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Sample records for prospective community study

  1. Arthritis in adults with community-acquired bacterial meningitis: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weisfelt, M.; van de Beek, D.; Spanjaard, L.; de Gans, J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Although the coexistence of bacterial meningitis and arthritis has been noted in several studies, it remains unclear how often both conditions occur simultaneously. Methods: We evaluated the presence of arthritis in a prospective nationwide cohort of 696 episodes of community-acquired

  2. Pharmacists' interventions on prescription problems in one French community pharmacy: A prospective pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castronovo, A; Gervais, F; Mongaret, C; Slimano, F

    2018-03-16

    While many international studies widely describe pharmacists' interventions (PIs) on drug-related problems (DRP) in community pharmacies, in France, these activities are underreported. The aim of this study is to describe the PI rate, given as the number of interventions in among all prescriptions reviewed during the study period. This study was conducted in one French rural community pharmacy during a 7-month period. Age, sex, type of prescriber, type of problems, intervention and the outcome were prospectively recorded. PIs were prospectively formalized and classified using the validated tool from the French Society of Clinical Pharmacy. In addition, all interventions were reviewed by an independent pharmacist. Among the 20,238 prescriptions, n=211 pharmacists' interventions on 159 prescriptions (0.79%) were performed. Prescriptions were ordered by general practitioners in 78.6%. The most common DRP were the improper prescription (30.8%), a drug or medical device not received by the patient (21.8%, all linked to drug shortages) or a dosage problem (18.9%). Antibiotics were the most common drugs involved in DRP (13.3%). The main PI were the drug switch/establishment of a therapeutic alternative (38.4%), dose adjustment (25.6%) and optimization of the dispensing/administration modalities (25.1%). The overall acceptance rate of PIs was 93.4%. We found a PI rate, as well as acceptance rate by prescribers, in the same range than as reported in studies performed in other countries. A consequent large part percentage of PIs can be classified as "administrative". This first prospective French study needs to be further supported by multi-site studies. Copyright © 2018 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. A risk profile for identifying community-dwelling elderly with a highrisk of recurrent falling: results of a 3-year prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluym, S.M.F.; Smit, J.H.; Tromp, A.M.; Stel, V.S.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Bouter, L.M.; Lips, P.T.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the prospective study reported here was to develop a risk profile that can be used to identify community-dwelling elderly at a high risk of recurrent falling. Materials and methods: The study was designed as a 3-year prospective cohort study. A total of 1365

  4. One-year prospective replication study of an untreated sample of community dysthymia subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, J P; McCune, K J; Kaye, A L; Braith, J A; Friend, R; Roberts, W C; Belyea-Caldwell, S; Norris, S L; Hampton, C

    1994-07-01

    This study replicates an earlier naturalistic-prospective investigation of nontreatment, community DSM-III-R dysthymia subjects. Major goals were to determine spontaneous remission rates and monitor the stability of psychosocial functioning levels over time. Twenty-four dysthymia subjects were followed for 1 year. Three remissions (13%) were diagnosed at the final interview. At a 4-year diagnostic follow-up contact with the remitters only, one remitter had relapsed and two remained in remission. Subjects were monitored for depressive symptom intensity, personality functioning, general medical distress, cognitive functioning, coping stylistics, interpersonal functioning, quality of their social support resources, and general family functioning. Stable levels of psychosocial functioning were maintained across all measures over the 1-year period. Current psychometric findings confirm the conclusions of the earlier nontreatment prospective study that dysthymia is a chronic mood disorder with stable psychosocial features and is unlikely to remit spontaneously over time.

  5. Acquired pneumonias in the community in adults: An etiologic prospective study with emphasis in the diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robledo, J; Sierra, P; Bedoya, F; Londono, A; Porras, A; Lujan, M; Correa, N; Mejia, GI; Realpe, T; Trujillo, H

    2003-01-01

    Is defined prospectively in adults the etiology of acquired pneumonia in the community (NAC) in three hospitals of the city of Medellin. The etiology of NAC in the studied group does not vary of the one reported in other countries, the pneumococo frequency and M. pneumoniae, suggests that the empiric therapies should contemplate these two pathologies, the resource toasted by the microbiology laboratory allows to define the etiology and the specific treatment

  6. Sarcopenia as a Risk Factor for Cognitive Deterioration in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A 1-Year Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiguchi, Shu; Yamada, Minoru; Shirooka, Hidehiko; Nozaki, Yuma; Fukutani, Naoto; Tashiro, Yuto; Hirata, Hinako; Yamaguchi, Moe; Tasaka, Seishiro; Matsushita, Tomofumi; Matsubara, Keisuke; Tsuboyama, Tadao; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this 1-year prospective study was to determine whether sarcopenia is an independent risk factor of cognitive deterioration in community-dwelling older adults. One-year prospective study. Japanese community. A total of 131 community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years and older participated in this study. We defined sarcopenia using the diagnostic algorithm recommended by the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia, and the participants were classified into the sarcopenia and normal groups according to this definition. The participants' cognitive functions were assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) during pre- and postdata collection (after 1 year). The rate of change in pre- and post-MMSE scores during the follow-up term was significantly different between the 2 groups (normal group, -0.32 ± 8.39%; sarcopenia group, -5.86 ± 5.16%; P = .002). The analysis of covariance, adjusted for demographic data and the pre-MMSE scores, showed a significant change in the MMSE scores between the normal and sarcopenia group (F = 9.30, P = .003). Furthermore, in the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the cognitive function was significantly more likely to deteriorate (defined as a loss of at least 2 points of MMSE) in the sarcopenia group during the follow-up term (odds ratio: 7.86, 95% confidence interval: 1.53-40.5). Sarcopenia was identified as an independent risk factor of cognitive deterioration in community-dwelling older adults during the 1-year study period. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Clinical Risk Score for Atrial Fibrillation in a Biracial Prospective Cohort (From the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, Alanna M.; Agarwal, Sunil K.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Chambless, Lloyd E.; Crow, Richard; Ambrose, Marietta; Alonso, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    A risk score for AF has been developed by the Framingham Heart Study; however the applicability of this risk score, derived from whites, to predict new-onset AF in non-whites is uncertain. Therefore, we developed a 10-year risk score for new-onset AF using risk factors commonly measured in clinical practice using 14,546 individuals from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, a prospective community-based cohort of blacks and whites in the United States. During 10 years of follow-up, 5...

  8. Comparison between pathogen directed antibiotic treatment and empirical broad spectrum antibiotic treatment in patients with community acquired pneumonia: a prospective randomised study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Eerden, M. M.; Vlaspolder, F.; de Graaff, C. S.; Groot, T.; Bronsveld, W.; Jansen, H. M.; Boersma, W. G.

    2005-01-01

    Background: There is much controversy about the ideal approach to the management of community acquired pneumonia ( CAP). Recommendations differ from a pathogen directed approach to an empirical strategy with broad spectrum antibiotics. Methods: In a prospective randomised open study performed

  9. Prospective study of a community reintegration programme for patients with acquired chronic brain injury: effects on caregivers' emotional burden and family functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurtsen, Gert J.; van Heugten, Caroline M.; Meijer, Ron; Martina, Juan D.; Geurts, Alexander C. H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of a residential community reintegration programme for patients with psychosocial problems due to acquired chronic brain injury on caregivers' emotional burden and family functioning. Design: A prospective cohort study with waiting list control and 1-year follow-up.

  10. Seymour Sarason in Memorial: Prospects for Community and Social Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maton, Kenneth I.

    2012-01-01

    Seymour Sarason passed away on January 10, 2010 at the age of 91. He was the author of more than 40 books, including The Culture of the School and the Problem of Change (1971), The Creation of Settings and the Future Societies (1972), and The Psychological Sense of Community: Prospects for a Community Psychology (1974). His groundbreaking ideas…

  11. Responsiveness to a Prospective Student E-Mail Inquiry by Community Colleges in the Nine Mega-States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadinger, David A.

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated e-mail responsiveness by community colleges in the nine mega-states to an inquiry from a prospective student. Noel-Levitz (2006b) reported that prospective students want to receive an e-mail with information about an institution prior to applying for admission. Specifically, high school juniors and seniors want…

  12. Decoding the Digital Campus Climate for Prospective LGBTQ+ Community Colleges Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jason L.; Dockendorff, Kari J.; Inselman, Kyle

    2018-01-01

    LGBTQ+ students are increasingly visible on community college campuses, and a safe and welcoming campus climate is critical to LGBTQ+ students' academic success and well-being. Campus climate is difficult to assess for prospective LGBTQ+ community college students, and institutional websites may be a source of information about campus climate.…

  13. Onset and Progression of Disruptive Behavior Problems among Community Boys and Girls: A Prospective Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Jaelyn R.; Nicholson, Jody S.; Borkowski, John G.; Whitman, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder are the most common forms of psychopathology seen among community youth. This study investigated prospective symptomatology of these disruptive behavior disorders from ages 5 though 14 in an at-risk community-based sample of 170 boys and girls born to…

  14. Long-Term Cognitive Impairment after Hospitalization for Community-Acquired Pneumonia: a Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Timothy D; Self, Wesley H; Edwards, Kathryn M; Grijalva, Carlos G; Zhu, Yuwei; Williams, Derek J; Jain, Seema; Jackson, James C

    2018-06-01

    Recent studies suggest older patients hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia are at risk for new-onset cognitive impairment. The characteristics of long-term cognitive impairment after pneumonia, however, have not been elucidated. To characterize long-term cognitive impairment among adults of all ages hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia. Prospective cohort study. Adults without severe preexisting cognitive impairment who were hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. At enrollment, we estimated baseline cognitive function with the Short Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE). At 2- and 12-month follow-up, we assessed cognition using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) and tests of executive function, diagnosing cognitive impairment when results were ≥ 1.5 standard deviations below published age-adjusted means for the general population. We also identified subtypes of mild cognitive impairment using standard definitions. We assessed 58 (73%) of 80 patients who survived to 2-month follow-up and 57 (77%) of 74 who survived to 12-month follow-up. The median [range] age of survivors tested was 57 [19-97] years. Only 8 (12%) had evidence of mild cognitive impairment at baseline according to the Short IQCODE, but 21 (38%) at 2 months and 17 (30%) at 12 months had mild cognitive impairment per the RBANS. Moderate-to-severe cognitive impairment was common among adults ≥ 65 years [4/13 (31%) and 5/13 (38%) at 2 and 12 months, respectively] but also affected many of those cognitive domains affected one-third of patients ≥ 65 years old and 20% of younger patients, and another third of survivors had mild cognitive impairment.

  15. Factors affecting incidence of dry socket: a prospective community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathi, Krishnan; Smith, Andrew; Chandu, Arun

    2011-07-01

    Dry socket, or alveolar osteitis, can occur because of the removal of teeth. No clear etiology has been acknowledged; however, numerous risk factors have been proposed and tested. We report on the results of a prospective, multicenter study of the incidence and factors affecting the occurrence of alveolar osteitis at the Royal Dental Hospital of Melbourne and Community Dental Clinics in Melbourne, Australia. Ethics approval was gained from the University of Melbourne and Dental Health Services Victoria. The data were analyzed in a descriptive fashion, and the factors affecting alveolar osteitis were assessed using logistic regression analysis. The incidence of alveolar osteitis was 2.3% of all teeth extracted, with 4.2% of all patients experiencing alveolar osteitis in a public dental setting. Multivariate analysis revealed operator experience, perioperative crown and root fractures, periodontal disease, posterior teeth, and, interestingly, the use of mental health medications to be significant independent risk factors for the development of alveolar osteitis. No alveolar osteitis was reported in patients taking antibiotics, the oral contraceptive pill, bisphosphonates, or oral steroid drugs. Smoking and extraction technique (either operative or nonoperative) were also not found to significantly affect the development of alveolar osteitis. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The communities first (ComFi) study: protocol for a prospective controlled quasi-experimental study to evaluate the impact of area-wide regeneration on mental health and social cohesion in deprived communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James; Greene, Giles; Dunstan, Frank; Rodgers, Sarah; Lyons, Ronan A; Humphreys, Ioan; John, Ann; Webster, Chris; Palmer, Stephen; Elliott, Eva; Phillips, Ceri J; Fone, David

    2014-10-14

    Recent systematic reviews have highlighted the dearth of evidence on the effectiveness of regeneration on health and health inequalities. 'Communities First' is an area-wide regeneration scheme to improve the lives of people living in the most deprived areas in Wales (UK). This study will evaluate the impact of Communities First on residents' mental health and social cohesion. A prospective controlled quasi-experimental study of the association between residence in Communities First regeneration areas in Caerphilly county borough and change in mental health and social cohesion. The study population is the 4226 residents aged 18-74 years who responded to the Caerphilly Health and Social Needs Study in 2001 (before delivery) and 2008 (after delivery of Communities First). Data on the location, type and cost of Communities First interventions will be extracted from records collected by Caerphilly county borough council. The primary outcome is the change in mental health between 2001 and 2008. Secondary outcomes are changes: in common mental disorder case status (using survey and general practice data), social cohesion and mental health inequalities. Multilevel models will examine change in mental health and social cohesion between Communities First and control areas, adjusting for individual and household level confounding factors. Further models will examine the effects of (1) different types of intervention, (2) contamination across areas, (3) length of residence in a Communities First area, and (4) population migration. We will carry out a cost-consequences analysis to summarise the outcomes generated for participants, as well as service utilisation and utility gains. This study has had approval from the Information Governance Review Panel at Swansea University (Ref: 0266 CF). Findings will be disseminated through peer-review publications, international conferences, policy and practice partners in local and national government, and updates on our study website

  17. Who gets help for pre-school communication problems? Data from a prospective community study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeat, J; Wake, M; Ukoumunne, O C; Eadie, P; Bretherton, L; Reilly, S

    2014-03-01

    Pre-school communication problems are common, with implications for school readiness and educational achievement. Help is available from a variety of community healthcare providers. This study examined the extent to which help is received, and the predictors of service receipt. Prospective community study, in Melbourne, Victoria. At age 4 years, we assessed the speech, receptive and expressive language and fluency of 1607 children and gave feedback to their parents. At age 5 years, 983 families provided data on service use for communication problems between and 4 and 5 years. We compared service use between participants with and without impairment, and used logistic regression to estimate the strength of association between potential predictors (gender, socio-economic status, maternal education, English-speaking background status, family history of speech and language problems and parent concern) and service use (binary outcome). Data were available for both communication status and service use for 753 children. Only 44.9% of the 196 children with communication impairment received help from a professional. Furthermore, 7% of the 557 that did not meet criteria for communication impairment nevertheless received help from a professional. Parent concern was the strongest predictor of service use (adjusted odds ratio = 9.0; 95% CI: 5.6-14.8). Both over- and under-servicing for communication problems were evident. This study shows that accessing help for communication problems requires more than simply informing parents about the problem and having services available; there is a need for systematic support to get the right children to services. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A community-based prospective cohort study of dengue viral infection in Malaysia: the study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, Nowrozy Kamar; Ahmad, Mohtar Pungut; Dhanoa, Amreeta; Meng, Cheong Yuet; Ming, Lau Wee; Reidpath, Daniel D; Allotey, Pascale; Zaini, Anuar; Phipps, Maude Elvira; Fatt, Quek Kia; Rabu, Aman Bin; Sirajudeen, Rowther; Fatan, Ahmad AbdulBasitz Ahmad; Ghafar, Faidzal Adlee; Ahmad, Hamdan Bin; Othman, Iekhsan; SyedHassan, Sharifah

    2016-08-11

    Globally, dengue infections constitute a significant public health burden. In recent decades, Malaysia has become a dengue hyper-endemic country with the co-circulation of the four dengue virus serotypes. The cyclical dominance of sub-types contributes to a pattern of major outbreaks. The consequences can be observed in the rising incidence of reported dengue cases and dengue related deaths. Understanding the complex interaction of the dengue virus, its human hosts and the mosquito vectors at the community level may help develop strategies for addressing the problem. A prospective cohort study will be conducted in Segamat district of Johor State in Peninsular Malaysia. Researchers received approval from the Malaysian Medical Research Ethics Committee and Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee. The study will be conducted at a Malaysian based health and demographic surveillance site over a 1 year period in three different settings (urban, semi-urban and rural). The study will recruit healthy adults (male and female) aged 18 years and over, from three ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indian). The sample size calculated using the Fleiss method with continuity correction is 333. Sero-surveillance of participants will be undertaken to identify asymptomatic, otherwise healthy cases; cases with dengue fever who are managed as out-patients; and cases with dengue fever admitted to a hospital. A genetic analysis of the participants will be undertaken to determine whether there is a relationship between genetic predisposition and disease severity. A detailed medical history, past history of dengue infection, vaccination history against other flaviviruses such as Japanese encephalitis and Yellow fever, and the family history of dengue infection will also be collected. In addition, a mosquito surveillance will be carried out simultaneously in recruitment areas to determine the molecular taxonomy of circulating vectors. The research findings will estimate the burden

  19. Novel use of the Wii Balance Board to prospectively predict falls in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Boon-Chong; Clark, Ross A; Pua, Yong-Hao

    2015-06-01

    The Wii Balance Board has received increasing attention as a balance measurement tool; however its ability to prospectively predict falls is unknown. This exploratory study investigated the use of the Wii Balance Board and other clinical-based measures for prospectively predicting falls among community-dwelling older adults. Seventy-three community-dwelling men and women, aged 60-85years were followed-up over a year for falls. Standing balance was indexed by sway velocities measured using the Wii Balance Board interfaced with a laptop. Clinical-based measures included Short Physical Performance Battery, gait speed and Timed-Up-and-Go test. Multivariable regression analyses were used to assess the ability of the Wii Balance Board measure to complement the TUG test in fall screening. Individually, the study found Wii Balance Board anteroposterior (odds ratio 1.98, 95% CI 1.16 to 3.40, P=0.01) and mediolateral (odds ratio 2.80, 95% CI 1.10 to 7.13, p=0.03) sway velocity measures predictive of prospective falls. However, when each velocity measure was adjusted with body mass index and Timed-Up-and-Go, only anteroposterior sway velocity was predictive of prospective falls (odds ratio 2.21, 95% CI 1.18 to 4.14). A faster anteroposterior velocity was associated with increased odds of falling. Area-under-the-curves for Wii Balance Board sway velocities were 0.67 and 0.71 for anteroposterior and mediolateral respectively. The Wii Balance Board-derived anteroposterior sway velocity measure could complement existing clinical-based measures in predicting future falls among community-dwelling older adults. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number: ACTRN12610001099011. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The high burden of infant deaths in rural Burkina Faso: a prospective community-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diallo Abdoulaye

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant mortality rates (IMR remain high in many sub-Saharan African countries, especially in rural settings where access to health services may be limited. Studies in such communities can provide relevant data on the burden of and risk factors for infant death. We measured IMR and explored risk factors for infant death in a cohort of children born in Banfora Health District, a rural area in South-West Burkina Faso. Methods A prospective community-based cohort study was nested within the PROMISE-EBF trial (NCT00397150 in 24 villages of the study area. Maternal and infant baseline characteristics were collected at recruitment and after birth, respectively. Home visits were conducted at weeks 3, 6, 12, 24 and 52 after birth. Descriptive statistics were calculated using robust standard errors to account for cluster sampling. Cox multivariable regression was used to investigate potential risk factors for infant death. Results Among the 866 live born children included in the study there were 98 infant deaths, yielding an IMR of 113 per 1000 live births (95% CI: 89–143. Over 75% of infant deaths had occurred by 6 months of age and the post neonatal infant mortality rate was 67 per 1000 live births (95% CI: 51–88. Infections (35% and preterm births complications (23% were the most common probable causes of death by 6 months. Multivariable analyses identified maternal history of child death, polygyny, twin births and poor anthropometric z-scores at week-3 as factors associated with increased risk of infant death. Conclusions We observed a very high IMR in a rural area of Burkina Faso, a country where 75% of the population lives in rural settings. Community-based health interventions targeting mothers and children at high risk are urgently needed to reduce the high burden of infant deaths in these areas.

  1. The high burden of infant deaths in rural Burkina Faso: a prospective community-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama Diallo, Abdoulaye; Meda, Nicolas; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Traore, Germain S; Cousens, Simon; Tylleskar, Thorkild

    2012-09-05

    Infant mortality rates (IMR) remain high in many sub-Saharan African countries, especially in rural settings where access to health services may be limited. Studies in such communities can provide relevant data on the burden of and risk factors for infant death. We measured IMR and explored risk factors for infant death in a cohort of children born in Banfora Health District, a rural area in South-West Burkina Faso. A prospective community-based cohort study was nested within the PROMISE-EBF trial (NCT00397150) in 24 villages of the study area. Maternal and infant baseline characteristics were collected at recruitment and after birth, respectively. Home visits were conducted at weeks 3, 6, 12, 24 and 52 after birth. Descriptive statistics were calculated using robust standard errors to account for cluster sampling. Cox multivariable regression was used to investigate potential risk factors for infant death. Among the 866 live born children included in the study there were 98 infant deaths, yielding an IMR of 113 per 1000 live births (95% CI: 89-143). Over 75% of infant deaths had occurred by 6 months of age and the post neonatal infant mortality rate was 67 per 1000 live births (95% CI: 51-88). Infections (35%) and preterm births complications (23%) were the most common probable causes of death by 6 months. Multivariable analyses identified maternal history of child death, polygyny, twin births and poor anthropometric z-scores at week-3 as factors associated with increased risk of infant death. We observed a very high IMR in a rural area of Burkina Faso, a country where 75% of the population lives in rural settings. Community-based health interventions targeting mothers and children at high risk are urgently needed to reduce the high burden of infant deaths in these areas.

  2. A prospective study to evaluate a new residential community reintegration programme for severe chronic brain injury: the Brain Integration Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurtsen, G J; Martina, J D; Van Heugten, C M; Geurts, A C H

    2008-07-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a residential community reintegration programme for participants with chronic sequelae of severe acquired brain injury that hamper community functioning. Prospective cohort study. Twenty-four participants with acquired brain injury (traumatic n = 18; stroke n = 3, tumour n = 2, encephalitis n = 1). Participants had impaired illness awareness, alcohol and drug problems and/or behavioural problems. A skills-oriented programme with modules related to independent living, work, social and emotional well-being. The Community Integration Questionnaire, CES-Depression, EuroQOL, Employability Rating Scale, living situation and work status were scored at the start (T0), end of treatment (T1) and 1-year follow-up (T2). Significant effects on the majority of outcome measures were present at T1. Employability significantly improved at T2 and living independently rose from 42% to over 70%. Participants working increased from 38% to 58% and the hours of work per week increased from 8 to 15. The Brain Integration Programme led to a sustained reduction in experienced problems and improved community integration. It is concluded that even participants with complex problems due to severe brain injury who got stuck in life could improve their social participation and emotional well-being through a residential community reintegration programme.

  3. MUSYARAKAH FINANCE PROSPECT IN ISLAMIC BANK IN THE FACE OF ASEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY (MEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Supriyadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the era of Dutch colonial, the majority of entrepreneurs in Central Java and Yogyakarta come from the students. But after Indonesian independence, the students did not show up in the business world because of political policy. Nowadays the entrepreneur students bounced back with Islamic banks that one of its products is a Musharakah finance. Musharakah finance deal with the birth of the free market, namely the ASEAN Economic Community so that the question arises how the prospect Musharakah finance in Indonesian Islamic banks of facing the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC. This paper aims to describe the prospect of Musharakah finance to face AEC. The results showed that the Musharakah finance has a lot of prospects such as financing products that can be performed well and have a competitive value because it has a solid legal basis. From the network side, Islamic banks have been supported by a network offices that much better at home and abroad with excellent quality customer service. In addition, the presence Bank Indonesia blueprint of the Islamic banking institution can strengthen the Musharakah finance products so that can be applied in the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC.

  4. Prospects for local community wind energy projects in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Derek; Open Univ., Milton Keynes

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the prospects for local community wind energy projects in the UK. After explaining the advantages of such projects compared to purely commercial developments, the scale and funding for the projects are discussed. It is argued that such projects are beneficial both financially to individual members and also to the local rural economies particularly in deprived regions. (UK)

  5. The Hannibal Community Survey; A Case Study in a Community Development Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, John A.

    Disturbed by the community's negative attitude toward its prospects for progress, the Hannibal (Missouri) Chamber of Commerce initiated a community self-survey to improve the situation. The questionnaire survey concentrated on felt needs relationg to city government, retail facilities and services, recreation, religion, education, industrial…

  6. A Prospective Study of Back Pain and Risk of Falls Among Older Community-dwelling Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Lynn M; Litwack-Harrison, Stephanie; Cawthon, Peggy M; Kado, Deborah M; Deyo, Richard A; Makris, Una E; Carlson, Hans L; Nevitt, Michael C

    2016-09-01

    Back pain and falls are common health conditions among older U.S. women. The extent to which back pain is an independent risk factor for falls has not been established. We conducted a prospective study among 6,841 community-dwelling U.S. women at least 65 years of age from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF). Baseline questionnaires inquired about any back pain, pain severity, and frequency in the past year. During 1 year of follow-up, falls were summed from self-reports obtained every 4 months. Two outcomes were studied: recurrent falls (≥2 falls) and any fall (≥1 fall). Associations of back pain and each fall outcome were estimated with risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from multivariable log-binomial regression. Adjustments were made for age, education, smoking status, fainting history, hip pain, stroke history, vertebral fracture, and Geriatric Depression Scale. Most (61%) women reported any back pain. During follow-up, 10% had recurrent falls and 26% fell at least once. Any back pain relative to no back pain was associated with a 50% increased risk of recurrent falls (multivariable RR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.3, 1.8). Multivariable RRs for recurrent falls were significantly elevated for all back pain symptoms, ranging from 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.8) for mild back pain to 1.8 (95% CI: 1.4, 2.3) for activity-limiting back pain. RRs of any fall were also significantly increased albeit smaller than those for recurrent falls. Older community-dwelling women with a recent history of back pain are at increased risk for falls. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Perinatal mortality in eastern Uganda: a community based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nankabirwa, Victoria; Tumwine, James K; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Nankunda, Jolly; Sommerfelt, Halvor

    2011-05-09

    To achieve a child mortality reduction according to millennium development goal 4, it is necessary to considerably reduce neonatal mortality. We report stillbirth and early neonatal mortality risks as well as determinants of perinatal mortality in Eastern Uganda. A community-based prospective cohort study was conducted between 2006 and 2008. A total of 835 pregnant women were followed up for pregnancy outcome and survival of their children until 7 days after delivery. Mother's residence, age, parity, bed net use and whether delivery took place at home were included in multivariable regression analyses to identify risk factors for perinatal death. The stillbirth risk was 19 per 1,000 pregnancies and the early neonatal death risk 22 per 1,000 live births. Overall, the perinatal mortality risk was 41 [95%CI: 27, 54] per 1,000 pregnancies. Of the deaths, 47% followed complicated deliveries and 24% preterm births. Perinatal mortality was 63/1,000 pregnancies among teenage mothers, 76/1,000 pregnancies among nulliparous women and 61/1,000 pregnancies among women delivering at home who, after controlling for potential confounders, had a 3.7 (95%CI: 1.8, 7.4) times higher perinatal mortality than women who gave birth in a health facility. This association was considerably stronger among nulliparous women [RR 8.0 (95%CI: 2.9, 21.6)] than among women with a previous live birth [RR 1.8 (95%CI: 0.7, 4.5)]. All perinatal deaths occurred among women who did not sleep under a mosquito net. Women living in urban slums had a higher risk of losing their babies than those in rural areas [RR: 2.7 (95%CI: 1.4, 5.3)]. Our findings strengthen arguments for ensuring that pregnant women have access to and use adequate delivery facilities and bed nets.

  8. Perinatal mortality in eastern Uganda: a community based prospective cohort study.

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    Victoria Nankabirwa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available To achieve a child mortality reduction according to millennium development goal 4, it is necessary to considerably reduce neonatal mortality. We report stillbirth and early neonatal mortality risks as well as determinants of perinatal mortality in Eastern Uganda.A community-based prospective cohort study was conducted between 2006 and 2008. A total of 835 pregnant women were followed up for pregnancy outcome and survival of their children until 7 days after delivery. Mother's residence, age, parity, bed net use and whether delivery took place at home were included in multivariable regression analyses to identify risk factors for perinatal death.The stillbirth risk was 19 per 1,000 pregnancies and the early neonatal death risk 22 per 1,000 live births. Overall, the perinatal mortality risk was 41 [95%CI: 27, 54] per 1,000 pregnancies. Of the deaths, 47% followed complicated deliveries and 24% preterm births. Perinatal mortality was 63/1,000 pregnancies among teenage mothers, 76/1,000 pregnancies among nulliparous women and 61/1,000 pregnancies among women delivering at home who, after controlling for potential confounders, had a 3.7 (95%CI: 1.8, 7.4 times higher perinatal mortality than women who gave birth in a health facility. This association was considerably stronger among nulliparous women [RR 8.0 (95%CI: 2.9, 21.6] than among women with a previous live birth [RR 1.8 (95%CI: 0.7, 4.5]. All perinatal deaths occurred among women who did not sleep under a mosquito net. Women living in urban slums had a higher risk of losing their babies than those in rural areas [RR: 2.7 (95%CI: 1.4, 5.3].Our findings strengthen arguments for ensuring that pregnant women have access to and use adequate delivery facilities and bed nets.

  9. (Re)Educating the Senses to Multicultural Communities: Prospective Teachers Using Digital Media and Sonic Cartography to Listen for Culture

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    Brownell, Cassie J.; Wargo, Jon M.

    2017-01-01

    Attuning to the acoustic ecologies of multicultural education, this critical qualitative project interrogated how elementary prospective teachers (PST) used digital media to write community through and with sound. Examining PST produced soundscapes and the practice of sonic cartography, this study inquired how "hearing" difference and…

  10. A prospective study of monitoring practices for metabolic disease in antipsychotic-treated community psychiatric patients

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    Watkinson Helen MO

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with severe mental illness are at increased risk for metabolic and cardiovascular disease. A number of recent guidelines and consensus statements recommend stringent monitoring of metabolic function in individuals receiving antipsychotic drugs. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of 106 community-treated psychiatric patients from across the diagnostic spectrum from the Northeast of England to investigate changes in metabolic status and monitoring practices for metabolic and cardiovascular disease. We undertook detailed anthropometric and metabolic assessment at baseline and follow-up, and examined clinical notes and hospital laboratory records to ascertain monitoring practices. Results A high prevalence of undiagnosed and untreated metabolic disease was present at baseline assessment. Mean follow-up time was 599.3 (SD ± 235.4 days. Body mass index (p 50% of subjects had neither blood glucose nor lipids monitored during the follow-up period. Conclusion This cohort has a high prevalence of metabolic disease and heightened cardiovascular risk. Despite the publication of a number of recommendations regarding physical health screening in this population, monitoring rates are poor, and physical health worsened during the follow-up period.

  11. Walking Recovery after a Hip Fracture: A Prospective Follow-Up Study among Community-Dwelling over 60-Year Old Men and Women

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    Anu Salpakoski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Recovery of walking outdoors after hip fracture is important for equal participation in the community. The causes of poor recovery are not fully understood. This study investigates recovery of walking outdoors and associated determinants after hip fracture. Methods. A prospective follow-up study, among clinical sample of 81 community-dwelling hip fracture patients over 60 years. Perceived difficulty in walking outdoors and 500 meters was assessed before fracture, at discharge to home (3.2 ± 2.2 weeks after surgery, and on average 6.0 ± 3.3 weeks after discharge. Potential determinants for walking recovery were assessed. Linear latent trajectory model was used to analyse changes during follow-up. Association between walking trajectories and potential determinants was analysed with a logistic regression model. Results. Two trajectories, No-to-minor-difficulty and Catastrophic, were found. Thirty-eight percent of the participants ended up in the Catastrophic trajectory for walking outdoors and 67% for 500 meters. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that use of walking aid and indoor falls before fracture and prolonged pain were independently associated with catastrophic decline in both primary outcomes: difficulty in walking outdoors and 500 meters. Conclusions. A large proportion of community-dwelling older people recovering from hip fracture experienced catastrophic decline in outdoor walking. Acknowledging recovery prognoses at early stage enables individualized rehabilitation.

  12. The burden and etiology of community-onset pneumonia in the aging Japanese population: a multicenter prospective study.

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    Konosuke Morimoto

    Full Text Available The increasing burden of pneumonia in adults is an emerging health issue in the era of global population aging. This study was conducted to elucidate the burden of community-onset pneumonia (COP and its etiologic fractions in Japan, the world's most aged society.A multicenter prospective surveillance for COP was conducted from September 2011 to January 2013 in Japan. All pneumonia patients aged ≥ 15 years, including those with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP and health care-associated pneumonia (HCAP, were enrolled at four community hospitals on four major islands. The COP burden was estimated based on the surveillance data and national statistics.A total of 1,772 COP episodes out of 932,080 hospital visits were enrolled during the surveillance. The estimated overall incidence rates of adult COP, hospitalization, and in-hospital death were 16.9 (95% confidence interval, 13.6 to 20.9, 5.3 (4.5 to 6.2, and 0.7 (0.6 to 0.8 per 1,000 person-years (PY, respectively. The incidence rates sharply increased with age; the incidence in people aged ≥ 85 years was 10-fold higher than that in people aged 15-64 years. The estimated annual number of adult COP cases in the entire Japanese population was 1,880,000, and 69.4% were aged ≥ 65 years. Aspiration-associated pneumonia (630,000 was the leading etiologic category, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae-associated pneumonia (530,000, Haemophilus influenzae-associated pneumonia (420,000, and respiratory virus-associated pneumonia (420,000, including influenza-associated pneumonia (30,000.A substantial portion of the COP burden occurs among elderly members of the Japanese adult population. In addition to the introduction of effective vaccines for S. pneumoniae and influenza, multidimensional approaches are needed to reduce the pneumonia burden in an aging society.

  13. Risk factors of indoor fall injuries in community-dwelling older women: a prospective cohort study.

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    Hu, Jia; Xia, Qinghua; Jiang, Yu; Zhou, Peng; Li, Yuhua

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the study were to explore the characteristics and the potential risk factors of indoor fall injuries in community-dwelling older women, and to provide evidence for the future intervention strategy. A prospective cohort of 3043 women aged 60 years old and above from 3 selected counties in Shanghai was followed up on the outcomes of indoor fall injuries for up to 1 year. Demographic and health data were collected during admission; the physical function, balance ability and home-living environment were examined by a structured questionnaire when admitted. The outcome of indoor fall injury was investigated by a visit in month 3, month 6 and month 12 after baseline survey. Univariate analysis and Multiple Logistic Regression Model were used to examine the associations between potential risk factors and outcomes of indoor fall injuries. Two hundred and thirty-one of the 3043 women (7.6%) eventually suffered indoor fall injuries at least once during the 1-year follow-up. The injurious falls of women were significantly associated with age, educational level, marital status, health status, balance ability, physical activity and home-living environment in the univariate analyses. Women who worried about falls and restrained activities for it were more likely to suffer fall injury. Younger women, with less chronic disease, with good balance ability and living in good corridor environment, were less likely to receive fall injury in multiple logistic regression analyses. Multidimensional factors were associated with indoor fall injuries for community-dwelling older women. Proper clinical treatment of chronic disease and improvement of women's balance ability, as well as reducing the risk factor of indoor environment, which will play vital roles in preventing indoor fall injuries, should be prioritized for the intervention strategy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bacterial meningitis in diabetes patients: a population-based prospective study

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    van Veen, Kiril E. B.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased infection rates. We studied clinical features and outcome of community-acquired bacterial meningitis in diabetes patients. Patients were selected from a nationwide, prospective cohort on community-acquired bacterial meningitis performed from March 2006 to October 2014. Data on patient history, symptoms and signs on admission, treatment, and outcome were prospectively collected. A total of 183 of 1447 episodes (13%) occurred in diabetes patients. The incidence of bacterial meningitis in diabetes patients was 3.15 per 100,000 patients per year and the risk of acquiring bacterial meningitis was 2.2-fold higher for diabetes patients. S. pneumoniae was the causative organism in 139 of 183 episodes (76%) and L. monocytogenes in 11 of 183 episodes (6%). Outcome was unfavourable in 82 of 183 episodes (45%) and in 43 of 183 episodes (23%) the patient died. Diabetes was associated with death with an odds ratio of 1.63 (95% CI 1.12–2.37, P = 0.011), which remained after adjusting for known predictors of death in a multivariable analysis (OR 1.98 [95% CI 1.13–3.48], P = 0.017). In conclusion, diabetes is associated with a 2-fold higher risk of acquiring bacterial meningitis. Diabetes is a strong independent risk factor for death in community-acquired adult bacterial meningitis. PMID:27845429

  15. Prospective effect of community distress and subcultural orientation on mortality following life-threatening diseases in later life.

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    Wen, Ming; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2006-07-01

    We conducted a prospective and contextual study to examine the effects of community social-economic-physical distress and subcultural orientation on mortality following onset of 13 life-threatening diseases in later life. We also examined the inter-relationship between the effects of community social, economic and physical distress (i.e. poverty, physical disorder and low collective efficacy) and subcultural orientation (i.e. anomie and tolerance of risk behaviour) on the survival chances of seriously ill older patients. Three data sources were combined to construct the working sample: 1990 Census data, the 1994-95 PHDCN-CS, and the COSI data. Fifty-one ZIP code areas in Chicago and 12,672 elderly patients were studied. Community distress (HR = 1.04; 95% CI = (1.01, 1.07)) and anomie (HR = 1.26; 95% CI = (1.02, 1.54)) are found to be significantly and positively associated with a higher hazard of death. Moreover, community anomie contributes to the effect of community distress on post-hospitalisation mortality. The social, economic, physical and cultural environment in which people live appears to exert a significant impact on whether older people facing life-threatening illness live or die.

  16. Can We Predict Oral Antibiotic Treatment Failure in Children with Fast-Breathing Pneumonia Managed at the Community Level? A Prospective Cohort Study in Malawi.

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    Carina King

    Full Text Available Pneumonia is the leading cause of infectious death amongst children globally, with the highest burden in Africa. Early identification of children at risk of treatment failure in the community and prompt referral could lower mortality. A number of clinical markers have been independently associated with oral antibiotic failure in childhood pneumonia. This study aimed to develop a prognostic model for fast-breathing pneumonia treatment failure in sub-Saharan Africa.We prospectively followed a cohort of children (2-59 months, diagnosed by community health workers with fast-breathing pneumonia using World Health Organisation (WHO integrated community case management guidelines. Cases were followed at days 5 and 14 by study data collectors, who assessed a range of pre-determined clinical features for treatment outcome. We built the prognostic model using eight pre-defined parameters, using multivariable logistic regression, validated through bootstrapping.We assessed 1,542 cases of which 769 were included (32% ineligible; 19% defaulted. The treatment failure rate was 15% at day 5 and relapse was 4% at day 14. Concurrent malaria diagnosis (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.47 and moderate malnutrition (OR: 1.88; 95% CI: 1.09, 3.26 were associated with treatment failure. The model demonstrated poor calibration and discrimination (c-statistic: 0.56.This study suggests that it may be difficult to create a pragmatic community-level prognostic child pneumonia tool based solely on clinical markers and pulse oximetry in an HIV and malaria endemic setting. Further work is needed to identify more accurate and reliable referral algorithms that remain feasible for use by community health workers.

  17. [Good use and knowledge of paracetamol (acetaminophen) among self-medicated patients: Prospective study in community pharmacies].

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    Severin, Anne-Elise; Petitpain, Nadine; Scala-Bertola, Julien; Latarche, Clotilde; Yelehe-Okouma, Melissa; Di Patrizio, Paolo; Gillet, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol), the highest over-the-counter (OTC) selling drug in France, is also the first cause of acute hepatic failure. We aimed to assess the good use and the knowledge of acetaminophen in a setting of urban self-medicated patients. We conducted a prospective observational study in randomly selected community pharmacies of Metz (France) agglomeration. Patients coming to buy OTC acetaminophen for themselves or their family had to answer to an anonymous autoquestionnaire. Responses were individually and concomitantly analyzed through 3 scores: good use, knowledge and overdosage. Twenty-four community pharmacies participated and 302 patients were interviewed by mean of a dedicated questionnaire. Most of patients (84.4%) could be considered as "good users" and independent factors of good use were (i) a good knowledge of acetaminophen (OR=5.3; P<0.0001) and more surprisingly; (ii) the fact of having no children (parentality: OR=0.1; P=0.006). Responses corresponding to involuntary overdosage were mostly due to a too short interval between drug intakes (3hours). Only 30.8% of patients were aware of liver toxicity of acetaminophen and only 40.7% knew the risk of the association with alcohol. Both good use and knowledge were significantly higher in patients looking for information from their pharmacist, physician and package leaflet. Patients should definitely be better informed about acetaminophen to warrant a better safety of its consumption. Pharmacists and physicians have to remind patients the risk factors of unintentional overdose and liver toxicity. Package leaflets have also to be more informative. Copyright © 2016 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical and epidemiological factors associated with methicillin resistance in community-onset invasive Staphylococcus aureus infections: prospective multicenter cross-sectional study in Korea.

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    Eu Suk Kim

    Full Text Available Successful empirical therapy of Staphylococcus aureus infections requires the ability to predict methicillin resistance. Our aim was to identify predictors of methicillin resistance in community-onset (CO invasive S. aureus infections. Sixteen hospitals across Korea participated in this study from May to December 2012. We prospectively included cases of S. aureus infection in which S. aureus was isolated from sterile clinical specimens ≤ 72 hours after hospitalization. Clinical and epidemiological data were gathered and compared in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA cases. Community-associated (CA infections were defined as in previous studies. In total, there were 786 cases of community-onset S. aureus infection, 102 (13.0% of which were CA-MRSA. In addition to known risk factors, exposure to 3rd generation cephalosporins in the past 6 months [odds ratio (OR, 1.922; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.176-3.142] and close contact with chronically ill patients in the past month (OR, 2.647; 95% CI, 1.189-5.891 were independent risk factors for MRSA infection. However, no clinical predictors of CA-MRSA were identified. Methicillin resistance, CO infection, and appropriateness of empirical antibiotics were not significantly related to 30-day mortality. MRSA infection should be suspected in patients recently exposed to 3rd generation cephalosporins or chronically-ill patients. There were no reliable predictors of CA-MRSA infection, and mortality was not affected by methicillin resistance.

  19. Risk of heart failure after community acquired pneumonia: prospective controlled study with 10 years of follow-up

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    Marrie, Thomas J; Minhas-Sandhu, Jasjeet K; Majumdar, Sumit R

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the attributable risk of community acquired pneumonia on incidence of heart failure throughout the age range of affected patients and severity of the infection. Design Cohort study. Setting Six hospitals and seven emergency departments in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 2000-02. Participants 4988 adults with community acquired pneumonia and no history of heart failure were prospectively recruited and matched on age, sex, and setting of treatment (inpatient or outpatient) with up to five adults without pneumonia (controls) or prevalent heart failure (n=23 060). Main outcome measures Risk of hospital admission for incident heart failure or a combined endpoint of heart failure or death up to 2012, evaluated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards analyses. Results The average age of participants was 55 years, 2649 (53.1%) were men, and 63.4% were managed as outpatients. Over a median of 9.9 years (interquartile range 5.9-10.6), 11.9% (n=592) of patients with pneumonia had incident heart failure compared with 7.4% (n=1712) of controls (adjusted hazard ratio 1.61, 95% confidence interval 1.44 to 1.81). Patients with pneumonia aged 65 or less had the lowest absolute increase (but greatest relative risk) of heart failure compared with controls (4.8% v 2.2%; adjusted hazard ratio 1.98, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 2.53), whereas patients with pneumonia aged more than 65 years had the highest absolute increase (but lowest relative risk) of heart failure (24.8% v 18.9%; adjusted hazard ratio 1.55, 1.36 to 1.77). Results were consistent in the short term (90 days) and intermediate term (one year) and whether patients were treated in hospital or as outpatients. Conclusion Our results show that community acquired pneumonia substantially increases the risk of heart failure across the age and severity range of cases. This should be considered when formulating post-discharge care plans and preventive strategies, and assessing downstream episodes

  20. First-episode psychosis at the West Bologna Community Mental Health Centre: results of an 8-year prospective study.

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    Tarricone, I; Mimmi, S; Paparelli, A; Rossi, E; Mori, E; Panigada, S; Carchia, G; Bandieri, V; Michetti, R; Minenna, G; Boydell, J; Morgan, C; Berardi, D

    2012-11-01

    Research mostly conducted in the UK and northern Europe has established that there are high rates of first-episode psychosis (FEP) in large cities and immigrant populations; moreover, psychosis has been found to be associated with cannabis use and early trauma. The present study aimed to evaluate the incidence rate of FEP and the distribution of several risk factors (e.g. age, ethnicity, substance abuse) in Bologna, Italy. The Bologna FEP (BoFEP) study is an 8-year prospective study. All FEP patients, 18-64 years old, consecutively referred to the West Bologna Community Mental Health Centre (CMHC) from 2002 to 2009 were evaluated. Sociodemographic information, migration history and clinical data were collected through an ad-hoc schedule. Psychiatric diagnoses were recorded using the Schedule for Clinical Assessment of Neuropsychiatry (SCAN). The overall incidence rate (IR) in the BoFEP study was 16.4 per 100 000 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI) 13.9-18.9]. The incidence was higher in young people, men and migrants (MI). The IR of FEP found by the Bologna study is lower than that found by other European studies. However, as in other studies, the incidence was higher in certain groups. This heterogeneity has implications for policy and mental health service development, and for understanding the aetiology of psychosis.

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Preparedness of Prospective Nurses to Work as Midwives in Hospital and Community

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    Pratibha A Chandekar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is desirable to have skilled midwives to provide competent care in hospital and community setting. Aims and Objectives: The objectives were to assess curriculum adequacy, preparedness and job preferences of prospective nurses. Materials and Methods: A descriptive survey was used for the study. Thestudy was carried out at nursing institutes in Ahmednagar District, Maharashtra, India. The participants were the 200 prospective Nurses(final year Nursing students of General Nursing and B.Sc Nursing Programme, who had undergone midwifery examination. A semi structured questionnaire with self report technique method was used. Results: 20.57% and 89.1% students respectively felt that, thetheory input and allotted clinical hours were adequate. During the clinical posting, 29.7% felt that they did not get the opportunity to work in midwifery sections. 33.1% students expressed that they did not get cases as per the requirement prescribed by Indian NursingCouncil.13.7% and 33.7% students respectively agreed that they lacked confidence to perform abdominal palpation of antenatal cases & conduct deliveries independently. A few (26.2% expressed their inability to resuscitate the newborn. 89.1% said that they needed more experience to work independently as midwives. Everyone felt the need of in-service education and majority (77.2% felt that its duration should be either three months or more. Conclusion: Present study reveals that only 7% of the prospective nurses are ready to work in midwifery section. Only 13.7% of the prospective nurses are ready to work in rural area. Since there is a shortfall of 70.02% forspeciality of obstetrics and gynecology in rural health (GOI, 1997, and there are only 40 qualified nurse midwives per 100,000 births inIndia or only one midwife for 2500 births in rural areas, it is imperative to strengthen midwifery training to bridge this gap.

  2. Comparative performance of current definitions of sarcopenia against the prospective incidence of falls among community dwelling seniors age 65 and older

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    Purpose: To compare the extent to which 7 available definitions of sarcopenia and 2 related definitions predict the prospective rate of falling. Methods: We studied a cohort of 445 seniors (mean age 71 years, 45% men) living in the community who were followed with a detailed fall assessment for 3 ...

  3. A Prospective Pilot Study to Validate the Management Protocol for Patients Presenting with Acute Urinary Retention: A Community-Based, Nonhospitalised Protocol

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    Shyamala S. Gopi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute urinary retention (AUR in males is managed conventionally by hospital admission, alpha-adrenergic therapy, and trial without catheter. To reduce inpatient bed pressures, we set up a protocol to manage such patients in the community. We review our results in this paper. We performed a prospective study of male patients presenting to our acute admissions ward and Accident and Emergency department over 6 months. Patients with chronic urinary retention, macroscopic haematuria, sepsis, urinary tract infection, and/or serum creatinine >130 mmol/l were excluded from the study. Those enrolled were catheterised, commenced on alfuzosin (10 mg nocte, and discharged to the community. A trial without catheter (TWOC was performed 5—7 days later. QoL/IPSS, peak flow rate, and residual volume assessment were performed following successful TWOC 3 months later.Thirty-one male patients with a median age of 69 years were studied and the median residual volume following catheterisation was 900 ml. The aetiology of AUR was benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH in 29 patients and constipation in the remaining 2 patients. TWOC was successful in 19 patients (61.3% following first TWOC, 26 (83.9% following second trial of voiding. The mean peak flow rate was 6.5 ml/sec and postvoid scan 165 ml, following an immediate TWOC. At 3 months follow-up, mean peak flow rate was 13.2 ml/sec, postvoid scan 26.5 ml, IPSS 4.5, and QoL score was 2. This study has shown that AUR can be managed safely and effectively in the community. Effective communication with the nurse urology specialist, general practitioner, and emergency department are crucial for the successful implementation of the protocol.

  4. Increased postural sway during quiet stance as a risk factor for prospective falls in community-dwelling elderly individuals.

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    Johansson, Jonas; Nordström, Anna; Gustafson, Yngve; Westling, Göran; Nordström, Peter

    2017-11-01

    fall-related injuries constitute major health risks in older individuals, and these risks are projected to increase in parallel with increasing human longevity. Impaired postural stability is a potential risk factor related to falls, although the evidence is inconclusive, partly due to the lack of prospective studies. This study aimed to investigate how objective measures of postural sway predict incident falls. this prospectively observational study included 1,877 community-dwelling individuals aged 70 years who participated in the Healthy Ageing Initiative between June 2012 and December 2015. postural sway was measured during eyes-open (EO) and eyes-closed (EC) trials using the Wii Balance Board. Functional mobility, muscle strength, objective physical activity and cognitive performance were also measured. Participants reported incident falls 6 and 12 months after the examination. during follow-up, 255 (14%) prospective fallers were identified. Division of centre of pressure (COP) sway lengths into quintiles revealed a nonlinear distribution of falls for EO trial data, but not EC trial data. After adjustment for multiple confounders, fall risk was increased by 75% for participants with COP sway lengths ≥400 mm during the EO trial (odds ratio [OR] 1.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-2.79), and approximately doubled for sway lengths ≥920 mm during the EC trial (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.12-3.22). objective measures of postural sway independently predict incident falls in older community-dwelling men and women. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether postural sway length is of interest for the prediction of incident falls in clinical settings. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Social relationships, loneliness, and mental health among older men and women in Ireland: A prospective community-based study.

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    Santini, Ziggi Ivan; Fiori, Katherine Leigh; Feeney, Joanne; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Haro, Josep Maria; Koyanagi, Ai

    2016-11-01

    Data is lacking on the association of interpersonal stressors and social isolation with mental disorders and the mediating role of loneliness. Thus, we examined this association prospectively using community-based data. Data on 6105 adults aged ≥50 years from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) was analyzed. Mental health outcomes were assessed 2 years after baseline. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were evaluated with validated scales. Multivariable linear regression and mediation analyses were conducted. Higher levels of spousal support, less strain from spouse and better social network integration were protective against depressive symptoms in men. Social support from friends and children was protective against depressive symptoms in both genders. Higher levels of social strain from children were positively associated with depressive symptoms in women. Loneliness was a significant mediator in the majority of these associations. Interventions aimed at increasing relationship quality and strengthening existing social network structures, with a specific focus on reducing feelings of loneliness, may be beneficial in the prevention of depressive symptoms among older adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Prospective identification of adolescent suicide ideation using classification tree analysis: Models for community-based screening.

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    Hill, Ryan M; Oosterhoff, Benjamin; Kaplow, Julie B

    2017-07-01

    Although a large number of risk markers for suicide ideation have been identified, little guidance has been provided to prospectively identify adolescents at risk for suicide ideation within community settings. The current study addressed this gap in the literature by utilizing classification tree analysis (CTA) to provide a decision-making model for screening adolescents at risk for suicide ideation. Participants were N = 4,799 youth (Mage = 16.15 years, SD = 1.63) who completed both Waves 1 and 2 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. CTA was used to generate a series of decision rules for identifying adolescents at risk for reporting suicide ideation at Wave 2. Findings revealed 3 distinct solutions with varying sensitivity and specificity for identifying adolescents who reported suicide ideation. Sensitivity of the classification trees ranged from 44.6% to 77.6%. The tree with greatest specificity and lowest sensitivity was based on a history of suicide ideation. The tree with moderate sensitivity and high specificity was based on depressive symptoms, suicide attempts or suicide among family and friends, and social support. The most sensitive but least specific tree utilized these factors and gender, ethnicity, hours of sleep, school-related factors, and future orientation. These classification trees offer community organizations options for instituting large-scale screenings for suicide ideation risk depending on the available resources and modality of services to be provided. This study provides a theoretically and empirically driven model for prospectively identifying adolescents at risk for suicide ideation and has implications for preventive interventions among at-risk youth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Using a social marketing framework to evaluate recruitment of a prospective study of genetic counseling and testing for the deaf community.

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    Kobayashi, Yoko; Boudreault, Patrick; Hill, Karin; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Palmer, Christina G S

    2013-11-25

    Recruiting deaf and hard-of-hearing participants, particularly sign language-users, for genetics health service research is challenging due to communication barriers, mistrust toward genetics, and researchers' unfamiliarity with deaf people. Feelings of social exclusion and lack of social cohesion between researchers and the Deaf community are factors to consider. Social marketing is effective for recruiting hard-to-reach populations because it fosters social inclusion and cohesion by focusing on the targeted audience's needs. For the deaf population this includes recognizing their cultural and linguistic diversity, their geography, and their systems for information exchange. Here we use concepts and language from social marketing to evaluate our effectiveness to engage a U.S. deaf population in a prospective, longitudinal genetic counseling and testing study. The study design was interpreted in terms of a social marketing mix of Product, Price, Place, and Promotion. Price addressed linguistic diversity by including a variety of communication technologies and certified interpreters to facilitate communication; Place addressed geography by including community-based participation locations; Promotion addressed information exchange by using multiple recruitment strategies. Regression analyses examined the study design's effectiveness in recruiting a culturally and linguistically diverse sample. 271 individuals were enrolled, with 66.1% American Sign Language (ASL)-users, 19.9% ASL + English-users, 12.6% English-users. Language was significantly associated with communication technology, participation location, and recruitment. Videophone and interpreters were more likely to be used for communication between ASL-users and researchers while voice telephone and no interpreters were preferred by English-users (Price). ASL-users were more likely to participate in community-based locations while English-users preferred medically-based locations (Place). English-users were

  8. Prospective comparative effectiveness cohort study comparing two models of advance care planning provision for Australian community aged care clients.

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    Detering, Karen Margaret; Carter, Rachel Zoe; Sellars, Marcus William; Lewis, Virginia; Sutton, Elizabeth Anne

    2017-12-01

    Conduct a prospective comparative effectiveness cohort study comparing two models of advance care planning (ACP) provision in community aged care: ACP conducted by the client's case manager (CM) ('Facilitator') and ACP conducted by an external ACP service ('Referral') over a 6-month period. This Australian study involved CMs and their clients. Eligible CM were English speaking, ≥18 years, had expected availability for the trial and worked ≥3 days per week. CMs were recruited via their organisations, sequentially allocated to a group and received education based on the group allocation. They were expected to initiate ACP with all clients and to facilitate ACP or refer for ACP. Outcomes were quantity of new ACP conversations and quantity and quality of new advance care directives (ACDs). 30 CMs (16 Facilitator, 14 Referral) completed the study; all 784 client's files (427 Facilitator, 357 Referral) were audited. ACP was initiated with 508 (65%) clients (293 Facilitator, 215 Referral; p<0.05); 89 (18%) of these (53 Facilitator, 36 Referral) and 41 (46%) (13 Facilitator, 28 Referral; p<0.005) completed ACDs. Most ACDs (71%) were of poor quality/not valid. A further 167 clients (facilitator 124; referral 43; p<0.005) reported ACP was in progress at study completion. While there were some differences, overall, models achieved similar outcomes. ACP was initiated with 65% of clients. However, fewer clients completed ACP, there was low numbers of ACDs and document quality was generally poor. The findings raise questions for future implementation and research into community ACP provision. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Outcomes of social support programs in brain cancer survivors in an Australian community cohort: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan F

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the impact of social support programs on improving cancer related disability, neuro-cognitive dysfunction and enhancing participation (quality of life (QoL, social reintegration in brain tumour (BT survivors. Participants (n=43 were recruited prospectively following definitive treatment in the community. Each BT survivor received an individualised social support program which comprised: face-to-face interview for education/counselling plus peer support program or community education/counselling sessions. The assessments were at baseline (T1, 6-week (T2 and 6-month (T3 post-intervention using validated questionnaires: depression anxiety stress scale (DASS, functional independence measure (FIM, perceived impact problem profile (PIPP, cancer rehabilitation evaluation system–short form (CARES-SF, a cancer survivor unmet needs measure (CaSUN, McGill quality of life questionnaire (MQOL and Brief COPE. Participants’ mean age was 53 years (range 31–72 years, the majority were female (72%; median time since BT diagnosis was 2.3 years and almost half (47% had high grade tumours. At T2, participants reported higher emotional well-being (DASS ‘anxiety’ and ‘stress’ subscales, p<0.05; FIM ‘cognition’ subscale, p<0.01, improved function (FIM ‘motor’ subscale, p<0.01 and higher QoL (CARES-SF ‘global’ score, p<0.05; MQOL ‘physical symptom’ subscale, p<0.05. At the T3 follow-up, most of these effects were maintained. The intervention effect for BT specific coping strategies emerged for the Brief COPE ‘self-distraction’ and ‘behavioural disengagement’ domains, (p<0.05 for both. There were no adverse effects reported. A post-treatment social support program can improve physical and cognitive function and enhancing overall QoL of BT survivors. Social support programs need further evaluation and should be encouraged by clinicians within cancer rehabilitative services.

  10. Potential Economic and Development Prospects of Non Timber Forest Products in Community Agroforestry Land around Sibolangit Tourism Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oding Affandi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The communities who live around Sibolangit Tourism Park have developed nontimber forest products (NTFP in their own agroforestry lands. This research evaluates the potential economic and development prospects from NTFP development in the Park by examining: (1 type of NTFP and economic value from community agrofrestry land, (2 contribution of NTFPs on household income, (3 development prospects of NTFP-based agroforestry around Sibolangit Tourism Park. The research was conducted in two selected villages around Sibolangit Tourism Park: Sembahe Village and Batu Mbelin Village. The research took place over a period between June and August 2016. Research data was obtained from in-depth interviews and observations. A descriptive method was used to analyze and describe facts related to the research aims. The type of NTFPs cultivated by communities at the research sites include mangosteen, durian, garcinia, candlenut, lanzones, lansium, bitter bean, and areca nut (as their forestry component and ginger, turmeric, chili, papaya, etlingera, and banana (as the agriculture component. Most NTFPs are cultivated as a comercial product. The economic value of NTFPs in Batu Mbelin Village has reached Rp. 547,275,000/year or contribute 80.07% of total family income. Meanwhile, the economic value of NTFPs in Sembahe Village has reached Rp 682,100,000/year, contributing to 78.75% of total household income. Therefore, the prospects for supporting and expanding NTFP in agroforestry plots in and around Sibolangit Tourism Park has high potential for supporting household income

  11. Using a social marketing framework to evaluate recruitment of a prospective study of genetic counseling and testing for the deaf community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Recruiting deaf and hard-of-hearing participants, particularly sign language-users, for genetics health service research is challenging due to communication barriers, mistrust toward genetics, and researchers’ unfamiliarity with deaf people. Feelings of social exclusion and lack of social cohesion between researchers and the Deaf community are factors to consider. Social marketing is effective for recruiting hard-to-reach populations because it fosters social inclusion and cohesion by focusing on the targeted audience’s needs. For the deaf population this includes recognizing their cultural and linguistic diversity, their geography, and their systems for information exchange. Here we use concepts and language from social marketing to evaluate our effectiveness to engage a U.S. deaf population in a prospective, longitudinal genetic counseling and testing study. Methods The study design was interpreted in terms of a social marketing mix of Product, Price, Place, and Promotion. Price addressed linguistic diversity by including a variety of communication technologies and certified interpreters to facilitate communication; Place addressed geography by including community-based participation locations; Promotion addressed information exchange by using multiple recruitment strategies. Regression analyses examined the study design’s effectiveness in recruiting a culturally and linguistically diverse sample. Results 271 individuals were enrolled, with 66.1% American Sign Language (ASL)-users, 19.9% ASL + English-users, 12.6% English-users. Language was significantly associated with communication technology, participation location, and recruitment. Videophone and interpreters were more likely to be used for communication between ASL-users and researchers while voice telephone and no interpreters were preferred by English-users (Price). ASL-users were more likely to participate in community-based locations while English-users preferred medically

  12. Factors Moderating Children's Adjustment to Parental Separation: Findings from a Community Study in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Helen; Dunn, Judy; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Golding, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Research findings show that there is marked variability in children's response to parental separation, but few studies identify the sources of this variation. This prospective longitudinal study examines the factors modifying children's adjustment to parental separation in a community sample of 5,635 families in England. Children's…

  13. Prospective SAH Study in Japan, 2005(Prospective SAH Study)

    OpenAIRE

    塩川, 芳昭; 栗田, 浩樹; 藤井, 清孝; Yoshiaki, SHIOKAWA; Hiroki, KURITA; Kiyotaka, FUJII; 杏林大学脳神経外科; 杏林大学脳神経外科; 北里大学脳神経外科; Department of Neurosurgery, Kyorin University School of Medicine; Department of Neurosurgery, Kyorin University School of Medicine

    2009-01-01

    To clarify current treatment status of ruptured cerebral aneurysms in Japan, a prospective multicenter observational study on the treatment results for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage was conducted over calendar year 2005 and final 1-year outcomes were collected. Studied centers were selected from among institutes of committee member of Japanese stroke surgery organization or symposium of vasospasm in Japan. A total of 927 patients were enrolled in this study and treatment policies were le...

  14. No association between dietary vitamin K intake and fracture risk in chinese community-dwelling older men and women: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, R; Leung, J; Woo, J

    2012-05-01

    Data on the association between dietary vitamin K intake and fracture risk are limited among Chinese. This study examined such an association in community-dwelling elderly in Hong Kong. We present data from 2,944 subjects (1,605 men, 1,339 women) who participated in a prospective cohort study. Baseline dietary intakes of energy, protein, calcium, vitamin D, and vitamin K were assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire. Data on incident hip fracture and nonvertebral fracture during a median of 6.9 follow-up years were collected from a hospital database. Cox regression analyses were performed with adjustments for age, education attainment, smoking status, alcohol use, body mass index, hip bone mineral density, physical activity, use of calcium supplement, and energy-adjusted nutrient intakes. There were 29 (1.8 %) men and 19 (1.4 %) women with incident hip fractures and 97 (6.0 %) men and 88 (6.6 %) women with nonvertebral fractures. The median (interquartile range) of dietary vitamin K intake was 241.8 (157.5-360.8) and 238.9 (162.4-343.6) μg/day in men and women, respectively. Similar dietary vitamin K intakes were observed between subjects with hip or nonvertebral fractures and subjects without hip or nonvertebral fractures. In both men and women, dietary vitamin K intake was not associated with fracture risks at all measured sites in either crude or adjusted models. In Chinese community-dwelling elderly, hip or nonvertebral fracture risk was not associated with dietary vitamin K intake. The high dietary vitamin K intake of the studied group may have limited the ability to detect the association between vitamin K intake and fracture risk.

  15. Parenting and Trajectories of Children's Maladaptive Behaviors: A 12-Year Prospective Community Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyckx, Koen; Tildesley, Elizabeth A.; Soenens, Bart; Andrews, Judy A.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Peterson, Missy; Duriez, Bart

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how parenting accounted for interindividual differences in developmental trajectories of different child behaviors across childhood and adolescence. In a cohort sequential community sample of 1,049 children, latent class growth analysis was applied to three parent-reported dimensions (monitoring, positive parenting,…

  16. Heterogeneity in development of adolescent anxiety disorder symptoms in an 8-year longitudinal community study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, S.A.; Hale, W.W.; Branje, S.J.T.; Raaijmakers, Q.A.W.; Frijns, T.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we prospectively examined developmental trajectories of five anxiety disorder symptom dimensions (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, school anxiety, separation anxiety disorder, and social anxiety disorder) from early to late adolescence in a community sample of 239

  17. Supporting and improving community health services-a prospective evaluation of ECHO technology in community palliative care nursing teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Clare; McIlfatrick, Sonja; Dunwoody, Lynn; Watson, Max

    2015-12-01

    Project ECHO (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes) uses teleconferencing technology to support and train healthcare providers (HCPs) remotely, and has improved care across the USA. A 6-month pilot was trialled in a community palliative care nursing setting to determine if ECHO would be effective in the UK in providing education and support to community hospice nurses (CHN). The pilot involved weekly 2 hour sessions of teaching and case-based discussions facilitated by hospice staff linking with nine teams of CHN using video conferencing technology. A mixed-methods prospective longitudinal cohort study was used to evaluate the pilot. Each CHN provided demographic data, and completed a written knowledge assessment and a self-efficacy tool before and after the pilot. Two focus groups were also performed after the pilot. 28 CHNs completed the evaluation. Mean knowledge score improved significantly from 71.3% to 82.7% (p=0.0005) as did overall self-efficacy scores following the ECHO pilot. Pre-ECHO (p=0.036) and Retro-Pretest ECHO (p=0.0005) self-efficacy were significantly lower than post-ECHO. There was no significant difference between Pretest and Retro-Pretest ECHO self-efficacy (p=0.063). 96% recorded gains in learning, and 90% felt that ECHO had improved the care they provided for patients. 83% would recommend ECHO to other HCPs. 70% stated the technology used in ECHO had given them access to education that would have been hard to access due to geography. This study supports the use of Project ECHO for CHNs in the UK by demonstrating how a 6-month pilot improved knowledge and self-efficacy. As a low-cost high-impact model, ECHO provides an affordable solution to addressing growing need. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Respiratory viruses among children with non-severe community-acquired pneumonia: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento-Carvalho, Amanda C; Vilas-Boas, Ana-Luisa; Fontoura, Maria-Socorro H; Vuorinen, Tytti; Nascimento-Carvalho, Cristiana M

    2018-06-06

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) causes a major burden to the health care system among children under-5 years worldwide. Information on respiratory viruses in non-severe CAP cases is scarce. To estimate the frequency of respiratory viruses among non-severe CAP cases. Prospective study conducted in Salvador, Brazil. Out of 820 children aged 2-59 months with non-severe CAP diagnosed by pediatricians (respiratory complaints and radiographic pulmonary infiltrate/consolidation), recruited in a clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01200706), nasopharyngeal aspirate samples were obtained from 774 (94.4%) patients and tested for 16 respiratory viruses by PCRs. Viruses were detected in 708 (91.5%; 95%CI: 89.3-93.3) cases, out of which 491 (69.4%; 95%CI: 65.9-72.7) harbored multiple viruses. Rhinovirus (46.1%; 95%CI: 42.6-49.6), adenovirus (38.4%; 95%CI: 35.0-41.8), and enterovirus (26.5%; 95%CI: 23.5-29.7) were the most commonly found viruses. The most frequent combination comprised rhinovirus plus adenovirus. No difference was found in the frequency of RSVA (16.1% vs. 14.6%; P = 0.6), RSVB (10.9% vs. 13.2%; P = 0.4) influenza (Flu) A (6.3% vs. 5.1%; P = 0.5), FluB (4.5% vs. 1.8%; P = 0.09), parainfluenza virus (PIV) 1 (5.1% vs. 2.8%; P = 0.2), or PIV4 (7.7% vs. 4.1%; P = 0.08), when children with multiple or sole virus detection were compared. Conversely, rhinovirus, adenovirus, enterovirus, bocavirus, PIV2, PIV3, metapneumovirus, coronavirus OC43, NL63, 229E were significantly more frequent among cases with multiple virus detection. Respiratory viruses were detected in over 90% of the cases, out of which 70% had multiple viruses. Several viruses are more commonly found in multiple virus detection whereas other viruses are similarly found in sole and in multiple virus detection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of stance time variability for predicting mobility disability in community-dwelling older persons: a prospective study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brach, J.S.; Wert, D.; Swearingen, J.M. van; Newman, A.B.; Studenski, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mobility disability is a serious and frequent adverse health outcome associated with aging. Early identification of individuals at risk for mobility disability is important if interventions to prevent disability are to be instituted. The objectives of this prospective study

  20. Relationship Between Prehypertension/Hypertension and Periodontal Disease: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yuya; Ekuni, Daisuke; Miyai, Hisataka; Kataoka, Kota; Yamane, Mayu; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu

    2016-03-01

    Most cross-sectional studies have found a significant positive relationship between periodontal disease and prehypertension/hypertension. However, these studies had limitations and there are few prospective cohort studies in young adults. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to investigate whether periodontal disease was related to prehypertension/hypertension in Japanese university students. Students (n = 2,588), who underwent health examinations before entering university and before graduation, were included in the analysis. The association between periodontal disease such as the percentage of bleeding on probing (BOP) and community periodontal index (CPI) scores, and change in blood pressure status was determined. At the reexamination, the numbers of participants with prehypertension (systolic blood pressure 120-139mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure 80-89mm Hg) and hypertension (≥140/90mm Hg) were 882 (34.1%) and 109 (4.2%), respectively. In a logistic regression model, the risk of hypertension was significantly associated with male (odds ratio (OR): 6.31; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.63-15.13; P periodontal disease defined as the presence of both probing pocket depth (PPD) ≥ 4mm and BOP ≥ 30% at baseline (OR: 2.74; 95% CI: 1.19-6.29; P = 0.02) in participants with prehypertension at baseline. On the other hand, the risk of prehypertension was not associated with presence of periodontal disease (OR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.51-1.70; P = 0.82). In the short-term prospective cohort study, a significant association between presence of periodontal disease and hypertension was observed in Japanese university students. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Uranium project. Geochemistry prospection[Study of Uranium geochemical prospection in Uruguay]; Proyecto Uranio. Prospeccion geoquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, J

    1983-07-01

    Geochemistry studies the distribution of the chemicals elements in the terrestrial crust and its ways to migrate. The terminology used in this report is the following one: 1) Principles of the prospection geochemistry 2) Stages of the prospection geochemistry 3)utility of the prospection geochemistry 4) geochemistry of uranium 5) procedures used within the framework of uranium project 6) Average available 7) Selection of the zones of prospection geochemistry 8) Stages of the prospection, Sample preparation and analisis 9) Presentation of the results.

  2. Conduct Disorder and Initiation of Substance Use: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfer, Christian; Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan; Min, Sung-Joon; McQueen, Matt; Crowley, Thomas; Young, Susan; Corley, Robin; Sakai, Joseph; Thurstone, Christian; Hoffenberg, Analice; Hartman, Christie; Hewitt, John

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the influence of conduct disorder (CD) on substance use initiation. Method: Community adolescents without CD (n = 1,165, mean baseline age = 14.6 years), with CD (n = 194, mean baseline age = 15.3 years), and youth with CD recruited from treatment (n = 268, mean baseline age = 15.7 years) were prospectively followed and…

  3. SUICIDAL HANGING IN URBAN YOUTH : A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhola Kumar Singh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Suicide is among the top three causes of death among youth worldwide. Hanging is among the most common modes of suicide. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this prospective study is to determine the Suicidal hanging in urban youth and determine the prevalence of suicidal hanging in our community. METHODS : In this descriptive, prospective, cross sectional study, all patients who pres ented to the department of emergency medicine with suicidal hanging during this study period of 12 months from January 2010 - December 2011 in . were included. RESULTS : Total number of males in the study is 32 (64%, females in the study is 18(36%. Mean age of the you th was 22.50± 8.15(SD years, Male 18.50± 12.15(SD years, Females 20.50 ±5.25(SD years; predominantly the patients were in the age group of 22 - 26 years. Number of male smokers in the study was 26 (81.25% female smokers were 4(22.22%, number of m ale alcoholics were 27(84.37% whereas female alcoholics were 6(33.33%, number of patients with pallor in males were 16(50% whereas females with pallor were 12(66.66%, number of males with skin changes were 6(18.75% when compared to females who had 8(4 4.44% skin changes, number of males wit oedema were 4(12.5% and 6(33.33% of females had oedema, the mean weight among males were 48±8.34kgs when compared to females which was 42±6.56kgs. Most of the patients who attempted suicide had varied personality issues from mood disorders to psychosis. CONCLUSION : There is significant percentage of patients who attempt suicide by hanging

  4. Prospective study of a community reintegration programme for patients with acquired chronic brain injury: effects on caregivers' emotional burden and family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurtsen, Gert J; van Heugten, Caroline M; Meijer, Ron; Martina, Juan D; Geurts, Alexander C H

    2011-01-01

    To examine the effects of a residential community reintegration programme for patients with psychosocial problems due to acquired chronic brain injury on caregivers' emotional burden and family functioning. A prospective cohort study with waiting list control and 1-year follow-up. Forty-one caregivers of which 28 female. Mean age was 48 ± 8.3 years and 33 caregivers were parents. A structured residential treatment programme was offered to the patients directed at domestic life, work, leisure time and social interactions. The Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire for Brain Injury (IEQ-BI) for emotional burden, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) for psychological health and the Family Assessment Device (FAD) for family functioning were used. There was an overall significant effect of Time for all outcome measures (MANOVA T(2 )= 9.1, F(15,317) = 64.1, p = 0.000). The effect sizes were moderate for three IEQ-BI sub-scales (partial η(2 )= 0.12-0.17) and small for two sub-scales (partial η(2 )= 0.05-0.09). The effect size for GHQ was moderate (partial η(2 )= 0.11). As for FAD no significant time effects were present (partial η(2 )= 0.00-0.04). Emotional burden and psychological health of the caregivers improved significantly when patients with acquired brain injury and psychosocial problems followed a residential community reintegration programme. Family dynamics remained stable.

  5. Association of total daily physical activity with disability in community-dwelling older persons: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Raj C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on findings primarily using self-report measures, physical activity has been recommended to reduce disability in old age. Collecting objective measures of total daily physical activity in community-dwelling older adults is uncommon, but might enhance the understanding of the relationship of physical activity and disability. We examined whether greater total daily physical activity was associated with less report of disability in the elderly. Methods Data were from the Rush Memory and Aging Project, a longitudinal prospective cohort study of common, age-related, chronic conditions. Total daily physical activity was measured in community-dwelling participants with an average age of 82 using actigraphy for approximately 9 days. Disability was measured via self-reported basic activities of daily living (ADL. The odds ratio and 95% Confidence Interval (CI were determined for the baseline association of total daily physical activity and ADL disability using a logistic regression model adjusted for age, education level, gender and self-report physical activity. In participants without initial report of ADL disability, the hazard ratio and 95% CI were determined for the relationship of baseline total daily physical activity and the development of ADL disability using a discrete time Cox proportional hazard model adjusted for demographics and self-report physical activity. Results In 870 participants, the mean total daily physical activity was 2. 9 × 105 counts/day (range in 105 counts/day = 0.16, 13. 6 and the mean hours/week of self-reported physical activity was 3.2 (SD = 3.6. At baseline, 718 (82.5% participants reported being independent in all ADLs. At baseline, total daily physical activity was protective against disability (OR per 105 counts/day difference = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.47, 0.65. Of the participants without baseline disability, 584 were followed for 3.4 years on average. Each 105 counts/day additional total

  6. A Prospective Observational Study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: This was a prospective, questionnaire-based observational study. Printed questionnaires were distributed to the visitors of medical, surgical and neurosurgical ICU patients to determine awareness of basic infection control practices among visitors to an ICU. All the ICU staff, including nurses, doctors, consultant ...

  7. Effect of fall-related concerns on physical, mental, and social function in community-dwelling older adults: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meulen, Erik; Zijlstra, G A Rixt; Ambergen, Ton; Kempen, Gertrudis I J M

    2014-12-01

    To determine the effect of fall-related concerns on physical, mental, and social function. Community-based prospective cohort study (secondary analysis using control group data from a randomized controlled trial). Two municipalities in the south of the Netherlands. Community-dwelling older adults (N = 260). Two groups were created using Modified Falls Efficacy Scale scores (high and low levels of fall-related concerns). Five outcome measures representing physical, mental, and social function were included: activities of daily living (ADLs), symptoms of depression, feelings of anxiety, social participation, and social support interactions. Outcomes were measured at baseline and at 2, 8, and 14 months. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance and mixed-effect regression models for longitudinal data, adjusting for age, sex, living status (alone or with another person), educational level, cognitive status, self-perceived health, and falls history at baseline. At baseline, significantly more limitations in ADLs and social participation were found for older persons with high levels of fall-related concerns than for those with low levels of concern. These differences persisted over 14 months of follow-up and were consistent over time. No significant differences were found for symptoms of depression, feelings of anxiety, or social support interactions, except for feelings of anxiety at 14 months. Older persons with higher levels of fall-related concerns reported up to 14 months poorer ADL and social participation for up to 14 months than those with lower levels of fall-related concerns. From a clinical point of view, the clear relationship between fall-related concerns and ADL dysfunction and social participation may help to target groups who are at risk of developing adverse consequences of concerns about falls. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  8. Effects of different amounts of exercise on preventing depressive symptoms in community-dwelling older adults: a prospective cohort study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Chen; Lu, Mei-Chun; Hu, I-Han; Wu, Wan-Chi Ida; Hu, Susan C

    2017-05-02

    To compare the effects of four different amounts of exercise for preventing depressive symptoms in community-dwelling older adults. Prospective cohort study. A nationally representative sample in Taiwan. Four waves of the survey 'Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging (TLSA)' from 1996 to 2007 were analysed. A total of 2673 older adults aged 65 years and over were recruited. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD). Four different types/amounts of exercise were examined including: (1) 3 times/week, 15 min/time; (2) 3 times/week, 30 min/time; (3) 6 times/week, 15 min/time; and (4) 6 times/week, 30 min/time. All exercise types were required to have at least moderate intensity. The impacts of different amounts of exercise on depressive symptoms were analysed using generalised linear mixed models. More than one-fifth of the elder individuals under consideration had depressive symptoms (CESD ≥10). About 38.6% of older adults met the lowest criteria for exercise type 1, and fewer (28.0%) met the highest criteria for type 4. Only exercise type 4 in the current survey was initially related to lower depressive symptoms (OR=0.8, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.95). However, after considering the interaction between time and changes in exercise patterns, the results showed that all persistent exercise models, even if a very low amount (3 times/week, 15 min/time), had significantly preventive effects on depressive symptoms (OR=0.56~0.67). Consistent exercise with at least 15 min per time, three times a week of moderate intensity is significantly associated with lower risk of depressive symptoms. This low amount of exercise may be easier to promote at the community and population level than other alternatives. Registry number 104040 of the Institutional Ethics Committee of Chia-Yi Christian Hospital. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No

  9. Social capital, mortality, cardiovascular events and cancer: a systematic review of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Minkyoung; Mesa-Frias, Marco; Nuesch, Eveline; Hargreaves, James; Prieto-Merino, David; Bowling, Ann; Snith, G Davey; Ebrahim, Shah; Dale, Caroline; Casas, Juan P

    2014-12-01

    Social capital is considered to be an important determinant of life expectancy and cardiovascular health. Evidence on the association between social capital and all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer was systematically reviewed. Prospective studies examining the association of social capital with these outcomes were systematically sought in Medline, Embase and PsycInfo, all from inception to 8 October 2012. We categorized the findings from studies according to seven dimensions of social capital, including social participation, social network, civic participation,social support, trust, norm of reciprocity and sense of community, and pooled the estimates across studies to obtain summary relative risks of the health outcomes for each social capital dimension. We excluded studies focusing on children, refugees or immigrants and studies conducted in the former Soviet Union. Fourteen prospective studies were identified. The pooled estimates showed no association between most social capital dimensions and all-cause mortality, CVD or cancer. Limited evidence was found for association of increased mortality with social participation and civic participation when comparing the most extreme risk comparisons. Evidence to support an association between social capital and health outcomes is limited. Lack of consensus on measurements for social capital hinders the comparability of studies and weakens the evidence base.

  10. Detailed prospective peer review in a community radiation oncology clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James D; Chesnut, Thomas J; Eastham, David V; Demandante, Carlo N; Hoopes, David J

    In 2012, we instituted detailed prospective peer review of new cases. We present the outcomes of peer review on patient management and time required for peer review. Peer review rounds were held 3 to 4 days weekly and required 2 physicians to review pertinent information from the electronic medical record and treatment planning system. Eight aspects were reviewed for each case: 1) workup and staging; 2) treatment intent and prescription; 3) position, immobilization, and simulation; 4) motion assessment and management; 5) target contours; 6) normal tissue contours; 7) target dosimetry; and 8) normal tissue dosimetry. Cases were marked as, "Meets standard of care," "Variation," or "Major deviation." Changes in treatment plan were noted. As our process evolved, we recorded the time spent reviewing each case. From 2012 to 2014, we collected peer review data on 442 of 465 (95%) radiation therapy patients treated in our hospital-based clinic. Overall, 91 (20.6%) of the cases were marked as having a variation, and 3 (0.7%) as major deviation. Forty-two (9.5%) of the cases were altered after peer review. An overall peer review score of "Variation" or "Major deviation" was highly associated with a change in treatment plan (P peer review. Indicators on position, immobilization, simulation, target contours, target dosimetry, motion management, normal tissue contours, and normal tissue dosimetry were significantly associated with a change in treatment plan. The mean time spent on each case was 7 minutes. Prospective peer review is feasible in a community radiation oncology practice. Our process led to changes in 9.5% of cases. Peer review should focus on technical factors such as target contours and dosimetry. Peer review required 7 minutes per case. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Validation of sputum Gram stain for treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and healthcare-associated pneumonia: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuyama, Hajime; Yamashiro, Shin; Kinjo, Kiyoshi; Tamaki, Hitoshi; Kishaba, Tomoo

    2014-10-18

    The usefulness of sputum Gram stain in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is controversial. There has been no study to evaluate the diagnostic value of this method in patients with healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of sputum Gram stain in etiological diagnosis and pathogen-targeted antibiotic treatment of CAP and HCAP. We conducted a prospective observational study on hospitalized patients with pneumonia admitted to our hospital from August 2010 to July 2012. Before administering antibiotics on admission, Gram stain was performed and examined by trained physicians immediately after sputum samples were obtained. We analyzed the quality of sputum samples and the diagnostic performance of Gram stain. We also compared pathogen-targeted antibiotic treatment guided by sputum Gram stain with empirical treatment. Of 670 patients with pneumonia, 328 were CAP and 342 were HCAP. Sputum samples were obtained from 591 patients, of these 478 samples were good quality. The sensitivity and specificity of sputum Gram stain were 62.5% and 91.5% for Streptococcus pneumoniae, 60.9% and 95.1% for Haemophilus influenzae, 68.2% and 96.1% for Moraxella catarrhalis, 39.5% and 98.2% for Klebsiella pneumoniae, 22.2% and 99.8% for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 9.1% and 100% for Staphylococcus aureus. The diagnostic yield decreased in patients who had received antibiotics or patients with suspected aspiration pneumonia. Pathogen-targeted treatment provided similar efficacy with a decrease in adverse events compared to empirical treatment. Sputum Gram stain is highly specific for the etiologic diagnosis and useful in guiding pathogen-targeted antibiotic treatment of CAP and HCAP.

  12. The Influence of Simulations on Family Engagement--Prospective Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Albo Prieto, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    Nurturing experiences in preparation for prospective early childhood educators' work with families during their training are critical for establishing empowering relationships. This article details a qualitative case study of 77 prospective early childhood educators engaged with the Parent, Family and Community Engagement Simulation. An electronic…

  13. The Influence of Community Disadvantage and Masculinity Ideology on Number of Sexual Partners: A Prospective Analysis of Young Adult, Rural Black Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Steven M; Cho, Junhan; Barton, Allen W; Duprey, Erinn B; Hicks, Megan R; Brown, Geoffrey L

    2017-01-01

    Young, rural Black men are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infections (STIs), a consequence, in part, of multiple sexual partnerships. We conducted a prospective study that examined the influence of masculinity ideology on changes in numbers of sexual partners in this population. We focused on a set of high-risk attitudes termed reputational masculinity. Community disadvantage during young adulthood was examined as a risk factor for reputational masculinity ideology, and vocational commitment was examined as a potential protective factor. The sample included 505 African American men ages 19 to 22 from high-poverty rural communities. Men reported their numbers of sexual partners during the past three months, masculinity ideology, community disadvantage, and vocational commitment. Follow-up data were collected 18 months after baseline assessment. Negative binomial modeling was used to test study hypotheses. Results indicated that community disadvantage was associated with increases in reputational masculinity during early adulthood, which in turn were linked to increases in numbers of sexual partners. Vocational commitment interacted with reputational masculinity to forecast numbers of sexual partners, attenuating the influence of reputational masculinity. Reputational masculinity and promotion of engagement with the workplace may be important targets for interventions designed to reduce sexual risk behavior.

  14. A Study on Chocolate Consumption in Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgen, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    This study was planned and conducted to determine the chocolate consumption habits of prospective teachers. The study population was comprised of students attending the Faculty of Education at Gazi University in Ankara and the sample consisted of 251 prospective teachers selected with simple random sampling. 96.4% and 3.6% of the prospective…

  15. Vital exhaustion as a risk factor for ischaemic heart disease and all-cause mortality in a community sample. A prospective study of 4084 men and 5479 women in the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Eva; Holst, Claus; Grønbaek, Morten

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vital exhaustion, a psychological measure characterized by fatigue and depressive symptoms, has been suggested to be an independent risk factor for ischaemic heart disease (IHD) but the generality of the phenomenon remains in question. The aim of this study is to describe prevalence...... of these symptoms in a community sample and determine whether they prospectively predict increased risk of IHD and all-cause mortality in men and women. METHODS: The study base was 4084 men and 5479 women aged 20-98 free of IHD examined in 1991-1993 in the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Events were ascertained...... of both IHD and all-cause mortality increased with increasing item sum score and were similar in men and women. For IHD, RR reached a maximum of 2.57 (95% CI: 1.65, 4.00) for subjects endorsing >9 items. The similar RR for all-cause mortality was 2.50 (95% CI: 2.09, 2.99). Multivariate adjustment...

  16. Prospective study of leptospirosis transmission in an urban slum community: role of poor environment in repeated exposures to the Leptospira agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felzemburgh, Ridalva D M; Ribeiro, Guilherme S; Costa, Federico; Reis, Renato B; Hagan, José E; Melendez, Astrid X T O; Fraga, Deborah; Santana, Francisco S; Mohr, Sharif; dos Santos, Balbino L; Silva, Adriano Q; Santos, Andréia C; Ravines, Romy R; Tassinari, Wagner S; Carvalho, Marília S; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis has emerged as an urban health problem as slum settlements have rapidly spread worldwide and created conditions for rat-borne transmission. Prospective studies have not been performed to determine the disease burden, identify risk factors for infection and provide information needed to guide interventions in these marginalized communities. We enrolled and followed a cohort of 2,003 residents from a slum community in the city of Salvador, Brazil. Baseline and one-year serosurveys were performed to identify primary and secondary Leptospira infections, defined as respectively, seroconversion and four-fold rise in microscopic agglutination titers. We used multinomial logistic regression models to evaluate risk exposures for acquiring primary and secondary infection. A total of 51 Leptospira infections were identified among 1,585 (79%) participants who completed the one-year follow-up protocol. The crude infection rate was 37.8 per 1,000 person-years. The secondary infection rate was 2.3 times higher than that of primary infection rate (71.7 and 31.1 infections per 1,000 person-years, respectively). Male gender (OR 2.88; 95% CI 1.40-5.91) and lower per capita household income (OR 0.54; 95% CI, 0.30-0.98 for an increase of $1 per person per day) were independent risk factors for primary infection. In contrast, the 15-34 year age group (OR 10.82, 95% CI 1.38-85.08), and proximity of residence to an open sewer (OR 0.95; 0.91-0.99 for an increase of 1 m distance) were significant risk factors for secondary infection. This study found that slum residents had high risk (>3% per year) for acquiring a Leptospira infection. Re-infection is a frequent event and occurs in regions of slum settlements that are in proximity to open sewers. Effective prevention of leptospirosis will therefore require interventions that address the infrastructure deficiencies that contribute to repeated exposures among slum inhabitants.

  17. Randomized, interventional, prospective, comparative study to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Randomized, interventional, prospective, comparative study to evaluate the antihypertensive efficacy and tolerability of ramipril versus telmisartan in stage 1 hypertensive patients with diabetes mellitus.

  18. SLE disease patterns in a Danish population-based lupus cohort: an 8-year prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustrup, H; Voss, A; Green, A

    2009-01-01

    In 1995 all systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients in the county of Funen were retrieved from four separate and independent sources as part of an 8-year prospective study to determine the pattern of disease activity and damage accumulation in a community based lupus cohort of predominantly...... Scandinavian ancestry. Incident cases were subsequently identified by surveillance of these sources. Established and new cases underwent annual, structured interviews, clinical examination and blood sampling. The Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Diseases Activity Index SLEDAI and Systemic Lupus International...

  19. Elderly, depression and suicide: focusing the problem (The way the geriatrician reads the PROSPECT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Salsi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND PROSPECT study involved people over 60 treated for depression state in a context of community primary care with collaborative care approach. Results confirmed effectiveness of treatment on suicidal ideation and on depressive symptoms so that also reduction in suicide risk is presumed. DISCUSSION The protocol of the study and results are intriguing for the geriatrician. Nevertheless some aspects must be watched at as not exactly old-oriented. Mainly the need to ameliorate operative multidimensional assessment, the missing of attention to fall-risk when prescribing psychotropic drugs and, consequently, the lack of gerontologically correct analysis of benefit/risk ratio.

  20. A prospective study of twinning and perinatal mortality in urban Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Lund, Najaaraq; Jepsen, Frida Staarup

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Despite twinning being common in Africa, few prospective twin studies have been conducted. We studied twinning rate, perinatal mortality and the clinical characteristics of newborn twins in urban Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: The study was conducted at the Bandim Health Project (BHP......), a health and demographic surveillance site in Bissau, the capital of Guinea-Bissau. The cohort included all newborn twins delivered at the National Hospital Simao Mendes and in the BHP study area during the period September 2009 to August 2011 as well as singleton controls from the BHP study area. Data...... regarding obstetric history and pregnancy were collected at the hospital. Live children were examined clinically. For a subset of twin pairs zygosity was established by using genetic markers. RESULTS: Out of the 5262 births from mothers included in the BHP study area, 94 were twin births, i.e. a community...

  1. Solar public engagement: the prospective study on FELDA community in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamiah Tun Jamil, Siti; Azfahani Ahmad, Nur

    2017-05-01

    Malaysia Energy Outlook 2016 has highlighted that Malaysia's electricity generation mix has always been highly dependent on fossil fuels. There is a concern on energy security for Malaysia recently, since the depletion of fossil fuel occurs and its effect increases the price of electricity tariff. Nevertheless, the energy demand continues to increase, which make the non-fossil renewable energy sources is back on demand. Malaysia's highest potential for renewable energy comes from solar energy and the large roofs of rural houses offer potential to contribute solar electricity for the people. Indeed, the engagement of solar energy to the public is very important in allowing this energy to be accepted by the locals. The paper will review the related literature on public engagement for solar energy project. This paper also tries to prospect the potential of implementing solar electricity for a well-known rural organization in Malaysia, known as FELDA.

  2. A prospective study of Trichomonas vaginalis and prostate cancer risk among African American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowke, Jay H; Han, Xijing; Alderete, J F; Moses, Kelvin A; Signorello, Lisa B; Blot, William J

    2016-04-18

    African Americans (AA) have a higher prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis (Tv) infection and a higher prostate (PC) risk. Past studies suggest an association between Tv seropositivity and PC, and therefore we prospectively investigated this association among AA men. Incident PC cases were individually matched to controls in a nested case-control study within the Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS). Primary analysis included 296 PC cases and 497 race-matched controls. Levels of Tv antibody response were measured by ELISA in serum collected at baseline. Tv antibody response did not significantly differ between cases and controls overall or within AA participants (253 AA cases). There were no significant associations or trends between levels of Tv response and PC risk or the diagnosis of aggressive PC. We found no evidence of a prospective association between baseline Tv infection and PC risk in AA men. Tv infection in men may have substantial health implications in HIV transmission and reproductive outcomes, but may not impact future PC risk in AA men at high-risk for PC. Further efforts need to define past vs. present Tv infection and to separate pathophysiology from PC detection.

  3. Interprofessional Communities of Practice in Continuing Medical Education for Promoting and Sustaining Practice Change: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Megan; Lecce, Julia; Ivanova, Anna; Zawertailo, Laurie; Dragonetti, Rosa; Selby, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Standard knowledge delivery formats for CME may have limited impact on long-term practice change. A community of practice (CoP) is one tool that may enhance competencies and support practice change. This study explores the utility of an interprofessional CoP as an adjunct to a CME program in tobacco addiction treatment (Training Enhancement in Applied Counselling and Health [TEACH] Project) to promote and sustain practice change. A prospective cohort design was utilized to examine the long-term impact of the TEACH CoP on practice change. An online survey was administered to TEACH-trained practitioners to assess perceived feasibility, importance, and confidence related to course competencies, involvement in TEACH CoP activities, engagement in knowledge transfer (KT), and implementation of new programming. Chi-square tests were used to detect differences in KT and program development associated with CoP participation. Course competency scores from immediate postcourse surveys and long-term follow-up surveys were compared. No significant differences in participant characteristics were found between those who did (n = 300) and did not (n = 122) participate in the TEACH CoP. Mean self-perceived competency scores were greater immediately after course than at long-term follow-up; however, self-ratings of competency in pharmacological interventions and motivational interviewing were higher at follow-up. TEACH CoP participation was associated with significantly greater engagement in KT and implementation of new programming after training. The findings from this evaluation suggest the value of interprofessional CoPs offered posttraining as a mechanism to enhance practice. CME providers should consider offering CoPs as a component of training programs to promote and sustain practice change.

  4. Quality of prescribing in community-dwelling elderly patients in France: an observational study in community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourcier, E; Mille, F; Brunie, V; Korb-Savoldelli, V; Lafortune, C; Buyse, M; Fernandez, C; Hindlet, P

    2017-12-01

    Background In order to ensure safer prescriptions in the elderly, lists of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) and guidelines have been introduced. Whereas the effectiveness of these measures has been well studied in hospitals, data are sparse for the community-dwelling patients. Objective To assess the quality of prescriptions among community-dwelling elderly patients, and potential associations between prescription patterns, patient characteristics and medication adherence. Setting Community pharmacies in France. Method We conducted a prospective observational study between January and June 2013. Patients aged 75 and over coming to the community pharmacy with a prescription from a general practitioner were invited to participate to the study. The compliance of the prescription was assessed with regards to Beers Criteria and French Health Authority guidelines (FHA) for prescription in the elderly, the degree of adherence was assessed with the Girerd score. Main outcome measure Percentage of prescriptions compliant with Beers Criteria and FHA guidelines. Results Among the 1206 prescriptions analysed, 67.49% (n = 814) contained a PIM. Only 12.77% (n = 154) complied with mandatory requirements of the FHA. Prescriptions were ordered by therapeutic field in 51.24% (n = 618) of cases. Dosing regimen was incomplete in 57.21% (n = 690) of prescriptions. Only 29.19% (n = 352) of patients reported no difficulty with regard to adherence (Girerd score = 0). The use of International Non-proprietary Name was associated with an increased risk of nonadherence (adjusted OR = 1.59 [95% CI = 1.13-2.23] and 1.68 [95% CI = 1.12-2.49] respectively). Patient satisfaction with formulation was associated with a lower risk of non-adherence (adjusted OR = 0.63 [95% CI = 0.45-0.90]). Conclusion A substantial proportion of patients are exposed to PIMs and prescriptions that do not comply with the FHA Guidelines. This issue, as well as identified risk factors for

  5. Comparative prognostic performance of definitions of prediabetes: a prospective cohort analysis of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Bethany; Pankow, James S; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Punjabi, Naresh M; Daya, Natalie R; Grams, Morgan; Woodward, Mark; Selvin, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    No consensus on definitions of prediabetes exists among international organisations. Analysis of associations with different definitions and clinical complications can inform the comparative value of different prediabetes definitions. We compared the risk of future outcomes across different prediabetes definitions based on fasting glucose concentration, HbA 1c , and 2 h glucose concentration during over two decades of follow-up in the community-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. We aimed to analyse the associations of definitions with outcomes to provide a comparison of different definitions. We did a prospective cohort study of participants in the ARIC study who did not have diagnosed diabetes and who attended visit 2 (1990-92; n=10 844) and who attended visit 4 (1996-98; n=7194). ARIC participants were enrolled from four communities across the USA. Fasting glucose concentration and HbA 1c were measured at visit 2 and fasting glucose concentration and 2 h glucose concentration were measured at visit 4. We compared prediabetes definitions based on fasting glucose concentration (American Diabetes Association [ADA] fasting glucose concentration cutoff 5·6-6·9 mmol/L and WHO fasting glucose concentration cutoff 6·1-6·9 mmol/L), HbA 1c (ADA HbA 1c cutoff 5·7-6·4% [39-46 mmol/mol] and International Expert Committee [IEC] HbA 1c cutoff 6·0-6·4% [42-46 mmol/mol]), and 2 h glucose concentration (ADA and WHO 2 h glucose concentration cutoff 7·8-11·0 mmol/L). Prediabetes defined using the ADA fasting glucose concentration cutoff (prevalence 4112 [38%] of 10 844 people; 95% CI 37·0-38·8) was the most sensitive for major clinical outcomes, whereas using the ADA HbA 1c cutoff (2027 [19%] of 10 884 people; 18·0-19·4) and IEC HbA 1c cutoff (970 [9%] of 10 844 people; 8·4-9·5), and the WHO fasting glucose concentration cutoff (1213 [11%] of 10 844 people; 10·6-11·8) were more specific. After demographic adjustment, HbA 1c -based

  6. Incidence of childhood and adolescence epilepsy: a community-based prospective study in the province of Ferrara and in Copparo, Italy, 1996-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casetta, I; Pugliatti, M; Faggioli, R; Cesnik, E; Simioni, V; Bencivelli, D; De Carlo, L; Granieri, E

    2012-02-01

    The annual incidence of childhood and adolescence epilepsy ranges from 41 to 97 diagnoses per 100,000 people in western Countries, with a reported decline over time. We aimed at studying the incidence of epilepsy in children and adolescents (1 month to 14 years) and its temporal trend in the province of Ferrara, northern Italy. We implemented a community-based prospective multi-source registry. All children with newly diagnosed epilepsy in the period 1996-2005 were recorded. The incidence rate of newly diagnosed epilepsy in the considered age range was 57 per 100,000 person-years, (95% CI: 49.3-65.9), with a peak in the first year of life (109.4; 95% CI: 69.4-164.1), without differences between the two gender. The estimates were significantly lower than those observed previously (97.3; 95% CI: 81.9-115.7). Incidence rates for epilepsy in the Italian population aged 1 month to 14 years are in line with those of other European and Northern American Countries. The incidence of childhood epilepsy has declined over time in our area. A reduced impact of serious perinatal adverse events could partly explain the decline. © 2011 The Author(s). European Journal of Neurology © 2011 EFNS.

  7. Adverse Consequences of School Mobility for Children in Foster Care: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pears, Katherine C.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Buchanan, Rohanna; Fisher, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Few prospective studies have examined school mobility in children in foster care. This study described the school moves of 86 such children and 55 community comparison children (primarily Caucasian), living in a medium-sized metropolitan area in the Pacific Northwest who were approximately 3-6-years-old at the study start. Additionally, the effects of moves from kindergarten through Grade 2 on academic and social emotional competence in Grades 3 through 5 were examined. A greater number of early school moves was associated with poorer later social emotional competence and partially mediated the effects of maltreatment and out-of-home placement on social emotional competence. This was only the case for children with poorer early learning skills in kindergarten. Implications for preventive intervention are discussed. PMID:25906815

  8. Perinatal mortality in rural Burkina Faso: a prospective community-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diallo Abdoulaye

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a scarcity of reliable data on perinatal mortality (PNM in Sub-Saharan Africa. The PROMISE-EBF trial, during which we promoted exclusive breastfeeding, gave us the opportunity to describe the epidemiology of PNM in Banfora Health District, South-West in Burkina Faso. Study objectives To measure the perinatal mortality rate (PNMR in the PROMISE-EBF cohort in Banfora Health District and to identify potential risk factors for perinatal death. Methods We used data collected prospectively during the PROMISE-EBF-trial to estimate the stillbirth rate (SBR and early neonatal mortality rate (ENMR. We used binomial regression with generalized estimating equations to identify potential risk factors for perinatal death. Results 895 pregnant women were enrolled for data collection in the EBF trial and followed-up to 7 days after birth. The PNMR, the SBR and the ENMR, were 79 per 1000 (95% CI: 59-99, 54 per 1000 (95% CI: 38-69 and 27 per 1000 (95% CI: 9-44, respectively. In a multivariable analysis, nulliparous women (RR = 2.90, 95% CI: 1.6-5.0, primiparae mothers (RR = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.2-3.9, twins (RR = 4.0, 95% CI: 2.3-6.9 and giving birth during the dry season (RR = 2.1 95% CI: 1.3-3.3 were factors associated with increased risk of perinatal death. There was no evidence that risk of perinatal death differed between deliveries at home and at a health centre Conclusion Our study observed the highest PNMR ever reported in Burkina. There is an urgent need for sustainable interventions to improve maternal and newborn health in the country.

  9. Role of Community Radio for Community Development in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Anowarul Arif Khan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Community radio is a medium of expressing and sharing views, thoughts, ideas, problems and prospects of rural, disadvantaged, vulnerable and hard to reach population with the mainstream population. As the media of root level people of the disadvantaged areas, Community radio has become popular in recent years and it has opened a new arena for both the policy makers as well as grassroots people to be involved in the development process of their community. There are about 17 Community Radios broadcasting 135 hours programmes in a day across the country. The Community Radio can help us in addressing social, economic, cultural, educational, health, water and sanitation and disaster related issues more effectively and strategically. In order to highlight the importance and effectiveness of community radio for the community development of Bangladesh, this study has been conducted based on the secondary data. This is a group effort that has become successful by the co-operation of many individuals and institutions. Access to Information (a2i Programme would like to express sincere gratitude to Monisha Mohonto, Project Focal and Bakul Mohonto, Program Assistant, BTV for introducing such an innovative project. As this is a new concept, there is no significant study has been conducted. Therefore the study has been directed to explore the importance of community FM radio in Bangladesh particularly in remote and rural areas.

  10. Body composition impacts appetite regulation in middle childhood. A prospective study of Norwegian community children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinsbekk, Silje; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fildes, Alison; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2017-05-30

    Research suggests a role for both fat mass and muscle mass in appetite regulation, but the longitudinal relationships between them have not yet been examined in children. The present study therefore aimed to explore the prospective relationships between fat mass, muscle mass and the appetitive traits food responsiveness and satiety responsiveness in middle childhood. Food responsiveness and satiety responsiveness were measured using the parent-reported Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire in a representative sample of Norwegian 6 year olds, followed up at 8 and 10 years of age (n = 807). Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance. Applying a structural equation modeling framework we found that higher fat mass predicted greater increases in food responsiveness over time, whereas greater muscle mass predicted decreases in satiety responsiveness. This pattern was consistent both from ages 6 to 8 and from ages 8 to 10 years. Our study is the first to reveal that fat mass and muscle mass predict distinct changes in different appetitive traits over time. Replication of findings in non-European populations are needed, as are studies of children in other age groups. Future studies should also aim to reveal the underlying mechanisms.

  11. Parenting and trajectories of children's maladaptive behaviors: a 12-year prospective community study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyckx, Koen; Tildesley, Elizabeth A; Soenens, Bart; Andrews, Judy A; Hampson, Sarah E; Peterson, Missy; Duriez, Bart

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how parenting accounted for interindividual differences in developmental trajectories of different child behaviors across childhood and adolescence. In a cohort sequential community sample of 1,049 children, latent class growth analysis was applied to three parent-reported dimensions (monitoring, positive parenting, inconsistent discipline) across 12 annual assessments (ages 6-18). Four longitudinal parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, uninvolved) were differentiated on the basis of levels and rates of change in the constituent parenting dimensions. Multigroup analyses demonstrated that these parenting styles were differentially related to changes in parent- and child-reported measures of children's alcohol and cigarette use, antisocial behavior, and internalizing symptoms, with the authoritative parenting class being related to the most optimal long-term development.

  12. [Predicting bipolar disorder: what can we learn from prospective cohort studies?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffroy, P A; Leboyer, M; Scott, J

    2015-02-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a life course illness; and there is increasing awareness of the many personal, social and economic consequences of the illness in older adults. However, it is important to emphasize that BD usually begins in late adolescence or early adulthood and 75 % cases have a first episode in this age period. This early onset and the associated level of disability mean that BD is the 4th leading cause of global disease burden in adolescents and young adults. Internationally, mental health services are increasingly striving to diagnose and treat BD as early as possible to try to prevent poor outcomes. In addition, researchers are using methods employed previously in psychosis studies as these may help us to recognise the earliest manifestations of BD. If it is possible to identify sub-threshold and 'ultra high risk' syndromes for BD, this might lead to new interventions that could target the prevention of first episodes of mania. One approach to understanding these risk syndromes is to examine prospective community cohort studies and BD offspring studies. This paper reviews prospective cohort studies that identify robust risk factors in early illness onset, which was defined as age at onset of BD between 15-25 years. We found that although > 50 % of individuals who developed BD had developed a putative BD prodrome prior to 14 years of age, this usually began with non-specific symptoms that overlap with similar presentations for those who later develop psychosis or severe depression. However, there are some features that seem to better identify groups with a BD "at-risk" syndrome. This syndrome is frequently composed of several factors such as mood lability, depressive episodes, prior anxiety, sleep and/or conduct disorders, attention and concentration impairment, altered energy patterns, and a family history of mania and/or depression. The course of these early predictors suggests the precursor syndromes are composed of mini-clusters of symptoms many

  13. Feasibility and quality of cardiovascular disease prevention within a community-based health insurance program in rural Nigeria: an operational cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Marleen E.; Bolarinwa, Oladimeji A.; Wit, Ferdinand W. N. W.; Brewster, Lizzy M.; Odusola, Aina O.; Rosendaal, Nicole T. A.; Bindraban, Navin R.; Adenusi, Peju; Agbede, Kayode; Lange, Joep M. A.; Akande, Tanimola M.; Schultsz, Constance

    2015-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of providing guideline-based cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention care within the context of a community-based health insurance program (CBHI) in rural Nigeria. A prospective operational cohort study was conducted in a primary healthcare clinic in rural Nigeria,

  14. Complications of ERCP: a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Merete; Matzen, Peter; Schulze, Svend

    2004-01-01

    included in this prospective study. Complications were assessed at the time of ERCP and by postal/telephone contact at 30-days after the procedure. RESULTS: A total of 1177 ERCPs were included in the analysis, of which 56.2% were therapeutic. The 30-day complication rate was 15.9%; the procedure...... occurred in relation to 5% of the ERCP procedures (3 deaths). Cardiorespiratory complications occurred in 2.3% (2 deaths). Dilated bile duct ( p = 0.0001), placement of stent ( p = 0.001), and use of more than 40 mg of hyoscine-N-butyl bromide ( p ... analysis. Risk of pancreatitis was increased with age under 40 years ( p = 0.0078), placement of stent ( p = 0.031), and a dilated bile duct ( p = 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: This prospective study confirms that the complication rate of ERCP including therapeutic procedures is high. Cardiopulmonary complications...

  15. Prospect Theory for Online Financial Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang-Yu; Nacher, Jose C.; Ochiai, Tomoshiro; Martino, Mauro; Altshuler, Yaniv

    2014-03-01

    Prospect theory is widely viewed as the best available descriptive model of how people evaluate risk in experimental settings. According to prospect theory, people make decisions based on the potential value of losses and gains rather than the final outcome. People are risk-averse with respect to gains and risk-seeking with respect to losses, a phenomenon called ``loss aversion''. Despite of the fact that prospect theory has been well studied in behavioral economics at the theoretical level, there exist very few empirical research and most of them has been undertaken with micro-panel data. Here we analyze the trading activities of over 1.5 million members of an online financial trading community over 28 months, aiming to explore the large-scale empirical aspect of prospect theory. By analyzing and comparing the behaviour of ``winners'' and ``losers'', i.e., traders with positive or negative final net profit, we find clear evidence of the loss aversion phenomenon, an essence in prospect theory. This work demonstrates an unprecedented large-scale empirical evidence of prospect theory. It has immediate implication in financial trading, e.g., developing new trading strategies by minimizing the effect of loss aversion. It also provides opportunity to augment online social trading, where users are allowed to watch and follow the trading activity of others, by predicting potential winners based on their historical trading behaviour.

  16. Ecological assembly rules in plant communities--approaches, patterns and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götzenberger, Lars; de Bello, Francesco; Bråthen, Kari Anne; Davison, John; Dubuis, Anne; Guisan, Antoine; Lepš, Jan; Lindborg, Regina; Moora, Mari; Pärtel, Meelis; Pellissier, Loic; Pottier, Julien; Vittoz, Pascal; Zobel, Kristjan; Zobel, Martin

    2012-02-01

    Understanding how communities of living organisms assemble has been a central question in ecology since the early days of the discipline. Disentangling the different processes involved in community assembly is not only interesting in itself but also crucial for an understanding of how communities will behave under future environmental scenarios. The traditional concept of assembly rules reflects the notion that species do not co-occur randomly but are restricted in their co-occurrence by interspecific competition. This concept can be redefined in a more general framework where the co-occurrence of species is a product of chance, historical patterns of speciation and migration, dispersal, abiotic environmental factors, and biotic interactions, with none of these processes being mutually exclusive. Here we present a survey and meta-analyses of 59 papers that compare observed patterns in plant communities with null models simulating random patterns of species assembly. According to the type of data under study and the different methods that are applied to detect community assembly, we distinguish four main types of approach in the published literature: species co-occurrence, niche limitation, guild proportionality and limiting similarity. Results from our meta-analyses suggest that non-random co-occurrence of plant species is not a widespread phenomenon. However, whether this finding reflects the individualistic nature of plant communities or is caused by methodological shortcomings associated with the studies considered cannot be discerned from the available metadata. We advocate that more thorough surveys be conducted using a set of standardized methods to test for the existence of assembly rules in data sets spanning larger biological and geographical scales than have been considered until now. We underpin this general advice with guidelines that should be considered in future assembly rules research. This will enable us to draw more accurate and general

  17. Prospect theory for online financial trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang-Yu; Nacher, Jose C; Ochiai, Tomoshiro; Martino, Mauro; Altshuler, Yaniv

    2014-01-01

    Prospect theory is widely viewed as the best available descriptive model of how people evaluate risk in experimental settings. According to prospect theory, people are typically risk-averse with respect to gains and risk-seeking with respect to losses, known as the "reflection effect". People are much more sensitive to losses than to gains of the same magnitude, a phenomenon called "loss aversion". Despite of the fact that prospect theory has been well developed in behavioral economics at the theoretical level, there exist very few large-scale empirical studies and most of the previous studies have been undertaken with micro-panel data. Here we analyze over 28.5 million trades made by 81.3 thousand traders of an online financial trading community over 28 months, aiming to explore the large-scale empirical aspect of prospect theory. By analyzing and comparing the behavior of winning and losing trades and traders, we find clear evidence of the reflection effect and the loss aversion phenomenon, which are essential in prospect theory. This work hence demonstrates an unprecedented large-scale empirical evidence of prospect theory, which has immediate implication in financial trading, e.g., developing new trading strategies by minimizing the impact of the reflection effect and the loss aversion phenomenon. Moreover, we introduce three novel behavioral metrics to differentiate winning and losing traders based on their historical trading behavior. This offers us potential opportunities to augment online social trading where traders are allowed to watch and follow the trading activities of others, by predicting potential winners based on their historical trading behavior.

  18. Prospect theory for online financial trading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Yu Liu

    Full Text Available Prospect theory is widely viewed as the best available descriptive model of how people evaluate risk in experimental settings. According to prospect theory, people are typically risk-averse with respect to gains and risk-seeking with respect to losses, known as the "reflection effect". People are much more sensitive to losses than to gains of the same magnitude, a phenomenon called "loss aversion". Despite of the fact that prospect theory has been well developed in behavioral economics at the theoretical level, there exist very few large-scale empirical studies and most of the previous studies have been undertaken with micro-panel data. Here we analyze over 28.5 million trades made by 81.3 thousand traders of an online financial trading community over 28 months, aiming to explore the large-scale empirical aspect of prospect theory. By analyzing and comparing the behavior of winning and losing trades and traders, we find clear evidence of the reflection effect and the loss aversion phenomenon, which are essential in prospect theory. This work hence demonstrates an unprecedented large-scale empirical evidence of prospect theory, which has immediate implication in financial trading, e.g., developing new trading strategies by minimizing the impact of the reflection effect and the loss aversion phenomenon. Moreover, we introduce three novel behavioral metrics to differentiate winning and losing traders based on their historical trading behavior. This offers us potential opportunities to augment online social trading where traders are allowed to watch and follow the trading activities of others, by predicting potential winners based on their historical trading behavior.

  19. Community integration after deployment to Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Armour, Cherie; Andersen, Søren B.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In the years following military deployment, soldiers may experience problems integrating into the community. However, little is known about the nature and prevalence of these problems and if they relate to posttraumatic symptomatology. METHODS: In a prospective, longitudinal study...

  20. Reflective action assessment with a prospective clinical problem solving tool in the context of rehabilitation medicine: an illustrative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellett, David; Mpofu, Elias; Madden, Richard

    2013-06-01

    This study describes a case formulation approach applying a prospective ICF derived clinical tool to assess rehabilitation needs for a community dwelling stroke survivor with care from an outpatient rehabilitation medicine clinic. Case history data on the person were assessed for rehabilitation management planning using a prospective tool to interlink current with projected future functional status in everyday settings. Implicit assessment with reflective action informed decision points at each stage of the rehabilitation process. As a result of reflective action using the prospective tool, rehabilitation management led to significant changes in client participation after limitations to mobility and self care were mapped to the living conditions of the stroke survivor. The context sensitive rehabilitative plan resulted in higher subjective health-related quality of life in the stroke survivor and significant other and enhanced their capacity for participation. Reflective action informed assessment applying ICF concepts to clinical problem solving resulted in positive gains in health-related quality of life in a stroke survivor.

  1. A Study on the Spatial Abilities of Prospective Social Studies Teachers: A Mixed Method Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurt, Eyüp; Tünkler, Vural

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated prospective social studies teachers' spatial abilities. It was conducted with 234 prospective teachers attending Social Studies Teaching departments at Education Faculties of two universities in Central and Southern Anatolia. This study, designed according to the explanatory-sequential design, is a mixed research method,…

  2. Birth Spacing of Pregnant Women in Nepal: A Community-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkee, Rajendra; Lee, Andy H

    2016-01-01

    Optimal birth spacing has health advantages for both mother and child. In developing countries, shorter birth intervals are common and associated with social, cultural, and economic factors, as well as a lack of family planning. This study investigated the first birth interval after marriage and preceding interbirth interval in Nepal. A community-based prospective cohort study was conducted in the Kaski district of Nepal. Information on birth spacing, demographic, and obstetric characteristics was obtained from 701 pregnant women using a structured questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were performed to ascertain factors associated with short birth spacing. About 39% of primiparous women gave their first child birth within 1 year of marriage and 23% of multiparous women had short preceding interbirth intervals (gender equality in society.

  3. Mathematical geology studies of deposit prospect types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guangping

    1998-08-01

    Exact certainty prospect type of uranium deposit, not only can assure the quality of deposit prospects, but also increase economic benefits. Based on the standard of geological prospect of uranium deposit, the author introduces a method of Fuzzy Synthetical Comment for dividing prospect type of uranium deposit. The practical applications demonstrate that the regression accuracy, discriminated by Zadeh operator, of 15 known deposits is 100%

  4. Social Capital and Health: A Review of Prospective Multilevel Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background This article presents an overview of the concept of social capital, reviews prospective multilevel analytic studies of the association between social capital and health, and discusses intervention strategies that enhance social capital. Methods We conducted a systematic search of published peer-reviewed literature on the PubMed database and categorized studies according to health outcome. Results We identified 13 articles that satisfied the inclusion criteria for the review. In general, both individual social capital and area/workplace social capital had positive effects on health outcomes, regardless of study design, setting, follow-up period, or type of health outcome. Prospective studies that used a multilevel approach were mainly conducted in Western countries. Although we identified some cross-sectional multilevel studies that were conducted in Asian countries, including Japan, no prospective studies have been conducted in Asia. Conclusions Prospective evidence from multilevel analytic studies of the effect of social capital on health is very limited at present. If epidemiologic findings on the association between social capital and health are to be put to practical use, we must gather additional evidence and explore the feasibility of interventions that build social capital as a means of promoting health. PMID:22447212

  5. A prospective study of gentamicin ototoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, O; Hansen, M M; Kaaber-Bühler, Søren

    2010-01-01

    of gentamicin did not rule out the possiblity of ototoxicity. These results urge the continuing of prospective studies and indicate that gentamicin should be used only as a link in the primary treatment of severe infection or in cases in which other, less toxic agents have failed....

  6. A prospective study of gentamicin ototoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, O; Hansen, M M; Kaaber-Bühler, Søren

    1978-01-01

    of gentamicin did not rule out the possiblity of ototoxicity. These results urge the continuing of prospective studies and indicate that gentamicin should be used only as a link in the primary treatment of severe infection or in cases in which other, less toxic agents have failed....

  7. Trajectories of abstinence-induced Internet gaming withdrawal symptoms: A prospective pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Kaptsis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD is positioned in the appendix of the DSM-5 as a condition requiring further study. The IGD criteria refer to withdrawal symptoms, including irritability, anxiety, or sadness, that follow cessation of Internet gaming (APA, 2013. The aim of this study was to prospectively examine the nature of Internet gaming withdrawal symptoms, if they occur, under gaming abstinence conditions. This study employed a repeated-measures protocol to examine the cognitive-affective reactions of participants undertaking an 84-h Internet gaming abstinence period. The sample included individuals who met the IGD criteria as well as those who regularly played Internet games but did not meet the IGD criteria. Outcome variables included affect (positive and negative, psychological distress (depression, anxiety, stress, and Internet gaming withdrawal symptoms (craving/urge, thoughts about gaming, inability to resist gaming. A total of 24 participants (Mage = 24.6 years, SD = 5.8 were recruited from online gaming communities, and completed a series of online surveys before, during, and after abstaining from Massively Multiplayer Online (MMO games. Both the IGD group and the non-IGD group experienced an abstinence-induced decline in withdrawal symptomatology, negative affect, and psychological distress. The IGD group experienced its largest decline in withdrawal symptomatology within the first 24 h of abstinence. These preliminary data suggest that gaming withdrawal symptoms may follow, at least initially, negative linear and quadratic trends. Further prospective work in larger samples involving longer periods of abstinence is required to verify and expand upon these observations.

  8. Trajectories of abstinence-induced Internet gaming withdrawal symptoms: A prospective pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptsis, Dean; King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H; Gradisar, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) is positioned in the appendix of the DSM-5 as a condition requiring further study. The IGD criteria refer to withdrawal symptoms, including irritability, anxiety, or sadness, that follow cessation of Internet gaming (APA, 2013). The aim of this study was to prospectively examine the nature of Internet gaming withdrawal symptoms, if they occur, under gaming abstinence conditions. This study employed a repeated-measures protocol to examine the cognitive-affective reactions of participants undertaking an 84-h Internet gaming abstinence period. The sample included individuals who met the IGD criteria as well as those who regularly played Internet games but did not meet the IGD criteria. Outcome variables included affect (positive and negative), psychological distress (depression, anxiety, stress), and Internet gaming withdrawal symptoms (craving/urge, thoughts about gaming, inability to resist gaming). A total of 24 participants ( M age  = 24.6 years, SD  = 5.8) were recruited from online gaming communities, and completed a series of online surveys before, during, and after abstaining from Massively Multiplayer Online (MMO) games. Both the IGD group and the non-IGD group experienced an abstinence-induced decline in withdrawal symptomatology, negative affect, and psychological distress. The IGD group experienced its largest decline in withdrawal symptomatology within the first 24 h of abstinence. These preliminary data suggest that gaming withdrawal symptoms may follow, at least initially, negative linear and quadratic trends. Further prospective work in larger samples involving longer periods of abstinence is required to verify and expand upon these observations.

  9. Differences in optimality index between planned place of birth in a birth centre and alternative planned places of birth, a nationwide prospective cohort study in The Netherlands: results of the Dutch Birth Centre Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermus, M.A.A.; Hitzert, M.; Boesveld, I.I.; Akker-van Marle, E.M. van den; Dommelen, P. van; Franx, A.; Graaf, J.P. de; Lith, J.M.M. van; Steegers, E.E.; Wiegers, T.A.; Pal-de Bruin, K.K. van der

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To compare the Optimality Index of planned birth in a birth centre with planned birth in a hospital and planned home birth for low-risk term pregnant women who start labour under the responsibility of a community midwife. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Low-risk pregnant women

  10. Brain function and structure and risk for incident diabetes: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancks, Michael P; Alonso, Alvaro; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Mosley, Thomas H; Selvin, Elizabeth; Pankow, James S

    2017-12-01

    Diabetes is prospectively associated with cognitive decline. Whether lower cognitive function and worse brain structure are prospectively associated with incident diabetes is unclear. We analyzed data for 10,133 individuals with cognitive function testing (1990-1992) and 1212 individuals with brain magnetic resonance imaging (1993-1994) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort. We estimated hazard ratios for incident diabetes through 2014 after adjustment for traditional diabetes risk factors and cohort attrition. Higher level of baseline cognitive function was associated with lower risk for diabetes (per 1 standard deviation, hazard ratio = 0.94; 95% confidence interval = 0.90, 0.98). This association did not persist after accounting for baseline glucose level, case ascertainment methods, and cohort attrition. No association was observed between any brain magnetic resonance imaging measure and incident diabetes. This is one of the first studies to prospectively evaluate the association between both cognitive function and brain structure and the incidence of diabetes. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Stronger communities? Changing prospects for community-led strategic planning in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Brosnan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available New Zealand’s Local Government Act 2002 ushered in a new phase in local government, a phase that is best characterised by the term ‘empowerment’. Not only were councils empowered to promote social, economic, environmental and cultural well-being, in contrast with previous more prescriptive legislation, but citizens were empowered to engage in community-led strategic planning. In many respects the new statute reflected contemporary international public management trends in which governance is increasingly being conducted via networks of public and private actors. However, with the change of government from a centre-left Labour-led coalition to a centre-right National-led government following the November 2008 general election, it is less certain that local government and communities will continue to experience a strengthening of the pluralisation of governance that has been a feature of the past decade. This article argues that the potential disempowerment of local government, and possible attenuation of community-led strategic planning in New Zealand, comes at a time when the momentum for devolution to local government and other communities is increasing elsewhere.

  12. A prospective PET study of patients with glioblastoma multiforme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Preben B.; Blinkenberg, M; Lassen, U

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the post-surgical metabolic and structural cerebral changes in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined ten patients prospectively with newly diagnosed GBM. All patients were primarily treated with surgery, followed by chemotherapy...... compared with structural imaging in the prospective evaluation of GBM. We found a difference in metabolic increase and tumor growth between the two treatment regimens, although this finding has limited relevance due to the design of the study....

  13. Triglycerides are a predictive factor for arterial stiffness: a community-based 4.8-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaona; Ye, Ping; Cao, Ruihua; Yang, Xu; Xiao, Wenkai; Zhang, Yun; Bai, Yongyi; Wu, Hongmei

    2016-05-18

    Epidemiological studies have disclosed an independent effect of triglycerides on coronary heart disease despite achievement of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goals with statin therapy. Arterial stiffness has been increasingly recognized as a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerotic disease. The association between triglycerides and arterial stiffness is not well characterized. We aimed to determine the relationship between triglycerides and arterial stiffness in a community-based longitudinal sample from Beijing, China. We related levels of plasma TGs to measures of arterial stiffness (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity [PWV] and carotid-radial PWV) in 1447 subjects (mean age, 61.3 years) from a community-based population in Beijing, China. After a median follow-up interval of 4.8 years, multiple linear regression analysis revealed that TGs were independently associated with carotid-femoral PWV (β = 0.747, P triglyceride levels were significantly associated with decreases in carotid-femoral PWV, indicating that achieving low TG levels may be an additional therapeutic consideration in subjects with atherosclerotic disease.

  14. Protective effects of parental monitoring of children's media use: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Douglas A; Reimer, Rachel A; Nathanson, Amy I; Walsh, David A; Eisenmann, Joey C

    2014-05-01

    Children spend more time with electronic media than they do in any other activity, aside from sleep. Many of the negative effects that stem from media exposure may be reduced by parental monitoring of children's media use; however, there lacks a clear understanding of the mechanisms and extent of these protective effects. To determine the prospective effects of parental monitoring of children's media on physical, social, and academic outcomes. Prospective cohort design. Data were collected by in-home and in-school surveys in 2 communities in Iowa and Minnesota, where 1323 third- (n = 430), fourth- (n = 446), and fifth- (n = 423) grade students participated. A primary caregiver and teachers also provided data about the student. Participants in the current study were recruited to participate in a social ecological model-based obesity prevention program. Body mass index, average weekly sleep, school performance, prosocial behavior, and aggressive behavior. RESULTS Structural equation modeling revealed that parental monitoring of children's media influences children's sleep, school performance, and prosocial and aggressive behaviors and that these effects are mediated through total screen time and exposure to media violence. Parental monitoring of media has protective effects on a wide variety of academic, social, and physical child outcomes. Pediatricians and physicians are uniquely positioned to provide scientifically based recommendations to families; encouraging parents to monitor children's media carefully can have a wide range of health benefits for children.

  15. Leflunomide in active rheumatoid arthritis: A prospective study in daily practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Roon, E.N.; Jansen, T.L.Th.A.; Mourad, L.; Houtman, P.M.; Bruyn, G.A.W.; Griep, E.N.; Wilffert, B.; Tobi, H.; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.

    2004-01-01

    Aims: We prospectively studied the efficacy, incidence of adverse drug reactions and withdrawal from leflunomide in an outpatient population with rheumatoid arthritis in a setting of care-as-usual. Methods: In this prospective case series study, a standard dataset was collected from outpatient

  16. Leflunomide in active rheumatoid arthritis : a prospective study in daily practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Roon, EN; Jansen, TLTA; Mourad, L; Houtman, PM; Bruyn, GAW; Griep, EN; Wilffert, B; Tobi, H; Brouwers, JRBJ

    Aims We prospectively studied the efficacy, incidence of adverse drug reactions and withdrawal from leflunomide in an outpatient population with rheumatoid arthritis in a setting of care-as-usual. Methods In this prospective case series study, from outpatient medical records a standard dataset was

  17. The Path to Baltimore's "Best Prospect" Jobs without a College Degree: Career Credentialing Programs at Baltimore's Community Colleges. The Abell Report. Volume 28, No. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Barbara L.

    2015-01-01

    Only one in five graduates of Baltimore City Public Schools matriculates to a four-year college; the vast majority enroll in community college or look for a full-time job. Baltimore graduates and job-seekers need postsecondary training that works. "The Path to Baltimore's 'Best Prospect' Jobs without a College Degree: Career Credentialing…

  18. Health values and prospect theory: a comment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratmann-Schoene, D; Klose, T

    2001-01-01

    In a recent volume of Medical Decision Making, Treadwell and Lenert stated that under prospect theory, community members compared with patients underestimate the utility of health improvements. In this comment, the authors show that this statement holds only for a subset of possible preference functions. Furthermore, the authors provide arguments that, in general, the rater's current health state is not the appropriate reference level if applying prospect theory to health valuations.

  19. Defining political community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sladeček Michal M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the concept of political community, its constitution and value. The starting point is that the concept of community is not sufficiently recognized in modern political theories, as well as in contemporary liberal theory. In the last two decades communitarian and republican political theory attempted to revitalize this notion. The first part of the paper elaborates on the polemics between these three theoretical orientations. The concluding part examines the possibilities and prospect for stable political community in conditions of pluralism of particular social communities and ethnocultural heterogeneity.

  20. Higgs Working Group Report of the Snowmass 2013 Community Planning Study

    CERN Document Server

    Dawson, S; Logan, H; Qian, J; Tully, C; Van Kooten, R; Ajaib, A; Anastassov, A; Anderson, I; Bake, O; Barger, V; Barklow, T; Batell, B; Battaglia, M; Berge, S; Blondel, A; Bolognesi, S; Brau, J; Brownson, E; Cahill-Rowley, M; Calancha-Paredes, C; Chen, C -Y; Chou, W; Clare, R; Cline, D; Craig, N; Cranmer, K; de Gruttola, M; Elagin, A; Essig, R; Everett, L; Feng, E; Fujii, K; Gainer, J; Gao, Y; Gogoladze, I; Gori, S; Goncalo, R; Graf, N; Grojean, C; Guindon, S; Han, T; Hanson, G; Harnik, R; Heinemann, B; Heinemeyer, S; Heintz, U; Hewett, J; Ilchenko, Y; Ismail, A; Jain, V; Janot, P; Kawada, S; Kehoe, R; Klute, M; Kotwal, A; Krueger, K; Kukartsev, G; Kumar, K; Kunkle, J; Lewis, I; Li, Y; Linssen, L; Lipeles, E; Lipton, R; Liss, T; List, J; Liu, T; Liu, Z; Low, I; Ma, T; Mackenzie, P; Mellado, B; Melnikov, K; Moortgat-Pick, G; Mourou, G; Narain, M; Nielsen, J; Okada, N; Okawa, H; Olsen, J; Onyisi, P; Parashar, N; Peskin, M; Petriello, F; Plehn, T; Pollard, C; Potter, C; Prokofiev, K; Rauch, M; Rizzo, T; Robens, T; Rodriguez, V; Roloff, P; Ruiz, R; Sanz, V; Sayre, J; Shafi, Q; Shaughnessy, G; Sher, M; Simon, F; Solyak, N; Stupak, J; Su, S; Tanabe, T; Tajima, T; Telnov, V; Tian, J; Thomas, S; Thomson, M; Un, C; Velasco, M; Wagner, C; Wang, S; Whitbeck, A; Yao, W; Yokoya, H; Zenz, S; Zerwas, D; Zhang, Y; Zhou, Y

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the work of the Energy Frontier Higgs Boson working group of the 2013 Community Summer Study (Snowmass). We identify the key elements of a precision Higgs physics program and document the physics potential of future experimental facilities as elucidated during the Snowmass study. We study Higgs couplings to gauge boson and fermion pairs, double Higgs production for the Higgs self-coupling, its quantum numbers and $C\\!P$-mixing in Higgs couplings, the Higgs mass and total width, and prospects for direct searches for additional Higgs bosons in extensions of the Standard Model. Our report includes projections of measurement capabilities from detailed studies of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC), a Gamma-Gamma Collider, the International Linear Collider (ILC), the Large Hadron Collider High-Luminosity Upgrade (HL-LHC), Very Large Hadron Colliders up to 100 TeV (VLHC), a Muon Collider, and a Triple-Large Electron Positron Collider (TLEP).

  1. Prospective outcomes of injury study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrett, S; Langley, J; Hokowhitu, B; Ameratunga, S; Hansen, P; Davie, G; Wyeth, E; Lilley, R

    2009-10-01

    In New Zealand (NZ), 20% of adults report a disability, of which one-third is caused by injury. No prospective epidemiological studies of predictors of disability following all-cause injury among New Zealanders have been undertaken. Internationally, studies have focused on a limited range of predictors or specific injuries. Although these studies provide useful insights, applicability to NZ is limited given the importance of NZ's unique macro-social factors, such as NZ's no-fault accident compensation and rehabilitation scheme, the Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC). (1) To quantitatively determine the injury, rehabilitation, personal, social and economic factors leading to disability outcomes following injury in NZ. (2) To qualitatively explore experiences and perceptions of injury-related outcomes in face-to-face interviews with 15 Māori and 15 other New Zealanders, 6 and 12 months after injury. Four geographical regions within NZ. Prospective cohort study with telephone interviews 1, 4 and 12 months after injury. 2500 people (including 460 Māori), aged 18-64 years, randomly selected from ACC's entitlement claims register (people likely to be off work for at least 1 week or equivalent). Telephone interviews, electronic hospital and ACC injury data. Exposures include demographic, social, economic, work-related, health status, participation and/or environmental factors. Primary: disability (including WHODAS II) and health-related quality of life (including EQ-5D). Secondary: participation (paid and unpaid activities), life satisfaction and costs. Separate regression models will be developed for each of the outcomes. Repeated measures outcomes will be modelled using general estimating equation models and generalised linear mixed models.

  2. Social Media Use in Research: Engaging Communities in Cohort Studies to Support Recruitment and Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina-Henry, Eva; Waterston, Leo B; Blaisdell, Laura L

    2015-07-22

    This paper presents the first formal evaluation of social media (SM) use in the National Children's Study (NCS). The NCS is a prospective, longitudinal study of the effects of environment and genetics on children's health, growth and development. The Study employed a multifaceted community outreach campaign in combination with a SM campaign to educate participants and their communities about the Study. SM essentially erases geographic differences between people due to its omnipresence, which was an important consideration in this multi-site national study. Using SM in the research setting requires an understanding of potential threats to confidentiality and privacy and the role that posted content plays as an extension of the informed consent process. This pilot demonstrates the feasibility of creating linkages and databases to measure and compare SM with new content and engagement metrics. Metrics presented include basic use metrics for Facebook as well as newly created metrics to assist with Facebook content and engagement analyses. Increasing Likes per month demonstrates that online communities can be quickly generated. Content and Engagement analyses describe what content of posts NCS Study Centers were using, what content they were posting about, and what the online NCS communities found most engaging. These metrics highlight opportunities to optimize time and effort while determining the content of future posts. Further research about content analysis, optimal metrics to describe engagement in research, the role of localized content and stakeholders, and social media use in participant recruitment is warranted.

  3. The Incidence and Short-term Outcomes of Acute Respiratory Illness with Cough in Children from a Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Urban Community in Australia: A Community-Based Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry K. Hall

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAcute respiratory illnesses with cough (ARIwC are predominant causes of morbidity in Australian Indigenous children; however, data on disease burden in urban communities are scarce. This study aimed to determine the incidence of ARIwC, the predictors of recurrent (≥4 episodes ARIwC, and development of chronic cough following an ARIwC in urban, predominantly Indigenous, children aged <5 years from northern Brisbane, Australia.MethodsProspective cohort study of children aged <5 years registered with a primary healthcare center. ARIwC episodes and outcomes were collected for 12 months. Recurrent ARIwC was defined as ≥4 episodes in 12 months. Chronic cough was defined as cough lasting >4 weeks. Children who developed chronic cough were reviewed by a pediatric pulmonologist. Incidence densities per child-month of observation were calculated and predictors of recurrent ARIwC and chronic cough were evaluated in logistic regression models.ResultsBetween February 2013 and November 2015, 200 children were enrolled; median age of 18.1 months, range (0.7–59.7 months and 90% identified as Indigenous. A total of 1,722 child-months of observation were analyzed (mean/child = 8.58, 95% CI 8.18–9.0. The incidence of ARIwC was 24.8/100 child-months at risk (95% CI 22.3–27.5. Twenty-one children (10.5% experienced recurrent ARIwC. Chronic cough was identified in 70/272 (25.7% episodes of ARIwC. Predictors of recurrent ARIwC were presence of eczema, mold in the house, parent/carer employment status, and having an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mother/non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander father (compared to both parents being Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander. Predictors of chronic cough included being aged <12 months, eczema, childcare attendance, previous history of cough of >4 weeks duration, having an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mother/non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander father (compared to

  4. Alzheimer's Disease Sequencing Project discovery and replication criteria for cases and controls: Data from a community-based prospective cohort study with autopsy follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Paul K; Foroud, Tatiana; Montine, Thomas J; Larson, Eric B

    2017-12-01

    The Alzheimer's Disease Sequencing Project (ADSP) used different criteria for assigning case and control status from the discovery and replication phases of the project. We considered data from a community-based prospective cohort study with autopsy follow-up where participants could be categorized as case, control, or neither by both definitions and compared the two sets of criteria. We used data from the Adult Changes in Thought (ACT) study including Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV criteria for dementia status, McKhann et al. criteria for clinical Alzheimer's disease, and Braak and Consortium to Establish a Registry for AD findings on neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques to categorize the 621 ACT participants of European ancestry who died and came to autopsy. We applied ADSP discovery and replication definitions to identify controls, cases, and people who were neither controls nor cases. There was some agreement between the discovery and replication definitions. Major areas of discrepancy included the finding that only 40% of the discovery sample controls had sufficiently low levels of neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques to be considered controls by the replication criteria and the finding that 16% of the replication phase cases were diagnosed with non-AD dementia during life and thus were excluded as cases for the discovery phase. These findings should inform interpretation of genetic association findings from the ADSP. Differences in genetic association findings between the two phases of the study may reflect these different phenotype definitions from the discovery and replication phase of the ADSP. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Parenting and Trajectories of Children’s Maladaptive Behaviors: A 12-year Prospective Community Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyckx, Koen; Tildesley, Elizabeth A.; Soenens, Bart; Andrews, Judy A.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Peterson, Missy; Duriez, Bart

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how parenting accounted for inter-individual differences in developmental trajectories of different child behaviors across childhood and adolescence. In a cohort sequential community sample of 1,049 children, latent class growth analysis was applied to three parent-reported dimensions (monitoring, positive parenting, inconsistent discipline) across 12 annual assessments (ages 6–18). Four longitudinal parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, uninvolved) were differentiated on the basis of levels and rates of change in the constituent parenting dimensions. Multi-group analyses demonstrated that these parenting styles were differentially related to changes in parent- and child-reported measures of children’s alcohol and cigarette use, antisocial behavior, and internalizing symptoms, with the authoritative parenting class being related to the most optimal long-term development. Practical implications and future research suggestions are discussed. PMID:21534057

  6. Mental health problems among young doctors: an updated review of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyssen, Reidar; Vaglum, Per

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have shown the medical community to exhibit a relatively high level of certain mental health problems, particularly depression, which may lead to drug abuse and suicide. We reviewed prospective studies published over the past 20 years to investigate the prevalence and predictors of mental health problems in doctors during their first postgraduate years. We selected clinically relevant mental health problems as the outcome measure. We found nine cohort studies that met our selection criteria. Each of them had limitations, notably low response rate at follow-up, small sample size, and/or short observation period. Most studies showed that symptoms of mental health problems, particularly of depression, were highest during the first postgraduate year. They found that individual factors, such as family background, personality traits (neuroticism and self-criticism), and coping by wishful thinking, as well as contextual factors including perceived medical-school stress, perceived overwork, emotional pressure, working in an intensive-care setting, and stress outside of work, were often predictive of mental health problems. The studies revealed somewhat discrepant findings with respect to gender. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  7. Hydrocephalus in adults with community-acquired bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soemirien Kasanmoentalib, E.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the occurrence, treatment, and outcome of hydrocephalus complicating community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults. Methods: Case series from a prospective nationwide cohort study from Dutch hospitals from 2006 to 2009. Results: Hydrocephalus was diagnosed in 26 of 577

  8. A Case Study on Mathematical Literacy of Prospective Elementary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suharta, I. Gusti Putu; Suarjana, I. Made

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe Mathematical Literacy (ML) of Prospective Elementary School Teachers with attention to aspects of mathematical skills and gender. The type of research is qualitative with the research design of Case Study. Respondents are assigned 12 Prospective Elementary School Teachers, consisting of 6 men and 6 women.…

  9. Prospective study on quality of newborn care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Khanam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quality of services provided by health care provider, the closest health functionary to the community has impact on neonatal mortality. Aims: Study on quality of newborn care in rural areas.  Settings and Design: This is a prospective study in the field practice areas of J.N. Medical College and areas under primary health centre of public health care system in Wardha district.  Methods and Material: Modified quality check list on the basis of PHC MAP module guidelines for assessing the quality of service-module 6-user’s guide was prepared. Face to face interview with 205 (group-A/104 nos + group-B/101 nos mother of newborn was method to collected information in three postnatal visits.  Statistical analysis: Quality (verbal response of each service was quantified as acceptable, average and worst.  Quality of both the groups was compared by calculating P-value after utilizing Z-test.  Results: Over all acceptable quality of medical history was 30.03%, physical examination was 21.73%, preventive service was 91.17% and counseling was 24.83%. Significant difference between two groups were found on history taking for (cry, breathing and body movement of baby, recording weight and counseling regarding exclusive breast feeding for first 6 month of life. Worst quality in this study were observed in history for anything applying to eyes, umbilical cord stump and complication of baby for which appropriate management was taken. Except for weight recording and examination of head and fontanels all other variables under physical examination were not acceptable. Counseling regarding high risk condition of baby was only 13.66%. Conclusion: Existing newborn services except immunization is inadequate and needs to be strengthened especially physical examination and counseling services. 

  10. PROspective MEmory Training to improve HEart failUre Self-care (PROMETHEUS): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jan; Rendell, Peter G; Ski, Chantal F; Kure, Christina E; McLennan, Skye N; Rose, Nathan S; Prior, David L; Thompson, David R

    2015-04-29

    Cognitive impairment is seen in up to three quarters of heart failure (HF) patients and has a significant negative impact on patients' health outcomes. Prospective memory, which is defined as memory to carry out future intentions, is important for functional independence in older adults and involves application of multiple cognitive processes that are often impaired in HF patients. The objective of this study is to examine the effects of prospective memory training on patients' engagement in HF self-care and health outcomes, carer strain and quality of life. The proposed study is a randomised, controlled trial in which 200 patients diagnosed with HF, and their carers will be recruited from 3 major hospitals across Melbourne. Eligible patients with HF will be randomised to receive either: 1) The Virtual Week Training Program - a computerised prospective memory (PM) training program (intervention) or 2) non-adaptive computer-based word puzzles (active control). HF patients' baseline cognitive function will be compared to a healthy control group (n = 60) living independently in the community. Patients will undergo a comprehensive assessment of PM, neuropsychological functioning, self-care, physical, and emotional functioning. Assessments will take place at baseline, 4 weeks and 12 months following intervention. Carers will complete measures assessing quality of life, strain, perceived control in the management of the patients' HF symptoms, and ratings of the patients' level of engagement in HF self-care behaviours. If the Virtual Week Training Program is effective in improving: 1) prospective memory; 2) self-care behaviours, and 3) wellbeing in HF patients, this study will enhance our understanding of impaired cognitive processes in HF and potentially is a mechanism to reduce healthcare costs. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry #366376; 27 May 2014. https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=366376&isClinicalTrial=False .

  11. Prospective Study of Fasting Blood Glucose and Intracerebral Hemorrhagic Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cheng; Li, Guohong; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Gurol, Mahmut E; Yuan, Xiaodong; Hui, Ying; Ruan, Chunyu; Vaidya, Anand; Wang, Yanxiu; Wu, Shouling; Gao, Xiang

    2018-01-01

    Although diabetes mellitus is an established independent risk factor for ischemic stroke, the association between fasting blood glucose and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is limited and inconsistent. The objective of the current study was to examine the potential impact of long-term fasting blood glucose concentration on subsequent risk of ICH. This prospective study included 96 110 participants of the Kailuan study, living in Kailuan community, Tangshan city, China, who were free of cardiovascular diseases and cancer at baseline (2006). Fasting blood glucose concentration was measured in 2006, 2008, 2010, and 2012. Updated cumulative average fasting blood glucose concentration was used as primary exposure of the current study. Incident ICH from 2006 to 2015 was confirmed by review of medical records. During 817 531 person-years of follow-up, we identified 755 incident ICH cases. The nadir risk of ICH was observed at fasting blood glucose concentration of 5.3 mmol/L. The adjusted hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of ICH were 1.59 (95% CI, 1.26-2.02) for diabetes mellitus or fasting blood glucose ≥7.00 mmol/L, 1.31 (95% CI, 1.02-1.69) for impaired fasting blood glucose (fasting blood glucose, 6.10-6.99 mmol/L), 0.98 (95% CI, 0.78-1.22) for fasting blood glucose 5.60 to 6.09 mmol/L, and 2.04 (95% CI, 1.23-3.38) for hypoglycemia (fasting blood glucose, fasting blood glucose 4.00 to 5.59 mmol/L. The results persisted after excluding individuals who used hypoglycemic, aspirin, antihypertensive agents, or anticoagulants, and those with intracerebral hemorrhagic cases occurred in the first 2 years of follow-up. In this large community-based cohort, low (fasting blood glucose concentrations were associated with higher risk of incident ICH, relative to fasting blood glucose concentrations of 4.00 to 6.09 mmol/L. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Prospective study of sunburn and sun behavior patterns during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusza, Stephen W; Halpern, Allan C; Satagopan, Jaya M; Oliveria, Susan A; Weinstock, Martin A; Scope, Alon; Berwick, Marianne; Geller, Alan C

    2012-02-01

    Early childhood UV light radiation (UVR) exposures have been shown to be associated with melanoma development later in life. The objective of this study was to assess sunburn and changes in sunburn and sun behaviors during periadolescence. A prospective, population-based study was conducted in fifth-grade children (∼10 years of age) from Framingham, Massachusetts. Surveys were administered at baseline (September-October 2004) and again 3 years later (September-October 2007). Surveys were analyzed to assess prevalence of reported sunburn and sun behaviors and to examine changes in response over the follow-up period. Data were analyzed from 360 participants who had complete information regarding sunburn at both time points. In 2004, ∼53% of the students reported having at least 1 sunburn during the previous summer, and this proportion did not significantly change by 2007 (55%, P = .79), whereas liking a tan and spending time outside to get a tan significantly increased (P sunburns before age 11 and again 3 years later, targeting children in pediatric offices and community settings regarding unprotected UV exposure may be a practical approach. Because periadolescence is a time of volatility with regard to sun behaviors, learning more about children who receive sunburns versus those who avoid them is a critical research task.

  13. Revisiting the association of blood pressure with mortality in oldest old people in China: community based, longitudinal prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yue-Bin; Gao, Xiang; Yin, Zhao-Xue; Chen, Hua-Shuai; Luo, Jie-Si; Brasher, Melanie Sereny; Kraus, Virginia Byers; Li, Tian-Tian; Zeng, Yi

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the associations of blood pressure with all cause mortality and cause specific mortality at three years among oldest old people in China. Design Community based, longitudinal prospective study. Setting 2011 and 2014 waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey, conducted in 22 Chinese provinces. Participants 4658 oldest old individuals (mean age 92.1 years). Main outcome measures All cause mortality and cause specific mortality assessed at three year follow-up. Results 1997 deaths were recorded at three year follow-up. U shaped associations of mortality with systolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and pulse pressure were identified; values of 143.5 mm Hg, 101 mm Hg, and 66 mm Hg conferred the minimum mortality risk, respectively. After adjustment for covariates, the U shaped association remained only for systolic blood pressure (minimum mortality risk at 129 mm Hg). Compared with a systolic blood pressure value of 129 mm Hg, risk of all cause mortality decreased for values lower than 107 mm Hg (from 1.47 (95% confidence interval 1.01 to 2.17) to 1.08 (1.01 to 1.17)), and increased for values greater than 154 mm Hg (from 1.08 (1.01 to 1.17) to 1.27 (1.02 to 1.58)). In the cause specific analysis, compared with a middle range of systolic blood pressure (107-154 mm Hg), higher values (>154 mm Hg) were associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1.51 (95% confidence interval 1.12 to 2.02)); lower values (blood pressure and all cause mortality at three years among oldest old people in China. This association could be explained by the finding that higher systolic blood pressure predicted a higher risk of death from cardiovascular disease, and that lower systolic blood pressure predicted a higher risk of death from non-cardiovascular causes. These results emphasise the importance of revisiting blood pressure management or establishing specific guidelines for management among oldest

  14. A Multi-Center Prospective Study to Validate an Algorithm Using Urine and Plasma Biomarkers for Predicting Gleason ≥3+4 Prostate Cancer on Biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albitar, Maher; Ma, Wanlong; Lund, Lars

    2017-01-01

    a prospective multicenter study recruiting patients from community-based practices. Patients and Methods: Urine and plasma samples from 2528 men were tested prospectively. Results were correlated with biopsy findings, if a biopsy was performed as deemed necessary by the practicing urologist. Of the 2528......Background: Unnecessary biopsies and overdiagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) remain a serious healthcare problem. We have previously shown that urine- and plasma-based prostate-specific biomarkers when combined can predict high grade prostate cancer (PCa). To further validate this test, we performed...... of high grade prostate cancer with negative predictive value (NPV) of 90% to 97% for Gleason ≥3+4 and between 98% to 99% for Gleason ≥4+3....

  15. The BEST study - a prospective study to compare business class ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. As many as 10% of airline passengers travelling without prophylaxis for long distances may develop a venous thrombosis. There is, however, no evidence that economy class travellers are at increased risk of thrombosis. Objectives. A suitably powered prospective study, based on the incidence of deep-vein ...

  16. Clinical characteristics of Q fever and etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in a tropical region of southern Taiwan: a prospective observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsu Lai

    Full Text Available The clinical characteristics of Q fever are poorly identified in the tropics. Fever with pneumonia or hepatitis are the dominant presentations of acute Q fever, which exhibits geographic variability. In southern Taiwan, which is located in a tropical region, the role of Q fever in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP has never been investigated.During the study period, May 2012 to April 2013, 166 cases of adult CAP and 15 cases of acute Q fever were prospectively investigated. Cultures of clinical specimens, urine antigen tests for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila, and paired serologic assessments for Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and Q fever (Coxiella burnetii were used for identifying pathogens associated with CAP. From April 2004 to April 2013 (the pre-study period, 122 cases of acute Q fever were also included retrospectively for analysis. The geographic distribution of Q fever and CAP cases was similar. Q fever cases were identified in warmer seasons and younger ages than CAP. Based on multivariate analysis, male gender, chills, thrombocytopenia, and elevated liver enzymes were independent characteristics associated with Q fever. In patients with Q fever, 95% and 13.5% of cases presented with hepatitis and pneumonia, respectively. Twelve (7.2% cases of CAP were seropositive for C. burnetii antibodies, but none of them had acute Q fever. Among CAP cases, 22.9% had a CURB-65 score ≧2, and 45.8% had identifiable pathogens. Haemophilus parainfluenzae (14.5%, S. pneumoniae (6.6%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4.8%, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (3.0% were the most common pathogens identified by cultures or urine antigen tests. Moreover, M. pneumoniae, C. pneumoniae, and co-infection with 2 pathogens accounted for 9.0%, 7.8%, and 1.8%, respectively.In southern Taiwan, Q fever is an endemic disease with hepatitis as the major presentation and is not a common etiology of CAP.

  17. Prospect-EPIC Utrecht: study design and characteristics of the cohort population. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boker, L K; van Noord, P A; van der Schouw, Y T; Koot, N V; Bueno de Mesquita, H B; Riboli, E; Grobbee, D E; Peeters, P H

    2001-01-01

    The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), which has been established in order to investigate the relations between nutrition and cancer, was initiated in 1990 and involves 10 European countries with heterogeneous dietary patterns and differing cancer incidence rates. This manuscript presents the design, recruitment and baseline characteristics of the Prospect-EPIC cohort co-ordinated in Utrecht, The Netherlands. The cohort is based on volunteers recruited among women participating in a regional breast cancer screening program. It comprises of 17,357 subjects aged 50-69 years at enrolment from Utrecht and vicinity, who have consented to participate in the study and its follow-up. Each participant filled out a general questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire. Participants were also physically examined and have donated a blood sample. Participation rate was 34.5%. Blood samples were donated by most participants (97.5%) and detailed informed consents were obtained from 87.4% of participants. Mean age at enrolment was 57 years. Anthropometric, lifestyle and morbidity characteristics of the cohort population did not differ largely from those of similar study populations in The Netherlands. Based on the Prospect-EPIC population, we intend to conduct prospective total cohort, nested case-control or case-cohort studies, in order to investigate relations between consumption of certain food groups or nutrients and chronic diseases, including hormone dependant cancers such as breast, colon, endometrial and ovary cancers.

  18. Physical Exercise Helped to Maintain and Restore Functioning in Chinese Older Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment: A 5-Year Prospective Study of the Hong Kong Memory and Ageing Prospective Study (HK-MAPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Duan Yang; Wong, Candy H Y; Leung, Grace T Y; Fung, Ada W T; Chan, Wai Chi; Lam, Linda C W

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the potential of physical exercise habit as a lifestyle modification against cognitive and functional decline at the community level. A total of 454 community-dwelling Chinese older adults without dementia participated in the Hong Kong Memory and Ageing Prospective Study at baseline and follow-up at 5 years. Their cognitive and functional performances were assessed by the Cantonese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (CMMSE) and the Chinese version of Disability Assessment in Dementia (DAD). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to examine whether physical exercise was a significant predictor of the follow-up CMMSE and DAD scores after controlling for the covariates. Subgroup analyses were performed with a group of 127 participants with mild cognitive impairment at baseline. Physical exercise habit was a significant predictor for both the follow-up CMMSE scores and DAD scores. Participants with exercise habits of 5 years or more showed better cognitive and functional performances at follow-up. Participants who picked up exercise habits only after the baseline assessment also demonstrated better functioning at follow-up. The same patterns were observed in the subgroup analyses with the mild cognitive impairment group. Results suggested that prolonged exercise habit is required for positive effects on cognition to emerge, but benefits on functioning can be observed when individuals take up an exercise habit later in life or even after the beginning of cognitive decline. These findings are encouraging in promoting an exercise habit among older adults living in the community. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Model of Microteaching Lesson Study Implementation in the Prospective History Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, Indah Wahyu Puji; Mashuri; Nafi'ah, Ulfatun

    2016-01-01

    Microteaching lesson study is a model to improve prospective teacher quality by incorporating several element of microteaching and lesson study. This study concern on the implementation of microteaching lesson study in prospective history teacher education. Microteaching lesson study model implemented in this study consist of three stages: plan,…

  20. Grassroots community-based inclusive education. Exploring educational prospects for young people with disabilities in the post-conflict Rwandan communities.

    OpenAIRE

    Karangwa, Evariste

    2006-01-01

    Summary The journey through the study on ‘Grassroots community-based inclusive e ducation’ and its outcomes has been considerably shaped by the field. Th e earlier ‘déjà-vu’ attitudes about the Rwandan society and its socio-cu ltural context that the researcher had always been part of, was sensitiv ely changed through the exposure to a number of interventions in the fie ld and experiences within the communities surveyed. It is along this jou rney that new outlooks on the communities of the di...

  1. Community-Based Field Experiences in Teacher Education: Possibilities for a Pedagogical Third Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Heidi L.

    2012-01-01

    The present article discusses the importance of community-based field experiences as a feature of teacher education programs. Through a qualitative case study, prospective teachers' work with homeless youth in an after-school initiative is presented. Framing community-based field experiences in teacher education through "third space" theory, the…

  2. Prospective teachers' perceptions of the school psychologist's role

    OpenAIRE

    Poulou, Maria

    2002-01-01

    Acknowledging the importance of teachers’ implicit theories for the determination of school psychologist’s role, this study aims to elicit prospective teachers’ personal theories for the role of school psychologist. By using metaphoric pictures, 59 pre-service teachers described their perceptions of the school psychologist’s role in relation to other members of the school community, the expectations of both teachers and the school psychologist in relation to the role of the ...

  3. Predicting Reoffence in Sexual Offender Subtypes: A Prospective Validation Study of the German Version of the Sexual Offender Risk Appraisal Guide (SORAG)

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Rettenberger; Reinhard Eher

    2007-01-01

    This study is part of a prospective, longitudinal research project to evaluate the reliability and validity of different recidivism risk assessment methods for sexual offenders under community supervision for scientific and practical use in the German-speaking part of Europe. In this paper we present the German adaptation of the Sexual Offender Risk Appraisal Guide (SORAG), a specific risk assessment tool for sexual offenders that was developed and published in 1998 in Canada. We examined int...

  4. The Shozu Herpes Zoster (SHEZ) Study: Rationale, Design, and Description of a Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Yukiko; Miyazaki, Yoshiyuki; Onishi, Fumitake; Kumihashi, Hideaki; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Toyokazu; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Mori, Yasuko; Asada, Hideo; Yamanishi, Koichi; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence and risk factors for herpes zoster have been studied in cross-sectional and cohort studies, although most such studies have been conducted in Western countries. Evidence from Asian populations is limited, and no cohort study has been conducted in Asia. We are conducting a 3-year prospective cohort study in Shozu County in Kagawa Prefecture, Japan to determine the incidence and predictive and immunologic factors for herpes zoster among Japanese. Methods The participants are followed for 3 years, and a telephone survey is conducted every 4 weeks. The participants were assigned to 1 of 3 studies. Participants in study A gave information on past history of herpes zoster and completed health questionnaires. Study B participants additionally underwent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) skin testing, and study C participants additionally underwent blood testing. If the participants develop herpes zoster, we evaluate clinical symptoms, measure cell-mediated immunity and humoral immunity using venous blood sampling, photograph skin areas with rash, conduct virus identification testing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and virus isolation from crust sampling, and evaluate postherpetic pain. Results We recruited 12 522 participants aged 50 years or older in Shozu County from December 2009 through November 2010. The participation rate was 65.7% of the target population. Conclusions The present study is likely to provide valuable data on the incidence and predictive and immunologic factors for herpes zoster in a defined community-based population of Japanese. PMID:22343323

  5. Gender Differences During Toddlerhood in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Prospective Community-Based Longitudinal Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Lauren P; Joshi, Rucha; Barbaro, Josephine; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2018-03-01

    Relatively few studies have examined gender differences in infants and toddlers, and most focus on clinically referred samples or high-risk infant cohorts. The current study aimed to examine gender differences in early autism manifestations and cognitive development in a community-ascertained sample. In total, 46 males and 21 females with ASD were seen at approximately 24 and 48 months of age. No significant gender differences were observed on overall cognitive ability, verbal skills, non-verbal skills, overall autism severity, or restricted repetitive behaviours. However, females were found to exhibit more social communication impairments than males. These findings may indicate that female toddlers with less severe or different, social communication impairments may be more likely to be missed during routine surveillance during toddlerhood.

  6. [Prognostic factors in community acquired pneumonia. Prospective multicenter study in internal medical departments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolinario Hidalgo, R; Suárez Cabrera, M; Geijo Martínez, M P; Bernabéu-Wittel, M; Falguera Sacrest, M; Limiñana Cañal, J M

    2007-10-01

    the aims of the present study were to evaluate the clinical and microbiological characteristics of patients suffering from community-acquired pneumonia attended in the Internal Medical Departments of several Spanish institutions and to analyze those prognostic factors predicting thirty-day mortality in such patients. Past medical history, symptoms and signs, radiological pattern and blood parameters including albumin and C Reactive Protein, were recorded for each patient. Time from admission to starting antibiotics (in hours) and follow-up (in days) were also recorded. Patients were stratified by the Pneumonia Severity Index in five risk classes. 389 patients were included in the study, most of them in Fine categories III to V. Mortality rate for all patients was 12.1% (48 patients), increasing up to 40% in Fine Class V. Neither age, sex nor time from admission to the start of antibiotic treatment predicted survival rates. Plasmatic levels of PCR or microbiologic diagnosis were not related to clinical outcome. In the Cox regression analysis, oriented patients (OR 0.138, IC95% 0.055-0.324), and those with normal albuminemia (OR 0.207, IC95% 0.103-0.417) showed better survival rates. On the contrary, those with active carcinoma (OR 3.2, IC95% 1.181-8.947) significantly showed a reduced life expectancy. Besides the fully accepted Fine scale criteria, albumin measurements should be included in routine evaluation in order to improve patient s prognostic classification.

  7. Variations in Community Prevalence and Determinants of Recreational and Utilitarian Walking in Older Age

    OpenAIRE

    Procter-Gray, Elizabeth; Leveille, Suzanne G.; Hannan, Marian T.; Cheng, Jie; Kane, Kevin; Li, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Background:. Regular walking is critical to maintaining health in older age. We examined influences of individual and community factors on walking habits in older adults. Methods:. We analyzed walking habits among participants of a prospective cohort study of 745 community-dwelling men and women, mainly aged 70 years or older. We estimated community variations in utilitarian and recreational walking, and examined whether the variations were attributable to community differences in individual ...

  8. Childhood emotional maltreatment as a robust predictor of suicidal ideation: A multi-wave, prospective investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Adam Bryant; Jenness, Jessica L.; Oppenheimer, Caroline W.; Barrocas Gottleib, Andrea L.; Young, Jami F.; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2016-01-01

    Despite literature suggesting a relationship between child maltreatment and suicidal ideation, few studies have examined the prospective course of this relationship. The current study examined this relationship in a sample of 682 community youth who were followed over the course of 3 years. Repeated measures of suicidal ideation, emotional maltreatment, and depressive symptom severity were examined in multi-wave path analysis models. Overall, results suggest that emotional maltreatment over time contributes uniquely to the prospective prediction of suicidal ideation, even when controlling for age, previous suicidal ideation, biological sex, and depression symptom severity. Unlike previous studies that have only measured emotional maltreatment at one-time point, the current study demonstrates that emotional maltreatment contributes unique risk to suicidal ideation prospectively among youth. Results speak to the importance of examining emotional maltreatment and suicidal ideation within prospective models of risk and suggest that emotional maltreatment is a robust predictor of suicidal ideation, over and above history of suicidal ideation and depression. PMID:27032784

  9. Organisational justice and mental health: a systematic review of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndjaboué, Ruth; Brisson, Chantal; Vézina, Michel

    2012-10-01

    The models most commonly used, to study the effects of psychosocial work factors on workers' health, are the demand-control-support (DCS) model and Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) model. An emerging body of research has identified Organisational Justice as another model that can help to explain deleterious health effects. This review aimed: (1) to identify prospective studies of the associations between organisational justice and mental health in industrialised countries from 1990 to 2010; (2) to evaluate the extent to which organisational justice has an effect on mental health independently of the DCS and ERI models; and (3) to discuss theoretical and empirical overlap and differences with previous models. The studies had to present associations between organisational justice and a mental health outcome, be prospective, and be entirely available in English or in French. Duplicated papers were excluded. Eleven prospective studies were selected for this review. They provide evidence that procedural justice and relational justice are associated with mental health. These associations remained significant even after controlling for the DCS and ERI models. There is a lack of prospective studies on distributive and informational justice. In conclusion, procedural and relational justice can be considered a different and complementary model to the DCS and ERI models. Future studies should evaluate the effect of change in exposure to organisational justice on employees' mental health over time.

  10. Optimizing the definition of intrauterine growth restriction: the multicenter prospective PORTO Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Unterscheider, Julia

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the Prospective Observational Trial to Optimize Pediatric Health in Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) (PORTO Study), a national prospective observational multicenter study, was to evaluate which sonographic findings were associated with perinatal morbidity and mortality in pregnancies affected by growth restriction, originally defined as estimated fetal weight (EFW) <10th centile.

  11. "EMMA Study: a Brazilian community-based cohort study of stroke mortality and morbidity".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Alessandra Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Stroke has a high burden of disability and mortality. The aim here was to evaluate epidemiology, risk factors and prognosis for stroke in the EMMA Study (Study of Stroke Mortality and Morbidity). Prospective community-based cohort carried out in Hospital Universitário, University of São Paulo, 2006-2014. Stroke data based on fatal and non-fatal events were assessed, including sociodemographic data, mortality and predictors, which were evaluated by means of logistic regression and survival analyses. Stroke subtype was better defined in the hospital setting than in the local community. In the hospital phase, around 70% were first events and the ischemic subtype. Among cerebrovascular risk factors, the frequency of alcohol intake was higher in hemorrhagic stroke (HS) than in ischemic stroke (IS) cases (35.4% versus 12.3%, P hemorrhagic stroke was greater than for ischemic stroke and reached its maximum 10 days after the event (OR: 3.31; 95% CI: 1.55-7.05). Four-year survival analysis on 665 cases of first stroke (82.6% ischemic and 17.4% hemorrhagic) showed an overall survival rate of 48%. At four years, the highest risks of death were in relation to ischemic stroke and illiteracy (hazard ratio, HR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.26-2.68) and diabetes (HR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.07-1.97). Major depression presented worse one-year survival (HR: 4.60; 95% CI: 1.36-15.55). Over the long term, the EMMA database will provide additional information for planning resources destined for the public healthcare system.

  12. Influence of social relationship domains and their combinations on incident dementia: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Tami; Murata, Chiyoe; Saito, Masashige; Takeda, Tokunori; Kondo, Katsunori

    2018-01-01

    Social relationships consist of mutually related but distinct dimensions. It remains unclear how these domains independently contribute to incident dementia. This large-scale, prospective cohort study examines associations between the social relationship domains as well as their combinations and incident dementia among community-dwelling older adults. We analysed data from 13 984 community-dwelling adults aged 65+ without long-term care needs living in Aichi prefecture in Japan. Incident dementia was assessed based on the Long-term Care Insurance records, followed for 3436 days from the baseline survey conducted in 2003. Three social relationships domains (social support, social networks and social activities) were further divided into a total of eight subdomains. A social relationship diversity score was calculated using the social relationship domains which were significantly related to incident dementia. A Cox proportional hazards model showed that being married, exchanging support with family members, having contact with friends, participating in community groups and engaging in paid work were related to a lower likelihood of developing incident dementia, controlling for covariates and other social relationship domains. The diversity scores, ranging from 0 to 5, were linearly associated with incident dementia (psocial relationship subdomains which were negatively related to incident dementia, suggesting that dementia may potentially be prevented by enhancing these social relationships. Future studies should examine independent pathways between each social relationship domain and incident dementia. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Unexpected allergic reactions to food, a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michelsen-Huisman, A.D.; Os-Medendorp, H. van; Versluis, A.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Castenmiller, J.J.M.; Noteborn, H.P.J.M.; Houben, G.F.; Knulst, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Unexpected reactions occur in patients with food allergy, but frequency data are scare. This prospective study investigates the frequency, severity and causes of unexpected allergic reactions to food in adults with a doctor's diagnosed food allergy. Participants complete an online questionnaire

  14. Reproducing a Prospective Clinical Study as a Computational Retrospective Study in MIMIC-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kury, Fabrício S P; Huser, Vojtech; Cimino, James J

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we sought to reproduce, as a computational retrospective study in an EHR database (MIMIC-II), a recent large prospective clinical study: the 2013 publication, by the Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM), about disseminated intravascular coagulation, in the journal Critical Care (PMID: 23787004). We designed in SQL and Java a set of electronic phenotypes that reproduced the study's data sampling, and used R to perform the same statistical inference procedures. All produced source code is available online at https://github.com/fabkury/paamia2015. Our program identified 2,257 eligible patients in MIMIC-II, and the results remarkably agreed with the prospective study. A minority of the needed data elements was not found in MIMIC-II, and statistically significant inferences were possible in the majority of the cases.

  15. Virtual reality-based prospective memory training program for people with acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Ben C B; Man, David W K

    2013-01-01

    Acquired brain injuries (ABI) may display cognitive impairments and lead to long-term disabilities including prospective memory (PM) failure. Prospective memory serves to remember to execute an intended action in the future. PM problems would be a challenge to an ABI patient's successful community reintegration. While retrospective memory (RM) has been extensively studied, treatment programs for prospective memory are rarely reported. The development of a treatment program for PM, which is considered timely, can be cost-effective and appropriate to the patient's environment. A 12-session virtual reality (VR)-based cognitive rehabilitation program was developed using everyday PM activities as training content. 37 subjects were recruited to participate in a pretest-posttest control experimental study to evaluate its treatment effectiveness. Results suggest that significantly better changes were seen in both VR-based and real-life PM outcome measures, related cognitive attributes such as frontal lobe functions and semantic fluency. VR-based training may be well accepted by ABI patients as encouraging improvement has been shown. Large-scale studies of a virtual reality-based prospective memory (VRPM) training program are indicated.

  16. Incidence and sources of native and prosthetic joint infection: a community based prospective survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaandorp, C. J.; Dinant, H. J.; van de Laar, M. A.; Moens, H. J.; Prins, A. P.; Dijkmans, B. A.

    1997-01-01

    To determine the incidence and sources of bacterial arthritis in the Amsterdam health district and the maximum percentage of cases that theoretically would be preventable. Patients with bacterial arthritis diagnosed between 1 October 1990 and 1 October 1993 were prospectively reported to the study

  17. Cohort study of Anticoagulation Self-Monitoring (CASM): a prospective study of its effectiveness in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Alison; Tompson, Alice; Fitzmaurice, David; Sutton, Stephen; Perera, Rafael; Heneghan, Carl

    2015-07-01

    Trials show that oral anticoagulation therapy (OAT) substantially reduces thromboembolic events without an increase in major haemorrhagic events, but it is not known whether these results translate into routine practice. To estimate the current levels of control and adverse events in patients self-monitoring OAT, explore the factors that predict success, and determine whether the level of side effects reported from randomised controlled trials are translated to a non-selected population. Prospective cohort study in the UK. Participants were aged ≥18 years and registered with a GP. Main outcomes were the proportion of participants, over 12 months, who were still self-monitoring, had not experienced adverse events, and had achieved >80% of time in therapeutic range (TTR). In total, 296 participants were recruited; their median age was 61 years and 55.1% were male. Participants were predominately professional or held a university qualification (82.7%). At 12 months, 267 (90.2%) were still self-monitoring. Mean TTR was 75.3% (standard deviation 16.9).Six serious and two minor adverse events were reported by GPs. Only 45.9% of participants received any in-person training at the outset. Increased age (P = 0.027), general wellbeing (EQ-5D visual score, P = 0.020), and lower target international normalised range (INR, P = 0.032) were all associated with high (>80% TTR) levels of control. The findings show that, even with little training, people on OAT can successfully self-monitor, and even self-manage, their INR. TTR was shown to improve with age. However, widespread use of self-monitoring of INR may be limited by the initial costs, as well as a lack of training and support at the outset. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.

  18. Rationale, description and baseline findings of a community-based prospective cohort study of kidney function amongst the young rural population of Northwest Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Quiroz, Marvin; Camacho, Armando; Faber, Dorien; Aragón, Aurora; Wesseling, Catharina; Glaser, Jason; Le Blond, Jennifer; Smeeth, Liam; Nitsch, Dorothea; Pearce, Neil; Caplin, Ben

    2017-01-13

    An epidemic of Mesoamerican Nephropathy (MeN) is killing thousands of agricultural workers along the Pacific coast of Central America, but the natural history and aetiology of the disease remain poorly understood. We have recently commenced a community-based longitudinal study to investigate Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) in Nicaragua. Although logistically challenging, study designs of this type have the potential to provide important insights that other study designs cannot. In this paper we discuss the rationale for conducting this study and summarize the findings of the baseline visit. The baseline visit of the community-based cohort study was conducted in 9 communities in the North Western Nicaragua in October and November 2014. All of the young men, and a random sample of young women (aged 18-30) without a pre-existing diagnosis of CKD were invited to participate. Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated with CKD-EPI equation, along with clinical measurements, questionnaires, biological and environmental samples to evaluate participants' exposures to proposed risk factors for MeN. We identified 520 young adults (286 males and 234 females) in the 9 different communities. Of these, 16 males with self-reported CKD and 5 females with diagnoses of either diabetes or hypertension were excluded from the study population. All remaining 270 men and 90 women, selected at random, were then invited to participate in the study; 350 (97%) agreed to participate. At baseline, 29 (11%) men and 1 (1%) woman had an eGFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Conducting a community based study of this type requires active the involvement of communities and commitment from local leaders. Furthermore, a research team with strong links to the area and broad understanding of the context of the problem being studied is essential. The key findings will arise from follow-up, but it is striking that 5% of males under aged 30 had to be excluded because of pre-existing kidney disease, and that

  19. Status and prospects of nuclear arms control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiangli; Wang Deli

    1995-01-01

    Some main issues and problems involved in nuclear arms control study, such as nuclear policy, NPT regime, verification technologies for a CTBT and disposal of military nuclear materials are introduced, in which both the current state and prospects of these issues are analyzed

  20. Fall predictors in the community dwelling elderly: a cross sectional and prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, A J; Gallagher, J C; Smith, L M; Logsdon, S

    2010-06-01

    To ascertain the risk factors for falls, stumbles and recurrent falls in a cohort of elderly people with mean age of 76.7-/+6.1 years. 137 community dwelling elderly living independently or in assisted living institutions participated in the study. Each subject was assessed by history, physical examination and physical performance tests at the beginning and end of study. Falls and stumbles were recorded in a falls dairy for 1 year. Significant predictors of being a faller were a history of falls at baseline (Odds Ratio (OR) = 3.85, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.56 - 9.50), depression (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.02 - 1.38) and timed rise (Incident Rate Ratio (IRR) = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.03 - 1.50). For predicting recurrent fallers Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves were as follows: 0.71 (95%CI 0.61-0.81) for timed up and go, 0.67 (95%CI 0.56-0.78) for timed rise and 0.70 (95%CI 0.60-0.80) for timed walk fast pace. Timed rise was the single most important test that was able to predict both a first time faller and recurrent faller. Timed up and go was the most significant test to predict recurrent fallers.

  1. A Study on Perception of Librarian's Job Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younghee Noh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate awareness of librarian’s job prospects, and to do this a survey was conducted with 502 college students in 14 Departments of Library and Information Science around Korea and 753 librarians in libraries and related agencies. The study results are as follows. First, satisfaction with educational curriculum was higher in students than librarians. Second, both students and librarians regarded workplace based practical training as employment requirements and also evaluated certifications and academic performance as important requirements. Third, both groups asked that information on employment rates be available in a timely manner, and perceived that the librarian’s job prospects were not bright. Therefore, in order to improve employment of librarians, it will be necessary to establish a job information system, reorganize the current educational curriculum into a practice-oriented curriculum, and introduce the national curriculum statements (NCS-based curriculum.

  2. A prospective study on the variation in falling and fall risk among community-dwelling older citizens in 12 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franse, Carmen B; Rietjens, Judith Ac; Burdorf, Alex; van Grieken, Amy; Korfage, Ida J; van der Heide, Agnes; Mattace Raso, Francesco; van Beeck, Ed; Raat, Hein

    2017-06-30

    The rate of falling among older citizens appears to vary across different countries, but the underlying aspects causing this variation are unexplained. We aim to describe between-country variation in falling and explore whether intrinsic fall risk factors can explain possible variation. Prospective study on data from the cross-national Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Twelve European countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland). Community-dwelling persons aged ≥65 years (n=18 596). Socio-demographic factors (age, gender, education level and living situation) and intrinsic fall risk factors (less than good self-rated health (SRH), mobility limitations, limitations with activities of daily living (ADL), dizziness, impaired vision, depression and impaired cognition) were assessed in a baseline interview. Falling was assessed 2 years later by asking whether the participant had fallen within the 6 months prior to the follow-up interview. There was significant between-country variation in the rate of falling (varying from 7.9% in Switzerland to 16.2% in the Czech Republic). The prevalence of intrinsic fall risk factors varied twofold to fourfold between countries. Associations between factors age ≥80 years, less than good SRH, mobility limitations, ADL limitations, dizziness and depression, and falling were different between countries (pfalling largely persisted after adjusting for socio-demographic differences but strongly attenuated after adjusting for differences in intrinsic fall risk factors. There is considerable variation in the rate of falling between European countries, which can largely be explained by between-country variation in the prevalence of intrinsic fall risk factors. There are also country-specific variations in the association between these intrinsic risk factors and falling. These findings emphasise the importance of addressing

  3. Emergence of community-acquired Clostridium difficile infection: the experience of a French hospital and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Ogielska

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: CDI can cause community-acquired diarrhoea, and CA-CDI may be more severe than HCA-CDI. Prospective studies of CDI involving people from the general community without risk factors are required to confirm this observation.

  4. The Korea Nurses' Health Study: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Oksoo; Ahn, Younjhin; Lee, Hea-Young; Jang, Hee Jung; Kim, Sue; Lee, Jung Eun; Jung, Heeja; Cho, Eunyoung; Lim, Joong-Yeon; Kim, Min-Ju; Willett, Walter C; Chavarro, Jorge E; Park, Hyun-Young

    2017-08-01

    The Korea Nurses' Health Study (KNHS) is a prospective cohort study of female nurses, focusing on the effects of occupational, environmental, and lifestyle risk factors on the health of Korean women. Female registered nurses aged 20-45 years and living in the Republic of Korea were invited to join the study, which began in July 2013. They were asked to complete a web-based baseline survey. The study protocols and questionnaires related to the KNHS are based on the Nurses' Health Study 3 (NHS3) in the United States, although they were modified to reflect the Korean lifestyle. Participants were asked about demographic, lifestyle factors, disease history, occupational exposure, reproductive factors, and dietary habits during their adolescence: Follow-up questionnaires were/will be completed at 6-8 month intervals after the baseline survey. If a participant became pregnant, she answered additional questionnaires containing pregnancy-related information. Among 157,569 eligible female nurses, 20,613 (13.1%) completed the web-based baseline questionnaire. The mean age of the participants was 29.4 ± 5.9 years, and more than half of them were in their 20s. Eighty-eight percent of the participants had worked night shifts as a nurse (mean, 5.3 ± 4.3 nights per month). Approximately 80% of the participants had a body mass index below 23 kg/m 2 . Gastrointestinal diseases were the most prevalent health issues (25.9%). The findings from this prospective cohort study will help to identify the effects of lifestyle-related and occupational factors on reproductive health and development of chronic diseases in Korean women.

  5. Prospective Studies of Risk Factors Associated with Type 2 Diabetes, Cardiovascular Disease, and Mortality in Elderly Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Katrine Dragsbæk

    and novel risk factors and their relation to ageing, disease, and mortality in elderly Danish women. The studies are epidemiological in their character and based on data from the Prospective Epidemiological Risk Factor (PERF) study, a community-based cohort study on 5,855 elderly Danish women enrolled......The world’s population is ageing. With an increased life expectancy across the globe, more people will live into old age. Women outlive men averagely by four years, warranting an increased focus on healthy ageing in women. The demographic shift resulting in an increased fraction of elder...... individuals has given rise to concerns about whether the extra life years added are spent in good health or with disease conditions resulting in high impacts on health care systems, socioeconomic relations and on the individual level. The World Health Organization predicts the burden of non...

  6. DADOS-Prospective: an open source application for Web-based prospective data collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Lam

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Randomized, prospective trials involving multi-institutional collaboration have become a central part of clinical and translational research. However, data management and coordination of multi-center studies is a complex process that involves developing systems for data collection and quality control, tracking data queries and resolutions, as well as developing communication procedures. We describe DADOS-Prospective, an open-source Web-based application for collecting and managing prospective data on human subjects for clinical and translational trials. DADOS-Prospective not only permits users to create new clinical research forms (CRF and supports electronic signatures, but also offers the advantage of containing, in a single environment, raw research data in downloadable spreadsheet format, source documentation and regulatory files stored in PDF format, and audit trails. Results Feedback from formal and field usability tests was used to guide the design and development of DADOS-Prospective. To date, DADOS-Prospective has been implemented in five prospective clinical studies at our institution. Four of these studies are still in the CRF creation phase and one study has been entirely launched. Conclusion DADOS-Prospective has significant advantages over existing Web-based data collecting programs. At our institution, it has been demonstrated to be an efficient tool for prospective clinical studies.

  7. 76 FR 59706 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... published in scientific journals and will be used for the development of future research initiatives... Request; Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's Health (HCS) SUMMARY: Under the... control number. Proposed Collection: Title: Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's...

  8. 76 FR 35452 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... scientific journals and will be used for the development of future research initiatives targeting childhood... Request; Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's Health (HCS) SUMMARY: In compliance... Collection: Title: Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's Health (HCS). Type of...

  9. A prospective study of twinning and perinatal mortality in urban Guinea-Bissau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjerregaard-Andersen Morten

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite twinning being common in Africa, few prospective twin studies have been conducted. We studied twinning rate, perinatal mortality and the clinical characteristics of newborn twins in urban Guinea-Bissau. Methods The study was conducted at the Bandim Health Project (BHP, a health and demographic surveillance site in Bissau, the capital of Guinea-Bissau. The cohort included all newborn twins delivered at the National Hospital Simão Mendes and in the BHP study area during the period September 2009 to August 2011 as well as singleton controls from the BHP study area. Data regarding obstetric history and pregnancy were collected at the hospital. Live children were examined clinically. For a subset of twin pairs zygosity was established by using genetic markers. Results Out of the 5262 births from mothers included in the BHP study area, 94 were twin births, i.e. a community twinning rate of 18/1000. The monozygotic rate was 3.4/1000. Perinatal mortality among twins vs. singletons was 218/1000 vs. 80/1000 (RR = 2.71, 95% CI: 1.93-3.80. Among the 13783 hospital births 388 were twin births (28/1000. The hospital perinatal twin mortality was 237/1000. Birth weight  Conclusions Twins had a very high perinatal mortality, three-fold higher than singletons. A birth weight 

  10. A Community-Based Study of Enduring Eating Features in Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Rodgers

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a prospective exploration of the temporal course of eating disorder (ED symptoms in two cohorts of community women. One hundred and twenty-two young women (Cohort 1 identified in a general population based survey with ED symptoms of clinical severity agreed to participate in a 5-year follow-up study. A comparative sample (Cohort 2 of 706 similar aged self-selected college women (221 with disordered eating was recruited one year later. Both ED groups were given a health literacy package in the first year. ED symptoms, health related quality of life, and psychological distress were assessed annually with the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, the Short Form—12 Health Survey and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, respectively. Forty percent (Cohort 1 and 30.3% (Cohort 2 completed questionnaires at each year of follow-up. In both groups, there was early improvement in ED symptoms which plateaued after the first year, and participants retained high EDE-Q scores at 5 years. BMI increased as expected. Mental health related quality of life scores did not change but there were small improvements in psychological distress scores. The findings suggest little likelihood of spontaneous remission of ED problems in community women.

  11. Prospective studies of the effect of breast feeding on incidence of infection and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, R K

    1979-09-01

    The effect of exclusive breast feeding in the first few weeks after birth on infant morbidity due to infectious and allergic disorders was investigated in three separate prospective studies. In a rural community in India, breast-fed infants had a significantly lower incidence of respiratory infection, otitis, diarrhoea, dehydration and pneumonia. In an urban population in Canada, breast feeding was associated with a marked decrease in the occurrence of otitis and respiratory disease and to a lesser extent of diarrhoea and dehydration. In newborn siblings of children with atopic disease exclusively breast-fed for a minimum of six weeks, the incidence of eczema, recurrent wheezing, elevated serum IgE-antibodies to cow's milk, complement activation in vivo after milk challenge and hemagglutinating antibodies to beta-lactoglobulin was significantly lower compared with formula-fed matched group. These observations provide clinical data attesting the immunologic advantages of human milk.

  12. Health services research in patients with breast cancer (CAMISS-prospective): study protocol for an observational prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    García-Gutierrez, Susana; Orive, Miren; Sarasqueta, Cristina; Legarreta, Maria Jose; Gonzalez, Nerea; Redondo, Maximino; Rivero, Amado; Serrano-Aguilar, Pedro; Castells, Xavier; Quintana, Jose Maria; Sala, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Background Though breast cancer remains a major health problem, there is a lack of information on health care provided to patients with this disease and associated costs. In addition, there is a need to update and validate risk stratification tools in Spain. Our purpose is to evaluate the health services provided for breast cancer in Spain, from screening and diagnosis to treatment and prognosis. Methods Prospective cohort study involving 13 hospitals in Spain with a follow-up period of up to...

  13. Impact of fear of falling and fall history on disability incidence among older adults: Prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Keitaro; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Hotta, Ryo; Nakakubo, Sho; Suzuki, Takao; Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2018-04-01

    Fear of falling (FOF) is a major health problem for older adults, present not just in fallers, but also nonfallers. This study examined the impact of FOF and fall history on disability incidence among community-dwelling older adults from a prospective cohort study. A total of 5104 older adults living in community settings participated in baseline assessment and were followed up for about 4 years (median 52 mo, range 49-55 mo). At baseline, participants were assessed the presence of FOF and their fall history, and divided into 4 groups: Fall (-) FOF (-), Fall (+) FOF (-), Fall (-) FOF (+), and Fall (+) FOF (+). Disability incidence was defined as national long-term care insurance certification for personal support or care. During the follow-up period, 429 participants (9.9%) were newly certified as having a disability and needing personal support for long-term care insurance. Fall (-) FOF (+) group and Fall (+) FOF (+) group showed a significantly higher risk of disability incidence than Fall (-) FOF (-) group even after adjusting for covariates (Fall (-) FOF (+): hazard ratio 1.28, 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.62, Fall (+) FOF (+): hazard ratio 1.44, 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.98). Fear of falling could be a simple and useful predictor of disability incidence in community-dwelling older adults. Identifying and decreasing fall risk factors may prevent fall-related injuries, but excessive FOF may be associated with increased risk of disability incidence. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Contributions to Sustainability by Communities and Individuals: Problems and Prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacGregor, D.; Tonn, B.E.

    1998-11-01

    This report examines relationships between a comprehensive set of definitions of and viewpoints on the concept of Sustainability and the abilities of communities and individuals in the United States to meet the behavioral prescriptions inherent in these definitions and viewpoints. This research is timely because sustainability is becoming a cornerstone of national and international environmental strategies designed to simultaneously achieve environmental, economic, and social goals. In the United States, many communities have adopted sustainability principles as the foundation for both their environmental protection efforts and their socioeconomic development initiatives. This research is important because it highlights serious problems communities and inviduals may have in achieving sustainability expectations, and illustrates how much work is needed to help communities and individuals overcome numerous considerable and complex constraints to sustainability.

  15. A 4-year prospective study of eating disorder NOS compared with full eating disorder syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agras, W Stewart; Crow, Scott; Mitchell, James E; Halmi, Katherine A; Bryson, Susan

    2009-09-01

    To examine the course of Eating Disorder NOS (EDNOS) compared with anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Prospective study of 385 participants meeting DSM-IV criteria for AN, BN, BED, and EDNOS at three sites. Recruitment was from the community and specialty clinics. Participants were followed at 6-month intervals during a 4-year period using the Eating Disorder Examination as the primary assessment. EDNOS remitted significantly more quickly that AN or BN but not BED. There were no differences between EDNOS and full ED syndromes, or the subtypes of EDNOS, in time to relapse following first remission. Only 18% of the EDNOS group had never had or did not develop another ED diagnosis during the study; however, this group did not differ from the remaining EDNOS group. EDNOS appears to be a way station between full ED syndromes and recovery, and to a lesser extent from recovery or EDNOS status to a full ED. Implications for DSM-V are examined.

  16. Improving everyday prospective memory performance in older adults: comparing cognitive process and strategy training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brom, Sarah Susanne; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-09-01

    Considering the importance of prospective memory for independence in old age recently, research has started to examine interventions to reduce prospective memory errors. Two general approaches can be proposed: (a) process training of executive control associated with prospective memory functioning, and/or (b) strategy training to reduce executive task demands. The present study was the first to combine and compare both training methods in a sample of 62 community-dwelling older adults (60-86 years) and to explore their effects on an ecologically valid everyday life prospective memory task (here: regular blood pressure monitoring). Even though the training of executive control was successful in enhancing the trained ability, clear transfer effects on prospective memory performance could only be found for the strategy training. However, participants with low executive abilities benefited particularly from the implementation intention strategy. Conceptually, this supports models suggesting interactions between task demands and individual differences in executive control in explaining individual differences in prospective memory performance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. From public open access to common property: the prospects and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From public open access to common property: the prospects and challenges of institutionalizing boundaries for self-governance and management of community irrigation dams in the Upper East Region, Ghana.

  18. Prospective elementary school teachers’ views about socioscientific issues: A concurrent parallel design study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Özden

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the prospective elementary school teachers’ perceptions on socioscientific issues. The research was conducted on prospective elementary school teachers studying at a university located in western Turkey. The researcher first taught the subjects of global warming and nuclear power plants from a perspective of socioscientific issues in the science and technology education course and then conducted the research. Concurrent parallel design, one of the mixed-method research approaches, was used to conduct the research. In this context, semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight teachers in the qualitative strand of the study to explore the phenomenon. The data obtained from the interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. During the quantitative strand of the research, 113 prospective teachers were administered a questionnaire form. The results of the study revealed that none of the participating prospective teachers mentioned about the religious and cultural characteristics of socioscientific issues, and they need training about how to use socioscientific issues in teaching.

  19. Prospective Elementary School Teachers’ Views about Socioscientific Issues: A Concurrent Parallel Design Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet ÖZDEN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the prospective elementary school teachers’ perceptions on socioscientific issues. The research was conducted on prospective elementary school teachers studying at a university located in western Turkey. The researcher first taught the subjects of global warming and nuclear power plants from a perspective of socioscientific issues in the science and technology education course and then conducted the research. Concurrent parallel design, one of the mixed-method research approaches, was used to conduct the research. In this context, semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight teachers in the qualitative strand of the study to explore the phenomenon. The data obtained from the interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. During the quantitative strand of the research, 113 prospective teachers were administered a questionnaire form. The results of the study revealed that none of the participating prospective teachers mentioned about the religious and cultural characteristics of socioscientific issues, and they need training about how to use socioscientific issues in teaching.

  20. The Clinical Assessment Study of the Hand (CAS-HA: a prospective study of musculoskeletal hand problems in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall Michelle

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain in the hand affects an estimated 12–21% of the population, and at older ages the hand is one of the most common sites of pain and osteoarthritis. The association between symptomatic hand osteoarthritis and disability in everyday life has not been studied in detail, although there is evidence that older people with hand problems suffer significant pain and disability. Despite the high prevalence of hand problems and the limitations they cause in older adults, little attention has been paid to the hand by health planners and policy makers. We plan to conduct a prospective, population-based, observational cohort study designed in parallel with our previously reported cohort study of knee pain, to describe the course of musculoskeletal hand problems in older adults and investigate the relative merits of different approaches to classification and defining prognosis. Methods/Design All adults aged 50 years and over registered with two general practices in North Staffordshire will be invited to take part in a two-stage postal survey. Respondents to the survey who indicate that they have experienced hand pain or problems within the previous 12 months will be invited to attend a research clinic for a detailed assessment. This will consist of clinical interview, hand assessment, screening test of lower limb function, digital photography, plain x-rays, anthropometric measurement and brief self-complete questionnaire. All consenting clinic attenders will be followed up by (i general practice medical record review, (ii repeat postal questionnaire at 18-months, and (iii repeat postal questionnaire at 3 years. Discussion This paper describes the protocol for the Clinical Assessment Study of the Hand (CAS-HA, a prospective, population-based, observational cohort study of community-dwelling older adults with hand pain and hand problems based in North Staffordshire.

  1. Differences in kinetic variables between injured and noninjured novice runners : A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredeweg, Steef W.; Kluitenberg, Bas; Bessem, Bram; Buist, Ida

    Objectives: This prospective study examined differences in kinetic variables between injured and noninjured novice female and male runners and their potential contribution to RRIs. Design: A prospective cohort study. Methods: At baseline vertical ground reaction forces were assessed with an

  2. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and risk of falls in Japanese community-dwelling elderly women: a 1-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Y; Kim, H; Yoshida, H; Shimada, H; Suzuki, T

    2015-08-01

    The present prospective follow-up study among 1,393 community-dwelling elderly women aged 75 years or older was conducted to clarify the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level and risk of falls. Lower serum 25(OH)D, particularly level risk of falls. Serum 25(OH)D level has been revealed to be important factor not only for skeletal health but also for fall prevention among the elderly. Our previous cross-sectional study indicated that low serum 25(OH)D level is associated with inferior physical performance and falls among elderly Japanese women. The present prospective study was designed to clarify the association between serum 25(OH)D level and risk of falls before and after 1 year of follow-up. The community-dwelling elderly women aged 75 years or older (N = 1,393) who participated in a mass health examination were followed 1 year later by a mailed self-administered questionnaire. Responses were obtained from 1,285 subjects (response rate = 92.2%). The incidence of falls at baseline and at 1-year follow-up was 18.8 and 24.4%, respectively. The baseline prevalence of serum 25(OH)D falls and 1.47 (0.93-2.32) for recurrent falls vs. no falls adjusted for potential risk factors. Among elderly Japanese women, the lower serum 25(OH)D, particularly level risk of falls.

  3. Radioactive Waste Repositories and Incentives to Local Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, A.; Medakovic, S.

    2008-01-01

    Public acceptance of radioactive waste (RW) repository depends on various and often community-specific factors. Although radiological risk from a properly constructed low and intermediate level waste (LILW) repository is practically negligible, routine safety considerations will favor low populated areas and therefore probably underdeveloped communities. Repository acceptance in such communities is more likely to be facilitated by prospective benefits to local economy, such as infrastructure development and increased employment, as well as by dedicated financial incentives to the community. Direct financial compensation to the local community for acceptance of the repository has been considered in some documents in countries experienced in RW management, but it has not become a widely accepted practice. In Croatia, a possibility for such compensation is mentioned in the land use plan in conjunction with the prospective RW repository site. In Slovenia, the government has already specified the annual amount of 2.33 million euro as a compensation for 'limited land use' to be shared by local communities in the vicinity of the planned LILW repository during its operation. Applicability of the Slovenian compensations to the prospective joint Slovenian-Croatian repository is not yet clear, at least in the aspect of joint funding. The joint Slovenian-Croatian Decommissioning and LILW and SF management program for NPP Krsko from 2004 did conservatively include the compensations into the repository cost estimates, but that might not be retained in subsequent revisions of the Program. According to the agreement between governments of Slovenia and Croatia on the Nuclear power plant Krsko, Croatian side has no obligations to participate in 'public expenditures' introduced after the agreement, as would be the case of community compensations for LILW repository in Slovenia. Before further decisions on joint NPP Krsko waste management are made, including the issue of LILW

  4. ANTI-DISCRIMINATORY PRACTICE AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT : A case study of a clubhouse community

    OpenAIRE

    Louko, Tiina

    2011-01-01

    Louko, Tiina. Anti-discriminatory practice and community development - A case study of a clubhouse community. Järvenpää, Spring 2011, 54 p. Diaconia University of Applied Sciences, Diak South Järvenpää. Degree Programme in Social Services. Bachelor´s Degree in Social Services. This study was conducted in the context of Eastern Helsinki Clubhouse, which is a community for mental health rehabilitees. The purpose of the research was to describe the clubhouse community from the aspects o...

  5. Depressive Symptoms and Deliberate Self-Harm in a Community Sample of Adolescents: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars-Gunnar Lundh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The associations between depressive symptoms and deliberate self-harm were studied by means of a 2-wave longitudinal design in a community sample of 1052 young adolescents, with longitudinal data for 83.6% of the sample. Evidence was found for a bidirectional relationship in girls, with depressive symptoms being a risk factor for increased self-harm one year later and self-harm a risk factor for increased depressive symptoms. Cluster analysis of profiles of depressive symptoms led to the identification of two clusters with clear depressive profiles (one severe, the other mild/moderate which were both characterized by an overrepresentation of girls and elevated levels of self-harm. Clusters with more circumscribed problems were also identified; of these, significantly increased levels of self-harm were found in a cluster characterized by negative self-image and in a cluster characterized by dysphoric relations to parents. It is suggested that self-harm serves more to regulate negative self-related feelings than sadness.

  6. New models for large prospective studies: is there a risk of throwing out the baby with the bathwater?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Michael B; Baker, Dean; Cauley, Jane A; Chambers, Christina; Culhane, Jennifer; Dabelea, Dana; Dearborn, Dorr; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn D; Dudley, Donald J; Durkin, Maureen; Entwisle, Barbara; Flick, Louise; Hale, Daniel; Holl, Jane; Hovell, Melbourne; Hudak, Mark; Paneth, Nigel; Specker, Bonny; Wilhelm, Mari; Wyatt, Sharon

    2013-02-15

    Manolio et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2012;175:859-866) proposed that large cohort studies adopt novel models using "temporary assessment centers" to enroll up to a million participants to answer research questions about rare diseases and "harmonize" clinical endpoints collected from administrative records. Extreme selection bias, we are told, will not harm internal validity, and "process expertise to maximize efficiency of high-throughput operations is as important as scientific rigor" (p. 861). In this article, we describe serious deficiencies in this model as applied to the United States. Key points include: 1) the need for more, not less, specification of disease endpoints; 2) the limited utility of data collected from existing administrative and clinical databases; and 3) the value of university-based centers in providing scientific expertise and achieving high recruitment and retention rates through community and healthcare provider engagement. Careful definition of sampling frames and high response rates are crucial to avoid bias and ensure inclusion of important subpopulations, especially the medically underserved. Prospective hypotheses are essential to refine study design, determine sample size, develop pertinent data collection protocols, and achieve alliances with participants and communities. It is premature to reject the strengths of large national cohort studies in favor of a new model for which evidence of efficiency is insufficient.

  7. A prospective descriptive study of the management of miscarriages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the current management of incomplete miscarriage at Harare and Parirenyatwa Hospitals and to determine the proportion of patients with incomplete miscarriage managed with Manual Vacuum Aspiration (MVA), sharp curettage or medical evacuation. Design: A prospective descriptive study.

  8. Community mobility among older adults with reduced kidney function: a study of life-space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, C Barrett; Muntner, Paul; Sawyer, Patricia; Sanders, Paul W; Kutner, Nancy; Kennedy, Richard; Allman, Richard M

    2014-03-01

    Life-Space Assessment captures community mobility and social participation and quantifies the distance, frequency, and independence obtained as an older adult moves through his or her environment. Reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is associated with decline in activities of daily living among older adults, but less is known about the association of eGFR with restrictions in mobility. Prospective observational cohort study. Community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries from the University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging who had serum creatinine measured during a baseline in-home study visit and completed at least one telephone follow-up (N = 390). eGFR ≥ 60, 45-59, and space mobility trajectory. Life-space mobility was evaluated by telephone every 6 months for up to 4.5 years using the previously validated Life-Space Assessment. Scores using this tool range from 0-120 (higher scores indicate greater mobility). Mean age of the 390 participants was 77.6 ± 5.8 (SD) years, 41% were African American, 50.5% were women; 30.0% had eGFR of 45-59 mL/min/1.73 m(2), and 20.2% had eGFR space mobility scores were 64.8(95% CI, 62.0-67.6), 63.8 (95% CI, 60.3-67.4), and 58.3 (95% CI, 53.8-62.7) among those with eGFR categories ≥ 60, 45-59, and space mobility was found among those with eGFRs space mobility among community-dwelling older adults. Findings should be confirmed in a larger population. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Measuring disaster-resilient communities: a case study of coastal communities in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, Shesh Kanta

    2012-01-01

    Vulnerability reduction and resilience building of communities are central concepts in recent policy debates. Although there are fundamental linkages, and complementarities exist between the two concepts, recent policy and programming has focused more on the latter. It is assumed here that reducing underlying causes of vulnerabilities and their interactions with resilience elements is a prerequisite for obtaining resilience capabilities. An integrated approach, incorporating both the vulnerability and resilience considerations, has been taken while developing an index for measuring disaster-resilient communities. This study outlines a method for measuring community resilience capabilities using process and outcome indicators in 43 coastal communities in Indonesia. An index was developed using ten process and 25 outcome indicators, selected on the basis of the ten steps of the Integrated Community Based Risk Reduction (ICBRR) process, and key characteristics of disaster resilient communities were taken from various literatures. The overall index value of all 43 communities was 63, whereas the process and outcome indicator values were measured as 63 and 61.5 respectively. The core components of this index are process and outcome indicators. The tool has been developed with an assumption that both the process and outcome indicators are equally important in building disaster-resilient communities. The combination of both indicators is an impetus to quality change in the community. Process indicators are important for community understanding, ownership and the sustainability of the programme; whereas outcome indicators are important for the real achievements in terms of community empowerment and capacity development. The process of ICBRR approach varies by country and location as per the level of community awareness and organisational strategy. However, core elements such as the formation of community groups, mobilising those groups in risk assessment and planning

  10. A one season prospective cohort study of volleyball injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; van der Beek, A.J.; Bouter, L.M.; Bahr, R.; van Mechelen, W.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the overall incidence of acute and overuse volleyball injuries, and to describe factors associated with ankle sprains. Methods: 486 players from the second and third Dutch national volleyball divisions participated in the study and were followed prospectively during a whole

  11. Prospective study of determinants and costs of home births in Mumbai slums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sushmita; Bapat, Ujwala; More, Neena Shah; Chordhekar, Latika; Joshi, Wasundhara; Osrin, David

    2010-07-30

    Around 86% of births in Mumbai, India, occur in healthcare institutions, but this aggregate figure hides substantial variation and little is known about urban home births. We aimed to explore factors influencing the choice of home delivery, care practices and costs, and to identify characteristics of women, households and the environment which might increase the likelihood of home birth. As part of the City Initiative for Newborn Health, we used a key informant surveillance system to identify births prospectively in 48 slum communities in six wards of Mumbai, covering a population of 280,000. Births and outcomes were documented prospectively by local women and mothers were interviewed in detail at six weeks after delivery. We examined the prevalence of home births and their associations with potential determinants using regression models. We described 1708 (16%) home deliveries among 10,754 births over two years, 2005-2007. The proportion varied from 6% to 24%, depending on area. The most commonly cited reasons for home birth were custom and lack of time to reach a healthcare facility during labour. Seventy percent of home deliveries were assisted by a traditional birth attendant (dai), and 6% by skilled health personnel. The median cost of a home delivery was US$ 21, of institutional delivery in the public sector US$ 32, and in the private sector US$ 118. In an adjusted multivariable regression model, the odds of home delivery increased with illiteracy, parity, socioeconomic poverty, poorer housing, lack of water supply, population transience, and hazardous location. We estimate 32,000 annual home births to residents of Mumbai's slums. These are unevenly distributed and cluster with other markers of vulnerability. Since cost does not appear to be a dominant disincentive to institutional delivery, efforts are needed to improve the client experience at public sector institutions. It might also be productive to concentrate on intensive outreach in vulnerable areas by

  12. Recruitment strategies and yields for the Pathobiology of Prediabetes in a Biracial Cohort: a prospective natural history study of incident dysglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenibo, Sotonte; Edeoga, Chimaroke; Ammons, Ann; Egbuonu, Nonso; Dagogo-Jack, Samuel

    2013-05-10

    The Pathobiology of Prediabetes in A Biracial Cohort study is a prospective evaluation of the transition from normal to impaired glucose regulation among African American and Caucasian adults with parental type 2 diabetes. This report describes recruitment strategies and relative yields for the 376 enrolled subjects. Recruitment occurred over 3.4 years, with clinical and metabolic assessments during 2.1-5.5 years of quarterly follow-up. The major recruitment sources were advertisements, community outreach, and clinical facilities. Advertisements included newspaper, television, radio, Internet, distributed brochures, utility bill inserts, and direct mailing. Community outreach included screening events during religious gatherings and health fairs, and referral by friends and families. The category of clinical facilities covered all subjects referred by health workers or recruited through area clinics and hospitals. 57.7% of participants were African American and 42.3% were Caucasian; the mean age (± SD) was 44.2 ± 10.6 years, and ~70% were female. Advertisements yielded 52.4% of all participants, compared to 34.8% from community outreach and 12.8% from clinical facilities (P for trend advertising as the source of study information, whereas more African Americans than Caucasians cited community outreach. The accrual from clinical facilities was similar in both groups. Advertisements and community outreach were robust recruitment sources for assembling a diverse longitudinal diabetes offspring cohort, but each had differential yields in African Americans and Caucasians. Thus, a multifaceted approach comprising passive and active components is needed to recruit a multiracial clinical research population.

  13. Future prospects for studies in the VUV-SX region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kenichiro; Kitajima, Yoshinori

    1989-09-01

    This book carries papers presented at a workshop 'Future Prospects for Studies in the VUV-SX Region' held on March 22 and 23, 1989. The workshop focussed particularly on the promotion of research in the VUV and soft X-ray regions. Three sessions were held: Session 1 for studies in peripheral areas, Session 2 for theoretical studies, and Session 3 for recent developments. Session 1 covered five studies: 'Laser Spectroscopy: High-Resolution Observation of Highly Electronically Excited Gaseous Molecule', 'High-Resolution Electron Spectroscopy: Surface Phonon Spectroscopy', 'Experimental Study on Atoms and Molecules through Ion Trap', 'Basic Mechanism of Photo-Induced CVD', and 'Application of Circularly Polarized Light'. Session 2 covered five studies: 'Electronic State of High Tc Superconducting Oxide', 'Surface Condition and Electronic State', 'XES and XAS Study of Rare Earth Compound', 'Resonance Photoelectric Spectroscopy on Strongly Correlated Electronic System', and 'Circularly Polarized Light and Atomic Process in Soft X-Ray Region'. Session 3 covered six studies: 'Prospects of Application of Supercritical Liquid to Research on Physical Characteristics', 'Application of Orbit Radiation to Polarization Spectroscopy', 'XES Research for La Compounds', 'Characteristics of Ultra-Fine Particles', 'Surface Study by Angular-Resolution Photoelectric Spectroscopy', and 'EXAFS Study of Light Element'. (N.K.)

  14. "EMMA Study: a Brazilian community-based cohort study of stroke mortality and morbidity"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Carvalho Goulart

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Stroke has a high burden of disability and mortality. The aim here was to evaluate epidemiology, risk factors and prognosis for stroke in the EMMA Study (Study of Stroke Mortality and Morbidity. DESIGN AND SETTINGS: Prospective community-based cohort carried out in Hospital Universitário, University of São Paulo, 2006-2014. METHODS: Stroke data based on fatal and non-fatal events were assessed, including sociodemographic data, mortality and predictors, which were evaluated by means of logistic regression and survival analyses. RESULTS: Stroke subtype was better defined in the hospital setting than in the local community. In the hospital phase, around 70% were first events and the ischemic subtype. Among cerebrovascular risk factors, the frequency of alcohol intake was higher in hemorrhagic stroke (HS than in ischemic stroke (IS cases (35.4% versus 12.3%, P < 0.001. Low education was associated with higher risk of death, particularly after six months among IS cases (odds ratio, OR, 4.31; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.34-13.91. The risk of death due to hemorrhagic stroke was greater than for ischemic stroke and reached its maximum 10 days after the event (OR: 3.31; 95% CI: 1.55-7.05. Four-year survival analysis on 665 cases of first stroke (82.6% ischemic and 17.4% hemorrhagic showed an overall survival rate of 48%. At four years, the highest risks of death were in relation to ischemic stroke and illiteracy (hazard ratio, HR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.26-2.68 and diabetes (HR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.07-1.97. Major depression presented worse one-year survival (HR: 4.60; 95% CI: 1.36-15.55. CONCLUSION: Over the long term, the EMMA database will provide additional information for planning resources destined for the public healthcare system.

  15. Hypertension care at a Cape Town community health centre | Lunt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To describe the demographic profile of hypertensive patients and the quality of care for hypertension at a Cape Town community health centre (CHC). Design. Prospective, descriptive study. Setting and subjects. Medium-sized CHC, attended by 1098 hypertensive patients during a 1-year period from 1 January ...

  16. Study of Women, Infant feeding, and Type 2 diabetes mellitus after GDM pregnancy (SWIFT, a prospective cohort study: methodology and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunderson Erica P

    2011-12-01

    -administered monthly mailed questionnaires (3-11 months postpartum, a telephone interview at 6 months, and annual in-person examinations at which a 75 g 2-hour OGTT is conducted, anthropometric measurements are obtained, and self- and interviewer-administered questionnaires are completed. Discussion This is the first, large prospective, community-based study involving a racially and ethnically diverse cohort of women with recent GDM that rigorously assesses lactation intensity and duration and examines their relationship to incident type 2 diabetes while accounting for numerous potential confounders not assessed previously.

  17. Social determinants of tuberculosis in Europe: a prospective ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploubidis, George B; Palmer, Melissa J; Blackmore, Charlotte; Lim, Tek-Ang; Manissero, Davide; Sandgren, Andreas; Semenza, Jan C

    2012-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is considered to be a disease of poverty, since its incidence is exacerbated by socioeconomic factors, inconsistent or partial treatment practices, and immigration from endemic countries. A prospective country level study, using a comprehensive dataset of TB incidence and prevalence taken from countries within the World Health Organization (WHO) European region, was conducted. We employed quintile regression to investigate the prospective association between baseline (measured in 2000) and a nation's wealth, level of egalitarianism, migration rate, health-related lifestyle and social capital with TB incidence and prevalence over a 10-yr period (2000-2009). We found that ∼50% of TB variation is accounted for by a nation's wealth and level of egalitarianism. We observed a negative prospective association between logged gross domestic product and TB rates, and a positive prospective association between income inequality and TB. National income levels per capita and income inequality are important predictors for TB incidence and prevalence in the WHO European region. They account for 50% of country-level variation, indicating the importance of a combined absolute and relative socioeconomic disadvantage in the development of TB. These findings also provide a tool for forecasting potential fluctuations in the level of TB epidemics in the WHO European region, with respect to socioeconomic changes.

  18. 78 FR 13350 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... community-based initiatives; community characteristics (e.g., school environment); measurements of children... used for the development of future research initiatives targeting childhood obesity. Frequency of... Request Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's Health (HCS) Summary: Under the...

  19. Weight at birth and subsequent fecundability: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Cathrine Wildenschild; Hammerich Riis, Anders; Ehrenstein, Vera

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between a woman's birth weight and her subsequent fecundability. METHOD: In this prospective cohort study, we included 2,773 Danish pregnancy planners enrolled in the internet-based cohort study "Snart-Gravid", conducted during 2007-2012. Participants were 18...

  20. Predicting prediabetes in a rural community: a survey among the Karen ethnic community, Thasongyang, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorga, Thaworn; Aung, Myo Nyein; Naunboonruang, Prissana; Thinuan, Payom; Praipaksin, Nara; Deesakul, Tida; Inwan, Utumporn; Yingtaweesak, Tawatchai; Manokulanan, Pratumpan; Suangkaew, Srisomporn; Payaprom, Apiradee

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes is a growing epidemic in both urban and rural communities worldwide. We aimed to survey fasting plasma glucose (FPG) status and awareness of diabetes in the rural Karen ethnic community. We investigated the predictors of impaired fasting plasma glucose (IFG) status, which would be easily applicable for prevention of diabetes in a rural community. This was a community-based cross-sectional study conducted at Thasongyang, the most north-western district in Thailand. A total of 299 Karen ethnic rural residents were included in the study. FPG, body mass index, and waist circumference were prospectively measured. We assessed the awareness of diabetes and lifestyle-related health behavior with closed questionnaires in a rural community setting. On screening for FPG, 16.72% of the Karen ethnic residents had hyperglycemia: 3.68% in the diabetic range and 13.04% in the prediabetic range respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, and BMI, waist circumference (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29-9.57), and having a diabetic blood relative (aOR 4.6, CI 1.81-11.71) are significant predictors of IFG status. It is necessary to promote awareness of diabetes among the Karen ethnic community. Application of simple evidence-based predictors of the prediabetic state may lead to timely and effective prevention of diabetes in rural settings.

  1. Chocolate consumption and risk of myocardial infarction: a prospective study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Susanna C; Åkesson, Agneta; Gigante, Bruna; Wolk, Alicja

    2016-07-01

    To examine whether chocolate consumption is associated with a reduced risk of ischaemic heart disease, we used data from a prospective study of Swedish adults and we performed a meta-analysis of available prospective data. The Swedish prospective study included 67 640 women and men from the Cohort of Swedish Men and the Swedish Mammography Cohort who had completed a food-frequency questionnaire and were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline. Myocardial infarction (MI) cases were ascertained through linkage with the Swedish National Patient and Cause of Death Registers. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched from inception until 4 February 2016 to identify prospective studies on chocolate consumption and risk of ischaemic heart disease. The results from eligible studies were combined using a random-effects model. During follow-up (1998-2010), 4417 MI cases were ascertained in the Swedish study. Chocolate consumption was inversely associated with MI risk. Compared with non-consumers, the multivariable relative risk for those who consumed ≥3-4 servings/week of chocolate was 0.87 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.98; p for trend =0.04). Five prospective studies on chocolate consumption and ischaemic heart disease were identified. Together with the Swedish study, the meta-analysis included six studies with a total of 6851 ischaemic heart disease cases. The overall relative risk for the highest versus lowest category of chocolate consumption was 0.90 (95% CI 0.82 to 0.97), with little heterogeneity among studies (I(2)=24.3%). Chocolate consumption is associated with lower risk of MI and ischaemic heart disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Physical frailty predicts incident depressive symptoms in elderly people: prospective findings from the Obu Study of Health Promotion for the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makizako, Hyuma; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Doi, Takehiko; Yoshida, Daisuke; Anan, Yuya; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Uemura, Kazuki; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Park, Hyuntae; Lee, Sanyoon; Suzuki, Takao

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether frailty is an important and independent predictor of incident depressive symptoms in elderly people without depressive symptoms at baseline. Fifteen-month prospective study. General community in Japan. A total of 3025 community-dwelling elderly people aged 65 years or over without depressive symptoms at baseline. The self-rated 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale was used to assess symptoms of depression with a score of 6 or more at baseline and 15-month follow-up. Participants underwent a structural interview designed to obtain demographic factors and frailty status, and completed cognitive testing with the Mini-Mental State Examination and physical performance testing with the Short Physical Performance Battery as potential predictors. At a 15-month follow-up survey, 226 participants (7.5%) reported the development of depressive symptoms. We found that frailty and poor self-rated general health (adjusted odds ratio 1.86, 95% confidence interval 1.30-2.66, P Examination, Short Physical Performance Battery, and Geriatric Depression Scale scores at baseline. Our findings suggested that frailty and poor self-rated general health were independent predictors of depressive symptoms in community-dwelling elderly people. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Applications of prospecting geochemical techniques to the search for and to the study of uranium deposits in metropolitan France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimbert, Arnold

    1957-01-01

    After having recalled facts which leaded the CEA to use new geochemical techniques for the prospecting of uranium deposits through sampling and analysis of soils and waters, the author describes the organisation and methods implemented for this prospecting activity: team composition for sampling and analysis, role of each engineer and technician in the prospecting stages (preliminary study, routine prospecting, result interpretation), sampling and analysis processes. He also reports campaigns of geochemical prospecting: study of the La Chapelle Largeau deposit (objectives, geological context, preliminary study, routine prospecting, study of geochemical anomalies), tactical research on Verneix indices (study of radioactivity anomaly discovered by radio-prospecting), strategical searches in a non prospected area in the South of Avallon. The author discusses the issues of efficiency and cost price of this geochemical prospecting technique in soils and in waters. Appendices present the equipment and operation modality for soil sampling, and for soil sample preparation, and principles, equipment and products for soil analysis and for water analysis [fr

  4. Trialing the Community-Based Collaborative Action Research Framework: Supporting Rural Health Through a Community Health Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gelderen, Stacey A; Krumwiede, Kelly A; Krumwiede, Norma K; Fenske, Candace

    2018-01-01

    To describe the application of the Community-Based Collaborative Action Research (CBCAR) framework to uplift rural community voices while conducting a community health needs assessment (CHNA) by formulating a partnership between a critical access hospital, public health agency, school of nursing, and community members to improve societal health of this rural community. This prospective explorative study used the CBCAR framework in the design, collection, and analysis of the data. The framework phases include: Partnership, dialogue, pattern recognition, dialogue on meaning of pattern, insight into action, and reflecting on evolving pattern. Hospital and public health agency leaders learned how to use the CBCAR framework when conducting a CHNA to meet Affordable Care Act federal requirements. Closing the community engagement gap helped ensure all voices were heard, maximized intellectual capital, synergized efforts, improved communication by establishing trust, aligned resources with initiatives, and diminished power struggles regarding rural health. The CBCAR framework facilitated community engagement and promoted critical dialogue where community voices were heard. A sustainable community-based collaborative was formed. The project increased the critical access hospital's capacity to conduct a CHNA. The collaborative's decision-making capacity was challenged and ultimately strengthened as efforts continue to be made to address rural health.

  5. A prospective longitudinal study to estimate the prevalence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prospective longitudinal study to estimate the prevalence of obesity in Egyptian children with nocturnal enuresis and the association between body mass index and ... Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics ... Response to the treatment was evaluated statistically and correlated with body mass index percentile.

  6. Independent and combined relationship of habitual unhealthy eating behaviors with depressive symptoms: A prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Cong; Momma, Haruki; Cui, Yufei; Chujo, Masahiko; Otomo, Atsushi; Sugiyama, Shota; Ren, Zhongyu; Niu, Kaijun; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Unhealthy eating has been found to be associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms. However, prospective evidence of the combined effects of unhealthy eating and depressive symptoms has not been reported. This study aimed to elucidate the prospective relationship between habitual unhealthy eating habits and depressive symptoms. Methods: A 2-year prospective cohort study of 376 Japanese adults aged 24–83 years without depressive symptoms at baseline was conducted. Infor...

  7. Risk and Protective Factors for Intimate Partner Violence Against Women: Systematic Review and Meta-analyses of Prospective-Longitudinal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubovich, Alexa R; Stöckl, Heidi; Murray, Joseph; Melendez-Torres, G J; Steinert, Janina I; Glavin, Calla E Y; Humphreys, David K

    2018-07-01

    protective factors for IPV against women without location, time, or publication restrictions. Unplanned pregnancy and having parents with less than a high-school education, which may indicate lower socioeconomic status, were shown to be risk factors, and being older or married were protective. However, no prospective-longitudinal study investigated the associations between IPV against women and any community or structural factor outside the United States, and more studies investigated risk factors related to women as opposed to their partners. Public health implications. This review highlights that prospective evidence for perpetrator- and context-related risk and protective factors for women's experiences of IPV outside of the United States is lacking and urgently needed to inform global policy recommendations. The current evidence base of prospective studies suggests that, at least in the United States, education and sexual health interventions may be effective targets for preventing IPV against women, with young, unmarried women at greatest risk.

  8. Investing in Prospective Cohorts for Etiologic Study of Occupational Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prospective cohorts have played a major role in understanding the role of diet, physical activity, medical conditions, and genes in the development of many diseases, but have not been widely used in the study of occupational exposures. Studies in agriculture are an exception. W...

  9. The role of rostral prefrontal cortex in prospective memory: a voxel-based lesion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volle, Emmanuelle; Gonen-Yaacovi, Gil; Costello, Angela de Lacy; Gilbert, Sam J; Burgess, Paul W

    2011-07-01

    Patients with lesions in rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC) often experience problems in everyday-life situations requiring multitasking. A key cognitive component that is critical in multitasking situations is prospective memory, defined as the ability to carry out an intended action after a delay period filled with unrelated activity. The few functional imaging studies investigating prospective memory have shown consistent activation in both medial and lateral rostral PFC but also in more posterior prefrontal regions and non-frontal regions. The aim of this study was to determine regions that are necessary for prospective memory performance, using the human lesion approach. We designed an experimental paradigm allowing us to assess time-based (remembering to do something at a particular time) and event-based (remembering to do something in a particular situation) prospective memory, using two types of material, words and pictures. Time estimation tasks and tasks controlling for basic attention, inhibition and multiple instructions processing were also administered. We examined brain-behaviour relationships with a voxelwise lesion method in 45 patients with focal brain lesions and 107 control subjects using this paradigm. The results showed that lesions in the right polar prefrontal region (in Brodmann area 10) were specifically associated with a deficit in time-based prospective memory tasks for both words and pictures. This deficit could not be explained by impairments in basic attention, detection, inhibition or multiple instruction processing, and there was also no deficit in event-based prospective memory conditions. In addition to their prospective memory difficulties, these polar prefrontal patients were significantly impaired in time estimation ability compared to other patients. The same region was found to be involved using both words and pictures, suggesting that right rostral PFC plays a material nonspecific role in prospective memory. This is the first

  10. Health related quality of life in patients with community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia in France

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Luiz Flavio; Saba, Grèce; Ricard, Jean-Damien; Messika, Jonathan; Gaillat, Jacques; Bonnin, Pierre; Chidiac, Christian; Illes, Hajnal-Gabriela; Laurichesse, Henri; Detournay, Bruno; Petitpretz, Patrick; de Pouvourville, Gérard

    2018-01-01

    Background Community Acquired Pneumococcal Pneumonia is a lung infection that causes serious health problems and can lead to complications and death. The aim of this study was to observe and analyze health related quality of life after a hospital episode for patients with community acquired pneumococcal pneumonia in France. Methods A total of 524 individuals were enrolled prospectively in the study and were followed for 12 months after hospital discharge. Presence of streptococcus pneumoniae ...

  11. Do community- and individual-level social relationships contribute to the mental health of disaster survivors?: A multilevel prospective study after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Yusuke; Aida, Jun; Hase, Akihiro; Sato, Yukihiro; Koyama, Shihoko; Tsuboya, Toru; Osaka, Ken

    2016-02-01

    Disasters greatly threaten the health and lives of people all over the world. Japan experienced severe damage following the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, and some survivors continue to live in prefabricated temporary housing, built collectively in damaged areas. Previous studies have shown that social relationships in such communities have the potential to protect the mental health of disaster survivors. We examined the association between survivors' social support and social participation in 2012 and their psychological distress in 2013 using the K6 scale. Self-reported questionnaires were distributed to all 15,979 households in prefabricated temporary housing in eight municipalities in Miyagi prefecture in 2012, and 19,284 adults from 9366 (58.6%) households responded. One year later, 10,880 adults responded to a follow-up survey. Multivariate multilevel linear regression analyses with multiply imputed datasets showed that survivors' psychological distress at follow-up significantly differed between communities (community-level variance [standard error] = 0.38 [0.13]). The variance was reduced to 0.25 [0.09] after considering individual demographic characteristics and psychological distress at baseline. Individual- and community-level social relationships of 7.1% and 15.8%, respectively, explained the difference. After adjusting for covariates including K6 scale at baseline, individual-level social support, community-level social support, and individual-level social participation were significantly associated with low psychological distress at follow-up (coefficients [95% confidence intervals] were: -0.54 [-0.79, -0.30]; -0.43 [-0.72, -0.14]; and -0.22 [-0.40, -0.04], respectively). Community-level social participation was not significantly associated with psychological distress. The present study showed that: 1) survivors' psychological distress varied between temporary housing communities in 2013; 2) individual- and community-level social

  12. Community-Acquired Rotavirus Gastroenteritis Compared with Adenovirus and Norovirus Gastroenteritis in Italian Children: A Pedianet Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Donà

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rotavirus (RV is the commonest pathogen in the hospital and primary care settings, followed by Adenovirus (AV and Norovirus (NV. Only few studies that assess the burden of RV gastroenteritis at the community level have been carried out. Objectives. To estimate incidence, disease characteristics, seasonal distribution, and working days lost by parents of RV, AV, and NV gastroenteritis leading to a family pediatrician (FP visit among children < 5 years. Methods. 12-month, observational, prospective, FP-based study has been carried out using Pedianet database. Results. RVGE incidence was 1.04 per 100 person-years with the highest incidence in the first 2 years of life. Incidences of AVGEs (1.74 and NVGEs (1.51 were slightly higher with similar characteristics regarding age distribution and symptoms. Risk of hospitalisation, access to emergency room (ER, and workdays lost from parents were not significantly different in RVGEs compared to the other viral infections. Conclusions. Features of RVGE in terms of hospitalisation length and indirect cost are lower than those reported in previous studies. Results of the present study reflect the large variability of data present in the literature. This observation underlines the utility of primary care networks for AGE surveillance and further studies on community-acquired gastroenteritis in children.

  13. Temperament and Early Stuttering Development: Cross-Sectional Findings from a Community Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Block, Susan; Reilly, Sheena

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to ascertain if there is an association between stuttering severity and behaviors and the expression of temperament characteristics, including precursors of anxiety. Method: We studied temperament characteristics of a prospectively recruited community cohort of children who stutter (N = 173) at ages 3, 4, and…

  14. Habitual chocolate intake and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study: (1975-2010): Prospective observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Dearborn, Peter; Robbins, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Compounds in cocoa and chocolate have established cardiovascular benefits, including beneficial effects on insulin resistance, a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aims of this study was to investigate relations between habitual chocolate intakes and diabetes mellitus. Cross-sectional and prospective analyses were undertaken on 953 community-dwelling participants (mean age 62 years, 59% women) from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS). Habitual chocolate intakes, measured using a food frequency questionnaire, were related to prevalence of diabetes mellitus (cross-sectionally) and with risk of diabetes measured approximately five years later (prospectively). We also examined the relation between diabetes (the predictor) and chocolate consumption (the outcome) up to 30 years later. Chocolate intake was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes. Compared to participants who consumed chocolate more than once per week, those who never or rarely ate chocolate exhibited a significantly higher odds of having type 2 diabetes 5 years later (OR: 1.91, 95% CI: 1.03, 3.55, p = 0.04), after adjustment for cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors including other polyphenol-rich beverages. However, individuals diagnosed with diabetes prior to the nutritional assessment consumed lower amounts of chocolate at the time of the dietary assessment. Our findings suggest that relations between chocolate and type 2 diabetes may be bi-directional. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Study of geothermal prospects in the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-20

    The commercial development potential of 13 underdeveloped geothermal prospects in the Western United States has been examined and the prospects have been ranked in order of relative potential for development on the basis of investment considerations. The following were considered in the ranking: geotechnical and engineering data, energy market accessibility, administrative constraints, and environmental and socio-economic factors. The primary ranking criterion is the unit cost of energy production expected from each prospect. This criterion is obtained principally from expected reservoir temperatures and depths. Secondary criteria are administrative constraints, environmental factors and the quality of the geotechnical data. The Roosevelt, Utah, prospect ranks first in development potential followed in order by Beowawe, Nevada; Coso Hot Springs, California; Long Valley, California; and Brady's Hot Springs, Nevada.

  16. Study of geothermal prospects in the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    The commercial development potential of 13 underdeveloped geothermal prospects in the western United States has been examined and the prospects have been ranked in order of relative potential for development on the basis of investment considerations. The following were considered in the ranking: geotechnical and engineering data, energy market accessibility, administrative constraints, and environmental and socio-economic factors. The primary ranking criterion is the unit cost of energy production expected from each prospect. This criterion is obtained principally from expected reservoir temperatures and depths. Secondary criteria are administrative constraints, environmental factors and the quality of the geotechnical data. The Roosevelt, Utah, prospect ranks first in development potential followed in order by Beowawe, Nevada; Coso Hot Springs, California; Long Valley, California; and Brady's Hot Springs, Nevada.

  17. Dropout from exercise programs for seniors: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiggelbout, M.; Hopman-Rock, M.; Tak, E.; Lechner, L.; Mechelen, W. van

    2005-01-01

    This study examines dropout incidence, moment of dropout, and switching behavior in organized exercise programs for seniors in the Netherlands, as determined in a prospective cohort study (with baseline measurements at the start of the exercise program and follow-up after 6 months; N = 1,725,

  18. Prospect Theory: A Study of the Endowment Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurandir Sell Macedo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral Finance is a recent field of study which contradicts the presupposition supported by Modern Finance that decision makers act rationally. Prospect Theory, developed by Kahneman and Tversky (1979, is presented as an alternative model to the Theory of Expected Utility in relation to the way people decide in face of possibilities of risk. According to Prospect Theory, people define gains and losses based on a given point of reference, which can be established on grounds of a given level of expected gain. This fact leads to the Endowment Effect - a behavioral trend investigated in this study – whereby investors are influenced by a portfolio which they have received as an inheritance or endowment. The reason this occurs is that individuals usually define their expectations of gain according to the future profitability of the portfolio received, and not according to the future profitability of the market. Using an investment simulation, the Endowment Effect was tested among 226 university students taking courses in the subject of capital markets. The results demonstrate that the students were influenced by the different initial portfolios, which were randomly assigned.

  19. Sleep deficiency and motor vehicle crash risk in the general population: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Daniel J; Ellenbogen, Jeffrey M; Bianchi, Matt T; Czeisler, Charles A

    2018-03-20

    Insufficient sleep duration and obstructive sleep apnea, two common causes of sleep deficiency in adults, can result in excessive sleepiness, a well-recognized cause of motor vehicle crashes, although their contribution to crash risk in the general population remains uncertain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relation of sleep apnea, sleep duration, and excessive sleepiness to crash risk in a community-dwelling population. This was a prospective observational cohort study nested within the Sleep Heart Health Study, a community-based study of the health consequences of sleep apnea. The participants were 1745 men and 1456 women aged 40-89 years. Sleep apnea was measured by home polysomnography and questionnaires were used to assess usual sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. A follow-up questionnaire 2 years after baseline ascertained driving habits and motor vehicle crash history. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relation of sleep apnea and sleep duration at baseline to the occurrence of motor vehicle crashes during the year preceding the follow-up visit, adjusting for relevant covariates. The population-attributable fraction of motor vehicle crashes was estimated from the sample proportion of motor vehicle crashes and the adjusted odds ratios for motor vehicle crash within each exposure category. Among 3201 evaluable participants, 222 (6.9%) reported at least one motor vehicle crash during the prior year. A higher apnea-hypopnea index (p vehicle crashes was 10% due to sleep apnea and 9% due to sleep duration less than 7 hours. Sleep deficiency due to either sleep apnea or insufficient sleep duration is strongly associated with motor vehicle crashes in the general population, independent of self-reported excessive sleepiness.

  20. Do changes in spousal employment status lead to domestic violence? Insights from a prospective study in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Suneeta; Rocca, Corinne H; Hubbard, Alan E; Subbiah, Kalyani; Edmeades, Jeffrey; Padian, Nancy S

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of physical domestic violence--violence against women perpetrated by husbands--is staggeringly high across the Indian subcontinent. Although gender-based power dynamics are thought to underlie women's vulnerability, relatively little is known about risk and protective factors. This prospective study in southern India examined the association between key economic aspects of gender-based power, namely spousal employment status, and physical domestic violence. In 2005-2006, 744 married women, aged 16-25, residing in low-income communities in Bangalore, India were enrolled in the study. Data were collected at enrollment, 12 and 24 months. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the prospective association between women's employment status, their perceptions of their husband's employment stability, and domestic violence. Women who were unemployed at one visit and began employment by the next visit had an 80% higher odds of violence, as compared to women who maintained their unemployed status. Similarly, women whose husbands had stable employment at one visit and newly had difficulty with employment had 1.7 times the odds of violence, as compared to women whose husbands maintained their stable employment. To our knowledge, this study is the first from a developing country to confirm that changes in spousal employment status are associated with subsequent changes in violence risk. It points to the complex challenges of violence prevention, including the need for interventions among men and gender-transformative approaches to promote gender-equitable attitudes, practices and norms among men and women.

  1. A Community-Based Study of Quality of Life and Depression among Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Cao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to assess the quality of life (QOL and depression and provide further insights into the relationship between QOL and depression among community-dwelling elderly Chinese people. Baseline data were collected from 1168 older adults (aged ≥ 60 in a large, prospective cohort study on measurement and evaluation of health-promoting and health-protecting behaviors intervention on chronic disease in different community-dwelling age groups. QOL was assessed using the 26-item, World Health Organization Quality of Life, brief version (WHOQOL-BREF and depression was assessed using the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS. The mean WHOQOL-BREF score for all dimensions was approximately 60, with the highest mean value (61.92 observed for social relationships, followed by environment, physical health, and psychological health domains. In this cohort, 26.1% of elderly urban adults met GDS criteria for depression. There were negative correlations between physical health (Odds Ratio (OR = 0.928, 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 0.910–0.946, psychological health (OR = 0.906, 95% CI: 0.879–0.934, environment (OR = 0.966, 95% CI: 0.944–0.989 and depression among elderly people. Those with depression were older, less educated, had a lower monthly income, and were more likely to report insomnia. All WHOQOL-BREF domains, with the exception of the social domain were negatively correlated with depression.

  2. Clinical patterns, epidemiology and risk factors of community-acquired urinary tract infection caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers: a prospective hospital case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almomani, Basima A; Hayajneh, Wail A; Ayoub, Abeer M; Ababneh, Mera A; Al Momani, Miral A

    2018-05-10

    To assess incidence rate, risk factors and susceptibility patterns associated with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae in community-acquired urinary tract infections (CA-UTIs). A prospective, case-control study was conducted at a tertiary teaching hospital from Jan 2015 to Dec 2016. The results of microbiology cultures were initially screened to include only patients with positive E. coli or K. pneumoniae urine cultures. Afterwards, clinical symptoms were assessed to confirm the UTI. To investigate the risk factors, patients with a positive urine culture for ESBL-producing isolates were assigned as cases, while patients with non-ESBL were assigned as controls. Out of 591 patients included in this study, 57.5% (n = 340) were included in the control group and 42.5% (n = 251) were in the case group. The incidence rate of ESBL-producing isolates was 3.465 cases per 1000-patient hospital admissions. Male gender (OR = 1.856, 95% CI = 1.192-2.889, p = 0.006), pediatrics (OR = 1.676, 95% CI = 1.117-2.517, p = 0.013), patients with comorbidity (OR = 1.542, 95% CI = 1.029-2.312, p = 0.036) and UTI in the previous 12 months (OR = 1.705, 95% CI = 1.106-2.628, p = 0.016) were independently associated with a higher risk of infection. The resistance rate for most commonly prescribed antibiotics was high. Our results suggest that the incidence of ESBL producers among CA-UTIs is high. Male gender, pediatrics, comorbidity and UTI in the previous 12 months were associated with a higher risk for infection. Continuous surveillance and prudent antibiotic use by healthcare professionals are important factors for effective control of ESBL associated infections.

  3. Injury among adolescents with intellectual disability: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David; McPherson, Lyn; Lennox, Nicholas; Ware, Robert S

    2018-04-12

    Injury is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in adolescents worldwide, and injury rates have been shown to be higher among youth with intellectual disability. Despite this, injury among adolescents with intellectual disability remains poorly investigated. This study aimed to identify characteristics associated with injury among adolescents with intellectual disability living in the community. A cohort of adolescents with intellectual disability living in southern Queensland, Australia was investigated prospectively between January 2006 and June 2010. Personal characteristics were collected via postal questionnaire. Injury information, including mechanism and location of injury, was extracted from general practitioner records. The association between demographic, social and clinical characteristics of participants and episodes of injury was investigated using negative binomial regression. A total of 289 injuries were recorded from 432 participants over 1627.3 years of study-time. The overall annual injury incidence was 17.5 (95%CI 14.7, 20.9) per 100 person years. Presence of ADHD and less severe disability was associated with increased risk of injury. Down syndrome and reduced verbal communication capacity were associated with decreased risk of injury. Falls accounted for the highest single mechanism of injury (19.0%) with the majority (73.2%) of injuries involving either upper or lower limbs. ADHD is a co-morbidity that increases risk of injury among adolescents with intellectual disability. A critical component of injury prevention is avoidance of the great variety of environmental risk factors for injury relevant to this population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Google Calendar Enhances Prospective Memory in Alzheimer's Disease: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Gallouj, Karim; Antoine, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether an external memory aid (i.e., Google Calendar) would alleviate prospective memory compromise in a patient with mild Alzheimer's disease. The patient was asked in the baseline phase to perform three prospective targeted events (e.g., attending her weekly bridge game at the community club) and three prospective control events (e.g., buying her weekly magazine). The same six prospective events were assessed in the intervention phase but the targeted-events were cued by Google Calendar while the control-events were not. Results showed less omission of the targeted events in the training phase than in the baseline phase, suggesting a positive effect of Google Calendar. This case report offers a unique view into how smartphone calendars may alleviate prospective memory compromise in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease.

  5. Parenting styles and body mass index: a systematic review of prospective studies among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, R L; Qin, B; Poti, J M

    2017-03-01

    Parenting style may be an important determinant of an individual's future weight status. However, reviews that evaluate the relationship between parenting style and weight-related outcomes have not focused on prospective studies. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase and PsychInfo for studies published between 1995 and 2016 that evaluated the prospective relationship between parenting style experienced in childhood and subsequent weight outcomes. We identified 11 prospective cohort studies. Among the eight studies that categorized parenting style into distinct groups (i.e. authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful), five provided evidence that authoritative parenting was associated with lower body mass index gains. Among the six highest quality studies, four suggested a protective role of authoritative parenting style against adverse weight-related outcomes. However, only one study controlled for a comprehensive set of confounders, and the small number of studies conducted within certain age groups precluded our ability to ascertain critical periods when parenting style is most strongly related to child weight. The present literature supports the idea that authoritative parenting may be protective against later overweight and obesity, although findings are mixed. More prospective cohort studies of longer durations, with more sophisticated methods that examine age-varying relationships, and that control for a comprehensive set of confounders, are needed. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  6. Parenting styles and body mass index: A systematic review of prospective studies among children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, Rebeccah L; Qin, Bo; Poti, Jennifer M

    2017-01-01

    Background Parenting style may be an important determinant of an individual's future weight status. However, reviews that evaluate the relationship between parenting style and weight-related outcomes have not focused on prospective studies. Methods We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, and PsychInfo for studies published between 1995-2016 that evaluated the prospective relationship between parenting style experienced in childhood and subsequent weight outcomes. Results We identified eleven prospective cohort studies. Among the eight studies that categorized parenting style into distinct groups (i.e. authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and neglectful), five provided evidence that authoritative parenting was associated with lower body mass index gains. Among the six highest quality studies, four suggested a protective role of authoritative parenting style against adverse weight-related outcomes. However, only one study controlled for a comprehensive set of confounders, and the small number of studies conducted within certain age groups precluded our ability to ascertain critical periods when parenting style is most strongly related to child weight. Conclusions The present literature supports the idea that authoritative parenting may be protective against later overweight and obesity, although findings are mixed. More prospective cohort studies of longer durations, with more sophisticated methods that examine age-varying relationships, and that control for a comprehensive set of confounders, are needed. PMID:28086262

  7. Endodontic flare-ups: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Vanessa de Oliveira

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this prospective clinical study was to evaluate the incidence of flare-ups (pain and/or swelling requiring endodontic interappointment and emergency treatment) and identify the risk factors associated with their occurrence in patients who received endodontic treatment from June 2006 to June 2007 at the endodontics clinic of the São Paulo Dental Association (APCD), Jardim Paulista branch, São Paulo, Brazil. The incidence of flare-ups was 1.71% out of 408 teeth that had received endodontic therapy. Statistical analysis using the chi-squared test (P flare-up rate and the presence of a periradicular radiolucency. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluating a novel Integrated Community of Care (ICoC) for patients from an urbanised low-income community in Singapore using the participatory action research (PAR) methodology: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Lian Leng; Maulod, Adlina; Lee, Kheng Hock

    2017-10-08

    Poorer health outcomes and disproportionate healthcare use in socioeconomically disadvantaged patients is well established. However, there is sparse literature on effective integrated care interventions that specifically target these high-risk individuals. The Integrated Community of Care (ICoC) is a novel care model that integrates hospital-based transitional care with health and social care in the community for high-risk individuals living in socially deprived communities. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the ICoC in reducing acute hospital use and investigate the implementation process and its effects on clinical outcomes using a mixed-methods participatory action research (PAR) approach. This is a single-centre prospective, controlled, observational study performed in the SingHealth Regional Health System. A total of 250 eligible patients from an urbanised low-income community in Singapore will be enrolled during their index hospitalisation. Our PAR model combines two research components: quantitative and qualitative, at different phases of the intervention. Outcomes of acute hospital use and health-related quality of life are compared with controls, at 30 days and 1 year. The qualitative study aims at developing a more context-specific social ecological model of health behaviour. This model will identify how influences within one's social environment: individual, interpersonal, organisational, community and policy factors affect people's experiences and behaviours during care transitions from hospital to home. Knowledge on the operational aspects of ICoC will enrich our evidence-based strategies to understand the impact of the ICoC. The blending of qualitative and quantitative mixed methods recognises the dynamic implementation processes as well as the complex and evolving needs of community stakeholders in shaping outcomes. Ethics approval was granted by the SingHealth Centralised Institutional Review Board (CIRB 2015/2277). The findings

  9. Mortality in Autism: A Prospective Longitudinal Community-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva; Sundh, Valter; Gillberg, I. Carina

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to establish the mortality rate in a representative group of individuals (n = 120) born in the years 1962-1984, diagnosed with autism/atypical autism in childhood and followed up at young adult age (greater than or equal to 18 years of age), and examine the risk factors and causes of death. The study group,…

  10. From Community to Meta-Community Mental Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Bouras

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1960s, we have witnessed the development and growth of community mental health care that continues to dominate mental health policy and practice. Several high-income countries have implemented community mental health care programmes but for many others, including mostly low- and middle-income countries, it remains an aspiration. Although community mental health care has been positive for many service users, it has also had severe shortcomings. Expectations that it would lead to fuller social integration have not been fulfilled and many service users remain secluded in sheltered or custodial environments with limited social contacts and no prospect of work. Others receive little or no service at all. In today’s complex landscape of increasingly specialised services for people with mental health problems, the number of possible interfaces between services is increasing. Together with existing uneven financing systems and a context of constant change, these interfaces are challenging us to develop effective care pathways adjusted to the needs of service users and their carers. This discussion paper reviews the developments in community mental health care over the recent years and puts forward the concept of “Meta-Community Mental Health Care”. “Meta-Community Mental Health Care” embraces pluralism in understanding and treating psychiatric disorders, acknowledges the complexities of community provision, and reflects the realities and needs of the current era of care.

  11. No causal relationship between Yersinia enterocolitica infection and autoimmune thyroid disease: evidence from a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effraimidis, G.; Tijssen, J. G. P.; Strieder, T. G. A.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    2011-01-01

    P>The objective of this study was to evaluate prospectively the relationship between Yersinia enterocolitica (YE) infection and the development of overt autoimmune hypo- or hyperthyroidism (study A) and the de novo occurrence of thyroid antibodies (study B). This was a prospective cohort study of

  12. Anxiety in 11-Year-Old Children Who Stutter: Findings from a Prospective Longitudinal Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kylie A.; Iverach, Lisa; O'Brian, Susan; Mensah, Fiona; Kefalianos, Elaina; Hearne, Anna; Reilly, Sheena

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To examine if a community sample of 11-year-old children with persistent stuttering have higher anxiety than children who have recovered from stuttering and nonstuttering controls. Method: Participants in a community cohort study were categorized into 3 groups: (a) those with persistent stuttering, (b) those with recovered stuttering, and…

  13. Occupancy in community-level studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Darryl I.; Nichols, James; Royle, Andy; Pollock, Kenneth H.; Bailey, Larissa L.; Hines, James

    2018-01-01

    Another type of multi-species studies, are those focused on community-level metrics such as species richness. In this chapter we detail how some of the single-species occupancy models described in earlier chapters have been applied, or extended, for use in such studies, while accounting for imperfect detection. We highlight how Bayesian methods using MCMC are particularly useful in such settings to easily calculate relevant community-level summaries based on presence/absence data. These modeling approaches can be used to assess richness at a single point in time, or to investigate changes in the species pool over time.

  14. A prospective study of Vitamin A Utilization in Lagos, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, drug utilization studies are primary in establishing mechanisms to promote the use of this vitamin. Hence, we investigated the use of Vitamin A in 4 referral paediatric units in Lagos, Nigeria. The study was prospective with the use of questionnaires administered to those patients placed on Vitamin A therapy among 380 ...

  15. Stuttering, Temperament, and Anxiety: Data from a Community Cohort Ages 2-4 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Ukoumunne, Obioha; Block, Susan; Reilly, Sheena

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether and when temperament differences, including precursors of anxiety, emerge before onset and during stuttering development. Method: The authors prospectively studied temperament characteristics of a community cohort of children who stutter (N = 183) and children in the control group (N =…

  16. A prospective study of loss of consciousness in epilepsy using virtual reality driving simulation and other video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Morland, Thomas B; Schmits, Kristen; Rawson, Elizabeth; Narasimhan, Poojitha; Motelow, Joshua E; Purcaro, Michael J; Peng, Kathy; Raouf, Saned; Desalvo, Matthew N; Oh, Taemin; Wilkerson, Jerome; Bod, Jessica; Srinivasan, Aditya; Kurashvili, Pimen; Anaya, Joseph; Manza, Peter; Danielson, Nathan; Ransom, Christopher B; Huh, Linda; Elrich, Susan; Padin-Rosado, Jose; Naidu, Yamini; Detyniecki, Kamil; Hamid, Hamada; Farooque, Pue; Astur, Robert; Xiao, Bo; Duckrow, Robert B; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2010-07-01

    Patients with epilepsy are at risk of traffic accidents when they have seizures while driving. However, driving is an essential part of normal daily life in many communities, and depriving patients of driving privileges can have profound consequences for their economic and social well-being. In the current study, we collected ictal performance data from a driving simulator and two other video games in patients undergoing continuous video/EEG monitoring. We captured 22 seizures in 13 patients and found that driving impairment during seizures differed in terms of both magnitude and character, depending on the seizure type. Our study documents the feasibility of a prospective study of driving and other behaviors during seizures through the use of computer-based tasks. This methodology may be applied to further describe differential driving impairment in specific types of seizures and to gain data on anatomical networks disrupted in seizures that impair consciousness and driving safety. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The WISTAH hand study: A prospective cohort study of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg Arun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few prospective cohort studies of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders have been performed. Past studies have provided somewhat conflicting evidence for occupational risk factors and have largely reported data without adjustments for many personal and psychosocial factors. Methods/design A multi-center prospective cohort study was incepted to quantify risk factors for distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders and potentially develop improved methods for analyzing jobs. Disorders to analyze included carpal tunnel syndrome, lateral epicondylalgia, medial epicondylalgia, trigger digit, deQuervain’s stenosing tenosynovitis and other tendinoses. Workers have thus far been enrolled from 17 different employment settings in 3 diverse US states and performed widely varying work. At baseline, workers undergo laptop administered questionnaires, structured interviews, two standardized physical examinations and nerve conduction studies to ascertain demographic, medical history, psychosocial factors and current musculoskeletal disorders. All workers’ jobs are individually measured for physical factors and are videotaped. Workers are followed monthly for the development of musculoskeletal disorders. Repeat nerve conduction studies are performed for those with symptoms of tingling and numbness in the prior six months. Changes in jobs necessitate re-measure and re-videotaping of job physical factors. Case definitions have been established. Point prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome is a combination of paraesthesias in at least two median nerve-served digits plus an abnormal nerve conduction study at baseline. The lifetime cumulative incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome will also include those with a past history of carpal tunnel syndrome. Incident cases will exclude those with either a past history or prevalent cases at baseline. Statistical methods planned include survival analyses and logistic regression. Discussion A

  18. A prospective association between dietary folate intake and type 2 diabetes risk among Korean adults aged 40 years or older: the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort (MRCohort) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sang M; Woo, Hey W; Kim, Mi K; Kim, Se Y; Lee, Young-Hoon; Shin, Dong H; Shin, Min-Ho; Chun, Byung-Yeol; Choi, Bo Y

    2017-12-01

    It has not been well established whether dietary folate intake reduces the risk of diabetes development. We aimed to clarify the prospective association between dietary folate intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk among 7333 Korean adults aged 40 years or older who were included in the Multi-Rural Communities Cohort. Dietary folate intake was estimated from all 106 food items listed on a FFQ, not including folate intake from supplements. Two different measurements of dietary folate intake were used: the baseline consumption and the average consumption from baseline until just before the end of follow-up. The association between folate intake and T2D risk was determined through a modified Poisson regression model with a robust error estimator controlling for potential confounders. For 29 745 person years, 319 cases of diabetes were ascertained. In multivariable analyses, dietary folate intake was inversely associated with risk of T2D for women, not for men. For women, the incidence rate ratio of diabetes in the third tertile compared with the first tertile was 0·57 (95 % CI 0·38-0·87, P for trend=0·0085) in the baseline consumption model and 0·64 (95 % CI 0·43-0·95, P for trend=0·0244) in the average consumption model. These inverse associations was found in both normal fasting blood glucose group and impaired fasting glucose group among women. Among non-users of multinutrients and vitamin supplements, the significant inverse association remained. Thus, higher dietary intake of folate is prospectively associated with lower risk of diabetes for women.

  19. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes among newly detected pulmonary tuberculosis patients in China: a community based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuzhen Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes (DM have a higher risk of developing pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB; moreover, DM co-morbidity in PTB is associated with poor PTB treatment outcomes. Community based prevalence data on DM and prediabetes (pre-DM among TB patients is lacking, particularly from the developing world. Therefore we conducted a prospective study to investigate the prevalence of DM and pre-DM and evaluated the risk factors for the presence of DM among newly detected PTB patients in rural areas of China. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a prospective community based study carried out from 2010 to 2012, a representative sample of 6382 newly detected PTB patients from 7 TB clinics in Linyi were tested for DM. A population of 6674 non-TB controls from the same community was similarly tested as well. The prevalence of DM in TB patients (6.3% was higher than that in non-TB controls (4.7%, p<0.05. PTB patients had a higher odds of DM than non-TB controls (adjusted OR 3.17, 95% CI 1.14-8.84. The prevalence of DM increased with age and was significantly higher in TB patients in the age categories above 30 years (p<0.05. Among TB patients, those with normal weight (BMI 18.5-23.9 had the lowest prevalence of DM (5.8%. Increasing age, family history of DM, positive sputum smear, cavity on chest X-ray and higher yearly income (≥10000 RMB yuan were positively associated and frequent outdoor activity was negatively associated with DM in PTB patients. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of DM in PTB patients was higher than in non-TB controls with a 3 fold higher adjusted odds ratio of having DM. Given the increasing DM prevalence and still high burden of TB in China, this association may represent a new public health challenge concerning the prevention and treatment of both diseases.

  20. A prospective, controlled study of prophylactic drainage after colonic anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, J.; Shokouh-Amiri, M H; Damm, P

    1987-01-01

    A prospective, randomized, controlled trial was designed to study the influence of a corrugated latex drain on anastomotic integrity, wound infection, and respiratory complications after elective colonic resections above the pelvic peritoneum. Sixty patients entered the trial; 28 were drained...

  1. Uranium project. Geochemistry prospection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, J.

    1983-01-01

    Geochemistry studies the distribution of the chemicals elements in the terrestrial crust and its ways to migrate. The terminology used in this report is the following one: 1) Principles of the prospection geochemistry 2) Stages of the prospection geochemistry 3)utility of the prospection geochemistry 4) geochemistry of uranium 5) procedures used within the framework of uranium project 6) Average available 7) Selection of the zones of prospection geochemistry 8) Stages of the prospection, Sample preparation and analisis 9) Presentation of the results

  2. Antibiotic treatment of urinary tract infection by community pharmacists: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Jill L; Mullen, Alexander B; Thomson, David A M; Johnstone, Christopher; Galbraith, Susan J; Bryson, Scott M; McGovern, Elizabeth M

    2013-04-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common conditions seen in female patients within primary care. Community pharmacists are familiar with symptomatic UTI management and supplying trimethoprim under patient group direction (PGD) for moderate-to-severe uncomplicated UTIs could improve patient access to treatment. To compare the care pathway of patients with UTI symptoms attending GP services with those receiving management, including trimethoprim supply under PGD, via community pharmacies. Prospective, cross-sectional, mixed methods approach in 10 community pharmacies within NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde. Pharmacies invited a purposive sample of female patients to participate. Pharmacists had the option of supplying trimethoprim under PGD to patients with moderate-to-severe infection meeting the PGD inclusion criteria. Data from patient (questionnaires and semi-structured telephone interviews) and pharmacist (questionnaires and semi-structured, face-to-face interviews) were quantitatively and qualitatively analysed. Data were recorded on 153 patients, 97 presenting with GP prescriptions and 56 presenting directly in the pharmacy with symptoms suggestive of UTI, of whom 41 received trimethoprim via PGD and 15 received symptomatic management. Both GP adherence to local infection management guidelines and pharmacist application of PGD inclusion/exclusion criteria required improvement. There was demand and support, from patients and pharmacists, for access to antibiotic treatments for UTIs, without prescription, through community pharmacies. Operating within PGD controls, antibiotic treatments for UTIs could be provided via community pharmacy to improve patient access to treatment which may also maintain antibiotic stewardship and reduce GP workload.

  3. The clinical assessment study of the foot (CASF: study protocol for a prospective observational study of foot pain and foot osteoarthritis in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menz Hylton B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA affects approximately 10% of adults aged over 60 years. The foot joint complex is commonly affected by OA, yet there is relatively little research into OA of the foot, compared with other frequently affected sites such as the knee and hand. Existing epidemiological studies of foot OA have focussed predominantly on the first metatarsophalangeal joint at the expense of other joints. This three-year prospective population-based observational cohort study will describe the prevalence of symptomatic radiographic foot OA, relate its occurrence to symptoms, examination findings and life-style-factors, describe the natural history of foot OA, and examine how it presents to, and is diagnosed and managed in primary care. Methods All adults aged 50 years and over registered with four general practices in North Staffordshire, UK, will be invited to participate in a postal Health Survey questionnaire. Respondents to the questionnaire who indicate that they have experienced foot pain in the preceding twelve months will be invited to attend a research clinic for a detailed clinical assessment. This assessment will consist of: clinical interview; physical examination; digital photography of both feet and ankles; plain x-rays of both feet, ankles and hands; ultrasound examination of the plantar fascia; anthropometric measurement; and a further self-complete questionnaire. Follow-up will be undertaken in consenting participants by postal questionnaire at 18 months (clinic attenders only and three years (clinic attenders and survey participants, and also by review of medical records. Discussion This three-year prospective epidemiological study will combine survey data, comprehensive clinical, x-ray and ultrasound assessment, and review of primary care records to identify radiographic phenotypes of foot OA in a population of community-dwelling older adults, and describe their impact on symptoms, function and

  4. Neonatal sepsis in rural India: timing, microbiology and antibiotic resistance in a population-based prospective study in the community setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, P; Chandel, D S; Hansen, N I; Sharma, N; Kandefer, S; Parida, S; Satpathy, R; Pradhan, L; Mohapatra, A; Mohapatra, S S; Misra, P R; Banaji, N; Johnson, J A; Morris, J G; Gewolb, I H; Chaudhry, R

    2017-08-01

    To examine the timing and microbiology of neonatal sepsis in a population-based surveillance in the Indian community setting. All live born infants in 223 villages of Odisha state were followed at home for 60 days. Suspect sepsis cases were referred to study hospitals for further evaluation including blood culture. Of 12 622 births, 842 were admitted with suspected sepsis of whom 95% were 4 to 60 days old. Culture-confirmed incidence of sepsis was 6.7/1000 births with 51% Gram negatives (Klebsiella predominating) and 26% Gram positives (mostly Staphylococcus aureus). A very high level of resistance to penicillin and ampicillin, moderate resistance to cephalosporins and extremely low resistance to Gentamicin and Amikacin was observed. The bacterial burden of sepsis in the Indian community is not high. Judicious choice of empiric antibiotics, antibiotic stewardship and alternate modalities should be considered for the management or prevention of neonatal sepsis in India.

  5. Gender variance in childhood and sexual orientation in adulthood: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensma, Thomas D; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2013-11-01

    Several retrospective and prospective studies have reported on the association between childhood gender variance and sexual orientation and gender discomfort in adulthood. In most of the retrospective studies, samples were drawn from the general population. The samples in the prospective studies consisted of clinically referred children. In understanding the extent to which the association applies for the general population, prospective studies using random samples are needed. This prospective study examined the association between childhood gender variance, and sexual orientation and gender discomfort in adulthood in the general population. In 1983, we measured childhood gender variance, in 406 boys and 473 girls. In 2007, sexual orientation and gender discomfort were assessed. Childhood gender variance was measured with two items from the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18. Sexual orientation was measured for four parameters of sexual orientation (attraction, fantasy, behavior, and identity). Gender discomfort was assessed by four questions (unhappiness and/or uncertainty about one's gender, wish or desire to be of the other gender, and consideration of living in the role of the other gender). For both men and women, the presence of childhood gender variance was associated with homosexuality for all four parameters of sexual orientation, but not with bisexuality. The report of adulthood homosexuality was 8 to 15 times higher for participants with a history of gender variance (10.2% to 12.2%), compared to participants without a history of gender variance (1.2% to 1.7%). The presence of childhood gender variance was not significantly associated with gender discomfort in adulthood. This study clearly showed a significant association between childhood gender variance and a homosexual sexual orientation in adulthood in the general population. In contrast to the findings in clinically referred gender-variant children, the presence of a homosexual sexual orientation in

  6. Scoping study into community-based renewable energy projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This scoping study has been carried out by the Centre for Sustainable Energy (CSE), a charity which promotes energy efficiency and renewable energy. CSE have used their involvement in the development of the Energy Club (the first energy service company for householders in the UK) and the Bristol Environment and Energy Trust (a cross-sector organisation initiating environmental projects) as the basis of the study. This study is the first phase of a long term project to set up two small-scale renewable energy schemes to demonstrate the benefits of a community based approach. Specific objectives of the study were: to identify, quantify and cost, renewable energy resources for interested community organisations; to evaluate two routes for developing community based projects - Environment Trusts and Energy Clubs'; to organise a seminar with the objective of bringing together community interest groups with experts in renewable energy; to identify two communities with viable renewable projects for the next phase - full feasibility studies/pilot projects. (author)

  7. Uranium prospecting; La prospection de l'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roubault, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    This report is an instruction book for uranium prospecting. It appeals to private prospecting. As prospecting is now a scientific and technical research, it cannot be done without preliminary studies. First of all, general prospecting methods are given with a recall of fundamental geologic data and some general principles which are common with all type of prospecting. The peculiarities of uranium prospecting are also presented and in particular the radioactivity property of uranium as well as the special aspect of uranium ores and the aspect of neighbouring ores. In a third part, a description of the different uranium ores is given and separated in two different categories: primary and secondary ores, according to the place of transformation, deep or near the crust surface respectively. In the first category, the primary ores include pitchblende, thorianite and rare uranium oxides as euxenite and fergusonite for example. In the second category, the secondary ores contain autunite and chalcolite for example. An exhaustive presentation of the geiger-Mueller counter is given with the presentation of its different components, its functioning and utilization and its maintenance. The radioactivity interpretation method is showed as well as the elaboration of a topographic map of the measured radioactivity. A brief presentation of other detection methods than geiger-Mueller counters is given: the measurement of fluorescence and a chemical test using the fluorescence properties of uranium salts. Finally, the main characteristics of uranium deposits are discussed. (M.P.)

  8. Procedures for assessing psychological predictors of injuries in circus artists: a pilot prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrier, Ian; Raglin, John S; Levitan, Emily B; Mittleman, Murray A; Steele, Russell J; Powell, Janette

    2014-06-11

    Research on psychological risk factors for injury has focused on stable traits. Our objective was to test the feasibility of a prospective longitudinal study designed to examine labile psychological states as risk factors of injury. We measured psychological traits at baseline (mood, ways of coping and anxiety), and psychological states every day (1-item questions on anxiety, sleep, fatigue, soreness, self-confidence) before performances in Cirque du Soleil artists of the show "O". Additional questions were added once per week to better assess anxiety (20-item) and mood. Questionnaires were provided in English, French, Russian and Japanese. Injury and exposure data were extracted from electronic records that are kept as part of routine business practices. The 43.9% (36/82) recruitment rate was more than expected. Most artists completed the baseline questionnaires in 15 min, a weekly questionnaire in <2 min and a daily questionnaire in <1 min. We improved the formatting of some questions during the study, and adapted the wording of other questions to improve clarity. There were no dropouts during the entire study, suggesting the questionnaires were appropriate in content and length. Results for sample size calculations depend on the number of artists followed and the minimal important difference in injury rates, but in general, preclude a purely prospective study with daily data collection because of the long follow-up required. However, a prospective nested case-crossover design with data collection bi-weekly and at the time of injury appears feasible. A prospective study collecting psychological state data from subjects who train and work regularly together is feasible, but sample size calculations suggest that the optimal study design would use prospective nested case-crossover methodology.

  9. The Children’s Attention Project: a community-based longitudinal study of children with ADHD and non-ADHD controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sciberras Emma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD affects approximately 5% of children worldwide and results in significant impairments in daily functioning. Few community-ascertained samples of children with ADHD have been studied prospectively to identify factors associated with differential outcomes. The Children’s Attention Project is the first such study in Australia, examining the mental health, social, academic and quality of life outcomes for children with diagnostically-confirmed ADHD compared to non-ADHD controls. The study aims to map the course of ADHD symptoms over time and to identify risk and protective factors associated with differential outcomes. Methods/design The sample for this prospective longitudinal study is being recruited across 43 socio-economically diverse primary schools across Melbourne, Australia. All children in Grade 1, the second year of formal schooling (6–8 years, are screened for ADHD symptoms using independent parent and teacher reports on the Conners’ 3 ADHD index (~N = 5260. Children screening positive for ADHD by both parent and teacher report, and a matched sample (gender, school screening negative, are invited to participate in the longitudinal study. At baseline this involves parent completion of the NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children IV (DISC-IV to confirm likely ADHD diagnostic status and identify other mental health difficulties, direct child assessments (cognitive, academic, language and executive functioning; height and weight and questionnaires for parents and teachers assessing outcomes, as well as a broad range of risk and protective factors (child, parent/family, teacher/school, and socio-economic factors. Families will be initially followed up for 3 years. Discussion This study is the first Australian longitudinal study of children with ADHD and one of the first community-based longitudinal studies of diagnostically confirmed children with ADHD. The

  10. Health effects of employment: a systematic review of prospective studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Noordt, Maaike; IJzelenberg, Helma; Droomers, Mariël; Proper, Karin I.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to systematically summarise the literature on the health effects of employment. A search for prospective studies investigating the effect of employment on health was executed in several electronic databases, and references of selected publications were checked.

  11. Impact of Food Assistance Programs on Obesity in Mothers and Children: A Prospective Cohort Study in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Miranda, J Jaime; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    To assess obesity risk among mothers participating in Community Kitchens and children participating in Glass of Milk (Peru food assistance programs). We analyzed prospective data from the Young Lives study. The exposure consisted in varying degrees of benefit from any of the programs (no participation in any of the programs, program participation for some months, or program participation nearly every month) at baseline (2006-2007). The outcome was overweight and obesity in mothers and children at follow-up (2009-2010). Prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity was 15.5% and 5.1%, respectively; the corresponding figures for mothers were 40.5% and 14.6%. Children exposed nearly every month to the Glass of Milk program had a 65% lower risk of becoming obese compared with children not participating in the program (relative risk [RR] = 0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.18, 0.66). Mothers participating frequently in the Community Kitchens program had almost twice the risk of becoming obese compared with those who did not participate (RR = 1.93; 95% CI = 1.18, 3.15). Participating in food assistance programs in Peru was associated with a lower risk of obesity in children and greater risk of obesity in mothers.

  12. Single-site community consultation for emergency research in a community hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Kyle L; Keck, Anna-Sigrid; Little, Charletta

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate community member feedback from community consultation and public disclosure activities performed for a clinical investigation involving a device designed to treat traumatic brain injury in prehospital contexts. The clinical investigation of that device was to be performed under the federal regulations providing an exception from prospective informed consent requirements in emergency settings. Secondarily, we sought to assess the community consultation process by measuring the levels of outreach provided by the different communication methods used in these activities, with special attention to the effectiveness of social media for community outreach. The medical device investigation consists of a single-site pilot study based at a 345-bed community hospital in east central Illinois, which also serves as the area's only level I trauma center. Investigators, in collaboration with the local institutional review board, fulfilled community consultation and public disclosure requirements through four public town hall meetings, seven targeted focus groups, targeted mailings to 884 community leaders and researchers, a press conference and press release, internal and external websites, and multiple postings to the hospital's Facebook and Twitter accounts. Community members provided feedback by completing paper or electronic comment cards. A total of 428 community members attended the four town hall meetings and seven focus group sessions. Attendance at each meeting ranged from 4 to 20 attendees for the town hall meetings and 8 to 140 attendees for the focus groups. The investigation's external website received 626 unique visitors and the intranet website received 528 unique visits. Social media postings on Facebook and Twitter received six comments and eight "likes" to indicate that an individual read the posting. In total, attendees completed 175 comment cards to provide their feedback. Community member attitudes regarding the

  13. Prospective study of determinants and costs of home births in Mumbai slums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Sushmita

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Around 86% of births in Mumbai, India, occur in healthcare institutions, but this aggregate figure hides substantial variation and little is known about urban home births. We aimed to explore factors influencing the choice of home delivery, care practices and costs, and to identify characteristics of women, households and the environment which might increase the likelihood of home birth. Methods As part of the City Initiative for Newborn Health, we used a key informant surveillance system to identify births prospectively in 48 slum communities in six wards of Mumbai, covering a population of 280 000. Births and outcomes were documented prospectively by local women and mothers were interviewed in detail at six weeks after delivery. We examined the prevalence of home births and their associations with potential determinants using regression models. Results We described 1708 (16% home deliveries among 10 754 births over two years, 2005-2007. The proportion varied from 6% to 24%, depending on area. The most commonly cited reasons for home birth were custom and lack of time to reach a healthcare facility during labour. Seventy percent of home deliveries were assisted by a traditional birth attendant (dai, and 6% by skilled health personnel. The median cost of a home delivery was US$ 21, of institutional delivery in the public sector US$ 32, and in the private sector US$ 118. In an adjusted multivariable regression model, the odds of home delivery increased with illiteracy, parity, socioeconomic poverty, poorer housing, lack of water supply, population transience, and hazardous location. Conclusions We estimate 32 000 annual home births to residents of Mumbai's slums. These are unevenly distributed and cluster with other markers of vulnerability. Since cost does not appear to be a dominant disincentive to institutional delivery, efforts are needed to improve the client experience at public sector institutions. It might also be

  14. Dietary protein intake and coronary heart disease in a large community based cohort: results from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Haring

    Full Text Available Prospective data examining the relationship between dietary protein intake and incident coronary heart disease (CHD are inconclusive. Most evidence is derived from homogenous populations such as health professionals. Large community-based analyses in more diverse samples are lacking.We studied the association of protein type and major dietary protein sources and risk for incident CHD in 12,066 middle-aged adults (aged 45-64 at baseline, 1987-1989 from four U.S. communities enrolled in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC Study who were free of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease at baseline. Dietary protein intake was assessed at baseline and after 6 years of follow-up by food frequency questionnaire. Our primary outcome was adjudicated coronary heart disease events or deaths with following up through December 31, 2010. Cox proportional hazard models with multivariable adjustment were used for statistical analyses.During a median follow-up of 22 years, there were 1,147 CHD events. In multivariable analyses total, animal and vegetable protein were not associated with an increased risk for CHD before or after adjustment. In food group analyses of major dietary protein sources, protein intake from red and processed meat, dairy products, fish, nuts, eggs, and legumes were not significantly associated with CHD risk. The hazard ratios [with 95% confidence intervals] for risk of CHD across quintiles of protein from poultry were 1.00 [ref], 0.83 [0.70-0.99], 0.93 [0.75-1.15], 0.88 [0.73-1.06], 0.79 [0.64-0.98], P for trend  = 0.16. Replacement analyses evaluating the association of substituting one source of dietary protein for another or of decreasing protein intake at the expense of carbohydrates or total fats did not show any statistically significant association with CHD risk.Based on a large community cohort we found no overall relationship between protein type and major dietary protein sources and risk for CHD.

  15. Is bilingualism associated with a lower risk of dementia in community-living older adults? Cross-sectional and prospective analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Caleb M; St John, Philip D; Menec, Verena; Tyas, Suzanne L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether bilingualism is associated with dementia in cross-sectional or prospective analyses of older adults. In 1991, 1616 community-living older adults were assessed and were followed 5 years later. Measures included age, sex, education, subjective memory loss (SML), and the modified Mini-mental State Examination (3MS). Dementia was determined by clinical examination in those who scored below the cut point on the 3MS. Language status was categorized based upon self-report into 3 groups: English as a first language (monolingual English, bilingual English) and English as a Second Language (ESL). The ESL category had lower education, lower 3MS scores, more SML, and were more likely to be diagnosed with cognitive impairment, no dementia at both time 1 and time 2 compared with those speaking English as a first language. There was no association between being bilingual (ESL and bilingual English vs. monolingual) and having dementia at time 1 in bivariate or multivariate analyses. In those who were cognitively intact at time 1, there was no association between being bilingual and having dementia at time 2 in bivariate or multivariate analyses. We did not find any association between speaking >1 language and dementia.

  16. The elimination half-life of benzodiazepines and fall risk: two prospective observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Oscar J; Peeters, Geeske; Elders, Petra; Sonnenberg, Caroline; Muller, Majon; Deeg, Dorly J H; Lips, Paul

    2013-11-01

    the STOPP criteria advise against the use of long-acting benzodiazepines (LBs). to study whether LBs are associated with a higher fall risk than short-acting benzodiazepines (SBs) (elimination half-life ≤ 10 h). we used base-line data and prospective fall follow-up from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam, a longitudinal cohort study including 1,509 community-dwelling older persons (Study 1) and from a separate fall prevention study with 564 older persons after a fall (Study 2). Time to the first fall after inclusion and number of falls in the first year after inclusion were the primary endpoints. both in Study 1 and Study 2 the use of SBs was associated with time to the first fall, hazard ratio (HR) 1.62 (95% CI: 1.03-2.56) and HR 1.64 (95% CI: 1.19-2.26),respectively. LBs were not significantly associated with time to first fall, HR 1.40 (0.85-2.31) and HR 1.08 (0.72-1.62). In both studies, the use of SBs was also associated with number of falls, odds ratio (OR) 1.28 (95% CI: 1.01-1.61) and OR 1.37 (95% CI: 1.10-1.70). LBs were not significantly associated with number of falls, OR 1.23 (0.96-1.57) and 1.10 (0.82-1.48). the use of SBs is not associated with a lower fall risk compared with LBs. The use of both SBs and LBs by old persons should be strongly discouraged.

  17. Functional neuroimaging studies of prospective memory: what have we learnt so far?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Paul W; Gonen-Yaacovi, Gil; Volle, Emmanuelle

    2011-07-01

    The complexity of the behaviour described by the term "prospective memory" meant that it was not at all clear, when the earliest studies were conducted, that this would prove a fruitful area for neuroimaging study. However, a consistent relation rapidly emerged between activation in rostral prefrontal cortex (approximating Brodmann Area 10) and performance of prospective memory paradigms. This consistency has greatly increased the accumulation of findings, since each study has offered perspectives on the previous ones. Considerable help too has come from broad agreement between functional neuroimaging findings and those from other methods (e.g. human lesion studies, electrophysiology). The result has been a quite startling degree of advance given the relatively few studies that have been conducted. These findings are summarised, along with those from other brain regions, and new directions suggested. Key points are that there is a medial-lateral dissociation within rostral PFC. Some (but not all) regions of medial rostral PFC are typically more active during performance of the ongoing task only, and lateral aspects are relatively more active during conditions involving delayed intentions. Some of these rostral PFC activations seem remarkably insensitive to the form of stimulus material presented, the nature of the ongoing task, the specifics of the intention, how easy or hard the PM cue is to detect, or the intended action is to recall. However there are other regions within rostral PFC where haemodynamic changes vary with alterations in these, and other, aspects of prospective memory paradigms. It is concluded that rostral PFC most likely plays a super-ordinate role during many stages of creating, maintaining and enacting delayed intentions, which in some cases may be linked to recent evidence showing that this brain region is involved in the control of stimulus-oriented vs. stimulus-independent attending. Other key brain regions activated during prospective

  18. Are Prospective Elementary School Teachers' Social Studies Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Related to Their Learning Approaches in a Social Studies Teaching Methods Course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dündar, Sahin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to contribute to the growing literature on learning approaches and teacher self-efficacy beliefs by examining associations between prospective elementary school teachers' learning approaches in a social studies teaching methods course and their social studies teaching efficacy beliefs. One hundred ninety-two prospective elementary…

  19. Ultrasonic root-end preparation in apical surgery : a prospective randomized study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, Jan; Putters, Thomas; Baas, Erik M.; van Ingen, Johan M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential benefit of an ultrasonic device in apical surgery on the outcome of treatment. Study design. A randomized prospective design was used in a standardized treatment protocol. Patients were allocated to treatment with an ultrasonic

  20. Development in Children with Achondroplasia: A Prospective Clinical Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Penelope J.; Donaghey, Samantha; McGill, James; Zankl, Andreas; Ware, Robert S.; Pacey, Verity; Ault, Jenny; Savarirayan, Ravi; Sillence, David; Thompson, Elizabeth; Townshend, Sharron; Johnston, Leanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Achondroplasia is characterized by delays in the development of communication and motor skills. While previously reported developmental profiles exist across gross motor, fine motor, feeding, and communication skills, there has been no prospective study of development across multiple areas simultaneously. Method: This Australasian…

  1. Frailty and incident depression in community-dwelling older people: results from the ELSA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese, Nicola; Solmi, Marco; Maggi, Stefania; Noale, Marianna; Sergi, Giuseppe; Manzato, Enzo; Prina, A Matthew; Fornaro, Michele; Carvalho, André F; Stubbs, Brendon

    2017-12-01

    Frailty and pre-frailty are two common conditions in the older people, but whether these conditions could predict depression is still limited to a few longitudinal studies. In this paper, we aimed to investigate whether frailty and pre-frailty are associated with an increased risk of depression in a prospective cohort of community-dwelling older people. Four thousand seventy-seven community-dwelling men and women over 60 years without depression at baseline were included from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Frailty status was defined according to modified Fried's criteria (weakness, weight loss, slow gait speed, low physical activity and exhaustion) and categorized as frailty (≥3 criteria), pre-frailty (1-2 criteria) or robustness (0 criterion). Depression was diagnosed as ≥4 out of 8 points of Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, after 2 years of follow-up. Over a 2-year follow-up, 360 individuals developed depression. In a logistic regression analysis, adjusted for 18 potential baseline confounders, pre-frailty (odds ratio (OR) = 0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.54-1.46; p = 0.64) and frailty (OR = 1.22; 95% CI, 0.90-1.64; p = 0.21) did not predict the onset of depression at follow-up. Among the criteria included in the frailty definition, only slow gait speed (OR = 1.82; 95% CI, 1.00-3.32; p = 0.05) appeared to predict a higher risk of depression. Among older community dwellers, frailty and pre-frailty did not predict the onset of depression during 2 years of follow-up, when accounting for potential confounders, whilst slow gait speed considered alone may predict depression in the older people. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Blood pressure and kidney cancer risk: meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Khemayanto; Du, Xuan; Zou, Sheng-Yi; Shi, Bi-Min

    2017-07-01

    Globally, kidney cancer is the twelfth most common cancer, accounting for 337 860 cases recorded in 2012. By 2020, this number has been estimated to reach 412 929 or increase by 22%. Over the past few decades, a number of prospective studies have investigated the association between blood pressure (BP) and risk of kidney cancer, using either recorded BP levels or reported hypertension as the principal exposure variable. However, the relation of BP to kidney cancer remains incompletely understood, and the data on sex-specific differences in risk estimates have been inconsistent. PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched for studies assessing the association between BP and kidney cancer through July 2016. The summary relative risk with 95% confidence intervals was calculated using a random-effects model. A total of 18 prospective studies with 8097 kidney cancer cases from 3 628 479 participants were included in our meta-analysis. History of hypertension was associated with 67% increased risk of kidney cancer. Significant heterogeneity and evidence of publication bias were observed. However, the results remain unchanged after introducing the trim and fill method to correct the publication bias. Accordingly, each 10-mmHg increase in SBP and DBP was associated with 10 and 22% increased risk of kidney cancer. Collectively, the present meta-analysis of 18 prospective studies provides further support for a positive association between hypertension and kidney cancer risk.

  3. Reasons for Schizophrenia Patients Remaining out of Treatment: Results from a Prospective Study in a Rural South Indian Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Channaveerachari Naveen; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Suresha, Kudumallige Krishnappa; Venkatesh, Basappa K; Kishorekumar, Kengeri V; Arunachala, Udupi; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2016-01-01

    A few studies have examined the factors associated with schizophrenia patients remaining untreated in India. We identified 184 schizophrenia patients in a rural community, offered the treatment with antipsychotics and followed them up in their Primary Health Centers for 1-year. Twenty-nine (15.8%) patients remained untreated at both the baseline and 1-year follow-up despite our best attempts to keep them under the treatment umbrella. They were interviewed in detail regarding the reasons for remaining untreated. This group was compared with another group of patients (n = 69) who had stopped the treatment at baseline but were successfully brought under the treatment umbrella throughout the 1-year follow-up period. The reasons for remaining untreated were (n; %): (a) Unsatisfactory improvement with previous treatment attempts (19; 65.5%), (b) poor bond between the patients and the families (6; 20.7%), (c) active symptoms not allowing any treatment efforts from the family members (6; 20.7%), (d) magico-religious beliefs about the illness and its treatment (4; 13.8%), (e) poor social support (3; 10.3%), (f) adverse effects of the medications (2; 6.9%), and (g) perception of recovery and cure (1; 3.4%). For many patients, a constellation of these reasons was responsible for them remaining untreated. In contrast, the common reasons for those who restarted medications to have stopped the treatment at some time were the lack of awareness, the need to continue medications (47; 68.1%), and the financial constraints (28; 40.6%). The predominant reason for schizophrenia patients not remaining on the treatment in this rural community was the families' lack of faith in antipsychotic treatment. Provision of comprehensive treatment package including medical, psychosocial and rehabilitative services, and sensitizing the community about benefits of the treatment may help in ensuring that all patients with psychosis receive the best care.

  4. Feasibility of pulse oximetry for assessment of infants born in community based midwifery care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.; Ganzeboom, A.; Dawson, J.A.; Walther, F.J.; Bustraan, J.; van Roosmalen, Jos; te Pas, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using pulse oximetry (PO) for evaluating infants born in community-based midwifery care. Design: a prospective, observational study of infants born after midwifery supervised (home) births. Setting: 27 midwives from seven practices providing primary care in (home)

  5. The Sydney Triage to Admission Risk Tool (START): A prospective validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebker-White, Anja A; Bein, Kendall J; Dinh, Michael M

    2018-02-08

    The present study aims to prospectively validate the Sydney Triage to Admission Risk Tool (START) to predict ED disposition. This was a prospective validation study at two metropolitan EDs in Sydney, Australia. Consecutive triage encounters were observed by a trained researcher and START scores calculated. The primary outcome was patient disposition (discharge or inpatient admission) from the ED. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate area under curve of receiver operator characteristic (AUC ROC) for START scores as well as START score in combination with other variables such as frailty, general practitioner referral, overcrowding and major medical comorbidities. There were 894 patients analysed during the study period. The START score when applied to the data had AUC ROC of 0.80 (95% CI 0.77-0.83). The inclusion of other clinical variables identified at triage did not improve the overall performance of the model with an AUC ROC of 0.81 (95% CI 0.78-0.84) in the present study. The overall performance of the START tool with respect to model discrimination and accuracy has been prospectively validated. Further clinical trials are required to test the clinical effectiveness of the tool in improving patient flow and overall ED performance. © 2018 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  6. Family, peer, and neighborhood influences on academic achievement among African-American adolescents: one-year prospective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, N A; Cauce, A M; Friedman, R J; Mason, C A

    1996-06-01

    Using a 1-year prospective design, this study examined the influence of family status variables (family income, parental education, family structure), parenting variables (maternal support and restrictive control), peer support, and neighborhood risk on the school performance of 120 African American junior high school students. In addition to main effects of these variables, neighborhood risk was examined as a moderator of the effects of parenting and peer support. Family status variables were not predictive of adolescent school performance as indexed by self-reported grade point average. Maternal support at Time 1 was prospectively related to adolescent grades at Time 2. Neighborhood risk was related to lower grades, while peer support predicted better grades in the prospective analyses. Neighborhood risk also moderated the effects of maternal restrictive control and peer support on adolescent grades in prospective analyses. These findings highlight the importance of an ecological approach to the problem of academic underachievement within the African American Community.

  7. Prospects for inherently safe reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkenbus, J.N.

    1988-01-01

    Public fears over nuclear safety have led some within the nuclear community to investigate the possibility of producing inherently safe nuclear reactors; that is, reactors that are transparently incapable of producing a core melt. While several promising designs of such reactors have been produced, support for large-scale research and development efforts has not been forthcoming. The prospects for commercialization of inherently safe reactors, therefore, are problematic; possible events such as further nuclear reactor accidents and superpower summits, could alter the present situation significantly. (author)

  8. Influenza-like syndrome in homosexual men: a prospective diagnostic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wolf, F.; Lange, J. M.; Bakker, M.; Tjong-A-Hung, S.; Hooykaas, C.; Coutinho, R.; van der Noordaa, J.; Goudsmit, J.

    1988-01-01

    In the course of a prospective study of the prevalence and incidence of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and risk factors for the acquired immune deficiency syndrome among 961 homosexual men, 97 initially HIV antibody seronegative men reported a febrile period lasting at least

  9. The prospective association between sleep deprivation and depression among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Robert E; Duong, Hao T

    2014-02-01

    To examine the prospective, reciprocal association between sleep deprivation and depression among adolescents. A community-based two-wave cohort study. A metropolitan area with a population of over 4 million. 4,175 youths 11-17 at baseline, and 3,134 of these followed up a year later. Depression is measured using both symptoms of depression and DSM-IV major depression. Sleep deprivation is defined as ≤ 6 h of sleep per night. Sleep deprivation at baseline predicted both measures of depression at follow-up, controlling for depression at baseline. Examining the reciprocal association, major depression at baseline, but not symptoms predicted sleep deprivation at follow-up. These results are the first to document reciprocal effects for major depression and sleep deprivation among adolescents using prospective data. The data suggest reduced quantity of sleep increases risk for major depression, which in turn increases risk for decreased sleep.

  10. Television Viewing, Walking Speed, and Grip Strength in a Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    KEEVIL, VICTORIA L.; WIJNDAELE, KATRIEN; LUBEN, ROBERT; SAYER, AVAN A.; WAREHAM, NICHOLAS J.; KHAW, KAY-TEE

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose Television (TV) watching is the most prevalent sedentary leisure time activity in the United Kingdom. We examined associations between TV viewing time, measured over 10 yr, and two objective measures of physical capability, usual walking speed (UWS) and grip strength. Methods Community-based participants (n = 8623; 48–92 yr old) enrolled in the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer—Norfolk study attended a third health examination (3HC, 2006–2011) for measurement of maximum grip strength (Smedley dynamometer) and UWS. TV viewing time was estimated using a validated questionnaire (n = 6086) administered during two periods (3HC, 2006–2007; 2HC, 1998–2000). Associations between physical capability and TV viewing time category (<2, 2 < 3, 3 < 4, and ≥4 h·d−1) at the 3HC, 2HC, and using an average of the two measures were explored. Sex-stratified analyses were adjusted for age, physical activity, anthropometry, wealth, comorbidity, smoking, and alcohol intake and combined if no sex–TV viewing time interactions were identified. Results Men and women who watched the least TV at the 2HC or 3HC walked at a faster usual pace than those who watched the most TV. There was no evidence of effect modification by sex (Pinteraction = 0.09), and in combined analyses, participants who watched for <2 h·d−1 on average walked 4.29 cm·s−1 (95% confidence interval, 2.56–6.03) faster than those who watched for ≥4 h·d−1, with evidence of a dose–response association (Ptrend < 0.001). However, no strong associations with grip strength were found. Conclusions TV viewing time predicted UWS in older adults. More research is needed to inform public health policy and prospective associations between other measures of sedentariness, such as total sitting time or objectively measured sedentary time, and physical capability should be explored. PMID:25785826

  11. General life satisfaction predicts dementia in community living older adults: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitsch, Lorraine; Tyas, Suzanne L; Menec, Verena H; St John, Philip D

    2016-07-01

    Low life satisfaction predicts adverse outcomes, and may predict dementia. The objectives were: (1) to determine if life satisfaction predicts dementia over a five year period in those with normal cognition at baseline; and (2) to determine if different aspects of life satisfaction differentially predict dementia. Secondary analysis of an existing population-based cohort study with initial assessment in 1991 and follow-up five years later. Initially, 1,751 adults age 65+ living in the community were sampled from a representative sampling frame. Of these, 1,024 were alive and had complete data at time 2, of whom 96 were diagnosed with dementia. Life satisfaction was measured using the Terrible-Delightful scale, which measures overall life satisfaction on a 7-point scale, as well as various aspects of life satisfaction (e.g. friendships, finances, etc.) Dementia was diagnosed by clinical examination using DSM-IIIR criteria. Logistic regression models were constructed for the outcome of dementia at time 2, and adjusted for age, gender, education, and comorbidities. Overall life satisfaction predicted dementia five years later, at time 2. The unadjusted Odds Ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval) for dementia at time 2 was 0.72 (0.55, 0.95) per point. The adjusted OR for dementia was 0.70 (0.51, 0.96). No individual item on the life satisfaction scale predicted dementia. However, the competing risk of mortality was very high for some items. A global single-item measure of life satisfaction predicts dementia over a five year period in older adults without cognitive impairment.

  12. Ecotourism and community development: a case study of Olumirin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecotourism and community development: a case study of Olumirin Waterfall, ... of ecotourism to the community development of the host community and her environs. ... Tourist survey, staff survey, local business sector survey and community ...

  13. Lower urinary tract symptoms and falls risk among older women receiving home support: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Kathleen F; Voaklander, Donald; Hsu, Zoe Y; Moore, Katherine N

    2013-05-15

    Although lower urinary tract symptoms have been associated with falls, few studies have been undertaken to understand this relationship in vulnerable community dwelling older adults. The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship over time of falls risk and lower urinary tract symptoms among community based older women receiving home support services. A prospective cohort study which took place in an urban setting in western Canada. Participants were 100 older women receiving home care or residing in assisted living with home support services and were followed for six months. Demographic characteristics were collected at baseline, with the Timed Up and Go (TUG), International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (ICIQ-FLUTS), and self-report of falls collected at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize demographic data. Differences between the three visits were analyzed using the Friedman test with post hoc analysis and associations between variables by the Spearman Rank-Order Correlation Coefficient. One hundred women initially enrolled; 88 and 75 remained at three months and six months. Mean age = 84.3 years; 91% reported at least one urinary symptom at baseline and 35% reported falling in the six months prior to enrollment; 15.9% reported falling between the baseline and three months and 14.6% between three and six months. Mean TUG scores at each time point indicated falls risk (27.21, 29.18 and 27.76 seconds). Significant correlations between TUG and ICIQ-FLUTS (r = 0.33, p falls risk in this group of vulnerable community dwelling older women at baseline and three months has potential clinical relevance. Lack of correlation at six months may be due loss of less robust participants, illuminating the difficulty in following frailer groups over time. Further studies are needed to understand the contribution of urinary symptoms to falls risk, and clinicians should

  14. Self reported stressful life events and exacerbations in multiple sclerosis: prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Buljevac (Dragan); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); W. Reedeker; A.C.J.W. Janssens (Cécile); F.G.A. van der Meché (Frans); P.A. van Doorn (Pieter); R.Q. Hintzen (Rogier)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To study the relation between self reported stressful life events not related to multiple sclerosis and the occurrence of exacerbations in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. DESIGN: Longitudinal, prospective cohort study. SETTING: Outpatient clinic of

  15. Psychophysiology of prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothen, Nicolas; Meier, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory involves the self-initiated retrieval of an intention upon an appropriate retrieval cue. Cue identification can be considered as an orienting reaction and may thus trigger a psychophysiological response. Here we present two experiments in which skin conductance responses (SCRs) elicited by prospective memory cues were compared to SCRs elicited by aversive stimuli to test whether a single prospective memory cue triggers a similar SCR as an aversive stimulus. In Experiment 2 we also assessed whether cue specificity had a differential influence on prospective memory performance and on SCRs. We found that detecting a single prospective memory cue is as likely to elicit a SCR as an aversive stimulus. Missed prospective memory cues also elicited SCRs. On a behavioural level, specific intentions led to better prospective memory performance. However, on a psychophysiological level specificity had no influence. More generally, the results indicate reliable SCRs for prospective memory cues and point to psychophysiological measures as valuable approach, which offers a new way to study one-off prospective memory tasks. Moreover, the findings are consistent with a theory that posits multiple prospective memory retrieval stages.

  16. Job stress, absenteeism and coronary heart disease European cooperative study (the JACE study): Design of a multicentre prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.; Kornitzer, M.; Smet, P. de; Koyuncu, R.; Backer, G. de; Pelfrene, E.; Romon, M.; Boulenguez, C.; Ferrario, M.; Origgi, G.; Sans, S.; Perez, I.; Wilhelmsen, L.; Rosengren, A.; Isacsson, S.-O.; Östergren, P.-O.

    1999-01-01

    Background: The motives, objectives and design of a multicentre prospective study on job stress, absenteeism and coronary heart disease in Europe (the JACE study) is presented in this paper. Some specific gaps in the reviewed literature are explicitly tapped into by the JACE study. Its objectives

  17. Enhancing life prospects of socially vulnerable youth through sport participation: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Super, Sabina; Hermens, Niels; Verkooijen, Kirsten; Koelen, Maria

    2014-07-09

    Sport participation has been associated with improved life prospects such as academic performance and employability prospects. As such, promoting sport participation might be a way to increase life prospects, especially for socially vulnerable youth because they are less physically active than their peers. However, the evidence for the causal effect of sport participation on these outcomes is still limited and little is known about factors that play a role in this possible effect. The aim of this study is four-fold. First, the causal effect of sport participation on life prospects is studied and the underlying mechanisms of this relation are explored. Secondly, the life experiences of the youngsters in the sport context, that may contribute to skill development, are studied. Thirdly, social conditions for a positive effect are explored, as sport is likely to have a positive effect under specific conditions. Fourthly, this study aims to provide insights on the elements of successful partnerships between youth care organisations and local sport clubs. This protocol reports on a mixed method study. An intervention that aims to increase the sport participation of socially vulnerable youth, between 12-23 years old, is implemented in three regions of a Rotterdam youth care organisation. The youngsters in the two control regions receive care-as-usual. The main outcome variables, collected via questionnaires, are the life prospect, sense of coherence and self-regulation skills of the youngsters after 6 and 18 months of follow-up. The Motivational Climate Scale is administered to explore the social conditions for a positive effect and interviews are conducted with sport coaches to explore their role in skill development. Interviews with the youngsters are conducted to gain insight on the life experiences that may lead to skill development. The elements of successful partnerships are collected during interviews with youth care professionals, sport coaches and other

  18. Enhancing life prospects of socially vulnerable youth through sport participation: a mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Sport participation has been associated with improved life prospects such as academic performance and employability prospects. As such, promoting sport participation might be a way to increase life prospects, especially for socially vulnerable youth because they are less physically active than their peers. However, the evidence for the causal effect of sport participation on these outcomes is still limited and little is known about factors that play a role in this possible effect. The aim of this study is four-fold. First, the causal effect of sport participation on life prospects is studied and the underlying mechanisms of this relation are explored. Secondly, the life experiences of the youngsters in the sport context, that may contribute to skill development, are studied. Thirdly, social conditions for a positive effect are explored, as sport is likely to have a positive effect under specific conditions. Fourthly, this study aims to provide insights on the elements of successful partnerships between youth care organisations and local sport clubs. Methods and design This protocol reports on a mixed method study. An intervention that aims to increase the sport participation of socially vulnerable youth, between 12–23 years old, is implemented in three regions of a Rotterdam youth care organisation. The youngsters in the two control regions receive care-as-usual. The main outcome variables, collected via questionnaires, are the life prospect, sense of coherence and self-regulation skills of the youngsters after 6 and 18 months of follow-up. The Motivational Climate Scale is administered to explore the social conditions for a positive effect and interviews are conducted with sport coaches to explore their role in skill development. Interviews with the youngsters are conducted to gain insight on the life experiences that may lead to skill development. The elements of successful partnerships are collected during interviews with youth care professionals

  19. Continuation of cinacalcet immediately after renal transplantation: a prospective cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalten, J.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Hoitsma, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: cinacalcet is used for treating secondary hyperparathyroidism in dialysis patients, but it is currently unknown whether it can safely be continued immediately after renal transplantation. METHODS: we prospectively studied renal transplant recipients with secondary hyperparathyroidism who

  20. The Sports-Related Injuries and Illnesses in Paralympic Sport Study (SRIIPSS): a study protocol for a prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagher, Kristina; Jacobsson, Jenny; Timpka, Toomas; Dahlström, Örjan; Lexell, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Paralympic sport provides sporting opportunities for athletes with a disability, with the Paralympic Games as the main event. Participation in sport is, however, associated with a significant risk for sustaining injuries and illnesses. Our knowledge of sports-related injuries and illnesses in Paralympic sport is very limited and there are no large-scale epidemiological cohort studies. The purpose here is to present a protocol for a prospective longitudinal study: The Sports-Related Injuries and Illnesses in Paralympic Sport Study (SRIIPSS). An argument-based method for investigation of design problems was used to structure the study protocol. The primary requirement of the protocol is to allow prospective studies over time and include exposure to both training and competition. To reflect the complexity of Paralympic sport with athletes' pre-existing impairments, use of assistive equipment, pain and other and medical issues, it is required that the data collection system is specifically adapted to Paralympic sport. To allow the collection of data, at the same time as there is limited access to coaches and medical personnel, it is advantageous that data can be collected online directly from the athletes. Based on this a self-report athlete monitoring system will be developed, where the athletes can enter data weekly via their mobile phones or lap-tops. Data will be collected from around 100 Swedish Paralympic athletes for approximately 1 year, which will allow us to i) prospectively estimate the annual incidence of sports-related injuries and illnesses and ii) explore risk factors and mechanisms for sustaining sports-related injuries and illnesses based on athlete exposure and training loads. For effective implementation of injury and illness prevention measures, comprehensive epidemiological knowledge is required. This study will be the first prospective longitudinal self-report study of sports-related injuries and illnesses in Paralympic sport over a longer period

  1. Development of visual motion perception for prospective control: Brain and behavioural studies in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth B. Agyei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During infancy, smart perceptual mechanisms develop allowing infants to judge time-space motion dynamics more efficiently with age and locomotor experience. This emerging capacity may be vital to enable preparedness for upcoming events and to be able to navigate in a changing environment. Little is known about brain changes that support the development of prospective control and about processes, such as preterm birth, that may compromise it. As a function of perception of visual motion, this paper will describe behavioural and brain studies with young infants investigating the development of visual perception for prospective control. By means of the three visual motion paradigms of occlusion, looming, and optic flow, our research shows the importance of including behavioural data when studying the neural correlates of prospective control.

  2. Risk factors for back pain incidence in industry : a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Poppel, M N; Koes, B W; Devillé, W; Smid, T; Bouter, L M

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between physical and psychological risk factors on the one hand, and the occurrence of new episodes of back pain on the other hand. A prospective study was conducted with 12 months follow-up by means of self-administered questionnaires. The

  3. Risk factors for back pain incidence in industry: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Poppel, M.N.M.; Koes, B.W.; Deville, W.L.J.M.; Smid, T.; Bouter, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between physical and psychological risk factors on the one hand, and the occurrence of new episodes of back pain on the other hand. A prospective study was conducted with 12 months follow-up by means of self-administered questionnaires. The

  4. Effects of adenotonsillectomy on plasma inflammatory biomarkers in obese children with obstructive sleep apnea: A community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirandish-Gozal, L; Gileles-Hillel, A; Alonso-Álvarez, M L; Peris, E; Bhattacharjee, R; Terán-Santos, J; Duran-Cantolla, J; Gozal, D

    2015-07-01

    Obesity and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) are highly prevalent and frequently overlapping conditions in children that lead to systemic inflammation, the latter being implicated in the various end-organ morbidities associated with these conditions. To examine the effects of adenotonsillectomy (T&A) on plasma levels of inflammatory markers in obese children with polysomnographically diagnosed OSA who were prospectively recruited from the community. Obese children prospectively diagnosed with OSA, underwent T&A and a second overnight polysomnogram (PSG) after surgery. Plasma fasting morning samples obtained after each of the two PSGs were assayed for multiple inflammatory and metabolic markers including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-18, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), adiponectin, apelin C, leptin and osteocrin. Out of 122 potential candidates, 100 obese children with OSA completed the study with only one-third exhibiting normalization of their PSG after T&A (that is, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≤1/hour total sleep time). However, overall significant decreases in MCP-1, PAI-1, MMP-9, IL-18 and IL-6, and increases in adropin and osteocrin plasma concentrations occurred after T&A. Several of the T&A-responsive biomarkers exhibited excellent sensitivity and moderate specificity to predict residual OSA (that is, AHI⩾5/hTST). A defined subset of systemic inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers is reversibly altered in the context of OSA among community-based obese children, further reinforcing the concept on the interactive pro-inflammatory effects of sleep disorders such as OSA and obesity contributing to downstream end-organ morbidities.

  5. Autogenic Training as a behavioural approach to insomnia: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Ann; Lorenc, Ava; Robinson, Nicola

    2012-04-01

    Insomnia is commonly associated with chronic health problems. Behavioural and cognitive factors often perpetuate a vicious cycle of anxiety and sleep disturbance, leading to long-term insomnia. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence currently recommends behavioural approaches before prescribing hypnotics. Behavioural approaches aim to treat underlying causes, but are not widely available. Research usually includes patients diagnosed with insomnia rather than secondary, co-morbid sleep- related problems. To examine the effectiveness of autogenic training (AT) as a non-drug approach to sleep-related problems associated with chronic ill health. Prospective pre- and post-treatment cohort study. AT centre, Royal London Hospital for Integrated Medicine, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust. All patients referred for AT from April 2007 to April 2008 were invited to participate. Participants received standard 8-week training, with no specific focus on sleep. Sleep questionnaires were administered at four time points, 'Measure Your Medical Outcome Profile' (MYMOP) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, before and after treatment. Results before and after treatment were compared. Camden and Islington Community Local Research and Ethics Committee approved the study. The AT course was completed by 153 participants, of whom 73% were identified as having a sleep-related problem. Improvements in sleep patterns included: sleep onset latency (P = 0.049), falling asleep quicker after night waking (P training. AT may provide an approach to insomnia that could be incorporated into primary care.

  6. Prospective Elementary School Teachers’ Views about Socioscientific Issues: A Concurrent Parallel Design Study

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammet ÖZDEN

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the prospective elementary school teachers’ perceptions on socioscientific issues. The research was conducted on prospective elementary school teachers studying at a university located in western Turkey. The researcher first taught the subjects of global warming and nuclear power plants from a perspective of socioscientific issues in the science and technology education course and then conducted the research. Concurrent parallel design, one of the mi...

  7. The South African Surgical Outcomes Study: A 7-day prospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate the perioperative mortality and need for critical care admission in patients undergoing inpatient non-cardiac surgery in SA. Methods. A 7-day national, multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study of all patients ≥16 years of age undergoing inpatient noncardiac surgery between 19 and 26 May 2014 at ...

  8. Uranium prospecting; La prospection de l'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roubault, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    This report is an instruction book for uranium prospecting. It appeals to private prospecting. As prospecting is now a scientific and technical research, it cannot be done without preliminary studies. First of all, general prospecting methods are given with a recall of fundamental geologic data and some general principles which are common with all type of prospecting. The peculiarities of uranium prospecting are also presented and in particular the radioactivity property of uranium as well as the special aspect of uranium ores and the aspect of neighbouring ores. In a third part, a description of the different uranium ores is given and separated in two different categories: primary and secondary ores, according to the place of transformation, deep or near the crust surface respectively. In the first category, the primary ores include pitchblende, thorianite and rare uranium oxides as euxenite and fergusonite for example. In the second category, the secondary ores contain autunite and chalcolite for example. An exhaustive presentation of the geiger-Mueller counter is given with the presentation of its different components, its functioning and utilization and its maintenance. The radioactivity interpretation method is showed as well as the elaboration of a topographic map of the measured radioactivity. A brief presentation of other detection methods than geiger-Mueller counters is given: the measurement of fluorescence and a chemical test using the fluorescence properties of uranium salts. Finally, the main characteristics of uranium deposits are discussed. (M.P.)

  9. Reconcilable differences? Human diversity, cultural relativity, and sense of community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Greg; Kloos, Bret; Green, Eric P; Franco, Margarita M

    2011-03-01

    Sense of community (SOC) is one of the most widely used and studied constructs in community psychology. As proposed by Sarason in (The Psychological sense of community: prospects for a community psychology, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 1974), SOC represents the strength of bonding among community members. It is a valuable component of community life, and it has been linked to positive mental health outcomes, citizen participation, and community connectedness. However, promotion of SOC can become problematic in community psychology praxis when it conflicts with other core values proposed to define the field, namely values of human diversity, cultural relativity, and heterogeneity of experience and perspective. Several commentators have noted that promotion of SOC can conflict with multicultural diversity because it tends to emphasize group member similarity and appears to be higher in homogeneous communities. In this paper, we introduce the idea of a community-diversity dialectic as part of praxis and research in community psychology. We argue that systematic consideration of cultural psychology perspectives can guide efforts to address a community-diversity dialectic and revise SOC formulations that ultimately will invigorate community research and action. We provide a working agenda for addressing this dialectic, proposing that systematic consideration of the creative tension between SOC and diversity can be beneficial to community psychology.

  10. Age effects in emotional prospective memory: cue valence differentially affects the prospective and retrospective component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzspahn, Katharina M; Horn, Sebastian S; Bayen, Ute J; Kliegel, Matthias

    2012-06-01

    While first studies suggested that emotional task material may enhance prospective memory performance in young and older adults, the extent and mechanisms of this effect are under debate. The authors explored possible differential effects of cue valence on the prospective and retrospective component of prospective memory in young and older adults. Forty-five young and 41 older adults performed a prospective memory task in which emotional valence of the prospective memory cue was manipulated (positive, negative, neutral). The multinomial model of event-based prospective memory was used to analyze effects of valence and age on the two prospective memory components separately. Results revealed an interaction indicating that age differences were smaller in both emotional valence conditions. For older adults positive cues improved the prospective component, while negative cues improved the retrospective component. No main effect of valence was found for younger adults on an overt accuracy measure, but model-based analyses showed that the retrospective component was enhanced in the positive compared with the negative cue condition. The study extends the literature in demonstrating that processes underlying emotional effects on prospective memory may differ depending on valence and age. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  11. Value of intensive diagnostic microbiological investigation in low- and high-risk patients with community-acquired pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Eerden, M. M.; Vlaspolder, F.; de Graaff, C. S.; Groot, T.; Jansen, H. M.; Boersma, W. G.

    2005-01-01

    In a prospective study to evaluate the diagnostic yield of different microbiological tests in hospitalised patients with community-acquired pneumonia, material for microbiological investigation was obtained from 262 patients. Clinical samples consisted of the following: sputum for Gram staining,

  12. Effects of aversive stimuli on prospective memory. An event-related fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Rea

    Full Text Available Prospective memory (PM describes the ability to execute a previously planned action at the appropriate point in time. Although behavioral studies clearly showed that prospective memory performance is affected by the emotional significance attributed to the intended action, no study so far investigated the brain mechanisms subserving the modulatory effect of emotional salience on PM performance. The general aim of the present study was to explore brain regions involved in prospective memory processes when PM cues are associated with emotional stimuli. In particular, based on the hypothesised critical role of the prefrontal cortex in prospective memory in the presence of emotionally salient stimuli, we expected a stronger involvement of aPFC when the retrieval and execution of the intended action is cued by an aversive stimulus. To this aim BOLD responses of PM trials cued by aversive facial expressions were compared to PM trials cued by neutral facial expressions. Whole brain analysis showed that PM task cued by aversive stimuli is differentially associated with activity in the right lateral prefrontal area (BA 10 and in the left caudate nucleus. Moreover a temporal shift between the response of the caudate nucleus that preceded that of aPFC was observed. These findings suggest that the caudate nucleus might provide an early analysis of the affective properties of the stimuli, whereas the anterior lateral prefrontal cortex (BA10 would be involved in a slower and more deliberative analysis to guide goal-directed behaviour.

  13. Alcohol consumption and risk of microvascular complications in type 1 diabetes patients; the EURODIAB Prospective Complications study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Kruidhof, J.S.; Grobbee, D.E.; Chaturvedi, N.; Fuller, J.H.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between alcohol consumption and risk of microvascular complications (retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy) in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients in the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study. METHODS: The EURODIAB Prospective

  14. Systematic Review of Community-Based Childhood Obesity Prevention Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Jodi; Wu, Yang; Wilson, Renee; Wang, Youfa

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study systematically reviewed community-based childhood obesity prevention programs in the United States and high-income countries. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, PsychInfo, CINAHL, clinicaltrials.gov, and the Cochrane Library for relevant English-language studies. Studies were eligible if the intervention was primarily implemented in the community setting; had at least 1 year of follow-up after baseline; and compared results from an intervention to a comparison group. Two independent reviewers conducted title scans and abstract reviews and reviewed the full articles to assess eligibility. Each article received a double review for data abstraction. The second reviewer confirmed the first reviewer’s data abstraction for completeness and accuracy. RESULTS: Nine community-based studies were included; 5 randomized controlled trials and 4 non–randomized controlled trials. One study was conducted only in the community setting, 3 were conducted in the community and school setting, and 5 were conducted in the community setting in combination with at least 1 other setting such as the home. Desirable changes in BMI or BMI z-score were found in 4 of the 9 studies. Two studies reported significant improvements in behavioral outcomes (1 in physical activity and 1 in vegetable intake). CONCLUSIONS: The strength of evidence is moderate that a combined diet and physical activity intervention conducted in the community with a school component is more effective at preventing obesity or overweight. More research and consistent methods are needed to understand the comparative effectiveness of childhood obesity prevention programs in the community setting. PMID:23753099

  15. Endogenous-cue prospective memory involving incremental updating of working memory: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halahalli, Harsha N; John, John P; Lukose, Ammu; Jain, Sanjeev; Kutty, Bindu M

    2015-11-01

    Prospective memory paradigms are conventionally classified on the basis of event-, time-, or activity-based intention retrieval. In the vast majority of such paradigms, intention retrieval is provoked by some kind of external event. However, prospective memory retrieval cues that prompt intention retrieval in everyday life are commonly endogenous, i.e., linked to a specific imagined retrieval context. We describe herein a novel prospective memory paradigm wherein the endogenous cue is generated by incremental updating of working memory, and investigated the hemodynamic correlates of this task. Eighteen healthy adult volunteers underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while they performed a prospective memory task where the delayed intention was triggered by an endogenous cue generated by incremental updating of working memory. Working memory and ongoing task control conditions were also administered. The 'endogenous-cue prospective memory condition' with incremental working memory updating was associated with maximum activations in the right rostral prefrontal cortex, and additional activations in the brain regions that constitute the bilateral fronto-parietal network, central and dorsal salience networks as well as cerebellum. In the working memory control condition, maximal activations were noted in the left dorsal anterior insula. Activation of the bilateral dorsal anterior insula, a component of the central salience network, was found to be unique to this 'endogenous-cue prospective memory task' in comparison to previously reported exogenous- and endogenous-cue prospective memory tasks without incremental working memory updating. Thus, the findings of the present study highlight the important role played by the dorsal anterior insula in incremental working memory updating that is integral to our endogenous-cue prospective memory task.

  16. Congenital Critical Heart Defect Screening in a Health Area of the Community of Valencia (Spain: A Prospective Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cubells

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the progress in the fetal echocardiographic detection of congenital critical heart defects and neonatal physical examination, a significant number of newborn infants are discharged and readmitted to the hospital in severe condition due to cardiac failure or collapse. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of undetected critical congenital heart disease (CCHD by a pulse oximetry-screening program in the maternity wards of hospitals with Perinatal Services in a specific geographic area. This is a prospective observational study performed in in the health area corresponding to the city of Valencia. Eligible infants were consecutively admitted newborn infants in the maternities of the participating hospitals with negative fetal echocardiography after normal physical examination in the delivery room. All patients were screened following a specific pulse oximetry protocol before discharge. A total of 8856 newborn infants were screened. A total of three babies presented with severe congenital cardiac malformation and two babies presented with early onset sepsis. Sensitivity was 100% and specificity was 99.97%, with a positive predictive value of 60% and negative predictive value of 100%. Pulse oximetry screening programs in the early neonatal period constitute a valuable tool to avoid inadvertent hospital discharge of severe cardiac malformations and the subsequent life-threatening complications derived.

  17. Severity assessment criteria recommended by the British Thoracic Society (BTS) for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and older patients. Should SOAR (systolic blood pressure, oxygenation, age and respiratory rate) criteria be used in older people? A compilation study of two prospective cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Phyo K; Kamath, Ajay V; Vowler, Sarah L; Maisey, David N; Harrison, Brian D W

    2006-05-01

    To assess the usefulness of the British Thoracic Society guidelines for severity assessment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in predicting mortality and to explore alternative criteria which could be more useful in older patients. Compilation study of two prospective observational cohorts. A University hospital in Norfolk, UK with a catchment population of 568,000. Subjects were 195 patients (median age = 77 years) who were included in two prospective studies of CAP. All-cause mortality occurring within the 6 week follow-up. sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for study outcome using CURB and CURB-65 were assessed in 189 patients, and CRB-65 in 192 patients out of a total of 195 patients. Our results were comparable with the original study by Lim et al. Although CURB-65 and CRB-65 included age criteria, in effect they did not materially improve the specificity in predicting high-risk patients in both studies. We found that oxygenation measured by ventilation perfusion mismatch (PaO2:FiO2) was the best predictor of outcome in this slightly older cohort [odds ratio (OR) = 0.99 (0.98-0.99), P = 0.0001]. We derived a new set of criteria; SOAR (systolic blood pressure, oxygenation, age and respiratory rate) based on our findings. Their sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 81.0% (58.1-94.6), 59.3% (49.6-68.4), 27.0% (16.6-39.7) and 94.4% (86.2-98.4), respectively, confirming their comparability with existing criteria. Our Study confirms the usefulness of currently recommended severity rules for CAP in this older cohort. SOAR criteria may be useful as alternative criteria for a better identification of severe CAP in advanced age where both raised urea level above 7 mmol/l and confusion are common.

  18. Effects of Cesarean Delivery on Breastfeeding Practices and Duration: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Yan, Yan; Gao, Xiao; Xiang, Shiting; He, Qiong; Zeng, Guangyu; Liu, Shiping; Sha, Tingting; Li, Ling

    2018-01-01

    Mothers are encouraged to exclusively breastfeed for the first 6 months. However, cesarean delivery rates have increased worldwide, which may affect breastfeeding. Research aim: This study aimed to determine the potential effects of cesarean delivery on breastfeeding practices and breastfeeding duration. This was a 6-month cohort study extracted from a 24-month prospective cohort study of mother-infant pairs in three communities in Hunan, China. Data about participants' characteristics, delivery methods, breastfeeding initiation, use of formula in the hospital, exclusive breastfeeding, and any breastfeeding were collected at 1, 3, and 6 months following each infant's birth. The chi-square test, logistic regression model, and Cox proportional hazard regression model were used to examine the relationship between breastfeeding practices and cesarean delivery. The number of women who had a cesarean delivery was 387 (40.6%), and 567 (59.4%) women had a vaginal delivery. The exclusive breastfeeding rates at 1, 3, and 6 months were 80.2%, 67.4%, and 21.5%, respectively. Women who had a cesarean delivery showed a lower rate of exclusive breastfeeding and any breastfeeding than those who had a vaginal delivery ( p cesarean delivery was related with using formula in the hospital and delayed breastfeeding initiation. Cesarean delivery also shortened the breastfeeding duration (hazard ratio = 1.40, 95% confidence interval [1.06, 1.84]). Healthcare professionals should provide more breastfeeding skills to women who have a cesarean delivery and warn mothers about the dangers of elective cesarean section for breastfeeding practices.

  19. Gender Variance in Childhood and Sexual Orientation in Adulthood: A Prospective Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steensma, T.D.; van den Ende, J..; Verhulst, F.C.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Several retrospective and prospective studies have reported on the association between childhood gender variance and sexual orientation and gender discomfort in adulthood. In most of the retrospective studies, samples were drawn from the general population. The samples in the

  20. Students' Perception on the Prospect of Economics Education Study Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiriza, Mica Siar

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the extent to which perceptions of students on the prospect of the Economics Education Program. The method used in this research is descriptive method in which the required data is obtained through questionnaire and technique of analyzing data used is percentages. Questionnaires were distributed through the Student…

  1. Mixture effects of 30 environmental contaminants on incident metabolic syndrome-A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Lars; Salihovic, Samira; Lampa, Erik; Lind, P Monica

    2017-10-01

    Several cross-sectional studies have linked different environmental contaminants to the metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, mixture effects have not been investigated and no prospective studies exist regarding environmental contaminants and the MetS. To study mixture effects of contaminants on the risk of incident MetS in a prospective fashion. Our sample consisted of 452 subjects from the Prospective Study of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study (50% women, all aged 70years) free from the MetS at baseline, being followed for 10years. At baseline, 30 different environmental contaminants were measured; 6 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 3 organochlorine (OC) pesticides, one dioxin, one polybrominated diphenyl ether (all in plasma), 8 perfluoroalkyl substances (in plasma) and 11 metals (in whole blood). The MetS was defined by the ATPIII/NCEP criteria. Gradient boosted Classification and Regression Trees (CARTs) was used to evaluate potential synergistic and additive mixture effects on incident MetS. During 10-year follow-up, 92 incident cases of the MetS occurred. PCB126, PCB170, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and PCB118 levels were all associated with incident MetS in an additive fashion (OR 1.73 for a change from 10th to 90th percentile (95%CI 1.24-3.04) for PCB126, OR 0.63 (0.42-0.78) for PCB170, OR 1.44 (1.09-2.20) for HCB and OR 1.46 (1.13-2.43) for PCB118). No synergistic effects were found. A mixture of environmental contaminants, with PCB126, PCB170, HCB and PCB118 being the most important, showed associations with future development of the MetS in an additive fashion in this prospective study. Thus, mixture effects of environmental contaminants could contribute to the development of cardio-metabolic derangements. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. [Prospective study in 2 hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Buñuales, M T; Martínez-Sáenz, M S; González-Diego, P; Vallejo-García, M; Gallardo-Anciano, J; Cestafe-Martínez, A

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to know the incidence rate of medication reconciliation at admission and discharge in patients of La Rioja and to improve the patient safety on medication reconciliation. An observational prospective study, part of the Joint Action PaSQ, Work Package 5, European Union Network for Patient Safety and Quality of Care. The study has taken into account the definitions of the Institute for Safe Medication Practices. Any unintended discrepancy in medication between chronic treatment and the treatment prescribed in the hospital was considered as a reconciliation error. A total of 750 patients were included, 9 (1.2%) of whom showed at least one discrepancy. The patients had a total of 3,156 mediations registered: 2,313 prescriptions (73.4%) showed no differences, while 821 prescriptions (26%) were intended discrepancies and 21 prescriptions (0.6%) unintended discrepancies were considered by the physician as reconciliation errors. A percentage of 1.2 of the patients, which represents 0.6% of the medicines (one in 166 medications registered) had reconciliation errors during their hospital stay. A proceeding has been implemented by means of the physician doing the medication reconciliation and reviewing it with the help of a medication reconciliation form. The medication reconciliation is a priority strategic objective to improve the safety of patients. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. The Association between Sleep Problems, Sleep Medication Use, and Falls in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Results from the Health and Retirement Study 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background. Very few studies have assessed the impact of poor sleep and sleep medication use on the risk of falls among community-dwelling older adults. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between sleep problems, sleep medication use, and falls in community-dwelling older adults. Methods. The study population comprised a nationally representative sample of noninstitutionalized older adults participating in the 2010 Health and Retirement Study. Proportion of adults reporting sleep problems, sleep medication use, and fall was calculated. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to examine the impact of sleep problems and sleep medication use on the risk of falls after controlling for covariates. Results. Among 9,843 community-dwelling older adults, 35.8% had reported a fall and 40.8% had reported sleep problems in the past two years. Sleep medication use was reported by 20.9% of the participants. Older adults who do have sleep problems and take sleep medications had a significant high risk of falls, compared to older adults who do not have sleep problems and do not take sleep medications. The other two groups also had significantly greater risk for falls. Conclusion. Sleep problems added to sleep medication use increase the risk of falls. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these observed findings. PMID:27547452

  4. Chronic Stress is Prospectively Associated with Sleep in Midlife Women: The SWAN Sleep Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Martica H; Casement, Melynda D; Troxel, Wendy M; Matthews, Karen A; Bromberger, Joyce T; Kravitz, Howard M; Krafty, Robert T; Buysse, Daniel J

    2015-10-01

    Evaluate whether levels of upsetting life events measured over a 9-y period prospectively predict subjective and objective sleep outcomes in midlife women. Prospective cohort study. Four sites across the United States. 330 women (46-57 y of age) enrolled in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Sleep Study. N/A. Upsetting life events were assessed annually for up to 9 y. Trajectory analysis applied to life events data quantitatively identified three distinct chronic stress groups: low stress, moderate stress, and high stress. Sleep was assessed by self-report and in-home polysomnography (PSG) during the ninth year of the study. Multivariate analyses tested the prospective association between chronic stress group and sleep, adjusting for race, baseline sleep complaints, marital status, body mass index, symptoms of depression, and acute life events at the time of the Sleep Study. Women characterized by high chronic stress had lower subjective sleep quality, were more likely to report insomnia, and exhibited increased PSG-assessed wake after sleep onset (WASO) relative to women with low to moderate chronic stress profiles. The effect of chronic stress group on WASO persisted in the subsample of participants without baseline sleep complaints. Chronic stress is prospectively associated with sleep disturbance in midlife women, even after adjusting for acute stressors at the time of the sleep study and other factors known to disrupt sleep. These results are consistent with current models of stress that emphasize the cumulative effect of stressors on health over time. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  5. Using Video Analysis to Support Prospective K-8 Teachers' Noticing of Students' Multiple Mathematical Knowledge Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth McDuffie, Amy; Foote, Mary Q.; Bolson, Catherine; Turner, Erin E.; Aguirre, Julia M.; Bartell, Tonya Gau; Drake, Corey; Land, Tonia

    2014-01-01

    As part of a larger research project aimed at transforming preK-8 mathematics teacher preparation, the purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which prospective teachers notice children's competencies related to children's mathematical thinking, and children's community, cultural, and linguistic funds of knowledge or what…

  6. Predictive factors of postpartum fatigue: a prospective cohort study among working women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Beek, A.J. van der; Hendriksen, I.J.M.; Bruinvels, D.J.; Poppel, M.N. van

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate which prepartum determinants contribute to the development of postpartum (PP) fatigue among working women in the Netherlands. Methods A prospective cohort study in 15 Dutch companies was conducted to measure different potential predictors using

  7. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in community-acquired primary pyoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Rahul

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although prevalence of MRSA strains is reported to be increasing, there are no studies of their prevalence in community-acquired primary pyodermas in western India. Aims: This study aimed at determining the prevalence of MRSA infection in community-acquired primary pyodermas. Methods: Open, prospective survey carried out in a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai. Materials and Methods: Eighty-six patients with primary pyoderma, visiting the dermatology outpatient, were studied clinically and microbiologically. Sensitivity testing was done for vancomycin, sisomycin, gentamicin, framycetin, erythromycin, methicillin, cefazolin, cefuroxime, penicillin G and ciprofloxacin. Phage typing was done for MRSA positive strains. Results : The culture positivity rate was 83.7%. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in all cases except two. Barring one, all strains of Staphylococcus were sensitive to methicillin. Conclusions: Methicillin resistance is uncommon in community-acquired primary pyodermas in Mumbai. Treatment with antibacterials active against MRSA is probably unwarranted for community-acquired primary pyodermas.

  8. Thyroid function, reduced kidney function and incident chronic kidney disease in a community-based population: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheiss, Ulla T; Daya, Natalie; Grams, Morgan E; Seufert, Jochen; Steffes, Michael; Coresh, Josef; Selvin, Elizabeth; Köttgen, Anna

    2017-11-01

    Reduced kidney function is a common public health problem that increases risk for a wide variety of adverse outcomes, making the identification of potentially modifiable factors associated with the development of incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) important. Alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis have been linked to reduced kidney function, but the association of thyroid function with the development of incident CKD is largely uncharacterized. Concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) were quantified in 12 785 black and white participants of the ongoing community-based prospective Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. Thyroid markers and clinical categories of thyroid dysfunction (euthyroidism, combined subclinical and overt hypothyroidism, combined subclinical and overt hyperthyroidism) were also evaluated for their association with reduced kidney function (estimated glomerular filtration rate kidney function at study baseline. The clinical entities hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism were also associated with higher odds of baseline reduced kidney function, but this was not significant. However, none of the markers of thyroid function nor different clinical categories of thyroid dysfunction (hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism or TPOAb positivity) were associated with incident CKD in adjusted analyses. Elevated TSH, FT4 and reduced T3 concentrations were associated with reduced kidney function cross-sectionally. The lack of association with the development of incident CKD suggests that altered thyroid function in the general population is not causally related to CKD development, but screening for thyroidal status may be especially relevant in persons with reduced kidney function. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  9. Night Shift Work and Breast Cancer Incidence: Three Prospective Studies and Meta-analysis of Published Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Ruth C; Balkwill, Angela; Fensom, Georgina K; Appleby, Paul N; Reeves, Gillian K; Wang, Xiao-Si; Roddam, Andrew W; Gathani, Toral; Peto, Richard; Green, Jane; Key, Timothy J; Beral, Valerie

    2016-12-01

    It has been proposed that night shift work could increase breast cancer incidence. A 2007 World Health Organization review concluded, mainly from animal evidence, that shift work involving circadian disruption is probably carcinogenic to humans. We therefore aimed to generate prospective epidemiological evidence on night shift work and breast cancer incidence. Overall, 522 246 Million Women Study, 22 559 EPIC-Oxford, and 251 045 UK Biobank participants answered questions on shift work and were followed for incident cancer. Cox regression yielded multivariable-adjusted breast cancer incidence rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for night shift work vs no night shift work, and likelihood ratio tests for interaction were used to assess heterogeneity. Our meta-analyses combined these and relative risks from the seven previously published prospective studies (1.4 million women in total), using inverse-variance weighted averages of the study-specific log RRs. In the Million Women Study, EPIC-Oxford, and UK Biobank, respectively, 673, 28, and 67 women who reported night shift work developed breast cancer, and the RRs for any vs no night shift work were 1.00 (95% CI = 0.92 to 1.08), 1.07 (95% CI = 0.71 to 1.62), and 0.78 (95% CI = 0.61 to 1.00). In the Million Women Study, the RR for 20 or more years of night shift work was 1.00 (95% CI = 0.81 to 1.23), with no statistically significant heterogeneity by sleep patterns or breast cancer risk factors. Our meta-analysis of all 10 prospective studies included 4660 breast cancers in women reporting night shift work; compared with other women, the combined relative risks were 0.99 (95% CI = 0.95 to 1.03) for any night shift work, 1.01 (95% CI = 0.93 to 1.10) for 20 or more years of night shift work, and 1.00 (95% CI = 0.87 to 1.14) for 30 or more years. The totality of the prospective evidence shows that night shift work, including long-term shift work, has little or no effect on

  10. Gout in Older Adults: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Bridget Teevan; Köttgen, Anna; Law, Andrew; Grams, Morgan; Baer, Alan N.; Coresh, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is unclear whether traditional and genetic risk factors in middle age predict the onset of gout in older age. Methods: We studied the incidence of gout in older adults using the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, a prospective U.S. population–based cohort of middle-aged adults enrolled between 1987 and 1989 with ongoing follow-up. A genetic urate score was formed from common urate-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms for eight genes. The adjusted hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval of incident gout by traditional and genetic risk factors in middle age were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model. Results: The cumulative incidence from middle age to age 65 was 8.6% in men and 2.5% in women; by age 75 the cumulative incidence was 11.8% and 5.0%. In middle age, increased adiposity, beer intake, protein intake, smoking status, hypertension, diuretic use, and kidney function (but not sex) were associated with an increased gout risk in older age. In addition, a 100 µmol/L increase in genetic urate score was associated with a 3.29-fold (95% confidence interval: 1.63–6.63) increased gout risk in older age. Conclusions: These findings suggest that traditional and genetic risk factors in middle age may be useful for identifying those at risk of gout in older age. PMID:26714568

  11. Dairy Consumption and Risk of Frailty in Older Adults: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lana, Alberto; Rodriguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Lopez-Garcia, Esther

    2015-09-01

    To examine the association between consumption of dairy products and risk of frailty in community-dwelling older adults. Prospective cohort study. General population from the older cohort of the Study on Nutrition and Cardiovascular Risk in Spain. Community-dwelling adults aged 60 and older free of frailty at baseline (N = 1,871). From 2008 to 2010, food consumption was assessed using a validated diet history. Participants were examined again in 2012 to assess incident frailty, defined as at least three of the five Fried criteria (exhaustion, weakness, low physical activity, slow walking speed, unintentional weight loss). Adjusted odds ratios (OR) for the main confounders were obtained using logistic regression. During follow-up, 134 new cases of frailty were identified. Participants consuming seven or more servings per week of low-fat milk and yogurt had lower incidence of frailty (OR = 0.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.29-0.90; P for trend = .03) than those consuming less than one serving per week. Specifically, consumers of seven or more servings per week of low-fat milk and yogurt had less risk of slow walking speed (OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.44-0.92, P trend = .01) and of weight loss (OR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.33-0.87, P trend = .02). Consuming seven or more servings per week of whole milk or yogurt (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 0.90-2.60, P trend = .10) or of cheese (OR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.52-1.61; P trend = .61) was not associated with incident frailty. Higher consumption of low-fat milk and yogurt was associated with lower risk of frailty and, specifically, of slow walking speed and weight loss. Current recommendations to prevent frailty include protein supplementation; thus, although experimental research is needed, increasing the consumption of low-fat yogurt and milk might prevent frailty in older adults. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  12. Body-mass index and cause-specific mortality in 900 000 adults: collaborative analyses of 57 prospective studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NN, NN; Whitlock, Gary; Lewington, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The main associations of body-mass index (BMI) with overall and cause-specific mortality can best be assessed by long-term prospective follow-up of large numbers of people. The Prospective Studies Collaboration aimed to investigate these associations by sharing data from many studies....

  13. Boosting restraint norms: a community-delivered campaign to promote booster seat use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant-Stephens, Tyra; Garcia-Espana, J Felipe; Winston, Flaura K

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a theoretically grounded community-delivered marketing campaign to promote belt-positioning booster seat (BPB) use among vulnerable populations when disseminated by community members. A prospective, nonrandomized community intervention trial was conducted to evaluate the "Boosting Restraint Norms" social marketing campaign delivered by community partners in Norristown, Pennsylvania (intervention community), between October 2008 and November 2008. York, Pennsylvania, served as the comparison community. In total, 800 vehicles with 822 children aged 4 to 7 years were observed for BPB use, the primary outcome of interest, at baseline (September 2008) and at 6 months after intervention (April 2009). During the study period, a 28 percent increase in the prevalence of BPB use at 6 months was observed in the intervention community with no change in the prevalence of BPB use in the comparison community. After adjustment for child age and gender, vehicle type, driver gender, and driver level, BPB use increased from 39 to 50 percent in the intervention community. The "Boosting Restraint Norms" social marketing campaign, distributed through community organizations combined with caregiver education and a one-time free distribution of BPBs, was effective in increasing BPB use. This study demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing community organizations with established audiences to spread the "No Regrets" messaging of the campaign in the community. This study also indicates that spreading evidence-based messages in this manner may effectively change behavior in populations that are often hard to reach. Future studies are needed in which this methodology is tested in additional communities and rural settings.

  14. A prospective study of hormonal treatment and anxiety disorders in community-dwelling elderly women (the Esprit Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scali, Jacqueline; Ryan, Joanne; Carrière, Isabelle; Ritchie, Karen; Ancelin, Marie-Laure

    2009-05-01

    The impact of hormone therapy use on late-life anxiety disorder in elderly women has not been evaluated. Anxiety disorders were evaluated in 838 community-dwelling postmenopausal women aged 65 years and over, randomly recruited from electoral rolls. Anxiety disorders were assessed using a standardized psychiatric examination based on DSM-IV criteria, at baseline and as part of the 2- and 4-year follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for socio-demographic variables, measures of physical health and cognitive impairment, as well as current depressive symptomatology indicated no significant association between hormone therapy and anxiety disorders at baseline or after the 4-year follow-up period, regardless of type of treatment. Compared to women who have never taken hormonal therapy, no significant difference was observed for women taking continuously hormone therapy over the follow-up or those who stopped their treatment. The use of hormone therapy was not associated with improved anxiety symptomatology in elderly postmenopausal women.

  15. A Study of Community Guides: Lessons for Professionals Practicing with and in Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Michael; Manuel, Susan; Mealey, Stephanie; Thomas, Golda; Campbell, Carolyn

    2004-01-01

    A study of 35 nonprofessional helpers, identified as community "guides," focused on the contribution each made to helping marginalized individuals and families become a part of their communities. The lessons learned through these lay helpers can inform a postmodern social work practice that promotes the use of indigenous practice principles…

  16. A long and winding road: federally qualified health centers, community variation and prospects under reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Aaron B; Felland, Laurie E; Hill, Ian; Stark, Lucy B

    2011-11-01

    Community health centers have evolved from fringe providers to mainstays of many local health care systems. Those designated as federally qualified health centers (FQHCs), in particular, have largely established themselves as key providers of comprehensive, efficient, high-quality primary care services to low-income people, especially Medicaid and uninsured patients. The Center for Studying Health System Change's (HSC's) site visits to 12 nationally representative metropolitan communities since 1996 document substantial growth in FQHC capacity, based on growing numbers of Medicaid enrollees and uninsured people, increased federal support, and improved managerial acumen. At the same time, FQHC development has varied considerably across communities because of several important factors, including local health system characteristics and financial and political support at federal, state and local levels. Some communities--Boston; Syracuse, N.Y.; Miami; and Seattle--have relatively extensive FQHC capacity for their Medicaid and uninsured populations, while other communities--Lansing, Mich.; northern New Jersey; Indianapolis; and Greenville, S.C.--fall in the middle. FQHC growth in Phoenix; Little Rock, Ark.; Cleveland; and Orange County, Calif.; has lagged in comparison. Today, FQHCs seem poised to play a key role in federal health care reform, including coverage expansions and the emphasis on primary care and medical homes.

  17. Cerebral angiography with prospective ECG triggering preliminary study of dual-source CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Yuejun; Qian Nong; Shao Yanhui; Pan Changjie; Rong Weiliang; Xu Yiqun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the image quality and radiation dose in dual-source CT cerebral angiography with prospective ECG-triggered sequence mode (step-and-shoot, SAS). Methods: A total of forty-three patients with clinically suspected cerebral vascular disease underwent cerebral CT angiography with prospective ECG-triggering (step-and-shoot, SAS). Data acquisition was at 60% R-R interval of the ECG presentation mode. The post-processing included maximum intensity projection (MIP), multiplanar reformation (MPR) and volume rendering (VR). The CTA image quality, radiation dose and rates of excellent images were evaluated. Results: The CTA image quality score was 4.72 ± 0.50 and 97.7% (42/43) patients had excellent CTA images. The average effective dose of SAS-CTA was (0.22 ± 0.01)mSv, which was lower by 76.31% than that of DE-CTA. Conclusions: Prospective ECG-triggering sequence could be used in cerebral angiography with a significant reduction in radiation dose and diagnostic image quality. (authors)

  18. Results of and prospects for studies on molten salt nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hery, M.; Lecocq, A.

    1983-04-01

    This paper reviews the various studies performed in France by the EDF and CEA teams in the field of molten salt nuclear reactors. These studies include graphite moderating systems, feasibility of a 625 MWth core, lead cooling, structural materials, salts tritium diffusion and corrosion. The experience gained allows eventual development prospects of this system to appraised [fr

  19. Hospital management of community-acquired pneumonia in Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Callus, Roberta; Micallef, Josef; Mamo, Jonathan; Montefort, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a common diagnosis requiring hospital admission and a leading cause of death worldwide. No local guideline is currently available for the management of CAP. Our aim was to evaluate current practices in the management of CAP at Mater Dei Hospital, Malta. In this prospective study we looked at all adult patients admitted with CAP in winter and summer (105 consecutive days for both seasons). Data collected and analysed included: basic patient demographi...

  20. Spouse's subjective social status predicts older adults' prospective cognitive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Fung, Helene; Kwok, Timothy

    2017-12-06

    The current study aims to investigate the association between subjective social status (SSS) and prospective cognitive functioning of older adults and their spouses, and to explore the potential mediating roles of health habits and physical activities in this association. Using the longitudinal data of 512 pairs of community-dwelling older couples aged 65-91 years (M = 72.2 ± 4.6), we tested the effects of SSS in cognitive functioning using an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. SSS was measured by a self-anchoring social ladder, and cognitive functioning was measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination at baseline and 4-year follow-up. Socioeconomic status (i.e. education) was tested as a moderator, and physical activity (measured by the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly) as well as health habits (i.e. tobacco and alcohol consumption) were included as potential mediators. A partner effect of SSS was found only in the low-education group, in which the wife's higher level of SSS in the community was associated with the husband's better cognitive functioning in the follow-up. A small proportion of this effect was found to be partially mediated by participation in housework, such that the wife's higher SSS was associated with the husband's increased housework activity, which was related to higher prospective cognitive functioning. By examining the dyadic effects of SSS with a longitudinal design, our findings extended the understanding on how subjective social status influenced older couples' cognitive health, and provided evidence-based insights for future studies on cognitive health in later life.

  1. EVERREST prospective study: a 6-year prospective study to define the clinical and biological characteristics of pregnancies affected by severe early onset fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Rebecca; Ambler, Gareth; Brodszki, Jana; Diemert, Anke; Figueras, Francesc; Gratacós, Eduard; Hansson, Stefan R; Hecher, Kurt; Huertas-Ceballos, Angela; Marlow, Neil; Marsál, Karel; Morsing, Eva; Peebles, Donald; Rossi, Carlo; Sebire, Neil J; Timms, John F; David, Anna L

    2017-01-23

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a serious obstetric condition for which there is currently no treatment. The EVERREST Prospective Study has been designed to characterise the natural history of pregnancies affected by severe early onset FGR and establish a well phenotyped bio-bank. The findings will provide up-to-date information for clinicians and patients and inform the design and conduct of the EVERREST Clinical Trial: a phase I/IIa trial to assess the safety and efficacy of maternal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene therapy in severe early onset FGR. Data and samples from the EVERREST Prospective Study will be used to identify ultrasound and/or biochemical markers of prognosis in pregnancies with an estimated fetal weight (EFW) economic impact; psychological impact; neonatal condition, progress and complications; and infant growth and neurodevelopment to 2 years of corrected age in surviving infants. Standardised longitudinal ultrasound measurements are performed, including: fetal biometry; uterine artery, umbilical artery, middle cerebral artery, and ductus venosus Doppler velocimetry; and uterine artery and umbilical vein volume blood flow. Samples of maternal blood and urine, amniotic fluid (if amniocentesis performed), placenta, umbilical cord blood, and placental bed (if caesarean delivery performed) are collected for bio-banking. An initial analysis of maternal blood samples at enrolment is planned to identify biochemical markers that are predictors for fetal or neonatal death. The findings of the EVERREST Prospective Study will support the development of a novel therapy for severe early onset FGR by describing in detail the natural history of the disease and by identifying women whose pregnancies have the poorest outcomes, in whom a therapy might be most advantageous. The findings will also enable better counselling of couples with affected pregnancies, and provide a valuable resource for future research into the causes of FGR. NCT02097667

  2. Physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout: A systematic review of prospective studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanda, Francine Nesello; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; González, Alberto Durán; Gabani, Flávia Lopes

    2017-01-01

    Burnout is a syndrome that results from chronic stress at work, with several consequences to workers’ well-being and health. This systematic review aimed to summarize the evidence of the physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout in prospective studies. The PubMed, Science Direct, PsycInfo, SciELO, LILACS and Web of Science databases were searched without language or date restrictions. The Transparent Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed. Prospective studies that analyzed burnout as the exposure condition were included. Among the 993 articles initially identified, 61 fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and 36 were analyzed because they met three criteria that must be followed in prospective studies. Burnout was a significant predictor of the following physical consequences: hypercholesterolemia, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, hospitalization due to cardiovascular disorder, musculoskeletal pain, changes in pain experiences, prolonged fatigue, headaches, gastrointestinal issues, respiratory problems, severe injuries and mortality below the age of 45 years. The psychological effects were insomnia, depressive symptoms, use of psychotropic and antidepressant medications, hospitalization for mental disorders and psychological ill-health symptoms. Job dissatisfaction, absenteeism, new disability pension, job demands, job resources and presenteeism were identified as professional outcomes. Conflicting findings were observed. In conclusion, several prospective and high-quality studies showed physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout. The individual and social impacts of burnout highlight the need for preventive interventions and early identification of this health condition in the work environment. PMID:28977041

  3. Sleep-disordered breathing and mortality: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh M Punjabi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sleep-disordered breathing is a common condition associated with adverse health outcomes including hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The overall objective of this study was to determine whether sleep-disordered breathing and its sequelae of intermittent hypoxemia and recurrent arousals are associated with mortality in a community sample of adults aged 40 years or older.We prospectively examined whether sleep-disordered breathing was associated with an increased risk of death from any cause in 6,441 men and women participating in the Sleep Heart Health Study. Sleep-disordered breathing was assessed with the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI based on an in-home polysomnogram. Survival analysis and proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios for mortality after adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking status, body mass index, and prevalent medical conditions. The average follow-up period for the cohort was 8.2 y during which 1,047 participants (587 men and 460 women died. Compared to those without sleep-disordered breathing (AHI: or=30.0 events/h sleep-disordered breathing were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.80-1.08, 1.17 (95% CI: 0.97-1.42, and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.14-1.86, respectively. Stratified analyses by sex and age showed that the increased risk of death associated with severe sleep-disordered breathing was statistically significant in men aged 40-70 y (hazard ratio: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.31-3.33. Measures of sleep-related intermittent hypoxemia, but not sleep fragmentation, were independently associated with all-cause mortality. Coronary artery disease-related mortality associated with sleep-disordered breathing showed a pattern of association similar to all-cause mortality.Sleep-disordered breathing is associated with all-cause mortality and specifically that due to coronary artery disease, particularly in men aged 40-70 y with severe sleep-disordered breathing. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  4. In-hospital resuscitation evaluated by in situ simulation: a prospective simulation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondrup, Frederik; Brabrand, Mikkel; Folkestad, Lars

    2011-01-01

    , and to examine differences in the resuscitation performance between the first responders and the cardiac arrest team. METHOD: S: A prospective observational study of 16 unannounced simulated cardiopulmonary arrest scenarios was conducted. The participants of the study involved all health care personel on duty...

  5. Utilisation of community pharmacists by the general public in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Siew Siang; Lim, Kien Ping; Lee, Hong Gee

    2013-02-01

    The study was conducted to assess how the general public in the Klang Valley, Malaysia, utilised community pharmacists. This was a prospective observational study which documented interactions between community pharmacists and their customers. A researcher was stationed in 10 participating community pharmacies around the Klang Valley to observe and record all the interactions, using a structured data-collection form. KEYS FINDINGS: Interactions between 1914 customers and the pharmacists of the 10 community pharmacies were recorded. A total of 2199 requests were made by these customers. The main types of request were for medications by brand name (32.2%), advice on minor health problems (25.9%) and for health supplements (11.7%). Only 65 prescriptions were received by the community pharmacies; that is, fewer than two prescriptions per pharmacy per day. The pharmacists provided counselling for only 54.4% of the requests where a medication or health supplement was dispensed. Counselling by pharmacist was significantly associated with the type of request (P Malaysia was to purchase a particular medication. Few prescriptions were filled at community pharmacies in Malaysia, indicating the under-utilisation of community pharmacists as a safety net for prescribed medications in primary care. © 2012 The Authors. IJPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  6. Embracing Uncertainty to Enable Transformation: The Process of Engaging in Trialogue for Mental Health Communities in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Dunne

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Community-based participatory approaches are valuable methods for improving outcomes and effectively integrating care among mental health communities. Trialogue is one such approach which uses Open Dialogue methods with groups of three or more people from different backgrounds who deal with mental health systems. Theory and Method: The current study employed a participatory action research design, which prospectively documented the processes and challenges of participating in Trialogue Meetings. Individuals from participating communities took part in interviews, focus groups or Open Dialogue discussions across three cycles of research. Results: Three prospective themes were identified from participants’ dialogue across the three cycles of research relating to the experience of participating in Trialogue, the development of Open Dialogue skills and the growth of individual Trialogue communities. Conclusions and Discussion: The findings demonstrate that, where desirable conditions are present, Trialogue Meetings are worthwhile and sustainable community-based participatory approaches which encourage disclosure and dialogue surrounding mental health, and may assist in improved integration of care between mental health stakeholders. In particular, Trialogue Meetings stimulate the development of Open Dialogue skills, provide a platform for “vital” and “transformative” self-expression with the potential for positive mental health outcomes and may facilitate the growth of communities surrounding mental health.

  7. Prospects of the international energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, H.K.

    1977-01-01

    The findings of two studies on the international prospects of energy development are discussed: 1) Energy: Global Prospects 1985-2000. Report of the Workshop on Alternative Energy Strategies (WAES) and 2) World Energy Outlook, a recent OECD energy study which is a supplement to the Energy prospects to 1985 study, which was completed in 1974. (UA) [de

  8. Influence of Age on Clinical Performance of Mandibular Two-Implant Overdentures : A 10-Year Prospective Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, Arie R.; Visser, Anita; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Vissink, Arjan; Meijer, Henny J. A.

    Purpose: The aim of this prospective comparative study was to assess whether age has influence on peri-implant health in patients treated with mandibular two-implant overdentures during a 10-year evaluation period. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was carried out with two groups of

  9. Sedentary behavior and incident cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Shen

    Full Text Available Sedentary behavior is ubiquitous in modern adults' daily lives and it has been suggested to be associated with incident cancer. However, the results have been inconsistent. In this study, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to clarify the association between sedentary behavior and incident cancer.PubMed and Embase databases were searched up to March 2014. All prospective cohort studies on the association between sedentary behavior and incident cancer were included. The summary relative risks (RRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated using random effect model.A total of 17 prospective studies from 14 articles, including a total of 857,581 participants and 18,553 cases, were included in the analysis for sedentary behavior and risk of incident cancer. The overall meta-analysis suggested that sedentary behavior increased risk of cancer (RR = 1.20, 95%CI = 1.12-1.28, with no evidence of heterogeneity between studies (I(2 = 7.3%, P = 0.368. Subgroup analyses demonstrated that there were statistical associations between sedentary behavior and some cancer types (endometrial cancer: RR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.08-1.53; colorectal cancer: RR = 1.30, 95%CI = 1.12-1.49; breast cancer: RR = 1.17, 95%CI = 1.03-1.33; lung cancer: RR = 1.27, 95%CI = 1.06-1.52. However, there was no association of sedentary behavior with ovarian cancer (RR = 1.26, 95%CI = 0.87-1.82, renal cell carcinoma (RR = 1.11, 95%CI = 0.87-1.41 or non-Hodgkin lymphoid neoplasms (RR = 1.09, 95%CI = 0.82-1.43.The present meta-analysis suggested that prolonged sedentary behavior was independently associated with an increased risk of incident endometrial, colorectal, breast, and lung cancers, but not with ovarian cancer, renal cell carcinoma or non-Hodgkin lymphoid neoplasms.

  10. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Surawicz, C. M.; Elmer, G. W.; Speelman, P.; McFarland, L. V.; Chinn, J.; van Belle, G.

    1989-01-01

    Saccharomyces boulardii, a nonpathogenic yeast, has been widely used in Europe to prevent antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). We performed a prospective double-blind controlled study to investigate AAD in hospitalized patients and to evaluate the effect of S. boulardii, a living yeast, given in

  11. Premature Discontinuation of Prospective Clinical Studies Approved by a Research Ethics Committee - A Comparison of Randomised and Non-Randomised Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Blümle

    Full Text Available Premature discontinuation of clinical studies affects about 25% of randomised controlled trials (RCTs which raises concerns about waste of scarce resources for research. The risk of discontinuation of non-randomised prospective studies (NPSs is yet unclear.To compare the proportion of discontinued studies between NPSs and RCTs that received ethical approval.We systematically surveyed prospective longitudinal clinical studies that were approved by a single REC in Freiburg, Germany between 2000 and 2002. We collected study characteristics, identified subsequent publications, and surveyed investigators to elucidate whether a study was discontinued and, if so, why.Of 917 approved studies, 547 were prospective longitudinal studies (306 RCTs and 241 NPSs. NPSs were on average smaller than RCTs, more frequently single centre and pilot studies, and less frequently funded by industry. NPSs were less frequently discontinued than RCTs: 32/221 (14% versus 78/288 (27%, p<0.001, missing data excluded. Poor recruitment was the most frequent reason for discontinuation in both NPSs (36% and RCTs (37%.Compared to RCTs, NPSs were at lower risk for discontinuation. Measures to reliably predict, sustain, and stimulate recruitment could prevent discontinuation of many RCTs but also of some NPSs.

  12. Antimicrobial consumption, costs and resistance patterns: a two year prospective study in a Romanian intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axente, Carmen; Licker, Monica; Moldovan, Roxana; Hogea, Elena; Muntean, Delia; Horhat, Florin; Bedreag, Ovidiu; Sandesc, Dorel; Papurica, Marius; Dugaesescu, Dorina; Voicu, Mirela; Baditoiu, Luminita

    2017-05-22

    Due to the vulnerable nature of its patients, the wide use of invasive devices and broad-spectrum antimicrobials used, the intensive care unit (ICU) is often called the epicentre of infections. In the present study, we quantified the burden of hospital acquired pathology in a Romanian university hospital ICU, represented by antimicrobial agents consumption, costs and local resistance patterns, in order to identify multimodal interventional strategies. Between 1 st January 2012 and 31 st December 2013, a prospective study was conducted in the largest ICU of Western Romania. The study group was divided into four sub-samples: patients who only received prophylactic antibiotherapy, those with community-acquired infections, patients who developed hospital acquired infections and patients with community acquired infections complicated by hospital-acquired infections. The statistical analysis was performed using the EpiInfo version 3.5.4 and SPSS version 20. A total of 1596 subjects were enrolled in the study and the recorded consumption of antimicrobial agents was 1172.40 DDD/ 1000 patient-days. The presence of hospital acquired infections doubled the length of stay (6.70 days for patients with community-acquired infections versus 16.06/14.08 days for those with hospital-acquired infections), the number of antimicrobial treatment days (5.47 in sub-sample II versus 11.18/12.13 in sub-samples III/IV) and they increased by 4 times compared to uninfected patients. The perioperative prophylactic antibiotic treatment had an average length duration of 2.78 while the empirical antimicrobial therapy was 3.96 days in sample II and 4.75/4.85 days for the patients with hospital-acquired infections. The incidence density of resistant strains was 8.27/1000 patient-days for methicilin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 7.88 for extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and 4.68/1000 patient-days for multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Some of the most

  13. Premorbid personality in schizophrenia spectrum: a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrøm, Morten; Lykke Mortensen, Erik; Sørensen, Holger J

    2006-01-01

    Schizophrenia has been linked with premorbid character anomalies since it was first described. However, few prospective studies of premorbid personality characteristics in schizophrenia and related disorders have been conducted. This study evaluates premorbid personality in children who developed...... to these three diagnostic categories. Twelve-year-old children destined to develop a disorder in the schizophrenia spectrum deviated significantly from healthy controls on a number of personality characteristics: they were rated significantly lower than controls on intelligence, concentration, maturity......, friendliness, cooperation, self-control and significantly higher on aggression. Non-significant trends indicated that this group displayed more deviant personality scores than psychiatric controls. Children who later develop schizophrenia spectrum disorder differed from normal controls with respect to a number...

  14. Study of Tandem Accelerator Technology and Its Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigit-Hariyanto; Sudjatmoko; Djoko-S-Pudjorahardjo; Suryadi; Widdi-Usada; Suprapto; Djasiman; Tono-Wibowo; Agus-Purwadi

    2000-01-01

    Tandem accelerator is an ion acceleration tool in which negative ions injected in the accelerator tube and stripped to become positive ions, then accelerated by electrostatic high voltage such that its energy is multiplied. In this paper, we describe the prospect of accelerator application briefly in agriculture and biotechnology, industry, health and medicine, environment fields. Technical study on tandem accelerator included SNICS and alphatross ion sources, acceleration system and stripper system. The study result for many kinds of negative ions and its current which should be injected in the accelerator tube and the output of tandem accelerator H + , and the distribution of C + , Ni + , Au + , Br + ion on varying charge state is shown. (author)

  15. Necrotizing soft tissue infections - a multicentre, prospective observational study (INFECT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, M. B.; Skrede, S.; Bruun, T.

    2018-01-01

    these to patient-important outcomes. With this protocol and statistical analysis plan we describe the methods used to obtain data and the details of the planned analyses. Methods: The INFECT study is a multicentre, prospective observational cohort study. Patients with NSTIs are enrolled in five Scandinavian......Background: The INFECT project aims to advance our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms in necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs). The INFECT observational study is part of the INFECT project with the aim of studying the clinical profile of patients with NSTIs and correlating...

  16. Prospective Study on the Impact of Fear of Falling on Functional Decline among Community Dwelling Elderly Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungwon Choi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fear of falling (FOF is expected to have effects on functional decline in the elderly. In this study, we examined over 2 years the effect of change in FOF on functional decline in community dwelling elderly. We conducted a secondary analysis using data from elderly women, 70 years of age and older, who participated in the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA. Participants were divided into four categories according to change in FOF between the 2010 and 2012 surveys. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted regarding the effects of changes in FOF on functional decline after controlling for variables as known risk factors for functional decline. Rates of functional decline were highest in the “consistently having FOF” group, whereas they were lowest in the “consistently no FOF” group in both 2010 and 2012. Characteristics independently associated with functional decline were change in FOF, depressive symptoms, low frequency of meeting friends, and fear-induced activity avoidance. Longer exposure to FOF was associated with an increased risk of functional decline. FOF is an important health problem that deserves attention in its own right. Public health approaches for elderly persons should address early detection, prevention, and intervention programs for FOF.

  17. Outcome of the Respiratory Syncytial Virus related acute lower respiratory tract infection among hospitalized newborns: a prospective multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan, Serdar; Erdeve, Omer; Cakir, Ufuk; Akduman, Hasan; Zenciroglu, Aysegul; Akcakus, Mustafa; Tunc, Turan; Gokmen, Zeynel; Ates, Can; Atasay, Begum; Arsan, Saadet

    2016-01-01

    To determine the incidence and outcomes of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-related acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI) including morbidity, nosocomial infection and mortality among newborn infants who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). A multicenter, prospective study was conducted in newborns who were hospitalized with community acquired or nosocomial RSV infection in 44 NICUs throughout Turkey. Newborns with ALRI were screened for RSV infection by Respi-Strip®-test. Main outcome measures were the incidence of RSV-associated admissions in the NICUs and morbidity, mortality and epidemics results related to these admissions. The incidence of RSV infection was 1.24% (n: 250) and RSV infection constituted 19.6% of all ALRI hospitalizations, 226 newborns (90.4%) had community-acquired whereas 24 (9.6%) patients had nosocomial RSV infection in the NICUs. Of the 250 newborns, 171 (68.4%) were full-term infants, 183 (73.2%) had a BW >2500 g. RSV-related mortality rate was 1.2%. Four NICUs reported seven outbreaks on different months, which could be eliminated by palivizumab prophylaxis in one NICU. RSV-associated ALRI both in preterm and term infants accounts an important percent of hospitalizations in the season, and may threat other high-risk patients in the NICU.

  18. Effect of unilateral and simultaneous bilateral cochlear implantation on tinnitus : A Prospective Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zon, Alice; Smulders, Yvette E.; Ramakers, Geerte G. J.; Stegeman, Inge; Smit, Adriana L.; Van Zanten, Gijsbert A.; Stokroos, Robert J.; Hendrice, Nadia; Free, Rolien H.; Maat, Bert; Frijns, Johan H. M.; Mylanus, Emmanuel A. M.; Huinck, Wendy J.; Topsakal, Vedat; Tange, Rinze A.; Grolman, Wilko

    Objectives/HypothesisTo determine the effect of cochlear implantation on tinnitus perception in patients with severe bilateral postlingual sensorineural hearing loss and to demonstrate possible differences between unilateral and bilateral cochlear implantation. Study DesignProspective study.

  19. The Examining of Prospective Teachers? Views about Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy Sources: A Case Study of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasiloglu, Mehmet Akif

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine prospective teachers? views about renewable and non-renewable energy sources. To collect data, a questionnaire with 5 open-ended questions was conveyed to 463 prospective teachers selected from Agri Ibrahim Cecen University. The results showed that almost three fourths of the prospective teachers tend to…

  20. Male infertility after mesh hernia repair: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallén, Magnus; Sandblom, Gabriel; Nordin, Pär; Gunnarsson, Ulf; Kvist, Ulrik; Westerdahl, Johan

    2011-02-01

    Several animal studies have raised concern about the risk for obstructive azoospermia owing to vasal fibrosis caused by the use of alloplastic mesh prosthesis in inguinal hernia repair. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of male infertility after bilateral mesh repair. In a prospective study, a questionnaire inquiring about involuntary childlessness, investigation for infertility and number of children was sent by mail to a group of 376 men aged 18-55 years, who had undergone bilateral mesh repair, identified in the Swedish Hernia Register (SHR). Questionnaires were also sent to 2 control groups, 1 consisting of 186 men from the SHR who had undergone bilateral repair without mesh, and 1 consisting of 383 men identified in the general population. The control group from the SHR was matched 2:1 for age and years elapsed since operation. The control group from the general population was matched 1:1 for age and marital status. The overall response rate was 525 of 945 (56%). Method of approach (anterior or posterior), type of mesh, and testicular status at the time of the repair had no significant impact on the answers to the questions. Nor did subgroup analysis of the men ≤40 years old reveal any significant differences. The results of this prospective study in men do not support the hypothesis that bilateral inguinal hernia repair with alloplastic mesh prosthesis causes male infertility at a significantly greater rate than those operated without mesh. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. International prospective observational study of upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage: Does weekend admission affect outcome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Iain A.; Dalton, Harry R.; Stanley, Adrian J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Out of hours admissions have higher mortality for many conditions but upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage studies have produced variable outcomes. Methods Prospective study of 12 months consecutive admissions of upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage from four international high volume...

  2. Quality of optometry referrals to neovascular age-related macular degeneration clinic: a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Muen, Wisam J; Hewick, Simon A

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the quality of referrals to a neovascular age-related macular degeneration clinic from optometrists using the standard Rapid Access Referral Form (RARF) from the Royal College of Ophthalmologists. Design A prospective study. Prospective data were gathered from all optometry referrals using the RARF, between the periods of December 2006 to August 2009. These were assessed for accuracy of history, clinical signs and final diagnosis as compared to a macula expert. Setting ...

  3. Fruits, vegetables and breast cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aune, D; Chan, D S M; Vieira, A R; Rosenblatt, D A Navarro; Vieira, R; Greenwood, D C; Norat, T

    2012-07-01

    Evidence for an association between fruit and vegetable intake and breast cancer risk is inconclusive. To clarify the association, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence from prospective studies. We searched PubMed for prospective studies of fruit and vegetable intake and breast cancer risk until April 30, 2011. We included fifteen prospective studies that reported relative risk estimates and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of breast cancer associated with fruit and vegetable intake. Random effects models were used to estimate summary relative risks. The summary relative risk (RR) for the highest versus the lowest intake was 0.89 (95 % CI: 0.80-0.99, I (2) = 0 %) for fruits and vegetables combined, 0.92 (95 % CI: 0.86-0.98, I (2) = 9 %) for fruits, and 0.99 (95 % CI: 0.92-1.06, I (2) = 20 %) for vegetables. In dose-response analyses, the summary RR per 200 g/day was 0.96 (95 % CI: 0.93-1.00, I (2) = 2 %) for fruits and vegetables combined, 0.94 (95 % CI: 0.89-1.00, I (2) = 39 %) for fruits, and 1.00 (95 % CI: 0.95-1.06, I (2) = 17 %) for vegetables. In this meta-analysis of prospective studies, high intake of fruits, and fruits and vegetables combined, but not vegetables, is associated with a weak reduction in risk of breast cancer.

  4. An ecological approach to prospective and retrospective timing of long durations: a study involving gamers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Tobin

    Full Text Available To date, most studies comparing prospective and retrospective timing have failed to use long durations and tasks with a certain degree of ecological validity. The present study assessed the effect of the timing paradigm on playing video games in a "naturalistic environment" (gaming centers. In addition, as it involved gamers, it provided an opportunity to examine the effect of gaming profile on time estimation. A total of 116 participants were asked to estimate prospectively or retrospectively a video game session lasting 12, 35 or 58 minutes. The results indicate that time is perceived as longer in the prospective paradigm than in the retrospective one, although the variability of estimates is the same. Moreover, the 12-minute session was perceived as longer, proportionally, than the 35- and 58-minute sessions. The study also revealed that the number of hours participants spent playing video games per week was a significant predictor of time estimates. To account for the main findings, the differences between prospective and retrospective timing are discussed in quantitative terms using a proposed theoretical framework, which states that both paradigms use the same cognitive processes, but in different proportions. Finally, the hypothesis that gamers play more because they underestimate time is also discussed.

  5. 77 FR 48993 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; The Sister Study: A Prospective Study of the Genetic and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Breast Cancer SUMMARY: In compliance with the requirement of... proposed data collection projects, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), the... Sister Study: A Prospective Study of the Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Breast Cancer. Type...

  6. Incidence and 30-day case fatality rate of first-ever stroke in urban Nigeria: the prospective community based Epidemiology of Stroke in Lagos (EPISIL) phase II results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesi, Mustapha A; Okubadejo, Njideka U; Ojini, Frank I; Ojo, Oluwadamilola O

    2013-08-15

    Stroke is a leading cause of death worldwide and a major contributor to global disease burden. Although epidemiologic information from a community perspective is important in determining the magnitude of the burden in specific regions, and directing equitable distribution of health resources, data on the incidence of stroke in developing countries in Africa are scarce. To determine the current incidence rate and short-term (30-day) case fatality rate (CFR) of stroke in urban Nigeria, and provide age-adjusted and gender-specific incidence rates to enable comparison with global populations. The study was a prospective community-based stroke registry enrolling hospitalized and non-hospitalized first-ever in a lifetime stroke cases presenting at all health facilities (hospitals, homeopathic caregivers, physiotherapy clinics) located in the designated community. Pre-hospitalization deaths due to stroke were not included in our study. The study was conducted between January 1st and December 31st 2007 in Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos State, south western Nigeria, a mixed-income urban locality with a population of approximately 750,000 based on data from the National Population Commission. Stroke was defined using the World Health Organization (WHO) clinical criteria. Case fatality at 30-days post stroke was determined at follow-up on 160 hospitalized stroke cases. 189 first-ever strokes, comprised of 112 men and 77 women (mean±SD age 58.5±13.5 years) were documented, giving a crude incidence rate of 25.2 per 100,000 per year (95% confidence interval 21.6- 28.8). The gender-specific rates were 28.3/100,000 and 21.3/100,000 for males and females respectively. The age-adjusted incidence rate was 54.08 per 100,000 per year (adjusted to the WHO New World Population). Hospitalization rate was 84.6%, while the CFR (hospitalized) was 16.2%. The stroke incidence in this urban sub-Saharan African community remains lower than that in emerging and developed economies

  7. A prospective study of radiographic manifestations in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, Robert H.; Gordon, Leslie B.; Kleinman, Monica E.; Miller, David T.; Gordon, Catherine M.; Snyder, Brian D.; Nazarian, Ara; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Neuberg, Donna; Kieran, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Progeria is a rare segmental premature aging disease with significant skeletal abnormalities. Defining the full scope of radiologic abnormalities requires examination of a large proportion of the world's progeria population (estimated at 1 in 4 million). There has been no comprehensive prospective study describing the skeletal abnormalities associated with progeria. To define characteristic radiographic features of this syndrome. Thirty-nine children with classic progeria, ages 2-17 years, from 29 countries were studied at a single site. Comprehensive radiographic imaging studies were performed. Sample included 23 girls and 16 boys - the largest number of patients with progeria evaluated prospectively to date. Eight new and two little known progeria-associated radiologic findings were identified (frequencies of 3-36%). Additionally, 23 commonly reported findings were evaluated. Of these, 2 were not encountered and 21 were present and ranked according to their frequency. Nine abnormalities were associated with increasing patient age (P = 0.02-0.0001). This study considerably expands the radiographic morphological spectrum of progeria. A better understanding of the radiologic abnormalities associated with progeria and improved understanding of the biology of progerin (the molecule responsible for this disease), will improve our ability to treat the spectrum of bony abnormalities. (orig.)

  8. Workplace bullying and depressive symptoms: a prospective study among junior physicians in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loerbroks, Adrian; Weigl, Matthias; Li, Jian; Glaser, Jürgen; Degen, Christiane; Angerer, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The relationship between workplace bullying and depression may be bi-directional. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the depressogenic effect of bullying may only become evident after reasonable periods of follow-up (i.e., >1 year). As prospective evidence remains sparse and inconsistent, we used data from a three-wave prospective study to disentangle this potentially bi-directional relationship. In 2004, 621 junior hospital physicians participated in a survey and were followed-up 1.2 years and 2.8 years later. Prospective analyses were restricted to participants with complete data at all assessments (n=507 or 82%). To measure workplace bullying, a description of bullying at work was provided followed by an item inquiring whether the respondent felt she/he had been exposed. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the state scale of the German Spielberger's State-Trait Depression Scales. Multivariate linear regression suggested that workplace bullying at baseline predicted increased depressive symptoms both after 1 year (b=1.43, p=0.01) and after 3 years of follow-up (b=1.58, p=0.01). Multivariate Poisson regression models revealed that the depressive symptom z-score at baseline was associated with an increased risk of bullying at the 3-year follow-up (relative risk [RR]=1.49, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.13-1.97). This association was less pronounced after 1 year of follow-up (RR=1.19, 95% CI=0.90-1.59). Our study suggests bi-directional associations between depressive symptoms and victimization from bullying at the workplace. Future prospective studies are needed to examine underlying biopsychosocial mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ute Mountain Ute Tribe Community-Scale Solar Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Jim [Parametrix; Knight, Tawnie [Ute Mountain Ute Tribe

    2014-01-30

    Parametrix Inc. conducted a feasibility study for the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe to determine whether or not a community-scale solar farm would be feasible for the community. The important part of the study was to find where the best fit for the solar farm could be. In the end, a 3MW community-scale solar farm was found best fit with the location of two hayfield sites.

  10. Consensually defined facets of personality as prospective predictors of change in depression symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naragon-Gainey, Kristin; Watson, David

    2014-08-01

    Depression has robust associations with personality, showing a strong relation with neuroticism and more moderate associations with extraversion and conscientiousness. In addition, each Big Five domain can be decomposed into narrower facets. However, we currently lack consensus as to the contents of Big Five facets, with idiosyncrasies across instruments; moreover, few studies have examined associations with depression. In the current study, community participants completed six omnibus personality inventories; self-reported depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline and 5 years later. Exploratory factor analyses suggested three to five facets in each domain, and these facets served as prospective predictors of depression in hierarchical regressions, after accounting for baseline and trait depression. In these analyses, high anger (from neuroticism), low positive emotionality (extraversion), low conventionality (conscientiousness), and low culture (openness to experiences) were significant prospective predictors of depression. Results are discussed in regard to personality structure and assessment, as well as personality-psychopathology associations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Taste disturbance following tonsillectomy--a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Clemens; Landis, Basile N; Giger, Roland; Cao Van, Helene; Guinand, Nils; Hörmann, Karl; Stuck, Boris A

    2010-10-01

    Persistent taste disturbance is a rare complication after tonsillectomy and mainly documented by case reports or a few retrospective and prospective trials with a limited number of patients. None could clarify frequency, time course, or prognosis of long-lasting dysgeusia after tonsillectomy. The aim of the study was to provide a symptom-based follow-up after tonsillectomy to assess postoperative taste disorders. Prospective clinical trial. From December 2007 to June 2009 adult patients undergoing tonsillectomy were asked to take part in the trial. Two hundred twenty-three patients (119 female, 104 male; mean age, 33 ± 13 years) were included. The day prior to surgery, and 2 weeks and 6 months after tonsillectomy a standardized questionnaire was completed by patients. The questionnaire focused on taste function, taste disorders, pain, foreign body sensation, and bleeding episodes after tonsillectomy. One hundred eighty-eight (2 weeks) and 181 (6 months) patients returned the questionnaires. Thirty-two percent (n = 60) of patients reported taste disorders after tonsillectomy 2 weeks postoperatively and 15 patients (8%) at 6-month follow-up. Metallic and bitter parageusia were most frequently reported. The mean ratings of gustatory function were significantly lower 2 weeks after surgery (P < .001) and reached preoperative values 6 months after surgery. Almost 30% of patients reported postoperative bleeding, 10% long-lasting postoperative pain, and 20% foreign body sensation. Long-lasting taste disturbance (metallic and bitter parageusia) after tonsillectomy is more frequent than previously reported. Long-lasting pain and foreign body sensation seem to be common symptoms. With regard to these results, a thorough preoperative explanation is mandatory.

  12. Comparative Study for Efficacy and Safety of Adenoidectomy according to the Surgical Method: A Prospective Multicenter Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Whun Kim

    Full Text Available There have been several operative techniques for adenoidectomy and their efficacy and morbidity are different according to the technique. This prospective multicenter study was aimed to compare the efficacy and morbidity of coblation adenoidectomy (CA with those of power-assisted adenoidectomy.Prospective multi-institutional study.Children who underwent CA, power-assisted adenoidectomy with cauterization (PAA+C or without cauterization (PAA-C due to adenoid hypertrophy were enrolled from 13 hospitals between July 2013 and June 2014. Mean operation time, degree of intraoperative bleeding and postoperative bleeding rate were evaluated.A total of 388 children (mean age ± standard deviation = 6.6 ± 2.5 years; 245 males and 143 females were included. According to the adenoidectomy technique, the children were classified into 3 groups: (1 CA (n = 116; (2 PAA+C (n = 153; and (3 PAA-C (n = 119. Significant differences were not found in age and sex among three groups. In the CA group, mean operation time was significantly shorter (P < 0.001 and degree of intraoperative bleeding was significantly less (P < 0.001 compared to PAA+C or PAA-C group. Delayed postoperative bleeding rate of PAA-C group was significantly higher than that of CA or PAA+C group (P = 0.016.This prospective multicenter study showed that CA was superior to PAA in terms of mean operation time and degree of intraoperative bleeding.

  13. Location-based prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rear, Andrea E; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2018-02-01

    This study explores location-based prospective memory. People often have to remember to do things when in a particular location, such as buying tissues the next time they are in the supermarket. For event cognition theory, location is important for structuring events. However, because event cognition has not been used to examine prospective memory, the question remains of how multiple events will influence prospective memory performance. In our experiments, people delivered messages from store to store in a virtual shopping mall as an ongoing task. The prospective tasks were to do certain activities in certain stores. For Experiment 1, each trial involved one prospective memory task to be done in a single location at one of three delays. The virtual environment and location cues were effective for prospective memory, and performance was unaffected by delay. For Experiment 2, each trial involved two prospective memory tasks, given in either one or two instruction locations, and to be done in either one or two store locations. There was improved performance when people received instructions from two locations and did both tasks in one location relative to other combinations. This demonstrates that location-based event structure influences how well people perform on prospective memory tasks.

  14. Physical activity and risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallo, Valentina; Vanacore, Nicola; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brayne, Carol; Pearce, Neil; Wark, Petra A.; Ward, Heather A.; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Andersen, Peter M.; Wennberg, Patrik; Wareham, Nicholas; Katzke, Verena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Peeters, Petra H.; Mattiello, Amalia; Pala, Valeria; Barricante, Aurelio; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Travier, Noémie; Travis, Ruth C.; Sanchez, Maria Jose; Pessah-Rasmussen, Hélène; Petersson, Jesper; Tjønneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; Quiros, Jose Ramon; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Kyrozis, Andreas; Oikonomidou, Despoina; Masala, Giovanna; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Arriola, Larraitz; Boeing, Heiner; Vigl, Matthaeus; Claver-Chapelon, Francoise; Middleton, Lefkos; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Previous case–control studies have suggested a possible increased risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) with physical activity (PA), but this association has never been studied in prospective cohort studies. We therefore assessed the association between PA and risk of death from ALS in the

  15. Physical activity and risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallo, Valentina; Vanacore, Nicola; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brayne, Carol; Pearce, Neil; Wark, Petra A; Ward, Heather A; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Andersen, Peter M; Wennberg, Patrik; Wareham, Nicholas; Katzke, Verena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Peeters, Petra H; Mattiello, Amalia; Pala, Valeria; Barricante, Aurelio; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Travier, Noémie; Travis, Ruth C; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Pessah-Rasmussen, Hélène; Petersson, Jesper; Tjønneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; Quiros, Jose Ramon; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Kyrozis, Andreas; Oikonomidou, Despoina; Masala, Giovanna; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Arriola, Larraitz; Boeing, Heiner; Vigl, Matthaeus; Claver-Chapelon, Francoise; Middleton, Lefkos; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo

    Previous case-control studies have suggested a possible increased risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) with physical activity (PA), but this association has never been studied in prospective cohort studies. We therefore assessed the association between PA and risk of death from ALS in the

  16. Effectiveness of Liposomal Bupivacaine in Colorectal Surgery: A Pragmatic Nonsponsored Prospective Randomized Double Blinded Trial in a Community Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Rachel A; Dunlavy, Paul W; Franko, Jan; Raman, Shankar R; Kraemer, Soren R

    2016-09-01

    Prior industry conducted studies have shown that long acting liposomal bupivacaine injection improves pain control postoperatively. To evaluate whether liposomal bupivacaine reduced the use of postoperative opioid (http://links.lww.com/DCR/A253) pain medication as compared to standard bupivacaine following colorectal surgery. A double blinded, prospective, randomized controlled trial comparing liposomal bupivacaine versus standard bupivacaine in patients undergoing elective colon resection. Community hospital with general surgery residency program with all cases performed by colorectal surgeons. Fifty-seven patients were randomized and reported as intention-to-treat analysis with 6 protocol violations. Sensitivity analysis excluding these 6 patients demonstrated no change in study results or conclusion. Mean age was 67 ± 2 years and 56% were male. There were 36 patients who underwent minimally invasive surgery, and 21 patients had an open colon resection. Experimental arm received liposomal bupivacaine while control arm received standard bupivacaine. Primary outcome measure was intravenous hydromorphone equivalent used via PCA during first 48 hours after operation. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the amount of opioid used orally or intravenously in the postoperative period. The primary outcome measure was PCA hydromorphone consumption during first two postoperative days after operation (hydromorphone equivalent use in standard bupivacaine group 11.3 ± 8.9 mg versus 13.3 ± 11.9 mg in liposomal bupivacaine group, p = 0.58 Mann-Whitney test). Small pragmatic trials typically remain underpowered for secondary analyses. A larger study could help to further delineate other outcomes that are impacted by postoperative pain. Liposomal bupivacaine did not change the amount of opioid used postoperatively. Based on our study, liposomal bupivacaine does not provide any added benefit over conventional bupivacaine after colon

  17. Association of anorexia with sarcopenia in a community-dwelling elderly population: results from the ilSIRENTE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Francesco; Liperoti, Rosa; Russo, Andrea; Giovannini, Silvia; Tosato, Matteo; Barillaro, Christian; Capoluongo, Ettore; Bernabei, Roberto; Onder, Graziano

    2013-04-01

    There is increasing evidence that anorexia of aging can cause physical and mental impairment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between anorexia and sarcopenia in elderly persons aged 80 years or older. Data are from the baseline evaluation of 354 subjects enrolled in the ilSIRENTE study. The ilSIRENTE study is a prospective cohort study performed in the mountain community living in the Sirente geographic area (L'Aquila, Abruzzo) in Central Italy. We defined anorexia as the presence of loss of appetite and/or lower food intake. According to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) criteria, diagnosis of sarcopenia required the documentation of low muscle mass plus the documentation of either low muscle strength or low physical performance. The relationship between anorexia and sarcopenia was estimated by deriving odds ratios from the multiple logistic regression models considering sarcopenia as the dependent variable. Nearly 21 % of the study sample showed symptoms of anorexia. Using the EWGSOP-suggested algorithm, 103 subjects (29.1 %) with sarcopenia were identified. Thirty-four (46.6 %) participants were affected by sarcopenia among subjects with anorexia compared to 69 subjects [24.6 %] without anorexia (p sarcopenia compared with non-anorexic subjects (HR 1.88, 95 % CI 1.01-3.51). Anorexia is common among community-dwelling older subjects in Italy. Our results suggest that among old-old subjects, anorexia is independently associated with sarcopenia.

  18. Pediatric and youth traffic-collision injuries in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivna, Michal; Eid, Hani O; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M

    2013-01-01

    To study the mechanism of road traffic collisions (RTC), use of safety devices, and outcome of hospitalized pediatric and youth RTC injured patients so as to give recommendations regarding prevention of pediatric RTC injuries. All RTC injured children and youth (0-19-year-olds) who were admitted to Al Ain City's two major trauma centers or who died after arrival to these centers were prospectively studied from April 2006 to October 2007. Demography of patients, road-user and vehicle types, crash mechanism, usage of safety devices, injured body regions, injury severity, Revised Trauma Score, Glasgow Coma Scale, intensive care unit admissions, hospital stay and mortality were analyzed. 245 patients were studied, 69% were vehicle occupants, 15% pedestrians, 9% motorcyclists and 5% bicyclists. 79% were males and 67% UAE citizens. The most common mechanism of RTC was rollover of vehicle (37%) followed by front impact collision (32%). 32 (13%) of vehicle occupants were ejected from car. 63% of ejected occupants and 70% of motorcyclists sustained head injuries. Only 2% (3/170) vehicle passengers used seatbelts and 13% (3/23) motorcyclists a helmet. Male drivers and UAE nationals were at high risk of RTC as drivers and as motorcyclists. Ejection rate was high because safety restraint use was extremely low in our community. More education and law enforcement focusing especially on car/booster seat use is needed.

  19. The health and healthcare impact of providing insurance coverage to uninsured children: A prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Flores

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Of the 4.8 million uninsured children in America, 62–72% are eligible for but not enrolled in Medicaid or CHIP. Not enough is known, however, about the impact of health insurance on outcomes and costs for previously uninsured children, which has never been examined prospectively. Methods This prospective observational study of uninsured Medicaid/CHIP-eligible minority children compared children obtaining coverage vs. those remaining uninsured. Subjects were recruited at 97 community sites, and 11 outcomes monitored monthly for 1 year. Results In this sample of 237 children, those obtaining coverage were significantly (P 6 months at baseline were associated with remaining uninsured for the entire year. In multivariable analysis, children who had been uninsured for >6 months at baseline (odds ratio [OR], 3.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4–10.3 and African-American children (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.1–7.3 had significantly higher odds of remaining uninsured for the entire year. Insurance saved $2886/insured child/year, with mean healthcare costs = $5155/uninsured vs. $2269/insured child (P = .04. Conclusions Providing health insurance to Medicaid/CHIP-eligible uninsured children improves health, healthcare access and quality, and parental satisfaction; reduces unmet needs and out-of-pocket costs; and saves $2886/insured child/year. African-American children and those who have been uninsured for >6 months are at greatest risk for remaining uninsured. Extrapolation of the savings realized by insuring uninsured, Medicaid/CHIP-eligible children suggests that America potentially could save $8.7–$10.1 billion annually by providing health insurance to all Medicaid/CHIP-eligible uninsured children.

  20. Physical Activity Measures in the Healthy Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Russell R; McIver, Kerry L; Colabianchi, Natalie; Troiano, Richard P; Reis, Jared P; Carroll, Dianna D; Fulton, Janet E

    2015-10-01

    The risk of obesity is reduced when youth engage in recommended levels of physical activity (PA). For that reason, public health organizations in the U.S. have encouraged communities to implement programs and policies designed to increase PA in youth, and many communities have taken on that challenge. However, the long-term effects of those programs and policies on obesity are largely unknown. The Healthy Communities Study is a large-scale observational study of U.S. communities that is examining the characteristics of programs and policies designed to promote healthy behaviors (e.g., increase PA and improve diet) and determining their association with obesity-related outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methods used to measure PA in children and the personal and community factors that may influence it. The study used both self-reported and objective measures of PA, and measured personal, family, and home influences on PA via three constructs: (1) PA self-schema; (2) parental support; and (3) parental rules regarding PA. Neighborhood and community factors related to PA were assessed using three measures: (1) child perceptions of the neighborhood environment; (2) availability of PA equipment; and (3) attributes of the child's street segment via direct observation. School influences on children's PA were assessed via three constructs: (1) school PA policies; (2) child perceptions of the school PA environment; and (3) school outdoor PA environment. These measures will enable examination of the associations between characteristics of community PA programs and policies and obesity-related outcomes in children and youth. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  1. Ecological Factors and Adolescent Marijuana Use: Results of a Prospective Study in Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Delva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Despite the growing evidence that ecological factors contribute to substance use, the relationship of ecological factors and illicit drugs such as marijuana use is not well understood, particularly among adolescents in Latin America. Guided by social disorganization and social stress theories, we prospectively examined the association of disaggregated neighborhood characteristics with marijuana use among adolescents in Santiago, Chile, and tested if these relationships varied by sex. Methods: Data for this study are from 725 community-dwelling adolescents participating in the Santiago Longitudinal Study, a study of substance using behaviors among urban adolescents in Santiago, Chile. Adolescents completed a two-hour interviewer administered questionnaire with questions about drug use and factors related to drug using behaviors. Results: As the neighborhood levels of drug availability at baseline increased, but not crime or noxious environment, adolescents had higher odds of occasions of marijuana use at follow up, approximately 2 years later (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.16–1.66, even after controlling for the study’s covariates. No interactions by sex were significant. Discussion: The findings suggest that “poverty”, “crime”, and “drug problems” may not be synonyms and thus can be understood discretely. As Latin American countries re-examine their drug policies, especially those concerning decriminalizing marijuana use, the findings suggest that attempts to reduce adolescent marijuana use in disadvantaged neighborhoods may do best if efforts are concentrated on specific features of the “substance abuse environment”.

  2. The Public Community College in America: Its History, Present Condition, and Future Outlook with Special Reference to Finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nancy Joan

    The development, current status, and future prospects of community colleges are examined in this study with special emphasis on finance and funding concerns. Introductory material outlines study objectives, methodology, and purposes; defines key terms; and emphasizes the importance of college planning. Chapter 1 presents a history of the community…

  3. Prospective economical study of the nuclear power file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpin, J.M.; Dessus, B.; Pellat, R.

    2000-07-01

    On May 7, 1999 an economical study of the overall nuclear file, and in particular, of the back-end part of the fuel cycle and including the reprocessing, was requested by the French Prime Minister. This study includes the cost comparisons with the other means of power production and takes into consideration the environmental costs. The study is shared into five chapters dealing with: 1 - the legacy of the past: todays park of nuclear plants, economical and material status; 2 - the international evolution: the dynamics of nuclear policies worldwide (existing parks and R and D programs), the rise of environmental problems worldwide (CO 2 and the climate convention, nuclear risks, attempts of including environment in the power costs), the choices made for the management of spent fuels in the main countries; 3 - the technological prospects for the power production and use: technologies for the mastery of power demand (residential, industrial and tertiary sectors, power transportation), technologies of power production (production from nuclear, fossil and renewable energies); 4 - prospective scenarios for France: two demand scenarios at the year 2050 vista (energy, electric power), power supply (supply structure with respect to scenarios, nuclear parks, power capacities), environmental aspects (CO 2 emissions, plutonium and minor actinides production); 5 - the economical status of the different scenarios: data preparation, fossil fuel price scenarios, investment and operation costs of the different power production means (nuclear, fossil and renewable energies, natural gas and power distribution networks), comparison between fluxes and cumulated economic costs linked with the different scenarios (investments, exploitation, fuels, R and D, status for 2000 to 2050), time structure of expenditures with respect to the different scenarios (chronology, statuses, kWh costs, sensitivity with respect to the rate of discount, valorization of existing parks in 2050), cost overruns

  4. A Community of Congruence among Secondary Social Studies Teachers: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Province, Rachael

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to explore the community of one purposely selected department of secondary social studies teachers. I aimed to provide insight into the nature of one community of congruence amid the many constraints and systemic pressures in school systems today. Many have suggested that education is a microcosm of larger…

  5. Psychological stress during pregnancy and stillbirth: prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisborg, K.; Barklin, A.; Hedegaard, M.

    2008-01-01

    habits, alcohol and caffeine intake during pregnancy, education and cohabitation failed to change the result. The results remained essentially unchanged after exclusion of preterm deliveries. Exclusion of women with complications during pregnancy such as diabetes, hypertension, vaginal bleeding......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between psychological stress during pregnancy and stillbirth. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up study. SETTING: Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Denmark,1989-98. POPULATION: A total of 19 282 singleton pregnancies in women with valid information about...... psychological stress during pregnancy. METHODS: Information about psychological stress during pregnancy was obtained from questionnaires and measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaires (GHQ). A score was generated by the sum of all the answers, each contributing a value between 0 (low psychological...

  6. Rural Action: A Collection of Community Work Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Paul, Ed.; Francis, David, Ed.

    This book contains 10 case studies of rural community development in England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, and Catalonia, as seen from the perspective of community-work practitioners. Development projects encompassed such activities as promotion of tourism, establishment of community centers, vocational training for school dropouts, adult community…

  7. Predictors of Dropout From Inpatient Substance Use Treatment: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Helle Wessel; Steinsbekk, Aslak; Walderhaug, Espen; Otterholt, Eli; Nordfjærn, Trond

    2018-01-01

    Dropout from inpatient treatment for substance use disorder (SUD) is an ongoing challenge. The aim of this study was to identify demographic, substance use, and psychological factors that predict dropout from postdetoxification inpatient SUD treatment. A total of 454 patients from 5 inpatient SUD centers in Central Norway were consecutively included in this naturalistic, prospective cohort study. A total of 132 patients (28%) did not complete the planned treatment stay (dropped out). Cox regression analysis showed that higher levels of intrinsic motivation for changing personal substance use reduced the dropout risk (adjusted hazard ratio [adjHR]: 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.48-0.79). Higher levels of mental distress were associated with an increased risk for dropout (adjHR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.11-1.97). The role of mental health and motivation in reducing dropout risk from inpatient SUD treatment should be targeted in future prospective intervention studies.

  8. Predictors of Dropout From Inpatient Substance Use Treatment: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Helle Wessel; Steinsbekk, Aslak; Walderhaug, Espen; Otterholt, Eli; Nordfjærn, Trond

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Dropout from inpatient treatment for substance use disorder (SUD) is an ongoing challenge. The aim of this study was to identify demographic, substance use, and psychological factors that predict dropout from postdetoxification inpatient SUD treatment. Materials and methods: A total of 454 patients from 5 inpatient SUD centers in Central Norway were consecutively included in this naturalistic, prospective cohort study. Results: A total of 132 patients (28%) did not complete the planned treatment stay (dropped out). Cox regression analysis showed that higher levels of intrinsic motivation for changing personal substance use reduced the dropout risk (adjusted hazard ratio [adjHR]: 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.48-0.79). Higher levels of mental distress were associated with an increased risk for dropout (adjHR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.11-1.97). Conclusions: The role of mental health and motivation in reducing dropout risk from inpatient SUD treatment should be targeted in future prospective intervention studies. PMID:29531472

  9. Predictors of Dropout From Inpatient Substance Use Treatment: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Wessel Andersson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dropout from inpatient treatment for substance use disorder (SUD is an ongoing challenge. The aim of this study was to identify demographic, substance use, and psychological factors that predict dropout from postdetoxification inpatient SUD treatment. Materials and methods: A total of 454 patients from 5 inpatient SUD centers in Central Norway were consecutively included in this naturalistic, prospective cohort study. Results: A total of 132 patients (28% did not complete the planned treatment stay (dropped out. Cox regression analysis showed that higher levels of intrinsic motivation for changing personal substance use reduced the dropout risk (adjusted hazard ratio [adjHR]: 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.48-0.79. Higher levels of mental distress were associated with an increased risk for dropout (adjHR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.11-1.97. Conclusions: The role of mental health and motivation in reducing dropout risk from inpatient SUD treatment should be targeted in future prospective intervention studies.

  10. Hycom Pre - Feasibility study. Final report[Hydrogen communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacobazzi, A; Mario, F di [ENEA, (Italy); Hasenauer, U [Fraunhofer IS, (Germany); Joergensen, B H; Bromand Noergaard, P [Risoe National Lab., (Denmark)

    2005-07-01

    The Quick-start Programme of the European Union Initiative for Growth identifies the hydrogen economy as one of the key areas for investment in the medium term (2004-2015). In this context the HyCOM (Hydrogen Communities) programme has been initiated. The main goal of this programme is the creation of a limited number of strategically sited stand-alone hydrogen communities producing hydrogen from various primary sources (mostly renewables) and using it for heat and electricity production and as fuel for vehicles. This report looks at the establishment of such hydrogen communities, analysing the main technical, economic, social, and environmental aspects as well as financial and regulatory barriers associated with the creation and operation of hydrogen communities. It also proposes a number of concepts for Hydrogen Communities and criteria with which a Hydrogen Community should be evaluated. The study is not in any way intended to be prescriptive. (ln)

  11. Selective effects of acute alcohol intake on the prospective and retrospective components of a prospective-memory task with emotional targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Nora T; Bayen, Ute J

    2016-01-01

    Prospective memory involves remembering to do something in the future and has a prospective component (remembering that something must be done) and a retrospective component (remembering what must be done and when it must be done). Initial studies reported an impairment in prospective-memory performance due to acute alcohol consumption. Retrospective-memory studies demonstrated that alcohol effects vary depending on the emotionality of the information that needs to be learned. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible differential effects of a mild acute alcohol dose (0.4 g/kg) on the prospective and retrospective components of prospective memory depending on cue valence. Seventy-five participants were allocated to an alcohol or placebo group and performed a prospective-memory task in which prospective-memory cue valence was manipulated (negative, neutral, positive). The multinomial model of event-based prospective memory (Smith and Bayen 2004) was used to measure alcohol and valence effects on the two prospective-memory components separately. Overall, no main effect of alcohol or valence on prospective-memory performance occurred. However, model-based analyses demonstrated a significantly higher retrospective component for positive compared with negative cues in the placebo group. In the alcohol group, the prospective component was weaker for negative than for neutral cues and the retrospective component was stronger for positive than for neutral cues. Group comparisons showed that the alcohol group had a significantly lower prospective component for negative cues and a lower retrospective component for neutral cues. This is the first study to demonstrate selective alcohol effects on prospective-memory components depending on prospective-memory cue valence.

  12. Sleep Quality, Sleep Duration, and the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease : A Prospective Cohort Study With 60,586 Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lao, Xiang Qian; Liu, Xudong; Deng, Han-Bing; Chan, Ta-Chien; Ho, Kin Fai; Wang, Feng; Vermeulen, Roel; Tam, Tony; Wong, Martin C S; Tse, Lap Ah; Chang, Ly-Yun; Yeoh, Eng-Kiong

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: There is limited information on the relationship between risk of cardiovascular disease and the joint effects of sleep quality and sleep duration, especially from large, prospective, cohort studies. This study is to prospectively investigate the joint effects of sleep quality and

  13. Lifestyle factors and site-specific risk of hip fracture in community dwelling older women – a 13-year prospective population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Määttä Mikko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several risk factors are associated to hip fractures. It seems that different hip fracture types have different etiologies. In this study, we evaluated the lifestyle-related risk factors for cervical and trochanteric hip fractures in older women over a 13-year follow-up period. Methods The study design was a prospective, population-based study consisting of 1681 women (mean age 72 years. Seventy-three percent (n = 1222 participated in the baseline measurements, including medical history, leisure-time physical activity, smoking, and nutrition, along with body anthropometrics and functional mobility. Cox regression was used to identify the independent predictors of cervical and trochanteric hip fractures. Results During the follow-up, 49 cervical and 31 trochanteric fractures were recorded. The women with hip fractures were older, taller, and thinner than the women with no fractures (p  Conclusions Impaired functional mobility, physical inactivity, and low body mass may increase the risk for hip fractures with different effects at the cervical and trochanteric levels.

  14. Adverse drug reactions to tocolytic treatment for preterm labour: Prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. de Heus (Roel); B.W.J. Mol (Ben); J.J.H.M. Erwich; H.P. van Geijn (Herman); W.J. Gyselaers (Wilfried); M. Hanssens (Myriam); L. Harmark (Linda); C.D. van Holsbeke (Caroline); J.J. Duvekot (Hans); F. Famschobben; H. Wolf (Hans Uwe); G.H. Visser (Gerhard Henk)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractObjective To evaluate the incidence of serious maternal complications after the use of various tocolytic drugs for the treatment of preterm labour in routine clinical situations. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting 28 hospitals in the Netherlands and Belgium. Participants 1920

  15. A Study of Work Engagement among Community College Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Gemmy S.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined how community college instructors perceive their level of work engagement. Businesses have studied work engagement, but the empirical literature on work engagement of community college instructors has been limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent the type of faculty member (full-time instructor versus…

  16. Gout in Older Adults: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Bridget Teevan; Köttgen, Anna; Law, Andrew; Grams, Morgan; Baer, Alan N; Coresh, Josef; McAdams-DeMarco, Mara A

    2016-04-01

    It is unclear whether traditional and genetic risk factors in middle age predict the onset of gout in older age. We studied the incidence of gout in older adults using the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, a prospective U.S. population-based cohort of middle-aged adults enrolled between 1987 and 1989 with ongoing follow-up. A genetic urate score was formed from common urate-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms for eight genes. The adjusted hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval of incident gout by traditional and genetic risk factors in middle age were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model. The cumulative incidence from middle age to age 65 was 8.6% in men and 2.5% in women; by age 75 the cumulative incidence was 11.8% and 5.0%. In middle age, increased adiposity, beer intake, protein intake, smoking status, hypertension, diuretic use, and kidney function (but not sex) were associated with an increased gout risk in older age. In addition, a 100 µmol/L increase in genetic urate score was associated with a 3.29-fold (95% confidence interval: 1.63-6.63) increased gout risk in older age. These findings suggest that traditional and genetic risk factors in middle age may be useful for identifying those at risk of gout in older age. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. A prospective study of risk factors for foot ulceration: The West of Ireland Diabetes Foot Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hurley, L

    2013-09-25

    BackgroundThis is the first study to examine risk factors for diabetic foot ulceration in Irish general practice.AimTo determine the prevalence of established risk factors for foot ulceration in a community-based cohort, and to explore the potential for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to act as a novel risk factor.DesignA prospective observational study.MethodsPatients with diabetes attending 12 (of 17) invited general practices were invited for foot screening. Validated clinical tests were carried out at baseline to assess for vascular and sensory impairment and foot deformity. Ulcer incidence was ascertained by patient self-report and medical record. Patients were re-assessed 18 months later. ResultsOf 828 invitees, 563 (68%) attended screening. On examination 23-25% had sensory dysfunction and 18-39% had evidence of vascular impairment. Using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network risk stratification system we found the proportion at moderate and high risk of future ulceration to be 25% and 11% respectively. At follow-up 16\\/383 patients (4.2%) developed a new foot ulcer (annual incidence rate of 2.6%). We observed an increasing probability of abnormal vascular and sensory test results (pedal pulse palpation, doppler waveform assessment, 10g monofilament, vibration perception and neuropathy disability score) with declining eGFR levels. We were unable to show an independent association between new ulceration and reduced eGFR [Odds ratio 1.01; p=0.64].ConclusionsOur data show the extent of foot complications in a representative sample of diabetes patients in Ireland. Use of eGFR did not improve identification of patients at risk of foot ulceration.

  18. A Prospective Cohort Study of IRS Genes Polymorphisms in Type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the genetic polymorphisms that may contribute to the worsening of glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with severe or acute hyperglycemia. Methods: The prospective cohort study included 156 T2DM patients with severe or acute hyperglycemia from all medical wards of the National ...

  19. The relative contribution of physical and cognitive fall risk factors in people with Parkinson's disease: a large prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Serene S; Sherrington, Catherine; Canning, Colleen G; Fung, Victor S C; Close, Jacqueline C T; Lord, Stephen R

    2014-01-01

    In order to develop multifaceted fall prevention strategies for people with Parkinson's disease (PD), greater understanding of the impact of physical and cognitive performance on falls is required. We aimed to identify the relative contribution of a comprehensive range of physical and cognitive risk factors to prospectively-measured falls in a large sample of people with PD and develop an explanatory multivariate fall risk model in this group. METHODS MEASURES: of PD signs and symptoms, freezing of gait, balance, mobility, proprioception, leg muscle strength, and cognition were collected on 205 community-dwelling people with PD. Falls were monitored prospectively for 6 months using falls diaries. A total of 120 participants (59%) fell during follow-up. Freezing of gait (P falls in univariate analyses. Freezing of gait (risk ratio [RR] = 1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.00-1.05, P = .02), impaired anticipatory (RR = 1.01, 95% CI = 1.00-1.02, P = .03) and reactive (RR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.01-1.58, P = .04) balance, and impaired orientation (RR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.01-1.62, P = .04) maintained significant associations with falls in multivariate analysis. The study findings elucidate important physical and cognitive determinants of falls in people with PD and may assist in developing efficacious fall prevention strategies for this high-risk group.

  20. Exposure to secondhand smoke and risk of tuberculosis: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsien-Ho; Chiang, Yi-Ting; Chuang, Jen-Hsiang; Yang, Shiang-Lin; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Ezzati, Majid; Murray, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Prospective evidence on the association between secondhand-smoke exposure and tuberculosis is limited. We included 23,827 never smokers from two rounds (2001 and 2005) of Taiwan National Health Interview Survey. Information on exposure to secondhand smoke at home as well as other sociodemographic and behavioral factors was collected through in-person interview. The participants were prospectively followed for incidence of tuberculosis through cross-matching the survey database to the national tuberculosis registry of Taiwan. A total of 85 cases of active tuberculosis were identified after a median follow-up of 7.0 years. The prevalence of exposure to secondhand smoke at home was 41.8% in the study population. In the multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis, secondhand smoke was not associated with active tuberculosis (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.03; 95% CI, 0.64 to 1.64). In the subgroup analysis, the association between secondhand smoke and tuberculosis decreased with increasing age; the adjusted HR for those = 18 and = 40 and = 60 years old was 8.48 (0.77 to 93.56), 2.29 (0.75 to 7.01), 1.33 (0.58 to 3.01), and 0.66 (0.35 to 1.23) respectively. Results from extensive sensitivity analyses suggested that potential misclassification of secondhand-smoke exposure would not substantially affect the observed associations. The results from this prospective cohort study did not support an overall association between secondhand smoke and tuberculosis. However, the finding that adolescents might be particularly susceptible to secondhand smoke's effect warrants further investigation.

  1. Developing Online Communities for Librarian Researchers: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lili; Kennedy, Marie; Brancolini, Kristine; Stephens, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the role of online communities in connecting and supporting librarian researchers, through the analysis of member activities in the online community for academic librarians that attended the 2014 Institute for Research Design in Librarianship (IRDL). The 2014 IRDL cohort members participated in the online community via Twitter…

  2. Causes of anorexia in untreated hyperthyroidism: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, W X; Meng, X W

    2000-05-01

    Seventeen consecutive patients (mean (SD) 46 (11) years) with untreated hyperthyroidism and anorexia and 29 patients (35 (9) years) with untreated hyperthyroidism without anorexia were studied. The study was conducted at the thyroid clinic of the PUMC Hospital, Beijing, China from March to August 1997. The patients' ages, serum free calcium, liver function and emotional state, specifically the level of anxiety (using the self anxiety scale, Chinese version), were compared before and/or after antithyroid drug treatment in the two groups. This prospective study suggested that the causes of anorexia in untreated hyperthyroidism are complicated. Older age, abnormal liver function, and the level of anxiety are significantly related to anorexia in untreated hyperthyroidism, but hypercalcaemia was not confirmed to be related to anorexia in the study.

  3. Twenty-one days of isolation: A prospective observational cohort study of an Ebola-exposed hot zone community in Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, George Sie; Naiene, Jeremias; Gayflor, Joseph; Malibiche, Theophil; Zoogley, Bentoe; Frank, Wimot G; Nayeri, Fariba

    2015-08-01

    As West Africa continues to suffer from a deadly Ebola epidemic, the national health sectors struggle to minimize the damages and stop the spread of disease. A cohort of inhabitants of a small village and an Ebola hot zone in Sinoe County of Liberia was followed on a day-by-day basis to search for new cases and to minimize the spread of Ebola to the other community members or to other regions. Technical, clinical, and humanistic aspects of the response are discussed in this report. Of the 22 confirmed Ebola cases in Sinoe County since the beginning of outbreak (June 16, 2014), 7 cases were inhabitants of Polay Town, a small village 5.5 miles east of Greenville, the Sinoe County capital. After the last wave of outbreak at the beginning of December, enhanced response activity provided essential coordination and mobilized the resources to stop the epidemic. Despite unprotected contacts in crowded houses, no new cases were detected among the contact families, or in the surrounding houses or communities. Strong national mobilization in a decentralized but harmonized system at the community level has been of great value in controlling the epidemic in Liberia. The major interventions include epidemiological surveillance, public information dissemination, effective communication, case management, and infection control. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Birth spacing of pregnant women in Nepal: A community-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Karkee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundOptimal birth spacing has health advantages for both mother and child. In developing countries, shorter birth intervals are common and associated with social, cultural and economic factors, as well as a lack of family planning. This study investigated the first birth interval after marriage and preceding interbirth interval in Nepal.MethodsA community-based prospective cohort study was conducted in the Kaski district of Nepal. Information on birth spacing, demographic and obstetric characteristics was obtained from 701 pregnant women using a structured questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were performed to ascertain factors associated with short birth spacing.ResultsAbout 39% of primiparous women gave their first child birth within one year of marriage and 23% of multiparous women had short preceding interbirth intervals (<24 months. The average birth spacing among the multiparous group was 44.9 (SD 21.8 months. Overall, short birth spacing appeared to be inversely associated with advancing maternal age.For the multiparous group, Janajati and lower caste women, and those whose newborn was female, were more likely to have short birth spacing.ConclusionsThe preceding interbirth interval was relatively long in the Kaski district of Nepal and tended to be associated with maternal age, caste, and sex of newborn infant. Optimal birth spacing programs should target Janajati and lower caste women, along with promotion of gender equality in society.

  5. [Relationships between walking hours, sleeping hours, meaningfulness of life (ikigai) and mortality in the elderly: prospective cohort study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, N

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine lifestyle factors in the elderly that affected longevity, using a population-based prospective study. The participants were 440 men and 625 women aged 60 to 74 living in a rural Japanese community. The baseline data such as age, sex, present illness, walking hours per day, sleeping hours per day, alcohol consumption, a history of smoking, and "ikigai" (meaningfulness of life) were collected in July 1990. During 90 months of follow-up from July 1990 to December 31 1997, there were 123 deaths. By Cox's multivariate hazard model adjusted age, sex, and medical histories, walking > or = 1 hour/day (HR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.44-0.91) and an "ikigai" (HR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.44-0.99) lowered the risk for all-cause mortality independently. In regard to hours of sleep, the cumulative survival curve showed that 7 hours/day was the border and sleeping > or = 7 hours/day lowered the risk (HR = 0.49 95% CI 0.33-0.74). Based on the findings in this study, walking > or = 1 hour/day, sleeping > or = 7 hours/day, and "ikigai" are important factors for longevity in the elderly.

  6. Moderate Childhood Stress Buffers Against Depressive Response to Proximal Stressors: A Multi-Wave Prospective Study of Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapero, Benjamin G.; Hamilton, Jessica L.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Liu, Richard T.; Y.Abramson, Lyn; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    Although the majority of research in the field has focused on childhood stressors as a risk factor for psychopathology, a burgeoning body of literature has focused on the possible steeling effect of moderate types of stressful events. The current study investigated the effects of proximal life stressors on prospective changes in depressive symptoms, and whether a history of moderate childhood adversity would moderate this relationship in a multi-wave study of a diverse community sample of early adolescents (N = 163, 52% female, 51% Caucasian). Hierarchical linear modeling was run with four waves of data. Adolescents with greater moderately severe early life events evinced a blunted depressive symptom response to changes in proximal stressful events in the previous 9 months, compared to those with fewer early moderately severe experiences of adversity. These results held after controlling for between-subject factors such as race, gender, severe early life stress, and average stress over the four waves of data. Findings indicate that greater exposure to moderate childhood stressors may buffer against the negative effects of subsequent stressors, suggesting the importance of a nuanced developmental approach to studying the effects of early life stress. PMID:25911194

  7. Moderate Childhood Stress Buffers Against Depressive Response to Proximal Stressors: A Multi-Wave Prospective Study of Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapero, Benjamin G; Hamilton, Jessica L; Stange, Jonathan P; Liu, Richard T; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2015-11-01

    Although the majority of research in the field has focused on childhood stressors as a risk factor for psychopathology, a burgeoning body of literature has focused on the possible steeling effect of moderate types of stressful events. The current study investigated the effects of proximal life stressors on prospective changes in depressive symptoms, and whether a history of moderate childhood adversity would moderate this relationship in a multi-wave study of a diverse community sample of early adolescents (N = 163, 52 % female, 51 % Caucasian). Hierarchical linear modeling was run with four waves of data. Adolescents with greater moderately severe early life events evinced a blunted depressive symptom response to changes in proximal stressful events in the previous 9 months, compared to those with fewer early moderately severe experiences of adversity. These results held after controlling for between-subject factors such as race, gender, severe early life stress, and average stress over the four waves of data. Findings indicate that greater exposure to moderate childhood stressors may buffer against the negative effects of subsequent stressors, suggesting the importance of a nuanced developmental approach to studying the effects of early life stress.

  8. Remembrance of Things Future: Prospective Memory in Laboratory, Workplace, and Everyday Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dismukes, R. Key

    2010-01-01

    In this review, oriented to the human factors community, I will summarize and provide a perspective on recent research and theory on prospective memory. This will not be an exhaustive review of literature, which is already available in two excellent recent books that provide a wealth of detail on the current state of experimental research (Kliegel, McCaniel, & Einstein, 2008; McDaniel & Einstein, 2007; also see Brandimonte, Einstein, & McDaniel, 1996, for a still relevant overview of the field as it was emerging). Rather, I will explore the limits of existing experimental paradigms and theory, Vvilich, in my opinion, fail to capture some critical aspects of performance outside the laboratory. I will also review the relatively few studies in workplace and everyday settings and will discuss several studies that attempt to bridge between the bulk of experimental studies and these few naturalistic studies. Finally, I will describe countermeasures that can reduce vulnerability to forgetting to perform intended tasks, and I will propose a research agenda that would extend existing experimental and theoretical approaches and would support human factors practitioners by generating information on a wide range of issues relevant to prospective memory performance in natural settings.

  9. Maternal cortisol and offspring birthweight: results from a large prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedhart, G.; Vrijkotte, T.G.M.; Roseboom, T.J.; van der Wal, M.F.; Cuijpers, P.; Bonsel, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal psychosocial problems may affect fetal growth through maternal cortisol. This large prospective cohort study examined among 2810 women (1) the association of maternal cortisol levels with offspring birthweight and small for gestational age (SGA) risk and (2) the mediating role of maternal

  10. The impact of voice impairment after thyroidectomy on quality of life. A prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Roed; Døssing, Helle; Bonnema, Steen Joop

    Introduction: To assess the impact of voice and vocal fold changes (VVFC) after thyroidectomy on disease specific quality of life (QoL). Methods: Prospective cohort study (inclusion period: 18 months, ending April-2016) with six months follow-up of patients with nodular goiter undergoing thyroide......Introduction: To assess the impact of voice and vocal fold changes (VVFC) after thyroidectomy on disease specific quality of life (QoL). Methods: Prospective cohort study (inclusion period: 18 months, ending April-2016) with six months follow-up of patients with nodular goiter undergoing...

  11. Intervention and prevention of hereditary hemolytic disorders in India: a case study of two ethnic communities of Sundargarh district in Orissa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balgir, R S

    2008-11-01

    This study was aimed at to sensitize, motivate, and screen two major vulnerable tribal communities--Bhuyan and Kharia, for hemoglobinopathies and allied hemolytic disorders, along with prospective and retrospective genetic/marriage counseling to the affected persons. For sustainability, imparting of relevant training to local paramedical staff, and to undertake periodic follow up for evaluation, intervention and clinical management through local PHCs/hospitals. Tribal people in Orissa live in clusters practicing inter-village marriages following tribal endogamy and clan exogamy. The random sampling procedure for the selection of whole village was followed. Population of each tribe was representative because incoming and outgoing married women represent other surrounding villages belonging to their community. The pre- and post-intervention knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) studies were conducted. Sensitization, motivation and education for carrier detection were carried out through IEC materials, holding interactive meetings and discussions at district, block and village levels. Standard biochemical and hematological techniques were followed for analysis of blood samples. Relevant training to local health personnel was imparted. Both prospective and retrospective intervention and genetic/marriage counseling was done through local PHC doctor. Study revealed high occurrence of hemoglobinopathies in Bhuyan (9.8%) and Kharia (13.3%) tribes, including uncommon hemoglobin variants like hemoglobin D, E, beta-thalassemia, and hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH). G-6-PD enzyme deficiency was high in Dhelki Kharia (30.7%) and in Dudh Kharia (19.2%), whereas, it was recorded to be 21.1%, 16.3% and 13.7% in Paraja, Paik and Paudi Bhuyan subtribes, respectively. Use of antimalarials was cautioned in these tribal communities. Due to low frequency of Rhesus (D) negative (0.2-1.2%), the Rhesus (D) incompatibility problem seemed to be absent. Impact of methodical

  12. Prospective study of blood metabolites associated with colorectal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xiang; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Rothman, Nathaniel; Yu, Danxia; Li, Hong-Lan; Yang, Gong; Cai, Hui; Ma, Xiao; Lan, Qing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Jia, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Zheng, Wei

    2018-02-26

    Few prospective studies, and none in Asians, have systematically evaluated the relationship between blood metabolites and colorectal cancer risk. We conducted a nested case-control study to search for risk-associated metabolite biomarkers for colorectal cancer in an Asian population using blood samples collected prior to cancer diagnosis. Conditional logistic regression was performed to assess associations of metabolites with cancer risk. In this study, we included 250 incident cases with colorectal cancer and individually matched controls nested within two prospective Shanghai cohorts. We found 35 metabolites associated with risk of colorectal cancer after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Among them, 12 metabolites were glycerophospholipids including nine associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer and three with increased risk [odds ratios per standard deviation increase of transformed metabolites: 0.31-1.98; p values: 0.002-1.25 × 10 -10 ]. The other 23 metabolites associated with colorectal cancer risk included nine lipids other than glycerophospholipid, seven aromatic compounds, five organic acids and four other organic compounds. After mutual adjustment, nine metabolites remained statistically significant for colorectal cancer. Together, these independently associated metabolites can separate cancer cases from controls with an area under the curve of 0.76 for colorectal cancer. We have identified that dysregulation of glycerophospholipids may contribute to risk of colorectal cancer. © 2018 UICC.

  13. Peroral endoscopic myotomy for the treatment of achalasia: an international prospective multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Renteln, Daniel; Fuchs, Karl-Hermann; Fockens, Paul; Bauerfeind, Peter; Vassiliou, Melina C.; Werner, Yuki B.; Fried, Gerald; Breithaupt, Wolfram; Heinrich, Henriette; Bredenoord, Albert J.; Kersten, Jan F.; Verlaan, Tessa; Trevisonno, Michael; Rösch, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Pilot studies have indicated that peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) might be a safe and effective treatment for achalasia. We performed a prospective, international, multicenter study to determine the outcomes of 70 patients who underwent POEM at 5 centers in Europe and North America. Three months

  14. Effects of perioperative briefing and debriefing on patient safety: a prospective intervention study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leong, K.B.M.S.L.; Hanskamp-Sebregts, M.E.; Wal, R.A. van der; Wolff, AP

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was carried out to improve patient safety in the operating theatre by the introduction of perioperative briefing and debriefing, which focused on an optimal collaboration between surgical team members. DESIGN: A prospective intervention study with one pretest and two post-test

  15. Parents' posttraumatic stress after burns in their school-aged child : A prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egberts, Marthe R|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412493616; van de Schoot, A.G.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833207; Geenen, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/087017571; Van Loey, Nancy E E

    OBJECTIVE: This prospective study examined the course and potential predictors of parents' posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) after burn injury in their child (Age 8 to 18 years). METHOD: One hundred eleven mothers and 91 fathers, representing 118 children, participated in the study. Within the

  16. The Gambian Bone and Muscle Ageing Study: Baseline Data from a Prospective Observational African Sub-Saharan Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Zengin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Gambian Bone and Muscle Ageing Study is a prospective observational study investigating bone and muscle ageing in men and women from a poor, subsistence farming community of The Gambia, West Africa. Musculoskeletal diseases, including osteoporosis and sarcopenia, form a major part of the current global non-communicable disease burden. By 2050, the vast majority of the world’s ageing population will live in low- and middle-income countries with an estimated two-fold rise in osteoporotic fracture. The study design was to characterise change in bone and muscle outcomes and to identify possible preventative strategies for fracture and sarcopenia in the increasing ageing population. Men and women aged ≥40 years from the Kiang West region of The Gambia were recruited with stratified sampling by sex and age. Baseline measurements were completed in 488 participants in 2012 who were randomly assigned to follow-up between 1.5 and 2 years later. Follow-up measurements were performed on 465 participants approximately 1.7 years after baseline measurements. The data set comprises a wide range of measurements on bone, muscle strength, anthropometry, biochemistry, and dietary intake. Questionnaires were used to obtain information on health, lifestyle, musculoskeletal pain, and reproductive status. Baseline cross-sectional data show preliminary evidence for bone mineral density and muscle loss with age. Men had greater negative differences in total body lean mass with age than women following adjustments for body size. From peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans, greater negative associations between bone outcomes and age at the radius and tibia were shown in women than in men. Ultimately, the findings from The Gambian Bone and Muscle Ageing Study will contribute to the understanding of musculoskeletal health in a transitioning population and better characterise fracture and sarcopenia incidence in The Gambia with an aim to the

  17. Associations between vertebral fractures, increased thoracic kyphosis, a flexed posture and falls in older adults : a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Jagt-Willems, Hanna C.; de Groot, Maartje H.; van Campen, Jos P. C. M.; Lamoth, Claudine J. C.; Lems, Willem F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vertebral fractures, an increased thoracic kyphosis and a flexed posture are associated with falls. However, this was not confirmed in prospective studies. We performed a prospective cohort study to investigate the association between vertebral fractures, increased thoracic kyphosis

  18. Associations between vertebral fractures, increased thoracic kyphosis, a flexed posture and falls in older adults: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Jagt-Willems, H.C.; de Groot, M.H.; van Campen, J.P.C.M.; Lamoth, C.J.C.; Lems, W.F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vertebral fractures, an increased thoracic kyphosis and a flexed posture are associated with falls. However, this was not confirmed in prospective studies. We performed a prospective cohort study to investigate the association between vertebral fractures, increased thoracic kyphosis

  19. A one-year prospective study of refractory status epilepticus in Modena, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, Giada; Monti, Giulia; Polisi, Michela M; Mirandola, Laura; Marudi, Andrea; Pinelli, Giovanni; Valzania, Franco; Girardis, Massimo; Nichelli, Paolo F; Meletti, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) is a particular critical condition characterized by seizures that continue despite the use of first- and second-line therapies and by high mortality. To date, only one prospective study investigated clinical features and prognostic factors in RSE. In this study, we performed a one-year prospective survey to identify clinical features, outcomes, and variables associated with the development of RSE in the adolescent and adult population of Modena, northern Italy. We observed 83 episodes of SE in 83 patients. In 31% of the cases, third-line therapy (anesthetic drug) was needed. Among this group, 14% resolved and were classified as RSE, while, in 17%, seizures recurred at withdrawal of anesthetics and were classified as super-RSE. The development of RSE/super-RSE was associated with a stuporous/comatose state at presentation and with the absence of a previous history of epilepsy. Refractory status epilepticus/super-refractory status epilepticus showed a worse outcome compared with responsive SE: 54% versus 21% for 30-day mortality; 19% versus 56% for a return to baseline condition. This prospective study confirms stupor/coma at onset as a relevant clinical factor associated with SE refractoriness. We observed a rate of RSE comparable with previous reports, with high mortality and morbidity. Mortality in the observed RSE was higher than in previous studies; this result is probably related to the low rate of a previous epilepsy history in our population that reflects a high incidence of acute symptomatic etiologies, especially the inclusion of patients with postanoxic SE who have a bad prognosis per se. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Status Epilepticus". Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Study of the plantar arch: correlations between podometrical and radiological parameters. results of a prospective study of 79 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, R; Dojcinovic, S; Andrianne, Y; Burny, F

    2006-01-01

    The authors present a prospective study on the potential correlations between eight footprint parameters and three radiological parameters in the study of the plantar arch. Seventy nine patients were evaluated in 2001. The eight footprint parameters were as fellows : the arch angle, the Chippaux-Smirak's index, the Quamra's contact index 2,3 and 4, the Schwartz's footprint angle, the Staheli's arch index and the arch length index. The three radiological parameters were as fellows : the Djian-Annonier's angle, the Méary's angle and the calcaneal inclination. This prospective study confirms the best correlation, found in others studies, obtained between the Djian-Annonier's angle and the Chippaux-Smirak. The use of the Méary's angle and the calcaneal inclination is not justified because they have bad correlations with footprint parameters.

  1. A population-based prospective study of optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soelberg, K; Jarius, S; Skejoe, Hanne Pernille Bro

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Optic neuritis (ON) is often associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). Early diagnosis is critical to optimal patient management. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of acute ON and the rates of conversion to MS and antibody-mediated ON. METHOD: Population-based prospective study......-specific incidence was 3.28 (2.44-4.31) per 100,000 person years, 2.02 for men and 4.57 for women. At follow-up, 20 patients met the diagnostic criteria for MS, MRI lesions disseminated in space and time in 17/20 patients. AQP4-IgG was detected in none, MOG-IgG was detected in two patients. CONCLUSION...

  2. The diagnostic contribution of the frontal lumbar spine radiograph in community referred low back pain - A prospective study of 1030 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoo, L.A.L. E-mail: lisanne.khoo@stgeorges.nhs.uk; Heron, C.; Patel, U.; Given-Wilson, R.; Grundy, A.; Khaw, K.T.; Dundas, D

    2003-08-01

    AIM: The diagnostic contribution of the anteroposterior (AP) view was studied to assess whether this view could be omitted safely, thus reducing the radiation burden received by patients undergoing lumbar spine radiography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective analysis of 1030 consecutive referrals for lumbar spine radiography from general practice. RESULTS: In the majority of cases (90.5%) the AP view was non-contributory. In 4.2% the diagnosis was strengthened and it was altered in 4.6%. However, in the latter group only 1.3% of the total were considered significant alterations. These were cases of possible, but not definite, pars defects and sacroiliitis. Specific important conditions such as infection, malignancy and benign tumours were not missed on the lateral view alone, in our study population. The radiation burden is reduced by 75% by omitting the AP view. CONCLUSION: A single lateral view is an adequate examination, with the proviso that sacroiliac joint disease is not assessed on this view and some pars defects and facet joint degenerative changes may be overlooked. The radiation protection gains are considerable. A single lateral lumbar view is now our routine practice unless sacroiliitis is a specific clinical concern.

  3. Variations in Community Prevalence and Determinants of Recreational and Utilitarian Walking in Older Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Procter-Gray

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Regular walking is critical to maintaining health in older age. We examined influences of individual and community factors on walking habits in older adults. Methods. We analyzed walking habits among participants of a prospective cohort study of 745 community-dwelling men and women, mainly aged 70 years or older. We estimated community variations in utilitarian and recreational walking, and examined whether the variations were attributable to community differences in individual and environmental factors. Results. Prevalence of recreational walking was relatively uniform while prevalence of utilitarian walking varied across the 16 communities in the study area. Both types of walking were associated with individual health and physical abilities. However, utilitarian walking was also strongly associated with several measures of neighborhood socioeconomic status and access to amenities while recreational walking was not. Conclusions. Utilitarian walking is strongly influenced by neighborhood environment, but intrinsic factors may be more important for recreational walking. Communities with the highest overall walking prevalence were those with the most utilitarian walkers. Public health promotion of regular walking should take this into account.

  4. A prospective study of radiographic manifestations in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleveland, Robert H. [Harvard Medical School, Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA (United States); Gordon, Leslie B. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Anesthesia, Children' s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA (United States); Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Department of Pediatrics, Hasbro Children' s Hospital, Providence, RI (United States); Kleinman, Monica E. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Anesthesia, Children' s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA (United States); Miller, David T. [Harvard Medical School, Division of Genetics, Children' s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA (United States); Gordon, Catherine M. [Harvard Medical School, Division of Endocrinology and Adolescent Medicine, Children' s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA (United States); Snyder, Brian D. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Children' s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA (United States); Nazarian, Ara [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Giobbie-Hurder, Anita [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Boston, MA (United States); Neuberg, Donna [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, Boston, MA (United States); Kieran, Mark W. [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Children' s Hospital Boston, Division of Pediatric Oncology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Progeria is a rare segmental premature aging disease with significant skeletal abnormalities. Defining the full scope of radiologic abnormalities requires examination of a large proportion of the world's progeria population (estimated at 1 in 4 million). There has been no comprehensive prospective study describing the skeletal abnormalities associated with progeria. To define characteristic radiographic features of this syndrome. Thirty-nine children with classic progeria, ages 2-17 years, from 29 countries were studied at a single site. Comprehensive radiographic imaging studies were performed. Sample included 23 girls and 16 boys - the largest number of patients with progeria evaluated prospectively to date. Eight new and two little known progeria-associated radiologic findings were identified (frequencies of 3-36%). Additionally, 23 commonly reported findings were evaluated. Of these, 2 were not encountered and 21 were present and ranked according to their frequency. Nine abnormalities were associated with increasing patient age (P = 0.02-0.0001). This study considerably expands the radiographic morphological spectrum of progeria. A better understanding of the radiologic abnormalities associated with progeria and improved understanding of the biology of progerin (the molecule responsible for this disease), will improve our ability to treat the spectrum of bony abnormalities. (orig.)

  5. Stroke presentation and outcome in developing countries: a prospective study in the Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbusinski, Johanne M; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Bartholome, Emmanuel J; Dramaix, Michèle; Gaye, Alieu; Coleman, Rosalind; Nyan, Ousman A; Walker, Richard W; McAdam, Keith P W J; Walraven, Gys E

    2005-07-01

    Despite increasing burden of stroke in Africa, prospective descriptive data are rare. Our objective was to describe, in The Gambia, the clinical outcome of stroke patients admitted to the Royal Victoria Teaching Hospital in the capital Banjul, to assess mortality and morbidity, and propose preventive and therapeutic measures. Prospective data were collected on consecutive patients older than 15 years old admitted between February 2000 and February 2001 with the diagnosis of nonsubarachnoid stroke. Risk factors, clinical characteristics, and social consequences were assessed using a modified National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (mNIHSS), the Barthel Activity in Daily Living scale, the Siriraj score for subtypes, and the Bamford criteria for location/extension. Patients were followed-up at home up to 1 year after discharge. Ninety-one percent (148/162) of eligible patients were enrolled and followed-up. Hypertension and smoking were the most prevalent risk factors. Severity was high at admission, especially in women, and was strongly correlated to the outcome. mNIHSS and consciousness level on admission were strong predictors of the mortality risk. Swallowing difficulties at admission, fever, lung infection, and no aspirin treatment were, independently, risk factors for a lethal outcome susceptible to being addressed by treatment. Mortality was 41% in-hospital and 62% after 1 year. In survivors, autonomy levels improved over time. Drug compliance was poor. At home, family members provided care. Long-term socioeconomic and cultural activities were affected in most patients. Case-fatality was high compared with Western cohorts. Preventive measures can be developed. Rational treatment, in the absence of head imaging for initial assessment, requires adapted protocols. Providers should be trained, both at hospital and community levels.

  6. Tea consumption and the risk of five major cancers: a dose–response meta-analysis of prospective studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background We conducted a dose–response meta-analysis of prospective studies to summarize evidence of the association between tea consumption and the risk of breast, colorectal, liver, prostate, and stomach cancer. Methods We searched PubMed and two other databases. Prospective studies that reported risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of cancer risk for ≥3 categories of tea consumption were included. We estimated an overall RR with 95% CI for an increase of three cups/day of tea consumption, and, usingrestricted cubic splines, we examined a nonlinear association between tea consumption and cancer risk. Results Forty-one prospective studies, with a total of 3,027,702 participants and 49,103 cancer cases, were included. From the pooled overall RRs, no inverse association between tea consumption and risk of five major cancers was observed. However, subgroup analysis showed that increase in consumption of three cups of black tea per day was a significant risk factor for breast cancer (RR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.05-1.32). Conclusion Ourresults did not show a protective role of tea in five major cancers. Additional large prospective cohort studies are needed to make a convincing case for associations. PMID:24636229

  7. Associations between vertebral fractures, increased thoracic kyphosis, a flexed posture and falls in older adults: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Jagt-Willems, Hanna C.; de Groot, Maartje H.; van Campen, Jos P. C. M.; Lamoth, Claudine J. C.; Lems, Willem F.

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral fractures, an increased thoracic kyphosis and a flexed posture are associated with falls. However, this was not confirmed in prospective studies. We performed a prospective cohort study to investigate the association between vertebral fractures, increased thoracic kyphosis and/or flexed

  8. The European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing synergies: protocol for a prospective observational study to measure the Impact of a community-based program on prevention and mitigation of frailty (ICP – PMF) in community-dwelling older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liotta, G.; Orfila, F.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé; Roller-Winsberger, R.; Illaria, M.; Musian, D.; Alvino, S.; O'Caoimh, R.; Cano, A.; Molloy, W.; Iaccarino, G.; Marazzi, M.C.; Inzerilli, M.C.; Madaro, O.; Paul, C.; Csonka, P.; Vince, A.C.; Menditto, E.; Maggio, M.; Scarcella, P.; Gilardi, F.; Lucaroni, F.; Abete, P.; Girardi, V.; Barra, R.; Palombi, L.

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this paper is to describe the protocol of the study “Impact of a Community-based Program on Prevention and Mitigation of Frailty in community-dwelling older adults‿ developed in the framework of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing. This proposal has been developed

  9. Attempts to Prevent Falls and Injury: A Prospective Community Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinsch, Sibylle; And Others

    1992-01-01

    At 16 senior centers, studied effectiveness of exercise and cognitive-behavioral programs, compared to discussion control program, in reducing falls and injuries among 230 older adults. After one year of programs, observed no significant difference in time to first fall among groups. Secondary outcome measures such as strength, balance, fear of…

  10. Human resource constraints and the prospect of task-sharing among community health workers for the detection of early signs of pre-eclampsia in Ogun State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akeju, David O; Vidler, Marianne; Sotunsa, J O; Osiberu, M O; Orenuga, E O; Oladapo, Olufemi T; Adepoju, A A; Qureshi, Rahat; Sawchuck, Diane; Adetoro, Olalekan O; von Dadelszen, Peter; Dada, Olukayode A

    2016-09-30

    The dearth of health personnel in low income countries has attracted global attention. Ways as to how health care services can be delivered in a more efficient and effective way using available health personnel are being explored. Task-sharing expands the responsibilities of low-cadre health workers and allows them to share these responsibilities with highly qualified health care providers in an effort to best utilize available human resources. This is appropriate in a country like Nigeria where there is a shortage of qualified health professionals and a huge burden of maternal mortality resulting from obstetric complications like pre-eclampsia. This study examines the prospect for task-sharing among Community Health Extension Workers (CHEW) for the detection of early signs of pre-eclampsia, in Ogun State, Nigeria. This study is part of a larger community-based trial evaluating the acceptability of community treatment for severe pre-eclampsia in Ogun State, Nigeria. Data was collected between 2011 and 2012 using focus group discussions; seven with CHEWs (n = 71), three with male decision-makers (n = 35), six with community leaders (n = 68), and one with member of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Nigeria (n = 9). In addition, interviews were conducted with the heads of the local government administration (n = 4), directors of planning (n = 4), medical officers (n = 4), and Chief Nursing Officers (n = 4). Qualitative data were analysed using NVivo version 10.0 3 computer software. The non-availability of health personnel is a major challenge, and has resulted in a high proportion of facility-based care performed by CHEWs. As a result, CHEWs often take on roles that are designated for senior health workers. This role expansion has exposed CHEWs to the basics of obstetric care, and has resulted in informal task-sharing among the health workers. The knowledge and ability of CHEWs to perform basic clinical assessments

  11. Hospitalization and survival in patients using epoprostenol for injection in the PROSPECT observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Robert P; Schilz, Robert J; Chakinala, Murali M; Badesch, David B; Frost, Adaani E; McLaughlin, Vallerie V; Barst, Robyn J; Rosenberg, Daniel M; Miller, Dave P; Hartline, Brian K; Benton, Wade W; Farber, Harrison W

    2015-02-01

    Few studies have prospectively reported outcomes in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) treated with epoprostenol in the modern-day era of oral therapy and combination treatments. The Registry to Prospectively Describe Use of Epoprostenol for Injection (Veletri, prolonged room temperature stable-epoprostenol [RTS-Epo]) in Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PROSPECT) was established to prospectively describe the course of PAH in patients prescribed RTS-Epo. PROSPECT is a multicenter, US-based drug registry of primarily group 1 patients with PAH treated with RTS-Epo who were parenteral-naive or parenteral-transitioned at enrollment. Patients were followed until discontinuation of RTS-Epo, withdrawal, loss to follow-up, death, or end of study (maximum 1 year). One-year freedom from hospitalization (FH) and survival estimates were summarized by prostacyclin history (parenteral-naive or parenteral-transitioned), sex, and chronic renal insufficiency (CRI). A total of 336 patients were included. The overall 1-year FH estimate was 51.0% ± 2.8% and was lower in parenteral-naive patients than parenteral-transitioned patients (42.8% ± 4.3% vs 57.1% ± 3.7%, respectively; P = .002). FH estimates were lower in male patients than female patients (38.3% ± 5.9% vs 54.6% ± 3.2%, respectively; P < .015) and in patients with CRI than patients without CRI (17.0% ± 8.4% vs 53.7% ± 2.9%, respectively; P < .001). The overall 1-year survival estimate was 84.0% ± 2.1%. Survival was poorer in parenteral-naive patients, male patients, and patients with CRI. Risk of hospitalization and mortality remain high in patients with PAH. In particular, patients who are parenteral-naive at initiation of RTS-Epo therapy, male patients, and patients with CRI require close monitoring and aggressive clinical management.

  12. Consumption of fruit and vegetables and risk of frailty: a dose-response analysis of 3 prospective cohorts of community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Esquinas, Esther; Rahi, Berna; Peres, Karine; Colpo, Marco; Dartigues, Jean-François; Bandinelli, Stefania; Feart, Catherine; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2016-07-01

    Consuming fruit and vegetables (FVs) may protect against frailty, but to our knowledge no study has yet assessed their prospective dose-response relation. We sought to examine the dose-response association between FV consumption and the risk of frailty in older adults. Data were taken from 3 independent cohorts of community-dwelling older adults: the Seniors-ENRICA (Study on Nutrition and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Spain) cohort (n = 1872), Three-City (3C) Bordeaux cohort (n = 581), and integrated multidisciplinary approach cohort (n = 473). Baseline food consumption was assessed with a validated computerized diet history (Seniors-ENRICA) or with a food-frequency questionnaire (3C Bordeaux and AMI). In all cohorts, incident frailty was assessed with the use of the Fried criteria. Results across cohorts were pooled with the use of a random-effects model. During a mean 2.5-y follow-up, 300 incident frailty cases occurred. Fully adjusted models showed that the pooled ORs (95% CIs) of incident frailty comparing participants who consumed 1, 2, or ≥3 portions of fruit/d to those with no consumption were, respectively, 0.59 (0.27, 0.90), 0.58 (0.29, 0.86), and 0.48 (0.20, 0.75), with a P-trend of 0.04. The corresponding values for vegetables were 0.69 (0.42, 0.97), 0.56 (0.35, 0.77), and 0.52 (0.13, 0.92), with a P-trend consumption of fruit and risk of exhaustion, low physical activity, and slow walking speed, whereas the consumption of vegetables was associated with a decreased risk of exhaustion and unintentional weight loss. Among community-dwelling older adults, FV consumption was associated with a lower short-term risk of frailty in a dose-response manner, and the strongest association was obtained with 3 portions of fruit/d and 2 portions of vegetables/d. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Asthma and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Nationwide Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested an association between asthma and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the temporal relationship was not determined. Using a nationwide population-based prospective case-control cohort study (1:4, age-/gender-matched), we hypothesized that asthma in infanthood or early…

  14. Prospective economical study of the nuclear power file; Etude economique prospective de la filiere electrique nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charpin, J M [Commissariat General du Plan, 75 - Paris (France); Dessus, B [Ecodev-CNRS, 92 - Meudon (France); Pellat, R [CEA, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-07-01

    On May 7, 1999 an economical study of the overall nuclear file, and in particular, of the back-end part of the fuel cycle and including the reprocessing, was requested by the French Prime Minister. This study includes the cost comparisons with the other means of power production and takes into consideration the environmental costs. The study is shared into five chapters dealing with: 1 - the legacy of the past: todays park of nuclear plants, economical and material status; 2 - the international evolution: the dynamics of nuclear policies worldwide (existing parks and R and D programs), the rise of environmental problems worldwide (CO{sub 2} and the climate convention, nuclear risks, attempts of including environment in the power costs), the choices made for the management of spent fuels in the main countries; 3 - the technological prospects for the power production and use: technologies for the mastery of power demand (residential, industrial and tertiary sectors, power transportation), technologies of power production (production from nuclear, fossil and renewable energies); 4 - prospective scenarios for France: two demand scenarios at the year 2050 vista (energy, electric power), power supply (supply structure with respect to scenarios, nuclear parks, power capacities), environmental aspects (CO{sub 2} emissions, plutonium and minor actinides production); 5 - the economical status of the different scenarios: data preparation, fossil fuel price scenarios, investment and operation costs of the different power production means (nuclear, fossil and renewable energies, natural gas and power distribution networks), comparison between fluxes and cumulated economic costs linked with the different scenarios (investments, exploitation, fuels, R and D, status for 2000 to 2050), time structure of expenditures with respect to the different scenarios (chronology, statuses, kWh costs, sensitivity with respect to the rate of discount, valorization of existing parks in 2050

  15. Serum Lipids and Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Ni

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies exploring causal associations between serum lipids and breast cancer risk have reported contradictory results. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to evaluate these associations.Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed and EMBASE through April 2015. We included prospective cohort studies that reported relative risk (RR estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs for the associations of specific lipid components (i.e., total cholesterol [TC], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], and triglycerides [TG] with breast cancer risk. Either a fixed- or a random-effects model was used to calculate pooled RRs.Fifteen prospective cohort studies involving 1,189,635 participants and 23,369 breast cancer cases were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled RRs of breast cancer for the highest versus lowest categories were 0.96 (95% CI: 0.86-1.07 for TC, 0.92 (95% CI: 0.73-1.16 for HDL-C, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.77-1.06 for LDL-C, and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.86-1.00 for TG. Notably, for HDL-C, a significant reduction of breast cancer risk was observed among postmenopausal women (RR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.64-0.93 but not among premenopausal women. Similar trends of the associations were observed in the dose-response analysis.Our findings suggest that serum levels of TG but not TC and LDL-C may be inversely associated with breast cancer risk. Serum HDL-C may also protect against breast carcinogenesis among postmenopausal women.

  16. In Vogue: How Valencia Community College Used a High-Fashion Marketing Campaign to Sharpen Its Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnuolo, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Not unlike many community colleges across the country, Valencia Community College, located in Orlando, Florida, has been working to better connect with its constituents. In an era in which the Internet is opening new lines of communication between schools and prospective students, more community colleges are tapping into the opportunities inherent…

  17. [Speed of ocular saccades in Huntington disease. Prospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Ruiz, P J; Cenjor, C; Ulmer, E; Hernández, J; Cantarero, S; Fanjul, S; García de Yébenes, J

    2001-02-01

    Oculomotor abnormalities, especially slow saccades, have long been recognized in Huntington's disease (HD). To study prospectively horizontal saccade velocity by videonystagmography in 21 patients with genetically confirmed HD. The study included a baseline analysis and a second evaluation after 18.8 +/- 7.1 months. We included a control group of 15 subjects. HD group exhibited decreased saccade velocity when compared with that from a control group (for predictive and unpredictive target). HD patients showed decreased saccade velocity with the passage of time (for predictive target, p < 0.01). Finally we found statistical significant correlation between saccade velocity and triplet length. The measurement of saccade velocity might be an objective method to study the natural evolution of HD, and thus evaluate the effectiveness of future therapies.

  18. Prospective study of aetiological factors in burning mouth syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamey, P-J; Lamb, A B

    1988-01-01

    A prospective study of 150 consecutive patients with burning mouth syndrome and with a minimum follow up period of 18 months is reported. Factors related to dentures, to vitamin B complex deficiency, and to psychological abnormalities were found to be important, and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus, reduced salivary gland function, haematological deficiencies, candidal infection, parafunctional habits, and allergy might also play a part. Given a protocol for management which takes all these factors into account, some two thirds of patients can be cured or have their symptoms improved. PMID:3133028

  19. Rationale and design of a multicenter echocardiographic study to assess the relationship between cardiac structure and function and heart failure risk in a biracial cohort of community-dwelling elderly persons: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amil M; Cheng, Susan; Skali, Hicham; Wu, Justina; Mangion, Judy R; Kitzman, Dalane; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Konety, Suma; Butler, Kenneth R; Fox, Ervin R; Cook, Nakela; Ni, Hanyu; Coresh, Josef; Mosley, Thomas H; Heiss, Gerardo; Folsom, Aaron R; Solomon, Scott D

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure is an important public health concern, particularly among persons>65 years of age. Women and blacks are critically understudied populations that carry a sizeable portion of the heart failure burden. Limited normative and prognostic data exist on measures of cardiac structure, diastolic function, and novel measures of systolic deformation in older adults living in the community. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study is a large, predominantly biracial, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored epidemiological cohort study. Between 2011 and 2013, ≈6000 surviving participants, now in their seventh to ninth decade of life, are expected to return for a fifth study visit during which comprehensive 2-dimensional, Doppler, tissue Doppler, and speckle-tracking echocardiography will be performed uniformly in all cohort clinic visit participants. The following objectives will be addressed: (1) to characterize cardiac structural and functional abnormalities among the elderly and to determine how they differ by sex and race/ethnicity, (2) to determine the relationship between ventricular and vascular abnormalities, and (3) to prospectively examine the extent to which these noninvasive measures associate with incident heart failure. We describe the design, imaging acquisition and analysis methods, and quality assurance metrics for echocardiography in visit 5 of the ARIC cohort. A better understanding of the differences in cardiac structure and function through the spectrum of heart failure stages in elderly persons generally, and between sexes and racial/ethnic groups specifically, will deepen our understanding of the pathophysiology driving heart failure progression in these at-risk populations and may inform novel prevention or therapeutic strategies.

  20. Predicting prediabetes in a rural community: a survey among the Karen ethnic community, Thasongyang, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorga T

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Thaworn Lorga1, Myo Nyein Aung1,2, Prissana Naunboonruang1, Payom Thinuan1, Nara Praipaksin3, Tida Deesakul3, Utumporn Inwan3, Tawatchai Yingtaweesak4, Pratumpan Manokulanan1, Srisomporn Suangkaew1, Apiradee Payaprom41Boromarajonani College of Nursing Nakhon Lampang (BCNLP, Lampang, Thailand; 2Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan; 3Baan Rekati Health Station, Thasongyang, Tak, Thailand; 4Thasongyang Hospital, Thasongyang, Tak, ThailandBackground: Diabetes is a growing epidemic in both urban and rural communities worldwide.Aim: We aimed to survey fasting plasma glucose (FPG status and awareness of diabetes in the rural Karen ethnic community. We investigated the predictors of impaired fasting plasma glucose (IFG status, which would be easily applicable for prevention of diabetes in a rural community.Materials and methods: This was a community-based cross-sectional study conducted at Thasongyang, the most north-western district in Thailand. A total of 299 Karen ethnic rural residents were included in the study. FPG, body mass index, and waist circumference were prospectively measured. We assessed the awareness of diabetes and lifestyle-related health behavior with closed questionnaires in a rural community setting.Results: On screening for FPG, 16.72% of the Karen ethnic residents had hyperglycemia: 3.68% in the diabetic range and 13.04% in the prediabetic range respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, and BMI, waist circumference (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29–9.57, and having a diabetic blood relative (aOR 4.6, CI 1.81–11.71 are significant predictors of IFG status.Conclusion: It is necessary to promote awareness of diabetes among the Karen ethnic community. Application of simple evidence-based predictors of the prediabetic state may lead to timely and effective prevention of diabetes in rural settings.Keywords: diabetes, prediabetes, fasting plasma

  1. Decision making and response inhibition as predictors of heavy alcohol use: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudriaan, Anna E.; Grekin, Emily R.; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Very few studies have investigated the "real world" prospective, predictive value of behavioral instruments used in laboratory studies to test decision-making abilities or impulse control. The current study examines the degree to which 2 commonly used decision-making/impulse control measures

  2. The effects of workplace psychosocial factors on whether Japanese dual-earner couples with preschool children have additional children: a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    EGUCHI, Hisashi; SHIMAZU, Akihito; FUJIWARA, Takeo; IWATA, Noboru; SHIMADA, Kyoko; TAKAHASHI, Masaya; TOKITA, Masahito; WATAI, Izumi; KAWAKAMI, Norito

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the effect of workplace psychosocial factors (job demand, job control, and workplace social support) on dual-earner couples in Japan having additional children, using a prospective study design. We conducted a 2-year prospective cohort study with 103 dual-earner couples with preschool children in Japan, as part of the Tokyo Work?Family Interface Study II. We used multivariable logistic regression analyses to evaluate the prospective association of job strain (categorized i...

  3. Prospective cross-sectional study of tuberculosis screening in United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almarzooqi, Farida; Alkhemeiri, Aysha; Aljaberi, Ahmed; Hashmey, Rayhan; Zoubeidi, Taoufik; Souid, Abdul-Kader

    2018-05-01

    Intense migrations from tuberculosis endemic areas to Gulf countries create special risks for people in the region. The purpose of this study was to provide data that could justify implementing universal, regular TB screening in UAE. This prospective, cross-sectional study used interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) to screen for TB among Emirati citizens between August-2016 and May-2017; expatriates were not included in this study. Participants were recruited from Emiratis attending Tawam Hospital Polyclinics for problems unrelated to TB risk assessment. IGRA was requested for all enrolled participants. A risk-assessment questionnaire was completed by all participants. In addition, a retrospective review of IGRA results (January-2011 to April-2016) was conducted to compare prevalence of positive IGRA in the 'prospective sample' with that in 'patients screened in the past'. Four hundred fifty-five participants (69% females) were enrolled in this study. Participants' age (mean±SD) was 42±16y. The majority of participants had traveled to or had helpers from TB-endemic areas. Two hundred forty (53%) participants had IGRA test. Forty-five (18.8%) participants had positive IGRA, similar to the retrospective results of 12.4% to 23.5%. The prevalence of positive-IGRA in this study is high. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Longitudinal changes in the antecedent and early manifest course of bipolar disorder-A narrative review of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfennig, Andrea; Leopold, Karolina; Ritter, Philipp; Böhme, Anne; Severus, Emanuel; Bauer, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Prospective study designs ideally allow patients to be followed from the first manifestations of the illness or even from an at-risk stage. It can thus provide data on the predictive value of changes in clinical symptomatology, cognition or further biological markers to broaden our understanding of the etiopathology and symptomatic trajectory of bipolar disorders. The scope of this narrative review is to summarize evidence from prospectively collected data on psychopathological and other clinical and biological changes in the early developmental course of bipolar disorders. The narrative review was based on a literature search conducted in February 2016 within the PubMed library for prospective study data of persons in antecedent and early manifest stages of manifest bipolar disorder published within the last 15 years. A total of 19 prospective studies were included. Regarding psychopathological features; personality, temperament and character traits as well as changes in sleep and circadian rhythm, the evidence suggests that risk factors for the development of bipolar disorder can already be described and should be studied further to understand their interaction, mediation with other factors and timing in the developmental process of bipolar disorder. Apart from the positive family history, childhood anxiety, sleep problems, subthreshold (hypo)manic symptoms and certain character traits/emotionality should be identified and monitored already in clinical practice as their presence likely increases risk of bipolar disorder. Up to date no substantiated evidence was found from prospective studies addressing cognitive features, life events, immunological parameters and morphological central nervous system changes as potential risk factors for bipolar disorder. For an improved understanding of episodic disorders, longitudinal data collection is essential. Since the etiology of bipolar disorders is complex, a number of potential risk factors have been proposed

  5. Virtual Communities as Commons: Case Study of “Connect”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Božić

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In a world increasingly networked with the help of information technology, where face-to-face communities are more and more supported by computer-mediated communication, and some communities exist solely in virtual space, the perennial social dilemma of cooperation has resurged, intriguing social researchers’ attention with new elements brought about by technological advances, such as software applications enabling simultaneous communication of community members through public and private channels, easy access to a variety of documents, anonymous messaging, forums for potentially unlimited number of members who may join or observe, and a number of other IT-enabled community-building tools. In this paper the authors discuss the cooperation problem in virtual communities through the case-study of “Connect”, an online community of Croatian scientists. Starting point of the analysis is the observation that cooperation in virtual communities may be encouraged by implementing technological solutions that provide users with incentives to cooperate. With this in mind, the authors inspect the compliance of “Connect” to a set of design principles of robust common-pool resource institutions elaborated by Elinor Ostrom. The study demonstrates that the “Connect” satisfies the majority of Ostrom’s principles, with some room for improvement, and fails to satisfy two of them, mainly due to non-existence of technical prerequisites and due to relatively small size of the community. The analysis lays ground for further work aimed at obtaining more prescriptive guidelines that would point to possible improvements in management of common pool resources in virtual communities.

  6. Kids in Communities Study (KiCS) study protocol: a cross-sectional mixed-methods approach to measuring community-level factors influencing early child development in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfeld, Sharon; Villanueva, Karen; Tanton, Robert; Katz, Ilan; Brinkman, Sally; Woolcock, Geoffrey; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2017-03-13

    Healthy childhood development in the early years is critical for later adult health and well-being. Early childhood development (ECD) research has focused primarily on individual, family and school factors, but largely ignored community factors. The Kids in Communities Study (KiCS) will test and investigate community-level influences on child development across Australia. Cross-sectional mixed-methods study exploring community-level effects in 25 Australian local communities; selection based on community socioeconomic status (SES) and ECD using the Australian Early Development Census (AEDC), a population measure of child development, to create a local community 'diagonality type', that is, those performing better or worse (off-diagonal), or as expected (on-diagonal) on the AEDC relative to their SES. Data collection includes stakeholder interviews, parent and service provider focus groups, and surveys with general community residents and service providers, mapping of neighbourhood design and local amenities and services, analysis of policy documents, and the use of existing sociodemographic and early childhood education and care data. Quantitative data will be used to test associations between local community diagonality type, and ECD based on AEDC scores. Qualitative data will provide complementary and deeper exploration of these same associations. The Royal Children's Hospital Human Research Ethics Committee approved the study protocol (#30016). Further ethics approvals were obtained from State Education and Health departments and Catholic archdioceses where required. ECD community-level indicators will eventually be derived and made publically available. Findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals, community reports, websites and policy briefs to disseminate results to researchers, and key stakeholders including policymakers, practitioners and (most importantly) the communities involved. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to

  7. Association of Panton Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes with methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Western Nepal: a matter of concern for community infections (a hospital based prospective study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatta, Dharm R.; Cavaco, Lina; Nath, Gopal

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major human pathogen associated with nosocomial and community infections. Panton Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is considered one of the important virulence factors of S. aureus responsible for destruction of white blood cells, necrosis...... and apoptosis and as a marker of community acquired MRSA. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of PVL genes among MRSA isolates and to check the reliability of PVL as marker of community acquired MRSA isolates from Western Nepal. A total of 400 strains of S. aureus were collected from clinical...... specimens and various units (Operation Theater, Intensive Care Units) of the hospital and 139 of these had been confirmed as MRSA by previous study. Multiplex PCR was used to detect mecA and PVL genes. Clinical data as well as antimicrobial susceptibility data was analyzed and compared among PVL positive...

  8. Laparoscopic Complete Mesocolic Excision versus Open Complete Mesocolic Excision for Transverse Colon Cancer: Long-Term Survival Results of a Prospective Single Centre Non-Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storli, Kristian Eeg; Eide, Geir Egil

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic complete mesocolic excision (CME) used in the treatment of transverse colon cancer has been questioned on the basis of the technical challenges. The aim of this study was to evaluate the medium- and long-term clinical and survival outcomes after laparoscopic and open CME for transverse colon cancer and to compare the 2 approaches. This study was a retrospective non-randomized study of patients with prospectively registered data on open and laparoscopic CME for transverse colon cancer tumour-node-metastasis stages I-III operated on between 2007 and 2014. This was a single-centre study in a community teaching hospital. A total of 56 patients with transverse colon cancer were included, excluding those with tumours in the colonic flexures. The outcome aims were 4-year time to recurrence (TTR) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). Morbidity was also measured. The 4-year TTR was 93.9% in the laparoscopic group and 91.3% in the open group (p = 0.71). The 4-year CSS was 97.0% in the laparoscopic group and 91.3% in the open group (p = 0.42). This was a prospective single-institution study with a small sample size. Results of the study suggest that the laparoscopic CME approach might be the preferred approach for transverse colon cancer, especially regarding its benefits in terms of short-term morbidity, length of stay and oncological outcome. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Facebook and body image concern in adolescent girls: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy

    2017-01-01

    The primary aim of the study was to examine the relationship across time between Facebook use and body image concern in adolescent girls. A sample of 438 girls in the first two years (Years 8 and 9) of high school (aged 13-15 years) at Time 1 completed questionnaire measures of Facebook consumption and body image concerns, and again two years later (Time 2). Facebook involvement increased substantially over the two year time period. Body image concerns also increased. Number of Facebook friends was found to prospectively predict the observed increase in drive for thinness. On the other hand, internalization and body surveillance prospectively predicted the observed increase in number of Facebook friends. It was concluded that Facebook "friendships" represent a potent sociocultural force in the body image of adolescent girls. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:80-83). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Evaluation of the utility of temporal subtraction images in successive whole-body bone scans: a prospective clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, J.; Appelbaum, D.; Pu, Y.; Engelmann, R.; Li Qiang; Doi, K.

    2007-01-01

    We have begun a prospective clinical study for evaluating the clinical utility of temporal subtraction images in successive whole-body bone scans. The computerized temporal subtraction technique has been developed in order to highlight interval changes of abnormal lesions due to skeletal metastases, primary bone tumors, osteomyelitis, and fractures. In our initial preliminary results of the prospective study which was started on November 22, 2006 in our hospital, radiologists reported some interval changes which were not recognized in the initial standard readings, but were obvious when temporal subtraction images were viewed. The usefulness of the temporal subtraction images will be investigated in terms of its clinical utility by the prospective clinical study. (orig.)

  11. A Prospective Study of Dairy Consumption in Relation to Changes in Metabolic Risk Factors: The Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, M.B.; Dam, van R.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Hiddink, G.J.; Heine, R.J.; Dekker, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Higher dairy consumption has been suggested to reduce the risk of obesity and metabolic disturbances. The aim of our study was to investigate the prospective association between dairy consumption and changes in weight and metabolic disturbances. Methods and Procedures: Baseline dairy

  12. Sibling bullying and risk of depression, anxiety, and self-harm: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, Lucy; Wolke, Dieter; Joinson, Carol; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Lewis, Glyn

    2014-10-01

    Being the victim of peer bullying is associated with increased risk of psychopathology, yet it is not known whether similar experiences of bullying increase risk of psychiatric disorder when the perpetrator is a sibling. We tested whether being bullied by a sibling is prospectively associated with depression, anxiety, and self-harm in early adulthood. We conducted a longitudinal study using data from >6900 participants of a UK community-based birth cohort (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children) who reported on sibling bullying at 12 years. Our main outcome measures were depression, anxiety, and self-harm, assessed using the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised during clinic assessments when participants were 18. Children who were frequently bullied were approximately twice as likely to have depression (odds ratio [OR] = 2.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33-3.51; P siblings. The ORs were only slightly attenuated after adjustment for a range of confounding individual, family, and peer factors. The population-attributable fractions suggested that 13.0% (95% CI, 1.0%-24.7%) of depression and 19.3% (95% CI, 7.6%-29.6%) of self-harm could be explained by being the victim of sibling bullying if these were causal relationships. Being bullied by a sibling is a potential risk factor for depression and self-harm in early adulthood. Our results suggest that interventions designed to target sibling bullying should be devised and evaluated. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Work and neck pain: a prospective study of psychological, social, and mechanical risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jan Olav; Knardahl, Stein

    2010-10-01

    To determine the impact of occupational psychological/social and mechanical factors on neck pain, a prospective cohort study with a follow-up period of 2 years was conducted with a sample of Norwegian employees. The following designs were tested: (i) cross-sectional analyses at baseline (n=4569) and follow-up (n=4122), (ii) prospective analyses with baseline predictors, (iii) prospective analyses with average exposure over time [(T1+T2)/2] as predictor, and (iv) prospective analyses with measures of change in exposure from T1 to T2 as predictors. A total of 2419 employees responded to both the baseline and follow-up questionnaire. Data were analyzed using ordinal logistic regression. After adjustment for age, sex, neck pain at T1, and other exposure factors that had been estimated to be confounders, the most consistent risk factors were role conflict (highest OR 2.97, 99% CI: 1.29-6.74) and working with arms raised to or above shoulder level (highest OR 1.37, 99% CI: 1.05-1.78). The most consistent protective factors were empowering leadership (lowest OR 0.53, 99% CI: 0.35-0.81) and decision control (lowest OR 0.60, 99% CI: 0.36-1.00). Hence, psychological and social factors are important precursors of neck pain, along with mechanical factors. Although traditional factors such as quantitative demands and decision control play a part in the etiology of neck pain at work, in this study several new factors emerged as more important. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The definition of polytrauma: variable interrater versus intrarater agreement--a prospective international study among trauma surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Nerida E; Enninghorst, Natalie; Sisak, Krisztian; Balogh, Zsolt J

    2013-03-01

    The international trauma community has recognized the lack of a validated consensus definition of "polytrauma." We hypothesized that using a subjective definition, trauma surgeons will not have substantial agreement; thus, an objective definition is needed. A prospective observational study was conducted between December 2010 and June 2011 (John Hunter Hospital, Level I trauma center). Inclusion criteria were all trauma call patients with subsequent intensive care unit admission. The study was composed of four stages as follows: (1) four trauma surgeons assessed patients until 24 hours, then coded as either "yes" or "no" for polytrauma, and results compared for agreement; (2) eight trauma surgeons representing the United States, Germany, and the Netherlands graded the same prospectively assessed patients and coded as either "yes" or "no" for polytrauma; (3) 12 months later, the original four trauma surgeons repeated assessment via data sheets to test intrarater variability; and (4) individual subjective definitions were compared with three anatomic scores, namely, (a) Injury Severity Score (ISS) of greater than 15, (b) ISS of greater 17, and (c) Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of greater than 2 in at least two ISS body regions. A total of 52 trauma patients were included. Results for each stage were as follows: (1) κ score of 0.50, moderate agreement; (2) κ score of 0.41, moderate agreement; (3) Rater 1 had moderate intrarater agreement (κ score, 0.59), while Raters 2, 3, 4 had substantial intrarater agreement (κ scores, 0.75, 0.66, and 0.71, respectively); and (4) none had most agreement with ISS of greater than 15 (κ score, 0.16), while both definitions ISS greater than 17 and Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of greater than 2 in at least two ISS body regions had on average fair agreement (κ scores, 0.27 and 0.39, respectively). Based on subjective assessments, trauma surgeons do not agree on the definition of polytrauma, with the subjective

  15. Could a brief assessment of negative emotions and self-esteem identify adolescents at current and future risk of self-harm in the community? A prospective cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Rhiannon; Spears, Melissa R; Montgomery, Alan A; Millings, Abigail; Sayal, Kapil; Stallard, Paul

    2013-06-22

    Self-harm is common in adolescents, but it is often unreported and undetected. Available screening tools typically ask directly about self-harm and suicidal ideation. Although in an ideal world, direct enquiry and open discussion around self-harm would be advocated, non-psychiatric professionals in community settings are often reluctant to ask about this directly and disclosure can be met with feeling of intense anxiety. Training non-specialist staff to directly ask about self-harm has limited effects suggesting that alternative approaches are required. This study investigated whether a targeted analysis of negative emotions and self-esteem could identify young adolescents at risk of self-harm in community settings. Data were collected as part of a clinical trial from young people in school years 8-11 (aged 12-16) at eight UK secondary schools (N = 4503 at baseline, N = 3263 in prospective analysis). The Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire, Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, personal failure (Children's Automatic Thoughts Scale), and two items on self-harm were completed at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Following a process of Principal Components Analysis, item reduction, and logistic regression analysis, three internally reliable factors were identified from the original measures that were independently associated with current and future self-harm; personal failure (3 items), physical symptoms of depression/anxiety (6 items), positive self-esteem (5 items). The summed score of these 14 items had good accuracy in identifying current self-harm (AUC 0.87 girls, 0.81 boys) and at six months for girls (0.81), and fair accuracy at six months for boys (AUC 0.74) and 12 months for girls (AUC 0.77). A brief and targeted assessment of negative emotions and self-esteem, focusing on factors that are strongly associated with current and future self-harm, could potentially be used to help identify adolescents who are at risk in

  16. A professional learning community model: a case study of primary teachers community in west Bandung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, A.; Suryadi, D.; Syaodih, E.

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide an alternative model of professional learning community for primary school teachers in improving the knowledge and professional skills. This study is a qualitative research with case study method with data collection is an interview, observation and document and triangulation technique for validation data that focuses on thirteen people 5th grade elementary school teacher. The results showed that by joining a professional learning community, teachers can share both experience and knowledge to other colleagues so that they can be able to continue to improve and enhance the quality of their learning. This happens because of the reflection done together before, during and after the learning activities. It was also revealed that by learning in a professional learning community, teachers can learn in their own way, according to need, and can collaborate with their colleagues in improving the effectiveness of learning. Based on the implementation of professional learning community primary school teachers can be concluded that teachers can develop the curriculum, the students understand the development, overcome learning difficulties faced by students and can make learning design more effective and efficient.

  17. Workplace bullying and sickness presenteeism: cross-sectional and prospective associations in a 2-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Paul Maurice; Clausen, Thomas; Hansen, Åse Marie; Hogh, Annie

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate exposure to workplace bullying as a potential risk factor for sickness presenteeism (SP), i.e. working while ill. This study is based on data collected through self-reported questionnaires in a 2-year prospective study on employees in Denmark. At baseline, 3363 employees (45.7 % response rate) answered to a questionnaire on their psychosocial work environment and health status. After 2 years, 1664 of the respondents also completed a follow-up questionnaire (49.5 % of the total baseline respondents). After excluding participants with missing values, the final samples were composed of 2865 and 1331 participants in the cross-sectional and prospective analyses, respectively. Modified poisson regression analyses showed that frequent (i.e. daily or weekly) exposure to workplace bullying was associated with reporting 8 or more days of SP in the preceding year in both the cross-sectional and the prospective analysis, also when controlling for several confounders including health-related variables. However, the prospective relationship became non-significant after adjustment for baseline SP. This study provides indications of a significant relationship between exposure to frequent workplace bullying and SP, although causal connections could not be established. Methodological and theoretical considerations about study findings are provided, which could be of benefit to future studies examining the impact of being a target of workplace bullying on SP.

  18. Pediatric and youth traffic-collision injuries in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates: a prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Grivna

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the mechanism of road traffic collisions (RTC, use of safety devices, and outcome of hospitalized pediatric and youth RTC injured patients so as to give recommendations regarding prevention of pediatric RTC injuries. METHODS: All RTC injured children and youth (0-19-year-olds who were admitted to Al Ain City's two major trauma centers or who died after arrival to these centers were prospectively studied from April 2006 to October 2007. Demography of patients, road-user and vehicle types, crash mechanism, usage of safety devices, injured body regions, injury severity, Revised Trauma Score, Glasgow Coma Scale, intensive care unit admissions, hospital stay and mortality were analyzed. RESULTS: 245 patients were studied, 69% were vehicle occupants, 15% pedestrians, 9% motorcyclists and 5% bicyclists. 79% were males and 67% UAE citizens. The most common mechanism of RTC was rollover of vehicle (37% followed by front impact collision (32%. 32 (13% of vehicle occupants were ejected from car. 63% of ejected occupants and 70% of motorcyclists sustained head injuries. Only 2% (3/170 vehicle passengers used seatbelts and 13% (3/23 motorcyclists a helmet. CONCLUSIONS: Male drivers and UAE nationals were at high risk of RTC as drivers and as motorcyclists. Ejection rate was high because safety restraint use was extremely low in our community. More education and law enforcement focusing especially on car/booster seat use is needed.

  19. Cancer, fatigue and the return of patients to work-a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spelten, E. R.; Verbeek, J. H. A. M.; Uitterhoeve, A. L. J.; Ansink, A. C.; van der Lelie, J.; de Reijke, T. M.; Kammeijer, M.; de Haes, J. C. J. M.; Sprangers, M. A. G.

    2003-01-01

    Fatigue is a highly prevalent and debilitating symptom in cancer survivors. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of fatigue and other cancer-related symptoms on the return to work of cancer survivors. A prospective inception cohort study with 12 months of follow-up was initiated. At 6

  20. Marine renewable energies: prospective foresight study for 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillard, M.; Lacroix, D.; Lamblin, V.

    2009-01-01

    The ocean is a huge reservoir of renewable energy sources, such as wind, currents, tides, waves, marine biomass, thermal energy, osmotic power, and so on. Like other maritime nations in Europe, France enjoys significant potential to develop these energy sources, especially overseas. In March 2007, Ifremer's chairman launched a prospective foresight study on these energies for the time horizon of 2030. With support from the Futuribles consulting group, twenty French partners representing the main stakeholders in the sector carried out this work. Their objective was to identify the technologies, specify the socio-economic prerequisites for them to emerge and be competitive and assess their respective impacts on power sources and the environment. What was learned from this study can be applied well beyond France, at a time when a European maritime strategy is taking shape. (authors)

  1. Cohorts and community: a case study of community engagement in the establishment of a health and demographic surveillance site in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allotey, Pascale; Reidpath, Daniel D.; Devarajan, Nirmala; Rajagobal, Kanason; Yasin, Shajahan; Arunachalam, Dharmalingam; Imelda, Johanna Debora; Soyiri, Ireneous; Davey, Tamzyn; Jahan, Nowrozy

    2014-01-01

    Background Community engagement is an increasingly important requirement of public health research and plays an important role in the informed consent and recruitment process. However, there is very little guidance about how it should be done, the indicators for assessing effectiveness of the community engagement process and the impact it has on recruitment, retention, and ultimately on the quality of the data collected as part of longitudinal cohort studies. Methods An instrumental case study approach, with data from field notes, policy documents, unstructured interviews, and focus group discussions with key community stakeholders and informants, was used to explore systematically the implementation and outcomes of the community engagement strategy for recruitment of an entire community into a demographic and health surveillance site in Malaysia. Results For a dynamic cohort, community engagement needs to be an ongoing process. The community engagement process has likely helped to facilitate the current response rate of 85% in the research communities. The case study highlights the importance of systematic documentation of the community engagement process to ensure an understanding of the effects of the research on recruitment and the community. Conclusions A critical lesson from the case study data is the importance of relationships in the recruitment process for large population-based studies, and the need for ongoing documentation and analysis of the impact of cumulative interactions between research and community engagement. PMID:24804983

  2. Methodology and integrated studies for the strategic regional uranium prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade Tolentino, J. de.

    1984-01-01

    An integrated methodology alternative to the traditional one used for uranium prospecting is presented. For this purpose a detailed revision of some methods for finding uranium was made. Then a geological unit located in Minas Gerais, Brazil, was chosen due to its geographical proximity to the Lagoa Real deposit in the Brazilian Bahia State. The methodology applied to this unit gave a preliminary indications of areas to be prospected in detail. 36 refs, 44 figs, 20 tabs

  3. The Place of Social Capital in the Formation and Integration of the Territorial Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gritsaenko Mykola I.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the mechanisms for activating the integration of territorial communities through the formation and use of social capital. The relevance of the study of administrative and territorial reforms based on the integration of the territorial communities from the perspective of the formation and use of social capital has been disclosed. The results of decentralization of power have been analyzed, and the advantages and disadvantages of this process have been highlighted. On the basis of studying publications on the indicated issue, the essence of the concepts of «community» and «territorial community» has been defined, their constituents and relationships with social capital have been disclosed. The article proposes application of an integrated estimation based on the method of expert estimations, which allows for the determination of the socio-economic performance of a single territorial community (STC, comparison of the activities by territorial communities and their integrations in the region, as well as the desirability of creating a STC. Prospect for further research is an analysis of the directions of institutional change, which facilitate the implementation of mechanisms for the effective development of social capital of both the territorial communities and the STC.

  4. Neoliberal governance, sustainable development and local communities in the Barents Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Tennberg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There are currently high hopes in the Barents Region for economic growth, higher employment and improved well-being, encouraged by developments in the energy industry, tourism and mining. The article discusses these prospects from the perspective of local communities in five locations in the region, which spans the northernmost counties of Finland, Norway, Sweden and Northwest Russia. The communities studied are remote, relatively small, multicultural, and dependent on natural resources. The salient dynamic illuminated in the research is how ideas of sustainability and neoliberal governance meet in community development. While the two governmentalities often conflict, they sometimes also complement one another, posing a paradox that raises concerns over the social aspect of sustainable development in particular. The article is based on international, multidisciplinary research drawing on interviews as well as statistical and documentary analysis.

  5. The Many Histories of Community Psychology: Analyses of Current Trends and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Patrick J.; Toro, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    Forty years since the seminal Swampscott Conference, the principles of community psychology transcend multiple areas of action and research, as well as international boundaries. The extensive development of community psychology offers an opportunity to examine from where the field has come and where it is going. Yet, a systematic approach to…

  6. Drug-drug interactions in patients treated for cancer : a prospective study on clinical interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, R. W. F.; Jansman, F. G. A.; van den Bemt, P. M. L. A.; de Man, F.; Piran, F.; Vincenten, I.; Jager, A.; Rijneveld, A. W.; Brugma, J. D.; Mathijssen, R. H. J.; van Gelder, T.

    Background: Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are of major concern in oncology, since cancer patients typically take many concomitant medications. Retrospective studies have been conducted to determine the prevalence of DDIs. However, prospective studies on DDIs needing interventions in cancer patients

  7. Economic evaluation of Community Level Interventions for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) in South Asian and African countries: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khowaja, Asif R; Mitton, Craig; Bryan, Stirling; Magee, Laura A; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; von Dadelszen, Peter

    2015-05-26

    Globally, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, particularly pre-eclampsia and eclampsia, are the leading cause of maternal and neonatal mortality, and impose substantial burdens on the families of pregnant women, their communities, and healthcare systems. The Community Level Interventions for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) Trial evaluates a package of care applied at both community and primary health centres to reduce maternal and perinatal disabilities and deaths resulting from the failure to identify and manage pre-eclampsia at the community level. Economic evaluation of health interventions can play a pivotal role in priority setting and inform policy decisions for scale-up. At present, there is a paucity of published literature on the methodology of economic evaluation of large, multi-country, community-based interventions in the area of maternal and perinatal health. This study protocol describes the application of methodology for economic evaluation of the CLIP in South Asia and Africa. A mixed-design approach i.e. cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) and qualitative thematic analysis will be used alongside the trial to prospectively evaluate the economic impact of CLIP from a societal perspective. Data on health resource utilization, costs, and pregnancy outcomes will be collected through structured questionnaires embedded into the pregnancy surveillance, cross-sectional survey and budgetary reviews. Qualitative data will be collected through focus groups (FGs) with pregnant women, household male-decision makers, care providers, and district level health decision makers. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio will be calculated for healthcare system and societal perspectives, taking into account the country-specific model inputs (costs and outcome) from the CLIP Trial. Emerging themes from FGs will inform the design of the model, and help to interpret findings of the CEA. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommends cost-effective interventions as a key

  8. Ethnomethodology and the study of online communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from the authors’ current research programs, this essay explores the basic dimensions of online communities and the concomitant need for scholars to rethink the assumptions that undergrid historic paradigms about the nature of social interaction, social bonding, and empirical experience (Cerulo, 1997. In so doing, we argue that online communities are far from the “imagined” or pseudo communities explicated by Calhoun (1991; that they are, in fact, “real” in the very way in which they reflect the changing nature of human relations and human interaction. Finally this paper discusses the epistemological and methodological implications of studying cyber communities. We will discuss how computer-mediated interaction, or telelogic communication, as it has been characterized by a number of theorists (Ogan, 1993; Ball-Rokeach & Reardon, 1988, can be analyzed to contribute to phenomenological or ethnographic understandings of what it means to be a member of a cyber-community. We suggest that one of the best approaches to taking such a phenomenological snapshot is through a multi-method triangulation, employing qualitative interviews and descriptive and inferential analyses of message content. We also will address limitations and restrictions for using the Internet to do ethnomethodology.

  9. Bruxism in craniocervical dystonia: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borie, Laetitia; Langbour, Nicolas; Guehl, Dominique; Burbaud, Pierre; Ella, Bruno

    2016-09-01

    Bruxism pathophysiology remains unclear, and its occurrence has been poorly investigated in movement disorders. The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of bruxism in patients with craniocervical dystonia vs. normal controls and to determine its associated clinical features. This is a prospective-control study. A total of 114 dystonic subjects (45 facial dystonia, 69 cervical dystonia) and 182 controls were included. Bruxism was diagnosed using a hetero-questionnaire and a clinical examination performed by trained dentists. Occurrence of bruxism was compared between the different study populations. A binomial logistic regression analysis was used to determine which clinical features influenced bruxism occurrence in each population. The frequency of bruxism was significantly higher in the dystonic group than in normal controls but there was no difference between facial and cervical dystonia. It was also higher in women than in men. Bruxism features were similar between normal controls and dystonic patients except for a higher score of temporomandibular jaw pain in the dystonic group. The higher frequency of bruxism in dystonic patients suggests that bruxism is increased in patients with basal ganglia dysfunction but that its nature does not differ from that seen in bruxers from the normal population.

  10. Studying IDPs: retrospect and prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Martin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1989 Roberta Cohen challenged scholars, policymakersand practitioners who focused exclusively on refugees– people who had crossed an international border – torethink their approach. She has continued to identify researchquestions intersecting the interests of the two communities.

  11. Association of hypercapnia on admission with increased length of hospital stay and severity in patients admitted with community-acquired pneumonia: a prospective observational study from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Nousheen; Irfan, Muhammad; Zubairi, Ali Bin Sarwar; Awan, Safia; Khan, Javaid A

    2017-06-15

    To determine whether the presence of hypercapnia on admission in adult patients admitted to a university-based hospital in Karachi, Pakistan with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) correlates with an increased length of hospital stay and severity compared with no hypercapnia on admission. A prospective observational study. Tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Patients who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. The severity of pneumonia was assessed by CURB-65 and PSI scores. An arterial blood gas analysis was obtained within 24 hours of admission. Based on arterial PaCO 2 levels, patients were divided into three groups: hypocapnic (PaCO 2 45 mm Hg) and normocapnic (PaCO 2 <35-45 mm Hg). The primary outcome was the association of hypercapnia on admission with mean length of hospital stay. Secondary outcomes were the need for mechanical ventilation, ICU admission and in-hospital mortality. A total of 295 patients of mean age 60.20±17.0 years (157 (53.22%) men) were enrolled over a 1-year period. Hypocapnia was found in 181 (61.35%) and hypercapnia in 57 (19.32%) patients. Hypercapnic patients had a longer hospital stay (mean 9.27±7.57 days), increased requirement for non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) on admission (n=45 (78.94%)) and longer mean time to clinical stability (4.39±2.0 days) compared with the other groups. Overall mortality was 41 (13.89%), but there was no statistically significant difference in mortality (p=0.35) and ICU admission (p=0.37) between the three groups. On multivariable analysis, increased length of hospital stay was associated with NIMV use, ICU admission, hypercapnia and normocapnia. Hypercapnia on admission is associated with severity of CAP, longer time to clinical stability, increased length of hospital stay and need for NIMV. It should be considered as an important criterion to label the severity of the illness and also a determinant of patients who will require a higher level of hospital

  12. Occurrence of systemic lupus erythematosus in a Danish community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustrup, H; Voss, A; Green, A

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence and annual incidence of definite systemic lupus erythematosus (D-SLE) and incomplete SLE (I-SLE) in a community-based lupus cohort of predominantly Nordic ancestry in an 8-year prospective study from 1995 to 2003, and also to calculate the annual transition......-years at risk [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.44-7.55]. Conclusions: Denmark is a low-incidence lupus area but lupus prevalence is increasing slowly. I-SLE is a disease variant that may eventually convert into D-SLE....

  13. Trajectories of abstinence-induced Internet gaming withdrawal symptoms: A prospective pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Dean Kaptsis; Daniel L. King; Paul H. Delfabbro; Michael Gradisar

    2016-01-01

    Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) is positioned in the appendix of the DSM-5 as a condition requiring further study. The IGD criteria refer to withdrawal symptoms, including irritability, anxiety, or sadness, that follow cessation of Internet gaming (APA, 2013). The aim of this study was to prospectively examine the nature of Internet gaming withdrawal symptoms, if they occur, under gaming abstinence conditions. This study employed a repeated-measures protocol to examine the cognitive-affective ...

  14. Prospective study establishing a management plan for impacted third molar in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Yamagata, Kenji; Onizawa, Kojiro; Yanagawa, Toru; Takeuchi, Yasutoshi; Hasegawa, Yuichi; Chiba, Shigeru; Bukawa, Hiroki

    2011-01-01

    ObjectiveAlthough dental treatment before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is essential to prevent serious infections from oral sources, the best management plan for impacted third molar (ITM) is unclear.Study designThis study was planned to establish a management plan for ITM. Eighty-four candidates for HSCT therapy were consecutively enrolled in the prospective trial. The management plan, which was evidence based and prospectively decided, was to extract the symptomatic ITMs a...

  15. Prospective identification of autism spectrum disorders in infancy and toddlerhood using developmental surveillance: the social attention and communication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Josephine; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2010-06-01

    Despite behavioral markers of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) being evident within the first year of life, there remains little research on the prospective identification of these children in a community-based setting before 18 months. The aim in the Social Attention and Communication Study was to identify infants and toddlers at risk of an ASD during their first 2 years. A total of 241 Maternal and Child Health nurses were trained on the early signs of ASDs at 8, 12, 18 and 24 months. Using a developmental surveillance approach with a community-based sample, a cohort of 20,770 children was monitored on early social attention and communication behaviors. Those infants/toddlers identified as "at risk" were referred to the Social Attention and Communication Study team from 12 months for developmental and diagnostic assessments at 6 monthly intervals, until 24 months. A total of 216 children were referred, with 110 being further assessed. Of these, 89 children were classified with an ASD at 24 months, and 20 children had developmental and/or language delays, resulting in a Positive Predictive value of 81%. The estimated rate of ASDs in the Social Attention and Communication Study cohort ranged from 1:119 to 1:233 children. Estimated sensitivity ranged from 69% to 83.8%, and estimated specificity ranged from 99.8% to 99.9%. Developmental surveillance of social and communication behaviors, which differ according to the age at which the child is monitored, enables the accurate identification of children at risk for ASDs between 12 and 24 months. Education on the early signs is recommended for all primary health care professionals to facilitate early identification of ASDs.

  16. Transitions in pregnancy planning in women recruited for a large prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luderer, U; Li, T; Fine, J P; Hamman, R F; Stanford, J B; Baker, D

    2017-06-01

    Do the rates at which women transition among different intensities of pregnancy planning vary with age, marital status and race/ethnicity? Rates of transition from low or moderate pregnancy probability groups (PPGs) to higher PPGs vary by age, marital status and race/ethnicity. The design of prospective studies of the effects of pre- and peri-conception exposures on fecundity, pregnancy and children's health is challenging because at any specific time only a small percentage of reproductive age women is attempting to conceive. To our knowledge, there has been no population-based, prospective study that repeatedly assessed pregnancy planning, which included women who were not already planning pregnancy at enrollment and whose ages spanned the female reproductive age range. A longitudinal study was carried out that repeatedly assessed pregnancy probability in 12 916 women for up to 21 months from January 2009 to September 2010. We analyzed data from the National Children's Study Vanguard Study, a pilot study for a large-scale epidemiological birth cohort study of children and their parents. During the Vanguard Study, investigators followed population-based samples of reproductive age women in each of seven geographically dispersed and diverse study locations over time to identify when they sought to become pregnant, providing a unique opportunity to prospectively assess changes in pregnancy planning in a large sample of US women. At study entry and each follow-up contact, which occurred at 1, 3 or 6 month intervals depending on PPG, a questionnaire was used to assess behavior dimensions of pregnancy planning to assign women to low, moderate, high non-tryer and high tryer PPGs. Crude rates of pregnancy increased with higher assigned PPG, validating the utility of the instrument. The initial PPG and probabilities of transitioning from low or moderate PPG to higher PPG or pregnancy varied with age, marital status and race/ethnicity. Women aged 25 to planning behavior in

  17. Prospective assessment of the occurrence of anemia in patients with heart failure: results from the Study of Anemia in a Heart Failure Population (STAMINA-HFP) Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Kirkwood F; Patterson, James H; Patterson, John H; Oren, Ron M; Mehra, Mandeep R; O'Connor, Christopher M; Piña, Ileana L; Miller, Alan B; Chiong, Jun R; Dunlap, Stephanie H; Cotts, William G; Felker, Gary M; Schocken, Douglas D; Schwartz, Todd A; Ghali, Jalal K

    2009-05-01

    Although a potentially important pathophysiologic factor in heart failure, the prevalence and predictors of anemia have not been well studied in unselected patients with heart failure. The Study of Anemia in a Heart Failure Population (STAMINA-HFP) Registry prospectively studied the prevalence of anemia and the relationship of hemoglobin to health-related quality of life and outcomes among patients with heart failure. A random selection algorithm was used to reduce bias during enrollment of patients seen in specialty clinics or clinics of community cardiologists with experience in heart failure. In this initial report, data on prevalence and correlates of anemia were analyzed in 1,076 of the 1,082 registry patients who had clinical characteristics and hemoglobin determined by finger-stick at baseline. Overall (n = 1,082), the registry patients were 41% female and 73% white with a mean age (+/-SD) of 64 +/- 14 years (68 +/- 13 years in community and 57 +/- 14 years in specialty sites, P 70 years affected. Initial results from the STAMINA-HFP Registry suggest that anemia is a common comorbidity in unselected outpatients with heart failure. Given the strong association of anemia with adverse outcomes in heart failure, this study supports further investigation concerning the importance of anemia as a therapeutic target in this condition.

  18. The National Programme of Stellar Physics. Assessment 2011-2014. Prospective 2015-2018

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bontemps, Sylvain; Bouchy, Francois; Charbonnel, Corinne; Chieze, Jean-Pierre; Dessart, Luc; Dintrans, Boris; Dougados, Catherine; Josselin, Eric; Kervella, Pierre; Martins, Fabrice; Michel, Eric; Moraux, Estelle; Recio-Blanco, Alejandra; Ristorcelli, Isabelle; Reyle, Celine; Alecian, Evelyne; Bouchy, Francois; Ciardi, Andrea; Dintrans, Boris; Herpin, Fabrice; Jouve, Laurene; Lebreton, Yveline; Motte, Frederique; Nardetto, Nicolas; Robin, Annie; Royer, Frederic; Samadi, Reza

    2015-04-01

    After an introduction which outlines the role of stellar physics as a keystone of research in astrophysics, this report proposes a presentation of the operation of the French national programme of stellar physics (PNPS): status and general operation, annual operation, statistics of budget and calls for bids, scientific animation, education, communication, community census, assessment of projects and thesis. It presents an overview of priority research theses between 2011 and 2014, according to their theme: stellar formation and protoplanetary disks, stellar structure and evolutions, origin and impact of magnetism, and atmospheres, winds and mass loss. Transverse theses are also presented the same way for the same period, with the following themes: basic physics, numeric simulations. The last part presents prospectives in terms of events (colloquium), bodies (new scientific council), themes to be studied, operation (interdisciplinarity and interfaces), means, general recommendations, and strengths and weaknesses of the national community

  19. Individualizing risk of multidrug-resistant pathogens in community-onset pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Falcone

    Full Text Available The diffusion of multidrug-resistant (MDR bacteria has created the need to identify risk factors for acquiring resistant pathogens in patients living in the community.To analyze clinical features of patients with community-onset pneumonia due to MDR pathogens, to evaluate performance of existing scoring tools and to develop a bedside risk score for an early identification of these patients in the Emergency Department.This was an open, observational, prospective study of consecutive patients with pneumonia, coming from the community, from January 2011 to January 2013. The new score was validated on an external cohort of 929 patients with pneumonia admitted in internal medicine departments participating at a multicenter prospective study in Spain.A total of 900 patients were included in the study. The final logistic regression model consisted of four variables: 1 one risk factor for HCAP, 2 bilateral pulmonary infiltration, 3 the presence of pleural effusion, and 4 the severity of respiratory impairment calculated by use of PaO2/FiO2 ratio. A new risk score, the ARUC score, was developed; compared to Aliberti, Shorr, and Shindo scores, this point score system has a good discrimination performance (AUC 0.76, 95% CI 0.71-0.82 and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow, χ2 = 7.64; p = 0.469. The new score outperformed HCAP definition in predicting etiology due to MDR organism. The performance of this bedside score was confirmed in the validation cohort (AUC 0.68, 95% CI 0.60-0.77.Physicians working in ED should adopt simple risk scores, like ARUC score, to select the most appropriate antibiotic regimens. This individualized approach may help clinicians to identify those patients who need an empirical broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy.

  20. Edison Home Community Study Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee County School District, Ft. Myers, FL. Dept. of Environmental Education and Instructional Development Services.

    History is not merely events that occurred in the past. The past has influenced the present, as the present will influence the future. The purpose of this community study unit is to provide fourth grade students with an opportunity to investigate some of the history of Lee County, Florida. The unit's focus is on Thomas Edison, who built a home in…

  1. Testing the Community-Based Learning Collaborative (CBLC) implementation model: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Rochelle F; Schoenwald, Sonja; Saunders, Benjamin E; Chapman, Jason; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Moreland, Angela D; Dopp, Alex

    2016-01-01

    High rates of youth exposure to violence, either through direct victimization or witnessing, result in significant health/mental health consequences and high associated lifetime costs. Evidence-based treatments (EBTs), such as Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT), can prevent and/or reduce these negative effects, yet these treatments are not standard practice for therapists working with children identified by child welfare or mental health systems as needing services. While research indicates that collaboration among child welfare and mental health services sectors improves availability and sustainment of EBTs for children, few implementation strategies designed specifically to promote and sustain inter-professional collaboration (IC) and inter-organizational relationships (IOR) have undergone empirical investigation. A potential candidate for evaluation is the Community-Based Learning Collaborative (CBLC) implementation model, an adaptation of the Learning Collaborative which includes strategies designed to develop and strengthen inter-professional relationships between brokers and providers of mental health services to promote IC and IOR and achieve sustained implementation of EBTs for children within a community. This non-experimental, mixed methods study involves two phases: (1) analysis of existing prospective quantitative and qualitative quality improvement and project evaluation data collected pre and post, weekly, and monthly from 998 participants in one of seven CBLCs conducted as part of a statewide initiative; and (2) Phase 2 collection of new quantitative and qualitative (key informant interviews) data during the funded study period to evaluate changes in relations among IC, IOR, social networks and the penetration and sustainment of TF-CBT in targeted communities. Recruitment for Phase 2 is from the pool of 998 CBLC participants to achieve a targeted enrollment of n = 150. Study aims include: (1) Use existing quality improvement

  2. Ecological assembly rules in plant communities-approaches, patterns and prospects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Götzenberger, L.; de Bello, Francesco; Brathen, K. A.; Davison, J.; Dubuis, A.; Guisan, A.; Lepš, Jan; Lindborg, R.; Moora, M.; Partel, M.; Pellissier, L.; Pottier, J.; Vittoz, P.; Zobel, K.; Zobel, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 1 (2012), s. 111-127 ISSN 1464-7931 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1471 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : community assembly * competition * meta - analysis Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 10.256, year: 2012

  3. Expanding clinical research capacity through a community of practice (CoPER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Alison; Jackson, Wanda; Nugus, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The proposed CoPER project (Community of Practice for Engaging in Research) responds to a need for increased research capacity in a clinical setting. We put forward an argument and a design for a prospective action research project to extend research capacity via an integrated academic and practitioner community of practice in an Emergency Department (ED). This paper explores the research needs of clinicians, articulates the concept of community of practice in light of these needs, and outlines the rationale for considering communities of practice as a potential contributor to building research capacity in a clinical setting. A potential methodology is suggested to test the linkage between research needs, the concept of a community of practice model in a clinical setting, and the contribution of such a model to building research capacity in a clinical setting via the CoPER framework. Combined data from this proposed mixed method action research (survey, focus groups, interviews, observation) are expected to enable the production of a set of facilitators and enablers with a view to building a community of research practice which make the case study transferable to other clinical and non-clinical work settings.

  4. SNOWMASS (DPF Community Summer Study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronin-Hennessy, et al, Daniel

    2013-08-06

    The 2013 Community Summer Study, known as Snowmass," brought together nearly 700 physicists to identify the critical research directions for the United States particle physics program. Commissioned by the American Physical Society, this meeting was the culmination of intense work over the past year by more than 1000 physicists that defined the most important questions for this field and identified the most promising opportunities to address them. This Snowmass study report is a key resource for setting priorities in particle physics.

  5. Is Mandatory Prospective Trial Registration Working to Prevent Publication of Unregistered Trials and Selective Outcome Reporting? An Observational Study of Five Psychiatry Journals That Mandate Prospective Clinical Trial Registration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Scott

    Full Text Available To address the bias occurring in the medical literature associated with selective outcome reporting, in 2005, the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE introduced mandatory trial registration guidelines and member journals required prospective registration of trials prior to patient enrolment as a condition of publication. No research has examined whether these guidelines are impacting psychiatry publications. Our objectives were to determine the extent to which articles published in psychiatry journals adhering to ICMJE guidelines were correctly prospectively registered, whether there was evidence of selective outcome reporting and changes to participant numbers, and whether there was a relationship between registration status and source of funding.Any clinical trial (as defined by ICMJE published between 1 January 2009 and 31 July 2013 in the top five psychiatry journals adhering to ICMJE guidelines (The American Journal of Psychiatry, Archives of General Psychiatry/JAMA Psychiatry, Biological Psychiatry, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, and The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry and conducted after July 2005 (or 2007 for two journals was included. For each identified trial, where possible we extracted trial registration information, changes to POMs between publication and registry to assess selective outcome reporting, changes to participant numbers, and funding type.Out of 3305 articles, 181 studies were identified as clinical trials requiring registration: 21 (11.6% were deemed unregistered, 61 (33.7% were retrospectively registered, 37 (20.4% had unclear POMs either in the article or the registry and 2 (1.1% were registered in an inaccessible trial registry. Only 60 (33.1% studies were prospectively registered with clearly defined POMs; 17 of these 60 (28.3% showed evidence of selective outcome reporting and 16 (26.7% demonstrated a change in participant numbers of 20% or more; only 26 (14

  6. A prospective study on personality and the cortisol awakening response to predict posttraumatic stress symptoms in response to military deployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zuiden, Mirjam; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Rademaker, Arthur R.; Vermetten, Eric; Heijnen, Cobi J.; Geuze, Elbert

    2011-01-01

    Few prospective studies on pre-trauma predictors for subsequent development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been conducted. In this study we prospectively investigated whether pre-deployment personality and the cortisol awakening response (CAR) predicted development of PTSD symptoms in

  7. Preliminary study of Songa-Wayaua geothermal prospect area using volcanostratigraphy and remote sensing analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokawaty, Ribka; Nugroho, Indra; Satriana, Joshua; Hafidz, Muhamad; Suryantini

    2017-12-01

    Songa-Wayaua geothermal prospect area is located on Bacan Island, Northern Molluca Province. Geothermal systems in this area associated with three Quartenary volcanoes, such as Mt. Pele-pele, Mt. Lansa, and Mt. Bibinoi. Based on literature study, five surface manifestations such as hot springs and alteration occurred within this area. The active manifestations indicate that Songa-Wayaua area has potential geothermal resource. This study objective is to evaluate Songa-Wayaua geothermal system on preliminary study stage by using volcanostratigraphy and remote sensing analysis to delineate the boundary of geothermal system area. The result of this study showed that Songa-Wayaua prospect area has four heat sources potential (e.g. Pele-pele Hummock, Lansa Hummock, Songa Hummock, and Bibinoi Hummock), controlled by geological structure presented by Pele-pele Normal Fault, and had three places as the recharge and discharge area which are very fulfilling as a geothermal system.

  8. Perturbation metatranscriptomics for studying complex microbial communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Rohan B.H.; Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; Arumugam, Krithika

    Studying the functional state of natural or engineered microbial communities presents substantial challenges due to both the complexities of field sampling, and, in the laboratory context, the inability of culture or reactor systems to maintain community composition ex situ over long periods. Here...... correlation between orthologous genes (Pearson r=0.4). We also used these data to annotate uncharacterized genes in the Ca. nitrospira defluvii genome: finding clear evidence for several previously unrecognized denitrification related genes, using a combination of expression profiles and protein domain data...... are associated with the transition from anoxic to aerobic conditions, and are observable at a whole community level and 3) these data provide a means of identifying unannotated genes in reference genomes that are likely to be associated with specific functional processes. More broadly, our approach permits...

  9. Coffee Consumption and Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Large Updated Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feiyue Xie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The potential role of coffee consumption in the development of various types of cancer has been extensively investigated in epidemiologic studies. How coffee consumption may modulate risk of gastric cancer, however, remains a subject open for investigation. To better quantify this relation, we quantitatively summarized evidence from prospective studies. Eligible studies were identified on PubMed and Embase databases. The summary risk estimates were obtained using the random-effects model. Subgroup, sensitivity and dose-response analyses were conducted. The present meta-analysis included 12 prospective cohort studies. A pooled analysis of these studies suggested that coffee consumption (highest vs. lowest consumption was not associated with risk of gastric cancer (RR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.93–1.36. In the subgroup analysis, significant increased risk was detected in the U.S. studies (RR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.06–1.74 and in the studies with <10 years of follow-up (RR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.00–1.54, and the greatest increase in risk was observed in those studies without adjustment for smoking (RR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.13–1.93. There was some evidence of publication bias (P for Egger’s test = 0.03. Cumulative evidence from prospective studies suggests that coffee consumption is not associated with risk of gastric cancer. The observed positive results may be confounded by smoking and need further investigation.

  10. Anxiety and depression in patients receiving radiotherapy. Prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, S.K.; Chandra, P.S.; Channabasavanna, S.M.; Anantha, N.; Reddy, B.K.M.; Sharma, S.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to detect the prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) prospectively in patients receiving Radiotherapy (RT) during and after treatment. 140 consecutive cancer patients referred for radiotherapy and their care givers were included. All patients were administered the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) conducted at intake, just before starting RT, after finishing the course of RT, and at 3-4 months follow-up. Anxiety and depression are detected frequently in patients receiving RT both prior to treatment and later during follow-up

  11. Indirect effects in community ecology: Their definition, study and importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, S Y

    1991-07-01

    The diversity of indirect interactions that can occur within communities is large. Recent research on indirect interactions is scattered in the literature under numerous labels. The definition of indirect effects is an important aspect of their study, and clarifies some of the subtle differences among indirect effects found in natural communities. Choosing which species to study, how to manipulate species and for what duration, which attributes to measure and, finally, which analytical techniques to use are all problems facing the community ecologist. Ultimately, we are striving for the best means of determining the relative importance of direct and indirect effects in structuring communities. Copyright © 1991. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Priorities and prospect theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happich, M; Mazurek, B

    2002-01-01

    Whose preferences are to be used for cost-effectiveness analysis? It has been recommended that community preferences for health states are the most appropriate ones for use in a reference case analysis. However, critics maintain that persons are not able properly to judge a health state if they have not experienced the condition themselves. This problem is analyzed here in the framework of Prospect Theory. It can be argued that the differing reference points of patients and the general public are responsible for deviating results. In addition, we argue that risk attitudes with respect to health-related quality of life are an indicator of reference points. If patients and the general public refer to the same reference point, i.e., they have the same risk attitude, the hypothesis is that deviations no longer significantly differ. Evaluations of the health condition of tinnitus by 210 patients and 210 unaffected persons were compared. The Time Tradeoff and Standard Gamble methods were applied to elicit preferences. Risk attitude was measured with the question of whether participants would undergo a treatment that could either improve or worsen their health condition, both with an equal chance (five possible answers between "in no case" and "in any case"). Affected persons indicated significantly higher values for tinnitus-related quality of life according to the Standard Gamble method. The difference between Time Tradeoff values was less dramatic but still significant. In addition, nonaffected persons are more risk-averse than affected persons. However, differences in evaluations are not significant considering single risk groups (e.g., those who answered "in no case"). Prospect Theory is a reasonable framework for considering the question of whose preferences count. If this result can be generalized for other diseases as well, it allows the mathematical combination of "objective" evaluations by the general public with the illness experience of patients. These

  13. Prospective cohort study of tea consumption and risk of digestive system cancers: results from the Shanghai Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechuta, Sarah; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Li, Hong-Lan; Yang, Gong; Ji, Bu-Tian; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Cai, Hui; Chow, Wong-Ho; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2012-11-01

    Data from in vitro and animal studies support a protective role for tea in the etiology of digestive system cancers; however, results from prospective cohort studies have been inconsistent. In addition, to our knowledge, no study has investigated the association of tea consumption with the incidence of all digestive system cancers in Chinese women. We investigated the association of regular tea intake (≥3 times/wk for >6 mo) with risk of digestive system cancers. We used the Shanghai Women's Health Study, a population-based prospective cohort study of middle-aged and older Chinese women who were recruited in 1996-2000. Adjusted HRs and associated 95% CIs were derived from Cox regression models. After a mean follow-up of 11 y, 1255 digestive system cancers occurred (stomach, esophagus, colorectal, liver, pancreas, and gallbladder/bile duct cancers) in 69,310 nonsmoking and non-alcohol-drinking women. In comparison with women who never drank tea, regular tea intake (mostly green tea) was associated with reduced risk of all digestive system cancers combined (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.98), and the reduction in risk increased as the amount and years of tea consumption increased (P-trend = 0.01 and P-trend digestive system cancers combined (HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.99). The inverse association was found primarily for colorectal and stomach/esophageal cancers. In this large prospective cohort study, tea consumption was associated with reduced risk of colorectal and stomach/esophageal cancers in Chinese women.

  14. Clinical prospective study with radioiodinated monoclonal antibodies directed against colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatal, J.F.; Douillard, J.Y.; Kremer, M.; Curtet, C.; Le Mevel, B.; Saccavini, J.C.; Maurel, C.; Aubry, J.

    1985-01-01

    The diagnostic application of three monoclonal antibodies are studied: an anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) antibody designated as 202 and two monoclonal antibodies, designated as 17-1A and 19-9, which recognize different antigens associated with gastrointestinal carcinomas. The complementary specificity of these antibodies was determined by an immuno-histochemical study and the scintigraphic detection parameters by a radiopharmacokinetic study in colic-tumour-bearing nude mice. On the basis of a prospective study, the value of immunoscintigraphy was compared with conventional methods such as ultrasonography and computed tomography for localization of recurrences of colorectal cancers. (UK)

  15. Pilot non dialysis chronic renal insufficiency study (P-ND-CRIS): a pilot study of an open prospective hospital-based French cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massol, Jacques; Janin, Gérard; Bachot, Camille; Gousset, Christophe; Deville, Geoffroy Sainte-Claire; Chalopin, Jean-Marc

    2017-02-01

    Before establishing a prospective cohort, an initial pilot study is recommended. However, there are no precise guidelines on this subject. This paper reports the findings of a French regional pilot study carried out in three nephrology departments, before realizing a major prospective Non Dialysis Chronic Renal Insufficiency study (ND-CRIS). We carried out an internal pilot study. The objectives of this pilot study were to validate the feasibility (regulatory approval, providing patients with information, availability of variables, refusal rate of eligible patients) and quality criteria (missing data, rate of patients lost to follow-up, characteristics of the patients included and non-included eligible patients, quality control of the data gathered) and estimate the human resources necessary (number of clinical research associates required). The authorizations obtained (CCTIRS - CNIL) and the contracts signed with hospitals have fulfilled the regulatory requirements. After validating the information on the study provided to patients, 1849 of them were included in three centres (university hospital, intercommunal hospital, town hospital) between April 2012 and September 2015. The low refusal rate (51 patients) and the characteristics of non-included patients have confirmed the benefit for patients of participating in the study and provide evidence of the feasibility and representativeness of the population studied. The lack of missing data on the variables studied, the quality of the data analyzed and the low number of patients lost to follow-up are evidence of the quality of the study. By taking into account the time spent by CRAs to enter data and to travel, as well as the annual patient numbers in each hospital, we estimate that five CRAs will be required in total. With no specific guidelines on how to realize a pilot study before implementing a major prospective cohort, we considered it pertinent to report our experience of P-ND-CRIS. This experience confirms

  16. Impact of exposure to cooking fuels on stillbirths, perinatal, very early and late neonatal mortality - a multicenter prospective cohort study in rural communities in India, Pakistan, Kenya, Zambia and Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Archana B; Meleth, Sreelatha; Pasha, Omrana; Goudar, Shivaprasad S; Esamai, Fabian; Garces, Ana L; Chomba, Elwyn; McClure, Elizabeth M; Wright, Linda L; Koso-Thomas, Marion; Moore, Janet L; Saleem, Sarah; Liechty, Edward A; Goldenberg, Robert L; Derman, Richard J; Hambidge, K Michael; Carlo, Waldemar A; Hibberd, Patricia L

    2015-01-01

    Consequences of exposure to household air pollution (HAP) from biomass fuels used for cooking on neonatal deaths and stillbirths is poorly understood. In a large multi-country observational study, we examined whether exposure to HAP was associated with perinatal mortality (stillbirths from gestation week 20 and deaths through day 7 of life) as well as when the deaths occurred (macerated, non-macerated stillbirths, very early neonatal mortality (day 0-2) and later neonatal mortality (day 3-28). Questions addressing household fuel use were asked at pregnancy, delivery, and neonatal follow-up visits in a prospective cohort study of pregnant women in rural communities in five low and lower middle income countries participating in the Global Network for Women and Children's Health's Maternal and Newborn Health Registry. The study was conducted between May 2011 and October 2012. Polluting fuels included kerosene, charcoal, coal, wood, straw, crop waste and dung. Clean fuels included electricity, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), natural gas and biogas. We studied the outcomes of 65,912 singleton pregnancies, 18 % from households using clean fuels (59 % LPG) and 82 % from households using polluting fuels (86 % wood). Compared to households cooking with clean fuels, there was an increased risk of perinatal mortality among households using polluting fuels (adjusted relative risk (aRR) 1.44, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.30-1.61). Exposure to HAP increased the risk of having a macerated stillbirth (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.66, 95%CI 1.23-2.25), non-macerated stillbirth (aOR 1.43, 95 % CI 1.15-1.85) and very early neonatal mortality (aOR 1.82, 95 % CI 1.47-2.22). Perinatal mortality was associated with exposure to HAP from week 20 of pregnancy through at least day 2 of life. Since pregnancy losses before labor and delivery are difficult to track, the effect of exposure to polluting fuels on global perinatal mortality may have previously been underestimated. Clinical

  17. 'Atypical' bacteria are a common cause of community-acquired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To assess the proportion of cases of community· acquired pneumonia caused by 'atypical' bacteria, inclUding the recently discovered Chlamydia pneumoniae, and to compare the clinical, radiographic and laboratory features of patients with and without 'atypical' bacteria. Methods. A prospective serological ...

  18. Diversity and Function of Microbial Community in Chinese Strong-Flavor Baijiu Ecosystem: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Strong flavor baijiu (SFB, also called Luzhou-flavor liquor, is the most popular Chinese baijiu. It is manufactured via solid fermentation, with daqu as the starter. Microbial diversity of the SFB ecosystem and the synergistic effects of the enzymes and compounds produced by them are responsible for the special flavor and mouthfeel of SFB. The present review covers research studies focused on microbial community analysis of the SFB ecosystem, including the culturable microorganisms, their metabolic functions, microbial community diversity and their interactions. The review specifically emphasizes on the most recently conducted culture-independent analysis of SFB microbial community diversity. Furthermore, the possible application of systems biology approaches for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of SFB production were also reviewed and prospected.

  19. Enhanced physical health screening for people with severe mental illness in Hong Kong: results from a one-year prospective case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressington, Daniel; Mui, Jolene; Hulbert, Sabina; Cheung, Eric; Bradford, Stephen; Gray, Richard

    2014-02-27

    People with severe mental illness have significantly poorer physical health compared to the general population; previous health screening studies conducted outside Asian countries have demonstrated the potential in addressing this issue. This case series aimed to explore the effects and utility of integrating an enhanced physical health screening programme for community dwelling patients with severe mental illness into routine clinical practice in Hong Kong. This study utilises a consecutive prospective case series design. The serious mental illness Health Improvement Profile (HIP) was used as a screening tool at baseline and repeated at 12 months follow-up. A total of 148 community-based patients with severe mental illness completed the study. At one year follow-up analysis showed a significant improvement in self-reported levels of exercise and a reduction in the numbers of patients prescribed medications for diabetes However, mean waist circumference increased at follow-up. In addition to the statistically significant results some general trends were observed, including: a lack of deterioration in most areas of cardiovascular risk; a reduction in medicines prescribed for physical health problems; and general improvements in health behaviours over the 12 month period. The findings demonstrate that using the HIP is feasible and acceptable in Hong Kong. The results of the enhanced physical health-screening programme are promising, but require further testing using a randomised controlled trial design in order to more confidently attribute the improvements in well-being and health behaviours to the HIP. ISRCTN12582470.

  20. Obesity and risk of colorectal cancer: a systematic review of prospective studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlei Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence indicates that obesity may be associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC. To conduct a systematic review of prospective studies assessing the association of obesity with the risk of CRC using meta-analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Relevant studies were identified by a search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases before January 2012, with no restrictions. We also reviewed reference lists from retrieved articles. We included prospective studies that reported relative risk (RR estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs for the association between general obesity [measured using body mass index (BMI] or central obesity [measured using waist circumference (WC] and the risk of colorectal, colon, or rectal cancer. Approximately 9, 000, 000 participants from several countries were included in this analysis. 41 studies on general obesity and 13 studies on central obesity were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled RRs of CRC for the obese vs. normal category of BMI were 1.334 (95% CI, 1.253-1.420, and the highest vs. lowest category of WC were 1.455 (95% CI, 1.327-1.596. There was heterogeneity among studies of BMI (P<0.001 but not among studies of WC (P=0.323. CONCLUSIONS: Both of general and central obesity were positively associated with the risk of CRC in this meta-analysis.

  1. Emerging new practices in technology to support independent community access for people with intellectual and cognitive disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Steven E; Davies, Daniel K; Wehmeyer, Michael L; Lachapelle, Yves

    2011-01-01

    The concept of community access is a multidimensional term, which may involve issues related to physical access, knowledge and information, power and control, relationships and communications, advocacy, participation and quality of life [21]. This paper discusses historical and emerging practices and interventions related to physical access to community and community based information for individuals with cognitive disabilities such as intellectual disability, autism or traumatic brain injury. While much societal attention has been paid to features of independent community access for populations such as individuals with hearing, vision or physical disabilities, less attention has focused on independent community access for people with intellectual and other significant cognitive disabilities. Attitudes and actions by families and professional service communities are often mixed for some individuals in this population. The somewhat limited research base in these areas is explored, including a case study review and results from several promising feasibility studies. The paper concludes with comments concerning future prospects and recommendations for improving independent community access for persons with significant cognitive disabilities.

  2. Succession Planning for Community Colleges: A Study of Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Susan Marie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to apply best practices for succession planning to community colleges. Succession planning is relevant to management practices in community colleges because there is a surge in retirements in higher education from the "baby boomer" generation. Community colleges need to implement a succession plan to ensure…

  3. Neonatal Predictors of Cognitive Ability in Adults Born Very Preterm : A Prospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeman, L.D.; Jaekel, Julia; Baumann, Nicole; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter

    Aim To identify neonatal predictors to allow a developmental prognosis of very preterm / very-low birthweight (VP/VLBW) survivors' cognitive abilities into adult life. Method The Bavarian Longitudinal Study is a prospective whole population study that followed 260 VP/VLBW infants from birth to

  4. Coagulation Profile Dynamics in Pediatric Patients with Cushing Syndrome: A Prospective, Observational Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birdwell, L. (Leah); M.B. Lodish (Maya Beth); Tirosh, A. (Amit); P. Chittiboina (Prashant); M. Keil (Mark); Lyssikatos, C. (Charlampos); Belyavskaya, E. (Elena); R.A. Feelders (Richard); C.A. Stratakis (Constantine)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective To evaluate the association between Cushing syndrome and hypercoagulability in children. Study design A prospective, observational study was performed of 54 patients with Cushing syndrome, 15.1 ± 3.9 years, treated at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center.

  5. Shared genetic effects between hepatic steatosis and fibrosis: A prospective twin study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jeffrey; Chen, Chi-Hua; Lo, Min-Tzu; Schork, Nicholas; Bettencourt, Ricki; Gonzalez, Monica P; Bhatt, Archana; Hooker, Jonathan; Shaffer, Katherine; Nelson, Karen E; Long, Michelle T; Brenner, David A; Sirlin, Claude B; Loomba, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with metabolic risk factors including hypertension and dyslipidemia, and may progress to liver fibrosis. Previous studies have shown that hepatic steatosis and fibrosis are heritable but whether they have a significant shared gene effect is unknown. This study aimed to examine the shared gene effects between hepatic steatosis, fibrosis, and their associations with metabolic risk factors. Methods This is a cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort of well-characterized, community-dwelling twins (45 monozygotic, 20 dizygotic twin pairs, 130 total subjects) from Southern California. Hepatic steatosis was assessed with MRI-proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF) and hepatic fibrosis was assessed with magnetic resonance elastography (MRE). A standard bivariate twin AE model was used to estimate the proportion of phenotypic variance between two phenotypes accounted for by additive genetic effects (A) and individual-specific environmental effects (E). Genetic correlations (rG) estimated from this model represent the degree to which the genetic determinants of two phenotypes overlap. Results The mean (±SD) age and BMI were 47.1 (±21.9) years and 26.9 (±6.5) kg/m2, respectively. 20% (26/130) of the cohort had hepatic steatosis (MRI-PDFF ≥5%) and 8.2% (10/122) had hepatic fibrosis (MRE ≥3Kpa). Blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), triglycerides, glucose, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), insulin, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) had significant shared gene effects with hepatic steatosis. Triglycerides, glucose, HOMA-IR, insulin, HbA1c, and low HDL had significant shared gene effects with hepatic fibrosis. Hepatic steatosis and fibrosis had a highly significant shared gene effect of 0.756 (95% CI: 0.716–1, psteatosis pathogenesis may also be involved with fibrosis pathogenesis. PMID:27315352

  6. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and breast cancer risk in a European prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cairat, Manon; Fournier, Agnès; Murphy, Neil

    2018-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown a protective effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on breast cancer development. However, results from epidemiological cohort studies are less consistent. Our objective was to assess the association between NSAID use and breast cancer risk within...... effect modification of MHT use on the association between use of NSAIDs and breast cancer risk which deserves in-depth investigation in studies with accurate data on both NSAID and MHT use. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....... the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). EPIC is a prospective cohort study initiated in 1992 in 10 European countries. Self-reported information on NSAID use at baseline has been collected in five EPIC countries. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard...

  7. Percutaneous ultrasonic tenotomy for chronic elbow tendinosis: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Darryl E; Beckley, James M; Smith, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Elbow tendinopathy is the most common cause of elbow pain affecting active populations. Surgical excision is reserved for patients with refractory symptoms. Percutaneous ultrasonic tenotomy performed under local anesthesia also removes degenerated tissue and therefore provides an alternative treatment option to surgical excision. This investigation prospectively documented the safety and 1-year efficacy of ultrasonic percutaneous tenotomy performed by a single operator. Nineteen patients, aged 38 to 67 years, in whom >6 months of conservative management for medial (7) or lateral (12) elbow tendinopathy had failed were prospectively studied. All patients were treated with percutaneous ultrasonic tenotomy of the elbow by a single operator. Visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, the 11-item version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (Quick DASH) index, and the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS) were assessed by an independent observer before treatment and at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after treatment. No procedural complications occurred. Total treatment time was elbow tendinopathy up to 1 year after the procedure. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical role of Cefixime in community-acquired infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreshaj, Sh; Doda-Ejupi, T; Tolaj, I Q; Mustafa, A; Kabashi, S; Shala, N; Geca, Nj; Aliu, A; Daka, A; Basha, N

    2011-01-01

    Cefixime is an oral third generation cephalosporin, frequently used in respiratory tract infections (RTI) in the pediatric population. However, in some publications cefixime has demonstrated poor efficacy against staphylococci and streptococci. of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cefixime in the treatment of community-acquired infections in a country where parenteral third generation cephalosporins have been used for a long time. The present study was designed to assess the clinical efficacy, bacteriological eradication rates and tolerability of cefixime in children with community-acquired upper RTI (URTI), lower RTI (LRTI) and uncomplicated urinary tract infections