study was to describe our experience with ASA hypersensitivity management and review the relevant literature. Two cases of patients with symptomatic cerebrovascular disease requiring neurointervention who were successfully desensitized to their ASA hypersensitivity prior to treatment are described. The subsequent literature is reviewed. Several ASA desensitization protocols exist and have been proven to successfully treat ASA hypersensitivity and allow for ASA therapy to be safely initiated. We describe several previously published protocols. ASA desensitization is a safe and simple way to manage ASA hypersensitivity. We provide comprehensive management guidelines for the neurointerventionalist engaging in ASA desensitization. PMID:24556294

  14. Effect of aspirin on the pharmacokinetics and absorption of panax notoginseng saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhihao; Pang, Huanhuan; Zhang, Qiang; Du, Shouying; Lu, Yang; Zhang, Lin; Bai, Jie; Li, Pengyue; Li, Danqi; Zhao, Mengdi; Chen, Xiaonan

    2018-02-01

    Panax notoginseng saponins, a traditional Chinese medicine extraction, and aspirin are both widely used to treat cerebral infarction in China. Good results in clinical practice have been achieved, when Panax notoginseng saponins was taken together with aspirin. To investigate the interaction of the two drugs in vivo, the concentration of notoginsenoside R 1 , ginsenoside Rg 1 , Rb 1 , Re and Rd. in blood were simultaneously measured by UPLC/MS/MS. Sample preparation was carried out by the protein precipitation technique with an internal standard saikosaponin A standard. The separation of six components was achieved by using an ACQUITY UPLC ®BEH C18 column (1.7μm 2.1×100mm) by gradient elution using water (containing 0.2% formic acid) and acetonitrile (containing 0.2% formic acid) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2mL/min. The pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using non-compartmental analysis. The transport of notoginsenoside R 1 , ginsenoside Rg 1 , Rb 1 , Re and Rd. in MDCK -MDR1 cell monolayer was also used to verify the conclusion of pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction and study the mechanism of drug interaction. The concentrations of the five components increased in a certain extent when the two drugs administered together in rats. The values of apparent permeability coefficients were significantly increased when the two drugs were used together. Aspirin and salicylic acid could destroy the tight junction protein and open the intercellular space to increase the absorption of Panax notoginseng saponins. Pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction in vivo existed between Panax notoginseng saponins and aspirin. The drug-drug interaction mainly occurred in the process of absorption. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. BCG induced granulomatous prostatitis ; a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Min Hoan; Seong, Chang Kyu; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Seung Hyup [College of Medicine and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-04-01

    Granulomatous prostatitis was relatively uncommon until the introduction of intravesical BCG for the treament of bladder cancer. Since that time, there has been an increase in the number of cases of granulomatous prostatitis, but the domestic literature contains no report. We recently encountered a classic case of BCG induced granulomatous prostatitis and describe this case, including its radiologic findings. (author)=20.

  16. Phenomenology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of aspirin-sensitive rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapowal, A G; Simon, H U; Schmitz-Schumann, M

    1995-01-01

    Aspirin-sensitive rhinosinusitis is a non-allergic, non-infectious perennial eosinophilic rhinitis starting in middle age and rarely seen in children. It may also been seen in atopic patients who have developed a mixed type rhinitis with recurrent airway infections. There is an intolerance to aspirin and most other NSAID. An intolerance to tartrazine, food additives, alcohol, narcotics and local anaesthetics can follow. Most aspirin-sensitive patients develop nasal polyps. Untreated, it can lead to asthma. The frequency of aspirin intolerance is 6.18% in patients with perennial rhinitis and 14.68% in patients with nasal polyps. Immunologic studies of the blood and the nasal polyps show a hyperreactive immune system with an activation of the eosinophil granulocytes due to a TH1-lymphocyte-activation. In atopic subjects with a mixed type rhinitis, we found a TH2- and B-lymphocyte-activation as well. Inhibition of eosinophil apoptosis might be a second remarkable change in the immune system of aspirin-sensitive patients. A key pathogenic event for aspirin sensitivity is the change of the leukotriene pathway for arachidonic acid metabolism releasing high amounts of leukotrienes LTC4, LTD4 and LTE4, effective chemoattractants and activators of inflammatory cells. For the diagnosis of aspirin intolerance, nasal, bronchial and oral challenge are available. The sensitivity of nasal challenge with lysine-aspirin for the diagnosis of aspirin-sensitive rhinitis is 0.93, the specificity 0.97. It is the safest test in aspirin-sensitive asthmatics causing bronchial side effects only in 0.45%. Therapy of aspirin-sensitive rhinosinusitis includes avoidance of aspirin and NSAID. A general down regulation of the immune response with glucocorticosteroids is an effective means. We prefer a maintenance dose of budesonid 400 micrograms a day. Systemic steroids for a reversibility test or in exacerbation due to viral infection are given in a dose of 50 mg a day for one week. If steroids

  17. Aspirin resistance: Prevalence and clinical outcome in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Salah

    2015-04-01

    Results: Prevalence of aspirin resistance was 48% in our study group. Aspirin resistance was significantly higher in patients with family history of CAD (p = 0.044, smoking (p = 0.011, history of MI (p = 0.024, history of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI (p = 0.001, and concomitant NSAIDs intake (p = 0.047. Moreover, aspirin resistance was more common among patients with multi-vessel CAD (p = 0.024. Aspirin-resistant patients had a significantly higher rate of UA (p = 0.001 and all major adverse cardiac events (MACE (p < 0.001.

  18. Aspirin Induces Apoptosis through Release of Cytochrome c from Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja C. Zimmermann

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID reduce the risk for cancer, due to their anti proliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects. A critical pathway for apoptosis involves the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, which then interacts with Apaf-1 to activate caspase proteases that orchestrate cell death. In this study we found that treatment of a human cancer cell line with aspirin induced caspase activation and the apoptotic cell morphology, which was blocked by the caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk. Further analysis of the mechanism underlying this apoptotic event showed that aspirin induces translocation of Bax to the mitochondria and triggers release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. The release of cytochrome c from mitochondria was inhibited by overexpression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and cells that lack Apaf-1 were resistant to aspirin-induced apoptosis. These data provide evidence that the release of cytochrome c is an important part of the apoptotic mechanism of aspirin.

  19. Rivaroxaban or Aspirin for Extended Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitz, Jeffrey I; Lensing, Anthonie W A; Prins, Martin H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although many patients with venous thromboembolism require extended treatment, it is uncertain whether it is better to use full- or lower-intensity anticoagulation therapy or aspirin. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, phase 3 study, we assigned 3396 patients with venous...... thromboembolism to receive either once-daily rivaroxaban (at doses of 20 mg or 10 mg) or 100 mg of aspirin. All the study patients had completed 6 to 12 months of anticoagulation therapy and were in equipoise regarding the need for continued anticoagulation. Study drugs were administered for up to 12 months...... in 17 of 1107 patients (1.5%) receiving 20 mg of rivaroxaban and in 13 of 1127 patients (1.2%) receiving 10 mg of rivaroxaban, as compared with 50 of 1131 patients (4.4%) receiving aspirin (hazard ratio for 20 mg of rivaroxaban vs. aspirin, 0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.20 to 0.59; hazard ratio...

  20. Perioperative aspirin and clonidine and risk of acute kidney injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garg, Amit X; Kurz, Andrea; Sessler, Daniel I

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Acute kidney injury, a common complication of surgery, is associated with poor outcomes and high health care costs. Some studies suggest aspirin or clonidine administered during the perioperative period reduces the risk of acute kidney injury; however, these effects are uncertain...... and each intervention has the potential for harm. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether aspirin compared with placebo, and clonidine compared with placebo, alters the risk of perioperative acute kidney injury. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A 2 × 2 factorial randomized, blinded, clinical trial of 6905...... patients undergoing noncardiac surgery from 88 centers in 22 countries with consecutive patients enrolled between January 2011 and December 2013. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were assigned to take aspirin (200 mg) or placebo 2 to 4 hours before surgery and then aspirin (100 mg) or placebo daily up to 30 days...

  1. Effect of Aspirin on Fractalkine in Rats with Pulmonary Embolism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2Department of Surgical Oncology, Tumor Hospital of Taizhou, Wenling 317502, China ... PE-induced lung injury was alleviated by treatment with aspirin based on the results of ..... pulmonary hypertension in chronic obstructive ... pancreatitis.

  2. The Role of Platelet and its Interaction with Aspirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Fernanda Zúñiga Cerón

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion. It is recognized the role of platelet in different physiopathological processes and thus its interaction with aspirin, preventing its aggregation and thrombus formation in the spleen and other organs, this way contributing to the prevention of future cardiovascular events.

  3. Aspirin and clopidogrel resistance: methodological challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armen Yuri Gasparyan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Armen Yuri GasparyanClinical Research Unit, Russell’s Hall Hospital, Dudley Group of Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, West Midlands, UKAbstract: Antiplatelet drug resistance is one of the urgent issues in current cardiovascular medicine. Many platelet function tests have been used to define responsiveness of patients with cardiovascular disease to aspirin and clopidogrel. In most studies, cut-off values of platelet function tests for defining responsiveness to antiplatelets were chosen arbitrarily. Different tests provided wide-ranging figures of the prevalence of aspirin and clopidogrel resistance, suggesting poor correlation between currently available platelet function tests. Measurement of platelet size seems to be a promising approach for monitoring antiplatelet drug therapy. This commentary highlights some limitations of studies on aspirin and clopidogrel resistance in patients undergoing coronary interventions.Keywords: aspirin, clopidogrel, resistance, cardiovascular disease, platelet function tests

  4. Aspirin as a chemoprevention agent for colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Chun Seng

    2012-11-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of mortality in the western world. It is widely accepted that neoplasms such as colonic polyps are precursors to CRC formation; with the polyp-adenoma-carcinoma sequences well described in medical literature [1, 2]. It has been shown that Aspirin and other non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) have a negative effect on polyp and cancer formation. This review aims to describe some of the mechanism behind the chemoprotective properties of aspirin; COX 2 inhibition, regulation of proliferation and apoptosis and effects on the immune system and also the current evidence that supports its use as a chemoprevention agent against CRC. We will also aim to explore the side effects with the use of aspirin and the pitfalls of using aspirin routinely for primary prophylaxis against CRC.

  5. Salicylate activates AMPK and synergizes with metformin to reduce the survival of prostate and lung cancer cells ex vivo through inhibition of de novo lipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Andrew J; Villani, Linda A; Broadfield, Lindsay A; Houde, Vanessa P; Galic, Sandra; Blandino, Giovanni; Kemp, Bruce E; Tsakiridis, Theodoros; Muti, Paola; Steinberg, Gregory R

    2015-07-15

    Aspirin, the pro-drug of salicylate, is associated with reduced incidence of death from cancers of the colon, lung and prostate and is commonly prescribed in combination with metformin in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Salicylate activates the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) by binding at the A-769662 drug binding site on the AMPK β1-subunit, a mechanism that is distinct from metformin which disrupts the adenylate charge of the cell. A hallmark of many cancers is high rates of fatty acid synthesis and AMPK inhibits this pathway through phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). It is currently unknown whether targeting the AMPK-ACC-lipogenic pathway using salicylate and/or metformin may be effective for inhibiting cancer cell survival. Salicylate suppresses clonogenic survival of prostate and lung cancer cells at therapeutic concentrations achievable following the ingestion of aspirin (Salicylate concentrations of 1 mM increased the phosphorylation of ACC and suppressed de novo lipogenesis and these effects were enhanced with the addition of clinical concentrations of metformin (100 μM) and eliminated in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) deficient in AMPK β1. Supplementation of media with fatty acids and/or cholesterol reverses the suppressive effects of salicylate and metformin on cell survival indicating the inhibition of de novo lipogenesis is probably important. Pre-clinical studies evaluating the use of salicylate based drugs alone and in combination with metformin to inhibit de novo lipogenesis and the survival of prostate and lung cancers are warranted. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  6. Id1 and Id3 expression is associated with increasing grade of prostate cancer: Id3 preferentially regulates CDKN1B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Patel, Divya; Chaudhary, Jaideep

    2012-01-01

    As transcriptional regulators of basic helix–oop–helix (bHLH) transcription and non-bHLH factors, the inhibitor of differentiation (Id1, Id2, Id3, and Id4) proteins play a critical role in coordinated regulation of cell growth, differentiation, tumorigenesis, and angiogenesis. Id1 regulates prostate cancer (PCa) cell proliferation, apoptosis, and androgen independence, but its clinical significance in PCa remains controversial. Moreover, there is lack of evidence on the expression of Id2 and Id3 in PCa progression. In this study we investigated the expression of Id2 and Id3 and reevaluated the expression of Id1 in PCa. We show that increased Id1 and Id3 protein expression is strongly associated with increasing grade of PCa. At the molecular level, we report that silencing either Id1 or Id3 attenuates cell cycle. Although structurally and mechanistically similar, our results show that both these proteins are noncompensatory at least in PCa progression. Moreover, through gene silencing approaches we show that Id1 and Id3 primarily attenuates CDKN1A (p21) and CDKN1B (p27), respectively. We also demonstrate that silencing Id3 alone significantly attenuates proliferation of PCa cells as compared with Id1. We propose that increased Id1 and Id3 expression attenuates all three cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKN2B, -1A, and -1B) resulting in a more aggressive PCa phenotype

  7. Trace element impurity determination in aspirin tablets by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, E.K.; Saiki, M.

    2009-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to assess trace element concentrations in six samples of aspirin tablets acquired in Sao Paulo city, Brazil. Concentrations of the elements Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, K, La, Na, Sc and Zn were determined. Comparisons were made between the results obtained with published data for aspirins from foreign countries. Certified reference materials, INCT-MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs were analyzed for quality control of the analytical results. (author)

  8. Incidence of intracranial bleeds in new users of low-dose aspirin: a cohort study using The Health Improvement Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cea Soriano, L; Gaist, D; Soriano-Gabarró, M; García Rodríguez, L A

    2017-06-01

    Essentials Intracranial bleeds (ICB) are serious clinical events that have been associated with aspirin use. Incidence rates of ICB were calculated among new-users of low-dose aspirin in the UK (2000-2012). Over a median follow-up of 5.58 years, the incidence of ICB was 0.08 per 100 person-years. Our estimates are valuable for inclusion in risk-benefit assessments of low-dose aspirin use. Background Low-dose aspirin protects against both ischemic cardiovascular (CV) events and colorectal cancer (CRC). However, low-dose aspirin may be associated with a slightly increased risk of intracranial bleeds (ICBs). Objectives To obtain the incidence rates of ICBs overall and by patient subgroups among new users of low-dose aspirin. Patients/Methods Using The Health Improvement Network (THIN) UK primary-care database (2000-2012), we identified a cohort of new users of low-dose aspirin aged 40-84 years (N = 199 079; mean age at start of follow-up, 63.9 years) and followed them for up to 14 years (median 5.58 years). Incident ICB cases were identified and validated through linkage to hospitalization data and/or review of THIN records with free-text comments. Incidence rates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Results Eight hundred and eighty-one incident ICBs cases were identified: 407 cases of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), 283 cases of subdural hematoma (SDH), and 191 cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Incidence rates per 100 person-years were 0.08 (95% CI 0.07-0.08) for all ICBs, 0.04 (95% CI 0.03-0.04) for ICH, 0.03 (95% CI 0.02-0.03) for SDH, and 0.02 (95% CI 0.01-0.02) for SAH. The ICB incidence rates per 100 person-years for individuals with an indication of primary CV disease prevention were 0.07 (95% CI 0.06-0.07) and 0.09 (95% CI 0.08-0.10) for secondary CV disease prevention. Incidence rates were higher in men for SDH, and higher in women for ICH and SAH. Conclusions Our results provide valuable estimates of the absolute ICB risk for

  9. Aspirin and the prevention of venous thromboembolism following total joint arthroplasty: commonly asked questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azboy, I; Barrack, R; Thomas, A M; Haddad, F S; Parvizi, J

    2017-11-01

    The number of arthroplasties being performed increases each year. Patients undergoing an arthroplasty are at risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and appropriate prophylaxis has been recommended. However, the optimal protocol and the best agent to minimise VTE under these circumstances are not known. Although many agents may be used, there is a difference in their efficacy and the risk of bleeding. Thus, the selection of a particular agent relies on the balance between the desire to minimise VTE and the attempt to reduce the risk of bleeding, with its undesirable, and occasionally fatal, consequences. Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) is an agent for VTE prophylaxis following arthroplasty. Many studies have shown its efficacy in minimising VTE under these circumstances. It is inexpensive and well-tolerated, and its use does not require routine blood tests. It is also a 'milder' agent and unlikely to result in haematoma formation, which may increase both the risk of infection and the need for further surgery. Aspirin is also unlikely to result in persistent wound drainage, which has been shown to be associated with the use of agents such as low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) and other more aggressive agents. The main objective of this review was to summarise the current evidence relating to the efficacy of aspirin as a VTE prophylaxis following arthroplasty, and to address some of the common questions about its use. There is convincing evidence that, taking all factors into account, aspirin is an effective, inexpensive, and safe form of VTE following arthroplasty in patients without a major risk factor for VTE, such as previous VTE. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1420-30. ©2017 Azboy et al.

  10. Aspirin resistance are associated with long-term recurrent stroke events after ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Wang, Zhenhua; Zhou, Lihong

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the prevalent of aspirin resistance (AR) in stroke and its association with recurrent stroke in 214 patients with ischemic stroke who were receiving aspirin before the stroke onset. Two hundreds and fourteen acute stroke patients who previously received aspirin therapy (100mg/day for ≥7days) were enrolled. Whole blood samples were collected for platelet aggregation testing. The result is expressed in aspirin reaction units (ARU). A cutoff of 550 ARU was used to determine the presence of AR. A follow-up period of 1year was performed to record stroke recurrence events. In this study, the median age was 68 years (IQR, 60-77 years), and 118 (55.1%) were men. A total of 43 of 214 enrolled patients (20.1%) were AR. ARU levels were significantly higher in patients with recurrence than those without (514[IQR: 466-592] vs. 454[IQR: 411-499]; P <0.001). The stroke recurrence distribution across the ARU quartiles ranged between 7.41% (first quartile) to 40.74% (fourth quartile). In multivariate analyses, the 3th and 4th quartile of ARU was significantly associated with stroke recurrence during the observation period compared to the 1st quartile group, and the adjusted risk increased by 215% (OR=3.15 [95% CI 1.96-4.33], P=0.007) and 322% (4.22[2.56-7.16], P<0.001). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, AR was associated with a higher risk of stroke recurrence, and the adjusted risk increased by 365% (OR=4.65; 95% CI=2.99-8.16; P<0.001). In conclusion, AR is not uncommon in Chinese stroke patients who receive anti-platelet medications. Patients with AR may have a greater risk of suffering stroke recurrence events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spera, G.

    2010-01-01

    This work is about diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of prostate cancer. The techniques used are: transrectal ultrasound, laparascopy, bone scan, chest x-ray, radiography, chemoterapy and radiotherapy

  12. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Prostate ultrasound, also called transrectal ultrasound, provides ...

  13. Drug Resistance and Pseudoresistance: An Unintended Consequence of Enteric Coating Aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosser, Tilo; Fries, Susanne; Lawson, John A.; Kapoor, Shiv C.; Grant, Gregory R.; FitzGerald, Garret A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Low dose aspirin reduces the secondary incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke. Drug resistance to aspirin might result in treatment failure. Despite this concern, no clear definition of “aspirin resistance” has emerged and estimates of its incidence have varied remarkably. We aimed to determine the commonality of a mechanistically consistent, stable and specific phenotype of true pharmacological resistance to aspirin – such as might be explained by genetic causes. Methods and Results Healthy volunteers (n=400) were screened for their response to a single oral dose of 325 mg immediate release or enteric coated aspirin. Response parameters reflected the activity of aspirin's molecular target, cyclooxygenase-1. Individuals who appeared “aspirin resistant” on one occasion underwent repeat testing and if still “resistant” were exposed to low dose enteric coated aspirin (81 mg) and clopidogrel (75 mg) for one week each. Variable absorption caused a high frequency of apparent resistance to a single dose of 325 mg enteric coated aspirin (up to 49%) but not to immediate release aspirin (0%). All individuals responded to aspirin upon repeated exposure, extension of the post dosing interval or addition of aspirin to their platelets ex vivo. Conclusions Pharmacological resistance to aspirin is rare; this study failed to identify a single case of true drug resistance. Pseudoresistance, reflecting delayed and reduced drug absorption, complicates enteric coated but not immediate release aspirin administration. Clinical Trial Registration Information clinicaltrials.gov. Identifier: NCT00948987. PMID:23212718

  14. Metabolome analysis of effect of aspirin on Drosophila lifespan extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chaochun; Zhu, Chenxing; Wu, Qi; Qi, Jiancheng; Gao, Yue; Zhang, Zhichao; Gaur, Uma; Yang, Deying; Fan, Xiaolan; Yang, Mingyao

    2017-09-01

    Effective approaches for drug development involve the repurposing of existing drugs which are already approved by the FDA. Aspirin has been shown to have many health benefits since its discovery as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) to treat pain and inflammation. Recent experiments demonstrated the longevity effects of aspirin in Drosophila, but its mechanism remains to be explored. In order to elucidate the effects of drug on metabolism, we carried out the metabolic analysis of aspirin-treated flies. The results identified 404 active metabolites in addition to the extended lifespan and improved healthspan in fly. There were 28 metabolites having significant changes between aspirin-treated group and the control group, out of which 22 compounds were found to have detailed information. These compounds are reported to have important functions in energy metabolism, amino sugar metabolism, and urea metabolism, indicating that aspirin might be playing positive roles in the fly's lifespan and healthspan improvement. Because of the conservation of major longevity pathways and mechanisms in different species, the health benefits of aspirin administration could be extended to other animals and humans as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Aspirin resistance as cardiovascular risk after kidney transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Barbara; Varga, Adam; Rabai, Miklos; Toth, Andras; Papp, Judit; Toth, Kalman; Szakaly, Peter

    2014-05-01

    International surveys have shown that the leading cause of death after kidney transplantation has cardiovascular origin with a prevalence of 35-40%. As a preventive strategy these patients receive aspirin (ASA) therapy, even though their rate of aspirin resistance is still unknown. In our study, platelet aggregation measurements were performed between 2009 and 2012 investigating the laboratory effect of low-dose aspirin (100 mg) treatment using a CARAT TX4 optical aggregometer. ASA therapy was considered clinically effective in case of low ( i.e., below 40%) epinephrine-induced (10 μM) platelet aggregation index. Rate of aspirin resistance, morbidity and mortality data of kidney transplanted patients (n = 255, mean age: 49 ± 12 years) were compared to a patient population with cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases (n = 346, mean age: 52.6 ± 11 years). Rate of aspirin resistance was significantly higher in the renal transplantation group (RT) compared to the positive control group (PC) (35.9% vs. 25.6%, p aspirin resistance contributes to the high cardiovascular mortality after kidney transplantation.

  16. Paraganglioma of Prostatic Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Padilla-Fernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Paragangliomas are usually benign tumors arising from chromaffin cells located outside the adrenal gland. Prostatic paraganglioma is an unusual entity in adult patients, with only 10 cases reported in the medical literature. Case Report A 34-year-old male with a history of chronic prostatitis consulted for perineal pain. On digital rectal examination the prostate was enlarged and firm, without nodules. The PSA level was 0.8 ng/mL and the catecholamines in the urine were elevated. On ultrasound a retrovesical 9 cm mass of undetermined origin measuring was present. A PET-CT scan showed a pelvic lesion measuring 9 cm with moderate increase in glucidic metabolism localized in the area of the prostate. A biopsy of the prostate revealed a neuroendocrine tumor, possibly a prostatic paraganglioma. A body scintigraphy with MIBG I-123 ruled out the presence of metastases or multifocal tumor. A radical prostatectomy with excision of the pelvic mass was performed under adrenergic blockade. One year after surgery the patient is asymptomatic and disease free. Discussion/Conclusions Prostatic paraganglioma is a rare, usually benign tumor, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of prostate tumors in young males. Its diagnosis is based on the determination of catecholamine in blood and 24-hour urine and in imaging studies principally scintigraphy with MIBG I-123. Diagnostic confirmation is by histopathological study. The treatment consists of radical resection under adrenergic blockade and volume expansion. Given the limited number of cases reported, it is difficult to establish prognostic factors. Malignancy is defined by clinical criteria, and requires life long follow-up.

  17. Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome impairs erectile function through increased endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and corporal fibrosis in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y; Niu, X; Wang, G; Huang, J; Liu, M; Peng, B

    2016-11-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is an independent risk factor for the development of erectile dysfunction (ED). But the molecular mechanisms underlying the relationship between CP/CPPS and ED are still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CP/CPPS on erectile function in a rat model and the possible mechanisms. A rat model of experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) was established to mimic human CP⁄CPPS. Then twenty 2-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into EAP group and control group. Intracavernosal pressure (ICP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured during cavernous nerve electrostimulation, the ratio of max ICP/MAP was calculated. Blood was collected to measure the levels of serum C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and testosterone, respectively. The expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in corpus cavernosum were detected. We also evaluated the smooth muscle/collagen ratio and apoptotic index (AI). The ratio of max ICP/MAP in EAP group were significantly lower than that in control group. The levels of serum CRP, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in EAP group were all significantly higher than these in control group. The expression of eNOS and cGMP levels in corpus cavernosum of EAP rats were significantly downregulated. Furthermore, decreased SOD activity and smooth muscle/collagen ratio, increased MDA levels and AI were found in corpus cavernosum of EAP rats. In conclusion, CP/CPPS impaired penile erectile function in a rat model. The declines of eNOS expression and cGMP levels in corpus cavernosum may be an important mechanism of CP/CPPS-induced ED. CP/CPPS also increased oxidative stress, cell apoptosis and decreased smooth muscle/collagen ratio in corpus cavernosum of rats, which were

  18. Traditional Dietary Pattern Increases Risk of Prostate Cancer in Argentina: Results of a Multilevel Modeling and Bias Analysis from a Case-Control Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niclis, C.; Roman, M. D.; Eynard, A. R.; Diaz, M. D. P.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that dietary habits play a role in prostate cancer (PC) occurrence. Argentinean cancer risk studies require additional attention because of the singular dietary pattern of this population. A case-control study (147 PC cases, 300 controls) was conducted in Cordoba (Argentina) throughout 2008-2013. A principal component factor analysis was performed to identify dietary patterns. A mixed logistic regression model was applied, taking into account family history of cancer. Possible bias was evaluated by probabilistic bias analysis. Four dietary patterns were identified: Traditional (fatty red meats, offal, processed meat, starchy vegetables, added sugars and sweets, candies, fats, and vegetable oils), Prudent (non starchy vegetables, whole grains), Carbohydrate (sodas/juices and bakery products), and Cheese (cheeses). High adherence to the Traditional (OR 2.82, 95 % CI: 1.569-5.099) and Carbohydrate Patterns (OR 2.14, 95 % CI: 1.470-3.128) showed a promoting effect for PC, whereas the Prudent and Cheese Patterns were independent factors. PC occurrence was also associated with family history of PC. Bias adjusted ORs indicate that the validity of the present study is acceptable. High adherence to characteristic Argentinean dietary patterns was associated with increased PC risk. Our results incorporate original contributions to knowledge about scenarios in South American dietary patterns and PC occurrence.

  19. Traditional Dietary Pattern Increases Risk of Prostate Cancer in Argentina: Results of a Multilevel Modeling and Bias Analysis from a Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Niclis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that dietary habits play a role in prostate cancer (PC occurrence. Argentinean cancer risk studies require additional attention because of the singular dietary pattern of this population. A case-control study (147 PC cases, 300 controls was conducted in Córdoba (Argentina throughout 2008–2013. A principal component factor analysis was performed to identify dietary patterns. A mixed logistic regression model was applied, taking into account family history of cancer. Possible bias was evaluated by probabilistic bias analysis. Four dietary patterns were identified: Traditional (fatty red meats, offal, processed meat, starchy vegetables, added sugars and sweets, candies, fats, and vegetable oils, Prudent (nonstarchy vegetables, whole grains, Carbohydrate (sodas/juices and bakery products, and Cheese (cheeses. High adherence to the Traditional (OR 2.82, 95%CI: 1.569–5.099 and Carbohydrate Patterns (OR 2.14, 95%CI: 1.470–3.128 showed a promoting effect for PC, whereas the Prudent and Cheese Patterns were independent factors. PC occurrence was also associated with family history of PC. Bias adjusted ORs indicate that the validity of the present study is acceptable. High adherence to characteristic Argentinean dietary patterns was associated with increased PC risk. Our results incorporate original contributions to knowledge about scenarios in South American dietary patterns and PC occurrence.

  20. Early PET imaging with [68]Ga-PSMA-11 increases the detection rate of local recurrence in prostate cancer patients with biochemical recurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uprimny, Christian; Kroiss, Alexander Stephan; Decristoforo, Clemens; Kendler, Dorota; Guggenberg, Elisabeth von; Nilica, Bernhard; Maffey-Steffan, Johanna; Di Santo, Gianpaolo; Virgolini, Irene Johanna [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Fritz, Josef [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Medical Statistics, Informatics and Health Economics, Innsbruck (Austria); Bektic, Jasmin; Horninger, Wolfgang [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Urology, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2017-09-15

    PET/CT using {sup 68}Ga-labelled prostate-specific membrane antigen PSMA-11 (HBEDD-CC) has emerged as a promising imaging method in the diagnostic evaluation of prostate cancer (PC) patients with biochemical recurrence. However, assessment of local recurrence (LR) may be limited by intense physiologic tracer accumulation in the urinary bladder on whole-body scans, normally conducted 60 min post-tracer injection (p.i.). It could be shown on early dynamic imaging studies that {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-11 uptake in PC lesions occurs earlier than tracer accumulation in the urinary bladder. This study aims to investigate whether early static PET acquisition increases detection rate of local recurrence on {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT in comparison to PET imaging 60 min p.i. 203 consecutive PC patients with biochemical failure referred to {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT were analysed retrospectively (median prostate specific antigen (PSA) value: 1.44 ng/ml). In addition to whole-body PET/CT scans 60 min p.i., early static imaging of the pelvis was performed, starting at a median time of 283 s p.i. (range: 243-491 s). Assessment was based on visual analysis and calculation of maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) of pathologic lesions present in the pelvic area found on early PET imaging and on 60 min-PET scans. 26 patients (12.8%) were judged positive for LR on PET scans 60 min p.i. (median SUV{sub max}: 10.8; range: 4.7-40.9), whereas 50 patients (24.6%) revealed a lesion suggestive of LR on early PET imaging (median SUV{sub max}: 5.9; range: 2.9-17.6), resulting in a significant rise in detection rate (p < 0.001). Equivocal findings on PET scans 60 min p.i. decreased significantly with the help of early imaging (15.8% vs. 4.5% of patients; p < 0.001). Tracer activity in the urinary bladder with a median SUV{sub max} of 8.2 was present in 63 patients on early PET scans (31.0%). However, acquisition starting time of early PET scans differed significantly in the patient groups

  1. Dipyridamole plus aspirin versus aspirin alone in the secondary prevention after TIA or stroke: a meta-analysis by risk

    OpenAIRE

    Halkes, P.H.A.; Gray, Laura J.; Bath, Philip M.W.; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Guiraud-Chaumeil, B.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Our aim was to study the effect of combination therapy with aspirin and dipyridamole (A+D) over aspirin alone (ASA) in secondary prevention after transient \\ud ischemic attack or minor stroke of presumed arterial origin and to perform subgroup analyses to identify patients that might benefit most from secondary prevention with A+D.\\ud Data sources: The previously published meta-analysis of individual patient data was updated with data from ESPRIT (N=2,739); trials without data on ...

  2. Before Using Aspirin to Lower Your Risk of Heart Attack or Stroke, Here Is What You Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medicines Safe Daily Use of Aspirin Before Using Aspirin to Lower Your Risk of Heart Attack or ... care provider can determine whether regular use of aspirin will help to prevent a heart attack or ...

  3. NSAIDs, Mitochondria and Calcium Signaling: Special Focus on Aspirin/Salicylates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Suzuki

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid is a well-known nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID that has long been used as an anti-pyretic and analgesic drug. Recently, much attention has been paid to the chemopreventive and apoptosis-inducing effects of NSAIDs in cancer cells. These effects have been thought to be primarily attributed to the inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity and prostaglandin synthesis. However, recent studies have demonstrated unequivocally that certain NSAIDs, including aspirin and its metabolite salicylic acid, exert their anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive effects independently of cyclooxygenase activity and prostaglandin synthesis inhibition. It is becoming increasingly evident that two potential common targets of NSAIDs are mitochondria and the Ca2+ signaling pathway. In this review, we provide an overview of the current knowledge regarding the roles of mitochondria and Ca2+ in the apoptosis-inducing effects as well as some side effects of aspirin, salicylates and other NSAIDs, and introducing the emerging role of L-type Ca2+ channels, a new Ca2+ entry pathway in non-excitable cells that is up-regulated in human cancer cells.

  4. Lunasin-aspirin combination against NIH/3T3 cells transformation induced by chemical carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chia-Chien; Hernández-Ledesma, Blanca; de Lumen, Ben O

    2011-06-01

    Carcinogenesis is a multistage process involving a number of molecular pathways sensitive to intervention. Chemoprevention is defined as the use of natural and/or synthetic substances to block, reverse, or retard the process of carcinogenesis. To achieve greater inhibitory effects on cancer cells, combination of two or more chemopreventive agents is commonly considered as a better preventive and/or therapeutic strategy. Lunasin is a promising cancer preventive peptide identified in soybean and other seeds. Its efficacy has been demonstrated by both in vitro and in vivo models. This peptide has been found to inhibit human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells proliferation, suppressing cell cycle progress and inducing cell apoptosis. Moreover, lunasin potentiates the effects on these cells of different synthetic and natural compounds, such as aspirin and anacardic acid. This study explored the role of lunasin, alone and in combination with aspirin and anacardic acid on cell proliferation and foci formation of transformed NIH/3T3 cells induced by chemical carcinogens 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene or 3-methylcholanthrene. The results revealed that lunasin, acting as a single agent, inhibits cell proliferation and foci formation. When combined with aspirin, these effects were significantly increased, indicating that this combination might be a promising strategy to prevent/treat cancer induced by chemical carcinogens.

  5. Impairment of aminopyrine clearance in aspirin-damaged canine gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, T.A.; Henagan, J.M.; Loy, T.M.

    1983-01-01

    Using an in vivo canine chambered stomach preparation, the clearance of [ 14 C]aminopyrine across mucosa when intravenously infused and the back-diffusion of this substance from gastric lumen to mucosa when topically applied to gastric epithelium were evaluated in aspirin-damaged gastric epithelium. In mucosa damaged by either 20 mM or 40 mM aspirin, the recovery of [ 14 C]aminopyrine, when topically mixed with acid (pH . 1.1) perfusate solution, was not significantly different from nondamaged control mucosa. In addition, the degree of ''trapping'' of this substance from back-diffusion was not different in damaged mucosa from that observed in nondamaged epithelium. In contrast, when [ 14 C]aminopyrine was intravenously infused, its clearance was significantly impaired in aspirin-damaged mucosa when compared with control studies, as evidenced by the increased ''trapping'' of this substance in injured epithelium. These findings indicate that movement of aminopyrine from plasma to gastric lumen is impaired in damaged epithelium, making the aminopyrine clearance technique an unreliable method to accurately measure absolute gastric blood flow in this experimental setting

  6. Aspirin and omeprazole for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in patients at risk for aspirin-associated gastric ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rayado, Guillermo; Sostres, Carlos; Lanas, Angel

    2017-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in the world and low-dose aspirin is considered the cornerstone of the cardiovascular disease prevention. However, low-dose aspirin use is associated with gastrointestinal adverse effects in the whole gastrointestinal tract. In this setting, co-therapy with a proton pump inhibitor is the most accepted strategy to reduce aspirin related upper gastrointestinal damage. In addition, some adverse effects have been described with proton pump inhibitors long term use. Areas covered: Low-dose aspirin related beneficial and adverse effects in cardiovascular system and gastrointestinal tract are reviewed. In addition, this manuscript summarizes current data on upper gastrointestinal damage prevention and adverse events with proton pump inhibition. Finally, we discuss the benefit/risk ratio of proton pump inhibitor use in patients at risk of gastrointestinal damage taking low-dose aspirin. Expert commentary: Nowadays, with the current available evidence, the combination of low-dose aspirin with proton pump inhibitor is the most effective therapy for cardiovascular prevention in patients at high gastrointestinal risk. However, further studies are needed to discover new effective strategies with less related adverse events.

  7. Aspirin responsiveness changes in obese patients following bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgard, Nicholas B; Monte, Scott V; Fernandez, Stanley F; Ma, Qing

    2017-08-01

    Bariatric surgery has emerged as a promising treatment option for weight loss and to counter the metabolic consequences of obesity. Obesity has been linked to a hyperaggregable state, as well as a blunted response to aspirin. This pilot study assessed the hypothesis that bariatric surgery would lead to an improvement in aspirin-induced platelet inhibition and a reduction in platelet aggregability. Fifteen patients scheduled to undergo bariatric surgery were administered two 7-day courses of aspirin 81 mg: the first course administered before surgery and the second was 3 months following surgery. Platelet aggregation was measured before and after each aspirin course using VerifyNow-Aspirin. The primary endpoint was the change in on-treatment aspirin reactive units (ARU) pre- and postsurgery. Data from bariatric surgery study patients were compared to data of normal weighted subjects gathered in a previous study. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass was performed in 80%, and 20% underwent sleeve gastrectomy. The mean starting body mass index (BMI) was 46.9 kg/m 2 . Patients lost on average 24.5 kg, resulting in a postsurgical BMI of 38.5 kg/m 2 . Postbariatric surgery, off-treatment ARU was significantly reduced from presurgery levels (602±59 vs 531±78; P=.035). On-aspirin platelet reactivity was also significantly reduced following surgery (469±60 vs 432±143, P=.03). There was a significant correlation between the extent of weight loss and the degree of improvement in on-aspirin platelet reactivity (r 2 =.49, P=.024). Presurgery on-aspirin platelet reactivity was significantly higher in obese patients compared to normal weighted subjects (469±60 vs 419±52; P=.016) and reduced to the baseline after the surgery (432±63 vs 419±52; P=.54). Aspirin-induced platelet inhibition may be more potent following bariatric surgery. The mechanisms behind this improvement require further investigation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an example of a transrectal transducer (probe). A prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, which measures the amount of PSA in the blood, may be administered to determine if a patient is at high risk for ... of the prostate gland. When the examination is complete, you may ...

  9. The association of four common polymorphisms from four candidate genes (COX-1, COX-2, ITGA2B, ITGA2 with aspirin insensitivity: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyuan Weng

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evidence is mounting suggesting that a strong genetic component underlies aspirin insensitivity. To generate more information, we aimed to evaluate the association of four common polymorphisms (rs3842787, rs20417, rs201184269, rs1126643 from four candidate genes (COX-1, COX-2, ITGA2B, ITGA2 with aspirin insensitivity via a meta-analysis. METHODS AND RESULTS: In total, there were 4 (353/595, 6 (344/698, 10 (588/878 and 7 (209/676 articles (patients/controls qualified for rs3842787, rs20417, rs20118426 and rs1126643, respectively. The data were extracted in duplicate and analyzed by STATA software (Version 11.2. The risk estimate was expressed as odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (95% CI. Analyses of the full data set indicated significant associations of rs20417 (OR; 95% CI; P: 1.86; 1.44-2.41; <0.0005 and rs1126643 (2.37; 1.44-3.89; 0.001 with aspirin insensitivity under allelic model. In subgroup analyses, the risk estimate for rs1126643 was greatly potentiated among patients with aspirin semi-resistance relative to those with aspirin resistance, especially under dominant model (aspirin semi-resistance: 5.44; 1.42-20.83; 0.013 versus aspirin resistance: 1.96; 1.07-3.6; 0.03. Further grouping articles by ethnicity observed a stronger prediction of all, but rs20417, examined polymorphisms for aspirin insensitivity in Chinese than in Caucasians. Finally, meta-regression analyses observed that the differences in percentage of coronary artery disease (P = 0.034 and averaged platelet numbers (P = 0.012 between two groups explained a large part of heterogeneity for rs20417 and rs1126643, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide strong evidence that COX-2 and ITGA2 genetic defects might increase the risk of having aspirin insensitivity, especially for aspirin semi-resistance and in Chinese populations.

  10. Aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular events: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and subgroup analysis by sex and diabetes status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manling Xie

    Full Text Available To evaluate the benefits and harms of aspirin for the primary prevention of CVD and determine whether the effects vary by sex and diabetes status.We searched Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases for randomized controlled trials comparing the effects of aspirin with placebo or control in people with no pre-existing CVD. Two investigators independently extracted data and assessed the study quality. Analyses were performed using Stata version 12.Fourteen trials (107,686 participants were eligible. Aspirin was associated with reductions in major cardiovascular events (risk ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.85-0.95, myocardial infarction (0.86; 0.75-0.93, ischemic stroke (0.86; 0.75-0.98 and all-cause mortality (0.94; 0.89-0.99. There were also increases in hemorrhagic stroke (1.34; 1.01-1.79 and major bleeding (1.55; 1.35-1.78 with aspirin. The number needed to treat to prevent 1 major cardiovascular event over a mean follow-up of 6.8 years was 284. By comparison, the numbers needed to harm to cause 1 major bleeding is 299. In subgroup analyses, pooled results demonstrated a reduction in myocardial infarction among men (0.71; 0.59-0.85 and ischemic stroke among women (0.77; 0.63-0.93. Aspirin use was associated with a reduction (0.65; 0.51-0.82 in myocardial infarction among diabetic men. In meta-regression analyses, the results suggested that aspirin therapy might be associated with a decrease in stroke among diabetic women and a decrease in MI among diabetic men and risk reductions achieved with low doses (75 mg/day were as large as those obtained with higher doses (650 mg/day.The use of low-dose aspirin was beneficial for primary prevention of CVD and the decision regarding an aspirin regimen should be made on an individual patient basis. The effects of aspirin therapy varied by sex and diabetes status. A clear benefit of aspirin in the primary prevention of CVD in people with diabetes needs more trials.

  11. The effect of increasing doses of saw palmetto fruit extract on serum prostate specific antigen: analysis of the CAMUS randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriole, Gerald L; McCullum-Hill, Christie; Sandhu, Gurdarshan S; Crawford, E David; Barry, Michael J; Cantor, Alan

    2013-02-01

    Saw palmetto extracts are used to treat lower urinary tract symptoms in men despite level I evidence that saw palmetto is ineffective in reducing these lower urinary tract symptoms. We determined whether higher doses of saw palmetto as studied in the CAMUS (Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Urologic Symptoms) trial affect serum prostate specific antigen levels. The CAMUS trial was a randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind, multicenter, North American trial conducted between June 5, 2008 and October 10, 2012, in which 369 men older than 45 years with an AUA symptom score of 8 to 24 were randomly assigned to placebo or dose escalation of saw palmetto, which consisted of 320 mg for the first 24 weeks, 640 mg for the next 24 weeks and 960 mg for the last 24 weeks of this 72-week trial. Serum prostate specific antigen levels were obtained at baseline and at weeks 24, 48 and 72, and were compared between treatment groups using the pooled t test and Fisher's exact test. Serum prostate specific antigen was similar at baseline for the placebo (mean ± SD 1.93 ± 1.59 ng/ml) and saw palmetto groups (2.20 ± 1.95, p = 0.16). Changes in prostate specific antigen during the study were similar, with a mean change in the placebo group of 0.16 ± 1.08 ng/ml and 0.23 ± 0.83 ng/ml in the saw palmetto group (p = 0.50). In addition, no differential effect on serum prostate specific antigen was observed between treatment arms when the groups were stratified by baseline prostate specific antigen. Saw palmetto extract does not affect serum prostate specific antigen more than placebo, even at relatively high doses. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. ERG Protein Expression in Diagnostic Specimens Is Associated with Increased Risk of Progression During Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Kasper Drimer; Vainer, Ben; Thomsen, Frederik Birkebæk

    2014-01-01

    with a ready-to-use kit (anti-ERG, EPR3864). Men were characterised as ERG positive if a minimum of one tumour focus demonstrated ERG expression. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Overall AS progression was defined as clinical progression: increased clinical tumour category ≥cT2b by digital rectal...

  13. Combined inhibition of glycolysis, the pentose cycle, and thioredoxin metabolism selectively increases cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in human breast and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of glycolysis using 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG, 20 mM, 24–48 h combined with inhibition of the pentose cycle using dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, 300 µM, 24–48 h increased clonogenic cell killing in both human prostate (PC-3 and DU145 and human breast (MDA-MB231 cancer cells via a mechanism involving thiol-mediated oxidative stress. Surprisingly, when 2DG+DHEA treatment was combined with an inhibitor of glutathione (GSH synthesis (l-buthionine sulfoximine; BSO, 1 mM that depleted GSH>90% of control, no further increase in cell killing was observed during 48 h exposures. In contrast, when an inhibitor of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR activity (Auranofin; Au, 1 µM, was combined with 2DG+DHEA or DHEA-alone for 24 h, clonogenic cell killing was significantly increased in all three human cancer cell lines. Furthermore, enhanced clonogenic cell killing seen with the combination of DHEA+Au was nearly completely inhibited using the thiol antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 20 mM. Redox Western blot analysis of PC-3 cells also supported the conclusion that thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1 oxidation was enhanced by treatment DHEA+Au and inhibited by NAC. Importantly, normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC were not as sensitive to 2DG, DHEA, and Au combinations as their cancer cell counterparts (MDA-MB-231. Overall, these results support the hypothesis that inhibition of glycolysis and pentose cycle activity, combined with inhibition of Trx metabolism, may provide a promising strategy for selectively sensitizing human cancer cells to oxidative stress-induced cell killing.

  14. Aspirin reduces serum anti-melanocyte antibodies and soluble interleukin-2 receptors in vitiligo patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zailaie, Mohamad Z.

    2005-01-01

    Increased serum levels of certain immunologic markers including immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-melanocyte/ vitiligo antibodies (V-IgG) and soluble interleukin-2 receptors (sIL-2R) are associated with augmented humoral and cellular immunity involved in melanocyte cytotoxicity during the active phase of non-segmental vitiligo. Recent reports have shown that, aspirin possesses a wide range of immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of long-term treatment of vitiligo patients with low-dose oral aspirin on serum V-IgG activity and sIL-2R concentration. The present study was carried out at the Vitiligo Unit, King Abdul-Aziz University Medical Center, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between March and October 2003. Eighteen female and 14 male patients with a recent onset of non-segmental vitiligo were divided into 2 equal groups. One group received a daily single dose of oral aspirin (300 mg) and the second group received only placebo for a period of 12 weeks. Serum V-IgG activity and sIL-2R concentration were determined before and at the end of treatment period. The V-IgG activity was measured using cellular enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) following incubation of IgG antibodies with an adult cultured melanocytes. Serum sIL-2R concentration was measured using the highly sensitive quantitative sandwich ELISA utilizing a commercially available kit. As expected, the serum V-IgG activity and sIL-2R concentration of the active vitiligo patients (0.81 +/- 0.23 optical density (O.D.), 1428 +/- 510 pg/ml) were significantly increased compared with that of controls (0.27 +/- 0.1 O.D., 846 +/- 312 pg/ml; p<0.05, p<0.01). Aspirin-treated vitiligo patients showed significant decrease in serum V-IgG activity and sIL-2R concentration (0.32 +/- 0.08 O.D., 756 +/- 216 pg/ml) compared with that of placebo-treated patients (0.83 +/- 0.19 O.D., 1327 +/- 392 pg/ml; p<0.01). Low-dose oral aspirin treatment of

  15. Fear of prostate biopsy: a limitation in the management of prostate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of prostate cancer is increasing in the country and now constitutes 11% of allmale cancers. For diagnosis of prostate cancer, a histological diagnosis is necessary and this requires that a prostate biopsy be performed but patientsmay not readily accept this invasive procedure. A 2-year retrospective study was ...

  16. Aspirin, but not clopidogrel, reduces collateral conductance in a rabbit model of femoral artery occlusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefer, Imo E.; Grundmann, Sebastian; Schirmer, Stephan; van Royen, Niels; Meder, Benjamin; Bode, Christoph; Piek, Jan J.; Buschmann, Ivo R.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to test the potential of aspirin and clopidogrel to influence collateral artery growth (arteriogenesis). BACKGROUND Aspirin and clopidogrel are antiplatelet agents commonly used in the treatment of ischemic cardiovascular disease. Both inhibit platelet

  17. Aspirin in Patients With Previous Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Undergoing Noncardiac Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Michelle M; Sessler, Daniel I; Parlow, Joel L

    2018-01-01

    Background: Uncertainty remains about the effects of aspirin in patients with prior percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) having noncardiac surgery. Objective: To evaluate benefits and harms of perioperative aspirin in patients with prior PCI. Design: Nonprespecified subgroup analysis of a mul...

  18. Influence of Differing Analgesic Formulations of Aspirin on Pharmacokinetic Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Kanani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin has been used therapeutically for over 100 years. As the originator and an important marketer of aspirin-containing products, Bayer’s clinical trial database contains numerous reports of the pharmacokinetics of various aspirin formulations. These include evaluations of plain tablets, effervescent tablets, granules, chewable tablets, and fast-release tablets. This publication seeks to expand upon the available pharmacokinetic information concerning aspirin formulations. In the pre-systemic circulation, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA is rapidly converted into its main active metabolite, salicylic acid (SA. Therefore, both substances are measured in plasma and reported in the results. The 500 mg strength of each formulation was chosen for analysis as this is the most commonly used for analgesia. A total of 22 studies were included in the analysis. All formulations of 500 mg aspirin result in comparable plasma exposure to ASA and SA as evidenced by AUC. Tablets and dry granules provide a consistently lower Cmax compared to effervescent, granules in suspension and fast release tablets. Effervescent tablets, fast release tablets, and granules in suspension provide a consistently lower median Tmax compared to dry granules and tablets for both ASA and SA. This report reinforces the importance of formulation differences and their impact on pharmacokinetic parameters.

  19. Functionalized bimodal mesoporous silicas as carriers for controlled aspirin delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Lin; Sun Jihong; Li Yuzhen

    2011-01-01

    The bimodal mesoporous silica modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane was performed as the aspirin carrier. The samples' structure, drug loading and release profiles were characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, N 2 adsorption and desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, TG analysis, elemental analysis and UV-spectrophotometer. For further exploring the effects of the bimodal mesopores on the drug delivery behavior, the unimodal mesoporous material MCM-41 was also modified as the aspirin carrier. Meantime, Korsmeyer-Peppas equation f t =kt n was employed to analyze the dissolution data in details. It is indicated that the bimodal mesopores are beneficial for unrestricted drug molecules diffusing and therefore lead to a higher loading and faster releasing than that of MCM-41. The results show that the aspirin delivery properties are influenced considerably by the mesoporous matrix, whereas the large pore of bimodal mesoporous silica is the key point for the improved controlled-release properties. - Graphical abstract: Loading (A) and release profiles (B) of aspirin in N-BMMs and N-MCM-41 indicated that BMMs have more drug loading capacity and faster release rate than that MCM-41. Highlights: → Bimodal mesoporous silicas (BMMs) and MCM-41 modified with amino group via post-treatment procedure. → Loading and release profiles of aspirin in modified BMMs and MCM-41. → Modified BMMs have more drug loading capacity and faster release rate than that modified MCM-41.

  20. Comparison of prostate cancer gene 3 score, prostate health index and percentage free prostate-specific antigen for differentiating histological inflammation from prostate cancer and other non-neoplastic alterations of the prostate at initial biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Stefano; Passera, Roberto; Bollito, Enrico; Manfredi, Matteo; Scarpa, Roberto Mario; Sottile, Antonino; Randone, Donato Franco; Porpiglia, Francesco

    2014-12-01

    To determine if prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) score, Prostate Health Index (PHI), and percent free prostate-specific antigen (%fPSA) may be used to differentiate prostatitis from prostate cancer (PCa), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-PIN) in patients with elevated PSA and negative digital rectal examination (DRE). in the present prospective study, 274 patients, undergoing PCA3 score, PHI and %fPSA assessments before initial biopsy, were enrolled. Three multivariate logistic regression models were used to test PCA3 score, PHI and %fPSA as risk factors for prostatitis vs. PCa, vs. BPH, and vs. HG-PIN. All the analyses were performed for the whole patient cohort and for the 'gray zone' of PSA (4-10 ng/ml) cohort (188 individuals). The determinants for prostatitis vs. PCa were PCA3 score, PHI and %fPSA (Odds Ratio [OR]=0.97, 0.96 and 0.94, respectively). Unit increase of PHI was the only risk factor for prostatitis vs. BPH (OR=1.06), and unit increase of PCA3 score for HG-PIN vs. prostatitis (OR=0.98). In the 'gray zone' PSA cohort, the determinants for prostatitis vs. PCa were PCA3 score, PHI and %fPSA (OR=0.96, 0.94 and 0.92, respectively), PCA3 score and PHI for prostatitis vs. BPH (OR=0.96 and 1.08, respectively), and PCA3 score for prostatitis vs. HG-PIN (OR=0.97). The clinical benefit of using PCA3 score and PHI to estimate prostatitis vs. PCa was comparable; even %fPSA had good diagnostic performance, being a faster and cheaper marker. PHI was the only determinant for prostatitis vs. BPH, while PCA3 score for prostatitis vs. HG-PIN. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  1. Zoledronic acid preserves bone structure and increases survival but does not limit tumour incidence in a prostate cancer bone metastasis model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzong-Tyng Hung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid (ZOL, can inhibit osteoclasts leading to decreased osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activity in bone. Here, we used a mixed osteolytic/osteoblastic murine model of bone-metastatic prostate cancer, RM1(BM, to determine how inhibiting osteolysis with ZOL affects the ability of these cells to establish metastases in bone, the integrity of the tumour-bearing bones and the survival of the tumour-bearing mice. METHODS: The model involves intracardiac injection for arterial dissemination of the RM1(BM cells in C57BL/6 mice. ZOL treatment was given via subcutaneous injections on days 0, 4, 8 and 12, at 20 and 100 µg/kg doses. Bone integrity was assessed by micro-computed tomography and histology with comparison to untreated mice. The osteoclast and osteoblast activity was determined by measuring serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP 5b and osteocalcin, respectively. Mice were euthanased according to predetermined criteria and survival was assessed using Kaplan Meier plots. FINDINGS: Micro-CT and histological analysis showed that treatment of mice with ZOL from the day of intracardiac injection of RM1(BM cells inhibited tumour-induced bone lysis, maintained bone volume and reduced the calcification of tumour-induced endochondral osteoid material. ZOL treatment also led to a decreased serum osteocalcin and TRAP 5b levels. Additionally, treated mice showed increased survival compared to vehicle treated controls. However, ZOL treatment did not inhibit the cells ability to metastasise to bone as the number of bone-metastases was similar in both treated and untreated mice. CONCLUSIONS: ZOL treatment provided significant benefits for maintaining the integrity of tumour-bearing bones and increased the survival of tumour bearing mice, though it did not prevent establishment of bone-metastases in this model. From the mechanistic view, these observations confirm that tumour-induced bone lysis is not a

  2. Does Core Length Taken per cc of Prostate Volume in Prostate Biopsy Affect the Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliktas, Hasan; Sahin, Hayrettin; Cetinkaya, Mehmet; Dere, Yelda; Erdogan, Omer; Baldemir, Ercan

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the minimal core length to be taken per cc of prostate volume for an effective prostate biopsy. A retrospective analysis was performed on the records of 379 patients who underwent a first prostate biopsy with 12 to 16 cores under transrectal ultrasound guidance between September 2012 and April 2015. For each patient, the core length per cc of the prostate and the percentage of sampled prostate volume were calculated, and these values were compared between the patients with and without prostate cancer. A total of 348 patients were included in the study. Cancer was determined in 26.4% of patients. The mean core length taken per cc of prostate and the percentage of sampled prostate volume were determined to be 3.40 ± 0.15 mm/cc (0.26%; range, 0.08-0.63 cc) in patients with cancer and 2.75 ± 0.08 mm/cc (0.20%; range, 0.04-0.66 cc) in patients without cancer (P = .000 and P = .000), respectively. Core length taken per cc of prostate of > 3.31 mm/cc was found to be related to an increase in the rates of prostate cancer diagnosis (odds ratio, 2.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.68-4.78). The rate of cancer determination for core length taken per cc of prostate of  3.31 mm/cc, 41.1%. Core length taken per cc of prostate and the percentage of sampled prostate volume are important morphometric parameters in the determination of prostate cancer. The results of study suggest a core length per cc of the prostate of > 3.31 mm/cc as a cutoff value for quality assurance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Bacterial prostatitis and prostatic fibrosis: modern view on the treatment and prophylaxis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, A V; Pushkar, D Yu; Khodyreva, L A; Dudareva, A A

    2016-08-01

    Treatments of chronic bacterial prostatitis (CP) remain difficult problem. Bacterial prostatitis is a disease entity diagnosed clinically and by evidence of inflammation and infection localized to the prostate. Risk factors for UTI in men include urological interventions, such as transrectal prostate biopsy. Ensuing infections after prostate biopsy, such as UTI and bacterial prostatitis, are increasing due to increasing rates of fluoroquinolone resistance. The increasing global antibiotic resistance also significantly affects management of UTI in men, and therefore calls for alternative strategies. Prostatic inflammation has been suggested to contribute to the etiology of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) by inducing fibrosis. Several studies have shown that prostatic fibrosis is strongly associated with impaired urethral function and LUTS severity. Fibrosis resulting from excessive deposition of collagen is traditionally recognized as a progressive irreversible condition and an end stage of inflammatory diseases; however, there is compelling evidence in both animal and human studies to support that the development of fibrosis could potentially be a reversible process. Prostate inflammation may induce fibrotic changes in periurethral prostatic tissues, promote urethral stiffness and LUTS. Patients experiencing CP and prostate-related LUTS could benefit from anti-inflammatory therapies, especially used in combination with the currently prescribed enzyme treatment with Longidase. Treatment results showed that longidase is highly effective in bacterial and abacterial CP. Longidase addition to standard therapeutic methods significantly reduced the disease symptoms and regression of inflammatory-proliferative alterations in the prostate.

  4. Prostate specific antigen velocity does not aid prostate cancer detection in men with prior negative biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Andrew J; Wolters, Tineke; Savage, Caroline J; Cronin, Angel M; O'Brien, M Frank; Roobol, Monique J; Aus, Gunnar; Scardino, Peter T; Hugosson, Jonas; Schröder, Fritz H; Lilja, Hans

    2010-09-01

    Prostate specific antigen velocity has been proposed as a marker to aid in prostate cancer detection. We determined whether prostate specific antigen velocity could predict repeat biopsy results in men with persistently increased prostate specific antigen after initial negative biopsy. We identified 1,837 men who participated in the Göteborg or Rotterdam section of the European Randomized Screening study of Prostate Cancer and who underwent 1 or more subsequent prostate biopsies after an initial negative finding. We evaluated whether prostate specific antigen velocity improved predictive accuracy beyond that of prostate specific antigen alone. Of the 2,579 repeat biopsies 363 (14%) were positive for prostate cancer, of which 44 (1.7%) were high grade (Gleason score 7 or greater). Prostate specific antigen velocity was statistically associated with cancer risk but had low predictive accuracy (AUC 0.55, p <0.001). There was some evidence that prostate specific antigen velocity improved AUC compared to prostate specific antigen for high grade cancer. However, the small increase in risk associated with high prostate specific antigen velocity (from 1.7% to 2.8% as velocity increased from 0 to 1 ng/ml per year) had questionable clinical relevance. Men with prior negative biopsy are at lower risk for prostate cancer at subsequent biopsies with high grade disease particularly rare. We found little evidence to support prostate specific antigen velocity to aid in decisions about repeat biopsy for prostate cancer. 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Diagnostic utility of DTI in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerses, Bengi, E-mail: bengur0@yahoo.com [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey); Tasdelen, Neslihan [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey); Yencilek, Faruk [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Urology, Istanbul (Turkey); Kilickesmez, N. Ozguer [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey); Alp, Turgut [Fatih Sultan Mehmet Training and Research Hospital, Division of Urology, Istanbul (Turkey); Firat, Zeynep [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey); Albayrak, M. Selami [Kartal Training and Research Hospital, Division of Urology, Istanbul (Turkey); Ulug, Aziz M. [Yeditepe University Department of Biomedical Engineering, Istanbul (Turkey); The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, New York (United States); Guermen, A. Nevzat [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the diffusion tensor parameters of prostate cancer, prostatitis and normal prostate tissue. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 patients with the suspicion of prostate cancer were included in the study. MRI was performed with 3 T system (Intera Achieva, Philips Medical Systems, The Netherlands). T2 TSE and DTI with ss-EPI were obtained in each subject. TRUS-guided prostate biopsy was performed after the MRI examination. Images were analyzed by two radiologists using a special software system. ROI's were drawn according to biopsy zones which are apex, midgland, base and central zone on each sides of the gland. FA and ADC values in areas of cancer, chronic prostatitis and normal prostate tissue were compared using Student's t-test. Results: Histopathological analysis revealed carcinoma in 68, chronic prostatitis in 67 and was reported as normal in 65 zones. The mean FA of cancerous tissue was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than the FA of chronic prostatitis and normal gland. The mean ADC of cancerous tissue was found to be significantly lower (p < 0.01), compared with non-cancerous tissue. Conclusion: Decreased ADC and increased FA are compatible with the hypercellular nature of prostate tumors. These differences may increase the accuracy of MRI in the detection of carcinoma and to differentiate between cancer and prostatitis.

  6. Diagnostic utility of DTI in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerses, Bengi; Tasdelen, Neslihan; Yencilek, Faruk; Kilickesmez, N. Ozguer; Alp, Turgut; Firat, Zeynep; Albayrak, M. Selami; Ulug, Aziz M.; Guermen, A. Nevzat

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the diffusion tensor parameters of prostate cancer, prostatitis and normal prostate tissue. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 patients with the suspicion of prostate cancer were included in the study. MRI was performed with 3 T system (Intera Achieva, Philips Medical Systems, The Netherlands). T2 TSE and DTI with ss-EPI were obtained in each subject. TRUS-guided prostate biopsy was performed after the MRI examination. Images were analyzed by two radiologists using a special software system. ROI's were drawn according to biopsy zones which are apex, midgland, base and central zone on each sides of the gland. FA and ADC values in areas of cancer, chronic prostatitis and normal prostate tissue were compared using Student's t-test. Results: Histopathological analysis revealed carcinoma in 68, chronic prostatitis in 67 and was reported as normal in 65 zones. The mean FA of cancerous tissue was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than the FA of chronic prostatitis and normal gland. The mean ADC of cancerous tissue was found to be significantly lower (p < 0.01), compared with non-cancerous tissue. Conclusion: Decreased ADC and increased FA are compatible with the hypercellular nature of prostate tumors. These differences may increase the accuracy of MRI in the detection of carcinoma and to differentiate between cancer and prostatitis.

  7. Effects of preoperative aspirin and clopidogrel therapy on perioperative blood loss and blood transfusion requirements in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae Kwang; Choi, Yong Seon; Oh, Young Jun; Bang, Sou Ouk; Yoo, Kyung Jong; Kwak, Young Lan

    2007-07-01

    Preoperative exposure to clopidogrel and aspirin significantly increases postoperative bleeding in patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Off-pump coronary bypass grafting has been proposed as an alternative technique to attenuate postoperative bleeding associated with clopidogrel. This study aimed to determine the effects of aspirin and clopidogrel therapy on perioperative blood loss and blood transfusion requirements in off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. One hundred six patients scheduled for off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting were divided into three groups: aspirin and clopidogrel discontinued more than 6 days before surgery (group 1, n = 35), aspirin and clopidogrel continued until 3 to 5 days before surgery (group 2, n = 51), and both medications continued within 2 days of surgery (group 3, n = 20). Thromboelastographic tracings were analyzed before induction of anesthesia. Routine coagulation profiles were measured before and after surgery. A cell salvage device was used during surgery and salvaged blood was reinfused. Chest tube drainage and blood transfusion requirement were recorded postoperatively. Patient characteristics, operative data, and thromboelastographic tracings were similar among the groups. There were significant decreases in hematocrit level and platelet count and prolongation in prothrombin time postoperatively in all groups without any intergroup differences. The amounts of perioperative blood loss and blood transfusion required were all similar among the groups. Preoperative clopidogrel and aspirin exposure even within 2 days of surgery does not increase perioperative blood loss and blood transfusion requirements in patients undergoing elective off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

  8. Low dose aspirin as adjuvant treatment for venous leg ulceration: pragmatic, randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial (Aspirin4VLU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jull, Andrew; Wadham, Angela; Bullen, Chris; Parag, Varsha; Kerse, Ngaire; Waters, Jill

    2017-11-24

    Objective  To determine the effect of low dose aspirin on ulcer healing in patients with venous leg ulcers. Design  Pragmatic, community based, parallel group, double blind, randomised controlled trial. Setting  Five community nursing centres in New Zealand. Participants  251 adults with venous leg ulcers who could safely be treated with aspirin or placebo: 125 were randomised to aspirin and 126 to placebo. Interventions  150 mg oral aspirin daily or matching placebo for up to 24 weeks treatment, with compression therapy as standard background treatment. Main outcome measures  The primary outcome was time to complete healing of the reference ulcer (largest ulcer if more than one ulcer was present). Secondary outcomes included proportion of participants healed, change in ulcer area, change in health related quality of life, and adverse events. Analysis was by intention to treat. Results  The median number of days to healing of the reference ulcer was 77 in the aspirin group and 69 in the placebo group (hazard ratio 0.85, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 1.13, P=0.25). The number of participants healed at the endpoint was 88 (70%) in the aspirin group and 101 (80%) in the placebo group (risk difference -9.8%, 95% confidence interval -20.4% to 0.9%, P=0.07). Estimated change in ulcer area was 4.1 cm 2 in the aspirin group and 4.8 cm 2 in the placebo group (mean difference -0.7 cm 2 , 95% confidence interval -1.9 to 0.5 cm 2 , P=0.25). 40 adverse events occurred among 29 participants in the aspirin group and 37 adverse events among 27 participants in the placebo group (incidence rate ratio 1.1, 95% confidence interval 0.7 to 1.7, P=0.71). Conclusion  Our findings do not support the use of low dose aspirin as adjuvant treatment for venous leg ulcers. Trial registration  ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02158806. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. PFA-100-measured aspirin resistance is the predominant risk factor for hospitalized cardiovascular events in aspirin-treated patients: A 5-year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H Y; Chou, P

    2018-04-01

    Aspirin therapy is the clinical gold standard for the prevention of cardiovascular events. However, cardiovascular events still develop in some patients undergoing aspirin therapy. Many laboratory methods exist for measuring aspirin resistance. Using the platelet Function Analyzer (PFA)-100 system, we aimed to determine the effect of aspirin resistance on hospitalized cardiovascular events (hCVE) in a 5-year follow-up cohort. We also sought to determine the impact of aspirin resistance on the relationship between common cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular hospitalization. Aspirin resistance was evaluated in aspirin-treated patients from the outpatient department. A total of 465 patients during a 5-year follow-up period were included in this study. The primary endpoint of the study was hospitalization for any acute cardiovascular event. The prevalence and associated risk factors of acute cardiovascular events were evaluated. Aspirin resistance was prevalent in 91 (20.0%) of 465 patients. Prior hospitalization history of cardiovascular events was highly associated with aspirin resistance (P = .001). At the 5-year follow-up, cardiovascular events were found to have developed in 11 patients (8 stroke and 3 myocardial infarction) who exhibited aspirin resistance (12.1%) and in 9 (4 stroke and 5 myocardial infarction) patients who did not exhibit aspirin resistance (2.4%) (P resistance and cardiovascular events (adjusted odds ratio 4.28; 95% CI: 1.64-11.20; P = .03). PFA-100 measurements of aspirin resistance correlate with hCVE, as evidenced by both the past medical history and the 5-year follow-up. The logistic regression analysis results showed that aspirin resistance plays a larger role in hospitalized cardiovascular disease than do other cardiovascular risk factors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Use and Safety of Non-Steroidal Inflammatory Drugs and Aspirin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.E. Valkhoff (Vera)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe use of acetylsalicylic acid, better known as aspirin, dates back to the Egyptians in 1534 BC. Aspirin-like compounds are naturally derived from willow tree bark and myr-tle. At the end of the 19th century aspirin was patented by Bayer as the world’s first syn-thetic drug. The

  11. Use of low-dose aspirin and non-aspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaist, David; García-Rodríguez, L A; Sørensen, H T

    2013-01-01

    Background:Few studies have examined the association between use of aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and risk of glioma and the results have been equivocal. We therefore investigated the influence of NSAID use on glioma risk in a nationwide setting.Methods:We used...... exposure to low-dose aspirin or non-aspirin (NA) NSAIDs into ever use or long-term use, defined as continuous use for 5 years. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (ORs), with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), for glioma associated with NSAID use, adjusted for potential...... confounders.Results:A total of 2688 glioma cases and 18 848 population controls were included in the study. Ever use of low-dose aspirin (OR=0.90; 95% CI: 0.77-1.04) or NA-NSAIDs (OR=1.05; 95% CI: 0.96-1.14) was not associated with glioma risk. Compared with never use, long-term use of low-dose aspirin...

  12. Comparison of hyperuricemia in type 2 diabetics on low dose aspirin and not on low dose aspirin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, M.I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the frequency of hyperuricemia in type 2 diabetes patients who are taking low dose aspirin with those patients who are not taking low dose aspirin. Study design: Quasi experimental study. Place and duration of study: This study was carried out at Military Hospital Rawalpindi for a period of two years (June 2006-May 2008). Patients and Methods: Sixty diabetic patients were selected who were taking low dose aspirin comparing group A and sixty diabetic patients who were not taking aspirin were placed in group B. These patients were selected from the OPD through non probability convenience sampling. All these patients were being followed up in medical outpatient quite regularly on fort-nightly basis. Data had been collected through a carefully designed questionnaire. Results: In group A, 90% of the patients had uric acid less than 445 micro mol/l and 10% of the patients had uric acid more than 445micro mol/l. Whereas in group B 100% of the patients had uric acid less than 445umol/l, there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Aspirin in low doses cause hyperuricemia and regular monitoring of uric acid is mandatory to prevent its adverse effects. (author)

  13. Different impact of aspirin on renal progression in patients with predialysis advanced chronic kidney disease with or without previous stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Kuang-Chih; Huang, Jing-Yang; Lee, Chun-Te; Hung, Tung-Wei; Liaw, Yung-Po; Chang, Horng-Rong

    2017-04-01

    The benefit of reducing the risk of stroke against increasing the risk of renal progression associated with antiplatelet therapy in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) is controversial. We enrolled 1301 adult patients with advanced CKD treated with erythropoiesis stimulating agents from January 1, 2002 to June 30, 2009 from the 2005 Longitudinal Health Insurance Database in Taiwan. All of the patients were followed until the development of the primary or secondary endpoints, or the end of the study (December 31, 2011). The primary endpoint was the development of ischemic stroke, and the secondary endpoints included hospitalization for bleeding events, cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality, and renal failure. The adjusted cumulative probability of events was calculated using multivariate Cox proportional regression analysis. Adjusted survival curves showed that the usage of aspirin was not associated with ischemic stroke, hospitalization for bleeding events, cardiovascular mortality or all-cause mortality, however, it was significantly associated with renal failure. In subgroup analysis, aspirin use was associated with renal failure in the patients with no history of stroke (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.14-1.73), and there was a borderline interaction between previous stroke and the use of aspirin on renal failure (interaction p=0.0565). There was no significant benefit in preventing ischemic stroke in the patients with advanced CKD who received aspirin therapy. Furthermore, the use of aspirin was associated with the risk of renal failure in the patients with advanced CKD without previous stroke. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Xanthogranulomatous Prostatitis, a Rare Prostatic Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Noyola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several benign prostatic pathologies that can clinically mimic a prostate adenocarcinoma. Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis is a benign inflammatory condition of the prostate and a rare entity. A 47-year old male, with 3 years of lower urinary tract symptoms, with a palpable hypogastric tumor, digital rectal examination: solid prostate, of approximately 60 g. Initial PSA was 0.90 ng/mL. He underwent surgical excision of the lower abdominal nodule and prostatectomy. Histopathology showed xanthogranulomatous prostatitis, without malignancy. Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis is an extremely rare entity that can simulate prostate adenocarcinoma, therefore having a correct histopathological diagnosis is essential.

  15. Functionalized bimodal mesoporous silicas as carriers for controlled aspirin delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lin; Sun, Jihong; Li, Yuzhen

    2011-08-01

    The bimodal mesoporous silica modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane was performed as the aspirin carrier. The samples' structure, drug loading and release profiles were characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, N 2 adsorption and desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, TG analysis, elemental analysis and UV-spectrophotometer. For further exploring the effects of the bimodal mesopores on the drug delivery behavior, the unimodal mesoporous material MCM-41 was also modified as the aspirin carrier. Meantime, Korsmeyer-Peppas equation ft= ktn was employed to analyze the dissolution data in details. It is indicated that the bimodal mesopores are beneficial for unrestricted drug molecules diffusing and therefore lead to a higher loading and faster releasing than that of MCM-41. The results show that the aspirin delivery properties are influenced considerably by the mesoporous matrix, whereas the large pore of bimodal mesoporous silica is the key point for the improved controlled-release properties.

  16. Using the Platelet Function Analyzer-100 for monitoring aspirin therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Tina Svenstrup; Mickley, Hans; Korsholm, Lars

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to evaluate the test characteristics of the Platelet Function Analyzer-100 (PFA-100) in patients treated with aspirin. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study consisted of two sub-studies. In study 1, 10 patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and 10 controls had...... platelet function assessed by optical platelet aggregation and the PFA-100 method in two 5-week periods. Patients with IHD were treated with aspirin 150 mg/day (first 5-week period), and 300 mg/day (second 5-week period), whereas the controls only received aspirin (150 mg/day) during the second 5-week...... period. From the results of study 1, we found that a cut-off value for the PFA-100 collagen/epinephrine cartridge PFA-100 method and optical platelet aggregation was found. Within...

  17. Differential induction of peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzymes by clofibric acid and aspirin in piglet tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X X; Odle, J; Drackley, J K

    2001-11-01

    Peroxisomal beta-oxidation (POX) of fatty acids is important in lipid catabolism and thermogenesis. To investigate the effects of peroxisome proliferators on peroxisomal and mitochondrial beta-oxidation in piglet tissues, newborn pigs (1-2 days old) were allowed ad libitum access to milk replacer supplemented with 0.5% clofibric acid (CA) or 1% aspirin for 14 days. CA increased ratios of liver weight to body weight (P < 0.07), kidney weight to body weight (P < 0.05), and heart weight to body weight (P < 0.001). Aspirin decreased daily food intake and final body weight but increased the ratio of heart weight to body weight (P < 0.01). In liver, activities of POX, fatty acyl-CoA oxidase (FAO), total carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT), and catalase were 2.7-, 2.2-, 1.5-fold, and 33% greater, respectively, for pigs given CA than for control pigs. In heart, these variables were 2.2-, 4.1-, 1.9-, and 1.8-fold greater, respectively, for pigs given CA than for control pigs. CA did not change these variables in either kidney or muscle, except that CPT activity was increased approximately 110% (P < 0.01) in kidney. Aspirin increased only hepatic FAO and CPT activities. Northern blot analysis revealed that CA increased the abundance of catalase mRNA in heart by approximately 2.2-fold. We conclude that 1) POX and CPT in newborn pigs can be induced by peroxisomal proliferators with tissue specificity and 2) the relatively smaller induction of POX in piglets (compared with that in young or adult rodents) may be related to either age or species differences.

  18. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This procedure requires little to no special preparation. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. ... BPH) , with measurements acquired as needed for any treatment planning. detect an abnormal growth within the prostate. ...

  19. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the rectum. The images are obtained from different angles to get the best view of the prostate ... RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your physician with specific medical questions or for ...

  20. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... nodule felt by a physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides real-time ...

  1. Enlarged prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for drugs that may make your symptoms worse : SAW PALMETTO Many herbs have been tried for treating an enlarged prostate. Many men use saw palmetto to ease symptoms. Some studies have shown that ...

  2. Prostate biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... give the cells a grade called a Gleason score . This helps predict how fast the cancer will ... TRUS); Stereotactic transperineal prostate biopsy (STPB) Images Male reproductive anatomy References Babayan RK, Katz MH. Biopsy prophylaxis, ...

  3. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the rectal wall is relatively insensitive to the pain in the region of the prostate. A biopsy ... needle biopsies and fluid aspiration. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on ...

  4. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... diagnose symptoms such as difficulty urinating or an elevated blood test result. It’s also used to investigate ... physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides ...

  5. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... less than 20 minutes. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Ultrasound ... in the region of the prostate. A biopsy will add time to the procedure. Rarely, a small ...

  6. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... receiver coil. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top ... To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ACR- ...

  7. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... with measurements acquired as needed for any treatment planning. detect an abnormal growth within the prostate. help ... end of their bowel (rectum) removed during prior surgery are not good candidates for ultrasound of the ...

  8. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... prostate gland and to help diagnose symptoms such as difficulty urinating or an elevated blood test result. ... image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is no ...

  9. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... nodule felt by a physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated ... requested the exam. Usually, the referring physician or health care provider will share the results with you. ...

  10. Prostatitis - acute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tender scrotum The provider may perform a digital rectal exam to examine your prostate. During this exam, ... Copyright 1997-2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing ...

  11. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... receiver coil. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top ... here Images × Image Gallery Radiologist and patient consultation. View full size with caption Related Articles and Media ...

  12. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... needle biopsies and fluid aspiration. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on ... and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page This page was reviewed on ...

  13. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding minimally invasive procedures such as ... bowel (rectum) removed during prior surgery are not good candidates for ultrasound of the prostate gland because ...

  14. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... Images related to Ultrasound - Prostate Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  15. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... phased array) receiver coil. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate ... Send us your feedback Did you find the information you were looking for? Yes No Please type ...

  16. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... in which a needle is used to sample cells (tissue) from an abnormal area in the prostate ... needle insertion) is usually minimal because the rectal wall is relatively insensitive to the pain in the ...

  17. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) , with measurements acquired as needed for any treatment planning. detect ... areas of the body while other areas, especially air-filled lungs, are poorly suited for ultrasound. For ...

  18. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty ... if a patient is at high risk for cancer. In this case, a biopsy is performed and ...

  19. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... rectum into the prostate gland which is situated right in front of the rectum. top of page ... creates a real-time picture on the monitor. One or more frames of the moving pictures are ...

  20. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... probe sends and receives sound waves through the wall of the rectum into the prostate gland which ... needle insertion) is usually minimal because the rectal wall is relatively insensitive to the pain in the ...

  1. Prostate carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledano, A.; Chauveinc, L.; Flam, T.; Thiounn, N.; Solignac, S.; Timbert, M.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Cosset, J.M.; Ammor, A.; Bonnetain, F.; Brenier, J.P.; Maingon, P.; Peignaux, K.; Truc, G.; Bosset, M.; Crevoisier, R. de; Tucker, S.; Dong, L.; Cheung, R.; Kuban, D.; Azria, D.; Llacer Moscardo, C.; Ailleres, N.; Allaw, A.; Serre, A.; Fenoglietto, P.; Hay, M.H.; Thezenas, S.; Dubois, J.B.; Pommier, P.; Perol, D.; Lagrange, J.L.; Richaud, P.; Brune, D.; Le Prise, E.; Azria, D.; Beckendorf, V.; Chabaud, S.; Carrie, C.; Bosset, M.; Bosset, J.F.; Maingon, P.; Ammor, A.; Crehangen, G.; Truc, G.; Peignaux, K.; Bonnetain, F.; Keros, L.; Bernier, V.; Aletti, P.; Wolf, D.; Marchesia, V.; Noel, A.; Artignan, X.; Fourneret, P.; Bacconier, M.; Shestaeva, O.; Pasquier, D.; Descotes, J.L.; Balosso, J.; Bolla, M.; Burette, R.; Corbusier, A.; Germeau, F.; Crevoisier, R. de; Dong, L.; Bonnen, M.; Cheung, R.; Tucker, S.; Kuban, D.; Crevoisier, R. de; Melancon, A.; Kuban, D.; Cheung, R.; Dong, L.; Peignaux, K.; Brenier, J.P.; Truc, G.; Bosset, M.; Ammor, A.; Barillot, I.; Maingon, P.; Molines, J.C.; Berland, E.; Cornulier, J. de; Coulet-Parpillon, A.; Cohard, C.; Picone, M.; Fourneret, P.; Artignan, X.; Daanen, V.; Gastaldo, J.; Bolla, M.; Collomb, D.; Dusserre, A.; Descotes, J.L.; Troccaz, J.; Giraud, J.Y.; Quero, L.; Hennequin, C.; Ravery, V.; Desgrandschamps, F.; Maylin, C.; Boccon-Gibod, L.; Salem, N.; Bladou, F.; Gravis, G.; Tallet, A.; Simonian, M.; Serment, G.; Salem, N.; Bladou, F.; Gravis, G.; Simonian, M.; Rosello, R.; Serment, G.

    2005-01-01

    Some short communications on the prostate carcinoma are given here. The impact of pelvic irradiation, conformation with intensity modulation, association of radiotherapy and chemotherapy reduction of side effects, imaging, doses escalation are such subjects studied and reported. (N.C.)

  2. Regular use of aspirin and pancreatic cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahoney Martin C

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular use of aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs has been consistently associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer and adenoma, and there is some evidence for a protective effect for other types of cancer. As experimental studies reveal a possible role for NSAIDs is reducing the risk of pancreatic cancer, epidemiological studies examining similar associations in human populations become more important. Methods In this hospital-based case-control study, 194 patients with pancreatic cancer were compared to 582 age and sex-matched patients with non-neoplastic conditions to examine the association between aspirin use and risk of pancreatic cancer. All participants received medical services at the Roswell Park Cancer Institute in Buffalo, NY and completed a comprehensive epidemiologic questionnaire that included information on demographics, lifestyle factors and medical history as well as frequency and duration of aspirin use. Patients using at least one tablet per week for at least six months were classified as regular aspirin users. Unconditional logistic regression was used to compute crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Results Pancreatic cancer risk in aspirin users was not changed relative to non-users (adjusted OR = 1.00; 95% CI 0.72–1.39. No significant change in risk was found in relation to greater frequency or prolonged duration of use, in the total sample or in either gender. Conclusions These data suggest that regular aspirin use may not be associated with lower risk of pancreatic cancer.

  3. Prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Balslev, Ingegerd; Logager, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data.......To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data....

  4. Proton pump inhibitor use and risk of adverse cardiovascular events in aspirin treated patients with first time myocardial infarction: nationwide propensity score matched study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlot, Mette; Grove, Erik; Hansen, Peter Riis

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of proton pump inhibitors on adverse cardiovascular events in aspirin treated patients with first time myocardial infarction. DESIGN: Retrospective nationwide propensity score matched study based on administrative data. Setting All hospitals in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS...... analysis showed no increase in risk related to use of H(2) receptor blockers (1.04, 0.79 to 1.38; P=0.78). Conclusion In aspirin treated patients with first time myocardial infarction, treatment with proton pump inhibitors was associated with an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events....

  5. [Correlation of IL-8 and IL-6 in prostatic fluid with serum prostate-specific antigen level in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia complicated by prostatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xingfei; Wu, Chunlei; Yu, Qinnan; Zhu, Feng; Liu, Pei; Zhang, Huiqing

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the correlation of the levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-6 in the prostatic fluid with serum levels of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) complicated by prostatitis. A series of 211 patients undergoing surgery of BPH were divided into BPH group (n=75) and BPH with prostatitis group (n=136) according to the white blood cell count in the prostatic fluid. The clinical and laboratory findings were compared between the two groups, and stepwise regression analysis was used to assess the association of IL-8 and IL-6 with serum PSA level. No significant differences were found in age, BMI, blood pressure, blood glucose, blood lipids, IPSS score, PSA-Ratio, or prostate volume between the two groups (Pprostatitis had significantly increased serum PSA and prostate fluid IL-8 and IL-6 levels compared with those without prostatitis (Pprostatic fluid were all positively correlated with serum PSA level. Prostatitis is an important risk factor for elevated serum PSA level in patients with BPH, and both IL-8 and IL-6 levels in the prostatic fluid are correlated with serum PSA level.

  6. Application of as-synthesised MCM-41 and MCM-41 wrapped with reduced graphene oxide/graphene oxide in the remediation of acetaminophen and aspirin from aqueous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpotu, Samson O; Moodley, Brenda

    2018-03-01

    In this study, ASM41 (as-synthesised MCM-41), MCM-41, MCM-41 encapsulated with graphene oxide (MCM-41-GO) and reduced graphene oxide (MCM-41-G) were fabricated and utilized in the remediation of acetaminophen and aspirin from water. A surfactant template (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) was added to ASM41 to make it more hydrophobic and its effects on the remediation of acetaminophen and aspirin from wastewater was studied. To further improve the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent, MCM-41 was encapsulated with GO and G which also aided in easy separation of the adsorbent from the aqueous solution. Comparative studies of the adsorption of acetaminophen and aspirin on all four adsorbents were investigated. Batch adsorption studies of acetaminophen and aspirin were carried out to determine the effects of pH, initial concentration, time and adsorbent dose. Adsorption mechanism was through EDA, π-π interactions, and hydrophobic effects. Data from sorption kinetics showed ASM41 had the highest q m value for aspirin (909.1 mg/g) and MCM-41-G had the highest q m value for acetaminophen (555.6 mg/g). The significant adsorption by ASM41 can be attributed to increased hydrophobicity due to the retention of the surfactant template. Thermodynamic studies revealed the adsorption process as spontaneous and exothermic. Desorption studies revealed that adsorbents could be regenerated and reused for adsorption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Aspirin down Regulates Hepcidin by Inhibiting NF-κB and IL6/JAK2/STAT3 Pathways in BV-2 Microglial Cells Treated with Lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Ying Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin down regulates transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1 and up regulates ferroportin 1 (Fpn1 and ferritin expression in BV-2 microglial cells treated without lipopolysaccharides (LPS, as well as down regulates hepcidin and interleukin 6 (IL-6 in cells treated with LPS. However, the relevant mechanisms are unknown. Here, we investigate the effects of aspirin on expression of hepcidin and iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1, phosphorylation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 and P65 (nuclear factor-κB, and the production of nitric oxide (NO in BV-2 microglial cells treated with and without LPS. We demonstrated that aspirin inhibited hepcidin mRNA as well as NO production in cells treated with LPS, but not in cells without LPS, suppresses IL-6, JAK2, STAT3, and P65 (nuclear factor-κB phosphorylation and has no effect on IRP1 in cells treated with or without LPS. These findings provide evidence that aspirin down regulates hepcidin by inhibiting IL6/JAK2/STAT3 and P65 (nuclear factor-κB pathways in the cells under inflammatory conditions, and imply that an aspirin-induced reduction in TfR1 and an increase in ferritin are not associated with IRP1 and NO.

  8. Psychosocial Consequences of Overdiagnostic of Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sigrid Brisson

    Psychosocial Consequences of Overdiagnostic of Prostate Cancer Sigrid Brisson Nielsen & John Brodersen Introduction In Denmark there are approximately 4400 men diagnosed with prostate cancer each year and nearly 1200 men dies of this disease yearly. The incidence of prostate cancer has increased...... for the past twenty years and make up 24 % of all cancer incidents in men. However, the mortality of prostate cancer has not changed in line with this increase. Empirical evidence shows that the increase in incidence of prostate cancer in Denmark without an increase in the mortality is mostly caused...... by opportunistic PSA screening in General Practice. It is recommended that men ≥ 60 year old diagnosed with prostate cancer and a Gleason score ≤ 6 are monitored with active surveillance. This is due to the probability of this type of cancer metastasizing is very small as approximately 90 % of them is assumed...

  9. Weighing the Anti-Ischemic Benefits and Bleeding Risks from Aspirin Therapy: a Rational Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugani, Sagar; Ames, Jeffrey M; Manson, JoAnn E; Mora, Samia

    2018-02-21

    The role of aspirin in secondary cardiovascular prevention is well understood; however, the role in primary prevention is less clear, and requires careful balancing of potential benefits with risks. Here, we summarize the evidence base on the benefits and risks of aspirin therapy, discuss clinical practice guidelines and decision support tools to assist in initiating aspirin therapy, and highlight ongoing trials that may clarify the role of aspirin in cardiovascular disease prevention. In 2016, the USPSTF released guidelines on the use of aspirin for primary prevention. Based on 11 trials (n = 118,445), aspirin significantly reduced all-cause mortality and nonfatal myocardial infarction, and in 7 trials that evaluated aspirin ≤ 100 mg/day, there was significant reduction in nonfatal stroke. The USPSTF recommends individualized use of aspirin based on factors including age, 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk score, and bleeding risk. Several ongoing trials are evaluating the role of aspirin in primary prevention, secondary prevention, and in combination therapy for atrial fibrillation. Evidence-based approaches to aspirin use should consider the anti-ischemic benefits and bleeding risks from aspirin. In this era of precision medicine, tools that provide the personalized benefit to risk assessment, such as the freely available clinical decision support tool (Aspirin-Guide), can be easily incorporated into the electronic health record and facilitate more informed decisions about initiating aspirin therapy for primary prevention. Aspirin has a complex matrix of benefits and risks, and its use in primary prevention requires individualized decision-making. Results from ongoing trials may guide healthcare providers in identifying appropriate candidates for aspirin therapy.

  10. SU-F-BRF-14: Increasing the Accuracy of Dose Calculation On Cone-Beam Imaging Using Deformable Image Registration in the Case of Prostate Translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillion, O; Gingras, L [Departement de radiooncologie, CHU de Quebec - Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Departement de physique, de genie physique et d' optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Archambault, L [Departement de radiooncologie, CHU de Quebec - Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Departement de physique, de genie physique et d' optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Centre de recherche sur le cancer, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Artifacts can reduce the quality of dose re-calculations on CBCT scans during a treatment. The aim of this project is to correct the CBCT images in order to allow for more accurate and exact dose calculations in the case of a translation of the tumor in prostate cancer. Methods: Our approach is to develop strategies based on deformable image registration algorithms using the elastix software (Klein et al., 2010) to register the treatment planning CT on a daily CBCT scan taken during treatment. Sets of images are provided by a 3D deformable phantom and comprise two CT and two CBCT scans: one of both with the reference anatomy and the others with known deformations (i.e. translations of the prostate). The reference CT is registered onto the deformed CBCT and the deformed CT serves as the control for dose calculation accuracy. The planned treatment used for the evaluation of dose calculation is a 2-Gy fraction prescribed at the location of the reference prostate and assigned to 7 rectangular fields. Results: For a realistic 0.5-cm translation of the prostate, the relative dose discrepancy between the CBCT and the CT control scan at the prostate's centroid is 8.9 ± 0.8 % while dose discrepancy between the registered CT and the control scan lessens to −2.4 ± 0.8 %. For a 2-cm translation, clinical indices like the V90 and the D100 are more accurate by 0.7 ± 0.3 % and 8.0 ± 0.5 cGy respectively when using registered CT than when using CBCT for dose calculation. Conclusion: The results show that this strategy gives doses in agreement within a few percents with those from calculations on actual CT scans. In the future, various deformations of the phantom anatomy will allow a thorough characterization of the registration strategies needed for more complex anatomies.

  11. SU-F-BRF-14: Increasing the Accuracy of Dose Calculation On Cone-Beam Imaging Using Deformable Image Registration in the Case of Prostate Translation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillion, O; Gingras, L; Archambault, L

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Artifacts can reduce the quality of dose re-calculations on CBCT scans during a treatment. The aim of this project is to correct the CBCT images in order to allow for more accurate and exact dose calculations in the case of a translation of the tumor in prostate cancer. Methods: Our approach is to develop strategies based on deformable image registration algorithms using the elastix software (Klein et al., 2010) to register the treatment planning CT on a daily CBCT scan taken during treatment. Sets of images are provided by a 3D deformable phantom and comprise two CT and two CBCT scans: one of both with the reference anatomy and the others with known deformations (i.e. translations of the prostate). The reference CT is registered onto the deformed CBCT and the deformed CT serves as the control for dose calculation accuracy. The planned treatment used for the evaluation of dose calculation is a 2-Gy fraction prescribed at the location of the reference prostate and assigned to 7 rectangular fields. Results: For a realistic 0.5-cm translation of the prostate, the relative dose discrepancy between the CBCT and the CT control scan at the prostate's centroid is 8.9 ± 0.8 % while dose discrepancy between the registered CT and the control scan lessens to −2.4 ± 0.8 %. For a 2-cm translation, clinical indices like the V90 and the D100 are more accurate by 0.7 ± 0.3 % and 8.0 ± 0.5 cGy respectively when using registered CT than when using CBCT for dose calculation. Conclusion: The results show that this strategy gives doses in agreement within a few percents with those from calculations on actual CT scans. In the future, various deformations of the phantom anatomy will allow a thorough characterization of the registration strategies needed for more complex anatomies

  12. Gastro-protective effect of methanol extract of Vernonia amygdalina (del. leaf on aspirin-induced gastric ulcer in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modinat A. Adefisayo

    Full Text Available This study investigated the protective effects of methanol extract of Vernonia amygdalina leaf (MEVA on aspirin induced gastric ulcer in rats. Thirty Wistar rats, 150–200 g were divided into six groups as follows: Group 1 (control rats received 2 mL/kg of propylene glycol for 28 consecutive days. Group 2 (Ulcer Control received 150 mg/kg/day of aspirin suspended in 3 mL of 1% carboxymethylcellulose in water orally for 3 consecutive days during which the rats were fasted for the induction of ulcer. Group 3 received cimetidine at 100 mg/kg/day orally for 28 consecutive days and thereafter treated as group 2. Groups 4, 5 and 6 received MEVA orally at 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg/day respectively for 28 consecutive days and thereafter were treated with aspirin as group 2. All the animals were sacrifice at the end of the study to determine the gastric pH, gastric acidity, gastric ulcer score, haematological indices, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, reduced glutathione (GSH and Lipid peroxidation (LPO levels. The result showed that aspirin significantly (p < 0.05 increased gastric ulcer score and index, decreased gastric pH, gastric acidity, SOD activity, GSH level as well as increased LPO level. It induced significant necrosis of the stomach tissue. Administration of MEVA significantly (p < 0.05 increased gastric pH, but decreased gastric acid secretion and reversed alteration of haematological parameters. It also significantly (p < 0.05 increased SOD activity, GSH level and decreased LPO level. The results suggest that Vernonia amygdalina possesses gastro-protective properties against aspirin-induced gastric ulcer. Keywords: Vernonia amygdalina, Aspirin, Gastric ulcer, Antioxidant, Rat

  13. Prevalence of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer and its relative factors in Lanzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Ganping; Wang Jiaji; Yue Zhongjin; Chen Xuehong

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer in Lanzhou, an investigation of the incidence of BPH and prostate cancer in 1356 male inhabitants over 50 years of age has been carried out including I-PSS, life quality (L), volume of prostate (V) and digital rectal examination. Plasma testosterone (T) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) were assayed in 145 cases. The incidence of BPH was 35.03%, being 41.04% in urban and 30.05% in rural inhabitants. The increase of BPH has been higher in urban inhabitants (P<0.05). The incidence of prostate cancer was 2.05%, being 3.09% in urban and 2.02% in rural inhabitants, the increase of prostate cancer has been higher in urban inhabitants (P< 0.05). A significant increase of prostate specific antigen was noted in prostate cancer patients (P<0.05). Conclusions: The increase of BPH and prostate cancer has been higher in urban inhabitants. The age, diet and residential areas might associate with a higher incidence of BPH and prostate cancer

  14. Sequential evaluation of prostate edema after permanent seed prostate brachytherapy using CT-MRI fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taussky, Daniel; Austen, Lyn; Toi, Ants; Yeung, Ivan; Williams, Theresa; Pearson, Shannon; McLean, Michael; Pond, Gregory; Crook, Juanita

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the extent and time course of prostate edema and its effect on dosimetry after permanent seed prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients scheduled for permanent seed 125 I prostate brachytherapy agreed to a prospective study on postimplant edema. Implants were preplanned using transrectal ultrasonography. Postimplant dosimetry was calculated using computed tomography-magnetic resonance imaging (CT-MRI) fusion on the day of the implant (Day 1) and Days 8 and 30. The prostate was contoured on MRI, and the seeds were located on CT. Factors investigated for an influence on edema were the number of seeds and needles, preimplant prostate volume, transitional zone index (transition zone volume divided by prostate volume), age, and prostate-specific antigen level. Prostate dosimetry was evaluated by the percentage of the prostate volume receiving 100% of the prescribed dose (V 100 ) and percentage of prescribed dose received by 90% of the prostate volume (D 90 ). Results: Prostate edema was maximal on Day 1, with the median prostate volume 31% greater than preimplant transrectal ultrasound volume (range, 0.93-1.72; p 100 on Day 1 was 93.6% (range, 86.0-98.2%) and was 96.3% (range, 85.7-99.5%) on Day 30 (p = 0.079). Patients with a Day 1 V 100 >93% were less affected by edema resolution, showing a median increase in V 100 of 0.67% on Day 30 compared with 2.77% for patients with a V 100 100 >93%)

  15. The impact of obesity towards prostate diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyandra Parikesit

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence has supported obesity as a risk factor for both benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH and prostate cancer (PCa. Obesity causes several mechanisms including increased intra-abdominal pressure, altered endocrine status, increased sympathetic nervous activity, increased inflammation process, and oxidative stress, all of which are favorable in the development of BPH. In PCa, there are several different mechanisms, such as decreased serum testosterone, peripheral aromatization of androgens, insulin resistance, and altered adipokine secretion caused by inflammation, which may precipitate the development of and even cause high-grade PCa. The role of obesity in prostatitis still remains unclear. A greater understanding of the pathogenesis of prostate disease and adiposity could allow the development of new therapeutic markers, prognostic indicators, and drug targets. This review was made to help better understanding of the association between central obesity and prostate diseases, such as prostatitis, BPH, and PCa.

  16. Differential impairment of aspirin-dependent platelet cyclooxygenase acetylation by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuanwen; Fries, Susanne; Li, Ruizhi; Lawson, John A.; Propert, Kathleen J.; Diamond, Scott L.; Blair, Ian A.; FitzGerald, Garret A.; Grosser, Tilo

    2014-01-01

    The cardiovascular safety of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may be influenced by interactions with antiplatelet doses of aspirin. We sought to quantitate precisely the propensity of commonly consumed NSAIDs—ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib—to cause a drug–drug interaction with aspirin in vivo by measuring the target engagement of aspirin directly by MS. We developed a novel assay of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) acetylation in platelets isolated from volunteers who were administered aspirin and used conventional and microfluidic assays to evaluate platelet function. Although ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib all had the potential to compete with the access of aspirin to the substrate binding channel of COX-1 in vitro, exposure of volunteers to a single therapeutic dose of each NSAID followed by 325 mg aspirin revealed a potent drug–drug interaction between ibuprofen and aspirin and between naproxen and aspirin but not between celecoxib and aspirin. The imprecision of estimates of aspirin consumption and the differential impact on the ability of aspirin to inactivate platelet COX-1 will confound head-to-head comparisons of distinct NSAIDs in ongoing clinical studies designed to measure their cardiovascular risk. PMID:25385584

  17. Preparation and analysis of deuterium-labeled aspirin: application to pharmacokinetic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, A.K.; FitzGerald, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Inhibition of endogenous prostacyclin and thromboxane biosynthesis by aspirin is critically dose-dependent in humans. Gastrointestinal and hepatic hydrolysis may limit systemic availability of aspirin, especially in low doses, perhaps contributing to the biochemical selectivity of aspirin. Existing analytical methods do not permit determination of systemic bioavailability when low (less than 100 mg) doses of aspirin are administered. Deuterium-labeled aspirin (2-acetoxy[3,4,5,6- 2 H4]benzoic acid) was synthesized from salicylic acid by catalytic exchange and subsequent acetylation. Analysis of the compounds as benzyl esters by GC-MS followed extractive alkylation from plasma. Heptadeuterated compounds were used as internal standards. Simultaneous administration of tetradeuterated aspirin intravenously with native aspirin orally to anesthetized dogs permitted kinetic studies of both aspirin and salicylic acid. The sensitivity of the method is superior to published methods using HPLC and, thus, more applicable to studies of low dose aspirin. Pulse administration of stable isotope-labeled aspirin permits detailed and repeated studies of dose-related aspirin pharmacokinetics in humans

  18. Aspirin desensitization in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a survey of current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Andrew R; Rushworth, Gordon F; Leslie, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Aspirin remains the mainstay of anti-platelet therapy in cardiac patients. However, if a patient is allergic to aspirin and dual anti-platelet therapy is indicated - such as with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), then there is no clear guidance. One possibility is aspirin desensitization. A variety of protocols exist for the rapid desensitization of patients with aspirin allergy. The aim of this survey was to assess current knowledge and practice regarding aspirin desensitization in the UK. We conducted a UK wide survey of all UK 116 PCI centers and obtained complete responses from 40 (35.4%) centers. Of these, just 7 (17.5%) centers had previously desensitised patients; 29 (87.9%) centers suggested a lack of a local protocol prevented them from desensitizing, with 10 (30.3%) unsure of how to conduct desensitization. Only 5 (12.5%) centers had a local policy for aspirin desensitization although 25 (64.1%) units had a clinical strategy for dealing with aspirin allergy; the majority (72%) giving higher doses of thienopyridine class drugs. In the UK, there appears to be no consistent approach to patients with aspirin allergy. Patients undergoing PCI benefit from dual anti-platelet therapy (including aspirin), and aspirin desensitization in those with known allergy may facilitate this. Sustained effort should be placed on encouraging UK centers to use desensitization as a treatment modality prior to PCI rather than avoiding aspirin altogether.

  19. Cerebellar hemorrhage provoked by combined use of nattokinase and aspirin in a patient with cerebral microbleeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yung-Yee; Liu, Jia-Shou; Lai, Shung-Lon; Wu, Hsiu-Shan; Lan, Min-Yu

    2008-01-01

    Nattokinase is used as a health-promoting medicine for preventing thrombosis due to its fibrinolytic activity. Cerebral microbleed is remnant of blood extravasations from the damaged vessels related to cerebral microangiopathies. We report a patient, having used aspirin for secondary stroke prevention, who had an acute cerebellar hemorrhage after taking nattokinase 400 mg daily for 7 consecutive days. In addition to the hemorrhagic lesion, multiple microbleeds were demonstrated on brain MR images. We suggest that nattokinase may increase risk of intracerebral hemorrhage in patients who have bleeding-prone cerebral microangiopathy and are receiving other antithrombotic agent at the same time.

  20. Once- versus twice-daily aspirin treatment in patients with essential thrombocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mads Lamm; Pedersen, Oliver Heidmann; Hvas, Anne-Mette

    2018-01-01

    Insufficient platelet inhibition has been reported in up to 40% of aspirin-treated patients, including patients with essential thrombocytosis. To maintain sufficient platelet inhibition, a shorter dosing interval with aspirin has been suggested. We aimed to investigate the antiplatelet effect...... of low-dose aspirin given twice-daily compared to standard once-daily dosing in patients with essential thrombocytosis. We included 22 patients, who were treated for 7 days with standard once-daily aspirin (75 mg once-daily) followed by 7 days treatment of twice-daily aspirin (37.5 mg twice......-daily). The two regimens were separated by 14 days aspirin washout. Blood samples were obtained 1h and 24h/12h after the last pill intake in each regimen. The effect of aspirin was evaluated by: (1) platelet aggregation measured by whole blood impedance aggregometry (Multiplate® Analyser) using arachidonic acid...

  1. Aspirin effects on lymphocyte cyclic AMP levels in normal human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, D E; Parker, C W

    1976-01-01

    In purified lymphocytes from the peripheral blood of healthy human subjects who had ingested therapeutic doses of aspirin, there was a significant decrease in resting cyclic AMP levels as well as a partial inhibition of the rise in cyclic AMP with isoproterenol or prostaglandin E1. These changes were seen as early as 30 min after aspirin ingestion and did not appear to result from aspirin effects on lymphocyte recovery, purity, viability, or relative number of thymus- or bone marrow-derived lymphocytes. In contrast, the direct addition of aspirin to suspensions of purified peripheral lymphocytes did not significantly alter their cyclic AMP levels. However, an effect of aspirin could be obtained in vitro if aspirin was added to unprocessed whole blood during the dextran sedimentation phase of the cell purification. Thus the effect of aspirin on lymphocyte cyclic AMP metabolism, may be indirect, through other cells present in the peripheral blood. PMID:182720

  2. The clinical dilemma of "silent desensitization" in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Andrew A; Bosso, John V; Stevenson, Donald D

    2013-01-01

    Aspirin desensitization is a treatment option for patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD). Some patients with an excellent history of aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) reactions have negative aspirin challenges/desensitization. This study discusses the clinical entity of silent desensitization in AERD and the dilemma that this presents to the practicing allergist/immunologist. We discuss a series of patients with a strong history of NSAID reactions who initially underwent a negative challenge/silent desensitization. These patients were subsequently proven to have AERD after a second positive aspirin challenge. Silent desensitization is an uncommon but important outcome to recognize in AERD. Clinicians performing aspirin desensitization should understand that this can occur and consider a second confirmatory aspirin challenge in some patients.

  3. Prostatic paracoccidioidomycosis: differential diagnosis of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lima Lopes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Symptomatic prostatic paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is a very rare condition; however, it may express as a typical benign prostatic hyperplasia or a simulating prostatic adenocarcinoma. This case report presents PCM mimicking prostatic adenocarcinoma. The purpose of this paper is to call the general physician's attention to this important differential diagnosis.

  4. The kinetics of hydrolysis of acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin) in different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The kinetics of hydrolysis of Acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin) to salicylic acid was followed by the direct spectrophotometric measurement of the amount of salicylic acid produced with time. Salicylic acid was complexed with ferric ion giving a characteristic purple colour (λlm 523nm). The kinetics of hydrolysis was found to follow ...

  5. Modelling of drug release from ensembles of aspirin microcapsules ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: In order to determine the drug release profile of an ensemble of aspirin crystals or microcapsules from its particle distribution a mathematical model that considered the individual release characteristics of the component single particles was developed. The model assumed that under sink conditions the release ...

  6. Rivaroxaban or Aspirin for Extended Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weitz, Jeffrey I.; Lensing, Anthonie W. A.; Prins, Martin H.; Bauersachs, Rupert; Beyer-Westendorf, Jan; Bounameaux, Henri; Brighton, Timothy A.; Cohen, Alexander T.; Davidson, Bruce L.; Decousus, Hervé; Freitas, Maria C. S.; Holberg, Gerlind; Kakkar, Ajay K.; Haskell, Lloyd; van Bellen, Bonno; Pap, Akos F.; Berkowitz, Scott D.; Verhamme, Peter; Wells, Philip S.; Prandoni, Paolo; Bianchi, Alessandra; Brighton, Tim; Carroll, Patrick; Chong, Beng; Chunilal, Sanjeev; Coughlin, Paul; Curnow, Jennifer; Jackson, David; Tran, Huyen; Ward, Chris; Brodmann, Marianne; Kyrle, Paul; Marschang, Peter; Petkov, Ventzislav; Hainaut, Philippe; Jordens, Paul; Vandekerkhof, Jos; Wautrecht, Jean-Claude; Annichino-Bizzacchi, Joyce; Correa, Joao; Cukier, Alberto; Freire, Antonio; Pereira, Adamastor; Porto, Carmen; Sacilotto, Roberto; Vasconcelos Costa, Agenor; Della Siega, Anthony; Dolan, Sean; Le Gal, Gré goire; Middeldorp, Saskia

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although many patients with venous thromboembolism require extended treatment, it is uncertain whether it is better to use full- or lower-intensity anticoagulation therapy or aspirin. METHODS In this randomized, double-blind, phase 3 study, we assigned 3396 patients with venous

  7. Low-dose aspirin and risk of intracranial bleeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cea Soriano, Lucía; Gaist, David; Soriano-Gabarró, Montse

    2017-01-01

    cohort of nonusers of low-dose aspirin at baseline were followed (maximum 14 years, median 5.4 years) to identify incident cases of ICB, with validation by manual review of patient records or linkage to hospitalization data. Using 10,000 frequency-matched controls, adjusted rate ratios (RRs) with 95...

  8. Determination of effect of aspirin and captopril on cat glomerular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four days later, renovascular hypertension was induced through renal-artery stenosis by clipping half of the left renalarteries. Renal scintigraphy was conducted after four days. After confirming the presence of hypertension, the cats were divided into two groups of 10 animals each (aspirin and captopril groups, respectively).

  9. NOSH–aspirin (NBS-1120), a novel nitric oxide- and hydrogen sulfide-releasing hybrid is a potent inhibitor of colon cancer cell growth in vitro and in a xenograft mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, Mitali; Kodela, Ravinder; Olson, Kenneth R.; Kashfi, Khosrow

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► NOSH–aspirin is the first dual acting NO and H 2 S releasing hybrid. ► Its IC 50 for cell growth inhibition is in the low nano-molar range. ► Structure–activity studies show that the sum of the parts does not equal the whole. ► NOSH–aspirin reduced tumor growth by 85% in mice bearing a colon cancer xenograft. -- Abstract: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are prototypical anti-cancer agents. However, their long-term use is associated with adverse gastrointestinal effects. Recognition that endogenous gaseous mediators, nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) can increase mucosal defense mechanisms has led to the development of NO- and H 2 S-releasing NSAIDs with increased safety profiles. Here we report on a new hybrid, NOSH–aspirin, which is an NO- and H 2 S-releasing agent. NOSH–aspirin inhibited HT-29 colon cancer growth with IC 50 s of 45.5 ± 2.5, 19.7 ± 3.3, and 7.7 ± 2.2 nM at 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. This is the first NSAID based agent with such high degree of potency. NOSH–aspirin inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, and caused G 0 /G 1 cell cycle block. Reconstitution and structure–activity studies representing a fairly close approximation to the intact molecule showed that NOSH–aspirin was 9000-fold more potent than the sum of its parts towards growth inhibition. NOSH–aspirin inhibited ovine COX-1 more than ovine COX-2. NOSH–ASA treatment of mice bearing a human colon cancer xenograft caused a reduction in volume of 85%. Taken together, these results demonstrate that NOSH–aspirin has strong anti-cancer potential and merits further evaluation.

  10. PSA Velocity Does Not Improve Prostate Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid increase in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels is not grounds for automatically recommending a prostate biopsy, according to a study published online February 24, 2011, in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

  11. Intracellular Erythrocyte Platelet-activating Factor Acetylhydrolase I Inactivates Aspirin in Blood*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; Marathe, Gopal K.; Willard, Belinda; McIntyre, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) prophylaxis suppresses major adverse cardiovascular events, but its rapid turnover limits inhibition of platelet cyclooxygenase activity and thrombosis. Despite its importance, the identity of the enzyme(s) that hydrolyzes the acetyl residue of circulating aspirin, which must be an existing enzyme, remains unknown. We find that circulating aspirin was extensively hydrolyzed within erythrocytes, and chromatography indicated these cells contained a single hydrolytic activity. Purification by over 1400-fold and sequencing identified the PAFAH1B2 and PAFAH1B3 subunits of type I platelet-activating factor (PAF) acetylhydrolase, a phospholipase A2 with selectivity for acetyl residues of PAF, as a candidate for aspirin acetylhydrolase. Western blotting showed that catalytic PAFAH1B2 and PAFAH1B3 subunits of the type I enzyme co-migrated with purified erythrocyte aspirin hydrolytic activity. Recombinant PAFAH1B2, but not its family member plasma PAF acetylhydrolase, hydrolyzed aspirin, and PAF competitively inhibited aspirin hydrolysis by purified or recombinant erythrocyte enzymes. Aspirin was hydrolyzed by HEK cells transfected with PAFAH1B2 or PAFAH1B3, and the competitive type I PAF acetylhydrolase inhibitor NaF reduced erythrocyte hydrolysis of aspirin. Exposing aspirin to erythrocytes blocked its ability to inhibit thromboxane A2 synthesis and platelet aggregation. Not all individuals or populations are equally protected by aspirin prophylaxis, the phenomenon of aspirin resistance, and erythrocyte hydrolysis of aspirin varied 3-fold among individuals, which correlated with PAFAH1B2 and not PAFAH1B3. We conclude that intracellular type I PAF acetylhydrolase is the major aspirin hydrolase of human blood. PMID:21844189

  12. Intracellular erythrocyte platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase I inactivates aspirin in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; Marathe, Gopal K; Willard, Belinda; McIntyre, Thomas M

    2011-10-07

    Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) prophylaxis suppresses major adverse cardiovascular events, but its rapid turnover limits inhibition of platelet cyclooxygenase activity and thrombosis. Despite its importance, the identity of the enzyme(s) that hydrolyzes the acetyl residue of circulating aspirin, which must be an existing enzyme, remains unknown. We find that circulating aspirin was extensively hydrolyzed within erythrocytes, and chromatography indicated these cells contained a single hydrolytic activity. Purification by over 1400-fold and sequencing identified the PAFAH1B2 and PAFAH1B3 subunits of type I platelet-activating factor (PAF) acetylhydrolase, a phospholipase A(2) with selectivity for acetyl residues of PAF, as a candidate for aspirin acetylhydrolase. Western blotting showed that catalytic PAFAH1B2 and PAFAH1B3 subunits of the type I enzyme co-migrated with purified erythrocyte aspirin hydrolytic activity. Recombinant PAFAH1B2, but not its family member plasma PAF acetylhydrolase, hydrolyzed aspirin, and PAF competitively inhibited aspirin hydrolysis by purified or recombinant erythrocyte enzymes. Aspirin was hydrolyzed by HEK cells transfected with PAFAH1B2 or PAFAH1B3, and the competitive type I PAF acetylhydrolase inhibitor NaF reduced erythrocyte hydrolysis of aspirin. Exposing aspirin to erythrocytes blocked its ability to inhibit thromboxane A(2) synthesis and platelet aggregation. Not all individuals or populations are equally protected by aspirin prophylaxis, the phenomenon of aspirin resistance, and erythrocyte hydrolysis of aspirin varied 3-fold among individuals, which correlated with PAFAH1B2 and not PAFAH1B3. We conclude that intracellular type I PAF acetylhydrolase is the major aspirin hydrolase of human blood.

  13. NOSH-aspirin (NBS-1120), a novel nitric oxide- and hydrogen sulfide-releasing hybrid is a potent inhibitor of colon cancer cell growth in vitro and in a xenograft mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Mitali; Kodela, Ravinder; Olson, Kenneth R; Kashfi, Khosrow

    2012-03-16

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are prototypical anti-cancer agents. However, their long-term use is associated with adverse gastrointestinal effects. Recognition that endogenous gaseous mediators, nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) can increase mucosal defense mechanisms has led to the development of NO- and H(2)S-releasing NSAIDs with increased safety profiles. Here we report on a new hybrid, NOSH-aspirin, which is an NO- and H(2)S-releasing agent. NOSH-aspirin inhibited HT-29 colon cancer growth with IC(50)s of 45.5 ± 2.5, 19.7 ± 3.3, and 7.7 ± 2.2 nM at 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. This is the first NSAID based agent with such high degree of potency. NOSH-aspirin inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, and caused G(0)/G(1) cell cycle block. Reconstitution and structure-activity studies representing a fairly close approximation to the intact molecule showed that NOSH-aspirin was 9000-fold more potent than the sum of its parts towards growth inhibition. NOSH-aspirin inhibited ovine COX-1 more than ovine COX-2. NOSH-ASA treatment of mice bearing a human colon cancer xenograft caused a reduction in volume of 85%. Taken together, these results demonstrate that NOSH-aspirin has strong anti-cancer potential and merits further evaluation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Intraepithelial lymphocytes in relation to NIH category IV prostatitis in autopsy prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikov, Dorian; Bachurska, Svitlana; Staikov, Dimitri; Sarafian, Victoria

    2015-07-01

    Quantitative analysis of the number, normal and pathologic ratios between lymphocytes and epithelial cells (ECs), and the significance of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) in normal prostatic epithelium, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) in relation to NIH category IV prostatitis (histologic prostatitis: HP) was studied in autopsy prostate. IELs were analysed in 59 autopsy prostates, which was routinely embedded in paraffin and immunohistochemically stained for CD3. An average of 300-500 ECs were counted per case. The number of IELs was calculated as the mean/100 ECs. Category IV prostatitis was evaluated using NIH consensus grading system in terms of anatomical localization and grade. In healthy individuals the mean number of IELs/100 ECs was 0.61 ± 0.34% or ≤1 lymphocyte/100 ECs, which is considered as the normal basal level of prostate IELs. In category IV prostatitis, the mean number of IELs/100 ECs was 8.53 ± 3.25% or 5-11 lymphocytes/100 ECs. The number of IELs in both around and inside inflammation areas correlated to the grade and location of HP (P prostatic inflammation (P prostatic IELs in normal prostate and in relation to category IV prostatitis. The detected normal upper limit of CD3+ IELs is 1 lymphocyte/100 ECs in the normal prostate epithelium. This is considered as an organ specific characteristic of the prostate-associated lymphoid tissue (PALT). Values >5 IELs/100 ECs indicate the presence of category IV prostatitis. The severity of inflammation correlates to the number of IELs. There is an intimate link between the quantity of the IELs, the degree of the severity and the localization of category IV prostatitis. HP is a chronic and dynamic inflammatory process affecting the whole prostate gland. The increased number of IELs suggests the immune or autoimmune character of category IV prostatitis, BPH and inflammatory preneoplastic (PIN) lesions in the prostatic tumor

  15. A completely calcified prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Priyadarshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostatic calcification and prostatic calculus formation is commonly seen in adult population with chronic prostatitis, however, gross prostatic calcification which involves more than 3 cm2 of the gland is quite rare. We are presenting here one such case in which almost whole glandular prostate was converted into stone which is never reported so far.

  16. Smoking increased the risk of prostate cancer with grade group ≥ 4 and intraductal carcinoma in a prospective biopsy cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bo; Han, Cheng-Tao; Gan, Hua-Lei; Zhang, Gui-Ming; Zhang, Cui-Zhu; Yang, Wei-Yi; Shen, Ying; Zhu, Yao; Ye, Ding-Wei

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the association between smoking and different prostate cancer (PCa) pathological subtypes incidence in Chinese men. We prospectively included 1795 patients who underwent prostate biopsies in one tertiary center between March 2013 and April 2016. Clinical data and biopsy outcomes were collected. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between cigarette smoking and PCa incidence. A total of 737 men, 480 men and 58 men were diagnosed with PCa, high-grade PCa (HGPCa, grade group ≥ 4 as accepted by the 2014 ISUP) and intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDC-P), respectively. Current smokers had a significantly higher risk of HGPCa than never smokers (OR = 1.89, 95%CI: 1.44-2.48). No such association was observed for low-grade disease and cigarette smoking (OR = 0.84, 95%CI: 0.61-1.16). In a sub-analysis, men who had smoked longer than 30 years had a higher risk of HGPCa, compared with men who had smoked fewer than 30 years (OR = 1.50, 95%CI: 1.09-2.06). Current smokers were more likely to develop IDC-P than never smokers (OR = 2.29, 95%CI: 1.14-4.59). Among men in this Chinese biopsy cohort, current smoking was associated with highly malignant PCa incidence, such as HGPCa and IDC-P. The duration of smoking may be associated with HGPCa. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Prolonged antibiotic therapy increases risk of infection after transrectal prostate biopsy: A case report after pancreasectomy and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guevar Maselli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Infection due to prostate biopsy afflicted more than 5% of patients and is the most common reason for hospitalization. A large series from US SEER-Medicare reported that men undergoing biopsy were 2.26 times more likely to be hospitalized for infectious complications within 30 days compared with randomly selected controls. The factors predicting a higher susceptibility to infection remain largely unknown but some authors have higlighted in the etiopathogenesis the importance of the augmented prevalence of ciprofloxacin resistant variant of bacteria in the rectum flora. We present one case of sepsis after transrectal prostate biopsy in a patient with history of pancreatic surgery. Based on our experience patients candidated to prostate biopsy with transrectal technique with history of recent major surgery represent an high risk category for infective complication. Also major pancreatic surgery should be consider an high risk category for infection. A transperineal approach and preventive measures (such as rectal swab should be adopted to reduce biopsy driven infection.

  18. Prostate-Specific Natural Health Products (Dietary Supplements) Radiosensitize Normal Prostate Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, Yasmin; Schoenherr, Diane; Martinez, Alvaro A.; Wilson, George D.; Marples, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Prostate-specific health products (dietary supplements) are taken by cancer patients to alleviate the symptoms linked with poor prostate health. However, the effect of these agents on evidence-based radiotherapy practice is poorly understood. The present study aimed to determine whether dietary supplements radiosensitized normal prostate or prostate cancer cell lines. Methods and Materials: Three well-known prostate-specific dietary supplements were purchased from commercial sources available to patients (Trinovin, Provelex, and Prostate Rx). The cells used in the study included normal prostate lines (RWPE-1 and PWR-1E), prostate tumor lines (PC3, DU145, and LNCaP), and a normal nonprostate line (HaCaT). Supplement toxicity was assessed using cell proliferation assays [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] and cellular radiosensitivity using conventional clonogenic assays (0.5-4Gy). Cell cycle kinetics were assessed using the bromodeoxyuridine/propidium iodide pulse-labeling technique, apoptosis by scoring caspase-3 activation, and DNA repair by assessing γH2AX. Results: The cell growth and radiosensitivity of the malignant PC3, DU145, and LNcaP cells were not affected by any of the dietary prostate supplements (Provelex [2μg/mL], Trinovin [10μg/mL], and Prostate Rx [50 μg/mL]). However, both Trinovin (10μg/mL) and Prostate Rx (6μg/mL) inhibited the growth rate of the normal prostate cell lines. Prostate Rx increased cellular radiosensitivity of RWPE-1 cells through the inhibition of DNA repair. Conclusion: The use of prostate-specific dietary supplements should be discouraged during radiotherapy owing to the preferential radiosensitization of normal prostate cells.

  19. Damage to cellular and isolated DNA induced by a metabolite of aspirin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikawa, Shinji [Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie 514-8507 (Japan)], E-mail: s-oikawa@doc.medic.mie-u.ac.jp; Kobayashi, Hatasu; Tada-Oikawa, Saeko [Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie 514-8507 (Japan); JSPS Research Fellow (Japan); Isono, Yoshiaki [Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie 514-8507 (Japan); Kawanishi, Shosuke [Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie 514-8507 (Japan); Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, Mie 513-8670 (Japan)

    2009-02-10

    Aspirin has been proposed as a possible chemopreventive agent. On the other hand, a recent cohort study showed that aspirin may increase the risk for pancreatic cancer. To clarify whether aspirin is potentially carcinogenic, we investigated the formation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), which is correlated with the incidence of cancer, in cultured cells treated with 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,3-DHBA), a metabolite of aspirin. 2,3-DHBA induced 8-oxodG formation in the PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cell line. 2,3-DHBA-induced DNA single-strand breaks were also revealed by comet assay using PANC-1 cells. Flow cytometric analyses showed that 2,3-DHBA increased the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in PANC-1 cells. The 8-oxodG formation and ROS generation were also observed in the HL-60 leukemia cell line, but not in the hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2})-resistant clone HP100 cells, suggesting the involvement of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. In addition, an hprt mutation assay supported the mutagenicity of 2,3-DHBA. We investigated the mechanism underlying the 2,3-DHBA-induced DNA damage using {sup 32}P-labeled DNA fragments of human tumor suppressor genes. 2,3-DHBA induced DNA damage in the presence of Cu(II) and NADH. DNA damage induced by 2,3-DHBA was enhanced by the addition of histone peptide-6 [AKRHRK]. Interestingly, 2,3-DHBA and histone peptide-6 caused base damage in the 5'-ACG-3' and 5'-CCG-3' sequences, hotspots of the p53 gene. Bathocuproine, a Cu(I) chelator, and catalase inhibited the DNA damage. Typical hydroxyl radical scavengers did not inhibit the DNA damage. These results suggest that ROS derived from the reaction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with Cu(I) participate in the DNA damage. In conclusion, 2,3-DHBA induces oxidative DNA damage and mutations, which may result in carcinogenesis.

  20. Damage to cellular and isolated DNA induced by a metabolite of aspirin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Shinji; Kobayashi, Hatasu; Tada-Oikawa, Saeko; Isono, Yoshiaki; Kawanishi, Shosuke

    2009-01-01

    Aspirin has been proposed as a possible chemopreventive agent. On the other hand, a recent cohort study showed that aspirin may increase the risk for pancreatic cancer. To clarify whether aspirin is potentially carcinogenic, we investigated the formation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), which is correlated with the incidence of cancer, in cultured cells treated with 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,3-DHBA), a metabolite of aspirin. 2,3-DHBA induced 8-oxodG formation in the PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cell line. 2,3-DHBA-induced DNA single-strand breaks were also revealed by comet assay using PANC-1 cells. Flow cytometric analyses showed that 2,3-DHBA increased the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in PANC-1 cells. The 8-oxodG formation and ROS generation were also observed in the HL-60 leukemia cell line, but not in the hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-resistant clone HP100 cells, suggesting the involvement of H 2 O 2 . In addition, an hprt mutation assay supported the mutagenicity of 2,3-DHBA. We investigated the mechanism underlying the 2,3-DHBA-induced DNA damage using 32 P-labeled DNA fragments of human tumor suppressor genes. 2,3-DHBA induced DNA damage in the presence of Cu(II) and NADH. DNA damage induced by 2,3-DHBA was enhanced by the addition of histone peptide-6 [AKRHRK]. Interestingly, 2,3-DHBA and histone peptide-6 caused base damage in the 5'-ACG-3' and 5'-CCG-3' sequences, hotspots of the p53 gene. Bathocuproine, a Cu(I) chelator, and catalase inhibited the DNA damage. Typical hydroxyl radical scavengers did not inhibit the DNA damage. These results suggest that ROS derived from the reaction of H 2 O 2 with Cu(I) participate in the DNA damage. In conclusion, 2,3-DHBA induces oxidative DNA damage and mutations, which may result in carcinogenesis

  1. Single nucleotide polymorphism markers for low-dose aspirin-associated peptic ulcer and ulcer bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiotani, Akiko; Murao, Takahisa; Fujita, Yoshihiko; Fujimura, Yoshinori; Sakakibara, Takashi; Nishio, Kazuto; Haruma, Ken

    2014-12-01

    In our previous study, the SLCO1B1 521TT genotype and the SLCO1B1*1b haplotype were significantly associated with the risk of peptic ulcer in patients taking low-dose aspirin (LDA). The aim of the present study was to investigate pharmacogenomic profile of LDA-induced peptic ulcer and ulcer bleeding. Patients taking 100 mg of enteric-coated aspirin for cardiovascular diseases and with a peptic ulcer or ulcer bleeding and patients who also participated in endoscopic surveillance were studied. Genome-wid