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Sample records for prospective studies comparing

  1. Randomized, interventional, prospective, comparative study to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Randomized, interventional, prospective, comparative study to evaluate the antihypertensive efficacy and tolerability of ramipril versus telmisartan in stage 1 hypertensive patients with diabetes mellitus.

  2. A prospective, randomized multicenter study comparing APD and CAPD treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, S; Bjorner, J B; Tofte-Jensen, P

    2000-01-01

    , dialysis-related complications, dialysis-related expenses. RESULTS: The quality-of-life studies showed that significantly more time for work, family, and social activities was available to patients on APD compared to those on CAPD (p ...) treatment with respect to quality of life and clinical outcomes in relation to therapy costs. DESIGN: A prospective, randomized multicenter study. SETTING: Three Danish CAPD units. PATIENTS: Thirty-four adequately dialyzed patients with high or high-average peritoneal transport characteristics were included...... were assessed at baseline and after 6 months by the self-administered short-form SF-36 generic health survey questionnaire supplemented with disease- and treatment-specific questions. Therapy costs were compared by evaluating dialysis-related expenses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Quality-of-life parameters...

  3. Influence of Age on Clinical Performance of Mandibular Two-Implant Overdentures : A 10-Year Prospective Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, Arie R.; Visser, Anita; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Vissink, Arjan; Meijer, Henny J. A.

    Purpose: The aim of this prospective comparative study was to assess whether age has influence on peri-implant health in patients treated with mandibular two-implant overdentures during a 10-year evaluation period. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was carried out with two groups of

  4. A prospective, comparative, observational study on optical coherence tomography of the anterior eye segment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theelen, T.; Hoyng, C.B.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We compared two commercially available spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) devices according to their capacity of imaging the anterior segment of the eye with the same detail and quality. METHODS: A prospective, observational, single-visit study with individuals aged 18

  5. Comparative Study for Efficacy and Safety of Adenoidectomy according to the Surgical Method: A Prospective Multicenter Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Whun Kim

    Full Text Available There have been several operative techniques for adenoidectomy and their efficacy and morbidity are different according to the technique. This prospective multicenter study was aimed to compare the efficacy and morbidity of coblation adenoidectomy (CA with those of power-assisted adenoidectomy.Prospective multi-institutional study.Children who underwent CA, power-assisted adenoidectomy with cauterization (PAA+C or without cauterization (PAA-C due to adenoid hypertrophy were enrolled from 13 hospitals between July 2013 and June 2014. Mean operation time, degree of intraoperative bleeding and postoperative bleeding rate were evaluated.A total of 388 children (mean age ± standard deviation = 6.6 ± 2.5 years; 245 males and 143 females were included. According to the adenoidectomy technique, the children were classified into 3 groups: (1 CA (n = 116; (2 PAA+C (n = 153; and (3 PAA-C (n = 119. Significant differences were not found in age and sex among three groups. In the CA group, mean operation time was significantly shorter (P < 0.001 and degree of intraoperative bleeding was significantly less (P < 0.001 compared to PAA+C or PAA-C group. Delayed postoperative bleeding rate of PAA-C group was significantly higher than that of CA or PAA+C group (P = 0.016.This prospective multicenter study showed that CA was superior to PAA in terms of mean operation time and degree of intraoperative bleeding.

  6. The BEST study - a prospective study to compare business class ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. As many as 10% of airline passengers travelling without prophylaxis for long distances may develop a venous thrombosis. There is, however, no evidence that economy class travellers are at increased risk of thrombosis. Objectives. A suitably powered prospective study, based on the incidence of deep-vein ...

  7. Multiple sclerosis and pregnancy: a single-centre prospective comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuello, J P; Martínez Ginés, M L; Martin Barriga, M L; de Andrés, C

    2017-03-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a autoimmune disorder which preferentially affects young women of childbearing age. During pregnancy, the annualized relapse rate (AAR) is modified, but pregnancy has no harm effect on the long-term course of the disease. We aimed to study the clinical course of our MS patients during pregnancy, and compare their obstetrics outcomes with a control group of non-MS patients. A single centre prospective observational study was conducted. We assessed the reproductive history, MS history, pregnancy course and new-born outcome of a cohort of MS patients who had had a pregnancy between january 2007 and july 2012. We compared the global outcomes with a control cohort of 58 age-matched healthy pregnancies. Complete data from 35 consecutive women were analyzed, 40 deliveries. Control groups: 58 patients, 60 deliveries. EDSS at pregnancy 0,7. ARR before pregnancy 0,5. During pregnancy 0,3, after pregnancy 0,4. Twelve patients were on disease-modifying drugs (DMD) before pregnancy, 4 prenatal exposure occurs. The comparison between relapse rate and EDSS before, during and after delivery showed no statistically significant difference. In addition, compared to control group, there were also no differences in the obstetric outcomes. In MS cohort, we found a higher incidence of assisted reproductive treatments and lower breastfeeding rate, both statistically significant. Our series confirms that pregnancy has no negative long term impact on the progression of MS and also suggest that there is no additional morbidity in the pregnancy, comparing to the rest of the population. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Prospective comparative study of spiral computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging for detection of hepatocellular carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoker, J.; Romijn, M. G.; de Man, R. A.; Brouwer, J. T.; Weverling, G. J.; van Muiswinkel, J. M.; Zondervan, P. E.; Laméris, J. S.; Ijzermans, J. N. M.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is often detected at a relatively late stage when tumour size prohibits curative surgery. Screening to detect HCC at an early stage is performed for patients at risk. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare prospectively the diagnostic accuracy and

  9. MRI, PET/CT and ultrasound in the preoperative staging of endometrial cancer - A multicenter prospective comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsen, Sofie Leisby; Jensen, Lisa Neerup; Loft, Annika

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this prospective multicenter study was to evaluate and compare the diagnostic performance of PET/CT, MRI and transvaginal two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) in the preoperative assessment of endometrial cancer (EC). METHODS: 318 consecutive women with EC were included when...

  10. Prospective Teacher Concerns: A Comparative Study of Departments of English Language Teaching and Language and Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mustafa naci kayaoğlu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Language teachers in Turkey do not take a standard pre-service education as graduates of English Language Teaching (ELT, linguistics, and translation departments all end up with language teaching profession and this, in turn, results in different teaching needs and concerns. The researchers argue that these different concerns may be one of the underlying causes of chronic language education problems in Turkey, in that Turkish Ministry of National Education does not take into consideration the comparative picture of practicing teachers and composes curricula, teaching materials, and compulsory one-shot professional development activities that all reflect “one size fits all” ideology. Therefore, determining the needs and concerns of pre-service language teachers is of vital importance. The current study has arisen from Griffith’s (2012 call for more larger-scale studies on teacher concerns across different contexts via triangulation. The researchers aim at not only investigating teacher concerns but also painting a much detailed comparative picture between ELT and linguistics department prospective teachers. The researchers target convenience sampling, in the full knowledge that this group will not represent the whole population. However, this type of non-probability sampling can serve well when it is easy to gather much informative data. Building on the recent work of Griffiths (2012, the researchers have modified and extended the existing measurement tool of Griffiths (2012 to investigate the issue much deeper and compensate the caveats. They adapted her instrument and asked the participants to add their thoughts as well as deciding their concern level. The results are mainly in line with the referred study in terms of the rating and frequency. The study reveals that there are some differences between the concerns of ELT department students and language and literature department students. While prospective teachers studying at the

  11. Prospective Teacher Concerns: A Comparative Study of Departments of English Language Teaching and Language and Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mustafa naci kayaoğlu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Language teachers in Turkey do not take a standard pre-service education as graduates of English Language Teaching (ELT, linguistics, and translation departments all end up with language teaching profession and this, in turn, results in different teaching needs and concerns. The researchers argue that these different concerns may be one of the underlying causes of chronic language education problems in Turkey, in that Turkish Ministry of National Education does not take into consideration the comparative picture of practicing teachers and composes curricula, teaching materials, and compulsory one-shot professional development activities that all reflect “one size fits all” ideology. Therefore, determining the needs and concerns of pre-service language teachers is of vital importance. The current study has arisen from Griffith’s (2012 call for more larger-scale studies on teacher concerns across different contexts via triangulation. The researchers aim at not only investigating teacher concerns but also painting a much detailed comparative picture between ELT and linguistics department prospective teachers. The researchers target convenience sampling, in the full knowledge that this group will not represent the whole population. However, this type of non-probability sampling can serve well when it is easy to gather much informative data. Building on the recent work of Griffiths (2012, the researchers have modified and extended the existing measurement tool of Griffiths (2012 to investigate the issue much deeper and compensate the caveats. They adapted her instrument and asked the participants to add their thoughts as well as deciding their concern level. The results are mainly in line with the referred study in terms of the rating and frequency. The study reveals that there are some differences between the concerns of ELT department students and language and literature department students. While prospective teachers studying at the

  12. Comparative health technology assessment of robotic-assisted, direct manual laparoscopic and open surgery: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchetti, Giuseppe; Pierotti, Francesca; Palla, Ilaria; Manetti, Stefania; Freschi, Cinzia; Ferrari, Vincenzo; Cuschieri, Alfred

    2017-02-01

    Despite many publications reporting on the increased hospital cost of robotic-assisted surgery (RAS) compared to direct manual laparoscopic surgery (DMLS) and open surgery (OS), the reported health economic studies lack details on clinical outcome, precluding valid health technology assessment (HTA). The present prospective study reports total cost analysis on 699 patients undergoing general surgical, gynecological and thoracic operations between 2011 and 2014 in the Italian Public Health Service, during which period eight major teaching hospitals treated the patients. The study compared total healthcare costs of RAS, DMLS and OS based on prospectively collected data on patient outcome in addition to healthcare costs incurred by the three approaches. The cost of RAS operations was significantly higher than that of OS and DMLS for both gynecological and thoracic operations (p DMLS. Total costs of general surgery RAS were significantly higher than those of OS (p DMLS general surgery. Indirect costs were significantly lower in RAS compared to both DMLS general surgery and OS gynecological surgery due to the shorter length of hospital stay of RAS approach (p < 0.001). Additionally, in all specialties compared to OS, patients treated by RAS experienced a quicker recovery and significantly less pain during the hospitalization and after discharge. The present HTA while confirming higher total healthcare costs for RAS operations identified significant clinical benefits which may justify the increased expenditure incurred by this approach.

  13. Comparative study of image quality and radiation dose between prospective and retrospective ECG gating technique in coronary artery imaging with 64-slice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianxin; Liu Jian; Dou Yanbin; Wang Jichen; Sun Hongyue

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare the image quality and radiation dose between prospective ECG-trigering and retrospective ECG gating technique in coronary artery imaging. Methods: 33 patients suspected coronary artery disease were included in this study and divided into experimental group (prospective ECG-triggering coronary artery imaging, heart rate 0.05). The mean DLP of experimental group (234.4 mGy · cm) was DLP of control group (974.4 mGy · cm) 24.1%. The mean effective dose of prospective ECG gating coronary artery imaging was 3.2 mSv. Effective dose reduced 76.47 %. Conclusions: Prospective ECG gating coronary artery imaging can obtain the similar image quality compared with prospective ECG gating coronary artery imaging but the effective dose reduced 76.47 %. Prospective ECG gating coronary artery imaging has clinical value to peoples who are able to not accept high radiation dose and with low heart rate. (authors)

  14. Permissive weight bearing in trauma patients with fracture of the lower extremities: prospective multicenter comparative cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmet, Pishtiwan H S; Meys, Guido; V Horn, Yvette Y; Evers, Silvia M A A; Seelen, Henk A M; Hustinx, Paul; Janzing, Heinrich; Vd Veen, Alexander; Jaspars, Coen; Sintenie, Jan Bernard; Blokhuis, Taco J; Poeze, Martijn; Brink, Peter R G

    2018-02-02

    The standard aftercare treatment in surgically treated trauma patients with fractures around or in a joint, known as (peri)- or intra-articular fractures of the lower extremities, is either non-weight bearing or partial weight bearing. We have developed an early permissive weight bearing post-surgery rehabilitation protocol in surgically treated patients with fractures of the lower extremities. In this proposal we want to compare our early permissive weight bearing protocol to the existing current non-weight bearing guidelines in a prospective comparative cohort study. The study is a prospective multicenter comparative cohort study in which two rehabilitation aftercare treatments will be contrasted, i.e. permissive weight bearing and non-weight bearing according to the AO-guideline. The study population consists of patients with a surgically treated fracture of the pelvis/acetabulum or a surgically treated (peri)- or intra-articular fracture of the lower extremities. The inclusion period is 12 months. The duration of follow up is 6 months, with measurements taken at baseline, 2,6,12 and 26 weeks post-surgery. ADL with Lower Extremity Functional Scale. Outcome variables for compliance, as measured with an insole pressure measurement system, encompass peak load and step duration. This study will investigate the (cost-) effectiveness of a permissive weight bearing aftercare protocol. The results will provide evidence whether a permissive weight bearing protocol is more effective than the current non-weight bearing protocol. The study is registered in the Dutch Trial Register ( NTR6077 ). Date of registration: 01-09-2016.

  15. One-year results of a prospective randomized, evaluator-blinded, multicenter study comparing TVT and TVT Secur.

    OpenAIRE

    Andrada Hamer, Maria; Larsson, Per-Göran; Teleman, Pia; Bergqvist, Christina Eten; Persson, Jan

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this prospective randomized multicenter study was to compare retropubic tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) with TVT Secur in terms of efficacy and safety. METHODS: We set out to enrol 280 stress urinary incontinent (SUI) women with a half-time interim analysis of short-term cure and adverse events. The short-term results have previously been published. Of the133 randomized women, 125 underwent surgery, and 121 (TVT n = 61, TVT Secur n = 60)...

  16. A prospective randomized study comparing unipolar versus bipolar hysteroscopic myomectomy in infertile women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallol K Roy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Objective: To compare the operative and reproductive outcome of hysteroscopic myomectomy using unipolar resectoscope versus bipolar resectoscope in patients with infertility and menorrhagia. Design: Randomized, prospective, parallel, comparative, single-blinded study. Design Classification: Canadian Task Force classification I. Setting: Tertiary care institute. Patients: Sixty women with submucous myoma and infertility. Interventions: Hysteroscopic myomectomy performed with unipolar resectoscope or bipolar resectoscope. Measurements: Primary outcome measures were the pregnancy-related indicators. Secondary outcome measures were the operative parameters, harmful outcomes related to the procedure, and comparison of improvement levels in the menstrual pattern after surgery between the two groups. Main Results: A total of 60 patients were randomized into two groups of equal size. Baseline characteristics were not significantly different between the two groups. Reduction in sodium level from pre- to postsurgery was significantly (P = 0.001 higher in the unipolar group. Nine patients (30% in the unipolar group had hyponatremia in the postoperative period compared to none in the bipolar group (P = 0.002. However, there was no significant difference in the other operative parameters between the two groups. In both the groups, a significant improvement in the menstrual symptoms was observed after myomectomy. Pregnancy-related outcomes were similar in both the groups. Conclusion: The use of bipolar resectoscope for hysteroscopic myomectomy is associated with lesser risk of hyponatremia compared to unipolar resectoscope. Bipolar resectoscopic myomectomy is found to be an effective and safer alternative to unipolar resectoscopy with similar reproductive outcome.

  17. Varicocele is associated with hypogonadism and impaired erectile function: a prospective comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, B; Jin, X-B

    2017-08-01

    We conducted this prospective comparative study to examine the hypothesis that varicocele was associated with hypogonadism and impaired erectile function as reflected in International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) scores as well as nocturnal penile tumescence and rigidity (NPTR) parameters. From December 2014 to December 2015, a total of 130 males with varicocele complaining of infertility or scrotal discomfort and 130 age-matched healthy males chosen from volunteer healthy hospital staff as controls were recruited in this study. Serum testosterone (TT) levels and IIEF-5 scores as well as NPTR parameters were evaluated and compared between varicocele and control subjects. All participants were further grouped into hypogonadism based on the cut-off value 300 ng/dL. A total of 45 of 130 patients were identified as hypogonadism, while it was not found in control subjects. A multivariate logistic regression with likelihood ratio test revealed that TT levels as well as grade III and II varicocele posed significant indicators for hypogonadism occurrence (chi-square of likelihood ratio = 12.40, df = 3, p hypogonadism was confirmed in this study and an impaired erectile function correlated with TT levels and infertility duration was also observed. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Prospective cohort study on surgical wounds comparing a polyhexanide-containing biocellulose dressing with a dialkyl-carbamoyl-chloride-containing hydrophobic dressing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anna Marie; Andriessen, Anneke

    2012-01-01

    Postsurgery dressing changes in diabetic foot amputation wounds and surgical wounds healing by secondary intention are often conducted in the operating room under general anesthesia. A prospective comparative cohort study was performed in 60 patients (n = 60: n = 30/n = 30) with secondary...

  19. Comparing two intramedullary devices for treating trochanteric fractures: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kontogeorgakos Vasileios

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intertrochanteric fractures are surgically treated by using different methods and implants. The optional type of surgical stabilization is still under debate. However, between devices with the same philosophy, different design characteristics may substantially influence fracture healing. This is a prospective study comparing the complication and final functional outcome of two intramedullary devices, the intramedullary hip screw (IMHS and the ENDOVIS nail. Materials and methods Two hundred fifteen patients were randomized on admission in two treatment groups. Epidemiology features and functional status was similar between two treatment groups. Fracture stability was assessed according to the Evan's classification. One hundred ten patients were treated with IMHS and 105 with ENDOVIS nail. Results There were no significant statistical differences between the two groups regarding blood loss, transfusion requirements and mortality rate. In contrast, the number of total complications was significantly higher in the ENDOVIS nail group. Moreover, the overall functional and walking competence was superior in the patients treated with the IMHS nail. Conclusions These results indicate that the choice of the proper implant plays probably an important role in the final outcome of surgical treatment of intertrochanteric fractures. IMHS nail allows for accurate surgical technique, for both static and dynamic compression and high rotational stability. IMHS nail proved more reliable in our study regarding nail insertion and overall uncomplicated outcome.

  20. A comparative study of olanzapine versus asenapine in acute treatment of manic episode: A 3-week prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeet Sidana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Treatment of bipolar disorders has evolved over the years from conventional mood stabilizers to second-generation antipsychotics. Among the atypical antipsychotics, few have been approved by Food and Drug Administration as treatment of bipolar disorders. Aim: To study the efficacy and tolerability of olanzapine and asenapine in the acute treatment of bipolar disorder-manic episode in a 3-week randomized prospective study. Materials and Methods: A 3-week randomized, prospective, comparative, flexible doses of olanzapine (5-30 mg/day and asenapine (10-20 mg/day for acute treatment of bipolar disorder-current manic episode with or without psychotic symptoms in hospitalized patients. Results: The end-point reduction in mean score of Young Mania rating scale in the olanzapine group was 15.82 in comparison to 6.88 in the asenapine group. Mean score on clinical global impression for bipolar disorder and positive and negative syndrome scale was significantly less in the olanzapine group at the end of the study. 81.81% patients in olanzapine group and 17.60% patients in asenapine group had clinical response. There was significant average weight gain in the olanzapine group - 1.9 kg in comparison to 0.87 kg in asenapine group. Conclusion: The clinical response with olanzapine is significantly higher than the asenapine in the treatment of bipolar disorder-manic episode with or without psychotic symptoms. However, there is significant weight gain in olanzapine-treated patients.

  1. Prospective study comparing laparoscopic and open adenomectomy: Surgical and functional results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Segui, A; Angulo, J C

    Open adenomectomy (OA) is the surgery of choice for large volume benign prostatic hyperplasia, and laparoscopic adenomectomy (LA) represents a minimally invasive alternative. We present a long-term, prospective study comparing both techniques. The study consecutively included 199 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate volumes>80g who were followed for more than 12 months. The patients underwent OA (n=97) or LA (n=102). We recorded and compared demographic and perioperative data, functional results and complications using a descriptive statistical analysis. The mean age was 69.2±7.7 years (range 42-87), and the mean prostate volume (measured by TRUS) was 112.1±32.7mL (range 78-260). There were no baseline differences among the groups in terms of age, ASA scale, prostate volume, PSA levels, Qmax, IPSS, QoL or treatments prior to the surgery. The surgical time (P<.0001) and catheter time (P<.0002) were longer in the LA group. Operative bleeding (P<.0001), transfusion rate (P=.0015) and mean stay (P<.0001) were significantly lower in the LA group. The LA group had a lower rate of complications (P=.04), but there were no significant differences between the groups in terms of major complications (Clavien score≥3) (P=.13) or in the rate of late complications (at one year) (P=.66). There were also no differences between the groups in the functional postoperative results: IPSS (P=.17), QoL (P=.3) and Qmax (P=.17). LA is a reasonable, safe and effective alternative that results in less bleeding, fewer transfusions, shorter hospital stays and lower morbidity than OA. LA has similar functional results to OA, at the expense of longer surgical times and longer catheter times. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparing the coverage, recall, and precision of searches for 120 systematic reviews in Embase, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar: A prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.M. Bramer (Wichor); D. Giustini (Dean); B.M.R. Kramer (Bianca)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Previously, we reported on the low recall of Google Scholar (GS) for systematic review (SR) searching. Here, we test our conclusions further in a prospective study by comparing the coverage, recall, and precision of SR search strategies previously performed in Embase,

  3. Prospective study comparing laparoscopic and open radical cystectomy: Surgical and oncological results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquinas, C; Alonso, J M; Mateo, E; Dotor, A; Martín, A M; Dorado, J F; Arance, I; Angulo, J C

    2018-03-01

    Laparoscopic radical cystectomy with lymphadenectomy and urinary diversion is an increasingly widespread operation. Studies are needed to support the oncological effectiveness and safety of this minimally invasive approach. A nonrandomised, comparative prospective study between open radical cystectomy (ORC) and laparoscopic radical cystectomy (LRC) was conducted in a university hospital. The main objective was to compare cancer-specific survival. The secondary objective was to compare the surgical results and complications according to the Clavien-Dindo scale. We treated 156 patients with high-grade invasive bladder cancer with either ORC (n=70) or LRC (n=86). The mean follow-up was 33.5±23.8 (range 12-96) months. The mean age was 66.9+9.4 years, and the male to female ratio was 19:1. Both groups were equivalent in age, stage, positive lymph nodes, in situ carcinoma, preoperative obstructive uropathy, adjuvant chemotherapy and type of urinary diversion. There were no differences between the groups in terms of cancer-specific survival (log-rank; P=.71). The histopathology stage was the only independent variable that predicted the prognosis. The hospital stay (P=.01) and operative transfusion rates (P=.002) were less for LRC. The duration of the surgery was greater for LRC (P<.001). There were no differences in the total complications rate (p=.62) or major complications (P=.69). The risk of evisceration (P=.02), surgical wound infection (P=.005) and pneumonia (P=.017) was greater for ORC. The risk of rectal lesion (P=.017) and urethrorectal fistulae (P=.065) was greater for LRC. LRC is an equivalent treatment to ORC in terms of oncological efficacy and is advantageous in terms of transfusion rates and hospital stays but not in terms of operating room time and overall safety. Studies are needed to better define the specific safety profile for each approach. Copyright © 2017 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Coagulation Profile Dynamics in Pediatric Patients with Cushing Syndrome: A Prospective, Observational Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birdwell, L. (Leah); M.B. Lodish (Maya Beth); Tirosh, A. (Amit); P. Chittiboina (Prashant); M. Keil (Mark); Lyssikatos, C. (Charlampos); Belyavskaya, E. (Elena); R.A. Feelders (Richard); C.A. Stratakis (Constantine)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective To evaluate the association between Cushing syndrome and hypercoagulability in children. Study design A prospective, observational study was performed of 54 patients with Cushing syndrome, 15.1 ± 3.9 years, treated at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center.

  5. Improving everyday prospective memory performance in older adults: comparing cognitive process and strategy training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brom, Sarah Susanne; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-09-01

    Considering the importance of prospective memory for independence in old age recently, research has started to examine interventions to reduce prospective memory errors. Two general approaches can be proposed: (a) process training of executive control associated with prospective memory functioning, and/or (b) strategy training to reduce executive task demands. The present study was the first to combine and compare both training methods in a sample of 62 community-dwelling older adults (60-86 years) and to explore their effects on an ecologically valid everyday life prospective memory task (here: regular blood pressure monitoring). Even though the training of executive control was successful in enhancing the trained ability, clear transfer effects on prospective memory performance could only be found for the strategy training. However, participants with low executive abilities benefited particularly from the implementation intention strategy. Conceptually, this supports models suggesting interactions between task demands and individual differences in executive control in explaining individual differences in prospective memory performance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Randomized prospective study comparing vancomycin with teicoplanin in the treatment of infections associated with Hickman catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S R; Cheesbrough, J; Spearing, R; Davies, J M

    1989-08-01

    In 72 episodes of suspected or proven Hickman-catheter-associated infection occurring in 59 patients with various hematological disorders, patients were assigned to treatment with either vancomycin or teicoplanin in a randomized nonblinded prospective study. Of 60 episodes evaluable for response, 28 were treated with vancomycin and 32 were treated with teicoplanin. Sixteen infective episodes were microbiologically documented in the vancomycin group, and twenty-one were microbiologically documented in the teicoplanin group. Microbiologically and clinically documented infections treated with vancomycin had an 80% response rate, compared with a 69% response rate for those treated with teicoplanin (P = 0.316). Adverse events occurred in nine (25%) of the episodes in the vancomycin group, compared with three (8%) in the teicoplanin group (P = 0.044). Teicoplanin may provide an effective alternative to vancomycin in the treatment of Hickman-catheter-associated infection in patients with hematological malignancies.

  7. A 4-year prospective study of eating disorder NOS compared with full eating disorder syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agras, W Stewart; Crow, Scott; Mitchell, James E; Halmi, Katherine A; Bryson, Susan

    2009-09-01

    To examine the course of Eating Disorder NOS (EDNOS) compared with anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Prospective study of 385 participants meeting DSM-IV criteria for AN, BN, BED, and EDNOS at three sites. Recruitment was from the community and specialty clinics. Participants were followed at 6-month intervals during a 4-year period using the Eating Disorder Examination as the primary assessment. EDNOS remitted significantly more quickly that AN or BN but not BED. There were no differences between EDNOS and full ED syndromes, or the subtypes of EDNOS, in time to relapse following first remission. Only 18% of the EDNOS group had never had or did not develop another ED diagnosis during the study; however, this group did not differ from the remaining EDNOS group. EDNOS appears to be a way station between full ED syndromes and recovery, and to a lesser extent from recovery or EDNOS status to a full ED. Implications for DSM-V are examined.

  8. Homoeopathic management of Schizophrenia: A prospective, non-comparative, open-label observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Oberai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the usefulness of homoeopathic intervention in Schizophrenia, in untreated cases and antipsychotic treatment resistant cases, to verify indications of medicines, and to assess relapse, if any. Materials and Methods: A prospective, non-comparative, open-label observational study was carried out from October 2005-September 2010 by CCRH at Central Research Institute (H, Kottayam, Kerala, India. Patients between 20 and 60 years of age, presenting with symptoms of Schizophrenia were screened for inclusion and exclusion criteria. The patients who were on antipsychotic drugs were allowed to continue the same along with homoeopathic medicine, the dose of antipsychotics was monitored by the Psychiatrist. The symptoms of each patient were repertorized, and medicine was initially prescribed in 30C potency after consulting Materia Medica. Patients were followed up for 12 months. Outcome of treatment was assessed with Brief Psychiatric Rating Scales (BPRS. Analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences  SPSS Version 20.0. Results: Out of 188 enrolled patients, 17 cases did not complete the baseline information. Total 171 patients were analysed as per modified Intention to Treat Principle. Significant difference (P = 0.0001, P < 0.05 in the mean scores of BPRS, using paired t test was observed at end of the study. Sulphur, Lycopodium, Natrum muriaticum, Pulsatilla and Phosphorus were found to be the most useful medicines in treating schizophrenic patients. Conclusion: The study reflects the positive role of homoeopathic medicines in the management of patients suffering from schizophrenia as measured by BPRS.

  9. [Results of arthrodiastasis in postraumatic ankle osteoarthritis in a young population: prospective comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Pérez, M; Pais-Brito, J L; de Bergua-Domingo, J; Aciego de Mendoza, M; Guerra-Ferraz, A; Cortés-García, P; Déniz-Rodríguez, B

    2013-01-01

    The most common cause of osteoarthritis of the ankle is post-traumatic, and although tibiotalar arthrodesis remains the surgical gold standard, a number of techniques have been described to preserve joint mobility, such as joint distraction arthroplasty or arthrodiastasis. To evaluate the functional outcome and changes in Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain after the application of the distraction arthroplasty for post-traumatic ankle osteoarthritis. A prospective comparative study of a group of 10 young patients with post-traumatic ankle osteoarthritis treated by synovectomy and arthrodiastasis, compared to a control group of 10 patients treated by isolated synovectomy. Results were calculated using the AOFAS scale and the VAS for pain before and after treatment. As regards the pain measured by VAS, no difference was observed between the two groups before surgery (P=.99), but there was a difference at 3 months (P<.001), 6 months (P=.005), and 12 months (P=.006). No differences were observed in the AOFAS scale between the two groups before surgery (P=.99), or at 3 months (P<.99), but there was a difference at 6 months (P<.001). Ankle arthrodiastasis is effective in reducing pain in post-traumatic ankle arthropathy, and is superior to isolated synovectomy. © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. A prospective PET study of patients with glioblastoma multiforme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Preben B.; Blinkenberg, M; Lassen, U

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the post-surgical metabolic and structural cerebral changes in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined ten patients prospectively with newly diagnosed GBM. All patients were primarily treated with surgery, followed by chemotherapy...... compared with structural imaging in the prospective evaluation of GBM. We found a difference in metabolic increase and tumor growth between the two treatment regimens, although this finding has limited relevance due to the design of the study....

  11. Pepsin and bile acids in saliva in patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux - a prospective comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereg-Bahar, M; Jerin, A; Jansa, R; Stabuc, B; Hocevar-Boltezar, I

    2015-06-01

    Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) and biliary duodenogastric reflux can cause damage to the laryngeal mucosa and voice disorders. The aim of this study was to find out whether levels of pepsin and bile acids in the saliva can serve as diagnostic markers of LPR. A prospective comparative study. Twenty-eight patients with LPR proven via high-resolution manometry and combined multichannel intraluminal impedance and 24-h pH monitoring and 48 healthy controls without symptoms of LPR were included in the study. In the patients with LPR symptoms, oesophagogastroscopy with oesophageal biopsy was performed. The levels of total pepsin, active pepsin, bile acids and the pH of the saliva were determined in all participants and compared between the groups. Reflux symptom index (RSI) and reflux finding score (RFS) were also obtained and compared. The groups differed significantly in RSI (P = 0.00), RFS (P = 0.00), the levels of bile acids (P = 0.005) and total pepsin in saliva (P = 0.023). The levels of total pepsin and bile acids were about three times higher in the patients with LPR than in the healthy controls. There was a significant correlation between the RSI and RFS score and the level of total pepsin and bile acids in the saliva. Histopathological examination of the oesophageal biopsy taken 5 cm above the lower oesophageal sphincter confirmed reflux in almost 93% of patients with symptoms. The study results show that the levels of total pepsin and bile acids in saliva are significantly higher in patients with LPR than in the controls, thus suggesting this as a useful tool in the diagnosis of LPR and particularly biliary LPR. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Prospective comparative effectiveness cohort study comparing two models of advance care planning provision for Australian community aged care clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detering, Karen Margaret; Carter, Rachel Zoe; Sellars, Marcus William; Lewis, Virginia; Sutton, Elizabeth Anne

    2017-12-01

    Conduct a prospective comparative effectiveness cohort study comparing two models of advance care planning (ACP) provision in community aged care: ACP conducted by the client's case manager (CM) ('Facilitator') and ACP conducted by an external ACP service ('Referral') over a 6-month period. This Australian study involved CMs and their clients. Eligible CM were English speaking, ≥18 years, had expected availability for the trial and worked ≥3 days per week. CMs were recruited via their organisations, sequentially allocated to a group and received education based on the group allocation. They were expected to initiate ACP with all clients and to facilitate ACP or refer for ACP. Outcomes were quantity of new ACP conversations and quantity and quality of new advance care directives (ACDs). 30 CMs (16 Facilitator, 14 Referral) completed the study; all 784 client's files (427 Facilitator, 357 Referral) were audited. ACP was initiated with 508 (65%) clients (293 Facilitator, 215 Referral; p<0.05); 89 (18%) of these (53 Facilitator, 36 Referral) and 41 (46%) (13 Facilitator, 28 Referral; p<0.005) completed ACDs. Most ACDs (71%) were of poor quality/not valid. A further 167 clients (facilitator 124; referral 43; p<0.005) reported ACP was in progress at study completion. While there were some differences, overall, models achieved similar outcomes. ACP was initiated with 65% of clients. However, fewer clients completed ACP, there was low numbers of ACDs and document quality was generally poor. The findings raise questions for future implementation and research into community ACP provision. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Fatty liver: prospective comparative study with sonography and CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Jin; Kim, Y. M.; Kim, W. S.; Choi, B. I.; Lee, J. S.; Han, C. K.; Kim, C. W.

    1990-01-01

    To identify the reasonable criteria in detection of the degree of Fatty liver, we prospectively evaluated sonograms and CT scans in 33 Patients With bright liver on sonography. On sonograms, we analyzed the echogenicity of the liver, acoustic attenuation, and visualization of the portal vein and the diaphragm, Each criterion was scored from 0 to 2. CT criterion for fatty liver was assessed by the attenuation difference between the liver and the spleen on nonocontrast CT scans, The average sonographic grade for CT Grade I was 1.3, Grade II was 2.1,and Grade III was 2.8. The accurate detection rate of each sonographic grade was as follows, Grade

  14. A prospective randomized study comparing percutaneous nephrolithotomy under combined spinal-epidural anesthesia with percutaneous nephrolithotomy under general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vishwajeet; Sinha, Rahul Janak; Sankhwar, S N; Malik, Anita

    2011-01-01

    A prospective randomized study was executed to compare the surgical parameters and stone clearance in patients who underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) under combined spinal-epidural anesthesia (CSEA) versus those who underwent PNL under general anesthesia (GA). Between January 2008 to December 2009, 64 patients with renal calculi were randomized into 2 groups and evaluated for the purpose of this study. Group 1 consisted of patients who underwent PNL under CSEA and Group 2 consisted of patients who underwent PNL under GA. The operative time, stone clearance rate, visual pain analog score, mean analgesic dose and mean hospital stay were compared amongst other parameters. The difference between visual pain analog score after the operation and the dose of analgesic requirement was significant on statistical analysis between both groups. PNL under CSEA is as effective and safe as PNL under GA. Patients who undergo PNL under CESA require lesser analgesic dose and have a shorter hospital stay. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Hemodiafiltration Improves Plasma 25-Hepcidin Levels: A Prospective, Randomized, Blinded, Cross-Over Study Comparing Hemodialysis and Hemodiafiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergur V. Stefánsson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Data from studies comparing the effect of hemodiafiltration (HDF and conventional hemodialysis (HD on clinically important outcomes are insufficient to support superiority of HDF. None of these studies has been participant-blinded. Methods: We performed a prospective, randomized, and patient-blinded cross-over study. Twenty patients on chronic HD received either HD for 2 months followed by post-dilution HDF for 2 months or in opposite order. A range of clinical parameters, as well as markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and iron metabolism was measured. Results: The two treatments were similar with respect to dialysis-related complications, quality of life, and the biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Compared to HD, 25-hepcidin and β2-microglobulin were 38 and 32%, respectively, lower after 60 days of HDF (p Conclusion: In short term, HDF is not superior to HD regarding dialysis-related complications. The higher ESA consumption observed with HDF can be explained by blood clotting in tubing and dialyzers, as more anticoagulation was needed with post-dilution HDF. In a longer perspective, lowering serum hepcidin levels may improve pathological iron homeostasis.

  16. Prospective, randomized comparative study between single-port laparoscopic appendectomy and conventional laparoscopic appendectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos Mori, Rafael; Escoll Rufino, Jordi; Herrerías González, Fernando; Mias Carballal, M Carmen; Escartin Arias, Alfredo; Olsina Kissler, Jorge Juan

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopic appendectomy is probably the technique of choice in acute appendicitis. Single port laparoscopic surgery (SILS) has been proposed as an alternative technique. The objective of this study is to compare the safety and efficacy of SILS against conventional laparoscopic appendectomy (LA). From January 2011 to September 2012, 120 patients with acute appendicitis were prospectively randomized; 60 for SILS and 60 for LA. Patients between 15 to 65 years were selected, with onset of symptoms less than 48h. We compared BMI, surgery time, start of oral intake, hospital stay, postoperative pain, pathology and costs. The median age, BMI, sex and time of onset of symptoms to diagnosis were similar. There were no statistically significant differences in the operative time, start of oral intake or hospital stay. There was a significant difference in postoperative pain being higher in SILS (4±1.3) than in LA (3.3±0.5) with a P=.004. Flemonous appendicitis predominated in both groups in a similar percentage. A total of 3 cases with intra-abdominal abscess (SILS 2, LA 1) required readmission and resolved spontaneously with intravenous antibiotic treatment. One case of SILS required assistance by a 5mm trocar in the RLC for drainage placement. The cost was higher in SILS due the single port device. SILS appendectomy is safe, effective and has similar results to LA in selected patients, and although the cost is greater, the long term results will determine the future of this technique. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Abdominoplasty and seroma: a prospective randomised study comparing scalpel and handheld electrocautery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Dan J; Fox, Andreas; Grobbelaar, Adriaan O; Chana, Jagdeep S

    2015-02-01

    Seroma formation remains a significant problem in abdominoplasty procedures--the cause of which remains to be elucidated. It has been suggested that one of the causative factors for seroma formation is the use of handheld electrocautery as opposed to scalpel for abdominal flap dissection. Prospective trial in 102 consecutive abdominoplasty patients randomised to have abdominal flap dissection with either handheld electrocautery device on 'coagulation setting' or sharp dissection with scalpel and monopolar electrocautery forceps for haemostasis. In all other aspects the surgical technique was identical between the two groups. All drains were removed at 48 h, irrespective of drain volume. Primary outcome measure is postoperative seroma formation on clinical examination, secondary outcome measures are drain volume, weight of tissue removed, effect of liposuction and patient BMI. Both study groups were similar in demographics with no significant difference in weight of tissue excised, BMI, drain output or post operative complictions. There was no significant difference in seroma formation rates between the handheld electrocautery group (17.2%) and the sharp dissection group (20.1%). Overall, the seroma rate was 18.6%. Liposuction to the flanks at the time of abdominoplasty was found to significantly increase the incidence of seroma, compared to patients having abdominoplasty alone. Use of handheld electrocautery rather than scalpel for tissue dissection does not lead to increased seroma formation in abdominoplasty patients. Concomitant liposuction at the time of abdominoplasty increases the risk of seroma formation compared to patients having abdominoplasty alone. Copyright © 2014 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prospective longitudinal comparative study of health-related quality of life in patients treated with radical prostatectomy or permanent brachytherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobuke, Makoto; Saika, Takashi; Nakanishi, Yoshiko

    2009-01-01

    To determine health-related quality of life (HRQOL) after radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) or permanent prostate brachytherapy (BT), third party-conducted QOL surveys were prospectively compared. Between 2004 and 2005, 37 patients underwent RRP and 36 were treated with BT. A QOL survey consisting of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form (SF-36), the University of California, Los Angeles, Prostate Cancer Index (UCLA-PCI) and the International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS) was completed prospectively by a research coordinator at baseline, and at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after treatment. The RRP patients scored well in general QOL except at 1 month after surgery, with their mental health better than at baseline by 6 months after surgery. Disease-specific QOL in RRP patients received a low score at 1 month for both urinary and sexual function, though urinary function rapidly recovered to baseline levels. BT patient QOL was not affected by the therapy except in the IPSS score. However, general and mental health scores in BT patients were inferior to those in RRP patients. This prospective study revealed differences in QOL after RRP and BT. These results will be helpful in making treatment decisions. (author)

  19. Blastocyst Development in a Single Medium Compared to Sequential Media: A Prospective Study With Sibling Oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfontouris, Ioannis A; Kolibianakis, Efstratios M; Lainas, George T; Petsas, George K; Tarlatzis, Basil C; Lainas, Trifon G

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare blastocyst formation rates after embryo culture in a single medium (Global) as compared to sequential media (ISM1/BlastAssist). In this prospective trial with sibling oocytes, 542 metaphase II (ΜΙΙ) oocytes from 31 women were randomly and equally divided to be fertilized and cultured to the blastocyst stage in either sequential media (ISM1/BlastAssist; n = 271 MII oocytes) or a single medium (Global; n = 271 MII oocytes). In both groups, embryos were cultured in an interrupted fashion with media changes on day 3. Embryo transfer was performed on day 5. Blastocyst formation rates on day 5 (61.7% ± 19.9% vs 37.0% ± 25.5%, P ISM1/BlastAssist, respectively. Fertilization rates, cleavage rates, and percentage of good quality embryos on day 3 were similar between Global and ISM1/BlastAssist, respectively. The percentages of good quality blastocysts (63.0% ± 24.8% vs 32.1% ± 37.2%, P ISM1/BlastAssist, respectively. In conclusion, culture in Global was associated with higher blastocyst formation rates compared to ISM1/BlastAssist, suggesting that the single medium may provide better support to the developing embryo.

  20. Comparative study of intravenous Tramadol versus Ketorolac for preventing postoperative pain after third molar surgery--a prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalraju, Prathibha; Lalitha, Ramanujapuram Manikarnike; Prasad, Kavitha; Ranganath, Krishnappa

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this comparative, prospective, randomized, controlled study was to evaluate two different regimens of analgesics: a preoperative intravenous dose of either Tramadol or Ketorolac given 10 min prior to surgery to assess their impact on clinical recovery after third molar surgery. Forty patients requiring surgical extraction of unilateral impacted mandibular third molars similar in position were enrolled in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups based on permuting the numbers. Patients in Group 1 and Group 2 were administered either Tramadol 50 mg or Ketorolac 30 mg, intravenously, 10 min prior to surgery. The difference in postoperative pain was assessed by four primary points: pain intensity as measured by a 10 mm visual analogue scale hourly for 12 h, median time to rescue analgesics, number of analgesics consumed and patient's overall 5-point global assessment scale. Throughout the 12 h investigation period, patients treated with Ketorolac reported significantly lower pain intensity scores, significantly longer time to rescue analgesics (Acetaminophen 500 mg) and less intake of postoperative analgesics. In Group 2, 40% of the patient had good overall assessment as compared to Group 1 where only 25% of patients had good overall assessment. The current study shows that pre-emptive use of Inj. Ketorolac 30 mg intravenously can reduce the severity of the postoperative sequelae of asymptomatic impacted mandibular third molar surgery. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sacroiliac joint pain: Prospective, randomised, experimental and comparative study of thermal radiofrequency with sacroiliac joint block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cánovas Martínez, L; Orduña Valls, J; Paramés Mosquera, E; Lamelas Rodríguez, L; Rojas Gil, S; Domínguez García, M

    2016-05-01

    To compare the analgesic effects between the blockade and bipolar thermal radiofrequency in the treatment of sacroiliac joint pain. Prospective, randomised and experimental study conducted on 60 patients selected in the two hospitals over a period of nine months, who had intense sacroiliac joint pain (Visual Analogue Scale [VAS]>6) that lasted more than 3 months. Patients were randomised into three groups (n=20): Group A (two intra-articular sacroiliac injections of local anaesthetic/corticosteroid guided by ultrasound in 7 days). Group B: conventional bipolar radiofrequency "palisade". Target points were the lateral branch nerves of S1, S2, and S3, distance needles 1cm. Group C: modified bipolar radiofrequency "palisade" (needle distance >1cm). Patients were evaluated at one month, three months, and one year. Demographic data, VAS reduction, and side effects of the techniques were assessed. One month after the treatment, pain reduction was >50% in the three groups PDolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative analysis of conventional and eversion carotid endarterectomy: Prospective randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Dragan M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Studies completed in the last decade of the 20th century showed benefits of carotid endarterectomy in the prevention of stroke in patients with a high-grade stenosis of the internal carotid artery. OBJECTIVE The aim of this prospective, randomized study was the comparison of early and long-term results between the conventional and eversion carotid endarterectomy, and literature review. METHOD By the method of random choice, 103 patients were operated on using the eversion carotid endarterectomy and 98 patients using the conventional technique. Operative treatment was carried out under general anaesthesia. Following the clammping of the carotid artery, retrograde blood pressure was determined by a direct puncture of the internal carotid artery above the stenotic lesions. In patients with retrograde pressure below 20 mm Hg intraluminal shunting was routinely performed. Early results were estimated (during the first seven postoperative days based on mortality, central neurological complications (stroke, TIA and cranial or cervical nerve lesions. Long-term results were estimated (after at least two years based on long-term survival rate, central neurological complications (stroke, TIA and the incidence of haemodynamically significant restenosis of the carotid artery treated by endarterectomy. RESULTS The average time of clamming of the internal carotid artery in the eversion carotid anderectomy group was 5.36 minutes shorter than in the group treated by the conventional technique. Student's t-test showed a statistically highly significant difference in the time needed for clamming of the internal carotid artery between the two groups. The average duration of eversion endarterectomy (82 minutes was most often 19 minutes shorter than the duration of the conventional endarterectomy (101 minutes. Student's t-test showed a statistically highly significant difference in the average length of surgeries. The distal intimal fixation was more

  3. EFFICACY OF VACUUM ASSISTED CLOSURE DRESSINGS WHEN COMPARED TO MOIST WOUND DRESSINGS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF DIABETIC FOOT ULCERS : A PROSPECTIVE COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballapalli Hari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: F oot ulceration is mainly responsible for the morbidity of diabetes mellitus. They deprive the patient of quality working days and add to his financial burden. Several novel methods of wound healing came to vogue among which vacuum assisted dressing is becoming quite popular. Present study aim s to evaluate its efficacy when compared to regular moist wound dressings. OBJECTIVES: To study the effectiveness of vacuum assisted dressings in terms of Rate of wound healing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: we carried out a prospective study at Narayana medical college hospital on two groups (group A and group B of diabetic foot ulcer patients, whom we selected randomly after considering inclusion and exclusion criteria . Vacuum assisted dressings were done in group A patients and normal moist wound dressings in group B. At the start of the treatment and every week thereafter, size and depth of ulcers were recorded and results were compared at complete wound healing or at the end of 12 weeks of treatment whichever is earlier. S trict glycaemic control was maintaine d throughout the treatment period. RESULTS : significant healing was noticed in group A patients (vacuum assisted dressings group both in terms of ulcer size and depth. Wounds appeared more - healthy i.e. with less slough and more red granulation tissue in g roup A patients. CONCLUSION: vacuum assisted dressing is an efficacious method in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers with significantly reduced hospital stay

  4. Excess Mortality Associated With Colistin-Tigecycline Compared With Colistin-Carbapenem Combination Therapy for Extensively Drug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Bacteremia: A Multicenter Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Aristine; Chuang, Yu-Chung; Sun, Hsin-Yun; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Yang, Chia-Jui; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Yang, Jia-Ling; Shen, Ni-Jiin; Wang, Jann-Tay; Hung, Chien-Ching; Chen, Yee-Chun; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2015-06-01

    Since few therapeutic options exist for extensively drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, an emerging threat in ICUs worldwide, and comparative prospective studies of colistin-based combination therapies are lacking, our objective was to compare the outcomes of patients with extensively drug-resistant A. baumannii bacteremia, treated with colistin-carbapenem and colistin-tigecycline combinations. Prospective, observational, multicenter study. Adults with extensively drug-resistant A. baumannii bacteremia were prospectively followed from 2010 to 2013 at three hospitals in Taiwan. Extensively drug-resistant A. baumannii was defined as A. baumannii (genospecies 2) nonsusceptible to all drug classes except for colistin and tigecycline, and standard combination therapy as use of parenteral colistin-carbapenem or colistin-tigecycline for at least 48 hours after onset of bacteremia. Primary outcome measure was 14-day mortality. Of the 176 episodes of extensively drug-resistant A. baumannii bacteremia evaluated, 55 patients with a median (interquartile range) age of 62 years (44-79 yr) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score of 9 (5-13) points received standard combination therapy: colistin-tigecycline in 29 patients and colistin-carbapenem in 26. Crude 14-day and in-hospital mortality rates for patients receiving colistin-tigecycline versus patients receiving colistin-carbapenem were 35% versus 15% (p=0.105) and 69% versus 50% (p=0.152), respectively. Breakthrough extensively drug-resistant A. baumannii bacteremia under steady state concentrations of combination therapy for colistin-tigecycline group was 18% and for colistin-carbapenem group was 0% (p=0.059). Eleven patients (20.0%) developed nephrotoxicity. After adjusting for age, sex, comorbidity, initial disease severity, loading colistin dose, polymicrobial infection, and primary infection site, excess 14-day mortality was associated with the use of colistin-tigecycline in the subgroup with tigecycline

  5. Prospective controlled trial comparing colostomy irrigation with "spontaneous-action" method.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, N S; Johnston, D

    1980-01-01

    Thirty randomly selected patients with permanent colostomies entered a prospective controlled trial comparing colostomy irrigation with spontaneous action. Each patient was interviewed and examined before irrigation was begun and again after the technique had been used for three months. Each then reverted to spontaneous action for a further three months and was then reassessed. Eight patients abandoned irrigation and 22 (73%) adhered to the protocol. Irrigation caused no mishaps or complicati...

  6. Prospective SAH Study in Japan, 2005(Prospective SAH Study)

    OpenAIRE

    塩川, 芳昭; 栗田, 浩樹; 藤井, 清孝; Yoshiaki, SHIOKAWA; Hiroki, KURITA; Kiyotaka, FUJII; 杏林大学脳神経外科; 杏林大学脳神経外科; 北里大学脳神経外科; Department of Neurosurgery, Kyorin University School of Medicine; Department of Neurosurgery, Kyorin University School of Medicine

    2009-01-01

    To clarify current treatment status of ruptured cerebral aneurysms in Japan, a prospective multicenter observational study on the treatment results for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage was conducted over calendar year 2005 and final 1-year outcomes were collected. Studied centers were selected from among institutes of committee member of Japanese stroke surgery organization or symposium of vasospasm in Japan. A total of 927 patients were enrolled in this study and treatment policies were le...

  7. A Prospective Study Comparing Ligasure and Open Hemorrhoidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemorrhoid is among the most common anorectal diseases and patients with high-grade disease conditions need surgical treatment. Many surgical procedures are available to treat the disease. The aim of this study was to compare the operative time and outcomes, (post-operative pain and complications of LigaSure hemorrhoidectomy with those of the open conventional method.Methods : This randomized single-blind clinical trial included 57 patients (28 in LigaSure and 29 in the open group. The primary variable was the operative time for the excision of a single hemorrhoidal packet. The other variables were post-operative pain measured by morphine doses administered to control pain, scores of visual analogue scale (VAS used to measure pain severity, pain during home stay measured by doses of oral ibuprofen and the mean daily VAS scores, early complications including bleeding and urinary retention, longer-term complications and time to return to work.Results : The demographic data were comparatively the same between the two groups. The average time to excise a single packet of hemorrhoid was significantly shorter in the LigaSure group (8.91 min vs. 17.35 min, P<0.001. Post-operative pain measurements (morphine doses and VAS scores were lower in the LigaSure group, but the differences were not statistically significant (P=0.055 and 0.077, respectively. Complications of the two procedures were also comparable. Neither of the groups returned to work in a shorter time.Conclusion: LigaSure hemorrhoidectomy seems to be a safe method and it can reduce the operative time significantly. It may also have a modest effect on post-operative pain.

  8. Randomized Prospective Study of Endoscopic Rubber Band Ligation Compared With Bipolar Coagulation for Chronically Bleeding Internal Hemorrhoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutabha, Rome; Jensen, Dennis M.; Chavalitdhamrong, Disaya

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Our purpose was to compare the efficacy, complications, success rate, recurrence rate at 1 year, and crossovers of rubber band ligation (RBL) with those of bipolar electrocoagulation (BPEC) treatment for chronically bleeding internal hemorrhoids. METHODS: A total of 45 patients of mean age 51.5 years, who had rectal bleeding from grade II or III hemorrhoids and in whom intensive medical therapy failed, were randomized in a prospective study comparing RBL with BPEC. Treatment failure was predefined as continued bleeding, occurrence of a major complication, or failure to reduce the size of all internal hemorrhoidal segments to grade I in ≤ 3 treatments. Patients were followed up for 1 year. RESULTS: With similar patients, rectal bleeding and other symptoms were controlled with significantly fewer treatments of RBL than of BPEC (2.3±0.2 vs. 3.8±0.4, P 0.05), but significantly fewer failures and crossovers (8% vs. 38%). Symptomatic recurrence at 1 year was 10% RBL and 15% BPEC. CONCLUSIONS: For patients with chronically bleeding grade II or III internal hemorrhoids that are unresponsive to medical therapy, safety and complication rates of banding and BPEC were similar. The success rate was significantly higher with RBL than with BPEC. Symptom recurrence rates at 1 year were similar. PMID:19513028

  9. Outcome of Large to Massive Rotator Cuff Tears Repaired With and Without Extracellular Matrix Augmentation: A Prospective Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilot, Gregory J; Alvarez-Pinzon, Andres M; Barcksdale, Leticia; Westerdahl, David; Krill, Michael; Peck, Evan

    2015-08-01

    To compare the results of arthroscopic repair of large to massive rotator cuff tears (RCTs) with or without augmentation using an extracellular matrix (ECM) graft and to present ECM graft augmentation as a valuable surgical alternative used for biomechanical reinforcement in any RCT repair. We performed a prospective, blinded, single-center, comparative study of patients who underwent arthroscopic repair of a large to massive RCT with or without augmentation with ECM graft. The primary outcome was assessed by the presence or absence of a retear of the previously repaired rotator cuff, as noted on ultrasound examination. The secondary outcomes were patient satisfaction evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively using the 12-item Short Form Health Survey, the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons shoulder outcome score, a visual analog scale score, the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff index, and a shoulder activity level survey. We enrolled 35 patients in the study: 20 in the ECM-augmented rotator cuff repair group and 15 in the control group. The follow-up period ranged from 22 to 26 months, with a mean of 24.9 months. There was a significant difference between the groups in terms of the incidence of retears: 26% (4 retears) in the control group and 10% (2 retears) in the ECM graft group (P = .0483). The mean pain level decreased from 6.9 to 4.1 in the control group and from 6.8 to 0.9 in the ECM graft group (P = .024). The American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score improved from 62.1 to 72.6 points in the control group and from 63.8 to 88.9 points (P = .02) in the treatment group. The mean Short Form 12 scores improved in the 2 groups, with a statistically significant difference favoring graft augmentation (P = .031), and correspondingly, the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff index scores improved in both arms, favoring the treatment group (P = .0412). The use of ECM for augmentation of arthroscopic repairs of large to massive RCTs reduces the incidence of retears

  10. Similar early migration when comparing CR and PS in Triathlon™ TKA: A prospective randomised RSA trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molt, Mats; Toksvig-Larsen, Sören

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the early migration of the cruciate retaining and posterior stabilising versions of the recently introduced Triathlon™ total knee system, with a view to predicting long term fixation performance. Sixty patients were prospectively randomised to receive either Triathlon™ posterior stabilised cemented knee prosthesis or Triathlon™ cruciate retaining cemented knee prosthesis. Tibial component migration was measured by radiostereometric analysis postoperatively and at three months, one year and two years. Clinical outcome was measured by the American Knee Society Score and Knee Osteoarthritis and Injury Outcome Score. There were no differences in rotation around the three coordinal axes or in the maximum total point motion (MTPM) during the two year follow-up. The posterior stabilised prosthesis had more posterior-anterior translation at three months and one year and more caudal-cranial translation at one year and two years. There were no differences in functional outcome between the groups. The tibial tray of the Triathlon™ cemented knee prosthesis showed similar early stability. Level I. Article focus: This was a prospective randomised trial aiming to compare the single radius posterior stabilised (PS) Triathlon™ total knee arthroplasty (TKA) to the cruciate retaining Triathlon™ TKA system with regard to fixation. Strengths and limitations of this study: Strength of this study was that it is a randomised prospective trial using an objective measuring tool. The sample size of 25-30 patients was reportedly sufficient for the screening of implants using RSA [1]. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00436982. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ultralow dose CT for pulmonary nodule detection with chest X-ray equivalent dose - a prospective intra-individual comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messerli, Michael [University Zurich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Cantonal Hospital St. Gallen, Division of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Kluckert, Thomas; Knitel, Meinhard; Desbiolles, Lotus; Bauer, Ralf W.; Wildermuth, Simon [Cantonal Hospital St. Gallen, Division of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Waelti, Stephan [Cantonal Hospital St. Gallen, Division of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, St. Gallen (Switzerland); University of Montreal, Department of Radiology, CHU Sainte-Justine, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Rengier, Fabian [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Warschkow, Rene [Cantonal Hospital St. Gallen, Department of Surgery, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem [University Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Leschka, Sebastian [Cantonal Hospital St. Gallen, Division of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, St. Gallen (Switzerland); University Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-08-15

    To prospectively evaluate the accuracy of ultralow radiation dose CT of the chest with tin filtration at 100 kV for pulmonary nodule detection. 202 consecutive patients undergoing clinically indicated chest CT (standard dose, 1.8 ± 0.7 mSv) were prospectively included and additionally scanned with an ultralow dose protocol (0.13 ± 0.01 mSv). Standard dose CT was read in consensus by two board-certified radiologists to determine the presence of lung nodules and served as standard of reference (SOR). Two radiologists assessed the presence of lung nodules and their locations on ultralow dose CT. Sensitivity and specificity of the ultralow dose protocol was compared against the SOR, including subgroup analyses of different nodule sizes and types. A mixed effects logistic regression was used to test for independent predictors for sensitivity of pulmonary nodule detection. 425 nodules (mean diameter 3.7 ± 2.9 mm) were found on SOR. Overall sensitivity for nodule detection by ultralow dose CT was 91%. In multivariate analysis, nodule type, size and patients BMI were independent predictors for sensitivity (p < 0.001). Ultralow dose chest CT at 100 kV with spectral shaping enables a high sensitivity for the detection of pulmonary nodules at exposure levels comparable to plain film chest X-ray. (orig.)

  12. Results of a prospective randomised study comparing a non-invasive surgical zipper versus intracutaneous sutures for wound closure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roolker, W.; Kraaneveld, E.; Been, H. D.; Marti, R. K.

    2002-01-01

    A prospective randomised study was undertaken to investigate the advantages and disadvantages of a non-invasive surgical zipper (Medizip) vs intracutaneous sutures skin closure in orthopaedic surgery. The study group consisted of 120 consecutive patients, 45 men and 75 women with a mean age of 47

  13. A Prospective Comparative Study of the Bacterial Flora of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A qualitative comparative study of the bacterial flora of the vagina and cervix of 90 non-pregnant women of childbearing age (18-35 years) in Calabar was undertaken. The study revealed that both aerobic and microaerophilic organisms as well as the strictly anaerobic bacteria constituted the microflora of the lower genital of ...

  14. A blinded prospective study comparing four current noninvasive approaches in the differential diagnosis of medical versus surgical jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, K.W.; Snodgrass, P.J.; Swonder, J.E.; Mahoney, S.; Burt, R.; Cockerill, E.M.; Lumeng, L.

    1983-01-01

    A prospective study was undertaken to compare the diagnostic accuracy of clinical evaluation, ultrasound, computed tomography, and technetium 99m-HIDA or -PIPIDA biliary scans in distinguishing between intrahepatic and extrahepatic jaundice. A final diagnosis was established in each of the 50 patients who completed the study, among whom 29 had intrahepatic cholestasis and 21 had extrahepatic obstruction. In the diagnosis of extrahepatic obstruction, the sensitivities of clinical evaluation, ultrasound, computed tomography, and nuclear medicine biliary scan were 95%, 55%, 63%, and 41%, respectively; the specificities were 76%, 93%, 93%, and 88%; and the overall accuracies were 84%, 78%, 81%, and 68%. These data support the conclusion that when the clinical evaluation is carefully performed, it is the single most effective noninvasive means of detecting extrahepatic biliary obstruction in a jaundiced patient. Although ultrasound, computed tomography, and radionuclide biliary scan are less sensitive, they are highly reliable if they indicate that extrahepatic obstruction is present. A flow chart of invasive and noninvasive approaches for evaluation of the jaundiced patient is presented

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging–Guided versus Surrogate-Based Motion Tracking in Liver Radiation Therapy: A Prospective Comparative Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paganelli, Chiara, E-mail: chiara.paganelli@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Seregni, Matteo; Fattori, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Summers, Paul [Division of Radiology, Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Milano (Italy); Bellomi, Massimo [Division of Radiology, Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Milano (Italy); Department of Health Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Baroni, Guido; Riboldi, Marco [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Bioengineering Unit, CNAO Foundation, Pavia (Italy)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: This study applied automatic feature detection on cine–magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) liver images in order to provide a prospective comparison between MRI-guided and surrogate-based tracking methods for motion-compensated liver radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: In a population of 30 subjects (5 volunteers plus 25 patients), 2 oblique sagittal slices were acquired across the liver at high temporal resolution. An algorithm based on scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) was used to extract and track multiple features throughout the image sequence. The position of abdominal markers was also measured directly from the image series, and the internal motion of each feature was quantified through multiparametric analysis. Surrogate-based tumor tracking with a state-of-the-art external/internal correlation model was simulated. The geometrical tracking error was measured, and its correlation with external motion parameters was also investigated. Finally, the potential gain in tracking accuracy relying on MRI guidance was quantified as a function of the maximum allowed tracking error. Results: An average of 45 features was extracted for each subject across the whole liver. The multi-parametric motion analysis reported relevant inter- and intrasubject variability, highlighting the value of patient-specific and spatially-distributed measurements. Surrogate-based tracking errors (relative to the motion amplitude) were were in the range 7% to 23% (1.02-3.57mm) and were significantly influenced by external motion parameters. The gain of MRI guidance compared to surrogate-based motion tracking was larger than 30% in 50% of the subjects when considering a 1.5-mm tracking error tolerance. Conclusions: Automatic feature detection applied to cine-MRI allows detailed liver motion description to be obtained. Such information was used to quantify the performance of surrogate-based tracking methods and to provide a prospective comparison with respect to MRI

  16. Uranium project. Geochemistry prospection[Study of Uranium geochemical prospection in Uruguay]; Proyecto Uranio. Prospeccion geoquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, J

    1983-07-01

    Geochemistry studies the distribution of the chemicals elements in the terrestrial crust and its ways to migrate. The terminology used in this report is the following one: 1) Principles of the prospection geochemistry 2) Stages of the prospection geochemistry 3)utility of the prospection geochemistry 4) geochemistry of uranium 5) procedures used within the framework of uranium project 6) Average available 7) Selection of the zones of prospection geochemistry 8) Stages of the prospection, Sample preparation and analisis 9) Presentation of the results.

  17. Economic burden of primary compared with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection in hospitalized patients: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, D N; Aitken, S L; Barragan, L F; Bozorgui, S; Goddu, S; Navarro, M E; Xie, Y; DuPont, H L; Garey, K W

    2016-07-01

    Few studies have investigated the additional healthcare costs of recurrent C. difficile infection (CDI). To quantify inpatient treatment costs for CDI and length of stay among hospitalized patients with primary CDI only, compared with CDI patients who experienced recurrent CDI. This was a prospective, observational cohort study of hospitalized adult patients with primary CDI followed for three months to assess for recurrent CDI episodes. Total and CDI-attributable hospital length of stay (LOS) and hospitalization costs were compared among patients who did or did not experience at least one recurrent CDI episode. In all, 540 hospitalized patients aged 62±17 years (42% males) with primary CDI were enrolled, of whom 95 patients (18%) experienced 101 recurrent CDI episodes. CDI-attributable median (interquartile range) LOS and costs (in US$) increased from 7 (4-13) days and $13,168 (7,525-24,456) for patients with primary CDI only versus 15 (8-25) days and $28,218 (15,050-47,030) for patients with recurrent CDI (Pcosts increased from 11 (6-22) days and $20,693 (11,287-41,386) for patients with primary CDI only versus 24 (11-48) days and $45,148 (20,693-82,772) for patients with recurrent CDI (Pcost of pharmacological treatment while hospitalized was $60 (23-200) for patients with primary CDI only (N=445) and $140 (30-260) for patients with recurrent CDI (P=0.0013). This study demonstrated that patients with CDI experience a significant healthcare economic burden attributed to CDI. Economic costs and healthcare burden increased significantly for patients with recurrent CDI. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pars Plana-Modified versus Conventional Ahmed Glaucoma Valve in Patients Undergoing Penetrating Keratoplasty: A Prospective Comparative Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Jitendra Kumar Singh; Jain, Vaibhav Kumar; Kaushik, Jaya; Mishra, Avinash

    2017-03-01

    To compare the outcome of pars-plana-modified Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) versus limbal-based conventional AGV into the anterior chamber, in patients undergoing penetrating keratoplasty (PK) for glaucoma with coexisting corneal diseases. In this prospective randomized clinical trial, 58 eyes of 58 patients with glaucoma and coexisting corneal disease were divided into two groups. Group 1 (29 eyes of 29 patients) included patients undergoing limbal-based conventional AGV into the anterior chamber (AC) along-with PK and group 2 (29 eyes of 29 patients) included those undergoing pars-plana-modified AGV along-with PK. Outcome measures included corneal graft clarity, intraocular pressure (IOP), number of antiglaucoma medications, and postoperative complications. Patients were followed up for a minimum period of 2 years. Out of 58 eyes (58 patients), 50 eyes (50 patients: 25 eyes of 25 patients each in group 1 and group 2) completed the study and were analyzed. Complete success rate for AGV (group 1: 76%; group 2: 72%; p = 0.842) and corneal graft clarity (group 1: 68%; group 2: 76%; p = 0.081) were comparable between the two groups at 2 years. Graft failure was more in conventional AGV (32%) as compared to pars plana-modified AGV (24%) but not statistically significant (p = 0.078) at 2 years. Though both procedures were comparable in various outcome measures, pars-plana-modified AGV is a viable option for patients undergoing PK, as it provides a relatively better corneal graft survival rate and lesser complications that were associated with conventional AGV.

  19. Gravity versus manual external rotation stress view in evaluating ankle stability: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBa, Thu-Ba; Gugala, Zbigniew; Morris, Randal P; Panchbhavi, Vinod K

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to determine whether gravity versus manual external rotation stress testing effectively detects widening of the medial clear space in isolated ankle fractures when compared with the uninjured contralateral side. Manual external rotation stress and gravity stress tests were performed on injured and uninjured ankles of ankle fracture patients in a clinic setting. Medial clear space measurements were recorded and differences between gravity and manual stress views were determined. Twenty consecutive patients with ankle injury were enrolled in the study. When compared with the uninjured side, gravity stress views showed a statistically significant (P = .017) increase in medial clear space widening (1.85 ± 1.07 mm) compared with manual stress view widening (1.35 ± 1.04 mm). This study suggests that gravity stress views are as effective as manual external rotation stress views in detecting medial clear space widening in isolated fibular fractures. Diagnostic, Level II: Prospective, comparative trial. © 2014 The Author(s).

  20. A Prospective Observational Study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: This was a prospective, questionnaire-based observational study. Printed questionnaires were distributed to the visitors of medical, surgical and neurosurgical ICU patients to determine awareness of basic infection control practices among visitors to an ICU. All the ICU staff, including nurses, doctors, consultant ...

  1. Premature Discontinuation of Prospective Clinical Studies Approved by a Research Ethics Committee - A Comparison of Randomised and Non-Randomised Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Blümle

    Full Text Available Premature discontinuation of clinical studies affects about 25% of randomised controlled trials (RCTs which raises concerns about waste of scarce resources for research. The risk of discontinuation of non-randomised prospective studies (NPSs is yet unclear.To compare the proportion of discontinued studies between NPSs and RCTs that received ethical approval.We systematically surveyed prospective longitudinal clinical studies that were approved by a single REC in Freiburg, Germany between 2000 and 2002. We collected study characteristics, identified subsequent publications, and surveyed investigators to elucidate whether a study was discontinued and, if so, why.Of 917 approved studies, 547 were prospective longitudinal studies (306 RCTs and 241 NPSs. NPSs were on average smaller than RCTs, more frequently single centre and pilot studies, and less frequently funded by industry. NPSs were less frequently discontinued than RCTs: 32/221 (14% versus 78/288 (27%, p<0.001, missing data excluded. Poor recruitment was the most frequent reason for discontinuation in both NPSs (36% and RCTs (37%.Compared to RCTs, NPSs were at lower risk for discontinuation. Measures to reliably predict, sustain, and stimulate recruitment could prevent discontinuation of many RCTs but also of some NPSs.

  2. Five-year follow-up of a prospective non-randomised study comparing duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection with classic Whipple procedure in the treatment of chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möbius, C; Max, D; Uhlmann, D; Gumpp, K; Behrbohm, J; Horvath, K; Hauss, J; Witzigmann, H

    2007-05-01

    Three prospective randomised studies were conducted to compare pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) with duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (DPPHR) in patients suffering from chronic pancreatitis (cP). In these three series, the superiority of the duodenum-preserving technique with regard to quality of life (QOL) and pain relief has been demonstrated. Long-term follow-up investigations have not been published so far. The present paper reports on a 5-year follow-up study of a prospective, non-randomised trial comparing classic Whipple procedure (PD) with Beger DPPHR. Seventy patients were initially enrolled in this study. Fifty-one patients were left for the present long-term outcome analysis (PD, n = 24; DPPHR, n = 27). The follow-up included the following parameters: QOL, pain intensity, endocrine and exocrine function, and body mass index (BMI). The median follow-up was 63.5 (range 56-67) months. Two patients in the DPPHR group and none in the PD group underwent a re-operation. The QOL scores of the relevant symptom scales (nausea, pain, diarrhoea) and functional parameters (physical status, working ability, global QOL) were significantly better in the DPPHR group than in the PD group. Pain intensity as self-assessed by the patients was less pronounced in the DPPHR group (P Whipple procedure in terms of QOL and pain intensity as self-assessed by the patients.

  3. A prospective observational study comparing a physiological scoring system with time-based discharge criteria in pediatric ambulatory surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, James; Forrest, Helen; Crawford, Mark W

    2015-10-01

    Discharge criteria based on physiological scoring systems can be used in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) to fast-track patients after ambulatory surgery; however, studies comparing physiological scoring systems with traditional time-based discharge criteria are lacking. The purpose of this study was to compare PACU discharge readiness times using physiological vs time-based discharge criteria in pediatric ambulatory surgical patients. We recorded physiological observations from consecutive American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I-III patients aged 1-18 yr who were admitted to the PACU after undergoing ambulatory surgery in a tertiary academic pediatric hospital. The physiological score was a combination of the Aldrete and Chung systems. Scores were recorded every 15 min starting upon arrival in the PACU. Patients were considered fit for discharge once they attained a score ≥12 (maximum score, 14), provided no score was zero, with the time to achieve a score ≥12 defining the criteria-based discharge (CBD) time. Patients were discharged from the PACU when both the CBD and the existing time-based discharge (TBD) criteria were met. The CBD and TBD data were compared using Kaplan-Meier and log-rank analysis. Observations from 506 children are presented. Median (interquartile range [IQR]) age was 5.5 [2.8-9.9] yr. Median [IQR] CBD and TBD PACU discharge readiness times were 30 [15-45] min and 60 [45-60] min, respectively. Analysis of Kaplan-Meier curves indicated a significant difference in discharge times using the different criteria (hazard ratio, 5.43; 95% confidence interval, 4.51 to 6.53; P < 0.001). All patients were discharged home without incident. This prospective study suggests that discharge decisions based on physiological criteria have the potential for significantly speeding the transit of children through the PACU, thereby enhancing PACU efficiency and resource utilization.

  4. No difference in outcome for open versus arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a prospective comparative trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayle, Xavier; Pham, Thuy-Trang; Faruch, Marie; Gobet, Aurelie; Mansat, Pierre; Bonnevialle, Nicolas

    2017-12-01

    Arthroscopic techniques tend to become the gold standard in rotator cuff repair. However, little data are reported in the literature regarding the improvement of postoperative outcomes and re-tear rate relative to conventional open surgery. The aim of this study was to compare clinical outcomes and cuff integrity after arthroscopic versus open cuff repair. We prospectively assessed clinical outcomes and cuff integrity after an arthroscopic or open rotator cuff repair with a minimum follow-up of 12 months. Clinical evaluation was based on Constant score, Simple Shoulder Value (SSV) and American Shoulder and Elbow Score (ASES). Rotator cuff healing was explored with ultrasound. 44 patients in arthroscopic group A (mean age 56-year-old) and 43 in open group O (mean age 61-year-old) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Tendons were repaired with a single row technique associated with biceps tenodesis and subacromial decompression. All objective clinical scores significantly improved postoperatively in both groups. No statistical difference was identified between group A and O regarding, respectively, Constant score (72 vs 75 points; p = 0.3), ASES score (88 vs 91 points; p = 0.3), and SSV (81 vs 85%). The overall rate of re-tear (Sugaya type IV or V) reached 7 and 9%, respectively, in group A and O (p = 0.8). This study did not prove any difference of arthroscopic over open surgery in case of rotator cuff repair regarding clinical outcome and cuff integrity at 1-year follow-up. Prospective comparative study.

  5. Short-term results of a prospective randomized evaluator blinded multicenter study comparing TVT and TVT-Secur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrada Hamer, Maria; Larsson, Per-Göran; Teleman, Pia; Etén-Bergqvist, Christina; Persson, Jan

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this prospective randomized multicenter study was to compare TVT (tension-free vaginal tape) with TVT-Secur in terms of efficacy and safety. We set out to enrol 280 stress incontinent women with a half time interim analysis of short-term cure and a continuous registration of adverse events. Of 133 randomized women, 126 were operated and 123 (TVT n = 62, TVT-Secur n = 61) available for 2 months follow-up. No significant differences were found between groups regarding demographics or grade of incontinence. At 2 months follow-up, subjective cure rate following TVT-Secur was significantly lower than for TVT (72% and 92%, respectively, p = 0.01). Three major complications occurred in the TVT-Secur group: tape erosion into the urethra, a tape inadvertently placed inside the bladder, and an immediate postoperative bleeding from the corona mortis. No major complications occurred in the TVT group. No significant differences were found between groups regarding perioperative bleeding, hospital stay, urge symptoms, or postoperative urinary tract infections. Median time for surgery was 13 and 22 min for TVT-Secur and TVT, respectively (p TVT-Secur procedure had a significantly lower subjective cure rate than the retropubic TVT procedure. Due to this, in addition to three serious complications in the TVT-Secur group, we decided to stop further enrolment after the interim analysis. We discourage from further use of the TVT-Secur.

  6. Quality of optometry referrals to neovascular age-related macular degeneration clinic: a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Muen, Wisam J; Hewick, Simon A

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the quality of referrals to a neovascular age-related macular degeneration clinic from optometrists using the standard Rapid Access Referral Form (RARF) from the Royal College of Ophthalmologists. Design A prospective study. Prospective data were gathered from all optometry referrals using the RARF, between the periods of December 2006 to August 2009. These were assessed for accuracy of history, clinical signs and final diagnosis as compared to a macula expert. Setting ...

  7. A prospective comparative study on neovascular glaucoma and non-neovascular refractory glaucoma following Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Zhou, Minwen; Wang, Wei; Huang, Wenbin; Chen, Shida; Li, Xingyi; Gao, Xinbo; Zhang, Xiulan

    2014-01-01

    Neovascular glaucoma is a refractory disease, and difficult to manage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation (AGVI) in neovascular glaucoma (NVG) and non-NVG patients. This prospective, non-randomized study included 55 eyes of 55 patients with refractory glaucoma; 27 had NVG (NVG group) and 28 had non-NVG (non-NVG group). All of the patients underwent AGVI. The NVG group was adjunctively injected with intravitreal ranibizumab/bevacizumab (IVR/IVB) before AGVI. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was the primary outcome measure in this study. Surgical success rate, number of antiglaucoma medications used, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and postoperative complications were analyzed between the groups. All of the patients completed the study (follow-up of 12 months). Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis indicated that the qualified success rates in the NVG and non-NVG groups at 12 months were 70.5% and 92.9%, respectively; this difference was significant (P = 0.036). The complete success rates in the NVG and non-NVG groups at 12 months were 66.7% and 89.3%, respectively (P = 0.049). Compared with preoperative examinations, the postoperative mean IOP and use of medications were significantly lower at all follow-up time points in both groups (all P glaucoma, but the success rate of surgery was related to the type of refractory glaucoma. The complete and qualified success rates of NVG patient adjunctive anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment are still lower than those of non-NVG patients.

  8. SUICIDAL HANGING IN URBAN YOUTH : A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhola Kumar Singh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Suicide is among the top three causes of death among youth worldwide. Hanging is among the most common modes of suicide. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this prospective study is to determine the Suicidal hanging in urban youth and determine the prevalence of suicidal hanging in our community. METHODS : In this descriptive, prospective, cross sectional study, all patients who pres ented to the department of emergency medicine with suicidal hanging during this study period of 12 months from January 2010 - December 2011 in . were included. RESULTS : Total number of males in the study is 32 (64%, females in the study is 18(36%. Mean age of the you th was 22.50± 8.15(SD years, Male 18.50± 12.15(SD years, Females 20.50 ±5.25(SD years; predominantly the patients were in the age group of 22 - 26 years. Number of male smokers in the study was 26 (81.25% female smokers were 4(22.22%, number of m ale alcoholics were 27(84.37% whereas female alcoholics were 6(33.33%, number of patients with pallor in males were 16(50% whereas females with pallor were 12(66.66%, number of males with skin changes were 6(18.75% when compared to females who had 8(4 4.44% skin changes, number of males wit oedema were 4(12.5% and 6(33.33% of females had oedema, the mean weight among males were 48±8.34kgs when compared to females which was 42±6.56kgs. Most of the patients who attempted suicide had varied personality issues from mood disorders to psychosis. CONCLUSION : There is significant percentage of patients who attempt suicide by hanging

  9. A Prospective Randomized Study Comparing Mini-surgical Percutaneous Dilatational Tracheostomy With Surgical and Classical Percutaneous Tracheostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemian, Seyed Mohammad-Reza; Digaleh, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) is more accessible and less time-demanding compared with surgical tracheostomy (ST), it has its own limitations. We introduced a modified PDT technique and brought some surgical knowledge to the bedside to overcome some standard percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy relative contraindications. PDT uses a blind route of tracheal access that usually requires perioperational imaging guidance to protect accidental injuries. Moreover, there are contraindications in certain cases, limiting widespread PDT application. Different PDT modifications and devices have been represented to address the problem; however, these approaches are not generally popular among professionals due to limited accessibility and/or other reasons. We prospectively analyzed the double-blinded trial, patient and nurse head evaluating the complications, and collected data from 360 patients who underwent PDT, ST, or our modified mini-surgical PDT (msPDT, Hashemian method). These patients were divided into 2 groups—contraindicated to PDT—and randomization was done for msPDT or PDT in PDT-indicated group and msPDT or ST for PDT-contraindicated patients. The cases were compared in terms of pre and postoperational complications. Data analysis demonstrated that the mean value of procedural time was significantly lower in the msPDT group, either compared with the standard PDT or the ST group. Paratracheal insertion, intraprocedural hypoxemia, and bleeding were also significantly lower in the msPDT group compared with the standard PDT group. Other complications were not significantly different between msPDT and ST patients. The introduced msPDT represented a semiopen incision, other than blinded PDT route of tracheal access that allowed proceduralist to withdraw bronchoscopy and reduced the total time of procedure. Interestingly, the most important improvement was performing msPDT on PDT-contraindicated patients with the complication rate

  10. A prospective study comparing endoscopic subcutaneous mastectomy plus immediate reconstruction with implants and breast conserving surgery for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lin-Jun; Jiang, Jun; Yang, Xin-Hua; Zhang, Yi; Li, Xing-Gang; Chen, Xian-Chun; Zhong, Ling

    2009-12-20

    Breast conserving surgery (BCS) has been the standard surgical procedure for the treatment of early breast cancer. Endoscopic subcutaneous mastectomy (ESM) plus immediate reconstruction with implants is an emerging procedure. The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of these two surgical procedures in our clinical setting. From March 2004 to October 2007, 43 patients with breast cancer underwent ESM plus axillary lymph node dissection and immediate reconstruction with implants, while 54 patients underwent BCS. The clinical and pathological characteristics, surgical safety, and therapeutic effects were compared between the two groups. There were no significant differences in the age, clinical stage, histopathologic type of tumor, operative blood loss, postoperative drainage time, and postoperative complications between the two groups (P > 0.05). The postoperative complications were partial necrosis of the nipple and superficial skin flap in the ESM patients, and hydrops in the axilla and residual cavity in the BCS patients. There was no significant difference in the rate of satisfactory postoperative cosmetic outcomes between the ESM (88.4%, 38/43) and BCS (92.6%, 50/54) patients (P > 0.05). During follow-up of 6 months to 4 years, all patients treated with ESM were disease-free, but 3 patients who underwent BCS had metastasis or recurrence -one of these patients died of multiple organ metastasis. After considering the wide indications for use, high surgical safety, and favorable cosmetic outcomes, we conclude that ESM plus axillary lymph node dissection and immediate reconstruction with implants - the new surgery of choice for breast cancer - warrants serious consideration as the prospective next standard surgical procedure.

  11. One-year results of a prospective randomized, evaluator-blinded, multicenter study comparing TVT and TVT Secur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrada Hamer, Maria; Larsson, Per-Göran; Teleman, Pia; Bergqvist, Christina Eten; Persson, Jan

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this prospective randomized multicenter study was to compare retropubic tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) with TVT Secur in terms of efficacy and safety. We set out to enrol 280 stress urinary incontinent (SUI) women with a half-time interim analysis of short-term cure and adverse events. The short-term results have previously been published. Of the 133 randomized women, 125 underwent surgery, and 121 (TVT n = 61, TVT Secur n = 60) were available for follow-up 1 year postsurgery. No significant differences were found between groups regarding demographics or incontinence grade. One year after surgery, both subjective and objective cure rates were significantly lower for TVT Secur than for TVT (subjective cure: TVT 98 %, TVT Secur 80 %, p = 0.03; objective cure: TVT 94 %, TVT Secur 71 % for cough test, p = 0.01; TVT 76 %, TVT Secur 58 % for pad test, p = 0.05 ). Three major complications occurred in the TVT Secur group: one tape erosion into the urethra, one tape inadvertently placed into the bladder, and one immediate postoperative bleeding due to injury to the corona mortis. No major complications occurred in the TVT group. No significant differences were found between groups regarding peroperative bleeding, hospital stay, urge symptoms, residual urinary volume, subjective bladder emptying problems, postoperative urinary tract infections, and minor complications. The TVT Secur group used more antimuscarine medication after surgery than the TVT group (p = 0.03). Median time for surgery was 13 and 22 min for TVT Secur and TVT, respectively (p TVT Secur procedure had significantly inferior subjective and objective cure rates compared with the retropubic TVT procedure. Three serious adverse events occurred in the TVT Secur group. We therefore discourage further use of TVT Secur.

  12. Open wedge metatarsal osteotomy versus crescentic osteotomy to correct severe hallux valgus deformity - A prospective comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Jens Ulrik; Hamborg-Petersen, Ellen; Herold, Niels; Hansen, Palle Bo; Froekjaer, Johnny

    2016-03-01

    Different techniques of proximal osteotomies have been introduced to correct severe hallux valgus. The open wedge osteotomy is a newly introduced method for proximal osteotomy. The aim of this prospective randomized study was to compare the radiological and clinical results after operation for severe hallux valgus, comparing the open wedge osteotomy to the crescentic osteotomy which is our traditional treatment. Forty-five patients with severe hallux valgus (hallux valgus angle >35̊, and intermetatarsal angle >15̊) were included in this study. The treatment was proximal open wedge osteotomy and fixation with plate (Hemax), group 1, or operation with proximal crescentic osteotomy and fixation with a 3mm cannulated screw, group 2. The mean age was 52 years (19-71). Forty-one females and four males were included. Clinical and radiological follow-ups were performed 4 and 12 months after the operation. In group 1 the hallux valgus angle decreased from 39.0̊ to 24.1̊ after 4 months and 27.9̊ after 12 months. In group 2 the angle decreased from 38.3̊ to 21.4̊ after 4 months and 27.0̊ after 12 months. The intermetatarsal angle in group 1 was 19.0̊ preoperatively, 11.6̊ after 4 months and 12.6̊ after 12 months. In group 2 the mean intermetatarsal angle was 18.9̊ preoperatively, 12.0̊ after 4 months and 12.6̊ after 12 months. The AOFAS score improved from 59.3 to 81.5 in group 1 and from 61.8 to 84.8 in group 2 respectively measured 12 months postoperatively. The relative length of the 1 metatarsal compared to 2 metatarsal bone was 0.88 and 0.87 preoperatively and 0.88 and 0.86 for group 1 and 2 respectively measured after 12 months. Crescentic osteotomy and open wedge osteotomy improve AOFAS score and VAS scores on patients operated with severe hallux valgus. No significant difference was found in the two groups looking at the postoperative improvement of HVA and IMA measured 4 and 12 months postoperatively. The postoperative VAS score and AOFAS score were

  13. A Study on Chocolate Consumption in Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgen, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    This study was planned and conducted to determine the chocolate consumption habits of prospective teachers. The study population was comprised of students attending the Faculty of Education at Gazi University in Ankara and the sample consisted of 251 prospective teachers selected with simple random sampling. 96.4% and 3.6% of the prospective…

  14. Optimizing life success through residential immersive life skills programs for youth with disabilities: study protocol of a mixed-methods, prospective, comparative cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Amy C; King, Gillian; Rudzik, Alanna; Kingsnorth, Shauna; Gorter, Jan Willem

    2016-09-06

    Young people with disabilities often lag behind their typically developing peers in the achievement of adult roles, which has been attributed to a lack of opportunities to develop critical life skills. Residential Immersive Life Skills (RILS) programs provide situated learning opportunities to develop life skills alongside peers and away from home in real-world settings. Retrospective research suggests that attending RILS programs is a transformative experience that empowers youth, provides parental hope, and increases service provider expertise. However, prospective, comparative research is needed to determine longer term benefits of these programs on youth life trajectories, in addition to exploring the program features and participant experiences that optimize program success. This protocol describes a 5-year, multi-site prospective study examining the effects of RILS programs for youth with disabilities. The study involves RILS programs at three sites in Ontario, Canada. Cohorts of treatment and control groups will receive the study protocol over 3 successive years. Thirty English-speaking participants aged 14-21 years with a child-onset disability and the cognitive capacity to engage in goal setting will be recruited every year for 3 years in the following groups: youth attending a RILS program (Group A); a deferred RILS control group of youth (Group B); a control group of youth attending a non-residential life skills program (Group C); and a control group matched on age, diagnoses, and cognitive capacity not receiving any life skills intervention (Group D). All participants will complete measures of self-determination and self-efficacy at four time points. Program opportunities and experiences will also be assessed in-the-moment at the RILS programs. Qualitative interviews pre-program and at 3- and 12-months post-program will be undertaken with a sub-sample of youth and parents to explore their expectations and experiences. This study will address key gaps

  15. Comparative Analysis of the Approaches Used By Prospective Music Teachers in Turkey in Practicing the Piano Works of Contemporary Turkish Composers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmezöz, Feyza

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the levels of recognizing piano works of contemporary Turkish composers, the importance of practicing these works and difficulty in playing these works by the prospective music teachers in the Departments of Music Education in Turkey. Furthermore, this study performed a comparative analysis on the opinions of the prospective…

  16. Methods and models used in comparative risk studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devooght, J.

    1983-01-01

    Comparative risk studies make use of a large number of methods and models based upon a set of assumptions incompletely formulated or of value judgements. Owing to the multidimensionality of risks and benefits, the economic and social context may notably influence the final result. Five classes of models are briefly reviewed: accounting of fluxes of effluents, radiation and energy; transport models and health effects; systems reliability and bayesian analysis; economic analysis of reliability and cost-risk-benefit analysis; decision theory in presence of uncertainty and multiple objectives. Purpose and prospect of comparative studies are assessed in view of probable diminishing returns for large generic comparisons [fr

  17. Treatment Efficacy of Electromyography versus Fiberscopy-Guided Botulinum Toxin Injection in Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia Patients: A Prospective Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Wook; Park, Jae Hong; Park, Ki Nam; Lee, Seung Won

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. This study prospectively evaluates and compares the treatment efficacy of botulinum toxin injection under electromyography guidance (EMG group) and percutaneous botulinum toxin injection under flexible fiberscopic guidance (fiberscopy group). Methods. Thirty patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD), who had never received treatment, were randomly allocated into EMG- or fiberscopy-guided botulinum toxin injections between March 2008 and February 2010. We assessed acoustic and aerodynamic voice parameters, and the voice handicap index (VHI) before injection and at 1, 3, and 6 months after injection. Results. The mean total dosage of botulinum toxin was similar for both groups: 1.7 ± 0.5 U for the EMG group and 1.8 ± 0.4 U for the fiberscopy group (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences in outcomes between the two groups in either the duration of effectiveness or complications such as breathy voice and aspiration. Conclusion. Botulinum toxin injection under fiberscopic guidance is a viable alternative to EMG-guided botulinum toxin injection for the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia when EMG equipment is unavailable. PMID:25383369

  18. Treatment Efficacy of Electromyography versus Fiberscopy-Guided Botulinum Toxin Injection in Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia Patients: A Prospective Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Wook Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study prospectively evaluates and compares the treatment efficacy of botulinum toxin injection under electromyography guidance (EMG group and percutaneous botulinum toxin injection under flexible fiberscopic guidance (fiberscopy group. Methods. Thirty patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD, who had never received treatment, were randomly allocated into EMG- or fiberscopy-guided botulinum toxin injections between March 2008 and February 2010. We assessed acoustic and aerodynamic voice parameters, and the voice handicap index (VHI before injection and at 1, 3, and 6 months after injection. Results. The mean total dosage of botulinum toxin was similar for both groups: 1.7 ± 0.5 U for the EMG group and 1.8 ± 0.4 U for the fiberscopy group (P>0.05. There were no significant differences in outcomes between the two groups in either the duration of effectiveness or complications such as breathy voice and aspiration. Conclusion. Botulinum toxin injection under fiberscopic guidance is a viable alternative to EMG-guided botulinum toxin injection for the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia when EMG equipment is unavailable.

  19. Treatment efficacy of electromyography versus fiberscopy-guided botulinum toxin injection in adductor spasmodic dysphonia patients: a prospective comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Wook; Park, Jae Hong; Park, Ki Nam; Lee, Seung Won

    2014-01-01

    This study prospectively evaluates and compares the treatment efficacy of botulinum toxin injection under electromyography guidance (EMG group) and percutaneous botulinum toxin injection under flexible fiberscopic guidance (fiberscopy group). Thirty patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD), who had never received treatment, were randomly allocated into EMG- or fiberscopy-guided botulinum toxin injections between March 2008 and February 2010. We assessed acoustic and aerodynamic voice parameters, and the voice handicap index (VHI) before injection and at 1, 3, and 6 months after injection. The mean total dosage of botulinum toxin was similar for both groups: 1.7 ± 0.5 U for the EMG group and 1.8 ± 0.4 U for the fiberscopy group (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences in outcomes between the two groups in either the duration of effectiveness or complications such as breathy voice and aspiration. Botulinum toxin injection under fiberscopic guidance is a viable alternative to EMG-guided botulinum toxin injection for the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia when EMG equipment is unavailable.

  20. Pregnancy outcome after in utero exposure to local anesthetics as part of dental treatment: A prospective comparative cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagai, Aharon; Diav-Citrin, Orna; Shechtman, Svetlana; Ornoy, Asher

    2015-08-01

    Dental treatment and use of local anesthetics during pregnancy generally are considered harmless because of lack of evidence of adverse pregnancy effects. Data on the safety of dental treatment and local anesthetics during pregnancy are scant. Dental care is often a reason for concern both among women and their health care providers. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the rate of major anomalies after exposure to local anesthetics as part of dental care during pregnancy. The authors performed a prospective, comparative observational study at the Israeli Teratology Information Services between 1999 and 2005. The authors followed 210 pregnancies exposed to dental local anesthetics (112 [53%] in the first trimester) and compared them with 794 pregnancies not exposed to teratogens. The rate of major anomalies was not significantly different between the groups (4.8% versus 3.3%, P = .300). There was no difference in the rate of miscarriages, gestational age at delivery, or birth weight. The most common types of dental treatment were endodontic treatment (43%), tooth extraction (31%), and tooth restoration (21%). Most women (63%) were not exposed to additional medications. Approximately one-half (51%) of the women were not exposed to dental radiography, and 44% were exposed to radiation, mostly bite-wing radiography. This study's results suggest that use of dental local anesthetics, as well as dental treatment during pregnancy, do not represent a major teratogenic risk. There seems to be no reason to prevent pregnant women from receiving dental treatment and local anesthetics during pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of intralesional injection of hyaluronic acid compared with verapamil in Peyronie's disease: preliminary results from a prospective, double-blinded, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favilla, V; Russo, G I; Zucchi, A; Siracusa, G; Privitera, S; Cimino, S; Madonia, M; Cai, T; Cavallini, G; Liguori, G; D'Achille, G; Silvani, M; Franco, G; Verze, P; Palmieri, A; Torrisi, B; Mirone, V; Morgia, G

    2017-07-01

    Several intralesional therapeutic protocols have been proposed for the treatment of Peyronie's disease. Among all, hyaluronic acid (HA) and verapamil have been differently tested. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of intralesional verapamil (ILVI) compared with intralesional HA in patients with early onset of Peyronie's disease (PD). This is a multi-centre prospective double-arm, randomized, double-blinded study comparing ILVI vs. intralesional HA after 12-weeks. Sexually active men, older than 18 years and affected by the acute phase of PD were eligible for this study. Patients have been double-blinded randomly divided into two groups (1 : 1 ratio): Group A received intralesional treatment with Verapamil (10 mg in 5 mL of normal saline water) weekly for 12 weeks, while group B received intralesional treatment with HA (0.8% highly purified sodium salt HA 16 mg/2 mL) weekly for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy outcome was the change from the baseline to the endpoint (12 weeks after therapy) for the penile curvature (degree). The secondary outcome was the change in the plaque size and in the International Index of erectile Function (IIEF-5) score. The difference between post- and pre-treatment plaque size was -1.36 mm (SD ± 1.27) for Group A and -1.80 mm (SD ± 2.47) for Group B (p-value = NS). IIEF-5 increased of 1.46 points (SD ± 2.18) in Group A and 1.78 (SD ± 2.48) in Group B (p-value ± NS). No difference in penile curvature was observed in Group A, while in Group B the penile curvature decreased of 4.60° (SD ± 5.63) from the baseline (p < 0.001) and vs. Group A. According to PGI-I results, we found significant difference as concerning patient global impression of improvement (PGI-I) (4.0 vs. 2.0; p < 0.05). This prospective, double-arm, randomized, double-blinded study comparing ILVI vs. HA as intralesional therapy showed greater efficacy of HA in terms of penile curvature and PGI-I. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and

  2. Chocolate consumption and risk of myocardial infarction: a prospective study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Susanna C; Åkesson, Agneta; Gigante, Bruna; Wolk, Alicja

    2016-07-01

    To examine whether chocolate consumption is associated with a reduced risk of ischaemic heart disease, we used data from a prospective study of Swedish adults and we performed a meta-analysis of available prospective data. The Swedish prospective study included 67 640 women and men from the Cohort of Swedish Men and the Swedish Mammography Cohort who had completed a food-frequency questionnaire and were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline. Myocardial infarction (MI) cases were ascertained through linkage with the Swedish National Patient and Cause of Death Registers. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched from inception until 4 February 2016 to identify prospective studies on chocolate consumption and risk of ischaemic heart disease. The results from eligible studies were combined using a random-effects model. During follow-up (1998-2010), 4417 MI cases were ascertained in the Swedish study. Chocolate consumption was inversely associated with MI risk. Compared with non-consumers, the multivariable relative risk for those who consumed ≥3-4 servings/week of chocolate was 0.87 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.98; p for trend =0.04). Five prospective studies on chocolate consumption and ischaemic heart disease were identified. Together with the Swedish study, the meta-analysis included six studies with a total of 6851 ischaemic heart disease cases. The overall relative risk for the highest versus lowest category of chocolate consumption was 0.90 (95% CI 0.82 to 0.97), with little heterogeneity among studies (I(2)=24.3%). Chocolate consumption is associated with lower risk of MI and ischaemic heart disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Inequalities in mortality among refugees and immigrants compared to native Danes--a historical prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norredam, Marie; Olsbjerg, Maja; Petersen, Jorgen H; Juel, Knud; Krasnik, Allan

    2012-09-10

    Comparisons of mortality patterns between different migrant groups, and between migrants and natives, are relevant to understanding, and ultimately reducing, inequalities in health. To date, European studies on migrants' mortality patterns are scarce and are based solely on country of birth, rather than migrant status. However, mortality patterns may be affected by implications in relation to migrant status, such as health hazards related to life circumstances before and during migration, and factors related to ethnic origin. Consequently, we investigated differences in both all-cause and cause-specific mortality from cancer and cardiovascular disease among refugees and immigrants, compared with the mortality among native Danes. A register-based, historical prospective cohort design. All refugees (n = 29,139) and family-reunited immigrants (n = 27,134) who, between 1 January 1993 and 31 December 1999, were granted right of residence in Denmark were included and matched 1:4 on age and sex with native Danes. To identify deaths, civil registration numbers were cross-linked to the Register of Causes of Death (01.01.1994-31.12.2007) and the Danish Civil Registration System (01.01.1994-31.12.2008). Mortality rate ratios were estimated separately for men and women by migrant status and region of birth, adjusting for age and income and using a Cox regression model, after a median follow-up of 10-13 years after arrival. Compared with native Danes, all-cause mortality was significantly lower among female (RR = 0.78; 95%CI: 0.71;0.85) and male (RR = 0.64; 95%CI: 0.59-0.69;) refugees. The rates were also significantly lower for immigrants: women (RR = 0.44; 95%CI: 0.38;0.51) and men (RR = 0.43; 95%CI: 0.37;0.51). Both migrant groups also had lower cause-specific mortality from cancer and cardiovascular diseases. For both all-cause and cause-specific mortality, immigrants generally had lower mortality than refugees, and differences were observed according to ethnic origin

  4. Bruxism in craniocervical dystonia: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borie, Laetitia; Langbour, Nicolas; Guehl, Dominique; Burbaud, Pierre; Ella, Bruno

    2016-09-01

    Bruxism pathophysiology remains unclear, and its occurrence has been poorly investigated in movement disorders. The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of bruxism in patients with craniocervical dystonia vs. normal controls and to determine its associated clinical features. This is a prospective-control study. A total of 114 dystonic subjects (45 facial dystonia, 69 cervical dystonia) and 182 controls were included. Bruxism was diagnosed using a hetero-questionnaire and a clinical examination performed by trained dentists. Occurrence of bruxism was compared between the different study populations. A binomial logistic regression analysis was used to determine which clinical features influenced bruxism occurrence in each population. The frequency of bruxism was significantly higher in the dystonic group than in normal controls but there was no difference between facial and cervical dystonia. It was also higher in women than in men. Bruxism features were similar between normal controls and dystonic patients except for a higher score of temporomandibular jaw pain in the dystonic group. The higher frequency of bruxism in dystonic patients suggests that bruxism is increased in patients with basal ganglia dysfunction but that its nature does not differ from that seen in bruxers from the normal population.

  5. The price of donation after cardiac death in liver transplantation : a prospective cost-effectiveness study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hilst, Christian S.; IJtsma, Alexander J. C.; Bottema, Jan T.; van Hoek, Bart; Dubbeld, Jeroen; Metselaar, Herold J.; Kazemier, Geert; van den Berg, Aad P.; Porte, Robert J.; Slooff, Maarten J. H.

    This study aims to perform a detailed prospective observational multicenter cost-effectiveness study by comparing liver transplantations with Donation after Brain Death (DBD) and Donation after Cardiac Death (DCD) grafts. All liver transplantations in the three Dutch liver transplant centers between

  6. Psychophysiology of prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothen, Nicolas; Meier, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory involves the self-initiated retrieval of an intention upon an appropriate retrieval cue. Cue identification can be considered as an orienting reaction and may thus trigger a psychophysiological response. Here we present two experiments in which skin conductance responses (SCRs) elicited by prospective memory cues were compared to SCRs elicited by aversive stimuli to test whether a single prospective memory cue triggers a similar SCR as an aversive stimulus. In Experiment 2 we also assessed whether cue specificity had a differential influence on prospective memory performance and on SCRs. We found that detecting a single prospective memory cue is as likely to elicit a SCR as an aversive stimulus. Missed prospective memory cues also elicited SCRs. On a behavioural level, specific intentions led to better prospective memory performance. However, on a psychophysiological level specificity had no influence. More generally, the results indicate reliable SCRs for prospective memory cues and point to psychophysiological measures as valuable approach, which offers a new way to study one-off prospective memory tasks. Moreover, the findings are consistent with a theory that posits multiple prospective memory retrieval stages.

  7. A one-year prospective study of refractory status epilepticus in Modena, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, Giada; Monti, Giulia; Polisi, Michela M; Mirandola, Laura; Marudi, Andrea; Pinelli, Giovanni; Valzania, Franco; Girardis, Massimo; Nichelli, Paolo F; Meletti, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) is a particular critical condition characterized by seizures that continue despite the use of first- and second-line therapies and by high mortality. To date, only one prospective study investigated clinical features and prognostic factors in RSE. In this study, we performed a one-year prospective survey to identify clinical features, outcomes, and variables associated with the development of RSE in the adolescent and adult population of Modena, northern Italy. We observed 83 episodes of SE in 83 patients. In 31% of the cases, third-line therapy (anesthetic drug) was needed. Among this group, 14% resolved and were classified as RSE, while, in 17%, seizures recurred at withdrawal of anesthetics and were classified as super-RSE. The development of RSE/super-RSE was associated with a stuporous/comatose state at presentation and with the absence of a previous history of epilepsy. Refractory status epilepticus/super-refractory status epilepticus showed a worse outcome compared with responsive SE: 54% versus 21% for 30-day mortality; 19% versus 56% for a return to baseline condition. This prospective study confirms stupor/coma at onset as a relevant clinical factor associated with SE refractoriness. We observed a rate of RSE comparable with previous reports, with high mortality and morbidity. Mortality in the observed RSE was higher than in previous studies; this result is probably related to the low rate of a previous epilepsy history in our population that reflects a high incidence of acute symptomatic etiologies, especially the inclusion of patients with postanoxic SE who have a bad prognosis per se. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Status Epilepticus". Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prospective clinical study comparing intraligamentary anesthesia and inferior alveolar nerve block for extraction of posterior mandibular teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämmerer, P W; Adubae, A; Buttchereit, I; Thiem, D G E; Daubländer, M; Frerich, B

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of intraligamentary anesthesia (ILA) with conventional inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) for extraction of mandibular posterior teeth. In a prospective clinical trial, a total of 301 mandibular posterior teeth were extracted in 266 patients. Randomization was conducted into those who received ILA (patients n = 98; teeth n = 105) and those who received IANB (patient n = 140; teeth n = 140). Twenty-eight patients were subjected to bilateral mandibular dental extractions and received both ILA und IANB (teeth n = 56 (ILA n = 28; IANB n = 28)). The primary objective was to evaluate the differences in pain during injection, in pain during tooth extraction (numeric rating scale (NRS)), and in anesthetic quality (complete/sufficient vs. insufficient/no effect). Differences in latency time, amount of anesthetic solution, need for second injection, and duration of local numbness as well as in the incidence of dry socket were assessed. ILA had significant lower pain of injection (p < 0.001), shorter latency time (p < 0.001), and shorter duration of local numbness (p < 0.001) and required lesser amount of local anesthetic solution (p < 0.001) together with a similar anesthetic quality (p = 0.082) compared to IANB. Concerning pain during extraction (p = 0.211), frequency of second injection (p = 0.197), and incidence of dry socket (p = 0.178), no significant differences were detected. ILA fulfills the requirements of a minimal invasive and patient-friendly local anesthetic technique. In accordance, it represents a safe and reliable alternative to IANB for extraction of mandibular posterior teeth. ILA can be recommended for routine dental extractions.

  9. Age effects in emotional prospective memory: cue valence differentially affects the prospective and retrospective component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzspahn, Katharina M; Horn, Sebastian S; Bayen, Ute J; Kliegel, Matthias

    2012-06-01

    While first studies suggested that emotional task material may enhance prospective memory performance in young and older adults, the extent and mechanisms of this effect are under debate. The authors explored possible differential effects of cue valence on the prospective and retrospective component of prospective memory in young and older adults. Forty-five young and 41 older adults performed a prospective memory task in which emotional valence of the prospective memory cue was manipulated (positive, negative, neutral). The multinomial model of event-based prospective memory was used to analyze effects of valence and age on the two prospective memory components separately. Results revealed an interaction indicating that age differences were smaller in both emotional valence conditions. For older adults positive cues improved the prospective component, while negative cues improved the retrospective component. No main effect of valence was found for younger adults on an overt accuracy measure, but model-based analyses showed that the retrospective component was enhanced in the positive compared with the negative cue condition. The study extends the literature in demonstrating that processes underlying emotional effects on prospective memory may differ depending on valence and age. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  10. Comparative performance of current definitions of sarcopenia against the prospective incidence of falls among community dwelling seniors age 65 and older

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: To compare the extent to which 7 available definitions of sarcopenia and 2 related definitions predict the prospective rate of falling. Methods: We studied a cohort of 445 seniors (mean age 71 years, 45% men) living in the community who were followed with a detailed fall assessment for 3 ...

  11. A prospective study (SCOPE) comparing the cardiometabolic and respiratory effects of air pollution exposure on healthy and pre-diabetic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanwen; Han, Yiqun; Zhu, Tong; Li, Weiju; Zhang, Hongyin

    2018-01-01

    Air pollution is known to be a major risk factor for cardiopulmonary disease, but this is unclear for cardiometabolic disease (e.g. diabetes). This is of considerable public health importance, given the nationwide epidemic of diabetes, accompanied by severe air pollution, in China. The evidence so far remained inadequate to answer questions of whether individuals with cardiometabolic dysfunctions are susceptible to air pollution and whether air pollution exacerbates diabetes development via certain biological pathways. In this manuscript, we summarize the results and limitations of studies exploring these two topics and elaborate our design of a prospective panel study (SCOPE) as a solution. We assessed and compared the health effect of air pollution among pre-diabetic individuals and matched healthy controls through four repeated clinical visits over 1 year. Comprehensive evaluation was made to both health endpoints and exposure. The primary biomarkers were assessed to reveal the impact on multiple biological pathways, including glycolipid metabolism and insulin resistance, endothelial function, and inflammation. Detailed chemical and size fractional components of particulate matter were measured in this study, along with the application of personal monitors. The work should increase our understanding of how air pollution affects individuals with cardiometabolic dysfunction and the underlying mechanisms.

  12. A Study on Teaching Gases to Prospective Primary Science Teachers through Problem-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senocak, Erdal; Taskesenligil, Yavuz; Sozbilir, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the achievement of prospective primary science teachers in a problem-based curriculum with those in a conventional primary science teacher preparation program with regard to success in learning about gases and developing positive attitudes towards chemistry. The subjects of the study were 101 first year…

  13. Comparing Views of Primary School Mathematics Teachers and Prospective Mathematics Teachers about Instructional Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Baki

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Technology is rapidly improving in both hardware and software side. As one of the contemporary needs people should acquire certain knowledge, skills, attitudes and habits to understand this technology, to adapt to it and to make use of its benefits. In addition, as in all domains of life, change and improvement is also unavoidable for educational field. As known, change and improvement in education depends on lots of factors. One of the most important factors is teacher. In order to disseminate educational reforms, teachers themselves should accept the innovation first (Hardy, 1998, Baki, 2002; Oral, 2004. There has been variety of studies investigating teacher and prospective teachers‟ competences, attitudes and opinions (Paprzychi, Vikovic & Pierson, 1994; Hardy, 1998; Kocasaraç, 2003; Lin, Hsiech and Pierson, 2004; Eliküçük, 2006; YeĢilyurt, 2006; Fendi, 2007; Teo, 2008; Arslan, Kutluca & Özpınar, 2009. As the common result of these studies indicate that teachers‟ interest towards using instructional technology have increased. Accordingly, most of the teachers began to think that using instructional technologies becomes inevitable for teachers. By reviewing the related literature, no studies have been come across comparing the opinions of teachers and teacher candidates about instructional technologies. In this study, it was aimed to investigate and compare the views of mathematics teachers with prospective mathematics teachers about ICT. It was considered that collecting opinions of teachers and teachers candidates about the instructional technologies, comparing and contrasting them will contribute to the field. To follow this research inquiry, a descriptive approach type; case study research design was applied. The reason for choosing such design is that the case study method permits studying one aspect of the problem in detail and in a short time (Yin, 2003; Çepni, 2007. The study was conducted with the total sample of 12. 3 of

  14. Living network meta-analysis compared with pairwise meta-analysis in comparative effectiveness research: empirical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakopoulou, Adriani; Mavridis, Dimitris; Furukawa, Toshi A; Cipriani, Andrea; Tricco, Andrea C; Straus, Sharon E; Siontis, George C M; Egger, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine whether the continuous updating of networks of prospectively planned randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (“living” network meta-analysis) provides strong evidence against the null hypothesis in comparative effectiveness of medical interventions earlier than the updating of conventional, pairwise meta-analysis. Design Empirical study of the accumulating evidence about the comparative effectiveness of clinical interventions. Data sources Database of network meta-analyses of RCTs identified through searches of Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews until 14 April 2015. Eligibility criteria for study selection Network meta-analyses published after January 2012 that compared at least five treatments and included at least 20 RCTs. Clinical experts were asked to identify in each network the treatment comparison of greatest clinical interest. Comparisons were excluded for which direct and indirect evidence disagreed, based on side, or node, splitting test (Pmeta-analysis. The frequency and time to strong evidence was compared against the null hypothesis between pairwise and network meta-analyses. Results 49 comparisons of interest from 44 networks were included; most (n=39, 80%) were between active drugs, mainly from the specialties of cardiology, endocrinology, psychiatry, and rheumatology. 29 comparisons were informed by both direct and indirect evidence (59%), 13 by indirect evidence (27%), and 7 by direct evidence (14%). Both network and pairwise meta-analysis provided strong evidence against the null hypothesis for seven comparisons, but for an additional 10 comparisons only network meta-analysis provided strong evidence against the null hypothesis (P=0.002). The median time to strong evidence against the null hypothesis was 19 years with living network meta-analysis and 23 years with living pairwise meta-analysis (hazard ratio 2.78, 95% confidence interval 1.00 to 7.72, P=0.05). Studies directly comparing

  15. Causes of anorexia in untreated hyperthyroidism: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, W X; Meng, X W

    2000-05-01

    Seventeen consecutive patients (mean (SD) 46 (11) years) with untreated hyperthyroidism and anorexia and 29 patients (35 (9) years) with untreated hyperthyroidism without anorexia were studied. The study was conducted at the thyroid clinic of the PUMC Hospital, Beijing, China from March to August 1997. The patients' ages, serum free calcium, liver function and emotional state, specifically the level of anxiety (using the self anxiety scale, Chinese version), were compared before and/or after antithyroid drug treatment in the two groups. This prospective study suggested that the causes of anorexia in untreated hyperthyroidism are complicated. Older age, abnormal liver function, and the level of anxiety are significantly related to anorexia in untreated hyperthyroidism, but hypercalcaemia was not confirmed to be related to anorexia in the study.

  16. Prior task experience and comparable stimulus exposure nullify focal and nonfocal prospective memory retrieval differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Jason L; Franks, Bryan A; Spitler, Samantha N

    2017-10-01

    We explored the nature of focal versus nonfocal event-based prospective memory retrieval. In the context of a lexical decision task, people received an intention to respond to a single word (focal) in one condition and to a category label (nonfocal) for the other condition. Participants experienced both conditions, and their order was manipulated. The focal instruction condition was a single word presented multiple times. In Experiment 1, the stimuli in the nonfocal condition were different exemplars from a category, each presented once. In the nonfocal condition retrieval was poorer and reaction times were slower during the ongoing task as compared to the focal condition, replicating prior findings. In Experiment 2, the stimulus in the nonfocal condition was a single category exemplar repeated multiple times. When this single-exemplar nonfocal condition followed in time the single-item focal condition, focal versus nonfocal performance was virtually indistinguishable. These results demonstrate that people can modify their stimulus processing and expectations in event-based prospective memory tasks based on experience with the nature of prospective cues and with the ongoing task.

  17. Patient Satisfaction After Femoral Arterial Access Site Closure Using the ExoSeal® Vascular Closure Device Compared to Manual Compression: A Prospective Intra-individual Comparative Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pieper, Claus Christian; Thomas, Daniel; Nadal, Jennifer; Willinek, Winfried A.; Schild, Hans Heinz; Meyer, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    PurposeTo intra-individually compare discomfort levels and patient satisfaction after arterial access closure using the ExoSeal ® vascular closure device (VCD) and manual compression (MC) in a prospective study design.MethodsPatients undergoing two planned interventions from 07/2013 to 09/2014 could participate in the study. Access closure was performed with an ExoSeal ® -VCD in one and MC in the other intervention. Patients were clinically and sonographically examined and were given questionnaires 1 day after intervention [groin- and back-pain during bedrest (100-point visual analog scale; 0: no pain); comfortability of bedrest (10-point Likert scale, 1: comfortable), satisfaction with closure (10-point Likert scale, 1: very satisfied)]. Results were analyzed in a cross-over design.Results48 patients (29 male, median age 62.5 (32–88) years) were included. An ExoSeal ® -VCD was used first in 25 cases. As four of these subsequently refused MC as second intervention, data from 44 patients could be analyzed. All closures were technically successful (successful device deployment) without major complications. Groin- and back-pain after VCD-use/MC was 0 (0–15) vs. 10 (0–80) and 0 (0–75) vs. 25 (0–90), respectively (p < 0.0001). Bedrest after VCD-use was more comfortable than after MC [1 (range 1–7) vs. 6 (2–10); p < 0.0001]. Satisfaction with the closure procedure and with the intervention in general was higher after VCD-use compared to MC [1 (1–3) vs. 5 (2–10) and 1 (1–2) vs. 2 (1–4), respectively; p < 0.0001].ConclusionIntra-individual comparison showed pain levels and discomfort to be significantly lower after ExoSeal ® use compared to MC. VCD closure was associated with higher satisfaction both with the closure itself and with the intervention in general

  18. Prospective randomized study comparing coronary artery bypass grafting with the new mini-extracorporeal circulation Jostra System or with a standard cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remadi, Jean Paul; Rakotoarivelo, Zava; Marticho, Paul; Benamar, Amar

    2006-01-01

    To assess the potential benefits of a new concept of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), the mini-extracorporeal circulation (MECC) Jostra System, we conducted a prospective randomized study among patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with a MECC Jostra System or with a standard CPB. In a prospective randomized study, 400 patients underwent elective CABG using a standard CPB (200 patients) or a Jostra MECC System (200 patients). The patients were randomly assigned to have preoperative data similar for both groups. The operative mortality rate (system is a new concept of CPB that seems to be reliable and safe. To perform CABG, the MECC provides an excellent surgical exposure like a standard CPB and a better biologic profile like CABG without CPB.

  19. The BEST study--a prospective study to compare business class versus economy class air travel as a cause of thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Barry F; Münster, Marion; Smith, Alberto; Burnand, Kevin G; Carter, Andrew; Abdool-Carrim, A Talib O; Marcos, Elizabeth; Becker, Piet J; Rogers, Timothy; le Roux, Dirk; Calvert-Evers, Jennifer L; Nel, Marietha J; Brackin, Robyn; Veller, Martin

    2003-07-01

    As many as 10% of airline passengers travelling without prophylaxis for long distances may develop a venous thrombosis. There is, however, no evidence that economy class travellers are at increased risk of thrombosis. A suitably powered prospective study, based on the incidence of deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) reported in previous studies on long-haul flights, was designed to determine the incidence of positive venous duplex scans and D-dimer elevations in low and intermediate-risk passengers, comparing passengers travelling in business and economy class. Eight hundred and ninety-nine passengers were recruited (180 travelling business class and 719 travelling economy). D-dimers were measured before and after the flight. A value greater than 500 ng/ml was accepted as abnormal. A thrombophilia screen was conducted which included the factor V Leiden mutation, the prothombin 20210A mutation, protein C and S levels, antithrombin levels, and anticardiolipin antibodies immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM). On arrival, lower limb compression ultrasonography of the deep veins was performed. Logistical regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors related to abnormally high D-dimer levels. Only 434 subjects had a full venous duplex scan performed. None had ultrasonic evidence of venous thrombosis. Nine passengers tested at departure had elevated D-dimer levels and these volunteers were excluded from further study. Seventy-four of the 899 passengers had raised D-dimers on arrival. Twenty-two of 180 business class passengers (12%) developed elevated D-dimers compared with 52 of 719 economy class passengers (7%). There was no significant association between elevation of D-dimers and the class flown (odds ratio (OR) 0.61, p = 0.109). The factor V Leiden mutation, factor VIII levels and the use of aspirin were, however, associated with raised D-dimers (OR 3.36, p = 0.024; OR 1.01, p = 0.014; and OR 2.04, p = 0.038, respectively). Five hundred and five

  20. Social capital, mortality, cardiovascular events and cancer: a systematic review of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Minkyoung; Mesa-Frias, Marco; Nuesch, Eveline; Hargreaves, James; Prieto-Merino, David; Bowling, Ann; Snith, G Davey; Ebrahim, Shah; Dale, Caroline; Casas, Juan P

    2014-12-01

    Social capital is considered to be an important determinant of life expectancy and cardiovascular health. Evidence on the association between social capital and all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer was systematically reviewed. Prospective studies examining the association of social capital with these outcomes were systematically sought in Medline, Embase and PsycInfo, all from inception to 8 October 2012. We categorized the findings from studies according to seven dimensions of social capital, including social participation, social network, civic participation,social support, trust, norm of reciprocity and sense of community, and pooled the estimates across studies to obtain summary relative risks of the health outcomes for each social capital dimension. We excluded studies focusing on children, refugees or immigrants and studies conducted in the former Soviet Union. Fourteen prospective studies were identified. The pooled estimates showed no association between most social capital dimensions and all-cause mortality, CVD or cancer. Limited evidence was found for association of increased mortality with social participation and civic participation when comparing the most extreme risk comparisons. Evidence to support an association between social capital and health outcomes is limited. Lack of consensus on measurements for social capital hinders the comparability of studies and weakens the evidence base.

  1. Gender variance in childhood and sexual orientation in adulthood: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensma, Thomas D; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2013-11-01

    Several retrospective and prospective studies have reported on the association between childhood gender variance and sexual orientation and gender discomfort in adulthood. In most of the retrospective studies, samples were drawn from the general population. The samples in the prospective studies consisted of clinically referred children. In understanding the extent to which the association applies for the general population, prospective studies using random samples are needed. This prospective study examined the association between childhood gender variance, and sexual orientation and gender discomfort in adulthood in the general population. In 1983, we measured childhood gender variance, in 406 boys and 473 girls. In 2007, sexual orientation and gender discomfort were assessed. Childhood gender variance was measured with two items from the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18. Sexual orientation was measured for four parameters of sexual orientation (attraction, fantasy, behavior, and identity). Gender discomfort was assessed by four questions (unhappiness and/or uncertainty about one's gender, wish or desire to be of the other gender, and consideration of living in the role of the other gender). For both men and women, the presence of childhood gender variance was associated with homosexuality for all four parameters of sexual orientation, but not with bisexuality. The report of adulthood homosexuality was 8 to 15 times higher for participants with a history of gender variance (10.2% to 12.2%), compared to participants without a history of gender variance (1.2% to 1.7%). The presence of childhood gender variance was not significantly associated with gender discomfort in adulthood. This study clearly showed a significant association between childhood gender variance and a homosexual sexual orientation in adulthood in the general population. In contrast to the findings in clinically referred gender-variant children, the presence of a homosexual sexual orientation in

  2. The role of rostral prefrontal cortex in prospective memory: a voxel-based lesion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volle, Emmanuelle; Gonen-Yaacovi, Gil; Costello, Angela de Lacy; Gilbert, Sam J; Burgess, Paul W

    2011-07-01

    Patients with lesions in rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC) often experience problems in everyday-life situations requiring multitasking. A key cognitive component that is critical in multitasking situations is prospective memory, defined as the ability to carry out an intended action after a delay period filled with unrelated activity. The few functional imaging studies investigating prospective memory have shown consistent activation in both medial and lateral rostral PFC but also in more posterior prefrontal regions and non-frontal regions. The aim of this study was to determine regions that are necessary for prospective memory performance, using the human lesion approach. We designed an experimental paradigm allowing us to assess time-based (remembering to do something at a particular time) and event-based (remembering to do something in a particular situation) prospective memory, using two types of material, words and pictures. Time estimation tasks and tasks controlling for basic attention, inhibition and multiple instructions processing were also administered. We examined brain-behaviour relationships with a voxelwise lesion method in 45 patients with focal brain lesions and 107 control subjects using this paradigm. The results showed that lesions in the right polar prefrontal region (in Brodmann area 10) were specifically associated with a deficit in time-based prospective memory tasks for both words and pictures. This deficit could not be explained by impairments in basic attention, detection, inhibition or multiple instruction processing, and there was also no deficit in event-based prospective memory conditions. In addition to their prospective memory difficulties, these polar prefrontal patients were significantly impaired in time estimation ability compared to other patients. The same region was found to be involved using both words and pictures, suggesting that right rostral PFC plays a material nonspecific role in prospective memory. This is the first

  3. [Speed of ocular saccades in Huntington disease. Prospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Ruiz, P J; Cenjor, C; Ulmer, E; Hernández, J; Cantarero, S; Fanjul, S; García de Yébenes, J

    2001-02-01

    Oculomotor abnormalities, especially slow saccades, have long been recognized in Huntington's disease (HD). To study prospectively horizontal saccade velocity by videonystagmography in 21 patients with genetically confirmed HD. The study included a baseline analysis and a second evaluation after 18.8 +/- 7.1 months. We included a control group of 15 subjects. HD group exhibited decreased saccade velocity when compared with that from a control group (for predictive and unpredictive target). HD patients showed decreased saccade velocity with the passage of time (for predictive target, p < 0.01). Finally we found statistical significant correlation between saccade velocity and triplet length. The measurement of saccade velocity might be an objective method to study the natural evolution of HD, and thus evaluate the effectiveness of future therapies.

  4. Frey's pancreaticojejunostomy in tropical pancreatitis: assessment of quality of life. A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothula Rajendra, Vamsi Krishna; Sivanpillay Mahadevan, Sivaraj; Parvathareddy, Sivacharan Reddy; Nara, Bharat Kumar; Gorlagunta Ramachandra, Mallikarjuna; Tripuraneni Venkata, Aditya Chowdary; Bathalapalli, Jagan Mohan Reddy; Gudi, Vara Prasada Rao; Sampath, Thirunavukkarasu

    2014-12-01

    Tropical pancreatitis is a form of chronic pancreatitis originally described in the tropics. Prospective studies in Western countries have shown improved quality of life (QOL) following surgery in alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. In studies on Frey's pancreaticojejunostomy for tropical pancreatitis, improvement in pain was considered the endpoint, and there is a paucity of data in the literature with regard to QOL with tropical pancreatitis following surgery. Our objective was to prospectively analyze the outcome of Frey's pancreaticojejunostomy in tropical pancreatitis and health-related QOL following surgery by administering the Short Form 36-item health survey (SF-36). A total of 25 patients underwent Frey's pancreaticojejunostomy between 2010 and 2012 and were included in the study; data were collected prospectively. The visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and the SF-36 form were used to record health-related QOL preoperatively, and at 3 and 12 months post-surgery, comparing the same with the general population. Patients with tropical pancreatitis experience poor QOL (26.71 ± 15.95) compared with the general population (84.54 ± 12.42). Post-operative QOL scores (78.54 ± 15.84) were better than the pre-operative scores (26.71 ± 15.95) at 12-month post-surgery follow-up. The VAS score for pain improved at 12 months post-surgery (1.58 ± 1.41 vs. 8.21 ± 1.64). Two of the three patients (12.5 %) who had diabetes were free from anti-diabetes medication at 12 months post-surgery. Steatorrhea was seen in five patients (20.8 %) before surgery and increased to eight (33.3 %) at 12 months post-surgery. Mean body weight increased from 45.75 kg pre-operatively to 49.25 kg at 12 months post-operatively. Frey's pancreaticojejunostomy effectively reduces pain in tropical pancreatitis, with significant improvement in health-related QOL, which is comparable with the general population in most aspects.

  5. Clinical prospective study with radioiodinated monoclonal antibodies directed against colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatal, J.F.; Douillard, J.Y.; Kremer, M.; Curtet, C.; Le Mevel, B.; Saccavini, J.C.; Maurel, C.; Aubry, J.

    1985-01-01

    The diagnostic application of three monoclonal antibodies are studied: an anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) antibody designated as 202 and two monoclonal antibodies, designated as 17-1A and 19-9, which recognize different antigens associated with gastrointestinal carcinomas. The complementary specificity of these antibodies was determined by an immuno-histochemical study and the scintigraphic detection parameters by a radiopharmacokinetic study in colic-tumour-bearing nude mice. On the basis of a prospective study, the value of immunoscintigraphy was compared with conventional methods such as ultrasonography and computed tomography for localization of recurrences of colorectal cancers. (UK)

  6. Transverse vs torsional ultrasound: prospective randomized contralaterally controlled study comparing two phacoemulsification-system handpieces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assil, Kerry K; Harris, Lindsay; Cecka, Jeannie

    2015-01-01

    To compare surgical efficiency and multiple early clinical outcome variables in eyes undergoing phacoemulsification using either transversal or torsional ultrasound systems. Assil Eye Institute, Beverly Hills, CA, USA. Prospective, randomized, clinician-masked, contralaterally controlled single-center evaluation. Patients seeking cataract removal in both eyes with implantation of multifocal intraocular lenses were randomly assigned to one of two treatment rooms for phacoemulsification with either a transverse ultrasound system or torsional handpiece system. The contralateral eye was treated at a later date with the alternate device. A total of 54 eyes of 27 patients having similar degrees of cataract, astigmatism, and visual potential were included. All operative data were collected for analysis, and patients were followed for 3 months after surgery. Similar visual acuity was reported at all postoperative visits between the two groups. Mean phacoemulsification time and total power required were both significantly lower with the transverse system than with the torsional technique (Ptransverse system vs torsional (Ptransverse vs torsional. Macular swelling was less at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months with transverse vs torsional, although the difference did not achieve significance (P=0.1) at any single time point. Clinically detectable corneal edema was reported less frequently at all postoperative time points with the transverse system. The transverse ultrasound system was found to be possibly associated with less balanced salt-solution use, less phacoemulsification time, and less power required than the torsional phaco system. Postoperative data suggested that improved phaco efficiency may translate to a better overall safety profile for the patient.

  7. Complications of ERCP: a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Merete; Matzen, Peter; Schulze, Svend

    2004-01-01

    included in this prospective study. Complications were assessed at the time of ERCP and by postal/telephone contact at 30-days after the procedure. RESULTS: A total of 1177 ERCPs were included in the analysis, of which 56.2% were therapeutic. The 30-day complication rate was 15.9%; the procedure...... occurred in relation to 5% of the ERCP procedures (3 deaths). Cardiorespiratory complications occurred in 2.3% (2 deaths). Dilated bile duct ( p = 0.0001), placement of stent ( p = 0.001), and use of more than 40 mg of hyoscine-N-butyl bromide ( p ... analysis. Risk of pancreatitis was increased with age under 40 years ( p = 0.0078), placement of stent ( p = 0.031), and a dilated bile duct ( p = 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: This prospective study confirms that the complication rate of ERCP including therapeutic procedures is high. Cardiopulmonary complications...

  8. Comparative Study on the Efficacy of Two Regimens of Single-Shot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess and compare the satisfaction and efficacy of two regimens of single-shot spinal blocks for the relief of labor pain in women who present in active phase of labour. Design: A prospective randomised single-blind observational study. Setting: Labour ward of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. Subjects: All ...

  9. Effects of aversive stimuli on prospective memory. An event-related fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Rea

    Full Text Available Prospective memory (PM describes the ability to execute a previously planned action at the appropriate point in time. Although behavioral studies clearly showed that prospective memory performance is affected by the emotional significance attributed to the intended action, no study so far investigated the brain mechanisms subserving the modulatory effect of emotional salience on PM performance. The general aim of the present study was to explore brain regions involved in prospective memory processes when PM cues are associated with emotional stimuli. In particular, based on the hypothesised critical role of the prefrontal cortex in prospective memory in the presence of emotionally salient stimuli, we expected a stronger involvement of aPFC when the retrieval and execution of the intended action is cued by an aversive stimulus. To this aim BOLD responses of PM trials cued by aversive facial expressions were compared to PM trials cued by neutral facial expressions. Whole brain analysis showed that PM task cued by aversive stimuli is differentially associated with activity in the right lateral prefrontal area (BA 10 and in the left caudate nucleus. Moreover a temporal shift between the response of the caudate nucleus that preceded that of aPFC was observed. These findings suggest that the caudate nucleus might provide an early analysis of the affective properties of the stimuli, whereas the anterior lateral prefrontal cortex (BA10 would be involved in a slower and more deliberative analysis to guide goal-directed behaviour.

  10. Chocolate Consumption and Risk of Heart Failure: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Fei; Yao, Shuyuan; Wan, Jing; Gan, Xuedong

    2017-04-20

    Epidemiological studies have shown inconsistent findings on the association between chocolate consumption and risk of heart failure (HF). We, therefore, performed a meta-analysis of prospective studies to determine the role of chocolate intake in the prevention of HF. We searched databases of PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus through December 2016 and scrutinized the reference lists of relevant literatures to identify eligible studies. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were aggregated using random effect models. The dose-response relationship between chocolate consumption and incident HF was also assessed. This meta-analysis is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42017054230. Five prospective studies with 106,109 participants were finally included. Compared to no consumption of chocolate, the pooled HRs (95% CIs) of HF were 0.86 (0.82-0.91) for low-to-moderate consumption (chocolate consumption and risk of HF ( p for nonlinearity = 0.005). Compared with non-consumption, the HRs (95% CIs) of HF across chocolate consumption levels were 0.92 (0.88-0.97), 0.86 (0.78-0.94), 0.93 (0.85-1.03), and 1.07 (0.92-1.23) for 1, 3, 7, and 10 servings/week, respectively. In conclusion, chocolate consumption in moderation may be associated with a decreased risk of HF.

  11. A Prospective Study to Compare the Diagnostic Value of Serum Procalcitonin and Crp in Early Onset Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar Verma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neonatal sepsis is the most common cause of death in newborns in developing countries. Prompt diagnosis is the critical determinant in its outcome. As manifestations are often vague, clinically it is difficult to differentiate sepsis from non-infective conditions. Timely diagnosis is important as delay in initiation of antimicrobials can prove fatal. On the other hand empirical use of antibiotics not only increases the risk of antibiotic resistance but also delays the diagnosis of true condition. Procalcitonin (PCT has been well evaluated in late onset sepsis but data pertaining to Early Onset Sepsis (EOS are still lacking. We compared the diagnostic value of PCT and CRP (C-Reactive Protein in EOS. Aim: To compare the diagnostic value of serum PCT and CRP in early onset sepsis. Materials and Methods: It was a prospective observational study conducted in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the Department of Paediatrics, Dr.S.N. Medical College, Jodhpur, India. All neonates delivered in hospitals attached to this medical college or referred here within 7 days of life and having ≥2 perinatal risk factors for sepsis or displaying clinical sepsis were included in the study. All enrolled neonates were subjected to sepsis screen, PCT levels and blood culture at birth or admission which ever was the earliest. PCT levels ≥ 0.5 ng/ml and CRP levels above 8mg/l were considered positive for EOS. Results: Sensitivity and negative predictive value of PCT were higher than CRP (90.12% vs. 50.62% and 93.33% vs. 79.06% respectively. Also it had a higher positive predictive value of 40.56% than CRP where it was 37.61%. CRP was more specific (68.95% vs. 51.4% with overall higher diagnostic accuracy (0.64 vs. 0.61 in comparison to PCT. Conclusion: PCT is more sensitive and has a higher negative predictive value than CRP in early onset sepsis. Higher positive predictive value and specificity of CRP suggest that, PCT should not be used alone rather

  12. A prospective, randomized, single - blind study comparing intraplaque injection of thiocolchicine and verapamil in Peyronie's Disease: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. Toscano Jr.

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: To compare the response to tiocolchicine and verapamil injection in the plaque of patients with Peyronie's disease. Materials and Methods: Prospective, single-blind, randomized study, selecting patients who have presented Peyronie's disease for less than 18 months. Thiocolchicine 4mg or verapamil 5mg were given in 7 injections (once a week. Patients who had received any treatment for Peyronie's disease in the past three months were excluded. The parameters used were the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5 score, analysis of the curvature on pharmaco-induced erections and size of the plaque by ultrasonography. Results: Twenty-five patients were randomized, 13 received thiocolchicine and 12 were treated with verapamil. Both groups were statistically similar. The mean curvature was 46.7° and 36.2° before and after thiocolchicine, respectively (p=0.019 and 50.4° and 42.08° before and after verapamil, respectively (p=0.012. The curvature improved in 69% of patients treated with thiocolchicine and in 66% of those who received verapamil. Regarding sexual function, there was an increase in the IIEF-5 from 16.69 to 20.85 (p=0.23 in the thiocolchicine group. In the verapamil group the IIEF-5 score dropped from 17.50 to 16.25 (p=0.58. In the thiocolchicine group, the plaque was reduced in 61% of patients. In the verapamil group, 8% presented decreased plaque size. No adverse event was associated to thiocolchicine. Conclusion: The use of thiocolchicine in Peyronie's disease demonstrated improvement on penile curvature and reduction in plaque size. Thiocolchicine presented similar results to verapamil in curvature assessment. No significant side effects were observed with the use of tiocolchicine.

  13. A Study on the Spatial Abilities of Prospective Social Studies Teachers: A Mixed Method Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurt, Eyüp; Tünkler, Vural

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated prospective social studies teachers' spatial abilities. It was conducted with 234 prospective teachers attending Social Studies Teaching departments at Education Faculties of two universities in Central and Southern Anatolia. This study, designed according to the explanatory-sequential design, is a mixed research method,…

  14. Patient Satisfaction After Femoral Arterial Access Site Closure Using the ExoSeal{sup ®} Vascular Closure Device Compared to Manual Compression: A Prospective Intra-individual Comparative Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieper, Claus Christian, E-mail: claus.christian.pieper@ukb.uni-bonn.de; Thomas, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.thomas@ukb.uni-bonn.de [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology (Germany); Nadal, Jennifer, E-mail: jennifer.nadal@ukb.uni-bonn.de [University of Bonn, Institute for Medical Biometry, Informatics and Epidemiology (Germany); Willinek, Winfried A., E-mail: w.willinek@bk-trier.de; Schild, Hans Heinz, E-mail: hans.schild@ukb.uni-bonn.de; Meyer, Carsten, E-mail: carsten.meyer@ukb.uni-bonn.de [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    PurposeTo intra-individually compare discomfort levels and patient satisfaction after arterial access closure using the ExoSeal{sup ®} vascular closure device (VCD) and manual compression (MC) in a prospective study design.MethodsPatients undergoing two planned interventions from 07/2013 to 09/2014 could participate in the study. Access closure was performed with an ExoSeal{sup ®}-VCD in one and MC in the other intervention. Patients were clinically and sonographically examined and were given questionnaires 1 day after intervention [groin- and back-pain during bedrest (100-point visual analog scale; 0: no pain); comfortability of bedrest (10-point Likert scale, 1: comfortable), satisfaction with closure (10-point Likert scale, 1: very satisfied)]. Results were analyzed in a cross-over design.Results48 patients (29 male, median age 62.5 (32–88) years) were included. An ExoSeal{sup ®}-VCD was used first in 25 cases. As four of these subsequently refused MC as second intervention, data from 44 patients could be analyzed. All closures were technically successful (successful device deployment) without major complications. Groin- and back-pain after VCD-use/MC was 0 (0–15) vs. 10 (0–80) and 0 (0–75) vs. 25 (0–90), respectively (p < 0.0001). Bedrest after VCD-use was more comfortable than after MC [1 (range 1–7) vs. 6 (2–10); p < 0.0001]. Satisfaction with the closure procedure and with the intervention in general was higher after VCD-use compared to MC [1 (1–3) vs. 5 (2–10) and 1 (1–2) vs. 2 (1–4), respectively; p < 0.0001].ConclusionIntra-individual comparison showed pain levels and discomfort to be significantly lower after ExoSeal{sup ®} use compared to MC. VCD closure was associated with higher satisfaction both with the closure itself and with the intervention in general.

  15. An ecological approach to prospective and retrospective timing of long durations: a study involving gamers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Tobin

    Full Text Available To date, most studies comparing prospective and retrospective timing have failed to use long durations and tasks with a certain degree of ecological validity. The present study assessed the effect of the timing paradigm on playing video games in a "naturalistic environment" (gaming centers. In addition, as it involved gamers, it provided an opportunity to examine the effect of gaming profile on time estimation. A total of 116 participants were asked to estimate prospectively or retrospectively a video game session lasting 12, 35 or 58 minutes. The results indicate that time is perceived as longer in the prospective paradigm than in the retrospective one, although the variability of estimates is the same. Moreover, the 12-minute session was perceived as longer, proportionally, than the 35- and 58-minute sessions. The study also revealed that the number of hours participants spent playing video games per week was a significant predictor of time estimates. To account for the main findings, the differences between prospective and retrospective timing are discussed in quantitative terms using a proposed theoretical framework, which states that both paradigms use the same cognitive processes, but in different proportions. Finally, the hypothesis that gamers play more because they underestimate time is also discussed.

  16. Mathematical geology studies of deposit prospect types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guangping

    1998-08-01

    Exact certainty prospect type of uranium deposit, not only can assure the quality of deposit prospects, but also increase economic benefits. Based on the standard of geological prospect of uranium deposit, the author introduces a method of Fuzzy Synthetical Comment for dividing prospect type of uranium deposit. The practical applications demonstrate that the regression accuracy, discriminated by Zadeh operator, of 15 known deposits is 100%

  17. A prospective randomized comparative study of the effects of intranasal and transdermal 17 β-estradiol on postmenopausal symptoms and vaginal cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odabasi A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Investigating the adverse effects of oral hormone replacement therapy (HRT, the clinical effectiveness of alternative combinations and route of administrations. Aim: To compare the effects of intranasal and transdermal 17β-estradiol combined with vaginal progesterone on vasomotor symptoms and vaginal cytology. Settings and Design: A 12-week, prospective, randomized comparative study was conducted between July 2005 and September 2006. Materials and Methods: Eighty postmenopausal women aged between 42-57 years, who had scores of ≥1.7 on the menopause rating scale-I (MRS-I items "1-6", were randomly assigned to receive intranasal (300 µg/day, n =40 or transdermal (50 µg/day, n =40 17β-estradiol continuously. All patients also received a vaginal progesterone gel twice weekly. Vasomotor symptoms were evaluated at weeks 0, 4, 8 and 12. Vaginal maturation index (VMI was evaluated at weeks 0 and 12 of the study. Statistical Analyses: The Mann-Whitney U and the Wilcoxon tests were used. P < 0.05 was regarded as significant. Results: Thirty-two women in the intranasal and 29 women in the transdermal group completed the study. The total score of the MRS, the sum-scores of Factor 1 "HOT FLUSHES" and Factor 2 "PSYCHE" significantly decreased in both groups at week 4. Factor 3 "ATROPHY" scores significantly decreased only in the transdermal group at week 12. The VMI showed no changes within and between the two groups at the end of the study. Conclusion: Intranasal and transdermal 17β-estradiol combined with vaginal progesterone gel as a continuous HRT caused a similar decrease in vasomotor symptoms but did not have any significant effect on VMI after 12 weeks of treatment in this study population.

  18. Social Capital and Health: A Review of Prospective Multilevel Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background This article presents an overview of the concept of social capital, reviews prospective multilevel analytic studies of the association between social capital and health, and discusses intervention strategies that enhance social capital. Methods We conducted a systematic search of published peer-reviewed literature on the PubMed database and categorized studies according to health outcome. Results We identified 13 articles that satisfied the inclusion criteria for the review. In general, both individual social capital and area/workplace social capital had positive effects on health outcomes, regardless of study design, setting, follow-up period, or type of health outcome. Prospective studies that used a multilevel approach were mainly conducted in Western countries. Although we identified some cross-sectional multilevel studies that were conducted in Asian countries, including Japan, no prospective studies have been conducted in Asia. Conclusions Prospective evidence from multilevel analytic studies of the effect of social capital on health is very limited at present. If epidemiologic findings on the association between social capital and health are to be put to practical use, we must gather additional evidence and explore the feasibility of interventions that build social capital as a means of promoting health. PMID:22447212

  19. Cancer of the larynx: the outcomes of conventionally fractionated radiotherapy in prospective and retrospective studies. Is the meaning of conventionality the same?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hliniak, A.; Michalski, W.; Kraszewska, E.; Szutkowski, Z.; Jarzabski, A.

    2001-01-01

    Two studies on the radiotherapy of laryngeal cancer were completed at the Radiotherapy Department of the Cancer Center Warsaw at the end of 1999. One of them was a multicenter randomized clinical trial, and the second one - a retrospective study on patients treated between years 1989 and 1995. An opinion exists that the trial outcomes of the conventional arm correspond to the outcomes of everyday practice. The subject of the study was to evaluate this thesis, and to find out, whether the outcomes of prospective and retrospective studies following the same treatment protocol are comparable. Selection criteria were - age ≤75, WHO 0-1, T1, T2, T3, N0, M0 stage of glottic and supraglottic laryngeal cancer. The treatment was: 66 Gy/2 Gy/33 fraction/45 days. The prospective group had - 199 patients, and the retrospective group: 150 patients. The two groups were comparable according to the age, site, sex and mean hemoglobin level. There was a significant difference in T-stage and performance status between the two groups. Overall survival, local control and CR-response were analyzed. To eliminate the influence of the differences in T=stage and performance status, regression models were applied - Cox's for survival and local control, logit for CR-response endpoint. The protocol compliance (prospective, retrospective) was as follows - total dose: (88%, 49%), treatment time: (47%, 11%) respectively. Three-year survival for the prospective and the retrospective groups were 89% and 74%, respectively (p=0.035), CR-response rates were 96% and 75%, respectively (p<0.001). There were no significant differences in probability of local recurrence in CR patients. A better outcome of treatment was observed in the prospective study group. It is probably due to a certain 'over-selection' of patients for the prospective study and many deviations from the therapeutic protocol in the historical group. 'Conventional treatment' has the same meaning in the prospective and retrospective

  20. A prospective study of gentamicin ototoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, O; Hansen, M M; Kaaber-Bühler, Søren

    2010-01-01

    of gentamicin did not rule out the possiblity of ototoxicity. These results urge the continuing of prospective studies and indicate that gentamicin should be used only as a link in the primary treatment of severe infection or in cases in which other, less toxic agents have failed....

  1. A prospective study of gentamicin ototoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, O; Hansen, M M; Kaaber-Bühler, Søren

    1978-01-01

    of gentamicin did not rule out the possiblity of ototoxicity. These results urge the continuing of prospective studies and indicate that gentamicin should be used only as a link in the primary treatment of severe infection or in cases in which other, less toxic agents have failed....

  2. Gender and smoking-related risk of lung cancer. The Copenhagen Center for Prospective Population Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Osler, M; Hein, H O

    1998-01-01

    Our aim was to compare risk of lung cancer associated with smoking by gender and histologic type. A total of 30,874 subjects, 44% women, from three prospective population-based studies with initial examinations between 1964 and 1992 were followed until 1994 through the National Cancer Registry...

  3. Prospective cohort study of impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaens, Jesse; Dorfman, Benjamin J; Christos, Paul J; Nirenberg, Melissa J

    2013-03-01

    Impulse control disorders (ICDs) are potentially serious side effects of dopamine agonist therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD), but prospective data are lacking about their incidence, time course, and risk factors. This work was a 4-year, prospective cohort study of outpatients with PD and no previous ICDs (N = 164). All subjects treated with a dopamine agonist during the study were followed longitudinally for new-onset ICDs. Baseline characteristics were compared in groups with (ICD+) and without (ICD-) subsequent ICDs. Forty-six subjects were treated with a dopamine agonist, including 25 who were newly treated and 21 who received ongoing dopamine agonist therapy. Of these 46 subjects, 18 (39.1%) developed new-onset ICDs. The timing of ICD onset varied from 3.0 to 114.0 months (median, 23.0) after initiation of dopamine agonist therapy. Baseline demographic characteristics were similar in ICD+ and ICD- groups. At baseline, ICD+ subjects had a greater prevalence of motor complications (61.1% versus 25.0%; P = 0.01) than ICD- subjects, despite comparable total dopaminergic medication usage in both groups (median, 150.0 versus 150.0 levodopa equivalents; P = 0.61). Compared with ICD- subjects, ICD+ subjects had a greater baseline prevalence of caffeine use (100% versus 66.7%; P = 0.007) and higher lifetime prevalence of cigarette smoking (44.4% versus 14.3%; P = 0.04). Peak dopamine agonist doses were higher in ICD+ than ICD- subjects (median 300.0 versus 165.0 L-dopa equivalents; P = 0.03), but cumulative dopamine agonist exposure was similar in both groups. In summary, the timing of new-onset ICDs in PD is highly variable. Risk factors include cigarette smoking, caffeine use, motor complications, and higher peak dopamine agonist dosage. Copyright © 2013 Movement Disorders Society.

  4. Childhood Adversities Increase the Risk of Psychosis: A Meta-analysis of Patient-Control, Prospective- and Cross-sectional Cohort Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varese, Filippo; Smeets, Feikje; Drukker, Marjan; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Lataster, Tineke; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Read, John; van Os, Jim; Bentall, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that adverse experiences in childhood are associated with psychosis. To examine the association between childhood adversity and trauma (sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional/psychological abuse, neglect, parental death, and bullying) and psychosis outcome, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and Web of Science were searched from January 1980 through November 2011. We included prospective cohort studies, large-scale cross-sectional studies investigating the association between childhood adversity and psychotic symptoms or illness, case-control studies comparing the prevalence of adverse events between psychotic patients and controls using dichotomous or continuous measures, and case-control studies comparing the prevalence of psychotic symptoms between exposed and nonexposed subjects using dichotomous or continuous measures of adversity and psychosis. The analysis included 18 case-control studies (n = 2048 psychotic patients and 1856 nonpsychiatric controls), 10 prospective and quasi-prospective studies (n = 41 803) and 8 population-based cross-sectional studies (n = 35 546). There were significant associations between adversity and psychosis across all research designs, with an overall effect of OR = 2.78 (95% CI = 2.34–3.31). The integration of the case-control studies indicated that patients with psychosis were 2.72 times more likely to have been exposed to childhood adversity than controls (95% CI = 1.90–3.88). The association between childhood adversity and psychosis was also significant in population-based cross-sectional studies (OR = 2.99 [95% CI = 2.12–4.20]) as well as in prospective and quasi-prospective studies (OR = 2.75 [95% CI = 2.17–3.47]). The estimated population attributable risk was 33% (16%–47%). These findings indicate that childhood adversity is strongly associated with increased risk for psychosis. PMID:22461484

  5. Percutaneous Vertebroplasty Versus Conservative Treatment and Rehabilitation in Women with Vertebral Fractures due to Osteoporosis: A Prospective Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías-Hernández, Salvador Israel; Chávez-Arias, Daniel David; Miranda-Duarte, Antonio; Coronado-Zarco, Roberto; Diez-García, María Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty is commonly used in the management of osteoporosis-related vertebral fractures, although there is controversy on its superiority over conservative treatment. Here we compare pain and function in women with vertebral osteoporotic fractures who underwent percutaneous vertebroplasty versus conservative treatment with a protocolized rehabilitation program. A longitudinal and comparative prospective study was conducted. Women ≥ 60 years of age with a diagnosis of osteoporosis who had at least one vertebral thoracic or lumbar compression fracture were included and divided into two groups, conservative treatment or vertebroplasty. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were used to assess pain and function, respectively, as the outcome measures. We included 31 patients, 13 (42%) treated with percutaneous vertebroplasty and 18 (58%) with conservative treatment. Baseline clinical characteristics, bone densitometry and fracture data were similar in both groups. At baseline, VAS was 73.1 ± 28.36 in the vertebroplasty group and 68.6 ± 36.1 mm in the conservative treatment group (p = 0.632); at three months it was 33.11 ± 10.1 vs. 42 ± 22.21 mm (p = 0.111); and at 12 months, 32.3 ± 11.21 vs. 36.1 ± 12.36 mm (p = 0.821). The ODI at baseline was 83% in the vertebroplasty group vs. 85% for conservative management (p = 0.34); at three months, 36 vs. 39% (p = 0.36); and at 12 months, 29.38 vs. 28.33% (p = 0.66). Treatment with percutaneous vertebroplasty had no advantages over conservative treatment for pain and function in this group of women ≥ 60 years of age with osteoporosis.

  6. PROSPECTIVE STUDY TO COMPARE THE EFFICACY OF ANALGESIC AGENTS USED FOR THE PAIN MANAGEMENT DURING EXTRACORPOREAL SHOCK WAVE LITHOTRIPSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhirudra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL is well known for its non-invasiveness, effectiveness and minimal morbidity for the management of renal stones. Some generation of lithotripters were associated with significant pain, needing anaesthesia. In modern lithotripters, pain is insignificant making lithotripsy an outpatient procedure (day care. AIMS The present study is aimed to compare the clinical efficacy between four drugs. METHODS AND MATERIALS This was a prospective study of 1000 patients with normal BMI (25-30 who underwent ESWL in the Year 2012-15 at our institute. All the patients with renal stones were randomly divided into 4 groups. Dornier Compact Sigma lithotripsy machine was used in all the patients. Group A was given IM diclofenac sodium (1 mg/kg, 60 minutes before the procedure. In group B, 10 g of EMLA cream; and in group C, 15 g of diclofenac diethylamine gel; in group D placebo (electrode gel was applied locally. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Visual analogue scale (VAS was used to assess the severity of pain for initial 5-10 minutes and after the procedure. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Statistical analysis was done using one way ANOVA and results were compared between four groups. RESULTS All four groups were having comparable age, weight, stone size, number of shock waves delivered and maximum voltage used. In group A total 250 patients (M/F: 177/73, group B 250 patients (M/F: 129/121, group C 250 patients (M/F: 158/92, group D 250 patients (M/F: 162/88. With regard to pain scores, the responses were better in group B. According to location of the stones, majority of the stones were located in pelvis (41.5%, followed by upper (30.5% and middle calyx (16.8% and least in the lower calyx (11.2%. Overall stone free rate in our study was 75.5%, with least clearance in lower calyceal stones. 112 patients were stented prior to the procedure. Ureteroscopy and RIRS (Retrograde

  7. Chocolate Consumption and Risk of Heart Failure: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Fei; Yao, Shuyuan; Wan, Jing; Gan, Xuedong

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown inconsistent findings on the association between chocolate consumption and risk of heart failure (HF). We, therefore, performed a meta-analysis of prospective studies to determine the role of chocolate intake in the prevention of HF. We searched databases of PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus through December 2016 and scrutinized the reference lists of relevant literatures to identify eligible studies. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were aggregated using random effect models. The dose–response relationship between chocolate consumption and incident HF was also assessed. This meta-analysis is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42017054230. Five prospective studies with 106,109 participants were finally included. Compared to no consumption of chocolate, the pooled HRs (95% CIs) of HF were 0.86 (0.82–0.91) for low-to-moderate consumption (chocolate consumption and risk of HF (p for nonlinearity = 0.005). Compared with non-consumption, the HRs (95% CIs) of HF across chocolate consumption levels were 0.92 (0.88–0.97), 0.86 (0.78–0.94), 0.93 (0.85–1.03), and 1.07 (0.92–1.23) for 1, 3, 7, and 10 servings/week, respectively. In conclusion, chocolate consumption in moderation may be associated with a decreased risk of HF. PMID:28425931

  8. Comparative analysis of three drug-drug interaction screening systems against probable clinically relevant drug-drug interactions: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhič, Neža; Mrhar, Ales; Brvar, Miran

    2017-07-01

    Drug-drug interaction (DDI) screening systems report potential DDIs. This study aimed to find the prevalence of probable DDI-related adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and compare the clinical usefulness of different DDI screening systems to prevent or warn against these ADRs. A prospective cohort study was conducted in patients urgently admitted to medical departments. Potential DDIs were checked using Complete Drug Interaction®, Lexicomp® Online™, and Drug Interaction Checker®. The study team identified the patients with probable clinically relevant DDI-related ADRs on admission, the causality of which was assessed using the Drug Interaction Probability Scale (DIPS). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of screening systems to prevent or warn against probable DDI-related ADRs were evaluated. Overall, 50 probable clinically relevant DDI-related ADRs were found in 37 out of 795 included patients taking at least two drugs, most common of them were bleeding, hyperkalemia, digitalis toxicity, and hypotension. Complete Drug Interaction showed the best sensitivity (0.76) for actual DDI-related ADRs, followed by Lexicomp Online (0.50), and Drug Interaction Checker (0.40). Complete Drug Interaction and Drug Interaction Checker had positive predictive values of 0.07; Lexicomp Online had 0.04. We found no difference in specificity and negative predictive values among these systems. DDI screening systems differ significantly in their ability to detect probable clinically relevant DDI-related ADRs in terms of sensitivity and positive predictive value.

  9. Clinical and radiological outcome of the Total Evolutive Shoulder System (TESS®) reverse shoulder arthroplasty: a prospective comparative non-randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadum, Bakir; Mukka, Sebastian; Englund, Erling; Sayed-Noor, Arkan; Sjödén, Göran

    2014-05-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the function and quality of life after the Total Evolutive Shoulder System (TESS) reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA), to evaluate the radiological stability of the stemless version and to address the effect of arm lengthening and scapular notching (SN) on the outcome. This was a prospective comparative non-randomised study. A total of 37 consecutive patients (40 shoulders) underwent TESS RSA between October 2007 and January 2012; 16 were stemless and 26 were stemmed. At a mean follow-up of 39 months (15-66), we evaluated range of motion (ROM), pain and functional outcome with QuickDASH and quality of life with EQ-5D score. Radiologically, component positioning, signs of loosening, SN and arm length difference were documented. We found a significant improvement in functional outcome and reduction of pain in both stemmed and stemless groups. No humeral loosening was evident, but there were four glenoid loosenings. In 12 shoulders that developed SN, seven already had scapular bone impression (SBI) evident on initial post-operative radiographs. Glenoid overhang seemed to decrease the risk of SN. Arm lengthening was associated with better EQ-5D but did not influence ROM or functional outcome. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty markedly improved shoulder function. SN is of concern in RSA, but proper positioning of the glenoid component may prevent its development.

  10. Preventive effect of feeding high-risk infants a casein hydrolysate formula or an ultrafiltrated whey hydrolysate formula. A prospective, randomized, comparative clinical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A; Hansen, L G

    1993-01-01

    In a prospective study of a 1-year birth cohort of 158 high-risk infants the effect of feeding breastmilk, a casein hydrolysate (Nutramigen) or a new ultrafiltrated whey hydrolysate (Profylac) on the development of cow milk protein allergy/intolerance (CMPA/CMPI) was assessed and compared. All...... the infants had biparental or severe single atopic predisposition, the latter combined with cord blood IgE > or = 0.5 kU/L. At birth all infants were randomized to Nutramigen or Profylac, which was used when breastfeeding was insufficient or not possible during the first 6 months of life. During the same...... period this regimen was combined with avoidance of solid foods and cow milk protein. All mothers had unrestricted diets and were encouraged to do breastfeeding only. Moreover, avoidance of daily exposure to tobacco smoking, furred pets and dust-collecting materials in the bedroom was advised. The infants...

  11. Recruitment and retention of farm owners and workers for a six-month prospective injury study in New Zealand: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langley John D

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agricultural workers experience high rates of occupational injury. There is a lack of analytic studies which provide detailed occupational exposure information to inform intervention development. Methods A feasibility study simulating a six month prospective cohort study was designed and undertaken. The levels of farm and worker participation and retention were analysed to determine the feasibility of the methods for wider deployment. Results Recruitment levels were comparable with other studies, with 24% of farms and 36% of non-owner workers participating. Once recruited, retention was high at 85% and 86% respectively. Conclusions The main challenges identified were in the recruitment process. Once recruited, farms and workers tended to complete the study, indicating that prospective studies in this the agricultural workforce may be feasible. Issues encountered and potential solutions for future studies are discussed.

  12. Workaholism and sleep quality among Japanese employees: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Kazumi; Shimazu, Akihito; Kawakami, Norito; Takahashi, Masaya

    2014-02-01

    This study focused on workaholism as a personal attitude toward work and examined its effects on sleep quality among Japanese employees from various occupations. The present study aimed to demonstrate the prospective association of workaholism (i.e., working excessively hard in a compulsive fashion) with sleep quality among Japanese employees. A Web-based prospective survey was conducted in October 2010 and May 2011 among registered monitors of a survey company. The questionnaire included workaholism, sleep quality, job characteristics, and demographics. Overall, 13,564 monitors were randomly invited to complete the first wave of the survey. The first 2,520 respondents were included in this study. The respondents who completed the first wave were invited to complete the second wave of the survey; 2,061 answered. A total of 364 respondents who changed their working conditions during the follow-up period were excluded. In addition, due to missing values, data from 14 respondents were excluded. Thus, the responses from 1,683 respondents were included in the analysis (859 males and 824 females). An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted to compare adjusted sleep quality at follow-up among workaholism groups (low, middle, and high). To conduct the ANCOVA, we adjusted for demographics, sleep quality at baseline, and job characteristics. The high-workaholic group had significantly longer sleep latency at follow-up compared with the low- and middle-workaholic groups after adjusting for demographics, sleep latency at baseline, and job characteristics. In addition, the high-workaholic group demonstrated significantly higher levels of daytime dysfunction compared with the low-workaholic group. However, no significant differences were found among workaholic groups in terms of overall sleep quality, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbance, and use of sleep medication. Workaholism was associated with poor sleep quality at the 7-month follow-up in

  13. Use of XenX™, the latest ureteric occlusion device with guide wire utility: results from a prospective multicentric comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguedolce, Francesco; Montanari, Emanuele; Alvarez-Maestro, Mario; Macchione, Nicola; Hruby, Stephan; Papatsoris, Athanasios; Kallidonis, Panagiotis; Villa, Luca; Honeck, Patrick; Traxer, Olivier; Greco, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    This is a prospective multicentric comparative study evaluating the performance of XenX-a new dual-purpose device for the prevention of stone fragments migration during ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URS). Between March 2014 and January 2015, 41 patients undertaking URS + XenX were matched with 41 patients undergoing standard URS. Patients included had unilateral ureteric stone(s) of 0.5-1.5 cm in maximum size. Demographics, complication rates and surgical outcomes were recorded for comparison. A Likert-like 5-grade scoring system was used for surgeons' evaluation of XenX properties. Cost analysis was performed by comparing weighted mean costs of the relevant procedures. Patients' characteristics between the two groups were comparable. Lasering time was longer for XenX group (13.59 vs. 5.17 min; p = 0.0001) whilst use of basket and need of JJ stent insertion was more frequent in control group (19.5 vs. 97.6 %; p = 0.0001 and 22 vs. 35 %; p = 0.001, respectively). Intra-operative SFR was significantly higher for XenX group (100 vs. 85.4 %; p = 0.0001), but not at 4-week follow-up, after ancillary procedures were needed in 17.1 % of the control group. Surgeons' evaluations for XenX were suboptimal for "Ease of Basketing" (2/5) and "Advancement of double J stent" (3/5). The use of XenX increased costs of procedures, but spared the costs associated to ancillary procedures and stent removals. XenX confirmed to be a safe and effective device especially for the treatment of upper ureteric tract stones; moreover, XenX may reduce the risk for the need of auxiliary procedures and for the insertion of a JJ stent.

  14. Leflunomide in active rheumatoid arthritis: A prospective study in daily practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Roon, E.N.; Jansen, T.L.Th.A.; Mourad, L.; Houtman, P.M.; Bruyn, G.A.W.; Griep, E.N.; Wilffert, B.; Tobi, H.; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.

    2004-01-01

    Aims: We prospectively studied the efficacy, incidence of adverse drug reactions and withdrawal from leflunomide in an outpatient population with rheumatoid arthritis in a setting of care-as-usual. Methods: In this prospective case series study, a standard dataset was collected from outpatient

  15. Leflunomide in active rheumatoid arthritis : a prospective study in daily practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Roon, EN; Jansen, TLTA; Mourad, L; Houtman, PM; Bruyn, GAW; Griep, EN; Wilffert, B; Tobi, H; Brouwers, JRBJ

    Aims We prospectively studied the efficacy, incidence of adverse drug reactions and withdrawal from leflunomide in an outpatient population with rheumatoid arthritis in a setting of care-as-usual. Methods In this prospective case series study, from outpatient medical records a standard dataset was

  16. A prospective, open, comparative study of 5% potassium hydroxide solution versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Caio Lamunier de Abreu; Belda Junior, Walter; Fagundes, Luiz Jorge; Romiti, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus infection and represent one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. Many infections are transient but the virus may recur, persist, or become latent. To date, there is no effective antiviral treatment to eliminate HPV infection and most therapies are aimed at the destruction of visible lesions. Potassium hydroxide is a strong alkali that has been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of genital warts and molluscum contagiosum. Cryotherapy is considered one of the most established treatments for genital warts. No comparative trials have been reported to date on the use of potassium hydroxide for genital warts. A prospective, open-label, randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare topical potassium hydroxide versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts affecting immunocompetent, sexually active men. Over a period of 10 months, 48 patients were enrolled. They were randomly divided into two groups and selected on an alternative basis for either potassium hydroxide therapy or cryotherapy. While response to therapy did not differ substantially between both treatment modalities, side effects such as local pain and post-treatment hypopigmentation were considerably more prevalent in the groups treated using cryotherapy. In our study, potassium hydroxide therapy proved to be at least as effective as cryotherapy and offered the benefit of a better safety profile. Topical 5% potassium hydroxide presents an effective, safe, and low-cost treatment modality for genital warts in men and should be included in the spectrum of therapies for genital warts.

  17. A prospective, open, comparative study of 5% potassium hydroxide solution versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts in men*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Caio Lamunier de Abreu; Belda, Walter; Fagundes, Luiz Jorge; Romiti, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus infection and represent one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. Many infections are transient but the virus may recur, persist, or become latent. To date, there is no effective antiviral treatment to eliminate HPV infection and most therapies are aimed at the destruction of visible lesions. Potassium hydroxide is a strong alkali that has been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of genital warts and molluscum contagiosum. Cryotherapy is considered one of the most established treatments for genital warts. No comparative trials have been reported to date on the use of potassium hydroxide for genital warts. OBJECTIVE A prospective, open-label, randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare topical potassium hydroxide versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts affecting immunocompetent, sexually active men. METHODS Over a period of 10 months, 48 patients were enrolled. They were randomly divided into two groups and selected on an alternative basis for either potassium hydroxide therapy or cryotherapy. While response to therapy did not differ substantially between both treatment modalities, side effects such as local pain and post-treatment hypopigmentation were considerably more prevalent in the groups treated using cryotherapy. RESULT In our study, potassium hydroxide therapy proved to be at least as effective as cryotherapy and offered the benefit of a better safety profile. CONCLUSION Topical 5% potassium hydroxide presents an effective, safe, and low-cost treatment modality for genital warts in men and should be included in the spectrum of therapies for genital warts. PMID:24770498

  18. Comparative analysis of MR imaging, Ictal SPECT and EEG in temporal lobe epilepsy: a prospective IAEA multi-center study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaknun, John J. [University Hospital of Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Nuclear Medicine Section, Division of Human Health, Vienna (Austria); IAEA, Nuclear Medicine Section, Division of Human Health, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, Wien (Austria); Bal, Chandrasekhar [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Medicine, New Delhi (India); Maes, Alex [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); AZ Groeninge, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium); Tepmongkol, Supatporn [Chulalongkorn University, Nuclear Medicine Division, Department of Radiology, Bangkok (Thailand); Vazquez, Silvia [Instituto de Investigaciones Neurologicas, FLENI, Department of Radiology, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Dupont, Patrick [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Dondi, Maurizio [Ospedale Maggiore, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bologna (Italy); International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Nuclear Medicine Section, Division of Human Health, Vienna (Austria)

    2008-01-15

    MR imaging, ictal single-photon emission CT (SPECT) and ictal EEG play important roles in the presurgical localization of epileptic foci. This multi-center study was established to investigate whether the complementary role of perfusion SPECT, MRI and EEG for presurgical localization of temporal lobe epilepsy could be confirmed in a prospective setting involving centers from India, Thailand, Italy and Argentina. We studied 74 patients who underwent interictal and ictal EEG, interictal and ictal SPECT and MRI before surgery of the temporal lobe. In all but three patients, histology was reported. The clinical outcome was assessed using Engel's classification. Sensitivity values of all imaging modalities were calculated, and the add-on value of SPECT was assessed. Outcome (Engel's classification) in 74 patients was class I, 89%; class II, 7%; class III, 3%; and IV, 1%. Regarding the localization of seizure origin, sensitivity was 84% for ictal SPECT, 70% for ictal EEG, 86% for MRI, 55% for interictal SPECT and 40% for interictal EEG. Add-on value of ictal SPECT was shown by its ability to correctly localize 17/22 (77%) of the seizure foci missed by ictal EEG and 8/10 (80%) of the seizure foci not detected by MRI. This prospective multi-center trial, involving centers from different parts of the world, confirms that ictal perfusion SPECT is an effective diagnostic modality for correctly identifying seizure origin in temporal lobe epilepsy, providing complementary information to ictal EEG and MRI. (orig.)

  19. Comparative analysis of MR imaging, Ictal SPECT and EEG in temporal lobe epilepsy: a prospective IAEA multi-center study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaknun, John J.; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Maes, Alex; Tepmongkol, Supatporn; Vazquez, Silvia; Dupont, Patrick; Dondi, Maurizio

    2008-01-01

    MR imaging, ictal single-photon emission CT (SPECT) and ictal EEG play important roles in the presurgical localization of epileptic foci. This multi-center study was established to investigate whether the complementary role of perfusion SPECT, MRI and EEG for presurgical localization of temporal lobe epilepsy could be confirmed in a prospective setting involving centers from India, Thailand, Italy and Argentina. We studied 74 patients who underwent interictal and ictal EEG, interictal and ictal SPECT and MRI before surgery of the temporal lobe. In all but three patients, histology was reported. The clinical outcome was assessed using Engel's classification. Sensitivity values of all imaging modalities were calculated, and the add-on value of SPECT was assessed. Outcome (Engel's classification) in 74 patients was class I, 89%; class II, 7%; class III, 3%; and IV, 1%. Regarding the localization of seizure origin, sensitivity was 84% for ictal SPECT, 70% for ictal EEG, 86% for MRI, 55% for interictal SPECT and 40% for interictal EEG. Add-on value of ictal SPECT was shown by its ability to correctly localize 17/22 (77%) of the seizure foci missed by ictal EEG and 8/10 (80%) of the seizure foci not detected by MRI. This prospective multi-center trial, involving centers from different parts of the world, confirms that ictal perfusion SPECT is an effective diagnostic modality for correctly identifying seizure origin in temporal lobe epilepsy, providing complementary information to ictal EEG and MRI. (orig.)

  20. Is Diabetes Associated with Lower Vitamin C Status in Pregnant Women? A Prospective Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, B.; Lauszus, Finn; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Abstract.Few studies have examined how vitamin C status is affected in diabetic pregnancy and no comparison between normal and diabetic pregnancies has been found. This study evaluated vitamin C status prospectively during pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (n=76), in non......-diabetic women (n=60), and in their respective neonates. Vitamin C was lower in diabetic women throughout all trimesters compared to controls (p...-diabetic women, vitamin C levels were lower in 3rd trimester compared to 1st and 2nd trimester (both pvitamin C status - defined as a plasma concentration vitamin C...

  1. A Prospective Study to Compare the Functional and Aesthetic Outcomes with and without Primary Bone Grafting in Facial Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanamurthy Sundaramurthy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Open Reduction and Internal Fixation (ORIF has been the gold standard in treatment of facial fractures. Bone grafts have been used to correct bone defects in face. Many studies assessing outcomes of ORIF and primary bone grafting separately have been published in literature. Aim: A prospective study to compare the functional and aesthetic outcomes with and without primary bone grafting in facial fractures. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients, admitted between January 2012 and December 2013, were divided into two groups. Group 1 patients underwent ORIF with primary bone grafting and in group 2, only ORIF was done. Clinical and functional, photographic and radiological assessments were done after one month and three months. Results: Mean value of vertical dystopia in groups 1 and 2 after three months postoperatively were 1.25mm and 0.67mm. Mean value of enophthalmos in groups 1 and 2 after three months postoperatively were 0.5mm and 1mm. Thus, vertical dystopia was corrected better without bone grafts and enophthalmos corrected better with bone grafts. Photographic assessment revealed no statistical difference between the two groups. Postoperatively, in upper face fractures, both groups had similar number of patients in grades 1 and 2. Only one patient from group 2 of midface fractures ended up with grade 3 asymmetry. Radiologically, in upper face fractures, group 2 had more mean projection, height and breadth deficits (1.28mm, 2.57mm and 2.42mm when compared to group 1 (0.67mm, 1.50mm and 0.50mm. The mean projection and height deficits were statistically better in group 1. In midface fractures, mean zygomatic complex projection and height deficits were more in group 2 (1.88mm and 0.63mm than group 1 (0.78mm and 0.44mm. The mean zygomatic complex projection was statistically better in group1. Postoperative complications were lesser with the bone graft group. Conclusion: Judicious use of bone grafts in comminuted facial and orbital

  2. Fruit and vegetable intake and type 2 diabetes: EPIC-InterAct prospective study and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Andrew J; Forouhi, Nita G; Ye, Zheng; Buijsse, Brian; Arriola, Larraitz; Balkau, Beverley; Barricarte, Aurelio; Beulens, Joline WJ; Boeing, Heiner; Büchner, Frederike L; Dahm, Christina C; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W; Gonzalez, Carlos; Grioni, Sara; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J; Masala, Giovanna; Navarro, Carmen; Nilsson, Peter; Overvad, Kim; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, Jose Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Roswall, Nina; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sánchez, María-José; Slimani, Nadia; Sluijs, Ivonne; Spijkerman, Annemieke MW; Teucher, Birgit; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; Sharp, Stephen J; Langenberg, Claudia; Feskens, Edith JM; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objective Fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the epidemiological evidence is inconclusive. The aim of this study is to examine the prospective association of FVI with T2D and conduct an updated meta-analysis. Subjects/Methods In the EPIC-InterAct (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-InterAct) prospective case-cohort study nested within eight European countries, a representative sample of 16 154 participants and 12 403 incident cases of T2D were identified from 340 234 individuals with 3.99 million person-years of follow-up. For the meta-analysis we identified prospective studies on FVI and T2D risk by systematic searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE until April 2011. Results In EPIC-InterAct, estimated FVI by dietary questionnaires varied more than two-fold between countries. In adjusted analyses the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) comparing the highest with lowest quartile of reported intake was 0.90 (0.80-1.01) for FVI; 0.89 (0.76-1.04) for fruit, and 0.94 (0.84-1.05) for vegetables. Among FV sub-types, only root vegetables were inversely associated with diabetes 0.87 (0.77-0.99). In meta-analysis using pooled data from five studies including EPIC-InterAct, comparing the highest with lowest category for FVI was associated with a lower relative risk of diabetes (0.93 (0.87-1.00)). Fruit or vegetables separately were not associated with diabetes. Among FV sub-types, only green leafy vegetable intake (RR: 0.84 (0.74-0.94)) was inversely associated with diabetes. Conclusions Sub-types of vegetables, such as root vegetables or green leafy vegetables may be beneficial for the prevention of diabetes, while total FVI may exert a weaker overall effect. PMID:22854878

  3. Comparative Evaluation of the Safety and Efficacy of Long-Term Use of Imidafenacin and Solifenacin in Patients with Overactive Bladder: A Prospective, Open, Randomized, Parallel-Group Trial (the LIST Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayoshi Zaitsu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Overactive bladder (OAB is a chronic disease, but comparative trials of anticholinergics, which are commonly used for treatment of OAB, have generally been performed for up to 12 weeks only. There is no comparative study of a long-term intervention. Methods. We conducted a 52-week prospective randomized comparative study to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of two anticholinergics. Results. Forty-one Japanese patients with untreated OAB were randomly assigned to imidafenacin and solifenacin groups. There was no difference in OABSS and KHQ scores between the two groups, but the severity and incidence of adverse events caused by the anticholinergics showed increased differences between the groups with time. The severity of dry mouth and the incidence of constipation were significantly lower in the imidafenacin group (=0.0092 and =0.0013, resp.. Conclusions. This study is the first long-term trial to show differences in the properties of anticholinergics that were not detected in short-term studies. Since OAB is a chronic disease, we conclude that imidafenacin is preferable to solifenacin from a perspective of safety.

  4. Prospective outcomes of injury study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrett, S; Langley, J; Hokowhitu, B; Ameratunga, S; Hansen, P; Davie, G; Wyeth, E; Lilley, R

    2009-10-01

    In New Zealand (NZ), 20% of adults report a disability, of which one-third is caused by injury. No prospective epidemiological studies of predictors of disability following all-cause injury among New Zealanders have been undertaken. Internationally, studies have focused on a limited range of predictors or specific injuries. Although these studies provide useful insights, applicability to NZ is limited given the importance of NZ's unique macro-social factors, such as NZ's no-fault accident compensation and rehabilitation scheme, the Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC). (1) To quantitatively determine the injury, rehabilitation, personal, social and economic factors leading to disability outcomes following injury in NZ. (2) To qualitatively explore experiences and perceptions of injury-related outcomes in face-to-face interviews with 15 Māori and 15 other New Zealanders, 6 and 12 months after injury. Four geographical regions within NZ. Prospective cohort study with telephone interviews 1, 4 and 12 months after injury. 2500 people (including 460 Māori), aged 18-64 years, randomly selected from ACC's entitlement claims register (people likely to be off work for at least 1 week or equivalent). Telephone interviews, electronic hospital and ACC injury data. Exposures include demographic, social, economic, work-related, health status, participation and/or environmental factors. Primary: disability (including WHODAS II) and health-related quality of life (including EQ-5D). Secondary: participation (paid and unpaid activities), life satisfaction and costs. Separate regression models will be developed for each of the outcomes. Repeated measures outcomes will be modelled using general estimating equation models and generalised linear mixed models.

  5. Night Shift Work and Breast Cancer Incidence: Three Prospective Studies and Meta-analysis of Published Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Ruth C; Balkwill, Angela; Fensom, Georgina K; Appleby, Paul N; Reeves, Gillian K; Wang, Xiao-Si; Roddam, Andrew W; Gathani, Toral; Peto, Richard; Green, Jane; Key, Timothy J; Beral, Valerie

    2016-12-01

    It has been proposed that night shift work could increase breast cancer incidence. A 2007 World Health Organization review concluded, mainly from animal evidence, that shift work involving circadian disruption is probably carcinogenic to humans. We therefore aimed to generate prospective epidemiological evidence on night shift work and breast cancer incidence. Overall, 522 246 Million Women Study, 22 559 EPIC-Oxford, and 251 045 UK Biobank participants answered questions on shift work and were followed for incident cancer. Cox regression yielded multivariable-adjusted breast cancer incidence rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for night shift work vs no night shift work, and likelihood ratio tests for interaction were used to assess heterogeneity. Our meta-analyses combined these and relative risks from the seven previously published prospective studies (1.4 million women in total), using inverse-variance weighted averages of the study-specific log RRs. In the Million Women Study, EPIC-Oxford, and UK Biobank, respectively, 673, 28, and 67 women who reported night shift work developed breast cancer, and the RRs for any vs no night shift work were 1.00 (95% CI = 0.92 to 1.08), 1.07 (95% CI = 0.71 to 1.62), and 0.78 (95% CI = 0.61 to 1.00). In the Million Women Study, the RR for 20 or more years of night shift work was 1.00 (95% CI = 0.81 to 1.23), with no statistically significant heterogeneity by sleep patterns or breast cancer risk factors. Our meta-analysis of all 10 prospective studies included 4660 breast cancers in women reporting night shift work; compared with other women, the combined relative risks were 0.99 (95% CI = 0.95 to 1.03) for any night shift work, 1.01 (95% CI = 0.93 to 1.10) for 20 or more years of night shift work, and 1.00 (95% CI = 0.87 to 1.14) for 30 or more years. The totality of the prospective evidence shows that night shift work, including long-term shift work, has little or no effect on

  6. Protocol for the "Michigan Awareness Control Study": A prospective, randomized, controlled trial comparing electronic alerts based on bispectral index monitoring or minimum alveolar concentration for the prevention of intraoperative awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avidan Michael S

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of intraoperative awareness with explicit recall is 1-2/1000 cases in the United States. The Bispectral Index monitor is an electroencephalographic method of assessing anesthetic depth that has been shown in one prospective study to reduce the incidence of awareness in the high-risk population. In the B-Aware trial, the number needed to treat in order to prevent one case of awareness in the high-risk population was 138. Since the number needed to treat and the associated cost of treatment would be much higher in the general population, the efficacy of the Bispectral Index monitor in preventing awareness in all anesthetized patients needs to be clearly established. This is especially true given the findings of the B-Unaware trial, which demonstrated no significant difference between protocols based on the Bispectral Index monitor or minimum alveolar concentration for the reduction of awareness in high risk patients. Methods/Design To evaluate efficacy in the general population, we are conducting a prospective, randomized, controlled trial comparing the Bispectral Index monitor to a non-electroencephalographic gauge of anesthetic depth. The total recruitment for the study is targeted for 30,000 patients at both low and high risk for awareness. We have developed a novel algorithm that is capable of real-time analysis of our electronic perioperative information system. In one arm of the study, anesthesia providers will receive an electronic page if the Bispectral Index value is >60. In the other arm of the study, anesthesia providers will receive a page if the age-adjusted minimum alveolar concentration is Discussion Awareness during general anesthesia is a persistent problem and the role of the Bispectral Index monitor in its prevention is still unclear. The Michigan Awareness Control Study is the largest prospective trial of awareness prevention ever conducted. Trial Registration Clinical Trial NCT00689091

  7. Prospective cross-sectional study of tuberculosis screening in United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almarzooqi, Farida; Alkhemeiri, Aysha; Aljaberi, Ahmed; Hashmey, Rayhan; Zoubeidi, Taoufik; Souid, Abdul-Kader

    2018-05-01

    Intense migrations from tuberculosis endemic areas to Gulf countries create special risks for people in the region. The purpose of this study was to provide data that could justify implementing universal, regular TB screening in UAE. This prospective, cross-sectional study used interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) to screen for TB among Emirati citizens between August-2016 and May-2017; expatriates were not included in this study. Participants were recruited from Emiratis attending Tawam Hospital Polyclinics for problems unrelated to TB risk assessment. IGRA was requested for all enrolled participants. A risk-assessment questionnaire was completed by all participants. In addition, a retrospective review of IGRA results (January-2011 to April-2016) was conducted to compare prevalence of positive IGRA in the 'prospective sample' with that in 'patients screened in the past'. Four hundred fifty-five participants (69% females) were enrolled in this study. Participants' age (mean±SD) was 42±16y. The majority of participants had traveled to or had helpers from TB-endemic areas. Two hundred forty (53%) participants had IGRA test. Forty-five (18.8%) participants had positive IGRA, similar to the retrospective results of 12.4% to 23.5%. The prevalence of positive-IGRA in this study is high. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical Performance and Management Outcomes with the DecisionDx-UM Gene Expression Profile Test in a Prospective Multicenter Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Meldi Plasseraud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Uveal melanoma management is challenging due to its metastatic propensity. DecisionDx-UM is a prospectively validated molecular test that interrogates primary tumor biology to provide objective information about metastatic potential that can be used in determining appropriate patient care. To evaluate the continued clinical validity and utility of DecisionDx-UM, beginning March 2010, 70 patients were enrolled in a prospective, multicenter, IRB-approved study to document patient management differences and clinical outcomes associated with low-risk Class 1 and high-risk Class 2 results indicated by DecisionDx-UM testing. Thirty-seven patients in the prospective study were Class 1 and 33 were Class 2. Class 1 patients had 100% 3-year metastasis-free survival compared to 63% for Class 2 (log rank test p=0.003 with 27.3 median follow-up months in this interim analysis. Class 2 patients received significantly higher-intensity monitoring and more oncology/clinical trial referrals compared to Class 1 patients (Fisher’s exact test p=2.1×10-13 and p=0.04, resp.. The results of this study provide additional, prospective evidence in an independent cohort of patients that Class 1 and Class 2 patients are managed according to the differential metastatic risk indicated by DecisionDx-UM. The trial is registered with Clinical Application of DecisionDx-UM Gene Expression Assay Results (NCT02376920.

  9. Selective effects of acute alcohol intake on the prospective and retrospective components of a prospective-memory task with emotional targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Nora T; Bayen, Ute J

    2016-01-01

    Prospective memory involves remembering to do something in the future and has a prospective component (remembering that something must be done) and a retrospective component (remembering what must be done and when it must be done). Initial studies reported an impairment in prospective-memory performance due to acute alcohol consumption. Retrospective-memory studies demonstrated that alcohol effects vary depending on the emotionality of the information that needs to be learned. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible differential effects of a mild acute alcohol dose (0.4 g/kg) on the prospective and retrospective components of prospective memory depending on cue valence. Seventy-five participants were allocated to an alcohol or placebo group and performed a prospective-memory task in which prospective-memory cue valence was manipulated (negative, neutral, positive). The multinomial model of event-based prospective memory (Smith and Bayen 2004) was used to measure alcohol and valence effects on the two prospective-memory components separately. Overall, no main effect of alcohol or valence on prospective-memory performance occurred. However, model-based analyses demonstrated a significantly higher retrospective component for positive compared with negative cues in the placebo group. In the alcohol group, the prospective component was weaker for negative than for neutral cues and the retrospective component was stronger for positive than for neutral cues. Group comparisons showed that the alcohol group had a significantly lower prospective component for negative cues and a lower retrospective component for neutral cues. This is the first study to demonstrate selective alcohol effects on prospective-memory components depending on prospective-memory cue valence.

  10. Comparative study between manual injection intraosseous anesthesia and conventional oral anesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Ata-Ali, Javier; Oltra-Moscardó, María J.; Peñarrocha-Diago, María; Peñarrocha, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare intraosseous anesthesia (IA) with the conventional oral anesthesia techniques. Materials and methods: A simple-blind, prospective clinical study was carried out. Each patient underwent two anesthetic techniques: conventional (local infiltration and locoregional anesthetic block) and intraosseous, for res-pective dental operations. In order to allow comparison of IA versus conventional anesthesia, the two operations were similar and affected the same two teeth in opposite...

  11. Self-projection in younger and older adults: a study of episodic memory, prospection, and theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Shoshana N; Miller, Jeremy K

    2017-07-01

    Self-projection is the ability to orient the self in different places in time and space. Episodic memory, prospection, and theory of mind (ToM) are all cognitive abilities that share an element of self-projection. Previous research has posited that each of these abilities stems from the same neural network. The current study compared performance of cognitively healthy older adults and younger adults on several self-projection tasks to examine the relatedness of these constructs behaviorally. Episodic memory and prospection were measured using an episodic interview task where the participants were asked to remember or imagine events that either had happened in the past or could happen in the future and then gave ratings describing the extent to which they were mentally experiencing the event and from what perspective they viewed it. ToM was measured by asking participants to make judgments regarding the intentions of characters described in stories that involved cognitive, affective, or ironic components. Our results demonstrate that aging influences episodic memory, prospection, and ToM similarly: older adult participants showed declines on each of these measures compared to younger adults. Further, we observed correlations between performance on the measures of episodic memory and prospection as well as between episodic memory and ToM, although no correlation between prospection and ToM was observed after controlling for chronological age. We discuss these results in the light of theories suggesting that each of these abilities is governed by a common brain system.

  12. THE IMPACT OF USING SOCIAL MEDIA ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AND ATTITUDES OF PROSPECTIVE TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Tezer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study was conducted to investigate the impact of using social media and internet on the academic achievement of prospective teachers. Focus group of the research could be expressed as 204 prospective teachers that were studying in 2016-2017 fall semesters. To collect data, Attitudes Towards to Social Media Scale was employed. Result of the study revealed that, prospective teachers’ attitudes towards to social media had an influence on academic achievement. Furthermore, it could be stressed that prospective teachers with lower attitudes towards to social media were more likely to have lower academic success when compared with the prospective teachers with higher attitudes towards to social media. In addition to these, results of the current study also expressed that prospective teachers with social media accounts were achieved better grades when compared with the prospective teachers who did not have any social media account. Lastly, it could be indicated that prospective teachers’ attitudes towards to social media was at a moderate level.

  13. Preoperative Quantitative MR Tractography Compared with Visual Tract Evaluation in Patients with Neuropathologically Confirmed Gliomas Grades II and III: A Prospective Cohort Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, Anna F.; Nilsson, Markus; Latini, Francesco; Mårtensson, Johanna; Zetterling, Maria; Berntsson, Shala G.; Alafuzoff, Irina; Lätt, Jimmy; Larsson, Elna-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Low-grade gliomas show infiltrative growth in white matter tracts. Diffusion tensor tractography can noninvasively assess white matter tracts. The aim was to preoperatively assess tumor growth in white matter tracts using quantitative MR tractography (3T). The hypothesis was that suspected infiltrated tracts would have altered diffusional properties in infiltrated tract segments compared to noninfiltrated tracts. Materials and Methods. Forty-eight patients with suspected low-grade glioma were included after written informed consent and underwent preoperative diffusion tensor imaging in this prospective review-board approved study. Major white matter tracts in both hemispheres were tracked, segmented, and visually assessed for tumor involvement in thirty-four patients with gliomas grade II or III (astrocytomas or oligodendrogliomas) on postoperative neuropathological evaluation. Relative fractional anisotropy (rFA) and mean diffusivity (rMD) in tract segments were calculated and compared with visual evaluation and neuropathological diagnosis. Results. Tract segment infiltration on visual evaluation was associated with a lower rFA and high rMD in a majority of evaluated tract segments (89% and 78%, resp.). Grade II and grade III gliomas had similar infiltrating behavior. Conclusion. Quantitative MR tractography corresponds to visual evaluation of suspected tract infiltration. It may be useful for an objective preoperative evaluation of tract segment involvement

  14. Maxillary sinusitis - a comparative study of different imaging diagnosis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueb, Marcelo Miguel; Borges, Fabiano de Almeida; Pulcinelli, Emilte; Souza, Wandir Ferreira; Borges, Luiz Marcondes

    1999-01-01

    We conducted prospective study comparing different methods (plain X-rays, computed tomography and ultrasonography mode-A) for the initial diagnosis of maxillary sinusitis. Twenty patients (40 maxillary sinuses) with a clinical history suggestive of sinusitis included in this study. The results were classified as abnormal or normal, using computed tomography as gold standard. The sensitivity for ultrasonography and plain X-rays was 84.6% and 69.2%, respectively. The specificity of both methods was 92.6%. This study suggests that ultrasonography can be used as a good follow-up method for patients with maxillary. sinusitis. (author)

  15. A Case Study on Mathematical Literacy of Prospective Elementary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suharta, I. Gusti Putu; Suarjana, I. Made

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe Mathematical Literacy (ML) of Prospective Elementary School Teachers with attention to aspects of mathematical skills and gender. The type of research is qualitative with the research design of Case Study. Respondents are assigned 12 Prospective Elementary School Teachers, consisting of 6 men and 6 women.…

  16. Social importance enhances prospective memory: evidence from an event-based task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Stefan; Meier, Beat

    2017-07-01

    Prospective memory performance can be enhanced by task importance, for example by promising a reward. Typically, this comes at costs in the ongoing task. However, previous research has suggested that social importance (e.g., providing a social motive) can enhance prospective memory performance without additional monitoring costs in activity-based and time-based tasks. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of social importance in an event-based task. We compared four conditions: social importance, promising a reward, both social importance and promising a reward, and standard prospective memory instructions (control condition). The results showed enhanced prospective memory performance for all importance conditions compared to the control condition. Although ongoing task performance was slowed in all conditions with a prospective memory task when compared to a baseline condition with no prospective memory task, additional costs occurred only when both the social importance and reward were present simultaneously. Alone, neither social importance nor promising a reward produced an additional slowing when compared to the cost in the standard (control) condition. Thus, social importance and reward can enhance event-based prospective memory at no additional cost.

  17. Using simplified peer review processes to fund research: a prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Danielle L; Graves, Nicholas; Clarke, Philip; Barnett, Adrian G

    2015-01-01

    Objective To prospectively test two simplified peer review processes, estimate the agreement between the simplified and official processes, and compare the costs of peer review. Design, participants and setting A prospective parallel study of Project Grant proposals submitted in 2013 to the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) of Australia. The official funding outcomes were compared with two simplified processes using proposals in Public Health and Basic Science. The two simplified processes were: panels of 7 reviewers who met face-to-face and reviewed only the nine-page research proposal and track record (simplified panel); and 2 reviewers who independently reviewed only the nine-page research proposal (journal panel). The official process used panels of 12 reviewers who met face-to-face and reviewed longer proposals of around 100 pages. We compared the funding outcomes of 72 proposals that were peer reviewed by the simplified and official processes. Main outcome measures Agreement in funding outcomes; costs of peer review based on reviewers’ time and travel costs. Results The agreement between the simplified and official panels (72%, 95% CI 61% to 82%), and the journal and official panels (74%, 62% to 83%), was just below the acceptable threshold of 75%. Using the simplified processes would save $A2.1–$A4.9 million per year in peer review costs. Conclusions Using shorter applications and simpler peer review processes gave reasonable agreement with the more complex official process. Simplified processes save time and money that could be reallocated to actual research. Funding agencies should consider streamlining their application processes. PMID:26137884

  18. Coronary artery disease in patients with cerebrovascular disease: a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokey, R.; Rolak, L.A.; Harati, Y.; Kutka, N.; Verani, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is the cause of death in most patients who have transient ischemic attacks or stroke. Evaluation for this condition is not routinely performed in such patients, and no prospective studies have been reported. We prospectively examined 50 consecutive patients with transient ischemic attacks or mild stroke to determine the prevalence and importance of coronary artery disease. All patients were examined by a cardiologist and underwent both exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy and exercise radionuclide ventriculography. Sixteen patients were suspected to have coronary artery disease on the basis of clinical evaluation. In 15 of these the was confirmed by the nuclear scans. The remaining 34 patients had no clinical evidence of heart disease, yet 14 had abnormal cardiac scans. Twenty of 22 patients with abnormal scans who underwent cardiac catheterization had significant coronary artery disease or a cardiomyopathy. The discovery of heart disease altered clinical management in 13 patients. Overall, 29 of 50 patients had significant coronary artery disease, compared with a 7% prevalence of the condition in other patients of similar age at the same institution

  19. Comparative gross domestic production and electricity consumption per capita in the context of nuclear power prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridzuan Abdul Mutalib; Maragatham Kumar; Nik Arlina Nik Ali; Abi Muttaqin Jalal Bayar; Aisya Raihan Abdul Kadir; Muhammed Zulfakar Zolkaffly; Azlinda Aziz; Jamal Khaer Ibrahim

    2008-08-01

    Malaysia, based on its economic and industrial growth level should be able to absorb nuclear technology and capacity in implementing a nuclear power programme. Malaysia Gross Domestic Production (GDP) and electricity consumption (kWh per capita is higher compared with other developing countries, which have already announced their plans to implement nuclear power programme. Furthermore, Asia reliance on nuclear power plants to meet growing energy needs in the near future is also significantly increasing. This paper presents the comparative GDP and kWh per capita in Asia and globally in the context of nuclear power prospect in Malaysia. (Author)

  20. Membrane versus centrifuge-based therapeutic plasma exchange: a randomized prospective crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafer, Carsten; Golla, Paulina; Gericke, Marion; Eden, Gabriele; Beutel, Gernot; Schmidt, Julius J; Schmidt, Bernhard M W; De Reys, Stef; Kielstein, Jan T

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is either performed using a highly permeable filter with standard multifunctional renal replacement equipment (mTPE) or a centrifugation device (cTPE). Although both techniques are well established in clinical practice, performance of these two modes of TPE was never compared in a prospective randomized fashion. Thus we aimed to compare two commercially available therapeutic apheresis systems: mTPE (Octonova with Plasmaflo filter) and cTPE (Spectra Optia apheresis system). Twenty-one patients (age 51.6 ± 13.5 years; 10 F/11 M; BMI 25.1 ± 5.0 kg/m(2)) were enrolled in this randomized, prospective, paired, crossover study performed in the Hannover Medical School, Germany. First treatment (either mTPE or cTPE) was chosen by an online randomization list. The primary endpoints were plasma removal efficiency with 1.2× of the total plasma volume exchanged. Secondary endpoints were total amount of plasma substances removed, such as IgG and fibrinogen. Further, the treatment effect on platelet count and complications were evaluated. Despite a comparable volume of the processed plasma, mTPE treatment time was 10.5 % longer than cTPE treatment time (p centrifugal procedures were conducted using flow rates that could easily be obtained using peripheral access, plasma removal efficiency was significantly higher and treatment time was significantly lower in cTPE as compared to mTPE. Despite this lower treatment time, the decline in markers of procedure efficacy was comparable. Especially in centers performing many procedures per year, cTPE in contrast to mTPE can reduce treatment time without compromising treatment efficacy.

  1. Which Iodine concentration in chest CT? - A prospective study in 300 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehlenbruch, Georg [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Aachen (Germany); University Hospital, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Behrendt, Florian F.; Eddahabi, Mohammed A.; Das, Marco; Guenther, Rolf W.; Mahnken, Andreas H. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Aachen (Germany); Knackstedt, Christian [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Pulmonology and Angiology, Aachen (Germany); Stanzel, Sven [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Institute of Medical Statistics, Aachen (Germany); Seidensticker, Peter [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin (Germany); Wildberger, Joachim E. [University Hospital Maastricht, Department of Radiology, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2008-12-15

    In computed tomography(CT) several contrast media with different iodine concentrations are available. The aim of this study is to prospectively compare contrast media with iodine concentrations of 300, 370 and 400 mg iodine/ml for chest- CT. 300 consecutive patients were prospectively enrolled, under a waiver of the local ethics committee. The first (second, third) 100 patients, received contrast medium with 300(370, 400)mg iodine/ml. Injection protocols were adapted for an identical iodine delivery rate(1.3 mg/s) and total iodine load(33 g) for all three groups. Standardized MDCT of the chest (16 x 0.75 mm, 120 kVp, 100 mAseff.) was performed. Intravascular attenuation values were measured in the pulmonary trunk and the ascending aorta; subjective image quality was rated on a 3-point-scale. Discomfort during and after injection was evaluated. There were no statistically significant differences in contrast enhancement comparing the three contrast media at the pulmonary trunk(p = 0.3198) and at the ascending aorta(p = 0.0840). Image quality(p = 0.0176) and discomfort during injection(p = 0.7034) were comparable for all groups. General discomfort after injection of contrast media with 300 mg iodine/ml was statistically significant higher compared to 370 mg iodine/ml(p = 0.00019). Given identical iodine delivery rates of 1.3 g/s and iodine loads of 33 g, contrast media with concentrations of 300, 370 and 400 mg iodine/ml do not result in different intravascular enhancement in chest-CT. (orig.)

  2. Size ratio correlates with intracranial aneurysm rupture status: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Maryam; Smietana, Janel; Hauck, Erik; Hoh, Brian; Hopkins, Nick; Siddiqui, Adnan; Levy, Elad I; Meng, Hui; Mocco, J

    2010-05-01

    The prediction of intracranial aneurysm (IA) rupture risk has generated significant controversy. The findings of the International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms (ISUIA) that small anterior circulation aneurysms (IAs are small. These discrepancies have led to the search for better aneurysm parameters to predict rupture. We previously reported that size ratio (SR), IA size divided by parent vessel diameter, correlated strongly with IA rupture status (ruptured versus unruptured). These data were all collected retrospectively off 3-dimensional angiographic images. Therefore, we performed a blinded prospective collection and evaluation of SR data from 2-dimensional angiographic images for a consecutive series of patients with ruptured and unruptured IAs. We prospectively enrolled 40 consecutive patients presenting to a single institution with either ruptured IA or for first-time evaluation of an incidental IA. Blinded technologists acquired all measurements from 2-dimensional angiographic images. Aneurysm rupture status, location, IA maximum size, and parent vessel diameter were documented. The SR was calculated by dividing the aneurysm size (mm) by the average parent vessel size (mm). A 2-tailed Mann-Whitney test was performed to assess statistical significance between ruptured and unruptured groups. Fisher exact test was used to compare medical comorbidities between the ruptured and unruptured groups. Significant differences between the 2 groups were subsequently tested with logistic regression. SE and probability values are reported. Forty consecutive patients with 24 unruptured and 16 ruptured aneurysms met the inclusion criteria. No significant differences were found in age, gender, smoking status, or medical comorbidities between ruptured and unruptured groups. The average maximum size of the unruptured IAs (6.18 + or - 0.60 mm) was significantly smaller compared with the ruptured IAs (7.91 + or - 0.47 mm; P=0.03), and the unruptured group had

  3. Can iridology detect susceptibility to cancer? A prospective case-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münstedt, Karsten; El-Safadi, Samer; Brück, Friedel; Zygmunt, Marek; Hackethal, Andreas; Tinneberg, Hans-Rudolf

    2005-06-01

    This prospective case-control study aimed to investigate the value of iridology as a diagnostic tool in detecting some common cancers. One hundred ten (110) subjects were enrolled in the study: 68 subjects had histologically proven cancers of the breast, ovary, uterus, prostate, or colorectum, and 42 were control subjects. All subjects were examined by an experienced practitioner of iridology, who was unaware of their gender or medical details. He was allowed to suggest up to five diagnoses for each subject and his results were then compared with each subject's medical diagnosis to determine the accuracy of iridology in detecting malignancy. Iridology identified the correct diagnosis in only 3 cases (sensitivity, 0.04). Iridology was of no value in diagnosing the cancers investigated in this study.

  4. Physical function outcome in cervical radiculopathy patients after physiotherapy alone compared with anterior surgery followed by physiotherapy: a prospective randomized study with a 2-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peolsson, Anneli; Söderlund, Anne; Engquist, Markus; Lind, Bengt; Löfgren, Håkan; Vavruch, Ludek; Holtz, Anders; Winström-Christersson, Annelie; Isaksson, Ingrid; Öberg, Birgitta

    2013-02-15

    Prospective randomized study. To investigate differences in physical functional outcome in patients with radiculopathy due to cervical disc disease, after structured physiotherapy alone (consisting of neck-specific exercises with a cognitive-behavioral approach) versus after anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) followed by the same structured physiotherapy program. No earlier studies have evaluated the effectiveness of a structured physiotherapy program or postoperative physical rehabilitation after ACDF for patients with magnetic resonance imaging-verified nerve compression due to cervical disc disease. Our prospective randomized study included 63 patients with radiculopathy and magnetic resonance imaging-verified nerve root compression, who were randomized to receive either ACDF in combination with physiotherapy or physiotherapy alone. For 49 of these patients, an independent examiner measured functional outcomes, including active range of neck motion, neck muscle endurance, and hand-related functioning before treatment and at 3-, 6-, 12-, and 24-month follow-ups. There were no significant differences between the 2 treatment alternatives in any of the measurements performed (P = 0.17-0.91). Both groups showed improvements over time in neck muscle endurance (P ≤ 0.01), manual dexterity (P ≤ 0.03), and right-handgrip strength (P = 0.01). Compared with a structured physiotherapy program alone, ACDF followed by physiotherapy did not result in additional improvements in neck active range of motion, neck muscle endurance, or hand-related function in patients with radiculopathy. We suggest that a structured physiotherapy program should precede a decision for ACDF intervention in patients with radiculopathy, to reduce the need for surgery. 2.

  5. Differentiation between primary and secondary Raynaud's phenomenon: a prospective study comparing nailfold capillaroscopy using an ophthalmoscope or stereomicroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, H; Sigl, T; Schattenkirchner, M

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Nailfold capillary microscopy is a routine procedure in the investigation of patients with Raynaud's phenomenon (RP). As a standard method, nailfold capillary morphology is inspected with a stereomicroscope to look for capillary abnormalities such as giant loops, avascular areas, and bushy capillaries, which have all been found to be associated with certain connective tissue diseases.
AIM—To investigate prospectively whether nailfold capillary inspection using an ophthalmoscope is of equivalent diagnostic value to standard nailfold capillary microscopy.
METHOD—All the fingers of 26 patients with RP were examined in a blinded fashion and compared with the final diagnosis one month later.
RESULTS—All giant loops, large avascular areas, and bushy capillaries were identified by both methods. The correlation for moderate avascular areas and crossed capillaries was 0.93 and 0.955 respectively. The correlation for minor abnormalities that do not contribute to the differentiation between primary and secondary RP was 0.837 and 0.861 respectively. All patients were classified identically by the two methods.
CONCLUSION—For the evaluation of patients with RP, nailfold capillary morphology can reliably be assessed with an ophthalmoscope.

 PMID:11247874

  6. Prospect-EPIC Utrecht: study design and characteristics of the cohort population. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boker, L K; van Noord, P A; van der Schouw, Y T; Koot, N V; Bueno de Mesquita, H B; Riboli, E; Grobbee, D E; Peeters, P H

    2001-01-01

    The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), which has been established in order to investigate the relations between nutrition and cancer, was initiated in 1990 and involves 10 European countries with heterogeneous dietary patterns and differing cancer incidence rates. This manuscript presents the design, recruitment and baseline characteristics of the Prospect-EPIC cohort co-ordinated in Utrecht, The Netherlands. The cohort is based on volunteers recruited among women participating in a regional breast cancer screening program. It comprises of 17,357 subjects aged 50-69 years at enrolment from Utrecht and vicinity, who have consented to participate in the study and its follow-up. Each participant filled out a general questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire. Participants were also physically examined and have donated a blood sample. Participation rate was 34.5%. Blood samples were donated by most participants (97.5%) and detailed informed consents were obtained from 87.4% of participants. Mean age at enrolment was 57 years. Anthropometric, lifestyle and morbidity characteristics of the cohort population did not differ largely from those of similar study populations in The Netherlands. Based on the Prospect-EPIC population, we intend to conduct prospective total cohort, nested case-control or case-cohort studies, in order to investigate relations between consumption of certain food groups or nutrients and chronic diseases, including hormone dependant cancers such as breast, colon, endometrial and ovary cancers.

  7. Infusion dose requirement of rocuronium in patients on phenytoin therapy - A prospective comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshadri, Veena; Radhakrishnan, Arathi; Halemani, Kusuma; Keshavan, Venkatesh H

    2017-10-01

    Patients with intracranial tumour are usually on anticonvulsants. Patients on phenytoin therapy demonstrate rapid metabolism of nondepolarising muscle relaxants secondary to enzyme induction. Infusion dose requirement of rocuronium in such patients has been sparingly studied. We studied the continuous infusion dose requirement of rocuronium bromide in patients on phenytoin therapy and its correlation with serum levels of phenytoin. Seventy-five patients scheduled for supratentorial tumour surgery were included in the study. Patients not on phenytoin were taken as control. The primary outcome variable studied was the infusion dose requirement of rocuronium in patients on phenytoin. Based on pre-operative serum phenytoin levels, study group patients were divided into two groups: sub-therapeutic level group (phenytoin level 10 μg/mL). Following anaesthesia induction, rocuronium bromide 0.6 mg/kg was administered to achieve tracheal intubation. Rocuronium infusion was titrated to maintain zero response on the train-of-four response. Demographic data were comparable. Patients receiving phenytoin required higher infusion dose compared to the control group (0.429 ± 0.2 mg/kg/h vs. 0.265 ± 0.15 mg/kg/h, P rocuronium (0.429 ± 0.205 mg/kg/h vs. 0.429 ± 0.265 mg/kg/h ( P = 0.815). The recovery was faster in the phenytoin group compared to the control group. Haowever, it was not clinically significant. The infusion dose requirement of rocuronium bromide in patients on phenytoin is higher and the serum levels of phenytoin does not influence the dose required.

  8. Basic Needs as a Predictors of Prospective Teachers' Self-Actualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Ali

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the predictive power of prospective teachers' basic needs on self-actualization. This is a correlational research which is one of the descriptive research methods. The study was conducted on 1033 prospective teachers studying in Bulent Ecevit University Eregli Faculty of Education in the spring term of the…

  9. A Prospective, Randomized Study Comparing 7-day and 14-day ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... the H. pylori eradication group showed a markedly lower rate of metachronous recurrence after 3 years when compared with the non-eradication group.[16] These findings show that H. pylori eradication can inhibit the development of gastric cancer. Thus, the consensus among international guidelines is ...

  10. Technical development of seismic imaging prospecting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guilai

    2006-01-01

    Geophysical methods and apparatus for shallow engineering geophysical prospecting and mining related in-roadway geophysical prospecting are important research fields which has been studied for long time, unfortunately, little significant advancement has been made compared with the demand of engineering geology. The seismic imaging method and its corresponding equipment are viewed as the most hopeful choice for 0-50 m depth and are studied in this research systematically. The recording equipment CSA is made and the related in-situ data processing software is also developed. Field application experiment for shallow seismic prospecting has been finished, the results show that the CSA seismic imaging and its application technology are effective and practical for the engineering geophysical prospecting of 0-50 m depth, and can meet the demand of engineering geology investigation. Hence, the geophysical method and equipment, which can meet the demand for 0-50 m depth engineering geology investigation have been formed through this research. (authors)

  11. A Model of Microteaching Lesson Study Implementation in the Prospective History Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, Indah Wahyu Puji; Mashuri; Nafi'ah, Ulfatun

    2016-01-01

    Microteaching lesson study is a model to improve prospective teacher quality by incorporating several element of microteaching and lesson study. This study concern on the implementation of microteaching lesson study in prospective history teacher education. Microteaching lesson study model implemented in this study consist of three stages: plan,…

  12. A prospective randomised trial comparing mesh types and fixation in totally extraperitoneal inguinal hernia repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristaudo, Adam; Nayak, Arun; Martin, Sarah; Adib, Reza; Martin, Ian

    2015-05-01

    The totally extraperitoneal (TEP) approach for surgical repair of inguinal hernias has emerged as a popular technique. We conducted a prospective randomised trial to compare patient comfort scores using different mesh types and fixation using this technique. Over a 14 month period, 146 patients underwent 232 TEP inguinal hernia repairs. We compared the comfort scores of patients who underwent these procedures using different types of mesh and fixation. A non-absorbable 15 × 10 cm anatomical mesh fixed with absorbable tacks (Control group) was compared with either a non-absorbable 15 × 10 cm folding slit mesh with absorbable tacks (Group 2), a partially-absorbable 15 × 10 cm mesh with absorbable tacks (Group 3) or a non-absorbable 15 × 10 cm anatomical mesh fixed with 2 ml fibrin sealant (Group 4). Outcomes were compared at 1, 2, 4 and 12 weeks using the Carolina Comfort Scale (CCS) scores. At 1, 2, 4 and 12 weeks, the median global CCS scores were low for all treatment groups. Statistically significant differences were seen only for median CCS scores and subscores with the use of partially-absorbable mesh with absorbable tacks (Group 3) at weeks 2 and 4. However, these were no longer significant at week 12. In this study, the TEP inguinal hernia repair with minimal fixation results in low CCS scores. There were no statistical differences in CCS scores when comparing types of mesh, configuration of the mesh or fixation methods. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of morbidity of elderly patients in August and November in Attica, Greece: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theocharis, G; Mavros, M N; Vouloumanou, E K; Peppas, G; Barbas, S G; Spiropoulos, T; Falagas, M E

    2012-01-01

    In our clinical practice, we have experienced a consistent increase in the morbidity of elderly in Greece during August. We prospectively analysed and compared the morbidity of elderly patients (≥ 75 years old) between August and November of the same year (2010), using data from the SOS Doctors (a network of physicians performing house call visits). We analysed data on 739 and 738 elderly patient house-calls in August and November, respectively. Overall, the most common diagnoses were cardiovascular (17.6%), musculoskeletal (10.7%), gastrointestinal (9.5%), respiratory (8.5%), renal/genitourinary (8.1%), and neurologic/psychiatric (7.9%). In August, patients were older (p elderly visited in August was significantly higher compared to November (5% vs. 2%, p bedridden status [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 5.59, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 2.83-11.06, p bedridden status [OR = 1.45 (1.07, 1.97), p elderly patients was significantly higher in August compared with November, substantiating the informal term 'Augustitis' for the Greek elderly. Large, prospective population-based studies are warranted to further enlighten this field. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Molecular Characterization and Comparative Phylogenetic Analysis of Phytases from Fungi with Their Prospective Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad Tiwari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant seeds that have high phytate content are used as animal feed. Phytases, enzymes that catalyze the breakdown of phytate into inorganic phosphorus and myoinositol phosphate derivatives, have been intensively studied in recent years and gained immense attention because of their application in reducing phytate content in animal feed and food for human consumption, thus indirectly lowering environmental pollution caused by undigested phytate. This review is focused on summarising the current knowledge on recent developments of fungal and yeast phytases. Comparative account on diverse sources and physiological roles, molecular characteristics and regulation mechanisms of phytases are discussed. Phylogenetic relationship of phytases from different classes of fungi is studied in details. It is inferred on the basis of phylogeny that phytases from Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes differ in the amino acid sequences, therefore they fall in separate clade in the tree. The prospective biotechnological applications of microbial phytases such as animal feed additives, probiotics, pharmaceuticals, as well as in aquaculture, food industry, paper manufacturing, development of transgenic plants and animals with special reference to its use as biofertilizers are also emphasised in this review.

  15. Prospective study of polydimethylsiloxane vs dextranomer/hyaluronic acid injection for treatment of vesicoureteral reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Katherine; Bolduc, Stéphane

    2014-12-01

    Endoscopic injection of a bulking agent is becoming a first-line treatment for low grade vesicoureteral reflux. We prospectively compared the efficacy of 2 such products commercially available in Canada. A total of 275 patients with documented grade I to V vesicoureteral reflux were prospectively enrolled in a comparative study between April 2005 and February 2011 to be randomly treated endoscopically with either polydimethylsiloxane (Macroplastique®) or dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Deflux®). Of the ureters 202 were treated with polydimethylsiloxane and 197 with dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer. Patients were followed with voiding cystourethrography at 3 months and renal ultrasonography at 3 months and at 1 year. Median followup was 4.3 years. The primary outcome was surgical success (resolution vs nonresolution), and secondary outcomes included occurrence of adverse events. Vesicoureteral reflux was fully corrected in 182 of 202 ureters (90%) treated with polydimethylsiloxane, compared to 159 of 197 (81%) treated with dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (p reflux. Endoscopic injection of polydimethylsiloxane resulted in a better success rate than dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer. The rate of resolution obtained with the latter is lower than those previously published due to the inclusion of high grade reflux. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A Comparative Prospective Study of Two Different Treatment Sequences i.e. Bottom Up-Inside Out and Topdown-Outside in, in the Treatment of Panfacial Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degala, Saikrishna; Sundar, S Shyam; Mamata, K S

    2015-12-01

    To compare the sequence bottom-up inside-out with top-down outside-in, in the treatment of pan facial fractures and to evaluate the outcome of these approaches. The data from 11 patients with panfacial fracture are prospectively analysed. Five cases are treated with bottom-up approach and six patients with top-down approach. There were 11 male patients (six in top-down approach and five in bottom-up approach), ranging in age from 24 to 50 years. All injuries were result of RTA (n = 11, 100 %). Final treatment outcome was excellent in 3 (50 %), 1 (16 %) good and 2 (32 %) cases were fair in topdown approach, 3 (60 %) excellent and 2 (40 %) fair in bottom up approach with contingency coefficient value (P reconstruction of the remaining. Choice of the bottom-up inside-out or top-down outside-in sequence should be according to the pattern of fractures and preference of the surgeon. However, further controlled clinical trials, comparative studies with a larger sample size would be better to evaluate the final clinical outcome of individual techniques.

  17. [Dental agenesis. Results of a prospective study of 30 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romieux, G; Bonin, B; Laure, B; Van Hove, A; Goga, D

    2000-11-01

    We conducted a prospective study to determine the types of bone anomalies observed in different types of dental agenesia. This prospective series included 30 patients who attended our pluridisciplinary clinic since 1988. There were 22 cases of non syndromal agenesia and 8 cases of syndromal agenesia. Patients consulted for a variety of reasons, no specific sign was found. The diagnosis was based on the panoramic x-ray and confirmed at the genetic consultation. Results were systemized by localization of the agenesia. In all cases, the height of the bone crest was preserved compared with the adjacent teeth. In the anterior part of the maxillary, the bone crest was thin showing a water drop aspect. In the posterior maxillary, there was a decrease in the subsinusal height due to invagination of the floor of the sinus. In the anterior part of the mandible, the crest had a knife blade aspect but no loss of height and in the posterior part, a preserved distance between the residual crest rim and the dental canal. In 60% of the solitary agenesias in the anterior part of the maxillary, augmentation was not required. A sinus graft was required in all cases involving the posterior maxillary. Multiple anterior or lateral agenesias were treated with a parietal graft.

  18. Evaluation of aesthetics of implant-supported single-tooth replacements using different bone augmentation procedures : A prospective randomized clinical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijndert, Leo; Meijer, Henny J. A.; Stellingsma, Kees; Stegenga, Boudewijn; Raghoebar, Gerry M.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the aesthetics of implant-supported single-tooth replacements using different augmentation procedures in a prospective study with the use of an objective rating index and with a subjective patient questionnaire, and to compare the results with each

  19. Effects of Neck-Specific Exercises Compared to Waiting List for Individuals With Chronic Whiplash-Associated Disorders: A Prospective, Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peolsson, Anneli; Landén Ludvigsson, Maria; Tigerfors, Ann-Marie; Peterson, Gunnel

    2016-02-01

    To determine whether 3 months of neck-specific exercises (NSEs) could benefit individuals with chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) who were on a waiting list (WL) for treatment. A prospective, randomized controlled study. Primary health care. Individuals (N=41; 31 women, 10 men; mean age ± SD, 38±11.2y) with chronic (6-36mo) WAD, grades 2 and 3, were analyzed. Patients were randomly assigned to NSEs or no treatment for 3 months. Neck-specific disability (Neck Disability Index [NDI]), neck pain (visual analog scale), general pain-related disability (Pain Disability Index [PDI]), self-perceived performance ability (Self-Efficacy Scale [SES]), and health-related quality of life (EuroQol 5 dimensions [EQ-5D]) were measured. NSEs significantly improved the NDI, SES, and EQ-5D compared with WL (P<.01). There was significant improvement (P<.0001) over time in all outcomes for NSEs, and apart from the PDI, significant worsening (P=.002-.0002) over time for the untreated group. NSEs were more beneficial than no intervention while on a WL for individuals with chronic WAD. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of Three Techniques for Arthrocentesis of the Carpal Joint in Dromedary Camels: A Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Adel M. Badawy; Eman A. Eshra

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to determine the appropriate approaches for arthrocentesis of the carpal joint in dromedary camels and to compare between these approaches with regard to their success rate, feasibility, accuracy and ease of performance. Twenty-two cadaveric camel forelimbs obtained from 11 camel cadavers, and 4 living camels (6 joints) underwent arthrocentesis for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes, were used in this study. For studying gross anatomy of the suggested ap...

  1. Calcipotriol versus coal tar: a prospective randomized study in stable plaque psoriasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, V.; Kaur, I.; Kumar, B. [Postgraduate Institute of Medicinal Education & Research, Chandigarh (India)

    2003-10-01

    Topical therapies are the first line of treatment for patients with stable plaque psoriasis (SPP) affecting a limited body surface area. Very few trials comparing newer agents, such as 0.005% topical calcipotriol, with conventional modes of therapy, such as coal tar ointment, have been reported. A prospective, right-left randomized, investigator-blinded study with a 12-week treatment period and an 8-week follow-up period was performed. It was found that 0.005% calcipotriol ointment produced a faster initial response and had better cosmetic acceptability in patients, although after a long period of treatment, i.e. 12 weeks, 5% coal tar ointment had comparable efficacy. There was no statistically significant difference in the relapse rates between the two modalities.

  2. Prospective controlled trial comparing colostomy irrigation with "spontaneous-action" method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, N S; Johnston, D

    1980-07-12

    Thirty randomly selected patients with permanent colostomies entered a prospective controlled trial comparing colostomy irrigation with spontaneous action. Each patient was interviewed and examined before irrigation was begun and again after the technique had been used for three months. Each then reverted to spontaneous action for a further three months and was then reassessed. Eight patients abandoned irrigation and 22 (73%) adhered to the protocol. Irrigation caused no mishaps or complications. The mean time spent managing the stoma was 45 +/- SEM 9 min/24 hours during spontaneous action and 53 +/- 9 min/24 hours during irrigation. This difference was not significant. The numbers of bowel actions weekly were 13 +/ SEM 2 during spontaneous action and 6 +/- 1 during irrigation (p Irrigation reduced odour and flatus in 20 patients and enabled 12 out of 18 to stop using drugs and seven to discard their appliance. Irrigation also improved the social life of 18 patients and the working conditions of eight out of 14. These finding show that some patients may not be suitable for irrigation but that for many it is better than the conventional British method of colostomy management. With modern apparatus the technique is safe.

  3. Levels of prospective science teachers’ ability to structure 5E model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaçan Sibel Demir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted with 3rd year prospective science students, who study at the science teaching department of a university in Istanbul province. For that purpose, 34 prospective science teachers cooperated and participated in the study. In the study, the prospective teachers were asked to select a certain subject and plan that subject in accordance with the 5E model. Therefore, the objective of the study is to determine the levels of prospective science teachers’ ability to structure the 5E model. The data retrieved from the study were analyzed ad compared through content analysis and percentages. The results of the study suggest that some prospective teachers are not sufficient at each phase of the 5E model, thereby the researchers made suggestions for that situation.

  4. Clinical outcome of nonculprit plaque ruptures in patients with acute coronary syndrome in the PROSPECT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yong; Mintz, Gary S; Yang, Junqing; Doi, Hiroshi; Iñiguez, Andrés; Dangas, George D; Serruys, Patrick W; McPherson, John A; Wennerblom, Bertil; Xu, Ke; Weisz, Giora; Stone, Gregg W; Maehara, Akiko

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to report the frequency, patient and lesion-related characteristics, and outcomes of subclinical, nonculprit plaque ruptures in the PROSPECT (Providing Regional Observations to Study Predictors of Events in the Coronary Tree) study. Plaque rupture and subsequent thrombosis is the most common cause of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Secondary, subclinical, nonculprit plaque ruptures have been seen in both stable patients and patients with ACS; however, reports of the natural history of these secondary plaque ruptures are limited. After successful stenting in 697 patients with ACS, 3-vessel grayscale and intravascular ultrasound virtual histology (IVUS-VH) was performed in the proximal-mid segments of all 3 coronary arteries as part of a prospective multicenter study. Among 660 patients with complete IVUS data, 128 plaque ruptures were identified in 105 nonculprit lesions in 100 arteries from 93 patients (14.1%). Although the minimum lumen area (MLA) was similar, the plaque burden was significantly greater in nonculprit lesions with a plaque rupture compared with nonculprit lesions without a plaque rupture (66.0% [95% confidence interval: 64.5% to 67.4%] vs. 56.0% [95% confidence interval: 55.6% to 56.4%]; p PROSPECT]; NCT00180466). Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Neurological outcomes following suicidal hanging: A prospective study of 101 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Turab Jawaid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Survivors of suicidal hanging can have variable neurological outcomes – from complete recovery to irreversible brain damage. Literature on the neurological outcomes in these patients is confined to retrospective studies and case series. Hence, this prospective study was carried out. Aims: The aim is to study the neurological outcomes in suicidal hanging. Settings and Design: This was a prospective observational study carried out from July 2014 to July 2016. Subjects and Methods: Consecutive patients admitted to the emergency and medicine wards were included in the study. Details of the clinical and radiological findings, course in hospital and at 1 month postdischarge were analyzed. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS advanced statistics 20.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA. Univariate analysis was performed using Chi-square test for significance and Odd's ratio was calculated. Results: Of the 101 patients, 6 died and 4 had residual neuro deficits. Cervical spine injury was seen in 3 patients. Interestingly, 39 patients could not remember the act of hanging (retrograde amnesia. Hypotension, pulmonary edema, Glasgow coma scale (GCS score <8 at admission, need for mechanical ventilation, and cerebral edema on plain computed tomography were more in those with amnesia as compared to those with normal memory and these findings were statistically significant. Conclusions: Majority of patients recovered without any sequelae. Routine imaging of cervical spine may not be warranted in all patients, even in those with poor GCS. Retrograde amnesia might be more common than previously believed and further studies are needed to analyze this peculiar feature.

  6. Organisational justice and mental health: a systematic review of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndjaboué, Ruth; Brisson, Chantal; Vézina, Michel

    2012-10-01

    The models most commonly used, to study the effects of psychosocial work factors on workers' health, are the demand-control-support (DCS) model and Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) model. An emerging body of research has identified Organisational Justice as another model that can help to explain deleterious health effects. This review aimed: (1) to identify prospective studies of the associations between organisational justice and mental health in industrialised countries from 1990 to 2010; (2) to evaluate the extent to which organisational justice has an effect on mental health independently of the DCS and ERI models; and (3) to discuss theoretical and empirical overlap and differences with previous models. The studies had to present associations between organisational justice and a mental health outcome, be prospective, and be entirely available in English or in French. Duplicated papers were excluded. Eleven prospective studies were selected for this review. They provide evidence that procedural justice and relational justice are associated with mental health. These associations remained significant even after controlling for the DCS and ERI models. There is a lack of prospective studies on distributive and informational justice. In conclusion, procedural and relational justice can be considered a different and complementary model to the DCS and ERI models. Future studies should evaluate the effect of change in exposure to organisational justice on employees' mental health over time.

  7. Optimizing the definition of intrauterine growth restriction: the multicenter prospective PORTO Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Unterscheider, Julia

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the Prospective Observational Trial to Optimize Pediatric Health in Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) (PORTO Study), a national prospective observational multicenter study, was to evaluate which sonographic findings were associated with perinatal morbidity and mortality in pregnancies affected by growth restriction, originally defined as estimated fetal weight (EFW) <10th centile.

  8. Self-awareness of prospective memory failure in adults with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Nadine L; Fleming, Jennifer M; Shum, David H K

    2002-11-01

    The frequency of prospective memory failure in individuals with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) was investigated by comparison with a non-brain-injured control group. Self-awareness of prospective memory function was also assessed by comparing self-ratings with ratings by significant others. Study participants included 33 individuals with severe TBI and 29 non-brain-injured persons. Each participant nominated a close friend or relative who completed the informant's version of the questionnaire. Participants and their significant others both rated the participants' frequency of prospective memory lapses using the Comprehensive Assessment of Prospective Memory (CAPM). An independent groups design was adopted to compare the TBI and control groups. No significant difference was found between the TBI and control participants' self-ratings of frequency of prospective memory failure, but ratings by significant others were significantly different. The TBI group demonstrated less self-awareness (i.e. underestimated the frequency of prospective memory failure compared to significant others) than the control group.

  9. Prospective assessment of clinical symptoms associated with enterovirus and parechovirus genotypes in a multicenter study in Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Crom, S. C. M.; Rossen, J. W. A.; de Moor, R. A.; Veldkamp, E. J. M.; van Furth, A. M.; Obihara, C. C.

    Background: Human non-polio enterovirus (EV) and human parechovirus (HPeV) are important pathogens viral infection and aseptic meningitis in children. The aim of this study is to prospectively compare the incidence, clinical signs, blood and cerebrospinal fluid in EV and HPeV infected children.

  10. Comparative studies of MRI and operative findings in rotator cuff tear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, Seigo; Ichikawa, Norikazu; Itadera, Eichi; Hashizume, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Hajime

    2001-01-01

    A prospective study was performed to determine the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compared with operative findings in the evaluation of patients associated with rotator cuff tears. Fifty-four of 60 shoulders (58 patients) examined by MRI were confirmed as full-thickness tears and 6 as partial-thickness tears at the time of surgery. The oblique coronal, oblique sagittal, and axial planes of T2-weighted images with the 0.5 tesla MRI system were obtained preoperatively and compared with operative findings. MRI correctly identified 46 of 54 full-thickness rotator cuff tears and 5 of 6 partial-thickness tears. A comparison of MRI and operative findings in full-thickness cuff tears showed a sensitivity of 85%, a specificity of 83%, and a positive prospective value (PPV) of 99%. A comparison of partial-thickness tears showed a sensitivity of 83%, a specificity of 85%, and PPV of 39%. Linear regression analysis showed an excellent correlation between the MRI assessment and measurement at the time of surgery (r=0.90, P<0.01). MRI was useful in evaluating large and medium-sized rotator cuff tears, but less useful in distinguishing small full-thickness tears from partial-thickness tears. (author)

  11. A prospective study of injuries sustained during competitive Muay Thai kickboxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartland, Sam; Malik, Mohammad Hammad; Lovell, Martyn

    2005-01-01

    To investigate prospectively the type and rate of injuries sustained during amateur Muay Thai competition. Prospective cohort study collection of data following clinical examination. Amateur Muay Thai competitions in the United Kingdom organized by the International Amateur Muay Thai Federation. Amateur Muay Thai boxers. Both sexes. Lightweight to super heavyweight. There were 92 participants, 12 females and 82 males. The average age was 17.3 years, and the average previous number of bouts was 3.9. A total of 588.5 minutes of competition time was assessed during a total of 10 events. Injury rates were 1.3 injuries per 100 minutes of competition in the lightweight category, 2.25 per 100 minutes of competition in the middleweight category, 30 per 100 minutes of competition in the heavyweight category, and 2.54 per 100 minutes of competition in the super heavyweight category. Compared with other reported martial arts, the injury rates are higher in Muay Thai. The head was shown to be the most common site of injury in amateur fighters, but there was an almost complete absence of lower limb injuries, which again is at variance with reported figures for other martial arts.

  12. [Assessment of nociceptive suppression in laparoscopic postoperative status: prospective, randomized and comparative study with a control group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, A; Hernández-Favela, P; Zamora, R; Nava, E; Barroso, G; Kably, A

    2001-08-01

    In recent years endoscopic surgery has became a highly demanded procedure because it is an easy method for diagnosis and treatment in gynecological field. Post-operative pain is considered as a condition in the morbidity status. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nociceptive suppression in laparoscopic surgery. A prospective randomized trial was performed in order to evaluate this condition. A total of 45 patients were included. Three groups were randomized using two different anesthetics applied in the cult-de-sac and uterine-bladder union. Group A (n-15) received bupivacaine, group B (n = 15) ropivacaine and group C (control) saline solution was instilled. The pain was scored using the visual analog scale as same as blood pressure and heart rate in a 15 minute intervals in the recovery room. For study design there were no differences in age, weight, height and body mass index (EMI). The surgical and anesthetic times were similar among groups. However there were significant differences when pain was evaluated. For a less toxic effects and good preventive analgesia we recommend to use ropivacaine in the postoperative status.

  13. COMPLETE SUBRETINAL FLUID DRAINAGE IS NOT NECESSARY DURING VITRECTOMY SURGERY FOR MACULA-OFF RHEGMATOGENOUS RETINAL DETACHMENT WITH PERIPHERAL BREAKS: A Prospective, Nonrandomized Comparative Interventional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Yong; Yan, Ying; Hong, Ling; Zhu, Li; Deng, Jun; Din, Qin; Huang, Zhijian; Zhou, Hezhen

    2017-03-01

    To compare clinical outcomes in eyes with macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachments managed by surgical protocols, the result in either complete (CSFD) or partial subretinal fluid drainage (PSFD). Fifty-four eyes with macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachments with peripheral retinal breaks of 54 patients were assigned prospectively to one of the two surgical designs (PSFD or CSFD, 2:1) in a sequence. Patients were treated with 25-gauge plus vitrectomy, either CSFD (n = 18) or PSFD (n = 36), and 14% C3F8 was used for intraocular tamponade. Anatomical and visual outcomes as well as intraoperative and postoperative complications of the two groups were compared. The single-operation success rates were 16/18 (88.9%) and 33/36 (91.6%), respectively, for the CSFD and the PSFD groups (P = 1.00). The mean BCVA improvement (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study letters) at the 6-month postoperative was not significantly different between the two groups (26.50 ± 15.43 in CSFD group vs. 22.64 ± 15.43 in PSFD group, P = 0.43). Partial subretinal fluid drainage procedure during vitrectomy for the repair of macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachments revealed comparable results with CSFD in terms of anatomical and visual outcomes. Complete subretinal fluid drainage during vitrectomy seems to be unnecessary for all RRD reattachment surgical procedures.

  14. Unexpected allergic reactions to food, a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michelsen-Huisman, A.D.; Os-Medendorp, H. van; Versluis, A.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Castenmiller, J.J.M.; Noteborn, H.P.J.M.; Houben, G.F.; Knulst, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Unexpected reactions occur in patients with food allergy, but frequency data are scare. This prospective study investigates the frequency, severity and causes of unexpected allergic reactions to food in adults with a doctor's diagnosed food allergy. Participants complete an online questionnaire

  15. Healing of ungrafted and grafted extraction sockets after 12 weeks: a prospective clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberer, Susanne; Al-Chawaf, Bassem; Jablonski, Carlo; Nelson, John J; Lage, Hermann; Nelson, Katje

    2011-01-01

    In this prospective study, bone formation in human extraction sockets augmented with Bio-Oss Collagen after a 12-week healing period was quantified and compared to bone formation in unaugmented extraction sockets. Selected patients with four-walled extraction sockets were included in this prospective study. After extraction, the sockets were randomly augmented using Bio-Oss Collagen or left to heal unfilled without raising a mucoperiosteal flap. At the time of implant placement, histologic specimens were obtained from the socket and analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Twenty-five patients with a total of 39 sockets (20 augmented, 19 unaugmented) were included in the study and the histologic specimens analyzed. All specimens were free of inflammatory cells. The mean overall new bone formation in the augmented sites was 25% (range, 8%-41%) and in the unaugmented sockets it was 44% (range, 3%-79%). There was a significant difference in the rate of new bone formation between the grafted and ungrafted sockets and a significant difference in the bone formation rate in the apical compared to the coronal regions of all sockets, independent of the healing mode. This descriptive study demonstrated that bone formation in Bio-Oss Collagen-grafted human extraction sockets was lower than bone formation in ungrafted sockets. Bone formation occurred in all specimens with varying degrees of maturation independent of the grafting material and was initiated from the apical region.

  16. Reproducing a Prospective Clinical Study as a Computational Retrospective Study in MIMIC-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kury, Fabrício S P; Huser, Vojtech; Cimino, James J

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we sought to reproduce, as a computational retrospective study in an EHR database (MIMIC-II), a recent large prospective clinical study: the 2013 publication, by the Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM), about disseminated intravascular coagulation, in the journal Critical Care (PMID: 23787004). We designed in SQL and Java a set of electronic phenotypes that reproduced the study's data sampling, and used R to perform the same statistical inference procedures. All produced source code is available online at https://github.com/fabkury/paamia2015. Our program identified 2,257 eligible patients in MIMIC-II, and the results remarkably agreed with the prospective study. A minority of the needed data elements was not found in MIMIC-II, and statistically significant inferences were possible in the majority of the cases.

  17. Accuracy of reading liquid based cytology slides using the ThinPrep Imager compared with conventional cytology: prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Assuncao, Jefferson; Irwig, Les; Macaskill, Petra; Chan, Siew F; Richards, Adele; Farnsworth, Annabelle

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare the accuracy of liquid based cytology using the computerised ThinPrep Imager with that of manually read conventional cytology. Design Prospective study. Setting Pathology laboratory in Sydney, Australia. Participants 55 164 split sample pairs (liquid based sample collected after conventional sample from one collection) from consecutive samples of women choosing both types of cytology and whose specimens were examined between August 2004 and June 2005. Main outcome measures Primary outcome was accuracy of slides for detecting squamous lesions. Secondary outcomes were rate of unsatisfactory slides, distribution of squamous cytological classifications, and accuracy of detecting glandular lesions. Results Fewer unsatisfactory slides were found for imager read cytology than for conventional cytology (1.8% v 3.1%; Pcytology (7.4% v 6.0% overall and 2.8% v 2.2% for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 1 or higher). Among 550 patients in whom imager read cytology was cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 or higher and conventional cytology was less severe than grade 1, 133 of 380 biopsy samples taken were high grade histology. Among 294 patients in whom imager read cytology was less severe than cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 and conventional cytology was grade 1 or higher, 62 of 210 biopsy samples taken were high grade histology. Imager read cytology therefore detected 71 more cases of high grade histology than did conventional cytology, resulting from 170 more biopsies. Similar results were found when one pathologist reread the slides, masked to cytology results. Conclusion The ThinPrep Imager detects 1.29 more cases of histological high grade squamous disease per 1000 women screened than conventional cytology, with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 as the threshold for referral to colposcopy. More imager read slides than conventional slides were satisfactory for examination and more contained low grade cytological

  18. Status and prospects of nuclear arms control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiangli; Wang Deli

    1995-01-01

    Some main issues and problems involved in nuclear arms control study, such as nuclear policy, NPT regime, verification technologies for a CTBT and disposal of military nuclear materials are introduced, in which both the current state and prospects of these issues are analyzed

  19. Independent and combined relationship of habitual unhealthy eating behaviors with depressive symptoms: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unhealthy eating has been found to be associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms. However, prospective evidence of the combined effects of unhealthy eating and depressive symptoms has not been reported. This study aimed to elucidate the prospective relationship between habitual unhealthy eating habits and depressive symptoms. Methods: A 2-year prospective cohort study of 376 Japanese adults aged 24–83 years without depressive symptoms at baseline was conducted. Information about participants' eating behaviors was obtained via a self-administered questionnaire, in which skipping breakfast, eating dinner shortly before bedtime, and snacking after dinner were recorded. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Japanese version of the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale. Results: The 2-year incidence of depressive symptoms was found to be 23.7% (89/376. Covariate-adjusted multivariate Poisson regression analyses showed that habitual snacking after dinner was significantly associated with the incidence of depressive symptoms (relative risk [RR] 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00–3.14, p = 0.049, whereas no relationship was found between skipping breakfast or eating dinner shortly before bedtime and depressive symptoms. On the other hand, there was an interaction effect of snacking after dinner and dinner before bedtime on depressive symptoms (p for the interaction = 0.044. Participants with more than two unhealthy eating behaviors had a higher incidence of depressive symptoms compared to those with fewer than two unhealthy eating behaviors (RR 1.71; 95% CI, 1.06–2.77, p = 0.028. Conclusions: This prospective study is the first to reveal the combined relationship between unhealthy eating and the incidence of depressive symptoms.

  20. Independent and combined relationship of habitual unhealthy eating behaviors with depressive symptoms: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cong; Momma, Haruki; Cui, Yufei; Chujo, Masahiko; Otomo, Atsushi; Sugiyama, Shota; Ren, Zhongyu; Niu, Kaijun; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2017-01-01

    Unhealthy eating has been found to be associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms. However, prospective evidence of the combined effects of unhealthy eating and depressive symptoms has not been reported. This study aimed to elucidate the prospective relationship between habitual unhealthy eating habits and depressive symptoms. A 2-year prospective cohort study of 376 Japanese adults aged 24-83 years without depressive symptoms at baseline was conducted. Information about participants' eating behaviors was obtained via a self-administered questionnaire, in which skipping breakfast, eating dinner shortly before bedtime, and snacking after dinner were recorded. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Japanese version of the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale. The 2-year incidence of depressive symptoms was found to be 23.7% (89/376). Covariate-adjusted multivariate Poisson regression analyses showed that habitual snacking after dinner was significantly associated with the incidence of depressive symptoms (relative risk [RR] 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-3.14, p = 0.049), whereas no relationship was found between skipping breakfast or eating dinner shortly before bedtime and depressive symptoms. On the other hand, there was an interaction effect of snacking after dinner and dinner before bedtime on depressive symptoms (p for the interaction = 0.044). Participants with more than two unhealthy eating behaviors had a higher incidence of depressive symptoms compared to those with fewer than two unhealthy eating behaviors (RR 1.71; 95% CI, 1.06-2.77, p = 0.028). This prospective study is the first to reveal the combined relationship between unhealthy eating and the incidence of depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2016. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

  1. A Study on Perception of Librarian's Job Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younghee Noh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate awareness of librarian’s job prospects, and to do this a survey was conducted with 502 college students in 14 Departments of Library and Information Science around Korea and 753 librarians in libraries and related agencies. The study results are as follows. First, satisfaction with educational curriculum was higher in students than librarians. Second, both students and librarians regarded workplace based practical training as employment requirements and also evaluated certifications and academic performance as important requirements. Third, both groups asked that information on employment rates be available in a timely manner, and perceived that the librarian’s job prospects were not bright. Therefore, in order to improve employment of librarians, it will be necessary to establish a job information system, reorganize the current educational curriculum into a practice-oriented curriculum, and introduce the national curriculum statements (NCS-based curriculum.

  2. Esomeprazole use is independently associated with significant reduction of BMD: 1-year prospective comparative safety study of four proton pump inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahtiri, Elton; Islami, Hilmi; Hoxha, Rexhep; Qorraj-Bytyqi, Hasime; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Hoti, Kreshnik; Thaçi, Kujtim; Thaçi, Shpetim; Karakulak, Çağla

    2016-09-01

    Because of the efficacy of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), their the use is increasing dramatically. The risk of adverse effects of short-term PPI therapy is low, but there are important safety concerns for potential adverse effects of prolonged PPI therapy. Findings from studies assessing the association between PPI use and bone mineral density (BMD) and/or fracture risk are contradictory. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess potential association of PPI treatment with the 12-month change in BMD of the lumbar spine, femur neck, and total hip. The study was performed in 200 PPI users and 50 PPI nonusers. Lumbar spine (L1-L4), femur neck, and total hip BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the baseline and at 12 months. A total of 209 subjects completed the entire 12 months of the study and were included in the final analysis. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed that at 12 months PPI use was associated with statistically significant reductions in femur neck and total hip T scores (Z = -2.764, p = 0.005 and Z = -3.281, p = 0.001, respectively). A multiple linear regression analysis showed that only esomeprazole added significantly to the prediction of total lumbar spine and femur neck T scores (p = 0.048 and p = 0.037, respectively). Compared with the baseline, 12 months of PPI treatment resulted in lower femur neck and total hip BMD T scores. Among the four PPIs studied, esomeprazole was independently associated with significant reduction of BMD, whereas omeprazole had no effects on BMD. Considering the widespread use of PPIs, BMD screening should be considered in the case of prolonged PPI use.

  3. The incidence and prevalence of ankle sprain injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Cailbhe; Delahunt, Eamonn; Caulfield, Brian; Hertel, Jay; Ryan, John; Bleakley, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Ankle sprain is one of the most common musculoskeletal injuries, yet a contemporary review and meta-analysis of prospective epidemiological studies investigating ankle sprain does not exist. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date account of the incidence rate and prevalence period of ankle sprain injury unlimited by timeframe or context activity. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses of English articles using relevant computerised databases. Search terms included Medical Search Headings for the ankle joint, injury and epidemiology. The following inclusion criteria were used: the study must report epidemiology findings of injuries sustained in an observed sample; the study must report ankle sprain injury with either incidence rate or prevalence period among the surveyed sample, or provide sufficient data from which these figures could be calculated; the study design must be prospective. Independent extraction of articles was performed by two authors using pre-determined data fields. One-hundred and eighty-one prospective epidemiology studies from 144 separate papers were included. The average rating of all the included studies was 6.67/11, based on an adapted version of the STROBE (STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology) guidelines for rating observational studies. 116 studies were considered high quality and 65 were considered low quality. The main findings of the meta-analysis demonstrated a higher incidence of ankle sprain in females compared with males (13.6 vs 6.94 per 1,000 exposures), in children compared with adolescents (2.85 vs 1.94 per 1,000 exposures) and adolescents compared with adults (1.94 vs 0.72 per 1,000 exposures). The sport category with the highest incidence of ankle sprain was indoor/court sports, with a cumulative incidence rate of 7 per 1,000 exposures or 1.37 per 1,000 athlete exposures and 4.9 per 1,000 h. Low-quality studies tended to underestimate the incidence of ankle sprain when compared with

  4. Efficacy of Mesoglycan in Pain Control after Excisional Hemorrhoidectomy: A Pilot Comparative Prospective Multicenter Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Gallo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Various pain management strategies for patients undergoing open excisional hemorrhoidectomy have been proposed, yet postoperative pain remains a frequent complaint. Objective. To determine whether mesoglycan (30 mg two vials i.m. once/day for the first 5 days postoperative, followed by 50 mg 1 oral tablet twice/day for 30 days would reduce the edema of the mucocutaneous bridges and thus improve postoperative pain symptoms. Patients and Methods. For this prospective observational multicenter study, 101 patients undergoing excisional diathermy hemorrhoidectomy for III-IV degree hemorrhoidal disease were enrolled at 5 colorectal referral centers. Patients were assigned to receive either mesoglycan (study group SG or a recommended oral dose of ketorolac tromethamine of 10 mg every 4–6 hours, not exceeding 40 mg per day and not exceeding 5 postoperative days according to the indications for short-term management of moderate/severe acute postoperative pain, plus stool softeners (control group CG. Results. Postoperative thrombosis (SG 1/48 versus CG 5/45 (p<0.001 and pain after rectal examination (p<0.001 were significantly reduced at 7–10 days after surgery in the mesoglycan-treated group, permitting a faster return to work (p<0.001; however, in the same group, the incidence of postoperative bleeding, considered relevant when needing a readmission or an unexpected outpatient visit, was higher, possibly owing to the drug’s antithrombotic properties. Conclusions. The administration of mesoglycan after an open diathermy excisional hemorrhoidectomy can reduce postoperative thrombosis and pain at 7–10 days after surgery, permitting a faster return to normal activities.

  5. Evaluation of criteria for clinical control in a prospective, international, multicenter study of patients with COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miravitlles, Marc; Sliwinski, Pawel; Rhee, Chin Kook

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The concept of clinical control in COPD has been developed to help in treatment decisions, but it requires validation in prospective studies. METHOD: This international, multicenter, prospective study aimed to validate the concept of control in COPD [control = stability (no...... exacerbations or impairment in CAT scores) + low impact (low level of symptoms)]. Data from the screening visit was used to: investigate the level of control, compare characteristics of patients according to the control status, and perform a sensitivity analysis of the levels of control using either clinical...... criteria or questionnaires (COPD Assessment Test -CAT- or Clinical COPD Questionnaire -CCQ-). RESULTS: A total of 314 patients were analysed, mean age was 68.5 years and mean FEV1 was 52.6% of predicted. According to the prespecified criteria 21% of patients were classified as controlled, all of them...

  6. Passive smoking and risk of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDS/OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of diabetes is increasing rapidly all over the world. However, studies on passive smoking and type 2 diabetes have not been systematically assessed. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to explore whether an association exists between passive smoking and risk of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library and Web of Science up to April 9(th, 2013, to identify prospective cohort studies that assessed passive smoking and risk of type 2 diabetes. The fixed-effect model was used to calculate the overall relative risk (RR. RESULT: 4 prospective cohort studies were included for analysis, with a total of 112,351 participants involved. The pooled RR was 1.28 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.14 to 1.44 comparing those who were exposed to passive smoking with those who were not. Subgroup, sensitivity analysis and publication bias test suggested the overall result of this analysis was robust. CONCLUSIONS: Passive smoking is associated with a significantly increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Further well-designed studies are warranted to confirm this association.

  7. Post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression following miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Farren, Jessica; Jalmbrant, Maria; Ameye, Lieveke; Joash, Karen; Mitchell-Jones, Nicola; Tapp, Sophie; Timmerman, Dirk; Bourne, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This is a pilot study to investigate the type and severity of emotional distress in women after early pregnancy loss (EPL), compared with a control group with ongoing pregnancies. The secondary aim was to assess whether miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy impacted differently on the type and severity of psychological morbidity. Design This was a prospective survey study. Consecutive women were recruited between January 2012 and July 2013. We emailed women a link to a survey 1, 3 and 9...

  8. Comparative prognostic performance of definitions of prediabetes: a prospective cohort analysis of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Bethany; Pankow, James S; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Punjabi, Naresh M; Daya, Natalie R; Grams, Morgan; Woodward, Mark; Selvin, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    No consensus on definitions of prediabetes exists among international organisations. Analysis of associations with different definitions and clinical complications can inform the comparative value of different prediabetes definitions. We compared the risk of future outcomes across different prediabetes definitions based on fasting glucose concentration, HbA 1c , and 2 h glucose concentration during over two decades of follow-up in the community-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. We aimed to analyse the associations of definitions with outcomes to provide a comparison of different definitions. We did a prospective cohort study of participants in the ARIC study who did not have diagnosed diabetes and who attended visit 2 (1990-92; n=10 844) and who attended visit 4 (1996-98; n=7194). ARIC participants were enrolled from four communities across the USA. Fasting glucose concentration and HbA 1c were measured at visit 2 and fasting glucose concentration and 2 h glucose concentration were measured at visit 4. We compared prediabetes definitions based on fasting glucose concentration (American Diabetes Association [ADA] fasting glucose concentration cutoff 5·6-6·9 mmol/L and WHO fasting glucose concentration cutoff 6·1-6·9 mmol/L), HbA 1c (ADA HbA 1c cutoff 5·7-6·4% [39-46 mmol/mol] and International Expert Committee [IEC] HbA 1c cutoff 6·0-6·4% [42-46 mmol/mol]), and 2 h glucose concentration (ADA and WHO 2 h glucose concentration cutoff 7·8-11·0 mmol/L). Prediabetes defined using the ADA fasting glucose concentration cutoff (prevalence 4112 [38%] of 10 844 people; 95% CI 37·0-38·8) was the most sensitive for major clinical outcomes, whereas using the ADA HbA 1c cutoff (2027 [19%] of 10 884 people; 18·0-19·4) and IEC HbA 1c cutoff (970 [9%] of 10 844 people; 8·4-9·5), and the WHO fasting glucose concentration cutoff (1213 [11%] of 10 844 people; 10·6-11·8) were more specific. After demographic adjustment, HbA 1c -based

  9. Oral ftorafur versus intravenous 5-fluorouracil. A comparative study in patients with colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, E; Pedersen, H

    1987-01-01

    The toxicities of oral Ftorafur (1 g/m2/day 1-21) and intravenous 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) (500 mg/m2/day 1-5) were compared in a prospective randomized study in patients with colorectal cancer. The treatment courses were repeated every 6th week. Leucopenia was more common after 5-FU. Leucocyte nadir...

  10. Prospective study of Centurion® versus Infiniti® phacoemulsification systems: surgical and visual outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Lawrence J; Nguyen, Chu Luan; Wong, Eugene; Wang, Samuel S Y; Francis, Ian C

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate surgical outcomes (SOs) and visual outcomes (VOs) in cataract surgery comparing the Centurion ® phacoemulsification system (CPS) with the Infiniti ® phacoemulsification system (IPS). Prospective, consecutive study in a single-site private practice. Totally 412 patients undergoing cataract surgery with either the CPS using the 30-degree balanced ® tip ( n =207) or the IPS using the 30-degree Kelman ® tip ( n =205). Intraoperative and postoperative outcomes were documented prospectively up to one month follow-up. Nuclear sclerosis (NS) grade, cumulated dissipated energy (CDE), preoperative corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), and CDVA at one month were recorded. CDE was 13.50% less in the whole CPS compared with the whole IPS subcohort. In eyes with NS grade III or greater, CDE was 28.87% less with CPS ( n =70) compared with IPS ( n =44) ( P =0.010). Surgical complications were not statistically different between the two subcohorts ( P =0.083), but in the one case of vitreous loss using the CPS, CDVA of 6/4 was achieved at one month. The mean CDVAs (VOs) at one month for NS grade III and above cataracts were -0.17 logMAR (6/4.5) in the CPS and -0.15 logMAR (6/4.5) in the IPS subcohort respectively ( P =0.033). CDE is 28.87% less, and VOs are significantly improved, in denser cataracts in the CPS compared with the IPS. The authors recommend the CPS for cases with denser nuclei.

  11. The Korea Nurses' Health Study: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Oksoo; Ahn, Younjhin; Lee, Hea-Young; Jang, Hee Jung; Kim, Sue; Lee, Jung Eun; Jung, Heeja; Cho, Eunyoung; Lim, Joong-Yeon; Kim, Min-Ju; Willett, Walter C; Chavarro, Jorge E; Park, Hyun-Young

    2017-08-01

    The Korea Nurses' Health Study (KNHS) is a prospective cohort study of female nurses, focusing on the effects of occupational, environmental, and lifestyle risk factors on the health of Korean women. Female registered nurses aged 20-45 years and living in the Republic of Korea were invited to join the study, which began in July 2013. They were asked to complete a web-based baseline survey. The study protocols and questionnaires related to the KNHS are based on the Nurses' Health Study 3 (NHS3) in the United States, although they were modified to reflect the Korean lifestyle. Participants were asked about demographic, lifestyle factors, disease history, occupational exposure, reproductive factors, and dietary habits during their adolescence: Follow-up questionnaires were/will be completed at 6-8 month intervals after the baseline survey. If a participant became pregnant, she answered additional questionnaires containing pregnancy-related information. Among 157,569 eligible female nurses, 20,613 (13.1%) completed the web-based baseline questionnaire. The mean age of the participants was 29.4 ± 5.9 years, and more than half of them were in their 20s. Eighty-eight percent of the participants had worked night shifts as a nurse (mean, 5.3 ± 4.3 nights per month). Approximately 80% of the participants had a body mass index below 23 kg/m 2 . Gastrointestinal diseases were the most prevalent health issues (25.9%). The findings from this prospective cohort study will help to identify the effects of lifestyle-related and occupational factors on reproductive health and development of chronic diseases in Korean women.

  12. Can a Drill Guide Improve the Coracoid Graft Placement During the Latarjet Procedure? A Prospective Comparative Study With the Freehand Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Johannes; Boutsiadis, Achilleas; Neyton, Lionel; Lafosse, Laurent; Walch, Gilles

    2017-10-01

    One of the factors that can affect the success of the Latarjet procedure is accurate coracoid graft (CG) placement. The use of a guide can improve placement of the CG and screw positioning in the sagittal and axial planes as compared with the classic open ("freehand") technique. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. A total of 49 patients who underwent a Latarjet procedure for the treatment of recurrent anterior shoulder instability were prospectively included; the procedure was performed with the freehand technique in 22 patients (group 1) and with use of a parallel drill guide during screw placement in 27 patients (group 2). All patients underwent a postoperative computed tomography scan with the same established protocol. The scans were used to evaluate and compare the position of the CG in the sagittal and axial planes, the direction of the screws (α angle), and overall contact of the graft with the anterior surface of the glenoid after the 2 surgical techniques. The CG was placed >60% below the native glenoid equator in 23 patients (85.2%) in group 2, compared with 14 patients (63.6%) in group 1 ( P = .004). In the axial plane, the position of the CG in group 2 patients was more accurate (85.2% and 88.9% flush) at the inferior and middle quartiles of the glenoid surface ( P = .012 and .009), respectively. Moreover, with the freehand technique (group 1), the graft was in a more lateral position in the inferior and middle quartiles ( P = .012 and .009, respectively). No differences were found between groups 1 and 2 regarding the mean α angle of the superior (9° ± 4.14° vs 11° ± 6.3°, P = .232) and inferior (9.5° ± 6° vs 10° ± 7.5°, P = .629) screws. However, the mean contact angle (angle between the posterior coracoid and the anterior glenoid surface) with the freehand technique (3.8° ± 6.8°) was better than that of the guide (8.55° ± 8°) ( P = .05). Compared with the classic freehand operative technique, the parallel drill guide can ensure

  13. Living network meta-analysis compared with pairwise meta-analysis in comparative effectiveness research: empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakopoulou, Adriani; Mavridis, Dimitris; Furukawa, Toshi A; Cipriani, Andrea; Tricco, Andrea C; Straus, Sharon E; Siontis, George C M; Egger, Matthias; Salanti, Georgia

    2018-02-28

    To examine whether the continuous updating of networks of prospectively planned randomised controlled trials (RCTs) ("living" network meta-analysis) provides strong evidence against the null hypothesis in comparative effectiveness of medical interventions earlier than the updating of conventional, pairwise meta-analysis. Empirical study of the accumulating evidence about the comparative effectiveness of clinical interventions. Database of network meta-analyses of RCTs identified through searches of Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews until 14 April 2015. Network meta-analyses published after January 2012 that compared at least five treatments and included at least 20 RCTs. Clinical experts were asked to identify in each network the treatment comparison of greatest clinical interest. Comparisons were excluded for which direct and indirect evidence disagreed, based on side, or node, splitting test (Pmeta-analyses were performed for each selected comparison. Monitoring boundaries of statistical significance were constructed and the evidence against the null hypothesis was considered to be strong when the monitoring boundaries were crossed. A significance level was defined as α=5%, power of 90% (β=10%), and an anticipated treatment effect to detect equal to the final estimate from the network meta-analysis. The frequency and time to strong evidence was compared against the null hypothesis between pairwise and network meta-analyses. 49 comparisons of interest from 44 networks were included; most (n=39, 80%) were between active drugs, mainly from the specialties of cardiology, endocrinology, psychiatry, and rheumatology. 29 comparisons were informed by both direct and indirect evidence (59%), 13 by indirect evidence (27%), and 7 by direct evidence (14%). Both network and pairwise meta-analysis provided strong evidence against the null hypothesis for seven comparisons, but for an additional 10 comparisons only network meta-analysis provided

  14. DADOS-Prospective: an open source application for Web-based prospective data collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Lam

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Randomized, prospective trials involving multi-institutional collaboration have become a central part of clinical and translational research. However, data management and coordination of multi-center studies is a complex process that involves developing systems for data collection and quality control, tracking data queries and resolutions, as well as developing communication procedures. We describe DADOS-Prospective, an open-source Web-based application for collecting and managing prospective data on human subjects for clinical and translational trials. DADOS-Prospective not only permits users to create new clinical research forms (CRF and supports electronic signatures, but also offers the advantage of containing, in a single environment, raw research data in downloadable spreadsheet format, source documentation and regulatory files stored in PDF format, and audit trails. Results Feedback from formal and field usability tests was used to guide the design and development of DADOS-Prospective. To date, DADOS-Prospective has been implemented in five prospective clinical studies at our institution. Four of these studies are still in the CRF creation phase and one study has been entirely launched. Conclusion DADOS-Prospective has significant advantages over existing Web-based data collecting programs. At our institution, it has been demonstrated to be an efficient tool for prospective clinical studies.

  15. Medial shoe-ground pressure and specific running injuries: A 1-year prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brund, René B K; Rasmussen, Sten; Nielsen, Rasmus O; Kersting, Uwe G; Laessoe, Uffe; Voigt, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Achilles tendinitis, plantar fasciopathy and medial tibial stress syndrome injuries (APM-injuries) account for approximately 25% of the total number of running injuries amongst recreational runners. Reports on the association between static foot pronation and APM-injuries are contradictory. Possibly, dynamic measures of pronation may display a stronger relationship with the risk of APM-injuries. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate if running distance until the first APM-injury was dependent on the foot balance during stance phase in recreational male runners. Prospective cohort study. Foot balance for both feet was measured during treadmill running at the fastest possible 5000-m running pace in 79 healthy recreational male runners. Foot balance was calculated by dividing the average of medial pressure with the average of lateral pressure. Foot balance was categorized into those which presented a higher lateral shod pressure (LP) than medial pressure, and those which presented a higher medial shod pressure (MP) than lateral pressure during the stance phase. A time-to-event model was used to compare differences in incidence between foot balance groups. Compared with the LP-group (n=59), the proportion of APM-injuries was greater in the MP-group (n=99) after 1500km of running, resulting in a cumulative risk difference of 16%-points (95% CI=3%-point; 28%-point, p=0.011). Runners displaying a more medial pressure during stance phase at baseline sustained a greater amount of APM-injuries compared to those displaying a lateral shod pressure during stance phase. Prospective studies including a greater amount of runners are needed to confirm this relationship. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A prospective study of autistic-like traits in unaffected siblings of probands with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Stelios; Szatmari, Peter; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bryson, Susan; Brian, Jessica; Roberts, Wendy; Smith, Isabel; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Roncadin, Caroline; Garon, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The presence of autistic-like traits in relatives of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is well recognized, but, to our knowledge, the emergence of these traits early in development has not been studied. To prospectively investigate the emergence of autistic-like traits in unaffected (no ASD diagnosis) infant siblings of probands diagnosed as having ASD. Two groups of children unaffected with ASD were assessed prospectively-siblings of probands diagnosed as having ASD (high risk [HR]) and control subjects with no family history of ASD (low risk [LR]). Scores on a measure of autistic-like traits at 12 months of age were used in a cluster analysis of the entire sample. A prospective study of infant siblings of probands with ASD from 3 diagnostic centers in Canada. The study included 170 HR and 90 LR children, none of whom was diagnosed as having ASD at age 3 years. The Autism Observation Scale for Infants was used to measure autistic-like traits and derive clusters at 12 months of age. Clusters were compared on ASD symptoms, cognitive abilities, and social-emotional difficulties at age 3 years. Two clusters were identified. Cluster 1 (n = 37; 14.2% of total sample) had significantly higher levels of autistic-like traits compared with cluster 2. Within cluster 1, 33 children came from the siblings (19.4% of HR group) and only 4 came from the control subjects (4.5% of LR group). At age 3 years, children from cluster 1 had more social-communication impairment (effect size > 0.70; P autism phenotype by 12 months of age in approximately 19% of HR siblings who did not meet ASD diagnostic criteria at age 3 years.

  17. Helical-Tip Needle for Transthoracic Percutaneous Image-Guided Biopsy of Lung Tumors: Results of a Pilot Prospective Comparative Study with a Standard Tru-Cut Needle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veltri, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.veltri@unito.it; Busso, Marco; Sardo, Diego; Angelino, Valeria; Priola, Adriano M. [University of Torino, Department of Radiology, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital (Italy); Novello, Silvia [University of Torino, Department of Oncology, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital (Italy); Barba, Matteo [University of Torino, Department of Radiology, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital (Italy); Gatti, Gaia; Righi, Luisella [University of Torino, Department of Pathology, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital (Italy)

    2017-06-15

    PurposeTo prospectively evaluate feasibility and diagnostic performance of the 14-gauge helical-tip (Spirotome™, Cook{sup ®} Medical, Bloomington, USA) needle in transthoracic needle biopsy (TTNB) of lung lesions, compared to a conventional 18-gauge Tru-Cut needle.Materials and MethodsStudy was institutional review board approved, with informed consent obtained. Data from synchronous Spirotome and Tru-Cut image-guided TTNB of 20 consecutive patients with malignant peripheral lung tumors larger than 3 cm were enrolled for pathologic characterization and mutational analysis. Samples obtained with Spirotome and Tru-Cut needle were compared for fragmentation, length, weight, morphologic and immunohistochemistry typifying, tumor cellularity (TC) and DNA concentration.ResultsThe technical success rate for TTNB with Spirotome was 100%, and no major complications occurred. Less fragmentation (mean 2 vs. 3 fragments, P = .418), greater weight (mean 13 vs. 8.5 mg, P = .027) and lower length (mean 10.2 vs. 12.6 mm, P = .174) were observed with Spirotome compared to Tru-Cut needle. Accuracy of Spirotome and Tru-Cut needle in defining cancer histotype was similar (90%). Absolute and relative TC (mean 42 vs. 38, 124 vs. 108/10HPF), and DNA concentration (mean 49.6 vs. 39.0 ng/μl) were higher with Spirotome compared to Tru-Cut needle, with no statistical significance (P = .787 and P = .140, respectively).Conclusions Percutaneous 14-gauge Spirotome TTNB of selected lesions is feasible and accurate. It provides adequate samples for diagnosis, comparable to 18-gauge Tru-Cut needle, with a higher amount of tumor tissue (weight, TC, DNA concentration) even in shorter samples.

  18. Brief report: pulmonary auscultation in the operating room: a prospective randomized blinded trial comparing electronic and conventional stethoscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Clement; Falzone, Elisabeth; Verret, Catherine; Pasquier, Pierre; Leclerc, Thomas; Donat, Nicolas; Jost, Daniel; Mérat, Stephane; Maurice, Guillaume de Saint; Lenoir, Bernard; Auroy, Yves; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre

    2013-09-01

    We compared the subjective quality of pulmonary auscultation between 2 acoustic stethoscopes (Holtex Ideal® and Littmann Cardiology III®) and an electronic stethoscope (Littmann 3200®) in the operating room. A prospective double-blind randomized study with an evaluation during mechanical ventilation was performed in 100 patients. After each examination, the listeners using a numeric scale (0-10) rated the quality of auscultation. Auscultation quality was compared in patients among stethoscopes with a multilevel mixed-effects linear regression with random intercept (operator effect), adjusted on significant factors in univariate analysis. A significant difference was defined as P auscultation were performed. The quality of auscultation was rated 8.2 ± 1.6 for the electronic stethoscope, 7.4 ± 1.8 for the Littmann Cardiology III, and 4.6 ± 1.8 for the Holtex Ideal. Compared with Holtex Ideal, auscultation quality was significantly higher with other stethoscopes (P auscultation quality was significantly higher with Littmann 3200 electronic stethoscope (β = 0.9 [95% confidence interval, 0.5-1.3]). An electronic stethoscope can provide a better quality of pulmonary auscultation than acoustic stethoscopes in the operating room, yet with a magnitude of improvement marginally higher than that provided with a high performance acoustic stethoscope. Whether this can translate into a clinically relevant benefit requires further studies.

  19. Health services research in patients with breast cancer (CAMISS-prospective): study protocol for an observational prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    García-Gutierrez, Susana; Orive, Miren; Sarasqueta, Cristina; Legarreta, Maria Jose; Gonzalez, Nerea; Redondo, Maximino; Rivero, Amado; Serrano-Aguilar, Pedro; Castells, Xavier; Quintana, Jose Maria; Sala, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Background Though breast cancer remains a major health problem, there is a lack of information on health care provided to patients with this disease and associated costs. In addition, there is a need to update and validate risk stratification tools in Spain. Our purpose is to evaluate the health services provided for breast cancer in Spain, from screening and diagnosis to treatment and prognosis. Methods Prospective cohort study involving 13 hospitals in Spain with a follow-up period of up to...

  20. Intrapleural chemo- and hyperthermotherapies for malignant pleural effusion: a randomized prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Jun; Yuan, Shao-Fei; Yan, Qing-Yuan; Xiong, Jian-Ping; Wang, Sen-Ming; Zheng, Wei-E; Zhang, Wu; Sun, Hong-Yu; Chen, Hua; Wu, Li-Li

    2012-02-01

    The current prospective randomized study was designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of combined intrapleural cisplatin and OK-432 (picibanil) plus hyperthermotherapy in patients with malignant pleural effusion (MPE). A total of 358 patients with MPE due to end-stage malignancies were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups, A and B: the intrapleural combination of cisplatin and OK-432 with hyperthermotherapy (n = 179) or without hyperthermotherapy (n = 179), respectively. Mild toxicities such as nausea, vomiting or anorexia, bone marrow depression, and pyrexia were similar in both groups. Patients in Group A (with hyperthermotherapy) showed a significantly higher overall response (93.4%) compared to those in Group B (79.8%, χ(2) = 43.11, p .05). After treatment, the quality of life scores were significantly increased in both groups as compared to prior treatment (p < .05). In conclusion, our study suggests that combined intrapleural cisplatin and OK-432 followed by hyperthermotherapy are more effective in the control of MPE and improve patients' quality of life.

  1. Daytime napping and risk of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guo-Chong; Liu, Meng-Meng; Chen, Li-Hua; Xu, Jia-Ying; Hidayat, Khemayanto; Li, Fu-Rong; Qin, Li-Qiang

    2017-06-13

    Prospective studies reported inconsistent findings on the relationship between daytime napping and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Categorized and dose-response meta-analyses were performed to quantify this relation. Potentially eligible studies were identified by searching PubMed and Embase databases. Dose-response effects were assessed by the generalized least squares trend estimation and study-specific summary relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed with a random-effects model. Seven prospective studies including one US, four European, and two Chinese cohorts involving 249,077 participants and 13,237 cases of T2D were included. The overall analyses showed a 17% increased risk of T2D when comparing habitual nappers with non-nappers (RR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.08-1.27). By region, the summary RR was 1.21 (95% CI 1.17-1.26), 1.15 (95% CI 1.03-1.30) and 1.23 (95% CI 0.87-1.73) for the US, European, and Chinese studies, respectively. Limiting to five studies that excluded subjects with known major chronic disorders yielded a summary RR of 1.16 (95% CI 1.03-1.30). A dose-response analysis suggested an 11% (95% CI 7-16%) increased T2D risk for each increment in daytime napping of 30 min/day and, despite no evidence for nonlinearity (P nonlinearity  = 0.65), the increased risk of T2D for short nap (napping is associated with an increased risk of T2D. Given the limited number of cohorts and inconsistency in terms of methodological and population characteristics across these cohorts, residual confounders and/or reverse causality cannot be fully addressed, and our findings should be interpreted with great caution. Future well-designed prospective studies are still warranted.

  2. A Comparative study of early postpartum IUCD insertion to interval IUCD insertion at Tertiary Care Centre

    OpenAIRE

    Roopal, Dr.; Bisht, Vandana

    2018-01-01

    Background: A Comparative study of early postpartum IUCD insertion to interval IUCD insertion at Tertiary Care Centre.Methods: This prospective study was conducted among 100 women at tertiary care centre, Haldwani, Nainital. Patients were divided in to two groups. Group A (n=50)-post placental insertion within 10 minutes of delivery of placenta. Group B (n=50)-Interval insertion after 6 weeks of delivery. Both groups were compared in terms of pain abdomen, bleeding, missing thread, expulsion,...

  3. Critical decisions for older people with advanced dementia: a prospective study in long-term institutions and district home care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toscani, F.; Steen, J.T. van der; Finetti, S.; Giunco, F.; Pettenati, F.; Villani, D.; Monti, M.; Gentile, S.; Charrier, L.; Giulio, P. Di

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare the decisions critical for survival or quality of life [critical decisions (CDs)] made for patients with advanced dementia in nursing homes (NHs) and home care (HC) services. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with a follow-up of 6 months. SETTING: Lombardy Region

  4. Low-Dose and Standard-Dose Unenhanced Helical Computed Tomography for the Assessment of Acute Renal Colic: Prospective Comparative Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Soo; Hwang, Im Kyung; Choi, Yo Won; Namkung, Sook; Kim, Heung Cheol; Hwang, Woo Cheol; Choi, Kuk Myung; Park, Ji Kang; Han, Tae Il; Kang, Weechang [Cheju National Univ. College of Medicine, Jeju (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    2005-11-01

    Purpose: To compare the efficacy of low-dose and standard-dose computed tomography (CT) for the diagnosis of ureteral stones. Material and Methods: Unenhanced helical CT was performed with both a standard dose (260 mAs, pitch 1.5) and a low dose (50 mAs, pitch 1.5) in 121 patients suspected of having acute renal colic. The two studies were prospectively and independently interpreted for the presence and location of ureteral stones, abnormalities unrelated to stone disease, identification of secondary signs, i.e. hydronephrosis and perinephric stranding, and tissue rim sign. The standard-dose CT images were interpreted by one reviewer and the low-dose CT images independently by two reviewers unaware of the standard-dose CT findings. The findings of the standard and low-dose CT scans were compared with the exact McNemar test. Interobserver agreements were assessed with kappa analysis. The effective radiation doses resulting from two different protocols were calculated by means of commercially available software to which the Monte-Carlo phantom model was given. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of standard-dose CT for detecting ureteral stones were 99%, 93%, and 98%, respectively, whereas for the two reviewers the sensitivity of low-dose CT was 93% and 95%, specificity 86%, and accuracy 92% and 94%. We found no significant differences between standard-dose and low-dose CT in the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing ureter stones ( P >0.05 for both). However, the sensitivity of low-dose CT for detection of 19 stones less than or equal to 2 mm in diameter was 79% and 68%, respectively, for the two reviewers. Low-dose CT was comparable to standard-dose CT in visualizing hydronephrosis and the tissue rim sign. Perinephric stranding was far less clear on low-dose CT. Low-dose CT had the same diagnostic performance as standard-dose CT in diagnosing alternative diseases. Interobserver agreement between the two low-dose CT reviewers in the diagnosis of

  5. Prospective elementary school teachers’ views about socioscientific issues: A concurrent parallel design study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Özden

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the prospective elementary school teachers’ perceptions on socioscientific issues. The research was conducted on prospective elementary school teachers studying at a university located in western Turkey. The researcher first taught the subjects of global warming and nuclear power plants from a perspective of socioscientific issues in the science and technology education course and then conducted the research. Concurrent parallel design, one of the mixed-method research approaches, was used to conduct the research. In this context, semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight teachers in the qualitative strand of the study to explore the phenomenon. The data obtained from the interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. During the quantitative strand of the research, 113 prospective teachers were administered a questionnaire form. The results of the study revealed that none of the participating prospective teachers mentioned about the religious and cultural characteristics of socioscientific issues, and they need training about how to use socioscientific issues in teaching.

  6. Prospective Elementary School Teachers’ Views about Socioscientific Issues: A Concurrent Parallel Design Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet ÖZDEN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the prospective elementary school teachers’ perceptions on socioscientific issues. The research was conducted on prospective elementary school teachers studying at a university located in western Turkey. The researcher first taught the subjects of global warming and nuclear power plants from a perspective of socioscientific issues in the science and technology education course and then conducted the research. Concurrent parallel design, one of the mixed-method research approaches, was used to conduct the research. In this context, semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight teachers in the qualitative strand of the study to explore the phenomenon. The data obtained from the interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. During the quantitative strand of the research, 113 prospective teachers were administered a questionnaire form. The results of the study revealed that none of the participating prospective teachers mentioned about the religious and cultural characteristics of socioscientific issues, and they need training about how to use socioscientific issues in teaching.

  7. Injuries in competitive boxing. A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewe, J; Rudat, J; Zarghooni, K; Sobottke, R; Eysel, P; Herren, C; Knöll, P; Illgner, U; Michael, J

    2015-03-01

    Boxing remains a subject of controversy and is often classified as dangerous. But the discussion is based mostly on retrospective studies. This survey was conducted as a prospective study. From October 2012 to September 2013, 44 competitive boxers were asked to report their injuries once a month. The questionnaire collected general information (training, competition) and recorded the number of bouts fought, injuries and resulting lost days. A total of 192 injuries were recorded, 133 of which resulted in interruption of training or competition. Each boxer sustained 3 injuries per year on average. The injury rate was 12.8 injuries per 1 000 h of training. Boxers fighting more than 3 bouts per year sustain more injuries (p=0.0075). The injury rate does is not a function of age (age≤19 vs. > 19a, p=0.53). Injuries to the head and the upper limbs occur most frequently. The most common injuries are soft tissue lacerations and contusions. Head injuries with neurological symptoms rarely occur (4.2%). Boxing has a high injury rate that is comparable with other contact sports, but most injuries are minor. Injury frequency is not a function of whether the boxer competes in the junior or adult category. Athletes fighting many bouts per year have a greater risk of injury. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Metastatic tumor of thoracic and lumbar spine: prospective study comparing the surgery and radiotherapy vs external immobilization with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falavigna, Asdrubal; Ioppi, Ana Elisa Empinotti; Grasselli, Juliana

    2007-01-01

    Bone metastases at the thoracic and lumbar segment of the spine are usually presented with painful sensation and medullar compression. The treatment is based on the clinical and neurological conditions of the patient and the degree of tumor invasion. In the present study, 32 patients with spinal metastasis of thoracic and lumbar segment were prospectively analyzed. These patients were treated by decompression and internal stabilization followed by radiotherapy or irradiation with external immobilization. The election of the groups was in accordance with the tumor radiotherapy sensitivity, clinical conditions, spinal stability, medullar or nerve compression and patient's decision. The Frankel scale and pain visual test were applied at the moment of diagnosis and after 1 and 6 months. The surgical group had better results with preserving the ambulation longer and significant reduction of pain.(author)

  9. Racial variations in booking haemoglobin of primigravidae in Malaysia: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Albert Chao Chiet; Leong, Eugene Weng Kong; Chua, Ai Chen; Moy, Foong Ming

    2013-05-01

    Variations in racial haemoglobin had been previously described in multiple studies locally and abroad. This study was conducted to quantify the differences in haemoglobin of booking primigravidae amongst the three major races in Malaysia at the antenatal clinic of University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur. One year prospective study of booking full blood count sample of primigravidae taken in one centre was conducted. Multiple comparative analyses of the booking haemoglobin were performed using the One-way ANOVA comparative mean test in each trimester. 622 primigravidae without any known history of haematological disorders were recruited into the study. The mean haemoglobin for the Indian race was the lowest compared to the two other races in the second and the third trimesters, and it was found to be statistically significant lower (p- value 0.001) than the Malay race in the second trimester. It was also found that the Indian race had a significantly higher incidence of moderate to severe anaemia (p- value: 0.029). The prevalence of anaemia in our study population is also significantly higher in the Indian population (p- value: 0.01). The findings from this study have established that there is racial preponderance to anaemia in pregnancy. The Indian race is at a higher risk of having anaemia in pregnancy particularly in the second trimester.

  10. Psoriasis increases risk of new-onset atrial fibrillation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upala, Sikarin; Shahnawaz, Afeefa; Sanguankeo, Anawin

    2017-08-01

    Psoriasis is a common chronic immune-mediated dermatological disease that increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the association between psoriasis and atrial fibrillation from prospective observational studies. A comprehensive search of the databases of the MEDLINE and EMBASE was performed from inception through November 2015. The inclusion criterion was the prospective observational study that assessed the risk of new-onset atrial fibrillation in adults with psoriasis. Outcome was the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of atrial fibrillation comparison between patients with psoriasis and controls. Pooled HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using a random-effects model. The initial search yielded 176 articles. Fifteen articles underwent full-length review and data were extracted from 4 observational studies. Incidence of atrial fibrillation was ascertained by cardiologist-reviewed electrocardiograms. There was a significant increased risk of new-onset atrial fibrillation in patients with psoriasis compared to controls with a pooled HR 1.42 (95%CI 1.22-1.65). Our meta-analysis of prospective studies demonstrated that patients with psoriasis have increased risk of new-onset atrial fibrillation. Future interventional studies addressing the impact of psoriasis treatment and prevention of atrial fibrillation should be performed.

  11. Differences in kinetic variables between injured and noninjured novice runners : A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredeweg, Steef W.; Kluitenberg, Bas; Bessem, Bram; Buist, Ida

    Objectives: This prospective study examined differences in kinetic variables between injured and noninjured novice female and male runners and their potential contribution to RRIs. Design: A prospective cohort study. Methods: At baseline vertical ground reaction forces were assessed with an

  12. Ultrathin disposable gastroscope for screening and surveillance of gastroesophageal varices in patients with liver cirrhosis: a prospective comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Dep K; Toscano, Leanne; Phan, Vinh-An; Ow, Tsai-Wing; Schoeman, Mark; Nguyen, Nam Q

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to evaluate the role of unsedated, ultrathin disposable gastroscopy (TDG) against conventional gastroscopy (CG) in the screening and surveillance of gastroesophageal varices (GEVs) in patients with liver cirrhosis. Forty-eight patients (56.4 ± 1.3 years; 38 male, 10 female) with liver cirrhosis referred for screening (n = 12) or surveillance (n = 36) of GEVs were prospectively enrolled. Unsedated gastroscopy was initially performed with TDG, followed by CG with conscious sedation. The 2 gastroscopies were performed by different endoscopists blinded to the results of the previous examination. Video recordings of both gastroscopies were validated by an independent investigator in a random, blinded fashion. Endpoints were accuracy and interobserver agreement of detecting GEVs, safety, and potential cost saving. CG identified GEVs in 26 (54%) patients, 10 of whom (21%) had high-risk esophageal varices (HREV). Compared with CG, TDG had an accuracy of 92% for the detection of all GEVs, which increased to 100% for high-risk GEVs. The interobserver agreement for detecting all GEVs on TDG was 88% (κ = 0.74). This increased to 94% (κ = 0.82) for high-risk GEVs. There were no serious adverse events. Unsedated TDG is safe and has high diagnostic accuracy and interobserver reliability for the detection of GEVs. The use of clinic-based TDG would allow immediate determination of a follow-up plan, making it attractive for variceal screening and surveillance programs. (Clinical trial (ANZCTR) registration number: ACTRN12616001103459.). Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prospective study of Centurion® versus Infiniti® phacoemulsification systems: surgical and visual outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence J. Oh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate surgical outcomes (SOs and visual outcomes (VOs in cataract surgery comparing the Centurion® phacoemulsification system (CPS with the Infiniti® phacoemulsification system (IPS. METHODS: Prospective, consecutive study in a single-site private practice. Totally 412 patients undergoing cataract surgery with either the CPS using the 30-degree balanced® tip (n=207 or the IPS using the 30-degree Kelman® tip (n=205. Intraoperative and postoperative outcomes were documented prospectively up to one month follow-up. Nuclear sclerosis (NS grade, cumulated dissipated energy (CDE, preoperative corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, and CDVA at one month were recorded. RESULTS: CDE was 13.50% less in the whole CPS compared with the whole IPS subcohort. In eyes with NS grade III or greater, CDE was 28.87% less with CPS (n=70 compared with IPS (n=44 (P=0.010. Surgical complications were not statistically different between the two subcohorts (P=0.083, but in the one case of vitreous loss using the CPS, CDVA of 6/4 was achieved at one month. The mean CDVAs (VOs at one month for NS grade III and above cataracts were -0.17 logMAR (6/4.5 in the CPS and -0.15 logMAR (6/4.5 in the IPS subcohort respectively (P=0.033. CONCLUSION: CDE is 28.87% less, and VOs are significantly improved, in denser cataracts in the CPS compared with the IPS. The authors recommend the CPS for cases with denser nuclei.

  14. P.F.C Sigma® cruciate retaining fixed-bearing versus mobile-bearing knee arthroplasty: a prospective comparative study with minimum 10-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, O; Aqil, A; Sisodia, G; Chakrabarty, G

    2017-12-01

    To prospectively compare long-term clinical and radiological outcomes following a cruciate retaining fixed-bearing (FB) and a mobile-bearing (MB) primary total knee replacement (TKR). We prospectively reviewed 113 TKRs in 99 patients (14 bilateral) with a PFC sigma cruciate retaining rotating platform system, at an average follow-up of 11.1 years (range 10-12). Results were contrasted with those from 89 TKRs in 72 patients (17 bilateral) with a PFC sigma cruciate fixed-bearing prosthesis, at an average follow-up of 12.1 years (range 10-14.1). Outcomes collected included pre- and post-operative range of motion, Oxford Knee Scores, complications encountered, as well as radiographical assessments of polyethylene wear. In the MB group, mean Oxford Knee Scores improved from 16 pre-operatively to 42 at final follow-up. The mean range of motion was 115° (75-130). In the FB group, mean Oxford Knee Scores improved from 16.2 pre-operatively to 42.5 at final follow-up. The mean range of motion was 111.2 (80-135) degrees at final follow-up. We failed to elicit an objectively demonstrable clinical difference between the MB- and FB-implanted knees. Similarly, radiological benefits of the MB implants with regard to polyethylene wear were not evident at a minimum 10-year follow-up.

  15. Accelerator mass spectrometry-enabled studies: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjomand, Ali

    2010-03-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry is a detection platform with exceptional sensitivity compared with other bioanalytical platforms. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is widely used in archeology for radiocarbon dating applications. Early exploration of the biological and pharmaceutical applications of AMS began in the early 1990s. AMS has since demonstrated unique problem-solving ability in nutrition science, toxicology and pharmacology. AMS has also enabled the development of new applications, such as Phase 0 microdosing. Recent development of AMS-enabled applications has transformed this novelty research instrument to a valuable tool within the pharmaceutical industry. Although there is now greater awareness of AMS technology, recognition and appreciation of the range of AMS-enabled applications is still lacking, including study-design strategies. This review aims to provide further insight into the wide range of AMS-enabled applications. Examples of studies conducted over the past two decades will be presented, as well as prospects for the future of AMS.

  16. Electrophysiological evidence during episodic prospection implicates medial prefrontal and bilateral middle temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia-Fen; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S

    2016-08-01

    fMRI studies have implicated the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe, components of the default mode network (DMN), in episodic prospection. This study compared quantitative EEG localized to these DMN regions during prospection and during resting and while waiting for rewards. EEG was recorded in twenty-two adults while they were asked to (i) envision future monetary episodes; (ii) wait for rewards and (iii) rest. Activation sources were localized to core DMN regions. EEG power and phase coherence were compared across conditions. Prospection, compared to resting and waiting, was associated with reduced power in the medial prefrontal gyrus and increased power in the bilateral medial temporal gyrus across frequency bands as well as greater phase synchrony between these regions in the delta band. The current quantitative EEG analysis confirms prior fMRI research suggesting that medial prefrontal and medial temporal gyrus interactions are central to the capacity for episodic prospection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Unilateral versus bilateral thyroarytenoid Botulinum toxin injections in adductor spasmodic dysphonia: a prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upile, Tahwinder; Elmiyeh, Behrad; Jerjes, Waseem; Prasad, Vyas; Kafas, Panagiotis; Abiola, Jesuloba; Youl, Bryan; Epstein, Ruth; Hopper, Colin; Sudhoff, Holger; Rubin, John

    2009-01-01

    Objectives In this preliminary prospective study, we compared unilateral and bilateral thyroarytenoid muscle injections of Botulinum toxin (Dysport) in 31 patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia, who had undergone more than 5 consecutive Dysport injections (either unilateral or bilateral) and had completed 5 concomitant self-rated efficacy and complication scores questionnaires related to the previous injections. We also developed a Neurophysiological Scoring (NPS) system which has utility in the treatment administration. Method and materials Data were gathered prospectively on voice improvement (self-rated 6 point scale), length of response and duration of complications (breathiness, cough, dysphagia and total voice loss). Injections were performed under electromyography (EMG) guidance. NPS scale was used to describe the EMG response. Dose and unilateral/bilateral injections were determined by clinical judgment based on previous response. Time intervals between injections were patient driven. Results Low dose unilateral Dysport injection was associated with no significant difference in the patient's outcome in terms of duration of action, voice score (VS) and complication rate when compared to bilateral injections. Unilateral injections were not associated with any post treatment total voice loss unlike the bilateral injections. Conclusion Unilateral low dose Dysport injections are recommended in the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia. PMID:19852852

  18. Unilateral versus bilateral thyroarytenoid Botulinum toxin injections in adductor spasmodic dysphonia: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiola Jesuloba

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives In this preliminary prospective study, we compared unilateral and bilateral thyroarytenoid muscle injections of Botulinum toxin (Dysport in 31 patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia, who had undergone more than 5 consecutive Dysport injections (either unilateral or bilateral and had completed 5 concomitant self-rated efficacy and complication scores questionnaires related to the previous injections. We also developed a Neurophysiological Scoring (NPS system which has utility in the treatment administration. Method and materials Data were gathered prospectively on voice improvement (self-rated 6 point scale, length of response and duration of complications (breathiness, cough, dysphagia and total voice loss. Injections were performed under electromyography (EMG guidance. NPS scale was used to describe the EMG response. Dose and unilateral/bilateral injections were determined by clinical judgment based on previous response. Time intervals between injections were patient driven. Results Low dose unilateral Dysport injection was associated with no significant difference in the patient's outcome in terms of duration of action, voice score (VS and complication rate when compared to bilateral injections. Unilateral injections were not associated with any post treatment total voice loss unlike the bilateral injections. Conclusion Unilateral low dose Dysport injections are recommended in the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia.

  19. Ultrasound cervical length in predicting preterm birth: Prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achour Radhouane

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Preterm birth is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality and represents a major public health problem. It is associated with a 15–20 per cent mortality rate and remains responsible for 75 per cent of perinatal deaths in foetuses without anomalies. Aims The aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of cervical length measured in the first trimester (11–14 Weeks of amenorrhea “WA” and the second trimester (20–24 Weeks of amenorrhea” WA” in an asymptomatic population of singleton pregnancies to assess the risk of spontaneous preterm birth compared to the digital assessment. Methods We conducted a prospective, longitudinal study involving 117 asymptomatic women with singleton pregnancies between January and December 2015. Results In our study, the clinical examination had a low positive predictive value and a low sensibility for screening women at risk of preterm delivery. Cervical length less than 35mm between 12–14WA and 30mm between 22–24WA predicts the occurrence of preterm birth with a high sensitivity (Se, and specificity (Sp. Conclusion We conclude that ultrasound screening of preterm delivery is now highly recommended.

  20. Prospective studies comparing PCT and CRP

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yoshan Moodley

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... bacterial cell wall components such as lipopolysac- charide, are known .... acquired pneumonia, PCT showed improved perfor- mance at predicting .... adrenomedullin to predict severity and outcome in community- acquired ...

  1. Randomized, interventional, prospective, comparative study to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    Internet Journal of Medical Update. 2015 January ... Kumar et al / Ramipril versus telmisartan in stage 1 hypertensive patients with diabetes mellitus. Copyrighted © by Dr. ...... J Assoc Physicians India. 2010;58:423-4. 19. ... Relationship of.

  2. Australian snowboard injury data base study. A four-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladin, C; Giddings, P; Robinson, M

    1993-01-01

    Information on the rate and spectrum of snowboarding injuries is limited. This 4-year prospective study at 3 major Australian ski resorts assesses incidence and patterns of snowboarding injuries, particularly in relation to skill level and footwear. Ski injury data were collected for the same period. In a predominantly male study population (men:women, 3:1), 276 snowboarding injuries were reported; 58% occurred in novices. Fifty-seven percent of injuries were in the lower limbs, 30% in the upper limbs. The most common injuries were sprains (53%), fractures (24%), and contusions (12%). Comparing skiers' versus snowboarders' injuries, snowboarders had 2.4 times as many fractures, particularly to the upper limbs (21% versus 35% of upper limb injuries), fewer knee injuries (23% versus 44% of lower limb injuries), but more ankle injuries (23% versus 6% of lower limb injuries). Ankle injuries were more common with soft-shell boots, worn most by intermediate and advanced riders. Knee injuries and distal tibial fractures were more common with hard-shell boots, worn most by novices. Overall, novices had more upper limb fractures and knee injuries; intermediate and advanced riders had more ankle injuries. Falls were the principal mode of injury. To prevent injury, beginners should use "hybrid" or soft-shell boots and take lessons.

  3. A prospective, randomised study of a novel transforming methacrylate dressing compared with a silver-containing sodium carboxymethylcellulose dressing on partial-thickness skin graft donor sites in burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadian, Ojan; Arnoldo, Brett; Purdue, Gary; Burris, Agnes; Skrinjar, Edda; Duschek, Nikolaus; Leaper, David J

    2015-06-01

    This prospective, randomised study compares a new transforming methacrylate dressing (TMD) with a silver-containing carboxymethylcellulose dressing (CMC-Ag) after application to split-thickness skin graft (STSG) donor sites. This was an unblinded, non-inferiority, between-patient, comparison study that involved patients admitted to a single-centre burn unit who required two skin graft donor sites. Each patient's donor sites were covered immediately after surgery: one donor site with TMD and the other with CMC-Ag. The donor sites were evaluated until healing or until 24 days post-application, whichever came first. Study endpoints were time to healing, daily pain scores, number of dressing changes, patient comfort and physicians' and patients' willingness to use the dressings in the future. Nineteen patients had both the dressings applied. No statistically significant difference was noted in time to healing between the two dressings (14·2 days using TMD compared with 13·2 days using CMC-Ag). When pain scores were compared, TMD resulted in statistically significantly less pain at three different time periods (2-5 days, 6-10 days and 11-15 days; P < 0·001 at all time periods). Patients also reported greater comfort with TMD (P < 0·001). Users rated TMD as being less easy to use because of the time and technique required for application. Reductions in pain and increased patient comfort with the use of the TMD dressing, compared with CMC-Ag, were seen as clinical benefits as these are the major issues in donor site management. © 2013 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2013 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A prospective descriptive study of the management of miscarriages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the current management of incomplete miscarriage at Harare and Parirenyatwa Hospitals and to determine the proportion of patients with incomplete miscarriage managed with Manual Vacuum Aspiration (MVA), sharp curettage or medical evacuation. Design: A prospective descriptive study.

  5. Locoregional first recurrence after mastectomy: prospective cohort studies with and without immediate chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haylock, Brian J.; Coppin, Chris M.L.; Jackson, Jeremy; Basco, Vivien E.; Wilson, Kenneth S.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate prospectively the impact of combination chemotherapy in the combined modality treatment of isolated first locoregional recurrence (LRR) following mastectomy for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Between 1979 and 1989, 120 chemotherapy-naive women with isolated LRR as first failure after mastectomy were prospectively identified, uniformly staged, and systematically followed. Treatment consisted of excision if feasible, radical locoregional radiotherapy, and a hormonal maneuver (unless estrogen receptor negative). The initial chemotherapy cohort also received 8 cycles of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide. This was compared to a subsequent control cohort. Results: For all patients, the 10-year actuarial relapse-free survival ± 95% confidence interval was 42.1 ± 9.2%, and overall survival was 56.8 ± 9.1%. No difference was seen in locoregional control between cohorts. At 5 years, distant recurrence-free survival for chemotherapy and control cohort respectively was 75.4 ± 10.8% and 60.7 ±12.5% (p = 0.33) and overall survival was 81.9% ± 9.6 and 74.3% ± 11.2 (p = 0.24). Univariate analysis showed no prognostic importance for any imbalance between cohorts. Cox modeling confirmed that complete resection was strongly associated with fewer LRR (hazard ratio [HR] 0.32, p = 0.001) and also with better overall survival (HR 1.82, p = 0.019). Chemotherapy produced a substantial reduction in risk of death (HR 0.72 CI 0.421-1.235, p = 0.23). Conclusions: In this prospective but nonrandomized study of treatment for first LRR, the risk of death in the later control cohort was 1.39 times the risk in the chemotherapy cohort but failed to reach statistical significance. The results justify further study

  6. Thermal welding versus cold knife tonsillectomy: A prospective randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Yilmaz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a prospective randomized study conducted in a group of children who underwent two methods of tonsillectomy: thermal welding or cold knife tonsillectomy. Parameters, such as postoperative pain scores, intraoperative blood loss, operation time, and postoperative bleeding rates, were analyzed to find out which technique is better. Ninety-one children (aged between 2 years and 13 years with recurrent tonsillitis, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, or both were included in the study. According to the type of tonsillectomy procedure, the patients were divided into two groups: cold knife and thermal welding procedure. The two groups were compared on the basis of postoperative pain scores, intraoperative blood loss, operation time, and postoperative bleeding. Fifty-seven patients underwent thermal welding tonsillectomy and 34 had cold knife tonsillectomy. The mean pain score in thermal welding group was significantly lower (p<0.001. There was no remarkable blood loss intraoperatively in the thermal welding procedure. The operation time was not significantly different between two groups. No postoperative bleeding was encountered in the thermal welding group. Compared with the cold knife technique, thermal welding was found to be a relatively new and safe technique for tonsillectomy as it results in significantly less postoperative pain and no remarkable blood loss.

  7. Protective environment for marrow transplant recipients. A prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckner, C.D.; Clift, R.A.; Sanders, J.E.; Meyers, J.D.; Counts, G.W.; Farewell, V.T.; Thomas, E.D.

    1978-01-01

    Laminar air flow isolation and decontamination procedures were evaluated in a prospective randomized study in patients with aplastic anemia or acute leukemia undergoing marrow transplantation from HLA-matched siblings. Patients transplanted in the laminar air flow group had significantly less septicemia and major local infections than did patients in the control group. Nineteen of 46 laminar air flow patients and six of 44 control patients are alive at present. In patients with aplastic anemia the survival was 13 of 17 in the laminar air flow group compared with four of 17 in the control group. In patients with acute leukemia the survival was six of 29 in the laminar air flow group versus two of 27 in the control group. These differences were not statistically significant. Death in both the laminar air flow and control groups was predominantly due to interstitial pneumonitis or recurrent leukemia, which were unaffected by isolation and decontamination

  8. Accuracy of prognosis estimates by four palliative care teams: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantini Massimo

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prognosis estimates are used to access services, but are often inaccurate. This study aimed to determine the accuracy of giving a prognosis range. Methods and measurements A prospective cohort study in four multi-professional palliative care teams in England collected data on 275 consecutive cancer referrals who died. Prognosis estimates (minimum – maximum at referral, patient characteristics, were recorded by staff, and later compared with actual survival. Results Minimum survival estimates ranged Conclusions Offering a prognosis range has higher levels of accuracy (about double than traditional estimates, but is still very often inaccurate, except very close to death. Where possible clinicians should discuss scenarios with patients, rather than giving a prognosis range.

  9. Prospective, observational study comparing automated and visual point-of-care urinalysis in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Delft, Sanne; Goedhart, Annelijn; Spigt, Mark; van Pinxteren, Bart; de Wit, Niek; Hopstaken, Rogier

    2016-08-08

    Point-of-care testing (POCT) urinalysis might reduce errors in (subjective) reading, registration and communication of test results, and might also improve diagnostic outcome and optimise patient management. Evidence is lacking. In the present study, we have studied the analytical performance of automated urinalysis and visual urinalysis compared with a reference standard in routine general practice. The study was performed in six general practitioner (GP) group practices in the Netherlands. Automated urinalysis was compared with visual urinalysis in these practices. Reference testing was performed in a primary care laboratory (Saltro, Utrecht, The Netherlands). Analytical performance of automated and visual urinalysis compared with the reference laboratory method was the primary outcome measure, analysed by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) and Cohen's κ coefficient for agreement. Secondary outcome measure was the user-friendliness of the POCT analyser. Automated urinalysis by experienced and routinely trained practice assistants in general practice performs as good as visual urinalysis for nitrite, leucocytes and erythrocytes. Agreement for nitrite is high for automated and visual urinalysis. κ's are 0.824 and 0.803 (ranked as very good and good, respectively). Agreement with the central laboratory reference standard for automated and visual urinalysis for leucocytes is rather poor (0.256 for POCT and 0.197 for visual, respectively, ranked as fair and poor). κ's for erythrocytes are higher: 0.517 (automated) and 0.416 (visual), both ranked as moderate. The Urisys 1100 analyser was easy to use and considered to be not prone to flaws. Automated urinalysis performed as good as traditional visual urinalysis on reading of nitrite, leucocytes and erythrocytes in routine general practice. Implementation of automated urinalysis in general practice is justified as automation is expected to reduce

  10. Mental health and developmental outcomes for children born after ART: a comparative prospective study on child gender and treatment type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Tiitinen, Aila; Lindblom, Jallu; Unkila-Kallio, Leila; Flykt, Marjo; Vänskä, Mervi; Poikkeus, Piia; Tulppala, Maija

    2016-01-01

    Do children born after assisted reproductive techniques (ART; IVF/ICSI) display more mental health issues or social and cognitive developmental problems at 7-8 years than naturally conceived (NC) controls, and does child gender play a role? ART children do not differ with regard to mental health or social and cognitive developmental problems when compared with controls, but some gender-specific differences do exist. Systematic reviews have not found any evidence of delays in neurocognitive or sensorimotor development in ART children. However findings on the effect of the type of ART treatment (IVF versus ICSI) on the offspring's physical and mental development have not been uniform. Knowledge of the role of child gender in ART research is scarce. This prospective follow-up study compares mental health and social and cognitive developmental problems between 7-8-year-old ART and NC children, controlling for the father's age, length of the parents' partnership, mother's parity, child's gestational age, and the need of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Further, within the ART group, we analysed whether the treatment type (IVF versus ICSI) and the child's gender are associated with the mental health and developmental outcomes. In this study, 255 singleton ART children (IVF and ICSI) were compared with 278 NC children on parent-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and social (social skills and peer relations) and cognitive development (executive functioning, perception, memory, and language). Within the ART group, 164 IVF and 76 ICSI children were compared on the same outcomes. Statistics included analyses of covariates (ANCOVA) with group main effects, group and gender interaction effects, and Bonferroni post hoc tests. ART and NC children did not differ generally in terms of their internalizing and externalizing symptoms or in the number of social and cognitive developmental problems (Group main effects, P > 0.05), but gender-specific group differences

  11. Perceived job insecurity, unemployment and depressive symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T J; von dem Knesebeck, O

    2016-05-01

    It was shown that both job insecurity and unemployment are strongly and consistently associated with depressive symptoms. It is, however, less clear whether perceived job insecurity and unemployment constitute a comparable risk for the onset of depressive symptoms. A meta-analysis was conducted to explore this issue. In December 2014, relevant records were identified through the databases MEDLINE, Embase and PsychINFO. Articles were included if they had been published in the last 10 years and contained a quantitative analysis on the prospective link between job insecurity and unemployment with depressive symptoms. In 20 cohort studies within 15 articles, job insecurity and unemployment were significantly related to a higher risk of depressive symptoms, with the odds ratio (OR) being modestly higher for job insecurity (1.29, 95% CI 1.06-1.57) than for unemployment (1.19, 95% CI 1.11-1.28). Sensitivity analyses revealed that the effects were strongest in studies that examined younger respondents (unemployment ORs were higher in shorter time lags (under 1 year), while ORs for job insecurity were increased in longer exposure-outcome intervals (3-4 years). Specifically for unemployment, ORs were highest in studies that did not control for potential health selection effects and that ascertained enduring unemployment. A statistically significant publication bias was found for studies on unemployment, but not for job insecurity. The analyses revealed that both perceived job insecurity and unemployment constitute significant risks of increased depressive symptoms in prospective observational studies. By comparing both stressors, job insecurity can pose a comparable (and even modestly increased) risk of subsequent depressive symptoms.

  12. The feasibility of matching on a propensity score for acupuncture in a prospective cohort study of patients with chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S. Johnson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Propensity scores are typically applied in retrospective cohort studies. We describe the feasibility of matching on a propensity score derived from a retrospective cohort and subsequently applied in a prospective cohort study of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain before the start of acupuncture or usual care treatment and enrollment in a comparative effectiveness study that required patient reported pain outcomes. Methods We assembled a retrospective cohort study using data from 2010 to develop a propensity score for acupuncture versus usual care based on electronic healthcare record and administrative data (e.g., pharmacy from an integrated health plan, Kaiser Permanente Northwest. The propensity score’s probabilities allowed us to match acupuncture-referred and non-referred patients prospectively in 2013-14 after a routine outpatient visit for pain. Among the matched patients, we collected patient-reported pain before treatment and during follow-up to assess the comparative effectiveness of acupuncture. We assessed balance in patient characteristics with the post-matching c-statistic and standardized differences. Results Based on the propensity score and other characteristics (e.g., patient-reported pain, we were able to match all 173 acupuncture-referred patients to 350 non-referred (usual care patients. We observed a residual imbalance (based on the standardized differences for some characteristics that contributed to the score; for example, age, -0.283, and the Charlson comorbidity score, -0.264, had the largest standardized differences. The overall balance of the propensity score appeared more favorable according to the post-matching c-statistic, 0.503. Conclusion The propensity score matching was feasible statistically and logistically and allowed approximate balance on patient characteristics, some of which will require adjustment in the comparative effectiveness regression model. By transporting propensity

  13. A one season prospective cohort study of volleyball injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; van der Beek, A.J.; Bouter, L.M.; Bahr, R.; van Mechelen, W.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the overall incidence of acute and overuse volleyball injuries, and to describe factors associated with ankle sprains. Methods: 486 players from the second and third Dutch national volleyball divisions participated in the study and were followed prospectively during a whole

  14. Decannulation and Functional Outcome After Tracheostomy in Patients with Severe Stroke (DECAST): A Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Hauke; Hertel, Franziska; Kuhn, Matthias; Ragaller, Maximilian; Gottschlich, Birgit; Trabitzsch, Anne; Dengl, Markus; Neudert, Marcus; Reichmann, Heinz; Wöpking, Sigrid

    2017-08-01

    Tracheostomy is performed in ventilated stroke patients affected by persisting severe dysphagia, reduced level of consciousness, or prolonged mechanical ventilation. The study aim was to determine the frequency and predictors of successful decannulation and long-term functional outcome in tracheotomized stroke patients. A prospective single-center observational study recruited ventilated patients with ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Follow-up visits were performed at hospital discharge, 3, and 12 months. Competing risk analyses were performed to identify predictors of decannulation. We included 53 ventilated stroke patients who had tracheostomy. One year after tracheostomy, 19 patients were decannulated (median [IQR] time to decannulation 74 [58-117] days), 13 patients were permanently cannulated, and 21 patients died without prior removal of the cannula. Independent predictors for decannulation in our cohort were patient age (HR 0.95 [95% CI: 0.92-0.99] per one year increase, p = 0.003) and absence of sepsis (HR 4.44 [95% CI: 1.33-14.80], p = 0.008). Compared to surviving patients without cannula removal, decannulated patients had an improved functional outcome after one year (median modified Rankin Scale score 4 vs. 5 [p tracheostomy and was associated with better functional outcome compared to patients without decannulation. Further prospective studies with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm our results.

  15. Comparative gait analysis of ankle arthrodesis and arthroplasty: initial findings of a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Michael E; Wright, Elise S; Segal, Ava D; Orendurff, Michael S; Ledoux, William R; Sangeorzan, Bruce J

    2012-04-01

    Little is known about functional outcomes of ankle arthroplasty compared with arthrodesis. This study compared pre-surgical and post-surgical gait measures in both patient groups. Eighteen patients with end-stage ankle arthritis participated in an ongoing longitudinal study (pre-surgery, 12 months post-surgery) involving gait analysis, assessment of pain and physical function. Outcome measures included temporal-distance, kinematic and kinetic data, the Short Form 36 (SF-36) body pain score, and average daily step count. A mixed effects linear model was used to detect effects of surgical group (arthrodesis and arthroplasty, n = 9 each) with walking speed as a covariate (α = 0.05). Both groups were similar in demographics and anthropometrics. Followup time was the same for each group. There were no complications in either group. Pain decreased (p < 0.001) and gait function improved (gait velocity, p = 0.02; stride length, p = 0.035) in both groups. Neither group increased average daily step count. Joint range of motion (ROM) differences were observed between groups after surgery (increased hip ROM in arthrodesis, p = 0.001; increased ankle ROM in arthroplasty, p = 0.036). Peak plantar flexor moment increased in arthrodesis patients and decreased in arthroplasty patients (p = 0.042). Initial findings of this ongoing clinical study indicate pain reduction and improved gait function 12 months after surgery for both treatments. Arthroplasty appears to regain more natural ankle joint function, with increased ROM. Long-term follow up should may reveal more clinically meaningful differences.

  16. Coffee consumption and risk of gastric and pancreatic cancer--a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidel, Siamak; Hu, Gang; Jousilahti, Pekka; Pukkala, Eero; Hakulinen, Timo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

    2013-04-01

    Only few prospective studies have examined the association between coffee consumption and risk of gastric and pancreatic cancer. This study is designed to evaluate this relationship among Finns, whose coffee consumption is the highest in the world. A total of 60,041 Finnish men and women who were 26-74 years of age and without history of any cancer at baseline were included in the present analyses. Coffee consumption and other study parameters were determined at baseline using standardized measurements. Participants were prospectively followed up for onset of gastric and/or pancreatic cancer, emigration, death or until June 30, 2006. During a mean follow-up period of 18 years, 299 cases of gastric cancer and 235 cases of pancreatic cancer were found. There was a nonsignificant inverse association between coffee consumption and risk of gastric cancer among men but not in the women. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio of stomach and pancreatic cancer incidence for ≥ 10 cups of coffee per day compared with nondrinkers were 0.75 (95% CI, 0.40-1.41) (P for trend = 0.19) and 0.82 (95% CI, 0.38-1.76) (P for trend = 0.95) for the combined population of men and women, respectively. We did not find a significant association between coffee consumption and the risk of gastric and/or pancreatic cancers. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  17. Future prospects for studies in the VUV-SX region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kenichiro; Kitajima, Yoshinori

    1989-09-01

    This book carries papers presented at a workshop 'Future Prospects for Studies in the VUV-SX Region' held on March 22 and 23, 1989. The workshop focussed particularly on the promotion of research in the VUV and soft X-ray regions. Three sessions were held: Session 1 for studies in peripheral areas, Session 2 for theoretical studies, and Session 3 for recent developments. Session 1 covered five studies: 'Laser Spectroscopy: High-Resolution Observation of Highly Electronically Excited Gaseous Molecule', 'High-Resolution Electron Spectroscopy: Surface Phonon Spectroscopy', 'Experimental Study on Atoms and Molecules through Ion Trap', 'Basic Mechanism of Photo-Induced CVD', and 'Application of Circularly Polarized Light'. Session 2 covered five studies: 'Electronic State of High Tc Superconducting Oxide', 'Surface Condition and Electronic State', 'XES and XAS Study of Rare Earth Compound', 'Resonance Photoelectric Spectroscopy on Strongly Correlated Electronic System', and 'Circularly Polarized Light and Atomic Process in Soft X-Ray Region'. Session 3 covered six studies: 'Prospects of Application of Supercritical Liquid to Research on Physical Characteristics', 'Application of Orbit Radiation to Polarization Spectroscopy', 'XES Research for La Compounds', 'Characteristics of Ultra-Fine Particles', 'Surface Study by Angular-Resolution Photoelectric Spectroscopy', and 'EXAFS Study of Light Element'. (N.K.)

  18. Prospect theory for online financial trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang-Yu; Nacher, Jose C; Ochiai, Tomoshiro; Martino, Mauro; Altshuler, Yaniv

    2014-01-01

    Prospect theory is widely viewed as the best available descriptive model of how people evaluate risk in experimental settings. According to prospect theory, people are typically risk-averse with respect to gains and risk-seeking with respect to losses, known as the "reflection effect". People are much more sensitive to losses than to gains of the same magnitude, a phenomenon called "loss aversion". Despite of the fact that prospect theory has been well developed in behavioral economics at the theoretical level, there exist very few large-scale empirical studies and most of the previous studies have been undertaken with micro-panel data. Here we analyze over 28.5 million trades made by 81.3 thousand traders of an online financial trading community over 28 months, aiming to explore the large-scale empirical aspect of prospect theory. By analyzing and comparing the behavior of winning and losing trades and traders, we find clear evidence of the reflection effect and the loss aversion phenomenon, which are essential in prospect theory. This work hence demonstrates an unprecedented large-scale empirical evidence of prospect theory, which has immediate implication in financial trading, e.g., developing new trading strategies by minimizing the impact of the reflection effect and the loss aversion phenomenon. Moreover, we introduce three novel behavioral metrics to differentiate winning and losing traders based on their historical trading behavior. This offers us potential opportunities to augment online social trading where traders are allowed to watch and follow the trading activities of others, by predicting potential winners based on their historical trading behavior.

  19. Prospect theory for online financial trading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Yu Liu

    Full Text Available Prospect theory is widely viewed as the best available descriptive model of how people evaluate risk in experimental settings. According to prospect theory, people are typically risk-averse with respect to gains and risk-seeking with respect to losses, known as the "reflection effect". People are much more sensitive to losses than to gains of the same magnitude, a phenomenon called "loss aversion". Despite of the fact that prospect theory has been well developed in behavioral economics at the theoretical level, there exist very few large-scale empirical studies and most of the previous studies have been undertaken with micro-panel data. Here we analyze over 28.5 million trades made by 81.3 thousand traders of an online financial trading community over 28 months, aiming to explore the large-scale empirical aspect of prospect theory. By analyzing and comparing the behavior of winning and losing trades and traders, we find clear evidence of the reflection effect and the loss aversion phenomenon, which are essential in prospect theory. This work hence demonstrates an unprecedented large-scale empirical evidence of prospect theory, which has immediate implication in financial trading, e.g., developing new trading strategies by minimizing the impact of the reflection effect and the loss aversion phenomenon. Moreover, we introduce three novel behavioral metrics to differentiate winning and losing traders based on their historical trading behavior. This offers us potential opportunities to augment online social trading where traders are allowed to watch and follow the trading activities of others, by predicting potential winners based on their historical trading behavior.

  20. Social determinants of tuberculosis in Europe: a prospective ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploubidis, George B; Palmer, Melissa J; Blackmore, Charlotte; Lim, Tek-Ang; Manissero, Davide; Sandgren, Andreas; Semenza, Jan C

    2012-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is considered to be a disease of poverty, since its incidence is exacerbated by socioeconomic factors, inconsistent or partial treatment practices, and immigration from endemic countries. A prospective country level study, using a comprehensive dataset of TB incidence and prevalence taken from countries within the World Health Organization (WHO) European region, was conducted. We employed quintile regression to investigate the prospective association between baseline (measured in 2000) and a nation's wealth, level of egalitarianism, migration rate, health-related lifestyle and social capital with TB incidence and prevalence over a 10-yr period (2000-2009). We found that ∼50% of TB variation is accounted for by a nation's wealth and level of egalitarianism. We observed a negative prospective association between logged gross domestic product and TB rates, and a positive prospective association between income inequality and TB. National income levels per capita and income inequality are important predictors for TB incidence and prevalence in the WHO European region. They account for 50% of country-level variation, indicating the importance of a combined absolute and relative socioeconomic disadvantage in the development of TB. These findings also provide a tool for forecasting potential fluctuations in the level of TB epidemics in the WHO European region, with respect to socioeconomic changes.

  1. Comparison of discectomy versus sequestrectomy in lumbar disc herniation: a meta-analysis of comparative studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisheng Ran

    Full Text Available Lumbar disc removal is currently the standard treatment for lumbar disc herniation. No consensus has been achieved whether aggressive disc resection with curettage (discectomy versus conservative removal of the offending disc fragment alone (sequestrectomy provides better outcomes. This study aims to compare the reherniation rate and clinical outcomes between discectomy and sequestrectomy by literature review and a meta-analysis.A systematic search of PubMed, Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library was performed up to June 1, 2014. Outcomes of interest assessing the two techniques included demographic and clinical baseline characteristics, perioperative variables, complications, recurrent herniation rate and post-operative functional outcomes.Twelve eligible trials evaluating discectomy vs sequestrectomy were identified including one randomized controlled study, five prospective and six retrospective comparative studies. By contrast to discectomy, sequestrectomy was associated with significantly less operative time (p<0.001, lower visual analogue scale (VAS for low back pain (p<0.05, less post-operative analgesic usage (p<0.05 and better patients' satisfaction (p<0.05. Recurrent herniation rate, reoperation rate, intraoperative blood loss, hospitalization duration and VAS for sciatica were without significant difference.According to our pooled data, sequestrectomy entails equivalent reherniation rate and complications compared with discectomy but maintains a lower incidence of recurrent low back pain and higher satisfactory rate. High-quality prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to firmly assess these two procedures.

  2. Weight at birth and subsequent fecundability: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Cathrine Wildenschild; Hammerich Riis, Anders; Ehrenstein, Vera

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between a woman's birth weight and her subsequent fecundability. METHOD: In this prospective cohort study, we included 2,773 Danish pregnancy planners enrolled in the internet-based cohort study "Snart-Gravid", conducted during 2007-2012. Participants were 18...

  3. Drug treatment of bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms after ureteric JJ-stent insertion: A contemporary, comparative, prospective, randomised placebo-controlled study, single-centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekal, Ihab A

    2016-12-01

    To provide a guide for medication to alleviate bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in patients after JJ ureteric stenting. Between June 2011 and June 2015, a prospective randomised placebo-controlled study was conducted on 200 consecutive cases of ureteric stones that required JJ stents. All patients had signed informed consent and JJ-stent placement confirmed by X-ray. The patients were randomised into five groups: A, solifenacin 5 mg; B, trospium chloride 20 mg; C, antispasmodic; and E, α-blocker; and a placebo group (D). A standard model was created to lessen patient selection bias. Eligible patients were enrolled and assessed for side-effects and bothersome LUTS using the validated Ureteric Stent Symptoms Questionnaire. Appropriate statistical analysis was carried out. In all, 150 male patients in the five groups were compared. LUTS were less in groups A and B ( P  JJ-stent insertion, anti-muscarinic medication, namely solifenacin 5 mg or trospium chloride 20 mg, was the best. The advantage of trospium over solifenacin is in the control of frequency rather than the other symptoms. Addition of an α-blocker (alfuzosin 10 mg) is valuable when nocturia is the predominant symptom.

  4. Macular Choroidal Thickness May Be the Earliest Determiner to Detect the Onset of Diabetic Retinopathy in Patients with Prediabetes: A Prospective and Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazgan, Serpil; Arpaci, Dilek; Celik, Haci Ugur; Dogan, Mustafa; Isık, Irem

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the macular and peripapillary choroidal thickness and retinal volume in prediabetes. This prospective comparative study included 53 patients with prediabetes and 53 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. Only right eyes were selected. Choroidal thicknesses (CT) and retinal volume were measured by optical coherence tomography. Macular CT was measured at the seven points including macular center, 1, 2, and 3 mm distances along the temporal and nasal scans. Peripapillary CT was measured at the eight points of the optic disk area. Systemic and laboratory findings of the subjects were also recorded. There were no significant differences in blood pressures, ocular findings including intraocular pressure, visual acuity, and refractive powers, and macular volumes between the two groups (p > 0.005). Macular and peripapillary CT at all measuring points, body mass index (BMI), fasting blood glucose (FBG), hemoglobinA1C, and lipid profile were significantly higher in prediabetic patients (p Prediabetic factors including impaired FBG, increased hemoglobinA1C, and BMI are independent risk factors for increase in choroidal thickness. Increased macular choroidal thickness may be the earliest determiner to detect the onset of diabetic retinopathy in prediabetes.

  5. Intrauterine temperature during intrapartum amnioinfusion: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, T M; Schaecher, C; Sadovsky, Y; Gross, G

    2012-07-01

    To determine the influence of routine intrapartum amnioinfusion (AI) on intrauterine temperature. Prospective observational study. Maternity unit, Barnes Jewish Hospital, St Louis, MO, USA. Forty women with singleton gestations and an indication for intrapartum intrauterine pressure catheter placement. Using a temperature probe, we digitally recorded intrauterine temperature every 10 minutes during labour. Amnioinfusion was administered according to a standard protocol using saline equilibrated to the ambient temperature. Mean intrauterine temperature during labour. Participants were monitored for a mean of 280 minutes (range 20-820). A total of 164 intrauterine temperature readings in the AI cohort were compared with 797 control measurements. When compared with controls, we observed a lower intrauterine temperature in the AI cohort (36.4 versus 37.4°C, P<0.01). More measurements in the AI cohort were recorded in the presence of intrapartum fever (40% versus 30%). A subgroup analysis of measurements recorded in afebrile parturients revealed an even greater effect of AI (1.5°C decrease, 37.3 versus 35.8°C, P<0.01). Routine intrapartum AI using saline equilibrated to a mean ambient temperature of 25.0°C reduces intrauterine temperature and may thereby affect fetal core temperature. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  6. Characteristics and Prognosis of Never-Smokers and Smokers with Asthma in the Copenhagen General Population Study. A Prospective Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Çolak, Yunus; Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: Asthma is associated with complications, cardiovascular comorbidities, and higher mortality in some individuals. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that, among individuals with asthma, never-smokers have different characteristics and a better prognosis than smokers. METHODS: We recruited...... 94,079 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Copenhagen General Population Study, a prospective cohort study. Among these individuals, 5,691 (6%) had self-reported asthma (2,304 never-smokers, 2,467 former smokers, and 920 current smokers). We examined respiratory symptoms, lung function, and levels......-up. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Compared with never-smokers without asthma, individuals with asthma had more respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation and higher levels of inflammatory and allergic biomarkers, which were most pronounced in smokers. Among individuals with asthma compared with never-smokers...

  7. Assessment of ambient gamma dose rate around a prospective uranium mining area of South India - A comparative study of dose by direct methods and soil radioactivity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakara, N.; Yashodhara, I.; Sudeep Kumara, K.; Tripathi, R. M.; Menon, S. N.; Kadam, S.; Chougaonkar, M. P.

    Indoor and outdoor gamma dose rates were evaluated around a prospective uranium mining region - Gogi, South India through (i) direct measurements using a GM based gamma dose survey meter, (ii) integrated measurement days using CaSO4:Dy based thermo luminescent dosimeters (TLDs), and (iii) analyses of 273 soil samples for 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K activity concentration using HPGe gamma spectrometry. The geometric mean values of indoor and outdoor gamma dose rates were 104 nGy h-1 and 97 nGy h-1, respectively with an indoor to outdoor dose ratio of 1.09. The gamma dose rates and activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K varied significantly within a small area due to the highly localized mineralization of the elements. Correlation study showed that the dose estimated from the soil radioactivity is better correlated with that measured directly using the portable survey meter, when compared to that obtained from TLDs. This study showed that in a region having localized mineralization in situ measurements using dose survey meter provide better representative values of gamma dose rates.

  8. Applications of prospecting geochemical techniques to the search for and to the study of uranium deposits in metropolitan France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimbert, Arnold

    1957-01-01

    After having recalled facts which leaded the CEA to use new geochemical techniques for the prospecting of uranium deposits through sampling and analysis of soils and waters, the author describes the organisation and methods implemented for this prospecting activity: team composition for sampling and analysis, role of each engineer and technician in the prospecting stages (preliminary study, routine prospecting, result interpretation), sampling and analysis processes. He also reports campaigns of geochemical prospecting: study of the La Chapelle Largeau deposit (objectives, geological context, preliminary study, routine prospecting, study of geochemical anomalies), tactical research on Verneix indices (study of radioactivity anomaly discovered by radio-prospecting), strategical searches in a non prospected area in the South of Avallon. The author discusses the issues of efficiency and cost price of this geochemical prospecting technique in soils and in waters. Appendices present the equipment and operation modality for soil sampling, and for soil sample preparation, and principles, equipment and products for soil analysis and for water analysis [fr

  9. Alcohol consumption, smoking and development of visible age-related signs: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, Anne L; Mølbak, Marie-Louise; Schnor, Peter; Grønbæk, Morten; Tolstrup, Janne S

    2017-12-01

    Visible age-related signs indicate biological age, as individuals that appear old for their age are more likely to be at poor health, compared with people that appear their actual age. The aim of this study was to investigate whether alcohol and smoking are associated with four visible age-related signs (arcus corneae, xanthelasmata, earlobe crease and male pattern baldness). We used information from 11 613 individuals in the Copenhagen City Heart Study (1976-2003). Alcohol intake, smoking habits and other lifestyle factors were assessed prospectively and visible age-related signs were inspected during subsequent examinations. The risk of developing arcus corneae, earlobe crease and xanthelasmata increased stepwise with increased smoking as measured by pack-years. For alcohol consumption, a high intake was associated with the risk of developing arcus corneae and earlobe crease, but not xanthelasmata. High alcohol consumption and smoking predict development of visible age-related signs. This is the first prospective study to show that heavy alcohol use and smoking are associated with generally looking older than one's actual age. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Superior Predictive Value for NTproBNP Compared with High Sensitivity cTnT in Dialysis Patients: A Pilot Prospective Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminita Voroneanu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The clinical utility of the new biomarker, high sensitivity cardiac T troponin (hs-cTnT is still unclear in dialysis patients. Furthermore, the prognostic value of combining N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP and hs-cTnT has not been explored so far. The objective of this pilot study was to determine the utility of hs-cTnT alone versus hs-cTnT in combination with NT-proBNP for predicting death in a stable hemodialysis cohort. Methods: A prospective observational pilot study including 98 chronic asymptomatic hemodialysis patients with a follow up period of 24 months was designed. The cut-off values for NT-proBNP and hs-cTnT were calculated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis, using mortality as an end-point. Based on the cut-off values, the cohort was divided into four groups. Group 1 - NT-proBNP 69.48 ng/l; group 3 - NT-proBNP > 14275 pg/ml and hs-cTnT 14275 pg/ml and hs-cTnT > 69.48 ng/l. Survival for each group was determined using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis. Results: During the follow-up period 16 patients died. According to the ROC curves analysis, the cut-off point for hs-cTnT and for NT-proBNP were 69.43 ng/l (AUC = 0.618; p = 0.04 and 14275 pg/ml (AUC = 0.722; p = 0.003, respectively. In univariate Cox analysis, both hs-cTnT (HR = 3.34; p = 0.016 and NT-proBNP (HR = 5.94; p = 0.01 were predictors of death. In the multivariable Cox proportional hazards model, only NT-pro-BNP levels above the cut-off value remained an independent predictor of all-cause mortality. The combined elevation of both biomarkers did not improve significantly the prognostic value compared with NT-proBNP alone (HR = 6.15 versus HR =4 .78; p = 0.338. Conclusion: NT-pro-BNP is a strong predictor of overall mortality in asymptomatic hemodialysis patients. The addition of hs-cTnT did not improve the prognostic accuracy compared with NT proBNP alone.

  11. Simulation-based inter-professional education to improve attitudes towards collaborative practice: a prospective comparative pilot study in a Chinese medical centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ling-Yu; Yang, Ying-Ying; Huang, Chia-Chang; Liang, Jen-Feng; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Cheng, Hao-Min; Huang, Chin-Chou; Kao, Shou-Yen

    2017-11-08

    Inter-professional education (IPE) builds inter-professional collaboration (IPC) attitude/skills of health professionals. This interventional IPE programme evaluates whether benchmarking sharing can successfully cultivate seed instructors responsible for improving their team members' IPC attitudes. Prospective, pre-post comparative cross-sectional pilot study. Thirty four physicians, 30 nurses and 24 pharmacists, who volunteered to be trained as seed instructors participated in 3.5-hour preparation and 3.5-hour simulation courses. Then, participants (n=88) drew lots to decide 44 presenters, half of each profession, who needed to prepare IPC benchmarking and formed Group 1. The remaining participants formed Group 2 (regular). Facilitators rated the Group 1 participants' degree of appropriate transfer and sustainable practice of the learnt IPC skills in the workplace according to successful IPC examples in their benchmarking sharing. For the three professions, improvement in IPC attitude was identified by sequential increase in the post-course (second month, T 2 ) and end-of-study (third month, T 3 ) Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale (IEPS) and Attitudes Towards Healthcare Teams Scale (ATHCTS) scores, compared with pre-course (first month, T 1 ) scores. By IEPS and ATHCTS-based assessment, the degree of sequential improvements in IPC attitude was found to be higher among nurses and pharmacists than in physicians. In benchmarking sharing, the facilitators' agreement about the degree of participants'appropriate transfer and sustainable practice learnt 'communication and teamwork' skills in the workplace were significantly higher among pharmacists and nurses than among physicians. The post-intervention random sampling survey (sixth month, T post ) found that the IPC attitude of the three professions improved after on-site IPC skill promotion by new programme-trained seed instructors within teams. Addition of benchmark sharing to a diamond-based IPE simulation

  12. Validation of the new graded prognostic assessment scale for brain metastases: a multicenter prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villà, Salvador; Verger, Eugènia; Balañà, Carme; Graus, Francesc; Weber, Damien C; Moretones, Cristina; Mañes, Anabel; Combescure, Christophe; Jové, Josep; Puyalto, Paloma; Cuadras, Patricia; Bruna, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Prognostic indexes are useful to guide tailored treatment strategies for cancer patients with brain metastasis (BM). We evaluated the new Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA) scale in a prospective validation study to compare it with two published prognostic indexes. A total of 285 newly diagnosed BM (n = 85 with synchronous BM) patients, accrued prospectively between 2000 and 2009, were included in this analysis. Mean age was 62 ± 12.0 years. The median KPS and number of BM was 70 (range, 20-100) and 3 (range, 1-50), respectively. The majority of primary tumours were lung (53%), or breast (17%) cancers. Treatment was administered to 255 (89.5%) patients. Only a minority of patients could be classified prospectively in a favourable prognostic class: GPA 3.5-4: 3.9%; recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) 1, 8.4% and Basic Score for BM (BSBM) 3, 9.1%. Mean follow-up (FU) time was 5.2 ± 4.7 months. During the period of FU, 225 (78.9%) patients died. The 6 months- and 1 year-OS was 36.9% and 17.6%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, performance status (P < 0.001), BSBM (P < 0.001), Center (P = 0.007), RPA (P = 0.02) and GPA (P = 0.03) were statistically significant for OS. The survival prediction performances' of all indexes were identical. Noteworthy, the significant OS difference observed within 3 months of diagnosis between the BSBM, RPA and GPA classes/groups was not observed after this cut-off time point. Harrell's concordance indexes C were 0.58, 0.61 and 0.58 for the GPA, BSBM and RPA, respectively. Our data suggest that the new GPA index is a valid prognostic index. In this prospective study, the prediction performance was as good as the BSBM or RPA systems. These published indexes may however have limited long term prognostication capability

  13. A prospective longitudinal study to estimate the prevalence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prospective longitudinal study to estimate the prevalence of obesity in Egyptian children with nocturnal enuresis and the association between body mass index and ... Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics ... Response to the treatment was evaluated statistically and correlated with body mass index percentile.

  14. Independent and combined relationship of habitual unhealthy eating behaviors with depressive symptoms: A prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Cong; Momma, Haruki; Cui, Yufei; Chujo, Masahiko; Otomo, Atsushi; Sugiyama, Shota; Ren, Zhongyu; Niu, Kaijun; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Unhealthy eating has been found to be associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms. However, prospective evidence of the combined effects of unhealthy eating and depressive symptoms has not been reported. This study aimed to elucidate the prospective relationship between habitual unhealthy eating habits and depressive symptoms. Methods: A 2-year prospective cohort study of 376 Japanese adults aged 24–83 years without depressive symptoms at baseline was conducted. Infor...

  15. A prospective cohort study of injury in amateur and professional boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazryn, T; Cameron, P; McCrory, P

    2006-08-01

    There is concern over the potential for a high incidence of injury in boxing. This is despite a lack of prospective data evaluating the risk for modern day participants. Updated, reliable data with a focus on potential exposure to injury for both amateur and, especially, professional boxers is required. To determine the epidemiology of injury and exposure of amateur and professional boxers in Victoria, Australia. A prospective cohort study with one year follow up was carried out over 2004-2005. Thirty three amateur and 14 active professional boxers registered with either Boxing Victoria Inc (amateurs) or the Professional Boxing and Combat Sports Board of Victoria (professionals) volunteered. Exposure at training and competition was measured, and any injuries sustained during this participation were recorded. Twenty one injuries were sustained by the cohort during the follow up period. Most were to the head region (71%; 95% confidence interval -3.7 to 89.4), with concussion being the most common (33%). An overall injury rate of 2.0 injuries per 1000 hours of boxing was calculated. The high exposure experienced by the boxers (as a result of considerable training time) indicated that boxing has acute injury rates comparable to, and often lower than, those found in other contact and non-contact sports. Further, acute injuries during training appear to be less common and severe than those sustained in bouts.

  16. Early and 1-year outcomes of aortic root surgery in patients with Marfan syndrome: a prospective, multicenter, comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coselli, Joseph S; Volguina, Irina V; LeMaire, Scott A; Sundt, Thoralf M; Connolly, Heidi M; Stephens, Elizabeth H; Schaff, Hartzell V; Milewicz, Dianna M; Vricella, Luca A; Dietz, Harry C; Minard, Charles G; Miller, D Craig

    2014-06-01

    To compare the 1-year results after aortic valve-sparing (AVS) or valve-replacing (AVR) aortic root replacement from a prospective, international registry of 316 patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS). Patients underwent AVS (n = 239, 76%) or AVR (n = 77, 24%) aortic root replacement at 19 participating centers from 2005 to 2010. One-year follow-up data were complete for 312 patients (99%), with imaging findings available for 293 (94%). The time-to-events were compared between groups using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards models. Two patients (0.6%)--1 in each group--died within 30 days. No significant differences were found in early major adverse valve-related events (MAVRE; P = .6). Two AVS patients required early reoperation for coronary artery complications. The 1-year survival rates were similar in the AVR (97%) and AVS (98%) groups; the procedure type was not significantly associated with any valve-related events. At 1 year and beyond, aortic regurgitation of at least moderate severity (≥2+) was present in 16 patients in the AVS group (7%) but in no patients in the AVR group (P = .02). One AVS patient required late AVR. AVS aortic root replacement was not associated with greater 30-day mortality or morbidity rates than AVR root replacement. At 1 year, no differences were found in survival, valve-related morbidity, or MAVRE between the AVS and AVR groups. Of concern, 7% of AVS patients developed grade ≥2+ aortic regurgitation, emphasizing the importance of 5 to 10 years of follow-up to learn the long-term durability of AVS versus AVR root replacement in patients with MFS. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Investing in Prospective Cohorts for Etiologic Study of Occupational Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prospective cohorts have played a major role in understanding the role of diet, physical activity, medical conditions, and genes in the development of many diseases, but have not been widely used in the study of occupational exposures. Studies in agriculture are an exception. W...

  18. Prospect Theory for Online Financial Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang-Yu; Nacher, Jose C.; Ochiai, Tomoshiro; Martino, Mauro; Altshuler, Yaniv

    2014-03-01

    Prospect theory is widely viewed as the best available descriptive model of how people evaluate risk in experimental settings. According to prospect theory, people make decisions based on the potential value of losses and gains rather than the final outcome. People are risk-averse with respect to gains and risk-seeking with respect to losses, a phenomenon called ``loss aversion''. Despite of the fact that prospect theory has been well studied in behavioral economics at the theoretical level, there exist very few empirical research and most of them has been undertaken with micro-panel data. Here we analyze the trading activities of over 1.5 million members of an online financial trading community over 28 months, aiming to explore the large-scale empirical aspect of prospect theory. By analyzing and comparing the behaviour of ``winners'' and ``losers'', i.e., traders with positive or negative final net profit, we find clear evidence of the loss aversion phenomenon, an essence in prospect theory. This work demonstrates an unprecedented large-scale empirical evidence of prospect theory. It has immediate implication in financial trading, e.g., developing new trading strategies by minimizing the effect of loss aversion. It also provides opportunity to augment online social trading, where users are allowed to watch and follow the trading activity of others, by predicting potential winners based on their historical trading behaviour.

  19. PIpelle Prospective ENDOmetrial carcinoma (PIPENDO) study, pre-operative recognition of high risk endometrial carcinoma: a multicentre prospective cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, Nicole C. M.; Bulten, Johan; Wurff, Anneke A. M. van der; Boss, Erik A.; Bronkhorst, Carolien M.; Feijen, Harrie W. H.; Haartsen, Joke E.; Herk, Hilde A. D. M. van; Kievit, Ineke M. de; Klinkhamer, Paul J. J. M.; Pijlman, Brenda M.; Snijders, Marc P. M. L.; Vandenput, Ingrid; Vos, M. Caroline; Wit, Peter E. J. de; Poll-Franse, Lonneke V. van de; Massuger, Leon F.A.G.; Pijnenborg, Johanna M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial carcinoma is the most common gynaecologic malignancy in industrialised countries and the incidence is still rising. Primary treatment is based on preoperative risk classification and consists in most cases of hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. In patients with serous and clear cell histology a complete surgical staging is mandatory. However, in routine clinical practice final histology regularly does not correspond with the preoperative histological diagnosis. This results in both over and under treatment. The aim of this multicentre, prospective cohort study is to select a panel of prognostic biomarkers to improve preoperative diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma in order to identify those patients that need extended surgery and/or additional treatment. Additionally, we will determine whether incorporation of cervical cytology and comorbidity could improve this preoperative risk classification. All patients treated for endometrial carcinoma in the participating hospitals from September 2011 till December 2013 are included. Patient characteristics, as well as comorbidity are registered. Patients without preoperative histology, history of hysterectomy and/or endometrial carcinoma or no surgical treatment including hysterectomy are excluded. The preoperative histology and final pathology will be reviewed and compared by expert pathologists. Additional immunohistochemical analysis of IMP3, p53, ER, PR, MLH1, PTEN, beta-catenin, p16, Ki-67, stathmin, ARID1A and L1CAM will be performed. Preoperative histology will be compared with the final pathology results. Follow-up will be at least 24 months to determine risk factors for recurrence and outcome. This study is designed to improve surgical treatment of endometrial carcinoma patients. A total of 432 endometrial carcinoma patients were enrolled between 2011 and 2013. Follow-up will be completed in 2015. Preoperative histology will be evaluated systematically and background endometrium will be

  20. Usefulness of temporal bone prototype for drilling training: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aussedat, C; Venail, F; Nguyen, Y; Lescanne, E; Marx, M; Bakhos, D

    2017-12-01

    Dissection of cadaveric temporal bones (TBs) is considered the gold standard for surgical training in otology. For many reasons, access to the anatomical laboratory and cadaveric TBs is difficult for some facilities. The aim of this prospective and comparative study was to evaluate the usefulness of a physical TB prototype for drilling training in residency. Prospective study. Tertiary referral centre. Thirty-four residents were included. Seventeen residents (mean age 26.7±1.6) drilled on only cadaveric TBs ("traditional" group), in the traditional training method, while seventeen residents (mean age 26.5±1.7) drilled first on a prototype and then on a cadaveric TB ("prototype" group). Drilling performance was assessed using a validated scale. Residents completed a mastoid image before and after each drilling to enable evaluation of mental representations of the mastoidectomy. No differences were observed between the groups with respect to age, drilling experience and level of residency. Regarding drilling performance, we found a significant difference across the groups, with a better score in the prototype group (P=.0007). For mental representation, the score was statistically improved (P=.0003) after drilling in both groups, suggesting that TB drilling improves the mental representation of the mastoidectomy whether prototype or cadaveric TB is used. The TB prototype improves the drilling performance and mental representation of the mastoidectomy in the young resident population. A drilling simulation with virtual or physical systems seems to be a beneficial tool to improve TB drilling. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Fruit and vegetables consumption and incident hypertension: dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L; Sun, D; He, Y

    2016-10-01

    The role of dietary factors on chronic diseases seems essential in the potentially adverse or preventive effects. However, no evidence of dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies has verified the association between the intake of fruit and/or vegetables and the risk of developing hypertension. The PubMed and Embase were searched for prospective cohort studies. A generic inverse-variance method with random effects model was used to calculate the pooled relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Generalized least squares trend estimation model was used to calculate the study-specific slopes for the dose-response analyses. Seven articles comprised nine cohorts involving 185 676 participants were assessed. The highest intake of fruit or vegetables separately, and total fruit and vegetables were inversely associated with the incident risk of hypertension compared with the lowest level, and the pooled RRs and 95% CIs were 0.87 (0.79, 0.95), 0.88 (0.79, 0.99) and 0.90 (0.84, 0.98), respectively. We also found an inverse dose-response relation between the risk of developing hypertension and fruit intake, and total fruit and vegetables consumption. The incident risk of hypertension was decreased by 1.9% for each serving per day of fruit consumption, and decreased by 1.2% for each serving per day of total fruit and vegetables consumption. Our results support the recommendation to increase the consumption of fruit and vegetables with respect to preventing the risk of developing hypertension. However, further large prospective studies and long-term high-quality randomized controlled trials are still needed to confirm the observed association.

  2. Fractionated bipolar radiofrequency and bipolar radiofrequency potentiated by infrared light for treating striae: A prospective randomized, comparative trial with objective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmelin, Yona; Boineau, Dominique; Cardot-Leccia, Nathalie; Fontas, Eric; Bahadoran, Philippe; Becker, Anne-Lise; Montaudié, Henri; Castela, Emeline; Perrin, Christophe; Lacour, Jean-Philippe; Passeron, Thierry

    2016-03-01

    Very few treatments for striae are based on prospective randomized trials. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of bipolar fractional radiofrequency and bipolar radiofrequency potentiated with infrared light, alone or combined, for treating abdominal stretch marks. Bicentric prospective interventional randomized controlled trial in the department of Dermatology of University Hospital of Nice and Aesthetics Laser Center of Bordeaux, France. Men and women of age 18 years or above, who presented for the treatment of mature or immature abdominal striae were included. The patients' abdomens were divided into four equal quadrants. Bipolar radiofrequency potentiated with infrared light and fractional bipolar radiofrequency were applied, alone or combined, and compared to the remaining untreated quadrant. The main criterion of evaluation was the measurement of depth of striae, using 3D photography at 6 months follow-up. A global assessment was also rated by the physician performing the treatment and by the patients. Histological analysis and confocal laser microscopy were additionally performed. A total of 22 patients were enrolled, and 384 striae were measured. In per protocol analysis mean striae depth was decreased by 21.64%, observed at 6 months follow-up with the combined approach, compared to an increase of 1.73% in the control group (P radiofrequency, combined with bipolar radiofrequency potentiated by infrared light, is an effective treatment of both immature and mature striae of the abdomen. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Elevated alanine aminotransferase is strongly associated with incident metabolic syndrome: a meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengtao Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS is rapidly increasing worldwide and associated with alanine aminotransferase (ALT activity. However, the impact of ALT activity on MetS incidence is inconsistent in published literature. We therefore estimated the association between elevated ALT activity and incident MetS through a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: All published prospective cohort studies on the association between elevated ALT activity and incident MetS were retrieved from Pubmed, Embase, and the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI. In all, seven prospective cohort studies, with 31545 participants and 2873 cases of incident MetS were recruited. If there was insignificant heterogeneity (P-value>0.05 and I(2<50%, the fixed-effect model was used to calculate the pooled relative risks (RRs of incident MetS induced by raised ALT. Otherwise, the random-effect model was used. The calculated RR was 1.81 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.49-2.14 when the incidence of MetS was compared between the highest versus the lowest classification of ALT activities. The pooled RR was 1.13 (95% CI: 1.11-1.16 in dose-response analysis with 5 units per liter (U/l of ALT increment. Subgroup analysis suggested that gender disparity might be the main origin of heterogeneity in overall analysis (P = 0.007 between RRs of gender-specific subgroups evaluated with 5 U/l increments of ALT. Women had a higher dose-response risk of MetS incidence (1.38, 95% CI: 1.20-1.55 than men. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis confirmed the stability of results. No publication bias was found in our meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Current evidence from prospective studies supports the association between ALT elevation and increasing MetS incidence. This association is closer and more consistent in female population. Further studies are needed to confirm this association and to investigate the potential mechanism of

  4. Comparative study of the analgesic efficacy of rectal tramadol versus intravenous tramadol for adult tonsillectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Gadani, Hina N.; Chaudhary, Virendra Pratap

    2010-01-01

    Background: The optimal method for intra- and post-operative analgesia for adult tonsillectomy is uncertain. Tramadol hydrochloride is an analgesic with mixed mu and nonopioid activities, having less/no respiratory depression. Aim: The aim of our study was to compare the analgesic efficacy and nausea/vomiting produced by tramadol via intravenous and rectal administration during the first 24 h after anesthesia for adult tonsillectomy. Materials and Methods: The study design was prospective, ra...

  5. Study of geothermal prospects in the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-20

    The commercial development potential of 13 underdeveloped geothermal prospects in the Western United States has been examined and the prospects have been ranked in order of relative potential for development on the basis of investment considerations. The following were considered in the ranking: geotechnical and engineering data, energy market accessibility, administrative constraints, and environmental and socio-economic factors. The primary ranking criterion is the unit cost of energy production expected from each prospect. This criterion is obtained principally from expected reservoir temperatures and depths. Secondary criteria are administrative constraints, environmental factors and the quality of the geotechnical data. The Roosevelt, Utah, prospect ranks first in development potential followed in order by Beowawe, Nevada; Coso Hot Springs, California; Long Valley, California; and Brady's Hot Springs, Nevada.

  6. Study of geothermal prospects in the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    The commercial development potential of 13 underdeveloped geothermal prospects in the western United States has been examined and the prospects have been ranked in order of relative potential for development on the basis of investment considerations. The following were considered in the ranking: geotechnical and engineering data, energy market accessibility, administrative constraints, and environmental and socio-economic factors. The primary ranking criterion is the unit cost of energy production expected from each prospect. This criterion is obtained principally from expected reservoir temperatures and depths. Secondary criteria are administrative constraints, environmental factors and the quality of the geotechnical data. The Roosevelt, Utah, prospect ranks first in development potential followed in order by Beowawe, Nevada; Coso Hot Springs, California; Long Valley, California; and Brady's Hot Springs, Nevada.

  7. Dropout from exercise programs for seniors: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiggelbout, M.; Hopman-Rock, M.; Tak, E.; Lechner, L.; Mechelen, W. van

    2005-01-01

    This study examines dropout incidence, moment of dropout, and switching behavior in organized exercise programs for seniors in the Netherlands, as determined in a prospective cohort study (with baseline measurements at the start of the exercise program and follow-up after 6 months; N = 1,725,

  8. Predicting Reading and Spelling Disorders: A 4-Year Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Caudek, Corrado; Pinto, Giuliana

    2016-01-01

    In this 4-year prospective cohort study, children with a reading and spelling disorder, children with a spelling impairment, and children without a reading and/or spelling disorder (control group) in a transparent orthography were identified in third grade, and their emergent literacy performances in kindergarten compared retrospectively. Six hundred and forty-two Italian children participated. This cohort was followed from the last year of kindergarten to third grade. In kindergarten, the children were assessed in phonological awareness, conceptual knowledge of writing systems and textual competence. In third grade, 18 children with a reading and spelling impairment and 13 children with a spelling impairment were identified. Overall, conceptual knowledge of the writing system was the only statistically significant predictor of the clinical samples. No differences were found between the two clinical samples.

  9. Prospect Theory: A Study of the Endowment Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurandir Sell Macedo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral Finance is a recent field of study which contradicts the presupposition supported by Modern Finance that decision makers act rationally. Prospect Theory, developed by Kahneman and Tversky (1979, is presented as an alternative model to the Theory of Expected Utility in relation to the way people decide in face of possibilities of risk. According to Prospect Theory, people define gains and losses based on a given point of reference, which can be established on grounds of a given level of expected gain. This fact leads to the Endowment Effect - a behavioral trend investigated in this study – whereby investors are influenced by a portfolio which they have received as an inheritance or endowment. The reason this occurs is that individuals usually define their expectations of gain according to the future profitability of the portfolio received, and not according to the future profitability of the market. Using an investment simulation, the Endowment Effect was tested among 226 university students taking courses in the subject of capital markets. The results demonstrate that the students were influenced by the different initial portfolios, which were randomly assigned.

  10. Long-term results after external radiotherapy in age-related macular degeneration. A prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prettenhofer, U.; Mayer, R.; Stranzl, H.; Oechs, A.; Hackl, A. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. Medical School, Graz (Austria); Haas, A. [Dept. of Opthalmology, Univ. Medical School, Graz (Austria)

    2004-02-01

    Purpose: to prospectively evaluate the short- and long-term efficacy of external radiotherapy (RT) in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by comparing two different dose schedules. Patients and methods: in this prospective, nonrandomized, comparative study including 80 patients, the efficacy of external RT with a total dose of 14.4 Gy (group A, n = 40) and 25.2 Gy (group B, n = 40) was compared. Patients of group a were irradiated between September 1995 and July 1996, patients of group b between August 1996 and November 1997. 67 patients presented with occult choroidal neovascularization (CNV), 13 with classic subfoveal lesions. Complete ophthalmologic investigation was performed before RT, at intervals of 3 months during the 1st year after RT, and of 6 months thereafter. Results: 12 months after RT, vision deteriorated in 85% (14.4 Gy) and 65% (25.2 Gy) of patients. Central visual field decreased with both dose schedules. There was no morphological benefit in neovascular changes. After 48 months, complete follow-up was possible in 46 patients who showed a significant loss of vision similar to the natural course of AMD. Conclusion: external RT of AMD with 14.4 Gy as well as with the escalated dose of 25.2 Gy showed a poor beneficial outcome after 6 and 12 months, respectively. After a follow-up of 4 years, visual outcome in irradiated patients was similar to the natural course of the disease. A conspicuous efficacy of RT in prevention of blindness could not be demonstrated. (orig.)

  11. Prospective study of major dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, P; Hu, F B; Hansen, H; Wolk, A

    2001-12-15

    A number of prospective cohort studies have examined the relations of individual dietary variables to risk of colorectal cancer. Few studies have addressed the broader eating patterns that reflect many dietary exposures working together. Using data from a prospective study of 61,463 women, with an average follow-up period of 9.6 years (between 1987 and 1998) and 460 incident cases of colorectal cancer, the authors conducted a factor analysis to identify and examine major dietary patterns in relation to colorectal cancer risk. Using proportional hazards regression to estimate relative risks, the authors found no clear association between a "Western," "healthy," or "drinker" dietary pattern and colorectal cancer risk. However, the data suggested that consuming low amounts of foods that constitute a "healthy" dietary pattern may be associated with increased risks of colon and rectal cancers. An inverse association with the "healthy" dietary pattern was found among women under age 50 years, although the number of cancers in this age group was limited and interpretation of this finding should be cautious. In this age group, relative risks for women in increasing quintiles of the "healthy" dietary pattern, compared with the lowest quintile, were 0.74 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.41, 1.31), 0.69 (95% CI: 0.39, 1.24), 0.59 (95% CI: 0.32, 1.07), and 0.45 (95% CI: 0.23, 0.88) (p for trend = 0.03). The role of overall eating patterns in predicting colorectal cancer risk requires further investigation.

  12. Parenting styles and body mass index: a systematic review of prospective studies among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, R L; Qin, B; Poti, J M

    2017-03-01

    Parenting style may be an important determinant of an individual's future weight status. However, reviews that evaluate the relationship between parenting style and weight-related outcomes have not focused on prospective studies. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase and PsychInfo for studies published between 1995 and 2016 that evaluated the prospective relationship between parenting style experienced in childhood and subsequent weight outcomes. We identified 11 prospective cohort studies. Among the eight studies that categorized parenting style into distinct groups (i.e. authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful), five provided evidence that authoritative parenting was associated with lower body mass index gains. Among the six highest quality studies, four suggested a protective role of authoritative parenting style against adverse weight-related outcomes. However, only one study controlled for a comprehensive set of confounders, and the small number of studies conducted within certain age groups precluded our ability to ascertain critical periods when parenting style is most strongly related to child weight. The present literature supports the idea that authoritative parenting may be protective against later overweight and obesity, although findings are mixed. More prospective cohort studies of longer durations, with more sophisticated methods that examine age-varying relationships, and that control for a comprehensive set of confounders, are needed. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  13. Parenting styles and body mass index: A systematic review of prospective studies among children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, Rebeccah L; Qin, Bo; Poti, Jennifer M

    2017-01-01

    Background Parenting style may be an important determinant of an individual's future weight status. However, reviews that evaluate the relationship between parenting style and weight-related outcomes have not focused on prospective studies. Methods We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, and PsychInfo for studies published between 1995-2016 that evaluated the prospective relationship between parenting style experienced in childhood and subsequent weight outcomes. Results We identified eleven prospective cohort studies. Among the eight studies that categorized parenting style into distinct groups (i.e. authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and neglectful), five provided evidence that authoritative parenting was associated with lower body mass index gains. Among the six highest quality studies, four suggested a protective role of authoritative parenting style against adverse weight-related outcomes. However, only one study controlled for a comprehensive set of confounders, and the small number of studies conducted within certain age groups precluded our ability to ascertain critical periods when parenting style is most strongly related to child weight. Conclusions The present literature supports the idea that authoritative parenting may be protective against later overweight and obesity, although findings are mixed. More prospective cohort studies of longer durations, with more sophisticated methods that examine age-varying relationships, and that control for a comprehensive set of confounders, are needed. PMID:28086262

  14. Endodontic flare-ups: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Vanessa de Oliveira

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this prospective clinical study was to evaluate the incidence of flare-ups (pain and/or swelling requiring endodontic interappointment and emergency treatment) and identify the risk factors associated with their occurrence in patients who received endodontic treatment from June 2006 to June 2007 at the endodontics clinic of the São Paulo Dental Association (APCD), Jardim Paulista branch, São Paulo, Brazil. The incidence of flare-ups was 1.71% out of 408 teeth that had received endodontic therapy. Statistical analysis using the chi-squared test (P flare-up rate and the presence of a periradicular radiolucency. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Long-term weight regain after gastric bypass: a 5-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Daniéla Oliveira; Geloneze, Bruno; Delfini, Regis; Pareja, Bruna Contini; Callejas, Francisco; Pareja, José Carlos

    2008-06-01

    A certain weight gain occurs after obesity surgery compared to the lower weight usually observed between 18 and 24 months postsurgery. The objective of this study was to evaluate weight regain in patients submitted to gastric bypass over a 5-year follow-up period. A longitudinal prospective study was conducted on 782 obese patients of both genders. Only patients with at least 2 years of surgery were included. The percentage of excess body mass index (BMI) loss at 24, 36, 48, and 60 months postsurgery was compared to the measurements obtained at 18 months after surgery. Surgical therapeutic failure was also evaluated. Percent excess BMI loss was significant up to 18 months postsurgery (p < 0.001), with a mean difference in BMI of 1.06 kg/m2 compared to 12 months postsurgery. Percent BMI loss was no longer significant after 24 months, and weight regain became significant within 48 months after surgery (p < 0.01). Among the patients who presented weight regain, a mean 8% increase was observed within 60 months compared to the lowest weight obtained at 18 months after surgery. The percentage of surgical failure was higher in the superobese group at all times studied, reaching 18.8% at 48 months after surgery. Weight regain was observed within 24 months after surgery in approximately 50% of patients. Both weight regain and surgical failure were higher in the superobese group. Studies in regard to metabolic and hormonal mechanisms underlying weight regain might elucidate the causes of this finding.

  16. Direct Costs of Very Old Persons with Subsyndromal Depression: A 5-Year Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludvigsson, Mikael; Bernfort, Lars; Marcusson, Jan; Wressle, Ewa; Milberg, Anna

    2018-03-15

    This study aimed to compare, over a 5-year period, the prospective direct healthcare costs and service utilization of persons with subsyndromal depression (SSD) and non-depressive persons (ND), in a population of very old persons. A second aim was to develop a model that predicts direct healthcare costs in very old persons with SSD. A prospective population-based study was undertaken on 85-year-old persons in Sweden. Depressiveness was screened with the Geriatric Depression Scale at baseline and at 1-year follow-up, and the results were classified into ND, SSD, and syndromal depression. Data on individual healthcare costs and service use from a 5-year period were derived from national database registers. Direct costs were compared between categories using Mann-Whitney U tests, and a prediction model was identified with linear regression. For persons with SSD, the direct healthcare costs per month of survival exceeded those of persons with ND by a ratio 1.45 (€634 versus €436), a difference that was significant even after controlling for somatic multimorbidity. The final regression model consisted of five independent variables predicting direct healthcare costs: male sex, activities of daily living functions, loneliness, presence of SSD, and somatic multimorbidity. SSD among very old persons is associated with increased direct healthcare costs independently of somatic multimorbidity. The associations between SSD, somatic multimorbidity, and healthcare costs in the very old need to be analyzed further in order to better guide allocation of resources in health policy. Copyright © 2018 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of PET and laparoscopy in STagIng advanced gastric cancer: a multicenter prospective study (PLASTIC-study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenkman, H J F; Gertsen, E C; Vegt, E; van Hillegersberg, R; van Berge Henegouwen, M I; Gisbertz, S S; Luyer, M D P; Nieuwenhuijzen, G A P; van Lanschot, J J B; Lagarde, S M; de Steur, W O; Hartgrink, H H; Stoot, J H M B; Hulsewe, K W E; Spillenaar Bilgen, E J; van Det, M J; Kouwenhoven, E A; van der Peet, D L; Daams, F; van Sandick, J W; van Grieken, N C T; Heisterkamp, J; van Etten, B; Haveman, J W; Pierie, J P; Jonker, F; Thijssen, A Y; Belt, E J T; van Duijvendijk, P; Wassenaar, E; van Laarhoven, H W M; Wessels, F J; Haj Mohammad, N; van Stel, H F; Frederix, G W J; Siersema, P D; Ruurda, J P

    2018-04-20

    Initial staging of gastric cancer consists of computed tomography (CT) and gastroscopy. In locally advanced (cT3-4) gastric cancer, fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with CT (FDG-PET/CT or PET) and staging laparoscopy (SL) may have a role in staging, but evidence is scarce. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact and cost-effectiveness of PET and SL in addition to initial staging in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer. This prospective observational cohort study will include all patients with a surgically resectable, advanced gastric adenocarcinoma (cT3-4b, N0-3, M0), that are scheduled for treatment with curative intent after initial staging with gastroscopy and CT. The modalities to be investigated in this study is the addition of PET and SL. The primary outcome of this study is the proportion of patients in whom the PET or SL lead to a change in treatment strategy. Secondary outcome parameters are: diagnostic performance, morbidity and mortality, quality of life, and cost-effectiveness of these additional diagnostic modalities. The study recently started in August 2017 with a duration of 36 months. At least 239 patients need to be included in this study to demonstrate that the diagnostic modalities are break-even. Based on the annual number of gastrectomies in the participating centers, it is estimated that approximately 543 patients are included in this study. In this study, it is hypothesized that performing PET and SL for locally advanced gastric adenocarcinomas results in a change of treatment strategy in 27% of patients and an annual cost-reduction in the Netherlands of €916.438 in this patient group by reducing futile treatment. The results of this study may be applicable to all countries with comparable treatment algorithms and health care systems. NCT03208621 . This trial was registered prospectively on June 30, 2017.

  18. Health costs in anthroposophic therapy users: a two-year prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willich Stefan N

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthroposophic therapies (counselling, special medication, art, eurythmy movement, and rhythmical massage aim to stimulate long-term self-healing processes, which theoretically could lead to a reduction of healthcare use. In a prospective two-year cohort study, anthroposophic therapies were followed by a reduction of chronic disease symptoms and improvement of quality of life. The purpose of this analysis was to describe health costs in users of anthroposophic therapies. Methods 717 consecutive outpatients from 134 medical practices in Germany, starting anthroposophic therapies for chronic diseases, participated in a prospective cohort study. We analysed direct health costs (anthroposophic therapies, physician and dentist consultations, psychotherapy, medication, physiotherapy, ergotherapy, hospital treatment, rehabilitation and indirect costs (sick leave compensation in the pre-study year and the first two study years. Costs were calculated from resource utilisation, documented by patient self-reporting. Data were collected from January 1999 to April 2003. Results Total health costs in the first study year (bootstrap mean 3,297 Euro; 95% confidence interval 95%-CI 3,157 Euro to 3,923 Euro did not differ significantly from the pre-study year (3,186 Euro; 95%-CI 3,037 Euro to 3,711 Euro, whereas in the second year, costs (2,771 Euro; 95%-CI 2,647 Euro to 3,256 Euro were significantly reduced by 416 Euro (95%-CI 264 Euro to 960 Euro compared to the pre-study year. In each period hospitalisation and sick-leave together amounted to more than half of the total health costs. Anthroposophic therapies and medication amounted to 3%, 15%, and 8% of total health costs in the pre-study year, first year, and second study year, respectively. The cost reduction in the second year was largely accounted for by a decrease of inpatient hospitalisation, leading to a hospital cost reduction of 519 Euro (95%-CI 377 Euro to 904 Euro compared to the

  19. Plasma levels of nitrate and risk of prostate cancer: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tianying; Wang, Yushan; Ho, Shuk-Mei; Giovannucci, Edward

    2013-07-01

    Nitrate and nitrite supplements have recently been shown to improve cardiovascular health, but there is concern that these supplements could contribute to the development of cancer. Previous small, cross-sectional studies reported positive associations between circulating nitrate/nitrite levels and cancer. Prospective studies examining the association between plasma nitrate and cancer, especially prostate cancer, are lacking. We conducted a nested case-control study within the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Baseline blood samples were collected in 1994, and incident cases of prostate cancer were identified from 1997 to 2005. Baseline plasma levels of nitrate were measured in the 630 cases and 630 matched controls. We have found that baseline levels of plasma nitrate were not associated with risk of prostate cancer. Compared to quintile 1, the relative risk from quintiles 2 to 5 were 1.13 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.78-1.63], 0.93 (95% CI, 0.63-1.38), 0.95 (95% CI, 0.65-1.39), and 0.99 (95% CI, 0.68-1.48); Ptrend was 0.9 after adjustment of multivariate risk factors. When analyses were restricted to men fasting more than 6 hours, the trend was similar. Furthermore, plasma nitrate seemed to be inversely associated with advanced-stage prostate cancer. The relative risk across extreme quartiles was 0.44 (95% CI, 0.17-1.12; Ptrend = 0.07) for the whole dataset and 0.30 (95% CI, 0.09-0.99; Ptrend = 0.05) for the fasting dataset. In summary, we did not find an increased risk of prostate cancer associated with higher plasma nitrate levels. A potential protective association between nitrate and aggressive forms of prostate cancer requires confirmation. Nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway has emerged as a new therapeutic pathway for chronic diseases. The results of this study certainly merit replications in other prospective studies.

  20. No causal relationship between Yersinia enterocolitica infection and autoimmune thyroid disease: evidence from a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effraimidis, G.; Tijssen, J. G. P.; Strieder, T. G. A.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    2011-01-01

    P>The objective of this study was to evaluate prospectively the relationship between Yersinia enterocolitica (YE) infection and the development of overt autoimmune hypo- or hyperthyroidism (study A) and the de novo occurrence of thyroid antibodies (study B). This was a prospective cohort study of

  1. Prospective study of cardiac troponin I release in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iser, David M; Thompson, Alexander J V; Sia, Koon Ket; Yeomans, Neville D; Chen, Robert Y M

    2008-06-01

    The rate of cardiac injury in upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage is unclear. The aims of this study were to determine prospectively the risk of cardiac troponin I release and associated adverse cardiac events in patients with acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. From January to September 2003, we prospectively studied patients with documented hematemesis and melena referred to the gastroenterology unit in a tertiary teaching hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Serial assays for cardiac troponin I were performed at 0, 12 and 24 h. Serial creatine kinase levels and electrocardiographs were also performed. Clinical and biochemical data were collected. The primary endpoint was a troponin level >0.5 microg/L within 24 h of recruitment. Various clinical variables were then compared between the groups of patients with or without troponin rise. A total of 156 patients were included in the study. The mean age was 67 years (range 19-96). There were 104 (67%) male patients. A troponin level of greater than 0.5 microg/L was found in 30/156 (19%); 126 (81%) patients had normal troponin levels. Age greater than 65 years, signs of hemodynamic instability at presentation, a recent history of cardiac disease, cardiovascular compromise following endoscopy, and re-bleeding were associated with troponin release. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is associated with a risk of cardiac injury of up to 19%. Troponin assay could be used to screen for cardiac damage, especially in elderly patients who present with hemodynamic instability.

  2. Academic Achievement in Primary School in Offspring Born to Mothers With Type 1 Diabetes (the EPICOM Study): A Register-Based Prospective Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Sine; Clausen, Tine D; Vlachová, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effect of maternal pregestational type 1 diabetes on offspring primary school performance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a prospective combined clinical and register-based cohort study comparing primary school performance in offspring (n = 707......) of women with pregestational type 1 diabetes with matched control offspring (n = 60,341). We also examined the association between HbA1c levels during pregnancy and later school performance among offspring born to women with pregestational type 1 diabetes. RESULTS: Offspring of mothers with pregestational...

  3. GIS-based rare events logistic regression for mineral prospectivity mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yihui; Zuo, Renguang

    2018-02-01

    Mineralization is a special type of singularity event, and can be considered as a rare event, because within a specific study area the number of prospective locations (1s) are considerably fewer than the number of non-prospective locations (0s). In this study, GIS-based rare events logistic regression (RELR) was used to map the mineral prospectivity in the southwestern Fujian Province, China. An odds ratio was used to measure the relative importance of the evidence variables with respect to mineralization. The results suggest that formations, granites, and skarn alterations, followed by faults and aeromagnetic anomaly are the most important indicators for the formation of Fe-related mineralization in the study area. The prediction rate and the area under the curve (AUC) values show that areas with higher probability have a strong spatial relationship with the known mineral deposits. Comparing the results with original logistic regression (OLR) demonstrates that the GIS-based RELR performs better than OLR. The prospectivity map obtained in this study benefits the search for skarn Fe-related mineralization in the study area.

  4. A prospective study of Vitamin A Utilization in Lagos, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, drug utilization studies are primary in establishing mechanisms to promote the use of this vitamin. Hence, we investigated the use of Vitamin A in 4 referral paediatric units in Lagos, Nigeria. The study was prospective with the use of questionnaires administered to those patients placed on Vitamin A therapy among 380 ...

  5. The WISTAH hand study: A prospective cohort study of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg Arun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few prospective cohort studies of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders have been performed. Past studies have provided somewhat conflicting evidence for occupational risk factors and have largely reported data without adjustments for many personal and psychosocial factors. Methods/design A multi-center prospective cohort study was incepted to quantify risk factors for distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders and potentially develop improved methods for analyzing jobs. Disorders to analyze included carpal tunnel syndrome, lateral epicondylalgia, medial epicondylalgia, trigger digit, deQuervain’s stenosing tenosynovitis and other tendinoses. Workers have thus far been enrolled from 17 different employment settings in 3 diverse US states and performed widely varying work. At baseline, workers undergo laptop administered questionnaires, structured interviews, two standardized physical examinations and nerve conduction studies to ascertain demographic, medical history, psychosocial factors and current musculoskeletal disorders. All workers’ jobs are individually measured for physical factors and are videotaped. Workers are followed monthly for the development of musculoskeletal disorders. Repeat nerve conduction studies are performed for those with symptoms of tingling and numbness in the prior six months. Changes in jobs necessitate re-measure and re-videotaping of job physical factors. Case definitions have been established. Point prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome is a combination of paraesthesias in at least two median nerve-served digits plus an abnormal nerve conduction study at baseline. The lifetime cumulative incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome will also include those with a past history of carpal tunnel syndrome. Incident cases will exclude those with either a past history or prevalent cases at baseline. Statistical methods planned include survival analyses and logistic regression. Discussion A

  6. Alcohol consumption and later risk of hospitalization with psychiatric disorders: prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Becker, Ulrik; Grønbæk, Morten

    2011-01-01

    hospital with a psychiatric disorder. The prospective cohort study, the Copenhagen City Heart Study (n=18,146), was used, containing three updated sets of alcohol intake and lifestyle covariates and up to 26 years follow-up. Alcohol intake was measured by self-report while psychiatric disorders were......The potential effects of alcohol intake upon the risk of psychiatric disorders have not often been investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a population sample, the association between self-reported amount of alcohol intake and the later risk of being registered in a Danish.......31-3.04) compared to women drinking below the sensible drinking limits. For men, the risk functions were slightly U-shaped; thus, a weekly low or moderate alcohol intake seemed to have a protective effect towards developing psychiatric disorders. The findings suggest sex differences in the association between...

  7. A prospective, controlled study of prophylactic drainage after colonic anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, J.; Shokouh-Amiri, M H; Damm, P

    1987-01-01

    A prospective, randomized, controlled trial was designed to study the influence of a corrugated latex drain on anastomotic integrity, wound infection, and respiratory complications after elective colonic resections above the pelvic peritoneum. Sixty patients entered the trial; 28 were drained...

  8. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF NALBUPHINE VS. PENTAZOCINE FOR POSTOPERATIVE ANALGESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Ganpatrao Tirpude

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND To provide postoperative pain relief is a prime duty of health care providers. Failure to relieve pain is morally and ethically unacceptable. Post-operative pain may results in adverse effects such as: a Physiological Changes: Reduced pulmonary functions, e.g. vital capacity, tidal volume, functional residual capacity; sympathetic stimulation; reduced the physical activity of patients; thereby increasing the risk of venous thrombosis. b Psychological disturbances: Anger, Resentment, Depression, Adversarial Relationship with Doctors, Insomnia. Aim of this study was 1. To investigate whether “Postoperative analgesia with Nalbuphine is longer than Pentazocine”. 2. To investigate whether “Side effects/complications are less with Nalbuphine as compared to Pentazocine”. MATERIALS AND METHODS It was a prospective randomized double blind observational study. Eighty patients of hydrocoele & inguinal hernia were operated under spinal anaesthesia of age group 20-70 years, ASA grade I & II & patients with controlled co-morbid conditions. In postoperative period, Group N- Inj. Nalbuphine (0.3 mg/kg IM or Group P- Inj. Pentazocine (0.5 mg/kg IM was administered to provide postoperative pain relief & to know the duration of pain relief & its side effects. RESULTS On statistical analysis, demographic data i.e. age, sex had no influence on outcome of study. Mean VAS score in group N was highly significant (p-value in Inj. Pentazocine group. 2. Side Effects - Incidence of sedation was more in Nalbuphine group as compared to Pentazocine group. Nausea & Vomiting were more so in Pentazocine group as compared to Nalbuphine group. Limitation of the present study was that sample size was very small.

  9. Uranium project. Geochemistry prospection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, J.

    1983-01-01

    Geochemistry studies the distribution of the chemicals elements in the terrestrial crust and its ways to migrate. The terminology used in this report is the following one: 1) Principles of the prospection geochemistry 2) Stages of the prospection geochemistry 3)utility of the prospection geochemistry 4) geochemistry of uranium 5) procedures used within the framework of uranium project 6) Average available 7) Selection of the zones of prospection geochemistry 8) Stages of the prospection, Sample preparation and analisis 9) Presentation of the results

  10. Vasoconstrictor response to cold in forestry workers: a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, N; Nielsen, S L

    1988-01-01

    In a five year prospective study of the vasoconstrictor response to cold 37 forestry workers were investigated in 1978 and again in 1983. The subjects were classified into three groups: group A (n = 13): no subjective finger symptoms in 1978 and continued sawing until 1983; group B (n = 12......): no symptoms in 1978 and stopped sawing before 1983; group C (n = 12): vibration induced white finger (VWF) in 1978. A cold provocation test measuring the finger systolic blood pressure with a cuff and strain gauge technique during combined body cooling and finger cooling to 30 degrees, 15 degrees, and 6...... degrees C was applied to all subjects at both investigations. In 1978 all groups had an increased cold response when compared with that of 20 non-exposed controls (p less than 0.05), and the response was more exaggerated in group C than in groups A and B (p less than 0.01). From 1978 to 1983...

  11. Comparative evaluation of pregnancy outcome in gonadotrophin-clomiphene combination vs clomiphene alone in polycystic ovarian syndrome and unexplained infertility-A prospective clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiuli Mukherjee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A large prospective clinical trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of single dose uFSH and clomiphene citrate combination with clomiphene citrate alone for ovulation induction to improve the pregnancy rate. Materials and Methods: The study was a randomized, prospective clinical trial. Totally, 1527 infertile women (4381 cycles with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS (n=911/2573 cycles and unexplained infertility (n=616/1808 cycles were randomized into two groups. Group A received single dose of uFSH on D 3 of menstrual cycle along with clomiphene. Group B received clomiphene only for ovulation induction. We compared the pregnancy rate and miscarriage rate between two groups. Results: Group A had a pregnancy rate of 17% compared to 8.3% of Group B which was significantly higher (P=0.0001. The miscarriage rate was 11% in Group A and 10% in Group B which was not significant (P=0.99. Pregnancy rates in PCOS women were 22% in Group A and 9.3% in Group B which shows significantly higher pregnancy rate (P=0.0001 in anovulatory infertility. But in unexplained infertility, there was no significant difference in pregnancy rate between Group A (11% and Group B(6.3%. Miscarriage rates were 8.8% and 9.5% in Group A and Group B, respectively, in PCOS women and 14% and 13% in women with unexplained infertility. Conclusion: Addition of single dose of uFSH improves pregnancy outcome particularly in anovulatory infertility (WHO II. Correction of unexplained infertility may need more than simple correction of possible subtle ovulatory effect.

  12. A prospective randomized study comparing transnasal and peroral 5-mm ultrathin endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Feng Lin

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: PO intubation seems an excellent alternative method when using a 5-mm ultrathin endoscopy because it achieves comparable patient tolerance, acceptance, and satisfaction as TN intubation, takes less time and causes lower intubation failure and epistaxis.

  13. Effects of maternal epidural analgesia on the neonate--a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Bikash; Devgan, Amit; Sharma, Mukti

    2014-12-10

    Epidural analgesia is one of the most popular modes of analgesia for child birth. There are controversies regarding adverse effects and safety of epidural analgesia. This study was conducted to study the immediate effects of the maternal epidural analgesia on the neonate during early neonatal phase. A prospective cohort study of 100 neonates born to mothers administered epidural analgesia were compared with 100 neonates born to mothers not administered epidural analgesia in terms of passage of urine, initiation of breast feeding, birth asphyxia and incidence of instrumentation. There was significant difference among the two groups in the passage of urine (P value 0.002) and incidence of instrumentation (P value 0.010) but there was no significant difference in regards to initiation of breast feeding and birth asphyxia. Epidural analgesia does not have any effect on the newborns in regards to breast feeding and birth asphyxia but did have effects like delayed passage of urine and increased incidence of instrumentation.

  14. Methods of a large prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded end-point study comparing morning versus evening dosing in hypertensive patients: the Treatment In Morning versus Evening (TIME) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorie, David A; Rogers, Amy; Mackenzie, Isla S; Ford, Ian; Webb, David J; Willams, Bryan; Brown, Morris; Poulter, Neil; Findlay, Evelyn; Saywood, Wendy; MacDonald, Thomas M

    2016-02-09

    Nocturnal blood pressure (BP) appears to be a better predictor of cardiovascular outcome than daytime BP. The BP lowering effects of most antihypertensive therapies are often greater in the first 12 h compared to the next 12 h. The Treatment In Morning versus Evening (TIME) study aims to establish whether evening dosing is more cardioprotective than morning dosing. The TIME study uses the prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded end-point (PROBE) design. TIME recruits participants by advertising in the community, from primary and secondary care, and from databases of consented patients in the UK. Participants must be aged over 18 years, prescribed at least one antihypertensive drug taken once a day, and have a valid email address. After the participants have self-enrolled and consented on the secure TIME website (http://www.timestudy.co.uk) they are randomised to take their antihypertensive medication in the morning or the evening. Participant follow-ups are conducted after 1 month and then every 3 months by automated email. The trial is expected to run for 5 years, randomising 10,269 participants, with average participant follow-up being 4 years. The primary end point is hospitalisation for the composite end point of non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), non-fatal stroke (cerebrovascular accident; CVA) or any vascular death determined by record-linkage. Secondary end points are: each component of the primary end point, hospitalisation for non-fatal stroke, hospitalisation for non-fatal MI, cardiovascular death, all-cause mortality, hospitalisation or death from congestive heart failure. The primary outcome will be a comparison of time to first event comparing morning versus evening dosing using an intention-to-treat analysis. The sample size is calculated for a two-sided test to detect 20% superiority at 80% power. TIME has ethical approval in the UK, and results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. UKCRN17071; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ

  15. Present status and prospect of the experimental study of QED in high Z ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briand, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    I summarize in this paper the present status of our experimental knowledge on the Lamb shift of high Z hydrogenlike ions. Some tentative prospect on the future improvements with the new large accelerators and ion sources are discussed and compared with the present accuracy of QED corrections. (orig.)

  16. Helicobacter pylori infection, atrophic gastritis, and pancreatic cancer risk: A meta-analysis of prospective epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Chen, Yue-Tong; Wang, Rui; Chen, Xin-Zu

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the associations of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and atrophic gastritis (AG) with pancreatic cancer risk. A literature search in PubMed was performed up to July 2017. Only prospective cohort and nested case-control studies enrolling cancer-free participants were eligible. Incident pancreatic cancer cases were ascertained during the follow-up. The risks of pancreatic cancer were compared between persons infected and noninfected with Hp, or between those with and without AG status at baseline. Odds ratios (ORs) or hazard ratios were combined. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed, and publication bias was estimated. Three cohort studies and 6 nested case-control studies, including 65,155 observations, were analyzed. The meta-analyses did not confirm the association between pancreatic cancer risk and Hp infection (OR = 1.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.81-1.47) or AG status (OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 0.80-1.72). However, particular subpopulations potentially had increased risks of pancreatic cancer. Cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA)-negative strains of Hp might be a causative factor of pancreatic cancer (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.05-1.62), but a sensitivity analysis by leave-one-out method did not fully warrant it (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.93-1.56). In 1 nested case-control study, AG at stomach corpus in Hp-negative subpopulation might have increased risk of pancreatic cancer, but with a poor test power = 0.56. Publication biases were nonsignificant in the present meta-analysis. Based on current prospective epidemiologic studies, the linkage of pancreatic cancer to Hp infection or AG status was not warranted on the whole. Nevertheless, prospective studies only focusing on those specific subpopulations are further required to obtain better power.

  17. Comparative study on developmental stages of the clavicle by postmortem MRI and CT imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sara Tangmose; Lynnerup, Niels; Jensen, K.E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The developmental stages of the clavicles are important for forensic age estimation purposes in adolescents. This study compares the 4-stage system to evaluate the ossification of the medial end of the clavicle as visualized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography...... (CT). As several forensic institutes routinely perform CT scans, the large amount of available data may serve as reference sample for MRI in specific cases. Material and methods: This prospective study included an MRI and CT scan of 47 autopsy cases performed prior to medico-legal autopsy (age range...

  18. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ROLE OF CORTICAL MASTOIDECTOMY IN MYRINGOPLASTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Kawatra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Chronic suppurative otitis media is an inflammatory process of mucoperiosteal lining of middle ear space and mastoid. Effect of mastoidectomy on patients without evidence of active infectious disease remains highly debated and unproven. In this study the role of cortical mastoidectomy in myringoplasty in patients of CSOM in dry as well as wet ears was evaluated. OBJECTIVE : To evaluate the efficacy and role of cortical mastoidectomy in patients with CSOM (safe type in dry as well as wet ears. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective randomized. METHODS : Data was collected from the patients undergoing myringoplasty with or without cortical mastoidectomy. Study was carried out on a total of 80 patients undergoing the surgery. Study period was 18 months with 6 months of follow up. Outcome was evaluated in terms of graft rejection, lateralization and change in AB gap. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The statistical analysis was done using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 15.0 statistical Analysis Software. RESULT S : overall success rate was 77.5%. It was higher in dry ear (87.5% as compared to wet ear (67.5% and this difference was significant statistically. On evaluating odds of failure for wet ear, it was observed that group 1 had higher odds of failure for wet ear as compared to that of group 2. CONCLUSION : In both myringoplasty alone or with cortical mastoidectomy, failure rates were higher in wet as compared to dry ears, however odds of failure in wet cases were much higher in myringoplasty alone group as compared to myringoplasty with cortic al mastoidectomy

  19. Uranium prospecting; La prospection de l'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roubault, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    This report is an instruction book for uranium prospecting. It appeals to private prospecting. As prospecting is now a scientific and technical research, it cannot be done without preliminary studies. First of all, general prospecting methods are given with a recall of fundamental geologic data and some general principles which are common with all type of prospecting. The peculiarities of uranium prospecting are also presented and in particular the radioactivity property of uranium as well as the special aspect of uranium ores and the aspect of neighbouring ores. In a third part, a description of the different uranium ores is given and separated in two different categories: primary and secondary ores, according to the place of transformation, deep or near the crust surface respectively. In the first category, the primary ores include pitchblende, thorianite and rare uranium oxides as euxenite and fergusonite for example. In the second category, the secondary ores contain autunite and chalcolite for example. An exhaustive presentation of the geiger-Mueller counter is given with the presentation of its different components, its functioning and utilization and its maintenance. The radioactivity interpretation method is showed as well as the elaboration of a topographic map of the measured radioactivity. A brief presentation of other detection methods than geiger-Mueller counters is given: the measurement of fluorescence and a chemical test using the fluorescence properties of uranium salts. Finally, the main characteristics of uranium deposits are discussed. (M.P.)

  20. How Prospective Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Trainees Rank Residency Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auriemma, Michael J; Whitehair, Curtis L

    2018-03-01

    Since the inception of the National Resident Matching Program, multiple studies have investigated the factors applicants consider important to ranking prospective residency programs. However, only 2 previous studies focused on prospective physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) trainees, and the most recent of these studies was published in 1993. It is unknown whether these previous studies are reflective of current prospective PM&R residents. To assess various factors that contribute to prospective PM&R residents' decision making in choosing a residency program and compare these findings with previous studies. An anonymous, voluntary questionnaire. A single PM&R residency program. All applicants to a single PM&R residency program. All applicants to our PM&R residency program were invited to participate in a 44-item, 5-point Likert-based questionnaire. Applicants were asked to rate the importance of various factors as they related to constructing their residency rank list. Means and standard deviations were calculated for items included in the survey. A response rate of 26% was obtained, with the responses of 98 applicants (20%) ultimately analyzed. The highest rated factors included "perceived happiness of current residents," "opportunities for hands-on procedure training," "perceived camaraderie among current residents," "perceived camaraderie among faculty and current residents," "perceived quality of current residents," and "perceived work/life balance among current residents." Although male and female respondents demonstrated similar ranking preferences, an apparent difference was detected between how genders rated the importance of "whether the program projects a favorable environment for women" and "whether the program projects a favorable environment for minorities." As compared with previous PM&R applicants, current prospective trainees seem to place greater importance on skill acquisition over didactic teaching. Prospective PM&R residents highly value

  1. Procedures for assessing psychological predictors of injuries in circus artists: a pilot prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrier, Ian; Raglin, John S; Levitan, Emily B; Mittleman, Murray A; Steele, Russell J; Powell, Janette

    2014-06-11

    Research on psychological risk factors for injury has focused on stable traits. Our objective was to test the feasibility of a prospective longitudinal study designed to examine labile psychological states as risk factors of injury. We measured psychological traits at baseline (mood, ways of coping and anxiety), and psychological states every day (1-item questions on anxiety, sleep, fatigue, soreness, self-confidence) before performances in Cirque du Soleil artists of the show "O". Additional questions were added once per week to better assess anxiety (20-item) and mood. Questionnaires were provided in English, French, Russian and Japanese. Injury and exposure data were extracted from electronic records that are kept as part of routine business practices. The 43.9% (36/82) recruitment rate was more than expected. Most artists completed the baseline questionnaires in 15 min, a weekly questionnaire in <2 min and a daily questionnaire in <1 min. We improved the formatting of some questions during the study, and adapted the wording of other questions to improve clarity. There were no dropouts during the entire study, suggesting the questionnaires were appropriate in content and length. Results for sample size calculations depend on the number of artists followed and the minimal important difference in injury rates, but in general, preclude a purely prospective study with daily data collection because of the long follow-up required. However, a prospective nested case-crossover design with data collection bi-weekly and at the time of injury appears feasible. A prospective study collecting psychological state data from subjects who train and work regularly together is feasible, but sample size calculations suggest that the optimal study design would use prospective nested case-crossover methodology.

  2. Prospective Comparative Analysis of 4 Different Intraocular Pressure Measurement Techniques and Their Effects on Pressure Readings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Thomas A; Yang, Patrick T; Chan, Clara C

    2016-10-01

    To compare intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement using the Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) without fluorescein, with fluorescein strips, with fluorescein droplets, and IOP measurement with Tono-Pen Avia (TPA). This was a prospective comparative clinical analysis. It was performed in clinical practice. The study population consisted of 40 volunteer patients, 1 eye per patient. All patients who were 18 years and older having routine ophthalmological examination were eligible to participate. Active corneal abrasions and/or ulcers, previous glaucoma surgery, or prostheses interfering with GAT measurement were excluded. GAT IOP was measured first without fluorescein, then with fluorescein strip, then with fluorescein droplet, and finally with the TPA device. The main outcome measure was central corneal IOP. Mean±SD IOP measurements for GAT without fluorescein, with fluorescein strip, with fluorescein droplet, and for TPA groups were 12.65±3.01, 14.70±2.82, 15.78±2.64, and 16.33±3.08 mm Hg, respectively. Repeated-measures analysis of variance corrected with the Greenhouse-Geisser estimate ([Latin Small Letter Open E]=0.732) showed that measuring technique had a significant effect on IOP measurements (F2.20,85.59=34.66, P<0.001). The pairwise post hoc testing showed statistically significant mean differences (P≤0.001) between all techniques except when GAT with fluorescein droplet was compared with TPA (P=0.222). The Bland-Altman analyses showed 95% limits of agreement maximum potential discrepancies in measurement ranging from 5.89 mm Hg in the GAT with fluorescein strip versus droplet compared with 11.83 mm Hg in the GAT with fluorescein strip versus TPA comparison. IOP measurement technique significantly impacted the values obtained. The ophthalmologist should ensure consistent measurement technique to minimize variability when following patients.

  3. Health effects of employment: a systematic review of prospective studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Noordt, Maaike; IJzelenberg, Helma; Droomers, Mariël; Proper, Karin I.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to systematically summarise the literature on the health effects of employment. A search for prospective studies investigating the effect of employment on health was executed in several electronic databases, and references of selected publications were checked.

  4. Decayed, missing and filled teeth and dental anomalies in long term survived leukemic children: a prospective controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Lauritano, D; Petruzzi, M; Baldoni, M

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this prospective controlled study is the comparison between long-term children survived leukaemia and a control group in terms of the decayed, missing or filled permanent teeth (DMFT) and dental anomalies. Study design: Fifty-two long term children survived leukaemia, aged from 8 to 15 years (27 females, 25 males; mean age 11.5 years) were evaluated for the possible effects of the anti-leukaemic therapy on dental development and compared to a control group of 52 healthy ...

  5. Thrombocytopenia during Pregnancy and Its Outcome – A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Satish Vishwekar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thrombocytopenia is second to anemia as the most common hematological abnormality during pregnancy. Accurate etiological diagnosis is essential for optimal therapeutic management and thus can prevent maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Aims and Objectives: To determine various etiologies of maternal thrombocytopenia, their complications and fetomaternal outcome compared with normal pregnancy. Material and Methods: A prospective study was carried out in tertiary hospital, 1460 pregnant women who attended the Antenatal clinic regularly were enrolled. All were screened for thrombocytopenia in third trimester (after 28 weeks, women with normal platelet (n=1350 were taken in control group and those with low counts less than 150 x109/L (n=130 were included in study group. Etiology and fetomaternal outcome of thrombocytopenia in third trimester of pregnancy were evaluated and compared. Results: Gestational thrombocytopenia was the commonest etiology (68.46%. Incidence of thrombocytopenia due to severe preeclampsia and Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, Low Platelet (HELLP syndrome in study group was 18.46% and 7.69% of them had medical cause like malarial or dengue fever. Major causes were Gestational Thrombocytopenia (GT, Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP, preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome, malaria, and dengue. Maternal complications due to bleeding tendencies like placental abruption, postpartum hemorrhage were evident in the study population. Fetal complications were significantly higher in study group. Early neonatal thrombocytopenia depended on etiology rather than severity of maternal thrombocytopenia. Conclusions: Outcome of pregnancy with moderate to severe thrombocytopenia depends mainly on the etiology of thrombocytopenia. Adverse outcomes are especially seen with pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome. Fetomaternal outcome is favorable in gestational thrombocytopenia. Thus accurate etiological

  6. Sleep quality in patients with xerostomia: a prospective and randomized case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Jornet, Pia; Lucero Berdugo, Maira; Fernandez-Pujante, Alba; C, Castillo Felipe; Lavella C, Zamora; A, Pons-Fuster; J, Silvestre Rangil; Silvestre, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate sleep quality, anxiety/depression and quality-of-life in patients with xerostomia. Materials and methods This prospective, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted among a group of xerostomia patients (n = 30) compared with 30 matched control subjects. The following evaluation scales were used to assess the psychological profile of each patient: the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14), the Xerostomia Inventory, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Results The PSQI obtained 5.3 3 ± 1.78 for patients with xerostomia compared with 4.26 ± 1.01 for control subjects (p = 0.006); ESS obtained 5.7 ± 2.1 for test patients vs 4.4 0 ± 1 for control subjects (p = 0.010). Statistical regression analysis showed that xerostomia was significantly associated with depression (p = 0.027). Conclusions Patients with xerostomia exhibited significant decreases in sleep quality compared with control subjects.

  7. A 3-year prospective clinical study of telescopic crown, bar, and locator attachments for removable four implant-supported maxillary overdentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Duohong; Wu, Yiqun; Huang, Wei; Wang, Feng; Wang, Shen; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Zhiyuan

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate telescopic crown (TC), bar, and locator attachments used in removable four implant-supported overdentures for patients with edentulous maxillae. A total of 30 maxillary edentulous patients were enrolled in a 3-year prospective study. Ten patients (group A) were treated with overdentures supported by TCs, 10 patients (group B) with overdentures supported by bar attachments, and 10 patients (group C) with overdentures supported by locator attachments. A total of 120 implants were used to restore oral function. During the 3-year follow-up period, implant survival and success rates, biologic and mechanical complications, prosthodontic maintenance efforts, and patient satisfaction were evaluated. All 30 patients were available for the 3-year follow-up and exhibited 100% implant survival and success rates. Peri-implant marginal bone resorption was not statistically significant for the three groups. There were lower plaque, bleeding, gingiva, and calculus indices in group C compared with groups A and B. The number of prosthodontic maintenance visits revealed eight complications in the TC group, seven complications in the bar group, and four complications in the locator group. However, there were no differences in the clinical effects of the overdentures in the three groups. Within the limits of this prospective study, it was concluded that the locator system produced superior clinical results compared with the TC and bar attachments in terms of peri-implant hygiene parameters, the frequency of prosthodontic maintenance measures, cost, and ease of denture preparation. However, longer-term prospective studies are required to confirm these results.

  8. Life event stress in duodenal ulcer compared with functional dyspepsia: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Hafeiz Hassan; Al Quorain Abdulaziz; Karim Ahmed; Al-Mangoor Shuaa

    1997-01-01

    This is a prospective study of life event stress in 80 duodenal ulcer patients compared with 80 patients with functional dyspepsia and 80 healthy controls; matched for age, sex and marital status. A semi structured psychiatric interview was used in the psychiatric assessment of the dyspeptic patients and controls. A modified version of Life Events Scale by Tennant and Andrews was used in the assessment of life event stress. More dyspeptic patients reported life events than the controls, but, ...

  9. Comparison of intravenous versus topical tranexamic acid in total knee arthroplasty: a prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jay N; Spanyer, Jonathon M; Smith, Langan S; Huang, Jiapeng; Yakkanti, Madhusudhan R; Malkani, Arthur L

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of topical Tranexamic Acid (TXA) versus Intravenous (IV) Tranexamic Acid for reduction of blood loss following primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). This prospective randomized study involved 89 patients comparing topical administration of 2.0g TXA, versus IV administration of 10mg/kg. There were no differences between the two groups with regard to patient demographics or perioperative function. The primary outcome measure, perioperative change in hemoglobin level, showed a decrease of 3.06 ± 1.02 in the IV group and 3.42 ± 1.07 in the topical group (P = 0.108). There were no statistical differences between the groups in preoperative hemoglobin level, lowest postoperative hemoglobin level, or total drain output. One patient in the topical group required blood transfusion (P = 0.342). Based on our study, topical Tranexamic Acid has similar efficacy to IV Tranexamic Acid for TKA patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Estudo prospectivo comparativo entre pseudoartrose e fusão óssea na estenose de canal lombar Prospective-comparative study between pseudarthrosis and bone fusion in lumbar stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Miller Reis Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudo prospectivo comparativo entre pseudoartrose e fusão óssea na estenose de canal lombar MÉTODO: 38 pacientes operados de estenose de canal lombar e submetidos à artrodese avaliados por meio de questionários (escala visual analógica - VAS e questionário de incapacidade Rolland Morris. Foram solicitadas radiografias para avaliação da fusão lombar. RESULTADOS: Foi observada uma efetiva melhora entre o momento pré-operatório e após um ano em relação ao VAS, tanto no grupo que obteve fusão óssea como no grupo com pseudartrose. Em relação ao questionário Rolland Morris houve uma tendência de melhora no grupo com fusão óssea e uma significante melhora no grupo com pseudoartrose. CONCLUSÃO: Não houve diferença entre os grupos (fusão óssea e pseudoartrose em relação à dor e incapacidade. Nível de Evidência: Nível II, estudo prospectivo longitudinal.OBJECTIVE: Prospective-comparative study between pseudarthrosis and bone fusion in lumbar stenosis METHODS: 38 patients operated on for lumbar spinal stenosis and submitted to arthrodesis were evaluated by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire. Radiographs were requested to evaluate spinal fusion. RESULTS: An effective improvement was observed between the preoperative period and one year after the operation, in relation to VAS, both in the group that received a bone fusion and in the group with pseudarthrosis. With regard to the Roland Morris questionnaire, there was a tendency towards an improvement in the bone fusion group and a significant improvement in the pseudarthrosis group. CONCLUSION: There was no difference between the groups (bone fusion and pseudarthrosis in relation to pain and disability. . Level of Evidence: Level II, longitudinal prospective study.

  11. Functional neuroimaging studies of prospective memory: what have we learnt so far?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Paul W; Gonen-Yaacovi, Gil; Volle, Emmanuelle

    2011-07-01

    The complexity of the behaviour described by the term "prospective memory" meant that it was not at all clear, when the earliest studies were conducted, that this would prove a fruitful area for neuroimaging study. However, a consistent relation rapidly emerged between activation in rostral prefrontal cortex (approximating Brodmann Area 10) and performance of prospective memory paradigms. This consistency has greatly increased the accumulation of findings, since each study has offered perspectives on the previous ones. Considerable help too has come from broad agreement between functional neuroimaging findings and those from other methods (e.g. human lesion studies, electrophysiology). The result has been a quite startling degree of advance given the relatively few studies that have been conducted. These findings are summarised, along with those from other brain regions, and new directions suggested. Key points are that there is a medial-lateral dissociation within rostral PFC. Some (but not all) regions of medial rostral PFC are typically more active during performance of the ongoing task only, and lateral aspects are relatively more active during conditions involving delayed intentions. Some of these rostral PFC activations seem remarkably insensitive to the form of stimulus material presented, the nature of the ongoing task, the specifics of the intention, how easy or hard the PM cue is to detect, or the intended action is to recall. However there are other regions within rostral PFC where haemodynamic changes vary with alterations in these, and other, aspects of prospective memory paradigms. It is concluded that rostral PFC most likely plays a super-ordinate role during many stages of creating, maintaining and enacting delayed intentions, which in some cases may be linked to recent evidence showing that this brain region is involved in the control of stimulus-oriented vs. stimulus-independent attending. Other key brain regions activated during prospective

  12. Are Prospective Elementary School Teachers' Social Studies Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Related to Their Learning Approaches in a Social Studies Teaching Methods Course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dündar, Sahin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to contribute to the growing literature on learning approaches and teacher self-efficacy beliefs by examining associations between prospective elementary school teachers' learning approaches in a social studies teaching methods course and their social studies teaching efficacy beliefs. One hundred ninety-two prospective elementary…

  13. Ultrasonic root-end preparation in apical surgery : a prospective randomized study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, Jan; Putters, Thomas; Baas, Erik M.; van Ingen, Johan M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential benefit of an ultrasonic device in apical surgery on the outcome of treatment. Study design. A randomized prospective design was used in a standardized treatment protocol. Patients were allocated to treatment with an ultrasonic

  14. Accelerated rehabilitation compared with a standard protocol after distal radial fractures treated with volar open reduction and internal fixation: a prospective, randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehmer, Jess L; Husband, Jeffrey B

    2014-10-01

    There are relatively few studies in the literature that specifically evaluate accelerated rehabilitation protocols for distal radial fractures treated with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). The purpose of this study was to compare the early postoperative outcomes (at zero to twelve weeks postoperatively) of patients enrolled in an accelerated rehabilitation protocol with those of patients enrolled in a standard rehabilitation protocol following ORIF for a distal radial fracture. We hypothesized that patients with accelerated rehabilitation after volar ORIF for a distal radial fracture would have an earlier return to function compared with patients who followed a standard protocol. From November 2007 to November 2010, eighty-one patients with an unstable distal radial fracture were prospectively randomized to follow either an accelerated or a standard rehabilitation protocol after undergoing ORIF with a volar plate for a distal radial fracture. Both groups began with gentle active range of motion at three to five days postoperatively. At two weeks, the accelerated group initiated wrist/forearm passive range of motion and strengthening exercises, whereas the standard group initiated passive range of motion and strengthening at six weeks postoperatively. Patients were assessed at three to five days, two weeks, three weeks, four weeks, six weeks, eight weeks, twelve weeks, and six months postoperatively. Outcomes included Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) scores (primary outcome) and measurements of wrist flexion/extension, supination, pronation, grip strength, and palmar pinch. The patients in the accelerated group had better mobility, strength, and DASH scores at the early postoperative time points (zero to eight weeks postoperatively) compared with the patients in the standard rehabilitation group. The difference between the groups was both clinically relevant and statistically significant. Patients who follow an accelerated rehabilitation

  15. Development in Children with Achondroplasia: A Prospective Clinical Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Penelope J.; Donaghey, Samantha; McGill, James; Zankl, Andreas; Ware, Robert S.; Pacey, Verity; Ault, Jenny; Savarirayan, Ravi; Sillence, David; Thompson, Elizabeth; Townshend, Sharron; Johnston, Leanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Achondroplasia is characterized by delays in the development of communication and motor skills. While previously reported developmental profiles exist across gross motor, fine motor, feeding, and communication skills, there has been no prospective study of development across multiple areas simultaneously. Method: This Australasian…

  16. Severe neurodevelopmental disability and healthcare needs among survivors of medical and surgical necrotizing enterocolitis: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Brenna S; Hong, Charles R; Velazco, Cristine S; Mercier, Charles E; Morrow, Kate A; Edwards, Erika M; Ferrelli, Karla R; Soll, Roger F; Modi, Biren P; Horbar, Jeffrey D; Jaksic, Tom

    2017-10-12

    This study characterizes neurodevelopmental outcomes and healthcare needs of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) survivors of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) compared to ELBW infants without NEC. Data were collected prospectively on neonates born 22-27weeks' gestation or 401-1000g at 47 Vermont Oxford Network member centers from 1999 to 2012. Detailed neurodevelopmental evaluations were conducted at 18-24months corrected age. Information regarding rehospitalizations, postdischarge surgeries, and feeding was also collected. "Severe neurodevelopmental disability" was defined as: bilateral blindness, hearing impairment requiring amplification, inability to walk 10 steps with support, cerebral palsy, and/or Bayley Mental or Psychomotor Developmental Index neurodevelopmental disability, nearly half underwent postdischarge operations, and a quarter required tube feeding at home. At 18-24months, extremely low birth weight survivors of necrotizing enterocolitis were at markedly increased risk (pneurodevelopmental disability, postdischarge surgery, and tube feeding. II (prospective cohort study with <80% follow-up rate). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Adjunct Screening With Tomosynthesis or Ultrasound in Women With Mammography-Negative Dense Breasts: Interim Report of a Prospective Comparative Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliafico, Alberto S; Calabrese, Massimo; Mariscotti, Giovanna; Durando, Manuela; Tosto, Simona; Monetti, Francesco; Airaldi, Sonia; Bignotti, Bianca; Nori, Jacopo; Bagni, Antonella; Signori, Alessio; Sormani, Maria Pia; Houssami, Nehmat

    2016-03-09

    Debate on adjunct screening in women with dense breasts has followed legislation requiring that women be informed about their mammographic density and related adjunct imaging. Ultrasound or tomosynthesis can detect breast cancer (BC) in mammography-negative dense breasts, but these modalities have not been directly compared in prospective trials. We conducted a trial of adjunct screening to compare, within the same participants, incremental BC detection by tomosynthesis and ultrasound in mammography-negative dense breasts. Adjunct Screening With Tomosynthesis or Ultrasound in Women With Mammography-Negative Dense Breasts is a prospective multicenter study recruiting asymptomatic women with mammography-negative screens and dense breasts. Eligible women had tomosynthesis and physician-performed ultrasound with independent interpretation of adjunct imaging. Outcome measures included cancer detection rate (CDR), number of false-positive (FP) recalls, and incremental CDR for each modality; these were compared using McNemar's test for paired binary data in a preplanned interim analysis. Among 3,231 mammography-negative screening participants (median age, 51 years; interquartile range, 44 to 78 years) with dense breasts, 24 additional BCs were detected (23 invasive): 13 tomosynthesis-detected BCs (incremental CDR, 4.0 per 1,000 screens; 95% CI, 1.8 to 6.2) versus 23 ultrasound-detected BCs (incremental CDR, 7.1 per 1,000 screens; 95% CI, 4.2 to 10.0), P = .006. Incremental FP recall occurred in 107 participants (3.33%; 95% CI, 2.72% to 3.96%). FP recall (any testing) did not differ between tomosynthesis (FP = 53) and ultrasound (FP = 65), P = .26; FP recall (biopsy) also did not differ between tomosynthesis (FP = 22) and ultrasound (FP = 24), P = .86. The Adjunct Screening With Tomosynthesis or Ultrasound in Women With Mammography-Negative Dense Breasts' interim analysis shows that ultrasound has better incremental BC detection than tomosynthesis in mammography

  18. Does fair play reduce concussions? A prospective, comparative analysis of competitive youth hockey tournaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Aynsley M; Gaz, Daniel V; Larson, Dirk; Jorgensen, Janelle K; Eickhoff, Chad; Krause, David A; Fenske, Brooke M; Aney, Katie; Hansen, Ashley A; Nanos, Stephanie M; Stuart, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    To determine if Boys Bantam and Peewee and Girls U14 sustain fewer concussions, head hits, 'other injuries' and penalties in hockey tournaments governed by intensified fair play (IFP) than non-intensified fair play (NIFP). A prospective comparison of IFP, a behaviour modification programme that promotes sportsmanship, versus control (non-intensified, NIFP) effects on numbers of diagnosed concussions, head hits without diagnosed concussion (HHWDC), 'other injuries', number of penalties and fair play points (FPPs). 1514 players, ages 11-14 years, in 6 IFP (N=950) and 5 NIFP (N=564) tournaments were studied. Two diagnosed concussions, four HHWDC, and six 'other injuries' occurred in IFP tournaments compared to one concussion, eight HHWDC and five 'other injuries' in NIFP. There were significantly fewer HHWDC in IFP than NIFP (p=0.018). However, diagnosed concussions, 'other injuries', penalties and FPPs did not differ significantly between conditions. In IFP, a minority of teams forfeited the majority of FPPs. Most diagnosed concussions, HHWDC, and other injuries occurred to Bantam B players and usually in penalised teams that forfeited their FPPs. In response to significant differences in HHWDC between IFP and NIFP tournaments, the following considerations are encouraged: mandatory implementation of fair play in regular season and tournaments, empowering tournament directors to not accept heavily penalised teams, and introducing 'no body checking' in Bantam.

  19. Gender Differences in Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Hospital-Based Multicenter Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Bueno Alves

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Gender differences are well described for patients with ischemic stroke. Conversely, sex disparities in stroke presentation, risk factors, treatment, and outcomes for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH were not previously studied. Our objective was to compare the frequency of risk factors, management patterns, symptoms at presentation, complication rates, and outcomes between genders in patients with ICH in Fortaleza, Brazil. Methods: Data were prospectively collected from patients admitted to 19 hospitals in Fortaleza with a diagnosis of ICH by trained research coordinators from June 2009 to October 2010. Daily visits to the selected hospitals were performed, and all patients admitted with a diagnosis of ICH were prospectively evaluated. Results: We evaluated 364 patients, 47.5% of whom were women. Men were younger (59.3 ± 14.58 years vs. 66.3 ± 14.6 years, p Conclusion: Overall risk factors for ICH in men and women were similar in our series. Men had a higher frequency of alcohol abuse and smoking. Women were older, had an increased time length from symptoms onset to hospital admission and had a worse prognosis at discharge. A better understanding of the gender disparities in patients with ICH will hopefully lead to better outcomes in both sexes in the future.

  20. Blood pressure and kidney cancer risk: meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Khemayanto; Du, Xuan; Zou, Sheng-Yi; Shi, Bi-Min

    2017-07-01

    Globally, kidney cancer is the twelfth most common cancer, accounting for 337 860 cases recorded in 2012. By 2020, this number has been estimated to reach 412 929 or increase by 22%. Over the past few decades, a number of prospective studies have investigated the association between blood pressure (BP) and risk of kidney cancer, using either recorded BP levels or reported hypertension as the principal exposure variable. However, the relation of BP to kidney cancer remains incompletely understood, and the data on sex-specific differences in risk estimates have been inconsistent. PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched for studies assessing the association between BP and kidney cancer through July 2016. The summary relative risk with 95% confidence intervals was calculated using a random-effects model. A total of 18 prospective studies with 8097 kidney cancer cases from 3 628 479 participants were included in our meta-analysis. History of hypertension was associated with 67% increased risk of kidney cancer. Significant heterogeneity and evidence of publication bias were observed. However, the results remain unchanged after introducing the trim and fill method to correct the publication bias. Accordingly, each 10-mmHg increase in SBP and DBP was associated with 10 and 22% increased risk of kidney cancer. Collectively, the present meta-analysis of 18 prospective studies provides further support for a positive association between hypertension and kidney cancer risk.

  1. The Sydney Triage to Admission Risk Tool (START): A prospective validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebker-White, Anja A; Bein, Kendall J; Dinh, Michael M

    2018-02-08

    The present study aims to prospectively validate the Sydney Triage to Admission Risk Tool (START) to predict ED disposition. This was a prospective validation study at two metropolitan EDs in Sydney, Australia. Consecutive triage encounters were observed by a trained researcher and START scores calculated. The primary outcome was patient disposition (discharge or inpatient admission) from the ED. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate area under curve of receiver operator characteristic (AUC ROC) for START scores as well as START score in combination with other variables such as frailty, general practitioner referral, overcrowding and major medical comorbidities. There were 894 patients analysed during the study period. The START score when applied to the data had AUC ROC of 0.80 (95% CI 0.77-0.83). The inclusion of other clinical variables identified at triage did not improve the overall performance of the model with an AUC ROC of 0.81 (95% CI 0.78-0.84) in the present study. The overall performance of the START tool with respect to model discrimination and accuracy has been prospectively validated. Further clinical trials are required to test the clinical effectiveness of the tool in improving patient flow and overall ED performance. © 2018 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  2. The effect of gender medicine education in GP training: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dielissen, Patrick; Verdonk, Petra; Waard, Magreet Wieringa-de; Bottema, Ben; Lagro-Janssen, Toine

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the change in general practitioner (GP) trainees' gender awareness following a modular gender medicine programme or a mainstream gender medicine programme. In 2007, a prospective study was conducted in three cohorts of in total 207 GP trainees who entered GP training in the Netherlands. The outcome measure was the Nijmegen Gender Awareness in Medicine Scale and a 16-item gender knowledge questionnaire. Two gender medicine teaching methods were compared: a modular approach (n = 75) versus a mainstream approach (n = 72). Both strategies were compared with a control cohort (n = 60). Statistical analysis included analysis of variance and t-tests. The overall response rates for the modular, mainstream and control cohort were 78, 72 and 82 %, respectively. There was a significant difference in change in gender knowledge scores between the modular cohort compared with the mainstream and control cohort (p = 0.049). There were no statistical differences between the cohorts on gender sensitivity and gender role ideology. At entry and end, female GP trainees demonstrated significantly higher gender awareness than male GP trainees. A modular teaching method is not a more favourable educational method to teach gender medicine in GP training. Female GP trainees are more gender aware, but male GP trainees are not unaware of gender-related issues.

  3. Can Australian radiographers assess screening mammograms accurately? First stage results from a four year prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, S.; Warren-Forward, H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Globally, the role of the radiographer is changing; some countries have developed advanced roles with specific scopes of practice. Other countries, like Australia, are in the process of this change. The aim of this research is to assess the diagnostic outcomes reported by the radiographers and compare them to those reported by current screen readers. Method: Six experienced radiographers were invited to participate in a prospective study conducted between 2010 and 2011. They were required to read 2000 mammograms each. Their results were compared with those of the radiologists. Statistical analysis of the results included overall cancer detection rates, recall rates, levels of agreement, kappa, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value. Results: A total of 9348 women were included in the study. The percentage of cancers detected by the radiographers ranged from 53% to 100% of the cancers detected by the radiologists. Radiologist recall rate ranged between 3.4% and 5.5% and the radiographers' range was 2.9%–9.8%. Level of agreement of the radiographers with the radiologists ranged from 90 to 96%. Conclusion: The potential for accuracy in screen reading by Australian radiographers is supported by the results of this study. Implementation of formal training is likely to result in an increase in the diagnostic accuracy of radiographers. - Highlights: • Radiographers prospectively read 2000 screening mammograms each. • These results support potential for accuracy in screen reading by radiographers. • Will advanced practice be introduced within BreastScreen Australia?.

  4. Who Can Have Parenteral Antibiotics at Home?: A Prospective Observational Study in Children with Moderate/Severe Cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Laila F; Hopper, Sandy M; Babl, Franz E; Bryant, Penelope A

    2016-03-01

    The benefits of treating children at home or in an ambulatory setting have been well documented. We aimed to describe the characteristics and evaluate the outcomes of children with moderate/severe cellulitis treated at home with intravenous (IV) ceftriaxone via direct referral from the Emergency Department to a hospital-in-the-home (HITH) program. Patients aged 3 months to 18 years with moderate/severe cellulitis referred from a tertiary pediatric Emergency Department to HITH from September 2012 to January 2014 were prospectively identified. Data collection included demographics, clinical features, microbiological characteristics and outcomes. To ensure home treatment did not result in inferior outcomes, these patients were retrospectively compared with patients who were hospitalized for IV flucloxacillin, the standard-of-care over the same period. The primary outcome was home treatment failure necessitating hospital admission. Secondary outcomes included antibiotic changes, complications, length of stay and cost. Forty-one (28%) patients were treated on HITH and 103 (72%) were hospitalized. Compared with hospitalized patients, HITH patients were older (P antibiotic changes was similar in both groups (5% vs. 7%, P = 0.67), as was IV antibiotic duration (2.3 vs. 2.5 days, P = 0.23). Older children with moderate/severe limb cellulitis without systemic symptoms can be treated at home. To ascertain if this practice can be applied more widely, a comparative prospective, ideally randomized, study is needed.

  5. Early antibiotic treatment (prophylaxis) of septic complications in severe acute necrotizing pancreatitis: a prospective, randomized, multicenter study comparing two regimens with imipenem-cilastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraví-Poma, Enrique; Gener, Joan; Alvarez-Lerma, Francisco; Olaechea, Pedro; Blanco, Armando; Domínguez-Muñoz, J Enrique

    2003-11-01

    We compared two imipenem regimens for prevention of septic complications in patients with severe acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP). Prospective, randomized open clinical trial involving intensive care units of 14 Spanish Hospitals. 92 patients with ANP. Imipenem/cilastatin was administered at 500 mg four times daily starting at the time of diagnosis of ANP, within the first 96 h from the onset of symptoms. Patients were randomized to receive antibiotic prophylaxis either for 14 days (group 1) or at least for 14 days and as long as major systemic complications of the disease persisted (group 2). Antibiotic was maintained in group 2 for 19.7+/-10.9 days. The incidence of infected pancreatic necrosis, pancreatic abscess, and extrapancreatic infections was 11%, 17%, and 28% in group 1 and 17.4%, 13%, and 35% in group 2 (n.s.). Pancreatic or extrapancreatic infection by Candida albicans occurred in 7% and 22% of patients. Global mortality was 18.5% (10.9% secondary to septic complications), without differences between groups. In patients with persisting systemic complications at day 14 mortality was almost always secondary to septic complications and decreased from 25% (group 1) to 8.8% (group 2) by maintaining antibiotic prophylaxis. Compared to a 14-day imipenem prophylaxis, a longer antibiotic administration in patients with ANP is not associated with a reduction in the incidence of septic complications of the disease. However, prolonged imipenem administration in patients with persisting systemic complications tends to reduce mortality in ANP compared to a 14-days regimen.

  6. Prospective cohort study of soy food intake and colorectal cancer risk in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gong; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Li, Honglan; Chow, Wong-Ho; Cai, Hui; Zhang, Xianglan; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2009-02-01

    Soy and some of its constituents, such as isoflavones, have been shown to have cancer-inhibitory activities in experimental studies. Data from epidemiologic studies linking usual soy food intake with colorectal cancer are limited and inconsistent. The objective was to investigate whether soy food intake is associated with colorectal cancer risk. We prospectively examined 68,412 women aged 40-70 y and free of cancer and diabetes at enrollment. Usual soy food intake was assessed at baseline (1997-2000) and reassessed during the first follow-up (2000-2002) through in-person interviews with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. We excluded the first year of observation to minimize lifestyle changes related to preclinical disease. During a mean follow-up of 6.4 y, 321 incident colorectal cancer cases were identified. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, total soy food intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. Each 5-g/d increment in intake of soy foods as assessed by dry weight [equivalent to approximately 1 oz (28.35 g) tofu/d] was associated with an 8% reduction in risk (95% CI: 3%, 14%). Women in the highest tertile of intake had a multivariate relative risk of 0.67 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.90) compared with those in the lowest tertile (P for trend = 0.008). This inverse association was primarily confined to postmenopausal women. Similar results were also found for intakes of soy protein and isoflavones. This prospective study suggests that consumption of soy foods may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer in postmenopausal women.

  7. Mobile phone use and risk of brain neoplasms and other cancers: prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Victoria S; Pirie, Kirstin; Schüz, Joachim; Reeves, Gillian K; Beral, Valerie; Green, Jane

    2013-06-01

    Results from some retrospective studies suggest a possible increased risk of glioma and acoustic neuroma in users of mobile phones. The relation between mobile phone use and incidence of intracranial central nervous system (CNS) tumours and other cancers was examined in 791,710 middle-aged women in a UK prospective cohort, the Million Women Study. Cox regression models were used to estimate adjusted relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Women reported mobile phone use in 1999 to 2005 and again in 2009. During 7 years' follow-up, 51,680 incident invasive cancers and 1,261 incident intracranial CNS tumours occurred. Risk among ever vs never users of mobile phones was not increased for all intracranial CNS tumours (RR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.90-1.14, P = 0.82), for specified CNS tumour types nor for cancer at 18 other specified sites. For long-term users compared with never users, there was no appreciable association for glioma (10+ years: RR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.55-1.10, P = 0.16) or meningioma (10+ years: RR = 1.10, 95% CI = 0.66-1.84, P = 0.71). For acoustic neuroma, there was an increase in risk with long term use vs never use (10+ years: RR = 2.46, 95% CI = 1.07-5.64, P = 0.03), the risk increasing with duration of use (trend among users, P = 0.03). In this large prospective study, mobile phone use was not associated with increased incidence of glioma, meningioma or non-CNS cancers.

  8. Location and activity of ulcerative and Crohn's colitis by 111In leukocyte scan. A prospective comparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, D.T.; Gray, G.M.; Gregory, P.B.; Anderson, M.; Goodwin, D.A.; McDougall, I.R.

    1983-01-01

    A prospective blinded study comparing the 111 In leukocyte scan to barium enema, colonoscopy, or surgery or a combination of these, was carried out in 15 patients (10 with active ulcerative colitis and 5 with active Crohn's colitis). Correlation of disease location to colonic regions between indium scan and other diagnostic studies was excellent in 11 instances, good in 2, and poor in 3. In 2 of the 3 studies where major disagreement occurred, the comparative barium enema was performed greater than 2 mo after the indium scan. Disease activity, estimated by the intensity of radionuclide uptake, was compared to clinical disease activity assessed by the Crohn's Disease Activity Index for both forms of colitis. The relative degree of inflammation estimated by the indium scan correlated well with the independent clinical assessment (correlation coefficient . 0.81). The indium 111 leukocyte scan appears to be an accurate, noninvasive method for assessing the extent and the severity of the inflammation in patients with acute ulcerative or Crohn's colitis

  9. Prospective study on quality of newborn care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Khanam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quality of services provided by health care provider, the closest health functionary to the community has impact on neonatal mortality. Aims: Study on quality of newborn care in rural areas.  Settings and Design: This is a prospective study in the field practice areas of J.N. Medical College and areas under primary health centre of public health care system in Wardha district.  Methods and Material: Modified quality check list on the basis of PHC MAP module guidelines for assessing the quality of service-module 6-user’s guide was prepared. Face to face interview with 205 (group-A/104 nos + group-B/101 nos mother of newborn was method to collected information in three postnatal visits.  Statistical analysis: Quality (verbal response of each service was quantified as acceptable, average and worst.  Quality of both the groups was compared by calculating P-value after utilizing Z-test.  Results: Over all acceptable quality of medical history was 30.03%, physical examination was 21.73%, preventive service was 91.17% and counseling was 24.83%. Significant difference between two groups were found on history taking for (cry, breathing and body movement of baby, recording weight and counseling regarding exclusive breast feeding for first 6 month of life. Worst quality in this study were observed in history for anything applying to eyes, umbilical cord stump and complication of baby for which appropriate management was taken. Except for weight recording and examination of head and fontanels all other variables under physical examination were not acceptable. Counseling regarding high risk condition of baby was only 13.66%. Conclusion: Existing newborn services except immunization is inadequate and needs to be strengthened especially physical examination and counseling services. 

  10. Influenza-like syndrome in homosexual men: a prospective diagnostic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wolf, F.; Lange, J. M.; Bakker, M.; Tjong-A-Hung, S.; Hooykaas, C.; Coutinho, R.; van der Noordaa, J.; Goudsmit, J.

    1988-01-01

    In the course of a prospective study of the prevalence and incidence of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and risk factors for the acquired immune deficiency syndrome among 961 homosexual men, 97 initially HIV antibody seronegative men reported a febrile period lasting at least

  11. Computer use and stress, sleep disturbances, and symptoms of depression among young adults--a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomée, Sara; Härenstam, Annika; Hagberg, Mats

    2012-10-22

    We have previously studied prospective associations between computer use and mental health symptoms in a selected young adult population. The purpose of this study was to investigate if high computer use is a prospective risk factor for developing mental health symptoms in a population-based sample of young adults. The study group was a cohort of young adults (n = 4163), 20-24 years old, who responded to a questionnaire at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Exposure variables included time spent on computer use (CU) in general, email/chat use, computer gaming, CU without breaks, and CU at night causing lost sleep. Mental health outcomes included perceived stress, sleep disturbances, symptoms of depression, and reduced performance due to stress, depressed mood, or tiredness. Prevalence ratios (PRs) were calculated for prospective associations between exposure variables at baseline and mental health outcomes (new cases) at 1-year follow-up for the men and women separately. Both high and medium computer use compared to low computer use at baseline were associated with sleep disturbances in the men at follow-up. High email/chat use was negatively associated with perceived stress, but positively associated with reported sleep disturbances for the men. For the women, high email/chat use was (positively) associated with several mental health outcomes, while medium computer gaming was associated with symptoms of depression, and CU without breaks with most mental health outcomes. CU causing lost sleep was associated with mental health outcomes for both men and women. Time spent on general computer use was prospectively associated with sleep disturbances and reduced performance for the men. For the women, using the computer without breaks was a risk factor for several mental health outcomes. Some associations were enhanced in interaction with mobile phone use. Using the computer at night and consequently losing sleep was associated with most mental health outcomes for both men

  12. Prospective performance evaluation of selected common virtual screening tools. Case study: Cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaserer, Teresa; Temml, Veronika; Kutil, Zsofia; Vanek, Tomas; Landa, Premysl; Schuster, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods can be applied in drug development for the identification of novel lead candidates, but also for the prediction of pharmacokinetic properties and potential adverse effects, thereby aiding to prioritize and identify the most promising compounds. In principle, several techniques are available for this purpose, however, which one is the most suitable for a specific research objective still requires further investigation. Within this study, the performance of several programs, representing common virtual screening methods, was compared in a prospective manner. First, we selected top-ranked virtual screening hits from the three methods pharmacophore modeling, shape-based modeling, and docking. For comparison, these hits were then additionally predicted by external pharmacophore- and 2D similarity-based bioactivity profiling tools. Subsequently, the biological activities of the selected hits were assessed in vitro, which allowed for evaluating and comparing the prospective performance of the applied tools. Although all methods performed well, considerable differences were observed concerning hit rates, true positive and true negative hits, and hitlist composition. Our results suggest that a rational selection of the applied method represents a powerful strategy to maximize the success of a research project, tightly linked to its aims. We employed cyclooxygenase as application example, however, the focus of this study lied on highlighting the differences in the virtual screening tool performances and not in the identification of novel COX-inhibitors. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  13. Febrile urinary tract infection after pediatric kidney transplantation: a multicenter, prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Friederike; Lemke, Anja; Tönshoff, Burkhard; Pape, Lars; Fehrenbach, Henry; Henn, Michael; Hoppe, Bernd; Jungraithmayr, Therese; Konrad, Martin; Laube, Guido; Pohl, Martin; Seeman, Tomáš; Staude, Hagen; Kemper, Markus J; John, Ulrike

    2016-06-01

    Febrile urinary tract infections (fUTIs) are common after kidney transplantation (KTx); however, prospective data in a multicenter pediatric cohort are lacking. We designed a prospective registry to record data on fUTI before and after pediatric KTx. Ninety-eight children (58 boys and 40 girls) ≤ 18 years from 14 mid-European centers received a kidney transplant and completed a 2-year follow-up. Posttransplant, 38.7% of patients had at least one fUTI compared with 21.4% before KTx (p = 0.002). Before KTx, fUTI was more frequent in patients with congenital anomalies of kidneys and urinary tract (CAKUT) vs. patients without (38% vs. 12%; p = 0.005). After KTx, fUTI were equally frequent in both groups (48.7% vs. 32.2%; p = 0.14). First fUTI posttransplant occurred earlier in boys compared with girls: median range 4 vs. 13.5 years (p = 0.002). Graft function worsened (p pediatric KTx, which is not restricted to patients with CAKUT; fUTIs have a negative impact on graft function during the infectious episode but not on 2-year graft outcome.

  14. A prospective comparative assessment of the accuracy of the FibroScan in evaluating liver steatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eui Ju; Jang, Jae Young; Jeong, Soung Won; Lee, Sae Hwan; Kim, Sang Gyune; Cha, Sang-Woo; Kim, Young Seok; Cho, Young Deok; Kim, Hong Soo; Kim, Boo Sung; Jin, So Young; Park, Suyeon

    2017-01-01

    Background/aims Recent studies have demonstrated the utility of the FibroScan® device in diagnosing liver steatosis, but its usefulness has not been thoroughly appraised. We investigated the usefulness of the controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) in detecting and quantifying liver steatosis. Methods A prospective analysis was applied to 79 chronic liver disease patients who underwent a liver biopsy, a FibroScan investigation, ultrasonography, and hepatic steatosis index (HSI). The presence and degree of steatosis as measured by the FibroScan device, ultrasonography and HSI were compared with the results for the liver biopsy tissue. Results There was substantial concordance between the liver biopsy results and the CAP as evaluated by the kappa (κ) index test for detecting liver steatosis (κCAP = 0.77, Phepatic steatosis was 247 dB/m, which produced sensitivity and specificity values of 91.9% and 85.7%, respectively, as well as a positive predictive value of 85.0% and a negative predictive value of 92.3%. Conclusion The CAP produces results that are highly concordant with those of a liver biopsy in detecting steatosis. Therefore, the CAP is a noninvasive and reliable tool for evaluating liver steatosis, even in the early stages. PMID:28813448

  15. Familial clustering of habitual constipation: a prospective study in children from West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostwani, Waseem; Dolan, Jenna; Elitsur, Yoram

    2010-03-01

    To investigate familial clustering of habitual constipation in pediatric patients who attended our medical facilities. Children with the diagnosis of functional, habitual constipation or patients without constipation and their respective family members were prospectively recruited to our study. Constipation was established in all participants using a standard questionnaire (Rome criteria). A total of 112 children and their families participated in the study, of which 37 were probands families (test) and 75 children and their respective family members constituted the control group. A total of 310 family members completed the questionnaire. No significant differences were found between the study and the control groups in age, sex, or family size. Siblings or parents from the study group (probands) had significantly higher rates of constipation compared with the control group (30% vs 7% and 42% vs 9%, respectively; P = 0.001). Habitual constipation in children seemed to cluster in families. The pathophysiology behind this phenomenon is yet unknown.

  16. Self reported stressful life events and exacerbations in multiple sclerosis: prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Buljevac (Dragan); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); W. Reedeker; A.C.J.W. Janssens (Cécile); F.G.A. van der Meché (Frans); P.A. van Doorn (Pieter); R.Q. Hintzen (Rogier)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To study the relation between self reported stressful life events not related to multiple sclerosis and the occurrence of exacerbations in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. DESIGN: Longitudinal, prospective cohort study. SETTING: Outpatient clinic of

  17. PROspective MEmory Training to improve HEart failUre Self-care (PROMETHEUS): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jan; Rendell, Peter G; Ski, Chantal F; Kure, Christina E; McLennan, Skye N; Rose, Nathan S; Prior, David L; Thompson, David R

    2015-04-29

    Cognitive impairment is seen in up to three quarters of heart failure (HF) patients and has a significant negative impact on patients' health outcomes. Prospective memory, which is defined as memory to carry out future intentions, is important for functional independence in older adults and involves application of multiple cognitive processes that are often impaired in HF patients. The objective of this study is to examine the effects of prospective memory training on patients' engagement in HF self-care and health outcomes, carer strain and quality of life. The proposed study is a randomised, controlled trial in which 200 patients diagnosed with HF, and their carers will be recruited from 3 major hospitals across Melbourne. Eligible patients with HF will be randomised to receive either: 1) The Virtual Week Training Program - a computerised prospective memory (PM) training program (intervention) or 2) non-adaptive computer-based word puzzles (active control). HF patients' baseline cognitive function will be compared to a healthy control group (n = 60) living independently in the community. Patients will undergo a comprehensive assessment of PM, neuropsychological functioning, self-care, physical, and emotional functioning. Assessments will take place at baseline, 4 weeks and 12 months following intervention. Carers will complete measures assessing quality of life, strain, perceived control in the management of the patients' HF symptoms, and ratings of the patients' level of engagement in HF self-care behaviours. If the Virtual Week Training Program is effective in improving: 1) prospective memory; 2) self-care behaviours, and 3) wellbeing in HF patients, this study will enhance our understanding of impaired cognitive processes in HF and potentially is a mechanism to reduce healthcare costs. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry #366376; 27 May 2014. https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=366376&isClinicalTrial=False .

  18. Job stress, absenteeism and coronary heart disease European cooperative study (the JACE study): Design of a multicentre prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.; Kornitzer, M.; Smet, P. de; Koyuncu, R.; Backer, G. de; Pelfrene, E.; Romon, M.; Boulenguez, C.; Ferrario, M.; Origgi, G.; Sans, S.; Perez, I.; Wilhelmsen, L.; Rosengren, A.; Isacsson, S.-O.; Östergren, P.-O.

    1999-01-01

    Background: The motives, objectives and design of a multicentre prospective study on job stress, absenteeism and coronary heart disease in Europe (the JACE study) is presented in this paper. Some specific gaps in the reviewed literature are explicitly tapped into by the JACE study. Its objectives

  19. Lower extremity revascularization using directional atherectomy: 12-month prospective results of the DEFINITIVE LE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinsey, James F; Zeller, Thomas; Rocha-Singh, Krishna J; Jaff, Michael R; Garcia, Lawrence A

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of directional atherectomy (DA) for endovascular treatment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in infrainguinal arteries in patients with claudication or critical limb ischemia. To date, no prospective, multicenter, independently-adjudicated study has evaluated the effectiveness and durability of DA in the treatment of PAD. Previous DA studies have not been prospectively powered to evaluate any differences in outcomes in patients with and without diabetes. DEFINITIVE LE (Determination of EFfectiveness of the SilverHawk(®) PerIpheral Plaque ExcisioN System (SIlverHawk Device) for the Treatment of Infrainguinal VEssels / Lower Extremities) prospectively enrolled subjects at 47 multinational centers with an infrainguinal lesion length up to 20 cm. Primary endpoints were defined as primary patency at 12 months for claudicants and freedom from major unplanned amputation for critical limb ischemia (CLI) subjects. A pre-specified statistical hypothesis evaluated noninferiority of primary patency in diabetic versus nondiabetic claudicants. Independent angiographic and sonographic core laboratories assessed outcomes, and events were adjudicated by a clinical events committee. A total of 800 subjects were enrolled. The 12-month primary patency was 78% (95% confidence interval: 74.0% to 80.6%) in claudicants, with a 77% rate in the diabetic subgroup versus 78% in the nondiabetic subgroup (noninferior, p < 0.001). The rate of freedom from major unplanned amputation of the target limb at 12 months in CLI subjects was 95% (95% confidence interval: 90.7% to 97.4%). Periprocedural adverse events included embolization (3.8%), perforation (5.3%), and abrupt closure (2.0%). The bail-out stent rate was 3.2%. The DEFINITIVE LE study demonstrated that DA is a safe and effective treatment modality at 12 months for a diverse patient population with either claudication or CLI. Furthermore, DA was shown to be noninferior for

  20. Expert advice provided through telemedicine improves healing of chronic wounds: prospective cluster controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarchi, Kian; Haugaard, Vibeke B; Dufour, Deirdre N; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2015-03-01

    Telemedicine is widely considered as an efficient approach to manage the growing problem of chronic wounds. However, to date, there is no convincing evidence to support the clinical efficacy of telemedicine in wound management. In this prospective cluster controlled study, we tested the hypothesis that advice on wound management provided by a team of wound-care specialists through telemedicine would significantly improve the likelihood of wound healing compared with the best available conventional practice. A total of 90 chronic wound patients in home care met all study criteria and were included: 50 in the telemedicine group and 40 in the conventional group. Patients with pressure ulcers, surgical wounds, and cancer wounds were excluded. During the 1-year follow-up, complete wound healing was achieved in 35 patients (70%) in the telemedicine group compared with 18 patients (45%) in the conventional group. After adjusting for important covariates, offering advice on wound management through telemedicine was associated with significantly increased healing compared with the best available conventional practice (telemedicine vs. conventional practice: adjusted hazard ratio 2.19; 95% confidence interval: 1.15-4.17; P=0.017). This study strongly supports the use of telemedicine to connect home-care nurses to a team of wound experts in order to improve the management of chronic wounds.

  1. Enhancing life prospects of socially vulnerable youth through sport participation: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Super, Sabina; Hermens, Niels; Verkooijen, Kirsten; Koelen, Maria

    2014-07-09

    Sport participation has been associated with improved life prospects such as academic performance and employability prospects. As such, promoting sport participation might be a way to increase life prospects, especially for socially vulnerable youth because they are less physically active than their peers. However, the evidence for the causal effect of sport participation on these outcomes is still limited and little is known about factors that play a role in this possible effect. The aim of this study is four-fold. First, the causal effect of sport participation on life prospects is studied and the underlying mechanisms of this relation are explored. Secondly, the life experiences of the youngsters in the sport context, that may contribute to skill development, are studied. Thirdly, social conditions for a positive effect are explored, as sport is likely to have a positive effect under specific conditions. Fourthly, this study aims to provide insights on the elements of successful partnerships between youth care organisations and local sport clubs. This protocol reports on a mixed method study. An intervention that aims to increase the sport participation of socially vulnerable youth, between 12-23 years old, is implemented in three regions of a Rotterdam youth care organisation. The youngsters in the two control regions receive care-as-usual. The main outcome variables, collected via questionnaires, are the life prospect, sense of coherence and self-regulation skills of the youngsters after 6 and 18 months of follow-up. The Motivational Climate Scale is administered to explore the social conditions for a positive effect and interviews are conducted with sport coaches to explore their role in skill development. Interviews with the youngsters are conducted to gain insight on the life experiences that may lead to skill development. The elements of successful partnerships are collected during interviews with youth care professionals, sport coaches and other

  2. Enhancing life prospects of socially vulnerable youth through sport participation: a mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Sport participation has been associated with improved life prospects such as academic performance and employability prospects. As such, promoting sport participation might be a way to increase life prospects, especially for socially vulnerable youth because they are less physically active than their peers. However, the evidence for the causal effect of sport participation on these outcomes is still limited and little is known about factors that play a role in this possible effect. The aim of this study is four-fold. First, the causal effect of sport participation on life prospects is studied and the underlying mechanisms of this relation are explored. Secondly, the life experiences of the youngsters in the sport context, that may contribute to skill development, are studied. Thirdly, social conditions for a positive effect are explored, as sport is likely to have a positive effect under specific conditions. Fourthly, this study aims to provide insights on the elements of successful partnerships between youth care organisations and local sport clubs. Methods and design This protocol reports on a mixed method study. An intervention that aims to increase the sport participation of socially vulnerable youth, between 12–23 years old, is implemented in three regions of a Rotterdam youth care organisation. The youngsters in the two control regions receive care-as-usual. The main outcome variables, collected via questionnaires, are the life prospect, sense of coherence and self-regulation skills of the youngsters after 6 and 18 months of follow-up. The Motivational Climate Scale is administered to explore the social conditions for a positive effect and interviews are conducted with sport coaches to explore their role in skill development. Interviews with the youngsters are conducted to gain insight on the life experiences that may lead to skill development. The elements of successful partnerships are collected during interviews with youth care professionals

  3. Nonoperative Treatment of Thoracic and Lumbar Spine Fractures : A Prospective Randomized Study of Different Treatment Options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadhouder, Agnita; Buskens, Erik; Vergroesen, Diederik A.; Fidler, Malcolm W.; de Nies, Frank; Oner, F. C.

    Objectives: To evaluate and compare nonoperative treatment methods for traumatic thoracic and lumbar compression fractures and burst fractures. Design: Prospective randomized controlled trial with long-term follow-up. Setting: Two general hospitals in the Netherlands. Patients/Participants: Patients

  4. Low organisational justice and heavy drinking: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvonen, Anne; Kivimäki, Mika; Elovainio, Marko; Väänänen, Ari; De Vogli, Roberto; Heponiemi, Tarja; Linna, Anne; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi

    2008-01-01

    To investigate whether low perceived organisational injustice predicts heavy drinking among employees. Data from a prospective occupational cohort study, the 10-Town Study, on 15 290 Finnish public sector local government employees nested in 2432 work units, were used. Non-drinkers were excluded. Procedural, interactional and total organisational justice, heavy drinking (>/=210 g of absolute alcohol per week) and other psychosocial factors were determined by means of questionnaire in 2000-2001 (phase 1) and 2004 (phase 2). Multilevel logistic regression analyses taking into account the hierarchical structure of the data were conducted and adjustments were made for sex, age, socio-economic status, marital status, baseline heavy drinking, psychological distress and other psychosocial risk factors such as job strain and effort/reward imbalance. After adjustments, participants who reported low procedural justice at phase 1 were approximately 1.2 times more likely to be heavy drinkers at phase 2 compared with their counterparts reporting high justice. Low perceived justice in interpersonal treatment and low perceived total organisational justice were associated with increased prevalence of heavy drinking only in the model adjusted for sociodemographics. This is the first longitudinal study to show that low procedural justice is weakly associated with an increased likelihood of heavy drinking.

  5. Prospective thinking and decision making in primary school age children

    OpenAIRE

    Lombardi, Elisabetta; Di Dio, Cinzia; Castelli, Ilaria; Massaro, Davide; Marchetti, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we seek to widen our understanding of the developmental processes underlying bargaining behaviour in children addressing the concept of prospective thinking. We argue that the emergence of the capacity to think prospectively about future outcomes or behaviours in response to current actions is a required precedent to strategic decision making. To test this idea, we compared 6, 8 and 10 years old children’s performance on three tasks: the ultimatum game assessing fairness/inequa...

  6. Prospective study of proton-beam radiation therapy for limited-stage small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rwigema, Jean-Claude M; Verma, Vivek; Lin, Liyong; Berman, Abigail T; Levin, William P; Evans, Tracey L; Aggarwal, Charu; Rengan, Ramesh; Langer, Corey; Cohen, Roger B; Simone, Charles B

    2017-11-01

    Existing data supporting the use of proton-beam therapy (PBT) for limited-stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC) are limited to a single 6-patient case series. This is the first prospective study to evaluate clinical outcomes and toxicities of PBT for LS-SCLC. This study prospectively analyzed patients with primary, nonrecurrent LS-SCLC definitively treated with PBT and concurrent chemotherapy from 2011 to 2016. Clinical backup intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans were generated for each patient and were compared with PBT plans. Outcome measures included local control (LC), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS) rates and toxicities. Thirty consecutive patients were enrolled and evaluated. The median dose was 63.9 cobalt gray equivalents (range, 45-66.6 cobalt gray equivalents) in 33 to 37 fractions delivered daily (n = 18 [60.0%]) or twice daily (n = 12 [40.0%]). The concurrent chemotherapy was cisplatin/etoposide (n = 21 [70.0%]) or carboplatin/etoposide (n = 9 [30.0%]). In comparison with the backup IMRT plans, PBT allowed statistically significant reductions in the cord, heart, and lung mean doses and the volume receiving at least 5 Gy but not in the esophagus mean dose or the lung volume receiving at least 20 Gy. At a median follow-up of 14 months, the 1-/2-year LC and RFS rates were 85%/69% and 63%/42%, respectively. The median OS was 28.2 months, and the 1-/2-year OS rates were 72%/58%. There was 1 case each (3.3%) of grade 3 or higher esophagitis, pneumonitis, anorexia, and pericardial effusion. Grade 2 pneumonitis and esophagitis were seen in 10.0% and 43.3% of patients, respectively. In the first prospective registry study and largest analysis to date of PBT for LS-SCLC, PBT was found to be safe with a limited incidence of high-grade toxicities. Cancer 2017;123:4244-4251. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  7. A meta-analysis of prospective studies of coffee consumption and mortality for all causes, cancers and cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malerba, Stefano; Turati, Federica; Galeone, Carlotta; Pelucchi, Claudio; Verga, Federica; La Vecchia, Carlo; Tavani, Alessandra

    2013-07-01

    Several prospective studies considered the relation between coffee consumption and mortality. Most studies, however, were underpowered to detect an association, since they included relatively few deaths. To obtain quantitative overall estimates, we combined all published data from prospective studies on the relation of coffee with mortality for all causes, all cancers, cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary/ischemic heart disease (CHD/IHD) and stroke. A bibliography search, updated to January 2013, was carried out in PubMed and Embase to identify prospective observational studies providing quantitative estimates on mortality from all causes, cancer, CVD, CHD/IHD or stroke in relation to coffee consumption. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to estimate overall relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) using random-effects models. The pooled RRs of all cause mortality for the study-specific highest versus low (≤1 cup/day) coffee drinking categories were 0.88 (95 % CI 0.84-0.93) based on all the 23 studies, and 0.87 (95 % CI 0.82-0.93) for the 19 smoking adjusting studies. The combined RRs for CVD mortality were 0.89 (95 % CI 0.77-1.02, 17 smoking adjusting studies) for the highest versus low drinking and 0.98 (95 % CI 0.95-1.00, 16 studies) for the increment of 1 cup/day. Compared with low drinking, the RRs for the highest consumption of coffee were 0.95 (95 % CI 0.78-1.15, 12 smoking adjusting studies) for CHD/IHD, 0.95 (95 % CI 0.70-1.29, 6 studies) for stroke, and 1.03 (95 % CI 0.97-1.10, 10 studies) for all cancers. This meta-analysis provides quantitative evidence that coffee intake is inversely related to all cause and, probably, CVD mortality.

  8. Continuation of cinacalcet immediately after renal transplantation: a prospective cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalten, J.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Hoitsma, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: cinacalcet is used for treating secondary hyperparathyroidism in dialysis patients, but it is currently unknown whether it can safely be continued immediately after renal transplantation. METHODS: we prospectively studied renal transplant recipients with secondary hyperparathyroidism who

  9. Evaluating Long-term Outcomes of NHS Stop Smoking Services (ELONS): a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbie, Fiona; Hiscock, Rosemary; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Murray, Susan; Shahab, Lion; Aveyard, Paul; Coleman, Tim; McEwen, Andy; McRobbie, Hayden; Purves, Richard; Bauld, Linda

    2015-11-01

    NHS Stop Smoking Services (SSSs) provide free at the point of use treatment for smokers who would like to stop. Since their inception in 1999 they have evolved to offer a variety of support options. Given the changes that have happened in the provision of services and the ongoing need for evidence on effectiveness, the Evaluating Long-term Outcomes for NHS Stop Smoking Services (ELONS) study was commissioned. The main aim of the study was to explore the factors that determine longer-term abstinence from smoking following intervention by SSSs. There were also a number of additional objectives. The ELONS study was an observational study with two main stages: secondary analysis of routine data collected by SSSs and a prospective cohort study of service clients. The prospective study had additional elements on client satisfaction, well-being and longer-term nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) use. The setting for the study was SSSs in England. For the secondary analysis, routine data from 49 services were obtained. For the prospective study and its added elements, nine services were involved. The target population was clients of these services. There were 202,804 cases included in secondary analysis and 3075 in the prospective study. A combination of behavioural support and stop smoking medication delivered by SSS practitioners. Abstinence from smoking at 4 and 52 weeks after setting a quit date, validated by a carbon monoxide (CO) breath test. Just over 4 in 10 smokers (41%) recruited to the prospective study were biochemically validated as abstinent from smoking at 4 weeks (which was broadly comparable with findings from the secondary analysis of routine service data, where self-reported 4-week quit rates were 48%, falling to 34% when biochemical validation had occurred). At the 1-year follow-up, 8% of prospective study clients were CO validated as abstinent from smoking. Clients who received specialist one-to-one behavioural support were twice as likely to have

  10. The Sports-Related Injuries and Illnesses in Paralympic Sport Study (SRIIPSS): a study protocol for a prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagher, Kristina; Jacobsson, Jenny; Timpka, Toomas; Dahlström, Örjan; Lexell, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Paralympic sport provides sporting opportunities for athletes with a disability, with the Paralympic Games as the main event. Participation in sport is, however, associated with a significant risk for sustaining injuries and illnesses. Our knowledge of sports-related injuries and illnesses in Paralympic sport is very limited and there are no large-scale epidemiological cohort studies. The purpose here is to present a protocol for a prospective longitudinal study: The Sports-Related Injuries and Illnesses in Paralympic Sport Study (SRIIPSS). An argument-based method for investigation of design problems was used to structure the study protocol. The primary requirement of the protocol is to allow prospective studies over time and include exposure to both training and competition. To reflect the complexity of Paralympic sport with athletes' pre-existing impairments, use of assistive equipment, pain and other and medical issues, it is required that the data collection system is specifically adapted to Paralympic sport. To allow the collection of data, at the same time as there is limited access to coaches and medical personnel, it is advantageous that data can be collected online directly from the athletes. Based on this a self-report athlete monitoring system will be developed, where the athletes can enter data weekly via their mobile phones or lap-tops. Data will be collected from around 100 Swedish Paralympic athletes for approximately 1 year, which will allow us to i) prospectively estimate the annual incidence of sports-related injuries and illnesses and ii) explore risk factors and mechanisms for sustaining sports-related injuries and illnesses based on athlete exposure and training loads. For effective implementation of injury and illness prevention measures, comprehensive epidemiological knowledge is required. This study will be the first prospective longitudinal self-report study of sports-related injuries and illnesses in Paralympic sport over a longer period

  11. Development of visual motion perception for prospective control: Brain and behavioural studies in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth B. Agyei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During infancy, smart perceptual mechanisms develop allowing infants to judge time-space motion dynamics more efficiently with age and locomotor experience. This emerging capacity may be vital to enable preparedness for upcoming events and to be able to navigate in a changing environment. Little is known about brain changes that support the development of prospective control and about processes, such as preterm birth, that may compromise it. As a function of perception of visual motion, this paper will describe behavioural and brain studies with young infants investigating the development of visual perception for prospective control. By means of the three visual motion paradigms of occlusion, looming, and optic flow, our research shows the importance of including behavioural data when studying the neural correlates of prospective control.

  12. Risk factors for back pain incidence in industry : a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Poppel, M N; Koes, B W; Devillé, W; Smid, T; Bouter, L M

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between physical and psychological risk factors on the one hand, and the occurrence of new episodes of back pain on the other hand. A prospective study was conducted with 12 months follow-up by means of self-administered questionnaires. The

  13. Risk factors for back pain incidence in industry: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Poppel, M.N.M.; Koes, B.W.; Deville, W.L.J.M.; Smid, T.; Bouter, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between physical and psychological risk factors on the one hand, and the occurrence of new episodes of back pain on the other hand. A prospective study was conducted with 12 months follow-up by means of self-administered questionnaires. The

  14. Prospective Elementary School Teachers’ Views about Socioscientific Issues: A Concurrent Parallel Design Study

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammet ÖZDEN

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the prospective elementary school teachers’ perceptions on socioscientific issues. The research was conducted on prospective elementary school teachers studying at a university located in western Turkey. The researcher first taught the subjects of global warming and nuclear power plants from a perspective of socioscientific issues in the science and technology education course and then conducted the research. Concurrent parallel design, one of the mi...

  15. The South African Surgical Outcomes Study: A 7-day prospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate the perioperative mortality and need for critical care admission in patients undergoing inpatient non-cardiac surgery in SA. Methods. A 7-day national, multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study of all patients ≥16 years of age undergoing inpatient noncardiac surgery between 19 and 26 May 2014 at ...

  16. Uranium prospecting; La prospection de l'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roubault, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    This report is an instruction book for uranium prospecting. It appeals to private prospecting. As prospecting is now a scientific and technical research, it cannot be done without preliminary studies. First of all, general prospecting methods are given with a recall of fundamental geologic data and some general principles which are common with all type of prospecting. The peculiarities of uranium prospecting are also presented and in particular the radioactivity property of uranium as well as the special aspect of uranium ores and the aspect of neighbouring ores. In a third part, a description of the different uranium ores is given and separated in two different categories: primary and secondary ores, according to the place of transformation, deep or near the crust surface respectively. In the first category, the primary ores include pitchblende, thorianite and rare uranium oxides as euxenite and fergusonite for example. In the second category, the secondary ores contain autunite and chalcolite for example. An exhaustive presentation of the geiger-Mueller counter is given with the presentation of its different components, its functioning and utilization and its maintenance. The radioactivity interpretation method is showed as well as the elaboration of a topographic map of the measured radioactivity. A brief presentation of other detection methods than geiger-Mueller counters is given: the measurement of fluorescence and a chemical test using the fluorescence properties of uranium salts. Finally, the main characteristics of uranium deposits are discussed. (M.P.)

  17. Works carried out by DGEMP about energy prospects for 2030-2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The 2004 year has been rich in publications and analyses about energy prospects. The French general direction of energy and raw materials (DGEMP) from the Ministry of Economy, Finances and Industry, has organized a round table on June 30, 2004 in order to present and compare different energy scenarios at the 2030 and 2050 prospects. The aim is to evaluate the available modeling system and to prepare the reflexions to implement. This paper presents: the limitations of a long-term energy prospect and the main hypotheses made, and the main results of the prospective studies carried out by DGEMP at the 2030 and 2050 prospects. The conclusions of this study is that there exists forbidden actions (postponing the implementation of energy saving actions, consuming fossil-fuels for thermal and power generation purposes and keeping petroleum preponderance in transportation), necessary actions (increase of energy efficiency in all sectors, saving peak-use power, changing transportation habits, developing nuclear and renewable energies), and some technology rupture needs (low emission technologies, power storage and hydrogen uses, CO 2 captation and sequestration). (J.S.)

  18. Alcohol consumption and risk of microvascular complications in type 1 diabetes patients; the EURODIAB Prospective Complications study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Kruidhof, J.S.; Grobbee, D.E.; Chaturvedi, N.; Fuller, J.H.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between alcohol consumption and risk of microvascular complications (retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy) in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients in the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study. METHODS: The EURODIAB Prospective

  19. Perinatal and maternal outcomes by planned place of birth for healthy women with low risk pregnancies: the Birthplace in England national prospective cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocklehurst, P.; Kwee, A.; Birthplace in England Collaborative Group

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare perinatal outcomes, maternal outcomes, and interventions in labour by planned place of birth at the start of care in labour for women with low risk pregnancies. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: England: all NHS trusts providing intrapartum care at home,

  20. Relationship Between Prehypertension/Hypertension and Periodontal Disease: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yuya; Ekuni, Daisuke; Miyai, Hisataka; Kataoka, Kota; Yamane, Mayu; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu

    2016-03-01

    Most cross-sectional studies have found a significant positive relationship between periodontal disease and prehypertension/hypertension. However, these studies had limitations and there are few prospective cohort studies in young adults. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to investigate whether periodontal disease was related to prehypertension/hypertension in Japanese university students. Students (n = 2,588), who underwent health examinations before entering university and before graduation, were included in the analysis. The association between periodontal disease such as the percentage of bleeding on probing (BOP) and community periodontal index (CPI) scores, and change in blood pressure status was determined. At the reexamination, the numbers of participants with prehypertension (systolic blood pressure 120-139mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure 80-89mm Hg) and hypertension (≥140/90mm Hg) were 882 (34.1%) and 109 (4.2%), respectively. In a logistic regression model, the risk of hypertension was significantly associated with male (odds ratio (OR): 6.31; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.63-15.13; P periodontal disease defined as the presence of both probing pocket depth (PPD) ≥ 4mm and BOP ≥ 30% at baseline (OR: 2.74; 95% CI: 1.19-6.29; P = 0.02) in participants with prehypertension at baseline. On the other hand, the risk of prehypertension was not associated with presence of periodontal disease (OR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.51-1.70; P = 0.82). In the short-term prospective cohort study, a significant association between presence of periodontal disease and hypertension was observed in Japanese university students. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Prospective study comparing three-dimensional computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging for evaluating the renal vascular anatomy in potential living renal donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Aftab A; Chugtai, Aamir; Haslam, Philip; Talbot, David; Rix, David A; Soomro, Naeem A

    2005-11-01

    To prospectively compare the accuracy of multislice spiral computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in evaluating the renal vascular anatomy in potential living renal donors. Thirty-one donors underwent multislice spiral CTA and gadolinium-enhanced MRA. In addition to axial images, multiplanar reconstruction and maximum intensity projections were used to display the renal vascular anatomy. Twenty-four donors had a left laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN), whereas seven had right open donor nephrectomy (ODN); LDN was only considered if the renal vascular anatomy was favourable on the left. CTA and MRA images were analysed by two radiologists independently. The radiological and surgical findings were correlated after the surgery. CTA showed 33 arteries and 32 veins (100% sensitivity) whereas MRA showed 32 arteries and 31 veins (97% sensitivity). CTA detected all five accessory renal arteries whereas MRA only detected one. CTA also identified all three accessory renal veins whereas MRA identified two. CTA had a sensitivity of 97% and 47% for left lumbar and left gonadal veins, whereas MRA had a sensitivity of 74% and 46%, respectively. Multislice spiral CTA with three-dimensional reconstruction was more accurate than MRA for both renal arterial and venous anatomy.

  2. Endogenous-cue prospective memory involving incremental updating of working memory: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halahalli, Harsha N; John, John P; Lukose, Ammu; Jain, Sanjeev; Kutty, Bindu M

    2015-11-01

    Prospective memory paradigms are conventionally classified on the basis of event-, time-, or activity-based intention retrieval. In the vast majority of such paradigms, intention retrieval is provoked by some kind of external event. However, prospective memory retrieval cues that prompt intention retrieval in everyday life are commonly endogenous, i.e., linked to a specific imagined retrieval context. We describe herein a novel prospective memory paradigm wherein the endogenous cue is generated by incremental updating of working memory, and investigated the hemodynamic correlates of this task. Eighteen healthy adult volunteers underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while they performed a prospective memory task where the delayed intention was triggered by an endogenous cue generated by incremental updating of working memory. Working memory and ongoing task control conditions were also administered. The 'endogenous-cue prospective memory condition' with incremental working memory updating was associated with maximum activations in the right rostral prefrontal cortex, and additional activations in the brain regions that constitute the bilateral fronto-parietal network, central and dorsal salience networks as well as cerebellum. In the working memory control condition, maximal activations were noted in the left dorsal anterior insula. Activation of the bilateral dorsal anterior insula, a component of the central salience network, was found to be unique to this 'endogenous-cue prospective memory task' in comparison to previously reported exogenous- and endogenous-cue prospective memory tasks without incremental working memory updating. Thus, the findings of the present study highlight the important role played by the dorsal anterior insula in incremental working memory updating that is integral to our endogenous-cue prospective memory task.

  3. Bilateral Breast Reduction Without Opioid Analgesics: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Fereydoun Don; Cheng, Justin; Stephan, Brad; Castel, Nikki; Kim, Leslie; Murariu, Daniel; Parsa, Alan A

    2017-09-01

    Breast reduction has traditionally been performed under general anesthesia with adjunct opioid use. However, opioids are associated with a wide variety of adverse effects, including nausea, vomiting, constipation, postoperative sedation, dizziness, and addiction. This study compares bilateral breast reduction using a multimodal opioid-free pain management regimen vs traditional general anesthesia with adjunct opioids. A total of 83 female patients were enrolled in this study. Group 1 includes a retrospective series of 39 patients that underwent breast reduction via general anesthesia with adjunct opioid use. This series was compared to 2 prospective groups of patients who did not receive opioids either preoperatively or intraoperatively. In group 2, twenty-six patients underwent surgery under intravenous sedation and local anesthesia. In group 3, eighteen patients underwent surgery with general anesthesia. All patients in groups 2 and 3 received preoperative gabapentin and celecoxib along with infiltration of local anesthetics during the operation and prior to discharge to the Post-Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU). Primary outcome measures included the duration of surgery, time from end of operation to discharge home, postoperative opioid and antiemetic use, and unplanned postoperative hospitalizations. When compared to group 1, groups 2 and 3 experienced a shorter time from end of operation to discharge home (P opioid use (P opioid-free bilateral breast reduction either under local or general anesthesia as an outpatient. This method resulted in significantly less morbidity, use of opioids postoperatively, as well as unplanned hospital admissions compared to "traditional" breast reduction under general anesthesia with the use of opioids. 3. © 2017 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. Prospective comparative study between un-enhanced multidetector ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rehab Abdel Rahman El Bakry

    lyceal dilatation.2 Furthermore sometimes extra-renal pelvis or pelvi-ureteral stricture ... especially in acute renal colic.6 This technique showed high sensi- ... ray voltage of 140–120kV, and a current of 230–350mA, slice ... Statistical analysis.

  5. Gender Variance in Childhood and Sexual Orientation in Adulthood: A Prospective Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steensma, T.D.; van den Ende, J..; Verhulst, F.C.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Several retrospective and prospective studies have reported on the association between childhood gender variance and sexual orientation and gender discomfort in adulthood. In most of the retrospective studies, samples were drawn from the general population. The samples in the

  6. Determining the economic cost of ICU treatment: a prospective "micro-costing" study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McLaughlin, Anne Marie

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To prospectively assess the cost of patients in an adult intensive care unit (ICU) using bottom-up costing methodology and evaluate the usefulness of "severity of illness" scores in estimating ICU cost. METHODS AND DESIGN: A prospective study costing 64 consecutive admissions over a 2-month period in a mixed medical\\/surgical ICU. RESULTS: The median daily ICU cost (interquartile range, IQR) was 2,205 euro (1,932 euro-3,073 euro), and the median total ICU cost (IQR) was 10,916 euro (4,294 euro-24,091 euro). ICU survivors had a lower median daily ICU cost at 2,164 per day, compared with 3,496 euro per day for ICU non-survivors (P = 0.08). The requirements for continuous haemodiafiltration, blood products and anti-fungal agents were associated with higher daily and overall ICU costs (P = 0.002). Each point increase in SAPS3 was associated with a 305 euro (95% CI 31 euro-579 euro) increase in total ICU cost (P = 0.029). However, SAPS3 accounted for a small proportion of the variance in this model (R (2) = 0.08), limiting its usefulness as a stand-alone predictor of cost in clinical practice. A model including haemodiafiltration, blood products and anti-fungal agents explained 54% of the variance in total ICU cost. CONCLUSION: This bottom-up costing study highlighted the considerable individual variation in costs between ICU patients and identified the major factors contributing to cost. As the requirement for expensive interventions was the main driver for ICU cost, "severity of illness" scores may not be useful as stand-alone predictors of cost in the ICU.

  7. Annual motor vehicle travel distance and incident obesity: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Córdoba, Jorge M; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Pollack, Keshia M; Seguí-Gómez, María; Beunza, Juan J; Sayón-Orea, Carmen; Martínez-González, Miguel A

    2013-03-01

    Obesity has become a major health and economic problem with increasing prevalence. Unfortunately, no country can act as public health exemplar for reduction of obesity. The finding of associations between sedentary behaviors and obesity, independent of the level of physical activity, may offer new insights to prevent this burdensome problem. To evaluate prospectively the relationship between annual distance traveled by motor vehicles and subsequent incidence of overweight or obesity in a Mediterranean cohort. Data from a prospective cohort study (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra Project, 1999-2011) with a permanently open recruitment were analyzed. Self-administered questionnaires are mailed every 2 years, collecting information on dietary habits, lifestyle, risk factors, and medical conditions. Annual kilometers traveled by motor vehicles were grouped into three categories (≤10,000; >10,000 to ≤20,000; and >20,000). Multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to assess the risk of overweight or obesity across categories of distance traveled annually. In all, 9160 participants (58% female, average age=37 years) were followed up for a median of 6.4 years. During 39,175 person-years of follow-up, 1044 (15.3%) normal-weight participants at baseline became overweight or obese. Among participants who did not change their category of annual kilometers traveled during follow-up, an increased risk of overweight or obesity in the highest category of annual kilometers traveled was observed, compared with the lowest one (hazard ratio=1.4, 95% CI=1.1, 1.7). This study suggests a potential pernicious effect of the use of motor vehicles on the risk of overweight or obesity. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The relationship between thrombophilic mutations and preeclampsia: a prospective case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yalinkaya, A.; Erdemoglu, M.; Akdeniz, N.; Kale, A.; Kale, E.

    2006-01-01

    Preeclampsia and its association with thrombophillia remain controversial, due to inconsistent results in different studies, which different ethnic groups, selection criteria, and patient numbers. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between thrombophillia and preeclamptic patients in our region. In a prospective case-control study, we compared 100 consecutive women with preeclampsia and eclampsia (group 1) with 100 normal pregnant women (group 2). All women were tested two months after delivery for mutations of factor V Leiden, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and prothrombin gene mutation mutataion as well as for deficiencies of protein C, protein S, and antithrmbin III. A thrombophilic mutation was found in 42 (42%) and 28(28%) women in group I and group II, respectively (P+0.27, OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.2). The incidence of Factor V Leiden mutation (heterozygous), prothrombin mutation (heterozygous), prothrombin mutation (homozygous), MTHFR mutation (homozygous) was not statistically significant in group 1 compared with group 2 (P>0.05). Also, deficiencies of protein S, protein c and antithrombin III were not statistically significant in group I com pared with group II (P>0.05). There was no difference in thrombophilic mutations between preeclamptic patients and normal pregnant women in our region. Therefore, we suggest that preeclamptic patients should not be tested for thrombophilia. (author)

  9. Students' Perception on the Prospect of Economics Education Study Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiriza, Mica Siar

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the extent to which perceptions of students on the prospect of the Economics Education Program. The method used in this research is descriptive method in which the required data is obtained through questionnaire and technique of analyzing data used is percentages. Questionnaires were distributed through the Student…

  10. Depression and incident diabetic foot ulcers: a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lisa H.; Rutter, Carolyn M.; Katon, Wayne J.; Reiber, Gayle E.; Ciechanowski, Paul; Heckbert, Susan R.; Lin, Elizabeth H.B.; Ludman, Evette J.; Oliver, Malia M.; Young, Bessie A.; Von Korff, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective To test whether depression is associated with an increased risk of incident diabetic foot ulcers. Methods The Pathways Epidemiologic Study is a population-based prospective cohort study of 4839 patients with diabetes in 2000–2007. The present analysis included 3474 adults with type 2 diabetes and no prior diabetic foot ulcers or amputations. Mean follow-up was 4.1 years. Major and minor depression assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) were the exposures of interest. The outcome of interest was incident diabetic foot ulcers. We computed the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CI for incident diabetic foot ulcers, comparing patients with major and minor depression to those without depression and adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, medical comorbidity, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), diabetes duration, insulin use, number of diabetes complications, body mass index, smoking status, and foot self-care. Sensitivity analyses also adjusted for peripheral neuropathy and peripheral arterial disease as defined by diagnosis codes. Results Compared to patients without depression, patients with major depression by PHQ-9 had a two-fold increase in the risk of incident diabetic foot ulcers (adjusted HR 2.00, 95% CI: 1.24, 3.25). There was no statistically significant association between minor depression by PHQ-9 and incident diabetic foot ulcers (adjusted HR 1.37, 95% CI: 0.77, 2.44). Conclusion Major depression by PHQ-9 is associated with a two-fold higher risk of incident diabetic foot ulcers. Future studies of this association should include better measures of peripheral neuropathy and peripheral arterial disease, which are possible confounders and/or mediators. PMID:20670730

  11. Mixture effects of 30 environmental contaminants on incident metabolic syndrome-A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Lars; Salihovic, Samira; Lampa, Erik; Lind, P Monica

    2017-10-01

    Several cross-sectional studies have linked different environmental contaminants to the metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, mixture effects have not been investigated and no prospective studies exist regarding environmental contaminants and the MetS. To study mixture effects of contaminants on the risk of incident MetS in a prospective fashion. Our sample consisted of 452 subjects from the Prospective Study of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study (50% women, all aged 70years) free from the MetS at baseline, being followed for 10years. At baseline, 30 different environmental contaminants were measured; 6 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 3 organochlorine (OC) pesticides, one dioxin, one polybrominated diphenyl ether (all in plasma), 8 perfluoroalkyl substances (in plasma) and 11 metals (in whole blood). The MetS was defined by the ATPIII/NCEP criteria. Gradient boosted Classification and Regression Trees (CARTs) was used to evaluate potential synergistic and additive mixture effects on incident MetS. During 10-year follow-up, 92 incident cases of the MetS occurred. PCB126, PCB170, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and PCB118 levels were all associated with incident MetS in an additive fashion (OR 1.73 for a change from 10th to 90th percentile (95%CI 1.24-3.04) for PCB126, OR 0.63 (0.42-0.78) for PCB170, OR 1.44 (1.09-2.20) for HCB and OR 1.46 (1.13-2.43) for PCB118). No synergistic effects were found. A mixture of environmental contaminants, with PCB126, PCB170, HCB and PCB118 being the most important, showed associations with future development of the MetS in an additive fashion in this prospective study. Thus, mixture effects of environmental contaminants could contribute to the development of cardio-metabolic derangements. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of speech performance in labial and lingual orthodontic patients: A prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Ambesh Kumar; Rozario, Joe E.; Ganeshkar, Sanjay V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The intensity and duration of speech difficulty inherently associated with lingual therapy is a significant issue of concern in orthodontics. This study was designed to evaluate and to compare the duration of changes in speech between labial and lingual orthodontics. Materials and Methods: A prospective longitudinal clinical study was designed to assess speech of 24 patients undergoing labial or lingual orthodontic treatment. An objective spectrographic evaluation of/s/sound was done using software PRAAT version 5.0.47, a semiobjective auditive evaluation of articulation was done by four speech pathologists and a subjective assessment of speech was done by four laypersons. The tests were performed before (T1), within 24 h (T2), after 1 week (T3) and after 1 month (T4) of the start of therapy. The Mann-Whitney U-test for independent samples was used to assess the significance difference between the labial and lingual appliances. A speech alteration with P appliance systems caused a comparable speech difficulty immediately after bonding (T2). Although the speech recovered within a week in the labial group (T3), the lingual group continued to experience discomfort even after a month (T4). PMID:25540661

  13. Surgical site infections in Italian Hospitals: a prospective multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ippolito Giuseppe

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgical site infections (SSI remain a major clinical problem in terms of morbidity, mortality, and hospital costs. Nearly 60% of SSI diagnosis occur in the postdischarge period. However, literature provides little information on risk factors associated to in-hospital and postdischarge SSI occurrence. A national prospective multicenter study was conducted with the aim of assessing the incidence of both in-hospital and postdisharge SSI, and the associated risk factors. Methods In 2002, a one-month, prospective national multicenter surveillance study was conducted in General and Gynecological units of 48 Italian hospitals. Case ascertainment of SSI was carried out using standardized surveillance methodology. To assess potential risk factors for SSI we used a conditional logistic regression model. We also reported the odds ratios of in-hospital and postdischarge SSI. Results SSI occurred in 241 (5.2% of 4,665 patients, of which 148 (61.4% during in-hospital, and 93 (38.6% during postdischarge period. Of 93 postdischarge SSI, sixty-two (66.7% and 31 (33.3% were detected through telephone interview and questionnaire survey, respectively. Higher SSI incidence rates were observed in colon surgery (18.9%, gastric surgery (13.6%, and appendectomy (8.6%. If considering risk factors for SSI, at multivariate analysis we found that emergency interventions, NNIS risk score, pre-operative hospital stay, and use of drains were significantly associated with SSI occurrence. Moreover, risk factors for total SSI were also associated to in-hospital SSI. Additionally, only NNIS, pre-operative hospital stay, use of drains, and antibiotic prophylaxis were associated with postdischarge SSI. Conclusion Our study provided information on risk factors for SSI in a large population in general surgery setting in Italy. Standardized postdischarge surveillance detected 38.6% of all SSI. We also compared risk factors for in-hospital and postdischarge SSI

  14. Nosocomial pneumonia in the ICU: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyllienmark, Petra; Gårdlund, Bengt; Persson, Jan-Olov; Ekdahl, Karl

    2007-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired infection among patients requiring mechanical ventilation. A prospective surveillance programme of all patients has been implemented at the ICU, Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden since 2001. Within this programme, incidence and risk factors for ICU-acquired pneumonia and associated death over a 2-y period have been studied. Of 329 patients enrolled in the study, 221 required mechanical ventilation. 33 of 221 patients (15%) developed VAP, corresponding to a rate of 29 VAP/1000 ventilator d. Risk factors for VAP were aspiration (hazard ratio 3.79; 95% CI 1.48-9.68), recent surgery (HR 3.58; 95% CI 1.15-11.10) and trauma (HR 3.00; 95% CI 1.03-8.71). 11 patients of 33 (33%) with VAP died within 28 d compared to 46 of 288 (16%) without ICU-acquired pneumonia (odds ratio 2.73; 95% CI 0.97-7.63). We conclude that: 1) incidence of VAP was 15% and the most important risk factor was aspiration; 2) APACHE II score > or = 20 is a stronger predictor for poor outcome than VAP; 3) a minority of patients with APACHE II score > or = 20 develop VAP; and 4) continuous surveillance programmes are feasible and provide valuable data for improvement of quality of care.

  15. Effects of cue focality on the neural mechanisms of prospective memory: A meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cona, Giorgia; Bisiacchi, Patrizia Silvia; Sartori, Giuseppe; Scarpazza, Cristina

    2016-05-17

    Remembering to execute pre-defined intentions at the appropriate time in the future is typically referred to as Prospective Memory (PM). Studies of PM showed that distinct cognitive processes underlie the execution of delayed intentions depending on whether the cue associated with such intentions is focal to ongoing activity processing or not (i.e., cue focality). The present activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis revealed several differences in brain activity as a function of focality of the PM cue. The retrieval of intention is supported mainly by left anterior prefrontal cortex (Brodmann Area, BA 10) in nonfocal tasks, and by cerebellum and ventral parietal regions in focal tasks. Furthermore, the precuneus showed increased activation during the maintenance phase of intentions compared to the retrieval phase in nonfocal tasks, whereas the inferior parietal lobule showed increased activation during the retrieval of intention compared to maintenance phase in the focal tasks. Finally, the retrieval of intention relies more on the activity in anterior cingulate cortex for nonfocal tasks, and on posterior cingulate cortex for focal tasks. Such focality-related pattern of activations suggests that prospective remembering is mediated mainly by top-down and stimulus-independent processes in nonfocal tasks, whereas by more automatic, bottom-up, processes in focal tasks.

  16. [Prospective study in 2 hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Buñuales, M T; Martínez-Sáenz, M S; González-Diego, P; Vallejo-García, M; Gallardo-Anciano, J; Cestafe-Martínez, A

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to know the incidence rate of medication reconciliation at admission and discharge in patients of La Rioja and to improve the patient safety on medication reconciliation. An observational prospective study, part of the Joint Action PaSQ, Work Package 5, European Union Network for Patient Safety and Quality of Care. The study has taken into account the definitions of the Institute for Safe Medication Practices. Any unintended discrepancy in medication between chronic treatment and the treatment prescribed in the hospital was considered as a reconciliation error. A total of 750 patients were included, 9 (1.2%) of whom showed at least one discrepancy. The patients had a total of 3,156 mediations registered: 2,313 prescriptions (73.4%) showed no differences, while 821 prescriptions (26%) were intended discrepancies and 21 prescriptions (0.6%) unintended discrepancies were considered by the physician as reconciliation errors. A percentage of 1.2 of the patients, which represents 0.6% of the medicines (one in 166 medications registered) had reconciliation errors during their hospital stay. A proceeding has been implemented by means of the physician doing the medication reconciliation and reviewing it with the help of a medication reconciliation form. The medication reconciliation is a priority strategic objective to improve the safety of patients. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. A Comparative Study of Endocervical and Pelvic Peritoneal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between the bacterial flora of the endocervix and the pelvic peritoneum in fifty infertile patients undergoing diagnostic laparoscopy and dye test was investigated at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital. The study design was prospective and cross-sectional. The setting was the Department of Obstetrics ...

  18. Prospective ECG-triggered axial CT at 140-kV tube voltage improves coronary in-stent restenosis visibility at a lower radiation dose compared with conventional retrospective ECG-gated helical CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiguchi, Jun; Fujioka, Chikako; Kiguchi, Masao; Kohno, Shingo [Hiroshima University Hospital, Department of Clinical Radiology, Hiroshima (Japan); Yamamoto, Hideya; Kitagawa, Toshiro [Hiroshima University, Department of Molecular and Internal Medicine, Division of Clinical Medical Science, Programs for Applied Biomedicine, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima (Japan); Ito, Katsuhide [Hiroshima University, Department of Radiology, Division of Medical Intelligence and Informatics, Programs for Applied Biomedicine, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2009-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare coronary 64-slice CT angiography (CTA) protocols, specifically prospective electrocardiograph (ECG)-triggered and retrospective ECG-gated CT acquisition performed using a tube voltage of 140 kV and 120 kV, regarding intracoronary stent imaging. Coronary artery stents (n=12) with artificial in-stent restenosis (50% luminal reduction, 40 HU) on a cardiac phantom were examined by CT at heart rates of 50-75 beats per minute (bpm). The subjective visibility of in-stent restenosis was evaluated with a three-point scale (1 clearly visible, 2 visible, and 3 not visible), and artificial lumen narrowing [(inner stent diameter - measured lumen diameter)/inner stent diameter], lumen attenuation increase ratio [(in-stent attenuation - coronary lumen attenuation)/coronary lumen attenuation], and signal-to-noise ratio of in-stent lumen were determined. The effective dose was estimated. The artificial lumen narrowing (mean 43%), the increase of lumen attenuation (mean 46%), and signal-to-noise ratio (mean 7.8) were not different between CT acquisitions (p=0.12-0.91). However, the visibility scores of in-stent restenosis were different (p<0.05) between ECG-gated CTA techniques: (a) 140-kV prospective (effective dose 4.6 mSv), 1.6; (b) 120-kV prospective (3.3 mSv), 1.8; (c) 140-kV retrospective (16.4-18.8 mSv), 1.9; and (d) 120-kV retrospective (11.0-13.4 mSv), 1.9. Thus, 140-kV prospective ECG-triggered CTA improves coronary in-stent restenosis visibility at a lower radiation dose compared with retrospective ECG-gated CTA. (orig.)

  19. Chronic Stress is Prospectively Associated with Sleep in Midlife Women: The SWAN Sleep Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Martica H; Casement, Melynda D; Troxel, Wendy M; Matthews, Karen A; Bromberger, Joyce T; Kravitz, Howard M; Krafty, Robert T; Buysse, Daniel J

    2015-10-01

    Evaluate whether levels of upsetting life events measured over a 9-y period prospectively predict subjective and objective sleep outcomes in midlife women. Prospective cohort study. Four sites across the United States. 330 women (46-57 y of age) enrolled in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Sleep Study. N/A. Upsetting life events were assessed annually for up to 9 y. Trajectory analysis applied to life events data quantitatively identified three distinct chronic stress groups: low stress, moderate stress, and high stress. Sleep was assessed by self-report and in-home polysomnography (PSG) during the ninth year of the study. Multivariate analyses tested the prospective association between chronic stress group and sleep, adjusting for race, baseline sleep complaints, marital status, body mass index, symptoms of depression, and acute life events at the time of the Sleep Study. Women characterized by high chronic stress had lower subjective sleep quality, were more likely to report insomnia, and exhibited increased PSG-assessed wake after sleep onset (WASO) relative to women with low to moderate chronic stress profiles. The effect of chronic stress group on WASO persisted in the subsample of participants without baseline sleep complaints. Chronic stress is prospectively associated with sleep disturbance in midlife women, even after adjusting for acute stressors at the time of the sleep study and other factors known to disrupt sleep. These results are consistent with current models of stress that emphasize the cumulative effect of stressors on health over time. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  20. Time-Efficiency Analysis Comparing Digital and Conventional Workflows for Implant Crowns: A Prospective Clinical Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joda, Tim; Brägger, Urs

    2015-01-01

    To compare time-efficiency in the production of implant crowns using a digital workflow versus the conventional pathway. This prospective clinical study used a crossover design that included 20 study participants receiving single-tooth replacements in posterior sites. Each patient received a customized titanium abutment plus a computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) zirconia suprastructure (for those in the test group, using digital workflow) and a standardized titanium abutment plus a porcelain-fused-to-metal crown (for those in the control group, using a conventional pathway). The start of the implant prosthetic treatment was established as the baseline. Time-efficiency analysis was defined as the primary outcome, and was measured for every single clinical and laboratory work step in minutes. Statistical analysis was calculated with the Wilcoxon rank sum test. All crowns could be provided within two clinical appointments, independent of the manufacturing process. The mean total production time, as the sum of clinical plus laboratory work steps, was significantly different. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) time was 185.4 ± 17.9 minutes for the digital workflow process and 223.0 ± 26.2 minutes for the conventional pathway (P = .0001). Therefore, digital processing for overall treatment was 16% faster. Detailed analysis for the clinical treatment revealed a significantly reduced mean ± SD chair time of 27.3 ± 3.4 minutes for the test group compared with 33.2 ± 4.9 minutes for the control group (P = .0001). Similar results were found for the mean laboratory work time, with a significant decrease of 158.1 ± 17.2 minutes for the test group vs 189.8 ± 25.3 minutes for the control group (P = .0001). Only a few studies have investigated efficiency parameters of digital workflows compared with conventional pathways in implant dental medicine. This investigation shows that the digital workflow seems to be more time-efficient than the

  1. New concept of age(ing: Prospective age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devedžić Mirjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While the last century was the century of world population growth, according to demographers, the XXI century will be century of population aging. Statistics undoubtedly show that number of elderly will continue it’s growth in the future. If old age is seen as period of life with reduced physical and mental capabilities and increased disability, and demographic aging as increase of dependent population, trends are quite disturbing, at least in certain societal segments. In developed countries, this population category is no longer treated as passive or as a "burden of society" and efforts are made for better social inclusion of older people. In contrast to growing interest in this phenomenon, the concepts that define the aging of the population remained stagnant. The aim of this paper is to introduce into domestic literature the term "prospective age" as a dynamic category which is more affected with socio-historical conditions, not only with biological as traditional definition of aging suggested. Papers written by Sanderson and Scherbov offer new methodological options for study of population aging, because it takes into account the biometric rather than chronological approach. Calculation of prospective years is a simple operation that requires pair of the same number of remained life expectancy from life tables for two different periods (the year of concern is index, and the one we are comparing with is standard year, so that phrase "40s is the new 30s" or "70s the new 60s" gets scientific foundation. Average remaining years of life represent a realistic indicator suggesting increased capacity, activity and vitality of individuals, which is due to accepted demographic parameters still considered old. „Prospective threshold“ is defined as the age when life expectancy falls below 15 years (it is subjective choice made by Sanderson and Scherbov, which is also used in this paper and during the elaboration of these ideas three demographic

  2. Predictive factors of postpartum fatigue: a prospective cohort study among working women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Beek, A.J. van der; Hendriksen, I.J.M.; Bruinvels, D.J.; Poppel, M.N. van

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate which prepartum determinants contribute to the development of postpartum (PP) fatigue among working women in the Netherlands. Methods A prospective cohort study in 15 Dutch companies was conducted to measure different potential predictors using

  3. Travel style is a major risk factor for diarrhoea in India: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, V M; Jaeger, V K; Held, L; Hatz, C; Bühler, S

    2015-07-01

    Although some studies suggested specific foods/beverages as risk factors for travellers' diarrhoea (TD), details of transmission remain unclear. We assessed the influence of travel style (luxury/middle-class versus backpacking) on TD risk. TD attack rates were compared in a prospective study among travellers to India at the University of Zurich's Travel Clinic. Information on consumption of foods/beverages was collected. Seventy-one luxury/middle-class travellers and 21 backpackers completed the study; overall 37% suffered from TD (62% backpackers, 30% luxury/middle-class travellers, OR 4.43, p 0.022). Travel style rather than the consumption of specific foods/beverages appears to be a risk factor for TD development. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Body-mass index and cause-specific mortality in 900 000 adults: collaborative analyses of 57 prospective studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NN, NN; Whitlock, Gary; Lewington, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The main associations of body-mass index (BMI) with overall and cause-specific mortality can best be assessed by long-term prospective follow-up of large numbers of people. The Prospective Studies Collaboration aimed to investigate these associations by sharing data from many studies....

  5. Do changes in spousal employment status lead to domestic violence? Insights from a prospective study in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Suneeta; Rocca, Corinne H; Hubbard, Alan E; Subbiah, Kalyani; Edmeades, Jeffrey; Padian, Nancy S

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of physical domestic violence--violence against women perpetrated by husbands--is staggeringly high across the Indian subcontinent. Although gender-based power dynamics are thought to underlie women's vulnerability, relatively little is known about risk and protective factors. This prospective study in southern India examined the association between key economic aspects of gender-based power, namely spousal employment status, and physical domestic violence. In 2005-2006, 744 married women, aged 16-25, residing in low-income communities in Bangalore, India were enrolled in the study. Data were collected at enrollment, 12 and 24 months. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the prospective association between women's employment status, their perceptions of their husband's employment stability, and domestic violence. Women who were unemployed at one visit and began employment by the next visit had an 80% higher odds of violence, as compared to women who maintained their unemployed status. Similarly, women whose husbands had stable employment at one visit and newly had difficulty with employment had 1.7 times the odds of violence, as compared to women whose husbands maintained their stable employment. To our knowledge, this study is the first from a developing country to confirm that changes in spousal employment status are associated with subsequent changes in violence risk. It points to the complex challenges of violence prevention, including the need for interventions among men and gender-transformative approaches to promote gender-equitable attitudes, practices and norms among men and women.

  6. Computer use and stress, sleep disturbances, and symptoms of depression among young adults – a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomée Sara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously studied prospective associations between computer use and mental health symptoms in a selected young adult population. The purpose of this study was to investigate if high computer use is a prospective risk factor for developing mental health symptoms in a population-based sample of young adults. Methods The study group was a cohort of young adults (n = 4163, 20–24 years old, who responded to a questionnaire at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Exposure variables included time spent on computer use (CU in general, email/chat use, computer gaming, CU without breaks, and CU at night causing lost sleep. Mental health outcomes included perceived stress, sleep disturbances, symptoms of depression, and reduced performance due to stress, depressed mood, or tiredness. Prevalence ratios (PRs were calculated for prospective associations between exposure variables at baseline and mental health outcomes (new cases at 1-year follow-up for the men and women separately. Results Both high and medium computer use compared to low computer use at baseline were associated with sleep disturbances in the men at follow-up. High email/chat use was negatively associated with perceived stress, but positively associated with reported sleep disturbances for the men. For the women, high email/chat use was (positively associated with several mental health outcomes, while medium computer gaming was associated with symptoms of depression, and CU without breaks with most mental health outcomes. CU causing lost sleep was associated with mental health outcomes for both men and women. Conclusions Time spent on general computer use was prospectively associated with sleep disturbances and reduced performance for the men. For the women, using the computer without breaks was a risk factor for several mental health outcomes. Some associations were enhanced in interaction with mobile phone use. Using the computer at night and consequently losing

  7. Cerebral angiography with prospective ECG triggering preliminary study of dual-source CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Yuejun; Qian Nong; Shao Yanhui; Pan Changjie; Rong Weiliang; Xu Yiqun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the image quality and radiation dose in dual-source CT cerebral angiography with prospective ECG-triggered sequence mode (step-and-shoot, SAS). Methods: A total of forty-three patients with clinically suspected cerebral vascular disease underwent cerebral CT angiography with prospective ECG-triggering (step-and-shoot, SAS). Data acquisition was at 60% R-R interval of the ECG presentation mode. The post-processing included maximum intensity projection (MIP), multiplanar reformation (MPR) and volume rendering (VR). The CTA image quality, radiation dose and rates of excellent images were evaluated. Results: The CTA image quality score was 4.72 ± 0.50 and 97.7% (42/43) patients had excellent CTA images. The average effective dose of SAS-CTA was (0.22 ± 0.01)mSv, which was lower by 76.31% than that of DE-CTA. Conclusions: Prospective ECG-triggering sequence could be used in cerebral angiography with a significant reduction in radiation dose and diagnostic image quality. (authors)

  8. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF OLANZAPINE AND QUETIAPINE IN PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bithorai Basumatary

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Psychotic disorders are a group of chronic debilitating psychiatric illness characterised by loss in touch with reality and disorders of thought, behaviour, appearance and speech. The second generation atypical antipsychotic olanzapine has been reported to be the commonly prescribed antipsychotic. However, olanzapine can cause adverse effects like weight gain, hyperglycaemia, diabetes, dyslipidaemia and metabolic syndrome. Quetiapine, another second generation antipsychotic has good efficacy and has become well established in the treatment of schizophrenia and manic episodes. There are reports on adverse effects of hyperglycaemia and diabetes with quetiapine, but these are comparatively lesser than olanzapine. The aim of the study is to compare the efficacy of olanzapine and quetiapine in patients with psychotic disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS It was an unicentric, open label, prospective and comparative clinical study. Subjects (n=80 who were diagnosed with psychotic disorder were randomly assigned to receive olanzapine (group 1 or quetiapine (group 2. The efficacy of the two drugs was assessed on the basis Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS scores at baseline, 1 week and 6 weeks. UKU scale (Udvalg Kliniske Undersogelser and laboratory investigations were used to assess the safety profile. RESULTS The two study groups had comparable sociodemographic profile. Both the groups showed significant reduction in psychotic symptoms as compared from baseline to 1 week and 6 weeks (p<0.001. The intergroup comparison of the efficacy of the two groups did not show any statistically significant results. There was statistically insignificant differences in the occurrence of adverse effects in both the groups. Sedation (50% in both the groups was the most common adverse effect in both the groups. The use of concomitant medications was comparable in both the groups. Benzodiazepines (56.3% in the olanzapine group and 51.9% in the quetiapine group

  9. End-tidal control vs. manually controlled minimal-flow anesthesia: a prospective comparative trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetz, A J; Mueller, M M; Walliser, K; Foest, C; Wand, S; Brandes, I F; Waeschle, R M; Bauer, M

    2017-11-01

    To ensure safe general anesthesia, manually controlled anesthesia requires constant monitoring and numerous manual adjustments of the gas dosage, especially for low- and minimal-flow anesthesia. Oxygen flow-rate and administration of volatile anesthetics can also be controlled automatically by anesthesia machines using the end-tidal control technique, which ensures constant end-tidal concentrations of oxygen and anesthetic gas via feedback and continuous adjustment mechanisms. We investigated the hypothesis that end-tidal control is superior to manually controlled minimal-flow anesthesia (0.5 l/min). In this prospective trial, we included 64 patients undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia. We analyzed the precision of maintenance of the sevoflurane concentration (1.2-1.4%) and expiratory oxygen (35-40%) and the number of necessary adjustments. Target-concentrations of sevoflurane and oxygen were maintained at more stable levels with the use of end-tidal control (during the first 15 min 28% vs. 51% and from 15 to 60 min 1% vs. 19% deviation from sevoflurane target, P tidal oxygen (5, IQR 3-6). The target-concentrations were reached earlier with the use of end-tidal compared with manual controlled minimal-flow anesthesia but required slightly greater use of anesthetic agents (6.9 vs. 6.0 ml/h). End-tidal control is a superior technique for setting and maintaining oxygen and anesthetic gas concentrations in a stable and rapid manner compared with manual control. Consequently, end-tidal control can effectively support the anesthetist. © 2017 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Results of and prospects for studies on molten salt nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hery, M.; Lecocq, A.

    1983-04-01

    This paper reviews the various studies performed in France by the EDF and CEA teams in the field of molten salt nuclear reactors. These studies include graphite moderating systems, feasibility of a 625 MWth core, lead cooling, structural materials, salts tritium diffusion and corrosion. The experience gained allows eventual development prospects of this system to appraised [fr

  11. Comparison of Tension-Band Wiring With the Cable Pin System in Patella Fractures: A Randomized Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qing-xian; Hai, Yong; Du, Xin-ru; Xu, Zi-yu; Lu, Tie; Shan, Lei; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Jun-lin

    2015-12-01

    To compare the outcome of tension-band wiring (TBW) with the cable pin system (CPS) for transverse fractures of the patella. Randomized prospective study. Academic Level I trauma center. From February 2008 to December 2011, 73 consecutive patients with transverse fractures of the patella were prospectively enrolled in this study. The patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: one group was treated using the CPS, and the other group was treated using the modified TBW. The clinical outcome assessment included analyses of the radiographic images, the modified Hospital for Special Surgery scoring system, and complications. The follow-up time ranged from 12 to 29 months. All fractures healed, with a union rate of 100%. The fracture healing time was significantly shorter in the CPS group (8.51 ± 2.59 weeks, n = 34) compared with the TBW group (11.79 ± 3.04 weeks, n = 39). Postoperative complications in the CPS and TBW groups were observed in 1 and 9 patients, respectively, a difference that was statistically significant. The mean Hospital for Special Surgery score for the CPS group (90.53 ± 5.19 points) was significantly higher than that for the TBW group (81.36 ± 12.71 points). The CPS is a viable option for transverse fractures of the patella and is associated with a shorter healing time, fewer complications, and better function than TBW. Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  12. EVERREST prospective study: a 6-year prospective study to define the clinical and biological characteristics of pregnancies affected by severe early onset fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Rebecca; Ambler, Gareth; Brodszki, Jana; Diemert, Anke; Figueras, Francesc; Gratacós, Eduard; Hansson, Stefan R; Hecher, Kurt; Huertas-Ceballos, Angela; Marlow, Neil; Marsál, Karel; Morsing, Eva; Peebles, Donald; Rossi, Carlo; Sebire, Neil J; Timms, John F; David, Anna L

    2017-01-23

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a serious obstetric condition for which there is currently no treatment. The EVERREST Prospective Study has been designed to characterise the natural history of pregnancies affected by severe early onset FGR and establish a well phenotyped bio-bank. The findings will provide up-to-date information for clinicians and patients and inform the design and conduct of the EVERREST Clinical Trial: a phase I/IIa trial to assess the safety and efficacy of maternal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene therapy in severe early onset FGR. Data and samples from the EVERREST Prospective Study will be used to identify ultrasound and/or biochemical markers of prognosis in pregnancies with an estimated fetal weight (EFW) economic impact; psychological impact; neonatal condition, progress and complications; and infant growth and neurodevelopment to 2 years of corrected age in surviving infants. Standardised longitudinal ultrasound measurements are performed, including: fetal biometry; uterine artery, umbilical artery, middle cerebral artery, and ductus venosus Doppler velocimetry; and uterine artery and umbilical vein volume blood flow. Samples of maternal blood and urine, amniotic fluid (if amniocentesis performed), placenta, umbilical cord blood, and placental bed (if caesarean delivery performed) are collected for bio-banking. An initial analysis of maternal blood samples at enrolment is planned to identify biochemical markers that are predictors for fetal or neonatal death. The findings of the EVERREST Prospective Study will support the development of a novel therapy for severe early onset FGR by describing in detail the natural history of the disease and by identifying women whose pregnancies have the poorest outcomes, in whom a therapy might be most advantageous. The findings will also enable better counselling of couples with affected pregnancies, and provide a valuable resource for future research into the causes of FGR. NCT02097667

  13. Physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout: A systematic review of prospective studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanda, Francine Nesello; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; González, Alberto Durán; Gabani, Flávia Lopes

    2017-01-01

    Burnout is a syndrome that results from chronic stress at work, with several consequences to workers’ well-being and health. This systematic review aimed to summarize the evidence of the physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout in prospective studies. The PubMed, Science Direct, PsycInfo, SciELO, LILACS and Web of Science databases were searched without language or date restrictions. The Transparent Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed. Prospective studies that analyzed burnout as the exposure condition were included. Among the 993 articles initially identified, 61 fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and 36 were analyzed because they met three criteria that must be followed in prospective studies. Burnout was a significant predictor of the following physical consequences: hypercholesterolemia, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, hospitalization due to cardiovascular disorder, musculoskeletal pain, changes in pain experiences, prolonged fatigue, headaches, gastrointestinal issues, respiratory problems, severe injuries and mortality below the age of 45 years. The psychological effects were insomnia, depressive symptoms, use of psychotropic and antidepressant medications, hospitalization for mental disorders and psychological ill-health symptoms. Job dissatisfaction, absenteeism, new disability pension, job demands, job resources and presenteeism were identified as professional outcomes. Conflicting findings were observed. In conclusion, several prospective and high-quality studies showed physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout. The individual and social impacts of burnout highlight the need for preventive interventions and early identification of this health condition in the work environment. PMID:28977041

  14. Toward an Understanding of Motivational Influences on Prospective Memory Using Value-Added Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel I Cook

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined value-added intentions by manipulating the cognitive frame associated with monetary contingencies for detecting prospective memory cues. We associated a loss-frame with a monetary punishment for failing to respond to cues and a gain-frame with a monetary reward for remembering to respond to cues and compared those frames to a no-frame control condition with no contingency linked to performance. Across two experiments, we find increased prospective memory performance for participants in the loss-frame (Experiments 1 and 2 and in the gain-frame (Experiment 2 conditions relative to the no-frame condition. This value-related improvement in prospective memory was not accompanied by a significant increase in cue monitoring as measured by intention induced interference to an ongoing task and recognition memory for ongoing task items. The few previous studies investigating motivational prospective memory showed mixed results regarding whether prospective memory improves due to incentives or not. Our results provide further evidence that, under some experimental conditions, prospective memory improves with rewards and that the benefit generalizes to penalizing performance. The results have both practical implications and theoretical implications for motivation models of prospective memory.

  15. In-hospital resuscitation evaluated by in situ simulation: a prospective simulation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondrup, Frederik; Brabrand, Mikkel; Folkestad, Lars

    2011-01-01

    , and to examine differences in the resuscitation performance between the first responders and the cardiac arrest team. METHOD: S: A prospective observational study of 16 unannounced simulated cardiopulmonary arrest scenarios was conducted. The participants of the study involved all health care personel on duty...

  16. Prospects of the international energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, H.K.

    1977-01-01

    The findings of two studies on the international prospects of energy development are discussed: 1) Energy: Global Prospects 1985-2000. Report of the Workshop on Alternative Energy Strategies (WAES) and 2) World Energy Outlook, a recent OECD energy study which is a supplement to the Energy prospects to 1985 study, which was completed in 1974. (UA) [de

  17. Opium Use and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moossavi, Shirin; Mohamadnejad, Mehdi; Pourshams, Akram; Poustchi, Hossein; Islami, Farhad; Sharafkhah, Maryam; Mirminachi, Babak; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Semnani, Shahryar; Shakeri, Ramin; Etemadi, Arash; Merat, Shahin; Khoshnia, Masoud; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Pharoah, Paul D.; Brennan, Paul; Abnet, Christian C.; Boffetta, Paolo; Kamangar, Farin; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2018-01-01

    Background We examined the association between opium consumption and pancreatic cancer incidence in a large-scale prospective cohort of the general population in Northeast of Iran. Methods A total of 50,045 adults were systematically followed-up (median of 7.4 years) and incident cases of pancreatic cancer were identified. Self-reported data on opium consumption was collected at baseline. Cumulative use (-year) was defined as number of nokhods (a local unit, approximately 0.2 g) of opium consumed per day multiplied by number of years consuming. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between opium consumption and pancreatic cancer were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results Overall, 54 confirmed cases of pancreatic cancer were identified. Opium use of more than 81 nokhod-years (high cumulative use), compared to never use, was strongly associated with pancreatic cancer even after adjustments for multiple potential confounding factors [HR=3.01; 95% CI 1.25-7.26]. High cumulative consumption of opium was significantly associated with risk of pancreatic cancer after adjusting for cumulative dose of cigarette smoking [HR=3.56; 95% CI 1.49-8.50]. In a sensitivity analysis, we excluded participants (including 2 pancreatic cancer cases) who were recruited within the first 5 years of starting opium consumption; high cumulative use of opium was still associated with pancreatic cancer risk [HR=2.75; 95% CI 1.14-6.64]. Conclusion Our results showed a positive association between opium consumption and pancreatic cancer. Impact This is the first prospective large-scale study to show the association of opium consumption with pancreatic cancer as a risk factor. PMID:29263189

  18. Qualitative bacteriology in malignant wounds--a prospective, randomized, clinical study to compare the effect of honey and silver dressings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Nielsen, Betina; Adamsen, Lis; Gottrup, Finn

    2011-01-01

    . A prospective, randomized, single-blind controlled clinical study was conducted to evaluate the bacteriology of malignant wounds and compare the effect of a honey-coated (Group A) to a silver-coated (Group B) dressing on the qualitative bacteriology of malignant wounds. All wound interventions were performed...... years, range 47-92) consented to participate and completed the 4-week study. The majority were women (88%) with breast cancer (79%). No statistically significant differences were found between the type and number of different wound pathogens in the wounds during the course of the study or between Group...... were identified. Sixty-one percent (61%) of wounds decreased in size following treatment, but no significant differences were observed between the type and variety of wound pathogens and whether wound size decreased. Although quantitative bacteriological changes may have occurred, the possible...

  19. Sedentary behavior and incident cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Shen

    Full Text Available Sedentary behavior is ubiquitous in modern adults' daily lives and it has been suggested to be associated with incident cancer. However, the results have been inconsistent. In this study, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to clarify the association between sedentary behavior and incident cancer.PubMed and Embase databases were searched up to March 2014. All prospective cohort studies on the association between sedentary behavior and incident cancer were included. The summary relative risks (RRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated using random effect model.A total of 17 prospective studies from 14 articles, including a total of 857,581 participants and 18,553 cases, were included in the analysis for sedentary behavior and risk of incident cancer. The overall meta-analysis suggested that sedentary behavior increased risk of cancer (RR = 1.20, 95%CI = 1.12-1.28, with no evidence of heterogeneity between studies (I(2 = 7.3%, P = 0.368. Subgroup analyses demonstrated that there were statistical associations between sedentary behavior and some cancer types (endometrial cancer: RR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.08-1.53; colorectal cancer: RR = 1.30, 95%CI = 1.12-1.49; breast cancer: RR = 1.17, 95%CI = 1.03-1.33; lung cancer: RR = 1.27, 95%CI = 1.06-1.52. However, there was no association of sedentary behavior with ovarian cancer (RR = 1.26, 95%CI = 0.87-1.82, renal cell carcinoma (RR = 1.11, 95%CI = 0.87-1.41 or non-Hodgkin lymphoid neoplasms (RR = 1.09, 95%CI = 0.82-1.43.The present meta-analysis suggested that prolonged sedentary behavior was independently associated with an increased risk of incident endometrial, colorectal, breast, and lung cancers, but not with ovarian cancer, renal cell carcinoma or non-Hodgkin lymphoid neoplasms.

  20. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Surawicz, C. M.; Elmer, G. W.; Speelman, P.; McFarland, L. V.; Chinn, J.; van Belle, G.

    1989-01-01

    Saccharomyces boulardii, a nonpathogenic yeast, has been widely used in Europe to prevent antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). We performed a prospective double-blind controlled study to investigate AAD in hospitalized patients and to evaluate the effect of S. boulardii, a living yeast, given in

  1. Autologous Fat Transfer for Thumb Carpometacarpal Joint Osteoarthritis: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Christian; Rennekampff, Hans-Oliver; Groddeck, Robert; Allert, Sixtus

    2017-08-01

    Most operations for carpometacarpal joint osteoarthritis of the thumb irreversibly alter or destroy the anatomy. There is a high demand for minimally invasive alternatives. The authors report the results of autologous fat transfer for treatment of thumb carpometacarpal joint osteoarthritis. In a prospective study, 50 patients with thumb carpometacarpal joint osteoarthritis were observed for 1 year after autologous fat transfer. Manual liposuction and centrifugation were performed. Pain rating according to visual analogue pain scale; objective force of pinch grip and fist closure; and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire scores before and after treatment were analyzed. The average pain in stage 2 patients preoperatively was 7.7 ± 1.3; it was 1.8 ± 1.9 after 6 months and 2.4 ± 3.1 after 12 months. Patients with stage 2 osteoarthritis demonstrated a superior benefit from this treatment compared with patients with either stage 3 or stage 4 thumb carpometacarpal joint osteoarthritis. There were similar improvements for the parameters strength and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire score. No serious adverse events were observed. Autologous fat transplantation is an appealing alternative, especially in early-stage basal joint osteoarthritis of the thumb. The low invasiveness of the procedure and early recovery of patients compared with classical procedures such as trapeziectomy, and the superior long-term results compared with classical injection therapy, make this approach feasible as a first-line therapy in early-stage basal joint osteoarthritis of the thumb. Therapeutic, IV.

  2. Does dairy food intake predict arterial stiffness and blood pressure in men?: Evidence from the Caerphilly Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Katherine M; Lovegrove, Julie A; Cockcroft, John R; Elwood, Peter C; Pickering, Janet E; Givens, D Ian

    2013-01-01

    Arterial stiffness is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease events and mortality, and like blood pressure, may be influenced by dairy food intake. Few studies have investigated the effects of consumption of these foods on prospective measures of arterial stiffness. The present analysis aimed to investigate the prospective relationship between milk, cheese, cream, and butter consumption and aortic pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, as well as cross-sectional relationships between these foods and systolic and diastolic blood pressure and metabolic markers using data from the Caerphilly Prospective Study. Included in this cohort were 2512 men, aged 45 to 59 years, who were followed up at 5-year intervals for a mean of 22.8 years (number follow-up 787). Augmentation index was 1.8% lower in subjects in the highest quartiles of dairy product intake compared with the lowest (P trend=0.021), whereas in the highest group of milk consumption systolic blood pressure was 10.4 mm Hg lower (P trend=0.033) than in nonmilk consumers after a 22.8-year follow-up. Cross-sectional analyses indicated that across increasing quartiles of butter intake, insulin (P trend=0.011), triacylglycerol (P trend=0.023), total cholesterol (P trend=0.002), and diastolic blood pressure (P trend=0.027) were higher. Across increasing groups of milk intake and quartiles of dairy product intake, glucose (P trend=0.032) and triglyceride concentrations (P trend=0.031) were lower, respectively. The present results confirm that consumption of milk predicts prospective blood pressure, whereas dairy product consumption, excluding butter, is not detrimental to arterial stiffness and metabolic markers. Further research is needed to better understand the mechanisms that underpin these relationships.

  3. Diagnostic assessment of painless microhematuria: prospective study comparing image quality, assessibility and diagnostic certainty of multidetector-row CT and intravenous pyelography within a single examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, T.; John, H.; Ruedi, C.; Marincek, B.; Wildermuth, S.; Michael, M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to prospectively compare intravenous pyelography (IVP) and combined unenhanced and excretory phase multidetector-row CT (MDCT) with respect to image quality, diagnostic certainty and diagnostic concordance with the final clinical diagnosis in patients with painless microhematuria. Materials and Methods: Unenhanced MDCT, IVP and excretory phase MDCT were performed in 59 consecutive patients (21 women, 38 men, mean age 56±19 years, range 23-83 years) with painless microhematuria of unknown origin during a single examination with a single contrast media application (100 ml, non-ionic iodinate contrast media). Images were assessed by two experienced urogenital radiologists in consensus for image quality, diagnostic certainty of stone detection, obstruction, parenchymal lesions and morphological distinctive features. Imaging diagnoses of MDCT and IVP were compared with the final clinical diagnoses. In case of failure to detect an relevant pathology, the final clinical diagnosis was established after a mean follow-up period of 18±6 months (10 months to 2 years). Costs and radiation exposure of IVP and MDCT were compared. Results: MDCT scan performed better than IVP in terms of image quality for all regarded variables. Image quality of MDCT was rated in all parameters as very good or good; the image quality of IVP differed in a wide range. MDCT and IVP reached a sensitivity of 100% and 50% for stone detection (n=14, p=0.008), respectively. Two bladder stones were not detected by IVU but correctly seen with MDCT. MDCT and IVP were unsatisfactory for detecting transitional cell carcinomas (n=4, 2 of 4 detected with MDCT, 0 of 4 detected with IVU). One false positive transitional cell carcinoma was detected with IVP, none with MDCT. Additional relevant pathological changes (one teratoma, one abdominal aortic aneurysma and one abscess) were detected using MDCT but missed with IVP. In 38 of 59 patients (64%) imaging and clinical follow

  4. Prospect theory does not describe the feedback-related negativity value function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambrook, Thomas D; Roser, Matthew; Goslin, Jeremy

    2012-12-01

    Humans handle uncertainty poorly. Prospect theory accounts for this with a value function in which possible losses are overweighted compared to possible gains, and the marginal utility of rewards decreases with size. fMRI studies have explored the neural basis of this value function. A separate body of research claims that prediction errors are calculated by midbrain dopamine neurons. We investigated whether the prospect theoretic effects shown in behavioral and fMRI studies were present in midbrain prediction error coding by using the feedback-related negativity, an ERP component believed to reflect midbrain prediction errors. Participants' stated satisfaction with outcomes followed prospect theory but their feedback-related negativity did not, instead showing no effect of marginal utility and greater sensitivity to potential gains than losses. Copyright © 2012 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  5. A Prospective, Randomized Study Comparing 7-day and 14-day ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... and 14-day quadruple therapies as first-line treatments for Helicobacter pylori infection in ..... Furthermore, in a large-scale, multicenter, Japanese study ... Taylor DE, Ge Z, Purych D, Lo T, Hiratsuka K. Cloning and sequence ...

  6. Premorbid personality in schizophrenia spectrum: a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrøm, Morten; Lykke Mortensen, Erik; Sørensen, Holger J

    2006-01-01

    Schizophrenia has been linked with premorbid character anomalies since it was first described. However, few prospective studies of premorbid personality characteristics in schizophrenia and related disorders have been conducted. This study evaluates premorbid personality in children who developed...... to these three diagnostic categories. Twelve-year-old children destined to develop a disorder in the schizophrenia spectrum deviated significantly from healthy controls on a number of personality characteristics: they were rated significantly lower than controls on intelligence, concentration, maturity......, friendliness, cooperation, self-control and significantly higher on aggression. Non-significant trends indicated that this group displayed more deviant personality scores than psychiatric controls. Children who later develop schizophrenia spectrum disorder differed from normal controls with respect to a number...

  7. Study of Tandem Accelerator Technology and Its Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigit-Hariyanto; Sudjatmoko; Djoko-S-Pudjorahardjo; Suryadi; Widdi-Usada; Suprapto; Djasiman; Tono-Wibowo; Agus-Purwadi

    2000-01-01

    Tandem accelerator is an ion acceleration tool in which negative ions injected in the accelerator tube and stripped to become positive ions, then accelerated by electrostatic high voltage such that its energy is multiplied. In this paper, we describe the prospect of accelerator application briefly in agriculture and biotechnology, industry, health and medicine, environment fields. Technical study on tandem accelerator included SNICS and alphatross ion sources, acceleration system and stripper system. The study result for many kinds of negative ions and its current which should be injected in the accelerator tube and the output of tandem accelerator H + , and the distribution of C + , Ni + , Au + , Br + ion on varying charge state is shown. (author)

  8. Laparoscopic versus open cholecystectomy in cirrhotic patients: a prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Awadi, Saleh; El-Nakeeb, Ayman; Youssef, Tamer; Fikry, Amir; Abd El-Hamed, Tito M; Ghazy, Hosam; Foda, Elyamany; Farid, Mohamed

    2009-02-01

    Improved laparoscopic experience and techniques have made laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) feasible options in cirrhotic patients. This study was designed to compare the risk and benefits of open cholecystectomy (OC) versus LC in compensated cirrhosis. A randomized prospective study, in the period from October 2002 till December 2006, where 110 cirrhotic patients with symptomatic gallstone were randomly divided into OC group (55 patients) and LC group (55 patients). There was no operative mortality. In LC group 4 (7.33%) patients were converted to OC. Mean surgical time was significantly longer in OC group than LC group (96.13+17.35 min versus 76.13+15.12) P<0.05, associated with significantly higher intraoperative bleeding in OC group (P<0.01), necessitating blood transfusions to 7 (12.72%) patients in OC group. The time to resume diet was 18.36+8.18 h in LC group which is significantly earlier than in OC group 47.84+14.6h P<0.005. Hospital stay was significantly longer in OC group than LC group (6+1.74 days versus 1.87+1.11 days) P<0.01 with low postoperative morbidity. LC in cirrhotics is still complicated and highly difficult which associates with significant morbidity compared with that of patients without cirrhosis. However, it offers lower morbidity, shorter operative time; early resume dieting with less need for blood transfusion and reducing hospital stay than OC.

  9. Necrotizing soft tissue infections - a multicentre, prospective observational study (INFECT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, M. B.; Skrede, S.; Bruun, T.

    2018-01-01

    these to patient-important outcomes. With this protocol and statistical analysis plan we describe the methods used to obtain data and the details of the planned analyses. Methods: The INFECT study is a multicentre, prospective observational cohort study. Patients with NSTIs are enrolled in five Scandinavian......Background: The INFECT project aims to advance our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms in necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs). The INFECT observational study is part of the INFECT project with the aim of studying the clinical profile of patients with NSTIs and correlating...

  10. A prospective-controlled study of pregnant veterinary staff exposed to inhaled anesthetics and X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuhaiber, S.; Radee, I. C.; Sakkar, M.; Koren, G.; Einarson, A.

    2002-01-01

    Most veterinary staff are women of reproductive age. They are exposed to 'waste' anesthetic gas and ionizing radiation in their workplace, which may endanger fetal safety. Presently, exposure of female veterinary staff to these health hazards has not been adequately addressed in the medical literature. Our primary objective was to investigate the incidence of major malformations associated with occupational exposure to inhaled anesthetics and/or radiation among pregnant veterinary staff. The secondary objective was to determine the rates of other adverse outcomes. We prospectively collected data on and followed-up women occupationally exposed to inhaled anesthetics and/or radiation in veterinary practices in Ontario, and compared them to controls matched for maternal age gestational age at the time of call to the Motherisk Program. A total of 95 women wee prospectively enrolled and followed-up. Among the participants there were 87 (93.5%) and 88 (92.8%) live births in the study and control groups, respectively. There were 4 (4.8%) major birth defects in the study group and 3 (3.4%) in the control group. The rates of spontaneous abortion were also similar, 6 (6.4%) cases in the study group and 7(7.4%) cases in the control group. These results suggest that Ontario female veterinary staff exposed to inhaled anesthetics and/or radiation do not seem to be at an increased risk for major malformations above baseline risk. (author)

  11. The impact of vegan diet on B-12 status in healthy omnivores: five-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mądry, Edyta; Lisowska, Aleksandra; Grebowiec, Philip; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2012-04-02

    There are no long-term prospective studies assessing the impact of the vegan diet on vitamin B-12 (B-12) status. Many vegans take B-12 supplements irregularly or refuse to adopt them at all, considering them to be "unnatural" products. The use of B-12 fortified food may be an alternative. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the long-term effect of a vegan diet on serum B-12 concentrations in healthy omnivore adults, comparing the influence of natural products consumption and B-12 fortified food. A five year prospective study was carried out comprising 20 omnivore healthy adult subjects, who moved to strict vegan diet for 5 years. Ten volunteers followed vegan diet based entirely on natural products, while the remaining ten subjects consumed food fortified in B-12. In all subjects serum vitamin B-12 concentration was determined before and 6, 12, 24 and 60 months after the implementation of the diet. A significant decrease (p vegan diet. However, observed changes were in fact limited to the subgroup consuming exclusively natural products (p vegan diet is associated with the risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency. B-12 fortified products might constitute a valuable alternative in vegans refusing to take vitamin supplements.

  12. Predicting remembering and forgetting of autobiographical memories in children and adults: a 4-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Patricia J; Larkina, Marina

    2016-11-01

    Preservation and loss to forgetting of autobiographical memories is a focus in both the adult and developmental literatures. In both, there are comparative arguments regarding rates of forgetting. Children are assumed to forget autobiographical memories more rapidly than adults, and younger children are assumed to forget more rapidly than older children. Yet few studies can directly inform these comparisons: few feature children and adults, and few prospectively track the survival of specific autobiographical memories over time. In a 4-year prospective study, we obtained autobiographical memories from children 4, 6, and 8 years, and adults. We tested recall of different subsets of the events after 1, 2, and 3 years. Accelerated rates of forgetting were apparent among all child groups relative to adults; within the child groups, 4- and 6-year-olds had accelerated forgetting relative to 8-year-olds. The differences were especially pronounced in open-ended recall. The thematic coherence of initial memory reports also was a significant predictor of the survival of specific memories. The pattern of findings is consistent with suggestions that the adult distribution of autobiographical memories is achieved as the quality of memory traces increases (here measured by thematic coherence) and the rate of forgetting decreases.

  13. Predicting remembering and forgetting of autobiographical memories in children and adults: A 4-year prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Larkina, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Preservation and loss to forgetting of autobiographical memories is a focus in both the adult and developmental literatures. In both, there are comparative arguments regarding rates of forgetting. Children are assumed to forget autobiographical memories more rapidly than adults, and younger children are assumed to forget more rapidly than older children. Yet few studies can directly inform these comparisons: few feature children and adults, and few prospectively track the survival of specific autobiographical memories over time. In a 4-year prospective study, we obtained autobiographical memories from children 4, 6, and 8 years, and adults. We tested recall of different subsets of the events after 1, 2, and 3 years. Accelerated rates of forgetting were apparent among all child groups relative to adults; within the child groups, 4- and 6-year-olds had accelerated forgetting relative to 8-year-olds. The differences were especially pronounced in open-ended recall. The thematic coherence of initial memory reports also was a significant predictor of the survival of specific memories. The pattern of findings is consistent with suggestions that the adult distribution of autobiographical memories is achieved as the quality of memory traces increases (here measured by thematic coherence) and the rate of forgetting decreases. PMID:26566236

  14. Learning by doing? Prospective elementary teachers' developing understandings of scientific inquiry and science teaching and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefner, Leigh Ann; Zembal-Saul, Carla

    This study examined prospective elementary teachers' learning about scientific inquiry in the context of an innovative life science course. Research questions included: (1) What do prospective elementary teachers learn about scientific inquiry within the context of the course? and (2) In what ways do their experiences engaging in science investigations and teaching inquiry-oriented science influence prospective elementary teachers' understanding of science and science learning and teaching? Eleven prospective elementary teachers participated in this qualitative, multi-participant case study. Constant comparative analysis strategies attempted to build abstractions and explanations across participants around the constructs of the study. Findings suggest that engaging in scientific inquiry supported the development more appropriate understandings of science and scientific inquiry, and that prospective teachers became more accepting of approaches to teaching science that encourage children's questions about science phenomena. Implications include careful consideration of learning experiences crafted for prospective elementary teachers to support the development of robust subject matter knowledge.

  15. Pressure Wire Compared to Microcatheter Sensing for Coronary Fractional Flow Reserve: The PERFORM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ziad A; Parviz, Yasir; Brinkman, Matthew; Matsumura, Mitsuaki; Redfors, Björn; Brogno, David A; Corral, Maria D; Fall, Khady N; Mintz, Gary S; Stone, Gregg W; Maehara, Akiko; Jeremias, Allen; Kirtane, Ajay J

    2018-05-15

    Among technologies used to assess FFR, a monorail, sensor-tipped micro pressure catheter (PC) may be advantageous for delivery and re-assessment. We sought to determine whether the larger cross-sectional area of the PC influences FFR measurements compared to the pressure wire. PERFORM was a single-center, prospective study designed to determine the precision and accuracy of the PC compared with the pressure wire (PW) for measurement of FFR. Eligible patients had native coronary artery target lesions with visually estimated diameter stenosis of 40-90%. The independently adjudicated primary endpoint was the difference in hyperemic PW-determined minimal FFR with and without the PC distal to the stenosis. Seventy-four patients (95 lesions) were prospectively analyzed between December 2015 and December 2016. Median hyperemic FFR was 0.84 [IQR 0.78, 0.89] with the PW and 0.79 [IQR 0.73, 0.85] with the PC distal to the stenosis (p0.80 to ≤0.80 in 17 of 95 measurements (19%). Median resting Pd/Pa was lower following introduction of the PC compared with the PW alone (0.93 [IQR 0.90, 0.97] versus 0.90 [IQR 0.86, 0.95], p<0.001). Median pressure drift was not different between the PW and the PC (0.01 [IQR -0.01, 0.05] versus 0.01 [IQR 0.00, 0.02], p=0.38). Introduction of the PC reduced device success and both hyperemic FFR and resting Pd/Pa compared with the PW alone, leading to re-classifying physiological significance to below ischemic threshold in one out of five assessments.

  16. Effect of unilateral and simultaneous bilateral cochlear implantation on tinnitus : A Prospective Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zon, Alice; Smulders, Yvette E.; Ramakers, Geerte G. J.; Stegeman, Inge; Smit, Adriana L.; Van Zanten, Gijsbert A.; Stokroos, Robert J.; Hendrice, Nadia; Free, Rolien H.; Maat, Bert; Frijns, Johan H. M.; Mylanus, Emmanuel A. M.; Huinck, Wendy J.; Topsakal, Vedat; Tange, Rinze A.; Grolman, Wilko

    Objectives/HypothesisTo determine the effect of cochlear implantation on tinnitus perception in patients with severe bilateral postlingual sensorineural hearing loss and to demonstrate possible differences between unilateral and bilateral cochlear implantation. Study DesignProspective study.

  17. The Examining of Prospective Teachers? Views about Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy Sources: A Case Study of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasiloglu, Mehmet Akif

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine prospective teachers? views about renewable and non-renewable energy sources. To collect data, a questionnaire with 5 open-ended questions was conveyed to 463 prospective teachers selected from Agri Ibrahim Cecen University. The results showed that almost three fourths of the prospective teachers tend to…

  18. Comparative Long-Term Effectiveness of a Monotherapy with Five Antiepileptic Drugs for Focal Epilepsy in Adult Patients: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Pan; He, Ru-Qian; Bao, Yi-Xin; Zheng, Rong-Yuan; Xu, Hui-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and compare long-term effectiveness of five antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) for monotherapy of adult patients with focal epilepsy in routine clinical practice. Methods Adult patients with focal epilepsy, who were prescribed with carbamazepine (CBZ), valproate (VPA), lamotrigine (LTG), topiramate (TPM), or oxcarbazepine (OXC) as monotherapy, during the period from January 2004 to June 2012 registered in Wenzhou Epilepsy Follow Up Registry Database (WEFURD), were included in the study. Prospective long-term follow-up was conducted until June 2013. The endpoints were time to treatment failure, time to seizure remission, and time to first seizure. Results This study included 654 patients: CBZ (n=125), VPA (n=151), LTG (n=135), TPM (n=76), and OXC (n=167). The retention rates of CBZ, VPA, LTG, TPM, and OXC at the third year were 36.1%, 32.4%, 57.6%, 37.9%, and 41.8%, respectively. For time to treatment failure, LTG was significantly better than CBZ and VPA (LTG vs. CBZ, hazard ratio, [HR] 0.80 [95% confidence interval: 0.67-0.96], LTG vs. VPA, 0.53 [0.37-0.74]); TPM was worse than LTG (TPM vs. LTG, 1.77 [1.15-2.74]), and OXC was better than VPA (0.86 [0.78-0.96]). After initial target doses, the seizure remission rates of CBZ, VPA, LTG, TPM, and OXC were 63.0%, 77.0%, 83.6%, 67.9%, and 75.3%, respectively. LTG was significantly better than CBZ (1.44 [1.15-1.82]) and OXC (LTG vs. OXC, 0.76 [0.63-0.93]); OXC was less effective than LTG in preventing the first seizure (1.20 [1.02-1.40]). Conclusion LTG was the best, OXC was better than VPA only, while VPA was the worst. The others were equivalent for comparisons between five AEDs regarding the long-term treatment outcomes of monotherapy for adult patients with focal epilepsy in a clinical practice. For selecting AEDs for these patients among the first-line drugs, LTG is an appropriate first choice; others are reservation in the first-line but VPA is not. PMID:26147937

  19. Comparative Long-Term Effectiveness of a Monotherapy with Five Antiepileptic Drugs for Focal Epilepsy in Adult Patients: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Yi Zeng

    Full Text Available To evaluate and compare long-term effectiveness of five antiepileptic drugs (AEDs for monotherapy of adult patients with focal epilepsy in routine clinical practice.Adult patients with focal epilepsy, who were prescribed with carbamazepine (CBZ, valproate (VPA, lamotrigine (LTG, topiramate (TPM, or oxcarbazepine (OXC as monotherapy, during the period from January 2004 to June 2012 registered in Wenzhou Epilepsy Follow Up Registry Database (WEFURD, were included in the study. Prospective long-term follow-up was conducted until June 2013. The endpoints were time to treatment failure, time to seizure remission, and time to first seizure.This study included 654 patients: CBZ (n=125, VPA (n=151, LTG (n=135, TPM (n=76, and OXC (n=167. The retention rates of CBZ, VPA, LTG, TPM, and OXC at the third year were 36.1%, 32.4%, 57.6%, 37.9%, and 41.8%, respectively. For time to treatment failure, LTG was significantly better than CBZ and VPA (LTG vs. CBZ, hazard ratio, [HR] 0.80 [95% confidence interval: 0.67-0.96], LTG vs. VPA, 0.53 [0.37-0.74]; TPM was worse than LTG (TPM vs. LTG, 1.77 [1.15-2.74], and OXC was better than VPA (0.86 [0.78-0.96]. After initial target doses, the seizure remission rates of CBZ, VPA, LTG, TPM, and OXC were 63.0%, 77.0%, 83.6%, 67.9%, and 75.3%, respectively. LTG was significantly better than CBZ (1.44 [1.15-1.82] and OXC (LTG vs. OXC, 0.76 [0.63-0.93]; OXC was less effective than LTG in preventing the first seizure (1.20 [1.02-1.40].LTG was the best, OXC was better than VPA only, while VPA was the worst. The others were equivalent for comparisons between five AEDs regarding the long-term treatment outcomes of monotherapy for adult patients with focal epilepsy in a clinical practice. For selecting AEDs for these patients among the first-line drugs, LTG is an appropriate first choice; others are reservation in the first-line but VPA is not.

  20. Efficacy and safety of two different n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylates for the embolization of varicoceles: a prospective, randomized, blinded study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlangenhove, Peter; De Keukeleire, Katrien; Everaert, Karel; Van Maele, Georges; Defreyne, Luc

    2012-06-01

    This was a prospective, randomized, blinded comparative study of the efficacy and safety of two different n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylates (NBCAs) for embolization of varicoceles. A total of 112 insufficient spermatic veins (left-sided, n=84; right-sided, n=28) that were diagnosed in 83 adult males were prospectively randomized for blinded embolization with NBCA (n=54; Histoacryl, Braun, Germany) or NBCA-MS (n=58; Glubran2, General Enterprise Marketing, Viareggio, Lucca, Italy). Handling, embolic efficacy, and safety of both NBCAs were compared according the fulfillment of a standardized embolization plan, the occlusive effect on the spermatic vein, and the sticking to the microcatheter. Statistical analysis was performed with the Mann-Whitney U test and the Fisher's exact test. Patients of both study arms were comparable for age and clinical indication. Spermatic vein characteristics were comparable for varicocele classification and embolization side. Both NBCAs were equally efficient in occluding the spermatic vein and blocking reflux (NBCA, n=54/54, 100% vs. NBCA-MS, n=54/57, 94.7%; P=0.244). The embolization plan could be accomplished in an equal number of veins for both groups (NBCA, n=45/54, 83.3% vs. NBCA-MS, n=41/58, 70.7%; P=0.124). Adhesiveness of the glue to the microcatheter was the same in both NBCA groups (NBCA, n=25/54, 46.3% vs. NBCA-MS, n=29/58, 50%; P=0.71). No glue-related complications were noted. NBCA and NBCA-MS are equally efficient and safe glues for embolization of varicoceles.

  1. Male infertility after mesh hernia repair: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallén, Magnus; Sandblom, Gabriel; Nordin, Pär; Gunnarsson, Ulf; Kvist, Ulrik; Westerdahl, Johan

    2011-02-01

    Several animal studies have raised concern about the risk for obstructive azoospermia owing to vasal fibrosis caused by the use of alloplastic mesh prosthesis in inguinal hernia repair. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of male infertility after bilateral mesh repair. In a prospective study, a questionnaire inquiring about involuntary childlessness, investigation for infertility and number of children was sent by mail to a group of 376 men aged 18-55 years, who had undergone bilateral mesh repair, identified in the Swedish Hernia Register (SHR). Questionnaires were also sent to 2 control groups, 1 consisting of 186 men from the SHR who had undergone bilateral repair without mesh, and 1 consisting of 383 men identified in the general population. The control group from the SHR was matched 2:1 for age and years elapsed since operation. The control group from the general population was matched 1:1 for age and marital status. The overall response rate was 525 of 945 (56%). Method of approach (anterior or posterior), type of mesh, and testicular status at the time of the repair had no significant impact on the answers to the questions. Nor did subgroup analysis of the men ≤40 years old reveal any significant differences. The results of this prospective study in men do not support the hypothesis that bilateral inguinal hernia repair with alloplastic mesh prosthesis causes male infertility at a significantly greater rate than those operated without mesh. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. International prospective observational study of upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage: Does weekend admission affect outcome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Iain A.; Dalton, Harry R.; Stanley, Adrian J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Out of hours admissions have higher mortality for many conditions but upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage studies have produced variable outcomes. Methods Prospective study of 12 months consecutive admissions of upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage from four international high volume...

  3. Early Oral Feeding After Surgery for Upper Gastrointestinal Malignancies: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Shoar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Poor nutritional status following abdominal surgeries for esophageal and gastric cancers remains a major challenge in postoperative care. Our study aimed to investigate the efficacy of starting early oral feeding (EOF in patients undergoing surgical resection of upper gastrointestinal malignancies. Methods: A total of 180 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of esophageal or gastric malignancies undergoing elective surgical resection between January 2008 and February 2011 were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. Seventy-two patients were assigned to the EOF group, and 108 patients received late oral feeding (LOF. Postoperative endpoints were compared between the two groups. Results: Nasogastric tubes were removed from patients on average 3.3±1.6 days after the surgery in the EOF group and 5.2±2.5 days in the LOF group (p 0.050. Conclusions: EOF is safe following esophageal and gastric cancer surgery and results in faster recovery and hospital discharge.

  4. Ultrasonography, computed tomography, and cholescintigraphy in suspected obstructive jaundice--a prospective comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, P; Malchow-Møller, A; Brun, B

    1983-01-01

    In order to compare their capacity to visualize the bile ducts, ultrasonography, computed tomography, and cholescintigraphy were performed in 56 consecutive jaundiced patients in whom extrahepatic cholestasis was clinically suspected. The predictions as to the patency of the large bill ducts were...

  5. Fruits, vegetables and breast cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aune, D; Chan, D S M; Vieira, A R; Rosenblatt, D A Navarro; Vieira, R; Greenwood, D C; Norat, T

    2012-07-01

    Evidence for an association between fruit and vegetable intake and breast cancer risk is inconclusive. To clarify the association, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence from prospective studies. We searched PubMed for prospective studies of fruit and vegetable intake and breast cancer risk until April 30, 2011. We included fifteen prospective studies that reported relative risk estimates and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of breast cancer associated with fruit and vegetable intake. Random effects models were used to estimate summary relative risks. The summary relative risk (RR) for the highest versus the lowest intake was 0.89 (95 % CI: 0.80-0.99, I (2) = 0 %) for fruits and vegetables combined, 0.92 (95 % CI: 0.86-0.98, I (2) = 9 %) for fruits, and 0.99 (95 % CI: 0.92-1.06, I (2) = 20 %) for vegetables. In dose-response analyses, the summary RR per 200 g/day was 0.96 (95 % CI: 0.93-1.00, I (2) = 2 %) for fruits and vegetables combined, 0.94 (95 % CI: 0.89-1.00, I (2) = 39 %) for fruits, and 1.00 (95 % CI: 0.95-1.06, I (2) = 17 %) for vegetables. In this meta-analysis of prospective studies, high intake of fruits, and fruits and vegetables combined, but not vegetables, is associated with a weak reduction in risk of breast cancer.

  6. 77 FR 48993 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; The Sister Study: A Prospective Study of the Genetic and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Breast Cancer SUMMARY: In compliance with the requirement of... proposed data collection projects, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), the... Sister Study: A Prospective Study of the Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Breast Cancer. Type...

  7. A prospective study of radiographic manifestations in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, Robert H.; Gordon, Leslie B.; Kleinman, Monica E.; Miller, David T.; Gordon, Catherine M.; Snyder, Brian D.; Nazarian, Ara; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Neuberg, Donna; Kieran, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Progeria is a rare segmental premature aging disease with significant skeletal abnormalities. Defining the full scope of radiologic abnormalities requires examination of a large proportion of the world's progeria population (estimated at 1 in 4 million). There has been no comprehensive prospective study describing the skeletal abnormalities associated with progeria. To define characteristic radiographic features of this syndrome. Thirty-nine children with classic progeria, ages 2-17 years, from 29 countries were studied at a single site. Comprehensive radiographic imaging studies were performed. Sample included 23 girls and 16 boys - the largest number of patients with progeria evaluated prospectively to date. Eight new and two little known progeria-associated radiologic findings were identified (frequencies of 3-36%). Additionally, 23 commonly reported findings were evaluated. Of these, 2 were not encountered and 21 were present and ranked according to their frequency. Nine abnormalities were associated with increasing patient age (P = 0.02-0.0001). This study considerably expands the radiographic morphological spectrum of progeria. A better understanding of the radiologic abnormalities associated with progeria and improved understanding of the biology of progerin (the molecule responsible for this disease), will improve our ability to treat the spectrum of bony abnormalities. (orig.)

  8. A 15-Year Comparative Prospective Study of Surgical and Prosthetic Care and Aftercare of Overdenture Treatment in the Atrophied Mandible : Augmentation Versus Nonaugmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Anita; Stellingsma, Cornelis; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Meijer, Henny J. A.; Vissink, Arjan

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundDifferent treatment strategies for the atrophied mandible are described in literature. The need for long term care and aftercare for these strategies is sparsely described, however. PurposeTo prospectively assess the need for prosthetic and surgical care and aftercare of two implant

  9. Workplace bullying and depressive symptoms: a prospective study among junior physicians in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loerbroks, Adrian; Weigl, Matthias; Li, Jian; Glaser, Jürgen; Degen, Christiane; Angerer, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The relationship between workplace bullying and depression may be bi-directional. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the depressogenic effect of bullying may only become evident after reasonable periods of follow-up (i.e., >1 year). As prospective evidence remains sparse and inconsistent, we used data from a three-wave prospective study to disentangle this potentially bi-directional relationship. In 2004, 621 junior hospital physicians participated in a survey and were followed-up 1.2 years and 2.8 years later. Prospective analyses were restricted to participants with complete data at all assessments (n=507 or 82%). To measure workplace bullying, a description of bullying at work was provided followed by an item inquiring whether the respondent felt she/he had been exposed. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the state scale of the German Spielberger's State-Trait Depression Scales. Multivariate linear regression suggested that workplace bullying at baseline predicted increased depressive symptoms both after 1 year (b=1.43, p=0.01) and after 3 years of follow-up (b=1.58, p=0.01). Multivariate Poisson regression models revealed that the depressive symptom z-score at baseline was associated with an increased risk of bullying at the 3-year follow-up (relative risk [RR]=1.49, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.13-1.97). This association was less pronounced after 1 year of follow-up (RR=1.19, 95% CI=0.90-1.59). Our study suggests bi-directional associations between depressive symptoms and victimization from bullying at the workplace. Future prospective studies are needed to examine underlying biopsychosocial mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cardiovascular screening in adolescents and young adults: a prospective study comparing the Pre-participation Physical Evaluation Monograph 4th Edition and ECG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudge, Jessie; Harmon, Kimberly G; Owens, David S; Prutkin, Jordan M; Salerno, Jack C; Asif, Irfan M; Haruta, Alison; Pelto, Hank; Rao, Ashwin L; Toresdahl, Brett G; Drezner, Jonathan A

    2014-08-01

    This study compares the accuracy of cardiovascular screening in active adolescents and young adults using a standardised history, physical examination and resting 12-lead ECG. Participants were prospectively screened using a standardised questionnaire based on the Pre-participation Physical Evaluation Monograph 4th Edition (PPE-4), physical examination and ECG interpreted using modern standards. Participants with abnormal findings had focused echocardiography and further evaluation. Primary outcomes included disorders associated with sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). From September 2010 to July 2011, 1339 participants underwent screening: age 13-24 (mean 16) years, 49% male, 68% Caucasian, 17% African-American and 1071 (80%) participating in organised sports. Abnormal history responses were reported on 916 (68%) questionnaires. After physician review, 495/916 (54%) participants with positive questionnaires were thought to have non-cardiac symptoms and/or a benign family history and did not warrant additional evaluation. Physical examination was abnormal in 124 (9.3%) participants, and 72 (5.4%) had ECG abnormalities. Echocardiograms were performed in 586 (44%) participants for abnormal history (31%), physical examination (8%) or ECG (5%). Five participants (0.4%) were identified with a disorder associated with SCA, all with ECG-detected Wolff-Parkinson-White. The false-positive rates for history, physical examination and ECG were 31.3%, 9.3% and 5%, respectively. A standardised history and physical examination using the PPE-4 yields a high false-positive rate in a young active population with limited sensitivity to identify those at risk for SCA. ECG screening has a low false-positive rate using modern interpretation standards and improves detection of primary electrical disease at risk of SCA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Taste disturbance following tonsillectomy--a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Clemens; Landis, Basile N; Giger, Roland; Cao Van, Helene; Guinand, Nils; Hörmann, Karl; Stuck, Boris A

    2010-10-01

    Persistent taste disturbance is a rare complication after tonsillectomy and mainly documented by case reports or a few retrospective and prospective trials with a limited number of patients. None could clarify frequency, time course, or prognosis of long-lasting dysgeusia after tonsillectomy. The aim of the study was to provide a symptom-based follow-up after tonsillectomy to assess postoperative taste disorders. Prospective clinical trial. From December 2007 to June 2009 adult patients undergoing tonsillectomy were asked to take part in the trial. Two hundred twenty-three patients (119 female, 104 male; mean age, 33 ± 13 years) were included. The day prior to surgery, and 2 weeks and 6 months after tonsillectomy a standardized questionnaire was completed by patients. The questionnaire focused on taste function, taste disorders, pain, foreign body sensation, and bleeding episodes after tonsillectomy. One hundred eighty-eight (2 weeks) and 181 (6 months) patients returned the questionnaires. Thirty-two percent (n = 60) of patients reported taste disorders after tonsillectomy 2 weeks postoperatively and 15 patients (8%) at 6-month follow-up. Metallic and bitter parageusia were most frequently reported. The mean ratings of gustatory function were significantly lower 2 weeks after surgery (P < .001) and reached preoperative values 6 months after surgery. Almost 30% of patients reported postoperative bleeding, 10% long-lasting postoperative pain, and 20% foreign body sensation. Long-lasting taste disturbance (metallic and bitter parageusia) after tonsillectomy is more frequent than previously reported. Long-lasting pain and foreign body sensation seem to be common symptoms. With regard to these results, a thorough preoperative explanation is mandatory.

  12. Prospective multicenter randomized controlled trial comparing adenoma detection rate in colonoscopy using water exchange, water immersion, and air insufflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yu-Hsi; Tseng, Chih-Wei; Hu, Chi-Tan; Koo, Malcolm; Leung, Felix W

    2017-07-01

    Adenoma detection rate (ADR), defined as the proportion of patients with at least one adenoma of any size, is a quality indicator. We tested the hypothesis that water exchange (WE) improves ADR but water immersion (WI) has no adverse effect on ADR compared with air insufflation (AI). A prospective study was conducted at the Dalin Tzu Chi Hospital in southern Taiwan and the Hualien Tzu Chi Hospital in eastern Taiwan on patients randomly assigned to WE, WI, or AI with stratification by the 3 study colonoscopists. The primary outcome was ADR. From July 2013 to December 2015, 651 patients were recruited and randomized into 3 groups with a 1:1:1 ratio (217 patients per group). Overall, ADR met quality standards: WE 49.8% (95% CI, 43.2%-56.4%), AI 37.8% (95% CI, 31.6%-44.4%), and WI 40.6% (95% CI, 34.2%-47.2%). Compared with AI, WE significantly increased ADR (P = .016). There was no difference between WI and WE. ADRs of WI and AI were comparable. Compared with AI, WE confirmed a longer insertion time, higher cleanliness score, but similar adenoma per positive colonoscopy (APPC) and withdrawal time with polypectomy. Subgroup analysis found WE significantly increased ADR in propofol-sedated patients. Multivariate generalized linear mixed model analysis revealed that age ≥50 years, WE (vs AI), colonoscopy indication, no previous history of colonoscopy, and withdrawal time >8 minutes were significant predictors of increased ADR. Confirmation of prior reports showing WE, but not WI, increased ADR further strengthened the validity of our observations. WE significantly increased ADR in propofol-sedated patients. The outcome differences justify assessment of the role of WE in colorectal cancer prevention. Similar APPC and withdrawal times suggest that adequate inspection was performed on colonoscope withdrawal in each of the study arms. (Clinical trial registration number: NCT01894191.). Copyright © 2017 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. All rights reserved.

  13. Location-based prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rear, Andrea E; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2018-02-01

    This study explores location-based prospective memory. People often have to remember to do things when in a particular location, such as buying tissues the next time they are in the supermarket. For event cognition theory, location is important for structuring events. However, because event cognition has not been used to examine prospective memory, the question remains of how multiple events will influence prospective memory performance. In our experiments, people delivered messages from store to store in a virtual shopping mall as an ongoing task. The prospective tasks were to do certain activities in certain stores. For Experiment 1, each trial involved one prospective memory task to be done in a single location at one of three delays. The virtual environment and location cues were effective for prospective memory, and performance was unaffected by delay. For Experiment 2, each trial involved two prospective memory tasks, given in either one or two instruction locations, and to be done in either one or two store locations. There was improved performance when people received instructions from two locations and did both tasks in one location relative to other combinations. This demonstrates that location-based event structure influences how well people perform on prospective memory tasks.

  14. Low Self-Esteem during Adolescence Predicts Poor Health, Criminal Behavior, and Limited Economic Prospects during Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Robins, Richard W.; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2006-01-01

    Using prospective data from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study birth cohort, the authors found that adolescents with low self-esteem had poorer mental and physical health, worse economic prospects, and higher levels of criminal behavior during adulthood, compared with adolescents with high self-esteem. The long-term…

  15. Physical activity and risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallo, Valentina; Vanacore, Nicola; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brayne, Carol; Pearce, Neil; Wark, Petra A.; Ward, Heather A.; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Andersen, Peter M.; Wennberg, Patrik; Wareham, Nicholas; Katzke, Verena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Peeters, Petra H.; Mattiello, Amalia; Pala, Valeria; Barricante, Aurelio; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Travier, Noémie; Travis, Ruth C.; Sanchez, Maria Jose; Pessah-Rasmussen, Hélène; Petersson, Jesper; Tjønneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; Quiros, Jose Ramon; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Kyrozis, Andreas; Oikonomidou, Despoina; Masala, Giovanna; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Arriola, Larraitz; Boeing, Heiner; Vigl, Matthaeus; Claver-Chapelon, Francoise; Middleton, Lefkos; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Previous case–control studies have suggested a possible increased risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) with physical activity (PA), but this association has never been studied in prospective cohort studies. We therefore assessed the association between PA and risk of death from ALS in the

  16. Physical activity and risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallo, Valentina; Vanacore, Nicola; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brayne, Carol; Pearce, Neil; Wark, Petra A; Ward, Heather A; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Andersen, Peter M; Wennberg, Patrik; Wareham, Nicholas; Katzke, Verena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Peeters, Petra H; Mattiello, Amalia; Pala, Valeria; Barricante, Aurelio; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Travier, Noémie; Travis, Ruth C; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Pessah-Rasmussen, Hélène; Petersson, Jesper; Tjønneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; Quiros, Jose Ramon; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Kyrozis, Andreas; Oikonomidou, Despoina; Masala, Giovanna; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Arriola, Larraitz; Boeing, Heiner; Vigl, Matthaeus; Claver-Chapelon, Francoise; Middleton, Lefkos; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo

    Previous case-control studies have suggested a possible increased risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) with physical activity (PA), but this association has never been studied in prospective cohort studies. We therefore assessed the association between PA and risk of death from ALS in the

  17. A prospective pilot study of Dilapan-S compared with Propess for induction of labour at 41+ weeks in nulliparous pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, David A; O'Reilly, Claire; McHale, Helen; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Mahony, Rhona

    2017-12-21

    The incidence of labour induction has risen worldwide over the past decade, and this may contribute to the rising caesarean delivery rate. The mechanisms for induction of labour are generally divided into two categories: mechanical and pharmacological. The objective of this study was to determine if mechanical induction with Dilapan-S is an acceptable, safe method of induction of labour in post-dates uncomplicated nulliparous pregnancy. This was a single-centre prospective observational pilot study trial. Fifty-two low-risk nulliparous women with an unfavourable cervix, scheduled for induction of labour for post-dates ≥ 41 weeks gestation, were offered induction of labour with Dilapan-S or Propess from May 2016 until November 2016. The primary outcomes measured were compliance to study protocol and maternal (infection, hyperstimulation) and neonatal outcomes (Apgar score at birth). The secondary outcome measures included change in Bishop's score and caesarean delivery rate. Compliance to study protocol was 25/26 (96%); it was possible to insert Dilapan-S in all but one woman. There were no differences in maternal and neonatal primary outcomes between the groups. There were no cases in either arm of hyperstimulation with either induction method. No difference between the groups was noted in the caesarean delivery rate nor in the mean change in Bishop's score. Dilapan-S is an acceptable, safe form of induction of labour in post-dates uncomplicated nulliparous pregnancy. No cases of hyperstimulation were found, and therefore, Dilapan-S may be a suitable option for outpatient induction of labour in low-risk post-dates nulliparas.

  18. A prospective, comparative, evaluator-blind clinical study investigating efficacy and safety of two injection techniques with Radiesse ® for the correction of skin changes in aging hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena I Gubanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dermal fillers are used to correct age-related changes in hands. Aims: Assess efficacy and safety of two injection techniques to treat age-related changes in the hands using calcium hydroxylapatite filler, Radiesse ® . Settings and Design: This was a prospective, comparative, evaluator-blind, single-center study. Materials and Methods: Radiesse ® (0.8 mL/0.2 mL 2% lidocaine was injected subdermally on Day (D01, using a needle multipoint technique in one hand (N and a fan-like cannula technique in the other (C. Assessments were made pre-injection, on D14, Month (M02, M03 and M05 using the Merz Aesthetics Hand Grading Scale (MAS and Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale (GAIS. Participants completed questionnaires on satisfaction, pain and adverse events (AEs. Statistical Analysis Used: Data distribution was tested with the Shapiro-Wilk and Levene′s tests. The Wilcoxon signed-rank and Chi-square tests were employed to evaluate quantitative and qualitative data, respectively. Results: All 10 participants completed the study, four opted for a M03 touch-up (0.8 mL Radiesse ® . Evaluator-assessed mean GAIS scores were between 2 (significant improvement but not complete correction and 3 (optimal cosmetic result at each time point. The MAS score improved from D01 to M05 (N: 2.60 to 1.40; C: 2.20 to 1.30. Following treatment, participants reported skin was softer, more elastic, more youthful and less wrinkled. Other than less noticeable veins and tendons on the C hand, no differences in participant satisfaction were noted. All AEs were mild, with no serious AEs reported. Conclusions: Both injection techniques (needle and cannula demonstrated equivalent clinical efficacy with a comparable safety profile for the correction of age-related changes in hands with Radiesse ® .

  19. Prospective economical study of the nuclear power file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpin, J.M.; Dessus, B.; Pellat, R.

    2000-07-01

    On May 7, 1999 an economical study of the overall nuclear file, and in particular, of the back-end part of the fuel cycle and including the reprocessing, was requested by the French Prime Minister. This study includes the cost comparisons with the other means of power production and takes into consideration the environmental costs. The study is shared into five chapters dealing with: 1 - the legacy of the past: todays park of nuclear plants, economical and material status; 2 - the international evolution: the dynamics of nuclear policies worldwide (existing parks and R and D programs), the rise of environmental problems worldwide (CO 2 and the climate convention, nuclear risks, attempts of including environment in the power costs), the choices made for the management of spent fuels in the main countries; 3 - the technological prospects for the power production and use: technologies for the mastery of power demand (residential, industrial and tertiary sectors, power transportation), technologies of power production (production from nuclear, fossil and renewable energies); 4 - prospective scenarios for France: two demand scenarios at the year 2050 vista (energy, electric power), power supply (supply structure with respect to scenarios, nuclear parks, power capacities), environmental aspects (CO 2 emissions, plutonium and minor actinides production); 5 - the economical status of the different scenarios: data preparation, fossil fuel price scenarios, investment and operation costs of the different power production means (nuclear, fossil and renewable energies, natural gas and power distribution networks), comparison between fluxes and cumulated economic costs linked with the different scenarios (investments, exploitation, fuels, R and D, status for 2000 to 2050), time structure of expenditures with respect to the different scenarios (chronology, statuses, kWh costs, sensitivity with respect to the rate of discount, valorization of existing parks in 2050), cost overruns

  20. Study on metallogenetic prospect of interlayer oxidation zone sandstone type uranium deposit in Shanganning basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinping

    1998-01-01

    As Compared with orogenic zone basin, which the interlayer oxidation zone sandstone type uranium deposits are found, the Shanganning basin a continental platform type basin is distinct either in the geodynamic background and the post-basin hydrogeological evolution or in the appearance of the metallogenetic dynamics-orogenesis. The prediction criteria summarized for interlayer oxidation zone type U-deposits in Middle Asia therefore can not be completely applied in such a basin. Based on analysis of the typical regional geological setting, the hydrogeology of the Meso-Cenozoic cover is studied in detail. Three hydrogeological cycles have been divided, and prospects of uranium deposits have been clarified and the most promising target have been proposed