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  1. INITIAL INJURY CARE IN NAIROBI, KENYA: A CALL FOR TRAUMA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-09-09

    Sep 9, 2003 ... Objective: To describe the emergency care of injuries at a main city hospital. Design: A prospective study. Setting: Data were collected between February 1st, 1999 and 30th April, 1999 from the records of the 2000 bed Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) in Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Two hundred and forty ...

  2. UROLITHIASIS IN NAIROBI, KENYA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-10-01

    Oct 1, 2010 ... of Human Anatomy, Kenyatta University, P. O. Box 43844-00100, Nairobi, Kenya. Request ... Management: Fourty seven had laser or pneumatic lithotripsy while four had stone removal by .... for ureteroscopy in our resource poor setting and compares ... A. J., (Eds) Campbell's Urology.7th Ed Philadelphia:.

  3. Client retention and health among sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izugbara, Chimaraoke O

    2012-12-01

    It is still a small body of research that directly addresses female sex workers' relationships with their regular commercial male partners. I used ethnographic data from Nairobi, Kenya to interrogate motivations and strategies for recruiting and retaining regular male clients among female sex workers (FSWs). Regular commercial male partners, popularly called customer care, wera or wesh by Nairobi's FSWs, played diverse roles in their lives. Client retention enabled sex workers to manage the risk of reduced marriage prospects, guaranteed them steady work, livelihoods, and incomes, and prevented their victimization and harassment. To retain clients, sex workers obliged them a great deal, pretended they had quit prostitution, and sometimes resorted to magical practices. However, these strategies were also accompanied by risks that reinforced the vulnerability of sex workers. Lack of critical attention to sex workers' practices for managing perceived risks in their particular type of work may hamper current programmatic efforts to make their job safer.

  4. Analysis of Predictors of Behaviour Change among Children at Risk in Juvenile Rehabilitation Centres in Nairobi County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthomi, Rintaugu James; Muthee, Jessina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse predictors of behaviour change among children at risk in juvenile rehabilitation centres within Nairobi County, Kenya. The target population was all the children and managers of Juvenile rehabilitation Centres in Nairobi County. This consisted of 380 boys, 160 girls, 8 managers in Kabete and Getathuru, and 4…

  5. Attitudes toward Psychiatry: A Survey of Medical Students at the University of Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndetei, David M.; Khasakhala, Lincoln; Ongecha-Owuor, Francisca; Kuria, Mary; Mutiso, Victoria; Syanda, Judy; Kokonya, Donald

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The authors aim to determine the attitudes of University of Nairobi, Kenya, medical students toward psychiatry. Methods: The study design was cross-sectional. Self-administered sociodemographic and the Attitudes Toward Psychiatry-30 items (ATP-30) questionnaires were distributed sequentially to every third medical student in his or her…

  6. Solid waste management and recycling : actors, partnerships and policies in Hyderabad, India and Nairobi, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, J.; Baud, I.S.A.; Furedy, C.

    2004-01-01

    Solid waste management and recycling : actors, partnerships and policies in Hyderabad, India and Nairobi, Kenya / ed. by Isa Baud, Johan Post and Christine Furedy Author: Isabelle Suzanne Antoinette Baud; Johan Post Year: cop. 2004 Publisher: Dordrecht [etc.] : Kluwer Academic Publishers Series: The

  7. Strategic Leadership And Organizational Performance In Not-For-Profit Organizations In Nairobi County In Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mwendwa Kitonga

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper sought to examine the link between strategic leadership practices and organizational performance in not-for-profit organizations. A survey assessing strategic leadership practice and organizational performance was completed by managers representing 328 not-for-profit organizations in Nairobi County in Kenya. The study established a significant positive relationship between strategic leadership variables and organizational performance. The results found R value of 0.730 and R2 value of 0.532 that is 53.2 of corresponding change in the Organizational Performance of NFPs for every change explained by predictor variables. The findings demonstrate that if not-for-profit leaders use well the strategic leadership they are likely to improve their organizational performance significantly. This paper examined the practice of strategic leadership in not-for-profit organizations in Nairobi County in Kenya. Future research that seeks to replicate these findings is warranted. This paper proposes the study of strategic leadership as a way of enhancing not-for-profit organizational performance.

  8. Contraceptive method choice among women in slum and non-slum communities in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochako, Rhoune; Izugbara, Chimaraoke; Okal, Jerry; Askew, Ian; Temmerman, Marleen

    2016-07-12

    Understanding women's contraceptive method choices is key to enhancing family planning services provision and programming. Currently however, very little research has addressed inter and intra-regional disparities in women's contraceptive method choice. Using data from slum and non-slum contexts in Nairobi, Kenya, the current study investigates the prevalence of and factors associated with contraceptive method choice among women. Data were from a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among a random sample of 1,873 women (aged 15-49 years) in two non-slum and two slum settlement areas in Nairobi, Kenya. The study locations were purposively sampled by virtue of being part of the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to explore the association between the outcome variable, contraceptive method choice, and explanatory variables. The prevalence of contraceptive method choice was relatively similar across slum and non-slum settlements. 34.3 % of women in slum communities and 28.1 % of women in non-slum communities reported using short-term methods. Slightly more women living in the non-slum settlements reported use of long-term methods, 9.2 %, compared to 3.6 % in slum communities. Older women were less likely to use short-term methods than their younger counterparts but more likely to use long-term methods. Currently married women were more likely than never married women to use short-term and long-term methods. Compared to those with no children, women with three or more children were more likely to report using long term methods. Women working outside the home or those in formal employment also used modern methods of contraception more than those in self-employment or unemployed. Use of short-term and long-term methods is generally low among women living in slum and non-slum contexts in Nairobi. Investments in increasing women's access to various contraceptive options are urgently

  9. Prospects for Urban Eco-Tourism in Nairobi, Kenya: Experiences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the positive impact of urban tourism and eco-tourism on the city's economy, as well as the well-being of its citizenry, less attention has been given to it in developing countries. This paper argues that Nairobi city is well endowed with a wide range of natural ecological and bio-physical heritage and green spaces that ...

  10. Factors associated with non-adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy in Nairobi, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakibi Samwel N

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antiretroviral therapy (ART requires high-level (> 95% adherence. Kenya is rolling out ART access programmes and, issue of adherence to therapy is therefore imperative. However, published data on adherence to ART in Kenya is limited. This study assessed adherence to ART and identified factors responsible for non adherence in Nairobi. Methods This is a multiple facility-based cross-sectional study, where 416 patients aged over 18 years were systematically selected and interviewed using a structured questionnaire about their experience taking ART. Additional data was extracted from hospital records. Patients were grouped into adherent and non-adherent based on a composite score derived from a three questions adherence tool developed by Center for Adherence Support Evaluation (CASE. Multivariate regression model was used to determine predictors of non-adherence. Results Overall, 403 patients responded; 35% males and 65% females, 18% were non-adherent, and main (38% reason for missing therapy were being busy and forgetting. Accessing ART in a clinic within walking distance from home (OR = 2.387, CI.95 = 1.155-4.931; p = 0.019 and difficulty with dosing schedule (OR = 2.310, CI.95 = 1.211-4.408, p = 0.011 predicted non-adherence. Conclusions The study found better adherence to HAART in Nairobi compared to previous studies in Kenya. However, this can be improved further by employing fitting strategies to improve patients' ability to fit therapy in own lifestyle and cue-dose training to impact forgetfulness. Further work to determine why patients accessing therapy from ARV clinics within walking distance from their residence did not adhere is recommended.

  11. Timing and sequencing of events marking the transition to adulthood in two informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beguy, Donatien; Kabiru, Caroline W; Zulu, Eliya M; Ezeh, Alex C

    2011-06-01

    Young people living in poor urban informal settlements face unique challenges as they transition to adulthood. This exploratory paper uses retrospective information from the baseline survey of a 3-year prospective study to examine the timing and sequencing of four key markers (first sex, marriage, birth, and independent housing) of the transition to adulthood among 3,944 adolescents in two informal settlements in Nairobi city, Kenya. Event history analysis techniques are employed to examine the timing of the events. Results indicate that there is no significant gender difference with regard to first sexual debut among adolescents. For many boys and girls, the first sexual experience occurs outside of marriage or other union. For males, the sequencing of entry begins with entry into first sex, followed by independent housing. Conversely, for females, the sequencing begins with first sex and then parenthood. Apart from sexual debut, the patterns of entry into union and parenthood do not differ much from what was observed for Nairobi as a whole. The space constraints that typify the two slums may have influenced the pattern of leaving home observed. We discuss these and other findings in light of their implications for young people's health and well-being in resource-poor settings in urban areas.

  12. Health care seeking practices of caregivers of children under 5 with diarrhea in two informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukiira, Carol; Ibisomi, Latifat

    2015-06-01

    In Kenya, as in other developing countries, diarrhea is among the leading causes of child mortality. Despite being easy to prevent and treat, care seeking for major child illnesses including diarrhea remains poor in the country. Mortality due to diarrhea is even worse in informal settlements that are characterized by poor sanitary conditions and largely unregulated health care system among other issues. The study aims to examine the health care seeking practices of caregivers of children under 5 with diarrhea in two informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. The article used data from a maternal and child health (MCH) prospective study conducted between 2006 and 2010. Results show that more than half (55%) of the caregivers sought inappropriate health care in the treatment of diarrhea of their child. Of the 55%, about 35% sought no care at all. Use of oral rehydration solution and zinc supplements, which are widely recommended for management of diarrhea, was very low. The critical predictors of health care seeking identified in the study are duration of illness, informal settlement of residence, and the child's age. The study showed that appropriate health care seeking practices for childhood diarrhea remain a great challenge among the urban poor in Kenya. © The Author(s) 2013.

  13. Dietary patterns and nutritional status of pre-school children in Nairobi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the dietary patterns and nutritional status of pre-school children in Nairobi, Kenya. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: Pre-schools in Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Three hundred and four pre-school children (149 males and 155 females) aged three to five years were assessed. Results: About 96% ...

  14. Scope effects of respondent uncertainty in contingent valuation: Evidence from motorized emission reductions in the city of Nairobi, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndambiri, H.; Mungatana, E.; Brouwer, R.

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed the scope effects of respondent uncertainty in contingent valuation (CV) by evaluating whether willingness to pay (WTP) estimates were sensitive to changes in the magnitudes of motorized emission reductions in the city of Nairobi, Kenya. The WTP estimates were elicited through

  15. Becoming a teacher at teacher training colleges in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Kari

    Paper presented at International Conference "Health Education and Teacher Training in Kenya" at Sarova Stanley Hotel 8. December 2010, Nairobi, Kenya.......Paper presented at International Conference "Health Education and Teacher Training in Kenya" at Sarova Stanley Hotel 8. December 2010, Nairobi, Kenya....

  16. The Role Of Determining Strategic Direction On Not-For-Profit Organizational Performance In Nairobi County In Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mwendwa Kitonga

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper sought to examine the link between strategic leaders practice of determining strategic direction and organizational performance. An embedded mixed method research assessing the impact of strategic leadership variable determining strategic direction and organizational performance was completed by managers representing 328 not-for-profit organizations in Nairobi County in Kenya. The study established a significant positive relationship between determining strategic direction and organizational performance. The results found r value of 0.676 and r2 value of 0.457 that is 45.7 of corresponding change in the organizational performance of not-for-profits for every change is explained by the predictor variables. The findings demonstrate that if not-for-profit leaders clearly determine the organizations strategic direction they are likely to improve their organizational performance significantly. This paper examined how determining strategic direction strategic planning in not-for-profit organizations in Nairobi County in Kenya. Future research that seeks to replicate these findings is recommended. This paper proposes the study of determining strategic direction strategic planning as way of improving strategic leadership practices hence enhancing not-for-profit organizational performance.

  17. Potential effects of urbanization on urban thermal comfort, a case study of Nairobi city, Kenya: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ongoma Victor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews the effect of urbanization on human thermal comfort over Nairobi city in Kenya. Urbanization alters urban center's land use and land cover, modifying the climate of the urban setting. The modification in climate affects human comfort and the environment at large. This study focuses on the recent studies conducted in Nairobi city and many other cities globally to examine modification of wind, temperature and humidity over Nairobi. There was observed reduction in wind speed and relative humidity over the city, posing threat to human and animal comfort and the environment at large. The city of Nairobi, just like other cities globally is observed to experience urban heat island (UHI. The observed increase in minimum temperature as compared to maximum temperature signifies overall warming. A combination of all these changes reduces human comfort. Borrowing lessons from developed cities, increasing the urban forest cover is thus suggested as one of the practical and effective measures that can help prevent further modification of weather and urban climates. The study recommends further research involving multi-sectoral urban stake holders, on forcing driving urban thermal comfort. In the short term, design and construction of appropriate structures can help minimize energy consumption and emissions, thus enhancing comfort.

  18. AFFORDABILITY OF LOW INCOME HOUSING IN PUMWANI, NAIROBI, KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crispino C. Ochieng

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 1987, in Kenya, through the National Housing Corporation (NHC, an arm of the central government that delivers affordable houses, the local government embarked on the redevelopment of Pumwani the oldest surviving affordable low income housing in Nairobi. Pumwani was started in 1923 and it targeted early African immigrants to Nairobi. Currently, the old Pumwani is home to some of the city’s poorest dwellers majorities who depend on the informal sector for an income. Redevelopment was targeted at housing all the genuine dwellers. Instead delivery ended up with house types that were at first rejected by the beneficiaries. Although the new housing was slightly of an improved physical and spatial quality it was unaffordable. Beneficiaries were required to pay an average monthly rent of US$157 for up to eighteen years towards purchase of the new house. In the beginning, some of them had declined to take position of the newly built houses. To raise the basic rent majorities of those who have since moved in have opted to rent out some of the space. To date there is still standoff with some of the houses still unoccupied. Except during the period of social survey when the beneficiaries were brought in to supply the necessary information, the entire construction process was undertaken by NHC under a turnkey project. Among other factors the construction process was at fault for it raised the costs. Also, some of the basic housing needs were not effectively looked into. There was a housing mismatch.

  19. On the need for system alignment in large water infrastructure. Understanding infrastructure dynamics in Nairobi, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pär Blomkvist

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we contribute to the discussion of infrastructural change in Africa, and explore how a new theoretical perspective may offer a different, more comprehensive and historically informed understanding of the trend towards large water infrastructure in Africa. We examine the socio-technical dynamics of large water infrastructures in Nairobi, Kenya, in a longer historical perspective using two concepts that we call intra-systemic alignment and inter-level alignment. Our theoretical perspective is inspired by Large Technical Systems (LTS and Multi-Level Perspective (MLP. While inter-level alignment focuses on the process of aligning the technological system at the three levels of niche, regime and landscape, intra-systemic alignment deals with how components within the regime are harmonised and standardised to fit with each other. We pay special attention to intrasystemic alignment between the supply side and the demand side, or as we put it, upstream and downstream components of a system. In narrating the history of water supply in Nairobi, we look at both the upstream (largescale supply and downstream activities (distribution and payment, and compare the Nairobi case with European history of large infrastructures. We emphasise that regime actors in Nairobi have dealt with the issues of alignment mainly to facilitate and expand upstream activities, while concerning downstream activities they have remained incapable of expanding service and thus integrating the large segment of low-income consumers. We conclude that the present surge of large-scale water investment in Nairobi is the result of sector reforms that enabled the return to a long tradition – a 'Nairobi style' – of upstream investment mainly benefitting the highincome earners. Our proposition is that much more attention needs to be directed at inter-level alignment at the downstream end of the system, to allow the creation of niches aligned to the regime.

  20. Predictors of overweight and obesity in adult women in Nairobi Province, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbochi Regina W

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since obesity in urban women is prevalent in Kenya the study aimed to determine predictors of overweight and obesity in urban Kenyan women. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken in Nairobi Province. The province was purposively selected because it has the highest prevalence of overweight and obesity in Kenya. A total of 365 women aged 25–54 years old were randomly selected to participate in the study. Results Higher age, higher socio-economic (SE group, increased parity, greater number of rooms in the house, and increased expenditure showed greater mean body mass index (BMI,% body fat and waist circumference (WC at highly significant levels (p Conclusions The predictors of overweight and obesity showed that urbanization and the nutrition transition were well established in the sample of women studied in the high SE groups. They exhibited a sedentary lifestyle and consumed a diet high in energy, protein, fat, cholesterol, and alcohol and lower in fibre and carbohydrate compared with those in the low SE groups.

  1. Upper Gastrointestinal Disease in Nairobi and Nakuru Counties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Nairobi, Kenya), Ayuo et al (Eldoret, Kenya) have evaluated the UGI disease burden albeit with relatively smaller numbers(1–3,10). Only Missalek had 4000 patients. In addition, no study has been done around the Central Rift region in Kenya. We offer the first audited glimpse of these diseases and their pattern. Gastritis is ...

  2. The magnitude of diabetes and its association with obesity in the slums of Nairobi, Kenya: results from a cross-sectional survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oti, Samuel O.; van de Vijver, Steven J. M.; Agyemang, Charles; Kyobutungi, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    To assess the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of diabetes and to examine the relationship of obesity with raised blood glucose in the slums of Nairobi, Kenya. We used data from a cross-sectional population-based survey, conducted in 2008-2009, involving a random sample of 5190 (2794 men

  3. Impacts of roadway emissions on urban particulate matter concentrations in sub-Saharan Africa: new evidence from Nairobi, Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vliet, E D S van; Kinney, P L

    2007-01-01

    Air quality is a serious and worsening problem in the rapidly growing cities of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, the lack of ambient monitoring data, and particularly urban roadside concentrations for particulate matter in SSA cities severely hinders our ability to describe temporal and spatial patterns of concentrations, characterize exposure-response relationships for key health outcomes, estimate disease burdens, and promote policy initiatives to address air quality. As part of a collaborative transportation planning exercise between Columbia University and University of Nairobi, air monitoring was carried out in February 2006 in Nairobi, Kenya. The objective of the monitoring was to collect pilot data on air concentrations (PM 2.5 and black carbon) encountered while driving in the Nairobi metropolitan area, and to compare those data to simultaneous 'urban background' concentrations measured in Nairobi but away from roadways. For both the background and roadway monitoring, we used portable air sampling systems that collect integrated filter samples. Results from this pilot study found that roadway concentrations of PM 2.5 were approximately 20-fold higher than those from the urban background site, whereas black carbon concentrations differed by 10-fold. If confirmed by more extensive sampling, these data would underscore the need for air quality and transportation planning and management directed at mitigating roadway pollution

  4. Impacts of roadway emissions on urban particulate matter concentrations in sub-Saharan Africa: new evidence from Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, E. D. S.; Kinney, P. L.

    2007-10-01

    Air quality is a serious and worsening problem in the rapidly growing cities of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, the lack of ambient monitoring data, and particularly urban roadside concentrations for particulate matter in SSA cities severely hinders our ability to describe temporal and spatial patterns of concentrations, characterize exposure response relationships for key health outcomes, estimate disease burdens, and promote policy initiatives to address air quality. As part of a collaborative transportation planning exercise between Columbia University and the University of Nairobi, air monitoring was carried out in February 2006 in Nairobi, Kenya. The objective of the monitoring was to collect pilot data on air concentrations (PM2.5 and black carbon) encountered while driving in the Nairobi metropolitan area, and to compare those data to simultaneous 'urban background' concentrations measured in Nairobi but away from roadways. For both the background and roadway monitoring, we used portable air sampling systems that collect integrated filter samples. Results from this pilot study found that roadway concentrations of PM2.5 were approximately 20-fold higher than those from the urban background site, whereas black carbon concentrations differed by 10-fold. If confirmed by more extensive sampling, these data would underscore the need for air quality and transportation planning and management directed at mitigating roadway pollution.

  5. Prevalence and determinants of unintended pregnancy among women in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikamari, Lawrence; Izugbara, Chimaraoke; Ochako, Rhoune

    2013-03-19

    The prevalence of unintended pregnancy in Kenya continues to be high. The 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) showed that nearly 50% of unmarried women aged 15-19 and 45% of the married women reported their current pregnancies as mistimed or unwanted. The 2008-09 KDHS showed that 43% of married women in Kenya reported their current pregnancies were unintended. Unintended pregnancy is one of the most critical factors contributing to schoolgirl drop out in Kenya. Up to 13,000 Kenyan girls drop out of school every year as a result of unintended pregnancy. Unsafe pregnancy termination contributes immensely to maternal mortality which currently estimated at 488 deaths per 100 000 live births. In Kenya, the determinants of prevalence and determinants of unintended pregnancy among women in diverse social and economic situations, particularly in urban areas, are poorly understood due to lack of data. This paper addresses the prevalence and the determinants of unintended pregnancy among women in slum and non-slum settlements of Nairobi. This study used the data that was collected among a random sample of 1262 slum and non-slum women aged 15-49 years in Nairobi. The data was analyzed using simple percentages and logistic regression. The study found that 24 percent of all the women had unintended pregnancy. The prevalence of unintended pregnancy was 21 per cent among women in slum settlements compared to 27 per cent among those in non-slum settlements. Marital status, employment status, ethnicity and type of settlement were significantly associated with unintended pregnancy. Logistic analysis results indicate that age, marital status and type of settlement had statistically significantly effects on unintended pregnancy. Young women aged 15-19 were significantly more likely than older women to experience unintended pregnancy. Similarly, unmarried women showed elevated risk for unintended pregnancy than ever-married women. Women in non-slum settlements were

  6. Health education and teacher education in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Kari

    2011-01-01

    Forskningsseminar på Kenyatta University, Nairobi, key note om sundhedsundervisning og læreruddannelse i Kenya, baseret på post.doc.-forskningsprojekt 2009-2011.......Forskningsseminar på Kenyatta University, Nairobi, key note om sundhedsundervisning og læreruddannelse i Kenya, baseret på post.doc.-forskningsprojekt 2009-2011....

  7. Leaf area development, dry weight accumulation and solar energy conversion efficiencies of Phaseolus vulgaris L. under different soil moisture levels near Nairobi, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muniafu, M.M.; Macharia, J.N.M.; Stigter, C.J.; Coulson, G.L.

    1999-01-01

    Leaf area development, dry weight accumulation and solar energy conversion efficiencies of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv GLP-2 under two soil moisture levels in two contrasting seasons near Nairobi, Kenya were investigated. The experiment confirms that dry weights and yields of Phaseolus vulgaris are

  8. Prevalence of Tinea capitis in school going children from Mathare, informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moto, Jedidah Ndunge; Maingi, John Muthini; Nyamache, Anthony Kebira

    2015-06-27

    Tinea capitis is a common infection especially in poor resource settings. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence Tinea capitis in children from selected schools from an urban slum in Nairobi city of Kenya. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 150 school going children during the period between May and September 2013. A questionnaire was administered and cultures of scalps, skin scrapping/hair stubs samples were performed and the etiological agents identified and confirmed. In a total of one hundred and fifty (150) children recruited 89 (59.3%) were males and 61 (40.7%) females aged between 3 and 14 years. The overall prevalence rates in dermatophytes infection was 81.3% (122/150) with etiological agents consisting Trichophyton spp. (61.3%), Microsporum spp. (13.3%) and Epidermophyton spp. (7.3%) infections with infections occurring either singly (56%), duo (38%) or tipple co-infections (6%). This study demonstrates a high prevalence of Tinea infections with Trichophyton tonsurans as the predominant etiological agent in school going children of the urban slums of Nairobi.

  9. Pathogenic Escherichia coli and food handlers in luxury hotels in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyango, Abel O; Kenya, Eucharia U; Mbithi, John J N; Ng'ayo, Musa O

    2009-11-01

    The epidemiology and virulence properties of pathogenic Escherichia coli among food handlers in tourist destination hotels in Kenya are largely uncharacterized. This cross-sectional study among consenting 885 food handlers working in nine luxurious tourist hotels in Nairobi, Kenya determined the epidemiology, virulence properties, antibiotics susceptibility profiles and conjugation abilities of pathogenic Escherichia coli. Pathogenic Escherichia coli was detected among 39 (4.4%) subjects, including 1.8% enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) harboring aggR genes, 1.2% enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) expressing both LT and STp toxins, 1.1% enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and 0.2% Shiga-like Escherichia coli (EHEC) both harboring eaeA and stx2 genes respectively. All the pathotypes had increased surface hydrophobicity. Using multivariate analyses, food handlers with loose stools were more likely to be infected with pathogenic Escherichia coli. Majority 53.8% of the pathotypes were resistant to tetracycline with 40.2% being multi-drug resistant. About 85.7% pathotypes trans-conjugated with Escherichia coli K12 F(-) NA(r) LA. The carriage of multi-drug resistant, toxin expressing pathogenic Escherichia coli by this population is of public health concern because exposure to low doses can result in infection. Screening food handlers and implementing public awareness programs is recommended as an intervention to control transmission of enteric pathogens.

  10. Implications of Charcoal Briquette Produced by Local Communities on Livelihoods and Environment in Nairobi- Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Njenga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The residents of Nairobi, Kenya, use 700 tonnes of charcoal per day, producing about88 tonnes of charcoal dust that is found in most of the charcoal retailing stalls that is disposed of inwater drainage systems or in black garbage heaps. The high costs of cooking fuel results in poorhouseholds using unhealthy materials such as plastic waste. Further, poor households are opting tocook foods that take a short time to prepare irrespective of their nutritional value. This articlepresents experiences with community self-help groups producing charcoal fuel briquettes fromcharcoal dust in poorer nieghbourhoods of Nairobi for home use and sale. Households thatproduced charcoal fuel briquettes for own use and those that bought them saved 70% and 30% ofmoney spent on cooking energy respectively. The charcoal fuel briquettes have been found to beenvironmentally beneficial since they produce less smoke and increase total cooking energy bymore than 15%, thereby saving an equivalent volume of trees that would be cut down for charcoal.Charcoal briquette production is a viable opportunity for good quality and affordable cooking fuel.Bioenergy and waste management initiatives should promote recovery of organic by-products forcharcoal briquette production.

  11. Trends in Mean Annual Minimum and Maximum Near Surface Temperature in Nairobi City, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Lukoye Makokha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the long-term urban modification of mean annual conditions of near surface temperature in Nairobi City. Data from four weather stations situated in Nairobi were collected from the Kenya Meteorological Department for the period from 1966 to 1999 inclusive. The data included mean annual maximum and minimum temperatures, and was first subjected to homogeneity test before analysis. Both linear regression and Mann-Kendall rank test were used to discern the mean annual trends. Results show that the change of temperature over the thirty-four years study period is higher for minimum temperature than maximum temperature. The warming trends began earlier and are more significant at the urban stations than is the case at the sub-urban stations, an indication of the spread of urbanisation from the built-up Central Business District (CBD to the suburbs. The established significant warming trends in minimum temperature, which are likely to reach higher proportions in future, pose serious challenges on climate and urban planning of the city. In particular the effect of increased minimum temperature on human physiological comfort, building and urban design, wind circulation and air pollution needs to be incorporated in future urban planning programmes of the city.

  12. Bullying in public secondary schools in Nairobi, Kenya | Ndetei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence and frequency of bullying in Nairobi public secondary schools in particular and in Kenyan schools in general is not known. Knowledge of the extent of the problem is essential in developing effective interventions. Aim: To study the prevalence and frequency of bullying in Nairobi public ...

  13. Musculoskeletal imaging insight 2015: Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, Kathryn J.; Mutiso, Kavulani; Sconfienza, Luca Maria; Monu, Johnny

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 6 years the International Skeletal Society (ISS) outreach programs have become popular amongst the various radiology organizations in sub-Saharan Africa. So much so that that the ISS outreach is now routinely expected to participate in many of the international radiology conferences in that part of the world. The organizational planning for an outreach visit to Kenya took place over a 3-year period. Eventually a double-headed event; the seventh and eighth sub-Saharan outreach efforts were organized in Nairobi and in Mombasa, Kenya. The Nairobi outreach was an educational course on musculoskeletal imaging at the University of Nairobi and the Aga Khan University in Nairobi from 26 to 28 May 2015. The Mombasa outreach was organized in collaboration with the African Society of Radiology (ASR) at their annual meeting in Mombasa from 30 May to 2 June 2015. (orig.)

  14. Musculoskeletal imaging insight 2015: Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Kathryn J. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Mutiso, Kavulani [Aga Khan University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Nairobi (Kenya); Sconfienza, Luca Maria [University of Milan, Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, Milan (Italy); IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Unit of Radiology, Milan (Italy); Monu, Johnny [University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Over the past 6 years the International Skeletal Society (ISS) outreach programs have become popular amongst the various radiology organizations in sub-Saharan Africa. So much so that that the ISS outreach is now routinely expected to participate in many of the international radiology conferences in that part of the world. The organizational planning for an outreach visit to Kenya took place over a 3-year period. Eventually a double-headed event; the seventh and eighth sub-Saharan outreach efforts were organized in Nairobi and in Mombasa, Kenya. The Nairobi outreach was an educational course on musculoskeletal imaging at the University of Nairobi and the Aga Khan University in Nairobi from 26 to 28 May 2015. The Mombasa outreach was organized in collaboration with the African Society of Radiology (ASR) at their annual meeting in Mombasa from 30 May to 2 June 2015. (orig.)

  15. An Investigation of the Relationship of ICT Training of Principals in ICT Integration in Management Public Secondary Schools: A Case of Nairobi County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepkonga, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out whether there exists a relationship between ICT training of principals and ICT integration in management of public secondary schools in Kenya. Cross-sectional survey design was used in Nairobi County where quantitative research strategy was applied for the collection of data using questionnaires. The…

  16. Payment for antiretroviral drugs is associated with a higher rate of patients lost to follow-up than those offered free-of-charge therapy in Nairobi, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zachariah, R.; van Engelgem, I.; Massaquoi, M.; Kocholla, L.; Manzi, M.; Suleh, A.; Phillips, M.; Borgdorff, M.

    2008-01-01

    This retrospective analysis of routine programme data from Mbagathi District Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya shows the difference in rates of loss to follow-up between a cohort that paid 500 shillings/month (approximately US$7) for antiretroviral drugs (ART) and one that received medication free of charge.

  17. Co-occurrence of behavioral risk factors of common non-communicable diseases among urban slum dwellers in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Oti, Samuel; Egondi, Thaddaeus; Kyobutungi, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The four common non-communicable diseases (NCDs) account for 80% of NCD-related deaths worldwide. The four NCDs share four common risk factors. As most of the existing evidence on the common NCD risk factors is based on analysis of a single factor at a time, there is a need to investigate the co-occurrence of the common NCD risk factors, particularly in an urban slum setting in sub-Saharan Africa. To determine the prevalence of co-occurrence of the four common NCDs risk factors among urban slum dwellers in Nairobi, Kenya. This analysis was based on the data collected as part of a cross-sectional survey to assess linkages among socio-economic status, perceived personal risk, and risk factors for cardiovascular and NCDs in a population of slum dwellers in Nairobi, Kenya, in 2008-2009. A total of 5,190 study subjects were included in the analysis. After selecting relevant variables for common NCD risk factors, we computed the prevalence of all possible combinations of the four common NCD risk factors. The analysis was disaggregated by relevant background variables. The weighted prevalences of unhealthy diet, insufficient physical activity, harmful use of alcohol, and tobacco use were found to be 57.2, 14.4, 10.1, and 12.4%, respectively. Nearly 72% of the study participants had at least one of the four NCD risk factors. About 52% of the study population had any one of the four NCD risk factors. About one-fifth (19.8%) had co-occurrence of NCD risk factors. Close to one in six individuals (17.6%) had two NCD risk factors, while only 2.2% had three or four NCD risk factors. One out of five of people in the urban slum settings of Nairobi had co-occurrence of NCD risk factors. Both comprehensive and differentiated approaches are needed for effective NCD prevention and control in these settings.

  18. IDRC in Kenya

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Kenya has long been the economic hub of East Africa. IDRC opened a regional office in the country's capital, Nairobi, in 1975. This office now oversees our activities in countries across sub-Saharan Africa and plays an important role in identifying strategic areas of support in Kenya. Poverty remains widespread in the.

  19. Kenya sõdurid tungisid Somaaliasse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Kenya sõjaväelased tungisid Lõuna-Somaaliasse, et tabada mässulisi, kes on viimastel nädalatel korraldanud Kenyas mitmeid inimrööve. Kenya väed tungisid Lõuna-Somaaliasse päev pärast seda, kui Nairobi kuulutas sõja Al-Qaedaga seostatud äärmusrühmitusele Shabaab

  20. The role of urban agriculture for food security in low income areas in Nairobi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwangi, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper, which is based on research carried out among 210 households in Nairobi (Kenya) in 1994, examines the role of urban agriculture in household food security among low-income urban households. It determines the different strategies the low-income population of Nairobi deploys in order to

  1. Energy Diversity and Development in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    support for renewable energy development can be seen in Kenya’s efforts to obtain outside funding. Kenya is one of six countries selected by Climate...for Kenya (Nairobi: Repub- lic of Kenya, 2011). 17 Ministry of Energy, Feed-in Tariffs Policy on Wind, Biomass, Small-Hydro, Geothermal, Biogas and

  2. Microbial contamination of herbs marketed to HIV-infected people in Nairobi (Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Kaume

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Herbal products are used by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected individuals regardless of safety or efficacy concerns. In this study, we examined the microbiological quality of herbal preparations marketed to HIV-infected individuals. A convenience sample (N = 24 of herbal products was obtained from retailers in Nairobi, Kenya in 2007. Petrifilm plate count methods were used to estimate total aerobic bacteria (APC, coliform, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and yeast and mould counts. APC counts ranged from an estimated 1.5 × 101 colony forming units (CFU/g to 7.1 × 108 CFU/g. Total and faecal coliform counts ranged from an estimated "less than"10 CFU/g to 3 × 106 CFU/g. E. coli load ranged from "less than"10 CFU/g to 5 × 101 CFU/g and S. aureus counts ranged from an estimated "less than"10 CFU/g to 2.5 × 103 CFU/g. Yeast and mould counts ranged from an estimated "less than"10 CFU/g to 9 × 104 CFU/g. An evaluation using the World Health Organization limits for medicinal herbs found a percentage of samples to contain microorganisms above allowable limits: 33% (APC, 50% (coliforms and 33% (yeast and moulds. A total of 67% of samples contained S. aureus loads above the United States Pharmacopeia standard. We suggest that the introduction of quality-control measures and safe handling practices for the selling of medicinal herbs and botanicals in Kenya would be beneficial in reducing the potential health risks for immunocompromised consumers of these products.

  3. Soil Ingestion is Associated with Child Diarrhea in an Urban Slum of Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauza, Valerie; Ocharo, R M; Nguyen, Thanh H; Guest, Jeremy S

    2017-03-01

    AbstractDiarrhea is a leading cause of mortality in children under 5 years of age. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 54 children aged 3 months to 5 years old in Kibera, an urban slum in Nairobi, Kenya, to assess the relationship between caregiver-reported soil ingestion and child diarrhea. Diarrhea was significantly associated with soil ingestion (adjusted odds ratio = 9.9, 95% confidence interval = 2.1-47.5). Soil samples from locations near each household were also collected and analyzed for Escherichia coli and a human-associated Bacteroides fecal marker (HF183). Escherichia coli was detected in 100% of soil samples (mean 5.5 log colony forming units E. coli per gram of dry soil) and the Bacteroides fecal marker HF183 was detected in 93% of soil samples. These findings suggest that soil ingestion may be an important transmission pathway for diarrheal disease in urban slum settings.

  4. Records management and risk management at Kenya Commercial Bank Limited, Nairobi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleophas Ambira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper reported empirical research findings of an MPhil in Information Sciences (Records and Archives Management study conducted at Moi University in Eldoret, Kenya between September 2007 and July 2009.Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate records management and risk management at Kenya Commercial Bank (KCB Ltd, in the Nairobi area and propose recommendations to enhance the functions of records and risk management at KCB. The specific objectives of the study were to, (1 establish the nature and type of risks to which KCB is exposed, (2 conduct business process analysis and identify the records generated by KCB, (3 establish the extent to which records management is emphasised within KCB as a tool to managing risk, (4 identify which vital records of KCB need protection because of their nature and value to the bank and (5 make recommendations to enhance current records management practices to support the function of risk management in KCB.Method: The study was qualitative. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews. The theoretical framework of the study involved triangulation of the records continuum model by Frank Upward (1980 and the integrated risk management model by the Government of Canada (2000.Results: The key findings of the study were, (1 KCB is exposed to a wide range of risks by virtue of its business, (2 KCB generates a lot of records in the course of its business activities and (3 there are inadequate records management practices and systems, the lack of which undermines the risk management function.Conclusion: The findings of this study have revealed the need to strengthen records management as a critical success factor in risk mitigation within KCB and, by extension, the Kenyan banking industry. A records management model was proposed to guide the management of records within an enterprise-wide risk management framework in the bank.

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban air : concentration levels and patterns and source analysis in Nairobi, Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthini, M.; Yoshimichi, H.; Yutaka, K.; Shigeki, M. [Yokohama National Univ., Yokohama (Japan). Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences

    2005-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in the environment are often the result of incomplete combustion processes. This paper reported concentration levels and patterns of high molecular weight PAHs in Nairobi, Kenya. Daily air samples for 30 different PAHs were collected at residential, industrial and business sites within the city. Samples were then extracted using deuterated PAH with an automated Soxhlet device. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with a capillary column was used to analyze the extracts using a selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Statistical analyses were then performed. PAH concentration levels were reported for average, median, standard deviation, range, and Pearson's correlation coefficients. Data were then analyzed for sources using a principal component analysis (PCA) technique and isomer ratio analysis. Nonparametric testing was then conducted to detect inherent differences in PAH concentration data obtained from the different sites. Results showed that pyrene was the most abundant PAH. Carcinogenic PAHs were higher in high-traffic areas. The correlation coefficient between coronene and benzo(ghi)pyrene was high. The PAH isomer ratio analysis demonstrated that PAHs in Nairobi are the product of traffic emissions and oil combustion. Results also showed that PAH profiles were not well separated. It was concluded that source distinction methods must be improved in order to better evaluate PAH emissions in the city. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  6. 11. PO Ngesa African Women Commuter Traders in Nairobi in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    REGINALDS

    Thought and Practice: A Journal of the Philosophical Association of Kenya (PAK) .... The history of women commuter traders in present day Nairobi goes back to pre- ... The African market became a focal point in the continuing women's trade,.

  7. Slum Sanitation and the Social Determinants of Women's Health in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corburn, Jason; Hildebrand, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate urban sanitation disproportionately impacts the social determinants of women's health in informal settlements or slums. The impacts on women's health include infectious and chronic illnesses, violence, food contamination and malnutrition, economic and educational attainment, and indignity. We used household survey data to report on self-rated health and sociodemographic, housing, and infrastructure conditions in the Mathare informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. We combined quantitative survey and mapping data with qualitative focus group information to better understand the relationships between environmental sanitation and the social determinants of women and girls' health in the Mathare slum. We find that an average of eighty-five households in Mathare share one toilet, only 15% of households have access to a private toilet, and the average distance to a public toilet is over 52 meters. Eighty-three percent of households without a private toilet report poor health. Mathare women report violence (68%), respiratory illness/cough (46%), diabetes (33%), and diarrhea (30%) as the most frequent physical burdens. Inadequate, unsafe, and unhygienic sanitation results in multiple and overlapping health, economic, and social impacts that disproportionately impact women and girls living in urban informal settlements.

  8. traits and resistance to maize streak virus disease in kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Crop Science Journal, Vol. 14. No. 4, pp. ... Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Muguga-South, P.O. Box 30148, Nairobi, Kenya .... streak disease has been identified in various maize recycling and development of pure-lines at.

  9. Assessment of community led total sanitation uptake in rural Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    K. N. Ogendo, Bsc, MPH, Living goods Nairobi, Kenya,Ministry of Health, Environmental Health ... led drive to set up pit latrines in rural kenya with an aim of promoting sustainable ... Development and Sustainable Development goals lay.

  10. Fever treatment in the absence of malaria transmission in an urban informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yazoume; Madise, Nyovani; Ndugwa, Robert; Ochola, Sam; Snow, Robert W

    2009-07-15

    In sub-Saharan Africa, knowledge of malaria transmission across rapidly proliferating urban centres and recommendations for its prevention or management remain poorly defined. This paper presents the results of an investigation into infection prevalence and treatment of recent febrile events among a slum population in Nairobi, Kenya. In July 2008, a community-based malaria parasite prevalence survey was conducted in Korogocho slum, which forms part of the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance system. Interviewers visited 1,069 participants at home and collected data on reported fevers experienced over the preceding 14 days and details on the treatment of these episodes. Each participant was tested for malaria parasite presence with Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) and microscopy. Descriptive analyses were performed to assess the period prevalence of reported fever episodes and treatment behaviour. Of the 1,069 participants visited, 983 (92%) consented to be tested. Three were positive for Plasmodium falciparum using RDT; however, all were confirmed negative on microscopy. Microscopic examination of all 953 readable slides showed zero prevalence. Overall, from the 1,004 participants who have data on fever, 170 fever episodes were reported giving a relatively high period prevalence (16.9%, 95% CI:13.9%-20.5%) and higher among children below five years (20.1%, 95%CI:13.8%-27.8%). Of the fever episodes with treatment information 54.3% (95%CI:46.3%-62.2%) were treated as malaria using mainly sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine or amodiaquine, including those managed at a formal health facility. Only four episodes were managed using the nationally recommended first-line treatment, artemether-lumefantrine. The study could not demonstrate any evidence of malaria in Korogocho, a slum in the centre of Nairobi. Fever was a common complaint and often treated as malaria with anti-malarial drugs. Strategies, including testing for malaria parasites to reduce the inappropriate

  11. Fever treatment in the absence of malaria transmission in an urban informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochola Sam

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In sub-Saharan Africa, knowledge of malaria transmission across rapidly proliferating urban centres and recommendations for its prevention or management remain poorly defined. This paper presents the results of an investigation into infection prevalence and treatment of recent febrile events among a slum population in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods In July 2008, a community-based malaria parasite prevalence survey was conducted in Korogocho slum, which forms part of the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance system. Interviewers visited 1,069 participants at home and collected data on reported fevers experienced over the preceding 14 days and details on the treatment of these episodes. Each participant was tested for malaria parasite presence with Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT and microscopy. Descriptive analyses were performed to assess the period prevalence of reported fever episodes and treatment behaviour. Results Of the 1,069 participants visited, 983 (92% consented to be tested. Three were positive for Plasmodium falciparum using RDT; however, all were confirmed negative on microscopy. Microscopic examination of all 953 readable slides showed zero prevalence. Overall, from the 1,004 participants who have data on fever, 170 fever episodes were reported giving a relatively high period prevalence (16.9%, 95% CI:13.9%–20.5% and higher among children below five years (20.1%, 95%CI:13.8%–27.8%. Of the fever episodes with treatment information 54.3% (95%CI:46.3%–62.2% were treated as malaria using mainly sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine or amodiaquine, including those managed at a formal health facility. Only four episodes were managed using the nationally recommended first-line treatment, artemether-lumefantrine. Conclusion The study could not demonstrate any evidence of malaria in Korogocho, a slum in the centre of Nairobi. Fever was a common complaint and often treated as malaria with anti-malarial drugs. Strategies

  12. The Impact of HIV/AIDS on the Socio-Economic Development in Kenya's Cooperative Sector: An Empirical Analysis of Cooperatives in Nairobi Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyongesa, D.J.W.; M'mboyi, F.

    2002-01-01

    A lot of stigma is attached to HIV/AIDS pandemic in Kenya. Many organizations have tried and continue trying to educate the public on this scourge. However, none of these organizations has thought of the cooperative sector. This research is unique because it examines the Impact of HIV/AIDS on the Socio-economic Development of Kenya's Cooperative sector. It is an empirical analysis of Cooperatives in Nairobi Province with special reference to the Savings and Credit Cooperatives (SACCOS). It was a joint research that examined HIV/AIDS from a multidisciplinary approach. The general objective was to identify and quantify the effects of HIV/AIDS on the performance of cooperative societies, particularly the impact of HIV/AIDS on savings, share capital, age groups and gender. Questionnaires were administered to a randomly selected sample of cooperative societies in the province. PCGIVE computer package was used to run regressions on simultaneous and recursive models. The findings clearly show that between 1991 and 2000 cooperatives in Nairobi province lost approximately USD 479 million due to HIV/AIDS pandemic. Besides, though savings, share capital and assets increased significantly, the scourge was negative the gains. Of the dead and the infected, females and ages between 18-48 were more affected by the epidemic. Policy specify recommendations vital for containment of HIV/AIDS in the cooperative sub sector of the Kenyan economy are made. These are with a view to classifying the appropriate roles of both public and private sectors in fighting the HIV/AIDS pandemic within the cooperative sector. Last but not least further areas of research are suggested

  13. A Survey of the Role of Audit Committees in Promoting Corporate Governance and Accountability in Constituency Development Fund Management: A Case Study of Nairobi Province, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Kakui Kilika

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of thisstudy is to present a case for the need for audit committee in Constituency DevelopmentFund to promote corporate governance and accountability in constituencydevelopment fund management in Nairobi Province, Kenya. The study provides ananalysis and critique of the extent of engagement research in the field ofcorporate governance and accountability in constituency Development Fundmanagement and present case for further research that may be directed tooutside Nairobi province. The study found that the extent of literature in thefield of corporate governance and accountability and reporting in contrast tothe field to management CDF in Nairobi had largely ignored the practice withinCDF organizations.  The study argues thatCDF can benefit from the methodological and theoretical insights of auditcommittee and other disciplines. The study suggests where further contributionsmight be made by future research endeavors engaging with audit committees withorganizations. Engaging audit committee in CDF governance and accountabilityhas the potential to improve theorizing practice and the sustainabilityperformance with organizations. Drawing on the methods and theories of otherdisciplines and the papers in the special issues (of audit committee the studypresents away forward for researchers engaging with audit committees in organizationalpracticing corporate governance and accountability.

  14. Slum Sanitation and the Social Determinants of Women’s Health in Nairobi, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Corburn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate urban sanitation disproportionately impacts the social determinants of women’s health in informal settlements or slums. The impacts on women’s health include infectious and chronic illnesses, violence, food contamination and malnutrition, economic and educational attainment, and indignity. We used household survey data to report on self-rated health and sociodemographic, housing, and infrastructure conditions in the Mathare informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. We combined quantitative survey and mapping data with qualitative focus group information to better understand the relationships between environmental sanitation and the social determinants of women and girls’ health in the Mathare slum. We find that an average of eighty-five households in Mathare share one toilet, only 15% of households have access to a private toilet, and the average distance to a public toilet is over 52 meters. Eighty-three percent of households without a private toilet report poor health. Mathare women report violence (68%, respiratory illness/cough (46%, diabetes (33%, and diarrhea (30% as the most frequent physical burdens. Inadequate, unsafe, and unhygienic sanitation results in multiple and overlapping health, economic, and social impacts that disproportionately impact women and girls living in urban informal settlements.

  15. Lessons Learnt from the Westgate Shopping Mall Terrorist Attack in Nairobi, Kenya: Involving the Meetings, Incentives, Conferences and Exhibitions Sector in Crisis Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Schroeder

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The terrorist attacks in Nairobi Kenya have been widely disseminated by the world media, thus, affecting the long-term interests of stakeholders. The tourism industry is made up of a vast number of these stakeholders, with the operating sector alone including the accommodation, tourism services, transportation, entertainment, food services, adventure and outdoor recreation, attractions, meetings, incentive, conventions, and exhibitions (MICE, and travel trade sectors. Within each operating sector, there is also a variety of different stakeholders in various segments and organisations. The purpose of this manuscript is to examine tourism crisis communications surrounding the Westgate Shopping Mall attacks in Kenya. The main research question which guided this study was: did tourism communications surrounding the Westgate Shopping Mall attacks follow best practices for tourism crisis communications? Accordingly, this paper used participant observation to highlight communications surrounding the attacks from the perspective of a conference planner and a conference attendee.

  16. prevalence of visual impairment and blindness in a nairobi urban

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-04-01

    Apr 1, 2006 ... Globally,. 135 million people have visual impairment and are in need of social, vocational, economic or rehabilitative support services (3,4). Almost 90% of the world's blind live in developing countries (5). Kibera Division of Nairobi Province has the oldest (6)and largest city slum (223.4 Km2) in Kenya. (7).

  17. Correlates of HIV-status awareness among adults in Nairobi slum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of HIV in the adult population in slum areas in Nairobi, Kenya, is higher than for residents in the city as a whole. This disparity suggests that the characteristics of slum areas may adversely influence the HIV-prevention strategies directed at reducing the national prevalence of HIV. The objective of the study ...

  18. Measles trends and vaccine effectiveness in Nairobi, Kenya | Borus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine morbidity and mortality from measles and to estimate measles vaccine effectiveness among children hospitalised with measles in two hospitals in Nairobi. Design: A review of hospital records (index cards). Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital and Mbagathi District Hospitals covering the years ...

  19. ASSESSMENT OF TANNERY BASED SOLID WASTES MANAGEMENT IN ASILI, NAIROBI KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard O. Oruko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid wastes generated in Nairobi and its environs are posing a serious environmental challenge to the authorities and public, especially the hazardous and non-biodegradable solid wastes from leather industries. There were environmental concerns and complaints from workers and residents living adjacent to Asili tanneries limited about degradation of natural and inbuilt environment. This pointed to the effect of environmental pollution by the tannery. The broad objective of study was to assess the effectiveness of tannery based solid wastes management, by identifying and analyzing the concentration levels of sodium chlorides,sulphide, chromium ions and total phenols as selected pollutants along the tanning stages, in Nairobi river, borehole water, and soils around the dump site inside the tannery. Experimental (laboratory analysis design was used.Descriptive statistics was used in analyzing data resulting in means and tables. The means concentration of total Chrome was 2633.38mg/L,Sodium chloride 609.93mg/L, Sulphide 129.77mg/L, total Phenols 10.91mg/L in the soil sampled around the composite dump site.. In Nairobi river water the means of Sodium chloride was 317.48mg/L, Sulphide 24.00mg/L, total Phenol 3.97mg/L and total Chrome Nil, While means concentration in borehole water, had Sodium chloride detected at 354.73mg/L, Sulphide 6.67mg/L, total Phenol 0.03mg/L and total Chrome as Nil, indicating heavily contaminated ecosystems above the discharge set limits of National Environmental Management Authority and Nairobi city water and sewerage company.

  20. Health status of people of slums in Nairobi, Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulis, Gabriel; Mulumba, J.A.A.; Juma, Olivia; Kakosova, Beatrica

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the health status of people living in the slums of Nairobi. It was designed as a cross-sectional study based on data from visitors at a clinic at Trnava University located in Mukuru slum in Nairobi. There were about 16,000 visits registered at Mary Immaculate Clinic of Trnava University in Nairobi during 2 years of operation. A random 5% sample was drawn from the paper-card database of this clinic to assess basic characteristics and health complaints of visitors. Both self-reported health complaints and diagnoses written by physicians were used to assess health status of participants. More females with average age (by slum) ranging from 20.46 to 21.30 years than males with average age ranging from (by slum) 15.86 to 19.49 years are the visitors of the clinic. The major self-reported health complaints of visitors were cough, abdominal pain, and headache for both sexes. The most frequent diagnoses were consequently virosis, acute respiratory infections, and bronchitis. Differences in health complaints by slums were observed and are described herein. The major health complaints and diagnoses in addition to the differences in health complaints and diagnoses by slum show that environmental conditions can have major influences on health status. Therefore, environmental improvements are important in the improvement of health status. A very high prevalence of respiratory complaints and gastrointestinal problems signify that improvements in air pollution reduction, drinking water provision, and waste management in slums can lead to more significant and sustainable improvements in health status than just simple treatment. This fact should be taken into account when planning future relief programs

  1. Nutritional status of under-five children living in an informal urban settlement in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olack, Beatrice; Burke, Heather; Cosmas, Leonard; Bamrah, Sapna; Dooling, Kathleen; Feikin, Daniel R; Talley, Leisel E; Breiman, Robert F

    2011-08-01

    Malnutrition in sub-Saharan Africa contributes to high rates of childhood morbidity and mortality. However, little information on the nutritional status of children is available from informal settlements. During the period of post-election violence in Kenya during December 2007-March 2008, food shortages were widespread within informal settlements in Nairobi. To investigate whether food insecurity due to post-election violence resulted in high prevalence of acute and chronic malnutrition in children, a nutritional survey was undertaken among children aged 6-59 months within two villages in Kibera, where the Kenya Medical Research Institute/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducts population-based surveillance for infectious disease syndromes. During 25 March-4 April 2008, a structured questionnaire was administered to caregivers of 1,310 children identified through surveillance system databases to obtain information on household demographics, food availability, and child-feeding practices. Anthropometric measurements were recorded on all participating children. Indices were reported in z-scores and compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) 2005 reference population to determine the nutritional status of children. Data were analyzed using the Anthro software of WHO and the SAS. Stunting was found in 47.0% of the children; 11.8% were underweight, and 2.6% were wasted. Severe stunting was found in 23.4% of the children; severe underweight in 3.1%, and severe wasting in 0.6%. Children aged 36-47 months had the highest prevalence (58.0%) of stunting while the highest prevalence (4.1%) of wasting was in children aged 6-11 months. Boys were more stunted than girls (p informal settlement, not specifically resulting from the relatively brief political crisis. The predominance of stunting in older children indicates failure in growth and development during the first two years of life. Food programmes in Kenya have traditionally focused on rural areas and

  2. Phosphorus budget in the low-income, peri-urban area of Kibera in Nairobi (Kenya).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelderman, P; Koech, D K; Gumbo, B; O'Keeffe, J

    2009-01-01

    Kibera, located in Nairobi, Kenya is one of the largest (235,000 inhabitants) low-income areas in East Africa. Surface waters in Kibera show high pollution levels with respect to SRP (soluble reactive phosphorus; range: 2-10 mg P/L), coming from the uncontrolled wastewater discharges in the area. The different P production and consumption values in Kibera were estimated using interviews (155 interviewed) as well as detailed P house-keeping for five representative families. The results show that highest P consumption comes from food, in particular cereals. Highest P production came from urine (55% of the total) and faeces (31%), with relatively lower contributions from grey water and solid wastes. The overall P budget in Kibera amounted to around 9 x 10(3) kg P/month. This is equivalent to 0.47 g P/person yr, both for P production and consumption, with a relative error of 20%. Comparing with the estimated P outflows via the Kibera surface waters, around 65% of the P produced in Kibera will leave the area. In future ECOSAN techniques such as urine separation could well be applied for efficient recycling of these waste sources.

  3. Occurance of head and neck cancers at the Nairobi Cancer Registry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occurance of head and neck cancers at the Nairobi Cancer Registry in Kenya 2000-2002. AK Limo, A Rugutt-Korir, JO Gichana, EA Dimba, ML Chindia, GZ Mutuma. Abstract. No Abstract. African Journal of Oral Health Sciences Vol. 5 (1) 2007: pp. 2-4. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  4. Prevalence and factors associated with metabolic syndrome in an urban population of adults living with HIV in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiama, Catherine Nduku; Wamicwe, Joyce Njeri; Oyugi, Elvis Omondi; Obonyo, Mark Odhiambo; Mungai, Jane Githuku; Roka, Zeinab Gura; Mwangi, Ann

    2018-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome affects 20-25% of the adult population globally. It predisposes to cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes. Studies in other countries suggest a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome among HIV-infected patients but no studies have been reported in Kenya. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and factors associated with metabolic syndrome in adult HIV-infected patients in an urban population in Nairobi, Kenya. In a cross-sectional study design, conducted at Riruta Health Centre in 2016, 360 adults infected with HIV were recruited. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demography. Blood was collected by finger prick for fasting glucose and venous sampling for lipid profile. Using the harmonized Joint Scientific Statement criteria, metabolic syndrome was present in 19.2%. The prevalence was higher among females than males (20.7% vs. 16.0%). Obesity (AOR = 5.37, P metabolic syndrome while physical activity (AOR = 0.28, P = 0.001) was associated with decreased odds. Metabolic syndrome is prevalent in this study population. Obesity, lack of formal education, family history of hypertension, and physical inactivity are associated with metabolic syndrome. Screening for risk factors, promotion of healthy lifestyle, and nutrition counselling should be offered routinely in HIV care and treatment clinics.

  5. Physical, Social, and Political Inequities Constraining Girls' Menstrual Management at Schools in Informal Settlements of Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girod, Candace; Ellis, Anna; Andes, Karen L; Freeman, Matthew C; Caruso, Bethany A

    2017-12-01

    Access to adequate water and sanitation is limited in informal settlements, contributing to girls' challenges managing menstruation at school, especially when they cannot access materials to absorb menstrual blood and appropriate facilities for hygiene. This study documents differences between girls' experience of menstruation at public schools (where the Kenyan government provides menstrual pads) and private schools (where pads are not provided) in two informal settlements of Nairobi, Kenya. Results showed that supply chains to public schools were not reliable, and equitable pad provision was not assured. Girls in private schools struggled to access pads because they were not provided. Sanitation facilities were physically available, but Muslim girls were unable to practice ablution due to the design of toilets in our study schools. Girls experienced fear and anxiety due to harassment from male peers and had incomplete information about menstruation from teachers. Findings suggest that practitioners and policy-makers should acknowledge the diversity of school populations and monitor programs to ensure efforts do not contribute to inequity.

  6. Influence of parental factors on adolescents' transition to first sexual intercourse in Nairobi, Kenya: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okigbo, Chinelo C; Kabiru, Caroline W; Mumah, Joyce N; Mojola, Sanyu A; Beguy, Donatien

    2015-08-21

    Several studies have demonstrated a link between young people's sexual behavior and levels of parental monitoring, parent-child communication, and parental discipline in Western countries. However, little is known about this association in African settings, especially among young people living in high poverty settings such as urban slums. The objective of the study was to assess the influence of parental factors (monitoring, communication, and discipline) on the transition to first sexual intercourse among unmarried adolescents living in urban slums in Kenya. Longitudinal data collected from young people living in two slums in Nairobi, Kenya were used. The sample was restricted to unmarried adolescents aged 12-19 years at Wave 1 (weighted n = 1927). Parental factors at Wave 1 were used to predict adolescents' transition to first sexual intercourse by Wave 2. Relevant covariates including the adolescents' age, sex, residence, school enrollment, religiosity, delinquency, and peer models for risk behavior were controlled for. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the associations of interest. All analyses were conducted using Stata version 13. Approximately 6% of our sample transitioned to first sexual intercourse within the one-year study period; there was no sex difference in the transition rate. In the multivariate analyses, male adolescents who reported communication with their mothers were less likely to transition to first sexual intercourse compared to those who did not (p impacts on delaying sexual debut, and possibly reducing sexual risk behaviors, among young people in high-risk settings such as slums.

  7. Gender differentials and old age survival in the Nairobi slums, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Rachel; Chepngeno-Langat, Gloria; Evandrou, Maria; Falkingham, Jane

    2016-08-01

    This paper examines gender differentials in survival amongst older people (50+ years) in the Nairobi slums and to the best of our knowledge is the first study of its kind in an urban African setting. The results provide evidence contrary to the expected paradox of poorer self-rated health yet better survival amongst older women. Older women in the Nairobi slums have poorer self-rated health and poorer circumstances across other factors, including disability and socio-economic status. Further, older women in the slums do not have better survival. The conventional female advantage in mortality only becomes apparent after accounting for the cumulative influence of individual characteristics, social networks, health and socio-economic status, suggesting the female advantage in unadjusted old-age mortality does not apply to contexts where women experience significant disadvantage across multiple life domains. This highlights the urgent need to redress the support, status and opportunities available for women across the life course in contexts such as the Nairobi slums. In addition, a greater number of factors differentiate mortality risk amongst men than amongst women, suggesting inequality amongst slum dwelling older men and highlighting the need for gender sensitive interventions which account for the particular needs of both genders in old age. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. The Development of a Postgraduate Orthopaedic Manual Therapy Residency Program in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Shala; Jackson, Richard; Muli, Daniel Kangutu; McFelea, Joni

    2017-01-01

    There are very few opportunities for long-term, comprehensive postgraduate education in developing countries because of fiscal and human resource constraints. Therefore, physiotherapists have little opportunity following graduation to advance their skills through the improvement of clinical reasoning and treatment planning and application. To address the need for sustainable advanced instruction in physiotherapy within the country, a postgraduate Residency program was initiated in Nairobi, Kenya in 2012. The mission of the program is to graduate advanced orthopedic practitioners who can lead their communities and local profession in the advancement of clinical care and education. Since its inception, six cohorts have been initiated for a total of 90 resident participants. In addition, six program graduates are being trained to continue the Residency program and are serving as teaching assistants for the on campus modules. This training will result in a self-sustaining program by 2020. The manual therapy Residency education model allowed for advancement of the participating physiotherapists professional development utilizing evidence-based practice. This was done without altering the current education system within the country, or accessing expensive equipment. The Residency program was developed and established with the cooperation of a local education institution and a non-profit corporation in the United States. This collaboration has facilitated the advancement of orthopedic clinical standards in the country and will, hopefully, one day serve an as a template for future programs.

  9. Water and sanitation service delivery, pricing, and the poor: An empirical estimate of subsidy incidence in Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuente, David; Gakii Gatua, Josephine; Ikiara, Moses; Kabubo-Mariara, Jane; Mwaura, Mbutu; Whittington, Dale

    2016-06-01

    The increasing block tariff (IBT) is among the most widely used tariffs by water utilities, particularly in developing countries. This is due in part to the perception that the IBT can effectively target subsidies to low-income households. Combining data on households' socioeconomic status and metered water use, this paper examines the distributional incidence of subsidies delivered through the IBT in Nairobi, Kenya. Contrary to conventional wisdom, we find that high-income residential and nonresidential customers receive a disproportionate share of subsidies and that subsidy targeting is poor even among households with a private metered connection. We also find that stated expenditure on water, a commonly used means of estimating water use, is a poor proxy for metered use and that previous studies on subsidy incidence underestimate the magnitude of the subsidy delivered through water tariffs. These findings have implications for both the design and evaluation of water tariffs in developing countries.

  10. Kenya AIDS Vaccine Initiative (KAVI) : un centre d'excellence en ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ce projet est une initiative conjointe de l'Université de Nairobi, au Kenya, et des universités du Manitoba et de Toronto, au Canada. L'objectif : faire de la Kenya AIDS Vaccine Initiative (KAVI) un centre d'excellence pour la formation aux essais de vaccins contre le VIH et à d'autres essais en matière de prévention à ...

  11. The challenges of human resources in mental health in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    University of Nairobi, Kenya & Director, Africa Mental Health Foundation. (AMHF) ... The ratios decline further when psychiatrists available for clinical work in public facilities are ..... health problems at the level they are trained to handle medical.

  12. Patterns of fertility preferences and contraceptive behaviour over time: change and continuities among the urban poor in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beguy, Donatien; Mberu, Blessing

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to investigate the association between fertility preferences and contraceptive use among 15-49-year-old women living in Korogocho and Viwandani, informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. We draw on longitudinal data collected under the Maternal and Child Health project conducted between 2006 and 2010 in the two settlements. There is substantial regularity and stability but also unusual instability in reported fertility preferences over time among women living in these settings. Younger women, aged 15-24 years, are likely to change their preferences over time, passing from limiting to wanting additional children. But women aged 35-49 are likely to change their preferences from desiring more children to limiting their childbearing. The desire to limit childbearing is strongly associated with the use of modern and long-acting contraceptive methods. Findings have major implications for the success of family planning programmes in informal settlements where access to and knowledge about contraception may be limited.

  13. The Development of a Postgraduate Orthopaedic Manual Therapy Residency Program in Nairobi, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shala Cunningham

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThere are very few opportunities for long-term, comprehensive postgraduate education in developing countries because of fiscal and human resource constraints. Therefore, physiotherapists have little opportunity following graduation to advance their skills through the improvement of clinical reasoning and treatment planning and application.BackgroundTo address the need for sustainable advanced instruction in physiotherapy within the country, a postgraduate Residency program was initiated in Nairobi, Kenya in 2012. The mission of the program is to graduate advanced orthopedic practitioners who can lead their communities and local profession in the advancement of clinical care and education. Since its inception, six cohorts have been initiated for a total of 90 resident participants. In addition, six program graduates are being trained to continue the Residency program and are serving as teaching assistants for the on campus modules. This training will result in a self-sustaining program by 2020.DiscussionThe manual therapy Residency education model allowed for advancement of the participating physiotherapists professional development utilizing evidence-based practice. This was done without altering the current education system within the country, or accessing expensive equipment.Concluding remarksThe Residency program was developed and established with the cooperation of a local education institution and a non-profit corporation in the United States. This collaboration has facilitated the advancement of orthopedic clinical standards in the country and will, hopefully, one day serve an as a template for future programs.

  14. The Role of HIV in the Household Introduction and Transmission of Influenza in an Urban Slum, Nairobi, Kenya, 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Michael C; Emukule, Gideon O; Njuguna, Henry; McMorrow, Meredith L; Arunga, Geoffrey O; Katz, Mark A; Montgomery, Joel M; Wong, Joshua M; Breiman, Robert F; Mott, Joshua A

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about how human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection affects influenza transmission within homes in sub-Saharan Africa. We used respiratory illness surveillance and HIV testing data gathered in Kibera, an urban slum in Nairobi, Kenya, to examine the impact of HIV status on (1) introducing influenza to the home and (2) transmitting influenza to household contacts. While HIV status did not affect the likelihood of being an influenza index case, household contacts of HIV-infected influenza index cases had twice the risk of developing secondary influenza-like illness than contacts of HIV-negative index cases. HIV-infected influenza index cases may facilitate transmission of influenza within the home. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  15. Kenya | Page 44 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Kenya's population is becoming increasingly urban; more than half of Nairobi's residents live in informal settlements (slums) plagued by cramped living conditions ... Organization (WHO) projects that NCDs such as cancer, diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease will be the most common cause of death in Africa.

  16. Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadrack, Anthony Kiti

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This project is based on studies of radiation doses received by radiation workers from sample of radiation facilities in Nairobi, Kenya, using TLD badges. Radiation doses received by workers during performance of a few types of radiological exposures and application of sealed and unsealed radionuclides have been measured at a number of x ray departments (diagnostic radiology), radiotherapy and nuclear medicine and training and research. Radiation dose measurements were based on thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) techniques, using the laboratory facilities of the National Radiation Protection Laboratory (NRPL) at KNH, in Nairobi, Kenya. Evaluation of doses from TLD badges exposed to X-rays and radioisotopes are discussed. Nuclear medicine recorded the highest dose as compared to Radiotherapy, Training and research and Diagnostic radiology. Age and gender have no relation with dose absorption. Yearly average dose seems to have been reducing from 2002 to 2005, representing an improvement in radiation protection. Overall, the results show that radiation workers in Kenya are working under safe environments since the doses received are within acceptable limits of radiation protection. The data presented in this research provides a database, which should serve as a useful reference for comparison with similar studies in the future. (author)

  17. Gender differences in health care-seeking behavior for sexually transmitted diseases: a population-based study in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voeten, Hélène A C M; O'hara, Hilda B; Kusimba, Judith; Otido, Julius M; Ndinya-Achola, Jeckoniah O; Bwayo, Job J; Varkevisser, Corlien M; Habbema, J Dik F

    2004-05-01

    Health care-seeking behavior for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is important in STD/HIV control. The goal of this study was to describe the proportion seeking care, patient delay, and choice of provider among men and women with STD-related complaints in Nairobi, Kenya. A population-based questionnaire was administered in 7 randomly selected clusters (small geographic areas covering approximately 150 households each). Of the 291 respondents reporting complaints, 20% of men versus 35% of women did not seek care, mainly because symptoms were not considered severe, symptoms had disappeared, or as a result of lack of money. Of those who sought care, women waited longer than men (41 vs. 16 days). Most men and women went to the private sector (72% and 57%, respectively), whereas the informal sector was rarely visited (13% and 16%, respectively). Relatively more women visited the government sector (28% vs. 15%). Because women were mostly monogamous, they did not relate their complaints to sexual intercourse, which hampered prompt care-seeking. Women should be convinced to seek care promptly, eg, through health education in communities.

  18. Maternal health care utilization in Nairobi and Ouagadougou: evidence from HDSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémentine Rossier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal mortality is higher and skilled attendance at delivery is lower in the slums of Nairobi (Kenya compared to Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso. Lower numbers of public health facilities, greater distance to facilities, and higher costs of maternal health services in Nairobi could explain these differences. Objective: By comparing the use of maternal health care services among women with similar characteristics in the two cities, we will produce a more nuanced picture of the contextual factors at play. Design: We use birth statistics collected between 2009 and 2011 in all households living in several poor neighborhoods followed by the Nairobi and the Ouagadougou Health and Demographic Surveillances Systems (n=3,346 and 4,239 births. We compare the socioeconomic characteristics associated with antenatal care (ANC use and deliveries at health facilities, controlling for demographic variables. Results: ANC use is greater in Nairobi than in Ouagadougou for every category of women. In Ouagadougou, there are few differentials in having at least one ANC visit and in delivering at a health facility; however, differences are observed for completing all four ANC visits. In Nairobi, less-educated, poorer, non-Kikuyu women, and women living in the neighborhood farther from public health services have poorer ANC and deliver more often outside of a health facility. Conclusions: These results suggest that women are more aware of the importance of ANC utilization in Nairobi compared to Ouagadougou. The presence of numerous for-profit health facilities within slums in Nairobi may also help women have all four ANC visits, although the services received may be of substandard quality. In Ouagadougou, the lack of socioeconomic differentials in having at least one ANC visit and in delivering at a health facility suggests that these practices stem from the application of well-enforced maternal health regulations; however, these regulations do not cover the

  19. Concern about HIV and AIDS among older people in the slums of Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepngeno-Langat, Gloria; Falkingham, Jane C; Madise, Nyovani J; Evandrou, Maria

    2012-09-01

    The article explores the way that social networks and personal experiences affect perceived HIV-related concerns among people aged 50 years or older living in a low resource neighborhood with high HIV prevalence in Nairobi, Kenya. Multiple logistic regression is used to model the association between the reporting of an HIV-related concern and individual-level characteristics, personal experiences, and social interaction. The main concerns regarding HIV reported by older people in the study included caring for orphaned children (65%), caring for people with AIDS (48%), and losing material and social support from adult children (36%). Interestingly, 38% of respondents voiced concerns about HIV infection among older people. Respondents who had been individually affected by HIV and AIDS, who were part of a wide social network, or who participated in community activities were frequently more likely to report a concern. The findings highlight the significance of the role of social interaction and social networks in the diffusion of information and knowledge. These findings have implications for HIV and AIDS policy and programs, highlighting the potential for social networks and community-level interventions to educate and increase awareness about HIV and AIDS among older people. Community leaders can make good peer educators and communication agents for HIV/AIDS campaigns. Additionally, the recognized high level of personal vulnerability to HIV infection among older people suggests the need for targeted sexual behavior change programs among this often neglected group. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Measuring The Impact Of Cash Transfers And Behavioral 'Nudges' On Maternity Care In Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jessica; Rothschild, Claire; Golub, Ginger; Omondi, George N; Kruk, Margaret E; McConnell, Margaret

    2017-11-01

    Many patients in low-income countries express preferences for high-quality health care but often end up with low-quality providers. We conducted a randomized controlled trial with pregnant women in Nairobi, Kenya, to analyze whether cash transfers, enhanced with behavioral "nudges," can help women deliver in facilities that are consistent with their preferences and are of higher quality. We tested two interventions. The first was a labeled cash transfer (LCT), which explained that the cash was to help women deliver where they wanted. The second was a cash transfer that combined labeling and a commitment by the recipient to deliver in a prespecified desired facility as a condition of receiving the final payment (L-CCT). The L-CCT improved patient-perceived quality of interpersonal care but not perceived technical quality of care. It also increased women's likelihood of delivering in facilities that met standards for routine and emergency newborn care but not the likelihood of delivering in facilities that met standards for obstetric care. The LCT had fewer measured benefits. Women preferred facilities with high technical and interpersonal care quality, but these quality measures were often negatively correlated within facilities. Even with cash transfers, many women still used poor-quality facilities. A larger study is warranted to determine whether the L-CCT can improve maternal and newborn outcomes.

  1. Informal settlements and a relational view of health in Nairobi, Kenya: sanitation, gender and dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corburn, Jason; Karanja, Irene

    2016-06-01

    On an urban planet, slums or informal settlements present an increasing challenge for health promotion. The living conditions in complex informal settlements interact with how people navigate through their daily lives and political institutions to shape health inequities. In this article, we suggest that only a relational place-based characterization of informal settlements can accurately capture the forces contributing to existing urban health inequities and inform appropriate and effective health promotion interventions. We explore our relational framework using household survey, spatial mapping and qualitative focus group data gathered in partnership with residents and non-governmental organizations in the Mathare informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. All data interpretation included participation with local residents and organizations. We focus on the inter-relationships between inadequate sanitation and disease, social, economic and human rights for women and girls, who we show are most vulnerable from poor slum infrastructure. We suggest that this collaborative process results in co-produced insights about the meanings and relationships between infrastructure, security, resilience and health. We conclude that complex informal settlements require relational and context-specific data gathering and analyses to understand the multiple determinants of health and to inform appropriate and effective healthy city interventions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Urban Youth speech Styles in Kenya and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorleijn, M; Mous, M.; Nortier, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we compare Urban Youth Speech Styles (UYSS’s) in Nairobi, Kenya (Kiessling and Mous 2004) and in the western parts of the Netherlands as it has been documented around the major cities of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Den Haag and Utrecht (Dorleijn and Nortier 2012 and references there).

  3. Blood donor haematology parameters in two regions of Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the status of blood donor haematology in two regional sites in Kenya and to assess the potential role of automated haematology in National blood bank process control. Design: A cross sectional descriptive study. Setting: Two regional blood banks - Nairobi and its environs (Blood Transfusion ...

  4. Volunteer motivators for participating in HIV vaccine clinical trials in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyaoke, Borna A; Mutua, Gaudensia N; Sajabi, Rose; Nyasani, Delvin; Mureithi, Marianne W; Anzala, Omu A

    2017-01-01

    1.5 million Kenyans are living with HIV/AIDS as per 2015 estimates. Though there is a notable decline in new HIV infections, continued effort is still needed to develop an efficacious, accessible and affordable HIV vaccine. HIV vaccine clinical trials bear risks, hence a need to understand volunteer motivators for enrolment, retention and follow-up. Understanding the factors that motivate volunteers to participate in a clinical trial can help to strategize, refine targeting and thus increase enrolment of volunteers in future HIV vaccine clinical trials. The health belief model classifies motivators into social benefits such as 'advancing research' and collaboration with science, and personal benefits such as health benefits and financial interests. A thematic analysis was carried out on data obtained from four HIV clinical trials conducted at KAVI-Institute of Clinical Research in Nairobi Kenya from 2009 to 2015. Responses were obtained from a Questionnaire administered to the volunteers during their screening visit at the research site. Of the 281 healthy, HIV-uninfected volunteers participating in this study; 38% were motivated by personal benefits including, 31% motivated by health benefits and 7% motivated by possible financial gains. In addition, 62% of the volunteers were motivated by social benefits with 20% of who were seeking to help their family/society/world while 42% were interested in advancing research. The majority of volunteers in the HIV vaccine trials at our site were motivated by social benefits, suggesting that altruism can be a major contributor to participation in HIV vaccine studies. Personal benefits were a secondary motivator for the volunteers. The motivators to volunteer in HIV clinical trials were similar across ages, education level and gender. Education on what is needed (including volunteer participation) to develop an efficacious vaccine could be the key to greater volunteer motivation to participate in HIV vaccine clinical trials.

  5. Volunteer motivators for participating in HIV vaccine clinical trials in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borna A Nyaoke

    Full Text Available 1.5 million Kenyans are living with HIV/AIDS as per 2015 estimates. Though there is a notable decline in new HIV infections, continued effort is still needed to develop an efficacious, accessible and affordable HIV vaccine. HIV vaccine clinical trials bear risks, hence a need to understand volunteer motivators for enrolment, retention and follow-up. Understanding the factors that motivate volunteers to participate in a clinical trial can help to strategize, refine targeting and thus increase enrolment of volunteers in future HIV vaccine clinical trials. The health belief model classifies motivators into social benefits such as 'advancing research' and collaboration with science, and personal benefits such as health benefits and financial interests.A thematic analysis was carried out on data obtained from four HIV clinical trials conducted at KAVI-Institute of Clinical Research in Nairobi Kenya from 2009 to 2015. Responses were obtained from a Questionnaire administered to the volunteers during their screening visit at the research site.Of the 281 healthy, HIV-uninfected volunteers participating in this study; 38% were motivated by personal benefits including, 31% motivated by health benefits and 7% motivated by possible financial gains. In addition, 62% of the volunteers were motivated by social benefits with 20% of who were seeking to help their family/society/world while 42% were interested in advancing research.The majority of volunteers in the HIV vaccine trials at our site were motivated by social benefits, suggesting that altruism can be a major contributor to participation in HIV vaccine studies. Personal benefits were a secondary motivator for the volunteers. The motivators to volunteer in HIV clinical trials were similar across ages, education level and gender. Education on what is needed (including volunteer participation to develop an efficacious vaccine could be the key to greater volunteer motivation to participate in HIV vaccine

  6. Surgical treatment of an umbilical hernia in a free-ranging sub-adult African elephant in Samburu National Reserve, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Kaitho, Titus; Mijele,Dominic; Njoroge,Michael

    2015-01-01

    Domnic Mijele, Michael Njoroge, Titus Kaitho Veterinary Services Department, Species Conservation and Management Division, Kenya Wildlife Service, Nairobi, Kenya Abstract: A 10-year-old male African elephant (Loxodonta africana) at Samburu National Reserve in Northern Kenya, weighing approximately 1,600 kg, presented with an umbilical hernia in October 2013. Umbilical herniorrhaphy was carried out under field conditions. Anesthesia was induced and maintained using etorphine hydrochloride for...

  7. Situational Analysis of Tobacco Control in Kenya | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... convened stakeholder meetings, and identified priorities. Kenya has identified enforcement of a smoke-free Nairobi as its first priority, and countering indirect advertising as its second. This project will conduct research, build capacity, create awareness, enlist stakeholder support and advance strategies in support of these ...

  8. Consumer awareness and attitudes toward GM foods in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of 604 consumers was conducted in Nairobi, Kenya, in November and December 2003, at three points of sale (supermarkets, kiosks, and posho mills) to determine consumer awareness and attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods. Above a third (38%) of the respondents were aware of GM crops, mostly ...

  9. Status of the Potato Processing Industry in Kenya: Result of a Survey in Nairobi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walingo, A.M.; Kabira, J.N.; Ewell, P.T.

    1999-01-01

    A survey conducted in Nairobi showed that potato chips (French fries)and potato crisps (Chips) were the most common potato products on the market. Potato varieties preferred for the preparations of potato chips were the long types, mainly Nyayo (41%) and Roslin tana (38%). The Red-skinned Kerr's pink (22%) and white-skinned Dutch Robijn (78%) were preferred for crisps. Processors for crisps are more demanding on the quality and types of fresh potatoes used than crisps. Tuber immaturity was a common problem adversely affecting processors' profit margins due to high oil absorption particularly in chips, now a common lunch-time snack in Nairobi. The quality of products on the market could be improved further

  10. United Nations Climate Change Conference. Nairobi 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Kenya hosted the second meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (COP/MOP 2), in conjunction with the twelfth session of the Conference of the Parties to the Climate Change Convention (COP 12), in Nairobi from 6 to 17 November 2006. The conference also included, from 6 to 14 November, the twenty-fifth session of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA 25), the twenty-fifth session of the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI 25), and the second session of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG 2) including an in-session workshop. The site contains many of the reports and documents relevant to the conference

  11. A rapid assessment of drinking water quality in informal settlements after a cholera outbreak in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Elizabeth; Wilhelm, Natalie; O'Reilly, Ciara; Muhonja, Everline; Karoki, Solomon; Ope, Maurice; Langat, Daniel; Omolo, Jared; Wamola, Newton; Oundo, Joseph; Hoekstra, Robert; Ayers, Tracy; De Cock, Kevin; Breiman, Robert; Mintz, Eric; Lantagne, Daniele

    2015-09-01

    Populations living in informal settlements with inadequate water and sanitation infrastructure are at risk of epidemic disease. In 2010, we conducted 398 household surveys in two informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya with isolated cholera cases. We tested source and household water for free chlorine residual (FCR) and Escherichia coli in approximately 200 households. International guidelines are ≥0.5 mg/L FCR at source, ≥0.2 mg/L at household, and settlements, 82% and 38% of water sources met FCR guidelines; and 7% and 8% were contaminated with E. coli, respectively. In household stored water, 82% and 35% met FCR guidelines and 11% and 32% were contaminated with E. coli, respectively. Source water FCR≥0.5 mg/L (p=0.003) and reported purchase of a household water treatment product (p=0.002) were associated with increases in likelihood that household stored water had ≥0.2 mg/L FCR, which was associated with a lower likelihood of E. coli contamination (psettlements is universally poor and the route of disease transmission, and highlight that providing centralized water with ≥0.5 mg/L FCR or (if not feasible) household water treatment technologies reduces the risk of waterborne cholera transmission in informal settlements.

  12. Exploring the barriers to health care and psychosocial challenges in cervical cancer management in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngutu M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mariah Ngutu, Isaac K Nyamongo Institute of Anthropology, Gender and African Studies (IAGAS, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya Abstract: Cervical cancer is the most frequent cancer among women aged between 15 years and 44 years in Kenya, resulting in an estimated 4,802 women being diagnosed with cervical cancer and 2,451 dying from the disease annually. It is often detected at its advanced invasive stages, resulting in a protracted illness upon diagnosis. This qualitative study looked at the illness trajectories of women living with cervical cancer enrolled for follow-up care at Kenyatta National Hospital cancer treatment center and the Nairobi Hospice, both in Nairobi county, Kenya. Using the qualitative phenomenological approach, data were collected through 18 in-depth interviews with women living with cervical cancer between April and July 2011. In-depth interviews with their caregivers, key informant interviews with health care workers, and participant observation field notes were used to provide additional qualitative data. These data were analyzed based on grounded theory’s inductive approach. Two key themes on which the data analysis was then anchored were identified, namely, psychosocial challenges of cervical cancer and structural barriers to quality health care. Findings indicated a prolonged illness trajectory with psychosocial challenges, fueled by structural barriers that women were faced with after a cervical cancer diagnosis. To address issues relevant to the increasing numbers of women with cervical cancer, research studies need to include larger samples of these women. Also important are studies that allow in-depth understanding of the experiences of women living with cervical cancer. Keywords: qualitative, illness trajectories, women, cervical cancer

  13. Women's experiences with unplanned pregnancy and abortion in Kenya: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaweera, Ruvani T; Ngui, Felistah Mbithe; Hall, Kelli Stidham; Gerdts, Caitlin

    2018-01-01

    Safe and legal abortions are rarely practiced in the public health sector in Kenya, and rates of maternal mortality and morbidity from unsafe abortion is high. Little is known about women's experiences seeking and accessing abortion in informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. Seven focus group discussions were conducted with a total of 71 women and girls recruited from an informal settlement in Nairobi. The interview guide explored participants' perceptions of unplanned pregnancy, abortion, and access to sexual and reproductive health information in their community. Thematic analysis of the focus group transcripts was conducted using MAX QDA Release 12. Participants described a variety of factors that influence women's experiences with abortion in their communities. According to participants, limited knowledge of sexual and reproductive health information and lack of access to contraception led to unplanned pregnancy among women in their community. Participants cited stigma and loss of opportunities that women with unplanned pregnancies face as the primary reasons why women seek abortions. Participants articulated stigma as the predominant barrier women in their communities face to safe abortion. Other barriers, which were often interrelated to stigma, included lack of education about safe methods of abortion, perceived illegality of abortion, as well as limited access to services, fear of mistreatment, and mistrust of health providers and facilities. Women in informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya face substantial barriers to regulating their fertility and lack access to safe abortion. Policy makers and reproductive health advocates should support programs that employ harm reduction strategies and increase women's knowledge of and access to medication abortion outside the formal healthcare system.

  14. Capacity Development of Youth in Geospatial Tools for Addressing Climate Change in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubea, K.; Kasera, K.; Maina, C.

    2017-12-01

    SERVIR E&SA builds on the institutional partnerships and networks in Eastern and Southern Africa together with the network and partnerships associated with USAID country missions in the region. The RCMRD Space Challenge was meant to equip students from high/secondary schools and primary schools within Kenya and beyond with the necessary skills and awareness in relation to environmental degradation, climate change and its drivers. Furthermore, this contributes to the achievement of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), developing the youth in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) and ultimately contributing to capacity building of the youth with the objective of promoting sustainable development. RCMRD partnered with GLOBE Program Kenya, 4-H Kenya and Esri Eastern Africa in this endeavor. The challenge involved students from seven schools analyzing data from automatic weather stations and plotting the results against other location of schools. The students were required to use TAHMO Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) normalized atmospheric data provided by GLOBE, TAHMO and RCMRD. The three parameters, humidity, precipitation and temperature were found to be very closely related. The students generated graphs that were obtained from the normalized data for the five climatic zones in Kenya. Nasokol Girls School located at Kishaunet in West Pokot County (Kenya) emerged the winners followed by St. Scholastica Catholic Primary School in Nairobi, and Moi Forces Academy Nairobi. The students were urged to utilize the knowledge acquired to address challenges related to climate change. RCMRD Space Challenge will be held annually in Kenya in collaboration with partners.

  15. Kenya | Page 84 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La collecte de données dans les bidonvilles de Nairobi, au Kenya, peut être une opération dangereuse. Les recenseurs qui recueillent de l'information sur les ménages à l'aide du système de surveillance démographique (SSD) de l'African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC) risquent régulièrement de se ...

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2016-06-07

    Jun 7, 2016 ... Nicholas Muraguri1, Robert Davis3. 1Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya, 2World Health Organization, Nairobi, Kenya, 3American Red Cross, Nairobi, Kenya. &Corresponding author: Ian Njeru, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya. Key words: Polio vaccine, vaccination, vaccine safety, boycott, Catholic bishops.

  17. Community radio and peace-building in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    and interviews with community radio practitioners conducted between 2007 and 2013, and addresses the following questions: How do the community radio stations work during elections – times of increased tensions? How do they discourage ethnic violence in their community? How is participation used in order to bring......In December 2007, violence broke out after the disputed general election in Kenya, which resulted in the death of 1100 Kenyans and left more than 660,000 displaced. Reports criticised media, especially vernacular media, for inflating the violence by using hate speech and incitement to violence......, and suggested that Kenya would benefit from more community media to prevent history from repeating itself. This article focuses on how Koch FM and Pamoja FM, two community radio stations in Nairobi, Kenya, worked during the 2007–08 tumult and 2013 general election. The article is based on observations...

  18. Implications of high-/low-context communication for target audience member interpretation of messages in the Nimechill abstinence campaign in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraya, Julie Gathoni; Neville Miller, Ann; Mjomba, Leonard

    2011-09-01

    Although it ran on multiple mass media for the better part of a year, end line evaluation of the Nimechill youth abstinence campaign in Kenya indicated that exposure to the campaign had no relationship to youth decisions to defer sexual debut. One possible explanation of this lack of association could be that target audience members derived inconsistent and confusing meanings from visuals as opposed to text in the campaign. Employing Hall's concept of high- and low-context communication, we assessed target population interpretation of four campaign posters via 12 focus-group discussions and four individual in-depth interviews with Nairobi youth. We found that although participants endorsed and recognized campaign objectives, contextual cues in some campaign visuals were interpreted by participants as being contradictory to the abstinence message in the poster texts. In addition noticeable differences arose between the low-income and middle-/high-income groups in interpretation of one of the posters. We conclude with recommendations regarding use of visuals in high-context cultures and involvement of youth from various socioeconomic strata in campaign planning.

  19. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of single-dose ciprofloxacin versus erythromycin for the treatment of chancroid in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malonza, I M; Tyndall, M W; Ndinya-Achola, J O; Maclean, I; Omar, S; MacDonald, K S; Perriens, J; Orle, K; Plummer, F A; Ronald, A R; Moses, S

    1999-12-01

    A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in Nairobi, Kenya, to compare single-dose ciprofloxacin with a 7-day course of erythromycin for the treatment of chancroid. In all, 208 men and 37 women presenting with genital ulcers clinically compatible with chancroid were enrolled. Ulcer etiology was determined using culture techniques for chancroid, serology for syphilis, and a multiplex polymerase chain reaction for chancroid, syphilis, and herpes simplex virus (HSV). Ulcer etiology was 31% unmixed chancroid, 23% unmixed syphilis, 16% unmixed HSV, 15% mixed etiology, and 15% unknown. For 111 participants with chancroid, cure rates were 92% with ciprofloxacin and 91% with erythromycin. For all study participants, the treatment failure rate was 15%, mostly related to ulcer etiologies of HSV infection or syphilis, and treatment failure was 3 times more frequent in human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects than in others, mostly owing to HSV infection. Ciprofloxacin is an effective single-dose treatment for chancroid, but current recommendations for empiric therapy of genital ulcers may result in high treatment failure due to HSV infection.

  20. Towards a national policy on wastewater reuse in Kenya | Kaluli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potable water for irrigation and industrial use is generally unavailable, and this calls for alternative water sources. Despite use of wastewater being illegal in Kenya, it is used to irrigate over 720 ha in Nairobi. In order to justify the formulation of a national policy to support wastewater reuse, secondary data which included the ...

  1. THE REPRISAL ATTACKS BY AL-SHABAAB AGAINST KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O.S.ODHIAMBO

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The incursion of Kenya Defence Forces (KDF into Somalia was met by a series of threats from the Al-Shabaab that it would increase the attacks against Kenya if the troops were not withdrawn. The capture of Kismayu by KDF has weakened the nerve of Al-Shabaab but has not eliminated the imminent danger of a substantive terror attack. Since the incursion by KDF, Kenya has succumbed to a sequence of grenade and Improvised Explosive Devices attacks, roadside bombs, landmines and raids by fighters using small arms and light weapons and Rocket Propelled Grenades against Kenyans mostly in North Eastern, Coastal and Nairobi counties, marking the resurgence of terrorism in the country. We argue that Kenya is more vulnerable to Al-Shabaab terrorists attack than before the KDF incursion by citing the frequencies of reprisal attacks from October 2011 to January 2013. Hence, our troops should be withdrawn and deployed within our boundary.

  2. Women's experiences with unplanned pregnancy and abortion in Kenya: A qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruvani T Jayaweera

    Full Text Available Safe and legal abortions are rarely practiced in the public health sector in Kenya, and rates of maternal mortality and morbidity from unsafe abortion is high. Little is known about women's experiences seeking and accessing abortion in informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya.Seven focus group discussions were conducted with a total of 71 women and girls recruited from an informal settlement in Nairobi. The interview guide explored participants' perceptions of unplanned pregnancy, abortion, and access to sexual and reproductive health information in their community. Thematic analysis of the focus group transcripts was conducted using MAX QDA Release 12.Participants described a variety of factors that influence women's experiences with abortion in their communities. According to participants, limited knowledge of sexual and reproductive health information and lack of access to contraception led to unplanned pregnancy among women in their community. Participants cited stigma and loss of opportunities that women with unplanned pregnancies face as the primary reasons why women seek abortions. Participants articulated stigma as the predominant barrier women in their communities face to safe abortion. Other barriers, which were often interrelated to stigma, included lack of education about safe methods of abortion, perceived illegality of abortion, as well as limited access to services, fear of mistreatment, and mistrust of health providers and facilities.Women in informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya face substantial barriers to regulating their fertility and lack access to safe abortion. Policy makers and reproductive health advocates should support programs that employ harm reduction strategies and increase women's knowledge of and access to medication abortion outside the formal healthcare system.

  3. Determinants of immunization inequality among urban poor children: evidence from Nairobi's informal settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egondi, Thaddaeus; Oyolola, Maharouf; Mutua, Martin Kavao; Elung'ata, Patricia

    2015-02-27

    Despite the relentless efforts to reduce infant and child mortality with the introduction of the National Expanded Programmes on Immunization (EPI) in 1974, major disparities still exist in immunizations coverage across different population sub-groups. In Kenya, for instance, while the proportion of fully immunized children increased from 57% in 2003 to 77% in 2008-9 at national level and 73% in Nairobi, only 58% of children living in informal settlement areas are fully immunized. The study aims to determine the degree and determinants of immunization inequality among the urban poor of Nairobi. We used data from the Nairobi Cross-Sectional Slum Survey of 2012 and the health outcome was full immunization status among children aged 12-23 months. The wealth index was used as a measure of social economic position for inequality analysis. The potential determinants considered included sex of the child and mother's education, their occupation, age at birth of the child, and marital status. The concentration index (CI) was used to quantify the degree of inequality and decomposition approach to assess determinants of inequality in immunization. The CI for not fully immunized was -0.08 indicating that immunization inequality is mainly concentrated among children from poor families. Decomposition of the results suggests that 78% of this inequality is largely explained by the mother's level of education. There exists immunization inequality among urban poor children in Nairobi and efforts to reduce this inequality should aim at targeting mothers with low level of education during immunization campaigns.

  4. Effectiveness of a LED flashlight technique in reducing livestock depredation by lions (Panthera leo around Nairobi National Park, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Lesilau

    Full Text Available The global lion (Panthera leo population decline is partly a result of retaliatory killing in response to livestock depredation. Nairobi National Park (NNP is a small protected area in Kenya surrounded by a human-dominated landscape. Communities around the park use flashlights to deter lions from their livestock bomas. We investigated the response by lions to the installation of a LED flashlight technique during 2007-2016.We interviewed 80 owners of livestock bomas with flashlights (n = 43 and without (n = 37 flashlights in the surroundings of NNP and verified reported attacks on bomas against predation data over10 years. The frequency of attacks on bomas equipped with flashlights was significantly lower compared to bomas without flashlights. We also found that after flashlight installation at livestock bomas, lion attacks took place further away from the park edge, towards areas where bomas without flashlights were still present. With increased numbers of flashlight installations at bomas in recent years, we further noticed a shift from nocturnal to more diurnal predation incidences. Our study shows that the LED flashlight technique is effective in reducing nocturnal livestock predation at bomas by lions. Long term studies on the effects as well as expansion of this technique into other communities around NNP are recommended.

  5. Effectiveness of a LED flashlight technique in reducing livestock depredation by lions (Panthera leo) around Nairobi National Park, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesilau, Francis; Fonck, Myrthe; Gatta, Maria; Musyoki, Charles; van 't Zelfde, Maarten; Persoon, Gerard A; Musters, Kees C J M; de Snoo, Geert R; de Iongh, Hans H

    2018-01-01

    The global lion (Panthera leo) population decline is partly a result of retaliatory killing in response to livestock depredation. Nairobi National Park (NNP) is a small protected area in Kenya surrounded by a human-dominated landscape. Communities around the park use flashlights to deter lions from their livestock bomas. We investigated the response by lions to the installation of a LED flashlight technique during 2007-2016.We interviewed 80 owners of livestock bomas with flashlights (n = 43) and without (n = 37) flashlights in the surroundings of NNP and verified reported attacks on bomas against predation data over10 years. The frequency of attacks on bomas equipped with flashlights was significantly lower compared to bomas without flashlights. We also found that after flashlight installation at livestock bomas, lion attacks took place further away from the park edge, towards areas where bomas without flashlights were still present. With increased numbers of flashlight installations at bomas in recent years, we further noticed a shift from nocturnal to more diurnal predation incidences. Our study shows that the LED flashlight technique is effective in reducing nocturnal livestock predation at bomas by lions. Long term studies on the effects as well as expansion of this technique into other communities around NNP are recommended.

  6. Air pollution in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karue, J.; Kinyua, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    This work will look into PM-10 particulate matter collected from Nairobi City, Kenya (metropolitan city) and the remote forest on Mount Kenya (Timau Hills 3,875 m) for background monitoring. Previous work was done along the roadside, where total suspended particulate matter was collected and zinc, lead, and bromine were identified as highly enriched elements. The nine elements analyzed by EDXRF were found to account for 20% of the total mass. In this work we hope to account for more mass by including AAS and ion chromatography in the analytical methods. Indoor (industrial) samples will also be collected using Personal Samplers with a PM-10 Cyclone Head. Receptor modelling will be done taking into account the indoor data. Variations of the data with seasons and changes in weather will be analyzed. The background data will be used to assess long-range transfer of particulate. (author). 12 refs, 1 fig

  7. Interlinkage among cardio-metabolic disease markers in an urban poor setting in Nairobi, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun Nigatu Haregu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The main cardio-metabolic diseases – mostly cardiovascular diseases such as stroke and ischemic heart disease – share common clinical markers such as raised blood pressure and blood glucose. The pathways of development of many of these conditions are also interlinked. In this regard, a higher level of co-occurrence of the main cardio-metabolic disease markers is expected. Evidence about the patterns of occurrence of cardio-metabolic markers and their interlinkage in the sub-Saharan African setting is inadequate. Objective: The goal of the study was to describe the interlinkage among common cardio-metabolic disease markers in an African setting. Design: We used data collected in a cross-sectional study from 5,190 study participants as part of cardiovascular disease risk assessment in the urban slums of Nairobi, Kenya. Five commonly used clinical markers of cardio-metabolic conditions were considered in this analysis. These markers were waist circumference, blood pressure, random blood glucose, total blood cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. Patterns of these markers were described using means, standard deviations, and proportions. The associations between the markers were determined using odds ratios. Results: The weighted prevalence of central obesity, hypertension, hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia were 12.3%, 7.0%, 2.5%, 10.3%, and 17.3%, respectively. Women had a higher prevalence of central obesity and hypercholesterolemia as compared to men. Blood glucose was strongly associated with central obesity, blood pressure, and triglyceride levels, whereas the association between blood glucose and total blood cholesterol was not statistically significant. Conclusions: This study shows that most of the common cardio-metabolic markers are interlinked, suggesting a higher probability of comorbidity due to cardio-metabolic conditions and thus the need for integrated approaches.

  8. In vitro anti-viral activity of aqueous extracts of Kenyan Carissa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    University, Kagoshima, Japan. 6. Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi,. Kenya. 7. Institute of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Diseases (ITROMID), Nairobi, Kenya. * Author for correspondence: P.O. Box 54840-00200, Nairobi, Kenya.,E. Mail:ftolo@kemri.org. SUMMARY. The aqueous extracts of ...

  9. Street Children and The Work Ethic: New Policy for an Old Moral, Nairobi (Kenya)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droz, Yvan

    2006-01-01

    Kenyan policy-makers use the language of children's rights to legitimize, within the new global political order, an old colonial concern about controlling the urban marginal population. The local business community's worries about the safety of Nairobi's streets stand paramount, while the growing financial and political leverage of NGOs…

  10. Evaluation of fleroxacin (RO 23-6240) as single-oral-dose therapy of culture-proven chancroid in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, K S; Cameron, D W; D'Costa, L; Ndinya-Achola, J O; Plummer, F A; Ronald, A R

    1989-01-01

    Chancroid is gaining importance as a sexually transmitted disease because of its association with transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Effective, simply administered therapy for chancroid is necessary. Fleroxacin is effective against Haemophilus ducreyi in vitro. We performed an initial randomized clinical trial to assess the efficacy of fleroxacin for treatment of chancroid in Nairobi, Kenya. Fifty-three men with culture-positive chancroid were randomly assigned to receive either 200 mg (group 1) or 400 mg (group 2) of fleroxacin as a single oral dose. Groups 1 and 2 were similar with regard to severity of disease, bubo formation, and HIV-1 status. A satisfactory clinical response to therapy was noted in 23 of 26 patients (88%) in group 1 and 18 of 23 patients (78%) in group 2. Bacteriological failure occurred in 1 of 26 evaluable patients (4%) in group 1 and 4 of 23 evaluable patients (17%) in group 2. Two of 37 HIV-1-seronegative men (5%) and 3 of 11 HIV-1-infected men (27%) were bacteriological failures. Fleroxacin, 200 or 400 mg as a single oral dose, is efficacious therapy for microbiologically proven chancroid in patients who do not have concurrent HIV-1 infection. Among HIV-1-infected men, a single dose of 200 or 400 mg of fleroxacin is inadequate therapy for chancroid. PMID:2502065

  11. Outcome mapping for fostering and measuring change in risk management behaviour among urban dairy farmers in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyangaga, Julius N; Grace, Delia; Kimani, Violet; Kiragu, Monica W; Langat, Alfred K; Mbugua, Gabriel; Mitoko, Grace; Kang'ethe, Erastus K

    2012-09-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate and mitigate the risk from zoonotic Cryptosporidium associated with dairy farming in Dagoretti division, Nairobi, Kenya. Outcome mapping (OM), a relatively new tool for planning and evaluation, was used to foster and then monitor changes in farmer management of health risks. Elements of the OM framework, including the vision, mission and expected progress markers, were developed in participatory sessions and a set of progress markers was used for monitoring behaviour change in farmers participating in the project (the boundary partners). Behaviour change (the outcome challenge) was supported by a range of awareness and educational campaigns, working with strategic partners (extension agents and administrative leaders). The farmers the project worked with made considerable progress according to the markers; they demonstrated an understanding of cryptosporidiosis, established or maintained clean and well drained cattle sheds, and took conscious effort to reduce possible infection. Farmers who did not participate in the project (non-contact farmers) were found to be less advanced on the progress marker indicators. Non-contact farmers who carried out risk-reducing practices had done so independently of the project team. The administration leaders, as strategic partners, had a positive attitude towards the project and confidence in their ability to support project objectives. The study demonstrates the utility of OM in helping to identify and support behavioural change.

  12. Repeat use of emergency contraceptive pills in urban Kenya and Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin-Quee, Dawn; L'Engle, Kelly; Otterness, Conrad; Mercer, Sarah; Chen, Mario

    2014-09-01

    Little is known about the frequency and patterns of use of emergency contraceptive pills among women in urban Kenya and Nigeria. To recruit women who had used emergency contraceptive pills, individuals aged 18-49 were intercepted and interviewed at shopping venues in Nairobi, Kenya, and Lagos, Nigeria, in 2011. Information was collected on 539 Nairobi and 483 Lagos respondents' demographic and behavioral characteristics, attitudes toward the method, and frequency of use. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to identify associations between these characteristics and frequency of pill use. Eighteen percent of the women interviewed in Nairobi and 17% in Lagos had ever used emergency contraceptive pills. On average, these respondents had used the pills less than once per month, but greater use and acceptance were seen in Lagos. In multivariate analysis, women who had sex at least once in a typical week were generally more likely than others to have used the pills 2-5 times in the last six months, rather than once or never, or to have used them six or more times. Furthermore, Lagos respondents who said their main contraceptive method was the condom, the pill or injectable, or a natural method were generally less likely than those who did not report these methods to have used the emergency pills multiple times in the last six months. Repeated use of emergency contraceptive pills was not common in this sample.

  13. Real or perceived: the environmental health risks of urban sack gardening in Kibera slums of Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaher, Courtney Maloof; Mwaniki, Dennis; Njenga, Mary; Karanja, Nancy K; WinklerPrins, Antoinette M G A

    2013-03-01

    Cities around the world are undergoing rapid urbanization, resulting in the growth of informal settlements or slums. These informal settlements lack basic services, including sanitation, and are associated with joblessness, low-income levels, and insecurity. Families living in such settlements may turn to a variety of strategies to improve their livelihoods and household food security, including urban agriculture. However, given the lack of formal sanitation services in most of these informal settlements, residents are frequently exposed to a number of environmental risks, including biological and chemical contaminants. In the Kibera slums of Nairobi, Kenya, households practice a form of urban agriculture called sack gardening, or vertical gardening, where plants such as kale and Swiss chard are planted into large sacks filled with soil. Given the nature of farming in slum environments, farmers and consumers of this produce in Kibera are potentially exposed to a variety of environmental contaminants due to the lack of formal sanitation systems. Our research demonstrates that perceived and actual environmental risks, in terms of contamination of food crops from sack gardening, are not the same. Farmers perceived exposure to biological contaminants to be the greatest risk to their food crops, but we found that heavy metal contamination was also significant risk. By demonstrating this disconnect between risk perception and actual risk, we wish to inform debates about how to appropriately promote urban agriculture in informal settlements, and more generally about the trade-offs created by farming in urban spaces.

  14. Association between household food security and infant feeding practices in urban informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macharia, T N; Ochola, S; Mutua, M K; Kimani-Murage, E W

    2018-02-01

    Studies in urban informal settlements show widespread inappropriate infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices and high rates of food insecurity. This study assessed the association between household food security and IYCF practices in two urban informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. The study adopted a longitudinal design that involved a census sample of 1110 children less than 12 months of age and their mothers aged between 12 and 49 years. A questionnaire was used to collect information on: IYCF practices and household food security. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between food insecurity and IYFC practices. The findings showed high household food insecurity; only 19.5% of the households were food secure based on Household Insecurity Access Score. Infant feeding practices were inappropriate: 76% attained minimum meal frequency; 41% of the children attained a minimum dietary diversity; and 27% attained minimum acceptable diet. With the exception of the minimum meal frequency, infants living in food secure households were significantly more likely to achieve appropriate infant feeding practices than those in food insecure households: minimum meal frequency (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.26, P=0.530); minimum dietary diversity (AOR=1.84, P=0.046) and minimum acceptable diet (AOR=2.35, P=0.008). The study adds to the existing body of knowledge by demonstrating an association between household food security and infant feeding practices in low-income settings. The findings imply that interventions aimed at improving infant feeding practices and ultimately nutritional status need to also focus on improving household food security.

  15. A Reasoned Action Model of Male Client Involvement in Commercial Sex Work in Kibera, A Large Informal Settlement in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Eric Abella; Ngugi, Elizabeth; Benoit, Cecilia; Jansson, Mikael; Hallgrimsdottir, Helga

    2014-01-01

    Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) are epidemiologically important because they can form bridge groups linking high- and low-risk subpopulations. However, because male clients are hard to locate, they are not frequently studied. Recent research emphasizes searching for high-risk behavior groups in locales where new sexual partnerships form and the threat of HIV transmission is high. Sub-Saharan Africa public drinking venues satisfy these criteria. Accordingly, this study developed and implemented a rapid assessment methodology to survey men in bars throughout the large informal settlement of Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya, with the goal of delineating cultural and economic rationales associated with male participation in commercial sex. The study sample consisted of 220 male patrons of 110 bars located throughout Kibera's 11 communities. Logistic regression analysis incorporating a modified Reasoned Action Model indicated that a social norm condoning commercial sex among male peers and the cultural belief that men should practice sex before marriage support commercial sex involvement. Conversely, lacking money to drink and/or pay for sexual services were barriers to male commercial sex involvement. Results are interpreted in light of possible harm reduction programs focusing on FSWs' male clients.

  16. Determinants of the place of sell and price of kale for Kiambu, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salasya, B.D.S.; Burger, C.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Kale is a major source of cash for many households in Kenya. A study of households in Kiambu district revealed that kale made the highest contribution to household income among the crops. The farmers of Kiambu sell their kale either in Nairobi, at farm gate, or at the local market and fetch

  17. Trends in childhood mortality in Kenya: The urban advantage has seemingly been wiped out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimani-Murage, E.W.; Fotso, J.C.; Egondi, T.; Abuya, B.; Elungata, P.; Ziraba, A.K.; Kabiru, C.W.; Madise, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background We describe trends in childhood mortality in Kenya, paying attention to the urban–rural and intra-urban differentials. Methods We use data from the Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys (KDHS) collected between 1993 and 2008 and the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS) collected in two Nairobi slums between 2003 and 2010, to estimate infant mortality rate (IMR), child mortality rate (CMR) and under-five mortality rate (U5MR). Results Between 1993 and 2008, there was a downward trend in IMR, CMR and U5MR in both rural and urban areas. The decline was more rapid and statistically significant in rural areas but not in urban areas, hence the gap in urban–rural differentials narrowed over time. There was also a downward trend in childhood mortality in the slums between 2003 and 2010 from 83 to 57 for IMR, 33 to 24 for CMR, and 113 to 79 for U5MR, although the rates remained higher compared to those for rural and non-slum urban areas in Kenya. Conclusions The narrowing gap between urban and rural areas may be attributed to the deplorable living conditions in urban slums. To reduce childhood mortality, extra emphasis is needed on the urban slums. PMID:25024120

  18. Nutritional and oral health status of an elderly population in Nairobi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngatia, E M; Gathece, L W; Macigo, F G; Mulli, T K; Mutara, L N; Wagaiyu, E G

    2008-08-01

    To determine the nutrition and oral health status of elderly persons in Nairobi, Kenya. A cross-sectional study. Households in Dagoretti Division of Nairobi. Two hundred and eighty nine persons (29.8% males and 70.2% females) aged 45 years and above were assessed. The level of malnutrition using the mid upper arm circumference was 18.8% while by body mass index was 11.4%. Of the population assessed, 46.4% had normal nutritional status while 40.9% were overweight, with more females (48.0%) than males (25.9%) being overweight. The study established that many of the elderly persons suffered from dental problems, especially periodontitis with 89.9% having dental plaque, calculus 85.6%, gingival recession 82.5% and bleeding gums 77.4%. The decayed index missing and filled teeth, was 7.173 with 19.7% caries free, 51.9% reported tooth mobility and edentulousness was common. Under-nutrition, obesity and dental problems are issues of concern among the elderly. There is need to develop policies that will look into the nutrition and dental health of the elderly in order to improve their welfare.

  19. The influence of traditional medicine and religion on discontinuation of ART in an urban informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unge, Christian; Ragnarsson, Anders; Ekström, Anna Mia; Indalo, Dorcus; Belita, Alice; Carter, Jane; Ilako, Festus; Södergård, Björn

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the influence of traditional medicine and religion on discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in one of Africa's largest informal urban settlement, Kibera, in Nairobi, Kenya. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 20 patients discontinuing the African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF) ART program in Kibera due to issues related to traditional medicine and religion. Traditional medicine and religion remain important in many people's lives after ART initiation, but these issues are rarely addressed in a positive way during ART counseling. Many patients found traditional medicine and their religious beliefs to be in conflict with clinic treatment advice. Patients described a decisional process, prior to the actual drop-out from the ART program that involved a trigger event, usually a specific religious event, or a meeting with someone using traditional medicine that influenced them to take the decision to stop ART. Discontinuation of ART could be reduced if ART providers acknowledged and addressed the importance of religious issues and traditional medicine in the lives of patients, especially in similar resource-poor settings. Telling patients not to mix ART and traditional medicine appeared counter-productive in this setting. Introducing an open discussion around religious beliefs and the pros and cons of traditional medicine as part of standard counseling, may prevent drop-out from ART when side effects or opportunistic infections occur.

  20. Le Kenya nomme le titulaire de sa première chaire de recherche

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    14 avr. 2016 ... De concert avec le CRDI, la National Commission for Science, Technology and Innovation (NACOSTI) du Kenya a inauguré sa première chaire de recherche à Nairobi, le 31 mars 2015. Le professeur Fabian Omoding Esamai, qui dirige actuellement le College of Health Sciences de la Moi University, a été ...

  1. Les parlements du peuple au Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Despite the adoption of a new constitution in 2010, the post-election violence surrounding the flawed 2007 General Elections have fuelled on-going debates in Kenya about a state of political crisis and fragile democracy. Comparing two street parliaments from Eldoret and Nairobi in the context...... of electoral failure and constitutional reform, this paper investigates dynamics of political participation from below. The street parliaments form arenas for oral debates where speakers and participants collectively engage in the intentional shaping of spaces of speech. Inspired by the work of Karin Barber...

  2. Kenya | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le développement ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le Kenya est depuis longtemps le centre économique de l'Afrique de l'Est. Cependant, malgré des progrès économiques considérables au cours de la dernière décennie, la pauvreté et des inégalités persistent. Le bureau du CRDI à Nairobi est le point central des efforts du Centre en Afrique subsaharienne et il supervise ...

  3. Technical Knowledge and Skills Development in the Informal Sector in Kenya: The Case of Custom Tailors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apunda, Edwinah Amondi; de Klerk, Helena M.; Ogina, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Custom tailors working in the informal sector in Nairobi, Kenya, mainly acquire technical skills through undertaking traditional apprenticeships (TAs). However, most of these tailors are semi-skilled, produce low-quality products and are often poorer than their formally trained counterparts. This qualitative case study explores the aspects of…

  4. Outcomes and costs of implementing a community-based intervention for hypertension in an urban slum in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oti, Samuel Oji; van de Vijver, Steven; Gomez, Gabriela B.; Agyemang, Charles; Egondi, Thaddaeus; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Stronks, Karien

    2016-01-01

    To describe the processes, outcomes and costs of implementing a multi-component, community-based intervention for hypertension among adults aged > 35 years in a large slum in Nairobi, Kenya. The intervention in 2012-2013 was based on four components: awareness-raising; improved access to screening;

  5. Adherence to the Tobacco Control Act, 2007: presence of a workplace policy on tobacco use in bars and restaurants in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, K J; Ayah, R; Olewe, T

    2016-09-28

    Despite extensive knowledge about effective tobacco control interventions, the prevalence of tobacco use in many middle- and low-income countries continues to rise. In these countries, public appreciation of levels of protection provided by laws and regulations on tobacco use and exposure to tobacco smoke is limited. After ratification of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, Kenya enacted the Tobacco Control Act, 2007, banning smoking in public places except in designated smoking areas. To assess adherence to the Tobacco Control Act, 2007 by determining the presence of a workplace policy on tobacco use in bars and restaurants. A survey of 176 liquor licensed bars and restaurants in Nairobi County was carried out. Their managers were asked about the presence of a workplace policy governing smoking of tobacco, and observations made on provisions that determine adherence to the Tobacco Control Act, 2007. Smoking took place in almost all bars and restaurants (150 (85%)). Half the establishments (86 (49%)) had a workplace policy governing tobacco use among employees, although a difference between bars (11 (23%)) and restaurants (75 (58%)) was recorded (pworkplace policy (p<0.001) and less likely to have 'no smoking' signs and designated smoking areas (p<0.005). Kenya's implementation of the Tobacco Control Act, 2007 does not provide sufficient protection of patrons and workers in bars and restaurants. It is important to sensitise hospitality workers to the dangers of tobacco smoke. Bar and restaurants managers should have a minimum post-secondary education level. The Tobacco Control Act, 2007 requires strengthening to ensure that bars and restaurants have a smoke-free environment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Dystocia in a Rothschild Giraffe at the African Fund for Endangered Wildlife, Nairobi, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Rono

    Full Text Available A 15-year old female Rothschild Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi weighing approximately 800kg, at the African Fund for Endangered Wildlife (AFEW, Giraffe Center, Langata, Nairobi, Kenya was presented with dystocia in June 2010. This giraffe named Laura, had a protracted labor and was regularly monitored by sanctuary education staff. Dystocia was relieved on the 3rd day at this wildlife sanctuary. The giraffe was chemically immobilized by using 7mg of Etorphine Hcl (0.98% (M99® (Norvatis South Africa (Pty Limited and 50mg of Azaperone(10% (Kyron Laboratories (Pty Limited, South Africa in a Dan-Inject dart (Dan-inject APS, Sellerup Skowej, Denmark. On obstetrical examination of the giraffe, a fetal malposition type of dystocia had occurred. The fetus was positioned at posterior presentation extended posture with tail butting on the maternal pelvis, which is abnormal in giraffes. The fetus was manually extracted by using both alternate and simultaneous limb traction. The dam survived the procedure and later was reported to be in a good reproductive condition but the male fetus was a stillbirth. The fetus had died due to stress of prolonged labour. Relief of dystocia in giraffes is a difficult obstetrical procedure because obstetrical examination and relief requires chemical immobilization plus physical restrain with ropes by trained staff. Anesthesia or immobilization of giraffes remains a challenge because of the giraffe's unique anatomy and physiology. Giraffes are large animals which limits physical control and manipulation at critical times during induction and recovery of anesthesia. Giraffe's long neck if not pinned to the ground will act as a lever causing fatal injuries to self and support staff. Giraffes develop elevated systolic blood pressure; have a small respiratory tidal volume with a large dead space and relatively small cardiac output during anesthesia, which compromises safe levels of anesthesia. [Vet. World 2011; 4

  7. ‘Our Changes’? Visions of the Future in Nairobi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance Smith

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In Kenya, the Vision 2030 masterplan is radically reimagining Nairobi as a ‘world class’ city of the future. This has generated dramatic digital imagery of satellite cities, skyscrapers and shopping malls. For tenants in rundown public housing, these glossy yet speculative visions are enticing, but also provoke anxieties of exclusion. Yet so far, little has materially manifested. This article explores the effects these future vistas produce in the present, in the gap between the urban plan and its implementation. It argues that the spectacle of official planning has generated anticipatory actions, as Nairobians’ engage with the future promised by such schemes. These actions are characterised by dissonant temporal experiences, in which local residents experience the future city as both near at hand and forever out of reach.

  8. Childhood vaccination in informal urban settlements in Nairobi, Kenya: Who gets vaccinated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettarh Remare R

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent trends in global vaccination coverage have shown increases with most countries reaching 90% DTP3 coverage in 2008, although pockets of undervaccination continue to persist in parts of sub-Saharan Africa particularly in the urban slums. The objectives of this study were to determine the vaccination status of children aged between 12-23 months living in two slums of Nairobi and to identify the risk factors associated with incomplete vaccination. Methods The study was carried out as part of a longitudinal Maternal and Child Health study undertaken in Korogocho and Viwandani slums of Nairobi. These slums host the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS run by the African Population and Health Research Centre (APHRC. All women from the NUHDSS area who gave birth since September 2006 were enrolled in the project and administered a questionnaire which asked about the vaccination history of their children. For the purpose of this study, we used data from 1848 children aged 12-23 months who were expected to have received all the WHO-recommended vaccinations. The vaccination details were collected during the first visit about four months after birth with follow-up visits repeated thereafter at four month intervals. Full vaccination was defined as receiving all the basic childhood vaccinations by the end of 24 months of life, whereas up-to-date (UTD vaccination referred to receipt of BCG, OPV 1-3, DTP 1-3, and measles vaccinations within the first 12 months of life. All vaccination data were obtained from vaccination cards which were sighted during the household visit as well as by recall from mothers. Multivariate models were used to identify the risk factors associated with incomplete vaccination. Results Measles coverage was substantially lower than that for the other vaccines when determined using only vaccination cards or in addition to maternal recall. Up-to-date (UTD coverage with all vaccinations

  9. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among an urban population in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaduka, Lydia U; Kombe, Yeri; Kenya, Eucharia; Kuria, Elizabeth; Bore, John K; Bukania, Zipporah N; Mwangi, Moses

    2012-04-01

    Developing countries are undergoing an epidemiologic transition accompanied by increasing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) linked to urbanization and lifestyle modifications. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of CVD risk factors whose extent in Kenya remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and factors associated with its occurrence among an urban population in Kenya. This was a household cross-sectional survey comprising 539 adults (aged ≥18 years) living in Nairobi, drawn from 30 clusters across five socioeconomic classes. Measurements included waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, triacylglycerides (TAGs), fasting glucose, and blood pressure. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 34.6% and was higher in women than in men (40.2 vs. 29%; P Kenya. The Kenyan government needs to create awareness, develop prevention strategies, and strengthen the health care system to accommodate screening and management of CVDs.

  10. Beliefs about Supporting Mothers to Exclusively Breastfeed for 6 Months: An Elicitation Study of Health Professionals Working in Maternal-Child Health Clinics in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyawade, Susan A; Middlestadt, Susan E; Peng, Chao-Ying Joanne

    2016-08-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding rates remain low in Kenya and determinants influencing mothers' practice are documented. Little is known about factors underlying health professionals' intention to support mothers to continue exclusive breastfeeding. Effective behavior modification requires designing interventions at multiple levels of influence, informed by theory-based research to identify relevant determinants. To identify salient beliefs held by health professionals about support of mothers to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months and to explore definitions of the term support. This qualitative study was conducted in 6 public health facilities in Nairobi, Kenya. We used open-ended questions based on the reasoned action approach to elicit salient consequences, referents, and circumstances perceived by 15 health professionals about support for mothers to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months. The most frequently mentioned consequences were healthier babies (87%) and reduced childhood ailments (67%). The main disadvantage was human immunodeficiency virus transmission through breast milk (33%). Colleagues (80%) and managers (67%) were perceived as approving referents, whereas some mothers/couples (40%) and the breast milk substitute industry (20%) were perceived as disapproving. Facilitating circumstances included lighter workload, better training, and more time. Definitions of support were varied and included giving information and demonstrating positioning and attachment techniques. Overall, health professionals perceived positive consequences toward supporting exclusive breastfeeding continuation and identified a number of approving referents. However, they reported challenging circumstances in the work environment, which managers need to address to help health professionals provide the support needed by Kenyan mothers to continue exclusive breastfeeding. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Assessment and recommendations for two sites with active and potential aquaculture production in Rift Valley and Coast Provinces, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenya has a long history of local fish consumption. The population in the Lake Victoria area (Rift Valley Province) Northwest of Nairobi and coastal communities (Coast Province) have historically included fish in their diet. Migration from villages to urban areas and increasing commerce has created ...

  12. Risk factors of hypertension among adults aged 35-64 years living in an urban slum Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olack, Beatrice; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Smeeth, Liam; Montgomery, Joel M; Kiwanuka, Noah; Breiman, Robert F

    2015-12-17

    Hypertension is an emerging public health problem in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) and urbanization is considered to favor its emergence. Given a paucity of information on hypertension and associated risk factors among urban slum dwellers in SSA, we aimed to characterize the distribution of risk factors for hypertension and investigate their association with hypertension in an urban slum in Kenya. We conducted a community based cross-sectional survey among adults 35 years and older living in Kibera slum Nairobi, Kenya. Trained interviewers collected data on socio demographic characteristics and self reported health behaviours using modified World Health Organization stepwise surveillance questionnaire for chronic disease risk factors. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were performed following standard procedures. Multiple logistic regression was used for analysis and odds ratios with 95 % confidence intervals were calculated to identify risk factors associated with hypertension. A total of 1528 adults were surveyed with a mean age of 46.7 years. The age-standardized prevalence of hypertension was 29.4 % (95 % CI 27.0-31.7). Among the 418 participants classified as hypertensive, over one third (39.0 %) were unaware they had hypertension. Prevalence of current smoking and alcohol consumption was 8.5 and 13.1 % respectively. Over one quarter 26.2 % participants were classified as overweight (Body Mass Index [BMI] ≥25 to ≤29.9 kg/m(2)), and 17 % classified as obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)). Overweight, obesity, current smoking, some level of education, highest wealth index, moderate physical activity, older age and being widowed were each independently associated with hypertension. When fit in a multivariable logistic regression model, being a widow [AOR = 1.7; (95 % CI, 1.1-2.6)], belonging to the highest wealth index [AOR = 1.6; (95 % CI, 1.1-2.5)], obesity [AOR = 1.8; 95 % CI, 1.1-3.1)] and moderate physical activity [AOR = 1.9; (95 % CI

  13. HIV mortality in urban slums of Nairobi, Kenya 2003-2010: a period effect analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oti, Samuel Oji; Mutua, Michael; Mgomella, George S.; Egondi, Thaddaeus; Ezeh, Alex; Kyobutungi, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    It has been almost a decade since HIV was declared a national disaster in Kenya. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) provision has been a mainstay of HIV treatment efforts globally. In Kenya, the government started ART provision in 2003 with significantly scale-up after 2006. This study aims to demonstrate

  14. Effect of Education of Primary Health Care Workers on HIV-related Oral Lesions in Nairobi East District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyio, Lucina N; van der Sanden, Wil J M; van der Ven, Andre; Creugers, Nico; Merkx, Matthias A W; Frencken, Jo E

    2012-06-15

    An estimated 90% of HIV-infected people are likely to develop oral lesions in the course of HIV infection. Oro-pharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), an early marker for HIV-infection, can be diagnosed during an oral examination (OE). Primary healthcare (PHC) providers in Kenya are neither trained nor sufficiently equipped to perform this simple, cheap and non-invasive examination. The PHC system in Kenya offers an opportunity to integrate early recognition and management of oral lesions into general health care. This study aims to estimate the effect of a multifaceted intervention for PHC providers in training them to perform an OE. Specifically, our primary objective is to establish whether the intervention is effective in increasing: i) the frequency of early detection of HIV-related oral lesions; and ii) referral rates for HIV-testing. THE STUDY HAS BEEN DESIGNED IN TWO PARTS: a retrospective clinical data record study and a prospective cohort study with pre-post control group design, carried out in 2 administrative divisions in Nairobi East district. The intervention group will receive one day of training on recognition of HIV-related oral lesions and other common oral conditions. Reminder sessions will be held at individual health facilities. Routine tally sheets will be used to record all patients with HIV-related oral lesions, dental caries and periodontal disease. A convenience sample of all the PHC in a division will be used. It will not be possible to blind investigators or assessors. Expected impact of the study for Public Health. Early recognition and treatment of HIV infection influences long-term survival rates and will reduce healthcare expenditure. The project is funded by the Netherlands organisation for international cooperation in higher education (NUFFIC). We would like to thank all participating health facilities and health care workers for their willingness to take part in this study. LNK also thanks the Kenya Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation

  15. Nuclear Science Capacity Building in Kenya: Challenges and Opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangala, J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Kenya's significant involvement in Nuclear Science and Technology can be traced back to 1965 when the country became a member state of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In 1978, Kenya formulated a project for the establishment of the ''Nuclear Science Laboratory'' at the University of Nairobi that soon after, received assistance from International Atomic Energy Agency. The laboratory was expected to be a base for the promotion of nuclear science technologies in the country was started in 1979 and has since developed into a fully-fledged institute of the University of Nairobi. In general, six main areas of nuclear science applications have continued to receive IAEA assistance; during the past ten years ; agriculture and soil management (30%), livestock production , introduction to nuclear power production (21%)- radiation oncology in cancer management and nuclear medicine (16%). Smaller shares went to nuclear safety (9%), nuclear engineering and technology (8%), industry and water resource management (7%) and nuclear physics and chemistry (5%). At present, the Agency is supporting several technical co-operation projects, four of which are in agriculture and two in nuclear physics and chemistry with additional assistance in the areas of manpower development, nuclear medicine, non-destructive testing techniques and radioactive waste management. Thus, through Government initiatives, and with the assistance of IAEA, quite a number of specialist national laboratories for nuclear science application have emerged

  16. The Impact of Drug Trafficking on Informal Security Actors in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Schuberth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kenyan state is currently under pressure from two sides: First, numerous non-state armed groups have taken over the provision of security in areas where the state is practically absent. Second, drug-trafficking organizations are gaining ground as the country is increasingly being used as a major transit hub for narcotics. This article investigates the relationship between drug trafficking and informal security provision in Kenya and draws analogies from comparable experiences in Latin America and West Africa. Field research in Kenya has demonstrated that profit-oriented, informal security actors in Mombasa work for drug lords, while their counterparts in Nairobi are more likely to be hired by politicians. Moreover, faith-based vigilante groups in both cities appear to be less susceptible to external manipulation by drug traffickers. The article concludes by considering the potential consequences of an expansion of the drug trade in Kenya.

  17. The seismicity related to the southern part of the Kenya Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollnack, D.; Stangl, R.

    1998-04-01

    In 1990 the Geology Department of the University of Nairobi started to build up a seismological network for Kenya, which has been operating since 1993. In this paper the actual state of this seismological network is described. Additionally, the first results on the seismic activity in the southern part of Kenya and adjacent areas between October 1993 and August 1996 are presented and are compared with historical data. Out of more than 2000 recorded local earthquakes 435 could be localised within the study area with local magnitudes of up to 5. The distribution of the events shows three areas of prominent seismicity: the Rift Valley between Nakuru and northern Tanzania; the area northeast of Kilimanjaro; and the Nyanza Rift in western Kenya. In a first attempt to assess the seismic hazard for the study area, a seismic energy map for the period of observation is given.

  18. Understanding HIV risks among adolescent girls and young women in informal settlements of Nairobi, Kenya: Lessons for DREAMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziraba, Abdhalah; Orindi, Benedict; Muuo, Sheru; Floyd, Sian; Birdthistle, Isolde J; Mumah, Joyce; Osindo, Jane; Njoroge, Pauline; Kabiru, Caroline W

    2018-01-01

    High incidence of HIV infection among adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) has been attributed to the numerous and often layered vulnerabilities that they encounter including violence against women, unfavourable power relations that are worsened by age-disparate sexual relations, and limited access to sexual and reproductive health information and services. For AGYW living in urban informal settlements (slums), these vulnerabilities are compounded by pervasive poverty, fragmented social networks, and limited access to social services including health and education. In this paper, we assess sexual risk behaviours and their correlates among AGYW in two slum settlements in Nairobi, Kenya, prior to the implementation of interventions under the Determined Resilient Empowered AIDS-free Mentored and Safe (DREAMS) Partnership. We drew on secondary data from the Transition to Adulthood study, the most recent representative study on adolescent sexual behaviour in the two settlements. The study was nested within the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS). Data were collected in 2009 from 1,390 AGYW aged 12-23 years. We estimated the proportions of AGYW reporting ever tested for HIV, condom use, multiple sexual partners and age-disparate sex by socio-demographic characteristics. "High risk" sexual behaviour was defined as a composite of these four variables and age at first sex. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with risk behaviours. Fifty-one percent of AGYW reported that they had ever tested for HIV and received results of their last test, with the proportion rising steeply by age (from 15% to 84% among those girls aged below 15 years who had sex (n = 9) had not used condoms at last sex. The likelihood of engaging in "high risk" sexual risk behaviour was higher among older AGYW (19-23 years), those in marital unions, of Luo ethnicity, out of school, living alone or with a friend (versus parents

  19. Assessing the risk of self-diagnosed malaria in urban informal settlements of Nairobi using self-reported morbidity survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugisha Frederick

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of the belief that Nairobi is a low risk zone for malaria, little empirical data exists on malaria risk in the area. The aim of this study was to explore the risk of perceived malaria and some associated factors in Nairobi informal settlements using self-reported morbidity survey. Methods The survey was conducted from May to August 2004 on 7,288 individuals in two informal settlements of Nairobi. Participants were asked to report illnesses they experienced in the past 14 days. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of perceived-malaria. The model included variables such as site of residence, age, ethnicity and number of reported symptoms. Results Participants reported 165 illnesses among which malaria was the leading cause (28.1%. The risk of perceived-malaria was significantly higher in Viwandani compared to Korogocho (OR 1.61, 95%CI: 1.10–2.26. Participants in age group 25–39 years had significantly higher odds of perceived-malaria compared to those under-five years (OR 2.07, 95%CI: 1.43–2.98. The Kikuyu had reduced odds of perceived-malaria compared to other ethnic groups. Individuals with five and more symptoms had higher odds compared to those with no symptoms (OR 23.69, 95%CI: 12.98–43.23. Conclusion Malaria was the leading cause of illness as perceived by the residents in the two informal settlements. This was rational as the number of reported symptoms was highly associated with the risk of reporting the illness. These results highlight the need for a more comprehensive assessment of malaria epidemiology in Nairobi to be able to offer evidence-based guidance to policy on malaria in Kenya and particularly in Nairobi.

  20. Comparing welfare estimates across stated preference and uncertainty elicitation formats for air quality improvements in Nairobi, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndambiri, H.; Brouwer, R.; Mungatana, E.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of preference uncertainty on estimated willingness to pay (WTP) is examined using identical payment cards and alternative uncertainty elicitation procedures in three split samples, focusing on air quality improvement in Nairobi. The effect of the stochastic payment card (SPC) and

  1. Survey of informal milk retailers in Nairobi, Kenya and prevalence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... The mean daily milk consumption of the milk retailers' households was 940 ml for adults and 729 ml for children. ... Aflatoxin M1, Kenya, milk, dairy value chain, milk retailers, Dagoretti, mycotoxin, informal milk marketing ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  2. Malaria incidence and prevention among European and North American travellers to Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    Lobel, H. O.; Phillips-Howard, P. A.; Brandling-Bennett, A. D.; Steffen, R.; Campbell, C. C.; Huong, A. Y.; Were, J. B.; Moser, R.

    1990-01-01

    A longitudinal survey was conducted among travellers departing from Nairobi airport to determine the use of malaria prevention measures and assess the risk for malaria while travelling in Kenya. Among 5489 European and North American travellers, 68 different drug regimens were used for prophylaxis, and 48% of travellers used both regular chemoprophylaxis and more than 1 antimosquito measure during travel; 52% of 3469 travellers who used chemoprophylaxis did so without interruption during thei...

  3. CDM in sub-Saharan Africa and the prospects of the Nairobi Framework Initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Byigero, Alfred D.; Clancy, Joy S.; Skutsch, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    To what extent can capacity-building activities under the Nairobi Framework (NF) Initiative overcome barriers to the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in sub-Saharan Africa and, in particular, the East African region? The level of CDM penetration into sub-Saharan Africa is compared with CDM market

  4. Effects of low birth weight on time to BCG vaccination in an urban poor settlement in Nairobi, Kenya: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutua, Martin Kavao; Ochako, Rhoune; Ettarh, Remare; Ravn, Henrik; Echoka, Elizabeth; Mwaniki, Peter

    2015-04-18

    The World Health Organization recommends Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination against tuberculosis be given at birth. However, in many developing countries, pre-term and low birth weight infants get vaccinated only after they gain the desired weight. In Kenya, the ministry of health recommends pre-term and low birth weight infants to be immunized at the time of discharge from hospital irrespective of their weight. This paper seeks to understand the effects of birth weight on timing of BCG vaccine. The study was conducted in two Nairobi urban informal settlements, Korogocho and Viwandani which hosts the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance system. All infants born in the study area since September 2006 were included in the study. Data on immunization history and birth weight of the infant were recorded from child's clinic card. Follow up visits were done every four months to update immunization status of the child. A total of 3,602 infants were included in this analysis. Log normal accelerated failure time parametric model was used to assess the association between low birth weight infants and time to BCG immunization. In total, 229 (6.4%) infants were low birth weight. About 16.6% of the low birth weight infants weighed less than 2000 grams and 83.4% weighed between 2000 and 2490 grams. Results showed that, 60% of the low birth weight infants received BCG vaccine after more than five weeks of life. Private health facilities were less likely to administer a BCG vaccine on time compared to public health facilities. The effects of low birth weight on females was 0.60 and 0.97-times that of males for infants weighing 2000-2499 grams and for infants weighing <2000 grams respectively. The effect of low birth weight among infants born in public health facilities was 1.52 and 3.94-times that of infants delivered in private health facilities for infants weighing 2000-2499 grams and those weighing < 2000 grams respectively. Low birth weight infants

  5. The Impact of Sex Work Interruption on Blood-Derived T Cells in Sex Workers from Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omollo, Kenneth; Boily-Larouche, Geneviève; Lajoie, Julie; Kimani, Makobu; Cheruiyot, Julianna; Kimani, Joshua; Oyugi, Julius; Fowke, Keith Raymond

    Unprotected sexual intercourse exposes the female genital tract (FGT) to semen-derived antigens, which leads to a proinflammatory response. Studies have shown that this postcoital inflammatory response can lead to recruitment of activated T cells to the FGT, thereby increasing risk of HIV infection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of sex work on activation and memory phenotypes of peripheral T cells among female sex workers (FSW) from Nairobi, Kenya. Thirty FSW were recruited from the Pumwani Sex Workers Cohort, 10 in each of the following groups: HIV-exposed seronegative (at least 7 years in active sex work), HIV positive, and New Negative (HIV negative, less than 3 years in active sex work). Blood was obtained at three different phases (active sex work, abstinence from sex work-sex break, and following resumption of sex work). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and stained for phenotypic markers (CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD161), memory phenotype markers (CD45RA and CCR7), activation markers (CD69, HLA-DR, and CD95), and the HIV coreceptor (CCR5). T-cell populations were compared between groups. In HIV-positive women, CD8+CCR5+ T cells declined at the sex break period, while CD4+CD161+ T cells increased when returning to sex work. All groups showed no significant changes in systemic T-cell activation markers following the interruption of sex work, however, significant reductions in naive CD8+ T cells were noted. For each of the study points, HIV positives had higher effector memory and CD8+CD95+ T cells and lower naive CD8+ T cells than the HIV-uninfected groups. Interruption of sex work had subtle effects on systemic T-cell memory phenotypes.

  6. The Influence of an Orthopedic, Manual Therapy Residency Program on Improved Knowledge, Psychomotor Skills, and Clinical Reasoning in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Shala; McFelea, Joni

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the influence of a post-graduate orthopedic manual therapy residency program in Kenya on the development of physical therapists' (PTs) knowledge and clinical reasoning related to the performance of a musculoskeletal examination and evaluation as compared to an experience-matched control group of PTs waiting to enter the program. A cross-sectional design was utilized in which 12 graduating residents and 10 PTs entering the residency program completed a live-patient practical examination to assess the knowledge, clinical reasoning, and psychomotor skills related to the examination and evaluation of musculoskeletal conditions. The assessment utilized was based on the tasks, procedures, and knowledge areas identified as important to advanced clinicians in the US as outlined by the Orthopaedic Description of Specialty Practice. Inclusion criteria included participation in or acceptance to the residency program, practice as a PT between 3 and 25 years, and 50% of workday being involved in direct patient care. Overall pass rates were analyzed using the Pearson chi-square and Fisher's exact tests to determine if the graduating residents achieved significantly higher scores than experience-matched controls consisting of PTs entering the residency program. PTs completing a post-graduate orthopedic manual therapy residency in Nairobi, Kenya, achieved higher scores and passing rates compared to their colleagues who had not completed a residency program as determined by a live-patient practical examination. Graduating residents demonstrated statistically significant higher scores in the categories of examination, evaluation, and diagnosis. The average live-patient practical examination score for PTs without residency training was 38.2%, and their pass rate was 0.0%. The average live-patient practical examination score for residency-trained PTs was 83.4%, and their pass rate was 92.3%. These findings are statistically significant ( p

  7. Urbanization in Kenya: Urbanization Trends and Prospects; Rural Development and Urban Growth. An International Urbanization Survey Report to the Ford Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenti, Luigi; Gerhart, John

    Two articles on the urbanization of Kenya are presented in this survey. The first one, "Urbanization Trends and Prospects," by Luigi Laurenti, states that urbanization has only recently been recognized as a problem of some importance in Kenya, and this recognition is far from comprehensive. Consequently, public policy--and especially…

  8. Introducing a model of cardiovascular prevention in Nairobi's slums by integrating a public health and private-sector approach: the SCALE-UP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven van de Vijver

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is a leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, with annual deaths expected to increase to 2 million by 2030. Currently, most national health systems in SSA are not adequately prepared for this epidemic. This is especially so in slum settlements where access to formal healthcare and resources is limited. Objective: To develop and introduce a model of cardiovascular prevention in the slums of Nairobi by integrating public health and private sector approaches. Study design: Two non-profit organizations that conduct public health research, Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development (AIGHD and African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC, collaborated with private-sector Boston Consulting Group (BCG to develop a service delivery package for CVD prevention in slum settings. A theoretic model was designed based on the integration of public and private sector approaches with the focus on costs and feasibility. Results: The final model includes components that aim to improve community awareness, a home-based screening service, patient and provider incentives to seek and deliver treatment specifically for hypertension, and adherence support. The expected outcomes projected by this model could prove potentially cost effective and affordable (1 USD/person/year. The model is currently being implemented in a Nairobi slum and is closely followed by key stakeholders in Kenya including the Ministry of Health, the World Health Organization (WHO, and leading non-governmental organizations (NGOs. Conclusion: Through the collaboration of public health and private sectors, a theoretically cost-effective model was developed for the prevention of CVD and is currently being implemented in the slums of Nairobi. If results are in line with the theoretical projections and first impressions on the ground, scale-up of the service delivery package could be planned in other poor urban areas in Kenya by

  9. Introducing a model of cardiovascular prevention in Nairobi's slums by integrating a public health and private-sector approach: the SCALE-UP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vijver, Steven; Oti, Samuel; Tervaert, Thijs Cohen; Hankins, Catherine; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Gomez, Gabriela B; Brewster, Lizzy; Agyemang, Charles; Lange, Joep

    2013-10-21

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with annual deaths expected to increase to 2 million by 2030. Currently, most national health systems in SSA are not adequately prepared for this epidemic. This is especially so in slum settlements where access to formal healthcare and resources is limited. To develop and introduce a model of cardiovascular prevention in the slums of Nairobi by integrating public health and private sector approaches. Two non-profit organizations that conduct public health research, Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development (AIGHD) and African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC), collaborated with private-sector Boston Consulting Group (BCG) to develop a service delivery package for CVD prevention in slum settings. A theoretic model was designed based on the integration of public and private sector approaches with the focus on costs and feasibility. The final model includes components that aim to improve community awareness, a home-based screening service, patient and provider incentives to seek and deliver treatment specifically for hypertension, and adherence support. The expected outcomes projected by this model could prove potentially cost effective and affordable (1 USD/person/year). The model is currently being implemented in a Nairobi slum and is closely followed by key stakeholders in Kenya including the Ministry of Health, the World Health Organization (WHO), and leading non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Through the collaboration of public health and private sectors, a theoretically cost-effective model was developed for the prevention of CVD and is currently being implemented in the slums of Nairobi. If results are in line with the theoretical projections and first impressions on the ground, scale-up of the service delivery package could be planned in other poor urban areas in Kenya by relevant policymakers and NGOs.

  10. Causes And Pattern Of Unilateral Hand Injuries | Kaisha | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the causes and pattern of hand injuries in patients with isolated unilateral acute hand injuries managed at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). Design: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, between May and August 2006. Subjects: All ...

  11. Kenya at a Crossroads: Hopes and Fears Concerning the Development of Oil and Gas Reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia I. Vasquez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Kenya is expected to become a hydrocarbon producer and an oil export hub in the coming years and if properly managed, oil and gas could provide Kenya with a unique opportunity to cement the path towards sustainable economic growth that the country engaged in a few years ago. However, mismanagement of the newly found oil and gas reserves will not only deprive the East African nation of a chance to prosper, but could spur renewed conflict. Kenya recently engaged in deep institutional reforms through the adoption of ‘Devolution’, aimed at addressing the country’s most severe governance weaknesses. The combination of oil and gas revenues, improved governance and a peaceful context could set the stage for Kenya to leave behind its old woes of corruption, political patronage, ethnic rivalries and violence. It is a challenging endeavor and Kenya will encounter many stumbling blocks on the way, as the brutal terrorist attack of September 2013 in a Nairobi shopping mall reminded us. This article analyzes the potential for Kenya to engage in sound management of its nascent hydrocarbon industry and the dangers if the country fails to do so.

  12. Micro-history of a Machokosh Family: Reflections on the Construction of Space and “Home” in Nairobi through the Short Story “An Ex-mas Feast”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Rasgado Blas

    2016-05-01

    lence and juvenile delinquency. In these narratives Kenyan writers have used allegorical characters such as male criminals and female characters that deal with prostitution to portray the problems of the independent Kenya and postcolonial disillusionment. In “An Ex-mas Feast” Akpan explores these topics too. However, I argue that Akpan’s use of the children’s voices engages in a presentation of Nairobi as a place of negotiation and possibility, which differs from the approaches of postcolonial disorder and Nairobi as a place of crisis and crime as shown in the novels written between 1970 and 1990 and consequently the narrative contains different implications for the understanding of the urban space of Nairobi. Secondly, the article explores the formation of the urban space, even in cities with high social inequality and spatial polarization such as Nairobi, as not merely a consequence of the economic and political structures of the colonial and postcolonial state, but as De Certeau points out: “a product of microbe-like, singular and plural everyday practices of people who creatively remake it”. Hence, the exploration of the short story will demonstrate a family living on the street in Nairobi, from a position, apparently marginal remaking the urban order, turning the street space, a public space considered a “no place”, into their “home”, exerting the role of agents in the construction and transformation of the urban space.

  13. I Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacognosy, University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacognosy, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676-00202. Nairobi, Kenya. '~nternational Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, P.O. Box 30772-00100 Nairobi, Kenya. Volatile sex pheromone w as collected from the extruded p heromone g land o f females of the spotted stalk borer ...

  14. Effect of education of primary health care workers on HIV-related oral lesions in Nairobi East district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucina N. Koyio

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. An estimated 90% of HIV-infected people are likely to develop oral lesions in the course of HIV infection. Oro-pharyngeal candidiasis (OPC, an early marker for HIV-infection, can be diagnosed during an oral examination (OE. Primary healthcare (PHC providers in Kenya are neither trained nor sufficiently equipped to perform this simple, cheap and non-invasive examination. The PHC system in Kenya offers an opportunity to integrate early recognition and management of oral lesions into general health care. This study aims to estimate the effect of a multifaceted intervention for PHC providers in training them to perform an OE. Specifically, our primary objective is to establish whether the intervention is effective in increasing: i the frequency of early detection of HIV-related oral lesions; and ii referral rates for HIV-testing. Design and methods. The study has been designed in two parts: a retrospective clinical data record study and a prospective cohort study with pre-post control group design, carried out in 2 administrative divisions in Nairobi East district. The intervention group will receive one day of training on recognition of HIV-related oral lesions and other common oral conditions. Reminder sessions will be held at individual health facilities. Routine tally sheets will be used to record all patients with HIV-related oral lesions, dental caries and periodontal disease. A convenience sample of all the PHC in a division will be used. It will not be possible to blind investigators or assessors. Expected impact of the study for Public Health. Early recognition and treatment of HIV infection influences long-term survival rates and will reduce healthcare expenditure.

  15. Effects of Language of Instruction on Learning of Literacy Skills among Pre-Primary School Children from Low-Income Urban Communities in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungi, Njora; Njagi, Joan; Wekulo, Patricia; Ngware, Moses

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the language of instruction and learning of literacy skills among pre-primary school children in a multilingual environment. The sample consists of 1867 learners from low-income urban households, attending 147 low-cost private pre-primary schools located in low-income areas of Nairobi, Kenya. About…

  16. Using data from a multi-hospital clinical network to explore prevalence of pediatric rickets in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuri, Stella W.; Murithi, Maureen K.; Irimu, Grace; English, Mike

    2017-01-01

    Background: Nutritional rickets is a public health concern in developing countries despite tropical climates and a re-emerging issue in developed countries. In this study, we reviewed pediatric admission data from the Clinical Information Network (CIN) to help determine hospital and region based prevalence of rickets in three regions of Kenya (Central Kenya, Western Kenya and Nairobi County). We also examine the association of rickets with other diagnosis, such as malnutrition and pneumonia, and study the effect of rickets on regional hospital stays. Methods: We analyzed discharge records for children aged 1 month to 5 years from county (formerly district) hospitals in the CIN, with admissions from February 1 st 2014 to February 28 th 2015. The strength of the association between rickets and key demographic factors, as well as with malnutrition and pneumonia, was assessed using odds ratios. The Fisher exact test was used to test the significance of the estimated odd ratios. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to analyze length of hospital stays. Results: There was a marked difference in prevalence across the three regions, with Nairobi having the highest number of cases of rickets at a proportion of 4.01%, followed by Central Region at 0.92%. Out of 9756 admissions in the Western Region, there was only one diagnosis of rickets. Malnutrition was associated with rickets; this association varied regionally. Pneumonia was found to be associated with rickets in Central Kenya. Children diagnosed with rickets had longer hospital stays, even when cases of malnutrition and pneumonia were excluded in the analysis. Conclusion: There was marked regional variation in hospital based prevalence of rickets, but in some regions it is a common clinical diagnosis suggesting the need for targeted public health interventions. Factors such as maternal and child nutrition, urbanization and cultural practices might explain these differences. PMID:29062911

  17. Determinants of health insurance ownership among women in Kenya: evidence from the 2008–09 Kenya demographic and health survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The Government of Kenya is making plans to implement a social health insurance program by transforming the National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF) into a universal health coverage program. The objective of this study was to examine the determinants associated with health insurance ownership among women in Kenya. Methods Data came from the 2008–09 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, a nationally representative survey. The sample comprised 8,435 women aged 15–49 years. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to describe the characteristics of the sample and to identify factors associated with health insurance ownership. Results Being employed in the formal sector, being married, exposure to the mass media, having secondary education or higher, residing in households in the middle or rich wealth index categories and residing in a female-headed household were associated with having health insurance. However, region of residence was associated with a lower likelihood of having insurance coverage. Women residing in Central (OR = 0.4; p insured compared to their counterparts in Nairobi province. Conclusions As the Kenyan government transforms the NHIF into a universal health program, it is important to implement a program that will increase equity and access to health care services among the poor and vulnerable groups. PMID:24678655

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 501 - 550 of 823 ... Dario Kuron Lado. Vol 14, No 1 (2009), Patterns of spinal injury in a new neurosurgical centre: A 2-year prospective study, Abstract PDF. JKC Emejulu, OC Ekweogwu, Timothy Nottidge. Vol 18, No 2 (2013), Patterns of Traumatic Intracranial Bleeds at Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya ...

  19. From Project to Program: Tupange's Experience with Scaling Up Family Planning Interventions in Urban Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyonzo, Nelson; Nyachae, Paul; Kagwe, Peter; Kilonzo, Margaret; Mumba, Feddis; Owino, Kenneth; Kichamu, George; Kigen, Bartilol; Fajans, Peter; Ghiron, Laura; Simmons, Ruth

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes how the Urban Reproductive Health Initiative in Kenya, the Tupange Project (2010-2015), successfully applied the ExpandNet approach to sustainably scale up family planning interventions, first in Machakos and Kakamega, and subsequently also in its three core cities, Nairobi, Kisumu and Mombasa. This new focus meant shifting from a "project" to a "program" approach, which required paying attention to government leadership and ownership, limiting external inputs, institutionalizing interventions in existing structures and emphasizing sustainability. The paper also highlights the project's efforts to prepare for the future scale up of Tupange's interventions in other counties to support continuing and improved access to family planning services in the new context of devolution (decentralization) in Kenya. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Steps towards Nuclear Power Regulator in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatebe, E.

    2017-01-01

    The first radiation protection law in Kenya was passed in 1948 and it was referred to as the''Radiological Protection Ordinance -1948''. The ordinance established the Radiological Protection Board (RPB). The current law is the Radiation Protection Act, Cap 243.that was amended in 2014. To regulate the peaceful use of atomic energy through provision of nuclear safety and security culture for the protection of persons, society and the environment against radiation. The Establishment of Nuclear Electricity Project Committee in 2010 is Predecessor of KNEB (2012). Whose mandate among others: Assist in coming up with a legalisation and regulatory framework for support of nuclear power. Human resource development for support of Nuclear Power programme. The country hosted Integrated Nuclear Infrastructure Review (INIR) and Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) Missions in 2015 and 2016 respectively to addressed legal and regulatory framework. A Multi-agency cooperation has resulted to the Nuclear Regulatory Bill. The Government has been sponsoring 15 students annually for post graduate studies in Nuclear Science at University of Nairobi. IAEA has been a great partner in the development of Kenya's nuclear regulatory regime; It is expected that in the next two years, Kenya will have the core capacity for regulating a nuclear power program. The Bill has taken into consideration suggestions and recommendation of the INIR & IRRS Missions, and comments from the office of Legal Affairs-IAEA and local stakeholders

  1. Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and HIV-1 Coinfection in Two Informal Urban Settlements in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerubo, Glennah; Khamadi, Samoel; Okoth, Vincent; Madise, Nyovani; Ezeh, Alex; Ziraba, Abdhalah; Abdalla, Ziraba; Mwau, Matilu

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 and Hepatitis B and C viruses coinfection is common in Sub-Saharan Africa due to similar routes of transmission and high levels of poverty. Most studies on HIV-1 and Hepatitis B and C viruses have occurred in hospital settings and blood transfusion units. Data on Hepatitis B and C viruses and HIV-1 coinfection in informal urban settlements in Kenya are scanty, yet they could partly explain the disproportionately high morbidity and mortality associated with HIV-1 infections in these slums. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV and Hepatitis B and C dual infection in urban slums in Nairobi. Blood samples were collected from residents of Viwandani and Korogocho between 2006 and 2007. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain socio-demographic data from participants. Samples were screened for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HCV and anti-HIV-1. Statistical analysis was done using STATA. Samples were successfully collected from 418 (32%) men and 890 (68%) females. The HIV-1, HBV and HCV prevalence was 20.4%, 13.3% and 0.76% respectively at the time of the study. Of the 268 (20.4%) HIV-1 positive participants, 56 (4.26%) had HBV while 6 (0.46%) had HCV. Of the 1041 HIV-1 negative participants, 117 (8.9%) had HBV while 4 (0.31%) had HCV. Only two people (0.15%) were co-infected with all the three viruses together. The odds of getting hepatitis infection were higher in HIV-1 participants (for HBV OR 2.08,psettlements. HIV infection was highest in age group 35-39 years and among the divorced/separated or widowed. Prevalence of all viruses was highest in those who did not have any formal education. The HIV prevalence in these informal settlements suggests a higher rate than what is observed nationally. The prevalence rates of HBV are significantly higher in the HIV-1 positive and negative populations. HCV as well as triple HIV-1, HBV and HCV coinfection are uncommon in Korogocho and Viwandani. This clearly indicates the need

  2. Prospects for nuclear energy in Kenya under vision 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadrack, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    Overcoming energy poverty is one of Kenya's greatest challenges. Majority of Kenyans currently have no access to modern energy services and technologies. The challenge is thus to find appropriate and reliable solutions for providing energy sources for social and economic development. This study intends to focus on the development of nuclear power technology under the Kenya 2030 vision. This research project intends to investigate the advancement stages that Kenya has undertaken towards the implementation of nuclear power plants. A background review of nuclear energy in Kenya, and nuclear environments, have been reviewed and projected through the 2030 vision. The study will provide a useful starting point for policy makers interested in the state of the ecosystem

  3. Maternal-child overweight/obesity and undernutrition in Kenya: a geographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawloski, Lisa R; Curtin, Kevin M; Gewa, Constance; Attaway, David

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine geographic relationships of nutritional status (BMI), including underweight, overweight and obesity, among Kenyan mothers and children. Spatial relationships were examined concerning BMI of the mothers and BMI-for-age percentiles of their children. These included spatial statistical measures of the clustering of segments of the population, in addition to inspection of co-location of significant clusters. Rural and urban areas of Kenya, including the cities of Nairobi and Mombasa, and the Kisumu region. Mother-child pairs from Demographic and Health Survey data including 1541 observations in 2003 and 1592 observations in 2009. These mother-child pairs were organized into 399 locational clusters. There is extremely strong evidence that high BMI values exhibit strong spatial clustering. There were co-locations of overweight mothers and overweight children only in the Nairobi region, while both underweight mothers and children tended to cluster in rural areas. In Mombasa clusters of overweight mothers were associated with normal-weight children, while in the Kisumu region clusters of overweight children were associated with normal-weight mothers. These findings show there is geographic variability as well as some defined patterns concerning the distribution of malnutrition among mothers and children in Kenya, and suggest the need for further geographic analyses concerning the potential factors which influence nutritional status in this population. In addition, the methods used in this research may be easily applied to other Demographic and Health Survey data in order to begin to understand the geographic determinants of health in low-income countries.

  4. Nitrogen oxides, ozone and heavy metals analysis of suspended particulate matter (spm) of air in Nairobi, Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odhiambo, O.; Kinyua, A.M.; Gatebe, C.K.

    2001-01-01

    Motor vehicle emissions are a major source of air pollution in most urban centers. In Kenya, Nairobi city has the highest traffic density and is therefore a particular cause for concern due to the poor maintenance standards of most vehicles plus the use of leaded gasoline. This study was carried out to determine the levels of nitrogen oxides (nox), suspended particulate matter (PM10), ozone (O3) and heavy metals in the SPM collected from the ambient air of Nairobi city. Sampling was done once every week for a period of three months (February to April 2000). Hourly average concentrations of N0 2 , NO and O3 were measured simultaneously from 9.00 am to 5.00 p.m., at a roundabout connecting two main highways (University and Uhuru) in the city. PM10 was collected using Gent Stacked Filter Unit (SFU) air sampler on nuclepore filters (0.4 and 8.0 ?m pore size for fine and coarse filters respectively) which were weighed and analysed for trace elements by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescent (EDXRF) technique. Nitrogen oxides were analysed with thermo electron's Chemiluminescent nox Model 14B analyser while ozone was by using DASIBI ozone monitor, Model 1003 AH. An automatic vehicle counter was used For determining the vehicle density at the sampling point. The findings of the study show that the values obtained for Pb, Mn, Fe, Br, Zn, Cu and Ca are within the Who guidelines. Lead concentrations ranged from 0.051 to 1.106?g/m3; Fe, 0.149 to 3.154?g/m3; Mn, 0.002 to 0.526?g/m3; Cu, lower limit of detection (LLD) to 0.15?g/m3; Br, LLD to 0.43?g/m3; Zn, LLD to 0.14 ?g/m3 and Ca 2.18 to 5.389?g/m3. Concentrations of NO 2 , NO and O3 were also within the 8-hour Who limits with levels ranging from 0.011-0.976 ppm for NO, 0.001-0.2628 ppm for NO 2 and LLD-0.1258 ppm for ozone. The O3 levels were slightly higher in the afternoons when solar intensity was high especially the days with cloud cover of less than 3 Oktas. PM10 levels were, however, above the Who guidelines for most of

  5. The prevalence of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Nairobi public secondary schools: association with perceived maladaptive parental behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasakhala, L I; Ndetei, D M; Mutiso, V; Mbwayo, A W; Mathai, M

    2012-03-01

    Depression in adolescents is a matter of concern because of its high prevalence, potential recurrence and impairment of functioning in the affected individual. The study sought to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Nairobi (Kenya) public secondary schools; make a comparison between day and boarding students; and identify associated factors in this population. A random sample of school going adolescents was taken from a stratified sample of 17 secondary schools out of the 49 public secondary schools in Nairobi province. The sample was stratified to take into account geographical distribution, day and boarding schools, boys only, girls only and mixed (co-education) schools in the capital city of Kenya. Self administered instruments (EMBU and CDI) were used to measure perceived parental behaviour and levels of depression in a total of 1,276 students excluding those who had no living parent. The prevalence of clinically significant depressive symptoms was 26.4%. The occurrence was higher in girls than it was in boys p<0.001. Students in boarding schools had more clinically significant depressive symptoms compared to day students (p=0.01). More girls exhibited suicidal behaviour than boys (p<0.001). There was a significant correlation between depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviour (p<0.001). CDI scores correlated positively with age (p<0.001) with an increase in CDI score with unit increase in age among students 14-17 years old, perceived rejecting maternal parenting behaviour (p<0.001), perceived no emotional attachment paternal behaviour (p<0.001), perceived no emotional attachment maternal behaviour (p<0.001), and perceived under protective paternal behaviour (p=0.005). Perceived maladaptive parental behaviours are substantially associated with the development of depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviour in children.

  6. Deploying Information Technology for Latent Poisoning Aversion during Handling and/or Usage of Agrochemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Nyagudi, Nyagudi Musandu

    2014-01-01

    Insights into safe use and handling of agrochemicals at of the year 2003 Paper Presented at two fora : Association of Medical Engineering of Kenya (AMEK), 2nd Annual Symposium and Exhibition held at the Nairobi Hospital from 28th to 30th October 2003 The Kenya ICT in Agriculture Conference. Theme : “Improving Agriculture in Kenya through Information & Communication Technology”. The 1st Annual ICT in Agriculture Conference, AMREF Training Centre, Nairobi, Kenya 29-30 October 2003 Orga...

  7. ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND PUBLIC HEALTH HAZARDS IN WASTEWATER USED FOR URBAN AGRICULTURE IN NAIROBI, KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Njarua Karanja

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Thirty percent of residents in Nairobi practise urban agriculture (UA with a majority of the farmers using untreated sewage to irrigate crop and fodder. Due to the environmental and health risks associated with wastewater irrigation, a study was carried out in partnership with farmers in Kibera and Maili Saba which are informal settlements along the Ngong River, a tributary of the Nairobi River Basin. Soil, water, crops and human faecal samples from the farming and non-farming households were analysed to elucidate sources, types and level of heavy metal pollutants in the wastewater and the pathogen loads in humans and vegetable crops.  Heavy metal accumulation in soils collected from Kibera and Maili Saba were Cd (14.3 mg kg-1, Cr (9.7 mg kg-1 and Pb (1.7 mg kg-1 and Cd (98.7 mg kg-1,  Cr (4.0 mg kg-1 and Pb (74.3 mg kg-1, respectively.  This led to high phytoaccumulation of Cd, Cr and Pb in the crops that exceeded the maximum permissible limits. No parasitic eggs were detected in the vegetables but coliform count in the wastewater was 4.8 x108±2.2 x1011/100ml. Soils irrigated with this water had parasitic eggs and non-parasitic larvae counts of 54.62 and 27.5/kg respectively. Faecal coliform and parasitic eggs of common intestinal parasites increased in leafy vegetable sampled from the informal markets along the value chain.

  8. Distance learning approach to train health sciences students at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The University of Nairobi (UoN) College of Health Sciences (CHS) established Partnership for Innovative Medical Education in Kenya (PRIME-K) programmeme to enhance health outcomes in Kenya through extending the reach of medical training outside Nairobi to help health sciences students enhance their ...

  9. Social and gender determinants of risk of cryptosporidiosis, an emerging zoonosis, in Dagoretti, Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimani, Violet N; Mitoko, Grace; McDermott, Brigid; Grace, Delia; Ambia, Julie; Kiragu, Monica W; Njehu, Alice N; Sinja, Judith; Monda, Joseph G; Kang'ethe, Erastus K

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the social and gender determinants of the risk of exposure to Cryptosporidium from urban dairying in Dagoretti, Nairobi. Focus group discussions were held in six locations to obtain qualitative information on risk of exposure. A repeated cross-sectional descriptive study included participatory assessment and household questionnaires (300 randomly selected urban dairy farming households and 100 non-dairying neighbours). One-hundred dairy households randomly selected from the 300 dairy households participated in an additional economic survey along with 40 neighbouring non-dairy households. We found that exposure to Cryptosporidium was influenced by gender, age and role in the household. Farm workers and people aged 50 to 65 years had most contact with cattle, and women had greater contact with raw milk. However, children had relatively higher consumption of raw milk than other age groups. Adult women had more daily contact with cattle faeces than adult men, and older women had more contact than older men. Employees had greater contact with cattle than other groups and cattle faeces, and most (77 %) were male. Women took more care of sick people and were more at risk from exposure by this route. Poverty did not affect the level of exposure to cattle but did decrease consumption of milk. There was no significant difference between men and women as regards levels of knowledge on symptoms of cryptosporidiosis infections or other zoonotic diseases associated with dairy farming. Awareness of cryptosporidiosis and its transmission increased significantly with rising levels of education. Members of non-dairy households and children under the age of 12 years had significantly higher odds of reporting diarrhoea: gender, season and contact with cattle or cattle dung were not significantly linked with diarrhoea. In conclusion, social and gender factors are important determinants of exposure to zoonotic disease in Nairobi.

  10. Prospects of establishing food irradiation facilities in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustapha, A.O.; Patel, J.P.; Rathore, I.V.S.; Hashim, N.O.; Kinyua, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: A national project of food irradiation in the country is being proposed. At present there are no facilities for food irradiation (and food irradiation research) in Kenya. This report is therefore largely comparative between the traditional and the conventional food preservation methods on the one hand and the irradiation technique on the other. The report is also based on information from other countries where food irradiation is practiced (Kawabata, 1981) or is being also contemplated (Diop et al, 1997), as well as on the relevant report of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on this topic (IAEA, 1993). The paper presents the statement of the research problem, i.e., in Kenya large quantities of food and other farm produces go to waste annually as a result of the inadequacies of the preservation techniques currently in use. These (other) preservation techniques, although often less controversial than the irradiation techniques, have also been found to be more expensive to run when compared to irradiation techniques. Such techniques, presently employed in Kenya, include the traditional methods (e.g. sun drying, smoke and fire drying, etc.) and modern techniques such as freezing or refrigeration, lyophilization, etc., as well as application of chemicals like insecticides and fumigants. The latter combines the disadvantages of high costs with environmental pollution and associated health risks. In this preliminary research, aimed at studying the prospects of a national food irradiation project, the following food items that are selected for their importance to the economy of the country, include potatoes, rice, maize, coffee, tea, various fruits, fish and meat. The paper also explores the economic feasibility as well as the human and technological requirements of establishing a commercial food irradiation plant, with aim of assessing the applicability of food irradiation as alternative or a complimentary approach for preservation technique in

  11. Unintended pregnancy and subsequent use of modern contraceptive among slum and non-slum women in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotso, Jean Christophe; Izugbara, Chimaraoke; Saliku, Teresa; Ochako, Rhoune

    2014-07-10

    In spite of major gains in contraceptive prevalence over the last few decades, many women in most parts of the developing world who would like to delay or avoid pregnancy do not use any method of contraception. This paper seeks to: a) examine whether experiencing an unintended pregnancy is associated with future use of contraception controlling for a number factors including poverty at the household and community levels; and b) investigate the mechanisms through which experiencing an unintended pregnancy leads to uptake of contraception. Quantitative and qualitative data from a cross-sectional research project conducted in 2009/10 in two slum settlements and two non-slum settings of Nairobi, Kenya are used. The quantitative component of the project was based on a random sample of 1,259 women aged 15-49 years. Logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of unintended pregnancy on future contraceptive use. The qualitative component of the project successfully interviewed a total of 80 women randomly selected from survey participants who had reported having at least one unintended pregnancy. Women whose last pregnancy was unintended were more likely to be using a modern method of contraception, compared to their peers whose last pregnancy was intended, especially among the wealthier group as shown in the interaction model. Among poor women, unintended pregnancy was not associated with subsequent use of contraception. The qualitative investigation with women who had an unplanned pregnancy reveals that experiencing an unintended pregnancy seems to have served as a "wake-up call", resulting in greater attention to personal risks, including increased interest in pregnancy prevention. For some women, unintended pregnancy was a consequence of strong opposition by their partners to family planning, while others reported they started using contraceptives following their unintended pregnancy, but discontinued after experiencing side effects. This study provides

  12. Using data from a multi-hospital clinical network to explore prevalence of pediatric rickets in Kenya [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella W. Karuri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutritional rickets is a public health concern in developing countries despite tropical climates and a re-emerging issue in developed countries. In this study, we reviewed pediatric admission data from the Clinical Information Network (CIN to help determine hospital and region based prevalence of rickets in three regions of Kenya (Central Kenya, Western Kenya and Nairobi County. We also examine the association of rickets with other diagnosis, such as malnutrition and pneumonia, and study the effect of rickets on regional hospital stays. Methods: We analyzed discharge records for children aged 1 month to 5 years from county (formerly district hospitals in the CIN, with admissions from February 1st 2014 to February 28th 2015. The strength of the association between rickets and key demographic factors, as well as with malnutrition and pneumonia, was assessed using odds ratios. The Fisher exact test was used to test the significance of the estimated odd ratios. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to analyze length of hospital stays. Results: There was a marked difference in prevalence across the three regions, with Nairobi having the highest number of cases of rickets at a proportion of 4.01%, followed by Central Region at 0.92%. Out of 9756 admissions in the Western Region, there was only one diagnosis of rickets. Malnutrition was associated with rickets; this association varied regionally. Pneumonia was found to be associated with rickets in Central Kenya. Children diagnosed with rickets had longer hospital stays, even when cases of malnutrition and pneumonia were excluded in the analysis. Conclusion: There was marked regional variation in hospital based prevalence of rickets, but in some regions it is a common clinical diagnosis suggesting the need for targeted public health interventions. Factors such as maternal and child nutrition, urbanization and cultural practices might explain these differences.

  13. Using data from a multi-hospital clinical network to explore prevalence of pediatric rickets in Kenya [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella W. Karuri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutritional rickets is a public health concern in developing countries despite tropical climates and a re-emerging issue in developed countries. In this study, we reviewed pediatric admission data from the Clinical Information Network (CIN to help determine hospital and region based prevalence of rickets in three regions of Kenya (Central Kenya, Western Kenya and Nairobi County. We also examine the association of rickets with other diagnosis, such as malnutrition and pneumonia, and study the effect of rickets on regional hospital stays. Methods: We analyzed discharge records for children aged 1 month to 5 years from county (formerly district hospitals in the CIN, with admissions from February 1st 2014 to February 28th 2015. The strength of the association between rickets and key demographic factors, as well as with malnutrition and pneumonia, was assessed using odds ratios. The Fisher exact test was used to test the significance of the estimated odd ratios. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to analyze length of hospital stays. Results: There was a marked difference in prevalence across the three regions, with Nairobi having the highest number of cases of rickets at a proportion of 4.01%, followed by Central Region at 0.92%. Out of 9756 admissions in the Western Region, there was only one diagnosis of rickets. Malnutrition was associated with rickets; this association varied regionally. Pneumonia was found to be associated with rickets in Central Kenya. Children diagnosed with rickets had longer hospital stays, even when cases of malnutrition and pneumonia were excluded in the analysis. Conclusion: There was marked regional variation in hospital based prevalence of rickets, but in some regions it is a common clinical diagnosis suggesting the need for targeted public health interventions. Factors such as maternal and child nutrition, urbanization and cultural practices might explain these differences.

  14. Ethnopharmacological survey of Samburu district, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaburia Humphrey F

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnobotanical pharmacopoeia is confidently used in disease intervention and there is need for documentation and preservation of traditional medical knowledge to bolster the discovery of novel drugs. The objective of the present study was to document the indigenous medicinal plant utilization, management and their extinction threats in Samburu District, Kenya. Methods Field research was conducted in six divisions of Samburu District in Kenya. We randomly sampled 100 consented interviewees stratified by age, gender, occupation and level of education. We collected plant use data through semi-structured questionnaires; transect walks, oral interviews and focus groups discussions. Voucher specimens of all cited botanic species were collected and deposited at University of Nairobi's botany herbarium. Results Data on plant use from the informants yielded 990 citations on 56 medicinal plant species, which are used to treat 54 different animal and human diseases including; malaria, digestive disorders, respiratory syndromes and ectoparasites. Conclusion The ethnomedicinal use of plant species was documented in the study area for treatment of both human and veterinary diseases. The local population has high ethnobotanical knowledge and has adopted sound management conservation practices. The major threatening factors reported were anthropogenic and natural. Ethnomedical documentation and sustainable plant utilization can support drug discovery efforts in developing countries.

  15. Why participation matters for air quality studies: risk perceptions, understandings of air pollution and mobilization in a poor neighborhood in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, N S; Kokoyo, S; Klopp, J

    2017-01-01

    With high urbanization rates, Sub-Saharan Africa is facing growing problems of poor air quality in its cities. We make a case for participatory approaches in air quality studies especially including those living in poor neighborhoods who may be particularly at risk from this trend. We used collaboration with a community based organization, interviews, focus group discussions and a community forum. We conducted a pilot study to assess health risk perceptions of air pollution for civic-minded residents in Mathare, an informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. Simultaneously, we involved Mathare residents in measuring levels of PM 2.5 and later presented these data at a community forum with the participants of the monitoring study and the focus group discussions. We found that participation in conducting and interpreting air quality studies helped residents improve their understanding of air pollution and also helped them develop responses to it. Initially, participants associated air pollution with a bad odor or discomfort rather than their health, but once the connection to health was made through participation, they sought more information about air quality data and its hazards. Some residents also came up with strategies for coping with their environment and its risks. These results point to the potential of including participation in air quality monitoring as a way to increase awareness and support local action to address it. Discussion and sharing of results at the local level as well as at a wider policy level will be critical for advocacy to improve air quality. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The role of a decision-support smartphone application in enhancing community health volunteers' effectiveness to improve maternal and newborn outcomes in Nairobi, Kenya: quasi-experimental research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakibinga, Pauline; Kamande, Eva; Omuya, Milka; Ziraba, Abdhalah K; Kyobutungi, Catherine

    2017-07-20

    Improving maternal and newborn survival remains major aspirations for many countries in the Global South. Slum settlements, a result of rapid urbanisation in many developing countries including Kenya, exhibit high levels of maternal and neonatal mortality. There are limited referral mechanisms for sick neonates and their mothers from the community to healthcare facilities with ability to provide adequate care. In this study, we specifically plan to develop and assess the added value of having community health volunteers (CHVs) use smartphones to identify and track mothers and children in a bid to reduce pregnancy-related complications and newborn deaths in the urban slums of Kamukunji subcounty in Nairobi, Kenya. This is a quasi-experimental study. We are implementing an innovative, mHealth application known as mobile Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (mPAMANECH) which uses dynamic mobile phone and web-portal solutions to enable CHVs make timely decisions on the best course of action in their management of mothers and newborns at community level. The application is based on existing guidelines and protocols in use by CHVs. Currently, CHVs conduct weekly home visits and make decisions from memory or using unwieldy manual tools, and thus prone to making errors. mPAMANECH has an in-built algorithm that makes it easier, faster and more likely for CHVs to make the right management decision. We are working with a network of selected CHVs and maternity centres to pilot test the tool. To measure the impact of the intervention, baseline and end-line surveys will be conducted. Data will be obtained through qualitative and quantitative methods. Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the African Medical Research Foundation. Key messages from the results will be packaged and disseminated through meetings, conference presentations, reports, fact sheets and academic publications to facilitate uptake by policy-makers. © Article author(s) (or their

  17. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    Effect of Phosphate Rock Fertilization and Arbuscular. Mycorrhizae (AM) Inoculation on Growth and Nodulation of. Agroforestry Tree Seedlings. N.K. Karanja'', K.A. Mwendwa?, J.R. Okaleboº, and J.H.P. Kahindi. 'University of Nairobi, Dept. of Soil Science, PO Box 30197 Nairobi, Kenya, ?Kenya Forestry Research. Institute ...

  18. Understanding the poultry trade network in Kenya: Implications for regional disease prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Margaret; Munyua, Peninah; Cheng, Po-Yung; Manga, Thomas; Wanjohi, Cathryn; Moen, Ann; Mounts, Anthony; Katz, Mark A

    2015-07-01

    Infectious diseases in poultry can spread quickly and lead to huge economic losses. In the past decade, on multiple continents, the accelerated spread of highly pathogenic avian Influenza A (H5N1) virus, often through informal trade networks, has led to the death and culling of hundreds of millions of poultry. Endemic poultry diseases like Newcastle disease and fowl typhoid can also be devastating in many parts of the world. Understanding trade networks in unregulated systems can inform policy decisions concerning disease prevention and containment. From June to December 2008 we conducted a cross-sectional survey of backyard farmers, market traders, and middlemen in 5/8 provinces in Kenya. We administered a standardized questionnaire to each type of actor using convenience, random, snowball, and systematic sampling. Questionnaires addressed frequency, volume, and geography of trade, as well as biosecurity practices. We created a network diagram identifying the most important locations for trade. Of 380 respondents, 51% were backyard farmers, 24% were middlemen and 25% were market traders. Half (50%) of backyard farmers said they raised poultry both for household consumption and for sale. Compared to market traders, middlemen bought their poultry from a greater number of villages (median 4.2 villages for middlemen vs. 1.9 for market traders). Traders were most likely to purchase poultry from backyard farmers. Of the backyard farmers who sold poultry, 51% [CI 40-63] reported selling poultry to market traders, and 54% [CI 44-63] sold to middlemen. Middlemen moved the largest volume of poultry on a weekly basis (median purchases: 187 birds/week [IQR 206]; median sales: 188 birds/week [IQR 412.5]). The highest numbers of birds were traded in Nairobi - Kenya's capital city. Nairobi was the most prominent trading node in the network (61 degrees of centrality). Many smaller sub-networks existed as a result of clustered local trade. Market traders were also integral to the

  19. The Tension of Elite "vs". Massified Higher Education Systems: How Prospective Students Perceive Public and Private Universities in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oketch, Moses O.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines how recent changes, leading to a diversified supply in Kenya's university education system, is reflected in prospective students' aspirations, perceptions and preferences to undertake university education. The results, based on a combination of a convenience and snowball sampling of settings, within which random samples of…

  20. Surgical treatment of an umbilical hernia in a free-ranging sub-adult African elephant in Samburu National Reserve, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijele D

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Domnic Mijele, Michael Njoroge, Titus Kaitho Veterinary Services Department, Species Conservation and Management Division, Kenya Wildlife Service, Nairobi, Kenya Abstract: A 10-year-old male African elephant (Loxodonta africana at Samburu National Reserve in Northern Kenya, weighing approximately 1,600 kg, presented with an umbilical hernia in October 2013. Umbilical herniorrhaphy was carried out under field conditions. Anesthesia was induced and maintained using etorphine hydrochloride for 3 hours during the surgery. This case report details both the surgical and anesthetic procedure carried out to correct the hernia, and the eventual successful recovery of the elephant from anesthesia. However, the elephant died weeks after the surgery and a postmortem could not reveal the cause of death because predators had scavenged the carcass. The challenges of the surgical procedure and outcome including possible causes of death are highlighted in this report. Keywords: African elephant, general anesthesia, etorphine hydrochloride, local anesthesia Lignocaine + adrenaline, umbilical herniorrhaphy

  1. LARVICIDAL BENZOQUINONE FROM EMBELIA SCHIMPERI C.P. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    C.P. Kiprono1*, J.O. Midiwo2, P.K. Kipkemboi1 and Santino Ladogana3. 1Department of Chemistry, Moi University, P.O. Box 1125, Eldoret, Kenya. 2Department of Chemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya. 3Department of Chemistry and Physics, Southeastern Louisiana University, Hammond, LA,.

  2. ORAL HYGIENE PRACTICES AND RISK OF ORAL LEUKOPLAKIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-04-01

    Apr 1, 2006 ... EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL ... Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, ... Poor oral hygiene is a product of plaque and ..... University of Nairobi and Kenya Medical Research.

  3. Overview of migration, poverty and health dynamics in Nairobi City's slum settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulu, Eliya M; Beguy, Donatien; Ezeh, Alex C; Bocquier, Philippe; Madise, Nyovani J; Cleland, John; Falkingham, Jane

    2011-06-01

    The Urbanization, Poverty, and Health Dynamics research program was designed to generate and provide the evidence base that would help governments, development partners, and other stakeholders understand how the urban slum context affects health outcomes in order to stimulate policy and action for uplifting the wellbeing of slum residents. The program was nested into the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System, a uniquely rich longitudinal research platform, set up in Korogocho and Viwandani slum settlements in Nairobi city, Kenya. Findings provide rich insights on the context in which slum dwellers live and how poverty and migration status interacts with health issues over the life course. Contrary to popular opinions and beliefs that see slums as homogenous residential entities, the findings paint a picture of a highly dynamic and heterogeneous setting. While slum populations are highly mobile, about half of the population comprises relatively well doing long-term dwellers who have lived in slum settlements for over 10 years. The poor health outcomes that slum residents exhibit at all stages of the life course are rooted in three key characteristics of slum settlements: poor environmental conditions and infrastructure; limited access to services due to lack of income to pay for treatment and preventive services; and reliance on poor quality and mostly informal and unregulated health services that are not well suited to meeting the unique realities and health needs of slum dwellers. Consequently, policies and programs aimed at improving the wellbeing of slum dwellers should address comprehensively the underlying structural, economic, behavioral, and service-oriented barriers to good health and productive lives among slum residents.

  4. Occupational exposure to roadway emissions and inside informal settlements in sub-Saharan Africa: A pilot study in Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Nicole S.; Gatari, Michael; Yan, Beizhan; Chillrud, Steven N.; Bouhamam, Kheira; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2015-06-01

    Few studies examine urban air pollution in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), yet urbanization rates there are among the highest in the world. In this study, we measured 8-hr average occupational exposure levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), ultra violet active-particulate matter (UV-PM), and trace elements for individuals who worked along roadways in Nairobi, specifically bus drivers, garage workers, street vendors, and women who worked inside informal settlements. We found BC and re-suspended dust were important contributors to PM2.5 levels for all study populations, particularly among bus drivers, while PM2.5 exposure levels for garage workers, street vendors, and informal settlement residents were not statistically different from each other. We also found a strong signal for biomass emissions and trash burning, which is common in Nairobi's low-income areas and open-air garages. These results suggest that the large portion of urban residents in SSA who walk along roadways would benefit from air quality regulations targeting roadway emissions from diesel vehicles, dust, and trash burning. This is the first study to measure occupational exposure to urban air pollution in SSA and results imply that roadway emissions are a serious public health concern.

  5. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    F. M. Gakuya, BVM, MSc, M.N.Kyule, BVM, MSc, PhD, P.B. Gathura, BVM, MSc, PhD, Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of. Nairobi, P.O. Box 29053, Nairobi, Kenya and S. Kariuki, BVM, MSc, PhD, CentreforMicrobiology Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, P.O. Box54840, ...

  6. Patterns and determinants of breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices in urban informal settlements, Nairobi Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth W; Madise, Nyovani J; Fotso, Jean-Christophe; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Mutua, Martin K; Gitau, Tabither M; Yatich, Nelly

    2011-05-26

    The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of life for optimal growth, development and health. Breastfeeding should continue up to two years or more and nutritionally adequate, safe, and appropriately-fed complementary foods should be introduced at the age of six months to meet the evolving needs of the growing infant. Little evidence exists on breastfeeding and infant feeding practices in urban slums in sub-Saharan Africa. Our aim was to assess breastfeeding and infant feeding practices in Nairobi slums with reference to WHO recommendations. Data from a longitudinal study conducted in two Nairobi slums are used. The study used information on the first year of life of 4299 children born between September 2006 and January 2010. All women who gave birth during this period were interviewed on breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices at recruitment and this information was updated twice, at four-monthly intervals. Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to determine factors associated with cessation of breastfeeding in infancy and early introduction of complementary foods. There was universal breastfeeding with almost all children (99%) having ever been breastfed. However, more than a third (37%) were not breastfed in the first hour following delivery, and 40% were given something to drink other than the mothers' breast milk within 3 days after delivery. About 85% of infants were still breastfeeding by the end of the 11th month. Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months was rare as only about 2% of infants were exclusively breastfed for six months. Factors associated with sub-optimal infant breastfeeding and feeding practices in these settings include child's sex; perceived size at birth; mother's marital status, ethnicity; education level; family planning (pregnancy desirability); health seeking behaviour (place of delivery) and; neighbourhood (slum of residence). The study indicates poor

  7. Scaling up implementation of ART: Organizational culture and early mortality of patients initiated on ART in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayah, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Scaling up the antiretroviral (ART) program in Kenya has involved a strategy of using clinical guidelines coupled with decentralization of treatment sites. However decentralization pushes clinical responsibility downwards to health facilities run by lower cadre staff. Whether the organizational culture in health facilities affects the outcomes despite the use of clinical guidelines has not been explored. This study aimed to demonstrate the relationship between organizational culture and early mortality and those lost to follow up (LTFU) among patients enrolled for HIV care. A stratified sample of 31 health facilities in Nairobi County offering ART services were surveyed. Data of patients enrolled on ART and LTFU for the 12 months ending 30th June 2013 were abstracted. Mortality and LTFU were determined and used to rank health facilities. In the facilities with the lowest and highest mortality and LTFU key informant interviews were conducted using a tool adapted from team climate assessment measurement questionnaire and competing value framework tool to assess organizational culture. The strength of association between early mortality, LTFU and organizational culture was tested. Half (51.8%) of the 5,808 patients enrolled into care in 31 health facilities over the 12-month study period were started on ART. Of these 48 (1.6% 95% CI 0.8%-2.4%) died within three months of starting treatment, while a further 125 (4.2% 95% CI 2.1%-6.6%) were LTFU giving an attrition rate of 5.7% (95% CI 3.3%-8.6%). Tuberculosis was the most common comorbidity associated with high early mortality and high LTFU. Organizational culture, specifically an adhocratic type was found to be associated with low early mortality and low LTFU of patients enrolled for HIV care (P = 0.034). The use of ART clinical guidelines in a decentralized health systems are not sufficient to achieve required service delivery outcomes. The attrition rate above would mean 85,000 Kenyans missing care based on current

  8. Ways through Which Principals Acquire the Leadership Competencies Required for Effective Management of Secondary Schools in Nairobi County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Githiari, Florence W.

    2017-01-01

    The last two decades have seen principals in Kenya come under heavy criticism over some serious cases of mismanagement that resulted in some of the worst institutional accidents, disasters/tragedies, unrests and even social and economic crimes that Kenya has witnessed. This study sought to find out ways that principals acquire the leadership…

  9. ‘The Nairobi General Strike [1950]: from protest to insurgency’

    OpenAIRE

    Hyde, David

    2002-01-01

    The Nairobi General Strike [1950] was the culmination of Kenya’s post war strike wave and urban upheaval. An unprecedented upsurge occurred with the general strikes in Mombasa [1947] led by the African Workers Federation [A.W.F.] and in Nairobi by the East African Trades Union Congress [E.A.T.U.C.]. While this has been termed and treated as a city wide strike, there is enough evidence to suggest a movement that went some way beyond Nairobi. The extent of the cohesion and reciprocal impacts am...

  10. Factors associated with default from treatment among tuberculosis patients in nairobi province, Kenya: A case control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Successful treatment of tuberculosis (TB) involves taking anti-tuberculosis drugs for at least six months. Poor adherence to treatment means patients remain infectious for longer, are more likely to relapse or succumb to tuberculosis and could result in treatment failure as well as foster emergence of drug resistant tuberculosis. Kenya is among countries with high tuberculosis burden globally. The purpose of this study was to determine the duration tuberculosis patients stay in treatment before defaulting and factors associated with default in Nairobi. Methods A Case-Control study; Cases were those who defaulted from treatment and Controls those who completed treatment course between January 2006 and March 2008. All (945) defaulters and 1033 randomly selected controls from among 5659 patients who completed treatment course in 30 high volume sites were enrolled. Secondary data was collected using a facility questionnaire. From among the enrolled, 120 cases and 154 controls were randomly selected and interviewed to obtain primary data not routinely collected. Data was analyzed using SPSS and Epi Info statistical software. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine association and Kaplan-Meier method to determine probability of staying in treatment over time were applied. Results Of 945 defaulters, 22.7% (215) and 20.4% (193) abandoned treatment within first and second months (intensive phase) of treatment respectively. Among 120 defaulters interviewed, 16.7% (20) attributed their default to ignorance, 12.5% (15) to traveling away from treatment site, 11.7% (14) to feeling better and 10.8% (13) to side-effects. On multivariate analysis, inadequate knowledge on tuberculosis (OR 8.67; 95% CI 1.47-51.3), herbal medication use (OR 5.7; 95% CI 1.37-23.7), low income (OR 5.57, CI 1.07-30.0), alcohol abuse (OR 4.97; 95% CI 1.56-15.9), previous default (OR 2.33; 95% CI 1.16-4.68), co-infection with Human immune-deficient Virus (HIV) (OR 1

  11. INTERGROWTH-21st Gestational Dating and Fetal and Newborn Growth Standards in Peri-Urban Nairobi, Kenya: Quasi-Experimental Implementation Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Kathryn; Patel, Suha; Munson, Meghan; Vesel, Linda; Subbiah, Shalini; Jones, Rachel M; Little, Sarah; Papageorghiou, Aris T; Villar, Jose; Wegner, Mary Nell; Pearson, Nick; Muigai, Faith; Ongeti, Catherine; Langer, Ana

    2018-06-22

    The burden of preterm birth, fetal growth impairment, and associated neonatal deaths disproportionately falls on low- and middle-income countries where modern obstetric tools are not available to date pregnancies and monitor fetal growth accurately. The INTERGROWTH-21 st gestational dating, fetal growth monitoring, and newborn size at birth standards make this possible. To scale up the INTERGROWTH-21 st standards, it is essential to assess the feasibility and acceptability of their implementation and their effect on clinical decision-making in a low-resource clinical setting. This study protocol describes a pre-post, quasi-experimental implementation study of the standards at Jacaranda Health, a maternity hospital in peri-urban Nairobi, Kenya. All women with viable fetuses receiving antenatal and delivery services, their resulting newborns, and the clinicians caring for them from March 2016 to March 2018 are included. The study comprises a 12-month preimplementation phase, a 12-month implementation phase, and a 5-month post-implementation phase to be completed in August 2018. Quantitative clinical and qualitative data collected during the preimplementation and implementation phases will be assessed. A clinician survey was administered eight months into the implementation phase, month 20 of the study. Implementation outcomes include quantitative and qualitative analyses of feasibility, acceptability, adoption, appropriateness, fidelity, and penetration of the standards. Clinical outcomes include appropriateness of referral and effect of the standards on clinical care and decision-making. Descriptive analyses will be conducted, and comparisons will be made between pre- and postimplementation outcomes. Qualitative data will be analyzed using thematic coding and compared across time. The study was approved by the Amref Ethics and Scientific Review Committee (Kenya) and the Harvard University Institutional Review Board. Study results will be shared with stakeholders

  12. Susceptibility of mycotoxigenic fungi to commercial fungicides, a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Maize in Kenya has been associated with frequent outbreaks of aflatoxin contamination. ... for Microbiology Research in Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.

  13. Implementation and outcomes of an active defaulter tracing system for HIV, prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT), and TB patients in Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Kerry A; Cheti, Erastus O; Reid, Tony

    2011-06-01

    Retention of patients in long term care and adherence to treatment regimens are a constant challenge for HIV, prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT), and TB programmes in sub-Saharan Africa. This study describes the implementation and outcomes of an active defaulter tracing system used to reduce loss to follow-up (LTFU) among HIV, PMTCT, TB, and HIV/TB co-infected patients receiving treatment at three Médecins Sans Frontières clinics in the informal settlement of Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya. Patients are routinely contacted by a social worker via telephone, in-person visit, or both very soon after they miss an appointment. Patient outcomes identified through 1066 tracing activities conducted between 1 April 2008 and 31 March 2009 included: 59.4% returned to the clinic, 9.0% unable to return to clinic, 6.3% died, 4.7% refused to return to clinic, 4.5% went to a different clinic, and 0.8% were hospitalized. Fifteen percent of patients identified for tracing could not be contacted. LTFU among all HIV patients decreased from 21.2% in 2006 to 11.5% in 2009. An active defaulter tracing system is feasible in a resource poor setting, solicits feedback from patients, retains a mobile population of patients in care, and reduces LTFU among HIV, PMTCT, and TB patients. Copyright © 2011 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Patterns and determinants of breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices in urban informal settlements, Nairobi Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutua Martin K

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organisation (WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of life for optimal growth, development and health. Breastfeeding should continue up to two years or more and nutritionally adequate, safe, and appropriately-fed complementary foods should be introduced at the age of six months to meet the evolving needs of the growing infant. Little evidence exists on breastfeeding and infant feeding practices in urban slums in sub-Saharan Africa. Our aim was to assess breastfeeding and infant feeding practices in Nairobi slums with reference to WHO recommendations. Methods Data from a longitudinal study conducted in two Nairobi slums are used. The study used information on the first year of life of 4299 children born between September 2006 and January 2010. All women who gave birth during this period were interviewed on breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices at recruitment and this information was updated twice, at four-monthly intervals. Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to determine factors associated with cessation of breastfeeding in infancy and early introduction of complementary foods. Results There was universal breastfeeding with almost all children (99% having ever been breastfed. However, more than a third (37% were not breastfed in the first hour following delivery, and 40% were given something to drink other than the mothers' breast milk within 3 days after delivery. About 85% of infants were still breastfeeding by the end of the 11th month. Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months was rare as only about 2% of infants were exclusively breastfed for six months. Factors associated with sub-optimal infant breastfeeding and feeding practices in these settings include child's sex; perceived size at birth; mother's marital status, ethnicity; education level; family planning (pregnancy desirability; health seeking behaviour (place of delivery and; neighbourhood

  15. Women's Nutribusiness cooperatives in Kenya: an integrated strategy for sustaining rural livelihoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maretzki, Audrey N

    2007-01-01

    With funding provided by the Center for Higher Education of the United States Agency for International Development, The Pennsylvania State University and Tuskegee University collaborated with the University of Nairobi in establishing women's NutriBusiness Cooperatives in the Rift Valley and Central Provinces of Kenya. Between 1992 and 1999, the cooperatives were established, facilities and equipment were supplied and extensive participatory training was provided by university-affiliated investigators and project staff. This initiative enabled approximately 2500 rural Kenyan women farmers to add value to their crops by processing and locally marketing nutritious, convenient, culturally-appropriate weaning food mixes. Implementation of the NutriBusiness model is described and challenges of cultural engagement are highlighted.

  16. Consumer preferences for maize products in urban Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groote, Hugo; Kimenju, Simon Chege

    2012-06-01

    New maize varieties have been biofortified with provitamin A, mainly a-carotene, which renders the grain yellow or orange. Unfortunately, many African consumers prefer white maize. The maize consumption patterns in Africa are, however, not known. To determine which maize products African consumers prefer to purchase and which maize preparations they prefer to eat. A survey of 600 consumers was conducted in Nairobi, Kenya, at three types of maize outlets: posho mills (small hammer mills), kiosks, and supermarkets. Clients of posho mills had lower incomes and less education than those of kiosks and supermarkets. The preferred maize product of the posho-mill clients was artisanal maize meal; the preferred product of the others was industrial maize meal. Maize is the preferred staple for lunch and dinner, eaten as a stiff porridge (ugali), followed by boiled maize and beans (githeri), regardless of socioeconomic background. For breakfast, only half the consumers prefer maize, mostly as a soft porridge (uji). This proportion is higher in low-income groups. Consumers show a strong preference for white maize over yellow, mostly for its organoleptic characteristics, and show less interest in biofortified maize. Maize is the major food staple in Nairobi, mostly eaten in a few distinct preparations. For biofortified yellow maize to be accepted, a strong public awareness campaign to inform consumers is needed, based on a sensory evaluation and the mass media, in particular on radio in the local language.

  17. African Women Commuter Traders in Nairobi in the First Decade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates African women commuter trading activities in Nairobi in the first decade after World War One. Its findings derive mainly from a research project carried out in 1989-1996. The major source of data for the study was oral interviews with the women who traded in Nairobi during the years under study, ...

  18. The broiler meat system in Nairobi, Kenya: Using a value chain framework to understand animal and product flows, governance and sanitary risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carron, Maud; Alarcon, Pablo; Karani, Maurice; Muinde, Patrick; Akoko, James; Onono, Joshua; Fèvre, Eric M; Häsler, Barbara; Rushton, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    Livestock food systems play key subsistence and income generation roles in low to middle income countries and are important networks for zoonotic disease transmission. The aim of this study was to use a value chain framework to characterize the broiler chicken meat system of Nairobi, its governance and sanitary risks. A total of 4 focus groups and 8 key informant interviews were used to collect cross-sectional data from: small-scale broiler farmers in selected Nairobi peri-urban and informal settlement areas; medium to large integrated broiler production companies; traders and meat inspectors in live chicken and chicken meat markets in Nairobi. Qualitative data were collected on types of people operating in the system, their interactions, sanitary measures in place, sourcing and selling of broiler chickens and products. Framework analysis was used to identify governance themes and risky sanitary practices present in the system. One large company was identified to supply 60% of Nairobi's day-old chicks to farmers, mainly through agrovet shops. Broiler meat products from integrated companies were sold in high-end retailers whereas their low value products were channelled through independent traders to consumers in informal settlements. Peri-urban small-scale farmers reported to slaughter the broilers on the farm and to sell carcasses to retailers (hotels and butcheries mainly) through brokers (80%), while farmers in the informal settlement reported to sell their broilers live to retailers (butcheries, hotels and hawkers mainly) directly. Broiler heads and legs were sold in informal settlements via roadside vendors. Sanitary risks identified were related to lack of biosecurity, cold chain and access to water, poor hygiene practices, lack of inspection at farm slaughter and limited health inspection in markets.
 Large companies dominated the governance of the broiler system through the control of day-old chick production. Overall government control was described as

  19. The becoming of methadone in Kenya: How an intervention's implementation constitutes recovery potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Tim

    2018-03-01

    This analysis treats the recent introduction of methadone treatment in Kenya as a case of 'evidence-making intervention'. Using 30 qualitative interviews with people in receipt of methadone treatment in Nairobi, Kenya, methadone's becoming is treated as an effect of its narrative and material implementations. The interviews are shown to enact a narrative of methadone recovery potential towards normalcy beyond addiction. Such recovery potential is materialised in practice through social interactions wherein methadone's embodied effects are seen to be believed. Here, the recovering body affects others' recovery potential. In a context of competing claims about methadone's effects, including the circulation of doubt about experimenting with methadone treatment, embodied methadone effect helps moderate the multiverse of methadone knowledge. The material dynamics of methadone treatment delivery also affect its recovery potential, with the methadone queue enacting a rationing of recovery hope. Here, the experience of methadone's implementation loops back to a life with drugs. I conclude that there is a coexistence of potentiality and actuality, a 'methadone multiple', produced through its narrative and material implementations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Does the quality of parent-child connectedness matter for adolescents' sexual behaviors in Nairobi informal settlements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidze, Estelle M; Elungata'a, Patricia; Maina, Beatrice W; Mutua, Michael M

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the associations between parent-child connectedness and sexual behaviors among adolescents living in informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya, a vulnerable group with respect to reproductive health outcomes. The study was based on data from the Transition to Adulthood project, a study designed to follow adolescents aged 12-22 for 3 years in the informal settlements of Korogocho and Viwandani. Direct face-to-face questions were asked to adolescents about parenting variables and sexual behaviors. This study used a subsample of 689 sexually experienced 12-22-years-olds at Wave 2. Bivariate analysis compared gender differences for three outcomes-sexual activity in the 12 months prior to the survey and, among those who had had sex in this period, multiple sexual partners and condom use at last sex. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify associations between these outcomes and the quality of parent-child connectedness. About 60% of adolescent females and males were sexually active in the 12 months prior to the survey. The multivariate results showed a strong association between the quality of parent-child connectedness and condom use among adolescent males. Living with related or unrelated guardians (versus living with biological parents) was also associated with higher odds of multiple sexual partners and lower odds of condom use at last sex among adolescent females and with higher odds of sexual activity among adolescent males. Sexual and reproductive health programs targeting adolescents living in Nairobi informal settlements would benefit from attention to assisting parents to improve their ability to play the connectedness role.

  1. The state of emergency care in the Republic of Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Wachira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 580,000 km2 in size, the Republic of Kenya is as big as Botswana but only half the size of countries like South Africa, Mali, and Angola. Kenya is comprised of eight provinces: Central, Coast, Eastern, Nairobi, North Eastern, Nyanza, Rift Valley, and Western. The 2009 census revealed a population of over 38 million people, with a population density of approximately 66 persons per square kilometre. Majority of the population (68% lives in rural areas, as compared with the sub-Saharan African average of approximately 62%. With a gross domestic product (GDP per capita of US $1,600 in 2010, Kenya is considered a low-income country—with 50% of the population living below the poverty line. HIV/AIDS disproportionately affects the country’s mortality and morbidity. Although its prevalence is higher than the regional average at 6.3% for people ages 15–49 years, it is much lower than many other sub-Saharan African countries. In addition to HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and diarrheal diseases are major killers. The burden of communicable diseases is high, with malaria as the leading cause of morbidity (30%, followed by respiratory diseases (24.5%. Malaria prevalence is 14%, and HIV prevalence is 7.4%, with a higher rate in women (8.5% compared to men (5.6%. The non-communicable disease burden is also on the rise with diabetes prevalence at 3.3%, a threefold increase over the last 10 years. Mental health issues and road traffic injuries are also on the rise. Thirteen percent of school-age children aged 13–15 years are active cigarette smokers. These put Kenya in the company of other low-income countries predicted by the World Health Organization (WHO to face the “double hump” burden of communicable and chronic disease over the next several decades.

  2. Measuring extended families over time in informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya: Retention and data consistency in a two-round survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Sangeetha; Beguy, Donatien; Clark, Shelley; Kabiru, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    Researchers have increasingly turned to longitudinal data to understand how the family environment of children changes over time and how this change affects their well-being. While the value of such efforts is clear, the inherent challenges of collecting robust data over time may limit or bias our understanding of family complexity. Drawing on data from an exploratory study on kinship structure and support for low income single mothers and their young children in Nairobi, Kenya, this paper aims to (1) assess the strengths and weaknesses of our approach in reflecting the complexities of kinship dynamics and (2) analyze how methodological issues such as selection and reporting inconsistency can influence our understanding of the role of kin in children's lives. The analysis used data from two waves of the Kinship Support Tree (KST) project. The starting sample consisted of 462 single mothers with at least one child under the age of 7, with data collected on approximately 5,000 resident and nonresident kin. Descriptive statistics and conventional tests of significance were used to analyze selection factors and inconsistencies in reporting across waves. The study yielded a 91% retention rate after six months and the analysis provides some assurance that selectivity from attrition and reporting inconsistency are not entirely driven by shifts in support provision by kin. However, the selectivity of the sample underscores caution in generalizing the results. While the challenges of conducting follow-up surveys such as the KST are serious, these findings suggest that it is possible to collect consistent data on kinship structure and support from the perspective of children in a mobile population. Tracking kinship structure over time using the KST is not only feasible but more importantly is unlikely to lead to incomplete or biased understanding of kinship. After further testing with a wider range of women, we hope to disseminate our results for use in a wide range of

  3. Measuring extended families over time in informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya: Retention and data consistency in a two-round survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha Madhavan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Researchers have increasingly turned to longitudinal data to understand how the family environment of children changes over time and how this change affects their well-being. While the value of such efforts is clear, the inherent challenges of collecting robust data over time may limit or bias our understanding of family complexity. Objective: Drawing on data from an exploratory study on kinship structure and support for low income single mothers and their young children in Nairobi, Kenya, this paper aims to (1 assess the strengths and weaknesses of our approach in reflecting the complexities of kinship dynamics and (2 analyze how methodological issues such as selection and reporting inconsistency can influence our understanding of the role of kin in children's lives. Methods: The analysis used data from two waves of the Kinship Support Tree (KST project. The starting sample consisted of 462 single mothers with at least one child under the age of 7, with data collected on approximately 5,000 resident and nonresident kin. Descriptive statistics and conventional tests of significance were used to analyze selection factors and inconsistencies in reporting across waves. Results: The study yielded a 91Š retention rate after six months and the analysis provides some assurance that selectivity from attrition and reporting inconsistency are not entirely driven by shifts in support provision by kin. However, the selectivity of the sample underscores caution in generalizing the results. Conclusions: While the challenges of conducting follow-up surveys such as the KST are serious, these findings suggest that it is possible to collect consistent data on kinship structure and support from the perspective of children in a mobile population. Tracking kinship structure over time using the KST is not only feasible but more importantly is unlikely to lead to incomplete or biased understanding of kinship. Contribution: After further testing with a

  4. A new species of Hemidactylus from Lake Turkana, Northern Kenya (Squamata: Gekkonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Sindaco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Hemidactylus is described on the basis of two specimens (an adult male and an adult female collected in 2005 in rocky and sandy habitat of the semiarid climatic region on the eastern shore of Lake Turkana (Kenya. It is a medium-sized Hemidactylus (SVL from 40 to 50 mm distinguished from all other species by a unique combination of characters. The back is covered by large, trihedral, strongly keeled tubercles, intermixed with a few small, irregular shaped granules, forming 14 quite regular transverse rows from axilla to groin; nostrils contact the rostral, first supralabial, 1 enlarged internasal and 2-3 postnasals; the dorsal half of the rostral scale is divided longitudinally; there are 6 lamellae under the first toe and 10 under the 4th toe; male with 8 precloacal pores; female without pores. The dorsal colour pattern is very distinctive, consisting of four transverse bands, bordered with dark margins. The types are housed in the Herpetological Collections of the Museo di Storia Naturale of the University of Pavia and in the National Museums of Kenya (Nairobi.

  5. Women's use of private and government health facilities for childbirth in Nairobi's informal settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazant, Eva S; Koenig, Michael A; Fotso, Jean-Christophe; Mills, Samuel

    2009-03-01

    The private sector's role in increasing the use of maternal health care for the poor in developing countries has received increasing attention, yet few data exist for urban slums. Using household-survey data from 1,926 mothers in two informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya, collected in 2006, we describe and examine the factors associated with women's use of private and government health facilities for childbirth. More women gave birth at private facilities located in the settlements than at government facilities, and one-third of the women gave birth at home or with the assistance of a traditional birth attendant. In multivariate models, women's education, ethnic group, and household wealth were associated with institutional deliveries, especially in government hospitals. Residents in the more disadvantaged settlement were more likely than those in the better-off settlement to give birth in private facilities. In urban areas, maternal health services in both the government and private sectors should be strengthened, and efforts made to reach out to women who give birth at home.

  6. 61-68 Antimicrobial Activity and Bioactive Constit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    3Department of Chemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197-00100, Nairobi, Kenya. Alectra sessiliflora ... yellow dye for colouring wood probably to reduce termite attack [5,7]. ... phytochemical and the potential antimicrobial activity of A.

  7. Marital status and risk of HIV infection in slum settlements of Nairobi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the association between marital status and risk of HIV infection in urban slums of Nairobi. Data were derived from a cross-sectional population-based survey nested in an ongoing Demographic Surveillance System in two urban slums in Nairobi. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression ...

  8. Neurological syndrome in an HIV-prevention trial participant randomized to daily tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (300 mg and emtricitabine (200 mg in Bondo, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owino F

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Fredrick Owino,1 Justin Mandala,2 Julie Ambia,3 Kawango Agot,1 Lut Van Damme2 1Impact Research and Development Organization, Kisumu, Kenya; 2Department of Global Health, Population, and Nutrition, FHI 360, Washington, DC, USA; 3KAVI-Institute of Clinical Research, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya Abstract: Side effects of antiretroviral drug use by HIV-positive patients have been extensively studied; however, there are limited data on the side effects of antiretroviral drugs used as an HIV prophylaxis among healthy, HIV-negative individuals. Here we report on an unusual neuropathy in a 24-year-old participant in the FEM-PrEP trial. This was a Phase III randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial to test the safety and effectiveness of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (300 mg and emtricitabine (200 mg (TDF-FTC to prevent HIV. At the eighth week of taking TDF-FTC with moderate adherence, the participant complained of mild paresthesiae, numbness, and a tingling sensation in her upper limbs that was associated with pain and cold. After an additional 4 days, she developed a disabling weakness of her upper limbs and tremors in her hands. The study product was discontinued, and within 2 weeks she was free of all symptoms. One month after restarting the drug, she complained of posture-dependent numbness of her upper limbs. Results of clinical and neurological exams, laboratory tests, and magnetic resonance imaging are described here. Keywords: pre-exposure prophylaxis, toxic neuropathy, NRTI

  9. Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Situation in Kenya's Urban Slums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamau, Njoroge; Njiru, Haron

    2018-01-01

    Kenya has undergone rapid urbanization as people migrate to the cities in search of economic opportunities. This has given rise to informal settlements characterized by overcrowding, poor infrastructure, and inadequate social amenities. A cross-sectional study on water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) status was carried out in Mathare, an informal settlement in Nairobi. A random sample of 380 households was used. The average household size was five people, and 26% of the household heads had completed secondary or higher level of education. The main source of income (70%) was self-employment with 41% of the households living on less than 1.5 USD per day. The WASH situation in the urban slums is below the minimum standard recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). There is need to improve the situation by improving and installing basic infrastructure including water, sanitation, and solid waste collection.

  10. EAMJ Morphological August.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-10-10

    Oct 10, 2009 ... and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. Request for ... measures (3), which in most cases do not need the ... This was a cross-sectional study involving pre-.

  11. Sexual risk taking among patients on antiretroviral therapy in an urban informal settlement in Kenya: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragnarsson, Anders; Ekström, Anna Mia; Carter, Jane; Ilako, Festus; Lukhwaro, Abigail; Marrone, Gaetano; Thorson, Anna

    2011-04-18

    Our intention was to analyze demographic and contextual factors associated with sexual risk taking among HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Africa's largest informal urban settlement, Kibera in Nairobi, Kenya. We used a cross-sectional survey in a resource-poor, urban informal settlement in Nairobi; 515 consecutive adult patients on ART attending the African Medical and Research Foundation clinic in Kibera in Nairobi were included in the study. Interviewers used structured questionnaires covering socio-demographic characteristics, time on ART, number of sexual partners during the previous six months and consistency of condom use. Twenty-eight percent of patients reported inconsistent condom use. Female patients were significantly more likely than men to report inconsistent condom use (aOR 3.03; 95% CI 1.60-5.72). Shorter time on ART was significantly associated with inconsistent condom use. Multiple sexual partners were more common among married men than among married women (adjusted OR 4.38; 95% CI 1.82-10.51). Inconsistent condom use was especially common among women and patients who had recently started ART, i.e., when the risk of HIV transmission is higher. Having multiple partners was quite common, especially among married men, with the potential of creating sexual networks and an increased risk of HIV transmission. ART needs to be accompanied by other preventive interventions to reduce the risk of new HIV infections among sero-discordant couples and to increase overall community effectiveness.

  12. Digital Radiography in Kenya today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omenta, E.N.

    2006-01-01

    Its nearly one year and a half since digital imaging/radiography was introduced in Kenya mainly in Nairobi. the technology is becoming an increasingly effective and acceptable modality of producing radiographs from the traditional conventional radiography in use to date. the digital radiography offers numerous advantages that have been noted for the short period over the conventional way. For instance radiographs are produced in real time (less than 3 minutes), by so doing the technology has eliminated the wait for the processing period. the radiation exposure to the patient under the radiological examination is reduced as much as 90% from the traditional conventional film taking. The cost, labour and record-keeping necessary to maintain a chemical processor and darkroom operations are as well eliminated. The cost of purchasing and disposing of film wastes/darkroom processing chemicals, which are environmentally hazardous, also become unnecessary.digital radiography technology makes the digital images comparable to other images on the screen at that instant making both the patient and the clinician easily access images when needed. digital receptors have also replaced the cassette containing intensifying screens and film that is used in conventional radiography

  13. Quantitative trait loci for resistance to maize streak virus disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. ... development ... Biotechnology Center, Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, P.O. Box 58711-00200, Nairobi, ... Maize streak virus disease is an important disease of maize in Kenya.

  14. Access to Waterless Hand Sanitizer Improves Student Hand Hygiene Behavior in Primary Schools in Nairobi, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Pickering, Amy J.; Davis, Jennifer; Blum, Annalise G.; Scalmanini, Jenna; Oyier, Beryl; Okoth, George; Breiman, Robert F.; Ram, Pavani K.

    2013-01-01

    Handwashing is difficult in settings with limited resources and water access. In primary schools within urban Kibera, Kenya, we investigated the impact of providing waterless hand sanitizer on student hand hygiene behavior. Two schools received a waterless hand sanitizer intervention, two schools received a handwashing with soap intervention, and two schools received no intervention. Hand cleaning behavior after toilet use was monitored for 2 months using structured observation. Hand cleaning...

  15. Psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To determine the psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) in Nairobi public secondary school children, Kenya. Method: Concurrent self-administration of the MASC and Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) to students in Nairobi public secondary schools. Results: The MASC ...

  16. Biogeography of the Shimba Hills ecosystem herpetofauna in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malonza, Patrick K; Mulwa, David M; Nyamache, Joash O; Jones, Georgina

    2018-03-18

    The Shimba Hills ecosystem along the south coast of Kenya is a key East African biodiversity hotspot. Historically, it is biogeographically assignable to the East African coastal biome. We examined the current Shimba Hills herpetofauna and their zoogeographical affinities to the coastal forests and nearby Eastern Arc Mountains biodiversity hotspots. The key studied sites included the Shimba Hills National Reserve, forest reserves, Kaya forests, and adjacent private land. Data on herpetofaunal richness were obtained from recent field surveys, literature, and specimens held at the National Museums of Kenya, Herpetology Section Collection, Nairobi. The Makadara, Mwele, and Longo-Mwagandi forests within the Shimba Hills National Reserve hosted the highest number of unique and rare species. Generally, the forest reserves and Kaya forests were important refuges for forest-associated species. On private land, Mukurumudzi Dam riparian areas were the best amphibian habitat and were host to three IUCN (Red List) Endangered-EN amphibian species, namely, Boulengerula changamwensis, Hyperolius rubrovermiculatus, and Afrixalus sylvaticus, as well as one snake species Elapsoidea nigra. Using herpetofauna as zoogeographic indicators, the Shimba Hills were determined to be at a crossroads between the coastal forests (13 endemic species) and the Eastern Arc Mountains (seven endemic species). Most of the Eastern Arc Mountains endemic species were from recent records, and thus more are likely to be found in the future. This 'hybrid' species richness pattern is attributable to the hilly topography of the Shimba Hills and their proximity to the Indian Ocean. This has contributed to the Shimba Hills being the richest herpetofauna area in Kenya, with a total of 89 and 36 reptile and amphibian species, respectively. Because of its unique zoogeography, the Shimba Hills ecosystem is undoubtedly a key biodiversity area for conservation investment.

  17. Demonstrating PM2.5 and road-side dust pollution by heavy metals along Thika superhighway in Kenya, sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, E G; Gachanja, A N; Gatari, M J; Price, H

    2018-03-27

    This study assessed the level of heavy metal in roadside dust and PM 2.5 mass concentrations along Thika superhighway in Kenya. Thika superhighway is one of the busiest roads in Kenya, linking Thika town with Nairobi. Triplicate road dust samples collected from 12 locations were analysed for lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). PM 2.5 samples were collected on pre-weighed Teflon filters using a BGI personal sampler and the filters were then reweighed. The ranges of metal concentrations were 39-101 μg/g for Cu, 95-262 μg/g for Zn, 9-28 μg/g for Cd, 14-24 μg/g for Ni, 13-30 μg/g for Cr, and 20-80 μg/g for Pb. The concentrations of heavy metals were generally highly correlated, indicating a common anthropogenic source of the pollutants. The results showed that the majority of the measured heavy metals were above the background concentration, and in particular, Cd, Pb, and Zn levels indicated moderate to high contamination. Though not directly comparable due to different sampling timeframes (8 h in this study and 24 h for guideline values), PM 2.5 for all sites exceeds the daily WHO PM 2.5 guidelines of 25 μg/m 3 . This poses a health risk to people using and working close to Thika superhighway, for example, local residents, traffic police, street vendors, and people operating small businesses. PM 2.5 levels were higher for sites closer to Nairobi which could be attributed to increased vehicular traffic towards Nairobi from Thika. This study provides some evidence of the air pollution problem arising from vehicular traffic in developing parts of the world and gives an indication of the potential health impacts. It also highlights the need for source apportionment studies to determine contributions of anthropogenic emissions to air pollution, as well as long-term sampling studies that can be used to fully understand spatiotemporal patterns in air pollution

  18. The estimated incidence of induced abortion in Kenya: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Shukri F; Izugbara, Chimaraoke; Moore, Ann M; Mutua, Michael; Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth W; Ziraba, Abdhalah K; Bankole, Akinrinola; Singh, Susheela D; Egesa, Caroline

    2015-08-21

    The recently promulgated 2010 constitution of Kenya permits abortion when the life or health of the woman is in danger. Yet broad uncertainty remains about the interpretation of the law. Unsafe abortion remains a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in Kenya. The current study aimed to determine the incidence of induced abortion in Kenya in 2012. The incidence of induced abortion in Kenya in 2012 was estimated using the Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology (AICM) along with the Prospective Morbidity Survey (PMS). Data were collected through three surveys, (i) Health Facilities Survey (HFS), (ii) Prospective Morbidity Survey (PMS), and (iii) Health Professionals Survey (HPS). A total of 328 facilities participated in the HFS, 326 participated in the PMS, and 124 key informants participated in the HPS. Abortion numbers, rates, ratios and unintended pregnancy rates were calculated for Kenya as a whole and for five geographical regions. In 2012, an estimated 464,000 induced abortions occurred in Kenya. This translates into an abortion rate of 48 per 1,000 women aged 15-49, and an abortion ratio of 30 per 100 live births. About 120,000 women received care for complications of induced abortion in health facilities. About half (49%) of all pregnancies in Kenya were unintended and 41% of unintended pregnancies ended in an abortion. This study provides the first nationally-representative estimates of the incidence of induced abortion in Kenya. An urgent need exists for improving facilities' capacity to provide safe abortion care to the fullest extent of the law. All efforts should be made to address underlying factors to reduce risk of unsafe abortion.

  19. How Insecurity impacts on school attendance and school drop out among urban slum children in Nairobi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chimaraoke Izugbara

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses how perceptions of personal security can impact on school enrolment and attendance. It mainly focuses on threats of physical harm, crime, and community and domestic violence. These security fears can include insecurity that children suffer from as they go to school, maybe through the use of unsafe routes; insecurity that children feel at school; and the insecurity they suffer from in their homes. Although poverty can be a source and/or an indicator of insecurity, this paper does not focus solely on poverty as it is well covered elsewhere in the literature. The paper relies on qualitative data col- lected in Korogocho and Viwandani slum areas in Nairobi, Kenya between October and November 2004. The paper analyses data from individual interviews and focus group interviews and focuses on the narrative of slum dwellers on how insecurity impacts on educational attainment. The conclusion in this paper is that insecure neighbourhoods may have a negative impact on schooling. As a result policies that address insecurity in slum neighbourhoods can also improve school attendance and performance.

  20. Scopus: Journal of East African Ornithology: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Darcy Ogada Dr Bird Committee of the East Africa Natural History Society. Editors,. Scopus,. c/o Nature Kenya,. P.O. Box 44486,. G.P.O. 00100,. Nairobi, Kenya. Email: scopus@naturekenya.org ...

  1. Performance of LED-based fluorescence microscopy to diagnose tuberculosis in a peripheral health centre in Nairobi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryline Bonnet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sputum microscopy is the only tuberculosis (TB diagnostic available at peripheral levels of care in resource limited countries. Its sensitivity is low, particularly in high HIV prevalence settings. Fluorescence microscopy (FM can improve performance of microscopy and with the new light emitting diode (LED technologies could be appropriate for peripheral settings. The study aimed to compare the performance of LED-FM versus Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN microscopy and to assess feasibility of LED-FM at a low level of care in a high HIV prevalence country. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in an urban health clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. Three sputum specimens were collected over 2 days from suspected TB patients. Each sample was processed with Auramine O and ZN methods and a 4(th specimen was collected for TB culture reference standard. Auramine smears were read using the same microscope, equipped with the FluoLED™ fluorescence illuminator. Inter-reader agreement, reading time and technicians' acceptability assessed feasibility. RESULTS: 497 patients were included and 1394 specimens were collected. The detection yields of LED-FM and ZN microscopy were 20.3% and 20.6% (p = 0.64, respectively. Sensitivity was 73.2% for LED-FM and 72% for ZN microscopy, p = 0.32. It was 96.7% and 95.9% for specificity, p = 0.53. Inter-reader agreement was high (kappa = 0.9. Mean reading time was three times faster than ZN microscopy with very good acceptance by technicians. CONCLUSIONS: Although it did not increase sensitivity, the faster reading time combined with very good acceptance and ease of use supports the introduction of LED-FM at the peripheral laboratory level of high TB and HIV burden countries.

  2. A comprehensive comparison of Ziehl-Neelsen and fluorescence microscopy for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in a resource-poor urban setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kivihya-Ndugga, L. E. A.; van Cleeff, M. R. A.; Githui, W. A.; Nganga, L. W.; Kibuga, D. K.; Odhiambo, J. A.; Klatser, Paul R.

    2003-01-01

    Nairobi City Council Chest Clinic, Kenya. To establish the efficiency, costs and cost-effectiveness of six diagnostic strategies using Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) and fluorescence microscopy (FM). A cross-sectional study of 1398 TB suspects attending a specialised chest clinic in Nairobi subjected to three

  3. Hypertension and obesity among HIV patients in a care programme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of hypertension and obesity among HIV patients enrolled in the Sex Worker Outreach Programme (SWOP), Nairobi, Kenya. Design: A retrospective a study. Setting: SWOP managed by the University of Manitoba, Nairobi team. Subjects: We selected clinic visit records from HIV ...

  4. Westgate Shootings: An Emergency Department Approach to a Mass-casualty Incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachira, Benjamin W; Abdalla, Ramadhani O; Wallis, Lee A

    2014-10-01

    At approximately 12:30 pm on Saturday September 21, 2013, armed assailants attacked the upscale Westgate shopping mall in the Westlands area of Nairobi, Kenya. Using the seven key Major Incident Medical Management and Support (MIMMS) principles, command, safety, communication, assessment, triage, treatment, and transport, the Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi (AKUH,N) emergency department (ED) successfully coordinated the reception and care of all the casualties brought to the hospital. This report describes the AKUH,N ED response to the first civilian mass-casualty shooting incident in Kenya, with the hope of informing the development and implementation of mass-casualty emergency preparedness plans by other EDs and hospitals in Kenya, appropriate for the local health care system.

  5. Studies on the interaction of Schistosoma mansoni and Leishmania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    African Journal of Health Sciences, Volume 14, Numbers 1-2, January-June 2007. 80 ... 1. Institute of Primate Research, National Museums of Kenya, P.O. Box 24481, Karen, Nairobi, Kenya. 2. Moi University, Chepkoilel Campus, P.O. BOX 3900, Eldoret, Kenya. .... expressed as differential counts, ∆, counts per minute. (cpm ...

  6. LEARNING INSTITUTIONS’ VULNERABILITY TO TERRORISM. AN OVERVIEW OF ISSUE COVERAGE IN NOWADAYS’ MEDIA AND SPECIALISED LITERATURE & A CASE STUDY OF GARISSA UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah Onyango Standslause ODHIAMBO

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Terrorist groups like the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, (ISIL, Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda have the knowledge and the capability to strike anywhere in Kenya and with Kenya Defense Forces’ (KDF incursion into Somalia in mid-October 2011, the citizens in Mandera, Moyale, Garrisa, Nairobi and Mombasa have been attacked and lives lost. This confirms that Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda have been motivated by Kenya Defense Forces’ (KDF, now under the African Union Mission for Somalia (AMISOM incursion into Somalia and they will continue to attack Kenya as a way of retaliation. The importance of Learning Institutions makes it a soft target for ISIL, Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorists. The fact that ISIL, Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorists will strike at Learning Institutions is real and this can be confirmed by the Garissa University College, Kenya terror attack where 148 people were killed on 2 April, 2015. The risk of terrorists attack against this critical infrastructure can result in communal disruptions, disarray, and even overreaction on the part of governments and the public as a result of any attack, may be high. We argue that Learning Institutions are vulnerable to ISIL, Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorist attacks. In summary, the article looks at the concepts of terrorism, the dangers of attack on Learning Institutions, Kenya’s Learning Institutions preparedness and concludes with a set of recommendations.

  7. Metal extent in blood of livestock from Dandora dumping site, Kenya: Source identification of Pb exposure by stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Hokuto; Nakayama, Shouta M.M.; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishii, Chihiro; Yohannes, Yared B.; Konnai, Satoru; Darwish, Wageh Sobhy; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    Nairobi city in Kenya produces 2000 tons/day of garbage, and most of it is dumped onto the Dandora dumping site, home to a quarter-million residents. This study was conducted (1) to assess the contamination levels of nine metals and a metalloid (arsenic) in the blood of pigs, goats, sheep and cattle from Dandora, and (2) to identify a possible source of lead (Pb) pollution. Cadmium (Cd, 0.17–4.35 μg/kg, dry-wt) and Pb (90–2710 μg/kg) levels in blood were generally high, suggesting human exposure to Cd through livestock consumption and Pb poisoning among pigs (2600 μg/kg) and cattle (354 μg/kg). Results of Pb isotope ratios indicated that the major exposure route might differ among species. Our results also suggested a possibility that the residents in Dandora have been exposed to the metals through livestock consumption. - Highlights: • Metals extent in blood of livestock were examined. • Dandora dumping site, Kenya is study site. • Concentrations of Cd and Pb were high in the blood of livestock. • Pb isotope ratios indicated that major exposure route might differ among species. - Metal extent and stable Pb isotope ratio in livestock from Dandora, Kenya were examined

  8. A competition chloramphenicol ELISA technique for residue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wesonga B

    5 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology Section, University of Nairobi,. P.O.Box 30197-00100 Nairobi, Kenya. Chloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, which has ... a limited sensitivity and lack of specificity. For this reason various methods have been developed, such as gas chromatography [3] and high.

  9. Patterns of poisoning among patients aged 0-13 years at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the pattern of poisoning amongst patients admitted at a paediatric hospital in Nairobi and compare it with that of other hospitals around the world. Design: A retrospective hospital based multivariate study. Setting: Gertrude's Garden Children's Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Medical records of all ...

  10. molecular characterisation of echinococcus granulosus species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-07-01

    Jul 1, 2013 ... 972-60200, Meru, Kenya, E. Zeyhle, MSc, Africa Medical Research Foundation, P. O. Box 27691-00506, Nairobi, Kenya, ... dog tapeworm E. granulosus, presents unilocular ... due to low frequency of wild animals (8). The high.

  11. Prevalence of hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors in an urban slum in Nairobi, Kenya: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Mark David; Ayah, Richard; Njau, Elijah Kaharo; Wanjiru, Rosemary; Kayima, Joshua Kyateesa; Njeru, Erastus Kennedy; Mutai, Kenneth Kipyegon

    2014-11-18

    Urbanisation has been described as a key driver of the evolving non-communicable disease (NCD) epidemic. In Africa, hypertension is the commonest cardiovascular problem. We determined the prevalence and risk factor correlates of hypertension in the largest Nairobi slum. In 2010 we conducted a population-based household survey in Kibera, a large informal settlement in Nairobi City; utilising cluster sampling with probability proportional to size. Households were selected using a random walk method. The WHO instrument for stepwise surveillance (STEPS) of chronic disease risk factors was administered by trained medical assistants, who also recorded blood pressure (BP) and anthropometric measures. BP was recorded using a mercury sphygmomanometer utilising the American Heart Association guidelines. Hypertension was defined as per the 7th Report of the Joint National Committee or use of prescribed antihypertensive medication. Those with hypertension or with random capillary blood sugar (RCBS) >11.1 mmol/l had an 8 hours fasting venous blood sugar sample drawn. Age standardised prevalence was computed and multivariate analysis to assess associations. We screened 2200 and enrolled 2061 adults; 50.9% were males; mean age was 33.4 years and 87% had primary level education. The age-standardised prevalence of hypertension (95% CI) was 22.8% (20.7, 24.9). 20% (53/258) were aware of their hypertensive status; 59.3% had pre-hypertension; 80% reported high levels of physical activity and 52% were classified as harmful alcohol drinkers; 10% were current smokers and 5% had diabetes. Majority of males had normal BMI and waist circumference, whereas a third of females were obese or overweight and 40% had central obesity. Older age, higher general and central obesity were independently associated with hypertension and higher SBP and DBP readings. Our findings of high prevalence of hypertension, in association with excess body weight in this poor urban slum community, point to the need

  12. Approaches to Education and Training for Kenya's Nuclear Power Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalambuka, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    1. Review of status and development of E and T for the nuclear power program in Kenya; 2. Review of challenges in nuclear E and T, and the initiatives being undertaken to mitigate them: • Recommendations for strategic action; 3. State of nuclear skills in the context of key drivers of the global revival in nuclear energy; 4. Point of view: Education in Applied Nuclear and Radiation physics at Nairobi: • Its growth has helped identify the gaps, and relevant practical approaches for realizing the broad spectrum of technical capacity to conduct a national NPP; 5. Proposed approach to support the E and T infrastructure necessary to allow the country to plan, construct, operate, regulate, and safely and securely handle nuclear facilities sustainably; 6. Specified E and T initiatives in the context of the national industrial development strategy and nuclear energy policy and funding for the complete life cycle and technology localization. (author)

  13. Mentoring the modern African surgeon: A call to arms!

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-01-16

    Jan 16, 2011 ... Hospital, Nairobi, 2-University of Nairobi, Kenya, 3-King Khalid University, UAE. Correspondence: Dr. Miriam Mutebi, Aga Khan. University Hospital. P.O. Bx 30270 .... Galukande M, Kijjambu S, Luboga S Improving recruitment of surgical trainees and training of surgeons in Uganda. East. Cent Afr J Surg.

  14. Ringing and observation of migrants at Ngulia Lodge, Tsavo West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The review of migrant bird ringing at Ngulia Lodge by Pearson et al. (2014) ..... European Honey Buzzard on 13th. ... assistance from the Management and staff of the Lodge. ... Kenya, 4th edition, Bird Committee, Nature Kenya, Nairobi, 2009.

  15. South of Sahara | Page 160 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-03-31

    flexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layout. Sud du Sahara. The Kenya National Commission for Science, Technology and Innovation (NACOSTI), in collaboration with IDRC, launched Kenya's first Research Chair on March 31, 2015 in Nairobi. Professor ...

  16. Sud du Sahara | Page 144 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-03-31

    flexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layoutflexible layout. Sud du Sahara. The Kenya National Commission for Science, Technology and Innovation (NACOSTI), in collaboration with IDRC, launched Kenya's first Research Chair on March 31, 2015 in Nairobi. Professor ...

  17. Analysis of genetic structure in Melia volkensii (Gurke.) populations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2Farm Forestry Programme, Kenya Forestry Research Institute, P. O. Box 20412, Nairobi, Kenya. Accepted 5 ... were used to estimate genetic distances between populations and for construction of neighbour-joining phenograms. Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) indicated significant genetic differentiation between ...

  18. Educational Challenges and Diminishing Family Safety Net Faced by High-School Girls in a Slum Residence, Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuya, Benta A.; Onsomu, Elijah O.; Moore, Dakysha

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, there was a slight decrease in the number of out-of school adolescents from 75 million in 2009 (UNESCO, 2009) to 71 million in 2010, of which 55% are girls (UNESCO, 2010). In Kenya, only 17% of girls have secondary education (CBS, 2004). This paper analyzes the role of families in girls' secondary education in two schools within Nairobi…

  19. Addressing the dual health epidemics of HIV and sexual abuse among children and adolescents in Kenya: uptake of HIV counseling and post-exposure prophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajema C

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Carolyne Ajema,1 Charity Mbugua,2 Peter Memiah,3 Camille Wood,3 Courtney Cook,4 Ronald Kotut,2 Lina Digolo1 1Research and Strategic Information Department, LVCT Health, Nairobi, Kenya; 2Post Rape Care Department, LVCT Health, Nairobi, Kenya; 3Department of Public Health, University of West Florida, University Parkway, Pensacola, FL, USA; 4Biology Department, University of West Florida, University Parkway, Pensacola, FL, USA Purpose: Child sexual abuse and HIV are key health challenges in Kenya. In 2015, LVCT Health conducted a study aimed at assessing the quality of HIV-related services offered to child survivors of sexual violence in public health facilities.Materials and methods: A qualitative data collection approach was utilized. Qualitative data were collected through in-depth interviews with 31 providers. Quantitative methods included a retrospective review of 164 records of child survivors of rape who had accessed services 6 months prior to the commencement of the study. SPSS Version 22 was used in the descriptive analysis of the medical records. Client exit interviews and observation data were analyzed using MS Excel. In-depth interviews were analyzed using a thematic analytical approach.Results: Twenty-seven percent (n=164 survivors were documented to have received the first dose of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP. Providers did not conduct HIV pre- and posttest counseling for the survivors. There were no longitudinal follow-up mechanisms to ensure child survivors initiated on PEP adhered to the treatment plan. Less than 30% of survivors returned to the facility for PEP adherence counseling and follow-up HIV testing. Twenty providers cited capacity gaps in undertaking HIV risk assessment for child survivors. Limited availability of PEP is a barrier to HIV prevention, as most departments only offer services between 8 am and 5 pm. HIV tests were only available on weekdays before 5 pm. PEP being out of stock remains a barrier to HIV

  20. FORENSIC CRIMINOLOGY - FUGITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Nyagudi, Nyagudi Musandu

    2014-01-01

    Forensic Criminology – Fugitive Psychology, 2010 Security Summit (Regional Security Exhibition & Conference ) a forum hosted by Kenya Security Industry Association, Securi Fast Trainers & Consultants, Fidelity Security Limited at Desmond Tutu Conference Centre, Nairobi Kenya from 4th-5th March, 2010  

  1. Community participation to refine measures of socio-economic status in urban slum settings in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngongo, Carrie Jane; Mathingau, Florence Alice; Burke, Heather; Brieger, William; Frick, Kevin; Chapman, Kimberly; Breiman, Robert

    Ownership of household durable assets can be a useful proxy for determining relative socio-economic status in a community, but the assets that should be measured are not always unambiguous. Often the selection of asset variables has been ad hoc or not well explained in the literature. Although the benefits of conducting focus groups to design surveys are widely recognized, the use of focus groups to adapt community-specific asset indices has not previously been reported in Kenya. This article describes how focus group discussions can allow communities to express how residents value assets and distinguish relative wealth. Focus group discussions were conducted within the informal urban settlement of Kibera in Nairobi, Kenya. Participants identified assets that distinguish between the poorest and the least poor in their community. They considered whether they would move away from the slum if they had the opportunity, and many would not, citing reasons ranging from loyalty to the community to greater living expenses on the outside. Local perceptions of relative poverty and mobility provide insight into how quality of life in this setting can be assessed and potentially improved. Moreover, a qualitative approach can lead to the adaptation of a community asset index for use in further research.

  2. The burden of common infectious disease syndromes at the clinic and household level from population-based surveillance in rural and urban Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feikin, Daniel R; Olack, Beatrice; Bigogo, Godfrey M; Audi, Allan; Cosmas, Leonard; Aura, Barrack; Burke, Heather; Njenga, M Kariuki; Williamson, John; Breiman, Robert F

    2011-01-18

    Characterizing infectious disease burden in Africa is important for prioritizing and targeting limited resources for curative and preventive services and monitoring the impact of interventions. From June 1, 2006 to May 31, 2008, we estimated rates of acute lower respiratory tract illness (ALRI), diarrhea and acute febrile illness (AFI) among >50,000 persons participating in population-based surveillance in impoverished, rural western Kenya (Asembo) and an informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya (Kibera). Field workers visited households every two weeks, collecting recent illness information and performing limited exams. Participants could access free high-quality care in a designated referral clinic in each site. Incidence and longitudinal prevalence were calculated and compared using Poisson regression. INCIDENCE RATES RESULTING IN CLINIC VISITATION WERE THE FOLLOWING: ALRI--0.36 and 0.51 episodes per year for children poor Kenyan communities still suffer from a high burden of infectious diseases, which likely hampers their development. Urban slum and rural disease incidence and clinic utilization are sufficiently disparate in Africa to warrant data from both settings for estimating burden and focusing interventions.

  3. Publications | Page 631 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 6301 - 6310 of 6375 ... Workshop report on proposal development for the Kenyan Network on Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine, Hotel La Mada, Nairobi, Kenya, 3rd October 2006 (restricted access) · Integrating malaria control interventions with development strategies in Kenya : final technical report (restricted ...

  4. Sweet secrets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob

    This Working Paper presents a case study of sugar smuggling along the trade corridor between Kismayu in Somalia and Nairobi in Kenya. The trading and smuggling of sugar in the Kenya – Somalia borderlands is a dangerous, lucrative, and highly political business. The paper explores the involvement ...

  5. Sexual risk-reduction strategies among HIV-infected men receiving ART in Kibera, Nairobi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragnarsson, Anders; Thorson, Anna; Dover, Paul; Carter, Jane; Ilako, Festus; Indalo, Dorcas; Ekstrom, Anna Mia

    2011-03-01

    This paper explores motivational factors and barriers to sexual behaviour change among men receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART). Twenty in-depth interviews were undertaken with male patients enrolled at the African Medical and Research Foundation clinic in Africa's largest urban informal settlement, Kibera in Nairobi, Kenya. All participants experienced prolonged and severe illness prior to the initiation of ART. Fear of symptom relapse was the main trigger for sexual behaviour change. Partner reduction was reported as a first option for behaviour change since this decision could be made by the individual. Condom use was perceived as more difficult as it had to be negotiated with female partners. Cultural norms regarding expectations for reproduction and marriage were not supportive of sexual risk-reduction strategies. Thus, local sociocultural contexts of HIV-infected people must be incorporated into the contextual adaptation and design of ART programmes and services as they have an over-riding influence on sexual behaviour and programme effectiveness. Also, HIV-prevention interventions need to address both personal, micro- and macro-level factors of behaviour to encourage individuals to take on sexual risk-reduction strategies. In order to achieve the anticipated preventive effect of ART, these issues are important for the donor community and policy-makers, who are the major providers of ART programme support within weak health systems in sub-Saharan Africa.

  6. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in certified food-handlers working in food establishments in the City of Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamau, Paul; Aloo-Obudho, Penina; Kabiru, Ephantus; Ombacho, Kepha; Langat, Bernard; Mucheru, Obadiah; Ireri, Laban

    2012-03-01

    Most intestinal parasites are cosmopolitan with the highest prevalence in the tropics and subtopics. Rural-to-urban migration rapidly increases the number of food eating places in towns and their environs. Some of these eating estabishments have poor sanitation and are overcrowded, facilitating disease transmission, especially through food-handling. Our investigations in Nairobi, therefore, were set to determine the presence of intestinal parasites in food-handlers with valid medical certificates. Direct and concentrated stool processing techniques were used. Chisquare test and ANOVA were used for data analysis. The parasites Ascaris lumbricoides, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia were observed in certified food-handlers. Significant difference was found in parasite frequency by eating classes and gender (χ(2) = 9.49, P = 0.73), (F = 1.495, P = 0.297), but not in parasite occurrence between age brackets (χ(2) = 6.99, P = 0.039). The six-month medical certificate validity period may contribute significantly to the presence of intestinal parasites in certified food-handlers.

  7. Satellite-based drought monitoring in Kenya in an operational setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klisch, A.; Atzberger, C.; Luminari, L.

    2015-04-01

    The University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU) in Vienna (Austria) in cooperation with the National Drought Management Authority (NDMA) in Nairobi (Kenya) has setup an operational processing chain for mapping drought occurrence and strength for the territory of Kenya using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) NDVI at 250 m ground resolution from 2000 onwards. The processing chain employs a modified Whittaker smoother providing consistent NDVI "Mondayimages" in near real-time (NRT) at a 7-daily updating interval. The approach constrains temporally extrapolated NDVI values based on reasonable temporal NDVI paths. Contrary to other competing approaches, the processing chain provides a modelled uncertainty range for each pixel and time step. The uncertainties are calculated by a hindcast analysis of the NRT products against an "optimum" filtering. To detect droughts, the vegetation condition index (VCI) is calculated at pixel level and is spatially aggregated to administrative units. Starting from weekly temporal resolution, the indicator is also aggregated for 1- and 3-monthly intervals considering available uncertainty information. Analysts at NDMA use the spatially/temporally aggregated VCI and basic image products for their monthly bulletins. Based on the provided bio-physical indicators as well as a number of socio-economic indicators, contingency funds are released by NDMA to sustain counties in drought conditions. The paper shows the successful application of the products within NDMA by providing a retrospective analysis applied to droughts in 2006, 2009 and 2011. Some comparisons with alternative products (e.g. FEWS NET, the Famine Early Warning Systems Network) highlight main differences.

  8. Building capacity in implementation science research training at the University of Nairobi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osanjo, George O; Oyugi, Julius O; Kibwage, Isaac O; Mwanda, Walter O; Ngugi, Elizabeth N; Otieno, Fredrick C; Ndege, Wycliffe; Child, Mara; Farquhar, Carey; Penner, Jeremy; Talib, Zohray; Kiarie, James N

    2016-03-08

    Health care systems in sub-Saharan Africa, and globally, grapple with the problem of closing the gap between evidence-based health interventions and actual practice in health service settings. It is essential for health care systems, especially in low-resource settings, to increase capacity to implement evidence-based practices, by training professionals in implementation science. With support from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative, the University of Nairobi has developed a training program to build local capacity for implementation science. This paper describes how the University of Nairobi leveraged resources from the Medical Education Partnership to develop an institutional program that provides training and mentoring in implementation science, builds relationships between researchers and implementers, and identifies local research priorities for implementation science. The curriculum content includes core material in implementation science theory, methods, and experiences. The program adopts a team mentoring and supervision approach, in which fellows are matched with mentors at the University of Nairobi and partnering institutions: University of Washington, Seattle, and University of Maryland, Baltimore. A survey of program participants showed a high degree satisfaction with most aspects of the program, including the content, duration, and attachment sites. A key strength of the fellowship program is the partnership approach, which leverages innovative use of information technology to offer diverse perspectives, and a team model for mentorship and supervision. As health care systems and training institutions seek new approaches to increase capacity in implementation science, the University of Nairobi Implementation Science Fellowship program can be a model for health educators and administrators who wish to develop their program and curricula.

  9. Economics | Page 5 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Economics. Économie. Colour. #2C81B5. Kenya's population is becoming increasingly urban; more than half of Nairobi's residents live in informal settlements (slums) plagued by cramped living conditions and poor access to basic services. Read more about IDRC-supported project influencing government policy in Kenya.

  10. Hydrocephalus in Africa: A surgical perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nairobi, Kenya, Medical Education and Research Director, AIC Kijabe Hospital, Kijabe, P.O. Box 20, Kijabe. 00220, Kenya ... the spinal needle via a 3-way stopcock. Although rarely ... maneuver to avoid shunting (9). .... bacterial biofilms that affect most neurosurgical- .... but remains limited by technology and skill. 8. Besides ...

  11. Factors influencing Complexity in Financial Report preparation - Evidence from the Banking Sector in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Mutiso

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The current developments in the business environment as well as in the accountancy profession have significantly affected the way the financial reports are prepared. This study sought to assess the factors influencing complexity of preparing financial reports in the banking sector in Kenya. The objectives included assessing whether disclosures, adoption of International financial Reporting Standard, regulations and lack of competence by the preparers have contributed to the complexity of preparing financial statements. Using a descriptive study design, data was collected from ten banks registered in the Nairobi Capital Market. The study found out that the identified variables positively contributed to complications in the preparation of financial reports. Management interference, lack of guidance on interpretations and frequent updates of the standards were identified as the main challenges in preparing financial reports. Several recommendations were given to help simplify the process of preparing financial statements.

  12. Poor Infant Feeding Practices and High Prevalence of Malnutrition in Urban Slum Child Care Centres in Nairobi: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwase, Ivan; Mutoro, Antonina; Owino, Victor; Garcia, Ada L; Wright, Charlotte M

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about the style and quality of feeding and care provided in child day-care centres in slum areas. This study purposively sampled five day-care centres in Nairobi, Kenya, where anthropometric measurements were collected among 33 children aged 6-24 months. Mealtime interactions were further observed in 11 children from four centres, using a standardized data collection sheet. We recorded the child actions, such as mood, interest in food, distraction level, as well as caregiver actions, such as encouragement to eat, level of distraction and presence of neutral actions. Of the 33 children assessed, with a mean age of 15.9 ± 4.9 months, 14 (42%) were female. Undernutrition was found in 13 (39%) children with at least one Z score feed, with most children eating less than half of their served meal. Poor hygiene coupled with non-responsive care practices observed in the centres is a threat to child health, growth and development. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. HIV/AIDS and the health of older people in the slums of Nairobi, Kenya: results from a cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ezeh, Alex C; Zulu, Eliya; Falkingham, Jane

    2009-05-27

    The proportion of older people is increasing worldwide. Globally, it is estimated that older people (those 60 years or older) constitute more than 11% of the population. As the HIV/AIDS pandemic rages in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), its impact on older people needs closer attention given the increased economic and social roles older people have taken on as a result of increased mortality among adults in the productive age groups. Few studies have looked at older people and their health in SSA or indeed the impact of HIV/AIDS on their health. This study aims to assess the effect of being directly or indirectly affected by HIV/AIDS on the health of older people in two Nairobi slums. Data were collected from residents of the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance area aged 50 years and above on 1st October 2006. Health status was assessed using the short SAGE (Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health) form and two outcome measures--self-rated health and a composite health score--were generated. To assess HIV/AIDS affected status, respondents were asked: Have you personally been affected by HIV/AIDS? If yes, a follow up question: "How have you been personally affected by HIV/AIDS?" was asked. Ordinallogistic regression was used in models with self-rated health and linear regression in models with the health score. About 18% of respondents reported being affected by HIV/AIDS in at least one way, although less than 1% reported being infected with HIV. Nearly 60% of respondents reported being in good health, 27% in fair health and 14% in poor health. The overall mean health score was 70.6 (SD: 13.9) with females reporting worse health outcomes than males. Respondents directly or indirectly affected by HIV/AIDS reported worse health outcomes than those not affected: mean health score: 68.5 and 71.1 respectively (t = 3.21, p = 0.0007), and an adjusted odds ratio of reporting poor health of 1.42 (95%CI: 1.12-1.80). Poor health outcomes among older people affected by

  14. Household food (in)security and nutritional status of urban poor children aged 6 to 23 months in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutisya, Maurice; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Ngware, Moses Waithanji; Kabiru, Caroline W

    2015-10-13

    Millions of people in low and low middle income countries suffer from extreme hunger and malnutrition. Research on the effect of food insecurity on child nutrition is concentrated in high income settings and has produced mixed results. Moreover, the existing evidence on food security and nutrition in children in low and middle income countries is either cross-sectional and/or is based primarily on rural populations. In this paper, we examine the effect of household food security status and its interaction with household wealth status on stunting among children aged between 6 and 23 months in resource-poor urban setting in Kenya. We use longitudinal data collected between 2006 and 2012 from two informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. Mothers and their new-borns were recruited into the study at birth and followed prospectively. The analytical sample comprised 6858 children from 6552 households. Household food security was measured as a latent variable derived from a set of questions capturing the main domains of access, availability and affordability. A composite measure of wealth was calculated using asset ownership and amenities. Nutritional status was measured using Height-for-Age (HFA) z-scores. Children whose HFA z-scores were below -2 standard deviation were categorized as stunted. We used Cox regression to analyse the data. The prevalence of stunting was 49 %. The risk of stunting increased by 12 % among children from food insecure households. When the joint effect of food security and wealth status was assessed, the risk of stunting increased significantly by 19 and 22 % among children from moderately food insecure and severely food insecure households and ranked in the middle poor wealth status. Among the poorest and least poor households, food security was not statistically associated with stunting. Our results shed light on the joint effect of food security and wealth status on stunting. Study findings underscore the need for social protection policies to

  15. Trends in clinical characteristics and outcomes of Pre-ART care at a large HIV clinic in Nairobi, Kenya: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecha, Jared O; Kubo, Elizabeth N; Nganga, Lucy W; Muiruri, Peter N; Njagi, Lilian N; Mutisya, Immaculate N; Odionyi, Justine J; Ilovi, Syokau C; Wambui, Mary; Githu, Christopher; Ngethe, Richard; Obimbo, Elizabeth M; Ngumi, Zipporah W

    2016-01-01

    The success of antiretroviral therapy in resource-scarce settings is an illustration that complex healthcare interventions can be successfully delivered even in fragile health systems. Documenting the success factors in the scale-up of HIV care and treatment in resource constrained settings will enable health systems to prepare for changing population health needs. This study describes changing demographic and clinical characteristics of adult pre-ART cohorts, and identifies predictors of pre-ART attrition at a large urban HIV clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of data on HIV infected adults (≥15 years) enrolling in pre-ART care between January 2004 and September 2015. Attrition (loss to program) was defined as those who died or were lost to follow-up (having no contact with the facility for at least 6 months). We used Kaplan-Meier survival analysis to determine time to event for the different modes of transition, and Cox proportional hazards models to determine predictors of pre-ART attrition. Over the 12 years of observation, there were increases in the proportions of young people (age 15 to 24 years); and patients presenting with early disease (by WHO clinical stage and higher median CD4 cell counts), p = 0.0001 for trend. Independent predictors of attrition included: aHR (95% CI): male gender 1.98 (1.69-2.33), p = 0.0001; age 20-24 years 1.80 (1.37-2.37), p = 0.0001), or 25-34 years 1.22 (1.01-1.47), p = 0.0364; marital status single 1.55 (1.29-1.86), p = 0.0001) or divorced 1.41(1.02-1.95), p = 0.0370; urban residency 1.83 (1.40-2.38), p = 0.0001; CD4 count of 0-100 cells/µl 1.63 (1.003-2.658), p = 0.0486 or CD4 count >500 cells/µl 2.14(1.46-3.14), p = 0.0001. In order to optimize the impact of HIV prevention, care and treatment in resource scarce settings, there is an urgent need to implement prevention and treatment interventions targeting young people and patients entering care with severe

  16. What capacity exists to provide essential inpatient care to small and sick newborns in a high mortality urban setting? - A cross-sectional study in Nairobi City County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathara, David; Abuya, Nancy; Mwachiro, Jacintah; Ochola, Sam; Ayisi, Robert; English, Mike

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Appropriate demand for, and supply of, high quality essential neonatal care is key to improving newborn survival but evaluating such provision has received limited attention in low- and middle-income countries. Moreover, specific local data are needed to support healthcare planning for this vulnerable population. Methods We conducted health facility assessments between July 2015-April 2016, with retrospective review of admission events between 1st July 2014 and 30th June 2015, and used estimates of population-based incidence of neonatal conditions in Nairobi to explore access and evaluate readiness of public, private not-for-profit (mission), and private-for-profit (private) sector facilities providing 24/7 inpatient neonatal care in Nairobi City County. Results In total, 33 (4 public, 6 mission, and 23 private) facilities providing 24/7 inpatient neonatal care in Nairobi City County were identified, 31 were studied in detail. Four public sector facilities, including the only three facilities in which services were free, accounted for 71% (8,630/12,202) of all neonatal admissions. Large facilities (>900 annual admissions) with adequate infrastructure tended to have high bed occupancy (over 100% in two facilities), high mortality (15%), and high patient to nurse ratios (7–15 patients per nurse). Twenty-one smaller, predominantly private, facilities were judged insufficiently resourced to provide adequate care. In many of these, nurses provided newborn and maternity care simultaneously using resources shared across settings, newborn care experience was likely to be limited (facilities and a further 9% (2,026/21,966) access facilities judged to be inadequately equipped. Conclusion Over 50% of Nairobi’s sick newborns may not access a facility with adequate resources to provide essential care. A very high proportion of care accessed is provided by four public and one low cost mission facility; these face major challenges of high patient acuity (high

  17. A Decade of Radiation Protection and Medical Exposure Control in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambani, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) has been a referral, teaching and research hospital in Kenya since early 1901. The hospital has a capacity of 1,800 beds and has over 6000 staff members. It hosts the University of Nairobi Medical School and the Kenya Medical Training College (KMTC). KNH has experienced challenges with overcrowding patients, quality of care, shortages of supplies, well-functioning equipment, and committed well trained staff. This resulted in restructuring and changing it to a State cooperation in 1987. The hospital has more than 2000 in patients and receives 1500 outpatients each day. Even though the hospital’s mandate is to provide specialized health-care service, the majority of the patients (at least 60%) common illnesses. This attributed to the breakdown in the medical referral process. The hospital Radiology department approximately 5% (over 175) of al the patients visiting the outpatient clinics or admitted in the hospital. The hospital’s radiology quality assurance level was determined at above 61%. The most frequent examinations are general radiography (GR) 91.8% computed tomography (ICT) 3.3% and fluoroscopy 2.5% CT is not the most frequent examination but contributes36% of the collective effective does which is the second largest collective effective dose after GR (55% of the collective effective dose). In pursuit of radiation safety culture, the radiology department envisions ensuring a safety culture that is expressed in the beliefs, attitudes and values of the radiology employees. It is planned to be revealed in the organisation’ structures, practices, controls, and policies, relevant in achieving greater safety. (Author)

  18. The relationship between Nairobi adolescents' media use and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between Nairobi adolescents' media use and their sexual beliefs and attitudes. ... Adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa are at risk for contracting HIV. ... had a strong focus on physical relationships in their songs, those students estimated the prevalence of risky sexual behaviours among their peers higher.

  19. A creepy-crawly food revolution | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 mars 2017 ... Adult black soldier flies on a plant at the International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology in Nairobi, Kenya. Brian Owens, Canadian Geographic. Long considered pests, insects are now on the menu for farmed fish and poultry in Kenya and Uganda, where scientists are looking for cheaper, healthier ...

  20. Subscriptions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subscriptions Contact. Rachel Rege Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, P O Box 57811, Nairobi, KENYA Email: rrege@kari.org. East Africa Kssh 4000; Sterling 40; USA $62; including postage by surface mail. Postage by air mail can be arranged at cost on request. Payments to be made to the Editor, East African ...

  1. Circular migration patterns and determinants in Nairobi slum settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatien Beguy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper measures migration flows and determinants in two slum settlements in Nairobi City between 2003 and 2007. The results confirm the high intensity of migration with a quarter of the total slum population and a third of those aged 15-30 being renewed annually. A circular migration system is at play whereby the majority of slum dwellers are short-term migrants spending on average less than 3 years in the area. Migration is more intense during early adulthood (20-24, and despite very similar determinants across gender, mobility is more intense among women compared to men. The increasing feminization of migration is likely to change the face of slum settlements, resulting in more balanced sex ratios, in line with city-wide trends in Nairobi over the past half century. The high population turnover is due to the insecurity of livelihoods, tenure, and poor basic amenities and social services in slum settlements.

  2. Assessing the feasibility of eHealth and mHealth: a systematic review and analysis of initiatives implemented in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoroge, Martin; Zurovac, Dejan; Ogara, Esther A A; Chuma, Jane; Kirigia, Doris

    2017-02-10

    The growth of Information and Communication Technology in Kenya has facilitated implementation of a large number of eHealth projects in a bid to cost-effectively address health and health system challenges. This systematic review aims to provide a situational analysis of eHealth initiatives being implemented in Kenya, including an assessment of the areas of focus and geographic distribution of the health projects. The search strategy involved peer and non-peer reviewed sources of relevant information relating to projects under implementation in Kenya. The projects were examined based on strategic area of implementation, health purpose and focus, geographic location, evaluation status and thematic area. A total of 114 citations comprising 69 eHealth projects fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The eHealth projects included 47 mHealth projects, 9 health information system projects, 8 eLearning projects and 5 telemedicine projects. In terms of projects geographical distribution, 24 were executed in Nairobi whilst 15 were designed to have a national coverage but only 3 were scaled up. In terms of health focus, 19 projects were mainly on primary care, 17 on HIV/AIDS and 11 on maternal and child health (MNCH). Only 8 projects were rigorously evaluated under randomized control trials. This review discovered that there is a myriad of eHealth projects being implemented in Kenya, mainly in the mHealth strategic area and focusing mostly on primary care and HIV/AIDs. Based on our analysis, most of the projects were rarely evaluated. In addition, few projects are implemented in marginalised areas and least urbanized counties with more health care needs, notwithstanding the fact that adoption of information and communication technology should aim to improve health equity (i.e. improve access to health care particularly in remote parts of the country in order to reduce geographical inequities) and contribute to overall health systems strengthening.

  3. Validation of indirect ELISA systems for the serodiagnosis of bovine trypanosomosis in endemic areas of Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouma, J.O.; Mwangi, J.M.; Mdachi, R.; Njiru, Z.K.; Ndung'u, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The present study was aimed at validating the performance of four indirect ELISA systems developed for the detection of anti-trypanosomal antibodies in bovine serum. The assay systems employ the use of either native or denatured crude lysate antigens prepared from Trypanosoma congolense (Tc) and Trypanosoma vivax (Tv). Assay systems were designated as TcAGd, TcAGn, TvAGd or TvAGn depending on the trypanosome species from which the antigen was prepared (Tc or Tv) and whether the antigen was denatured (AGd) or native (AGn). The microtitre plates used were precoated with the above antigen preparations at the International Atomic Energy Agency laboratories in Vienna, Austria and shipped to Kenya. Diagnostic sensitivities and specificities were assessed using both known infected and uninfected bovine sera, respectively. All the positive samples were collected from cattle kept in trypanosomosis endemic areas of Galana and Ukunda in Coast province and Mfangano Island in Nyanza province of Kenya. Known negative sera were obtained from animals kept in a non-trypanosomosis endemic area in Muguga, near Nairobi, Kenya. Assay sensitivity ranged from 86% to 97%, while specificity was between 82% and 100% depending on the assay system used. Systems employing denatured antigens had slightly higher, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. The study has demonstrated that antigen precoated plates are useful in circumventing the problem of antigen instability. However, further studies need to be undertaken using a larger sample size to determine if there are any significant differences between plates pre-coated with native and denatured antigens. The present version of indirect ELISA is a useful epidemiological tool and can be incorporated in mapping out the extent of disease. (author)

  4. Heavy metal analysis of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and other samples from some workplaces in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinyua, A.M.; Gatebe, C.K.; Mangala, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Air pollution studies in Nairobi are indicating a rising trend in the particulate matter loading. The trend is mainly attributed to increased volume of motor vehicles, the physical change of the environment, agricultural and industrial activities. In this study, total suspended particulate matter sampling at the Nairobi industrial area and inside one workplace are reported. Included also are the results of analysis of water samples and effluents collected from a sugar factory, a tannery, and mercury (Hg) analysis in some beauty creams sold in Nairobi. The samples were analysed for heavy metal content using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) while the suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations were determined by gravimetric technique. Total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TRXF), atomic absorption spectrophotometry and PIXE analytical techniques plus the use of Standard and Certified Reference Materials (SRM's and CRM's) were used for quality control, analysis and evaluation of the accrued data. Air sampling in the industrial area was done twice (Wednesday and Saturday) every week for a period of two months (November and December, 1996) and twice monthly for a period of six months (January-June 1997). Each sample covering approximately 24 hours, was collected using the 'Gent' Stacked Filter Unit (SFU), for day and night times. The SPM were found to vary from 16 to 83 mgm -3 during the sampling period. The analysis of dust collected inside a workplace showed that there was poor filtration of the air pumped into the building and that there was a need for improvement of the air conditioning unit plus reduction of emissions from a neighbouring tyre factory. Beauty creams analysed showed that there is some mercury present in significant amounts (0.14 - 3.0%). The results of these mercury levels are presented for various brands of cosmetics sold in some market outlets in Nairobi. The health implications on the presence of mercury in some of these beauty

  5. Vector competence of populations of Aedes aegypti from three distinct cities in Kenya for chikungunya virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila B Agha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In April, 2004, chikungunya virus (CHIKV re-emerged in Kenya and eventually spread to the islands in the Indian Ocean basin, South-East Asia, and the Americas. The virus, which is often associated with high levels of viremia in humans, is mostly transmitted by the urban vector, Aedes aegypti. The expansion of CHIKV presents a public health challenge both locally and internationally. In this study, we investigated the ability of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes from three distinct cities in Kenya; Mombasa (outbreak prone, Kisumu, and Nairobi (no documented outbreak to transmit CHIKV.Aedes aegypti mosquito populations were exposed to different doses of CHIKV (105.6-7.5 plaque-forming units[PFU]/ml in an infectious blood meal. Transmission was ascertained by collecting and testing saliva samples from individual mosquitoes at 5, 7, 9, and 14 days post exposure. Infection and dissemination were estimated by testing body and legs, respectively, for individual mosquitoes at selected days post exposure. Tissue culture assays were used to determine the presence of infectious viral particles in the body, leg, and saliva samples. The number of days post exposure had no effect on infection, dissemination, or transmission rates, but these rates increased with an increase in exposure dose in all three populations. Although the rates were highest in Ae. aegypti from Mombasa at titers ≥106.9 PFU/ml, the differences observed were not statistically significant (χ2 ≤ 1.04, DF = 1, P ≥ 0.31. Overall, about 71% of the infected mosquitoes developed a disseminated infection, of which 21% successfully transmitted the virus into a capillary tube, giving an estimated transmission rate of about 10% for mosquitoes that ingested ≥106.9 PFU/ml of CHIKV. All three populations of Ae. aegypti were infectious as early as 5-7 days post exposure. On average, viral dissemination only occurred when body titers were ≥104 PFU/ml in all populations.Populations of Ae. aegypti from

  6. Vector competence of populations of Aedes aegypti from three distinct cities in Kenya for chikungunya virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Sheila B; Chepkorir, Edith; Mulwa, Francis; Tigoi, Caroline; Arum, Samwel; Guarido, Milehna M; Ambala, Peris; Chelangat, Betty; Lutomiah, Joel; Tchouassi, David P; Turell, Michael J; Sang, Rosemary

    2017-08-01

    In April, 2004, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) re-emerged in Kenya and eventually spread to the islands in the Indian Ocean basin, South-East Asia, and the Americas. The virus, which is often associated with high levels of viremia in humans, is mostly transmitted by the urban vector, Aedes aegypti. The expansion of CHIKV presents a public health challenge both locally and internationally. In this study, we investigated the ability of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes from three distinct cities in Kenya; Mombasa (outbreak prone), Kisumu, and Nairobi (no documented outbreak) to transmit CHIKV. Aedes aegypti mosquito populations were exposed to different doses of CHIKV (105.6-7.5 plaque-forming units[PFU]/ml) in an infectious blood meal. Transmission was ascertained by collecting and testing saliva samples from individual mosquitoes at 5, 7, 9, and 14 days post exposure. Infection and dissemination were estimated by testing body and legs, respectively, for individual mosquitoes at selected days post exposure. Tissue culture assays were used to determine the presence of infectious viral particles in the body, leg, and saliva samples. The number of days post exposure had no effect on infection, dissemination, or transmission rates, but these rates increased with an increase in exposure dose in all three populations. Although the rates were highest in Ae. aegypti from Mombasa at titers ≥106.9 PFU/ml, the differences observed were not statistically significant (χ2 ≤ 1.04, DF = 1, P ≥ 0.31). Overall, about 71% of the infected mosquitoes developed a disseminated infection, of which 21% successfully transmitted the virus into a capillary tube, giving an estimated transmission rate of about 10% for mosquitoes that ingested ≥106.9 PFU/ml of CHIKV. All three populations of Ae. aegypti were infectious as early as 5-7 days post exposure. On average, viral dissemination only occurred when body titers were ≥104 PFU/ml in all populations. Populations of Ae. aegypti from Mombasa, Nairobi

  7. Paris-Nairobi Conference - Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-04-01

    Energy is critical to economic development and poverty reduction. The provision of reliable, affordable and sustainable energy services, especially for the poorest, contributes decisively to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. Without energy, economies cannot grow and poverty cannot be reduced. Insufficient electricity supply affects many developing countries. Productivity, competitiveness, employment, and economic and social development are therefore limited. Low income countries are uppermost victims of climate change, though being the least responsible and the least armed to tackle and mitigate it. To meet the energy needs of Africa and other countries vulnerable to climate change and engage them on a sustainable development path, a priority for all countries, a concerted common global action is needed. This action shall be connected with existing initiatives in order to complement and enhance their efficiency. 2012 has been declared the international year for energy access by the United-Nations and during its presidency of the G8/G20, France wishes to foreground this issue. Therefore, France and Kenya want to contribute to this overall action, launching a global partnership for universal access to clean energy. In this context, the ministerial meeting launched this partnership on April 21, 2011 in Paris, France. This first meeting discussed ways to mobilize financing to achieve universal access to energy and to develop cleaner energies. Several obstacles have to be addressed and the following challenges shall be overcome: strengthening national and regional legal framework, improving capacity building and project management (source localization, technological options) and risk management. This document brings together the available presentations given at the conference. Twelve presentations (slides) are compiled in this document and deal with: 1 - white paper presentation (A. Mohamed, P. Lorec); 2 - Establishment of ECREEE as a regional

  8. Are slum dwellers at heightened risk of HIV infection than other urban residents? Evidence from population-based HIV prevalence surveys in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madise, Nyovani J; Ziraba, Abdhalah K; Inungu, Joseph; Khamadi, Samoel A; Ezeh, Alex; Zulu, Eliya M; Kebaso, John; Okoth, Vincent; Mwau, Matilu

    2012-09-01

    In 2008, the global urban population surpassed the rural population and by 2050 more than 6 billion will be living in urban centres. A growing body of research has reported on poor health outcomes among the urban poor but not much is known about HIV prevalence among this group. A survey of nearly 3000 men and women was conducted in two Nairobi slums in Kenya between 2006 and 2007, where respondents were tested for HIV status. In addition, data from the 2008/2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey were used to compare HIV prevalence between slum residents and those living in other urban and rural areas. The results showed strong intra-urban differences. HIV was 12% among slum residents compared with 5% and 6% among non-slum urban and rural residents, respectively. Generally, men had lower HIV prevalence than women although in the slums the gap was narrower. Among women, sexual experience before the age of 15 compared with after 19 years was associated with 62% higher odds of being HIV positive. There was ethnic variation in patterns of HIV infection although the effect depended on the current place of residence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Representativeness and climatology of carbon monoxide and ozone at the global GAW station Mt. Kenya in equatorial Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Henne

    2008-06-01

    differences in southern African biomass burning and transport towards MKN. Although biomass burning had little direct influence on the measurements at MKN it introduces inter-annual variability in the background concentrations of the southern hemisphere that subsequently reaches Kenya. The measurements at MKN were representative of air masses with little photochemical activity as indicated by weak O3-CO correlations, underlining the baseline character of the site. Inter-comparison of O3 at MKN with sounding data from Nairobi revealed a positive offset of the sounding data, most likely due to additional photochemical production of O3 in the Nairobi city plume. Future extensions of the measurement programme will provide better understanding of the atmospheric chemistry of this globally important region.

  10. HIV/AIDS and the health of older people in the slums of Nairobi, Kenya: results from a cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulu Eliya

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The proportion of older people is increasing worldwide. Globally, it is estimated that older people (those 60 years or older constitute more than 11% of the population. As the HIV/AIDS pandemic rages in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, its impact on older people needs closer attention given the increased economic and social roles older people have taken on as a result of increased mortality among adults in the productive age groups. Few studies have looked at older people and their health in SSA or indeed the impact of HIV/AIDS on their health. This study aims to assess the effect of being directly or indirectly affected by HIV/AIDS on the health of older people in two Nairobi slums. Methods Data were collected from residents of the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance area aged 50 years and above on 1st October 2006. Health status was assessed using the short SAGE (Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health form and two outcome measures – self-rated health and a composite health score – were generated. To assess HIV/AIDS affected status, respondents were asked: Have you personally been affected by HIV/AIDS? If yes, a follow up question: "How have you been personally affected by HIV/AIDS?" was asked. Ordinallogistic regression was used in models with self-rated health and linear regression in models with the health score. Results About 18% of respondents reported being affected by HIV/AIDS in at least one way, although less than 1% reported being infected with HIV. Nearly 60% of respondents reported being in good health, 27% in fair health and 14% in poor health. The overall mean health score was 70.6 (SD: 13.9 with females reporting worse health outcomes than males. Respondents directly or indirectly affected by HIV/AIDS reported worse health outcomes than those not affected: mean health score: 68.5 and 71.1 respectively (t = 3.21, p = 0.0007, and an adjusted odds ratio of reporting poor health of 1.42 (95%CI: 1.12–1

  11. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the Masaai people of Losho, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Mutiso Chalo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: An ethnobotanical survey on the medicinal plant species in Losho, Narok County, Kenya was conducted in order to document traditional medicinal knowledge and application of medicinal plants.Materials and Methods: This study was undertaken between 2012. Information was gathered from traditional practitioners who lived and practised in Losho, Narok County, Kenya using semi-structured questionnaires and personal interviews during field trips. Ethnobotanical data was arranged alphabetically by family name followed by botanical name, vernacular name, part used, folk use, and recipe. Correct identification was made with the help of taxonomist and voucher specimens deposited at the University of Nairobi Herbarium.Results: Twenty six (26 herbalists between the ages 20-69 years (10 men and 16 women were purposively selected and interviewed. The present investigation reported medicinal information for 33 species, belonging to 21 plant families. The most represented plant family was Asteraceae followed by Oleaceae and Rhamnaceae. 36 % of the species were used to manage stomach ache and stomach related ailments while 30% of the plant species were used to treat malaria.Conclusion: This survey showed that although people in study area have access to modern medical facility Losho Dispensary but a lot of them still continue to depend on medicinal plants for the treatment of healthcare problems. The present paper represents significant ethnobotanical information on medical plants which provides baseline data for future pharmacological and phytochemical studies.

  12. Country Presentation on Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwandime, C.

    2010-01-01

    Assess the role of various agences in Kenya in fighting illicit traficking of nuclear materials. These includes the police, customs, National Council for Science and Technology, Radiation and Protection Board. Gives incidences of trafficking of various materials in Kenya and related activities like the 1998 terrorist attack of American Embassy in Nairobi and the Kikambala Tourist Hotel in Mombasa

  13. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Image

    Introduction. Mwingi and Kyuso districts are located in the semi-arid zone V region of Kenya with annual rainfall of less than 400 mm. The biggest town of the districts is Mwingi town and it is located about 170km east of Kenya's capital city Nairobi. The two districts are agro-climatically placed into arid and semiarid zones ...

  14. The Adolescent Girls Initiative-Kenya (AGI-K: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Austrian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many adolescent girls in Kenya and elsewhere face considerable risks and vulnerabilities that affect their well-being and hinder a safe, healthy, and productive transition into early adulthood. Early adolescence provides a critical window of opportunity to intervene at a time when girls are experiencing many challenges, but before those challenges have resulted in deleterious outcomes that may be irreversible. The Adolescent Girls Initiative-Kenya (AGI-K is built on these insights and designed to address these risks for young adolescent girls. The long-term goal of AGI-K is to delay childbearing for adolescent girls by improving their well-being. Intervention AGI-K comprises nested combinations of different single-sector interventions (violence prevention, education, health, and wealth creation. It will deliver interventions to over 6000 girls between the ages of 11 and 14 years in two marginalized areas of Kenya: 1 Kibera in Nairobi and 2 Wajir County in Northeastern Kenya. The program will use a combination of girl-, household- and community-level interventions. The violence prevention intervention will use community conversations and planning focused on enhancing the value of girls in the community. The educational intervention includes a cash transfer to the household conditioned on school enrollment and attendance. The health intervention is culturally relevant, age-appropriate sexual and reproductive health education delivered in a group setting once a week over the course of 2 years. Lastly, the wealth creation intervention provides savings and financial education, as well as start-up savings. Methods/Design A randomized trial will be used to compare the impact of four different packages of interventions, in order to assess if and how intervening in early adolescence improves girls’ lives after four years. The project will be evaluated using data from behavioural surveys conducted before the start of the program

  15. Child Morbidity and Mortality in Slum Environments along Nairobi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem that guided this study was that child mortality and morbidity disparities continue to be observed in the era of improved expansion of the provision of health care services. Some areas have low mortality and morbidity while others such as the slums of Nairobi have high. Various factors may account for this ...

  16. The Swahilization of Kenya`s socio-political culture

    OpenAIRE

    King`ei, Geoffrey Kitula

    2012-01-01

    Although it has spread mainly as a lingua franca, Kiswahili, Kenya`s national language, is increasingly becoming the language of intercultural communication. Most interestingly, Kiswahili is catching up as the medium of intra-group conversation in many rural up-country areas in Kenya. Not only do most Kenyan women wear lesos and kangas bearing Kiswahili proverbial sayings but the youth form different language communication almost invariably converse and interact through the medium of share or...

  17. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Uganda, Featured Journal: Eastern Africa Journal of Rural Development ... Management of Business Challenges Among Small and Micro Enterprises in Nairobi-Kenya ... Educational leadership and management: theory, policy and practice

  18. Social value of a nutritional counselling and support program for breastfeeding in urban poor settings, Nairobi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudet, Sophie; Griffiths, Paula L; Wainaina, Caroline W; Macharia, Teresia N; Wekesah, Frederick M; Wanjohi, Milka; Muriuki, Peter; Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth

    2018-04-02

    In Kenya, poor maternal nutrition, suboptimal infant and young child feeding practices and high levels of malnutrition have been shown among the urban poor. An intervention aimed at promoting optimal maternal infant and young child nutrition (MIYCN) practices in urban poor settings in Nairobi, Kenya was implemented. The intervention involved home-based counselling of pregnant and breastfeeding women and mothers of young children by community health volunteers (CHVs) on optimal MIYCN practices. This study assesses the social impact of the intervention using a Social Return on Investment (SROI) approach. Data collection was based on SROI methods and used a mixed methods approach (focus group discussions, key informant interviews, in-depth interviews, quantitative stakeholder surveys, and revealed preference approach for outcomes using value games). The SROI analysis revealed that the MIYCN intervention was assessed to be highly effective and created social value, particularly for mothers and their children. Positive changes that participants experienced included mothers being more confident in child care and children and mothers being healthier. Overall, the intervention had a negative social impact on daycare centers and on health care providers, by putting too much pressure on them to provide care without providing extra support. The study calculated that, after accounting for discounting factors, the input ($USD 419,716) generated $USD 8 million of social value at the end of the project. The net present value created by the project was estimated at $USD 29.5 million. $USD 1 invested in the project was estimated to bring USD$ 71 (sensitivity analysis: USD$ 34-136) of social value for the stakeholders. The MIYCN intervention showed an important social impact in which mothers and children benefited the most. The intervention resulted in better perceived health of mothers and children and increased confidence of mothers to provide care for their children, while it

  19. 2018 IDRC Research Award recipients | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Scaling smallholder resilience and environmental sustainability in sub-Saharan ... Climate Change, Latin America and the Caribbean regional office ... Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund, regional office for sub-Saharan Africa (Nairobi, Kenya).

  20. Intestinal parasitic infections in children presenting with diarrhoea in outpatient and inpatient settings in an informal settlement of Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbae, Cecilia Kathure; Nokes, David James; Mulinge, Erastus; Nyambura, Joyce; Waruru, Anthony; Kariuki, Samuel

    2013-05-27

    The distribution of and factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections are poorly defined in high risk vulnerable populations such as urban slums in tropical sub-Saharan Africa. In a cross sectional study, children aged 5 years and below who presented with diarrhoea were recruited from selected outpatient clinics in Mukuru informal settlement, and from Mbagathi District hospital, Nairobi, over a period of two years (2010-2011). Stool samples were examined for the presence of parasites using direct, formal-ether concentration method and the Modified Ziehl Neelsen staining technique. Overall, 541/2112 (25.6%) were positive for at least one intestinal parasite, with the common parasites being; Entamoeba histolytica, 225 (36.7%),Cryptosporidium spp. 187, (30.5%), Giardia lamblia, 98 (16%).The prevalence of intestinal parasites infection was higher among children from outpatient clinics 432/1577(27.4%) than among those admitted in hospital 109/535 (20.1%) p informal settlements' environment. Routine examinations of stool samples and treatment could benefit both the HIV infected and uninfected children in outpatient and inpatient settings.

  1. Provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling for TB patients and suspects in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, J; Kizito, W; Njoroge, A; Wambua, N; Nganga, L; Mburu, M; Mansoer, J; Marum, L; Phillips, E; Chakaya, J; De Cock, K M

    2008-03-01

    Integrated tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) services in a resource-constrained setting. Pilot provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC) for TB patients and suspects. Through partnerships, resources were mobilised to establish and support services. After community sensitisation and staff training, PITC was introduced to TB patients and then to TB suspects from December 2003 to December 2005. Of 5457 TB suspects who received PITC, 89% underwent HIV testing. Although not statistically significant, TB suspects with TB disease had an HIV prevalence of 61% compared to 63% for those without. Of the 614 suspects who declined HIV testing, 402 (65%) had TB disease. Of 2283 patients referred for cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, 1951 (86%) were enrolled, and of 1727 patients assessed for antiretroviral treatment (ART), 1618 (94%) were eligible and 1441 (83%) started treatment. PITC represents a paradigm shift and is feasible and acceptable to TB patients and TB suspects. Clear directives are nevertheless required to change practice. When offered to TB suspects, PITC identifies large numbers of persons requiring HIV care. Community sensitisation, staff training, multitasking and access to HIV care contributed to a high acceptance of HIV testing. Kenya is using this experience to inform national response and advocate wide PITC implementation in settings faced with the TB-HIV epidemic.

  2. Information on the technical site visit to the primary seismic station in Nairobi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kianji, G.; Nyali, H.

    2002-01-01

    In 1963 the World Wide Standardized Seismograph Station (WWSSN) was installed at the University of Nairobi (UoN) Department of Geology by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). Due to increased background seismic noise as a result of expanding infrastructure, the station was moved to Kilimambogo in 1994 and subsequently upgraded to IRIS digital station by the USGS. On the formation of CTBTO this tunnel type station was upgraded to the CTBTO standards. The system components and utilities are described. Comparison of data transmission through radio link at the University of Nairobi and the central station is provided. A map showing the location of the recent Tanzania earthquake incorporating CTBTO data and that of the local station is included

  3. Redisplacement Rates after Reduction and Cast Immobilization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kapenguria district hospital 2- Department of orthopaedic surgery, Univesity of Nairobi. Correspondence: Dr. Daniel Ojuka, Kapenguria district hospital, P.O. Box 63 - 30600,. Kapenguria, Kenya. E-mail: dkinyuru@yahoo.com. Background.

  4. Household Air Pollution: Sources and Exposure Levels to Fine Particulate Matter in Nairobi Slums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanyiva Muindi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With 2.8 billion biomass users globally, household air pollution remains a public health threat in many low- and middle-income countries. However, little evidence on pollution levels and health effects exists in low-income settings, especially slums. This study assesses the levels and sources of household air pollution in the urban slums of Nairobi. This cross-sectional study was embedded in a prospective cohort of pregnant women living in two slum areas—Korogocho and Viwandani—in Nairobi. Data on fuel and stove types and ventilation use come from 1058 households, while air quality data based on the particulate matters (PM2.5 level were collected in a sub-sample of 72 households using the DustTrak™ II Model 8532 monitor. We measured PM2.5 levels mainly during daytime and using sources of indoor air pollutions. The majority of the households used kerosene (69.7% as a cooking fuel. In households where air quality was monitored, the mean PM2.5 levels were high and varied widely, especially during the evenings (124.6 µg/m3 SD: 372.7 in Korogocho and 82.2 µg/m3 SD: 249.9 in Viwandani, and in households using charcoal (126.5 µg/m3 SD: 434.7 in Korogocho and 75.7 µg/m3 SD: 323.0 in Viwandani. Overall, the mean PM2.5 levels measured within homes at both sites (Korogocho = 108.9 µg/m3 SD: 371.2; Viwandani = 59.3 µg/m3 SD: 234.1 were high. Residents of the two slums are exposed to high levels of PM2.5 in their homes. We recommend interventions, especially those focusing on clean cookstoves and lighting fuels to mitigate indoor levels of fine particles.

  5. Occupational noise-induced hearing loss among workers at Jomo Kenyatta International Airport, Nairobi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anino, J O; Afullo, A; Otieno, F

    2010-02-01

    Occupational noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) occurs among workers exposed to excessive amounts of noise for long durations. The average level of noise in some locations at Jomo Kenyatta International Airport (JKIA) was above the safe limit of 85dB hence workers were thought to be at risk. To determine the occurrence and socio demographic attributes for NIHL at JKIA. Cross sectional descriptive study. Jomo Kenyatta International Airport, Nairobi, Kenya. Mean age of respondents was 37 years with range 22 to 62, SD 8.98. Mean duration of exposure to noise was 10.7 years with range 1 to 40, SD 8.15. Prevalence of NIHL was 15.3%, with ground crew at 14.8% and air crew 16.1%. Ground crew had significantly poorer mean hearing threshold level at 3, 4 and 6 kHz than air crew (p = 0.015). Male workers were affected more than female counterparts with a male to female ratio of 4:3. 97% of those affected were non-managers, 3% managers while 68% of those affected resided in Embakasi Division close to the airport. Hearing threshold level at 4 kHz deteriorated with increasing age whereby those aged 50 years and above had a 13.7 times higher relative risk than those aged 20 to 29 years. Duration of exposure more than 10 years also had significantly higher risk (p hearing loss at 4 kHz. Occupational noise induced hearing loss occurs atJKIA and that ground crew and older workers are more vulnerable. We recommend that prevention programmes be put in place.

  6. Reasons for ineligibility in phase 1 and 2A HIV vaccine clinical trials at Kenya AIDS vaccine initiative (KAVI, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria S Omosa-Manyonyi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With the persistent challenges towards controlling the HIV epidemic, there is an ongoing need for research into HIV vaccines and drugs. Sub-Saharan African countries--worst affected by the HIV pandemic--have participated in the conduct of clinical trials for HIV vaccines. In Kenya, the Kenya AIDS Vaccine Initiative (KAVI at the University of Nairobi has conducted HIV vaccine clinical trials since 2001.Participants were recruited after an extensive informed consent process followed by screening to determine eligibility. Screening included an assessment of risk behavior, medical history and physical examination, and if clinically healthy, laboratory testing. In the absence of locally derived laboratory reference ranges, the ranges used in these trials were derived from populations in the West.Two hundred eighty-one participants were screened between 2003 and 2006 for two clinical trials. Of these, 167 (59.4% met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Overall, laboratory abnormalities based on the non-indigenous laboratory references used were the most frequent reasons (61.4% for ineligibility. Medical abnormalities contributed 30.7% of the total reasons for ineligibility. Based on the laboratory reference intervals now developed from East and Southern Africa, those ineligible due to laboratory abnormalities would have been 46.3%. Of the eligible participants, 18.6% declined enrollment.Participant recruitment for HIV vaccine clinical trials is a rigorous and time-consuming exercise. Over 61% of the screening exclusions in clinically healthy people were due to laboratory abnormalities. It is essential that laboratory reference ranges generated from local populations for laboratory values be used in the conduct of clinical trials to avoid unnecessary exclusion of willing participants and to avoid over-reporting of adverse events for enrolled participants.Protocol IAVI VRC V001 [1]. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00124007 Protocol IAVI 010 [2](registration with

  7. Comparative analysis of production practices and utilization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGHOGHO A

    1Kenyatta University, Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, P.O. Box 43844, 00100 GPO. Nairobi,. Kenya. .... the vast potential of pumpkin production and utilization in ..... Poverty Reduction Handbook: Washington D.C:.

  8. diffusion of metronidazole released through cellulose membrane

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prof kokwaro

    was determined using dialyzing cellulose membrane in a dissolution tester. Glycerin, a permeation ... An attempt has been made in the present ... Materials. Metronidazole USP was donated by Cosmos. Pharmaceutical Ltd., Nairobi, Kenya.

  9. Major causes of poultry mortality in Nairobi and its environs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to determine the causes of mortalities in broiler and layer chicken in Nairobi and its environs during a 20 years period (1990-2010) and the trends of identified important disease between 2006 and 2010 among birds of different age groups. Data used was obtained from post-mortem examination ...

  10. Access to waterless hand sanitizer improves student hand hygiene behavior in primary schools in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Amy J; Davis, Jennifer; Blum, Annalise G; Scalmanini, Jenna; Oyier, Beryl; Okoth, George; Breiman, Robert F; Ram, Pavani K

    2013-09-01

    Handwashing is difficult in settings with limited resources and water access. In primary schools within urban Kibera, Kenya, we investigated the impact of providing waterless hand sanitizer on student hand hygiene behavior. Two schools received a waterless hand sanitizer intervention, two schools received a handwashing with soap intervention, and two schools received no intervention. Hand cleaning behavior after toilet use was monitored for 2 months using structured observation. Hand cleaning after toileting was 82% at sanitizer schools (N = 2,507 toileting events), 38% at soap schools (N = 3,429), and 37% at control schools (N = 2,797). Students at sanitizer schools were 23% less likely to have observed rhinorrhea than control students (P = 0.02); reductions in student-reported gastrointestinal and respiratory illness symptoms were not statistically significant. Providing waterless hand sanitizer markedly increased student hand cleaning after toilet use, whereas the soap intervention did not. Waterless hand sanitizer may be a promising option to improve student hand cleansing behavior, particularly in schools with limited water access.

  11. Determinants of Sexual Activity and Pregnancy among Unmarried Young Women in Urban Kenya: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okigbo, Chinelo C; Speizer, Ilene S

    2015-01-01

    With age of marriage rising in Kenya, the period between onset of puberty and first marriage has increased, resulting in higher rates of premarital sexual activity and pregnancy. We assessed the determinants of sexual activity and pregnancy among young unmarried women in urban Kenya. Baseline data from five urban areas in Kenya (Nairobi, Mombasa, Kisumu, Machakos, and Kakamega) collected in 2010 by the Measurement, Learning & Evaluation project were used. Women aged 15-24 years, who had never been married, and were not living with a male partner at the time of survey (weighted n = 2020) were included. Using weighted, multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression and logistic regression analyses, we assessed factors associated with three outcome measures: time to first sex, time to first pregnancy, and teenage pregnancy. One-half of our sample had ever had sex; the mean age at first sex among the sexually-experienced was 17.7 (± 2.6) years. About 15% had ever been pregnant; mean age at first pregnancy was 18.3 (± 2.2) years. Approximately 11% had a teenage pregnancy. Three-quarters (76%) of those who had ever been pregnant (weighted n = 306) reported the pregnancy was unwanted at the time. Having secondary education was associated with a later time to first sex and first pregnancy. In addition, religion, religiosity, and employment status were associated with time to first sex while city of residence, household size, characteristics of household head, family planning knowledge and misconceptions, and early sexual debut were significantly associated with time to first pregnancy. Education, city of residence, household wealth, early sexual debut, and contraceptive use at sexual debut were associated with teenage pregnancy for those 20-24 years. Understanding risk and protective factors of youth sexual and reproductive health can inform programs to improve young people's long-term potential by avoiding early and unintended pregnancies.

  12. Determinants of Sexual Activity and Pregnancy among Unmarried Young Women in Urban Kenya: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinelo C Okigbo

    Full Text Available With age of marriage rising in Kenya, the period between onset of puberty and first marriage has increased, resulting in higher rates of premarital sexual activity and pregnancy. We assessed the determinants of sexual activity and pregnancy among young unmarried women in urban Kenya.Baseline data from five urban areas in Kenya (Nairobi, Mombasa, Kisumu, Machakos, and Kakamega collected in 2010 by the Measurement, Learning & Evaluation project were used. Women aged 15-24 years, who had never been married, and were not living with a male partner at the time of survey (weighted n = 2020 were included. Using weighted, multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression and logistic regression analyses, we assessed factors associated with three outcome measures: time to first sex, time to first pregnancy, and teenage pregnancy.One-half of our sample had ever had sex; the mean age at first sex among the sexually-experienced was 17.7 (± 2.6 years. About 15% had ever been pregnant; mean age at first pregnancy was 18.3 (± 2.2 years. Approximately 11% had a teenage pregnancy. Three-quarters (76% of those who had ever been pregnant (weighted n = 306 reported the pregnancy was unwanted at the time. Having secondary education was associated with a later time to first sex and first pregnancy. In addition, religion, religiosity, and employment status were associated with time to first sex while city of residence, household size, characteristics of household head, family planning knowledge and misconceptions, and early sexual debut were significantly associated with time to first pregnancy. Education, city of residence, household wealth, early sexual debut, and contraceptive use at sexual debut were associated with teenage pregnancy for those 20-24 years.Understanding risk and protective factors of youth sexual and reproductive health can inform programs to improve young people's long-term potential by avoiding early and unintended pregnancies.

  13. optimisation of a somatic embryogenesis and transformation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    3Department of Agricultural Science and Technology, Kenyatta University, P. O. Box 43844-00100,. Nairobi, Kenya ... This protocol offers promising perspectives for rapid improvement of these cultivars ..... SAS/STAT 9.1: User's guide.

  14. All projects related to | Page 303 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project is a joint initiative between the University of Nairobi, Kenya, and the ... grants and related support services, including short courses, workshops and supervision of research projects. ... Program: Food, Environment, and Health.

  15. Factors affecting actualisation of the WHO breastfeeding recommendations in urban poor settings in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth W; Wekesah, Frederick; Wanjohi, Milka; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ezeh, Alex C; Musoke, Rachel N; Norris, Shane A; Madise, Nyovani J; Griffiths, Paula

    2015-07-01

    Poor breastfeeding practices are widely documented in Kenya, where only a third of children are exclusively breastfed for 6 months and only 2% in urban poor settings. This study aimed to better understand the factors that contribute to poor breastfeeding practices in two urban slums in Nairobi, Kenya. In-depth interviews (IDIs), focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews (KIIs) were conducted with women of childbearing age, community health workers, village elders and community leaders and other knowledgeable people in the community. A total of 19 IDIs, 10 FGDs and 11 KIIs were conducted, and were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were coded in NVIVO and analysed thematically. We found that there was general awareness regarding optimal breastfeeding practices, but the knowledge was not translated into practice, leading to suboptimal breastfeeding practices. A number of social and structural barriers to optimal breastfeeding were identified: (1) poverty, livelihood and living arrangements; (2) early and single motherhood; (3) poor social and professional support; (4) poor knowledge, myths and misconceptions; (5) HIV; and (6) unintended pregnancies. The most salient of the factors emerged as livelihoods, whereby women have to resume work shortly after delivery and work for long hours, leaving them unable to breastfeed optimally. Women in urban poor settings face an extremely complex situation with regard to breastfeeding due to multiple challenges and risk behaviours often dictated to them by their circumstances. Macro-level policies and interventions that consider the ecological setting are needed. © 2014 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Using Young Mothers' Clubs to Improve Knowledge of Postpartum Hemorrhage and Family Planning in Informal Settlements in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndirangu, Gathari; Gichangi, Anthony; Kanyuuru, Lynn; Otai, Jane; Mulindi, Rose; Lynam, Pamela; Koskei, Nancy; Tappis, Hannah; Archer, Linda

    2015-08-01

    Women living in Nairobi's informal settlements face a higher risk of maternal death than those living elsewhere in the country, and have limited knowledge of actions they can take to improve their chances of survival during pregnancy and childbirth. As one strategy to reach this high risk group, Jhpiego has implemented young mothers' clubs (YMCs). These clubs comprise mothers aged 18-30 who come together on a weekly basis to share experiences and solutions to their challenges while receiving health education from health facility staff and community health workers (CHWs). The aim of this study was to assess whether the YMC strategy could be used to improve participants' knowledge of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), positive behavior around childbirth, and family planning. Participants in nine YMCs (n = 193) across four informal settlements were interviewed to assess their knowledge of safe motherhood topics before and after a series of eight health education sessions. Data were analyzed with the McNemar test to determine significance of change in knowledge pre- and post-intervention. The largest improvements were observed in knowledge about what to include in a birth plan, with correct responses increasing from 32 to 73% (p planning topics, suggesting that the materials and methods used were generally effective for improving knowledge among this high risk group.

  17. Occupational exposure to roadway emissions and inside informal settlements in sub-Saharan Africa: A pilot study in Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Nicole S.; Gatari, Michael; Yan, Beizhan; Chillrud, Steven N.; Bouhamam, Kheira; Kinneym, Patrick L.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies examine urban air pollution in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), yet urbanization rates there are among the highest in the world. In this study, we measured 8-hr average occupational exposure levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), ultra violet active-particulate matter (UV-PM), and trace elements for individuals who worked along roadways in Nairobi, specifically bus drivers, garage workers, street vendors, and women who worked inside informal settlements. We found BC and re-suspended dust were important contributors to PM2.5 levels for all study populations, particularly among bus drivers, while PM2.5 exposure levels for garage workers, street vendors, and informal settlement residents were not statistically different from each other. We also found a strong signal for biomass emissions and trash burning, which is common in Nairobi’s low-income areas and open-air garages. These results suggest that the large portion of urban residents in SSA who walk along roadways would benefit from air quality regulations targeting roadway emissions from diesel vehicles, dust, and trash burning. This is the first study to measure occupational exposure to urban air pollution in SSA and results imply that roadway emissions are a serious public health concern. PMID:26034383

  18. Heavy metal content of selected African leafy vegetables planted in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metal content of selected African leafy vegetables planted in urban and peri-urban Nairobi, Kenya. ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... Government clean-up activities and monitoring of waste disposal is ...

  19. awareness and practice on biomedical waste management among

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-02-02

    Feb 2, 2013 ... University of Agriculture and Technology P. O. Box 62000-00200 Nairobi, C. Mutai, Senior Research Scientist, Kenya .... bags and strong plastic containers for infectious waste ..... at Command Hospital, Air Force, Bangalore.

  20. Opinion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2012-06-21

    Jun 21, 2012 ... In Kenya, universities offering undergraduate training in medicine include the university of Nairobi and Moi .... road traffic accident. .... more knowledgeable about its pharmacology but because they have the solution that will.

  1. NutritioN aNd public hygieNe amoNg childreN uNder five years of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-08-08

    Aug 8, 2008 ... Results: Poor food and personal hygiene were observed within the ... nutrition and dietetics, kenyatta university, p.o. box 43844, nairobi, kenya ... Poverty excludes people from benefits of healthcare .... of food poisoning.

  2. IDRC in Kenya

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers are working on a vaccine for cattle disease. For more information visit the Regional. Office for Sub-Saharan Africa website: www.idrc.ca/rossa. Subscribe to the IDRC Bulletin: www.idrc.ca/idrcbulletin/. SOMALIA. UGANDA. SUDAN. TANZANIA. Lake. Victoria. Lake. Turkana. INDIAN. OCEAN. Nairobi ✪. ○. ○. ○.

  3. The Effect of Taxpayer Education on Tax Compliance in Kenya.( a case study of SME's in Nairobi Central Business District)

    OpenAIRE

    Gitaru, Kelvin

    2017-01-01

    Tax is a very important aspect in any country. Revenue collected from taxes enables a country to provide services for its citizens and also development of its economy. However, Kenya does not collect as much revenue as it should. SMEs in particular have the potential of generating a lot of revenue for the government but this is not the case. This poses a significant problem to the government and the country’s growth as a whole. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing the effect of taxpayer e...

  4. Assessment of the solar radiation potential of the Thika and Nairobi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This assessment seeks to provide information on the solar energy resource potential of the Thika – Nairobi area essential in the dissemination of Renewable Energy Technologies which are essentially solar photovoltaic and thermal systems. To achieve this, solar radiation data for three stations (Dagoretti Corner, Thika and ...

  5. African Voices and Activists at the WSF in Nairobi: The Uncertain Ways of Transnational African Activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Emmanuelle Pommerolle

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Transnational social movement studies have long neglected the way activists from the South, and particularly from Africa, have participated in World Social Forum processes. Alterglobal activists have also been accused of neglecting or dominating southern voices. The organization of the WSF in Nairobi was seen as an opportunity to make African voices be heard. This examines how Africans activists participated in Nairobi, and the complex relationship they have to northern and other southern (such as Asia and Latin America activists. The African alterglobal movement is seen as a space of tensions (i.e. between South Africans and the rest of the continent, between French and English speaking Africa, or between NGOs and more radical organizations reflected in national mobilizations. Our team of 23 French and 12 Kenyan scholars made collective ethnographic observations in more than a hundred workshops and conducted 150 biographical interviews of African activists in order to examine how: Africa was referred to in the WSF; activists financed their trip to Nairobi; and Afrocentric, anti-imperialist, and anticolonial arguments have been used.

  6. socio-economic risk factors for severe protein energy malnutrition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-09-01

    Sep 1, 2000 ... malnutrition has other adverse consequences which include severity of illness ... those with cancer or any physical or mental condition predisposing them to ..... both groups. In a similar study in Nairobi, Kenya, Waihenya.

  7. 2017-2018 Hospitality Expense Reports for Stephen McGurk, Vice ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    SD

    Description: Lunch - Development research issues. Date: 2017-05-30. Attendees: 2 (IDRC 1). Location: Nairobi, Kenya. Total: $12.10. Comments: 2017-2018 Hospitality Expense Reports for. Stephen McGurk, Vice-President, Program and Partnership Branch.

  8. (S)-α-AMINO-3-HYDROXY-5-METHYL-4-ISOXAZOLEPROPANOIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    2003 Chemical Society of Ethiopia. ______ ... Chemistry Department, Kenyatta University, P.O. Box 43844, Nairobi 00100, Kenya. (Received June ... with {N,O} bonding which results in the formation of a stable five membered chelate ring. The.

  9. Molecular detection and characterization of potentially new Babesia and Theileria species/variants in wild felids from Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Githaka, Naftaly; Konnai, Satoru; Kariuki, Edward; Kanduma, Esther; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2012-10-01

    Piroplasms frequently infect domestic and wild carnivores. At present, there is limited information on the occurrence and molecular identity of these tick-borne parasites in wild felids in Kenya. In 2009, a pair of captive lions (Panthare leo) was diagnosed with suspected babesiosis and mineral deficiency at an animal orphanage on the outskirts of Nairobi, Kenya. Blood smears indicated presences of haemoparasites in the erythrocytes, however, no further investigations were conducted to identify the infecting agent. The animals recovered completely following diet supplementation and treatment with anti-parasite drug. In this report, we extracted and detected parasite DNA from the two lions and seven other asymptomatic feline samples; two leopards (Panthera pardus) and five cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). Reverse line blot with probes specific for Babesia spp. of felines indicated the presence of new Babesia species or genotypes in the lions and leopards, and unknown Theileria sp. in the cheetahs. Phylogenetic analyses using partial sequences of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene showed that the parasite infecting the lions belong to the Babesia canis complex, and the parasite variant detected in the leopards clusters in a clade bearing other Babesia spp. reported in wild felids from Africa. The cheetah isolates falls in the Theileria sensu stricto group. Our findings indicate the occurrence of potentially new species or genotypes of piroplams in all three feline species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Urban Congolese Refugees in Kenya: The Contingencies of Coping and Resilience in a Context Marked by Structural Vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippens, Julie A

    2017-06-01

    The global increase in refugee migration to urban areas creates challenges pertaining to the promotion of refugee health, broadly conceived. Despite considerable attention to trauma and forced migration, there is relatively little focus on how refugees cope with stressful situations, and on the determinants that facilitate and undermine resilience. This article examines how urban Congolese refugees in Kenya promote psychosocial well-being in the context of structural vulnerability. This article is based on interviews ( N = 55) and ethnographic participant observation with Congolese refugees over a period of 8 months in Nairobi in 2014. Primary stressors related to scarcity of material resources, political and personal insecurity, and emotional stress. Congolese refugees mitigated stressors by (a) relying on faith in God's plan and trust in religious community, (b) establishing borrowing networks, and (c) compartmentalizing the past and present. This research has broader implications for the promotion of urban refugees' psychosocial health and resilience in countries of first asylum.

  11. Impact evaluation of a community-based intervention for prevention of cardiovascular diseases in the slums of Nairobi: the SCALE-UP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven van de Vijver

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A combination of increasing urbanization, behaviour change, and lack of health services in slums put the urban poor specifically at risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a community-based CVD prevention intervention on blood pressure (BP and other CVD risk factors in a slum setting in Nairobi, Kenya. Design: Prospective intervention study includes awareness campaigns, household visits for screening, and referral and treatment of people with hypertension. The primary outcome was overall change in mean systolic blood pressure (SBP, while secondary outcomes were changes in awareness of hypertension and other CVD risk factors. We evaluated the intervention's impact through consecutive cross-sectional surveys at baseline and after 18 months, comparing outcomes of intervention and control group, through a difference-in-difference method. Results: We screened 1,531 and 1,233 participants in the intervention and control sites. We observed a significant reduction in mean SBP when comparing before and after measurements in both intervention and control groups, −2.75 mmHg (95% CI −4.33 to −1.18, p=0.001 and −1.67 mmHg (95% CI −3.17 to −0.17, p=0.029, respectively. Among people with hypertension at baseline, SBP was reduced by −14.82 mmHg (95% CI −18.04 to −11.61, p<0.001 in the intervention and −14.05 (95% CI −17.71 to −10.38, p<0.001 at the control site. However, comparing these two groups, we found no difference in changes in mean SBP or hypertension prevalence. Conclusions: We found significant declines in SBP over time in both intervention and control groups. However, we found no additional effect of a community-based intervention involving awareness campaigns, screening, referral, and treatment. Possible explanations include the beneficial effect of baseline measurements in the control group on behaviour and related BP levels, and the limited success of treatment and

  12. Access to Waterless Hand Sanitizer Improves Student Hand Hygiene Behavior in Primary Schools in Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Amy J.; Davis, Jennifer; Blum, Annalise G.; Scalmanini, Jenna; Oyier, Beryl; Okoth, George; Breiman, Robert F.; Ram, Pavani K.

    2013-01-01

    Handwashing is difficult in settings with limited resources and water access. In primary schools within urban Kibera, Kenya, we investigated the impact of providing waterless hand sanitizer on student hand hygiene behavior. Two schools received a waterless hand sanitizer intervention, two schools received a handwashing with soap intervention, and two schools received no intervention. Hand cleaning behavior after toilet use was monitored for 2 months using structured observation. Hand cleaning after toileting was 82% at sanitizer schools (N = 2,507 toileting events), 38% at soap schools (N = 3,429), and 37% at control schools (N = 2,797). Students at sanitizer schools were 23% less likely to have observed rhinorrhea than control students (P = 0.02); reductions in student-reported gastrointestinal and respiratory illness symptoms were not statistically significant. Providing waterless hand sanitizer markedly increased student hand cleaning after toilet use, whereas the soap intervention did not. Waterless hand sanitizer may be a promising option to improve student hand cleansing behavior, particularly in schools with limited water access. PMID:23836575

  13. SANREM-CRSP Kenya Brochure

    OpenAIRE

    Ongugo, Paul O.

    2007-01-01

    Brochure produced by Kenya research team to explain the SANREM project in Kenya. The brochure discusses the aim, objective, areas of coverage, current work and ways to learn more about the SANREM CRSP activities in Kenya. LTRA-1 (Decentralization Reforms and Property Rights)

  14. Genetic variability of tissue cultured Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    john

    1Department of Botany, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, P. O. Box 6000, Nairobi, Kenya. 2Department of ... and transformation of embryonic callus for wheat has ..... Grenier C, Bramel-Cox PJ, Hamon CP (2001).

  15. Occurrence patterns of pharmaceutical residues in wastewater, surface water and groundwater of Nairobi and Kisumu city, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K'oreje, K O; Vergeynst, L; Ombaka, D; De Wispelaere, P; Okoth, M; Van Langenhove, H; Demeestere, K

    2016-04-01

    Emerging organic contaminants have not received a lot of attention in developing countries, particularly Africa, although problems regarding water quantity and quality are often even more severe than in more developed regions. This study presents general water quality parameters as well as unique data on concentrations and loads of 24 pharmaceuticals including antibiotic, anti(retro)viral, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and psychiatric drugs in three wastewater treatment plants, three rivers and three groundwater wells in Nairobi and Kisumu. This allowed studying removal efficiencies in wastewater treatment, identifying important sources of pharmaceutical pollution and distinguishing dilution effects from natural attenuation in rivers. In general, antiretrovirals and antibiotics, being important in the treatment of common African diseases such as HIV and malaria, were in all matrices more prevalent as compared to the Western world. Wastewater stabilization ponds removed pharmaceuticals with an efficiency between 11 and 99%. Despite this large range, a different removal is observed for a number of compounds, as compared to more conventional activated sludge systems. Total concentrations in river water (up to 320 μg L(-1)) were similar or exceeded concentrations in untreated wastewater, with domestic discharges from slums, wastewater treatment plant effluent and waste dumpsites identified as important sources. In shallow wells situated next to pit latrines and used for drinking water, the recalcitrant antiretroviral nevirapine was measured at concentrations as high as 1-2 μg L(-1). Overall, distinct pharmaceutical contamination patterns as compared to the Western world can be concluded, which might be a trigger for further research in developing regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Destruction and management of Mount Kenya`s forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussmann, R.W. [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Biologie, Chemie und Geowissenschaften

    1996-08-01

    This article presents data on the destruction of the montane forests on Mount Kenya. The material was obtained during field-work for a phytosociological study in 1992-1994. Special emphasis was given to the observation of regeneration patterns and succession cycles within the different forest communities, with regard to the impact of humans and big game. Although private tree planting is reducing the fuelwood deficit in Kenya, large parts of the 200 000 ha of Mount Kenya`s forests - the largest natural-forest area in the country - are heavily impacted by among other things illegal activities. The wet camphor forests of the south and southeast mountain slopes are being destroyed at an alarming speed, by large-scale selective logging of Ocotea usambarensis and marihuana cultivation. The drier Juniperus procera are also logged, but are even more endangered by the new settlement schemes. The large elephant population does not affect forest regeneration; whereas browsing and chaffing by buffaloes inhibits regeneration of the dry forests, and damages many trees. Suggestions are presented for better management of the forest resources. 12 refs, 1 fig

  17. isolation and characterisation of cryptococcus neoformans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-01

    Aug 1, 2014 ... and Cryptococcus gattii from several environmental sites in Nairobi, Kenya .This could probably ... Globally, the risk of cryptococcal meningitis in HIV/. AIDS is estimated ..... gattii from the Amazon rainforest. PLoS One. 2013 ...

  18. Retraction: Redundant Publication of the article Dental caries and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retraction: Redundant Publication of the article Dental caries and oral health practices among 12 year old children in Nairobi West and Mathira West Districts, Kenya. Gladwell Gathecha et al. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2012;12:42.

  19. Maize response to Tithonia diversifolia and rock phosphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-07-31

    Jul 31, 2014 ... 2Department of Agricultural Resources Management, Kenyatta University, P.O Box 43844-00100 Nairobi, Kenya. ... Original submitted in on 7th ... human population which is projected to be 8,000 .... Institute, version 9.2).

  20. Kenya Veterinarian

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Kenya Veterinarian is a journal of the Kenya Veterinary Association. It publishes original papers in English, within the whole field of animal science and veterinary medicine and those addressing legal and policy issues related to the veterinary profession. The journal accepts articles and reports in the areas of Anatomy ...

  1. Validation of the Euroscore on Cardiac Surgery Patients in Nairobi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The Additive Euroscore (AE) predicts outcomes in cardiac surgical procedures performed on cardiopulmonary bypass. It's been widely used in developed nations but it's applicability in Kenya is unknown. Our objective was to determine its applicability at Kenyatta National Hospital (Kenya). Methods: A ...

  2. 6868 Volume 12 No. 7 December 2012 CHARACTERISTICS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Irene

    2012-12-07

    Dec 7, 2012 ... 3. Kenyatta University. P. O. Box 43844, 00100 GPO, Nairobi, Kenya. 4 .... pod otemo yuayo –sani korka inyuol chak pod kobiro koro nyaka iwinj malit giedendi ..... WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data; Global strategy ...

  3. Reducing Vulnerability to Sexual and Gender-Based Violence in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    electoral violence in Kenya since the 1990s, the fact that a considerable part of that violence was gender and sexual in nature has gone largely unnoticed. The Nairobi Women's Hospital Gender Violence Recovery Center reports that between ...

  4. Kenya

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    Les élections générales de 2002 au Kenya, à la suite desquelles un régime notoire pour sa corruption a été remplacé par un gouvernement de coalition désireux d'instaurer une réforme, ont été considérées comme un événement charnière dans l'histoire du pays. Le CRDI, déjà actif au Kenya depuis plus de 30 ans, ...

  5. PreliminaryEquatorial Paleomagnetic results from Mt Kenya lavas. Neil D Opdyke, 1, Dennis V Kent, 2, Kainian Huang ,1, J.P. Patel , 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opdyke, N. D.; Kent, D. V.; Huang, K.; Patel, J. P.

    2007-12-01

    Field work on this study was carried out in August of 2006 by field parties from the University of Florida and Rutgers University. Mt Kenya is believed to be Plio-Pleistocene in age and an Argon dating survey is underway Ten samples were taken at each site consisting of one exposure in individual lava Flows. These exposures are usually in road cuts, streambeds and in some cases roadbeds. We sampled 100 sites distributed around the Mt Kenya Massif and to the northeast along the Nyambini range. The equator bisex's Mt Kenya and all sites were sampled within 40" north or south of the equator . The samples were returned to the US and processed at the University of Florida paleomagnetic laboratory. Many sites were severely affected by lightning however after demagnetization 68 sites yielded directions with alpha 95's equal to or less than 10°. Normal magnetized sites dominate, with N=58 (Dec=1°,Inc -0.1°,α95=2.6°) whereas only 10 reverse sites(Dec. =181.9,Inc. .6°α 95=8°) were identified. The combined site mean direction is Dec=1.1°, Inc..= -0.2° and α 95=3.2°. This result is not significantly different from what is expected from the geocentric axial dipole. VGP's were calculated from each site and the dispersion is low with the ASD = 11° which is in agreement with model "G" of MacFadden and McElhinny .No transitional directions were identified . Quadrupole components are not resolved. 1 Department of geological Sciences, the University of Florida , 2 Dept of Geology, Rutgers University,3,dept of Physics ,The University of Nairobi

  6. optimisation of a somatic embryogenesis and transformation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    3Department of Agricultural Science and Technology, Kenyatta University, P. O. Box 43844-00100,. Nairobi, Kenya ... Mots Clés: Cytokinine, Manihot esculenta, protocole de génération ..... Z., Xiang, C., Fonger, T.M., Pegg, S.E.K, Li,.

  7. Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... note that a “narrow line often separates plagiarism from good scholarship.” ... The sea level has risen by approximately 10cm in the last 100 years (Mason, 1999) ... text (e.g., A. Kingori, University of Nairobi, Kenya, personal communication).

  8. Search Results | Page 726 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 7251 - 7260 of 8531 ... New directions in US development policies: A view from Washington ... Women build peace on the memories of war ... to and use of seasonal forecasts in Africa, which took place in Nairobi, Kenya in March 2010.

  9. Search Results | Page 830 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 8291 - 8300 of 9578 ... New directions in US development policies: A view from Washington ... Women build peace on the memories of war ... to and use of seasonal forecasts in Africa, which took place in Nairobi, Kenya in March 2010.

  10. Careers | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    We look for employees who truly believe that innovation and knowledge can solve ... Cairo, Egypt; Montevideo, Uruguay; Nairobi, Kenya; and New Delhi, India. ... a member of a visible minority group, a person with a disability, or a woman, we ...

  11. The state of emergency obstetric care services in Nairobi informal settlements and environs: Results from a maternity health facility survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliku Teresa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa remains a challenge with estimates exceeding 1,000 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in some countries. Successful prevention of maternal deaths hinges on adequate and quality emergency obstetric care. In addition to skilled personnel, there is need for a supportive environment in terms of essential drugs and supplies, equipment, and a referral system. Many household surveys report a reasonably high proportion of women delivering in health facilities. However, the quality and adequacy of facilities and personnel are often not assessed. The three delay model; 1 delay in making the decision to seek care; 2 delay in reaching an appropriate obstetric facility; and 3 delay in receiving appropriate care once at the facility guided this project. This paper examines aspects of the third delay by assessing quality of emergency obstetric care in terms of staffing, skills equipment and supplies. Methods We used data from a survey of 25 maternity health facilities within or near two slums in Nairobi that were mentioned by women in a household survey as places that they delivered. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Kenya Medical Research Institute. Permission was also sought from the Ministry of Health and the Medical Officer of Health. Data collection included interviews with the staff in-charge of maternity wards using structured questionnaires. We collected information on staffing levels, obstetric procedures performed, availability of equipment and supplies, referral system and health management information system. Results Out of the 25 health facilities, only two met the criteria for comprehensive emergency obstetric care (both located outside the two slums while the others provided less than basic emergency obstetric care. Lack of obstetric skills, equipment, and supplies hamper many facilities from providing lifesaving emergency obstetric procedures. Accurate estimation of burden

  12. High-Resolution Spatial Distribution and Estimation of Access to Improved Sanitation in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Peng; Anderson, John D; Leitner, Michael; Rheingans, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Access to sanitation facilities is imperative in reducing the risk of multiple adverse health outcomes. A distinct disparity in sanitation exists among different wealth levels in many low-income countries, which may hinder the progress across each of the Millennium Development Goals. The surveyed households in 397 clusters from 2008-2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys were divided into five wealth quintiles based on their national asset scores. A series of spatial analysis methods including excess risk, local spatial autocorrelation, and spatial interpolation were applied to observe disparities in coverage of improved sanitation among different wealth categories. The total number of the population with improved sanitation was estimated by interpolating, time-adjusting, and multiplying the surveyed coverage rates by high-resolution population grids. A comparison was then made with the annual estimates from United Nations Population Division and World Health Organization /United Nations Children's Fund Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation. The Empirical Bayesian Kriging interpolation produced minimal root mean squared error for all clusters and five quintiles while predicting the raw and spatial coverage rates of improved sanitation. The coverage in southern regions was generally higher than in the north and east, and the coverage in the south decreased from Nairobi in all directions, while Nyanza and North Eastern Province had relatively poor coverage. The general clustering trend of high and low sanitation improvement among surveyed clusters was confirmed after spatial smoothing. There exists an apparent disparity in sanitation among different wealth categories across Kenya and spatially smoothed coverage rates resulted in a closer estimation of the available statistics than raw coverage rates. Future intervention activities need to be tailored for both different wealth categories and nationally where there are areas of greater needs when

  13. High-Resolution Spatial Distribution and Estimation of Access to Improved Sanitation in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Jia

    Full Text Available Access to sanitation facilities is imperative in reducing the risk of multiple adverse health outcomes. A distinct disparity in sanitation exists among different wealth levels in many low-income countries, which may hinder the progress across each of the Millennium Development Goals.The surveyed households in 397 clusters from 2008-2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys were divided into five wealth quintiles based on their national asset scores. A series of spatial analysis methods including excess risk, local spatial autocorrelation, and spatial interpolation were applied to observe disparities in coverage of improved sanitation among different wealth categories. The total number of the population with improved sanitation was estimated by interpolating, time-adjusting, and multiplying the surveyed coverage rates by high-resolution population grids. A comparison was then made with the annual estimates from United Nations Population Division and World Health Organization /United Nations Children's Fund Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation.The Empirical Bayesian Kriging interpolation produced minimal root mean squared error for all clusters and five quintiles while predicting the raw and spatial coverage rates of improved sanitation. The coverage in southern regions was generally higher than in the north and east, and the coverage in the south decreased from Nairobi in all directions, while Nyanza and North Eastern Province had relatively poor coverage. The general clustering trend of high and low sanitation improvement among surveyed clusters was confirmed after spatial smoothing.There exists an apparent disparity in sanitation among different wealth categories across Kenya and spatially smoothed coverage rates resulted in a closer estimation of the available statistics than raw coverage rates. Future intervention activities need to be tailored for both different wealth categories and nationally where there are areas of

  14. Research Article: Animal Welfare The Impact of Customized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was designed to investigate the knowledge and perceptions of animal welfare and related legislations among graduating Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine students from the University of Nairobi, Kenya. A questionnaire was designed and administered to assess understanding, poor attributes, good provisions, ...

  15. African Journal of Oral Health Sciences - Vol 1, No 1 (2000)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and clinical features of acute necrotizing gingivitis in Nairobi, Kenya · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. JT Kaimenyi, 19-23. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajohs.v1i1.29613 ...

  16. Spinal cord compression due to tumours at Kenyatta Nationa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the frequency of different types of tumours associated with cord compression, their mode of presentation and treatment outcome. Design: Retrospective study. Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), a teaching and referral hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, from January 1985 to December 1994.

  17. Parties at the convention of the United Nations on climatic change and second meeting of the parties to the Kyoto protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Kenya hosted the second meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol in conjunction with the twelfth session of the conference of the Parties to the climatic change convention, in Nairobi from 6 to 17 November 2006. This document presents in a first part the key areas discussed at Nairobi; in a second part the international framework with the consequences of the Kyoto protocol implementation; and in the last part the demonstrable progresses of the France in the policy effects, tendencies concerning the greenhouse gases and the respect of the commitments. (A.L.B.)

  18. Parties at the convention of the United Nations on climatic change and second meeting of the parties to the Kyoto protocol; Parties a la convention-cadre des Nations-Unies sur les changements climatiques et seconde reunion des parties au Protocole de Kyoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Kenya hosted the second meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol in conjunction with the twelfth session of the conference of the Parties to the climatic change convention, in Nairobi from 6 to 17 November 2006. This document presents in a first part the key areas discussed at Nairobi; in a second part the international framework with the consequences of the Kyoto protocol implementation; and in the last part the demonstrable progresses of the France in the policy effects, tendencies concerning the greenhouse gases and the respect of the commitments. (A.L.B.)

  19. Cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in Kenya and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigei, Charles; Odaga, John; Mvundura, Mercy; Madrid, Yvette; Clark, Andrew David

    2015-05-07

    Rotavirus vaccines have the potential to prevent a substantial amount of life-threatening gastroenteritis in young African children. This paper presents the results of prospective cost-effectiveness analyses for rotavirus vaccine introduction for Kenya and Uganda. In each country, a national consultant worked with a national technical working group to identify appropriate data and validate study results. Secondary data on demographics, disease burden, health utilization, and costs were used to populate the TRIVAC cost-effectiveness model. The baseline analysis assumed an initial vaccine price of $0.20 per dose, corresponding to Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance stipulated copay for low-income countries. The incremental cost-effectiveness of a 2-dose rotavirus vaccination schedule was evaluated for 20 successive birth cohorts from the government perspective in both countries, and from the societal perspective in Uganda. Between 2014 and 2033, rotavirus vaccination can avert approximately 60,935 and 216,454 undiscounted deaths and hospital admissions respectively in children under 5 years in Kenya. In Uganda, the respective number of undiscounted deaths and hospital admission averted is 70,236 and 329,779 between 2016 and 2035. Over the 20-year period, the discounted vaccine program costs are around US$ 80 million in Kenya and US$ 60 million in Uganda. Discounted government health service costs avoided are US$ 30 million in Kenya and US$ 10 million in Uganda (or US$ 18 million including household costs). The cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted from a government perspective is US$ 38 in Kenya and US$ 34 in Uganda (US$ 29 from a societal perspective). Rotavirus vaccine introduction is highly cost-effective in both countries in a range of plausible 'what-if' scenarios. The involvement of national experts improves the quality of data used, is likely to increase acceptability of the results in decision-making, and can contribute to strengthened national

  20. Evaluating Learners’s Ability to Use Technology in Distance Education: The Case of External Degree Programme of The University Of Nairobi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouma OMITO

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at investigating the students’ ability to use technology for distance education with specific reference to the University of Nairobi’s External Degree Programme. To achieve this, one specific objective was formulated: To find out the student teacher’s readiness to accept and utilize technology for learning purposes in relation to their work experience. The study design used was cross- sectional survey with a well -constructed questionnaire. The study population was 500 External Degree Students of the University of Nairobi who were final year students in the Bachelor of Education (Arts by distance mode. The study sample of 217 was reached at by the use of a sample table provided by Krejcie and Morgan,(1970. Simple random technique was to identify the 217 respondents. A total of 110 questionnaires were filled and returned by respondents who were school teachers in Kenya. A non-probability sampling technique (purposive was used to select the cohort under study, that is, the final semester students in the External Degree programme of the University of Nairobi. The results from the pilot study were used to prove content validity as instrument reliability was determined from the internal consistency of responses from the questionnaire after the pilot study. The findings from the study revealed that majority of teachers 19(50% who had a work experience between 6 to 11 years were able to gather information from the internet for learning purposes. It was also learnt that as number of years for work experience increased (21 years and above, the ability to gather information from the internet decreased drastically. When respondents were asked of their ability to troubleshoot computers, all categories of work experience showed low ability. All percentages were less than 50% with the work experience brackets of 21 and above years recording 22.2% as the highest percentage. Finally, when respondents were asked about their feelings

  1. Logistics outsourcing and performance of manufacturing small and medium-sized enterprises in Nairobi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joash Mageto

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Logistics outsourcing has been accepted as a strategy through which small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs can access the logistics capabilities they lack internally at a lower cost. However, the actual effect of logistics outsourcing on firm performance, especially among the SMEs in Nairobi, remains unknown.   Aim: The study aimed to investigate the relationship between logistics outsourcing and firm performance of manufacturing SMEs in Nairobi.   Setting: The study sampled manufacturing SMEs in Nairobi City County.   Method: In this study, a convergent parallel mixed methods design was applied. Survey data were collected from 163 manufacturing SMEs. The data were analysed using structural equation modelling to test the relationship between logistics outsourcing and firm performance. Additionally, in-depth interviews were conducted in five manufacturing SMEs. Thematic analysis was used to analyse interview data to provide more insight in the quantitative data.   Results: The anticipated direct link between logistics outsourcing and performance of manufacturing SMEs was not statistically significant. However, the study revealed a statistically significant indirect positive effect of logistics outsourcing on the performance of manufacturing SMEs through logistics outsourcing performance as a mediator variable. This article further highlights reasons and the process of logistics outsourcing and deduces a logistics outsourcing model for manufacturing SMEs to help improve their firm’s performance.   Conclusion: The established relationship and deduced logistics outsourcing model is likely to guide SME managers as to how to manage logistics outsourcing to improve performance. The finding that logistics outsourcing has a positive indirect effect on the performance of manufacturing SMEs through logistics outsourcing performance makes a significant contribution to theory.

  2. The Impact of Business Development Services on Entrepreneurial Orientation and Performance of Small and Medium Enterprises in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington Oduor Okeyo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the influence of business development services on entrepreneurial orientation and performance. The study analyzed a total of 97 small and medium enterprises in Kenya out of a sample of 150 organizations. Data was collected in Nairobi county through a combination of drop and pick methods. Cronbach’s alpha was used to measure reliability of the instrument during a pilot phase of the study. The collected data was analyzed in Statistical Package for Social Sciences using descriptive, correlation and multiple linear regressions techniques. The results show that there is a positive relationship between business development services and performance. They also demonstrate that business development services affect entrepreneurial orientation of the studied firms. However, the results indicate that entrepreneurial orientation does not mediate the relationship between business development services and performance. In conclusion, the firms studied and their similar counterparts should strive to access and use business development services. They should also adopt entrepreneurial inclination to improve how business development services may assist them achieve better performance. Recommendations and areas for further studies are also suggested.

  3. Human rotavirus group a serotypes causing gastroenteritis in children less than 5 years and HIV-infected adults in Viwandani slum, Nairobi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raini, S K; Nyangao, J; Kombich, J; Sang, C; Gikonyo, J; Ongus, J R; Odari, E O

    2015-01-01

    Rotavirus remains a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in children worldwide with an estimated 2000 deaths each day in developing countries. Due to HIV/AIDS scourge in Kenya, it is possible that rotavirus-related gastroenteritis has been aggravated in adults. The Global Alliance for Immunizations has ranked rotavirus infection a priority for vaccine, and, to ensure its success, there is a need to document the local strain(s) circulating in different regions. A cross-sectional study was conducted to document human rotavirus group A serotypes in children below 5 years and HIV-infected adults in Viwandani slum in Nairobi, Kenya. A total of 260 (128 from children and 132 from HIV infected adults) fecal specimen samples were analyzed from August 2012 to July 2013. Screening for rotavirus was done by antigen based enzyme immune-sorbent assay (ELISA), Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) was used to detect rotavirus electropherotypes and finally genotyping was done by RT-PCR using genotype-specific primer sets targeting VP4 and VP7 genes. Rotavirus was detected in 23% and 8% of children and adult, respectively. Prevalence was high in children of 48 years. Long electropherotypes accounted for 80% and 60% while short electropherotypes accounted for 20% and 40% in children and adult, respectively. The common globally distributed strains, G1 and G3, accounted for 60% detections while the unusual G9 strain accounted for 80% infection in adults. G1P[8] was the common genotypic combination in children, accounting for 40% infection, whereas G9 [P8] accounted for 60% of the infections in adults. This study shows the existence of strain diversity between rotavirus circulating in children and adults within this study group. It further shows that as currently constituted, the 2 vaccines recommended for rotavirus would cover the circulating strain in Viwandani slum. Finally, there is a need for continuous rotavirus strain surveillance in children and a further focus on HIV

  4. Acceptability and feasibility of repeated mucosal specimen collection in clinical trial participants in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Omosa-Manyonyi

    Full Text Available Mucosal specimens are essential to evaluate compartmentalized immune responses to HIV vaccine candidates and other mucosally targeted investigational products. We studied the acceptability and feasibility of repeated mucosal sampling in East African clinical trial participants at low risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.The Kenya AIDS Vaccine Initiative (KAVI enrolled participants into three Phase 1 trials of preventive HIV candidate vaccines in 2011-2012 at two clinical research centers in Nairobi. After informed consent to a mucosal sub-study, participants were asked to undergo collection of mucosal secretions (saliva, oral fluids, semen, cervico-vaginal and rectal, but could opt out of any collection at any visit. Specimens were collected at baseline and two additional time points. A tolerability questionnaire was administered at the final sub-study visit. Of 105 trial participants, 27 of 34 women (79% and 62 of 71 men (87% enrolled in the mucosal sub-study. Nearly all sub-study participants gave saliva and oral fluids at all visits. Semen was collected from about half the participating men (47-48% at all visits. Cervico-vaginal secretions were collected by Softcup from about two thirds of women (63% at baseline, increasing to 78% at the following visits, with similar numbers for cervical secretion collection by Merocel sponge; about half of women (52% gave cervico-vaginal samples at all visits. Rectal secretions were collected with Merocel sponge from about a quarter of both men and women (24% at all 3 visits, with 16% of men and 19% of women giving rectal samples at all visits.Repeated mucosal sampling in clinical trial participants in Kenya is feasible, with a good proportion of participants consenting to most sampling methods with the exception of rectal samples. Experienced staff members of both sexes and trained counselors with standardized messaging may improve acceptance of rectal sampling.

  5. Kenya Veterinarian: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Kenya Veterinarian is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Kenya Veterinary Association on research and clinical practice of veterinary medicine. The main ... Three copies must be provided in English, double-spaced, Times New Roman throughout on one side A4 paper with a wide margin all round.

  6. Upper Abdominal Ultra-Sonography Findings in HIV Patients at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital and the Defence Forces Memorial Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: HIV infected patients referred for upper abdominal sonography within the study duration of eight months. Results: Two hundred and seventy three (273) patients were ...

  7. A call for water-efficient technologies (an interview with dr. Anne Elings)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elings, A.

    2012-01-01

    During the recent International Flower Trade Expo in Nairobi, Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture project leader and greenhouse horticulture specialist Anne Elings pointed out that Kenya is not a water scarce country but management of the same is wanting. HortiNews had a chat with him.

  8. Website Review Africa Climate exChange | Cizek | Ostrich: Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://www.africa-climate-exchange.org/ BirdLife International, Africa Partnership Secretariat, ICIPE Campus, Kasarani, PO Box 3502, 00100 GPO Nairobi, Kenya Launched online 17 February 2010, with later revisions (accessed 30 April and 16 August 2010) OSTRICH 2010, 81(3): 281–284 ...

  9. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DMARD use in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Can we Predict Treatment Response? Abstract · Vol 3, No 2 (2015) - Articles Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in Nairobi, Kenya Abstract · Vol 3, No 2 (2015) - Articles Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome: Management Challenges and Lessons ...

  10. Thought and Practice: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orlando, USA janzb@mail.ucf.edu. Aloo Osotsi Mojola Translation Consultant, United Bible Societies, Africa Area. (former Lecturer in Philosophy, University of Nairobi and currently Adjunct Professor, Great Lakes University, Kisumu, Kenya) aloo.mojola@gmail.com. F. Ochieng'-Odhiambo Senior Lecturer and Coordinator of ...

  11. Sports-related dentofacial trauma among high school students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence and pattern of occurrence of sports - related dentofacial injuries among athletes participating in Rugby and Football in Nairobi, Kenya. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting: Seventeen Secondary schools participating in either or both Rugby tournaments and the ...

  12. Bibliography of African inland water invertebrates (to 1980)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davies, BR

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available This bibliography is a direct outcome of the SIL-UNEP Workshop on African Limnology held at the University of Nairobi, Kenya, between 16-23 December, 1979. Part 1 of the framework document for the A4 section of the Workshop - "Invertebrates...

  13. East Africa's diminishing bird habitats and bird species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    foreign exchange earnings for each national exchequer. However, recent national census records have .... Dar-es-. Salaam: Wildlife Conservation Society of Tanzania. Bennun, L & Njoroge, P. 1999. Important Bird Areas in Kenya, Nairobi: East Africa Natural. History Society. Byaruhanga, A, Kasoma, P. & Pomeroy, D. 2001.

  14. African Journal of Sustainable Development: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University of Chicago, USA Prof. Godwin Kowero African Forest Forum, Nairobi, Kenya Prof. Janice Olawoye University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria Dr Lucia Rodriguez The Earth Institute, Columbia University, USA. Dr Pauline Dube University of Botswana, Botswana Prof. Chris Gordon University of Legon, Accra, Ghana Prof.

  15. Correlation of clinical data, anatomical site and disease stage in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the colorectal cancer clinical data with respect to the anatomical location and stage of disease. Design: Retrospective observational study. Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Two hundred and fifty three tumours were categorised as right colonic (RCC), left colonic ...

  16. Current Microbial Pattern of Patients Presenting with Pre-Labour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current Microbial Pattern of Patients Presenting with Pre-Labour Rupture of Membranes (PROM) at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. ... Subject: Fifty antenatal patients with premature Rapture of Membranes and 50 controls. Results: A total of 100 questionnaires and laboratory liquor microscopic culture and ...

  17. Preparation, characterization, and optimization of primaquine-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omwoyo WN

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Wesley Nyaigoti Omwoyo,1,2 Bernhards Ogutu,3,4 Florence Oloo,3,5 Hulda Swai,6 Lonji Kalombo,6 Paula Melariri,6 Geoffrey Maroa Mahanga,2 Jeremiah Waweru Gathirwa3,4 1Department of Chemistry, Maasai Mara University, Narok, Kenya; 2Department of Chemistry, Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science and Technology, Bondo, Kenya; 3Center for Research in Therapeutic Sciences, Strathmore University, Nairobi, Kenya; 4Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; 5Department of Chemical Sciences and Technology, Technical University of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya; 6Department of Polymers and Composites, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa Abstract: Primaquine (PQ is one of the most widely used antimalarial drugs and is the only available drug that combats the relapsing form of malaria. PQ use in higher doses is limited by severe tissue toxicity including hematological- and gastrointestinal-related side effects. Nanoformulation of drugs in an appropriate drug carrier system has been extensively studied and shown to have the potential to improve bioavailability, thereby enhancing activity, reducing dose frequency, and subsequently reducing toxicity. The aim of this work was to design, synthesize, and characterize PQ-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs (PQ-SLNs as a potential drug-delivery system. SLNs were prepared by a modified solvent emulsification evaporation method based on a water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w double emulsion. The mean particle size, zeta potential, drug loading, and encapsulation efficiency of the PQ-SLNs were 236 nm, +23 mV, 14%, and 75%, respectively. The zeta potential of the SLNs changed dramatically, from -6.54 mV to +23.0 mV, by binding positively charged chitosan as surface modifier. A spherical morphology of PQ-SLNs was seen by scanning electron microscope. In vitro, release profile depicted a steady drug release over 72 hours. Differential scanning calorimeter thermograms demonstrated presence

  18. Fully immunized child: coverage, timing and sequencing of routine immunization in an urban poor settlement in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutua, Martin Kavao; Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth; Ngomi, Nicholas; Ravn, Henrik; Mwaniki, Peter; Echoka, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    More efforts have been put in place to increase full immunization coverage rates in the last decade. Little is known about the levels and consequences of delaying or vaccinating children in different schedules. Vaccine effectiveness depends on the timing of its administration, and it is not optimal if given early, delayed or not given as recommended. Evidence of non-specific effects of vaccines is well documented and could be linked to timing and sequencing of immunization. This paper documents the levels of coverage, timing and sequencing of routine childhood vaccines. The study was conducted between 2007 and 2014 in two informal urban settlements in Nairobi. A total of 3856 children, aged 12-23 months and having a vaccination card seen were included in analysis. Vaccination dates recorded from the cards seen were used to define full immunization coverage, timeliness and sequencing. Proportions, medians and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to assess and describe the levels of full immunization coverage, vaccination delays and sequencing. The findings indicate that 67 % of the children were fully immunized by 12 months of age. Missing measles and third doses of polio and pentavalent vaccine were the main reason for not being fully immunized. Delays were highest for third doses of polio and pentavalent and measles. About 22 % of fully immunized children had vaccines in an out-of-sequence manner with 18 % not receiving pentavalent together with polio vaccine as recommended. Results show higher levels of missed opportunities and low coverage of routine childhood vaccinations given at later ages. New strategies are needed to enable health care providers and parents/guardians to work together to increase the levels of completion of all required vaccinations. In particular, more focus is needed on vaccines given in multiple doses (polio, pentavalent and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines).

  19. Toward "Age-Friendly Slums"? Health Challenges of Older Slum Dwellers in Nairobi and the Applicability of the Age-Friendly City Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboderin, Isabella; Kano, Megumi; Owii, Hilda Akinyi

    2017-10-20

    A majority of urban residents in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and other developing regions live in informal settlements, or slums. Much of the discourse on slum health centres on younger generations, while an intensifying agenda on healthy ageing as yet lacks a systematic focus on slums. Similarly, the global age-friendly cities (AFC) movement does not, thus far, extend to slums. This paper examines the particular challenges that a slum-focused age-friendly initiative in SSA may need to address, and the relevance of present AFC indicators and domains for initiatives to advance the health and well-being of older slum dwellers. The analysis builds on the case of two slum communities in Nairobi, Kenya. It analyzes two bodies of relevant evidence from these settlements, namely on the health and social circumstances of older residents, and on the local application and measurement of AFC indicators. The findings point to a set of unsurprising, but also less obvious, core health and social adversities that an age-friendly initiative in such settlements would need to consider. The findings show, further, that the current AFC domains and indicators framework only partly capture these adversities, but that there is potential for adapting the framework to be meaningful for slum settings. The paper concludes by underscoring the need for, and opportunities inherent in, the pursuit of an "age-friendly slums" initiative going forward.

  20. Parents, Quality, and School Choice: Why Parents in Nairobi Choose Low-Cost Private Schools over Public Schools in Kenya's Free Primary Education Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons; Piper, Benjamin; Ong'ele, Salome; Kiminza, Onesmus

    2018-01-01

    Low-cost private schools (LCPS) are widespread in Kenya, particularly in urban areas. This study examines the reasons that parents send children to fee-charging schools in a context of free public primary education. Drawing on parent survey and interview data, as well as interviews with national policy makers, we found that parents who chose LCPS…

  1. Archives: Kenya Veterinarian

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 21 of 21 ... Archives: Kenya Veterinarian. Journal Home > Archives: Kenya Veterinarian. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 21 of 21 Items. 2014. Vol 38, No ...

  2. "I am African, iko nini": generational conflict and the politics of being in Nairobi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spronk, R.

    2014-01-01

    In Nairobi, young urban professionals self-confidently position themselves as Africans, while they are simultaneously reproached for being ‘un-African’. I explore this economy of claims and how it relates to the way the lifestyles of young professionals become the focus of generational conflict. I

  3. WHITE COLLAR CRIME - Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Nyagudi, Nyagudi Musandu

    2014-01-01

    WHITE COLLAR CRIME - Investigations Presentation By  Dr. Nyagudi MusanduForensic Criminologist 2nd International Securityand Safety Conference and Exhibition, 16th April, 2010 a forum hosted by Events Management Solutions at the Sarit Centre, Nairobi, Kenya  

  4. EAMJ Modifiable 10.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-02-02

    Feb 2, 2010 ... MODIFIABLE FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH ACTIVE PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS IN A KENYAN PRISON. A. S. Amwayi, MBChB, MSc., ... University of Agriculture and Technology, P.O. Box 62000- 0200, Nairobi, Kenya and E. M. Muchiri, MSc, PhD., Division ..... Diabetes and low BMI. 223452.81.

  5. Comparison of meristem culture and heat therapy to clean garlic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiment to detect garlic-infecting virus for three improved garlic varieties and to clean the virus were conducted in Ethiopia. Garlic cloves were planted in screen house at Biosciences Eastern and Central Africa-International Livestock Research Institute Hub Nairobi, Kenya in 2014. Reverse Transcription polymerase ...

  6. Phytochemical, antimicrobial and antiplasmodial investigations of Terminalia brownii

    Science.gov (United States)

    The stem bark of Terminalia brownii was collected from Machakos county, Kenya, in November 2011, and identified at the University Herbarium, School of Biological Sciences, University of Nairobi, where a voucher specimen (JM2011/502) was deposited. The stem bark was air dried in shade and pulverized....

  7. Phytochemical studies on herbal plants commonly used for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... 2Department of Food Science and Technology of Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, P. O. Box. 62000-00200 Nairobi Kenya: 3Department of Botany Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology;. 4School of Human Resource Development Jomo Kenyatta University of ...

  8. Sarcoma of the head and neck at Kenyatta National Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the pattern of occurrence of sarcomas afflicting the neck and craniofacial region. Design: A retrospective study (1982-1991). Setting: Cancer Registry, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Method: Examination was performed of the cancer records in the registry over the period 1982 to 1991 ...

  9. Resectability in Malignant Obstructive Jaundice Bitta C , G

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KIGZ

    Webuye District Hospital. 2. School of Medicine, University of Nairobi. Correspondence to: Dr Ceaser Bitta, P.O.BOX 25-50205 Webuye, Kenya. Email: cbittas@yahoo.com. Abstract. Background: Most patients with malignant obstructive jaundice (MOJ) present with non- resectable disease. Non curative laparotomy has been ...

  10. rotational effects of grain legumes on maize performance in the rift

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2000-10-27

    Oct 27, 2000 ... E.K. CHERUIYOT, L.M. MUMERA, L.N. NAKHONE1 and S.M. MWONGA1. Egerton University .... on a farmer's field at Mangu in Rongai (0" 10' S and 36" 01' E), both ..... Nairobi, Kenya. Onim, I.F.M., Mathuva, M., Otieno, K. and.

  11. Le CRDI contribue à la conversation sur la transformation agricole ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    3 oct. 2016 ... La recherche et les partenariats du CRDI étaient à l'honneur au Forum de la révolution verte en Afrique de cette année, qui s'est déroulé du 5 au 9 septembre à Nairobi, au Kenya.

  12. vaginal histological changes of the baboon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-04-04

    Apr 4, 2009 ... be studied in humans for ethical reasons. Objective: To determine the histological changes in baboon vagina associated with cyclic variations during normal menstrual cycle. Setting: The experiments were carried out at Institute of Primate Research (IPR),. Karen, Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Nine adult healthy ...

  13. Antibiotic resistant Salmonella and Escherichia coli isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To characterise and investigate antimicrobial resistance of Esherichia coli and salmonella strains isolated from indigenous Gallus gallus in a leading slaughterhouse/market outlet in Nairobi-Kenya. Design: A repeated cross sectional study and based on random sampling was used. Setting: The study was carried ...

  14. Urbanisation, poverty and sexual behaviour: the tale of five African cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greif, Meredith J; Dodoo, F Nii-Amoo; Jayaraman, Anuja

    2011-01-01

    The question of how urbanisation and poverty are linked in sub-Saharan Africa is an increasingly pressing one. The urban character of the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa exacerbates concern about the urbanisation - poverty relationship. Recent empirical work has linked urban poverty, and particularly slum residence, to risky sexual behaviour in Kenya's capital city, Nairobi. This paper explores the generalisability of these assertions about the relationship between urban poverty and sexual behaviour using Demographic and Health Survey data from five African cities: Accra (Ghana), Dar-es-Salaam (Tanzania), Harare (Zimbabwe), Kampala (Uganda) and Nairobi (Kenya). The study affirms that, although risky behaviour varies across the five cities, slum residents demonstrate riskier sexual behaviour compared with non-slum residents. There is earlier sexual debut, lower condom usage and more multiple sexual partners among women residing in slum households regardless of setting, suggesting a relatively uniform effect of urban poverty on sexual risk behaviour.

  15. A community-based oral health promotion model for HIV patients in Nairobi, East District in Kenya: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucina N. Koyio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: General HIV-related orofacial lesions, most commonly oropharyngeal candidiasis, have a typical clinical appearance and can be recognised by members of the community. Although affected patients often experience pain leading to compromised eating and swallowing, barriers such as social stigma and lack of knowledge regarding available services may prevent them from seeking early care. Educating the community about these lesions through community health workers (CHWs who are democratically elected community members may encourage individuals affected to seek early oral health-care in the health facilities. A health facility (HF is a health centre mainly run by clinical officers (CO, i.e. personnel with a 3-year medical training, and nurses. This study aims to evaluate the effect of a CHW training programme on: i their knowledge and recognition of HIV-related oral-facial lesions at a community level; and ii referral of affected patients from the community to the HFs. Design and Methods: All 800 CHWs in 2 administrative divisions of Nairobi East District (test group n=400; control group n=400 will be selected. The test group will receive training. CHWs in both groups will be assessed at 4 time points: −3, 0, +3 and +6 months with reference to the training on: i their knowledge of HIV-related orofacial lesions (using a written questionnaire; and ii their performance in referring affected patients to the HFs (using clinical data. Expected Impact: Early recognition of HIV-related orofacial lesions at a community level will prompt community members to seek early oral care, leading to early HIV testing and counselling regarding failure of antiretroviral therapy, while treatment outcomes are still favourable.

  16. Toward “Age-Friendly Slums”? Health Challenges of Older Slum Dwellers in Nairobi and the Applicability of the Age-Friendly City Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboderin, Isabella; Owii, Hilda Akinyi

    2017-01-01

    A majority of urban residents in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and other developing regions live in informal settlements, or slums. Much of the discourse on slum health centres on younger generations, while an intensifying agenda on healthy ageing as yet lacks a systematic focus on slums. Similarly, the global age-friendly cities (AFC) movement does not, thus far, extend to slums. This paper examines the particular challenges that a slum-focused age-friendly initiative in SSA may need to address, and the relevance of present AFC indicators and domains for initiatives to advance the health and well-being of older slum dwellers. The analysis builds on the case of two slum communities in Nairobi, Kenya. It analyzes two bodies of relevant evidence from these settlements, namely on the health and social circumstances of older residents, and on the local application and measurement of AFC indicators. The findings point to a set of unsurprising, but also less obvious, core health and social adversities that an age-friendly initiative in such settlements would need to consider. The findings show, further, that the current AFC domains and indicators framework only partly capture these adversities, but that there is potential for adapting the framework to be meaningful for slum settings. The paper concludes by underscoring the need for, and opportunities inherent in, the pursuit of an “age-friendly slums” initiative going forward. PMID:29053576

  17. Determinants of Non-Home-Prepared Food Consumption in Two Low-Income Areas in Nairobi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, van 't H.; Hartog, den A.P.; Hooftman, D.A.P.; Foeken, D.W.J.; Mwangi, A.M.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Street foods are an important source of nutrients for poor urban residents. This study aimed to identify determinants of the proportion of daily energy provided by non-home-prepared foods. METHODS: A survey was conducted in a slum and a low- to middle-income area of Nairobi. The survey

  18. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Okemo, P.O.. Vol 94, No 1 (2017) - Articles Contamination of the minnow Rastrineobola argenta, through handling at landing sites and retail markets around Lake Victoria Abstract · Vol 94, No 3 (2017) - Articles Multiple drug resistance Staphylococcus aureus isolated in foods of animal origin in Nairobi, Kenya Abstract.

  19. Factors affecting guidance and counseling programme in primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to establish the factors that affect guidance and counseling in primary schools. Guidance and counseling seems not to be adequately helping pupils with physical and psychological problems in Nairobi province of Kenya. Many primary schools are faced with indiscipline and poor performance ...

  20. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fine needle aspiration cytology of thyroid nodules at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi Abstract · Vol 90, No 10 (2013) - Articles Cryotherapy Following Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid and Lugol's Iodine (Via/Vili) in Khwisero, Western Kenya: Lesson from the Field Affecting Policy and Practice Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0012- ...

  1. 2017-2018 Travel Expense Reports for Stephen McGurk, Vice ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    SD

    Meet stakeholders on development research issues; represent IDRC at conference in Nairobi. Date(s):. 2017-05-14 to 2017-06-01. Destination(s):. Mayanmar/Vietnam/India/Kenya. Airfare: $10,557.95. Other. Transportation: $229.01. Accommodation: $3,081.53. Meals and. Incidentals: $1,538.16. Other: $582.08. Total:.

  2. The importance of oral Spanish teaching to multilingual students: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores important aspects of teaching Spanish, both spoken and written, to multilingual students, with specific reference to United Sates International University (USIU), a private institution located in Nairobi, Kenya. The beginner students of Spanish at the University speak at least 3 languages, one of which is ...

  3. Volume 11 No. 1 February 2011 4460 EXIT, VOICE AND LOYALTY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-01

    Feb 1, 2011 ... P.O. Box 29053 – 00625, Nairobi, Kenya. ... smallholder French bean farmers in response to international food safety standards. (IFSS) ... over medical health effects of pesticide residues on consumers and farm workers [3]. ... (relating to salmonella poisoning, mad cow disease) and increased use of growth.

  4. Transforming Gender and Food Security in the Global South | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    29 sept. 2016 ... Jemimah Njuki is a senior program officer in the Agriculture and Food Security program at the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), based in Nairobi, Kenya. John R. Parkins is a professor in the Department of Resource Economics and Environmental Sociology, University of Alberta, Canada ...

  5. Chang'aa Drinking in Kibera Slum: The Harmful Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chang'aa Drinking in Kibera Slum: The Harmful Effects of Contemporary Changes in the Production and Consumption of Traditional Spirits. ... African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies ... This article examines the harmful effects of drinking chang'aa, an illegal spirit produced locally, in Kibera slum in Nairobi, Kenya.

  6. The Development of Jomo Kenyatta International Airport as a Regional Aviation Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irandu, Evaristus M.; Rhoades, Dawna L.

    2006-01-01

    Air transportation plays an important role in the social and economic development of the global system and the countries that seek to participate in it. As Africa seeks to take its place in the global economy, it is increasingly looking to aviation as the primary means of connecting its people and goods with the world. It has been suggested that Africa as a continent needs to move toward a system of hubs to optimize its scarce resources. Jomo Kenyatta International Airport in Nairobi, Kenya, is one of the airports in the eastern region of Africa that is seeking to fill this role. This paper discusses the prospects for success and the challenges that it will need to overcome, including projections through 2020 for the growth in passenger and cargo traffic.

  7. Kenya Hospices and Palliative Care Association: integrating palliative care in public hospitals in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Zipporah

    2016-01-01

    Background In Kenya, cancers as a disease group rank third as a cause of death after infectious and cardiovascular diseases. It is estimated that the annual incidence of cancer is about 37,000 new cases with an annual mortality of 28,000 cases (Kenya National Cancer Control Strategy 2010). The incidence of non-communicable diseases accounts for more than 50% of total hospital admissions and over 55% of hospital deaths (Kenya National Strategy for the Prevention and Control of Non Communicable...

  8. High Ethanol Contents of Spirit Drinks in Kibera Slums, Kenya: Implications for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaru, Alex O; Abuga, Kennedy O; Kibwage, Isaac O; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2017-10-17

    Cheap licit and artisanal illicit spirit drinks have been associated with numerous outbreaks of alcohol poisoning especially with methanol. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of cheap spirit drinks in Kibera slums in Nairobi County, Kenya. The samples consisted of cheap licit spirits ( n = 11) and the artisanal spirit drink, ' chang'aa' , ( n = 28). The parameters of alcoholic strength and volatile composition were used as indicators of quality and were determined using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) respectively. The ranges for alcoholic strength were 42.8-85.8% vol and 28.3-56.7% vol for chang'aa and licit spirit drinks respectively, while the pH ranges were 3.3-4.2 and 4.4-4.8 for chang'aa and licit spirit drinks respectively. The majority of volatiles were found in artisanal spirits and they included higher alcohols, ethyl esters and carbonyl compounds. The alcoholic strength of all the artisanal spirits (100%) and 91% of the licit spirits was above the 40% vol of standard spirits such as vodka. The high ethanol content of the alcohol products was the only element of public health significance in this study.

  9. High Ethanol Contents of Spirit Drinks in Kibera Slums, Kenya: Implications for Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex O. Okaru

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cheap licit and artisanal illicit spirit drinks have been associated with numerous outbreaks of alcohol poisoning especially with methanol. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of cheap spirit drinks in Kibera slums in Nairobi County, Kenya. The samples consisted of cheap licit spirits (n = 11 and the artisanal spirit drink, ‘chang’aa’, (n = 28. The parameters of alcoholic strength and volatile composition were used as indicators of quality and were determined using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS respectively. The ranges for alcoholic strength were 42.8–85.8% vol and 28.3–56.7% vol for chang’aa and licit spirit drinks respectively, while the pH ranges were 3.3–4.2 and 4.4–4.8 for chang’aa and licit spirit drinks respectively. The majority of volatiles were found in artisanal spirits and they included higher alcohols, ethyl esters and carbonyl compounds. The alcoholic strength of all the artisanal spirits (100% and 91% of the licit spirits was above the 40% vol of standard spirits such as vodka. The high ethanol content of the alcohol products was the only element of public health significance in this study.

  10. A Public Lecture Series on Kenya Cities in the 21. Centuary Environment and Development in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obudho, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Issues of Development planning in Kenya have gained added importance over the last few years in view of the recent political events in the country which have indeed occupied a centre stage within the world community. Surprisingly, however, there has been little published on the problems, experiences, and approaches of spatial and urban development in Kenya from a comparative and comprehensive view. The present volume is intended to help bridge the gap by bringing together a number of original contributions on urbanization and planning Kenya covering an interdisciplinary perspective. The essential focus is on comparative historical analysis of the urbanization process in Kenya, the resulting limitations and problems of urban development, and consequent challenges and responses of development planning. The book Provides a frame work for understanding the nature of Kenya urbanism and urbanization, limitations on that urbanism and urbanization imposed by traditional notions and analytical approaches to it

  11. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-12-12

    Dec 12, 2007 ... Objective: To evaluate the use of medical therapy in the management of patients with mild, moderate and severe symptoms of benign ... therapy in the local scene, Nairobi, Kenya. This study was observational taking .... pressure, blood pressure in anaesthetized dog. urology. 1994; 44:52. -. Calais DaSilva ...

  12. PATTERNS OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE AMONG KENYAN STREET ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A sample of 50 (36 male and 14 female) street children currently in a remand home at Kabete in Nairobi, Kenya, were interviewed using a predesigned questionnaire in order to estimate prevalence rates for use of selected substances. The lifetime prevalence rates of the drugs most commonly used were volatile ...

  13. ICT-Based, Cross-Cultural Communication: A Methodological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Niels; Bruselius-Jensen, Maria; Danielsen, Dina; Nyamai, Rachael; Otiende, James; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses how cross-cultural communication based on information and communication technologies (ICT) may be used in participatory health promotion as well as in education in general. The analysis draws on experiences from a health education research project with grade 6 (approx. 12 years) pupils in Nairobi (Kenya) and Copenhagen…

  14. Inheriting Failure: An Exploratory Study of Post-Colonial Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    the northern Somali coast, but rather to safeguard the supply of meat to their garrison located in Aden.17 In fact, Britain had no intention of...retribution” attack in Ethiopia and the recent 2013 Westgate Mall attack in Nairobi, Kenya. They are proven players in the Islamic terrorist game . The

  15. The Causes of Churn in the Telecommunication Industry: A Single, Exploratory Case Study on Kenyan Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    This single explorative case study investigated the causes of churn in the telecommunication industry in Kenya, narrowed down to include only the capital city of Nairobi. The question of this dissertation was split into three sub-questions. The first sub-question investigated the behavioral patterns of customers causing churn. The second…

  16. Vaginal Histological Changes Of The Baboon During The Normal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Setting: The experiments were carried out at Institute of Primate Research (IPR), Karen, Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Nine adult healthy female olive baboons were used in this study. These baboons were monitored over a period of one year and found to have regular menstrual cycles. The vaginal biopsies were taken at ...

  17. View Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-10-05

    Oct 5, 2013 ... 1APHRC, African Population and Health Research Center, Nairobi, Kenya, 2AIGHD, ... &Corresponding author: Steven van de Vijver, APHRC Campus, PO Box ... greatest in LMICs where it affects about 1 in every 5 of the adult ..... still discretionary rather than from processed foods as is the case in.

  18. Er Kenya klar til valget?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Henrik

    Den 17. januar begyndte nomineringen af Kenyas kommende politikere. De politikere, der efter valget skal lede Østafrikas regionale stormagt frem til 2018. Nomineringsprocessen gav flere forskellige interessante indikationer på Kenyas ”demokratiske parathed” og dermed måske også en god fornemmelse...... af, hvordan det kommende valg i marts vil forløbe. Dette brief kommer med et bud på, om Kenya kan gøre sig fri af de mørke skygger fra valget i 2007....

  19. A CRITICAL REVIEW OF HOUSING DELIVERY IN NAIROBI: DIFFERENT ACTORS - DIFFERENT SOCIO-ECONOMIC GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crispino C. Ochieng

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This research was undertaken by means of qualitative ethnographic method. The arguments in this paper underlie the important role of the different actors in private tenement housing delivery in a developing city such as Nairobi, where more than half the population is poor. In Nairobi the private tenement housing delivers both conventional as well as non-conventional housing with the majority of the poor being able to access only the later. Nonconventional housing includes the informal as well as the slum. Although still targeting the poor, with time, the majority of what started as non-conventional housing undergoes greater physical development. This process ensures access to enough affordable low-income housing. Development in housing delivery has been supported by the government through encouraging creation of relevant housing institutions, developing relevant byelaws and regulations and putting in place an appropriate framework for housing delivery. For a developing city encouraging the participation of the private sector in housing delivery for the different socio-economic groups is a sure guarantee of providing housing for a large percentage of the population.

  20. Career preferences of final year medical students at a medical school in Kenya--A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossajee, Hussein; Obonyo, Nchafatso; Ahmed, Syed Masud

    2016-01-11

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommended physician to population ratio is 23:10,000. Kenya has a physician to population ratio of 1.8:10,000 and is among 57 countries listed as having a serious shortage of health workers. Approximately 52% of physicians work in urban areas, 6% in rural and 42% in peri-urban locations. This study explored factors influencing the choice of career specialization and location for practice among final year medical students by gender. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out on final year students in 2013 at the University of Nairobi's, School of Medicine in Kenya. Sample size was calculated at 156 students for simple random sampling. Data collected using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics of the population, first and second choices for specialization. Outcome variables collected were factors affecting choice of specialty and location for practice. Bivariate analysis by gender was carried out between the listed factors and outcome variables with calculation of odds ratios and chi-square statistics at an alpha level of significance of 0.05. Factors included in a binomial logistic regression model were analysed to score the independent categorical variables affecting choice of specialty and location of practice. Internal medicine, Surgery, Obstetrics/Gynaecology and Paediatrics accounted for 58.7% of all choices of specialization. Female students were less likely to select Obs/Gyn (OR 0.41, 95% CI =0.17-0.99) and Surgery (OR 0.33, 95% CI = 0.13-0.86) but eight times more likely to select Paediatrics (OR 8.67, 95% CI = 1.91-39.30). Surgery was primarily selected because of the 'perceived prestige of the specialty' (OR 4.3 95% CI = 1.35-14.1). Paediatrics was selected due to 'Ease of raising a family' (OR 4.08 95% CI = 1.08-15.4). Rural origin increased the odds of practicing in a rural area (OR 2.5, 95% CI = 1.04-6.04). Training abroad was more likely

  1. Health-care waste incineration and related dangers to public health: case study of the two teaching and referral hospitals in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njagi, Nkonge A; Oloo, Mayabi A; Kithinji, J; Kithinji, Magambo J

    2012-12-01

    There are practically no low cost, environmentally friendly options in practice whether incineration, autoclaving, chemical treatment or microwaving (World Health Organisation in Health-care waste management training at national level, [2006] for treatment of health-care waste. In Kenya, incineration is the most popular treatment option for hazardous health-care waste from health-care facilities. It is the choice practiced at both Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi and Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, Eldoret. A study was done on the possible public health risks posed by incineration of the segregated hazardous health-care waste in one of the incinerators in each of the two hospitals. Gaseous emissions were sampled and analyzed for specific gases the equipment was designed and the incinerators Combustion efficiency (CE) established. Combustion temperatures were also recorded. A flue gas analyzer (Model-Testos-350 XL) was used to sample flue gases in an incinerator under study at Kenyatta National Hospital--Nairobi and Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital--Eldoret to assess their incineration efficiency. Flue emissions were sampled when the incinerators were fully operational. However the flue gases sampled in the study, by use of the integrated pump were, oxygen, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitrous oxide, sulphur dioxide and No(x). The incinerator at KNH operated at a mean stack temperature of 746 °C and achieved a CE of 48.1 %. The incinerator at MTRH operated at a mean stack temperature of 811 °C and attained a CE of 60.8 %. The two health-care waste incinerators achieved CE below the specified minimum National limit of 99 %. At the detected stack temperatures, there was a possibility that other than the emissions identified, it was possible that the two incinerators tested released dioxins, furans and antineoplastic (cytotoxic drugs) fumes should the drugs be subjected to incineration in the two units.

  2. The relationship between Nairobi adolescents' media use and their sexual beliefs and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ann Neville; Kinnally, William; Maleche, Hellen; Booker, Nancy Achieng'

    2017-07-01

    Adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa are at risk for contracting HIV. Although media campaigns have educated the population as a whole, few studies are available about the time sub-Saharan African youth spend listening to and viewing sexual messages via the entertainment and informational media. The goals of this project were: 1) to investigate what programming Nairobi adolescents access; and 2) to investigate the association between frequency of access and level of focus on physical relationships with adolescents' perceptions of descriptive norms of peer sexual behaviour, and their attitudes regarding men as sex driven, women as sex objects, and dating as a sport. A total of 464 students from 6 Nairobi secondary schools were surveyed. When students' favourite musicians had a strong focus on physical relationships in their songs, those students estimated the prevalence of risky sexual behaviours among their peers higher. These students also endorsed gender stereotypical and casual attitudes about sex. Large amounts of time spend on the Internet was predictive of all sexual attitude variables. Students whose favourite TV programmes had a strong focus on physical relationships also estimated prevalence of peer sexual behaviour as high.

  3. Kenya geothermal private power project: A prefeasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    Twenty-eight geothermal areas in Kenya were evaluated and prioritized for development. The prioritization was based on the potential size, resource temperature, level of exploration risk, location, and exploration/development costs for each geothermal area. Suswa, Eburru and Arus are found to offer the best short-term prospects for successful private power development. It was found that cost per kill developed are significantly lower for the larger (50MW) than for smaller-sized (10 or 20 NW) projects. In addition to plant size, the cost per kill developed is seen to be a function of resource temperature, generation mode (binary or flash cycle) and transmission distance.

  4. Review of Kenya bird records 2011–2014

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A male with a large all-dark immature Manguo Ponds 27 June 2012 (FN). 3 Manguo Pond, Limuru .... Grey-headed Gull Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus. L: 1 Nairobi NP 11 .... Northern Masked Weaver Ploceus taeniopterus. Large flocks Omo ...

  5. Implications of Promulgation of the New Constitution on Counter-Terrorism and other Security Tradecrafts

    OpenAIRE

    Nyagudi, Nyagudi Musandu

    2014-01-01

    Conversation on Human Rights, Security and Counter-Terrorism Lecture byDr. Nyagudi Musandu Nyagudi – Forensic Criminologist and Security Analyst.Advanced Corporate Security Management Workshop by Fidelity Security Ltd, 17thAugust, 2011 at the Biblica Guest HouseConference Facility, Nairobi, Kenya.  

  6. Investment Climate and Business Environment Research Fund ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Project report on Intellectual Property Training Program for Eastern Africa, held on 11th June - 29th June 2007, with a follow-up on 30th August-31st August 2007 at International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE), Nairobi, Kenya. Rapports. Report for the project "Sustainable Microenterprise : A Dynamic Model ...

  7. Confirmed Sighting of a Spawning Aggregation of the Brown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nature Conservancy, Africa Regional Office, PO BOX 19738, Nairobi 00100, ... behaviour; in the Western Indian Ocean this has only been reported for the ... are under total protection (8.6% of the country's coral reefs), these factors ... aggregations for the local tourism market ... south coast of Kenya as part of a larger fisher.

  8. Publications | Page 243 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Guyana and Colombia, as in most Latin American countries, mining has dramatically increased over the past two decades. But from the contamination of healthy rivers to the lawless atmosphere of mining towns, few have felt the ill effects. ... Collecting data in the slums of Nairobi, Kenya can be a dangerous job.

  9. Tailoring climate information to user needs | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    29 mars 2011 ... This brief summarizes lessons from the CCAA learning forum on improving access to and use of seasonal forecasts in Africa, which took place in Nairobi, Kenya in March 2010. It is of particular relevance to decision makers concerned with the production and use of seasonal climate forecasts in the ...

  10. Githiomi, Rachel

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Githiomi, Rachel. Vol 18, No 2 (2016) - Articles Prevalence of weak RhD phenotype in the blood donor population of Nairobi Regional Blood Transfusion Centre - Kenya Abstract. ISSN: 1560-8646. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  11. The Nubis of Kibera : a social history of the Nubians and Kibera slums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smedt, Johan Victor Adriaan de

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is based on research conducted in Kibera slums in Nairobi, Kenya, from 2004 to 2008; it focuses on the Nubi ‘tribe’, an ethnic group that developed from an Islamised mix of Sudanese, Ugandan and Congolese people, many of them former soldiers of the Egyptian army in southern Sudan. When

  12. Food, Aid, and Education in East Africa: Repackaging the Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambach, Amy

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines students' food perspectives in three rapidly diversifying contemporary contexts: a university setting in Kigali, Rwanda where students help to prepare Chinese dumplings; a school garden and canteen in Nairobi, Kenya where students jostle for bowls of beans and rice; and a fast-food restaurant in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, where…

  13. East African Rarities Committee Report 2010–2013

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    please submit full details to the EARC Secretary: Nigel Hunter, P.O. Box 24803, Karen. 00502, Nairobi, Kenya; Email: nigelhunter@timbale.org. Please contact the Secretary if you are unsure whether your record requires a submission and for guidance on details to include in your submission. Past records of rare species ...

  14. Length of Coronary Sinus in a Black Kenyan Population: Correlation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the current study was to determine the length of coronary sinus among black Kenyans. Coronary sinuses of seventy-four hearts (43 males and 31 females) of adult age range (20-70years) black Kenyans obtained during autopsy were studied at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya.

  15. Valuing investments in sustainable land management in the Upper Tana River basin, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Adrian L; Bryant, Benjamin P; Hunink, Johannes E; Wolny, Stacie; Apse, Colin; Droogers, Peter

    2017-06-15

    We analyze the impacts of investments in sustainable land use practices on ecosystem services in the Upper Tana basin, Kenya. This work supports implementation of the Upper Tana-Nairobi Water Fund, a public-private partnership to safeguard ecosystem service provision and food security. We apply an integrated modelling framework, building on local knowledge and previous field- and model-based studies, to link biophysical landscape changes at high temporal and spatial resolution to economic benefits for key actors in the basin. The primary contribution of this study is that it a) presents a comprehensive analysis for targeting interventions that takes into account stakeholder preferences, local environmental and socio-economic conditions, b) relies on detailed, process-based, biophysical models to demonstrate the biophysical return on those investments for a practical, decision-driven case, and c) in close collaboration with downstream water users, links those biophysical outputs to monetary metrics, including: reduced water treatment costs, increased hydropower production, and crop yield benefits for agricultural producers in the conservation area. This study highlights the benefits and trade-offs that come with conducting participatory research as part of a stakeholder engagement process: while results are more likely to be decision-relevant within the local context, navigating stakeholder expectations and data limitations present ongoing challenges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Kenya Hospices and Palliative Care Association: integrating palliative care in public hospitals in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Zipporah

    2016-01-01

    In Kenya, cancers as a disease group rank third as a cause of death after infectious and cardiovascular diseases. It is estimated that the annual incidence of cancer is about 37,000 new cases with an annual mortality of 28,000 cases (Kenya National Cancer Control Strategy 2010). The incidence of non-communicable diseases accounts for more than 50% of total hospital admissions and over 55% of hospital deaths (Kenya National Strategy for the Prevention and Control of Non Communicable Diseases 2015-2020). The prevalence of HIV is 6.8 (KIAS 2014). Most of these patients will benefit from palliative care services, hence the need to integrate palliative care services in the public healthcare system. The process of integrating palliative care in public hospitals involved advocacy both at the national level and at the institutional level, training of healthcare professionals, and setting up services within the hospitals that we worked with. Technical support was provided to each individual institution as needed. Eleven provincial hospitals across the country have now integrated palliative care services (Palliative Care Units) and are now centres of excellence. Over 220 healthcare providers have been trained, and approximately, over 30,000 patients have benefited from these services. Oral morphine is now available in the hospital palliative care units. As a success of the pilot project, Kenya Hospices and Palliative Care Association (KEHPCA) is now working with the Ministry of Health Kenya to integrate palliative care services in 30 other county hospitals across the country, thus ensuring more availability and access to more patients. Other developing countries can learn from Kenya's successful experience.

  17. Role of male partners in the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osoti A

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Alfred Osoti,1–3 Hannah Han,4 John Kinuthia,1,5 Carey Farquhar3,4,6 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, AIC Kijabe Hospital, Kijabe, Kenya; 3Department of Epidemiology, 4Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, USA; 5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya; 6Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, USA Abstract: There is emerging evidence that in resource-limited settings with a high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV burden, male partner involvement in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT is associated with improved uptake of effective interventions and infant HIV-free survival. There is also increasing evidence that male partner involvement positively impacts non-HIV related outcomes, such as skilled attendance at delivery, exclusive breastfeeding, uptake of effective contraceptives, and infant immunizations. Despite these associations, male partner involvement remains low, especially when offered in the standard antenatal clinic setting. In this review we explore strategies for improving rates of antenatal male partner HIV testing and argue that the role of male partners in PMTCT must evolve from one of support for HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women to one of comprehensive engagement in prevention of primary HIV acquisition, avoidance of unintended pregnancies, and improved HIV-related care and treatment for the HIV-infected and uninfected women, their partners, and children. Involving men in all components of PMTCT has potential to contribute substantially to achieving virtual elimination of mother-to-child HIV transmission; promoting partner-friendly programs and policies, as well as pursuing research into numerous gaps in knowledge identified in this review, will help drive this process. Keywords: male involvement, limited-resource settings

  18. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    8 oct. 2015 ... mycologie, INSSA de Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, 6International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE), P.O. Box 30772 - 00100 GPO,. Nairobi, Kenya, 7Croix-Rouge Françoise en ...... forms of the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae in a rice field area of Burkina Faso. West Africa Med Vet Entomol ...

  19. Comparative Economics of Soil and Associated Nutrient loss by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TEKWA IJASINI JOHN

    Gichuru, M. P., A. Bationo, M. A. Bakunda, H. C. Goma,. P. L., Mafongonya, D. N. Mugendi, H. M. Murwira, S. M.. Nandwa, P. Nyathi and M. J. Swift., 2003. Soil fertility. Management in Africa: A Regional Perspective. Academy Science Publishers. Nairobi, Kenya. Hudson, N. W., 1989. Soil Conservation. B. T. Batsford limited ...

  20. The extent of groundwater use for domestic and irrigation activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AKMENSAH

    2015-06-04

    Jun 4, 2015 ... Albert Kobina Mensah1*, Evans Appiah Kissi2, Kwabena Krah3 and Okoree D. Mireku4. 1Department of Geography, Kenyatta University, Nairobi. 2Department of .... catchment in Kiambu County in Kenya had limited themselves to the assessment of water quality. Little work has been done on the extent to ...

  1. The role of street foods in the dietary pattern of two low-income groups in Nairobi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, van 't H.; Hartog, den A.P.; Mwangi, A.M.; Mwadime, R.K.N.; Foeken, D.W.J.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the frequency of street food consumption of people living in low-income settlements in Nairobi and the role of street foods in their daily diet and to reveal why people consume street foods rather than home-prepared foods. Setting, subjects and methods: A cross-sectional

  2. Statistical intercomparison and validation of multisensory aerosol optical depth retrievals over three AERONET sites in Kenya, East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiyo, Richard; Kumar, K. Raghavendra; Zhao, Tianliang

    2017-11-01

    Over the last two decades, a number of space-borne sensors have been used to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD). The reliability of these datasets over East Africa (EA), however, is an important issue in the interpretation of regional aerosol variability. This study provides an intercomparison and validation of AOD retrievals from the MODIS-Terra (DT and DB), MISR and OMI sensors against ground-based measurements from the AERONET over three sites (CRPSM_Malindi, Nairobi, and ICIPE_Mbita) in Kenya, EA during the periods 2008-2013, 2005-2009 and 2006-2015, respectively. The analysis revealed that MISR performed better over the three sites with about 82.5% of paired AOD data falling within the error envelope (EE). MODIS-DT showed good agreement against AERONET with 59.05% of paired AOD falling within the sensor EE over terrestrial surfaces with relatively high vegetation cover. The comparison between MODIS-DB and AERONET revealed an overall lower performance with lower Gfraction (48.93%) and lower correlation r = 0.58; while AOD retrieved from OMI showed less correspondence with AERONET data with lower Gfraction (68.89%) and lowest correlation r = 0.31. The monthly evaluation of AODs retrieved from the sensors against AERONET AOD indicates that MODIS-DT has the best performance over the three sites with highest correlation (0.71-0.84), lowest RMSE and spread closer to the AERONET. Regarding seasonal analysis, MISR performed well during most seasons over Nairobi and Mbita; while MODIS-DT performed better than all other sensors during most seasons over Malindi. Furthermore, the best seasonal performance of most sensors relative to AERONET data occurred during June-August (JJA) attributed to modulations induced by a precipitation-vegetation factor to AOD satellite retrieval algorithms. The study revealed the strength and weakness of each of the retrieval algorithm and forms the basis for further research on the validation of satellite retrieved aerosol products over EA.

  3. Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obura, D O

    2001-12-01

    The Kenya coast is bathed by the northward-flowing warm waters of the East Africa Coastal Current, located between latitudes 1 and 5 degrees S. With a narrow continental shelf, the coastal marine environments are dominated by coral reefs, seagrass beds and mangroves, with large expanses of sandy substrates where river inputs from Kenya's two largest rivers, the Tana and Athi rivers, prevent the growth of coral reefs. The northern part of the coast is seasonally influenced by upwelling waters of the Somali Current, resulting in lower water temperatures for part of the year. The coast is made up of raised Pleistocene reefs on coastal plains and hills of sedimentary origin, which support native habitats dominated by scrub bush and remnant pockets of the forests that used to cover East Africa and the Congo basin. The marine environment is characterized by warm tropical conditions varying at the surface between 25 degrees C and 31 degrees C during the year, stable salinity regimes, and moderately high nutrient levels from terrestrial runoff and groundwater. The semi-diurnal tidal regime varies from 1.5 to 4 m amplitude from neap to spring tides, creating extensive intertidal platform and rocky-shore communities exposed twice-daily during low tides. Fringing reef crests dominate the whole southern coast and parts of the northern coast towards Somalia, forming a natural barrier to the wave energy from the ocean. Coral reefs form the dominant ecosystem along the majority of the Kenya coast, creating habitats for seagrasses and mangroves in the lagoons and creeks protected by the reef crests. Kenya's marine environment faces a number of threats from the growing coastal human population estimated at just under three million in 2000. Extraction of fish and other resources from the narrow continental shelf, coral reef and mangrove ecosystems increases each year with inadequate monitoring and management structures to protect the resource bases. Coastal development in urban and

  4. Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obura, David O. [CORDIO East Africa, Mombassa (Kenya)

    2001-07-01

    The Kenya coast is bathed by the northward-flowing warm waters of the East Africa Coastal Current, located between latitudes 1 and 5deg S. With a narrow continental shelf, the coastal marine environments are dominated by coral reefs, seagrass beds and mangroves, with large expanses of sandy substrates where river inputs from Kenya's two largest rivers, the Tana and Athi rivers, prevent the growth of coral reefs. The northern part of the coast is seasonally influenced by upwelling waters of the Somali Current, resulting in lower water temperatures for part of the year. The coast is made up of raised Pleistocene reefs on coastal plains and hills of sedimentary origin, which support native habitats dominated by scrub bush and remnant pockets of the forests that used to cover East Africa and the Congo basin. The marine environment is characterised by warm tropical conditions varying at the surface between 25degC and 31degC during the year, stable salinity regimes, and moderately high nutrient levels from terrestrial runoff and groundwater. The semi-diurnal tidal regime varies from 1.5 to 4 m amplitude from neap to spring tides, creating extensive intertidal platform and rocky-shore communities exposed twice-daily during low tides. Fringing reef crests dominate the whole southern coast and parts of the northern coast towards Somalia, forming a natural barrier to the wave energy from the ocean. Coral reefs form the dominant ecosystem along the majority of the Kenya coast, creating habitats for seagrasses and mangroves in the lagoons and creeks protected by the reef crests. Kenya's marine environment faces a number of threats from the growing coastal human population estimated at just under three million in 2000. Extraction of fish and other resources from the narrow continental shelf, coral reef and mangrove ecosystems increases each year with inadequate monitoring and management structures to protect the resource bases. Coastal development in urban and tourist

  5. A population-based survey of prevalence of diabetes and correlates in an urban slum community in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayah, Richard; Joshi, Mark D; Wanjiru, Rosemary; Njau, Elijah K; Otieno, C Fredrick; Njeru, Erastus K; Mutai, Kenneth K

    2013-04-20

    Urban slum populations in Africa continue to grow faster than national populations. Health strategies that focus on non-communicable diseases (NCD) in this segment of the population are generally lacking. We determined the prevalence of diabetes and associated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors correlates in Kibera, Nairobi's largest slum. We conducted a population-based household survey utilising cluster sampling with probability proportional to size. Households were selected using a random walk method and consenting residents aged 18 years and above were recruited. The WHO STEPS instrument was administered. A random capillary blood sugar (RCBS) was obtained; known persons with diabetes and subjects with a RCBS >11.1 had an 8 hours fasting blood sugar (FBS) drawn. Diabetes was defined as a RCBS of  ≥ 11.1 mmol/l and a FBS of  ≥ 7.0 mmol/l, or a prior diagnosis or receiving diabetes drug treatment. Out of 2061 enrolled; 50.9% were males, mean age was 33.4 years and 87% had a minimum of primary education. Only 10.6% had ever had a blood sugar measurement. Age adjusted prevalence of diabetes was 5.3% (95% CI 4.2-6.4) and prevalence increased with age peaking at 10.5% (95% CI 6.8-14.3%) in the 45-54 year age category. Diabetes mellitus (DM) correlates were: 13.1% smoking, 74.9% alcohol consumption, 75.7% high level of physical activity; 16.3% obese and 29% overweight with higher rates in women.Among persons with diabetes the odds of obesity, elevated waist circumference and hypertension were three, two and three fold respectively compared to those without diabetes. Cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with diabetes were high and mirrored that of the entire sample; however they had a significantly higher use of tobacco. This previously unstudied urban slum has a high prevalence of DM yet low screening rates. Key correlates include cigarette smoking and high alcohol consumption. However high levels of physical activity were also reported. Findings

  6. A Practitioner’s Perspective on the Kenya I and Kenya II Cases before the ICC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mc Gonigle, B.N.

    2014-01-01

    On 10 September 2013 the International Criminal Court (ICC) began hearing a case against William Ruto, Deputy President of the Republic of Kenya, and Joshua Sang. The related case against the President of Kenya, Uhuru Muigai Kenyatta, was scheduled to begin in November 2013 but has since been

  7. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gakunju, R. Vol 67 (2013) - Articles Trends and emerging drugs in Kenya: A case study in Mombasa and Nairobi County Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1997-5902. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of ...

  8. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 139 of 139 ... Vol 11, No 1 (2004), Type 2 Gaucher\\'s disease in a Malian family, Abstract PDF. Moussa Traoré, Mariam Sylla, Jeannette Traoré, Toumani Sidibé, Guinto Cheick Oumar. Vol 11, No 3 (2004), Typhoid is over-reported in Embu and Nairobi, Kenya, Abstract PDF. Samuel Kariuki, Joyce Mwituria, Gunturu ...

  9. United States Strategic Military Access in Northeast Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    port in Mombasa, Kenya and Nairobi. 45 LIBYA EGYPT RED L NASSEC SIA Port Sucan Suak~in Bert~erS Albara Omdurma FiqWrd 3. Sudan Ed~uei G enein El~t d...dependability or reli- ability of access agreements with these four states, and how relaible the current recimes are from Washington’s perspective

  10. Adapter l'information climatique aux besoins des utilisateurs | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    29 mars 2011 ... Cet exposé politique résume les leçons tirées du forum d'apprentissage du programme ACCA entitulé " Faciliter l'accès aux prévisions météorologiques saisonnières et savoir mieux les exploiter" qui a pris lieux à Nairobi, Kenya en mars 1010.

  11. Kenya Veterinarian - Vol 36, No 1 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of microbial causes of bovine mastitis in the Kabete area of Kiambu County and its environs (2001-2010) · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT ... Prevalence of ringworm (dermatophytosis) in dogs and cats submitted to the small animal clinic of the University of Nairobi between 2001 and 2010 · EMAIL FULL ...

  12. Marketing of Insurance Products in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Adhiambo, Irene

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to find out and improve on strategy used in the Marketing of Insurance Products in Kenya; Case of African Merchants Assurance Company Ltd (AMACO). AMACO is one of the 44 insurance firms in Kenya. Among others it is a local incorporated company, which makes a difference in that it is not one of the leading insurance firms in Kenya, which is held by such firms as British-American insurance company. The methodology used is quantitative, qualitative methods, interview ...

  13. Resistance of the predacious mite, euseius kenyae (acari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to assess whether the predacious phytoseiid mite, Euseius kenyae (Swirski and Ragusa), commonly found in major coffee growing regions in Kenya has developed resistance to Chlorpyrifos. Mite populations were collected from coffee farms harbouring E. kenyae and where Chlorpyrifos or other ...

  14. Availability of mobile phones for discharge follow-up of pediatric Emergency Department patients in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Darlene R; Cheptinga, Philip; Rusyniak, Daniel E

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Mobile phones have been successfully used for Emergency Department (ED) patient follow-up in developed countries. Mobile phones are widely available in developing countries and may offer a similar potential for follow-up and continued care of ED patients in low and middle-income countries. The goal of this study was to determine the percentage of families with mobile phones presenting to a pediatric ED in western Kenya and rate of response to a follow-up phone call after discharge. Methods. A prospective, cross-sectional observational study of children presenting to the emergency department of a government referral hospital in Eldoret, Kenya was performed. Documentation of mobile phone access, including phone number, was recorded. If families had access, consent was obtained and families were contacted 7 days after discharge for follow-up. Results. Of 788 families, 704 (89.3%) had mobile phone access. Of those families discharged from the ED, successful follow-up was made in 83.6% of cases. Conclusions. Mobile phones are an available technology for follow-up of patients discharged from a pediatric emergency department in resource-limited western Kenya.

  15. Marked og produkter i Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Nanna

    2014-01-01

    Et forskningsprojekt med dansk deltagelse undersøger, hvordan masseproduktion af insekter kan etableres i Kenya og bidrage med fødevarer til mennesker og protein til husdyrfoder.......Et forskningsprojekt med dansk deltagelse undersøger, hvordan masseproduktion af insekter kan etableres i Kenya og bidrage med fødevarer til mennesker og protein til husdyrfoder....

  16. MAXILLOFACIAL SOFT TISSUE INJURIES IN NAIROBI, KENYA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-09

    Sep 9, 2012 ... Conclusion: The leading causes of MF-STIs apparently differ from those of skeletal fractures. INTRODUCTION. Maxillofacial (MF) soft tissue injuries (STIs) are often overlooked in clinical surveys compared to fractures, yet these injuries negatively impact both on function and esthetics. Previous surveys on ...

  17. A Seasonal Air Transport Climatology for Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Tyson, P. D.; Annegarn, H.; Piketh, S.; Helas, G.

    1998-01-01

    A climatology of air transport to and from Kenya has been developed using kinematic trajectory modeling. Significant months for trajectory analysis have been determined from a classification of synoptic circulation fields. Five-point back and forward trajectory clusters to and from Kenya reveal that the transport corridors to Kenya are clearly bounded and well defined. Air reaching the country originates mainly from the Saharan region and northwestern Indian Ocean of the Arabian Sea in the northern hemisphere and from the Madagascan region of the Indian Ocean in the southern hemisphere. Transport from each of these source regions show distinctive annual cycles related to the northeasterly Asian monsoon and the southeasterly trade wind maximum over Kenya in May. The Saharan transport in the lower troposphere is at a maximum when the subtropical high over northern Africa is strongly developed in the boreal winter. Air reaching Kenya between 700 and 500 hPa is mainly from Sahara and northwest India Ocean flows in the months of January and March, which gives way to southwest Indian Ocean flow in May and November. In contrast, air reaching Kenya at 400 hPa is mainly from southwest Indian Ocean in January and March, which is replaced by Saharan transport in May and November. Transport of air from Kenya is invariant, both spatially and temporally, in the tropical easterlies to the Congo Basin and Atlantic Ocean in comparison to the transport to the country. Recirculation of air has also been observed, but on a limited and often local scale and not to the extent reported in southern Africa.

  18. The Role of Leaves in Photocontrol of Flower Bud Abscission in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. 'Nairobi'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeteren, van U.; Gelder, van A.

    2000-01-01

    When compared with exposure to darkness, exposing Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. 'Nairobi' plants to red light (635 to 685 nm, 2.9 μmol?m-2?s-1) delayed flower bud abscission, while exposure to far-red light (705 to 755 nm, μmol?m-2?s-1) accelerated this process. Flower bud abscission in response to

  19. Antecedent Factors Affecting Academic Performance of Graduate Students at the Nairobi Evangelical Graduate School of Theology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbogo, Rosemary Wahu

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a Master's level thesis work that was done in 1997 to assess the antecedent factors affecting the academic performance of graduate students at the Nairobi Evangelical School of Theology (N.E.G.S.T.), which is currently Africa International University (AIU). The paper reviews the effect of lack of finance on…

  20. Resilience in the face of post-election violence in Kenya: the mediating role of social networks on wellbeing among older people in the Korogocho informal settlement, Nairobi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Rachel; Chepngeno-Langat, Gloria; Evandrou, Maria; Falkingham, Jane

    2015-03-01

    Older people in slum settings are a vulnerable sub-group during crises, yet have received minimal attention in the development discourse. This paper examines the protective role of different types of social networks for older slum dwellers' wellbeing during adversity by investigating the relationship between social networks, the Kenyan 2007/08 post-election violence, and dimensions of wellbeing namely self-rated health, life satisfaction and happiness amongst older people in the Korogocho slum, Nairobi. The analyses are based on conditional change logistic regression models using data from a unique longitudinal survey of the health and wellbeing of older people. The results show that maintaining or increasing formal local networks reduced the detrimental effects of the post-election violence for older people's wellbeing, whilst household environment and informal local and non-local networks did not influence the relationship. Consequently, the paper provides evidence that supporting inclusive community organisations which are accessible to older people can be valuable in promoting the resilience of this population group. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. L'Initiative Think tank organise un événement de haut niveau sur la ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    6 mars 2018 ... Location: Radisson Blu Hotel. Elgon Road, Upper Hill. Nairobi,. Kenya. Il existe de nombreuses études qui démontrent que, lorsque les recherches en développement sont menées efficacement, elles peuvent améliorer les politiques publiques et aider à accélérer les progrès du développement. Toutefois ...

  2. U.S. Army Medical Department Journal (April-June 2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    basic laboratory equipment and techniques acquired at the AMS, demonstrated that Puerto Rican anemia was due to the hookworm, Necator americanus.* In...Sciences, Bangkok, Thailand; US Army Medical Research Unit-Kenya, Nairobi; Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Lima, Peru ; Naval Medical Research...2006 131 Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Netherland Antilles, Antigua, Belize, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru (air, water

  3. Solar home systems in Kenya: unlocking consumer finance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simm, Ian; Haq, Amir; Widge, V.

    2000-01-01

    The article reports on the International Finance Corporation's support of projects in Kenya where the funding is being used to enlarge the solar lending of a network of financial organisations which can reach a large number of rural Kenyans. The demand, advantages and potential of photovoltaics and solar systems generally in Kenya are discussed. Kenya's fragile financial institutions are mentioned

  4. multiple disease resistance in snap bean genotypes in kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Department of Plant Science and Crop Protection, University of Nairobi, P. O. Box 29053- ... Agriculture (CIAT), National Agricultural Research Laboratories Institute, ... Climbing snap bean lines had thick pods that could reduce pod quality. ... MATERIALS AND METHODS ... were harvested in sterile distilled water and spore.

  5. Kenya | Page 94 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC began supporting research that led to the marketing of the ceramic Jiko stove in the mid-1980s, amid growing concern about deforestation and desertification. Today, surveys show that 80% of households in urban Nairobi and Mombasa use the domestic version of the stove, reducing their fuel consumption by up to ...

  6. Technical knowledge and skills development in the informal sector in Kenya: The case of custom tailors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apunda, Edwinah Amondi; de Klerk, Helena M.; Ogina, Teresa

    2017-06-01

    Custom tailors working in the informal sector in Nairobi, Kenya, mainly acquire technical skills through undertaking traditional apprenticeships (TAs). However, most of these tailors are semi-skilled, produce low-quality products and are often poorer than their formally trained counterparts. This qualitative case study explores the aspects of technical skills and knowledge which tailoring apprentices develop, and the factors which influence these outcomes. The findings show that apprentices do acquire basic technical skills for immediate application to ongoing tailoring activities (such as how to take body measurements, draft patterns, and cut, sew and finish constructed garments). However, apprentices do not acquire the technical knowledge that underpins the trade. Most master tailors who have completed TAs lack technical knowledge and have no access to technical skills upgrading. This perpetuates the cycle of basic and limited technical skills transfer to apprentices, poor performance and poverty among tailors. Both apprentices and master tailors expressed concern over knowledge limitations in TAs and a need to access further training to improve skills and acquire knowledge of the trade. The authors of this article argue that, technically and pedagogically, skilled master tailors are critical to improving training quality. Complementary training in theoretical knowledge is also important in improving apprentices' technical skills and understanding of the trade. Inclusion of TAs in government policy may help ensure sustainable improvement of skills.

  7. Kenya | Page 30 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Accueil · Sud du Sahara. Kenya. Kenya. Read more about Toward a Regional Research Agenda on Pharmaceutical Manufacturing and Access to Medicines in Sub-Saharan Africa. Langue English. Read more about Soutien organisationnel de la phase 2 de l'ITT : Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis.

  8. Running Head: Education in Kenya | Emenyonu | Lwati: A Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Running Head: Education in Kenya. ... Modern Kenya has been steadily evolving since 1963 when the country attained independence. ... refining traditional values and incorporating them in the goals and objectives of Kenya's modern system ...

  9. Changing Face of Family Planning Funding in Kenya: A Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Changing Face of Family Planning Funding in Kenya: A Cross-. Sectional Survey of ... Keywords: Contraception, Expenditure, Budget, Decision-making. Résumé. A mesure ... increasingly receiving attention, including in. Kenya17. In Kenya ...

  10. Implementation of Participatory Forest Management in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, S. H.; Løber, Trine; Skensved, E.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the distribution of powers before and after the implementation of participatory forest management (PFM) in Kenya. The paper is a case study of the Karima forest in the Central Highlands of Kenya. The study relies primarily on 34 semi-structured interviews with key actors...... of the forest communities and weak downward accountability relations. Finally, it illustrates a planning process, which has weaknesses in participation and inclusiveness. Consequently, the paper suggests three areas for PFM policy reform in Kenya: (i) the role (powers) and function of CFAs; (ii) benefit sharing...

  11. Mucosal Blood Group Antigen Expression Profiles and HIV Infections: A Study among Female Sex Workers in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Musimbi Chanzu

    Full Text Available The ABO blood group antigens are carbohydrate moieties expressed on human red blood cells however; these antigens can also be expressed on some other cells particularly the surface of epithelial cells and may be found in mucosal secretions. In many human populations 80% secrete ABO antigens (termed 'secretors' while 20% do not (termed 'non-secretors'. Furthermore, there are disease conditions that are associated with secretor status.To investigate correlations between secretor status and HIV infection among female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya.This cross-sectional study recruited 280 female sex workers aged 18-65 years from the Pumwani Majengo cohort, Kenya. Blood typing was determined by serological techniques using monoclonal antibodies to the ABO blood group antigens. Secretor phenotyping was determined using anti-H specific lectins specific to salivary, vaginal and cervical blood group H antigen using the agglutination inhibition technique and correlated to individual HIV sero-status. Participants were additionally screened for Bacterial vaginosis, Neisseria gonorrhoea and Trichomonas vaginalis.Out of the 280 participants, 212 (75.7% were secretors and 68 (24.3% were non-secretors. The incidence of all infections: HIV, Bacterial vaginosis, Neisseria gonorrhoea and Trichomonas vaginalis was higher among secretors compared to non-secretors. However, this difference was only statistically significant for HIV infection incidence rates: HIV infected secretors (83.7% versus HIV un-infected secretors (71.8% (p = 0.029 Based on ABO phenotype stratification, the incidence of HIV infection was higher among blood group A secretors (26/52 = 50%, in comparison to B (12/39 = 33.3%: p = 0.066, AB (3/9 = 33.3%: p = 0.355, and O secretors (36/112 = 32.1%: p = 0.028.This is the first report to document the variable expression of the ABH blood group antigens profiling secretor and non-secretor phenotypes in the female genital tract among a high-risk population

  12. Enhancing biomass energy use in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banwell, P.S.; Harriss, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper argues that in Kenya, environmental and economic factors will favour the continued use of biomass as a primary fuel for household an institutional cooking for the next decade or longer. The paper describes several successful projects which have improved the efficiency of urban charcoal use and of rural woodfuel use. The Kenya Ceramic Jiko, a more efficient version of the traditional charcoal stove, is a model programme sustained by free market competition, artisans participation, and widespread public acceptance. The Maendeleo stove is the best example of a successful rural woodstove project. The performance attributes of the stove, and its promotion through Kenya's largest women's organization, have resulted int he distribution of an estimated 26,000 Maendeleo stoves. Rural stove efficiency will become important as the cash-based economy expands in those areas. Agroforestry will also be critical to an enhanced use of biomass energy in Kenya. Experience to date shows that successful agroforestry programmes will have to be appropriate to local conditions and crops. (author). 25 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  13. Mammography practices for radiation protection in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadrack, Anthony K.

    2008-01-01

    All mammography units in the country, totaling fourteen in number at the time, were evaluated on the basis of performance and practice to come up with useful data for summing up the mammography practice in Kenya. The study was carried out by performing hands-on quality control tests on the units using internationally established protocols. Image quality and dose measurement data were generated in all the centers and clearly indicated that the practice of mammography, more so on optimization viewpoint is so much varied. A standard method was used to obtain these data by use of mammography accreditation phantom. Data from actual patients was also collected in three major centers in Nairobi. On the criteria used for evaluating phantom image quality, ten out of fourteen units did satisfy the set criterion. The average glandular dose was 2.79 mGy per cranio caudal (cc) view of the phantom and 3.27 mGy per cc view for the sampled patients. The internationally recommended dose level for such a view is 3.0 mGy. One worrying observation made was that most units failed on one of the easiest test of mammographic unit assembly. Of most concern was the lack of technique charts for the practice detailing the imaging parameters being employed for the procedure. Most centers do not take the servicing of equipment seriously and others merely ignore even the crucial issues of equipment performance like the automatic exposure control and viewing conditions of the reporting areas.The results of this study calls for the setting up of a programme of optimization of radiological protection in mammography using the experience of other countries that have put in place quality assurance programs, setting and adoption of Dose Reference Levels (DRLs) as part of Quality Assurance (QA). This practice needs an effective quality control program which should start with the selection of appropriate equipment for mammography and the use of qualified personnel including the radiologist, radiographer

  14. A survey for Echinococcus spp. of carnivores in six wildlife conservation areas in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagendo, D; Magambo, J; Agola, E L; Njenga, S M; Zeyhle, E; Mulinge, E; Gitonga, P; Mbae, C; Muchiri, E; Wassermann, M; Kern, P; Romig, T

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the presence of Echinococcus spp. in wild mammals of Kenya, 832 faecal samples from wild carnivores (lions, leopards, spotted hyenas, wild dogs and silver-backed jackals) were collected in six different conservation areas of Kenya (Meru, Nairobi, Tsavo West and Tsavo East National Parks, Samburu and Maasai Mara National Reserves). Taeniid eggs were found in 120 samples (14.4%). In total, 1160 eggs were isolated and further analysed using RFLP-PCR of the nad1 gene and sequencing. 38 of these samples contained eggs of Echinococcus spp., which were identified as either Echinococcus felidis (n=27) or Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (n=12); one sample contained eggs from both taxa. E. felidis was found in faeces from lions (n=20) and hyenas (n=5) while E. granulosus in faeces from lions (n=8), leopards (n=1) and hyenas (n=3). The host species for two samples containing E. felidis could not be identified with certainty. As the majority of isolated eggs could not be analysed with the methods used (no amplification), we do not attempt to give estimates of faecal prevalences. Both taxa of Echinococcus were found in all conservation areas except Meru (only E. felidis) and Tsavo West (only E. granulosus). Host species identification for environmental faecal samples, based on field signs, was found to be unreliable. All samples with taeniid eggs were subjected to a confirmatory host species RLFP-PCR of the cytochrome B gene. 60% had been correctly identified in the field. Frequently, hyena faeces were mistaken for lion and vice versa, and none of the samples from jackals and wild dogs could be confirmed in the tested sub-sample. This is the first molecular study on the distribution of Echinococcus spp. in Kenyan wildlife. The presence of E. felidis is confirmed for lions and newly reported for spotted hyenas. Lions and hyenas are newly recognized hosts for E. granulosus s.s., while the role of leopards remains uncertain. These data provide the basis for

  15. Global Emerging Infection Surveillance and Response (GEIS)- Avian Influenza Pandemic Influenza (AI/PI) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    KEMRI operated reference laboratories for this work in Nairobi, Kericho, and Kisumu, including the arbovirus reference laboratory, the antimalarial ...in military and civilian populations, and monitor the pattern of antimalarial resistance across Kenya. 15. SUBJECT TERMS NOTHING LISTED 16...confirms our earlier assertion that as we progress away from the H1N1 pandemic, we have noticed a decline in influenza activity suggesting that the high

  16. Amélioration de l'accès à la justice et aux services essentiels dans ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Plus de la moitié des résidents de Nairobi, au Kenya, occupent des établissements spontanés, ou bidonvilles, dans des conditions difficiles. Leurs logements sont inadéquats et ils ont un accès insuffisant à l'eau potable, aux services d'assainissement, aux services de santé, à l'école et à d'autres services publics essentiels ...

  17. Brave New Mobile World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maya; Reid

    2011-01-01

    An oral history of the mobile app boom in East Africa APPS are taking East Africa by storm.As mobile phone penetration rates increase,technologists and software developers in the region are scrambling to provide bigger and better services for an evergrowing consumer base. At the center of this flurry of activity is Nairobi,Kenya. But Dar Es Salaam in Tanzania and Uganda’s

  18. Travel and Hospitality Expenses 2013-2014

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Chantal Taylor

    Orlando (FL), USA. Conference. 1,843.35. 913.73. -. 2,757.08. Quarter 4. January 16 to 26. Nairobi, Kenya. Visit to ROSSA. 12,443.88. 3,546.66. 15,990.54. February 2. Ottawa, ON. Passport Renewal. TOTAL F/Y 2013-2014. 19,963.57. 7,014.84. -. 26,978.41. Notes: Other Includes minor expenses that do not fall in the other ...

  19. Sylvain Dufour, vice-président, Ressources, et chef de la direction ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Chantal Taylor

    12 mai 2013 ... Trimestre 3 du 6 au 13 octobre 2013. Orlando, États-Unis. Conférence. 1 843,35. 913,73. -. 2 757,08. Trimestre 4 du 16 au 26 janvier 2014. Nairobi, Kenya. Visite au BRAS. 12 443,88. 3 546,66. 15 990,54 le 2 février 2014. Ottawa, Canada. Renouvellement de passeport. Total de l'exercice 2013-2014.

  20. U.S. Army Medical Department Journal, April-June 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    IGR), against dengue vector mosquitoes. In the Peruvian Amazon community at Iquitos, Stancil42 (Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Peru ...Research Unit- Kenya, Nairobi; Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Lima, Peru ; Naval Medical Research Unit-2, Jakarta, Indonesia; and the Naval...These projects have revealed that sand flies often emerge from the soil beneath tents and camps. In an effort to prevent sand flies breeding in rodent

  1. All projects related to kenya | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Evaluating impacts of gender integration on agriculture and food security outcomes ... Kenya's agricultural labour force; however, gender inequalities often undermine their productivity and ... Region: Canada, Israel, Kenya, India, United States.

  2. The patterns and trends of marketing and consumption of the fish of Lake Victoria (Kenya waters). Paper presented at FISA 95: Inaugural Congress of the Fisheries Society for Africa (FISA '95),UNEP Nairobi, Kenya, 31 July - 5th August, 1995.

    OpenAIRE

    Abila, R.

    1995-01-01

    Lake Victoria, producing over 90% of Kenya's fish, is the principle source of fish for domestic consumption and for export in the country. The three fish species of most economic importance are Lates niloticus, Rastrineobola argentea and Oreochromis species. These constitute 50%, 37% and 6% respectively of the lakes's tonnage. The structure and performance of the marketing system for each of these species differ, depending on certain market features. Among these are the marketing history and ...

  3. Traumatic Brain Injury in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson Kinyanjui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Kenya has a disproportionately high rate of road traffic accidents each year, many of them resulting in traumatic brain injuries (TBIs. A review of articles written on issues pertaining to the medical treatment of people with TBI in the past 15 years in Kenya indicates a significantly high incidence of TBIs and a high mortality rate. This article reviews the available literature as a first step in exploring the status of rehabilitation of Kenyans with cognitive impairments and other disabilities resulting from TBIs. From this preliminary review, it is apparent that despite TBI being a pervasive public health problem in Kenya, it has not received due attention in the public and private sectors as evidenced by a serious lack of post-acute rehabilitation services for people with TBIs. Implications for this lack of services are discussed and recommendations are made for potential approaches to this problem.

  4. Kenya: Current Conditions and the Challenges Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    Tree 1 PPK Peoples Party of Kenya Trumpet 1 NLP National Labour Party Bull (Ndume) 1 KADDU Kenya African Democratic Development Union Fruit Basket...15%, Asian, European, and Arab 1% Religions: Protestant 45%, Roman Catholic 33%, indigenous beliefs 10%, Muslim 10%, other 2% Languages: English

  5. Nairobi sheep disease virus/Ganjam virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M D, Baron; B, Holzer

    2015-08-01

    Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) is a tick-borne virus which causes a severe disease in sheep and goats, and has been responsible for several outbreaks of disease in East Africa. The virus is also found in the Indian subcontinent, where it is known as Ganjam virus. The virus only spreads through the feeding of competent infected ticks, and is therefore limited in its geographic distribution by the distribution of those ticks, Rhipicephalus appendiculata in Africa and Haemaphysalis intermedia in India. Animals bred in endemic areas do not normally develop disease, and the impact is therefore primarily on animals being moved for trade or breeding purposes. The disease caused by NSDV has similarities to several other ruminant diseases, and laboratory diagnosis is necessary for confirmation. There are published methods for diagnosis based on polymerase chain reaction, for virus growth in cell culture and for other simple diagnostic tests, though none has been commercialised. There is no established vaccine against NSDV, although cell-culture attenuated strains have been developed which show promise and could be put into field trials if it were deemed necessary. The virus is closely related to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, and studies on NSDV may therefore be useful in understanding this important human pathogen.

  6. Area Handbook Series Kenya, A Country Study,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    preferred change by constitutional means. Discontent in Nairobi, however, caused by mounting unemploy - ment, brought control of political activities...two weeks later. His funeral was turned into a violent demonstration of opposition to the government by students and the unemployed . Many Kenyans...exercise psychic power that enables them to harm others. They may be either men or women, but more often it is women who are accused of witchcraft

  7. Couple Characteristics and Contraceptive Use among Women and their Partners in Urban Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, Laili; Speizer, Ilene S.; Fotso, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have used couple data to identify individual- and relationship-level characteristics that affect contraceptive use in urban areas. Using matched couple data from urban Kenya collected in 2010, this study determines the association between relationship-level characteristics (desire for another child, communication about desired number of children and FP use) and contraceptive use and intention to use among non-users. Methods Data were collected from three Kenyan cities: Nairobi, Mombasa and Kisumu. Baseline population-based survey data from the Measurement, Learning & Evaluation Project were used to identify 883couples (weighted value=840). Multivariate regressions used the couple as the unit of analysis. Results Almost two-thirds of couples currently used contraception. Adjusting for individual- and environmental-level characteristics, couples who desired another child were less likely to use contraception than couples wanting more children. In addition, couples where both partners reported communicating with each other regarding desired number of children and FP use were more likely to use contraception compared to couples that did not communicate. Analyses testing the association of relationship-level characteristics and intention to use contraception, among non-users, resembled those of current contraceptive users. Conclusion Couple-level characteristics are associated with current contraceptive use and future intent to use. Couples that discussed their desired number of children and FP use were more likely to use contraception than couples that did not communicate with each other. FP programs should identify strategies to improve communication in FP among couples and to ensure better cooperation between partners. PMID:24733057

  8. The Impact of Out-Migration on the Nursing Workforce in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jessica M; Rogers, Martha F; Teplinskiy, Ilya; Oywer, Elizabeth; Wambua, David; Kamenju, Andrew; Arudo, John; Riley, Patricia L; Higgins, Melinda; Rakuom, Chris; Kiriinya, Rose; Waudo, Agnes

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of out-migration on Kenya's nursing workforce. Study Setting This study analyzed deidentified nursing data from the Kenya Health Workforce Informatics System, collected by the Nursing Council of Kenya and the Department of Nursing in the Ministry of Medical Services. Study Design We analyzed trends in Kenya's nursing workforce from 1999 to 2007, including supply, deployment, and intent to out-migrate, measured by requests for verification of credentials from destination countries. Principle Findings From 1999 to 2007, 6 percent of Kenya's nursing workforce of 41,367 nurses applied to out-migrate. Eighty-five percent of applicants were registered or B.Sc.N. prepared nurses, 49 percent applied within 10 years of their initial registration as a nurse, and 82 percent of first-time applications were for the United States or United Kingdom. For every 4.5 nurses that Kenya adds to its nursing workforce through training, 1 nurse from the workforce applies to out-migrate, potentially reducing by 22 percent Kenya's ability to increase its nursing workforce through training. Conclusions Nurse out-migration depletes Kenya's nursing workforce of its most highly educated nurses, reduces the percentage of younger nurses in an aging nursing stock, decreases Kenya's ability to increase its nursing workforce through training, and represents a substantial economic loss to the country. PMID:21413982

  9. Double burden of disease in the slums of Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oti, S.O.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was to provide evidence of a double burden of disease in the slums of Nairobi and to make a case for an integrated health systems approach to tackling this situation. A double burden of disease refers to the coexistence of a high burden of communicable and non-communicable

  10. Wreck removal and the Nairobi Convention - a movement towards a unified framework?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonnie Mikael Kern

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Nairobi International Convention on the Removal of Wrecks came into force on the 14 of April 2015 and provides a framework for wreck removal. Three central questions arise when dealing with shipwrecks; Who is responsible? What measures can and are to be taken based on such a responsibility? And lastly; how can the responsibility be enforced? The Nairobi Convention on the Removal of Wrecks addresses these questions. The registered owner of a ship bears strict liability according to the convention but can be exonerated by certain limited defenses. Measures that are to be taken include locating, marking and subsequently removing the wreck. The onus to remove the wreck is on the registered owner, but there are also options available for the State affected by the wreck should the registered owner not cooperate or be unable to contact. Finally the convention strives to ensure enforceability by compulsory insurance for ships, wherever registered, with a gross tonnage of 300 tons and above calling any port or offshore facility in a State Party. The convention also enables an Affected State to claim the insurer directly. This article will analyze the convention by the use of the convention text, its preparatory works and legal writing. The article suggests that even though the convention provides a unified framework for wreck removal, it has inclusions that may actually inhibit harmonization. The convention is also in part unclear and ambiguous. Despite this the article concludes in the convention being a natural step forward in unifying the regulation of wrecks and providing a platform to deal with wreck removal in the future.

  11. Ganjam virus/Nairobi sheep disease virus induces a pro-inflammatory response in infected sheep

    OpenAIRE

    bin Tarif, Abid; Lasecka, Lidia; Holzer, Barbara; Baron, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Partly due to climate change, and partly due to changes of human habitat occupation, the impact of tick-borne viruses is increasing. Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) and Ganjam virus (GV) are two names for the same virus, which causes disease in sheep and goats and is currently known to be circulating in India and East Africa. The virus is transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes a severe hemorrhagic disease. We have developed a real-time PCR assay for the virus genome and validated ...

  12. Inhibition of Interferon Induction and Action by the Nairovirus Nairobi Sheep Disease Virus/Ganjam Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Holzer, Barbara; Bakshi, Siddharth; Bridgen, Anne; Baron, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    The Nairoviruses are an important group of tick-borne viruses that includes pathogens of man (Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus) and livestock animals (Dugbe virus, Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV)). NSDV is found in large parts of East Africa and the Indian subcontinent (where it is known as Ganjam virus). We have investigated the ability of NSDV to antagonise the induction and actions of interferon. Both pathogenic and apathogenic isolates could actively inhibit the induction of type ...

  13. "I never thought that it would happen … " Experiences of HIV seroconverters among HIV-discordant partnerships in a prospective HIV prevention study in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngure, Kenneth; Vusha, Sophie; Mugo, Nelly; Emmanuel-Fabula, Mira; Ngutu, Mariah; Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M; Heffron, Renee

    2016-12-01

    In spite of access to behavioral and biomedical HIV prevention strategies, HIV transmission occurs. For HIV-serodiscordant couples, prevention programs can be tailored to address individual and couples' needs to preserve their relationship while minimizing HIV risk. Programs for serodiscordant couples may benefit from learning from experiences of couples who transmit HIV. We conducted 20 individual in-depth interviews with 10 initially HIV-serodiscordant couples who transmitted HIV during prospective follow-up at a peri-urban research site in Thika, Kenya. Data were analyzed inductively to identify situations that led to prevention failure and coping mechanisms. Inconsistent condom use driven by low HIV risk perception and alcohol use often preceded seroconversion while persistent blame frequently hindered couples' communication soon after seroconversion. In this emerging era of antiretroviral-based HIV prevention, couples' counseling can capitalize on opportunities to foster a supportive environment to discuss initiation and adherence to time-limited pre-exposure prophylaxis and lifelong antiretroviral therapy, in addition to strategies to reduce alcohol use, diffuse blame, and use condoms.

  14. SOTER-based soil parameter estimates for Kenya (ver. 1.0)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batjes, N.H.

    2013-01-01

    This harmonized data set has been derived from the Soil and Terrain Database for Kenya (KENSOTER), at scale 1:1M, compiled by the Kenya Soil Survey. The land surface of the Republic of Kenya - excluding lakes and towns - has been characterized using 397 unique SOTER units corresponding with 623 soil

  15. Assessing the Development of Kenya National Spatial Data

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    okuku

    Keywords: Spatial data infrastructure, Kenya NSDI, development, .... calculated based on the value of the 16 indicators of SDI readiness (Table 1). .... instance, majority of the staff at Survey of Kenya; the National Mapping Agency are GIS and.

  16. Adolescent Experience of Menstruation in Rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor-Turner, Molly; Schmitz, Kaitlin; Benson, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    Although menstruation is a universal experience, girls in resource-poor areas face unique challenges related to menstruation management. In Kenya, girls miss nearly 3.5 million learning days per month because of limited access to sanitary products and lack of adequate sanitation. Global priorities to address gender inequality-especially related to education-often do not consider the impact of poverty on gendered experiences, such as menstruation. The aim of the study was to describe the experiences of menstruation from the perspective of adolescent girls living in rural Kenya. Data for this qualitative study were collected through 29 individual interviews with adolescent girls and separate field observations. Descriptive content analysis was used to identify themes reflective of the data from the individual interviews and field notes. Four themes were developed to summarize the data: (a) receiving information about menstruation, (b) experiences of menstruation, (c) menstrual hygiene practices, and (d) social norms and the meaning of menstruation. Findings from this study describe the impact of menstruation on the lives of adolescent girls in rural Kenya. Menstrual hygiene management and its associated challenges may impact girls' academic continuity. Experiences of menstruation also reinforce gender inequality and further marginalize girls in low-income, rural areas of Kenya. Consideration of menstruation is critical to promote health and academic continuity for girls in rural Kenya.

  17. Modelling the potential of rainwater harvesting in western Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samuel

    2 current affiliation: University of Nairobi, Department of Geospatial and Space ... In this study, we determined the potential of RWH as an alternative or ... 2013), which in turn can add a further valuable tool to forest management planning in the area ..... spend more time in case there are many people waiting to fetch water.

  18. Kaposis sarcoma in a Nairobi Hospital | Onyango | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is associated epidemiologically with HIV infection and a number of countries have reported a dramatic increase in the incidence of KS with the advent of AIDS. Although AIDS is prevalent in Kenya, no studies on the impact of AIDS on the pattern of KS has been carried out. Objective: To ...

  19. Development research in Kenya | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Kenya's 2002 general election, replacing a notoriously corrupt regime with a coalition government committed to reform, was seen as a landmark event in the country's history. IDRC, active in Kenya for some 30 years by then, reacted quickly with a package of projects expressly designed to advance and take advantage of ...

  20. Resource Utilisation and Curriculum Implementation in Community Colleges in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigwilu, Peter Changilwa; Akala, Winston Jumba

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated how Catholic-sponsored community colleges in Nairobi utilise the existing physical facilities and teaching and learning resources for effective implementation of Artisan and Craft curricula. The study adopted a mixed methods research design. Proportional stratified random sampling was used to sample 172 students and 18…

  1. Non-home prepared foods : contribution to energy and nutrient intake of consumers living in two low-income areas in Nairobi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, van 't H.; Hartog, den A.P.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the nutritional importance of non-home prepared foods for men, women and schoolchildren living in two low-income residential areas of Nairobi, and the sources of these non-home prepared foods. Design, setting and subjects: A survey was conducted in Korogocho, a slum area, and

  2. the inception of a doctors union in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2012-01-25

    Jan 25, 2012 ... of the Kenyan health sector and improve health services in Kenya. ... that up to three quarters of doctors will have left the government payroll three .... dispensation in Kenya which brought along a strong bill of rights, giving ...

  3. Street children turn to sex-work to survive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The Kenyan government currently deports tourists who are caught with child prostitutes and charges the children with prostitution. A harder treatment of foreigners caught with child prostitutes may soon emerge. The Undugu Society in Kenya, an organization working with street children, welcomes such changes. It teaches children practical skills, e.g., tailoring and carpentry. The Society has four schools and sponsors 1000 children to attend school or workshops. It sends social workers into the slums to counsel and gain the trust of street children as well as to encourage them to attend workshops. The Society has workshops on HIV transmission and emphasizes behavior change rather than condom use. Kenyan law prohibits adults from having sex with a child less than 18 years old. Juvenile courts deal with children caught engaging in solicitation of customers and/or prostitution. Children found guilty go to children's homes for rehabilitation into mainstream society. More and more countries of sex-tourists are punishing tourists who engage in sexual intercourse with minors in Kenya. Fear that high-profile cases will harm the multi-million-dollar tourist industry as well as lack of state resources makes Kenya reluctant to prosecute tourists. In 1994, most of Nairobi's 40,000 street children were engaged in prostitution. The leading centers of child prostitution are all tourist areas: Nairobi, Mombasa, Malindi, Lamu, and Diani. 80% of pornographic material in Kenya features children. Kenyan taxi drivers, tour guides, and hotel workers serve as middlemen in child prostitution. Urban poverty forces many children on to the streets. Rural children sent to urban areas to work as maids or servants in a rich house are often sexually abused. They then escape to the streets. Many child prostitutes come from poor families and have low literacy and no practical skills. AIDS orphans also become prostitutes to survive.

  4. 2010 Homeland Security Symposium and Exhibition Held in Arlington, Virginia on September 28-29, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    Embassy Bombing in Nairobi, Kenya; The Pentagon response; Earthquakes twice in Turkey, Taiwan , and Iran; Hurricane responses such as Katrina and...Davis Hazmed, Inc. Mr. Patrick Dawson Layer 7 Technologies Mr. Jay DeCianno General Dynamics Mr. Herb Dempsey ARCADIS Mr. Larry DeRoche Vectronix...Consequences of "Mother Nature” September 28, 2010 Chris Royse Parsons History of Disaster Response 2 1949 Post-World War II Reconstruction Taiwan 1957

  5. Task Shifting the Management of Non-Communicable Diseases to Nurses in Kibera, Kenya: Does It Work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Some

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa there is an increasing need to leverage available health care workers to provide care for non-communicable diseases (NCDs. This study was conducted to evaluate adherence to Médecins Sans Frontières clinical protocols when the care of five stable NCDs (hypertension, diabetes mellitus type 2, epilepsy, asthma, and sickle cell was shifted from clinical officers to nurses.Descriptive, retrospective review of routinely collected clinic data from two integrated primary health care facilities within an urban informal settlement, Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya (May to August 2014.There were 3,554 consultations (2025 patients; 733 (21% were by nurses out of which 725 met the inclusion criteria among 616 patients. Hypertension (64%, 397/616 was the most frequent NCD followed by asthma (17%, 106/616 and diabetes mellitus (15%, 95/616. Adherence to screening questions ranged from 65% to 86%, with an average of 69%. Weight and blood pressure measurements were completed in 89% and 96% of those required. Laboratory results were reviewed in 91% of indicated visits. Laboratory testing per NCD protocols was higher in those with hypertension (88% than diabetes mellitus (67% upon review. Only 17 (2% consultations were referred back to clinical officers.Nurses are able to adhere to protocols for managing stable NCD patients based on clear and standardized protocols and guidelines, thus paving the way towards task shifting of NCD care to nurses to help relieve the significant healthcare gap in developing countries.

  6. Knowledge and acceptability of pap smears, self-sampling and HPV vaccination among adult women in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne F Rositch

    Full Text Available Our study aimed to assess adult women's knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV and cervical cancer, and characterize their attitudes towards potential screening and prevention strategies.Women were participants of an HIV-discordant couples cohort in Nairobi, Kenya. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on sociodemographic status, and sexual and medical history at baseline and on knowledge and attitudes towards Pap smears, self-sampling, and HPV vaccination at study exit.Only 14% of the 409 women (67% HIV-positive; median age 29 years had ever had a Pap smear prior to study enrollment and very few women had ever heard of HPV (18%. Although most women knew that Pap smears detect cervical cancer (69%, very few knew that routine Pap screening is the main way to prevent ICC (18%. Most women reported a high level of cultural acceptability for Pap smear screening and a low level of physical discomfort during Pap smear collection. In addition, over 80% of women reported that they would feel comfortable using a self-sampling device (82% and would prefer at-home sample collection (84%. Nearly all women (94% reported willingness to be vaccinated to prevent cervical cancer if offered at no or low cost.These findings highlight the need to educate women on routine use of Pap smears in the prevention of cervical cancer and demonstrate that vaccination and self-sampling would be acceptable modalities for cervical cancer prevention and screening.

  7. Innovation and Financial Inclusion in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omanga, Josphat; Dreyer, Johannes Kabderian

    2017-01-01

    This chapter analyzes the role of financial innovation and mobile phone technologies to financial inclusion in Kenya. In order to do so, a case study on M-PESA is conducted, the leading mobile service of money transfers in Africa, which is offered by Safaricom. M-PESA services are cheap and easy...... suggests that M-PESA services can be considered a type of disruptive innovation that promotes financial inclusion and wealth growth in Kenya....

  8. Clinical Outcomes of Colorectal Cancer in Kenya | Saidi | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background The incidence of colorectal cancer in Africa is increasing. True data on clinical outcomes of the disease is hampered by follow up challenges. Method Follow up data of 233 patients treated for colorectal cancer between 2005 and 2010 at various Nairobi hospitals were evaluated. The primary outcome was ...

  9. Perceived social support and the psychological well-being of AIDS orphans in urban Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawa, Sumiyo; Yasuoka, Junko; Ishikawa, Naoko; Poudel, Krishna C; Ragi, Allan; Jimba, Masamine

    2011-09-01

    Parental deaths due to AIDS seriously affect the psychological well-being of children. Social support may provide an effective resource in the care of vulnerable children in resource-limited settings. However, few studies have examined the relationships between social support and psychological well-being among AIDS orphans. This cross-sectional study was conducted to explore associations between perceived social support (PSS) and the psychological well-being of AIDS orphans, and to identify socio-demographic factors that are associated with PSS. Data were collected from 398 pairs of AIDS orphans (aged 10-18 years) and their caregivers in Nairobi, Kenya. The participants provided information on their socio-demographic characteristics, the children's PSS, and the children's psychological status (based on measures of depressive symptoms and self-esteem). Of the 398 pairs, 327 were included in the analysis. PSS scores of AIDS orphans showed significant correlations with depressive symptoms (ρ =-0.31, psiblings (β=3.044, p=0.016), were also associated with higher PSS scores. In particular, HIV-infected children (n=37) had higher scores of PSS from a special person (β=2.208, p=0.004), and children living with biological siblings (n=269) also had higher scores of PSS from both a special person (β=1.411, p=0.029) and friends (β=1.276, p=0.039). In conclusion, this study showed that PSS is positively associated with the psychological well-being of AIDS orphans. Siblings and special persons can be effective sources of social support for AIDS orphans, which help to promote their psychological well-being.

  10. Kiswahili kama Nyenzo ya Maendeleo Nchini Kenya | Mukuthuria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ukuzaji na uendelezaji wa Kiswahili kama lugha ya taifa nchini Kenya ni lengo la taifa ambalo bado halijapewa kipaumbele kinachostahili. Hata hivyo, tangu Kenya ilipojinyakulia uhuru, matumizi ya lugha hii yamepevuka kinyume na matarajio ya wengi, kiasi kwamba, kwa sasa, mchango wake katika kufanikisha ...

  11. Situational Analysis of Leishmaniases Research in Kenya | Tinui ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since 1980, the Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) has spearheaded research on leishmaniases research in Kenya focusing on various aspects including characterization of Leishmania species, biology, and ecology of sand fly vectors, development of biological strategiesF for sand fly control, identification of ...

  12. Early Experience with Stapled Hemorrhoidopexy in Nairobi, Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    circular mucosectomy using a standard circular stapler has increasingly been performed to mitigate the immediate ... in 1993 using a standard circular stapler device. (PPH03) is increasingly being performed across .... recovery period and resumption of normal economic activity. Reduced pain after SH compared to CH has.

  13. Early Experience with Stapled Hemorrhoidopexy in Nairobi, Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Conventional hemorrhoidectomy (CH) is considered the gold standard in the surgical management of symptomatic hemorrhoids. It is however painful and has a relatively lengthy convalescence period. In the last two decadescircular mucosectomy using a standard circular stapler has increasingly been ...

  14. Techno-economic feasibility study of food irradiation in the Republic of Kenya. End-of-Mission report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    Through its National Council for Science and Technology as the adhering body to the IAEA, the Government of the Republic of Kenya requested an IAEA expert to undertake a 20 - day mission in Kenya during September 1993 to investigate the techno-economic feasibility of introducing food irradiation as a technology in this country. During his investigation in Kenya the expert was accompanied by a local food scientist from the Department of Food Science and Postharvest Technology, as well as an economist from the Kenya Industrial Research and Development Institute. The investigation covered a very wide spectrum of more than fifty visits and meetings to governmental and regulatory bodies, as well as to the relevant private industries. Although the emphasis was placed on food irradiation, the investigation also covered potential medical and pharmaceutical applications. The feasibility study indicated that radiation indeed has a role to play in addressing some of the problems currently experienced by the food industry in Kenya. It was found that both governmental institutions and industry are enthusiastic about the prospects of this technology. However, it was found that the majority of foodstuffs that currently could be irradiated are destined for the export market and the acceptance of such irradiated foodstuffs in some recipient countries may pose a problem. In the case of the medical and pharmaceutical industries, the mere availability of a radiation sterilization facility in the country could strongly enhance the establishment of a local medical device industry. Based on a preliminary economic feasibility study by the expert, a radiation processing industry may be already be viable and a number of businessmen in industry indeed expressed their interest in becoming involved as potential investors in the technology. However, from an investment point of view, the current investigation was not comprehensive enough to come to the final conclusion as to the economic

  15. Evaluating Learners's Ability to Use Technology in Distance Education: The Case of External Degree Programme of the University of Nairobi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omito, Ouma

    2016-01-01

    The study was aimed at investigating the students' ability to use technology for distance education with specific reference to the University of Nairobi's External Degree Program. To achieve this, one specific objective was formulated: To find out the student teacher's readiness to accept and utilize technology for learning purposes in relation to…

  16. Effect of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Cropping Systems on Soil and Nutrient Losses Through Runoff in a Humic Nitisol, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyawade, Shadrack; Charles, Gachene; Karanja, Nancy; Elmar, Schulte-Geldermann

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion has been identified as one of the major causes of soil productivity decline in the potato growing areas of East African Highlands. Potato establishes a protective soil cover only at about 45-60 days after planting and does not yield sufficient surface mulch upon harvest which leaves the soil bare at the critical times when rainfall intensities are usually high thus exposes soil to erosion. A field study was carried out using runoff plots during the short and long rainy seasons of 2014/15 respectively at the University of Nairobi Upper Kabete Farm, Kenya. The objectives were to assess the effect of soil surface roughness and potato cropping systems on soil loss and runoff, to determine the effect of erosion on nutrient enrichment ratio and to evaluate the soil organic matter fraction most susceptible to soil erosion. The treatments comprised of Bare Soil (T1); Potato + Garden Pea (Pisum sativa) (T2); Potato + Climbing Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) (T3); Potato + Dolichos (Lablab purpureus) (T4) and Sole Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) (T5). The amount of soil loss and runoff recorded in each event differed significantly between treatments (ppotato plots (T5), while mean cumulative runoff reduced by 8.5, 17.1 and 28.3 mm from T2, T3 and T4 respectively when compared with the sole potato plots (T5) indicating that T4 plots provided the most effective cover in reducing soil loss and runoff. Regression analyses revealed that both runoff and soil loss related significantly with surface roughness and percent cover (R2=0.83 and 0.73 respectively, ppotato cropping systems so as to minimize soil and nutrient losses due to erosion. Acknowledgement This study was part of the CIP-Sub Saharan Africa managed project-"Improved Soil Fertility Management for Sustainable Intensification in Potato Based Systems in Ethiopia and Kenya"-funded by the BMZ/GIZ International Agricultural Research for Development Fund.

  17. Supporting 'Young Carers' in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovdal, Morten; Campbell, C.; Onyango, V.

    2013-01-01

    , avoiding engagement with support strategies that could be seen as support of child labour. To challenge this view, and move from policy paralysis to action, we present a study from western Kenya that explores community perceptions of children's work and caregiving as well as opportunities for support....... The study draws on 17 community group conversations and 10 individual interviews, involving 283 members of a Luo community in the Bondo District of western Kenya. We provide a detailed account of how integral children's work is to household survival in the context of poverty, HIV and AIDS as well...

  18. Predictors of Attitudes toward Disability and Employment Policy Issues among Undergraduate Students at the University of Nairobi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamboleo, George Isaboke

    2009-01-01

    Disability rights issues are an emerging area of discourse in Kenya. Persons with disabilities in Kenya face many barriers to integration into the larger Kenyan society possibly due to barriers such as societal negative attitudes. Research has indicated that the greatest barrier to rehabilitation of persons with disabilities is negative attitudes…

  19. Kenya | Page 38 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Home · South of Sahara. Kenya. Kenya. Read more about Effects of Radio on Perception of Agricultural Biotechnology in Africa. Language English. Read more about Effets des émissions radiophoniques sur la perception de la biotechnologie agricole en Afrique. Language French. Read more about Les droits des ...

  20. ability in Large Scale Land Acquisitions in Kenya

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    Kenya's national planning strategy, Vision 2030. Agri- culture, natural resource exploitation, and infrastruc- ... sitions due to high levels of poverty and unclear or in- secure land tenure rights in Kenya. Inadequate social ... lease to a private company over the expansive Yala. Swamp to undertake large-scale irrigation farming.