WorldWideScience

Sample records for prosaposin down-modulation decreases

  1. Temporal changes in prosaposin expression in the rat dentate gyrus after birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midori Morishita

    Full Text Available Neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus occurs constitutively throughout postnatal life. Adult neurogenesis includes a multistep process that ends with the formation of a postmitotic and functionally integrated new neuron. During adult neurogenesis, various markers are expressed, including GFAP, nestin, Pax6, polysialic acid-neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM, neuronal nuclei (NeuN, doublecortin, TUC-4, Tuj-1, and calretinin. Prosaposin is the precursor of saposins A-D; it is found in various organs and can be excreted. Strong prosaposin expression has been demonstrated in the developing brain including the hippocampus, and its neurotrophic activity has been proposed. This study investigated changes in prosaposin in the dentate gyrus of young and adult rats using double immunohistochemistry with antibodies to prosaposin, PSA-NCAM, and NeuN. Prosaposin immunoreactivity was intense in the dentate gyrus at postnatal day 3 (P3 and P7, but decreased gradually after P14. In the dentate gyrus at P28, immature PSA-NCAM-positive neurons localized exclusively in the subgranular zone were prosaposin-negative, whereas mature Neu-N-positive neurons were positive for prosaposin. Furthermore, these prosaposin-negative immature neurons were saposin B-positive, suggesting that the neurons take up and degrade prosaposin. In situ hybridization assays showed that prosaposin in the adult dentate gyrus is dominantly the Pro+9 type, a secreted type of prosaposin. These results imply that prosaposin secreted from mature neurons stimulates proliferation and maturation of immature neurons in the dentate gyrus.

  2. Temporal changes in prosaposin expression in the rat dentate gyrus after birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Midori; Nabeka, Hiroaki; Shimokawa, Tetsuya; Miyawaki, Kyojy; Doihara, Takuya; Saito, Shouichiro; Kobayashi, Naoto; Matsuda, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    Neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus occurs constitutively throughout postnatal life. Adult neurogenesis includes a multistep process that ends with the formation of a postmitotic and functionally integrated new neuron. During adult neurogenesis, various markers are expressed, including GFAP, nestin, Pax6, polysialic acid-neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), neuronal nuclei (NeuN), doublecortin, TUC-4, Tuj-1, and calretinin. Prosaposin is the precursor of saposins A-D; it is found in various organs and can be excreted. Strong prosaposin expression has been demonstrated in the developing brain including the hippocampus, and its neurotrophic activity has been proposed. This study investigated changes in prosaposin in the dentate gyrus of young and adult rats using double immunohistochemistry with antibodies to prosaposin, PSA-NCAM, and NeuN. Prosaposin immunoreactivity was intense in the dentate gyrus at postnatal day 3 (P3) and P7, but decreased gradually after P14. In the dentate gyrus at P28, immature PSA-NCAM-positive neurons localized exclusively in the subgranular zone were prosaposin-negative, whereas mature Neu-N-positive neurons were positive for prosaposin. Furthermore, these prosaposin-negative immature neurons were saposin B-positive, suggesting that the neurons take up and degrade prosaposin. In situ hybridization assays showed that prosaposin in the adult dentate gyrus is dominantly the Pro+9 type, a secreted type of prosaposin. These results imply that prosaposin secreted from mature neurons stimulates proliferation and maturation of immature neurons in the dentate gyrus.

  3. The inactivation of the sortilin gene leads to a partial disruption of prosaposin trafficking to the lysosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Jibin; Racicott, Jesse; Morales, Carlos R.

    2009-01-01

    Lysosomes are intracellular organelles which contain enzymes and activator proteins involved in the digestion and recycling of a variety of cellular and extracellular substances. We have identified a novel sorting receptor, sortilin, which is involved in the lysosomal trafficking of the sphingolipid activator proteins, prosaposin and GM 2 AP, and the soluble hydrolases cathepsin D, cathepsin H, and acid sphingomyelinase. Sortilin belongs to a growing family of receptors with homology to the yeast Vps10 protein, which acts as a lysosomal sorting receptor for carboxypeptidase Y. In this study we examined the effects of the sortilin gene inactivation in mice. The inactivation of this gene did not yield any noticeable lysosomal pathology. To determine the existence of an alternative receptor complementing the sorting function of sortilin, we quantified the concentration of prosaposin in the lysosomes of the nonciliated epithelial cells lining the efferent ducts. These cells were chosen because they express sortilin and have a large number of lysosomes containing prosaposin. In addition, the nonciliated cells are known to endocytose luminal prosaposin that is synthesized and secreted by Sertoli cells into the seminiferous luminal fluids. Consequently, the nonciliated cells are capable of targeting both exogenous and endogenous prosaposin to the lysosomes. Using electron microscope immunogold labeling and quantitative analysis, our results demonstrate that inactivation of the sortilin gene produces a significant decrease of prosaposin in the lysosomes. When luminal prosaposin was excluded from the efferent ducts, the level of prosaposin in lysosomes was even lower in the mutant mice. Nonetheless, a significant amount of prosaposin continues to reach the lysosomal compartment. These results strongly suggest the existence of an alternative receptor that complements the function of sortilin and explains the lack of lysosomal storage disorders in the sortilin-deficient mice.

  4. The inactivation of the sortilin gene leads to a partial disruption of prosaposin trafficking to the lysosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Jibin; Racicott, Jesse [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Morales, Carlos R., E-mail: carlos.morales@mcgill.ca [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, McGill University, Montreal (Canada)

    2009-11-01

    Lysosomes are intracellular organelles which contain enzymes and activator proteins involved in the digestion and recycling of a variety of cellular and extracellular substances. We have identified a novel sorting receptor, sortilin, which is involved in the lysosomal trafficking of the sphingolipid activator proteins, prosaposin and GM{sub 2}AP, and the soluble hydrolases cathepsin D, cathepsin H, and acid sphingomyelinase. Sortilin belongs to a growing family of receptors with homology to the yeast Vps10 protein, which acts as a lysosomal sorting receptor for carboxypeptidase Y. In this study we examined the effects of the sortilin gene inactivation in mice. The inactivation of this gene did not yield any noticeable lysosomal pathology. To determine the existence of an alternative receptor complementing the sorting function of sortilin, we quantified the concentration of prosaposin in the lysosomes of the nonciliated epithelial cells lining the efferent ducts. These cells were chosen because they express sortilin and have a large number of lysosomes containing prosaposin. In addition, the nonciliated cells are known to endocytose luminal prosaposin that is synthesized and secreted by Sertoli cells into the seminiferous luminal fluids. Consequently, the nonciliated cells are capable of targeting both exogenous and endogenous prosaposin to the lysosomes. Using electron microscope immunogold labeling and quantitative analysis, our results demonstrate that inactivation of the sortilin gene produces a significant decrease of prosaposin in the lysosomes. When luminal prosaposin was excluded from the efferent ducts, the level of prosaposin in lysosomes was even lower in the mutant mice. Nonetheless, a significant amount of prosaposin continues to reach the lysosomal compartment. These results strongly suggest the existence of an alternative receptor that complements the function of sortilin and explains the lack of lysosomal storage disorders in the sortilin

  5. Top-down modulation, emotion, and hallucination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleman, A; Kahn, RS

    2002-01-01

    We argue that the pivotal role assigned by Northoff to the principle of top-down modulation in catatonia might successfully be applied to other symptoms of schizophrenia, for example, hallucinations. Second, we propose that Northoffs account would benefit from a more comprehensive analysis of the

  6. Temporal gene expression profiling reveals CEBPD as a candidate regulator of brain disease in prosaposin deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Huimin

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prosaposin encodes, in tandem, four small acidic activator proteins (saposins with specificities for glycosphingolipid (GSL hydrolases in lysosomes. Extensive GSL storage occurs in various central nervous system regions in mammalian prosaposin deficiencies. Results Our hypomorphic prosaposin deficient mouse, PS-NA, exhibited 45% WT levels of brain saposins and showed neuropathology that included neuronal GSL storage and Purkinje cell loss. Impairment of neuronal function was observed as early as 6 wks as demonstrated by the narrow bridges tests. Temporal transcriptome microarray analyses of brain tissues were conducted with mRNA from three prosaposin deficient mouse models: PS-NA, prosaposin null (PS-/- and a V394L/V394L glucocerebrosidase mutation combined with PS-NA (4L/PS-NA. Gene expression alterations in cerebrum and cerebellum were detectable at birth preceding the neuronal deficits. Differentially expressed genes encompassed a broad spectrum of cellular functions. The number of down-regulated genes was constant, but up-regulated gene numbers increased with age. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta (CEBPD was the only up-regulated transcription factor in these two brain regions of all three models. Network analyses revealed that CEBPD has functional relationships with genes in transcription, pro-inflammation, cell death, binding, myelin and transport. Conclusion These results show that: 1 Regionally specific gene expression abnormalities precede the brain histological and neuronal function changes, 2 Temporal gene expression profiles provide insights into the molecular mechanism during the GSL storage disease course, and 3 CEBPD is a candidate regulator of brain disease in prosaposin deficiency to participate in modulating disease acceleration or progression.

  7. A Stretch of 17 Amino Acids in the Prosaposin C Terminus Is Critical for Its Binding to Sortilin and Targeting to Lysosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Libin; Morales, Carlos R.

    2010-01-01

    Prosaposin, the precursor of four lysosomal cofactors required for the hydrolysis of sphingolipids, is transported to the lysosomes via the alternative receptor, sortilin. In this study, we identified a specific domain of 17 amino acids within the C terminus of prosaposin involved in binding to this sorting receptor. We generated six prosaposin deletion constructs and examined the effect of truncation by coimmunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy. The experiments revealed that the first half of the prosaposin C terminus (aa 524–540), containing a saposin-like motif, was required and necessary to bind sortilin and to transport it to the lysosomes. Based on this result, we introduced twelve site-directed point mutations within the first half of the C terminus. Although the interaction of prosaposin with sortilin was pH dependent, the mutation of hydrophilic amino acids that usually modulate pH-dependent protein interactions did not affect the binding of prosaposin to sortilin. Conversely, a tryptophan (W530) and two cysteines (C528 and C536) were essential for its interaction with sortilin and for its transport to the lysosomes. In conclusion, our investigation demonstrates that a saposin-like motif within the first half of the prosaposin C terminus contains the sortilin recognition site. (J Histochem Cytochem 58:287–300, 2010) PMID:19934382

  8. Investigating emotional top down modulation of ambiguous faces by single pulse TMS on early visual cortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Adam Yaple

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Top-down processing is a mechanism in which memory, context and expectation are used to perceive stimuli. For this study we investigated how emotion content, induced by music mood, influences perception of happy and sad emoticons. Using single pulse TMS we stimulated right occipital face area (rOFA, primary visual cortex (V1 and vertex while subjects performed a face-detection task and listened to happy and sad music. At baseline, incongruent audio-visual pairings decreased performance, demonstrating dependence of emotion while perceiving ambiguous faces. However, performance of face identification decreased during rOFA stimulation regardless of emotional content. No effects were found between Cz and V1 stimulation. These results suggest that while rOFA is important for processing faces regardless of emotion, V1 stimulation had no effect. Our findings suggest that early visual cortex activity may not integrate emotional auditory information with visual information during emotion top-down modulation of faces.

  9. Mechano-Signal Transduction in Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induces Prosaposin Secretion to Drive the Proliferation of Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Seiichiro; Inman, David R; Li, Wan-Ju; Ponik, Suzanne M; Keely, Patricia J

    2017-11-15

    In response to chemical stimuli from cancer cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) can differentiate into cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) and promote tumor progression. How mechanical stimuli such as stiffness of the extracellular matrix (ECM) contribute to MSC phenotype in cancer remains poorly understood. Here, we show that ECM stiffness leads to mechano-signal transduction in MSC, which promotes mammary tumor growth in part through secretion of the signaling protein prosaposin. On a stiff matrix, MSC cultured with conditioned media from mammary cancer cells expressed increased levels of α-smooth muscle actin, a marker of CAF, compared with MSC cultured on a soft matrix. By contrast, MSC cultured on a stiff matrix secreted prosaposin that promoted proliferation and survival of mammary carcinoma cells but inhibited metastasis. Our findings suggest that in addition to chemical stimuli, increased stiffness of the ECM in the tumor microenvironment induces differentiation of MSC to CAF, triggering enhanced proliferation and survival of mammary cancer cells. Cancer Res; 77(22); 6179-89. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. BAG3 down-modulation reduces anaplastic thyroid tumor growth by enhancing proteasome-mediated degradation of BRAF protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappetta, Gennaro; Basile, Anna; Arra, Claudio; Califano, Daniela; Pasquinelli, Rosa; Barbieri, Antonio; De Simone, Veronica; Rea, Domenica; Giudice, Aldo; Pezzullo, Luciano; De Laurenzi, Vincenzo; Botti, Gerardo; Losito, Simona; Conforti, Daniela; Turco, Maria Caterina

    2012-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid tumors (ATC) express high levels of BAG3, a member of the BAG family of cochaperone proteins that is involved in regulating cell apoptosis through multiple mechanisms. The objective of the study was the investigation of the influence of B-cell lymphoma-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) on ATC growth. We investigated the effects of BAG3 down-modulation, obtained by using a specific small interfering RNA, on in vitro and in vivo growth of the human ATC cell line 8505C. Because BRAF protein plays an important role in ATC cell growth, we analyzed the effects of BAG3 down-modulation on BRAF protein levels. Furthermore, by using a proteasome inhibitor, we verified whether BAG3-mediated regulation of BRAF levels involved a proteasome-dependent mechanism. BAG3 down-modulation significantly inhibits ATC growth in vitro and in vivo. BAG3 coimmunoprecipitates with BRAF protein, and its down-modulation results in a significant reduction of BRAF protein levels, which can be reverted by incubation with the proteasome inhibitor MG132. BAG3 protein sustains ATC growth in vitro and in vivo. The underlying molecular mechanism appears to rely on BAG3 binding to BRAF, thus protecting it from proteasome-dependent degradation. These results are in line with the reported ability of BAG3 to interfere with the proteasomal delivery of a number of other client proteins.

  11. Mindfulness starts with the body: Somatosensory attention and top-down modulation of cortical alpha rhythms in mindfulness meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Kerr

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR and Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT use a common set of exercises to reduce distress in chronic pain and decrease risk of depression relapse. These standardized mindfulness (ST-Mindfulness practices predominantly require attending to breath and body sensations. Here, we offer a novel view of ST-Mindfulness’s somatic focus as a form of training for optimizing attentional modulation of 7-14 Hz alpha rhythms that play a key role in filtering inputs to primary sensory neocortex and organizing the flow of sensory information. In support of the framework, we describe our previous finding (Kerr et al, 2011 that ST-Mindfulness enhanced attentional regulation of alpha in primary somatosensory cortex (SI. The framework allows us to make several predictions. In chronic pain, we predict somatic attention in ST-Mindfulness de-biases alpha in SI, freeing up pain-focused attentional resources. In depression relapse, we predict ST-Mindfulness’s somatic attention competes with internally focused rumination, as internally focused cognitive processes (e.g., working and short term memory rely on alpha filtering of sensory input. Our computational model (Jones et al, 2009 predicts ST-Mindfulness enhances top-down modulation of alpha by facilitating precise alterations in timing and efficacy of SI thalamocortical inputs. We conclude by considering how the proposed framework aligns with Buddhist teachings that mindfulness starts with mindfulness of the body. Translating this theory into neurophysiology, we hypothesize that with its somatic focus, mindfulness’ top-down alpha rhythm modulation in SI enhances gain control which, in turn, sensitizes practitioners to better detect and regulate when the mind wanders from its somatic focus. This enhanced regulation of somatic mind-wandering may be an early stage of mindfulness training, leading to cognitive regulation and metacognition.

  12. The Temporal Pole Top-Down Modulates the Ventral Visual Stream During Social Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehrs, Corinna; Zaki, Jamil; Schlochtermeier, Lorna H; Jacobs, Arthur M; Kuchinke, Lars; Koelsch, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The temporal pole (TP) has been associated with diverse functions of social cognition and emotion processing. Although the underlying mechanism remains elusive, one possibility is that TP acts as domain-general hub integrating socioemotional information. To test this, 26 participants were presented with 60 empathy-evoking film clips during fMRI scanning. The film clips were preceded by a linguistic sad or neutral context and half of the clips were accompanied by sad music. In line with its hypothesized role, TP was involved in the processing of sad context and furthermore tracked participants' empathic concern. To examine the neuromodulatory impact of TP, we applied nonlinear dynamic causal modeling to a multisensory integration network from previous work consisting of superior temporal gyrus (STG), fusiform gyrus (FG), and amygdala, which was extended by an additional node in the TP. Bayesian model comparison revealed a gating of STG and TP on fusiform-amygdalar coupling and an increase of TP to FG connectivity during the integration of contextual information. Moreover, these backward projections were strengthened by emotional music. The findings indicate that during social cognition, TP integrates information from different modalities and top-down modulates lower-level perceptual areas in the ventral visual stream as a function of integration demands. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Analgesia induced by self-initiated electrotactile sensation is mediated by top-down modulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ke; Tang, Zhengyu; Wang, Huiquan; Guo, Yifei; Peng, Weiwei; Hu, Li

    2017-06-01

    It is well known that sensory perception can be attenuated when sensory stimuli are controlled by self-initiated actions. This phenomenon is explained by the consistency between forward models of anticipated action effects and actual sensory feedback. Specifically, the brain state related to the binding between motor processing and sensory perception would have inhibitory function by gating sensory information via top-down control. Since the brain state could casually influence the perception of subsequent stimuli of different sensory modalities, we hypothesize that pain evoked by nociceptive stimuli following the self-initiated tactile stimulation would be attenuated as compared to that following externally determined tactile stimulation. Here, we compared psychophysical and neurophysiological responses to identical nociceptive-specific laser stimuli in two different conditions: self-initiated tactile sensation condition (STS) and nonself-initiated tactile sensation condition (N-STS). We observed that pain intensity and unpleasantness, as well as laser-evoked brain responses, were significantly reduced in the STS condition compared to the N-STS condition. In addition, magnitudes of alpha and beta oscillations prior to laser onset were significantly larger in the STS condition than in the N-STS condition. These results confirmed that pain perception and pain-related brain responses were attenuated when the tactile stimulation was initiated by subjects' voluntary actions, and exploited neural oscillations reflecting the binding between motor processing and sensory feedback. Thus, our study elaborated the understanding of underlying neural mechanisms related to top-down modulations of the analgesic effect induced by self-initiated tactile sensation, which provided theoretical basis to improve the analgesic effect in various clinical applications. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  14. Top-down modulation on perceptual decision with balanced inhibition through feedforward and feedback inhibitory neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Te Wang

    Full Text Available Recent physiological studies have shown that neurons in various regions of the central nervous systems continuously receive noisy excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs in a balanced and covaried fashion. While this balanced synaptic input (BSI is typically described in terms of maintaining the stability of neural circuits, a number of experimental and theoretical studies have suggested that BSI plays a proactive role in brain functions such as top-down modulation for executive control. Two issues have remained unclear in this picture. First, given the noisy nature of neuronal activities in neural circuits, how do the modulatory effects change if the top-down control implements BSI with different ratios between inhibition and excitation? Second, how is a top-down BSI realized via only excitatory long-range projections in the neocortex? To address the first issue, we systematically tested how the inhibition/excitation ratio affects the accuracy and reaction times of a spiking neural circuit model of perceptual decision. We defined an energy function to characterize the network dynamics, and found that different ratios modulate the energy function of the circuit differently and form two distinct functional modes. To address the second issue, we tested BSI with long-distance projection to inhibitory neurons that are either feedforward or feedback, depending on whether these inhibitory neurons do or do not receive inputs from local excitatory cells, respectively. We found that BSI occurs in both cases. Furthermore, when relying on feedback inhibitory neurons, through the recurrent interactions inside the circuit, BSI dynamically and automatically speeds up the decision by gradually reducing its inhibitory component in the course of a trial when a decision process takes too long.

  15. Top-down modulation on perceptual decision with balanced inhibition through feedforward and feedback inhibitory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Te; Lee, Chung-Ting; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Lo, Chung-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    Recent physiological studies have shown that neurons in various regions of the central nervous systems continuously receive noisy excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs in a balanced and covaried fashion. While this balanced synaptic input (BSI) is typically described in terms of maintaining the stability of neural circuits, a number of experimental and theoretical studies have suggested that BSI plays a proactive role in brain functions such as top-down modulation for executive control. Two issues have remained unclear in this picture. First, given the noisy nature of neuronal activities in neural circuits, how do the modulatory effects change if the top-down control implements BSI with different ratios between inhibition and excitation? Second, how is a top-down BSI realized via only excitatory long-range projections in the neocortex? To address the first issue, we systematically tested how the inhibition/excitation ratio affects the accuracy and reaction times of a spiking neural circuit model of perceptual decision. We defined an energy function to characterize the network dynamics, and found that different ratios modulate the energy function of the circuit differently and form two distinct functional modes. To address the second issue, we tested BSI with long-distance projection to inhibitory neurons that are either feedforward or feedback, depending on whether these inhibitory neurons do or do not receive inputs from local excitatory cells, respectively. We found that BSI occurs in both cases. Furthermore, when relying on feedback inhibitory neurons, through the recurrent interactions inside the circuit, BSI dynamically and automatically speeds up the decision by gradually reducing its inhibitory component in the course of a trial when a decision process takes too long.

  16. Top-down modulation of human early visual cortex after stimulus offset supports successful postcued report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergent, Claire; Ruff, Christian C; Barbot, Antoine; Driver, Jon; Rees, Geraint

    2011-08-01

    Modulations of sensory processing in early visual areas are thought to play an important role in conscious perception. To date, most empirical studies focused on effects occurring before or during visual presentation. By contrast, several emerging theories postulate that sensory processing and conscious visual perception may also crucially depend on late top-down influences, potentially arising after a visual display. To provide a direct test of this, we performed an fMRI study using a postcued report procedure. The ability to report a target at a specific spatial location in a visual display can be enhanced behaviorally by symbolic auditory postcues presented shortly after that display. Here we showed that such auditory postcues can enhance target-specific signals in early human visual cortex (V1 and V2). For postcues presented 200 msec after stimulus termination, this target-specific enhancement in visual cortex was specifically associated with correct conscious report. The strength of this modulation predicted individual levels of performance in behavior. By contrast, although later postcues presented 1000 msec after stimulus termination had some impact on activity in early visual cortex, this modulation no longer related to conscious report. These results demonstrate that within a critical time window of a few hundred milliseconds after a visual stimulus has disappeared, successful conscious report of that stimulus still relates to the strength of top-down modulation in early visual cortex. We suggest that, within this critical time window, sensory representation of a visual stimulus is still under construction and so can still be flexibly influenced by top-down modulatory processes.

  17. BAG3 down-modulation sensitizes HPV18(+) HeLa cells to PEITC-induced apoptosis and restores p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotugno, Roberta; Basile, Anna; Romano, Elena; Gallotta, Dario; Belisario, Maria Antonietta

    2014-11-28

    BAG3 is a multi-functional component of tumor cell pro-survival machinery, and its biological functions have been largely associated to proteasome system. Here, we show that BAG3 down-modulation resulted in reduced cell viability and enhanced PEITC-induced apoptosis largely more extensively in HeLa (HPV18(+)) rather than in C33A (HPV(-)) cervical carcinoma cell lines. Moreover, we demonstrate that BAG3 suppression led to a decrease of viral E6 oncoprotein and a concomitant recovery of p53 tumor suppressor, the best recognized target of E6 for proteasome degradation. E6 and p53 expression were modulated at protein level, since their respective mRNAs were unaffected. Taken together our findings reveal a novel role for BAG3 as host protein contributing to HPV18 E6-activated pro-survival strategies, and suggest a possible relevance of its expression levels in drug/radiotherapy-resistance of HPV18-bearing cervical carcinomas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cervical cancer cell lines expressing NKG2D-ligands are able to down-modulate the NKG2D receptor on NKL cells with functional implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimenez-Perez Miriam I

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer represents the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Natural killer (NK cells play an important role in the defense against viruses, intracellular bacteria and tumors. NKG2D, an activating receptor on NK cells, recognizes MHC class I chain-related molecules, such as MICA/B and members of the ULBP/RAET1 family. Tumor-derived soluble NKG2D-ligands have been shown to down-modulate the expression of NKG2D on NK cells. In addition to the down-modulation induced by soluble NKG2D-ligands, it has recently been described that persistent cell-cell contact can also down-modulate NKG2D expression. The goal of this study was to determine whether the NKG2D receptor is down-modulated by cell-cell contact with cervical cancer cells and whether this down-modulation might be associated with changes in NK cell activity. Results We demonstrate that NKG2D expressed on NKL cells is down-modulated by direct cell contact with cervical cancer cell lines HeLa, SiHa, and C33A, but not with non-tumorigenic keratinocytes (HaCaT. Moreover, this down-modulation had functional implications. We found expression of NKG2D-ligands in all cervical cancer cell lines, but the patterns of ligand distribution were different in each cell line. Cervical cancer cell lines co-cultured with NKL cells or fresh NK cells induced a marked diminution of NKG2D expression on NKL cells. Additionally, the cytotoxic activity of NKL cells against K562 targets was compromised after co-culture with HeLa and SiHa cells, while co-culture with C33A increased the cytotoxic activity of the NKL cells. Conclusions Our results suggest that differential expression of NKG2D-ligands in cervical cancer cell lines might be associated with the down-modulation of NKG2D, as well as with changes in the cytotoxic activity of NKL cells after cell-cell contact with the tumor cells.

  19. Another piece in the progranulin puzzle: special binding between progranulin and prosaposin creates additional lysosomal access: An Editorial Comment for 'The interaction between progranulin and prosaposin is mediated by granulins and the linker region between saposin B and C' on page 236.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Philip

    2017-10-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the growth factor progranulin cause degeneration of the ageing brain in a dose-dependent manner. While heterozygous mutations result in adult onset frontotemporal dementia, the much rarer homozygous null mutations cause an early onset lysosomal storage disorder. A better understanding of the biology of progranulin in the central nervous system is needed to find solutions for these incurable diseases. This Editorial highlights a study by Zhou et al. in the current issue of the Journal of Neurochemistry, in which the authors provide data that are a step towards this goal. Progranulin is mainly expressed by neurons and microglia and, although it is a secreted protein, it also ends up in lysosomes. Recently, the trafficking of progranulin and the molecular players involved have become better understood. A special interaction between progranulin and its travelling companion, prosaposin, explains how both proteins can use each other's transport receptors to gain access to lysosomes. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Society for Neurochemistry.

  20. Attention, working memory, and phenomenal experience of WM content: memory levels determined by different types of top-down modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Jane; Jacobs, Christianne; Silvanto, Juha

    2015-01-01

    What is the role of top-down attentional modulation in consciously accessing working memory (WM) content? In influential WM models, information can exist in different states, determined by allocation of attention; placing the original memory representation in the center of focused attention gives rise to conscious access. Here we discuss various lines of evidence indicating that such attentional modulation is not sufficient for memory content to be phenomenally experienced. We propose that, in addition to attentional modulation of the memory representation, another type of top-down modulation is required: suppression of all incoming visual information, via inhibition of early visual cortex. In this view, there are three distinct memory levels, as a function of the top-down control associated with them: (1) Nonattended, nonconscious associated with no attentional modulation; (2) attended, phenomenally nonconscious memory, associated with attentional enhancement of the actual memory trace; (3) attended, phenomenally conscious memory content, associated with enhancement of the memory trace and top-down suppression of all incoming visual input.

  1. Design and cellular kinetics of dansyl-labeled CADA derivatives with anti-HIV and CD4 receptor down-modulating activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeire, Kurt; Lisco, Andrea; Grivel, Jean-Charles; Scarbrough, Emily; Dey, Kaka; Duffy, Noah; Margolis, Leonid; Bell, Thomas W; Schols, Dominique

    2007-08-15

    A new class of anti-retrovirals, cyclotriazadisulfonamide (CADA) and its derivatives, specifically down-regulate CD4, the main receptor of HIV, and prevent HIV infection in vitro. In this work, several CADA derivatives, chemically labeled with a fluorescent dansyl group, were evaluated for their biological features and cellular uptake kinetics. We identified a derivative KKD-016 with antiviral and CD4 down-modulating capabilities similar to those of the parental compound CADA. By using flow cytometry, we demonstrated that the dose-dependent cellular uptake of this derivative correlated with CD4 down-modulation. The uptake and activity of the dansyl-labeled compounds were not dependent on the level of expression of CD4 at the cell surface. Removal of the CADA compounds from the cell culture medium resulted in their release from the cells followed by a complete restoration of CD4 expression. The inability of several fluorescent CADA derivatives to down-modulate CD4 was not associated with their lower cellular uptake and was not reversed by facilitating their cell penetration by a surfactant. These results prove the successful integration of the dansyl fluorophore into the chemical structure of a CD4 down-modulating anti-HIV compound, and show the feasibility of tracking a receptor and its down-modulator simultaneously. These fluorescent CADA analogs with reversible CD4 down-regulating potency can now be applied in further studies on receptor modulation, and in the exploration of their potentials as preventive and therapeutic anti-HIV drugs.

  2. Top-down modulation of visual processing and knowledge after 250 ms supports object constancy of category decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendan, Haline E; Ganis, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    People categorize objects more slowly when visual input is highly impoverished instead of optimal. While bottom-up models may explain a decision with optimal input, perceptual hypothesis testing (PHT) theories implicate top-down processes with impoverished input. Brain mechanisms and the time course of PHT are largely unknown. This event-related potential study used a neuroimaging paradigm that implicated prefrontal cortex in top-down modulation of occipitotemporal cortex. Subjects categorized more impoverished and less impoverished real and pseudo objects. PHT theories predict larger impoverishment effects for real than pseudo objects because top-down processes modulate knowledge only for real objects, but different PHT variants predict different timing. Consistent with parietal-prefrontal PHT variants, around 250 ms, the earliest impoverished real object interaction started on an N3 complex, which reflects interactive cortical activity for object cognition. N3 impoverishment effects localized to both prefrontal and occipitotemporal cortex for real objects only. The N3 also showed knowledge effects by 230 ms that localized to occipitotemporal cortex. Later effects reflected (a) word meaning in temporal cortex during the N400, (b) internal evaluation of prior decision and memory processes and secondary higher-order memory involving anterotemporal parts of a default mode network during posterior positivity (P600), and (c) response related activity in posterior cingulate during an anterior slow wave (SW) after 700 ms. Finally, response activity in supplementary motor area during a posterior SW after 900 ms showed impoverishment effects that correlated with RTs. Convergent evidence from studies of vision, memory, and mental imagery which reflects purely top-down inputs, indicates that the N3 reflects the critical top-down processes of PHT. A hybrid multiple-state interactive, PHT and decision theory best explains the visual constancy of object cognition.

  3. Top-down modulation of visual processing and knowledge after 250 ms supports object constancy of category decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haline E. Schendan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available People categorize objects slowly when visual input is highly impoverished instead of optimal. While bottom-up models may explain a decision with optimal input, perceptual hypothesis testing (PHT theories implicate top-down processes with impoverished input. Brain mechanisms and the time course of PHT are largely unknown. This event-related potential study used a neuroimaging paradigm that implicated prefrontal cortex in top-down modulation of occipitotemporal cortex. Subjects categorized more impoverished and less impoverished real and pseudo objects. PHT theories predict larger impoverishment effects for real than pseudo objects because top-down processes modulate knowledge only for real objects, but different PHT variants predict different timing. Consistent with parietal-prefrontal PHT variants, around 250 ms, the earliest impoverished real object interaction started on an N3 complex, which reflects interactive cortical activity for object cognition. N3 impoverishment effects localized to both prefrontal and occipitotemporal cortex for real objects only. The N3 also showed knowledge effects by 230 ms that localized to occipitotemporal cortex. Later effects reflected (a word meaning in temporal cortex during the N400, (b internal evaluation of prior decision and memory processes and secondary higher-order memory involving anterotemporal parts of a default mode network during posterior positivity (P600, and (c response related activity in posterior cingulate during an anterior slow wave (SW after 700 ms. Finally, response activity in supplementary motor area during a posterior SW after 900 ms showed impoverishment effects that correlated with RTs. Convergent evidence from studies of vision, memory, and mental imagery which reflects purely top-down inputs, indicates that the N3 reflects the critical top-down processes of PHT. A hybrid multiple-state interactive, PHT and decision theory best explains the visual constancy of object cognition.

  4. B. abortus RNA is the component involved in the down-modulation of MHC-I expression on human monocytes via TLR8 and the EGFR pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milillo, M. Ayelén; Velásquez, Lis N.; Trotta, Aldana; Delpino, M. Victoria; Balboa, Luciana; Vermeulen, Mónica; Espindola, Sonia L.; Rodriguez-Rodrigues, Nahuel; Fernández, Gabriela C.; Oliveira, Sergio Costa; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H.

    2017-01-01

    Despite eliciting a potent CD8+ T cell response, Brucella abortus is able to persist and establish a chronic infection inside its host. We have previously reported that the infection of human monocytes/macrophages with B. abortus inhibits the IFN-γ-induced MHC-I cell surface expression down-modulating cytotoxic CD8+ T cell responses. MHC-I down-modulation depends on bacterial viability and results from the capacity of B. abortus to retain the MHC-I molecules within the Golgi apparatus. Furthermore, we recently demonstrated that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway is involved in this phenomenon and that this is an early event during infection. However, the components and mechanisms whereby B. abortus is able to down-modulate MHC-I remained to be elucidated. In this study we demonstrated that the down-modulation of MHC-I expression is not mediated by well-known Brucella virulence factors but instead by B. abortus RNA, a PAMP associated to viability (vita-PAMP). Surprisingly, completely degraded RNA was also able to inhibit MHC-I expression to the same extent as intact RNA. Accordingly, B. abortus RNA and its degradation products were able to mimic the MHC-I intracellular retention within the Golgi apparatus observed upon infection. We further demonstrated that TLR8, a single-stranded RNA and RNA degradation products sensor, was involved in MHC-I inhibition. On the other hand, neutralization of the EGFR reversed the MHC-I inhibition, suggesting a connection between the TLR8 and EGFR pathways. Finally, B. abortus RNA-treated macrophages display diminished capacity of antigen presentation to CD8+ T cells. Overall, our results indicate that the vita-PAMP RNA as well as its degradation products constitute novel virulence factors whereby B. abortus, by a TLR8-dependent mechanism and through the EGFR pathway, inhibits the IFN-γ-induced MHC-I surface expression on human monocytes/macrophages. Thus, bacteria can hide within infected cells and avoid the

  5. B. abortus RNA is the component involved in the down-modulation of MHC-I expression on human monocytes via TLR8 and the EGFR pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ayelén Milillo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite eliciting a potent CD8+ T cell response, Brucella abortus is able to persist and establish a chronic infection inside its host. We have previously reported that the infection of human monocytes/macrophages with B. abortus inhibits the IFN-γ-induced MHC-I cell surface expression down-modulating cytotoxic CD8+ T cell responses. MHC-I down-modulation depends on bacterial viability and results from the capacity of B. abortus to retain the MHC-I molecules within the Golgi apparatus. Furthermore, we recently demonstrated that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR pathway is involved in this phenomenon and that this is an early event during infection. However, the components and mechanisms whereby B. abortus is able to down-modulate MHC-I remained to be elucidated. In this study we demonstrated that the down-modulation of MHC-I expression is not mediated by well-known Brucella virulence factors but instead by B. abortus RNA, a PAMP associated to viability (vita-PAMP. Surprisingly, completely degraded RNA was also able to inhibit MHC-I expression to the same extent as intact RNA. Accordingly, B. abortus RNA and its degradation products were able to mimic the MHC-I intracellular retention within the Golgi apparatus observed upon infection. We further demonstrated that TLR8, a single-stranded RNA and RNA degradation products sensor, was involved in MHC-I inhibition. On the other hand, neutralization of the EGFR reversed the MHC-I inhibition, suggesting a connection between the TLR8 and EGFR pathways. Finally, B. abortus RNA-treated macrophages display diminished capacity of antigen presentation to CD8+ T cells. Overall, our results indicate that the vita-PAMP RNA as well as its degradation products constitute novel virulence factors whereby B. abortus, by a TLR8-dependent mechanism and through the EGFR pathway, inhibits the IFN-γ-induced MHC-I surface expression on human monocytes/macrophages. Thus, bacteria can hide within infected cells and

  6. Tumor-promoting phorbol ester transiently down-modulates the p53 level and blocks the cell cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouv, J.; Jensen, P O; Forchhammer, J

    1994-01-01

    Activation of the protein kinase C signaling pathway by tumor-promoting phorbol esters, such as 4 beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), induced a decrease in the level of p53 mRNA in several serum-starved human cell lines. Also, the tumor-promoting phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid induced...... a decrease in the p53 mRNA level in the cell lines. Normal diploid as well as various tumor cell lines were tested. Two tumor cell lines, HeLa and A549, both containing the wild-type p53 gene, but very different levels of p53 protein, were studied in detail. In both cell lines, the level of p53 m......RNA was minimal after 9 h of exposure to PMA. After approximately 120 h, the p53 mRNA level was similar to the pretreatment level. PMA induced a similar transient decrease in the level of p53 protein in the A549 cell line. The decrease in the p53 mRNA level could not be explained by changes in the transcriptional...

  7. Promiscuity of MCMV immunoevasin of NKG2D: m138/fcr-1 down-modulates RAE-1epsilon in addition to MULT-1 and H60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arapović, Jurica; Lenac Rovis, Tihana; Reddy, Anil Butchi; Krmpotić, Astrid; Jonjić, Stipan

    2009-11-01

    Both human and mouse cytomegalovirus (CMV) encode proteins that inhibit the activation of NK cells by down-regulating the cellular ligands for activating NK cell receptor, NKG2D. MCMV proteins m145, m152 and m155 interfere with the expression of all known NKG2D ligands, MULT-1, RAE-1 family members and H60, respectively, whereas m138 affects the expression of MULT-1 and H60. Here we show that m152 affects the maturation of newly synthesized RAE-1 molecules, but is not sufficient to prevent surface expression of RAE-1varepsilon. We have identified m138 as a main inhibitor of the surface expression of RAE-1varepsilon. In contrast to m152, m138 affects the surface-resident protein leading to its endocytosis, which can be prevented by a dynamin inhibitor. Moreover, we demonstrated that m138 does not need other viral proteins to down-modulate the expression of RAE-1varepsilon.

  8. Right hemisphere dominance directly predicts both baseline V1 cortical excitability and the degree of top-down modulation exerted over low-level brain structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Q; Siddiqui, S; Ramachandran, S; Goga, U; Bonsu, A; Patel, M; Roberts, R E; Nigmatullina, Y; Malhotra, P; Bronstein, A M

    2015-12-17

    Right hemisphere dominance for visuo-spatial attention is characteristically observed in most right-handed individuals. This dominance has been attributed to both an anatomically larger right fronto-parietal network and the existence of asymmetric parietal interhemispheric connections. Previously it has been demonstrated that interhemispheric conflict, which induces left hemisphere inhibition, results in the modulation of both (i) the excitability of the early visual cortex (V1) and (ii) the brainstem-mediated vestibular-ocular reflex (VOR) via top-down control mechanisms. However to date, it remains unknown whether the degree of an individual's right hemisphere dominance for visuospatial function can influence, (i) the baseline excitability of the visual cortex and (ii) the extent to which the right hemisphere can exert top-down modulation. We directly tested this by correlating line bisection error (or pseudoneglect), taken as a measure of right hemisphere dominance, with both (i) visual cortical excitability measured using phosphene perception elicited via single-pulse occipital trans-cranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and (ii) the degree of trans-cranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)-mediated VOR suppression, following left hemisphere inhibition. We found that those individuals with greater right hemisphere dominance had a less excitable early visual cortex at baseline and demonstrated a greater degree of vestibular nystagmus suppression following left hemisphere cathodal tDCS. To conclude, our results provide the first demonstration that individual differences in right hemisphere dominance can directly predict both the baseline excitability of low-level brain structures and the degree of top-down modulation exerted over them. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus is able to down-modulate the acute intestinal inflammation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline de Souza Almeida

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD is the result of dysregulation of mucosal innate and adaptive immune responses. Factors such as genetic, microbial and environmental are involved in the development of these disorders. Accordingly, animal models that mimic human diseases are tools for the understanding the immunological processes of the IBD as well as to evaluate new therapeutic strategies. Crotoxin (CTX is the main component of Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom and has an immunomodulatory effect. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the modulatory effect of CTX in a murine model of colitis induced by 2,4,6- trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS. The CTX was administered intraperitoneally 18 hours after the TNBS intrarectal instillation in BALB/c mice. The CTX administration resulted in decreased weight loss, disease activity index (DAI, macroscopic tissue damage, histopathological score and myeloperoxidase (MPO activity analyzed after 4 days of acute TNBS colitis. Furthermore, the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were lower in colon tissue homogenates of TNBS-mice that received the CTX when compared with untreated TNBS mice. The analysis of distinct cell populations obtained from the intestinal lamina propria showed that CTX reduced the number of group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3 and Th17 population; CTX decreased IL-17 secretion but did not alter the frequency of CD4+Tbet+ T cells induced by TNBS instillation in mice. In contrast, increased CD4+FoxP3+ cell population as well as secretion of TGF-β, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and lipoxin A4 (LXA4 was observed in TNBS-colitis mice treated with CTX compared with untreated TNBS-colitis mice. In conclusion, the CTX is able to modulate the intestinal acute inflammatory response induced by TNBS, resulting in the improvement of clinical status of the mice. This effect of CTX is complex and involves the suppression of the pro-inflammatory environment elicited by intrarectal instillation of TNBS due to the

  10. Saposin C promotes survival and prevents apoptosis via PI3K/Akt-dependent pathway in prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Tae-Jin

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to androgens, growth factors are also implicated in the development and neoplastic growth of the prostate gland. Prosaposin is a potent neurotrophic molecule. Homozygous inactivation of prosaposin in mice has led to the development of a number of abnormalities in the male reproductive system, including atrophy of the prostate gland and inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and Akt in prostate epithelial cells. We have recently reported that prosaposin is expressed at a higher level by androgen-independent (AI prostate cancer cells as compared to androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells or normal prostate epithelial and stromal cells. In addition, we have demonstrated that a synthetic peptide (prosaptide TX14A, derived from the trophic sequence of the saposin C domain of prosaposin, stimulated cell proliferation, migration and invasion and activated the MAPK signaling pathway in prostate cancer cells. The biological significances of saposin C and prosaposin in prostate cancer are not known. Results Here, we report that saposin C, in a cell type-specific and dose-dependent manner, acts as a survival factor, activates the Akt-signaling pathway, down-modulates caspase-3, -7, and -9 expression and/or activity, and decreases the cleaved nuclear substrate of caspase-3 in prostate cancer cells under serum-starvation stress. In addition, prosaptide TX14A, saposin C, or prosaposin decreased the growth-inhibitory effect, caspase-3/7 activity, and apoptotic cell death induced by etoposide. We also discovered that saposin C activates the p42/44 MAP kinase pathway in a pertussis toxin-sensitive and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K /Akt-dependent manner in prostate cancer cells. Our data also show that the anti-apoptotic activity of saposin C is at least partially mediated via PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Conclusion We postulate that as a mitogenic, survival, and anti-apoptotic factor for prostate cancer cells

  11. Inhibitory effects of epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate on serum-stimulated rat aortic smooth muscle cells via nuclear factor-κB down-modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Dong-Wook; Lim, Hye Ryeon; Baek, Hyun Sook; Lee, Mi Hee; Lee, Seung Jin; Hyon, Suong-Hyu; Park, Jong-Chul

    2006-01-01

    The abnormal growth of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays an important role in vascular diseases, including atherosclerosis and restenosis after angioplasty. Although (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) has antiproliferative effects on various cells, relatively a little is known about precise mechanisms of the inhibitory effects of EGCG on SMCs. In this study, the inhibitory effects of EGCG on attachment, proliferation, migration, and cell cycle of rat aortic SMCs (RASMCs) with serum stimulation were investigated. Also, the involvement of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) during these inhibitions by EGCG was examined. EGCG treatment resulted in significant (p < 0.05) inhibition in attachment and proliferation of RASMCs induced by serum. While non-treated RASMCs migrated into denuded area in response to serum and showed essentially complete closure after 36 h, EGCG-treated cells covered only 31% of the area even after 48 h of incubation. Furthermore, EGCG treatment resulted in an appreciable cell cycle arrest at both G0/G1- and G2/M-phases. The immunoblot analysis revealed that the constitutive expression of NF-κB/p65 nuclear protein in RASMCs was lowered by EGCG in both the cytosol and the nucleus in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that the EGCG-caused inhibitory effects on RASMCs may be mediated through NF-κB down-modulation

  12. Site-directed mutagenesis of HIV-1 vpu gene demonstrates two clusters of replication-defective mutants with distinct ability to down-modulate cell surface CD4 and tetherin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Nomaguchi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 Vpu acts positively on viral infectivity by mediating CD4 degradation in endoplasmic reticulum and enhances virion release by counteracting a virion release restriction factor, tetherin. In order to define the impact of Vpu activity on HIV-1 replication, we have generated a series of site-specific proviral vpu mutants. Of fifteen mutants examined, seven exhibited a replication-defect similar to that of a vpu-deletion mutant in a lymphocyte cell line H9. These mutations clustered in narrow regions within transmembrane domain (TMD and cytoplasmic domain (CTD. Replication-defective mutants displayed the reduced ability to enhance virion release from a monolayer cell line HEp2 without exception. Upon transfection with Vpu expression vectors, neither TMD mutants nor CTD mutants blocked CD4 expression at the cell surface in another monolayer cell line MAGI. While TMD mutants were unable to down-modulate cell surface tetherin in HEp2 cells, CTD mutants did quite efficiently. Confocal microscopy analysis revealed the difference of intracellular localization between TMD and CTD mutants. In total, replication capability of HIV-1 carrying vpu mutations correlates well with the ability of Vpu to enhance virion release and to impede the cell surface expression of CD4 but not with the ability to down-modulate cell surface tetherin. Our results here suggest that efficient viral replication requires not only down-regulation of cell surface tetherin but also its degradation.

  13. Appetite - decreased

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss of appetite; Decreased appetite; Anorexia ... Any illness can reduce appetite. If the illness is treatable, the appetite should return when the condition is cured. Loss of appetite can cause weight ...

  14. Hydroxyurea therapy of a murine model of sickle cell anemia inhibits the progression of pneumococcal disease by down-modulating E-selectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebensburger, Jeffrey D.; Howard, Thad; Hu, Yunming; Pestina, Tamara I.; Gao, Geli; Johnson, Melissa; Zakharenko, Stanislav S.; Ware, Russell E.; Tuomanen, Elaine I.; Persons, Derek A.

    2012-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia is characterized by chronic hemolysis coupled with extensive vascular inflammation. This inflammatory state also mechanistically promotes a high risk of lethal, invasive pneumococcal infection. Current treatments to reduce vaso-occlusive complications include chronic hydroxyurea therapy to induce fetal hemoglobin. Because hydroxyurea also reduces leukocytosis, an understanding of the impact of this treatment on pneumococcal pathogenesis is needed. Using a sickle cell mouse model of pneumococcal pneumonia and sepsis, administration of hydroxyurea was found to significantly improve survival. Hydroxyurea treatment decreased neutrophil extravasation into the infected lung coincident with significantly reduced levels of E-selectin in serum and on pulmonary epithelia. The protective effect of hydroxyurea was abrogated in mice deficient in E-selectin. The decrease in E-selectin levels was also evident in human sickle cell patients receiving hydroxyurea therapy. These data indicate that in addition to induction of fetal hemoglobin, hydroxyurea attenuates leukocyte–endothelial interactions in sickle cell anemia, resulting in protection against lethal pneumococcal sepsis. PMID:22130804

  15. Synchronous down-modulation of miR-17 family members is an early causative event in the retinal angiogenic switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Diana N; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel; Cardó-Vila, Marina; Edwards, Julianna K; Dobroff, Andrey S; Giordano, Ricardo J; Mandelin, Jami; Brentani, Helena P; Hasselgren, Catrin; Yao, Virginia J; Marchiò, Serena; Pereira, Carlos A B; Passetti, Fabio; Calin, George A; Sidman, Richard L; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2015-03-24

    Six members of the microRNA-17 (miR-17) family were mapped to three different chromosomes, although they share the same seed sequence and are predicted to target common genes, among which are those encoding hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1A) and VEGFA. Here, we evaluated the in vivo expression profile of the miR-17 family in the murine retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) model, whereby Vegfa expression is highly enhanced at the early stage of retinal neovascularization, and we found simultaneous reduction of all miR-17 family members at this stage. Using gene reporter assays, we observed binding of these miRs to specific sites in the 3' UTRs of Hif1a and Vegfa. Furthermore, overexpression of these miRs decreased HIF1A and VEGFA expression in vitro. Our data indicate that this miR-17 family elicits a regulatory synergistic down-regulation of Hif1a and Vegfa expression in this biological model. We propose the existence of a coordinated regulatory network, in which diverse miRs are synchronously regulated to target the Hif1a transcription factor, which in turn, potentiates and reinforces the regulatory effects of the miRs on Vegfa to trigger and sustain a significant physiological response.

  16. Abscisic acid synergizes with rosiglitazone to improve glucose tolerance, down-modulate macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue: possible action of the cAMP/PKA/PPAR γ axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri, Amir J; Hontecillas, Raquel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Abscisic acid (ABA) is effective in preventing insulin resistance and obesity-related inflammation through a PPAR γ-dependent mechanism. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy ABA in improving glucose homeostasis and suppress inflammation when administered in combination with rosiglitazone (Ros) and to determine whether PPAR γ activation by ABA is initiated via cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling. Methods Obese db/db mice were fed high-fat diets containing 0, 10, or 70 mg/kg Ros with and without racemic ABA (100 mg/kg) for 60 days. Glucose tolerance and fasting insulin levels were assessed at 6 and 8 weeks, respectively, and adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) infiltration was examined by flow cytometry. Gene expression was examined on white adipose tissue (WAT) and stromal vascular cells (SVCs) cultured with ABA, Ros, or an ABA/Ros combination. Results Both Ros and ABA improved glucose tolerance, and ABA decreased plasma insulin levels while having no effect on Ros-induced weight gain. ABA in combination with low-dose Ros (10 mg/kg; Roslo) synergistically inhibited ATM infiltration. Treatment of SVCs with Ros, ABA or ABA/Ros suppressed expression of the M1 marker CCL17. ABA and Ros synergistically increased PPAR γ activity and pretreatment with a cAMP-inhibitor or a PKA-inhibitor abrogated ABA-induced PPAR γ activation. Conclusions ABA and Ros act synergistically to modulate PPAR γ activity and macrophage accumulation in WAT and ABA enhances PPAR γ activity through a membrane-initiated mechanism dependent on cAMP/PKA signaling. PMID:20207056

  17. Abscisic acid synergizes with rosiglitazone to improve glucose tolerance and down-modulate macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue: possible action of the cAMP/PKA/PPAR γ axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri, Amir J; Hontecillas, Raquel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2010-10-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is effective in preventing insulin resistance and obesity-related inflammation through a PPAR γ-dependent mechanism. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy ABA in improving glucose homeostasis and suppress inflammation when administered in combination with rosiglitazone (Ros) and to determine whether PPAR γ activation by ABA is initiated via cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling. Obese db/db mice were fed high-fat diets containing 0, 10, or 70 mg/kg Ros with and without racemic ABA (100 mg/kg) for 60 days. Glucose tolerance and fasting insulin levels were assessed at 6 and 8 weeks, respectively, and adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) infiltration was examined by flow cytometry. Gene expression was examined on white adipose tissue (WAT) and stromal vascular cells (SVCs) cultured with ABA, Ros, or an ABA/Ros combination. Both Ros and ABA improved glucose tolerance, and ABA decreased plasma insulin levels while having no effect on Ros-induced weight gain. ABA in combination with low-dose Ros (10 mg/kg; Roslo) synergistically inhibited ATM infiltration. Treatment of SVCs with Ros, ABA or ABA/Ros suppressed expression of the M1 marker CCL17. ABA and Ros synergistically increased PPAR γ activity and pretreatment with a cAMP-inhibitor or a PKA-inhibitor abrogated ABA-induced PPAR γ activation. ABA and Ros act synergistically to modulate PPAR γ activity and macrophage accumulation in WAT and ABA enhances PPAR γ activity through a membrane-initiated mechanism dependent on cAMP/PKA signaling. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  18. Decreasing Relative Risk Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    relative risk premium in the small implies decreasing relative risk premium in the large, and decreasing relative risk premium everywhere implies risk aversion. We finally show that preferences with decreasing relative risk premium may be equivalently expressed in terms of certain preferences on risky......We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker with wealth x in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth y1 with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged present wealth or a level of wealth y2 > y1. We define the relative risk...... premium as the quotient between the risk premium and the increase in wealth y1–x which the decision maker puts on the line by choosing the lottery in place of receiving y1 with certainty. We study preferences such that the relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine...

  19. Decreasing Serial Cost Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker [Econometrica 60 (1992) 1009] and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos [Journal of Economic Theory 79 (1998) 245] have attracted attention due to their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization...... of the increasing serial rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker [Journal of Economic Theory 64 (1994) 178]. This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule...

  20. Decreasing serial cost sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2009-01-01

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker (Econometrica 60:1009-1037, 1992) and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos (J Econ Theory 79:245-275, 1998) are known by their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization of the increasing serial...... rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker (J Econ Theory 64:178-201, 1994). This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule....

  1. Decreasing relative risk premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    such that the corresponding relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine the set of associated utility functions. We find a new characterization of risk vulnerability and determine a large set of utility functions, closed under summation and composition, which are both risk vulnerable...

  2. Decreasing asthma morbidity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-12-12

    Dec 12, 1994 ... Apart from the optimal use of drugs, various supplementary methods have been tested to decrease asthma morbidity, usually in patients from reiatively affluent socio-economic backgrounds. A study of additional measures taken in a group of moderate to severe adult asthmatics from very poor socio- ...

  3. Airplane radiation dose decrease during a strong Forbush decrease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spurný, František; Kudela, K.; Dachev, T.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 2, S05001 (2004), s. 1-4 ISSN 1542-7390 Grant - others:EC project(XE) FIGM-CT2000-00068 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : airplane dose * Forbush decrease * cosmic rays Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  4. [Why is bread consumption decreasing?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, M F; Chabert, C; Serville, Y

    1977-01-01

    In France bread plays a very special and ambivalent role among our foodstuffs because of the considerable drop in its consumption, its alleged harmful effects on our health and the respect in which it is traditionally held. More than half the 1 089 adults interviewed in this study say they have decreased their consumption of bread in the last 10 years. The reasons given vary according to age, body weight and urbanization level. The main reasons given for this restriction are the desire to prevent or reduce obesity, the decrease in physical activity, the general reduction in food consumption and the possibility of diversifying foods even further. Moreover, the decreasing appeal of bread in relation to other foods, as well as a modification in the structure of meals, in which bread becomes less useful to accompany other food, accentuate this loss of attraction. However, the respect for bread as part of the staple diet remains very acute as 95 p. 100 of those interviewed express a reluctance to throw bread away, more for cultural than economic reasons. Mechanization and urbanization having brought about a decrease in energy needs, the most common alimentary adaptation is general caloric restriction by which glucids, and especially bread, are curtailed.

  5. Magical thinking decreases across adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashier, Nadia M; Multhaup, Kristi S

    2017-12-01

    Magical thinking, or illogical causal reasoning such as superstitions, decreases across childhood, but almost no data speak to whether this developmental trajectory continues across the life span. In four experiments, magical thinking decreased across adulthood. This pattern replicated across two judgment domains and could not be explained by age-related differences in tolerance of ambiguity, domain-specific knowledge, or search for meaning. These data complement and extend findings that experience, accumulated over decades, guides older adults' judgments so that they match, or even exceed, young adults' performance. They also counter participants' expectations, and cultural sayings (e.g., "old wives' tales"), that suggest that older adults are especially superstitious. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Does fertility decrease household consumption?

    OpenAIRE

    Jungho Kim; Henriette Engelhardt; Alexia Fürnkranz-Prskawetz; Arnstein Aassve

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the relationship between fertility and a direct measure of poverty for Indonesia, a country, which has experienced unprecedented economic growth and sharp fertility declines over recent decades. It focuses on illustrating the sensitivity of the effect of fertility on household consumption with respect to the equivalence scale by applying the propensity score matching method. The analysis suggests that a newborn child decreases household consumption...

  7. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Turco

    Full Text Available Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value. These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011 and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011. Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF, which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%, except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980's, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts.

  8. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Marco; Bedia, Joaquín; Di Liberto, Fabrizio; Fiorucci, Paolo; von Hardenberg, Jost; Koutsias, Nikos; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Xystrakis, Fotios; Provenzale, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA) displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value). These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011) and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011). Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF), which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%), except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980's, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts.

  9. Technologies for Decreasing Mining Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valgma, Ingo; Väizene, Vivika; Kolats, Margit; Saarnak, Martin

    2013-12-01

    In case of stratified deposits like oil shale deposit in Estonia, mining losses depend on mining technologies. Current research focuses on extraction and separation possibilities of mineral resources. Selective mining, selective crushing and separation tests have been performed, showing possibilities of decreasing mining losses. Rock crushing and screening process simulations were used for optimizing rock fractions. In addition mine backfilling, fine separation, and optimized drilling and blasting have been analyzed. All tested methods show potential and depend on mineral usage. Usage in addition depends on the utilization technology. The questions like stability of the material flow and influences of the quality fluctuations to the final yield are raised.

  10. Decreasing incidence rates of bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Pedersen, C; Jensen, T G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that the incidence rate of bacteremia has been increasing over time. However, few studies have distinguished between community-acquired, healthcare-associated and nosocomial bacteremia. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study among adults with first......-time bacteremia in Funen County, Denmark, during 2000-2008 (N = 7786). We reported mean and annual incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years), overall and by place of acquisition. Trends were estimated using a Poisson regression model. RESULTS: The overall incidence rate was 215.7, including 99.0 for community......-acquired, 50.0 for healthcare-associated and 66.7 for nosocomial bacteremia. During 2000-2008, the overall incidence rate decreased by 23.3% from 254.1 to 198.8 (3.3% annually, p incidence rate of community-acquired bacteremia decreased by 25.6% from 119.0 to 93.8 (3.7% annually, p

  11. Price of forest chips decreasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, P.

    2001-01-01

    Use of forest chips was studied in 1999 in the national Puuenergia (Wood Energy) research program. Wood combusting heating plants were questioned about are the main reasons restricting the increment of the use of forest chips. Heating plants, which did not use forest chips at all or which used less than 250 m 3 (625 bulk- m 3 ) in 1999 were excluded. The main restrictions for additional use of forest chips were: too high price of forest chips; lack of suppliers and/or uncertainty of deliveries; technical problems of reception and processing of forest chips; insufficiency of boiler output especially in winter; and unsatisfactory quality of chips. The price of forest chips becomes relatively high because wood biomass used for production of forest chips has to be collected from wide area. Heavy equipment has to be used even though small fragments of wood are processed, which increases the price of chips. It is essential for forest chips that the costs can be pressed down because competition with fossil fuels, peat and industrial wood residues is hard. Low market price leads to the situation in which forest owner gets no price of the raw material, the entrepreneurs operate at the limit of profitability and renovation of machinery is difficult, and forest chips suppliers have to sell the chips at prime costs. Price of forest chips has decreased significantly during the past decade. Nominal price of forest chips is now lower than two decades ago. The real price of chips has decreased even more than the nominal price, 35% during the past decade and 20% during the last five years. Chips, made of small diameter wood, are expensive because the price includes the felling costs and harvesting is carried out at thinning lots. Price is especially high if chips are made of delimbed small diameter wood due to increased the work and reduced amount of chips. The price of logging residue chips is most profitable because cutting does not cause additional costs. Recovery of chips is

  12. Rigidity spectrum of Forbush decrease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakakibara, S.; Munakata, K.; Nagashima, K.

    1985-01-01

    Using data from neutron monitors and muon telescopes at surface and underground stations, the average rigidity spectrum of Forbush decreases (Fds) during the period of 1978-1982 were obtained. Thirty eight Ed-events are classified into two groups, Hard Fd and Soft FD according to size of Fd at the Sakashita station. It is found that a spectral form of a fractional-power type (P to the-gamma sub 1 (P+P sub c) to the -gamma sub2) is more suitable than that of a power-exponential type or of a power type with an upper limiting rigidity. The best fitted spectrum of the fractional-power type is expressed by gamma sub1 = 0.37, gamma sub2 = 0.89 and P subc = 10 GV for Hard Fd and gamma sub1 = 0.77, gamma sub2 = 1.02 and P sub c - 14GV for Soft Fd

  13. Method of decreasing nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Hiromi

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To easily attain the power decreasing in a HWLWR type reactor and improve the reactor safety. Method: The method is applied to a nuclear reactor in which the reactor reactivity is controlled by control rods and liquid posions dissolved in moderators. Means for forecasting the control rod operation amount required for the reactor power down and means for removing liquid poisons in the moderators are provided. The control rod operation amount required for the power down is forecast before the power down and the liquid poisons in the moderators are removed. Then, the control rods are inserted into a deep insertion position to reduce the reactor power. This invention can facilitate easy power down, as well as provide effects of improving the controllability in the usual operation and of avoiding abrupt power down which leads to an improved availability. (Kamimura, M.)

  14. Musical Expertise Increases Top–Down Modulation Over Hippocampal Activation during Familiarity Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Gagnepain

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The hippocampus has classically been associated with episodic memory, but is sometimes also recruited during semantic memory tasks, especially for the skilled exploration of familiar information. Cognitive control mechanisms guiding semantic memory search may benefit from the set of cognitive processes at stake during musical training. Here, we examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging, whether musical expertise would promote the top–down control of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG over the generation of hippocampally based goal-directed thoughts mediating the familiarity judgment of proverbs and musical items. Analyses of behavioral data confirmed that musical experts more efficiently access familiar melodies than non-musicians although such increased ability did not transfer to verbal semantic memory. At the brain level, musical expertise specifically enhanced the recruitment of the hippocampus during semantic access to melodies, but not proverbs. Additionally, hippocampal activation contributed to speed of access to familiar melodies, but only in musicians. Critically, causal modeling of neural dynamics between LIFG and the hippocampus further showed that top–down excitatory regulation over the hippocampus during familiarity decision specifically increases with musical expertise – an effect that generalized across melodies and proverbs. At the local level, our data show that musical expertise modulates the online recruitment of hippocampal response to serve semantic memory retrieval of familiar melodies. The reconfiguration of memory network dynamics following musical training could constitute a promising framework to understand its ability to preserve brain functions.

  15. Top-down modulation in human visual cortex predicts the stability of a perceptual illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindertsma, Thomas; Hillebrand, Arjan; van Dijk, Bob W.; Lamme, Victor A. F.; Donner, Tobias H.

    2014-01-01

    Conscious perception sometimes fluctuates strongly, even when the sensory input is constant. For example, in motion-induced blindness (MIB), a salient visual target surrounded by a moving pattern suddenly disappears from perception, only to reappear after some variable time. Whereas such changes of perception result from fluctuations of neural activity, mounting evidence suggests that the perceptual changes, in turn, may also cause modulations of activity in several brain areas, including visual cortex. In this study, we asked whether these latter modulations might affect the subsequent dynamics of perception. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to measure modulations in cortical population activity during MIB. We observed a transient, retinotopically widespread modulation of beta (12–30 Hz)-frequency power over visual cortex that was closely linked to the time of subjects' behavioral report of the target disappearance. This beta modulation was a top-down signal, decoupled from both the physical stimulus properties and the motor response but contingent on the behavioral relevance of the perceptual change. Critically, the modulation amplitude predicted the duration of the subsequent target disappearance. We propose that the transformation of the perceptual change into a report triggers a top-down mechanism that stabilizes the newly selected perceptual interpretation. PMID:25411458

  16. Top-down modulation of motor priming by belief about animacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liepelt, Roman; Brass, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    There is recent evidence that we directly map observed actions of other agents onto our own motor repertoire, referred to as direct matching (Iacoboni et al., 1999). This was shown when we are actively engaged in joint action with others' (Sebanz et al. 2003) and also when observing irrelevant movements while executing congruent or incongruent movements (Brass et al., 2000). However, an open question is whether direct matching in human beings is limited to the perception of intentional agents. Recent research provides contradictory evidence with respect to the question whether the direct matching system has a biological bias possibly emerging from perceptual differences of the stimulus display. In this study all participants performed a motor priming task observing the identical animation showing finger lifting movements of a hand in a leather glove. Before running the experiment we presented either a human hand or a wooden analog hand wearing the leather glove. We found a motor priming effect for both human and wooden hands. However, motor priming was larger when participants believed that they interacted with a human hand than when they believed to interact with a wooden hand. The stronger motor priming effect for the biological agent suggests that the "direct matching system" is tuned to represent actions of animate agents.

  17. Top-down modulation of motor priming by belief about animacy

    OpenAIRE

    Liepelt, R.; Brass, M.

    2010-01-01

    There is recent evidence that we directly map observed actions of other agents onto our own motor repertoire, referred to as direct matching (Iacoboni et al., 1999). This was shown when we are actively engaged in joint action with others' (Sebanz et al. 2003) and also when observing irrelevant movements while executing congruent or incongruent movements ( Brass et al., 2000). However, an open question is whether direct matching in human beings is limited to the perception of intentional agent...

  18. Top-Down Modulation of Motor Priming by Belief About Animacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liepelt, R.; Brass, M.

    2010-01-01

    There is recent evidence that we directly map observed actions of other agents onto our own motor repertoire, referred to as direct matching (Iacoboni et al., 1999). This was shown when we are actively engaged in joint action with others' (Sebanz et al. 2003) and also when observing irrelevant

  19. Congruency effects in the remote distractor paradigm: evidence for top-down modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Sabine; Kerzel, Dirk

    2009-08-10

    In three experiments, we examined effects of target-distractor similarity in the remote distractor effect (RDE). Observers made saccades to peripheral targets that were either gray or green. Foveal or peripheral distractors were presented at the same time. The distractors could either share the target's defining property (congruent) or be different from the target (incongruent). Congruent distractors slowed down saccadic reaction times more than incongruent distractors. The increase of the RDE with target-distractor congruency depended on task demands. The more participants had to rely on the target property to locate the target, the larger the congruency effect. We conclude that the RDE can be modulated in a top-down manner. Alternative explanations such as persisting memory traces for the target property or differences in stimulus arrangement were considered but discarded. Our claim is in line with models of saccade generation which assume that the structures underlying the RDE (e.g. the superior colliculus) receive bottom-up as well as top-down information.

  20. Top down modulation of attention to food cues via working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Suzanne; Rutters, Femke; Thomas, Jason M; Naish, Katherine; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2012-08-01

    Attentional biases towards food cues may be linked to the development of obesity. The present study investigated the mechanisms underlying attentional biases to food cues by assessing the role of top down influences, such as working memory (WM). We assessed whether attention in normal-weight, sated participants was drawn to food items specifically when that food item was held in WM. Twenty-three participants (15 f/8 m, age 23.4±5 year, BMI 23.5±4 kg/m(2)) took part in a laboratory based study assessing reaction times to food and non-food stimuli. Participants were presented with an initial cue stimulus to either hold in WM or to merely attend to, and then searched for the target (a circle) in a two-item display. On valid trials the target was flanked by a picture matching the cue, on neutral trials the display did not contain a picture matching the cue, and on invalid trials the distractor (a square) was flanked by a picture matching the cue. Cues were food, cars or stationery items. We observed that, relative to the effects with non-food stimuli, food items in WM strongly affected attention when the memorised cue re-appeared in the search display. In particular there was an enhanced response on valid trials, when the re-appearance of the memorised cue coincided with the search target. There were no effects of cue category on attentional guidance when the cues were merely attended to but not held in WM. These data point towards food having a strong effect on top-down guidance of search from working memory, and suggest a mechanism whereby individuals who are preoccupied with thoughts of food, for example obese individuals, show facilitated detection of food cues in the environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Seeing music: The perception of melodic 'ups and downs' modulates the spatial processing of visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Rivas, Carlos; Vera-Constán, Fátima; Rodríguez-Cuadrado, Sara; Puigcerver, Laura; Fernández-Prieto, Irune; Navarra, Jordi

    2018-05-10

    Musical melodies have "peaks" and "valleys". Although the vertical component of pitch and music is well-known, the mechanisms underlying its mental representation still remain elusive. We show evidence regarding the importance of previous experience with melodies for crossmodal interactions to emerge. The impact of these crossmodal interactions on other perceptual and attentional processes was also studied. Melodies including two tones with different frequency (e.g., E4 and D3) were repeatedly presented during the study. These melodies could either generate strong predictions (e.g., E4-D3-E4-D3-E4-[D3]) or not (e.g., E4-D3-E4-E4-D3-[?]). After the presentation of each melody, the participants had to judge the colour of a visual stimulus that appeared in a position that was, according to the traditional vertical connotations of pitch, either congruent (e.g., high-low-high-low-[up]), incongruent (high-low-high-low-[down]) or unpredicted with respect to the melody. Behavioural and electroencephalographic responses to the visual stimuli were obtained. Congruent visual stimuli elicited faster responses at the end of the experiment than at the beginning. Additionally, incongruent visual stimuli that broke the spatial prediction generated by the melody elicited larger P3b amplitudes (reflecting 'surprise' responses). Our results suggest that the passive (but repeated) exposure to melodies elicits spatial predictions that modulate the processing of other sensory events. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Therapeutic Down-Modulators of Staphylococcal Superantigen-Induced Inflammation and Toxic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Krakauer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB and related superantigenic toxins are potent stimulators of the immune system and cause a variety of diseases in humans, ranging from food poisoning to toxic shock. These toxins bind directly to major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells and specific Vb regions of T-cell receptors (TCR, resulting in hyperactivation of both monocytes/macrophages and T lymphocytes. Activated host cells produce massive amounts of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, activating inflammation and coagulation, causing clinical symptoms that include fever, hypotension, and shock. This review summarizes the in vitro and in vivo effects of staphylococcal superantigens, the role of pivotal mediators induced by these toxins in the pathogenic mechanisms of tissue injury, and the therapeutic agents to mitigate the toxic effects of superantigens.

  3. Spontaneous entropy decrease and its statistical formula

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Xiu-San

    2007-01-01

    Why can the world resist the law of entropy increase and produce self-organizing structure? Does the entropy of an isolated system always only increase and never decrease? Can be thermodymamic degradation and self-organizing evolution united? How to unite? In this paper starting out from nonequilibrium entropy evolution equation we proved that a new entropy decrease could spontaneously emerge in nonequilibrium system with internal attractive interaction. This new entropy decrease coexists wit...

  4. Use of biofuels in road transport decreases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segers, R.

    2011-01-01

    The use of biofuels decreased from 3.5 percent, for all gasoline and diesel used by road transport in 2009, to 2 percent in 2010. Particularly the use of biodiesel decreased, dropping from 3.5 to 1.5 percent. The use of biogasoline remained stable, catering for 3 percent of all gasoline use. [nl

  5. Mastery Learning and the Decreasing Variability Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Jennifer A.; Gentile, J. Ronald

    1996-01-01

    This report results from studies that tested two variations of Bloom's decreasing variability hypothesis using performance on successive units of achievement in four graduate classrooms that used mastery learning procedures. Data do not support the decreasing variability hypothesis; rather, they show no change over time. (SM)

  6. Can Diuretics Decrease Your Potassium Level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of low potassium? Can diuretics decrease your potassium level? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Yes, ... your urine. This can lead to low potassium levels in your blood (hypokalemia). Signs and symptoms of ...

  7. Using a Nonaversive Procedure to Decrease Refusals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Fred; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A nonaversive technique was used to teach a severely handicapped woman to decrease her refusals. The technique employed precision teaching via precise daily measurement strategies, environmental analysis, and a focus on building appropriate behavior. (JDD)

  8. Autoimmune Response Confers Decreased Cardiac Function in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inflammatory response; rather, autoimmune response would keep affecting decreased heart function in. RHD patients who ... untreated children. Nearly 30 - 45 % of the affected children could ..... Technology Department of Anhui Province (PR.

  9. Guilt decreasing marketing communication: an unexplored appeal

    OpenAIRE

    B. BUSACCA; SOSCIA I; PITRELLI E

    2007-01-01

    The phenomenon of guilt is relevant to a variety of consumption situations and practitioners around the world have continued to use it as a communication appeal. Marketing literature demonstrated that guilt as a distinct emotion can be aroused by advertising. Nevertheless, the capacity of advertising to decrease guilt was neglected by marketing scholars and the aim of this research is to assess the role of the guilt decreasing appeal in reducing anticipated guilt. Findings demonstrate the eff...

  10. Distraction decreases prefrontal oxygenation: A NIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Sachiyo; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2017-04-01

    When near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is used to measure emotion-related cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in the prefrontal cortex regions, the functional distinction of CBF changes is often difficult because NIRS is unable to measure neural activity in deeper brain regions that play major roles in emotional processing. The CBF changes could represent cognitive control of emotion and emotional responses to emotional materials. Supposing that emotion-related CBF changes in the prefrontal cortex regions during distraction are emotional responses, we examined whether oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb) decreases. Attention-demanding tasks cause blood flow decreases, and we thus compared the effects of visually paced tapping with different tempos, on distraction. The results showed that the oxyHb level induced by emotional stimulation decreased with fast-tempo tapping significantly more than slow-tempo tapping in ventral medial prefrontal cortex regions. Moreover, a Global-Local task following tapping showed significantly greater local-minus-global response time (RT) difference scores in the fast- and mid-tempo condition compared with those in the slow-tempo, suggesting an increased attentional focus, and decreased negative emotion. The overall findings indicate that oxyHb changes in a relatively long distraction task, as measured by NIRS, are associated with emotional responses, and oxyHb can be decreased by successfully performing attention-demanding distraction tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Calcium supplementation decreases BCP-induced inflammatory processes in blood cells through the NLRP3 inflammasome down-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagadec, Patricia; Balaguer, Thierry; Boukhechba, Florian; Michel, Grégory; Bouvet-Gerbettaz, Sébastien; Bouler, Jean-Michel; Scimeca, Jean-Claude; Rochet, Nathalie

    2017-07-15

    Interaction of host blood with biomaterials is the first event occurring after implantation in a bone defect. This study aimed at investigating the cellular and molecular consequences arising at the interface between whole blood and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) particles. We observed that, due to calcium capture, BCP inhibited blood coagulation, and that this inhibition was reversed by calcium supplementation. Therefore, we studied the impact of calcium supplementation on BCP effects on blood cells. Comparative analysis of BCP and calcium supplemented-BCP (BCP/Ca) effects on blood cells showed that BCP as well as BCP/Ca induced monocyte proliferation, as well as a weak but significant hemolysis. Our data showed for the first time that calcium supplementation of BCP microparticles had anti-inflammatory properties compared to BCP alone that induced an inflammatory response in blood cells. Our results strongly suggest that the anti-inflammatory property of calcium supplemented-BCP results from its down-modulating effect on P2X7R gene expression and its capacity to inhibit ATP/P2X7R interactions, decreasing the NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Considering that monocytes have a vast regenerative potential, and since the excessive inflammation often observed after bone substitutes implantation limits their performance, our results might have great implications in terms of understanding the mechanisms leading to an efficient bone reconstruction. Although scaffolds and biomaterials unavoidably come into direct contact with blood during bone defect filling, whole blood-biomaterials interactions have been poorly explored. By studying in 3D the interactions between biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) in microparticulate form and blood, we showed for the first time that calcium supplementation of BCP microparticles (BCP/Ca) has anti-inflammatory properties compared to BCP-induced inflammation in whole blood cells and provided information related to the molecular mechanisms

  12. Aggregate Unemployment Decreases Individual Returns to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammermueller, Andreas; Kuckulenz, Anja; Zwick, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Aggregate unemployment may affect individual returns to education through qualification-specific responses in participation and wage bargaining. This paper shows that an increase in regional unemployment by 1% decreases returns to education by 0.005 percentage points. This implies that higher skilled employees are better sheltered from labour…

  13. Did liberalising bar hours decrease traffic accidents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Colin P; Heywood, John S; Navarro, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Legal bar closing times in England and Wales have historically been early and uniform. Recent legislation liberalised closing times with the object of reducing social problems thought associated with drinking to "beat the clock." Indeed, using both difference in difference and synthetic control approaches we show that one consequence of this liberalisation was a decrease in traffic accidents. This decrease is heavily concentrated among younger drivers. Moreover, we provide evidence that the effect was most pronounced in the hours of the week directly affected by the liberalisation: late nights and early mornings on weekends. This evidence survives a series of robustness checks and suggests at least one socially positive consequence of extending bar hours. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Decreased decorin expression in the tumor microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozoky, Benedek; Savchenko, Andrii; Guven, Hayrettin; Ponten, Fredrik; Klein, George; Szekely, Laszlo

    2014-01-01

    Decorin is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan, synthesized and deposited by fibroblasts in the stroma where it binds to collagen I. It sequesters several growth factors and antagonizes numerous members of the receptor tyrosine kinase family. In experimental murine systems, it acted as a potent tumor suppressor. Examining the Human Protein Atlas online database of immunostained tissue samples we have surveyed decorin expression in silico in several different tumor types, comparing them with corresponding normal tissues. We found that decorin is abundantly secreted and deposited in normal connective tissue but its expression is consistently decreased in the tumor microenvironment. We developed a software to quantitate the difference in expression. The presence of two closely related proteoglycans in the newly formed tumor stroma indicated that the decreased decorin expression was not caused by the delay in proteoglycan deposition in the newly formed connective tissue surrounding the tumor

  15. Calming Meditation Increases Altruism, Decreases Parochialism

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, Karl

    2017-01-01

    It has been proposed that cultivating calm will increase altruism and decrease parochialism, where altruism is defined as self-sacrifice in support of others, regardless of group affiliation or identity, and parochialism is defined as prosocial self-sacrifice restricted to fellow members of a group. Such could be the case with a calming meditation practice. An alternate hypothesis, coming from the study of ritual, proposes that shared practices lead to bonding, increasing parochialism, but no...

  16. INVENTORY DECISIONS WITH DECREASING PURCHASING COSTS

    OpenAIRE

    XIANGPEI HU; HUIMIN WANG; YUNZENG WANG

    2012-01-01

    Costs of many items drop systematically throughout their life-cycles, due to advances in technology and competition. Motivated by the management of service parts for some high-tech products, this paper studies inventory decisions for such items. In a periodic review setting with stochastic demand, we model the purchasing costs of successive periods as a stochastic and decreasing sequence. Unit selling price of the item is determined as some mark-up of the purchasing cost and, hence, will chan...

  17. Decreased prefrontal cortical dopamine transmission in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendran, Rajesh; Mason, Neale Scott; Paris, Jennifer; Himes, Michael L; Douaihy, Antoine B; Frankle, W Gordon

    2014-08-01

    Basic studies have demonstrated that optimal levels of prefrontal cortical dopamine are critical to various executive functions such as working memory, attention, inhibitory control, and risk/reward decisions, all of which are impaired in addictive disorders such as alcoholism. Based on this and imaging studies of alcoholism that have demonstrated less dopamine in the striatum, the authors hypothesized decreased dopamine transmission in the prefrontal cortex in persons with alcohol dependence. To test this hypothesis, amphetamine and [11C]FLB 457 positron emission tomography were used to measure cortical dopamine transmission in 21 recently abstinent persons with alcohol dependence and 21 matched healthy comparison subjects. [11C]FLB 457 binding potential, specific compared to nondisplaceable uptake (BPND), was measured in subjects with kinetic analysis using the arterial input function both before and after 0.5 mg kg-1 of d-amphetamine. Amphetamine-induced displacement of [11C]FLB 457 binding potential (ΔBPND) was significantly smaller in the cortical regions in the alcohol-dependent group compared with the healthy comparison group. Cortical regions that demonstrated lower dopamine transmission in the alcohol-dependent group included the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, orbital frontal cortex, temporal cortex, and medial temporal lobe. The results of this study, for the first time, unambiguously demonstrate decreased dopamine transmission in the cortex in alcoholism. Further research is necessary to understand the clinical relevance of decreased cortical dopamine as to whether it is related to impaired executive function, relapse, and outcome in alcoholism.

  18. Music decreases aortic stiffness and wave reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Aggelakas, Angelos; Ioakeimidis, Nikolaos; Xaplanteris, Panagiotis; Terentes-Printzios, Dimitrios; Abdelrasoul, Mahmoud; Lazaros, George; Tousoulis, Dimitris

    2015-05-01

    Music has been related to cardiovascular health and used as adjunct therapy in patients with cardiovascular disease. Aortic stiffness and wave reflections are predictors of cardiovascular risk. We investigated the short-term effect of classical and rock music on arterial stiffness and wave reflections. Twenty healthy individuals (22.5±2.5 years) were studied on three different occasions and listened to a 30-min music track compilation (classical, rock, or no music for the sham procedure). Both classical and rock music resulted in a decrease of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) immediately after the end of music listening (all pclassical or rock music in a more sustained way (nadir by 6.0% and 5.8%, respectively, at time zero post-music listening, all pmusic preference was taken into consideration, both classical and rock music had a more potent effect on PWV in classical aficionados (by 0.20 m/s, p=0.003 and 0.13 m/s, p=0.015, respectively), whereas there was no effect in rock aficionados (all p=NS). Regarding wave reflections, classical music led to a more potent response in classical aficionados (AIx decrease by 9.45%), whereas rock led to a more potent response to rock aficionados (by 10.7%, all pMusic, both classical and rock, decreases aortic stiffness and wave reflections. Effect on aortic stiffness lasts for as long as music is listened to, while classical music has a sustained effect on wave reflections. These findings may have important implications, extending the spectrum of lifestyle modifications that can ameliorate arterial function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. SPP will decrease price of transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.

    2003-01-01

    Starting next year gas utility Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, a.s., Bratislava (SPP) will decrease the fees for transport of gas to its client from third parties. This decision should have a positive effect mainly on large industrial customers. The fact that SPP decided not to apply the approved ruling to its full extent was the result of negotiations with the regulator and the Ministry of Economy. SPP is not afraid it might lose customers. This decision only gives them a competitive advantage. (Author)

  20. Decreasing Human Trafficking through Sex Work Decriminalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Erin; D'Adamo, Kate

    2017-01-01

    In order to decrease human trafficking, health care workers should support the full decriminalization of prostitution. Similar to trafficking in other forms of labor, preventing trafficking in the sex trade requires addressing the different forms of marginalization that create vulnerable communities. By removing punitive laws that prevent reporting of exploitation and abuse, decriminalization allows sex workers to work more safely, thereby reducing marginalization and vulnerability. Decriminalization can also help destigmatize sex work and help resist political, social, and cultural marginalization of sex workers. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Methodology of decreasing software complexity using ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    DÄ browska-Kubik, Katarzyna

    2015-09-01

    In this paper a model of web application`s source code, based on the OSD ontology (Ontology for Software Development), is proposed. This model is applied to implementation and maintenance phase of software development process through the DevOntoCreator tool [5]. The aim of this solution is decreasing software complexity of that source code, using many different maintenance techniques, like creation of documentation, elimination dead code, cloned code or bugs, which were known before [1][2]. Due to this approach saving on software maintenance costs of web applications will be possible.

  2. Breastfeeding Is Associated with Decreased Childhood Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Kristen P; Kremer, Theodore R

    Child maltreatment has serious implications for youth outcomes, yet its associations with early parenting practices are not fully understood. This study investigated whether breastfeeding practices are correlated with childhood maltreatment. Data were utilized from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a nationally representative and longitudinal study of adolescents. The analytic sample comprised 4,159 adolescents. The outcome variables included four subtypes of childhood maltreatment (neglect, inadequate supervision, physical abuse, and sexual abuse). The primary independent variable was breastfeeding duration. Covariates of the child, mother, and household were included in analyses. Logistic regression models were employed to predict odds of maltreatment subtypes from breastfeeding duration and covariates. Compared with adolescents never breastfed, adolescents breastfed 9 months or longer had a reduced odds of having experienced neglect (odds ratio [OR] = 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.35-0.83) and sexual abuse (OR = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.24-0.93) after controlling for covariates. Breastfeeding duration is significantly associated with decreased childhood neglect and sexual abuse. Breastfeeding practices should be explored as a consideration among clinicians when assessing maltreatment risk. Further research should examine whether a causal relationship exists between breastfeeding and decreased maltreatment.

  3. Statins Decrease Oxidative Stress and ICD Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L. Bloom

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrate that statins decrease ventricular arrhythmias in internal cardioverter defibrillator (ICD patients. The mechanism is unknown, but evidence links increased inflammatory and oxidative states with increased arrhythmias. We hypothesized that statin use decreases oxidation. Methods. 304 subjects with ICDs were surveyed for ventricular arrhythmia. Blood was analyzed for derivatives of reactive oxygen species (DROMs and interleukin-6 (IL-6. Results. Subjects included 252 (83% men, 58% on statins, 20% had ventricular arrhythmias. Average age was 63 years and ejection fraction (EF 20%. ICD implant duration was 29 ± 27 months. Use of statins correlated with lower ICD events (r=0.12, P=.02. Subjects on statins had lower hsCRP (5.2 versus 6.3; P=.05 and DROM levels (373 versus 397; P=.03. Other factors, including IL-6 and EF did not differ between statin and nonstatin use, nor did beta-blocker or antiarrhythmic use. Multivariate cross-correlation analysis demonstrated that DROMs, statins, IL-6 and EF were strongly associated with ICD events. Multivariate regression shows DROMs to be the dominant predictor. Conclusion. ICD event rate correlates with DROMs, a measure of lipid peroxides. Use of statins is associated with reduced DROMs and fewer ICD events, suggesting that statins exert their effect through reducing oxidation.

  4. Serum Soluble Corin is Decreased in Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hao; Zhu, Fangfang; Shi, Jijun; Han, Xiujie; Zhou, Dan; Liu, Yan; Zhi, Zhongwen; Zhang, Fuding; Shen, Yun; Ma, Juanjuan; Song, Yulin; Hu, Weidong

    2015-07-01

    Soluble corin was decreased in coronary heart disease. Given the connections between cardiac dysfunction and stroke, circulating corin might be a candidate marker of stroke risk. However, the association between circulating corin and stroke has not yet been studied in humans. Here, we aimed to examine the association in patients wtith stroke and community-based healthy controls. Four hundred eighty-one patients with ischemic stroke, 116 patients with hemorrhagic stroke, and 2498 healthy controls were studied. Serum soluble corin and some conventional risk factors of stroke were examined. Because circulating corin was reported to be varied between men and women, the association between serum soluble corin and stroke was evaluated in men and women, respectively. Patients with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke had a significantly lower level of serum soluble corin than healthy controls in men and women (all P values, stroke than men in the highest quartile. Women in the lowest quartile of serum soluble corin were also more likely to have ischemic (OR, 3.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.76-5.44) and hemorrhagic (OR, 8.54; 95% confidence interval, 2.35-31.02) stroke than women in the highest quartile. ORs of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke were significantly increased with the decreasing levels of serum soluble corin in men and women (all P values for trend, stroke compared with healthy controls. Our findings raise the possibility that serum soluble corin may have a pathogenic role in stroke. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Lifestyle Decreases Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavíček, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E.; Medová, Eva; Konečná, Jana; Žižka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimír

    2009-01-01

    Summary The morbidity and mortality of the cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1,349 volunteers, 320 men, 1,029 woman, mean age 51±14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999–2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1,223 measured persons from 71.2±14.38 (SD) to 70.6±14.02 kg (pSeventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19256282

  6. Decreasing barriers for nurse practitioner social entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Dayle B; Monsivais, Diane

    2014-10-01

    To describe difficulties associated with the business-related aspects of practice in role transition of rural nurse practitioners (NPs), and to give practice implications. This focused ethnographic study derived data from semi-structured interviews. Participants provided information about rural NP practice ownership and barriers. The sample consisted of 24 rural NPs living throughout the United States. The majority were 51-60 years of age (45%) and females (93%) who had been in rural practice for 1 to over 20 years. NP social entrepreneurs experience difficulties related to scope of practice, business skills, and role conflict. To decrease barriers for NP clinic ownership and management, NPs need to receive education related to financing a rural practice, legal/regulatory practices, strategic planning, leadership, and clinic management. ©2014 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  7. Decreasing Ambiguity of the Safety Culture Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Shiichiro; Hosoda, Satoshi; Suganuma, Takashi; Monta, Kazuo; Kameda, Akiyuki

    2001-01-01

    The status of the concept of ''safety culture'' is reviewed. It has not sufficiently taken root. One cause for this is the abstract nature of the concept. Organizations must become aware of the necessity of improving safety and have sufficient power to promote this. The culture of safety must be instilled in each employee, so that each of them will feel responsible for identifying weak points in plant safety. The authors devised a tool for a self-assessment of the safety culture. The tool will bring to light information divides, communication gaps, etc. Recognizing the vulnerabilities of the organization by themselves and discussing these weak points among them is the first step to decrease the ambiguity of the safety culture. The next step is to make these gaps known along with agreed-upon countermeasures. The concept of safety culture will be greatly clarified in this way and lead to safer nuclear power plants

  8. Troubleshooting at Reverse Osmosis performance decrease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soons, Jan [KEMA (Netherlands)

    2011-07-01

    There are several causes for a decrease in Reverse Osmosis (RO) membrane performance each of which requiring actions to tackle the possible cause. Two of the main factors affecting the performance of the system are the feed quality (poor feed quality can lead to fouling of the membranes) and the operational conditions (including the maximum allowed pressure, minimum cleaning frequencies and types, recovery rate etc, which should be according to the design conditions). If necessary, pre-treatment will be applied in order to remove the fouling agents from the influent, reduce scaling (through the addition of anti-scalants) and for the protection of the membranes (for example, sodium metabisulphite addition for the removal of residual chlorine which can harm the membranes). Fouling is not strictly limited to the use of surface water as feed water, also relatively clean water sources will, over time, lead to organic and inorganic fouling when cleaning is not optimum. When fouling occurs, the TransMembrane Pressure (TMP) increases and more energy will be needed to produce the same amount of product water. Also, the cleaning rate will increase, reducing the production rate and increasing the chemical consumption and the produced waste streams. Furthermore, the quality of the effluent will decrease (lower rejection rates at higher pressures) and the lifetime of the membranes will decrease. Depending on the type of fouling different cleaning regimes will have to be applied: acidic treatment for inorganic fouling, the addition of bases against organic fouling. Therefore, it is very important to have a clear view of the type of fouling that is occurring, in order to apply the correct treatment methods. Another important aspect to be kept in mind is that the chemistry of the water - in the first place ruled by the feed water composition - can change during passage of the modules, in particular in cases where the RO system consists of two or more RO trains, and where the

  9. Sled Towing Acutely Decreases Acceleration Sprint Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Megan A; Dobbs, Ian J; Watkins, Casey M; Barillas, Saldiam R; Lin, Anne; Archer, David C; Lockie, Robert G; Coburn, Jared W; Brown, Lee E

    2017-11-01

    Wong, MA, Dobbs, IJ, Watkins, C, Barillas, SR, Lin, A, Archer, DC, Lockie, RG, Coburn, JW, and Brown, LE. Sled towing acutely decreases acceleration sprint time. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3046-3051, 2017-Sled towing is a common form of overload training in sports to develop muscular strength for sprinting. This type of training leads to acute and chronic outcomes. Acute training potentially leads to postactivation potentiation (PAP), which is when subsequent muscle performance is enhanced after a preload stimulus. The purpose of this study was to determine differences between rest intervals after sled towing on acute sprint speed. Twenty healthy recreationally trained men (age = 22.3 ± 2.4 years, height = 176.95 ± 5.46 cm, mass = 83.19 ± 11.31 kg) who were currently active in a field sport twice a week for the last 6 months volunteered to participate. A maximal 30-meter (m) baseline (BL) body mass (BM) sprint was performed (with splits at 5, 10, 20, and 30 m) followed by 5 visits where participants sprinted 30 m towing a sled at 30% BM then rested for 2, 4, 6, 8, or 12 minutes. They were instructed to stand still during rest times. After the rest interval, they performed a maximal 30-m post-test BM sprint. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that post sled tow BM sprint times (4.47 ± 0.21 seconds) were less than BL times (4.55 ± 0.18 seconds) on an individualized rest interval basis. A follow-up 2 × 4 ANOVA showed that this decrease occurred only in the acceleration phase over the first 5 m (BL = 1.13 ± 0.08 seconds vs. Best = 1.08 ± 0.08 seconds), which may be the result of PAP and the complex relationship between fatigue and potentiation relative to the intensity of the sled tow and the rest interval. Therefore, coaches should test their athletes on an individual basis to determine optimal rest time after a 30-m 30% BM sled tow to enhance acute sprint speed.

  10. Hyper-arousal decreases human visual thresholds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Woods

    Full Text Available Arousal has long been known to influence behavior and serves as an underlying component of cognition and consciousness. However, the consequences of hyper-arousal for visual perception remain unclear. The present study evaluates the impact of hyper-arousal on two aspects of visual sensitivity: visual stereoacuity and contrast thresholds. Sixty-eight participants participated in two experiments. Thirty-four participants were randomly divided into two groups in each experiment: Arousal Stimulation or Sham Control. The Arousal Stimulation group underwent a 50-second cold pressor stimulation (immersing the foot in 0-2° C water, a technique known to increase arousal. In contrast, the Sham Control group immersed their foot in room temperature water. Stereoacuity thresholds (Experiment 1 and contrast thresholds (Experiment 2 were measured before and after stimulation. The Arousal Stimulation groups demonstrated significantly lower stereoacuity and contrast thresholds following cold pressor stimulation, whereas the Sham Control groups showed no difference in thresholds. These results provide the first evidence that hyper-arousal from sensory stimulation can lower visual thresholds. Hyper-arousal's ability to decrease visual thresholds has important implications for survival, sports, and everyday life.

  11. Decreased lymphocyte dopamine transporter in romantic lovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazziti, Donatella; Baroni, Stefano; Giannaccini, Gino; Piccinni, Armando; Mucci, Federico; Catena-Dell'Osso, Mario; Rutigliano, Grazia; Massimetti, Gabriele; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2017-06-01

    The role of dopamine (DA) in romantic love is suggested by different evidence and is supported by the findings of some brain imaging studies. The DA transporter (DAT) is a key structure in regulating the concentration of the neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft. Given the presence of DAT in blood cells, the present study aimed to explore it in resting lymphocytes of 30 healthy subjects of both sexes in the early stage of romantic love (no longer than 6 months), as compared with 30 subjects involved in a long-lasting relationship. All subjects had no physical or psychiatric illness. The DAT was measured by means of the [3H]-WIN 35,428 binding and the [3H]-DA reuptake to resting lymphocytes membranes. Romantic love was assessed by a specific questionnaire developed by us. The results showed that the subjects in the early phase of romantic love had a global alteration of the lymphocyte DAT involving both a decreased number of proteins (Bmax) and a reduced functionality (Vmax). Taken together, these findings would indicate the presence of increased levels of DA in romantic love that, if paralleled by similar concentrations in the brain, would explain some peculiar features of this human feeling.

  12. COGNITIVE THERAPY DECREASE THE LEVEL OF DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah. Yusuf

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aging is a natural process in individuals. Most of the elderly have problems in dealing with this natural process. Lost of occupation, friends and loneliness may result in depression in this age group. Cognitive therapy changes pessimistic idea, unrealistic hopes and excessive self evaluation may result and justify depression. Cognitive therapy may help elderly to recognize the problem in life, to develop positive objective of life and to create more positive personality. The aimed of this study was to analyze the effect of cognitive therapy to reduce the level of depression. Method: This study was used a pre experimental pre post test design. Sample were 10 elderly people who met to the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was cognitive therapy and dependent variable was the level of depression in elderly. Data were collected by using Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS 15, then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test with significance levelα≤0.05. Result: The result showed that cognitive therapy has an effect on reducing depression with significance level p=0.005. Discussion: It can be concluded that cognitive therapy was effective in reducing depression level in elderly. Further studies are recommended to analyze the effect of cognitive therapy on decreasing anxiety in elderly by measuring cathecolamin.

  13. The Alpha value decrease when the annual individual effective dose decreases?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sordi, Gian M.; Marchiusi, Thiago; Sousa, Jefferson de J.

    2008-01-01

    A recent IAEA publication tells that a few entities took different alpha values for maxima individual doses. Beyond to disregard the international agencies, that recommend only one alpha value for each country, the alpha values decreases when the individual doses decreases and the practice happens exactly the conversely as we will show in this paper. We will prove that the alpha value increase when the maximum individual doses decreases in a four different manner. The first one we call the theoretical conception and it is linked to the emergent of the ALARA policy and to the purpose that led to the 3/10 of the annual limits, for to decrease the individual doses as a first resort and a 1/10 as a last resort. The second prove will be based in a small mine example used in the ICRP publication number 55 concerning to the optimization and the quantitative decision-aiding techniques in radiological protection where we will determine the alpha value ranges in which each radiological protection options becomes the analytical solution. The third prove will be based in the determination of the optimized thickness example of a plane shielding for a radiation source exposed in the ICRP publication number 37. We will use, also, the numerical example provided there. Eventually, as four prove we will show that the alpha value dos not only increases with the maximum individual dose decrease, but also, with the shielding geometry. (author)

  14. Decreased active vasodilator sensitivity in aged skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, W L; Morgan, A L; Farquhar, W B; Brooks, E M; Pierzga, J M; Derr, J A

    1997-04-01

    Older men and women respond to local and reflex-mediated heat stress with an attenuated increase in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC). This study was performed to test the hypothesis that an augmented or sustained noradrenergic vasoconstriction (VC) may play a role in this age-related difference. Fifteen young (22 +/- 1 yr) and 15 older (66 +/- 1 yr) men exercised at 50% peak oxygen uptake in a 36 degrees C environment. Skin perfusion was monitored at two sites on the right forearm by laser-Doppler flowmetry: one site pretreated with bretylium tosylate (BT) to block the local release of norepinephrine and thus VC and an adjacent control site. Blockade of reflex VC was verified during whole body cooling using a water-perfused suit. CVC (perfusion divided by mean arterial pressure) at each site was reported as a percentage of the maximal CVC (%CVCmax) induced at the end of each experiment by prolonged local heating at 42 degrees C. Neither age nor BT affected the %CVCmax (75-86%) attained at high core temperatures. During the early rise phase of CVC, the %CVCmax-change in esophageal temperature (delta T(es)) curve was shifted to the right in the older men (effective delta T(es) associated with 50% CVC response for young, 0.22 +/- 0.04 and 0.39 +/- 0.04 degrees C and for older, 0.73 +/- 0.04 and 0.85 +/- 0.04 degrees C at control and BT sites, respectively). BT had no interactive effect on this age difference, suggesting a lack of involvement of the VC system in the attenuated CVC response of individuals over the age of 60 yr. Additionally, increases in skin vascular conductance were quantitatively compared by measuring increases in total forearm vascular conductance (FVC, restricted to the forearm skin under these conditions). After the initial approximately 0.2 degrees C increase in T(es), FVC was 40-50% lower in the older men (P < 0.01) for the remainder of the exercise. Decreased active vasodilator sensitivity to increasing core temperature, coupled with

  15. Stop signals decrease choices for palatable foods through decreased food evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veling, Harm; Aarts, Henk; Stroebe, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The present study explores whether presenting specific palatable foods in close temporal proximity of stop signals in a go/no-go task decreases subsequent evaluations of such foods among participants with a relatively high appetite. Furthermore, we tested whether any decreased evaluations could mediate subsequent food choice. Participants first received a go/no-go task in which palatable foods were consistently linked to go cues or no-go cues within participants. Next, evaluation of the palatable foods was measured as well as food choice. Replicating previous work, results show that among participants with a relatively high appetite palatable foods associated with no-go cues are less often chosen as snacks compared to when these foods are associated with go cues, whereas this manipulation did not affect participants with a relatively low appetite. Moreover, this effect was completely mediated by decreased evaluation of the palatable foods that had been associated with the no-go cues, whereas evaluation of the foods associated with go cues did not mediate this effect. Results further showed that the devaluation effect of foods associated with no-go cues was independent of the amount of pairings (4 vs. 12 vs. 24) with the no-go cues. The current findings suggest that decreased food evaluation is a mechanism that explains effects of stop signals on food choice. PMID:24324451

  16. Benazepril hydrochloride improves diabetic nephropathy and decreases proteinuria by decreasing ANGPTL-4 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lingyu; Feng, Xiaoqing; Wang, Chuanhai; Zhang, Xuebin; Sun, Wenqiang; Yu, Kebo

    2017-10-04

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of benazepril hydrochloride (BH) on proteinuria and ANGPTL-4 expression in a diabetic nephropathy (DN) rat model. A total of 72 Wistar male rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal control (NC), DN group and BH treatment (BH) groups. The DN model was induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Weight, glucose, proteinuria, biochemical indicators and the kidney weight index were examined at 8, 12 and 16 weeks. In addition, ANGPTL-4 protein and mRNA expressions were assessed by immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR, respectively. Relationships between ANGPTL-4 and biochemical indicators were investigated using Spearman analysis. Weight was significantly lower but glucose levels were significantly higher in both the DN and BH groups than in the NC group (P Benazepril hydrochloride improves DN and decreases proteinuria by decreasing ANGPTL-4 expression.

  17. Decreasing child mortality, spatial clustering and decreasing disparity in North-Western Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, Heiko; Müller, Olaf; Dambach, Peter; Gabrysch, Sabine; Niamba, Louis; Sankoh, Osman; Simboro, Seraphin; Schoeps, Anja; Stieglbauer, Gabriele; Yé, Yazoume; Sié, Ali

    2016-04-01

    Within relatively small areas, there exist high spatial variations of mortality between villages. In rural Burkina Faso, with data from 1993 to 1998, clusters of particularly high child mortality were identified in the population of the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), a member of the INDEPTH Network. In this paper, we report child mortality with respect to temporal trends, spatial clustering and disparity in this HDSS from 1993 to 2012. Poisson regression was used to describe village-specific child mortality rates and time trends in mortality. The spatial scan statistic was used to identify villages or village clusters with higher child mortality. Clustering of mortality in the area is still present, but not as strong as before. The disparity of child mortality between villages has decreased. The decrease occurred in the context of an overall halving of child mortality in the rural area of Nouna HDSS between 1993 and 2012. Extrapolated to the Millennium Development Goals target period 1990-2015, this yields an estimated reduction of 54%, which is not too far off the aim of a two-thirds reduction. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Attention, working memory, and phenomenal experience of WM content: memory levels determined by different types of top-down modulation

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, Jane; Jacobs, Christianne; Silvanto, Juha

    2015-01-01

    What is the role of top-down attentional modulation in consciously accessing working memory (WM) content? In influential WM models, information can exist in different states, determined by allocation of attention; placing the original memory representation in the center of focused attention gives rise to conscious access. Here we discuss various lines of evidence indicating that such attentional modulation is not sufficient for memory content to be phenomenally experienced. We propose that, i...

  19. Top-down modulation of the auditory steady-state response in a task-switch paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Müller

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Auditory selective attention is an important mechanism for top-down selection of the vast amount of auditory information our perceptual system is exposed to. In the present study, the impact of attention on auditory steady-state responses - previously shown to be generated in primary auditory regions - was investigated. This issue is still a matter of debate and recent findings point to a complex pattern of attentional effects on the aSSR. The present study aimed at shedding light on the involvement of ipsilateral and contralateral activations to the attended sound taking into account hemispheric differences and a possible dependency on modulation frequency. In aid of this, a dichotic listening experiment was designed using amplitude-modulated tones that were presented to the left and right ear simultaneously. Participants had to detect target tones in a cued ear while their brain activity was assessed using MEG. Thereby, a modulation of the aSSR by attention could be revealed, interestingly restricted to the left hemisphere and 20 Hz responses: Contralateral activations were enhanced while ipsilateral activations turned out to be reduced. Thus, our findings support and extend recent findings, showing that auditory attention can influence the aSSR, but only under specific circumstances and in a complex pattern regarding the different effects for ipsilateral and contralateral activations.

  20. The Effect of Non-Visual Working Memory Load on Top-Down Modulation of Visual Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissman, Jesse; Gazzaley, Adam; D'Esposito, Mark

    2009-01-01

    While a core function of the working memory (WM) system is the active maintenance of behaviorally relevant sensory representations, it is also critical that distracting stimuli are appropriately ignored. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the role of domain-general WM resources in the top-down attentional modulation of…

  1. Top-down modulation in the infant brain: Learning-induced expectations rapidly affect the sensory cortex at 6 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emberson, Lauren L; Richards, John E; Aslin, Richard N

    2015-08-04

    Recent theoretical work emphasizes the role of expectation in neural processing, shifting the focus from feed-forward cortical hierarchies to models that include extensive feedback (e.g., predictive coding). Empirical support for expectation-related feedback is compelling but restricted to adult humans and nonhuman animals. Given the considerable differences in neural organization, connectivity, and efficiency between infant and adult brains, it is a crucial yet open question whether expectation-related feedback is an inherent property of the cortex (i.e., operational early in development) or whether expectation-related feedback develops with extensive experience and neural maturation. To determine whether infants' expectations about future sensory input modulate their sensory cortices without the confounds of stimulus novelty or repetition suppression, we used a cross-modal (audiovisual) omission paradigm and used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to record hemodynamic responses in the infant cortex. We show that the occipital cortex of 6-month-old infants exhibits the signature of expectation-based feedback. Crucially, we found that this region does not respond to auditory stimuli if they are not predictive of a visual event. Overall, these findings suggest that the young infant's brain is already capable of some rudimentary form of expectation-based feedback.

  2. The effect of non-visual working memory load on top-down modulation of visual processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissman, Jesse; Gazzaley, Adam; D'Esposito, Mark

    2009-06-01

    While a core function of the working memory (WM) system is the active maintenance of behaviorally relevant sensory representations, it is also critical that distracting stimuli are appropriately ignored. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the role of domain-general WM resources in the top-down attentional modulation of task-relevant and irrelevant visual representations. In our dual-task paradigm, each trial began with the auditory presentation of six random (high load) or sequentially ordered (low load) digits. Next, two relevant visual stimuli (e.g., faces), presented amongst two temporally interspersed visual distractors (e.g., scenes), were to be encoded and maintained across a 7-s delay interval, after which memory for the relevant images and digits was probed. When taxed by high load digit maintenance, participants exhibited impaired performance on the visual WM task and a selective failure to attenuate the neural processing of task-irrelevant scene stimuli. The over-processing of distractor scenes under high load was indexed by elevated encoding activity in a scene-selective region-of-interest relative to low load and passive viewing control conditions, as well as by improved long-term recognition memory for these items. In contrast, the load manipulation did not affect participants' ability to upregulate activity in this region when scenes were task-relevant. These results highlight the critical role of domain-general WM resources in the goal-directed regulation of distractor processing. Moreover, the consequences of increased WM load in young adults closely resemble the effects of cognitive aging on distractor filtering [Gazzaley, A., Cooney, J. W., Rissman, J., & D'Esposito, M. (2005). Top-down suppression deficit underlies working memory impairment in normal aging. Nature Neuroscience 8, 1298-1300], suggesting the possibility of a common underlying mechanism.

  3. Top-Down Modulation of Auditory-Motor Integration during Speech Production: The Role of Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhiqiang; Wu, Xiuqin; Li, Weifeng; Jones, Jeffery A; Yan, Nan; Sheft, Stanley; Liu, Peng; Liu, Hanjun

    2017-10-25

    Although working memory (WM) is considered as an emergent property of the speech perception and production systems, the role of WM in sensorimotor integration during speech processing is largely unknown. We conducted two event-related potential experiments with female and male young adults to investigate the contribution of WM to the neurobehavioural processing of altered auditory feedback during vocal production. A delayed match-to-sample task that required participants to indicate whether the pitch feedback perturbations they heard during vocalizations in test and sample sequences matched, elicited significantly larger vocal compensations, larger N1 responses in the left middle and superior temporal gyrus, and smaller P2 responses in the left middle and superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, somatosensory cortex, right inferior frontal gyrus, and insula compared with a control task that did not require memory retention of the sequence of pitch perturbations. On the other hand, participants who underwent extensive auditory WM training produced suppressed vocal compensations that were correlated with improved auditory WM capacity, and enhanced P2 responses in the left middle frontal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, right inferior frontal gyrus, and insula that were predicted by pretraining auditory WM capacity. These findings indicate that WM can enhance the perception of voice auditory feedback errors while inhibiting compensatory vocal behavior to prevent voice control from being excessively influenced by auditory feedback. This study provides the first evidence that auditory-motor integration for voice control can be modulated by top-down influences arising from WM, rather than modulated exclusively by bottom-up and automatic processes. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT One outstanding question that remains unsolved in speech motor control is how the mismatch between predicted and actual voice auditory feedback is detected and corrected. The present study provides two lines of converging evidence, for the first time, that working memory cannot only enhance the perception of vocal feedback errors but also exert inhibitory control over vocal motor behavior. These findings represent a major advance in our understanding of the top-down modulatory mechanisms that support the detection and correction of prediction-feedback mismatches during sensorimotor control of speech production driven by working memory. Rather than being an exclusively bottom-up and automatic process, auditory-motor integration for voice control can be modulated by top-down influences arising from working memory. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/3710324-11$15.00/0.

  4. Top-Down Modulation on the Perception and Categorization of Identical Pitch Contours in Speech and Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joey L. Weidema

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Whether pitch in language and music is governed by domain-specific or domain-general cognitive mechanisms is contentiously debated. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether mechanisms governing pitch contour perception operate differently when pitch information is interpreted as either speech or music. By modulating listening mode, this study aspired to demonstrate that pitch contour perception relies on domain-specific cognitive mechanisms, which are regulated by top-down influences from language and music. Three groups of participants (Mandarin speakers, Dutch speaking non-musicians, and Dutch musicians were exposed to identical pitch contours, and tested on their ability to identify these contours in a language and musical context. Stimuli consisted of disyllabic words spoken in Mandarin, and melodic tonal analogues, embedded in a linguistic and melodic carrier phrase, respectively. Participants classified identical pitch contours as significantly different depending on listening mode. Top-down influences from language appeared to alter the perception of pitch contour in speakers of Mandarin. This was not the case for non-musician speakers of Dutch. Moreover, this effect was lacking in Dutch speaking musicians. The classification patterns of pitch contours in language and music seem to suggest that domain-specific categorization is modulated by top-down influences from language and music.

  5. Down modulation of L-Selectin expression on eosinophils recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after allergen provocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengelers, H. J.; Maikoe, T.; Hooibrink, B.; Kuypers, T. W.; Kreukniet, J.; Lammers, J. W.; Koenderman, L.

    1993-01-01

    In allergic asthma eosinophils infiltrate into the lung after allergen challenge. The mechanism of this cellular infiltration is not fully understood. L-Selectin is involved in leucocyte-endothelial cell recognition and participates in homing of leucocytes into sites of inflammation. To find

  6. BMT decreases HFD-induced weight gain associated with decreased preadipocyte number and insulin secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Katiraei

    Full Text Available Experimental bone marrow transplantation (BMT in mice is commonly used to assess the role of immune cell-specific genes in various pathophysiological settings. The application of BMT in obesity research is hampered by the significant reduction in high-fat diet (HFD-induced obesity. We set out to characterize metabolic tissues that may be affected by the BMT procedure and impair the HFD-induced response. Male C57BL/6 mice underwent syngeneic BMT using lethal irradiation. After a recovery period of 8 weeks they were fed a low-fat diet (LFD or HFD for 16 weeks. HFD-induced obesity was reduced in mice after BMT as compared to HFD-fed control mice, characterized by both a reduced fat (-33%; p<0.01 and lean (-11%; p<0.01 mass, while food intake and energy expenditure were unaffected. As compared to control mice, BMT-treated mice had a reduced mature adipocyte volume (approx. -45%; p<0.05 and reduced numbers of preadipocytes (-38%; p<0.05 and macrophages (-62%; p<0.05 in subcutaneous, gonadal and visceral white adipose tissue. In BMT-treated mice, pancreas weight (-46%; p<0.01 was disproportionally decreased. This was associated with reduced plasma insulin (-68%; p<0.05 and C-peptide (-37%; p<0.01 levels and a delayed glucose clearance in BMT-treated mice on HFD as compared to control mice. In conclusion, the reduction in HFD-induced obesity after BMT in mice is at least partly due to alterations in the adipose tissue cell pool composition as well as to a decreased pancreatic secretion of the anabolic hormone insulin. These effects should be considered when interpreting results of experimental BMT in metabolic studies.

  7. Decreasing transobturator sling groin pain without decreasing efficacy using TVT-Abbrevo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jonathan S; Jeppson, Peter C; Rardin, Charles R

    2015-09-01

    Groin pain following a transobturator (TO) midurethral sling is not uncommon and can be difficult to manage. We sought to determine if decreasing the mesh burden in the groin would decrease pain. The primary objective was to compare the incidence of post-operative groin pain following placement of full-length TVT-Obturator versus the shorter TVT-Abbrevo. Secondarily, we aimed to compare the efficacy between both devices 6 months after surgery. This is a retrospective cohort study of all women who underwent a TO midurethral sling by the division of urogynecology at one institution between 1 January 2007 and 31 October 2013. Charts were reviewed and the incidence of post-operative groin pain in the two groups dichotomized as present or absent and compared using a Chi-squared test. Validated questionnaire scores of the groups were compared using t tests. There were 125 patients who received a TVT-Obturator and 100 patients who received a TVT-Abbrevo. No differences in demographic data were present between the groups. Twelve patients (9.6 %) in the TVT-Obturator group and 1 patient (1 %) in the TVT-Abbrevo group experienced bothersome groin pain (P value = 0.007). The complete pre- and 6-month post-operative ISI, UDI-6 and PFIQ-7 scores were available for 76 (61 %), 47 (38 %), and 45 (36 %) patients following TVT-Obturator and 57 (57 %), 30 (30 %), and 28 (28 %) following TVT-Abbrevo treatment. At 6 months the mean improvement in questionnaire scores for the TVT-Obturator and TVT-Abbrevo groups were as follows: 5.0 and 5.1 for ISI (P value = 0.9), 8.3 and 7.9 for UDI-6 (P value = 0.8), and 4.8 and 6.1 for PFIQ-7 (P value = 0.4). Use of TVT-Abbrevo reduces post-operative groin pain compared with the full-length TVT-Obturator, without any reduction in efficacy.

  8. Deforestation and rainfall recycling in Brazil: Is decreased forest cover connectivity associated with decreased rainfall connectivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adera, S.; Larsen, L.; Levy, M. C.; Thompson, S. E.

    2017-12-01

    In the Brazilian rainforest-savanna transition zone, deforestation has the potential to significantly affect rainfall by disrupting rainfall recycling, the process by which regional evapotranspiration contributes to regional rainfall. Understanding rainfall recycling in this region is important not only for sustaining Amazon and Cerrado ecosystems, but also for cattle ranching, agriculture, hydropower generation, and drinking water management. Simulations in previous studies suggest complex, scale-dependent interactions between forest cover connectivity and rainfall. For example, the size and distribution of deforested patches has been found to affect rainfall quantity and spatial distribution. Here we take an empirical approach, using the spatial connectivity of rainfall as an indicator of rainfall recycling, to ask: as forest cover connectivity decreased from 1981 - 2015, how did the spatial connectivity of rainfall change in the Brazilian rainforest-savanna transition zone? We use satellite forest cover and rainfall data covering this period of intensive forest cover loss in the region (forest cover from the Hansen Global Forest Change dataset; rainfall from the Climate Hazards Infrared Precipitation with Stations dataset). Rainfall spatial connectivity is quantified using transfer entropy, a metric from information theory, and summarized using network statistics. Networks of connectivity are quantified for paired deforested and non-deforested regions before deforestation (1981-1995) and during/after deforestation (2001-2015). Analyses reveal a decline in spatial connectivity networks of rainfall following deforestation.

  9. Decrease in TSH Receptor Autoantibodies during Antithyroid Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Niels Juel; Habekost, Gurli; Bratholm, Palle

    2011-01-01

    that TRAb decrease significantly during treatment with antithyroid drugs. This decrease during treatment cannot be explained by Heg RNA, which remains unchanged. Cdk1 mRNA decreased significantly during treatment to values below values obtained in normal subjects. Thus both Heg RNA and Cdk1 mRNA may...

  10. Prognostic Significance of Preterm Isolated Decreased Fetal Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertuğrul Karahanoğlu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our aim is to evaluate the prognostic significance of isolated, preterm decreased fetal movement following normal initial full diagnostic workup. Study design: A retrospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary centre. The applied protocol was approved by the Medical Research Ethics Department of the hospital where the research was conducted. Obstetrics outcomes of preterm- and term-decreased fetal movement were compared following an initial, normal diagnostic work up. Evaluated outcomes were birth weight, mode of delivery, stillbirth rate, induction of labour, development of gestational hypertension, small for gestational age and oligohydramnios, polyhydramnios during the follow up period. Result: Obstetric complications related to placental insufficiency develops more frequently for decreased fetal movement in preterm cases with respect to that of in term cases. Following the diagnosis of decreased fetal movement, pregnancy hypertension occurred in 17% of preterm decreased fetal movement cases and in 4.7% of term decreased fetal movement cases. Fetal growth restriction developed in 6.6% of preterm decreased fetal movement and in 2.3% of term decreased fetal movement. Amniotic fluid abnormalities more frequently developed in preterm decreased fetal movement. Conclusion: Following an initial normal diagnostic workup, preterm decreased fetal movement convey a higher risk for the development of pregnancy complications associated with placental insufficiency. The patient should be monitored closely and management protocols must be developed for initial normal diagnostic workups in cases of preterm decreased fetal movement.

  11. Simvastatin decreases steroid production in the H295R cell line and decreases steroids and FSH in female rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anna Guldvang; Hansen, Cecilie Hurup; Weisser, Johan J

    2015-01-01

    .10-0.13μM for SV and from 0.019-0.055μM for SVA. In rats, SV decreased progestagens in ovaries, brain and plasma, and plasma FSH in the M (72.4% decrease) and H group (76.6% decrease). Because progestagens and gonadotropins are major players in fertility, administration of SV might exert negative effects...

  12. Decreasing Physical Inactivity in the Veterans Health Administration Employee Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schult, Tamara M; Schmunk, Sandra K; Awosika, Ebi R

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a comprehensive approach to decrease physical inactivity in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) employee population. The approach included (1) initiatives to decrease physical inactivity in the workplace; (2) two operational surveys to assess system-wide service provision; and (3) two national employee surveys. From 2010 to 2012, 86 employee fitness centers were completed in VA medical centers. A grants program (2010 to 2015) funded smaller projects designed to decrease physical inactivity in the workplace. Projects involved the provision of equipment to decrease sedentary behaviors, including stability balls, treadmill and sit-to-stand desks, stairwell projects, and funding for on-site fitness classes, bicycle racks, and outdoor par courses and walking paths among others. A comprehensive approach to decrease physical inactivity in VHA employees was successful. Overall, self-reported, age-adjusted physical inactivity in VHA employees decreased from 25.3% in 2010 to 16.1% in 2015.

  13. High resolution modelling of the decreasing Arctic sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, K. S.; Rasmussen, T. A. S.; Blüthgen, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    The Arctic sea ice cover has been rapidly decreasing and thinning over the last decade, with minimum ice extent in 2007 and almost as low extent in 2011. This study investigates two aspects of the decreasing ice cover; first the large scale thinning and changing dynamics of the polar sea ice, and...

  14. A geometric proof of confluence by decreasing diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, J.W.; Oostrom, V. van; Vrijer, R. de

    The criterion for confluence using decreasing diagrams is a generalization of several well-known confluence criteria in abstract rewriting, such as the strong confluence lemma. We give a new proof of the decreasing diagram theorem based on a geometric study of in finite reduction diagrams, arising

  15. Model of optical response of marine aerosols to Forbush decreases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondo, Torsten; Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Svensmark, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    In order to elucidate the effect of galactic cosmic rays on cloud formation, we investigate the optical response of marine aerosols to Forbush decreases - abrupt decreases in galactic cosmic rays - by means of modeling. We vary the nucleation rate of new aerosols, in a sectional coagulation...

  16. Decreased language lateralization is characteristic of psychosis, not auditory hallucinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diederen, Kelly M. J.; De Weijer, Antoin D.; Daalman, Kirstin; Blom, Jan Dirk; Neggers, Sebastiaan F. W.; Kahn, Rene S.; Sommer, Iris E. C.

    2010-01-01

    Decreased language lateralization is a well-replicated finding in psychotic patients. It is currently unclear, however, whether this abnormality is related to a particular symptom of psychosis or to psychosis in general. It has been argued that decreased language lateralization may be related to

  17. Decreases in Human Semen Quality with Age Among Healthy Men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskenazi, B.; Wyrobek, A.J.; Kidd, S.A.; Moore, L.; Young, S.S.; Moore, D.

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this report is to characterize the associations between age and semen quality among healthy active men after controlling for identified covariates. Ninety-seven healthy, nonsmoking men between 22 and 80 years without known fertility problems who worked for or retired from a large research laboratory. There was a gradual decrease in all semen parameters from 22-80 years of age. After adjusting for covariates, volume decreased 0.03 ml per year (p = 0.001); sperm concentration decreased 2.5% per year (p = 0.005); total count decreased 3.6% per year of age (p < 0.001); motility decreased 0.7% per year (P < 0.001); progressive motility decreased 3.1% per year (p < 0.001); and total progressively motile sperm decreased 4.8% per year (p < 0.001). In a group of healthy active men, semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, and sperm motility decrease continuously between 22-80 years of age, with no evidence of a threshold.

  18. Do patients' information needs decrease over the course of radiotherapy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, Kirsten F. L.; Koning, Caro C. E.; Zandbelt, Linda C.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; Smets, Ellen M. A.

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to investigate if cancer patients' information needs decrease during radiotherapy and if so, which patient, consultation and radiation oncologist characteristics are associated with a decrease in information needs over time. In this longitudinal study, patients (n = 104) completed a

  19. Age decreases quality of life in adolescents with intractable epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prastiya Indra Gunawan

    2015-12-01

    Intractable epileptic adolescents have higher scores for physical functioning and health perception, but lower scores for social stigmatization. Social support has extremely low scores. Increasing age decreases quality of life in adolescents with intractable epilepsy.

  20. Proactive pharmaceutical care interventions decrease patients' nonadherence to osteoporosis medication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuurman-Bieze, A G G; Hiddink, E G; van Boven, J F M; Vegter, S

    UNLABELLED: Using a protocolled intervention program, pharmacists can decrease nonadherence to osteoporosis medication, by continuous monitoring and tailored counseling sessions, starting at treatment initiation. In the usual care group, 32.8% of patients initiating osteoporosis medication

  1. CAN CHILD-CARE SUPPORT POLICIES HALT DECREASING FERTILITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaya Yasuoka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Some earlier papers examine whether child allowances can raise fertility or not in an endogenous fertility model with a defined contribution pension system. They derive that a child allowance can raise fertility. This paper is aimed at deriving the level of child allowances or education subsidies to make the pension system sustainable. A child allowance can raise fertility instantaneously. However, in the long run, fertility might continue decreasing and the pension system might not be sustainable if less child allowance is provided. In a defined benefit system, tax burdens for pension benefits are heavy in an aging society with fewer children. A heavy tax burden reduces the household income and then decreases fertility. Therefore, child allowances must be provided to halt decreasing fertility in the long run. Nevertheless, given parametric conditions, education subsidy of more than a certain level can not halt the decrease of fertility in the long run.

  2. Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    21–25 ... Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in South ... antioxidant-rich diet and lifestyle changes in T2DM patients would help to avert the .... glycation of proteins and the formation of advanced glycosylation.

  3. Forbush decreases and particle acceleration in the outer heliosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Allen, J.A.; Mihalov, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Major solar flare activity in 1989 has provided examples of the local acceleration of protons at 28 AU (Pioneer 11) and of the propagation of Forbush decreases in galactic cosmic ray intensity to a heliocentric radial distance of 47 AU (Pioneer 10). The combination of these and previous data at lesser distances shows (a) that Forbush decreases propagate with essentially constant magnitude to (at least) 47 AU and with similar magnitude at widely different ecliptic longitudes and (b) that the times for recovery from such decreases become progressively greater as the radial distance increases, being of the order of months in the outer heliosphere. A phenomenological scheme for (b) is proposed and fresh support is given to the hypothesis that the solar cycle modulation of the galactic cosmic ray intensity is attributable primarily to overlapping Forbush decreases which are more frequent and of greater magnitude near times of maximum solar activity than at times of lesser activity

  4. Drug Combo Decreases Colorectal Polyps in People with FAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    In people with familial adenomatous polyposis, or FAP, a combination treatment of erlotinib (Tarceva) and sulindac (Aflodac) decreased the number of precancerous colorectal polyps, according to recently published clinical trial results.

  5. Periodontal Disease and Decreased Kidney Function in Japanese Elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iwasaki, Masanori; Taylor, George W.; Nesse, Willem; Vissink, Arjan; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Miyazaki, Hideo

    Background: Early detection of decreased kidney function can help prevent the progression of kidney disease to kidney failure and cardiovascular events. Potentially significant associations between kidney function and periodontal disease have been reported in cross-sectional studies. However, no

  6. Cognitive Training Programme in the Decrease of Stress of Daily ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cognitive Training Programme in the Decrease of Stress of Daily ... which involves, teaching mnemonic strategies: organization, visualization and association for ... and they should be made to participate in training to focus on thinking ability to ...

  7. Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) uptake in Parkinson's disease also decreases at thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Hideaki; Udaka, Fukashi; Oda, Masaya; Tamura, Akiko; Kubori, Tamotsu; Nishinaka, Kazuto; Kameyama, Masakuni

    2005-01-01

    Decreased cardiac metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) uptake was reported in Parkinson's disease and this contributes to the differential diagnosis between Parkinson's disease and other forms of parkinsonism such as multiple system atrophy. However, decreased MIBG uptake of the thyroid has not been demonstrated. The objective of this study was to compare MIBG uptake of the thyroid among Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy and controls. Twenty-six patients with Parkinson's disease, 11 patients with multiple system atrophy and 14 controls were examined in this study. Planar images were taken 15 minutes (early images) and 3 hours (late images) after intravenous injection of 111 MBq 123 I-MIBG. MIBG uptake of the thyroid on early images decreased significantly in Parkinson's disease compared to controls (p<0.0001) and multiple system atrophy (p=0.018). MIBG uptake of the thyroid on early images decreased significantly also in multiple system atrophy compared to controls (p=0.027). On late images, thyroid uptake differed significantly only between Parkinson's disease and controls (p=0.010). Our study is the first to demonstrate decreased MIBG uptake of the thyroid in Parkinson's disease. Sympathetic nervous denervation of Parkinson's disease occurred not only in the heart but also in the thyroid. (author)

  8. Social Branding to Decrease Smoking Among Young Adults in Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn Ok; Hong, Juliette; Neilands, Torsten B.; Jordan, Jeffrey W.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated a Social Branding antitobacco intervention for “hipster” young adults that was implemented between 2008 and 2011 in San Diego, California. Methods. We conducted repeated cross-sectional surveys of random samples of young adults going to bars at baseline and over a 3-year follow-up. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate changes in daily smoking, nondaily smoking, and binge drinking, controlling for demographic characteristics, alcohol use, advertising receptivity, trend sensitivity, and tobacco-related attitudes. Results. During the intervention, current (past 30 day) smoking decreased from 57% (baseline) to 48% (at follow-up 3; P = .002), and daily smoking decreased from 22% to 15% (P < .001). There were significant interactions between hipster affiliation and alcohol use on smoking. Among hipster binge drinkers, the odds of daily smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30, 0.63) and nondaily smoking (OR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.42, 0.77) decreased significantly at follow-up 3. Binge drinking also decreased significantly at follow-up 3 (OR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.53, 0.78). Conclusions. Social Branding campaigns are a promising strategy to decrease smoking in young adult bar patrons. PMID:24524502

  9. Recent decrease in typhoon destructive potential and global warming implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-I; Chan, Johnny C.L.

    2015-01-01

    Typhoons (tropical cyclones) severely impact the half-billion population of the Asian Pacific. Intriguingly, during the recent decade, typhoon destructive potential (Power Dissipation Index, PDI) has decreased considerably (by ∼35%). This decrease, paradoxically, has occurred despite the increase in typhoon intensity and ocean warming. Using the method proposed by Emanuel (in 2007), we show that the stronger negative contributions from typhoon frequency and duration, decrease to cancel the positive contribution from the increasing intensity, controlling the PDI. Examining the typhoons' environmental conditions, we find that although the ocean condition became more favourable (warming) in the recent decade, the atmospheric condition ‘worsened' at the same time. The ‘worsened' atmospheric condition appears to effectively overpower the ‘better' ocean conditions to suppress PDI. This stronger negative contribution from reduced typhoon frequency over the increased intensity is also present under the global warming scenario, based on analysis of the simulated typhoon data from high-resolution modelling. PMID:25990561

  10. Social branding to decrease smoking among young adults in bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M; Lee, Youn Ok; Hong, Juliette; Neilands, Torsten B; Jordan, Jeffrey W; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated a Social Branding antitobacco intervention for "hipster" young adults that was implemented between 2008 and 2011 in San Diego, California. We conducted repeated cross-sectional surveys of random samples of young adults going to bars at baseline and over a 3-year follow-up. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate changes in daily smoking, nondaily smoking, and binge drinking, controlling for demographic characteristics, alcohol use, advertising receptivity, trend sensitivity, and tobacco-related attitudes. During the intervention, current (past 30 day) smoking decreased from 57% (baseline) to 48% (at follow-up 3; P = .002), and daily smoking decreased from 22% to 15% (P Branding campaigns are a promising strategy to decrease smoking in young adult bar patrons.

  11. Evolution of the French greenhouse gas emissions: an eyewash decrease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marignac, Y.

    2010-01-01

    As the French greenhouse emissions displayed a significant decrease in 2009, compared with the reference levels of 1990, the author shows that this decrease cannot be in fact attributed to the environment policy, and more particularly not to the measures adopted within the frame of the 'Grenelle de l'Environnement'. An examination of the statistics reveals that this decrease cannot be explained by a structural transformation of energy production or consumption, but essentially by the current economic crisis. Therefore, the energetic transition which is supposed to allow the emissions to be divided by 4 in 2050, is not actually under way. On the contrary, it appears that, in a context of globalization of economy, emissions produced to satisfy French needs tend to increase through their foreign relocation

  12. Aspirin decreases platelet uptake on Dacron vascular grafts in baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, W.C.; Connolly, R.J.; Callow, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of a single dose of aspirin (5.4-7.4 mg/kg) on platelet uptake on 4-mm Dacron interposition grafts was studied in a baboon model using gamma camera scanning for 111-Indium labeled platelets. In vitro assessment of platelet function after aspirin administration revealed that in the baboon, as in the human, aspirin abolished arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation, prolonged the lag time between exposure to collagen and aggregation, and decreased plasma thromboxane B2 levels. Aspirin also prolonged the template bleeding time. Scans for 111-Indium labeled platelets revealed that pretreatment with a single dose of aspirin decreased platelet uptake on 4-mm Dacron carotid interposition grafts. This decrease in platelet uptake was associated with a significant improvement in 2-hour graft patency and with a trend toward improved 2-week patency

  13. Simulation of decreasing reactor power level with BWR simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwoto; Zuhair; Rivai, Abu Khalid

    2002-01-01

    Study on characteristic of BWR using Desktop PC Based Simulator Program was analysed. This simulator is more efficient and cheaper for analyzing of characteristic and dynamic respond than full scope simulator for decreasing power level of BW. Dynamic responses of BWR reactor was investigated during the power level reduction from 100% FP (Full Power) which is 3926 MWth to 0% FP with 25% steps and 1 % FP/sec rate. The overall results for core flow rate, reactor steam flow, feed-water flow and turbine-generator power show tendency proportional to reduction of reactor power. This results show that reactor power control in BWR could be done by control of re-circulation flow that alter the density of water used as coolant and moderator. Decreasing the re-circulation flow rate will decrease void density which has negative reactivity and also affect the position of control rods

  14. Do socioeconomic mortality differences decrease with rising age?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Hoffmann

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The impact of SES on mortality is an established finding in mortality research. I examine, whether this impact decreases with age. Most research finds evidence for this decrease but it is unknown whether the decline is due to mortality selection. My data come from the US-HRS Study and includes 9376 persons aged 59+, which are followed over 8 years. The variables allow a time varying measurement of SES, health and behavior. Event-history-analysis is applied to analyze mortality differentials. My results show that socioeconomic mortality differences are stable across ages whereas they decline clearly with decreasing health. The first finding that health rather than age is the equalizer combined with the second finding of unequally distributed health leads to the conclusion that in old age, the impact of SES is transferred to health and is stable across ages.

  15. Effects of cosmic ray decreases on cloud microphysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, J.; Enghoff, M. B.; Svensmark, H.

    2012-01-01

    the minimum in atmospheric ionization and less significant responses for effective radius and cloud condensation nuclei (total significance...... of the signal of 3.1 sigma. We also see a correlation between total solar irradiance and strong Forbush decreases but a clear mechanism connecting this to cloud properties is lacking. There is no signal in the UV radiation. The responses of the parameters correlate linearly with the reduction in the cosmic ray......Using cloud data from MODIS we investigate the response of cloud microphysics to sudden decreases in galactic cosmic radiation – Forbush decreases – and find responses in effective emissivity, cloud fraction, liquid water content, and optical thickness above the 2–3 sigma level 6–9 days after...

  16. Effects of cosmic ray decreases on cloud microphysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, J.; Enghoff, M. B.; Svensmark, H.

    2012-01-01

    Using cloud data from MODIS we investigate the response of cloud microphysics to sudden decreases in galactic cosmic radiation – Forbush decreases – and find responses in effective emissivity, cloud fraction, liquid water content, and optical thickness above the 2–3 sigma level 6–9 days after...... the minimum in atmospheric ionization and less significant responses for effective radius and cloud condensation nuclei (... of the signal of 3.1 sigma. We also see a correlation between total solar irradiance and strong Forbush decreases but a clear mechanism connecting this to cloud properties is lacking. There is no signal in the UV radiation. The responses of the parameters correlate linearly with the reduction in the cosmic ray...

  17. Decreasing radioactive cesium in lodged buckwheat grain after harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katashi Kubo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed soil contamination with high radioactive cesium (R–Cs concentration in buckwheat grains by lodging, and assessed the possibility of R–Cs reduction in grain through post-harvest preparation. Analysis of buckwheat grain produced in farmers’ fields and reports from farmers indicated that grain from fields that had lodging showed higher R–Cs than grain from fields with no lodging. A field experiment demonstrated that R–Cs in grain after threshing and winnowing (TW was about six times higher in lodged plants than in nonlodged plants. In lodged plants, R–Cs in grain was decreased to about one-fourth by polishing, and was decreased to about one-seventh by ultrasonic cleaning, compared with R–Cs in grain after TW. These results demonstrate that R–Cs of buckwheat grain of lodged plants can be decreased by removing soil from the grain surface by polishing and winnowing.

  18. Design and Analysis of LT Codes with Decreasing Ripple Size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Popovski, Petar; Østergaard, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new design of LT codes, which decreases the amount of necessary overhead in comparison to existing designs. The design focuses on a parameter of the LT decoding process called the ripple size. This parameter was also a key element in the design proposed in the original...... work by Luby. Specifically, Luby argued that an LT code should provide a constant ripple size during decoding. In this work we show that the ripple size should decrease during decoding, in order to reduce the necessary overhead. Initially we motivate this claim by analytical results related...... to the redundancy within an LT code. We then propose a new design procedure, which can provide any desired achievable decreasing ripple size. The new design procedure is evaluated and compared to the current state of the art through simulations. This reveals a significant increase in performance with respect...

  19. Decreased Identification of Vesicoureteral Reflux: A Cautionary Tale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslam Hyder Qureshi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available AimTo find the trend in patient’s visits to our centers for vesicoureteral reflux (VUR. We hypothesize that VUR diagnosis and hence possible nephropathy recognition may be diminishing because of changing practice patterns.MethodsData were extracted from electronic medical records for new and follow-up patients aged 0–18 years with ICD-9/10 codes to correspond with VUR, VUR unilateral, VUR bilateral, and VUR with reflux nephropathy, as well as new patients with diagnoses of urinary tract infections (UTI and pyelonephritis at two major pediatric centers from 2012 to 2015. Figures and statistics to reflect absolute clinic visits and annual trends were created with SPSS 2010. Linear regression was applied.ResultsAnnually, Le Bonheur Children’s Hospital and Nationwide Children’s Hospital experienced an average decrease of 13 and 17% in total VUR visits, and an average decrease of 22 and 27% in VUR nephropathy visits, respectively, for each institution. Patient visits for UTIs were reduced an average of 16% annually in both centers. Linear regression demonstrated that number of patients (patients/year ± SE decreased annually 69 ± 19 (P = 0.02, 7 ± 2 (P = 0.02, and 67 ± 25 (P = 0.04 for VUR, VUR nephropathy, and UTI, respectively.ConclusionWe conclude that the decreased number of VUR and VUR nephropathy cases identified in subspecialty clinics (Nephrology/Urology at two major children’s hospitals reflect a possible decreased identification of VUR. This trend may also be due to decreased referral of low grade cases of VUR. We cannot conclude that “undifferentiated UTI” referrals increased concomitantly to account for the decreased VUR as our data reflects a decreased trend in those visits as well. We suggest that clinicians following the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines ensure that all UTI are accounted for and surveillance is appropriately escalated for recurrent UTI or abnormal imaging results.

  20. Cosmic ray decreases affect atmospheric aerosols and clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Henrik; Bondo, Torsten; Svensmark, J.

    2009-01-01

    Close passages of coronal mass ejections from the sun are signaled at the Earth's surface by Forbush decreases in cosmic ray counts. We find that low clouds contain less liquid water following Forbush decreases, and for the most influential events the liquid water in the oceanic atmosphere can...... diminish by as much as 7%. Cloud water content as gauged by the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) reaches a minimum ≈7 days after the Forbush minimum in cosmic rays, and so does the fraction of low clouds seen by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and in the International...

  1. Hyperglycemia of Diabetic Rats Decreased by a Glucagon Receptor Antagonist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David G.; Ulichny Goebel, Camy; Hruby, Victor J.; Bregman, Marvin D.; Trivedi, Dev

    1982-02-01

    The glucagon analog [l-Nα-trinitrophenylhistidine, 12-homoarginine]-glucagon (THG) was examined for its ability to lower blood glucose concentrations in rats made diabetic with streptozotocin. In vitro, THG is a potent antagonist of glucagon activation of the hepatic adenylate cyclase assay system. Intravenous bolus injections of THG caused rapid decreases (20 to 35 percent) of short duration in blood glucose. Continuous infusion of low concentrations of the inhibitor led to larger sustained decreases in blood glucose (30 to 65 percent). These studies demonstrate that a glucagon receptor antagonist can substantially reduce blood glucose levels in diabetic animals without addition of exogenous insulin.

  2. Decreased sound tolerance: hyperacusis, misophonia, diplacousis, and polyacousis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, Pawel J; Jastreboff, Margaret M

    2015-01-01

    Definitions, potential mechanisms, and treatments for decreased sound tolerance, hyperacusis, misophonia, and diplacousis are presented with an emphasis on the associated physiologic and neurophysiological processes and principles. A distinction is made between subjects who experience these conditions versus patients who suffer from them. The role of the limbic and autonomic nervous systems and other brain systems involved in cases of bothersome decreased sound tolerance is stressed. The neurophysiological model of tinnitus is outlined with respect to how it may contribute to our understanding of these phenomena and their treatment. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Decreased NAA in gray matter is correlated with decreased availability of acetate in white matter in postmortem multiple sclerosis cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Clements, R; Sulak, M; Gregory, R; Freeman, E; McDonough, J

    2013-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS) which leads to progressive neurological disability. Our previous studies have demonstrated mitochondrial involvement in MS cortical pathology and others have documented decreased levels of the neuronal mitochondrial metabolite N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) in the MS brain. While NAA is synthesized in neurons, it is broken down in oligodendrocytes into aspartate and acetate. The resulting acetate is incorporated into myelin lipids, linking neuronal mitochondrial function to oligodendrocyte-mediated elaboration of myelin lipids in the CNS. In the present study we show that treating human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with the electron transport chain inhibitor antimycin A decreased levels of NAA as measured by HPLC. To better understand the significance of the relationship between mitochondrial function and levels of NAA and its breakdown product acetate on MS pathology we then quantitated the levels of NAA and acetate in MS and control postmortem tissue blocks. Regardless of lesion status, we observed that levels of NAA were decreased 25 and 32 % in gray matter from parietal and motor cortex in MS, respectively, compared to controls. Acetate levels in adjacent white matter mirrored these decreases as evidenced by the 36 and 45 % reduction in acetate obtained from parietal and motor cortices. These data suggest a novel mechanism whereby mitochondrial dysfunction and reduced NAA levels in neurons may result in compromised myelination by oligodendrocytes due to decreased availability of acetate necessary for the synthesis of myelin lipids.

  4. A Teacher-Focused Intervention to Decrease PE Students' Amotivation by Increasing Need Satisfaction and Decreasing Need Frustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Sung Hyeon; Reeve, Johnmarshall; Song, Yong-Gwan

    2016-06-01

    Intervention-induced gains in need satisfaction decrease PE students' amotivation. The present study adopted a dual-process model to test whether an intervention could also decrease need frustration and hence provide a second supplemental source to further decrease students' PE amotivation. Using an experimental, longitudinal research design, 19 experienced PE teachers (9 experimental, 10 control) and their 1,017 students participated in an intervention program to help teachers become both more autonomy supportive and less controlling. Multilevel repeated measures analyses showed that students of teachers in the experimental group reported greater T2, T3, and T4 perceived autonomy support, need satisfaction, and engagement and lesser T2, T3, and T4 perceived teacher control, need frustration, and amotivation than did students of teachers in the control group. Multilevel structural equation modeling analyses confirmed the hypothesized dual-process model in which both intervention-induced increases in need satisfaction and intervention-induced decreases need frustration decreased students' end-of-semester amotivation. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of this new finding on the dual antecedents of diminished amotivation.

  5. The stand-alone test and decreasing serial cost sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Thorlund-Petersen, Lars

    2000-01-01

    The rule of decreasing serial cost sharing defined in de Frutos [1] over the class of concave cost functions may violate the important stand-alone test. Sufficient conditions for the test to be satisfied are given, in terms of individual rationality as well as coalitional stability...

  6. Does Corruption Increase or Decrease Employment in Firms?

    OpenAIRE

    Beltrán, Arlette

    2015-01-01

    This article uses representative data for firms for Latin American firms and show that corruption decreases employment in firms. This result is robust to changes in specification and also consistent with the use of an instrumental variables approach. Corruption appears to negatively impact the growth and wealth in a country, not by introducing labour distortion in firms, but by keeping them small.

  7. Limitation schemes to decrease the radon daughters in indoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedjemark, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    The limitation schemes to decrease the radon daughter concentrations in Swedish homes are described. The application of the Swedish provisional limitation system in use since 1980 is also reported. As a background the radon source and the international and national recommedations in other countries are reviewed. (author)

  8. Chemotherapy decreases epiphyseal strength and increases bone fracture risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Leeuwen, BL; Verkerke, GJ; Hartel, RM; Sluiter, WJ; Kamps, WA; Jansen, HWB; Hoekstra, HJ

    To establish the effect of three frequently used chemotherapeutic agents in childhood cancer on the skeleton, growing male Wistar rats were studied. Treatment with doxorubicin, methotrexate, and cisplatin reduces the proximal tibial growth plate shear strength because of a decreased surface area and

  9. Adaptation of a decreaser and an increaser grass species to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grasses have developed through natural selection to deter, escape and tolerate herbivory, and to escape and tolerate fire. In the semi-arid grassveld of the Eastern Cape, the species Themeda triandra and Sporobolus fimbriatus have been classified as Decreaser and Increaser II plants respectively. Both species have ...

  10. Partial sleep restriction decreases insulin sensitivity in type 1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donga, Esther; van Dijk, Marieke [Leiden Univ., LUMC; van Dijk, J. Gert; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Lammers, Gert-Jan; van Kralingen, Klaas; Hoogma, Roel P. L. M.; Corssmit, Eleonora P. M.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2010-01-01

    Sleep restriction results in decreased insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in healthy subjects. We hypothesized that sleep duration is also a determinant of insulin sensitivity in patients with type 1 diabetes. We studied seven patients (three men, four women) with type 1 diabetes: mean age 44

  11. Phosphorus limitation and heat stress decrease calcification in Emiliania huxleyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerecht, Andrea C.; Šupraha, Luka; Langer, Gerald; Henderiks, Jorijntje

    2018-02-01

    Calcifying haptophytes (coccolithophores) sequester carbon in the form of organic and inorganic cellular components (coccoliths). We examined the effect of phosphorus (P) limitation and heat stress on particulate organic and inorganic carbon (calcite) production in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi. Both environmental stressors are related to rising CO2 levels and affect carbon production in marine microalgae, which in turn impacts biogeochemical cycling. Using semi-continuous cultures, we show that P limitation and heat stress decrease the calcification rate in E. huxleyi. However, using batch cultures, we show that different culturing approaches (batch versus semi-continuous) induce different physiologies. This affects the ratio of particulate inorganic (PIC) to organic carbon (POC) and complicates general predictions on the effect of P limitation on the PIC  /  POC ratio. We found heat stress to increase P requirements in E. huxleyi, possibly leading to lower standing stocks in a warmer ocean, especially if this is linked to lower nutrient input. In summary, the predicted rise in global temperature and resulting decrease in nutrient availability may decrease CO2 sequestration by E. huxleyi through lower overall carbon production. Additionally, the export of carbon may be diminished by a decrease in calcification and a weaker coccolith ballasting effect.

  12. Phosphorus limitation and heat stress decrease calcification in Emiliania huxleyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Gerecht

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcifying haptophytes (coccolithophores sequester carbon in the form of organic and inorganic cellular components (coccoliths. We examined the effect of phosphorus (P limitation and heat stress on particulate organic and inorganic carbon (calcite production in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi. Both environmental stressors are related to rising CO2 levels and affect carbon production in marine microalgae, which in turn impacts biogeochemical cycling. Using semi-continuous cultures, we show that P limitation and heat stress decrease the calcification rate in E. huxleyi. However, using batch cultures, we show that different culturing approaches (batch versus semi-continuous induce different physiologies. This affects the ratio of particulate inorganic (PIC to organic carbon (POC and complicates general predictions on the effect of P limitation on the PIC  ∕  POC ratio. We found heat stress to increase P requirements in E. huxleyi, possibly leading to lower standing stocks in a warmer ocean, especially if this is linked to lower nutrient input. In summary, the predicted rise in global temperature and resulting decrease in nutrient availability may decrease CO2 sequestration by E. huxleyi through lower overall carbon production. Additionally, the export of carbon may be diminished by a decrease in calcification and a weaker coccolith ballasting effect.

  13. Decrease of the atmospheric co-rotation with height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Membrado, M; Pacheco, A F

    2010-01-01

    Considering our atmosphere as a steady viscous gaseous envelope that co-rotates with the Earth, we obtain a solution for the form in which this induced rotational effect decreases as a function of the distances to the centre of the Earth and to the rotation axis.

  14. Decreased reproductive rates in sheep fed a high selenium diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    High Se-containing forages grow on seleniferous soils in many parts of the United States and throughout the world. Selenium is an essential trace element that is required for many physiological processes but can also be either acutely or chronically toxic to livestock. Anecdotal reports of decrease...

  15. Congruent, decreasing trends of gentoo penguins and Crozet shags ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numbers of gentoo penguins Pygoscelis papua and Crozet shags Phalacrocorax [atriceps] melanogenis breeding annually at Marion Island, one of South Africa's Prince Edward Islands in the South-West Indian Ocean, were strongly correlated over 19 split-years from 1994/1995 to 2012/2013. Both species decreased ...

  16. The effect of decreased developer activity on patient exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, C.B.; Turner, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    Overexposing and underdeveloping a radiographic image is not a common practice, but it has been observed to occur as a result of poor processing protocols. This study discovered that, as a result of decreased developer activity, the patient exposure could be three times as great as it would be under normal conditions

  17. Decreased endogenous progesterone and ratio of progesterone to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Progesterone and estrogen are two steroid hormones whose exposure may decrease the risk and delay the onset of ischemic stroke. The main objective of this study was to determine the plasma level of progesterone, estrogen and ratio of progesterone/estrogen in ischemic stroke patients. The plasma levels of ...

  18. ASCORBID ACID IS DECREASED IN INDUCED SPUTUM OF MILD ASTHMATICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACTEvidence suggests that the antioxidant ascorbic acid (AA), plays an essential role in defending against oxidant attack in the airways. Decreased levels of AA have been reported in asthmatics but not at the site directly proximal to asthma pathology, i.e. the bronchial...

  19. ASCORBIC ACID IS DECREASED IN INDUCED SPUTUM OF MILD ASTHMATICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthma is primarily an airways inflammatory disease, and the bronchial airways have been shown to be particularly susceptible to oxidant-induced tissue damage. The antioxidant ascorbic acid (AA) plays an essential role in defending against oxidant attack in the airways. Decreased...

  20. Observed Decrease of North American Winter Temperature Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhines, A. N.; Tingley, M.; McKinnon, K. A.; Huybers, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    There is considerable interest in determining whether temperature variability has changed in recent decades. Model ensembles project that extratropical land temperature variance will detectably decrease by 2070. We use quantile regression of station observations to show that decreasing variability is already robustly detectable for North American winter during 1979--2014. Pointwise trends from GHCND stations are mapped into a continuous spatial field using thin-plate spline regression, resolving small-scales while providing uncertainties accounting for spatial covariance and varying station density. We find that variability of daily temperatures, as measured by the difference between the 95th and 5th percentiles, has decreased markedly in winter for both daily minima and maxima. Composites indicate that the reduced spread of winter temperatures primarily results from Arctic amplification decreasing the meridional temperature gradient. Greater observed warming in the 5th relative to the 95th percentile stems from asymmetric effects of advection during cold versus warm days; cold air advection is generally from northerly regions that have experienced greater warming than western or southwestern regions that are generally sourced during warm days.

  1. Vertical governance change and product differentiation under decreasing component costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, B.; Huisman, K.J.M.; Kok, de A.G.

    In deciding on whether and when to outsource component production, firms should consider the trade-off between total production costs and the ability to horizontally differentiate products. We study the outsourcing decision in a duopoly under decreasing but uncertain market rates for components,

  2. Vertical governance change and product differentiation under decreasing component costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, B.; Huisman, K.J.M.; Kok, A.G. de

    2015-01-01

    In deciding on whether and when to outsource component production, firms should consider the trade-off between total production costs and the ability to horizontally differentiate products. We study the outsourcing decision in a duopoly under decreasing but uncertain market rates for components,

  3. Does Child Labor Decrease when Parental Incomes Rise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Carol Ann; Swinnerton, Kenneth A.

    2004-01-01

    When parents and children care about each other's utility, increases in parental income need not always lead to decreases in child labor. Adults raised in poor families make altruistic transfers to their elderly parents, which the parents take as repayment for income lost when their children were young and spent some time in school instead of…

  4. Decrease Radar Cross-Section Objectives Using the Metamerial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mironchev Aleksandr

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work influence of an electromagnetic field on lattices from close located ring conductors is shown. RCS is also calculated and shown that at 0 ≤ n2 < 1 there is the considerable decrease of an object.

  5. Peak heart rate decreases with increasing severity of acute hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Araoz, M; Van Hall, Gerrit

    2001-01-01

    , 459, and 404 mmHg) in a hypobaric chamber and while breathing 9% O(2) in N(2). These conditions were equivalent to altitudes of 3300, 4300, 5300, and 6300 m above sea level, respectively. At 4300 m, maximal exercise was also repeated after 4 and 8 h. Peak heart rate (HR) decreased from 191 (182......-202) (mean and range) at sea level to 189 (179-200), 182 (172-189), 175 (166-183), and 165 (162-169) in the acute hypoxic conditions. Peak HR did not decrease further after 4 and 8 h at 4300 m compared to the acute exposure at this altitude. Between barometric pressures of 518 and 355 mmHg (approximately...... 3300 and 6300 m), peak HR decreased linearly: peak HR(hypobaria) = peak HR(sea level) - 0.135 x [hypobaria(3100) - hypobaria (mmHg)]; or peak HR(altitude) = peak HR(sea level) - 0.15 x (altitude - 3100 m). This corresponds to approximately 1-beat x min(-1) reduction in peak HR for every 7-mmHg decrease...

  6. Decreased Stress Levels in Nurses: A Benefit of Quiet Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, Heather C; Mates, Joanna; Ryan, Linda; Schleder, Bonnie J

    2015-09-01

    The benefits of quiet time, a therapeutic method of improving the health care environment, have been evaluated in patients, but only a few studies have examined the effects of quiet time on intensive care nurses. To evaluate the effects of implementing quiet time in a medical-surgical intensive care unit on levels of light, noise, and nurses' stress. Quiet time consisted of turning down the unit lights for a designated time. Levels of light, noise, and nurses' stress were measured. Nurses' stress levels were measured by using a 100-point visual analog scale; unit noise, by using a digital sound level meter (model 407736, Extech Instruments); and unit light, by using an illumination light meter (model 615, Huygen Corporation). Measurements were obtained 30 minutes before and 30 minutes, 1 hour, and 2 hours after implementation of quiet time. Analysis of variance and comparisons of means indicated that both light levels and nurses' stress levels were significantly decreased after quiet time (both P quiet time, but the decrease was not significant (P = .08). Use of quiet time resulted in decreased light levels and decreased stress levels among nurses. Quiet time is an easily performed energy-saving intervention to promote a healthy work environment. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  7. Vinegar decreases allergenic response in lentil and egg food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armentia, A; Dueñas-Laita, A; Pineda, F; Herrero, M; Martín, B

    2010-01-01

    Food allergy results from an atypical response of the mucosal immune system to orally consumed allergens. Antacid medication inhibits the digestion of dietary proteins and causes food allergy. A decrease of the gastric pH might enhance the function of digestion and reduce the risk of food allergy. To test a possible decrease in the allergenicity of powerful food allergens (egg, chicken, lentils) with the addition of vinegar during the cooking process. We included seven patients who suffered from anaphylaxis due to egg, chicken and lentils. We added vinegar to egg, chicken and lentil processed extracts used for skin prick tests (SPT) and compared the wheal areas obtained with the same extracts sources and the same way but without vinegar addition. Immunodetection was performed with the different processed extracts and patients' sera. Only one patient consented food challenge with vinegar-marinated-chicken. Wheal areas were significantly minor with the food extract with vinegar. Immunodetection showed a decrease of the response with vinegar processed extracts. Vinegar addition during the cooking process may decrease lentil and chicken allergenicity. Copyright 2009 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Climate change leads to decreasing bird migration distances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.E.; Perdeck, A.C.; van Balen, J.H.; Both, C.

    2009-01-01

    Global climate change has led to warmer winters in NW Europe, shortening the distance between suitable overwintering areas and the breeding areas of many bird species. Here we show that winter recovery distances have decreased over the past seven decades, for birds ringed during the breeding season

  9. Climate change leads to decreasing bird migration distances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Marcel E.; Perdeck, Albert C.; van Balen, Johan H.; Both, Christiaan

    Global climate change has led to warmer winters in NW Europe, shortening the distance between suitable overwintering areas and the breeding areas of many bird species. Here we show that winter recovery distances have decreased over the past seven decades, for birds ringed during the breeding season

  10. Decrease in back strength in asymmetric trunk postures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Daanen, H. A M; Meijst, W. J.; Ligteringen, J.

    1992-01-01

    The extension force against resistance was recorded in 23 postures for 12 subjects to find explanations for the decrease in back strength in asymmetric postures. A reduction in muscle force in asymmetric postures was found up to 40%, but was strongly dependent on the plane in which asymmetry

  11. Esophageal acid exposure decreases intraluminal baseline impedance levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessing, Boudewijn F.; Bredenoord, Albert J.; Weijenborg, Pim W.; Hemmink, Gerrit J. M.; Loots, Clara M.; Smout, A. J. P. M.

    2011-01-01

    Intraluminal baseline impedance levels are determined by the conductivity of the esophageal wall and can be decreased in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the baseline impedance in GERD patients, on and off proton pump inhibitor (PPI), and in

  12. Iron supplementation decreases severity of allergic inflammation in murine lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura P Hale

    Full Text Available The incidence and severity of allergic asthma have increased over the last century, particularly in the United States and other developed countries. This time frame was characterized by marked environmental changes, including enhanced hygiene, decreased pathogen exposure, increased exposure to inhaled pollutants, and changes in diet. Although iron is well-known to participate in critical biologic processes such as oxygen transport, energy generation, and host defense, iron deficiency remains common in the United States and world-wide. The purpose of these studies was to determine how dietary iron supplementation affected the severity of allergic inflammation in the lungs, using a classic model of IgE-mediated allergy in mice. Results showed that mice fed an iron-supplemented diet had markedly decreased allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity, eosinophil infiltration, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, compared with control mice on an unsupplemented diet that generated mild iron deficiency but not anemia. In vitro, iron supplementation decreased mast cell granule content, IgE-triggered degranulation, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines post-degranulation. Taken together, these studies show that iron supplementation can decrease the severity of allergic inflammation in the lung, potentially via multiple mechanisms that affect mast cell activity. Further studies are indicated to determine the potential of iron supplementation to modulate the clinical severity of allergic diseases in humans.

  13. Glucocorticosteroids Associated With a Decreased Risk of Psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, Wijnand; Smeets, Hugo; de Wit, Niek J.; Kahn, Rene S.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Burger, Huibert

    The hypothesis that chronic inflammation may play a role in psychosis receives increasing attention. In this study, we aim to investigate whether the use of steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is associated with a decreased risk of psychosis. A longitudinal nested case-control study was performed

  14. DNA damage and decrease of cellular oxidase activity in piglet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNA damage and decrease of cellular oxidase activity in piglet sertoli cells exposed to gossypol. Ming Zhang, Hui Yuan, Zuping He, Liyun Yuan, Jine Yi, Sijun Deng, Li Zhu, Chengzhi Guo, Yin Lu, Jing Wu, Lixin Wen, Qiang Wei, Liqun Xue ...

  15. Decreased Muscle Strength and Quality in Diabetes-Related Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akito Tsugawa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Diabetes-related dementia (DrD, a dementia subgroup associated with specific diabetes mellitus (DM-related metabolic abnormalities, is clinically and pathophysiologically different from Alzheimer disease (AD and vascular dementia. We determined whether skeletal muscle strength, quality, and mass decrease in individuals with DrD. Methods: We evaluated grip and knee extension strength, muscle mass, and gait speed in 106 patients with probable AD and without type 2 DM (AD[–DM] group, 74 patients with probable AD and with DM (AD[+DM] group, and 36 patients with DrD (DrD group. Muscle quality was defined as the ratio of muscle strength to muscle mass. Results: Both female and male subjects with DrD showed significantly decreased muscle strength and quality in the upper extremities compared with the subjects with AD[–DM] or AD[+DM]. Female subjects with DrD showed significantly decreased muscle quality in the lower extremities compared with the subjects with AD[–DM]. Both female and male subjects with DrD had a significantly lower gait speed compared with the subjects with AD[–DM]. However, there were no significant differences in muscle mass and the prevalence of sarcopenia between the groups. Conclusion: Subjects with DrD showed decreased muscle strength and quality, but not muscle mass, and had a low gait speed.

  16. Task-related signal decrease on functional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Yoshie; Nakamura, Mitsugu; Tamaki, Norihiko; Tamura, Shogo; Kitamura, Junji

    2001-01-01

    An atypical pattern of signal change was identified on functional magnetic resonance (fMR) imaging in pathologic patients. Three normal volunteers and 34 patients with pathologic lesions near the primary motor cortex underwent fMR imaging with echo-planar imaging while performing a hand motor task. Signal intensities were evaluated with the z-score method, and the time course and changes of the signal intensity were calculated. Nine of the 34 patients with pathologic lesions displayed a significant task-related signal reduction in motor-related areas. They also presented a conventional task-related signal increase in other motor-related areas. The time courses of the increase and decrease were the inverse of each other. There was no significant difference between rates of signal increase and decrease. Our findings suggest that this atypical signal decrease is clinically significant, and that impaired vascular reactivity and altered oxygen metabolism could contribute to the task-related signal reduction. Brain areas showing such task-related signal decrease should be preserved at surgery. (author)

  17. Downsizing a database platform for increased performance and decreased costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.M.; Tolendino, L.F.

    1993-06-01

    Technological advances in the world of microcomputers have brought forth affordable systems and powerful software than can compete with the more traditional world of minicomputers. This paper describes an effort at Sandia National Laboratories to decrease operational and maintenance costs and increase performance by moving a database system from a minicomputer to a microcomputer.

  18. Use of an Explicit Rule Decreases Procrastination in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul E.; Perrin, Christopher J.; Salo, Allen; Deschaine, Elyssa; Johnson, Beth

    2016-01-01

    The procrastination behavior of students from a small rural university was decreased by presenting them with a rule indicating that a sooner final due date for a writing assignment would be contingent on procrastination during earlier phases of the paper. A counterbalanced AB BA design was used to measure the effects of the rule-based treatment…

  19. Aluminum-induced testosterone decrease results in physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently, there has been much controversy on the role of testosterone on social and aggression behaviors. This work aimed to determine the effect of testosterone decrease, induced by aluminum exposure on the level of aggression. Male Swiss-Webster strain mice were classified into three groups. The first (control group) ...

  20. The Influence of Decreased Levels of High Density Lipoprotein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Changes in lipoproteins levels in sickle cell disease (SCD) patients are well.known, but the physiological ramifications of the low levels observed have not been entirely resolved. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of decreased levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL.c) on ...

  1. Decreased attention to object size information in scale errors performers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grzyb, B.J.; Cangelosi, A.; Cattani, A.; Floccia, C.

    2017-01-01

    Young children sometimes make serious attempts to perform impossible actions on miniature objects as if they were full-size objects. The existing explanations of these curious action errors assume (but never explicitly tested) children’s decreased attention to object size information. This study

  2. Decreased Expression of DREAM Promotes the Degeneration of Retinal Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintala, Shravan; Cheng, Mei; Zhang, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    The intrinsic mechanisms that promote the degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) following the activation of N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) are unclear. In this study, we have investigated the role of downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM) in NMDA-mediated degeneration of the retina. NMDA, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and MK801 were injected into the vitreous humor of C57BL/6 mice. At 12, 24, and 48 hours after injection, expression of DREAM in the retina was determined by immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis, and electrophoretic mobility-shift assay (EMSA). Apoptotic death of cells in the retina was determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferace dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays. Degeneration of RGCs in cross sections and in whole mount retinas was determined by using antibodies against Tuj1 and Brn3a respectively. Degeneration of amacrine cells and bipolar cells was determined by using antibodies against calretinin and protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha respectively. DREAM was expressed constitutively in RGCs, amacrine cells, bipolar cells, as well as in the inner plexiform layer (IPL). NMDA promoted a progressive decrease in DREAM levels in all three cell types over time, and at 48 h after NMDA-treatment very low DREAM levels were evident in the IPL only. DREAM expression in retinal nuclear proteins was decreased progressively after NMDA-treatment, and correlated with its decreased binding to the c-fos-DRE oligonucleotides. A decrease in DREAM expression correlated significantly with apoptotic death of RGCs, amacrine cells and bipolar cells. Treatment of eyes with NMDA antagonist MK801, restored DREAM expression to almost normal levels in the retina, and significantly decreased NMDA-mediated apoptotic death of RGCs, amacrine cells, and bipolar cells. Results presented in this study show for the first time that down-regulation of DREAM promotes the degeneration of RGCs, amacrine cells, and

  3. Consumption of added sugars is decreasing in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Jean A; Sharma, Andrea J; Grellinger, Lisa; Vos, Miriam B

    2011-09-01

    The consumption of added sugars (caloric sweeteners) has been linked to obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. Little is known about recent consumption trends in the United States or how intakes compare with current guidelines. We examined trends in intakes of added sugars in the United States over the past decade. A cross-sectional study of US residents ≥2 y of age (n = 42,316) was conducted by using dietary data from NHANES 1999-2008 (five 2-y cycles) and data for added-sugar contents from the MyPyramid Equivalents Database. Mean intakes of added sugars (grams and percentage of total energy intake) were weighted to obtain national estimates over time across age, sex, and race-ethnic groups. Linear trends were tested by using Wald's F tests. Between 1999-2000 and 2007-2008, the absolute intake of added sugars decreased from a mean (95% CI) of 100.1 g/d (92.8, 107.3 g/d) to 76.7 g/d (71.6, 81.9 g/d); two-thirds of this decrease, from 37.4 g/d (32.6, 42.1 g/d) to 22.8 g/d (18.4, 27.3 g/d), resulted from decreased soda consumption (P-linear trend added sugars to increase over the study period (P-linear trend = 0.003), although the peak consumption reached only 0.15 g/d (0.08, 0.22 g/d). The percentage of total energy from added sugars also decreased from 18.1% (16.9%, 19.3%) to 14.6% (13.7%, 15.5%) (P-linear trend added sugars in the United States decreased between 1999-2000 and 2007-2008, primarily because of a reduction in soda consumption, mean intakes continue to exceed recommended limits.

  4. Decreased serum vitamin D in idiopathic benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seong-Hae; Kim, Ji-Soo; Shin, Jong Wook; Kim, Sungbo; Lee, Hajeong; Lee, Ae Young; Kim, Jae-Moon; Jo, Hyunjin; Song, Junghan; Ghim, Yuna

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated an association of osteopenia/osteoporosis with idiopathic benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). Since vitamin D takes part in the regulation of calcium and phosphorus found in the body and plays an important role in maintaining proper bone structure, decreased bone mineral density in patients with BPPV may be related to decreased serum vitamin D. We measured the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in 100 patients (63 women and 37 men, mean age ± SD = 61.8 ± 11.6) with idiopathic BPPV and compared the data with those of 192 controls (101 women and 91 men, mean age ± SD = 60.3 ± 11.3) who had lived in the same community without dizziness or imbalance during the preceding year. The selection of the controls and acquisition of clinical information were done using the data from the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008. The serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was lower in the patients with BPPV than in the controls (mean ± SD = 14.4 ± 8.4 versus 19.1 ± 6.8 ng/ml, p = 0.001). Furthermore, patients with BPPV showed a higher prevalence of decreased serum vitamin D (diabetes, proteinuria, regular exercise and the existence of decreased bone mineral density demonstrated that vitamin D insufficiency (10-20 ng/ml) and deficiency (<10 ng/ml) were associated with BPPV with the odds ratios of 3.8 (95 % confidence interval = 1.51-9.38, p = 0.004) and 23.0 (95 % confidence interval = 6.88-77.05, p < 0.001). Our study demonstrated an association between idiopathic BPPV and decreased serum vitamin D. Decreased serum vitamin D may be a risk factor of BPPV.

  5. Cost decreases in environmental technology. Evidence from four case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oosterhuis, F. [Instituut for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit VU, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-07-15

    The cost of a new technology tends to decrease as its uptake grows, and environmental technology is no exception to this general rule. Factors that can bring about such cost reductions include economies of scale, 'learning-by-doing', incremental technological improvements, and growing competition. In preparing environmental policies, the potential for future cost reductions is often disregarded. The present study aims to provide some additional empirical evidence on the cost decreases in environmental technology and the factors that lie behind them. To this end, four exemplary case studies have been selected. The first case (NOx emission abatement by Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)), shows a wide variety in cost estimates, without a clear trend. This is even true for the costs of a fairly homogeneous type of investment (SCR in coal fired power plants). Nevertheless, it is clear that an important cost decrease has been achieved by prolonging the lifetime of the catalyst, which is one of the main cost components in SCR. In the second case (NH3 emission abatement by chemical air scrubbers in pig farming) there is not yet sufficient experience with the technology to draw conclusions on the development of costs. However, it is already clear that economizing on the capacity of the system can contribute to important cost savings. Three-way catalytic converters in cars have shown significant price decreases following their large scale introduction on the European market in the early 1990s. Probably economies of scale have played an important role in this case, as the size of the market made mass production possible. To some extent, cost reductions may also be attributed to improvements such as the need for less materials (e.g. platinum). Furthermore, the performance of catalytic converters has improved, implying that the cost per unit of emission reduction has decreased even more than the cost of the device itself. Market prices of Compact Fluorescent Lamps

  6. Insulin decreases atherosclerosis by inducing endothelin receptor B expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Kyoungmin; Mima, Akira; Li, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cell (EC) insulin resistance and dysfunction, caused by diabetes, accelerates atherosclerosis. It is unknown whether specifically enhancing EC-targeted insulin action can decrease atherosclerosis in diabetes. Accordingly, overexpressing insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1...... induction of NO action, which increases endothelin receptor B (EDNRB) expression and intracellular [Ca(2+)]. Using the mice with knockin mutation of eNOS, which had Ser1176 mutated to alanine (AKI), deleting the only known mechanism for insulin to activate eNOS/NO pathway, we observed that IRS1...... overexpression in the endothelia of Aki/ApoE(-/-) mice significantly decreased atherosclerosis. Interestingly, endothelial EDNRB expression was selectively reduced in intima of arteries from diabetic patients and rodents. However, endothelial EDNRB expression was upregulated by insulin via P13K/Akt pathway...

  7. Decreasing the Functioning Consumptions of Plastics Injection Moulding Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilache, V.; Vasilache, M.; Vasilache, A.

    2017-06-01

    A share of about 75% in the cost of a plastic moulded part is held by the energy consumption of the injection machine. It is the heating system of the plasticising unit which is responsible for the energophague character of the process. The transfer rate from the heating elements to the plasticising cylinder depends hardly on the geometry of the system. A new heating system is designed, replacing the classical systems which are applied on the exterior of the cylinder with an “engrooved system”. Proposed heating system leads to decreasing of energy consumption up to 30 % and maintenance costs up to 10 %. A supplementary possibility to decrease the maintenance costs is to modify the geometry of the injection torpedo. The proposed geometry eliminates the possibility of any breaking or gripping related to the injection torpedo.

  8. Decreased splenic enhancement on CT in traumatized hypotensive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berland, L.L.; VanDyke, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Three patients with transient episodes of hypotension following blunt abdominal trauma incurred in motor vehicle accidents were examined by computed tomography within 6 hours of injury. None of the patients had splenic injury evident on autopsy, surgery, or clinical follow-up study (one case each), nor did they have other characteristic features of splenic infarction. However, in each case the spleen was less enhanced than the liver, leading to an erroneous impression in one patient that the splenic artery had been disrupted. Physiologic studies have shown that splenic perfusion decreases with sympathetic stimulation; this may have been the cause of the diminished enhancement. Decreased splenic enhancement should be interpreted cautiously in traumatized hypotensive patients

  9. Decreased splenic enhancement on CT in traumatized hypotensive patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berland, L.L.; VanDyke, J.A.

    1985-08-01

    Three patients with transient episodes of hypotension following blunt abdominal trauma incurred in motor vehicle accidents were examined by computed tomography within 6 hours of injury. None of the patients had splenic injury evident on autopsy, surgery, or clinical follow-up study (one case each), nor did they have other characteristic features of splenic infarction. However, in each case the spleen was less enhanced than the liver, leading to an erroneous impression in one patient that the splenic artery had been disrupted. Physiologic studies have shown that splenic perfusion decreases with sympathetic stimulation; this may have been the cause of the diminished enhancement. Decreased splenic enhancement should be interpreted cautiously in traumatized hypotensive patients.

  10. Computerized tomography in evaluation of decreased acetabular and femoral anteversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toennis, D.; Skamel, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Computerized tomography has received a new importance. It has been shown that decreased anteversion of femur and acetabulum, when both have decreased angles, are causing pain and osteoarthritis of the hip joint. Operative treatment should be performed before osteoarthritis develops. Exact measurements therefore are necessary. The investigation should be performed in prone position to have the pelvis lying in a defined and normal position. Femoral torsion is measured between the transverse axis of the knee and the femoral neck. The transverse axis for measurement of the femoral anteversion is defined by a rectangular line to the sagittal plane. For evaluation of the femoral anteversion in total the angle of the condyles has to be added to the femoral neck angle when the knee is found in internal rotation. Acetabular anteversion should be measured at the level where the femoral head is still in full contact and congruence with the anterior margin of the acetabulum. (orig.) [de

  11. Metabolic consequences of decreased nitric oxide synthesis in the hearth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pechanova, O.; Bernatova, I.; Pelouch, V.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine long-term effect of NO-synthase inhibitor N G -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) on concentrations of cyclic nucleotides, nucleic acids and of collagenous proteins in the left ventricle. Male Wistar rats were investigated. NO-synthase activity in the homogenates of left ventricle was determined by measuring the formation of 3 H]-L-citrulline from [ 3 H]-L-arginine. Cyclic GMP and cAMP concentrations were determined by using radioimmunoassay procedures and commercial cGMP and cAMP 125 I scintillation proximity assay systems.Significantly more remarkable decrease of NO-synthase activity was recorded in the group with higher dose (40 mg/kg/day) of L-NAME. The changes in metabolic parameters corresponded well with the dose-depend decrease of NO-synthase activity. (authors)

  12. Investigations of Forbush decreases in the PAMELA experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagoida, I. A.; Voronov, S. A.; Mikhailov, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    A phenomenon in cosmic ray physics now called Forbush decrease (FD), or Forbush effect was discovered by S. Forbush in 1937 [1], it is a sudden decrease of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) intensity near the Earth. However, despite of the long term investigations the nature of this phenomenon is still not completely understood. Today this effect is studied mostly by the neutron monitors and muon hodoscopes, which are located on the Earth’s surface. But these monitors can detect only products of GCR interaction with the Earth atmosphere. Satellite detectors allow to obtain more accurate information about the characteristics of FD. Examples of FDs registered by the PAMELA telescope and observed with Oulu neutron monitor are presented. About 10 events with amplitude more than 3% have been registered from 2006 till 2016 with the PAMELA experiment.

  13. Arterial wave reflection decreases gradually from supine to upright

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Bogaard, Bas; Westerhof, Berend E; Best, Hendrik

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND. An increase in total peripheral resistance (TPR) usually increases arterial wave reflection. During passive head-up tilt (HUT), however, arterial wave reflection decreases with increasing TPR. This study addressed whether arterial wave reflection gradually decreases during HUT. METHODS....... In 10 healthy volunteers (22-39 years, nine males), we recorded finger arterial pressures in supine position (0°), and 30°and 70°degrees HUT and active standing (90°). Aortic pressure was constructed from the finger pressure signal and hemodynamics were calculated. Arterial wave reflection...... from 0.9 dyn s/cm(5) at 0? to 1.2, 1.4 and 1.4 dyn s/cm(5) at 30°, 70° and 90° (p wave reflection...

  14. Decrease in domestic violence during pregnancy: a study from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagcioglu, Erman; Vural, Mehmet; Karababa, Ibrahim Fatih; Aksin, Mahmut; Selek, Salih

    2014-01-01

    Our aim is to evaluate the prevalence of domestic violence (DV) among pregnant women and find out whether several factors were associated with DV or not. A total of 317 pregnant women applied at Sanliurfa Obstetrics Hospital and Harran University obstetrics and gynecology department outpatient clinic were interviewed using the modified form of Abuse Assessment Screen questionnaire. Several clinical and sociodemographic data were also obtained from the participants. Mean pregnancy number per woman (gravida) was 3.62 ± 0.13. 47.3% of women had experienced DV before pregnancy. However, the rate of DV exposure significantly decreased to 10.3% during pregnancy (p violence. Pregnancy appears to decrease DV in Sanliurfa.

  15. Some human activities to decrease public radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang; Guo Minqiang

    1994-01-01

    The necessity of studying the variations in radiation levels from the balance viewpoint is discussed. Some human activities may increase, while others may decrease, radiation dose to population. In 1988, China's investigation showed that travel by air caused a raise of population collective dose by 3.6 x 10 1 man·Sv, while travel by ship, train and vehicle lead to a drop of 5.36 x 10 2 man·Sv, and that dwellings of coal cinder brick decreased collective dose by 3.5 x 10 3 man·Sv, while buildings of reinforced concrete structure increased collective dose by 3.7 x 10 3 man·Sv. It is inadequate to only study those activities which may increase radiation levels

  16. Decreased antitoxic activities among children with clinical episodes of malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, P H; McKay, V; N'Jie, R

    1998-01-01

    Healthy Gambian children, children with clinical Plasmodium falciparum malaria, and children with asymptomatic P. falciparum infections were studied to investigate whether antitoxic activities may contribute to protection against malarial symptoms. Markers of inflammatory reactions, soluble tumor...... necrosis factor receptor I, and C-reactive protein were found in high concentrations in children with symptomatic P. falciparum malaria compared with levels in children with asymptomatic P. falciparum infections or in healthy children, indicating that inflammatory reactions are induced only in children...... decreased capacity to block induction of LAL activation by P. falciparum exoantigen. The decreased blocking activity was restored in the following dry season, when the children had no clinical malaria. Symptomatic children also had the highest immunoglobulin G (IgG) reactivities to conserved P. falciparum...

  17. Decreased heart rate variability responses during early postoperative mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jans, Øivind; Brinth, Louise; Kehlet, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    in relation to postural change. METHODS: A standardized mobilization protocol before, 6 and 24 h after surgery was performed in 23 patients scheduled for elective THA. Beat-to-beat arterial blood pressure was measured by photoplethysmography and HRV was derived from pulse wave interbeat intervals and analysed......BACKGROUND: Intact orthostatic blood pressure regulation is essential for early mobilization after surgery. However, postoperative orthostatic hypotension and intolerance (OI) may delay early ambulation. The mechanisms of postoperative OI include impaired vasopressor responses relating...... and postural responses in arterial pressures decreased compared to preoperative conditions. During standing HF variation increased by 16.7 (95 % CI 8.0-25.0) normalized units (nu) at 6 h and 10.7 (2.0-19.4) nu at 24 h compared to the preoperative evaluation. At 24 h the LF/HF ratio decreased from 1.8 (1...

  18. Playing prosocial video games increases empathy and decreases schadenfreude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; Osswald, Silvia; Brauer, Markus

    2010-12-01

    Past research provided abundant evidence that exposure to violent video games increases aggressive tendencies and decreases prosocial tendencies. In contrast, research on the effects of exposure to prosocial video games has been relatively sparse. The present research found support for the hypothesis that exposure to prosocial video games is positively related to prosocial affect and negatively related to antisocial affect. More specifically, two studies revealed that playing a prosocial (relative to a neutral) video game increased interpersonal empathy and decreased reported pleasure at another's misfortune (i.e., schadenfreude). These results lend further credence to the predictive validity of the General Learning Model (Buckley & Anderson, 2006) for the effects of media exposure on social tendencies.

  19. Decreasing of pulsation intensity levels in X-ray receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Dvoryankin, V F; Kudryashov, A A; Petrov, A G

    2002-01-01

    The low frequency filter is applied in the multichannel receiver on the basis of the GaAs epitaxial structures for decreasing the pulsations level at the signals amplifier outlet. The optimal band of the filter is determined by the transition processes by the detector scanning in the roentgen beams. The X-ray source of radiation with the medium-frequency feeding generator is used for verifying the quality of the obtained X-ray image

  20. Interleukin-1 Antagonism Decreases Cortisol Levels in Obese Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Urwyler, Sandrine Andrea; Schuetz, Philipp; Ebrahimi, Fahim; Donath, Marc Y.; Christ-Crain, Mirjam

    2017-01-01

    Increased cortisol levels in obesity may contribute to the associated metabolic syndrome. In obesity, the activated innate immune system leads to increased interleukin (IL)-1β, which is known to stimulate the release of adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH).; We hypothesized that in obesity IL-1 antagonism would result in downregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, leading to decreased cortisol levels.; In this prospective intervention study, we included 73 patients with obesity (b...

  1. Structural change in developing countries: has it decreased gender inequality?

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Rendall

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the evolution of female labor market outcomes from 1987 to 2008 by assessing the role of changing labor demand requirements in four developing countries: Brazil, Mexico, India and Thailand. The results highlight the importance of structural change in reducing gender disparities by decreasing the labor demand for physical attributes. The results show that India, the country with the greatest physical labor requirements, exhibits the largest labor market gender inequality. I...

  2. Decreased sweating in seven patients with Laron syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Price, D A; Savage, M O

    1993-01-01

    patients with Laron syndrome, measured by pilocarpine iontophoresis. The patients had significantly lower SSRs than healthy children matched for sex and pubertal stage (P ...). These observations further supported the hypothesis that sweat gland function in humans is under the influence of the GH-insulin-like growth factor-I axis. It remains to be seen whether the decrease in SSR also leads to altered thermoregulation in patients with Laron syndrome....

  3. Home interventions are effective at decreasing indoor nitrogen dioxide concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulin, L M; Diette, G B; Scott, M; McCormack, M C; Matsui, E C; Curtin-Brosnan, J; Williams, D L; Kidd-Taylor, A; Shea, M; Breysse, P N; Hansel, N N

    2014-08-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ), a by-product of combustion produced by indoor gas appliances such as cooking stoves, is associated with respiratory symptoms in those with obstructive airways disease. We conducted a three-armed randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of interventions aimed at reducing indoor NO2 concentrations in homes with unvented gas stoves: (i) replacement of existing gas stove with electric stove; (ii) installation of ventilation hood over existing gas stove; and (iii) placement of air purifiers with high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) and carbon filters. Home inspection and NO2 monitoring were conducted at 1 week pre-intervention and at 1 week and 3 months post-intervention. Stove replacement resulted in a 51% and 42% decrease in median NO2 concentration at 3 months of follow-up in the kitchen and bedroom, respectively (P = 0.01, P = 0.01); air purifier placement resulted in an immediate decrease in median NO2 concentration in the kitchen (27%, P kitchen (20%, P = 0.05). NO2 concentrations in the kitchen and bedroom did not significantly change following ventilation hood installation. Replacing unvented gas stoves with electric stoves or placement of air purifiers with HEPA and carbon filters can decrease indoor NO2 concentrations in urban homes. Several combustion sources unique to the residential indoor environment, including gas stoves, produce nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and higher NO2 concentrations, are associated with worse respiratory morbidity in people with obstructive lung disease. A handful of studies have modified the indoor environment by replacing unvented gas heaters; this study, to our knowledge, is the first randomized study to target unvented gas stoves. The results of this study show that simple home interventions, including replacement of an unvented gas stove with an electric stove or placement of HEPA air purifiers with carbon filters, can significantly decrease indoor NO2 concentrations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A

  4. CURCUMIN DECREASES SPECIFICITY PROTEIN (Sp) EXPRESSION IN BLADDER CANCER CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Chadalapaka, Gayathri; Jutooru, Indira; Chintharlapalli, Sudhakar; Papineni, Sabitha; Smith, Roger; Li, Xiangrong; Safe, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Curcumin is the active component of tumeric, and this polyphenolic compound has been extensively investigated as an anticancer drug that modulates multiple pathways and genes. In this study, 10 – 25 µM curcumin inhibited 253JB-V and KU7 bladder cancer cell growth, and this was accompanied by induction of apoptosis and decreased expression of the proapoptotic protein survivin and the angiogenic proteins vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1). Since expression of...

  5. Glucocorticosteroids Associated With a Decreased Risk of Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Laan, Wijnand; Smeets, Hugo; de Wit, Niek J.; Kahn, Rene S.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Burger, Huibert

    2009-01-01

    The hypothesis that chronic inflammation may play a role in psychosis receives increasing attention. In this study, we aim to investigate whether the use of steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is associated with a decreased risk of psychosis. A longitudinal nested case-control study was performed investigating the association of glucocorticosteroid (GCS) consumption with a new diagnosis of a psychotic disorder. Significantly reduced odds ratios of 0.52 (95% confidence interval, 0.36-0.75) were ...

  6. Hyperglycemia decreases mitochondrial function: The regulatory role of mitochondrial biogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmeira, Carlos M.; Rolo, Anabela P.; Berthiaume, Jessica; Bjork, James A.; Wallace, Kendall B.

    2007-01-01

    Increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is implicated in 'glucose toxicity' in diabetes. However, little is known about the action of glucose on the expression of transcription factors in hepatocytes, especially those involved in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication and transcription. Since mitochondrial functional capacity is dynamically regulated, we hypothesized that stressful conditions of hyperglycemia induce adaptations in the transcriptional control of cellular energy metabolism, including inhibition of mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative metabolism. Cell viability, mitochondrial respiration, ROS generation and oxidized proteins were determined in HepG2 cells cultured in the presence of either 5.5 mM (control) or 30 mM glucose (high glucose) for 48 h, 96 h and 7 days. Additionally, mtDNA abundance, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) transcripts were evaluated by real time PCR. High glucose induced a progressive increase in ROS generation and accumulation of oxidized proteins, with no changes in cell viability. Increased expression of PAI-1 was observed as early as 96 h of exposure to high glucose. After 7 days in hyperglycemia, HepG2 cells exhibited inhibited uncoupled respiration and decreased MitoTracker Red fluorescence associated with a 25% decrease in mtDNA and 16% decrease in TFAM transcripts. These results indicate that glucose may regulate mtDNA copy number by modulating the transcriptional activity of TFAM in response to hyperglycemia-induced ROS production. The decrease of mtDNA content and inhibition of mitochondrial function may be pathogenic hallmarks in the altered metabolic status associated with diabetes

  7. Forbush decreases observed 40 mwe underground in 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benko, G.; Kecskemety, K.; Neuprandt, G.; Somogyi, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    Forbush decreases observed 40 mwe underground at Budapest in the first half of 1978 have been analysed together with the data of several neutron monitor stations in Europe. Assuming a power-exponential type spectrum for the variations spectrum in space as a function of rigidity, the best fitting values of power and upper cut-off rigidity have been calculated from maximum decrement by means of the weighted least squares method

  8. Cigarette smoke decreases mitochondrial porin expression and steroidogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, Mahuya; Whittal, Randy M.; Gairola, C. Gary; Bose, Himangshu S.

    2008-01-01

    Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) facilitates the movement of cholesterol from the outer to inner mitochondrial membrane for steroidogenesis. Here, we investigated the effect of cigarette smoke (CS) on steroidogenesis using adrenal mitochondria isolated from mice chronically exposed to CS. Steroidogenesis was decreased approximately 78% in CS-exposed mitochondria, as measured by synthesis of the steroid hormone precursor pregnenolone. This effect was accompanied by decreased mitochondrial import of 35 S-StAR. Further characterization of the imported 35 S-StAR by native gradient PAGE revealed the presence of a high molecular weight complex in both control and CS-exposed groups. Following density gradient fractionation of 35 S-StAR that had been extracted from control mitochondria, precursor StAR could be found in fractions 2-6 and smaller-sized StAR complexes in fractions 6-13. In the CS-exposed group, the appearance of precursor shifted from fraction 1-6 and the smaller complexes in fractions 6-9 disappeared. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that the 35 S-StAR-associated protein complex was composed of several resident matrix proteins as well as the OMM resident, VDAC. VDAC expression was greatly reduced by CS, and blockage of VDAC with Koenig's polyanion decreased pregnenolone synthesis in isolated mitochondria. Taken together, these results suggest that VDAC may participate in steroidogenesis by promoting StAR interaction with the OMM and that CS may inhibit steroidogenesis by reducing VDAC-StAR interactions

  9. Active Intervention Can Decrease Burnout In Ed Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Rong; Ji, Hong; Li, Jianxin; Zhang, Liyao

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether active intervention can decrease job burnout and improve performance among ED nurses. This study was carried out in the emergency departments of 3 hospitals randomly selected from 8 comprehensive high-level hospitals in Jinan, China. A total of 102 nurses were enrolled and randomly divided into control and intervention groups. For 6 months, nurses in intervention groups were treated with ordinary treatment plus comprehensive management, whereas nurses in the control group were treated with ordinary management, respectively. Questionnaires were sent and collected at baseline and at the end of the study. The Student t test was used to evaluate the effect of comprehensive management in decreasing burnout. All ED nurses showed symptoms of job burnout at different levels. Our data indicated that comprehensive management significantly decreased emotional exhaustion and depersonalization (P burnout in ED nurses and contribute to relieving work-related stress and may further protect against potential mental health problems. Copyright © 2016 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nutlin-3a decreases male fertility via UQCRC2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamla Kant Shukla

    Full Text Available Ubiquinol-cytochrome-c reductase core protein 2 (UQCRC2 is a component of ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase complex that is known to correlate with male fertility via spermatogenesis. Simultaneously, nutlin-3a is a small molecule antagonist of mouse double minute 2 repressor (MDM2, activate p53 and induce apoptosis responsible for spermatogenesis. To date, however there are no known effects of nutlin-3a on reproduction. Therefore, present study was designed to investigate the effect of nutlin-3a on male fertility via UQCRC2. In this in vitro trial with mice spermatozoa, we utilized CASA, CTC staining, ATP assay, western blotting, and IVF to measure the main study outcome. The short-term exposure of spermatozoa in nutlin-3a decreases sperm motion kinematics, intracellular ATP production, capacitation, the acrosome reaction, UQCRC2, and tyrosine phosphorylation (TYP of sperm proteins in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, the decreased UQCRC2 and TYP were associated with reduced sperm kinematics, ATP production, and capacitation, which ultimately led to adverse effects on male fertility such as poor fertilization rates and embryo development. Thus, nutlin-3a may be considered as a potential male contraceptive agent due to its ability to decrease fertility secondary to changes in overall sperm physiology and embryonic development. However, the results of this preliminary study have to be confirmed by additional independent trial.

  11. Modafinil decreases anxiety-like behaviour in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Johnson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Modafinil (2-((diphenylmethylsulfinylacetamide, a selective dopamine and norepinephrine transporter inhibitor, is most commonly prescribed for narcolepsy but has gained recent interest for treating a variety of disorders. Zebrafish (Danio rerio are becoming a model of choice for pharmacological and behavioural research. To investigate the behavioural effects of modafinil on anxiety, we administered doses of 0, 2, 20, and 200 mg/L for 30 minutes then tested zebrafish in the novel approach test. In this test, the fish was placed into a circular arena with a novel object in the center and motion-tracking software was used to quantify the time the fish spent in the outer area of the arena (thigmotaxis zone, middle third of the arena (transition zone and center of the arena, as well as total distance traveled, immobility and meandering. Modafinil caused a decrease in time spent in the thigmotaxis zone and increased time spent in the transition zone across all doses. Modafinil did not significantly alter the time spent in the center zone (near the novel object, the distance moved, meandering, or the duration of time spent immobile. We also validated this test as a measure of anxiety with the administration of ethanol (1% which decreased time spent in the thigmotaxis zone and increased time spent in the transition zone. These results suggest that modafinil decreases anxiety-like behaviour in zebrafish.

  12. The effect of decreased interletter spacing on orthographic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montani, Veronica; Facoetti, Andrea; Zorzi, Marco

    2015-06-01

    There is growing interest in how perceptual factors such as the spacing between letters within words modulate performance in visual word recognition and reading aloud. Extra-large letter spacing can strongly improve the reading performance of dyslexic children, and a small increase with respect to the standard spacing seems beneficial even for skilled word recognition in adult readers. In the present study we examined the effect of decreased letter spacing on perceptual identification and lexical decision tasks. Identification in the decreased spacing condition was slower than identification of normally spaced strings, thereby confirming that the reciprocal interference among letters located in close proximity (crowding) poses critical constraints on visual word processing. Importantly, the effect of spacing was not modulated by string length, suggesting that the locus of the spacing effect is at the level of letter detectors. Moreover, the processing of crowded letters was facilitated by top-down support from orthographic lexical representation as indicated by the fact that decreased spacing affected pseudowords significantly more than words. Conversely, in the lexical decision task only word responses were affected by the spacing manipulation. Overall, our findings support the hypothesis that increased crowding is particularly harmful for phonological decoding, thereby adversely affecting reading development in dyslexic children.

  13. Strategies for decreasing nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oenema, O. [AB-DLO, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    1999-08-01

    Following the Kyoto Conference of 1997, declaring the urgency of implementing strategies for decreasing greenhouse gas emissions, there are several valid arguments to examine the opportunities for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from agriculture. This paper provides a review of the state-of-the-art of emission reduction, discusses two strategies for decreasing emissions and identifies various gaps in current knowledge in this field and the need for relevant scientific research. The two strategies discussed are (1) increasing the nitrogen use efficiency toward the goal of lowering total nitrogen input, and (2) decreasing the release of nitrous oxide per unit of nitrogen from the processes of nitrification and denitrification. Increasing nitrogen use efficiency is thought to be the most effective strategy. To that end, the paper discusses several practical actions and measures based on decisions at tactical and operational management levels. Knowledge gaps identified include (1) incomplete understanding of nitrogen cycling in farming systems, (2) incomplete quantitative understanding of emission controlling factors, (3) information gap between science and policy, and (4) information gap between science and practice. Appropriate research needs are suggested for each of these areas. It is suggested that the highest priority should be given to improving the understanding of emission controlling factors in the field and on the farm. 23 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Ammonia causes decreased brain monoamines in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronan, Patrick J.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Hamilton, Steven J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Summers, Cliff H.

    2007-01-01

    Hyperammonemia, arising from variety of disorders, leads to severe neurological dysfunction. The mechanisms of ammonia toxicity in brain are not completely understood. This study investigated the effects of ammonia on monoaminergic systems in brains of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Fish serve as a good model system to investigate hyperammonemic effects on brain function since no liver manipulations are necessary to increase endogenous ammonia concentrations. Using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, monoamines and some associated metabolites were measured from whole brain homogenate. Adult males were exposed for 48 h to six different concentrations of ammonia (0.01–2.36 mg/l unionized) which bracketed the 96-h LC50 for this species. Ammonia concentration-dependent decreases were found for the catecholamines (norepinephrine and dopamine) and the indoleamine serotonin (5-HT). After an initial increase in the 5-HT precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan it too decreased with increasing ammonia concentrations. There were also significant increases in the 5-HIAA/5-HT and DOPAC/DA ratios, often used as measures of turnover. There were no changes in epinephrine (Epi) or monoamine catabolites (DOPAC, 5-HIAA) at any ammonia concentrations tested. Results suggest that ammonia causes decreased synthesis while also causing increased release and degradation. Increased release may underlie behavioral reactions to ammonia exposure in fish. This study adds weight to a growing body of evidence demonstrating that ammonia leads to dysfunctional monoaminergic systems in brain which may underlie neurological symptoms associated with human disorders such as hepatic encephalopathy.

  15. Elite synchronized swimmers display decreased energy availability during intensified training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, K; Tiollier, E; Le Meur, Y; Casazza, G; Hausswirth, C

    2017-09-01

    Elite synchronized swimmers follow high-volume training regimen that result in elevated rates of exercise energy expenditure (ExEE). While adequate energy intake (EI) is important to optimize recovery, a number of sport-specific constraints may lead to chronically low energy availability (EA = EI-ExEE). This study aimed to quantify changes in EA, endocrine markers of energy conservation, and perceived fatigue in synchronized swimmers, during a week of baseline training followed by 4 weeks of intensified training (IT). EI, ExEE, and body composition were measured in nine swimmers at Baseline, midpoint (IT WK 2 ), and end of IT (IT WK 4 ). Waking saliva samples were obtained to measure [leptin] s , [ghrelin] s , and [cortisol] s . Fatigue ratings were provided daily. ExEE increased by 27% during IT. Swimmers increased EI from Baseline to IT WK 2 , but decreased it significantly from IT WK 2 to IT WK 4 . EA, fat mass, and [leptin] s decreased from Baseline to IT WK 4 , while [ghrelin] s increased significantly. Fatigue at IT WK 4 was inversely correlated with Baseline EI and EA. The significant decrease in EA was accompanied by endocrine signs of energy conservation in elite swimmers. As perceived fatigue was associated with low EA, particular attention should be paid to these athletes' energy intake during phases of heavy training. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Decreased function of survival motor neuron protein impairs endocytic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadi, Maria; Derdowski, Aaron; Kalloo, Geetika; Maginnis, Melissa S; O'Hern, Patrick; Bliska, Bryn; Sorkaç, Altar; Nguyen, Ken C Q; Cook, Steven J; Poulogiannis, George; Atwood, Walter J; Hall, David H; Hart, Anne C

    2016-07-26

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by depletion of the ubiquitously expressed survival motor neuron (SMN) protein, with 1 in 40 Caucasians being heterozygous for a disease allele. SMN is critical for the assembly of numerous ribonucleoprotein complexes, yet it is still unclear how reduced SMN levels affect motor neuron function. Here, we examined the impact of SMN depletion in Caenorhabditis elegans and found that decreased function of the SMN ortholog SMN-1 perturbed endocytic pathways at motor neuron synapses and in other tissues. Diminished SMN-1 levels caused defects in C. elegans neuromuscular function, and smn-1 genetic interactions were consistent with an endocytic defect. Changes were observed in synaptic endocytic proteins when SMN-1 levels decreased. At the ultrastructural level, defects were observed in endosomal compartments, including significantly fewer docked synaptic vesicles. Finally, endocytosis-dependent infection by JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) was reduced in human cells with decreased SMN levels. Collectively, these results demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that SMN depletion causes defects in endosomal trafficking that impair synaptic function, even in the absence of motor neuron cell death.

  17. Skin surface hydration decreases rapidly during long distance flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéhenneux, Sabine; Gardinier, Sophie; Morizot, Frederique; Le Fur, Isabelle; Tschachler, Erwin

    2012-05-01

    Dehydration of the stratum corneum leads to sensations and symptoms of 'dry skin' such as skin tightness and itchiness. As these complaints are frequently experienced by airline travellers, the aim of this study was to investigate the changes in skin surface hydration during long distance flights. The study was performed on four healthy Caucasian, and on four Japanese women aged 29-39 years, travelling on long distance flights. They had stopped using skin care products at least 12 h before, and did not apply them during the flights. The air temperature and relative humidity inside the cabin, as well as skin capacitance of the face and forearm of participants, were registered at several time points before and during the flights. Relative humidity of the aircraft cabin dropped to levels below 10% within 2 h after take-off and stayed at this value throughout the flight. Skin capacitance decreased rapidly on both the face and forearms with most pronounced changes on the cheeks where it decreased by up to 37%. Our results demonstrate that during long distance flights, the aircraft cabin environment leads to a rapid decrease in stratum corneum hydration, an alteration, which probably accounts for the discomfort experienced by long distance aircraft travellers. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Decreased uptake after fractionated ablative doses of iodine-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hurng-Sheng [Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Department of Surgery, Changhua, Taiwan (Taiwan); Hseu, Huey-Herng [Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Medical Education and Research, Taichung (Taiwan); Lin, Wan-Yu; Wang, Shyh-Jen [Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung, Taiwan (Taiwan); Liu, Yao-Chi [Department of Surgery, General Surgery, National Defense Medical Center, Taipe (Taiwan)

    2005-02-01

    In an attempt to obviate the necessity for hospitalisation, the ablative dose of {sup 131}I in the treatment of thyroid cancer is divided into two or three fractions at weekly intervals in some hospitals with no special bed for {sup 131}I treatment. Thyroid stunning has been observed in patients receiving a {sup 131}I dose between 74 and 370 MBq (2-10 mCi). However, the influence of {sup 131}I uptake after administration of a higher dose, such as 1,110-1,850 MBq of {sup 131}I, has never been reported. In this study, we evaluated the degree of reduction in {sup 131}I uptake after patients received 1,480 MBq of {sup 131}I and evaluated the clinical value of fractionated ablative doses of {sup 131}I. Thirty-five patients with functional thyroid cancer received a total of 4,440 MBq (120 mCi) of {sup 131}I which was divided into three fractions administered at weekly intervals. In all patients two {sup 131}I whole-body scans were performed. The first scan was performed directly prior to the second dose of {sup 131}I (7 days after the first administration of {sup 131}I), and the second scan was performed 7 days after the second administration of {sup 131}I and directly prior to the third administration. Regions of interest including the neck and lungs were drawn to calculate the uptake of {sup 131}I in the thyroid remnant and possible cervical lymph node and lung metastases. The mean uptake of {sup 131}I was 2.73% 7 days after the first administration, and decreased significantly to 0.26% 7 days after the second administration. The mean decrease was as high as 80.7%. The decrease in {sup 131}I uptake was significant in all patients except the two with lung metastases. In the two patients with lung metastases, no definite evidence of decreased uptake was noted; the uptake of {sup 131}I in the lung metastases even increased on the second {sup 131}I image in one of these patients. After administration of 1,480 MBq of {sup 131}I, the decreased uptake was significant in all

  19. Live Cells Decreased Methane Production in Intestinal Content of Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Gong

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro gas production technique was used in this study to elucidate the effect of two strains of active live yeast on methane (CH4 production in the large intestinal content of pigs to provide an insight to whether active live yeast could suppress CH4 production in the hindgut of pigs. Treatments used in this study include blank (no substrate and no live yeast cells, control (no live yeast cells and yeast (YST supplementation groups (supplemented with live yeast cells, YST1 or YST2. The yeast cultures contained 1.8×1010 cells per g, which were added at the rates of 0.2 mg and 0.4 mg per ml of the fermented inoculum. Large intestinal contents were collected from 2 Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire pigs, mixed with a phosphate buffer (1:2, and incubated anaerobically at 39°C for 24 h using 500 mg substrate (dry matter (DM basis. Total gas and CH4 production decreased (p<0.05 with supplementation of yeast. The methane production reduction potential (MRP was calculated by assuming net methane concentration for the control as 100%. The MRP of yeast 2 was more than 25%. Compared with the control group, in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD and total volatile fatty acids (VFA concentration increased (p<0.05 in 0.4 mg/ml YST1 and 0.2 mg/ml YST2 supplementation groups. Proportion of propionate, butyrate and valerate increased (p<0.05, but that of acetate decreased (p<0.05, which led to a decreased (p<0.05 acetate: propionate (A: P ratio in the both YST2 treatments and the 0.4 mg/ml YST 1 supplementation groups. Hydrogen recovery decreased (p<0.05 with yeast supplementation. Quantity of methanogenic archaea per milliliter of inoculum decreased (p<0.05 with yeast supplementation after 24 h of incubation. Our results suggest that live yeast cells suppressed in vitro CH4 production when inoculated into the large intestinal contents of pigs and shifted the fermentation pattern to favor propionate production together with an increased population of acetogenic

  20. Alcoholic Hepatitis Markedly Decreases the Capacity for Urea Synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Glavind

    Full Text Available Data on quantitative metabolic liver functions in the life-threatening disease alcoholic hepatitis are scarce. Urea synthesis is an essential metabolic liver function that plays a key regulatory role in nitrogen homeostasis. The urea synthesis capacity decreases in patients with compromised liver function, whereas it increases in patients with inflammation. Alcoholic hepatitis involves both mechanisms, but how these opposite effects are balanced remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate how alcoholic hepatitis affects the capacity for urea synthesis. We related these findings to another measure of metabolic liver function, the galactose elimination capacity (GEC, as well as to clinical disease severity.We included 20 patients with alcoholic hepatitis and 7 healthy controls. The urea synthesis capacity was quantified by the functional hepatic nitrogen clearance (FHNC, i.e., the slope of the linear relationship between the blood α-amino nitrogen concentration and urea nitrogen synthesis rate during alanine infusion. The GEC was determined using blood concentration decay curves after intravenous bolus injection of galactose. Clinical disease severity was assessed by the Glasgow Alcoholic Hepatitis Score and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD score.The FHNC was markedly decreased in the alcoholic hepatitis patients compared with the healthy controls (7.2±4.9 L/h vs. 37.4±6.8 L/h, P<0.01, and the largest decrease was observed in those with severe alcoholic hepatitis (4.9±3.6 L/h vs. 9.9±4.9 L/h, P<0.05. The GEC was less markedly reduced than the FHNC. A negative correlation was detected between the FHNC and MELD score (rho = -0.49, P<0.05.Alcoholic hepatitis markedly decreases the urea synthesis capacity. This decrease is associated with an increase in clinical disease severity. Thus, the metabolic failure in alcoholic hepatitis prevails such that the liver cannot adequately perform the metabolic up-regulation observed in other stressful

  1. Decreasing size of radiosensitive capsules from micro to nano, and its increased antitumor effect and decreasing adverse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, S.; Ehara, S.; Ishii, K.; Yamazaki, H.; Matsuyama, S.; Sato, Takahiro; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Sera, K.; Saito, Y.

    2012-01-01

    We have been developing microcapsules that release anticancer drug with response to radiation. We attempted to decrease the diameter of capsules. Then, two categories were tested in VIVO in C3He mice: (1) the antitumor effect in combination with radiation and subcutaneously injected nanocapsules, (2) the kidnetics of nanocapsules when they were injected intravenously. Microcapsules were produced by spraying a mixture of 3.0 % hyaluronic acid, 2.0 % alginate, 3.0 % H 2 O 2 , and 0.3 mmol carboplatin (Pt containing anticancer drug) onto a mixture of vibrated 0.3 mol FeCl 2 and 0.15 mol CaCl 2 . The antitumor effect was measured by measuring tumor diameter every day. The kinetics of microcapsules were expressed as the numbers of capsules in 5 views (25 x 25 μm) of micro PIXE camera and Pt concentration of quantiative PIXE. The generated microcapsules 752 ± 64 nm, which were significantly downsized relative to previous capsules. The accumulations of capsules in lungs, liver, and kidneys were decreased by downsizing, whereas those of tumors were increased. By adjusting Pt concentration in tumor, there were no significant differences in antitumor effect between not downsized and downsized microcapsules with combination with radiation. Decreased trapping of downsized microcapsules to lungs, liver, and kidneys, also increased trapping in tumors will lead to new targeted chemoradiotherapy via intravenous injection of microcapsules. (author)

  2. Insulin-induced decrease in protein phosphorylation in rat adipocytes not explained by decreased A-kinase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, J.J.; Greenberg, A.S.; Chang, M.K.; Londos, C.

    1987-01-01

    In isolated rat adipocytes, insulin inhibits lipolysis to a greater extent than would be predicted by the decrease in (-/+)cAMP activity ratio of cAMP-dependent protein kinase [A-kinase], from which it was speculated that insulin promotes the dephosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase. They have examined the phosphorylation state of cellular proteins under conditions of varying A-kinase activities in the presence and absence of insulin. Protein phosphorylation was determined by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis of extracts from 32 P-loaded cells; glycerol and A-kinase activity ratios were measured in the cytosolic extracts from control, non-radioactive cells. Increased protein phosphorylation in general occurred over the same range of A-kinase activity ratios, 0.1-0.3, associated with increased glycerol release. The insulin-induced decrease in lipolysis was associated with a decrease in the 32 P content of several proteins, an effect not explained by the modest reduction in A-kinase activity by insulin. This effect of insulin on protein phosphorylation was lost as the A-kinase activity ratios exceeded 0.5. The results suggest that insulin promotes the dephosphorylation of those adipocyte proteins which are subject to phosphorylation by A-kinase

  3. Praziquantel treatment decreases Schistosoma mansoni genetic diversity in experimental infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Coeli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis has a considerable impact on public health in many tropical and subtropical areas. In the new world, schistosomiasis is caused by the digenetic trematode Schistosoma mansoni. Chemotherapy is the main measure for controlling schistosomiasis, and the current drug of choice for treatment is praziquantel (PZQ. Although PZQ is efficient and safe, its repetitive large-scale use in endemic areas may lead to the selection of resistant strains. Isolates less susceptible to PZQ have been found in the field and selected for in the laboratory. The impact of selecting strains with a decreased susceptibility phenotype on disease dynamics and parasite population genetics is not fully understood. This study addresses the impact of PZQ pressure on the genetics of a laboratory population by analyzing frequency variations of polymorphic genetic markers. METHODOLOGY: Infected mice were treated with increasing PZQ doses until the highest dose of 3 × 300 mg/Kg was reached. The effect of PZQ treatment on the parasite population was assessed using five polymorphic microsatellite markers. Parasitological and genetic data were compared with those of the untreated control. After six parasite generations submitted to treatment, it was possible to obtain a S. mansoni population with decreased susceptibility to PZQ. In our experiments we also observed that female worms were more susceptible to PZQ than male worms. CONCLUSIONS: The selective pressure exerted by PZQ led to decreased genetic variability in S. mansoni and increased endogamy. The understanding of how S. mansoni populations respond to successive drug pressure has important implications on the appearance and maintenance of a PZQ resistance phenotype in endemic regions.

  4. Interleukin-1 Antagonism Decreases Cortisol Levels in Obese Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urwyler, Sandrine Andrea; Schuetz, Philipp; Ebrahimi, Fahim; Donath, Marc Y; Christ-Crain, Mirjam

    2017-05-01

    Increased cortisol levels in obesity may contribute to the associated metabolic syndrome. In obesity, the activated innate immune system leads to increased interleukin (IL)-1β, which is known to stimulate the release of adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH). We hypothesized that in obesity IL-1 antagonism would result in downregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, leading to decreased cortisol levels. In this prospective intervention study, we included 73 patients with obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 kg/m2) and at least one additional feature of the metabolic syndrome. The primary end point was change in morning cortisol from baseline to after the administration of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (anakinra/Kineret®, total dose 3 × 100 mg). Secondary end points were effects on salivary cortisol and ACTH. Median age was 56 years, 50.7% of patients were female, and median BMI was 36.3 kg/m2. Median morning serum cortisol levels (nmol/L) decreased significantly after IL-1 antagonism [from baseline, 452 to 423; absolute difference, -38.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), -64 to -13.4; P = 0.0019]. Similar effects were found for salivary cortisol levels (-2.8; 95% CI, -4.4 to -1.3; P = 0.0007), ACTH levels (-2.2; 95% CI; -4.2 to -0.1; P = 0.038), systolic blood pressure (-5.2, 95% CI, -8.5 to -1.8; P = 0.0006), and heart rate (-2.9; 95% CI, -4.7 to -1.0; P = 0.0029). IL-1 antagonism in obese individuals with features of the metabolic syndrome leads to a decrease in serum cortisol, salivary cortisol, and ACTH levels along with a reduction in systolic blood pressure and heart rate. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  5. Decreased dopamine activity predicts relapse in methamphetamine abusers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang G. J.; Wang, G.-J.; Smith, L.; Volkow, N.D.; Telang, F.; Logan, J.; Tomasi, D.; Wong, C.T.; Hoffman, W.; Jayne, M.; Alia-Klein, N.; Thanos, P.; Fowler, J.S.

    2011-01-20

    Studies in methamphetamine (METH) abusers showed that the decreases in brain dopamine (DA) function might recover with protracted detoxification. However, the extent to which striatal DA function in METH predicts recovery has not been evaluated. Here we assessed whether striatal DA activity in METH abusers is associated with clinical outcomes. Brain DA D2 receptor (D2R) availability was measured with positron emission tomography and [{sup 11}C]raclopride in 16 METH abusers, both after placebo and after challenge with 60 mg oral methylphenidate (MPH) (to measure DA release) to assess whether it predicted clinical outcomes. For this purpose, METH abusers were tested within 6 months of last METH use and then followed up for 9 months of abstinence. In parallel, 15 healthy controls were tested. METH abusers had lower D2R availability in caudate than in controls. Both METH abusers and controls showed decreased striatal D2R availability after MPH and these decreases were smaller in METH than in controls in left putamen. The six METH abusers who relapsed during the follow-up period had lower D2R availability in dorsal striatum than in controls, and had no D2R changes after MPH challenge. The 10 METH abusers who completed detoxification did not differ from controls neither in striatal D2R availability nor in MPH-induced striatal DA changes. These results provide preliminary evidence that low striatal DA function in METH abusers is associated with a greater likelihood of relapse during treatment. Detection of the extent of DA dysfunction may be helpful in predicting therapeutic outcomes.

  6. Decreased dopamine activity predicts relapse in methamphetamine abusers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, G.J.; Smith, L.; Volkow, N.D.; Telang, F.; Logan, J.; Tomasi, D.; Wong, C.T.; Hoffman, W.; Jayne, M.; Alia-Klein, N.; Thanos, P.; Fowler, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Studies in methamphetamine (METH) abusers showed that the decreases in brain dopamine (DA) function might recover with protracted detoxification. However, the extent to which striatal DA function in METH predicts recovery has not been evaluated. Here we assessed whether striatal DA activity in METH abusers is associated with clinical outcomes. Brain DA D2 receptor (D2R) availability was measured with positron emission tomography and ( 11 C)raclopride in 16 METH abusers, both after placebo and after challenge with 60 mg oral methylphenidate (MPH) (to measure DA release) to assess whether it predicted clinical outcomes. For this purpose, METH abusers were tested within 6 months of last METH use and then followed up for 9 months of abstinence. In parallel, 15 healthy controls were tested. METH abusers had lower D2R availability in caudate than in controls. Both METH abusers and controls showed decreased striatal D2R availability after MPH and these decreases were smaller in METH than in controls in left putamen. The six METH abusers who relapsed during the follow-up period had lower D2R availability in dorsal striatum than in controls, and had no D2R changes after MPH challenge. The 10 METH abusers who completed detoxification did not differ from controls neither in striatal D2R availability nor in MPH-induced striatal DA changes. These results provide preliminary evidence that low striatal DA function in METH abusers is associated with a greater likelihood of relapse during treatment. Detection of the extent of DA dysfunction may be helpful in predicting therapeutic outcomes.

  7. Decreased Nocturnal Movements in Patients with Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marca, Giacomo Della; Frusciante, Roberto; Dittoni, Serena; Vollono, Catello; Losurdo, Anna; Testani, Elisa; Scarano, Emanuele; Colicchio, Salvatore; Iannaccone, Elisabetta; Tonali, Pietro A.; Ricci, Enzo

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: Reduced mobility during sleep characterizes a variety of movement disorders and neuromuscular diseases. Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is the third most common form of muscular dystrophy in the general population, and people with FSHD have poor sleep quality. The aims of the present study were to evaluate nocturnal motor activity in patients with FSHD by means of videopolysomnography and to verify whether activity was associated with modifications in sleep structure. Methods: We enrolled 32 adult patients affected by genetically confirmed FSHD (18 women and 14 men, mean age 45.1 ± 13.4 years) and 32 matched control subjects, (18 women and 14 men, mean age 45.5 ± 11.4 years). Major body movements (MBM) were scored in videopolygraphic recordings in accordance with established criteria. An MBM index was calculated (number of MBM per hour of sleep). Results: The FSHD group showed a decrease in the MBM index (FSHD: 1.2 ± 1.1; control subjects: 2.3 ± 1.2, analysis of variance F = 13.672; p = 0.008). The sleep pattern of patients with FSHD, as compared with that of controls, was characterized by longer sleep latencies, shorter sleep durations, an increased percentage of wake during sleep, and a decreased percentage of rapid eye movement sleep. In the patient group, the MBM index was inversely correlated with severity of disease (Spearman test: r30 = −0.387; p Marca GD; Frusciante R; Dittoni S; Vollono C; Losurdo A; Testani E; Scarano E; Colicchio S; Iannaccone E; Tonali PA; Ricci E. Decreased nocturnal movements in patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. J Clin Sleep Med 2010;6(3):276-280. PMID:20572422

  8. Decreased inducibility of TNF expression in lipid-loaded macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallin Bengt

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation and immune responses are considered to be very important in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Lipid accumulation in macrophages of the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis which can influence the inflammatory potential of macrophages. We studied the effects of lipid loading on the regulation of TNF expression in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Results In macrophages incubated with acetylated low density lipoprotein (ac-LDL for 2 days, mRNA expression of TNF in cells stimulated with TNF decreased by 75%. In cell cultures stimulated over night with IL-1β, lipid loading decreased secretion of TNF into culture medium by 48%. These results suggest that lipid accumulation in macrophages makes them less responsive to inflammatory stimuli. Decreased basal activity and inducibility of transcription factor AP-1 was observed in lipid-loaded cells, suggesting a mechanism for the suppression of cytokine expression. NF-κB binding activity and inducibility were only marginally affected by ac-LDL. LDL and ac-LDL did not activate PPARγ. In contrast, oxidized LDL stimulated AP-1 and PPARγ but inhibited NF-κB, indicating that the effects of lipid loading with ac-LDL were not due to oxidation of lipids. Conclusions Accumulation of lipid, mainly cholesterol, results in down-regulation of TNF expression in macrophages. Since monocytes are known to be activated by cell adhesion, these results suggest that foam cells in atherosclerotic plaques may contribute less potently to an inflammatory reaction than newly arrived monocytes/macrophages.

  9. Microbial Biofertilizer Decreases Nicotine Content by Improving Soil Nitrogen Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Cui; Chen, Anwei; Chen, Guiqiu; Li, Huanke; Guan, Song; He, Jianmin

    2017-01-01

    Biofertilizers have been widely used in many countries for their benefit to soil biological and physicochemical properties. A new microbial biofertilizer containing Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Bacillus thuringiensis was prepared to decrease nicotine content in tobacco leaves by regulating soil nitrogen supply. Soil NO 3 - -N, NH 4 + -N, nitrogen supply-related enzyme activities, and nitrogen accumulation in plant leaves throughout the growing period were investigated to explore the mechanism of nicotine reduction. The experimental results indicated that biofertilizer can reduce the nicotine content in tobacco leaves, with a maximum decrement of 16-18 % in mature upper leaves. In the meantime, the total nitrogen in mature lower and middle leaves increased with the application of biofertilizer, while an opposite result was observed in upper leaves. Protein concentration in leaves had similar fluctuation to that of total nitrogen in response to biofertilizer. NO 3 - -N content and nitrate reductase activity in biofertilizer-amended soil increased by 92.3 and 42.2 %, respectively, compared to those in the control, whereas the NH 4 + -N and urease activity decreased by 37.8 and 29.3 %, respectively. Nitrogen uptake was improved in the early growing stage, but this phenomenon was not observed during the late growth period. Nicotine decrease is attributing to the adjustment of biofertilizer in soil nitrogen supply and its uptake in tobacco, which result in changes of nitrogen content as well as its distribution in tobacco leaves. The application of biofertilizer containing P. chrysosporium and B. thuringiensis can reduce the nicotine content and improve tobacco quality, which may provide some useful information for tobacco cultivation.

  10. Decreased Circulating Levels of APRIL: Questioning Its Role in Diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Carvalho-Santos

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that affects over 382 million people worldwide. Type-1 Diabetes (T1D is classified as an autoimmune disease that results from pancreatic β-cell destruction and insulin deficiency. Type-2 Diabetes (T2D is characterized principally by insulin resistance in target tissues followed by decreased insulin production due to β-cell failure. It is challenging to identify immunological markers such as inflammatory molecules that are triggered in response to changes during the pathogenesis of diabetes. APRIL is an important member of the TNF family and has been linked to chronic inflammatory processes of various diseases since its discovery in 1998. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate APRIL serum levels in T1D and T2D. For this, we used the ELISA assay to measure serum APRIL levels of 33 T1D and 30 T2D patients, and non-diabetic subjects as control group. Our data showed a decrease in serum APRIL levels in T1D patients when compared with healthy individuals. The same pattern was observed in the group of T2D patients when compared with the control. The decrease of serum APRIL levels in diabetic patients suggests that this cytokine has a role in T1D and T2D. Diabetes is already considered as an inflammatory condition with different cytokines being implicated in its physiopathology. Our data suggest that APRIL can be considered as a potential modulating cytokine in the inflammatory process of diabetes.

  11. Neonatal morphine enhances nociception and decreases analgesia in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guo Hua; Sweitzer, Sarah M

    2008-03-14

    The recognition of the impact of neonatal pain experience on subsequent sensory processing has led to the increased advocacy for the use of opioids for pain relief in infants. However, following long-term opioid exposure in intensive care units more than 48% of infants exhibited behaviors indicative of opioid abstinence syndrome, a developmentally equivalent set of behaviors to opioid withdrawal as seen in adults. Little is known about the long-term influence of repeated neonatal morphine exposure on nociception and analgesia. To investigate this, we examined mechanical and thermal nociception on postnatal days 11, 13, 15, 19, 24, 29, 39 and 48 following subcutaneous administration of morphine (3 mg/kg) once daily on postnatal days 1-9. The cumulative morphine dose-response was assessed on postnatal days 20 and 49, and stress-induced analgesia was assessed on postnatal days 29 and 49. Both basal mechanical and thermal nociception in neonatal, morphine-exposed rats were significantly lower than those in saline-exposed, handled-control rats and naive rats until P29. A rightward-shift of cumulative dose-response curves for morphine analgesia upon chronic neonatal morphine was observed both on P20 and P49. The swim stress-induced analgesia was significantly decreased in neonatal morphine-exposed rats on P29, but not on P49. These data indicate that morphine exposure equivalent to the third trimester of gestation produced prolonged pain hypersensitivity, decreased morphine antinociception, and decreased stress-induced analgesia. The present study illustrates the need to examine the long-term influence of prenatal morphine exposure on pain and analgesia in the human pediatric population.

  12. Wheel running decreases the positive reinforcing effects of heroin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark A; Pitts, Elizabeth G

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of voluntary wheel running on the positive reinforcing effects of heroin in rats with an established history of drug self-administration. Rats were assigned to sedentary (no wheel) and exercise (wheel) conditions and trained to self-administer cocaine under positive reinforcement contingencies. Rats acquiring cocaine self-administration were then tested with various doses of heroin during daily test sessions. Sedentary rats self-administered more heroin than exercising rats, and this effect was greatest at low and moderate doses of heroin. These data suggest that voluntary wheel running decreases the positive reinforcing effects of heroin.

  13. The readability of scientific texts is decreasing over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Clarity and accuracy of reporting are fundamental to the scientific process. Readability formulas can estimate how difficult a text is to read. Here, in a corpus consisting of 709,577 abstracts published between 1881 and 2015 from 123 scientific journals, we show that the readability of science is steadily decreasing. Our analyses show that this trend is indicative of a growing use of general scientific jargon. These results are concerning for scientists and for the wider public, as they impact both the reproducibility and accessibility of research findings. PMID:28873054

  14. Oxytocin Acting in the Nucleus Accumbens Core Decreases Food Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herisson, F M; Waas, J R; Fredriksson, R; Schiöth, H B; Levine, A S; Olszewski, P K

    2016-04-01

    Central oxytocin (OT) promotes feeding termination in response to homeostatic challenges, such as excessive stomach distension, salt loading and toxicity. OT has also been proposed to affect feeding reward by decreasing the consumption of palatable carbohydrates and sweet tastants. Because the OT receptor (OTR) is expressed in the nucleus accumbens core (AcbC) and shell (AcbSh), a site regulating diverse aspects of eating behaviour, we investigated whether OT acts there to affect appetite in rats. First, we examined whether direct AcbC and AcbSh OT injections affect hunger- and palatability-driven consumption. We found that only AcbC OT infusions decrease deprivation-induced chow intake and reduce the consumption of palatable sucrose and saccharin solutions in nondeprived animals. These effects were abolished by pretreatment with an OTR antagonist, L-368,899, injected in the same site. AcbC OT at an anorexigenic dose did not induce a conditioned taste aversion, which indicates that AcbC OT-driven anorexia is not caused by sickness/malaise. The appetite-specific effect of AcbC OT is supported by the real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of OTR mRNA in the AcbC, which revealed that food deprivation elevates OTR mRNA expression, whereas saccharin solution intake decreases OTR transcript levels. We also used c-Fos immunohistochemistry as a marker of neuronal activation and found that AcbC OT injection increases activation of the AcbC itself, as well as of two feeding-related sites: the hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei. Finally, considering the fact that OT plays a significant role in social behaviour, we examined whether offering animals a meal in a social setting would modify their hypophagic response to AcbC OT injections. We found that a social context abolishes the anorexigenic effects of AcbC OT. We conclude that OT acting via the AcbC decreases food intake driven by hunger and reward in rats offered a meal in a nonsocial setting. © 2016

  15. Intralipid decreases apolipoprotein M levels and insulin sensitivity in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein M (ApoM is a constituent of high-density lipoproteins (HDL. It plays a crucial role in HDL-mediated reverse cholesterol transport. Insulin resistance is associated with decreased ApoM levels. AIMS: To assess the effects of increased free fatty acids (FFAs levels after short-term Intralipid infusion on insulin sensitivity and hepatic ApoM gene expression. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats infused with 20% Intralipid solution for 6 h. Glucose infusion rates (GIR were determined by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp during Intralipid infusion and plasma FFA levels were measured by colorimetry. Rats were sacrificed after Intralipid treatment and livers were sampled. Human embryonic kidney 293T cells were transfected with a lentivirus mediated human apoM overexpression system. Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats were injected with the lentiviral vector and insulin tolerance was assessed. Gene expression was assessed by real-time RT-PCR and PCR array. RESULTS: Intralipid increased FFAs by 17.6 folds and GIR was decreased by 27.1% compared to the control group. ApoM gene expression was decreased by 40.4% after Intralipid infusion. PPARβ/δ expression was not changed by Intralipid. Whereas the mRNA levels of Acaca, Acox1, Akt1, V-raf murine sarcoma 3611 viral oncogene homolog, G6pc, Irs2, Ldlr, Map2k1, pyruvate kinase and RBC were significantly increased in rat liver after Intralipid infusion. The Mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 (MAPK8 was significantly down-regulated in 293T cells overexpressing ApoM. Overexpression of human ApoM in GK rats could enhance the glucose-lowering effect of exogenous insulin. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that Intralipid could decrease hepatic ApoM levels. ApoM overexpression may have a potential role in improving insulin resistance in vivo and modulating apoM expression might be a future therapeutic strategy against insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes.

  16. DecreaseKeys are Expensive for External Memory Priority Queues

    OpenAIRE

    Eenberg, Kasper; Larsen, Kasper Green; Yu, Huacheng

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest open problems in external memory data structures is the priority queue problem with DecreaseKey operations. If only Insert and ExtractMin operations need to be supported, one can design a comparison-based priority queue performing $O((N/B)\\lg_{M/B} N)$ I/Os over a sequence of $N$ operations, where $B$ is the disk block size in number of words and $M$ is the main memory size in number of words. This matches the lower bound for comparison-based sorting and is hence optimal fo...

  17. THE ROLE OF ATYPICAL ANTIPSYCHOTIC DECREASING AGGRESIVENESS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juvita Novia Anggraini Maria

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a psychiatry disorder accompanying by alteration of mind-set, perception,  thought, and behavior. Symptom of schizophrenia can be positive symptom and negative symptom. The positive symptom often became a fear for the others, that is aggresiveness as violance, suicide, ang homicide. Aggresiveness divided in five category, that is impulsivity, affective instability, anxiety/hyperarousal, cognitive disorganization, predatory/planned aggression. Pharmacology theraphy is a choice in decreasing aggresiveness in schizophrenia. Atypical antipsychotic theraphy indicate higher effectivity and fewer side effect than conventional antipsychotic.

  18. Decreased cisplatin uptake by resistant L1210 leukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hromas, R.A.; North, J.A.; Burns, C.P.

    1987-01-01

    Cisplatin resistance remains poorly understood compared to other forms of anti-neoplastic drug resistance. In this report radiolabelled cisplatin and rapid separation techniques were used to compare drug uptake by L1210 leukemia cells that are sensitive (K25) or resistant (SCR9) to cisplatin. Uptake of cisplatin by both cell lines was linear without saturation kinetics up to 100 μM. The resistant ZCR9 cells had 36-60% reduced drug uptake as compared to its sensitive parent line, K25. In contrast, there was no difference in the rate of efflux. We conclude that a decreased rate of uptake is one possible mechanism of cellular cisplatin resistance. (Author)

  19. Decreased 133Xe clearance in the proximal femur in acromegaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapitola, J.; Marek, J.; Jahoda, I.; Vilimovska, D.

    1986-01-01

    Using the 133 Xe tissue clearance method, the blood flow in the greater trochanter of the femur was studied in 30 patients with acromegaly. Both the washout rate constant (k 2 ) and blood flow (P 2 ) values are significantly decreased in acromegaly (p < 0.01). There is a significant negative correlation (r = -0.42, p < 0.05) between the flow values and mean daily concentrations of growth hormone in serum of acromegalic patients. The observation is presented as a preliminary evidence of a possible influence of growth hormone on the blood flow in bone. (author)

  20. Decreasing the stable trapping region during geomagnetic storm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mal'tsev, Yu.P.; Feshchenko, E.Yu.

    1998-01-01

    Within the frameworks of the magnetic field model, depending on the solar wind pressure, the B = B s (B s is the magnetic field in the undersolar point) contour behaviour in the equatorial plane is calculated. The boundary of stable trapping in the quiet time is at the distance of 10-11 R E by day and ∼ 7 R E by night. During strong storms this distance may be decreased up 4-5 R E . The calculation results coincide satisfactorily with satellite measurements

  1. Labour analgesia with intrathecal fentanyl decreases maternal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascio, M; Pygon, B; Bernett, C; Ramanathan, S

    1997-06-01

    Lumbar epidural analgesia (LEA) decreases maternal stress as measured by maternal circulating plasma catecholamine concentrations. Intrathecal fentanyl (ITF) provides effective labour analgesia but its effect on maternal epinephrine (Epi) and norepinephrine (NE) concentrations is not known. This study assesses whether ITF reduces maternal stress in the same manner as conventional LEA. Twenty-four healthy women in active labour received either 25 micrograms ITF (n = 12) or epidural lidocaine 1.5% (n = 12) for analgesia. Venous blood samples were collected before anaesthesia and at five minute intervals for 30 min following anaesthesia for the measurement of plasma Epi and NE by high performance liquid chromatography. Maternal blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), visual analog scores (VAS) to pain and pruritus were recorded at the same time. Both ITF and LEA decreased pain VAS scores, maternal BP, and plasma Epi concentrations with only minimal effects on plasma NE concentrations. Intrathecal fentanyl (ITF) and LEA reduced plasma epi to a similar extent, with ITF reducing the levels slightly faster than LEA. Intrathecal fentanyl(ITF) and LEA reduced plasma Epi concentrations by 52% and 51%, respectively (P value < 0.01). We conclude that ITF is as effective as LEA in producing pain relief in the labouring patient. Intrathecal Fentanyl (ITF) is also capable of reducing maternal plasma epinephrine concentration, thus avoiding the possibly deleterious side effects of excess amounts of this catecholamine during labour.

  2. A proactive outreach intervention that decreases readmission after hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Nisha; Kim, Bradford J; Davis, Catherine H; Dewhurst, Whitney L; Samp, Leigh A; Aloia, Thomas A

    2018-04-01

    After hepatectomy, 7%-19% of patients are readmitted within 30 days, accounting for substantial cost and poor patient experience. The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of a proactive outreach intervention on readmissions. Consecutive patients undergoing hepatectomy by a single surgeon 2012-2016 were identified in a prospectively maintained database. In August 2013 a postoperative intervention was implemented; an advanced practice provider called each patient within 72 hours of discharge. Readmission rates were compared pre- and postintervention using standard statistics. Two hundred thirty-one patients met the inclusion criteria and major hepatectomy was performed in 45.5% of patients. Although the complication rate was similar (25.0% preintervention and 19.4% postintervention, P = .324), readmissions within 30 days of operation decreased from 14.5% pre- to 6.5% postintervention (P = .046). Approximately 30% of outreach interactions required outpatient intervention. Factors associated with readmission on univariate analysis included increased operative time (P = .007), major hepatectomy (P = .012), hemi or extended hepatectomy (P = .032), second stage operation (P = .031), bile leak (P = 0.022), and any complication/modified Accordion complication ≥ 3 within 30 days (P work created by the intervention is likely offset by decreased inpatient care needs and costs. Identification of high-risk populations and application of technology are likely to lead to further improvements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Real-Time Clinical Decision Support Decreases Inappropriate Plasma Transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Neil; Baker, Steven A; Spain, David; Shieh, Lisa; Shepard, John; Hadhazy, Eric; Maggio, Paul; Goodnough, Lawrence T

    2017-08-01

    To curtail inappropriate plasma transfusions, we instituted clinical decision support as an alert upon order entry if the patient's recent international normalized ratio (INR) was 1.7 or less. The alert was suppressed for massive transfusion and within operative or apheresis settings. The plasma order was automatically removed upon alert acceptance while clinical exception reasons allowed for continued transfusion. Alert impact was studied comparing a 7-month control period with a 4-month intervention period. Monthly plasma utilization decreased 17.4%, from a mean ± SD of 3.40 ± 0.48 to 2.82 ± 0.6 plasma units per hundred patient days (95% confidence interval [CI] of difference, -0.1 to 1.3). Plasma transfused below an INR of 1.7 or less decreased from 47.6% to 41.6% (P = .0002; odds ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.69-0.89). The alert recommendation was accepted 33% of the time while clinical exceptions were chosen in the remaining cases (active bleeding, 31%; other clinical indication, 33%; and apheresis, 2%). Alert acceptance rate varied significantly among different provider specialties. Clinical decision support can help curtail inappropriate plasma use but needs to be part of a comprehensive strategy including audit and feedback for comprehensive, long-term changes. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. Decreasing Intestinal Parasites in Recent Northern California Refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alicia H.; Perry, Sharon; Du, Jenny N. T.; Agunbiade, Abdulkareem; Polesky, Andrea; Parsonnet, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Beginning in 2005, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) expanded the overseas presumptive treatment of intestinal parasites with albendazole to include refugees from the Middle East. We surveyed the prevalence of helminths and protozoa in recent Middle Eastern refugees (2008–2010) in comparison with refugees from other geographical regions and from a previous survey (2001–2004) in Santa Clara County, California. Based on stool microscopy, helminth infections decreased, particularly in Middle Eastern refugees (0.1% versus 2.3% 2001–2004, P = 0.01). Among all refugees, Giardia intestinalis was the most common protozoan found. Protozoa infections also decreased somewhat in Middle Eastern refugees (7.2%, 2008–2010 versus 12.9%, 2001–2004, P = 0.08). Serology for Strongyloides stercoralis and Schistosoma spp. identified more infected individuals than stool exams. Helminth infections are increasingly rare in refugees to Northern California. Routine screening stool microscopy may be unnecessary in all refugees. PMID:23149583

  5. Ceruletide decreases food intake in non-obese man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacher, G; Steinringer, H; Schmierer, G; Schneider, C; Winklehner, S

    1982-01-01

    Cholecystokinin decreases food intake in animals and in man. This study investigated whether the structurally related ceruletide reduces food intake in healthy non-obese man. Twelve females and 12 males participated, after an over-night fast, in each of two experiments. During the basal 40 min, saline was infused IV. Thereafter, the infusion was, in random double blind fashion, either continued with saline or switched to 60 or 120 ng/kg b. wt/hr ceruletide. Butter was melted in a pan and scrambled eggs with ham were prepared in front of the subjects, who were instructed to eat, together with bread and mallow tea, as much as they wanted. With 120 ng/kg/hr ceruletide, the subjects ate significantly less (16.8 percent) than with saline (3725 kJ +/- 489 SEM and 4340 kJ +/- 536, respectively; p less than 0.025). They also reported less hunger (p less than 0.005) and activation (p less than 0.005) and activation (p less than 0.01), and had longer reaction times (p less than 0.01) and a weaker psychomotor performance (p less than 0.025). 60 ng/kg/hr ceruletide decreased food intake only slightly (6.6%; 3089 kJ +/- 253 and 3292 kJ +/- 300 respectively) and no significant changes in the above measures occurred. In conclusion, ceruletide reduces food intake in man, thus resembling the effects of cholecystokinin.

  6. Genetically decreased vitamin D and risk of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokry, Lauren E; Ross, Stephanie; Morris, John A; Manousaki, Despoina; Forgetta, Vincenzo; Richards, J Brent

    2016-12-13

    To test whether genetically decreased vitamin D levels are associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) using mendelian randomization (MR), a method that minimizes bias due to confounding or reverse causation. We selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are strongly associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels (p risk from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (N = 17,008 AD cases and 37,154 controls). To produce MR estimates, we weighted the effect of each SNP on AD by its effect on 25OHD and meta-analyzed these estimates using a fixed-effects model to provide a summary effect estimate. The SUNLIGHT Consortium identified 4 SNPs to be genome-wide significant for 25OHD, which described 2.44% of the variance in 25OHD in CaMos. All 4 SNPs map to genes within the vitamin D metabolic pathway. MR analyses demonstrated that a 1-SD decrease in natural log-transformed 25OHD increased AD risk by 25% (odds ratio 1.25, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.51, p = 0.021). After sensitivity analysis in which we removed SNPs possibly influenced by pleiotropy and population stratification, the results were largely unchanged. Our results provide evidence supporting 25OHD as a causal risk factor for AD. These findings provide further rationale to understand the effect of vitamin D supplementation on cognition and AD risk in randomized controlled trials. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  7. Implications of learning theory for developing programs to decrease overeating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutelle, Kerri N; Bouton, Mark E

    2015-10-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with medical and psychological comorbidities, and interventions targeting overeating could be pragmatic and have a significant impact on weight. Calorically dense foods are easily available, variable, and tasty which allows for effective opportunities to learn to associate behaviors and cues in the environment with food through fundamental conditioning processes, resulting in measurable psychological and physiological food cue reactivity in vulnerable children. Basic research suggests that initial learning is difficult to erase, and that it is vulnerable to a number of phenomena that will allow the original learning to re-emerge after it is suppressed or replaced. These processes may help explain why it may be difficult to change food cue reactivity and overeating over the long term. Extinction theory may be used to develop effective cue-exposure treatments to decrease food cue reactivity through inhibitory learning, although these processes are complex and require an integral understanding of the theory and individual differences. Additionally, learning theory can be used to develop other interventions that may prove to be useful. Through an integration of learning theory, basic and translational research, it may be possible to develop interventions that can decrease the urges to overeat, and improve the weight status of children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Decreasing patient identification band errors by standardizing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walley, Susan Chu; Berger, Stephanie; Harris, Yolanda; Gallizzi, Gina; Hayes, Leslie

    2013-04-01

    Patient identification (ID) bands are an essential component in patient ID. Quality improvement methodology has been applied as a model to reduce ID band errors although previous studies have not addressed standardization of ID bands. Our specific aim was to decrease ID band errors by 50% in a 12-month period. The Six Sigma DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, and control) quality improvement model was the framework for this study. ID bands at a tertiary care pediatric hospital were audited from January 2011 to January 2012 with continued audits to June 2012 to confirm the new process was in control. After analysis, the major improvement strategy implemented was standardization of styles of ID bands and labels. Additional interventions included educational initiatives regarding the new ID band processes and disseminating institutional and nursing unit data. A total of 4556 ID bands were audited with a preimprovement ID band error average rate of 9.2%. Significant variation in the ID band process was observed, including styles of ID bands. Interventions were focused on standardization of the ID band and labels. The ID band error rate improved to 5.2% in 9 months (95% confidence interval: 2.5-5.5; P error rates. This decrease in ID band error rates was maintained over the subsequent 8 months.

  9. Plasma klotho levels decrease in both anorexia nervosa and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitani, Marie; Asakawa, Akihiro; Amitani, Haruka; Kaimoto, Kaori; Sameshima, Nanami; Koyama, Ken Ichiro; Haruta, Izumi; Tsai, Minglun; Nakahara, Toshihiro; Ushikai, Miharu; Cheng, Kai-Chun; Hamada, Satoshi; Inui, Akio

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations of klotho with body mass index (BMI) in patients with restricting-type anorexia nervosa (r-AN) and obesity. We examined plasma klotho as well as adiponectin and its isoform levels in comparison in 11 obese patients, 12 r-AN patients, and 11 control participants. Plasma klotho levels were markedly lower in the obesity and r-AN groups than in the control group. Moreover, plasma klotho levels increased significantly after the recovery of BMI in r-AN patients. Total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin levels were significantly decreased only in obesity. There was no relationship between klotho and total adiponectin levels or klotho and respective adiponectin isoform levels in the entire study population. These results suggest that klotho may reflect normal nutritional state, and that the decrease of klotho in r-AN and obesity may underlie the deteriorating processes of these disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The response of clouds and aerosols to cosmic ray decreases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, J.; Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Shaviv, N. J.

    2016-01-01

    A method is developed to rank Forbush Decreases (FDs) in the galactic cosmic ray radiation according to their expected impact on the ionization of the lower atmosphere. Then a Monte Carlo bootstrap based statistical test is formulated to estimate the significance of the apparent response in physi......A method is developed to rank Forbush Decreases (FDs) in the galactic cosmic ray radiation according to their expected impact on the ionization of the lower atmosphere. Then a Monte Carlo bootstrap based statistical test is formulated to estimate the significance of the apparent response...... in physical and micro-physical cloud parameters to FDs. The test is subsequently applied to one ground based and three satellite based datasets. Responses (> 95%) to FDs are found in the following parameters of the analyzed datasets. AERONET: Ångström exponent (cloud condensation nuclei changes), SSM...... with the strength of the FDs, and the signs and magnitudes of the responses agree with model based expectations. The effect is mainly seen in liquid clouds. An impact through changes in UV driven photo chemistry is shown to be negligible and an impact via UV absorption in the stratosphere is found to have no effect...

  11. Projections of increased and decreased dengue incidence under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C R; Mincham, G; Faddy, H; Viennet, E; Ritchie, S A; Harley, D

    2016-10-01

    Dengue is the world's most prevalent mosquito-borne disease, with more than 200 million people each year becoming infected. We used a mechanistic virus transmission model to determine whether climate warming would change dengue transmission in Australia. Using two climate models each with two carbon emission scenarios, we calculated future dengue epidemic potential for the period 2046-2064. Using the ECHAM5 model, decreased dengue transmission was predicted under the A2 carbon emission scenario, whereas some increases are likely under the B1 scenario. Dengue epidemic potential may decrease under climate warming due to mosquito breeding sites becoming drier and mosquito survivorship declining. These results contradict most previous studies that use correlative models to show increased dengue transmission under climate warming. Dengue epidemiology is determined by a complex interplay between climatic, human host, and pathogen factors. It is therefore naive to assume a simple relationship between climate and incidence, and incorrect to state that climate warming will uniformly increase dengue transmission, although in general the health impacts of climate change will be negative.

  12. Decreased stability of DNA in cells treated with alkylating agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankfurt, O.S. (Cedars Medical Center, Miami, FL (United States))

    1990-12-01

    A modified highly sensitive procedure for the evaluation of DNA damage in individual cells treated with alkylating agents is reported. The new methodology is based on the amplification of single-strandedness in alkylated DNA by heating in the presence of Mg{sup 2+}. Human ovarian carcinoma cells A2780 were treated with nitrogen mustard (HN2), fixed in methanol, and stained with monoclonal antibody (MOAB) F7-26 generated against HN2-treated DNA. Binding of MOAB was measured by flow cytometry with indirect immunofluorescence. Intensive binding of MOAB to control and drug-treated cells was observed after heating in Tris buffer supplemented with MgCl{sub 2}. Thus, the presence of phosphates and MgCl{sub 2} during heating was necessary for the detection of HN2-induced changes in DNA stability. Fluorescence of HN2-treated cells decreased to background levels after treatment with single-strand-specific S{sub 1} nuclease. MOAB F7-26 interacted with single-stranded regions in DNA and did not bind to dsDNA or other cellular antigens. It is suggested that alkylation of guanines decreased the stability of the DNA molecule and increased the access of MOAB F7-26 to deoxycytidines on the opposite DNA strand.

  13. Decreased Callosal Thickness in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luders, Eileen; Narr, Katherine L.; Hamilton, Liberty S.; Phillips, Owen R.; Thompson, Paul M.; Valle, Jessica S.; Del'Homme, Melissa; Strickland, Tony; McCracken, James T.; Toga, Arthur W.; Levitt, Jennifer G.

    2009-01-01

    Background Neuroimaging studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have revealed structural abnormalities in the brains of affected individuals. One of the most replicated alterations is a significantly smaller corpus callosum (CC), for which conflicting reports exist with respect to the affected callosal segments. Methods We applied novel surface-based geometrical modeling methods to establish the presence, direction, and exact location of callosal alterations in ADHD at high spatial resolution. For this purpose, we calculated the thickness of the CC at 100 equidistant midsagittal points in an age-matched male sample of 19 individuals with ADHD and 19 typically developing control subjects. Results In close agreement with many prior observations, the CC was shown to be significantly thinner in ADHD subjects in anterior and, particularly, posterior callosal sections. Covarying for intelligence did not significantly alter the observed ADHD effects. However, group differences were no longer present in anterior sections when covarying for brain volume and after excluding ADHD subjects comorbid for oppositional defiant disorder. Conclusions Decreased callosal thickness may be associated with fewer fibers or a decrease in the myelination of fibers connecting the parietal and prefrontal cortices. This might affect interhemispheric communication channels that are necessary to sustain attention or motor control, thus contributing to symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity, or inattention, observed in ADHD. Future studies are necessary to determine whether callosal abnormalities reflect maturational delays or persist into adulthood. PMID:18842255

  14. Decreasing particle number concentrations in a warming atmosphere and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Yu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available New particle formation contributes significantly to the number concentration of condensation nuclei (CN as well as cloud CN (CCN, a key factor determining aerosol indirect radiative forcing of the climate system. Using a physics-based nucleation mechanism that is consistent with a range of field observations of aerosol formation, it is shown that projected increases in global temperatures could significantly inhibit new particle, and CCN, formation rates worldwide. An analysis of CN concentrations observed at four NOAA ESRL/GMD baseline stations since the 1970s and two other sites since 1990s reveals long-term decreasing trends that are consistent in sign with, but are larger in magnitude than, the predicted temperature effects. The possible reasons for larger observed long-term CN reductions at remote sites are discussed. The combined effects of rising temperatures on aerosol nucleation rates and other chemical and microphysical processes may imply substantial decreases in future tropospheric particle abundances associated with global warming, delineating a potentially significant feedback mechanism that increases Earth's climate sensitivity to greenhouse gas emissions. Further research is needed to quantify the magnitude of such a feedback process.

  15. Decrease of non-point zinc runoff using porous concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Shigeki; Komuro, Yoshinori

    2010-01-01

    The use of porous concrete columns to decrease the amount of zinc in stormwater runoff is examined. The concentration of zinc in a simulated stormwater fluid (zinc acetate solution), fed through concrete columns (slashed circle10x10cm) decreased by 50-81%, suggesting physical adsorption of zinc by the porous concrete. We propose the use of porous concrete columns (slashed circle50x10cm) as the base of sewage traps. Longer-term, high-zinc concentration monitoring revealed that porous concrete blocks adsorb 38.6mgcm(-3) of zinc. A period of no significant zinc runoff (with an acceptable concentration of zinc in runoff of 0.03mgL(-1), a zinc concentration equal to the Japanese Environmental Standard) is estimated for 41years using a 1-ha catchment area with 20 porous concrete sewage traps. Scanning electron microscopy of the porous concrete used in this study indicates that the needle-like particles formed by hydration action significantly increase zinc adsorption. Evidence suggests that the hydrant is ettringite and has an important role in zinc adsorption, the resulting immobilization of zinc and the subsequent effects on groundwater quality. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dramatically decreased magnetoresistance in non-stoichiometric WTe2 crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Bin-Bin; Li, Xiao; Pang, Bin; Zhang, Fan; Lin, Da-Jun; Zhou, Jian; Yao, Shu-Hua; Chen, Y B; Zhang, Shan-Tao; Lu, Minghui; Liu, Zhongkai; Chen, Yulin; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2016-05-27

    Recently, the layered semimetal WTe2 has attracted renewed interest owing to the observation of a non-saturating and giant positive magnetoresistance (~10(5)%), which can be useful for magnetic memory and spintronic devices. However, the underlying mechanisms of the giant magnetoresistance are still under hot debate. Herein, we grew the stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric WTe2 crystals to test the robustness of giant magnetoresistance. The stoichiometric WTe2 crystals have magnetoresistance as large as 3100% at 2 K and 9-Tesla magnetic field. However, only 71% and 13% magnetoresistance in the most non-stoichiometry (WTe1.80) and the highest Mo isovalent substitution samples (W0.7Mo0.3Te2) are observed, respectively. Analysis of the magnetic-field dependent magnetoresistance of non-stoichiometric WTe2 crystals substantiates that both the large electron-hole concentration asymmetry and decreased carrier mobility, induced by non-stoichiometry, synergistically lead to the decreased magnetoresistance. This work sheds more light on the origin of giant magnetoresistance observed in WTe2.

  17. Decrease in gamma-band activity tracks sequence learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Radhika; Millman, Daniel; Tang, Hanlin; Crone, Nathan E.; Lenz, Fredrick A.; Tierney, Travis S.; Madsen, Joseph R.; Kreiman, Gabriel; Anderson, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Learning novel sequences constitutes an example of declarative memory formation, involving conscious recall of temporal events. Performance in sequence learning tasks improves with repetition and involves forming temporal associations over scales of seconds to minutes. To further understand the neural circuits underlying declarative sequence learning over trials, we tracked changes in intracranial field potentials (IFPs) recorded from 1142 electrodes implanted throughout temporal and frontal cortical areas in 14 human subjects, while they learned the temporal-order of multiple sequences of images over trials through repeated recall. We observed an increase in power in the gamma frequency band (30–100 Hz) in the recall phase, particularly in areas within the temporal lobe including the parahippocampal gyrus. The degree of this gamma power enhancement decreased over trials with improved sequence recall. Modulation of gamma power was directly correlated with the improvement in recall performance. When presenting new sequences, gamma power was reset to high values and decreased again after learning. These observations suggest that signals in the gamma frequency band may play a more prominent role during the early steps of the learning process rather than during the maintenance of memory traces. PMID:25653598

  18. Decreasing prematurity in twin gestations: predicaments and possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zork, Noelia; Biggio, Joseph; Tita, Alan; Rouse, Dwight; Gyamfi-Bannerman, Cynthia

    2013-08-01

    The twin birth rate has been steadily increasing in the United States over the past 10 years attributable in large part to the increased use of reproductive technologies. Despite advancements in the prevention of preterm labor for singletons, the overall rate of preterm birth has decreased only minimally. Several interventions to prevent preterm birth in twins have been studied, but none has proven effective. Inpatient bedrest has not been shown to be effective and can cause significant maternal morbidity. Although intramuscular 17α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate is effective in decreasing the risk of recurrent preterm delivery in singletons, neither it nor cerclage is effective in twin gestations, even in those with a short cervix. However, small trials, subgroup analyses, and a meta-analysis suggest that vaginal progesterone and the Arabin cervical pessary may reduce rates of preterm birth in twins of mothers with a short cervix. Given the current lack of effective therapies to prevent preterm birth in twins, large multicenter trials are needed to assess the effectiveness of vaginal progesterone and pessary in twins of mothers with a short cervix.

  19. Why does serotonergic activity drastically decrease during REM sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kohji

    2013-10-01

    Here, I postulate two hypotheses that can explain the missing link between sleep and the serotonergic system in terms of spine homeostasis and memory consolidation. As dendritic spines contain many kinds of serotonin receptors, and the activation of serotonin receptors generally increases the number of spines in the cortex and hippocampus, I postulate that serotonin neurons are down-regulated during sleep to decrease spine number, which consequently maintains the total spine number at a constant level. Furthermore, since synaptic consolidation during REM sleep needs long-term potentiation (LTP), and serotonin is reported to inhibit LTP in the cortex, I postulate that serotonergic activity must drastically decrease during REM sleep to induce LTP and do memory consolidation. Until now, why serotonergic neurons show these dramatic changes in the sleep-wake cycle remains unexplained; however, making these hypotheses, I can confer physiological meanings on these dramatic changes of serotonergic neurons in terms of spine homeostasis and memory consolidation. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Recent Decrease in Typhoon Destructive Potential and Global Warming Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I. I.

    2016-02-01

    Despite the severe impact of individual tropical cyclones like Sandy (2012) and Haiyan (2013), global TC activities as a whole have actually dropped considerably since the early 1990's. Especially over the most active and hazardous TC basin on earth, the Western North Pacific (WNP) typhoon Main Development Region (MDR), an evident decrease in TC activity has been observed, as characterised by the drop in the annual Power Dissipation Index (Emanuel 2005). Paradoxically, this decrease occurred despite evident ocean warming, with upper ocean heat content increased by 12% over the western North Pacific MDR (Pun et al. 2013; Lin et al. 2014). This study explores the interesting interplay between atmosphere and ocean on the WNP typhoons. Though ocean may become more favourable (warming) to fuel individual typhoon event through temporal relaxation in the atmosphere condition (e.g. Haiyan in 2013), the overall `worsened' atmospheric condition (e.g. increase in vertical wind shear) can `over-powers' the `better' ocean to suppress the overall WNP typhoon activities. This stronger negative contribution from reduced typhoon frequency over the increased intensity is also present under the global warming scenario, based on analysis of the simulated typhoon data from high-resolution modelling.

  1. Model sensitivity studies of the decrease in atmospheric carbon tetrachloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Chipperfield

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 is an ozone-depleting substance, which is controlled by the Montreal Protocol and for which the atmospheric abundance is decreasing. However, the current observed rate of this decrease is known to be slower than expected based on reported CCl4 emissions and its estimated overall atmospheric lifetime. Here we use a three-dimensional (3-D chemical transport model to investigate the impact on its predicted decay of uncertainties in the rates at which CCl4 is removed from the atmosphere by photolysis, by ocean uptake and by degradation in soils. The largest sink is atmospheric photolysis (74 % of total, but a reported 10 % uncertainty in its combined photolysis cross section and quantum yield has only a modest impact on the modelled rate of CCl4 decay. This is partly due to the limiting effect of the rate of transport of CCl4 from the main tropospheric reservoir to the stratosphere, where photolytic loss occurs. The model suggests large interannual variability in the magnitude of this stratospheric photolysis sink caused by variations in transport. The impact of uncertainty in the minor soil sink (9 % of total is also relatively small. In contrast, the model shows that uncertainty in ocean loss (17 % of total has the largest impact on modelled CCl4 decay due to its sizeable contribution to CCl4 loss and large lifetime uncertainty range (147 to 241 years. With an assumed CCl4 emission rate of 39 Gg year−1, the reference simulation with the best estimate of loss processes still underestimates the observed CCl4 (overestimates the decay over the past 2 decades but to a smaller extent than previous studies. Changes to the rate of CCl4 loss processes, in line with known uncertainties, could bring the model into agreement with in situ surface and remote-sensing measurements, as could an increase in emissions to around 47 Gg year−1. Further progress in constraining the CCl4 budget is partly limited by

  2. Phenylephrine Decreases Vascular Tension in Goat Arteries in Specific Circumstances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu R Raj

    Full Text Available Phenylephrine (PE causes vasoconstriction through alpha adrenergic receptors. PE-induced vasodilatation has also been reported earlier in pre-constricted vessels. Here we demonstrate in spiral strips of goat arteries that addition of PE can decrease tone even from base-line levels (i.e. not pre-constricted and show that this process requires nitric oxide (NO and alpha adrenergic stimulation, but is cGMP-independent. Under control conditions, PE caused vasoconstriction, but under conditions where NO levels are higher, as with L-Arginine or sodium nitroprusside, PE decreased vessel tension. L-Arginine/PE combination was not able to decrease tension when alpha adrenoceptors were blocked with Phentolamine or endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS was blocked with Nω-Nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA. Propranolol, a beta blocker, was unable to prevent the reduction in tension by the L-Arginine/PE combination. Adrenaline and noradrenaline (and not isoproterenol also reduced vessel tension in the presence of L-Arginine. Even when NO levels were not enhanced, relieving NO from having to stimulate the enzyme soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC (either by using sGC blockers, namely ODQ or methylene blue, or by enhancing cGMP levels (with sildenafil which by negative feedback probably inhibits sGC led to PE-induced reduction of vascular tension. PMA-phorbol myristate acetate-an agonist which stimulates Protein Kinase C was able to prevent the ability of PE to reduce vascular tension in a high NO environment. Our conclusion is that PE reduces vascular tension through alpha adrenoceptors if there is excess NO availability to activate a putative pathway. Though the reduction of vessel tone by PE is dependent on NO, it is independent of cGMP. Prior treatment with PMA or PE itself can prevent further PE-induced reduction of tension in a high NO environment. The results here suggest, counter-intuitively, that alpha blockers may be of help in the treatment of septic shock

  3. 4-Aminopyridine Decreases Progesterone Production by Porcine Granulosa Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Brianna M

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ion channels occur as large families of related genes with cell-specific expression patterns. Granulosa cells have been shown to express voltage-gated potassium channels from more than one family. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, an antagonist of KCNA but not KCNQ channels. Methods Granulosa cells were isolated from pig follicles and cultured with 4-AP, alone or in combination with FSH, 8-CPT-cAMP, estradiol 17β, and DIDS. Complimentary experiments determined the effects of 4-AP on the spontaneously established pig granulosa cell line PGC-2. Granulosa cell or PGC-2 function was assessed by radio-immunoassay of media progesterone accumulation. Cell viability was assessed by trypan blue exclusion. Drug-induced changes in cell membrane potential and intracellular potassium concentration were documented by spectrophotometric determination of DiBAC4(3 and PBFI fluorescence, respectively. Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR was assessed by immunoblotting. Flow cytometry was also used to examine granulosa cell viability and size. Results 4-AP (2 mM decreased progesterone accumulation in the media of serum-supplemented and serum-free granulosa cultures, but inhibited cell proliferation only under serum-free conditions. 4-AP decreased the expression of StAR, the production of cAMP and the synthesis of estradiol by PGC-2. Addition of either 8-CPT-cAMP or estradiol 17β to serum-supplemented primary cultures reduced the inhibitory effects of 4-AP. 4-AP treatment was also associated with increased cell size, increased intracellular potassium concentration, and hyperpolarization of resting membrane potential. The drug-induced hyperpolarization of resting membrane potential was prevented either by decreasing extracellular chloride or by adding DIDS to the media. DIDS also prevented 4-AP inhibition of progesterone production

  4. Global Lightning Response to Forbush Decreases in Short-term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Wu, Q.; Wang, C.

    2017-12-01

    During the past three decades, particular scientific attention has been drawn to the potential link between solar activities and global climate change. How the sun modulates the climate has always been controversial. There are three relatively widely accepted mechanisms illustrating this process: the total solar irradiance (TSI), the solar ultraviolet radiation (SUR), and the space weather mechanisms. As for space weather mechanism, the sun influences the microphysical process in cloud by modulating the cosmic ray flux and thus changes the cloud cover, which finally affects the earth's radiation balance. Unfortunately, the lack of related observations and some opposite research results make this mechanism rather debatable. In order to provide possible evidence for space weather mechanism, we study the influence of Forbush decreases (FDs) of galactic cosmic ray on global lightning activities, which to some extent represents the basic process of cosmic ray-atmospheric coupling. We use the daily lightning counts from 1998 to 2014 observed by LIS sensor aboard the TRMM satellite. Considering the "diurnal distribution" (occurring more in the afternoon than in the morning) and the "seasonal distribution" (occurring more in summer than in winter) of lightning activities as well as the 49-day precession of TRMM satellite, the daily lightning counts show an intricate periodic fluctuation. We propose a 3-step approach - latitude zone limitation, orbit branch selection and local time normalization - to eliminate it. As for FDs, we select them by checking the hourly neutron counts variation of each month of 17 years obtained from the Oulu Cosmic Ray Station. During the selection, we choose the FDs which are "strong" (decrease more than 6%) and "standard" (strongly decrease in a few hours to one day and gradually recover in about one week) to diminish the meteorological influence and other possible disturbance. For both case study and temporal superposition of several cases

  5. Decreased myocardial 123I-MIBF uptake in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasa, K.; Takamori, M.; Nakajima, K.; Taki, J.; Yoshikawa, H.; Tada, A.

    1998-01-01

    We studied myocardial 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) accumulation in 12 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). MIBG is an analog of norepinephrine (NE) and a tracer for sympathetic neuron integrity and function. MIBG uptake of the myocardium was significantly lower in PD than in controls. The heart to mediastinum ratio (H/M) was calculated by using the average count per pixel for the heart and mediastinum. In PD, H/M was lower than in controls (P<0.0001), while the washout ratio of the heart was higher (P<0.001). A decrease in myocardial accumulation of MIBG was observed in the early stage of PD. This suggests that the measurement of MIBF may help the diagnosis of early PD, and the causative factor underlying in PD may be operating the NE neuron as well as dopamine neuron. (au)

  6. Earnings management to avoid earnings decreases and losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøler, Finn

    2005-01-01

    This study focuses on earnings management by investigating the frequency distribution of the reported earnings (changes) by use of the approach documented by Burgstahler & Dichev (1997). In this study, it is investigated whether Danish firms use earnings management to avoid earnings decreases (an...... losses); and second: firm managers control "manageable" accounting accruals in anticipation of managing earnings....... losses) by examining the earnings (changes) frequency distribution. This approach captures neither the magnitude nor how earnings are managed. Consequently, the relation between main "manageable" elements of working capital, current assets (among these the key components inventory and accounts receivable......) and current liabilities, and reported earnings (changes) are examined. To address the problem further the modified Jones (1991) model is used to identify and separate discretionary accruals in order to identify pre-managed earnings (changes). The frequency distribution of these calculated premanaged earnings...

  7. Assessment of health impacts of decreased smoking prevalence in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Robinson, Kirstine Magtengaard

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is among the leading risk factors for chronic disease and early death in developed countries, including Denmark, where smoking causes 14% of the disease burden. In Denmark, many public health interventions, including smoking prevention, are undertaken by the municipalities......, but models to estimate potential health effects of local interventions are lacking. The aim of the current study was to model the effects of decreased smoking prevalence in Copenhagen, Denmark. Methods: The DYNAMO-HIA model was applied to the population of Copenhagen, by using health survey data and data......, and cessation and re-initiation rates among adults, which reduced the smoking prevalence to 4% by 2025, would have large beneficial effects on incidence and prevalence of smoking-related diseases and mortality. Health benefits could also be obtained through interventions targeting only cessation or re...

  8. Wet-cupping removes oxidants and decreases oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagil, Suleyman Murat; Celik, Huseyin Tugrul; Ciftci, Sefa; Kazanci, Fatmanur Hacievliyagil; Arslan, Muzeyyen; Erdamar, Nazan; Kesik, Yunus; Erdamar, Husamettin; Dane, Senol

    2014-12-01

    Wet-cupping therapy is one of the oldest known medical techniques. Although it is widely used in various conditions such as acute\\chronic inflammation, infectious diseases, and immune system disorders, its mechanism of action is not fully known. In this study, we investigated the oxidative status as the first step to elucidate possible mechanisms of action of wet cupping. Wet cupping therapy is implemented to 31 healthy volunteers. Venous blood samples and Wet cupping blood samples were taken concurrently. Serum nitricoxide, malondialdehyde levels and activity of superoxide dismutase and myeloperoxidase were measured spectrophotometrically. Wet cupping blood had higher activity of myeloperoxidase, lower activity of superoxide dismutase, higher levels of malondialdehyde and nitricoxide compared to the venous blood. Wet cupping removes oxidants and decreases oxidative stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cooking does not decrease hydrophilic antioxidant capacity of wild blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Rebecca Ree; Renfroe, Michael H; Brevard, Patricia Bowling; Lee, Robert E; Gloeckner, Janet W

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of domestic cooking methods on the hydrophilic antioxidant activity (HAA) of wild blueberries. Baked, microwaved, simmered, and pan-fried frozen wild blueberries, and a thawed uncooked control, were analyzed for HAA using an ABTS/H(2)O(2)/HRP decoloration method. All cooking treatments were derived from recipes using wild blueberries, and were performed in triplicate. A randomized block design was used to determine whether there were statistical differences in antioxidant content after cooking and between each of the trials. There were no statistically significant decreases after cooking the thawed berries. On both a fresh weight and a dry weight basis, pan-fried blueberries had significantly higher HAA than baked, simmered, and control blueberries (Pcooked berries retained significant HAA. Cooked wild blueberries can be recommended as a good source of dietary antioxidants.

  10. Decrease of total antioxidant capacity during coronary artery bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunt, Alper Sami; Selek, Sahbettin; Celik, Hakim; Demir, Deniz; Erel, Ozcan; Andac, Mehmet Halit

    2006-09-01

    Cardiac surgery induces an oxidative stress, which may lead to impairment of cardiac function. In this study, we aimed to measure the changes of oxidative and antioxidative status of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). We studied 79 patients who underwent CABG with and without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Of the 79 patients, 39 had CPB and 40 did not. Blood samples were drawn before, during, and after the surgery. Antioxidant status was evaluated by measuring total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and oxidative status was evaluated by measuring total peroxide (TP) levels and oxidative stress index (OSI). TP and OSI levels increased, while TAC decreased progressively after the beginning of surgery, for all patients. There were negative correlations between TAC levels and aortic cross-clamping period and anastomosis time ( r = -0.553, p antioxidant vitamins such as vitamins C and E may be beneficial for patients undergoing CABG.

  11. Albedo decreasing trend. White cars proposal and new urban scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niccolò Casiddu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Global warming caused the decrease of the albedo. Emission reduction is the most widely proposed response to this problem. However simple ideas such as cool roofs and cool pavements seem successful remedies to counter the threat. However in Italy another strategy appears more effective. By changing from dark to pastel bright automotive colours a considerable increase of the albedo can be hypothesized: the effect should be from 32% to 50% of the results obtained with an extensive application of the “cool roofs” strategy. Such a proposal involves the creation of new, unexpected cityscapes. The city is a place where the perception of space changes. The car, by definition is an object in motion, but still present, sometimes redundant in the urban landscape. What will be the perceived relationship with buildings, streets, squares where the cars are all white or pastel colour?

  12. Eutrophication decrease: Phosphate adsorption processes in presence of nitrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeykens, Susana P; Piol, M Natalia; Samudio Legal, Lisa; Saralegui, Andrea B; Vázquez, Cristina

    2017-12-01

    Eutrophication causes aquatic environment degradation as well as serious problems for different purposes of water uses. Phosphorus and nitrogen, mainly as phosphate and nitrate respectively, are considered responsible for eutrophication degradation. The focus of this work was the study of adsorption processes for decreasing phosphate and nitrate concentrations in bi-component aqueous systems. Dolomite and hydroxyapatite were selected as low-cost adsorbents. Obtained results showed that both adsorbents have high capacity for phosphate adsorption which the presence of nitrate does not modify. Hydroxyapatite proved to be the most efficient adsorbent, however, it showed a low percentage of desorption and few possibilities of reuse. Dolomite, on the other hand, allows a desorption of the adsorbed material that favours its reuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Testosterone therapy decreases subcutaneous fat and adiponectin in aging men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, L.; Højlund, K.; Hougaard, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Testosterone therapy increases lean body mass and decreases total fat mass in aging men with low normal testosterone levels. The major challenge is, however, to determine whether the metabolic consequences of testosterone therapy are overall positive. We have previously reported that 6......-month testosterone therapy did not improve insulin sensitivity. We investigated the effect of testosterone therapy on regional body fat distribution and on the levels of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine, adiponectin, in aging men with low normal bioavailable testosterone levels. DESIGN: A randomized......, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study on 6-month testosterone treatment (gel) in 38 men, aged 60–78 years, with bioavailable testosterone 94 cm. METHODS: Central fat mass (CFM) and lower extremity fat mass (LEFM) were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT...

  14. Vacuum heating evaluation for plasmas of exponentially decreasing density profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestehe, S.J.; Mohammadnejad, M.

    2008-01-01

    Ultra-short pulse lasers have opened a regime of laser-plasma interaction where plasmas have scale lengths shorter than the laser wavelength and allow the possibility of generating near-solid density plasmas. The interaction of high-intensity laser beams with sharply bounded high-density and small scale length plasmas is considered. Absorption of the laser energy associated with the mechanism of dragging electrons out of the plasma into the vacuum and sending them back into the plasma with the electric field component along the density gradient, so called vacuum heating, is studied. An exponentially decreasing electron density profile is assumed. The vector potential of the electromagnetic field propagating through the plasma is calculated and the behaviour of the electric and magnetic components of the electromagnetic field is studied. The fraction of laser power absorbed in this process is calculated and plotted versus the laser beam incidence angle, illumination energy, and the plasma scale length

  15. Laboratory test of source encapsulation for decreasing PCB concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Barbara; Andersen, Helle Vibeke; Markowicz, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of encapsulation of tertiary PCB sources with PERMASORB™ Adsorber Wallpaper and the surface emissions trap (cTrap) on indoor air concentration of PCBs and on the PCB content in the source. The 40 weeks long laboratory investigation shows reduction of the air...... concentration by approx. 90% for both wallpapers, a level comparable to source removal. The potential for extraction of PCBs from the contaminated materials stays unclear for both wallpapers. The cTrap has shown potential to accumulate PCBs, however the total content of PCB in investigated sources has...... apparently increased. The opposite was observed for the PERMASORB™, where the total PCB content in the sources has decreased, with however only small concentration of PCBs in the wallpaper measured at the end of the experiment....

  16. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi decrease radiocesium accumulation in Medicago truncatula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyuricza, Veronika; Declerck, Stephane; Dupre de Boulois, Herve

    2010-01-01

    The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in plant radiocesium uptake and accumulation remains ambiguous. This is probably due to the presence of other soil microorganisms, the variability of soil characteristics and plant nutritional status or the availability of its chemical analogue, potassium (K). Here, we used an in vitro culture system to study the impact of increased concentration of K on radiocesium accumulation in non K-starved mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Medicago truncatula plants. In the presence of AMF radiocesium uptake decreased regardless of the concentration of K, and its translocation from root to shoot was also significantly lower. Potassium also reduced the accumulation of radiocesium in plants but to a lesser extent than mycorrhization, and without any effect on translocation. These results suggest that AMF in combination with K can play a key role in reducing radiocesium uptake and its subsequent translocation to plant shoots, thereby representing good potential for improved phytomanagement of contaminated areas.

  17. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi decrease radiocesium accumulation in Medicago truncatula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyuricza, Veronika; Declerck, Stephane [Universite catholique de Louvain, Earth and Life Institute (ELI), Laboratoire de Mycologie, Croix du Sud 3, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Dupre de Boulois, Herve, E-mail: herve.dupre@uclouvain.b [Universite catholique de Louvain, Earth and Life Institute (ELI), Laboratoire de Mycologie, Croix du Sud 3, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2010-08-15

    The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in plant radiocesium uptake and accumulation remains ambiguous. This is probably due to the presence of other soil microorganisms, the variability of soil characteristics and plant nutritional status or the availability of its chemical analogue, potassium (K). Here, we used an in vitro culture system to study the impact of increased concentration of K on radiocesium accumulation in non K-starved mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Medicago truncatula plants. In the presence of AMF radiocesium uptake decreased regardless of the concentration of K, and its translocation from root to shoot was also significantly lower. Potassium also reduced the accumulation of radiocesium in plants but to a lesser extent than mycorrhization, and without any effect on translocation. These results suggest that AMF in combination with K can play a key role in reducing radiocesium uptake and its subsequent translocation to plant shoots, thereby representing good potential for improved phytomanagement of contaminated areas.

  18. Mineral water 222 Rn activity decrease due to consumption habits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cipriani, Moacir; Taddei, Maria Helena Tirollo; Silva, Nivaldo Carlos da

    2001-01-01

    Mineral waters from the Pocos de Caldas Plateau springs, an elevated region with high natural radioactivity, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, have significant 222 Rn concentration on site. The highest concentration in the waters are from: Fonte Villela - Aguas da Prata (∼ 1000 Bql -1 ); Fonte Grande Hotel - Pocinhos do Rio Verde (∼ 400 Brq -1 ) and Fonte CNEN Lab - Pocos de Caldas (∼ 290 Bql -1 ). These waters are used by the population as drinking water and due to consumption habits, can lead to internal doses above accepted limits for the public. This work deals with the decrease of 222 Rn activity in mineral waters fro two different popular consumption habits, and with the adult effective dose equivalent reduction due to water consumption habits. It has been found that the estimated dose based on the biokinetic Crawford-Brown model, can be one fourth of dose based on 222 Rn activity on site. (author)

  19. Glucocorticosteroids associated with a decreased risk of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laan, Wijnand; Smeets, Hugo; de Wit, Niek J; Kahn, René S; Grobbee, Diederick E; Burger, Huibert

    2009-06-01

    The hypothesis that chronic inflammation may play a role in psychosis receives increasing attention. In this study, we aim to investigate whether the use of steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is associated with a decreased risk of psychosis.A longitudinal nested case-control study was performed investigating the association of glucocorticosteroid (GCS) consumption with a new diagnosis of a psychotic disorder. Significantly reduced odds ratios of 0.52 (95% confidence interval, 0.36-0.75) were found for GCS in men only (odds ratio in women, 0.84 [95% confidence interval, 0.590-1.20]). Similar risk reductions were present for the inhaled and systemic GCSs. A dose-response relationship was present. Our finding of an inverse relation between GCS consumption and new psychotic episodes may promote further research into inflammation in schizophrenia.

  20. Specialization of mutualistic interaction networks decreases toward tropical latitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleuning, M.; Fründ, J.; Klein, A.-M.

    2012-01-01

    that current conditions have a stronger effect on biotic specialization than historical community stability. Biotic specialization decreased with increasing local and regional plant diversity. This suggests that high specialization of mutualistic interactions is a response of pollinators and seed dispersers......] or differences in plant diversity [10, 11]. Thus, the direction of the latitudinal specialization gradient remains contentious. With an unprecedented global data set, we investigated how biotic specialization between plants and animal pollinators or seed dispersers is associated with latitude, past...... and contemporary climate, and plant diversity. We show that in contrast to expectation, biotic specialization of mutualistic networks is significantly lower at tropical than at temperate latitudes. Specialization was more closely related to contemporary climate than to past climate stability, suggesting...

  1. Decreasing burned children's pain behavior: impacting the trauma of hydrotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, M L; Jarvie, G J; Middlebrook, J L; McNeer, M F; Drabman, R S

    1984-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of cartoon viewing with the use of a star feedback chart on two burned children's pain behavior during their physical therapy sessions. In addition, the degree to which the observational data corresponded with physical therapists' and mothers' ratings of the children's pain, fear, and cooperativeness was examined. Using a reversal single-subject design, the results showed that the children's pain behavior substantially decreased during experimental treatment sessions compared to their baseline levels. The rating scale data indicated that the physical therapist's and mother's rating of pain, anxiety, and cooperativeness were all correlated significantly with the observational data (p less than .05). The contributions of respondent and operant conditioning to the occurrence and treatment of pain behavior in burned children are discussed. PMID:6735948

  2. Decreased Self-Concept Clarity in People with Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, David C.; Martin, Elizabeth A; Becker, Theresa M.; Kerns, John G.

    2015-01-01

    Disturbances in the perception of self are thought to be central to the development of psychosis. Self-concept clarity (SCC) is the extent to which one’s beliefs about oneself are internally consistent, stable, and clear. Participants with schizophrenia (N = 54) and healthy controls (N = 32) completed the Me Not-Me Decision Task (MNMDT), in which they decided whether 60 adjectives (30 pairs of antonyms), did or did not describe themselves. SCC is conceptualized as the number of consistent responses. Participants also completed the Self-Concept Clarity Scale (SCCS). Compared to healthy controls, participants with schizophrenia scored lower on the MNMDT and SCCS, and scores were negatively correlated with positive and negative symptoms. In a simultaneous regression, SCCS scores were uniquely associated with positive symptoms, while MNMDT scores were uniquely associated with negative symptoms. This suggests that people with schizophrenia have decreased self-concept claritythat is related to positive and negative symptoms. PMID:26669980

  3. Decreased shoulder function and pain common in recreational badminton players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlström, M; Söderman, K

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and consequences of painful conditions in the shoulder region in recreational badminton players. A questionnaire study was performed on 99 players, of whom 57 were also assessed with Constant score. Previous or present pain in the dominant shoulder was reported by 52% of the players. Sixteen percent of the players had on-going shoulder pain associated with badminton play. A majority of these players reported that their training habits were affected by the pain. Total Constant score was lower in the painful shoulders. Furthermore, range of active pain-free shoulder abduction was decreased. However, isometric shoulder strength test showed no differences when compared with pain-free shoulders. Even though the pain caused functional problems, the players were still playing with on-going symptoms. The diagnoses were mostly unknown, although history and clinical tests indicate problems resembling subacromial impingement.

  4. Decrease in artificial tanning by French teenagers: 2011-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Say, Matthieu; Beauchet, Alain; Vouldoukis, Ioannis; Beauchet, Pascale; Boudet, Monique; Tella, Emilie; Mahé, Emmanuel

    2018-03-13

    The major risk factor for skin cancers is exposure to solar and artificial ultraviolet radiation, in particular during childhood and adolescence. In France, a law was restricted for tanning-bed access to adults (≥18 years) since 1997. To evaluate teenagers' artificial tanning behaviour in 2016 and to compare results with those obtained in a similar survey performed in 2011. The SOLADO 2011 and 2016 surveys were conducted in a general school in Antony and a technical school in Fontenay-aux-Roses (Paris suburb). In 2016, 630 teenagers (mean age: 14.2 ± 1.9 y: Males/Females: 301/329) completed the questionnaire, 1.3% of teenagers reported using tanning beds, 1.1% tanning pills and 8.9% tanning creams. Between 2011 and 2016, the use of tanning beds decreased from 1.4% to 0.7% in Antony (P = .26) and from 9.5% to 4.8% in Fontenay-aux-Roses (P = .01), and the use of tanning creams from 39.8% to 17.6% in Fontenay-aux-Rose (P = .0007). The incidence of sunburn decreased from 60.5% to 54.0% in Antony (P = .02) and from 55.4% to 42.4% in Fontenay-aux-Roses (P = .05). As compared to 2011, teenagers used artificial tanning methods less frequently in 2016. In particular, they used tanning beds less frequently, suggesting that the new stricter legislation has been effective. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Decreased prostacyclin production in the infant of the diabetic mother

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, M.J.; Sunderji, S.G.; Allen, J.B.

    1981-01-01

    Maternal diabetes mellitus is recognized to be a predisposing factor to thrombosis in the neonate. In the adult with diabetes, abnormalities in the metabolism of AA by the platelet and vessel wall occur, which result in an increase in proaggregatory platelet thromboxane A2. A decrease in antiaggregatory vascular PGI2 has been demonstrated in the diabetic rat, although conclusive proof of a similar abnormality is lacking in humans. We evaluated vascular AA metabolism in 10 IDM (groups II and III comparison to 20 control neonates of gestational ages 32 to 40 weeks (group I). Mean uptakes of labeled AA into vascular tissue of both controls and IDM were similar. The conversion of [14C] AA to 6-keto-PGF1 alpha was not dependent on gestational age (r . 0.223) in the control neonates, with a mean value of 5.2% +- 1.3 (1 S.D.). A marked decrease (p less than 0.001) in 6-keto-PGF1 alpha formation to 1.7% +- 0.3 was found in the group II IDM of mothers with poor diabetic control (HbA1c . 9.3% +- 0.5). In the group III neonates whose mothers had normal HBA1c levels (6.1% +- 0.9), 6-keto-PGF1 alpha production was normal at 4.9% +- 0.8. Although no correlation between maternal fasting blood glucose and neonatal 6-keto-PGF1 alpha was demonstrable, a significant inverse correlation (r . 0.872; p less than 0.02) was observed between maternal HbA1c levels and the conversion of AA to 6-keto-PGF1 alpha in the vascular tissues of the IDM. It appear possible that abnormalities in platelet-vascular AA metabolism may play an etiologic role in the vascular complications present in some IDM

  6. Protease-resistant prions selectively decrease Shadoo protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel C Watts

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The central event in prion diseases is the conformational conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C into PrP(Sc, a partially protease-resistant and infectious conformer. However, the mechanism by which PrP(Sc causes neuronal dysfunction remains poorly understood. Levels of Shadoo (Sho, a protein that resembles the flexibly disordered N-terminal domain of PrP(C, were found to be reduced in the brains of mice infected with the RML strain of prions [1], implying that Sho levels may reflect the presence of PrP(Sc in the brain. To test this hypothesis, we examined levels of Sho during prion infection using a variety of experimental systems. Sho protein levels were decreased in the brains of mice, hamsters, voles, and sheep infected with different natural and experimental prion strains. Furthermore, Sho levels were decreased in the brains of prion-infected, transgenic mice overexpressing Sho and in infected neuroblastoma cells. Time-course experiments revealed that Sho levels were inversely proportional to levels of protease-resistant PrP(Sc. Membrane anchoring and the N-terminal domain of PrP both influenced the inverse relationship between Sho and PrP(Sc. Although increased Sho levels had no discernible effect on prion replication in mice, we conclude that Sho is the first non-PrP marker specific for prion disease. Additional studies using this paradigm may provide insight into the cellular pathways and systems subverted by PrP(Sc during prion disease.

  7. Emissions of peat production into watercourses are decreasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The emissions of peat production into watercourses are tried to be decreased by chemical addition into drying waters of peat production area. In the chemical adding test, which is a part of the Aqua Peat-95 research program, carried out in Haapasuo peat production area in Leivonmaeki commune, was used techniques commonly used in purification of drinking water. The method is based on precipitation of dissolved substances from mire water using ferric sulphate, and settling of formed precipitate in multi-stage settling pond system. The ferric sulphate decreases the pH of the water by 2.0-2.5 units, so the acidified water is neutralized with sodium hydroxide before leading into watercourses. In Haapavesi the drying water is pumped from the collecting pond, built in main ditch, via chemical adding station into settling pond, from which the water flows into compartment ponds and from there into lake Rutajaervi. The ferric sulphate is added into water in sewage pipe, mounted after the pumping station, there it is mixed well into water coming from the mire due to strong and turbulent flow. The chemical adding test was started in 26th of may. The concentrations of the chemicals were varied during the test in order to find the optimal dosage, the pond volume and the delay of water in the ponds have been increased, the pump power has been adjusted and the mixing of the chemicals have been improved in order to achieve the right efficiency. The price of the chemical adding is not yet available, but the chemical costs in Haapasuo mire in 1992 were about 0.30 FIM/pumped water m 3 , which equals to about 500 FIM/d. The equipment costs and the utilization and maintenance costs of the equipment must be added into this

  8. Decreased coronary reserve in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Ryutaro

    1987-01-01

    To assess coronary flow reserve in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), split dose thallium-201 dipyridamole (DP) myocardial scintigraphy was performed. Subjects included 30 HCM patients with asymmetric septal hypertrophy and normal coronary angiogram, 10 hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (posterior wall thickness ≥ 15 mm) and 13 healthy controls. Coronary reserve index (CRI) was calculated as a ratio of myocardial thallium uptake after dipyridamole (0.5 mg/kg) to the baseline value. HCM patients showed a significantly lower CRI (177 %) as compared with controls (281 %) or hypertensive patients (214 %), and 17 of them had abnormally decreased CRI below the normal range (mean-2SD of controls). These HCM patients with abnormal CRI showed significantly more frequent family histrory of HCM (71 vs 31 %), and a greater degree of systolic narrowing of the septal perforator as compared with those normal CRI. Maximal work loads were significantly lower (82 vs 106 watts) in those with abnormal CRI, 31 % developed ST depression at 80 watts. However, patients with abnormal CRI did not differ from those with normal CRI in septal and posterior wall thickness, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, and in the degree of systolic narrowing of the left anterior descending artery. In the segmental CRI analysis, 13 HCM patients showed abnormal CRI in the septal and/or apical segments, while 8 patients presented diffuse CRI decrease, including the non-hypertrophied posterior segment. These findings indicate that 57 % of HCM patients have impaired coronary vasodilatory reserve, which may not only be a consequence of left ventricular hypertrophy, elevated left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, and systolic narrowing of the coronary artery, but may be related to small vessel coronary disease. (J.P.N.)

  9. Amylose content decreases during tuber development in potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansky, Shelley; Fajardo, Diego

    2016-10-01

    Potato starch is composed primarily of amylopectin and amylose in an approximately 3:1 ratio. Amylose is considered to be nutritionally desirable in North American and European markets, so there is interest in finding strategies to increase the amylose content of potato starch. There is also interest in marketing 'baby' potatoes, which are harvested when they are physiologically immature. This study was carried out to determine weekly changes in amylose content in potato tubers of 11 North American cultivars during the growing season. The trial was repeated across 3 years. We determined that amylose content is highest early and it decreases in a linear fashion as the growing season progresses. Mean amylose content across cultivars and years declined from 30.0% in late June to 26.8% in late August. The rate of decrease varied across years, with slopes of linear regression plots ranging from -0.17 in 2012 to -0.74 in 2011. Amylose content in tuber starch varied among cultivars, with the highest levels observed in Ranger Russet (30.7%) and White Pearl (31.6%); it was lowest in Kennebec (25.7%) and Langlade (25.6%). This study adds to a growing body of literature on the nutritional value of immature potato tubers. In addition to having higher levels of some phytonutrients, as reported in other studies, immature tubers have a higher proportion of amylose in the starch. This is nutritionally desirable in affluent regions where high fiber content is more important than calories from carbohydrates. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Intravenous Tranexamic Acid Decreases Allogeneic Transfusion Requirements in Periacetabular Osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Andrew J; Sanders, Thomas L; Trousdale, Robert T; Sierra, Rafael J

    2016-01-01

    Bernese (Ganz) periacetabular osteotomy is associated with significant blood loss and the need for perioperative transfusion. Tranexamic acid decreases blood loss and minimizes transfusion rates in total joint arthroplasty. However, no reports have described its use in patients undergoing Bernese periacetabular osteotomy. This study reports the use of intravenous tranexamic acid in these patients. The study included 137 patients (150 hips) who underwent isolated periacetabular osteotomy at a single institution between 2003 and 2014. Of these, 68 patients (75 hips) received intravenous tranexamic acid 1 g at the time of incision and 1 g at the time of closure. A group of 69 patients (75 hips) served as control subjects who underwent periacetabular osteotomy without administration of intravenous tranexamic acid. Thromboembolic disease was defined as deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism occurring within 6 weeks of surgery. Outcomes measured included transfusion requirements, pre- and postoperative hemoglobin values, operative times, and thromboembolic disease rates. Aspirin was used as the thromboembolic prophylactic regimen in 95% of patients. The rate of allogeneic transfusion was 0 in the tranexamic acid group compared with 21% in the control group (P=.0001). No significant difference was found in the autologous cell salvage requirement (.96 vs 1.01; P=.43) or the thromboembolic disease rate between the tranexamic acid group and the control group (2.67% vs 1.33%; P=.31). The use of intravenous tranexamic acid led to a decreased transfusion requirement with no increased risk of thromboembolic disease in this contemporary cohort of patients undergoing periacetabular osteotomy. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Decreased expression of Kv7 channels in Hirchsprung's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Anne-Marie; Coyle, David; Puri, Prem

    2017-07-01

    Voltage-dependent K + channels (Kv channels) participate in electrical rhythmicity and smooth muscle responses and are regulated by excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. Kv channels also participate in the interstitial cell of Cajal (ICC) and smooth muscle cell (SMC) responses to neural inputs. The Kv family consists of 12 subfamilies, Kv1-Kv12, with five members of the Kv7 family identified to date: Kv7.1-Kv7.5. A recent study identified the potassium channel Kv7.5 as having a role in the excitability of ICC-IM in the mouse colon. We therefore designed this study to test the hypothesis that Kv7 channels are present in the normal human colon and are reduced in Hirschprung's disease (HSCR). HSCR tissue specimens were collected at the time of pull-through surgery (n=10), while normal control tissue specimens were obtained at the time of colostomy closure in patients with imperforate anus (n=10). Kv7.3-Kv7.5 immunohistochemistry was performed and visualized using confocal microscopy to assess their distribution. Western blot analysis was undertaken to determine Kv7.3-Kv7.5 protein quantification. Kv7.3 and Kv7.4-immunoreactivity was co-localized with neuron and ICC markers, while Kv7.5 was found to be expressed on both ICCs and SMCs. Western blot analysis revealed similar levels of Kv7.3 and Kv7.5 expression in the normal colon and HSCR colon, while Kv7.4 proteins were found to be markedly decreased in ganglionic specimens and decreased further in aganglionic specimens. A deficiency of Kv7.4 channels in the ganglionic and aganglionic bowel may place a role in colonic dysmotility in HSCR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ego depletion decreases trust in economic decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Sarah E.; Baumeister, Roy F.; Vohs, Kathleen D.; Ariely, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments tested the effects of ego depletion on economic decision making. Participants completed a task either requiring self-control or not. Then participants learned about the trust game, in which senders are given an initial allocation of $10 to split between themselves and another person, the receiver. The receiver receives triple the amount given and can send any, all, or none of the tripled money back to the sender. Participants were assigned the role of the sender and decided how to split the initial allocation. Giving less money, and therefore not trusting the receiver, is the safe, less risky response. Participants who had exerted self-control and were depleted gave the receiver less money than those in the non-depletion condition (Experiment 1). This effect was replicated and moderated in two additional experiments. Depletion again led to lower amounts given (less trust), but primarily among participants who were told they would never meet the receiver (Experiment 2) or who were given no information about how similar they were to the receiver (Experiment 3). Amounts given did not differ for depleted and non-depleted participants who either expected to meet the receiver (Experiment 2) or were led to believe that they were very similar to the receiver (Experiment 3). Decreased trust among depleted participants was strongest among neurotics. These results imply that self-control facilitates behavioral trust, especially when no other cues signal decreased social risk in trusting, such as if an actual or possible relationship with the receiver were suggested. PMID:25013237

  13. Protein kinase Cα deletion causes hypotension and decreased vascular contractility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, Brandi M; McCarthy, Cameron G; Szasz, Theodora; Molina, Patrick A; Chapman, Arlene B; Webb, R Clinton; Klein, Janet D; Hoover, Robert S

    2018-03-01

    Protein kinase Cα (PKCα) is a critical regulator of multiple cell signaling pathways including gene transcription, posttranslation modifications and activation/inhibition of many signaling kinases. In regards to the control of blood pressure, PKCα causes increased vascular smooth muscle contractility, while reducing cardiac contractility. In addition, PKCα has been shown to modulate nephron ion transport. However, the role of PKCα in modulating mean arterial pressure (MAP) has not been investigated. In this study, we used a whole animal PKCα knock out (PKC KO) to test the hypothesis that global PKCα deficiency would reduce MAP, by a reduction in vascular contractility. Radiotelemetry measurements of ambulatory blood pressure (day/night) were obtained for 18 h/day during both normal chow and high-salt (4%) diet feedings. PKCα mice had a reduced MAP, as compared with control, which was not normalized with high-salt diet (14 days). Metabolic cage studies were performed to determine urinary sodium excretion. PKC KO mice had a significantly lower diastolic, systolic and MAP as compared with control. No significant differences in urinary sodium excretion were observed between the PKC KO and control mice, whether fed normal chow or high-salt diet. Western blot analysis showed a compensatory increase in renal sodium chloride cotransporter expression. Both aorta and mesenteric vessels were removed for vascular reactivity studies. Aorta and mesenteric arteries from PKC KO mice had a reduced receptor-independent relaxation response, as compared with vessels from control. Vessels from PKC KO mice exhibited a decrease in maximal contraction, compared with controls. Together, these data suggest that global deletion of PKCα results in reduced MAP due to decreased vascular contractility.

  14. Grazing disturbance increases transient but decreases persistent soil seed bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Miaojun; Walck, Jeffrey L; Ma, Zhen; Wang, Lipei; Du, Guozhen

    2018-04-30

    Very few studies have examined whether the impacts of grazing disturbance on soil seed banks occur directly or indirectly through aboveground vegetation and soil properties. The potential role of the seed bank in alpine wetland restoration is also unknown. We used SEM (structural equation modeling) to explore the direct effect of grazing disturbance on the seed bank and the indirect effect through aboveground vegetation and soil properties. We also studied the role of the seed bank on the restoration potential in wetlands with various grazing intensities: low (fenced, winter grazed only), medium (seasonally grazed), and high (whole-year grazed). For the seed bank, species richness and density per plot showed no difference among grazing intensities for each depth (0-5, 5-10, 10-15 cm) and for the whole depth (0-15 cm) in spring and summer. There was no direct effect of grazing disturbance on seed bank richness and density both in spring and summer, and also no indirect effect on the seed bank through its direct effect on vegetation richness and abundance. Grazing disturbance indirectly increased spring seed bank density but decreased summer seed bank density through its direct effect (negative correlation) on soil moisture and total nitrogen and its indirect effect on vegetation abundance. Species composition of the vegetation changed with grazing regime, but that of the seed bank did not. An increased trend of similarity between the seed bank and aboveground vegetation with increased grazing disturbance was found in the shallow depth and in the whole depth only in spring. Although there was almost no change in seed bank size with grazing intensities, grazing disturbance increased the quantity of transient seeds but decreased persistent seeds. Persistent seeds stored in the soil could play a crucial role in vegetation regeneration and in restoration of degraded wetland ecosystems. The seed bank should be an integral part of alpine wetland restoration programs.

  15. Decreased thyroidal response to thyrotropin in diabetic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagchi, N.; Brown, T.R.; Shivers, B.; Lucas, S.; Mack, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of diabetes mellitus on the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormone ws investigated in mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Thyroid glands were labeled in vivo with 131I for 2 h. In control animals, TSH stimulated the synthesis of PB127I and 131I-labeled iodothyronines and simultaneously decreased the proportion of 131I-. These effects of TSH were not observed in diabetic animals but were demonstrable in diabetic animals treated with insulin. For studies of hormone secretion, labeled thyroid glands were cultured in vitro in medium containing 1 mM mononitrotyrosine. The rate of the hydrolysis of labeled thyroglobulin was measured as the proportion of 131I-labeled iodotyrosines and 131I-labeled iodothyronines recovered at the end of culture and was used as an index of thyroid secretion. TSH in vivo stimulated the rate of thyroglobulin hydrolysis for 6 h, with a peak occurring after 2 h. The diabetic mice had a diminished response to TSH, which improved on treatment with insulin. The addition of TSH and insulin to the culture medium significantly increased the rate of thyroglobulin hydrolysis in glands of diabetic mice over that resulting from the addition of dibutyryl cAMP alone. The generation of thyroidal cAMP in response to TSH was higher in diabetic mice than in controls. The rise in plasma T4 and T3 2 h after the administration of TSH was less in diabetic mice than in control mice or diabetic mice treated with insulin. Our studies, therefore, indicate that the thyroidal response to TSH is decreased in diabetes mellitus. The defect appears to be at a step beyond the generation of cAMP

  16. Decreased serum homocysteine levels after micronutrient supplementation in older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pusparini Pusparini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a gradual impairment in cognitive function. The elderly also show a high prevalence of undernutrition, whereas nutrition plays an important role in the metabolism of neuronal cells and enzymes. Homocysteine is an amino acid resulting from methionine metabolism and is dependent on intake of vitamin B12, vitamin B6 and folic acid. Homocysteine is said to play a role in cognitive function. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of micronutrient supplementation for 6 months on serum homocysteine levels and cognitive function in older people. This study was an experimental study of pre-post test design, carried out in Mampang subdistrict, South Jakarta. A total of 94 elderly people was recruited for this study, consisting of 44 females and 50 males. Serum homocysteine level was assessed by fluorescent polarization immunoassay and cognitive function by means of the mini mental state examination (MMSE before and after micronutrient supplementation. Mean serum homocysteine concentration after supplementation decreased significantly to 14.8 ± 5.8 mmol/L, compared with mean serum homocysteine level of 15.9 ± 5.9 mmol/L before supplementation (p=0.000. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the factors influencing post-supplementation MMSE scores were gender (â=-0.350; p=0.000, education (â=0.510; p=0.000 and post-supplementation homocysteine levels (â=-0.201; p=0.000, while age, pre-supplementation homocysteine levels and BMI did not affect MMSE scores. Homocysteine concentration decreased significantly after 6 months of supplementation. The factors affecting post-supplementation MMSE scores were gender, level of education, and post-supplementation homocysteine level.

  17. Decreased serum homocysteine levels after micronutrient supplementation in older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pusparini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a gradual impairment in cognitive function. The elderly also show a high prevalence of undernutrition, whereas nutrition plays an important role in the metabolism of neuronal cells and enzymes. Homocysteine is an amino acid resulting from methionine metabolism and is dependent on intake of vitamin B12, vitamin B6 and folic acid. Homocysteine is said to play a role in cognitive function. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of micronutrient supplementation for 6 months on serum homocysteine levels and cognitive function in older people. This study was an experimental study of pre-post test design, carried out in Mampang subdistrict, South Jakarta. A total of 94 elderly people was recruited for this study, consisting of 44 females and 50 males. Serum homocysteine level was assessed by fluorescent polarization immunoassay and cognitive function by means of the mini mental state examination (MMSE before and after micronutrient supplementation. Mean serum homocysteine concentration after supplementation decreased significantly to 14.8 ± 5.8 mmol/L, compared with mean serum homocysteine level of 15.9 ± 5.9 mmol/L before supplementation (p=0.000. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the factors influencing post-supplementation MMSE scores were gender (â=-0.350; p=0.000, education (â=0.510; p=0.000 and post-supplementation homocysteine levels (â=-0.201; p=0.000, while age, pre-supplementation homocysteine levels and BMI did not affect MMSE scores. Homocysteine concentration decreased significantly after 6 months of supplementation. The factors affecting post-supplementation MMSE scores were gender, level of education, and post-supplementation homocysteine level.

  18. Ozone decreases soybean productivity and water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betzelberger, A. M.; VanLoocke, A. D.; Ainsworth, E. A.; Bernacchi, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    The combination of population growth and climate change will increase pressure on agricultural and water resources throughout this century. An additional consequence of this growth is an increase in anthropogenic emissions that lead to the formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), which in concert with climate change, poses a significant threat to human health and nutrition. In addition to being an important greenhouse gas, O3 reduces plant productivity, an effect that has been particularly pronounced in soybean, which provides over half of the world's oilseed production. Plant productivity is linked to feedbacks in the climate system, indirectly through the carbon cycle, as well as directly through the partitioning of radiation into heat and moisture fluxes. Soybean, along with maize, comprises the largest ecosystem in the contiguous U.S. Therefore, changes in productivity and water use under increasing O3 could impact human nutrition as well as the regional climate. Soybean response to increasing O3 concentrations was tested under open-air agricultural conditions at the SoyFACE research site. During the 2009 growing season, eight 20 m diameter FACE plots were exposed to different O3 concentrations, ranging from 40 to 200 ppb. Canopy growth (leaf area index) and physiological measurements of leaf photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were taken regularly throughout the growing season. Canopy fluxes of heat and moisture were measured using the residual energy balance micrometeorological technique. Our results indicate that as O3 increased from 40 to 200 ppb, rates of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance decreased significantly. Further, the seed yield decreased by over 60%, while water use decreased by 30% and the water-use-efficiency (yield/water-use) declined by 50%. The growing season average canopy temperatures increased by 1°C and midday temperatures increased by 2°C compared to the control. Warmer and drier canopies may result in a positive feedback on O3

  19. Increased radial glia quiescence, decreased reactivation upon injury and unaltered neuroblast behavior underlie decreased neurogenesis in the aging zebrafish telencephalon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, Kathrin; Glashauser, Lena; Sprungala, Susanne; Hesl, Birgit; Fritschle, Maike; Ninkovic, Jovica; Godinho, Leanne; Chapouton, Prisca

    2013-09-01

    The zebrafish has recently become a source of new data on the mechanisms of neural stem cell (NSC) maintenance and ongoing neurogenesis in adult brains. In this vertebrate, neurogenesis occurs at high levels in all ventricular regions of the brain, and brain injuries recover successfully, owing to the recruitment of radial glia, which function as NSCs. This new vertebrate model of adult neurogenesis is thus advancing our knowledge of the molecular cues in use for the activation of NSCs and fate of their progeny. Because the regenerative potential of somatic stem cells generally weakens with increasing age, it is important to assess the extent to which zebrafish NSC potential decreases or remains unaltered with age. We found that neurogenesis in the ventricular zone, in the olfactory bulb, and in a newly identified parenchymal zone of the telencephalon indeed declines as the fish ages and that oligodendrogenesis also declines. In the ventricular zone, the radial glial cell population remains largely unaltered morphologically but enters less frequently into the cell cycle and hence produces fewer neuroblasts. The neuroblasts themselves do not change their behavior with age and produce the same number of postmitotic neurons. Thus, decreased neurogenesis in the physiologically aging zebrafish brain is correlated with an increasing quiescence of radial glia. After injuries, radial glia in aged brains are reactivated, and the percentage of cell cycle entry is increased in the radial glia population. However, this reaction is far less pronounced than in younger animals, pointing to irreversible changes in aging zebrafish radial glia. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Vectorization by nanoparticles decreases the overall toxicity of airborne pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Rodolphe; Platel, Anne; Maiz-Gregores, Helena; Nesslany, Fabrice; Betbeder, Didier

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution is mainly composed of volatile pollutants and particulate matter that strongly interact. However, their specific roles in the induction of cellular toxicity, in particular the impact of the vectorization of atmospheric pollutants by ultrafine particles, remains to be fully elucidated. For this purpose, non-toxic poly-lactic co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles were synthesized and three pollutants (benzo(a)pyrene, naphthalene and di-ethyl-hexyl-phthalate) were adsorbed on the surface of the nanoparticles in order to evaluate the toxicity (cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and ROS induction) of these complexes to a human airway epithelial cell line. The adsorption of the pollutants onto the nanoparticles was confirmed by HPLC analysis. Interestingly, the cytotoxicity assays (MTT, LDH and CellTox Green) clearly demonstrated that the vectorization by nanoparticles decreases the toxicity of the adsorbed pollutants. Genotoxicity was assessed by the micronucleus test and the comet assay and showed no increase in primary DNA damage or in chromosomal aberrations of nanoparticle vectorized pollutants. Neither cytotoxicity nor genotoxicity was correlated with ROS induction. To conclude, our results indicate that the vectorization of pollutants by nanoparticles does not potentiate the toxicity of the pollutants studied and that, on the contrary, adsorption onto nanoparticles could protect cells against pollutants' toxicity.

  1. Decrease in pulmonary function and oxygenation after lung resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocki, Barbara Cristina; Westerdahl, Elisabeth; Langer, Daniel; Souza, Domingos S R; Andreasen, Jan Jesper

    2018-01-01

    Respiratory deficits are common following curative intent lung cancer surgery and may reduce the patient's ability to be physically active. We evaluated the influence of surgery on pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and physical performance after lung resection. Pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength (maximal inspiratory/expiratory pressure) and 6-min walk test (6MWT) were assessed pre-operatively, 2 weeks post-operatively and 6 months post-operatively in 80 patients (age 68±9 years). Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery was performed in 58% of cases. Two weeks post-operatively, we found a significant decline in pulmonary function (forced vital capacity -0.6±0.6 L and forced expiratory volume in 1 s -0.43±0.4 L; both p<0.0001), 6MWT (-37.6±74.8 m; p<0.0001) and oxygenation (-2.9±4.7 units; p<0.001), while maximal inspiratory and maximal expiratory pressure were unaffected. At 6 months post-operatively, pulmonary function and oxygenation remained significantly decreased (p<0.001), whereas 6MWT was recovered. We conclude that lung resection has a significant short- and long-term impact on pulmonary function and oxygenation, but not on respiratory muscle strength. Future research should focus on mechanisms negatively influencing post-operative pulmonary function other than impaired respiratory muscle strength.

  2. Decreased astroglial monocarboxylate transporter 4 expression in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bei; Niu, Le; Shen, Ming-Zhi; Gao, Lei; Wang, Chao; Li, Jie; Song, Li-Jia; Tao, Ye; Meng, Qiang; Yang, Qian-Li; Gao, Guo-Dong; Zhang, Hua

    2014-10-01

    Efflux of monocaroxylates like lactate, pyruvate, and ketone bodies from astrocytes through monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4) supplies the local neuron population with metabolic intermediates to meet energy requirements under conditions of increased demand. Disruption of this astroglial-neuron metabolic coupling pathway may contribute to epileptogenesis. We measured MCT4 expression in temporal lobe epileptic foci excised from patients with intractable epilepsy and in rats injected with pilocarpine, an animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Cortical MCT4 expression levels were significantly lower in TLE patients compared with controls, due at least partially to MCT4 promoter methylation. Expression of MCT4 also decreased progressively in pilocarpine-treated rats from 12 h to 14 days post-administration. Underexpression of MCT4 in cultured astrocytes induced by a short hairpin RNA promoted apoptosis. Knockdown of astrocyte MCT4 also suppressed excitatory amino acid transporter 1 (EAAT1) expression. Reduced MCT4 and EAAT1 expression by astrocytes may lead to neuronal hyperexcitability and epileptogenesis in the temporal lobe by reducing the supply of metabolic intermediates and by allowing accumulation of extracellular glutamate.

  3. Dynamic resistance training decreases sympathetic tone in hypertensive ovariectomized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimojo, G.L.; Palma, R.K.; Brito, J.O.; Sanches, I.C.; Irigoyen, M.C.; De Angelis, K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise training on hemodynamics and cardiac autonomic control in ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats. Female rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (SC), sedentary hypertensive (SH), sedentary hypertensive ovariectomized (SHO), and resistance-trained hypertensive ovariectomized (RTHO). Resistance exercise training was performed on a vertical ladder (5 days/week, 8 weeks) at 40-60% maximal load. Direct arterial pressure was recorded. Vagal and sympathetic tones were measured by heart rate (HR) responses to methylatropine (3 mg/kg, iv) and propranolol (4 mg/kg, iv). Ovariectomy resulted in additional increases in blood pressure in hypertensive rats and was associated with decreased vagal tone. Resistance exercise trained rats had lower mean arterial pressure than untrained rats (RTHO: 159±2.2 vs SHO: 177±3.4 mmHg), as well as resting bradycardia (RTHO: 332±9.0 vs SHO: 356±5 bpm). Sympathetic tone was also lower in the trained group. Moreover, sympathetic tone was positively correlated with resting HR (r=0.7, P<0.05). The additional arterial pressure increase in hypertensive rats caused by ovarian hormone deprivation was attenuated by moderate-intensity dynamic resistance training. This benefit may be associated with resting bradycardia and reduced cardiac sympathetic tone after training, which suggests potential benefits of resistance exercise for the management of hypertension after ovarian hormone deprivation

  4. Spherical zonal components of cosmic ray between Forbush decreases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hachiro; Yahagi, Naohiro; Nagashima, Kazuo.

    1974-01-01

    Two examples are added to the previous report on the zonal harmonic components of cosmic ray in the space between planets by the three dimensional analysis of anisotropy of cosmic ray. Remarkable Forbush decreases occurred in region I during the period from March 20th to April 11th, 1966 and in region II during the period from August 29th to September 11th, 1966. The data used for analysis are the neutron components that have been informed from cosmic ray observation stations in the world. Power type and power exponential type differential rigidity spectra G(P) were used to find isotropic components. The change of the isotropic component a 0 0 was similar to the change of the neutron intensity in Deep River. The southnorth anisotropic phenomenon of cosmic ray intensity was recognized. The anisotropy in the opposite direction to the southnorth anisotropic phenomenon reported by Nagashima et al. was recognized markedly during the period from March 26th to 30th. These tendencies were checked by comparing with the data from the cosmic ray observation stations located near both poles of the earth. McMurdo and Mawson near the south pole, and Thule and Alert near the north pole were selected. The results of analysis were confirmed with these data. Further, the results of the previous report were checked by using the data from the stations near both poles, namely Thule, Resolute Bay, and Mawson. The good coincidence was confirmed on the anisotropic components. (Iwakiri, K.)

  5. Monoamine oxidase A (MAO A) inhibitors decrease glioma progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaikari, Vijaya Pooja; Kota, Rajesh; Chen, Kevin; Yeh, Tzu-Shao; Jhaveri, Niyati; Groshen, Susan L.; Olenyuk, Bogdan Z.; Chen, Thomas C.; Hofman, Florence M.; Shih, Jean C.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive brain tumor which is currently treated with temozolomide (TMZ). Tumors usually become resistant to TMZ and recur; no effective therapy is then available. Monoamine Oxidase A (MAO A) oxidizes monoamine neurotransmitters resulting in reactive oxygen species which cause cancer. This study shows that MAO A expression is increased in human glioma tissues and cell lines. MAO A inhibitors, clorgyline or the near-infrared-dye MHI-148 conjugated to clorgyline (NMI), were cytotoxic for glioma and decreased invasion in vitro. Using the intracranial TMZ-resistant glioma model, clorgyline or NMI alone or in combination with low-dose TMZ reduced tumor growth and increased animal survival. NMI was localized specifically to the tumor. Immunocytochemistry studies showed that the MAO A inhibitor reduced proliferation, microvessel density and invasion, and increased macrophage infiltration. In conclusion, we have identified MAO A inhibitors as potential novel stand-alone drugs or as combination therapy with low dose TMZ for drug-resistant gliomas. NMI can also be used as a non-invasive imaging tool. Thus has a dual function for both therapy and diagnosis. PMID:26871599

  6. Decreased respiratory symptoms in cannabis users who vaporize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnwell Sara

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cannabis smoking can create respiratory problems. Vaporizers heat cannabis to release active cannabinoids, but remain cool enough to avoid the smoke and toxins associated with combustion. Vaporized cannabis should create fewer respiratory symptoms than smoked cannabis. We examined self-reported respiratory symptoms in participants who ranged in cigarette and cannabis use. Data from a large Internet sample revealed that the use of a vaporizer predicted fewer respiratory symptoms even when age, sex, cigarette smoking, and amount of cannabis used were taken into account. Age, sex, cigarettes, and amount of cannabis also had significant effects. The number of cigarettes smoked and amount of cannabis used interacted to create worse respiratory problems. A significant interaction revealed that the impact of a vaporizer was larger as the amount of cannabis used increased. These data suggest that the safety of cannabis can increase with the use of a vaporizer. Regular users of joints, blunts, pipes, and water pipes might decrease respiratory symptoms by switching to a vaporizer

  7. Combat Stress Decreases Memory of Warfighters in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Moreno, Rosa; Robles-Pérez, José Juan; Clemente-Suárez, Vicente Javier

    2017-08-01

    The present research aimed to analyze the effect of combat stress in the psychophysiological response and attention and memory of warfighters in a simulated combat situation. Variables of blood oxygen saturation, heart rate, blood glucose, blood lactate, body temperature, lower body muscular strength manifestation, cortical arousal, autonomic modulation, state anxiety and memory and attention through a postmission questionnaire were analyzed before and after a combat simulation in 20 male professional Spanish Army warfighters. The combat simulation produces a significant increase (p body temperature post, HF post/correct sound, body temperature post/glucose post, CFFTpre/lactate post, CFFT post/wrong sound, glucose post/AC pre, AC post/wrong fusil, AS post/SC post and SC post/wrong olfactory; and negative correlations: LF post/correct sound, body temperature post/lactate post and glucose post/lactate post. This data suggest that combat stress actives fight-flight system of soldiers. As conclusion, Combat stress produces an increased psychophysiological response that cause a selective decrease of memory, depending on the nature, dangerous or harmless of the objects.

  8. Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein Decreases Lipid Droplet Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Charles; Herker, Eva; Farese, Robert V.; Ott, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Steatosis is a frequent complication of hepatitis C virus infection. In mice, this condition is recapitulated by the expression of a single viral protein, the nucleocapsid core. Core localizes to the surface of lipid droplets (LDs) in infected liver cells through a process dependent on host diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), an enzyme that synthesizes triglycerides in the endoplasmic reticulum. Whether DGAT1 also plays a role in core-induced steatosis is uncertain. Here, we show that mouse embryonic fibroblasts isolated from DGAT1−/− mice are protected from core-induced steatosis, as are livers of DGAT1−/− mice expressing core, demonstrating that the steatosis is DGAT1-dependent. Surprisingly, core expression did not increase DGAT1 activity or triglyceride synthesis, thus excluding the possibility that core activates DGAT1 to cause steatosis. Instead, we find that DGAT1-dependent localization of core to LDs is a prerequisite for the steatogenic properties of the core. Using biochemical and immunofluorescence microscopy techniques, we show that the turnover of lipids in core-coated droplets is decreased, providing a physiological mechanism for core-induced steatosis. Our results support a bipartite model in which core first requires DGAT1 to gain access to LDs, and then LD-localized core interferes with triglyceride turnover, thus stabilizing lipid droplets and leading to steatosis. PMID:21984835

  9. Longitudinal effects of increases and decreases in intimate partner aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammett, Julia F; Karney, Benjamin R; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2018-04-01

    Interventions aimed at reducing interpartner aggression assume that within-couple declines in aggression enhance individual and relational outcomes, yet reductions in aggression may fail to yield these benefits when other risk-generating mechanisms remain intact. The present study evaluates this possibility by investigating whether naturally observed within-couple changes in aggression are associated with improved individual and relational outcomes in the manner assumed by intervention programs. Drawing upon 4 waves of data collected at 9-month intervals from a community sample of 431 newlywed couples (76% Hispanic) living in low-income neighborhoods, Actor-Partner-Interdependence Modeling (APIM) and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) indicated that levels of aggression at the outset of marriage had limited associations with later outcomes. Changes in aggression, however, were associated with subsequent marital outcomes, such that decreases in aggression were beneficial and increases in aggression were costly. Individuals who experienced increases in aggression worsened in their observed communication over time and reported greater increases in stress. Reports of stress early in marriage predicted escalations in aggression over time. Thus, helping couples to contain increases in aggression might be particularly consequential for their well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Dynamic resistance training decreases sympathetic tone in hypertensive ovariectomized rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimojo, G.L.; Palma, R.K.; Brito, J.O.; Sanches, I.C. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Programa de Ciências da Reabilitação, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Irigoyen, M.C. [Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); De Angelis, K. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Programa de Ciências da Reabilitação, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-03-27

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise training on hemodynamics and cardiac autonomic control in ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats. Female rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (SC), sedentary hypertensive (SH), sedentary hypertensive ovariectomized (SHO), and resistance-trained hypertensive ovariectomized (RTHO). Resistance exercise training was performed on a vertical ladder (5 days/week, 8 weeks) at 40-60% maximal load. Direct arterial pressure was recorded. Vagal and sympathetic tones were measured by heart rate (HR) responses to methylatropine (3 mg/kg, iv) and propranolol (4 mg/kg, iv). Ovariectomy resulted in additional increases in blood pressure in hypertensive rats and was associated with decreased vagal tone. Resistance exercise trained rats had lower mean arterial pressure than untrained rats (RTHO: 159±2.2 vs SHO: 177±3.4 mmHg), as well as resting bradycardia (RTHO: 332±9.0 vs SHO: 356±5 bpm). Sympathetic tone was also lower in the trained group. Moreover, sympathetic tone was positively correlated with resting HR (r=0.7, P<0.05). The additional arterial pressure increase in hypertensive rats caused by ovarian hormone deprivation was attenuated by moderate-intensity dynamic resistance training. This benefit may be associated with resting bradycardia and reduced cardiac sympathetic tone after training, which suggests potential benefits of resistance exercise for the management of hypertension after ovarian hormone deprivation.

  11. Quercetin decrease somatic cells count in mastitis of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmańczuk, Artur; Hola, Piotr; Milczak, Andrzej; Piech, Tomasz; Kowalski, Cezary; Wojciechowska, Beata; Grabowski, Tomasz

    2018-04-01

    Quercetin is a dietary flavonoid which has an effect on inflammation, angiogenesis and vascular inflammation. In several other flavonoids (e.g. kaempferol, astragalin, alpinetin, baicalein, indirubin), anti-inflammatory mechanism was proven by using mice mastitis model. The aim of the current study was pilot analysis of quercetin tolerability and its impact on somatic cells count (SCC) after multiple intramammary treatment on dairy cows with clinical mastitis. Based on SCC and clinical investigation, 9 dairy cows with clinical mastitis of one quarter were selected for the pilot study. Baseline analysis (hematology, TNFα, SCC) was performed every 24h among all cows three days before the first dose (B1-B3). After the baseline monitoring (B1-B3) eight days treatment (D1-D8) was performed with a high and low dose. Selected blood parameters were analyzed. Starting from D1 to D8, a decrease of SCC in relation to baseline was characterized by declining trend. The presented results allowed the confirmation of the significant influence of quercetin on the reduction of SCC in mastitis in dairy cows after 8days of therapy. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Weblog patterns and human dynamics with decreasing interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J.-L.; Fan, C.; Guo, Z.-H.

    2011-06-01

    In order to describe the phenomenon that people's interest in doing something always keep high in the beginning while gradually decreases until reaching the balance, a model which describes the attenuation of interest is proposed to reflect the fact that people's interest becomes more stable after a long time. We give a rigorous analysis on this model by non-homogeneous Poisson processes. Our analysis indicates that the interval distribution of arrival-time is a mixed distribution with exponential and power-law feature, which is a power law with an exponential cutoff. After that, we collect blogs in ScienceNet.cn and carry on empirical study on the interarrival time distribution. The empirical results agree well with the theoretical analysis, obeying a special power law with the exponential cutoff, that is, a special kind of Gamma distribution. These empirical results verify the model by providing an evidence for a new class of phenomena in human dynamics. It can be concluded that besides power-law distributions, there are other distributions in human dynamics. These findings demonstrate the variety of human behavior dynamics.

  13. Piroxicam decreases postirradiation colonic neoplasia in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northway, M G; Scobey, M W; Cassidy, K T; Geisinger, K R

    1990-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent piroxicam on chronic radiation proctitis in the rat. Forty female Wistar rats received a 2250-cGy dose of irradiation to the distal 2 cm of the colon. Twenty received piroxicam 8.0 mg/kg orally 30 minutes before exposure and 24 hours after exposure; 20 rats served as irradiated controls. All animals were evaluated by colonoscopy 1 and 3 weeks postexposure and every third week until death or killing at 1 year. At killing, colons were removed for light microscopic examination. One year postirradiation results showed no differences in mortality, vascular changes, acute inflammation, colitis cystica profunda, or rectal stricture between the control and piroxicam-treated groups. However, at 1 year postirradiation the control group demonstrated neoplasia in 15 of 19 animals compared with eight of 20 animals in the piroxicam-treated group. The first endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasm occurred at 15 weeks postirradiation in one control irradiated rat whereas the first evidence of endoscopic neoplasm in the piroxicam-treated group did not occur until 36 weeks postirradiation. Histologic examination documented a tendency toward a greater presence of adenocarcinomas in the control group compared with the piroxicam-treated group. The authors conclude that piroxicam treatment significantly decreased the incidence of colonic neoplasia in general as well as delayed the endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasia in rats after pelvic irradiation.

  14. Piroxicam decreases postirradiation colonic neoplasia in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northway, M.G.; Scobey, M.W.; Cassidy, K.T.; Geisinger, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent piroxicam on chronic radiation proctitis in the rat. Forty female Wistar rats received a 2250-cGy dose of irradiation to the distal 2 cm of the colon. Twenty received piroxicam 8.0 mg/kg orally 30 minutes before exposure and 24 hours after exposure; 20 rats served as irradiated controls. All animals were evaluated by colonoscopy 1 and 3 weeks postexposure and every third week until death or killing at 1 year. At killing, colons were removed for light microscopic examination. One year postirradiation results showed no differences in mortality, vascular changes, acute inflammation, colitis cystica profunda, or rectal stricture between the control and piroxicam-treated groups. However, at 1 year postirradiation the control group demonstrated neoplasia in 15 of 19 animals compared with eight of 20 animals in the piroxicam-treated group. The first endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasm occurred at 15 weeks postirradiation in one control irradiated rat whereas the first evidence of endoscopic neoplasm in the piroxicam-treated group did not occur until 36 weeks postirradiation. Histologic examination documented a tendency toward a greater presence of adenocarcinomas in the control group compared with the piroxicam-treated group. The authors conclude that piroxicam treatment significantly decreased the incidence of colonic neoplasia in general as well as delayed the endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasia in rats after pelvic irradiation. 41 references

  15. Experimentally increasing sedentary behavior results in decreased life satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan K. Edwards

    2017-03-01

    behavior-inducing randomized controlled intervention on life satisfaction. Methods: Active, young adults between the ages of 18-35 were recruited and randomly assigned into a sedentary behavior intervention group (n = 26 or a control group (n = 13. The intervention group participants were instructed to eliminate all exercise and restrict daily steps (as measured via pedometry to 5000 or less per day for one week. The control group was instructed to maintain regular levels of exercise and other physical activity for one week. Both groups completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS pre-intervention and immediately post-intervention. Results: There was a significant group x time interaction (F = 32.75, P < 0.001, with post-hoc contrast tests indicating decreased SWLS score (indicating lower levels of life satisfaction in the intervention group during Visit 2 (post-intervention compared with Visit 1 (pre-intervention; this corresponded with a mean absolute (Visit 2 minus Visit 1 change of -8.58 (95% CI: -5.91, -11.24 for SWLS scores in the intervention group (31.1% reduction. Conclusion: A one-week sedentary behavior-inducing intervention may negatively impact life satisfaction in an active, young adult population. Regular physical activity may be imperative in avoiding negative life satisfaction-related consequences.

  16. Hiking strap force decreases during sustained upwind sailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchardt, R; Bay, Jonathan; Bojsen-Møller, Jens

    2017-01-01

    The hypothesis, that sailing upwind in wind speeds above 12 knots causes fatigue, which manifests as a reduction in exerted hiking strap force and/or maximal isometric voluntary contraction force (MVC) of the knee extensors, was evaluated. Additionally, it was investigated if a relationship exists...... between maximal exerted hiking force (hMVC) and sailing performance. In part 1 of the study, 12 national level athletes sailed upwind for 2 × 10 min while hiking strap forces were continuously acquired. Before, in between and after sailing periods, the MVC of the knee extensors was measured. In part 2...... of the study, hMVC was measured dry land in a hiking bench and correlated with the overall results at a national championship. Hiking strap force decreased from the first to the last minute in both 10 min sailing periods (430 ± 131 vs. 285 ± 130 N, P 

  17. Vectorization by nanoparticles decreases the overall toxicity of airborne pollutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolphe Carpentier

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pollution is mainly composed of volatile pollutants and particulate matter that strongly interact. However, their specific roles in the induction of cellular toxicity, in particular the impact of the vectorization of atmospheric pollutants by ultrafine particles, remains to be fully elucidated. For this purpose, non-toxic poly-lactic co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticles were synthesized and three pollutants (benzo(apyrene, naphthalene and di-ethyl-hexyl-phthalate were adsorbed on the surface of the nanoparticles in order to evaluate the toxicity (cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and ROS induction of these complexes to a human airway epithelial cell line. The adsorption of the pollutants onto the nanoparticles was confirmed by HPLC analysis. Interestingly, the cytotoxicity assays (MTT, LDH and CellTox Green clearly demonstrated that the vectorization by nanoparticles decreases the toxicity of the adsorbed pollutants. Genotoxicity was assessed by the micronucleus test and the comet assay and showed no increase in primary DNA damage or in chromosomal aberrations of nanoparticle vectorized pollutants. Neither cytotoxicity nor genotoxicity was correlated with ROS induction. To conclude, our results indicate that the vectorization of pollutants by nanoparticles does not potentiate the toxicity of the pollutants studied and that, on the contrary, adsorption onto nanoparticles could protect cells against pollutants' toxicity.

  18. Low-angled peripheral intravenous catheter tip placement decreases phlebitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Hidenori; Murayama, Ryoko; Yabunaka, Koichi; Oe, Makoto; Takahashi, Toshiaki; Komiyama, Chieko; Sanada, Hiromi

    2016-11-02

    Peripheral intravenous catheters (PIVCs) are frequently removed due to phlebitis. We hypothesized that catheters made of polyurethane, which is more flexible than Teflon, would decrease phlebitis, and that flexibility could be estimated by measuring the catheter-tip angle. Ultrasonography in two groups of patients with different catheter types was then used to compare catheter-tip angles and phlebitis. Observational studies were carried out at a medical ward in a university hospital. Infusion therapy was administered to one group of patients in 2014 using Teflon catheters (control group, n = 200), and to another group of patients in 2015 using polyurethane catheters (investigational group, n = 207). The symptoms were assessed according to a scale developed by the Infusion Nurses Society. Long-axis ultrasonography images taken immediately before catheter removal were used to measure the angle between the central line of the catheter within 2 mm from the distal point and a tangent to the vessel wall. There were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to sex, age, and medical diagnosis. In the control and investigational groups, the rates of phlebitis were 37% (73/200) and 17% (36/207), respectively (pPhlebitis occurred more frequently when the catheter-tip was placed at angle >5.8°. The frequency of phlebitis was lower in the polyurethane, in which the catheter was placed at lower angle, almost parallel to the vessel. Our results will aid in developing new catheters and in improving PIVC-securement techniques.

  19. Continuous millennial decrease of the Earth's magnetic axial dipole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Wilbor; Biggin, Andrew J.; Trindade, Ricardo I. F.; Hartmann, Gelvam A.; Terra-Nova, Filipe

    2018-01-01

    Since the establishment of direct estimations of the Earth's magnetic field intensity in the first half of the nineteenth century, a continuous decay of the axial dipole component has been observed and variously speculated to be linked to an imminent reversal of the geomagnetic field. Furthermore, indirect estimations from anthropologically made materials and volcanic derivatives suggest that this decrease began significantly earlier than direct measurements have been available. Here, we carefully reassess the available archaeointensity dataset for the last two millennia, and show a good correspondence between direct (observatory/satellite) and indirect (archaeomagnetic) estimates of the axial dipole moment creating, in effect, a proxy to expand our analysis back in time. Our results suggest a continuous linear decay as the most parsimonious long-term description of the axial dipole variation for the last millennium. We thus suggest that a break in the symmetry of axial dipole moment advective sources occurred approximately 1100 years earlier than previously described. In addition, based on the observed dipole secular variation timescale, we speculate that the weakening of the axial dipole may end soon.

  20. Chronic ethanol consumption decreases adrenal responsiveness to adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, C.J.; Bestervelt, L.L.; Cai, Y.; Maimansomsuk, P.; Coleman, L.; Piper, W.N.

    1991-01-01

    Increased alcohol consumption by adolescents and teenagers has heightened awareness of potential endocrine and developmental alterations. The current study was designed to determine whether chronic ethanol intake alters pituitary and adrenal function in the developing rat. One month old male Sprague Dawley rats were administered 6% ethanol in drinking water. After one month of treatment animals were sacrificed and blood, pituitary and adrenal glands collected. Plasma was assayed for ACTH and corticosterone (CS) by radioimmunossay (RIA). Five anterior pituitary glands per group were challenged with 100 μM corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) for 90 min at 37C under 95% air / 5% CO 2 . Media were analyzed for either ACTH (pituitary) or CS (adrenal) by RIA. Plasma ACTH and CS were unaffected by ethanol consumption. Pituitary response to CRF was not altered by ethanol. The lack of difference in ACTH release was not due to differences in pituitary content of ACTH. However, chronic ethanol consumption did decrease adrenal responsiveness to ACTH stimulation. In vitro corticosterone production was 1.21 ± 0.14 μg/adrenal in controls and 0.70 ± 0.06 μg/adrenal in ethanol consuming rats

  1. Low social status decreases the neural salience of unfairness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie eHu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Social hierarchy exists in almost all social species and affects everything from resource allocation to the development of intelligence. Previous studies showed that status within a social hierarchy influences the perceived fairness of income allocation. However, the effect of one’s social status on economic decisions is far from clear, as are the neural processes underlying these decisions. In this study, we dynamically manipulated participants’ social status and analyzed their behavior as recipients in the ultimatum game, during which event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded. Behavioral results showed that acceptance rates for offers increased with the fairness level of offers. Importantly, participants were less likely to accept unfair offers when they were endowed with high status than with low status. In addition, cues indicating low status elicited a more positive P2 than cues indicating high status in an earlier time window (170 – 240 ms, and cues indicating high status elicited a more negative N400 than did cues indicating low status in a later time window (350 – 520 ms. During the actual reception of offers, the late positivity potential (LPP, 400 – 700 ms for unfair offers was more positive in the high status condition than in the low status condition, suggesting a decreased arousal for unfair offers during low status. These findings suggest a strong role of social status in modulating individual behavioral and neural responses to fairness.

  2. Piroxicam decreases postirradiation colonic neoplasia in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Northway, M.G.; Scobey, M.W.; Cassidy, K.T.; Geisinger, K.R. (Wake Forest Univ., Winston Salem, NC (USA))

    1990-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent piroxicam on chronic radiation proctitis in the rat. Forty female Wistar rats received a 2250-cGy dose of irradiation to the distal 2 cm of the colon. Twenty received piroxicam 8.0 mg/kg orally 30 minutes before exposure and 24 hours after exposure; 20 rats served as irradiated controls. All animals were evaluated by colonoscopy 1 and 3 weeks postexposure and every third week until death or killing at 1 year. At killing, colons were removed for light microscopic examination. One year postirradiation results showed no differences in mortality, vascular changes, acute inflammation, colitis cystica profunda, or rectal stricture between the control and piroxicam-treated groups. However, at 1 year postirradiation the control group demonstrated neoplasia in 15 of 19 animals compared with eight of 20 animals in the piroxicam-treated group. The first endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasm occurred at 15 weeks postirradiation in one control irradiated rat whereas the first evidence of endoscopic neoplasm in the piroxicam-treated group did not occur until 36 weeks postirradiation. Histologic examination documented a tendency toward a greater presence of adenocarcinomas in the control group compared with the piroxicam-treated group. The authors conclude that piroxicam treatment significantly decreased the incidence of colonic neoplasia in general as well as delayed the endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasia in rats after pelvic irradiation. 41 references.

  3. Peat Biomass Smoke Particle Exposure in Rats Decreases ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildland fires, favored by prolonged drought and rising temperatures, generate significant amounts of ambient particulate matter (PM), which has been linked to adverse health outcomes. The eastern North Carolina peat fires of Pocosin Lake in 2008 and Pains Bay in 2011 were some of the more prominent recent wildland fires and were associated with increased cardiovascular hospitalizations. The biological impacts of peat biomass emissions and the specific mechanisms driving these responses are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cardiopulmonary responses of peat biomass smoke exposure in rats. We hypothesized that PM exposure would dose-dependently alter cardiopulmonary function. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 30 µg (Lo PM) or 300 µg (Hi PM) of peat biomass smoke PM extracts suspended in 200 µL of saline, or saline vehicle alone by oropharyngeal aspiration (OA). Immediately following OA rats were placed in a whole-body plethysmograph and ventilatory data were recorded for 12 minutes. One day following OA, rats were anesthetized with isoflurane for ultrasound assessment of cardiovascular function. Hi PM caused decreases in expiratory timing as early as 4-6 minutes after exposure relative to Lo PM (p = 0.02) and Vehicle (p= 0.06), which resolved shortly thereafter. One day after OA, ultrasounds revealed that Hi PM exposure increased end diastolic volume (EDV) by 16% (p = 0.03) over Vehicle and 13% (p = 0.06) over Lo PM. In addition,

  4. Plasma surface modification of rigid contact lenses decreases bacterial adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingming; Qian, Xuefeng; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Xia, Wei; Zhong, Lei; Sun, Zhengtai; Xia, Jing

    2013-11-01

    Contact lens safety is an important topic in clinical studies. Corneal infections usually occur because of the use of bacteria-carrying contact lenses. The current study investigated the impact of plasma surface modification on bacterial adherence to rigid contact lenses made of fluorosilicone acrylate materials. Boston XO and XO2 contact lenses were modified using plasma technology (XO-P and XO2-P groups). Untreated lenses were used as controls. Plasma-treated and control lenses were incubated in solutions containing Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. MTT colorimetry, colony-forming unit counting method, and scanning electron microscopy were used to measure bacterial adhesion. MTT colorimetry measurements showed that the optical density (OD) values of XO-P and XO2-P were significantly lower than those of XO and XO2, respectively, after incubation with S. aureus (P lenses and to the XO2-P versus XO2 lenses incubated with S. aureus (P lenses incubated with P. aeruginosa (P lenses. Plasma surface modification can significantly decrease bacterial adhesion to fluorosilicone acrylate contact lenses. This study provides important evidence of a unique benefit of plasma technology in contact lens surface modification.

  5. Experience with dynamic reinforcement rates decreases resistance to extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Andrew R; Shahan, Timothy A

    2016-03-01

    The ability of organisms to detect reinforcer-rate changes in choice preparations is positively related to two factors: the magnitude of the change in rate and the frequency with which rates change. Gallistel (2012) suggested similar rate-detection processes are responsible for decreases in responding during operant extinction. Although effects of magnitude of change in reinforcer rate on resistance to extinction are well known (e.g., the partial-reinforcement-extinction effect), effects of frequency of changes in rate prior to extinction are unknown. Thus, the present experiments examined whether frequency of changes in baseline reinforcer rates impacts resistance to extinction. Pigeons pecked keys for variable-interval food under conditions where reinforcer rates were stable and where they changed within and between sessions. Overall reinforcer rates between conditions were controlled. In Experiment 1, resistance to extinction was lower following exposure to dynamic reinforcement schedules than to static schedules. Experiment 2 showed that resistance to presession feeding, a disruptor that should not involve change-detection processes, was unaffected by baseline-schedule dynamics. These findings are consistent with the suggestion that change detection contributes to extinction. We discuss implications of change-detection processes for extinction of simple and discriminated operant behavior and relate these processes to the behavioral-momentum based approach to understanding extinction. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  6. Desacyl Ghrelin Decreases Anxiety-like Behavior in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahbod, Parinaz; Smith, Eric P; Fitzgerald, Maureen E; Morano, Rachel L; Packard, Benjamin A; Ghosal, Sriparna; Scheimann, Jessie R; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Herman, James P; Tong, Jenny

    2018-01-01

    Ghrelin is a 28-amino acid polypeptide that regulates feeding, glucose metabolism, and emotionality (stress, anxiety, and depression). Plasma ghrelin circulates as desacyl ghrelin (DAG) or, in an acylated form, acyl ghrelin (AG), through the actions of ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT), exhibiting low or high affinity, respectively, for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) 1a. We investigated the role of endogenous AG, DAG, and GHSR1a signaling on anxiety and stress responses using ghrelin knockout (Ghr KO), GOAT KO, and Ghsr stop-floxed (Ghsr null) mice. Behavioral and hormonal responses were tested in the elevated plus maze and light/dark (LD) box. Mice lacking both AG and DAG (Ghr KO) increased anxiety-like behaviors across tests, whereas anxiety reactions were attenuated in DAG-treated Ghr KO mice and in mice lacking AG (GOAT KO). Notably, loss of GHSR1a (Ghsr null) did not affect anxiety-like behavior in any test. Administration of AG and DAG to Ghr KO mice with lifelong ghrelin deficiency reduced anxiety-like behavior and decreased phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus in wild-type mice, a site normally expressing GHSR1a and involved in stress- and anxiety-related behavior. Collectively, our data demonstrate distinct roles for endogenous AG and DAG in regulation of anxiety responses and suggest that the behavioral impact of ghrelin may be context dependent. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  7. Black carbon radiative forcing at TOA decreased during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu; Cheng, Tianhai; Zheng, Lijuan; Chen, Hao

    2016-12-05

    During aging processing, black carbon (also called soot) particles may tend to be mixed with other aerosols, and highly influence their radiative forcing. In this study, freshly emitted soot particles were simulated as fractal aggregates composed of small spherical primary monomers. After aging in the atmosphere, soot monomers were coated by a thinly layer of sulfate as thinly coated soot particles. These soot particles were entirely embedded into large sulfate particle by further aging, and becoming heavily coated soot particles. In clear-sky conditions, black carbon radiative forcing with different aging states were investigated for the bottom and top of atmosphere (BOA and TOA). The simulations showed that black carbon radiative forcing increased at BOA and decreased at TOA after their aging processes. Thinly and heavily coated states increased up to ~12% and ~35% black carbon radiative forcing at BOA, and black carbon radiative forcing at TOA can reach to ~20% and ~100% smaller for thinly and heavily coated states than those of freshly emitted states, respectively. The effect of aging states of black carbon radiative forcing was varied with surface albedo, aerosol optical depth and solar zenith angles. These findings would be helpful for the assessments of climate change.

  8. Appreciation of humor is decreased among patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Avner; Posen, Jennie; Giladi, Nir; Manor, Yael; Mayanz, Connie; Mirelman, Anat; Gurevich, Tanya

    2012-02-01

    To test whether appreciation of humor might be a non-motor function affected by Parkinson's disease (PD). Thirty-nine PD patients and 38 healthy controls participated in this study. Appreciation of humor and effect of the presentation method utilized were assessed. Sense of humor was evaluated by the sense of humor questionnaire (SHQ-6). Humor appreciation was tested using three methods of presentation: videos, audio sketches and pictorial cartoons, each portraying both obvious and non-obvious humor content. Depression, anxiety, cognition, disease severity and quality of life were measured by standardized questionnaires and correlated with humor outcomes. Patients with PD rated humor content lower than controls on every method of presentation as well as on the SHQ-6 (p = 0.004). The greatest between-group difference was noted when the material was presented visually via pictorial cartoons (p < 0.0001). In addition, obvious humor content was rated higher than non-obvious content by the PD group in all three presentation methods (p < 0.05). The degree of depression and anxiety did not influence these results. Patients with PD have a decreased sense of humor compared to healthy controls. Utilizing audio methods of presentation and humor in an obvious mode appears to be the preferred approach for eliciting responses to humor in a PD population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Decrease in coronary vascular volume in systole augments cardiac contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemsen, M J; Duncker, D J; Krams, R; Dijkman, M A; Lamberts, R R; Sipkema, P; Westerhof, N

    2001-08-01

    Coronary arterial inflow is impeded and venous outflow is increased as a result of the decrease in coronary vascular volume due to cardiac contraction. We evaluated whether cardiac contraction is influenced by interfering with the changes of the coronary vascular volume over the heart cycle. Length-tension relationships were determined in Tyrode-perfused rat papillary muscle and when coronary vascular volume changes were partly inhibited by filling it with congealed gelatin or perfusing it with a high viscosity dextran buffer. Also, myocyte thickening during contraction was reduced by placing a silicon tube around the muscle. Increasing perfusion pressure from 8 to 80 cmH2O, increased developed tension by approximately 40%. When compared with the low perfusion state, developed tension of the gelatin-filled vasculature was reduced to 43 +/- 6% at the muscle length where the muscle generates the largest developed tension (n = 5, means +/- SE). Dextran reduced developed tension to 73 +/- 6% (n = 6). The silicon tube, in low perfusion state, reduced the developed tension to 83 +/- 7% (n = 4) of control. Time-control and oxygen-lowering experiments show that the findings are based on mechanical effects. Thus interventions to prevent myocyte thickening reduce developed tension. We hypothesize that when myocyte thickening is prevented, intracellular pressure increases and counteracts the force produced by the contractile apparatus. We conclude that emptying of the coronary vasculature serves a physiological purpose by facilitating cardiomyocyte thickening thereby augmenting force development.

  10. Decreased antibody formation in mice exposed to lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koller, L D; Kovacic, S

    1974-07-12

    Swiss Webster mice were given 1375, 137.5, or 13.75 ppM lead acetate in deionized water for 56 days. The control group was given deionized water orally. There were 120 mice in each group. The diet fed to all the mice was contaminated with 1.12 ppM lead. After 56 days, all mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with 0.2 ml of a 2% suspension of sheep red blood cells. Ten mice in each group were killed on days 3 to 7 to measure primary immune response (19S or IgM antibody) and on days 9 to 14 for the secondary response (7S or IgG antibody) after a second inoculation of sheep red blood cells while they remained on 137.5 ppM lead. The number of plaque forming cells was measured in the spleen. Erythrocytes were observed for basophilic stippling, packed cell volume was measured, serum was collected for hemolysin titration, and kidneys were examined for lead. Chronic exposure to lead produced a significant decrease in antibody synthesis, particularly IgG, indicating that the memory cell was involved. The results also indicated that the reduced antibody synthesis was responsible for the increased mortality from bacterial and viral diseases in animals that were chronically exposed to lead. Other environmental contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls, cadmium, mercury, DDT, and sulfur dioxide have also resulted in reduction of circulating antibodies in animals, in other experiments.

  11. Enhanced precipitation variability decreases grass- and increases shrub-productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherardi, Laureano A.; Sala, Osvaldo E.

    2015-01-01

    Although projections of precipitation change indicate increases in variability, most studies of impacts of climate change on ecosystems focused on effects of changes in amount of precipitation, overlooking precipitation variability effects, especially at the interannual scale. Here, we present results from a 6-y field experiment, where we applied sequences of wet and dry years, increasing interannual precipitation coefficient of variation while maintaining a precipitation amount constant. Increased precipitation variability significantly reduced ecosystem primary production. Dominant plant-functional types showed opposite responses: perennial-grass productivity decreased by 81%, whereas shrub productivity increased by 67%. This pattern was explained by different nonlinear responses to precipitation. Grass productivity presented a saturating response to precipitation where dry years had a larger negative effect than the positive effects of wet years. In contrast, shrubs showed an increasing response to precipitation that resulted in an increase in average productivity with increasing precipitation variability. In addition, the effects of precipitation variation increased through time. We argue that the differential responses of grasses and shrubs to precipitation variability and the amplification of this phenomenon through time result from contrasting root distributions of grasses and shrubs and competitive interactions among plant types, confirmed by structural equation analysis. Under drought conditions, grasses reduce their abundance and their ability to absorb water that then is transferred to deep soil layers that are exclusively explored by shrubs. Our work addresses an understudied dimension of climate change that might lead to widespread shrub encroachment reducing the provisioning of ecosystem services to society. PMID:26417095

  12. Analyses of Decrease in Reactor Coolant Flow Rate in SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Rae; Bae, Kyoo Hwan; Choi, Suhn

    2011-01-01

    SMART is a small integral reactor, which is under development at KAERI to get the standard design approval by the end of 2011. SMART works like a pressurized light-water reactor in principle though it is more compact than large commercial reactors. SMART houses major components such as steam generators, a pressurizer, and reactor coolant pumps inside the reactor pressure vessel. Due to its compact design, SMART adopts a canned-motor type reactor coolant pump which has much smaller rotational inertia than the ones used in commercial reactors. As a consequence, the reactor coolant pump has very short coastdown time and reactor coolant flow rate decreases more severely compared to commercial reactors. The transients initiated by reduction of reactor coolant flow rate have been analyzed to ensure that SMART can be safely shutdown on such transients. The design basis events in this category are complete loss of flow, single pump locked rotor with loss of offsite power, and single pump shaft break with loss of offsite power

  13. Induced optimism as mental rehearsal to decrease depressive predictive certainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Regina; Weierich, Mariann; Khait, Valerie; Jurska, Justyna; Andersen, Susan M

    2017-03-01

    The present study examined whether practice in making optimistic future-event predictions would result in change in the hopelessness-related cognitions that characterize depression. Individuals (N = 170) with low, mild, and moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms were randomly assigned to a condition in which they practiced making optimistic future-event predictions or to a control condition in which they viewed the same stimuli but practiced determining whether a given phrase contained an adjective. Overall, individuals in the induced optimism condition showed increases in optimistic predictions, relative to the control condition, as a result of practice, but only individuals with moderate-to-severe symptoms of depression who practiced making optimistic future-event predictions showed decreases in depressive predictive certainty, relative to the control condition. In addition, they showed gains in efficiency in making optimistic predictions over the practice blocks, as assessed by response time. There was no difference in depressed mood by practice condition. Mental rehearsal might be one way of changing the hopelessness-related cognitions that characterize depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A projected decrease in lightning under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, Declan L.; Doherty, Ruth M.; Wild, Oliver; Stevenson, David S.; MacKenzie, Ian A.; Blyth, Alan M.

    2018-03-01

    Lightning strongly influences atmospheric chemistry1-3, and impacts the frequency of natural wildfires4. Most previous studies project an increase in global lightning with climate change over the coming century1,5-7, but these typically use parameterizations of lightning that neglect cloud ice fluxes, a component generally considered to be fundamental to thunderstorm charging8. As such, the response of lightning to climate change is uncertain. Here, we compare lightning projections for 2100 using two parameterizations: the widely used cloud-top height (CTH) approach9, and a new upward cloud ice flux (IFLUX) approach10 that overcomes previous limitations. In contrast to the previously reported global increase in lightning based on CTH, we find a 15% decrease in total lightning flash rate with IFLUX in 2100 under a strong global warming scenario. Differences are largest in the tropics, where most lightning occurs, with implications for the estimation of future changes in tropospheric ozone and methane, as well as differences in their radiative forcings. These results suggest that lightning schemes more closely related to cloud ice and microphysical processes are needed to robustly estimate future changes in lightning and atmospheric composition.

  15. Ayahuasca enhances creative divergent thinking while decreasing conventional convergent thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuypers, K P C; Riba, J; de la Fuente Revenga, M; Barker, S; Theunissen, E L; Ramaekers, J G

    2016-09-01

    Ayahuasca is a South American psychotropic plant tea traditionally used in Amazonian shamanism. The tea contains the psychedelic 5-HT2A receptor agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), plus β-carboline alkaloids with monoamine oxidase-inhibiting properties. Increasing evidence from anecdotal reports and open-label studies indicates that ayahuasca may have therapeutic effects in treatment of substance use disorders and depression. A recent study on the psychological effects of ayahuasca found that the tea reduces judgmental processing and inner reactivity, classic goals of mindfulness psychotherapy. Another psychological facet that could potentially be targeted by ayahuasca is creative divergent thinking. This mode of thinking can enhance and strengthen psychological flexibility by allowing individuals to generate new and effective cognitive, emotional, and behavioral strategies. The present study aimed to assess the potential effects of ayahuasca on creative thinking. We visited two spiritual ayahuasca workshops and invited participants to conduct creativity tests before and during the acute effects of ayahuasca. In total, 26 participants consented. Creativity tests included the "pattern/line meanings test" (PLMT) and the "picture concept test" (PCT), both assessing divergent thinking and the latter also assessing convergent thinking. While no significant effects were found for the PLMT, ayahuasca intake significantly modified divergent and convergent thinking as measured by the PCT. While convergent thinking decreased after intake, divergent thinking increased. The present data indicate that ayahuasca enhances creative divergent thinking. They suggest that ayahuasca increases psychological flexibility, which may facilitate psychotherapeutic interventions and support clinical trial initiatives.

  16. Exercise increases lactoferrin, but decreases lysozyme in salivary granulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillum, Trevor; Kuennen, Matthew; McKenna, Zachary; Castillo, Micaela; Jordan-Patterson, Alex; Bohnert, Caitlin

    2017-05-01

    Intracellular lactoferrin (Lac) and lysozyme (Lys) content play an important role in regulating inflammation and promoting host protection. While exercise has demonstrated an increase in Lac and Lys concentration in exocrine solutions, little is known regarding intracellular concentration changes in response to exercise. To quantify intracellular Lac and Lys concentration before and after exercise in salivary CD45 + CD15 + cells. 11 males (20.3 ± 0.8 years, 57.2 ± 7.6 mL/kg/min V̇O 2pk , 11.1 ± 3.9% body fat) ran for 45 min at 75% of VO 2pk . 12 mL of stimulated saliva were collected pre and immediately post exercise. Saliva was filtered through a 30-µm filter before analysis of leukocytes (CD45 + ) and granulocytes (CD45 + CD15 + ) using flow cytometry. Median fluorescent intensity (MFI) of Lac increased from pre (64,268 ± 46,036 MFI) to post (117,134 ± 88,115 MFI) exercise (p exercise (pre: 16,933 ± 8249; post: 11,616 ± 6875) (p exercise. Conversely, the exercise-associated decrease of intracellular Lys content could be the cause of increased Lys in exocrine solutions.

  17. Soil salinity decreases global soil organic carbon stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Raj; Gottschalk, Pia; Smith, Pete; Marschner, Petra; Baldock, Jeff; Setia, Deepika; Smith, Jo

    2013-11-01

    Saline soils cover 3.1% (397 million hectare) of the total land area of the world. The stock of soil organic carbon (SOC) reflects the balance between carbon (C) inputs from plants, and losses through decomposition, leaching and erosion. Soil salinity decreases plant productivity and hence C inputs to the soil, but also microbial activity and therefore SOC decomposition rates. Using a modified Rothamsted Carbon model (RothC) with a newly introduced salinity decomposition rate modifier and a plant input modifier we estimate that, historically, world soils that are currently saline have lost an average of 3.47 tSOC ha(-1) since they became saline. With the extent of saline soils predicted to increase in the future, our modelling suggests that world soils may lose 6.8 Pg SOC due to salinity by the year 2100. Our findings suggest that current models overestimate future global SOC stocks and underestimate net CO2 emissions from the soil-plant system by not taking salinity effects into account. From the perspective of enhancing soil C stocks, however, given the lower SOC decomposition rate in saline soils, salt tolerant plants could be used to sequester C in salt-affected areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Bogarting that joint might decrease oral HPV among cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwenger, S R

    2009-12-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) has many known strains, two of the most well studied perhaps being the high-risk types 16 and 18. These strains have attracted more interest because they are known to disrupt tumour-suppressor genes that control the cell cycle, rendering those genes less effective at keeping cell division in check.Within the last decade, an increase in oral hpv-linked cancers of the throat and tongue has been attributed to exposure and contraction of hpv through oral sex, most notably in younger people. An understudied and arguably equal contributor to oral hpv infection might be indirect contact with an infected person. Presented here is a brief but important perspective on the relationship between cannabis use and oral cancer. The development of oral cancer is not a result of smoking cannabis per se; rather, it is hypothesized to be a result of contracting hpv through various forms of sharing and passing joints and other smoking apparatuses. Therefore, it is hypothesized that bogarting (and not passing) joints might decrease oral hpv among cannabis smokers. Future research should therefore investigate the prevalence of oral hpv in cannabis smokers to better understand its epidemiology.

  19. DECREASE OF SOLIDS IN GRAY WATER BY AERATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Alonso Torres-Avalos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The activated sludge process is a biological treatment consisting basically of agitation and aeration of a waste water mixture and a selected microorganisms sludge. The oxidation of organic matter was determined with several tests such as BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand, TSS (Total Sedimented Solids, SS (Sediment Solids, TDS (Total Dissolved Solids, FVS (fixed and volatile solids and finally a measurement of treated water turbidity. The results obtained for the reduction of the organic load during the first two days of treatment (samples 1, 2 and 3 are visible in each of the organic loading tests; during the last two days according to the samples 4 and 5 the solids showed an increase in organic load. The related organoleptic properties such as color showed a notable decrease. As for the tests performed at pH show a change, samples 1, 2 and 3 approaching a range where they are neutral and the last two samples (4 and 5 the pH has an elevation until it becomes alkaline. The efficiency of the method used for the treatment of residual water during the first days reduced the organic load with a variation of TS and TSS of 760, 569 ppm respectively. This is a viable alternative since this is a low cost method with short term results because organoleptic properties such as odor and color were lost during the first day of treatment.

  20. Mdr65 decreases toxicity of multiple insecticides in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haina; Buchon, Nicolas; Scott, Jeffrey G

    2017-10-01

    ABC transporters are ubiquitous membrane-bound proteins, present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The major function of eukaryotic ABC transporters is to mediate the efflux of a variety of substrates (including xenobiotics) out of cells. ABC transporters have been widely investigated in humans, particularly for their involvement in multidrug resistance (MDR). Considerably less is known about their roles in transport and/or excretion in insects. ABC transporters are only known to function as exporters in insects. Drosophila melanogaster has 56 ABC transporter genes, including eight which are phylogenetically most similar to the human Mdr genes (ABCB1 clade). We investigated the role of ABC transporters in the ABCB1 clade in modulating the susceptibility to insecticides. We took advantage of the GAL4/UAS system in D. melanogaster to knockdown the expression levels of Mdr65, Mdr50, Mdr49 and ABCB6 using transgenic UAS-RNAi lines and conditional driver lines. The most notable effects were increased sensitivities to nine different insecticides by silencing of Mdr65. Furthermore, a null mutation of Mdr65 decreased the malathion, malaoxon and fipronil LC 50 values by a factor of 1.9, 2.1 and 3.9, respectively. Altogether, this data demonstrates the critical role of ABC transporters, particularly Mdr65, in altering the toxicity of specific, structurally diverse, insecticides in D. melanogaster. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Decreased attention to object size information in scale errors performers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzyb, Beata J; Cangelosi, Angelo; Cattani, Allegra; Floccia, Caroline

    2017-05-01

    Young children sometimes make serious attempts to perform impossible actions on miniature objects as if they were full-size objects. The existing explanations of these curious action errors assume (but never explicitly tested) children's decreased attention to object size information. This study investigated the attention to object size information in scale errors performers. Two groups of children aged 18-25 months (N=52) and 48-60 months (N=23) were tested in two consecutive tasks: an action task that replicated the original scale errors elicitation situation, and a looking task that involved watching on a computer screen actions performed with adequate to inadequate size object. Our key finding - that children performing scale errors in the action task subsequently pay less attention to size changes than non-scale errors performers in the looking task - suggests that the origins of scale errors in childhood operate already at the perceptual level, and not at the action level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Peripheral benzodiazepine receptors are decreased during cocaine withdrawal in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, J I; Notorangelo, M P; Pandey, S C; Reddy, P L; Pandey, G N; Davis, J M

    1994-07-01

    In the present study, homovanillic acid in plasma (pHVA) and benzodiazepine receptors (3H-PK11195 binding) in neutrophil membranes were determined in blood obtained from cocaine-dependent (DSM-III-R) adult male inpatients at baseline-(within 72 hr of last cocaine use) and after 3 weeks of cocaine abstinence, and normal controls. The mean (+/- SEM) pHVA at baseline (10.3 ng/ml +/- 1.1) was similar to normals and did not change after 3 weeks of cocaine abstinence. Similarly, the binding indices of benzodiazepine receptors in cocaine-dependent subjects as a group were not significantly different than in normal controls. In 10 cocaine-dependent subjects, however, where both blood samples were available, the number of 3H-PK11195 binding sites was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased after 3 weeks of cocaine abstinence (mean +/- sem: Bmax = 6371 +/- 657 fmol/mg protein) compared with baseline (Bmax = 7553 +/- 925 fmol/mg protein), although there were no differences in the binding affinity (mean +/- sem: KD = 8.6 +/- 1.2 nmol/L after 3 weeks of abstinence compared with 8.1 +/- 1.0 nmol/L at baseline). These preliminary results suggest that peripheral benzodiazepine receptors may play an important role in the pathophysiology of cocaine withdrawal in cocaine-dependent human subjects.

  3. Decreased cerebral blood flow in renal transplant recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamano, Chisako; Komaba, Yuichi; Sakayori, Osamu; Iino, Yasuhiko; Katayama, Yasuo

    2002-01-01

    We performed single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to investigate the influence of renal transplantation on cerebral blood flow (CBF). Fifteen renal transplant recipients and twelve normal subjects underwent cerebral SPECT with N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I] iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP). All transplant recipients received prednisolone and cyclosporine (CyA). Regional CBF (rCBF) was measured by defining regions of interest in the cerebral cortex, deep white matter, striatum, thalamus, and cerebellum. In transplant recipients, correlations to the mean overall cortical CBF were assessed using the interval from transplantation to measurement of SPECT, as well as the serum creatinine concentration. Moreover, to investigate the influence of CyA on CBF, the correlation between mean overall cortical CBF and CyA trough concentrations was assessed. In all regions, CBF in renal transplant recipients was significantly lower than in normal subjects. No significant correlation was seen between serum creatinine, interval from transplantation, or CyA trough concentrations and mean overall cortical CBF. Renal transplant recipients demonstrated a decrease in CBF, that can have an associated secondary pathology. Therefore, renal transplant recipients may benefit from post-operative MRI or CT. (author)

  4. Dynamics of myelin content decrease in the rat stroke model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisel, A.; Khodanovich, M.; Atochin, D.; Mustafina, L.; Yarnykh, V.

    2017-08-01

    The majority of studies were usually focused on neuronal death after brain ischemia; however, stroke affects all cell types including oligodendrocytes that form myelin sheath in the CNS. Our study is focused on the changes of myelin content in the ischemic core and neighbor structures in early terms (1, 3 and 10 days) after stroke. Stroke was modeled with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) in 15 male rats that were divided into three groups by time points after operation. Brain sections were histologically stained with Luxol Fast Blue (LFB) for myelin quantification. The significant demyelination was found in the ischemic core, corpus callosum, anterior commissure, whereas myelin content was increased in caudoputamen, internal capsule and piriform cortex compared with the contralateral hemisphere. The motor cortex showed a significant increase of myelin content on the 1st day and a significant decrease on the 3rd and 10th days after MCAo. These results suggest that stroke influences myelination not only in the ischemic core but also in distant structures.

  5. Aerobic exercise decreases the positive-reinforcing effects of cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark A; Schmidt, Karl T; Iordanou, Jordan C; Mustroph, Martina L

    2008-11-01

    Aerobic exercise can serve as an alternative, non-drug reinforcer in laboratory animals and has been recommended as a potential intervention for substance abusing populations. Unfortunately, relatively little empirical data have been collected that specifically address the possible protective effects of voluntary, long-term exercise on measures of drug self-administration. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of chronic exercise on sensitivity to the positive-reinforcing effects of cocaine in the drug self-administration procedure. Female rats were obtained at weaning and immediately divided into two groups. Sedentary rats were housed individually in standard laboratory cages that permitted no exercise beyond normal cage ambulation; exercising rats were housed individually in modified cages equipped with a running wheel. After 6 weeks under these conditions, rats were surgically implanted with venous catheters and trained to self-administer cocaine on a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement. Once self-administration was acquired, cocaine was made available on a progressive ratio schedule and breakpoints were obtained for various doses of cocaine. Sedentary and exercising rats did not differ in the time to acquire cocaine self-administration or responding on the fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement. However, on the progressive ratio schedule, breakpoints were significantly lower in exercising rats than sedentary rats when responding was maintained by both low (0.3mg/kg/infusion) and high (1.0mg/kg/infusion) doses of cocaine. In exercising rats, greater exercise output prior to catheter implantation was associated with lower breakpoints at the high dose of cocaine. These data indicate that chronic exercise decreases the positive-reinforcing effects of cocaine and support the possibility that exercise may be an effective intervention in drug abuse prevention and treatment programs.

  6. Decreased RECQL5 correlated with disease progression of osteosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Junlong; Zhi, Liqiang; Dai, Xin; Cai, Qingchun; Ma, Wei, E-mail: doctormawei@163.com

    2015-11-27

    Human RecQ helicase family, consisting of RECQL, RECQL4, RECQL5, BLM and WRN, has critical roles in genetic stability and tumorigenesis. Although RECQL5 has been reported to correlate with the susceptibility to malignances including osteosarcoma, the specific effect on tumor genesis and progression is not yet clarified. Here we focused on the relationship between RECQL5 expression and osteosarcoma disease progression, and further investigated the function of RECQL5 on MG-63 cell proliferation and apoptosis. By immunohistochemical analysis, qRT-PCR and western blot, we found that RECQL5 expression was downregulated in osteosarcoma tissues and cells. Patients with advanced tumor stage and low grade expressed lower RECQL5. To construct a stable RECQL5 overexpression osteosarcoma cell line (MG-63-RECQL5), RECQL5 gene was inserted into the human AAVS1 safe harbor by CRISPR/Cas9 system. The overexpression of RECQL5 was verified by qRT-PCR and western blot. Cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis assay revealed that RECQL5 overexpression inhibited proliferation, induced G1-phase arrest and promoted apoptosis in MG-63 cells. Collectively, our results suggested RECQL5 as a tumor suppressor in osteosarcoma and may be a potential therapeutic target for osteosarcoma treatment. - Highlights: • The expression of RECQL5 was downregulated in osteosarcoma tissues and cells. • Decreased RECQL5 correlated with osteosarcoma Enneking surgical classification. • We constructed a stable RECQL5 overexpression cell line by CRISPR/Cas9 system. • RECQL5 overexpression inhibited proliferation of MG-63 cells. • RECQL5 overexpression promoted apoptosis of MG-63 cells.

  7. Decrease in pulmonary function and oxygenation after lung resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Cristina Brocki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory deficits are common following curative intent lung cancer surgery and may reduce the patient's ability to be physically active. We evaluated the influence of surgery on pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and physical performance after lung resection. Pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength (maximal inspiratory/expiratory pressure and 6-min walk test (6MWT were assessed pre-operatively, 2 weeks post-operatively and 6 months post-operatively in 80 patients (age 68±9 years. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery was performed in 58% of cases. Two weeks post-operatively, we found a significant decline in pulmonary function (forced vital capacity −0.6±0.6 L and forced expiratory volume in 1 s −0.43±0.4 L; both p<0.0001, 6MWT (−37.6±74.8 m; p<0.0001 and oxygenation (−2.9±4.7 units; p<0.001, while maximal inspiratory and maximal expiratory pressure were unaffected. At 6 months post-operatively, pulmonary function and oxygenation remained significantly decreased (p<0.001, whereas 6MWT was recovered. We conclude that lung resection has a significant short- and long-term impact on pulmonary function and oxygenation, but not on respiratory muscle strength. Future research should focus on mechanisms negatively influencing post-operative pulmonary function other than impaired respiratory muscle strength.

  8. Decreased RECQL5 correlated with disease progression of osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Junlong; Zhi, Liqiang; Dai, Xin; Cai, Qingchun; Ma, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Human RecQ helicase family, consisting of RECQL, RECQL4, RECQL5, BLM and WRN, has critical roles in genetic stability and tumorigenesis. Although RECQL5 has been reported to correlate with the susceptibility to malignances including osteosarcoma, the specific effect on tumor genesis and progression is not yet clarified. Here we focused on the relationship between RECQL5 expression and osteosarcoma disease progression, and further investigated the function of RECQL5 on MG-63 cell proliferation and apoptosis. By immunohistochemical analysis, qRT-PCR and western blot, we found that RECQL5 expression was downregulated in osteosarcoma tissues and cells. Patients with advanced tumor stage and low grade expressed lower RECQL5. To construct a stable RECQL5 overexpression osteosarcoma cell line (MG-63-RECQL5), RECQL5 gene was inserted into the human AAVS1 safe harbor by CRISPR/Cas9 system. The overexpression of RECQL5 was verified by qRT-PCR and western blot. Cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis assay revealed that RECQL5 overexpression inhibited proliferation, induced G1-phase arrest and promoted apoptosis in MG-63 cells. Collectively, our results suggested RECQL5 as a tumor suppressor in osteosarcoma and may be a potential therapeutic target for osteosarcoma treatment. - Highlights: • The expression of RECQL5 was downregulated in osteosarcoma tissues and cells. • Decreased RECQL5 correlated with osteosarcoma Enneking surgical classification. • We constructed a stable RECQL5 overexpression cell line by CRISPR/Cas9 system. • RECQL5 overexpression inhibited proliferation of MG-63 cells. • RECQL5 overexpression promoted apoptosis of MG-63 cells.

  9. Cigarette Smoke Decreases the Maturation of Lung Myeloid Dendritic Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Arellano-Orden

    Full Text Available Conflicting data exist on the role of pulmonary dendritic cells (DCs and their maturation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Herein, we investigated whether disease severity and smoking status could affect the distribution and maturation of DCs in lung tissues of patients undergoing elective pneumectomy or lobectomy for suspected primary lung cancer.A total of 75 consecutive patients were included. Spirometry testing was used to identify COPD. Lung parenchyma sections anatomically distant from the primary lesion were examined. We used flow cytometry to identify different DCs subtypes-including BDCA1-positive myeloid DCs (mDCs, BDCA3-positive mDCs, and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs-and determine their maturation markers (CD40, CD80, CD83, and CD86 in all participants. We also identified follicular DCs (fDCs, Langerhans DCs (LDCs, and pDCs in 42 patients by immunohistochemistry.COPD was diagnosed in 43 patients (16 current smokers and 27 former smokers, whereas the remaining 32 subjects were classified as non-COPD (11 current smokers, 13 former smokers, and 8 never smokers. The number and maturation of DCs did not differ significantly between COPD and non-COPD patients. However, the results of flow cytometry indicated that maturation markers CD40 and CD83 of BDCA1-positive mDCs were significantly decreased in smokers than in non-smokers (P = 0.023 and 0.013, respectively. Immunohistochemistry also revealed a lower number of LDCs in COPD patients than in non-COPD subjects.Cigarette smoke, rather than airflow limitation, is the main determinant of impaired DCs maturation in the lung.

  10. Liming Poultry Manures to Kill Pathogens and Decrease Soluble Phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maguire, R.; Hesterberg, D.; Gernat, A.; Anderson, K.; Wineland, M.; Grimes, J.

    2006-01-01

    Received for publication September 9, 2005. Stabilizing phosphorus (P) in poultry waste to reduce P losses from manured soils is important to protect surface waters, while pathogens in manures are an emerging issue. This study was conducted to evaluate CaO and Ca(OH) 2 for killing manure bacterial populations (pathogens) and stabilizing P in poultry wastes and to investigate the influence on soils following amendment with the treated wastes. Layer manure and broiler litter varying in moisture content were treated with CaO and Ca(OH) 2 at rates of 2.5, 5, 10, and 15% by weight. All treated wastes were analyzed for microbial plate counts, pH, and water-soluble phosphorus (WSP), while a few selected layer manures were analyzed by phosphorus X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). A loamy sand and a silt loam were amended with broiler litter and layer manure treated with CaO at rates of 0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 15% and soil WSP and pH were measured at times 1, 8, and 29 d. Liming reduced bacterial populations, with greater rates of lime leading to greater reductions; for example 10% CaO applied to 20% solids broiler litter reduced the plate counts from 793 000 to 6500 mL -1 . Liming also reduced the WSP in the manures by over 90% in all cases where at least 10% CaO was added. Liming the manures also reduced WSP in soils immediately following application and raised soil pH. The liming process used successfully reduced plate counts and concerns about P losses in runoff following land application of these limed products due to decreased WSP

  11. Exercise Decreases and Smoking Increases Bladder Cancer Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, Michael A; White, Martha; Natarajan, Loki; Parsons, J Kellogg

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate modifiable lifestyle factors of smoking, exercise, and obesity with bladder cancer mortality. We used mortality-linked data from the National Health Information Survey from 1998 through 2006. The primary outcome was bladder cancer-specific mortality. The primary exposures were self-reported smoking status (never- vs. former vs. current smoker), self-reported exercise (dichotomized as "did no exercise" vs. "light, moderate, or vigorous exercise in ≥ 10-minute bouts"), and body mass index. We utilized multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models, with delayed entry to account for age at survey interview. Complete data were available on 222,163 participants, of whom 96,715 (44%) were men and 146,014 (66%) were non-Hispanic whites, and among whom we identified 83 bladder cancer-specific deaths. In multivariate analyses, individuals who reported any exercise were 47% less likely (adjusted hazard ratio [HR adj ], 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.29-0.96; P = .038) to die of bladder cancer than "no exercise". Compared with never-smokers, current (HR adj , 4.24; 95% CI, 1.89-9.65; P = .001) and former (HR adj , 2.95; 95% CI, 1.50-5.79; P = .002) smokers were 4 and 3 times more likely, respectively, to die of bladder cancer. There were no significant associations of body mass index with bladder cancer mortality. Exercise decreases and current smoking increases the risk of bladder cancer-specific mortality. These data suggest that exercise and smoking cessation interventions may reduce bladder cancer death. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Increased physical activity decreases periodontitis risk in men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchant, Anwar T.; Pitiphat, Waranuch; Rimm, Eric B.; Joshipura, Kaumudi

    2003-01-01

    Background: Increased physical activity improves insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism, and may therefore affect incidence of periodontitis. Methods: We studied the association of physical activity, walking and periodontitis in 39,461 male, US based, health professionals, 40-75 years old at baseline, more than half of whom were dentists, being followed up continuously since 1986. Participants were free of periodontitis, coronary heart disease and stroke at the start of follow-up. Physical activity and periodontitis were measured by validated questionnaires (expressed in metabolic equivalents - METs); the first report of professionally diagnosed periodontitis was considered a case. Results: Periodontitis risk decreased by 3% for every 10-MET increase in average physical activity after adjustment for age, smoking, diabetes, BMI, alcohol consumption and total calories (RR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95-0.99). The inverse trend remained significant in the categorical analysis. Compared to men in the lowest quintile of physical activity, those in the highest quintile had a 13% lower risk of periodontitis (RR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.76-1.01, p-value, test for trend = 0.02). In a sub-sample of men with radiographs (n = 137) the physically active had less average bone loss (β = -0.29, p-value = 0.03) after multivariate adjustment compared to those inactive. Conclusions: In this large-scale prospective study, we found an inverse, linear association between sustained physical activity and periodontitis independent of known risk factors. The benefits of a physically active lifestyle may extend to periodontal health

  13. Training improves laparoscopic tasks performance and decreases operator workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jesse S L; Lu, Jirong; Tan, Wee Boon; Lomanto, Davide

    2016-05-01

    It has been postulated that increased operator workload during task performance may increase fatigue and surgical errors. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) is a validated tool for self-assessment for workload. Our study aims to assess the relationship of workload and performance of novices in simulated laparoscopic tasks of different complexity levels before and after training. Forty-seven novices without prior laparoscopic experience were recruited in a trial to investigate whether training improves task performance as well as mental workload. The participants were tested on three standard tasks (ring transfer, precision cutting and intracorporeal suturing) in increasing complexity based on the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) curriculum. Following a period of training and rest, participants were tested again. Test scores were computed from time taken and time penalties for precision errors. Test scores and NASA-TLX scores were recorded pre- and post-training and analysed using paired t tests. One-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyse differences in NASA-TLX scores between the three tasks. NASA-TLX score was lowest with ring transfer and highest with intracorporeal suturing. This was statistically significant in both pre-training (p NASA-TLX scores mirror the changes in test scores for the three tasks. Workload scores decreased significantly after training for all three tasks (ring transfer = 2.93, p NASA-TLX score is an accurate reflection of the complexity of simulated laparoscopic tasks in the FLS curriculum. This also correlates with the relationship of test scores between the three tasks. Simulation training improves both performance score and workload score across the tasks.

  14. Ramadan Fasting Decreases Body Fat but Not Protein Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrial Syam, Ari; Suryani Sobur, Cecep; Abdullah, Murdani; Makmun, Dadang

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have shown various results regarding the effects of Ramadan fasting on weight and body composition in healthy individuals. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on body composition in healthy Indonesian medical staff. In this study, we examined the influence of Ramadan fasting on body composition in healthy medical staff. The longitudinal study was performed during and after Ramadan fasting in 2013 (August to October). Fourty-three medical staff members (physicians, nurses and nutritionists) at the Internal Medicine Ward of the Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital were measured to compare their calorie intake, weight, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and body composition, including body fat, protein, minerals and water, on the first and 28(th) days of Ramadan and also 4-5 weeks after Ramadan fasting. Measurements were obtained for all 43 subjects on the 28(th) day of Ramadan, but they were obtained for only 25 subjects 4 - 5 weeks after Ramadan. By the 28(th) day of Ramadan, it was found that the body weight, BMI, body fat, water and mineral measures had decreased significantly (-0.874 ± 0.859 kg, P Ramadan, body weight and composition had returned to the same levels as on the first day of Ramadan. Ramadan fasting resulted in weight loss even it was only a temporary effect, as the weight was quickly regained within one month after fasting. The catabolism catabolic state, which is related to protein loss, was not triggered during Ramadan fasting. Further research is needed to evaluate the effects of weight loss during Ramadan fasting in healthy individuals.

  15. Dental Student Hand Hygiene Decreased With Increased Clinical Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaembut, Nanmanas; Ampornaramveth, Ruchanee S; Pisarnturakit, Pagaporn P; Subbalekha, Keskanya

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness, related knowledge, attitudes, and practices of hand hygiene (HH) among dental students with different levels of clinical experience. This was a cross-sectional analytical study. Bacterial samples on the participants' hands were obtained using a swab technique before and after handwashing, for oral surgical procedures. After culturing, the colony-forming units were counted. Self-reported questionnaires reflecting the knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to HH were completed by the participants. This study was performed in a primary oral health care institution, Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University (Bangkok, Thailand). Bacterial samples and self-reported questionnaires were collected in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Bacterial culture was performed in the Department of Microbiology. The 120 participants comprised first, second, third-year clinical training students (CTs), and postgraduate dental students (PGs) (32, 34, 30, and 24 participants, respectively). More than 99% of the bacteria were eliminated from the participants' hands after handwashing. Significantly higher numbers of bacteria were recovered from the hands of the PGs compared with those of the CTs, and the hands of the third-year CTs compared with those of the first-year CTs (p < 0.001), after HH. The first-year CTs had the highest attitude scores, whereas the PGs had the lowest practice scores. The knowledge scores were similar in all groups. HH effectiveness, attitudes, and practices of dental students decreased as students gained more clinical experience, whereas knowledge did not. Our results suggest that HH instruction should be given throughout the duration of dental students' education. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. GOOD HOMOSEXUAL BEHAVIOUR DECREASE PREVALENCE OF SEXUAL TRANSMITTED DISSEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwaningsih Purwaningsih

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The homosexual behaviour were become indicators of sexually transmitted diseases’s (STDs prevalencies. Prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in homosexual community was very high but until recently study it was conducted sporadically. The objective of this study was to analyze the correlation of homosexual behaviour with prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs in Mobile Clinic Community Centre of IGAMA collaborating with Public Health Centre Sumberpucung of Malang Regency. Method:  Analytic design with cross sectional methode was used in this study. The population were all visitors of Mobile Clinic Community Centre of IGAMA collaborating with Public Health Centre Sumberpucung of Malang Regency (353 people. Sample were 40 people who met to the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was homosexual behaviour and the dependent variable was prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs. Data for homosexual behaviour were collected by using questionnaire and indhept interview with content analyze and data for prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs were collected by using laboratorium test for STDs. Result: The research result was presented in the form diagram, table of cross tabulation and analyzed by using Spearman Rho with significance level ρ=0.005. The result showed that there was correlation of homosexual knowledge (ρ=0.001, attitude (ρ=0.000 and  practice (ρ=0.000 with prevalence of STDs. Dsicussion:  It can be concluded that the better knowledge, attitude and practice of homosexual could be decrease prevalence of STDs. Futher studies are recomended to analyze the correlation between homosexual behaviour and prevalence of STDs with Health Believe approach.

  17. Decreased Brain Neurokinin-1 Receptor Availability in Chronic Tennis Elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnman, Clas; Catana, Ciprian; Svärdsudd, Kurt; Appel, Lieuwe; Engler, Henry; Långström, Bengt; Sörensen, Jens; Furmark, Tomas; Fredrikson, Mats; Borsook, David; Peterson, Magnus

    Substance P is released in painful and inflammatory conditions, affecting both peripheral processes and the central nervous system neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor. There is a paucity of data on human brain alterations in NK1 expression, how this system may be affected by treatment, and interactions between central and peripheral tissue alterations. Ten subjects with chronic tennis elbow (lateral epicondylosis) were selected out of a larger (n = 120) randomized controlled trial evaluating graded exercise as a treatment for chronic tennis elbow (lateral epicondylosis). These ten subjects were examined by positron emission tomography (PET) with the NK1-specific radioligand 11C-GR205171 before, and eight patients were followed up after treatment with graded exercise. Brain binding in the ten patients before treatment, reflecting NK1-receptor availability (NK1-RA), was compared to that of 18 healthy subjects and, longitudinally, to the eight of the original ten patients that agreed to a second PET examination after treatment. Before treatment, patients had significantly lower NK1-RA in the insula, vmPFC, postcentral gyrus, anterior cingulate, caudate, putamen, amygdala and the midbrain but not the thalamus and cerebellum, with the largest difference in the insula contralateral to the injured elbow. No significant correlations between brain NK1-RA and pain, functional severity, or peripheral NK1-RA in the affected limb were observed. In the eight patients examined after treatment, pain ratings decreased in everyone, but there were no significant changes in NK1-RA. These findings indicate a role for the substance P (SP) / NK1 receptor system in musculoskeletal pain and tissue healing. As neither clinical parameters nor successful treatment response was reflected in brain NK1-RA after treatment, this may reflect the diverse function of the SP/NK1 system in CNS and peripheral tissue, or a change too small or slow to capture over the three-month treatment.

  18. Chemical treatments of soil to decrease radiostrontium leachability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, B.P.

    1980-01-01

    The ready leachability of radiostrontium from radioactive waste is one of the most salient problems with shallow-land burial as a disposal method. The continuous leaching of buried waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, for periods up to thirty years, has led to contamination of significant volumes of soil with 90 Sr. The goal of the present investigation was to evaluate methods to effect the in situ fixation or decrease the leachability of 90 Sr from soil. Small columns of three soils, collected from the solid waste disposal areas at ORNL, were labelled with 85 Sr as a convenient tracer for 90 Sr. After this labelling but prior to leaching, the soil columns were percolated with equivalent amounts of sodium salt solutions of hydroxide, fluoride, carbonate, phosphate, silicate, or aluminate. Leaching was then initiated with 0.1 N CaCl 2 (calcium chloride), and fractions of the leachate were analyzed for 85 Sr. The CaCl 2 solution was selected to qualitatively simulate groundwater which contains Ca as the dominant dissolved cation. With two soils which were high in indigenous exchangeable Ca, only 30 to 35% of the 85 Sr could be leached from the carbonate-treated columns. Presumably, the 85 Sr was coprecipitated with the nascent CaCO 3 formed during this treatment. In contrast, greater than 98% of the 85 Sr was readily leached from all untreated soils. Other anions fixed variable but generally less 85 Sr than the carbonate treatment. Thus, sodium carbonate appears to have potential application to immobilize 90 Sr in situ in contaminated soil

  19. FACTORS DECREASING HOUSEHOLD ELECTRICITY DEMAND – A QUALITATIVE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimon ELBAZ

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Reducing energy consumption through changes in individual consumers’ behaviors is one of the most important challenges of the present society and near future. Our qualitative study, based on semi-structured interviews, deals with the investigation of household consumer behavior, in order to explore ways for reducing the electricity demand, in the particular cultural context of a country with high levels of energy consumption in both summer and winter times – Israel. Various approaches, coming from economics, sociology, psychology or education were tested, for limiting the use of a particular, invisible and intangible merchandise - electricity. The main objective of the present study was to determine consumers’ perceptions about the various approaches that could be used to decrease the domestic demand and consumption of electricity. A secondary objective was to identify, based on consumers’ perceptions, the factors of influence that could be used in future quantitative researches and governance strategies. We found out that investigated families have a high level of education in the field of electricity consumption and marketing campaigns, which would make the classic energy educational approach less efficient. Household electricity consumers in Israel have awareness and willingness not to waste or consume electricity beyond what is necessary, but the necessary level is positioned quite high. The social comparison approach appears to be ineffective, as well, even if it proved its efficiency in other cultures. The psychological and the economic approach could be partially efficient, if certain influence factors are widely used. These factors include mainly the magnitude of the savings, the perceived behavioral control, the personal thermal comfort and the pro-environmental attitude. The most important managerial implication concerns the strategies that could be conceived by electricity companies and national authorities – based on un

  20. Do alcohol compliance checks decrease underage sales at neighboring establishments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Darin J; Smolenski, Derek J; Toomey, Traci L; Carlin, Bradley P; Wagenaar, Alexander C

    2013-11-01

    Underage alcohol compliance checks conducted by law enforcement agencies can reduce the likelihood of illegal alcohol sales at checked alcohol establishments, and theory suggests that an alcohol establishment that is checked may warn nearby establishments that compliance checks are being conducted in the area. In this study, we examined whether the effects of compliance checks diffuse to neighboring establishments. We used data from the Complying with the Minimum Drinking Age trial, which included more than 2,000 compliance checks conducted at more than 900 alcohol establishments. The primary outcome was the sale of alcohol to a pseudo-underage buyer without the need for age identification. A multilevel logistic regression was used to model the effect of a compliance check at each establishment as well as the effect of compliance checks at neighboring establishments within 500 m (stratified into four equal-radius concentric rings), after buyer, license, establishment, and community-level variables were controlled for. We observed a decrease in the likelihood of establishments selling alcohol to underage youth after they had been checked by law enforcement, but these effects quickly decayed over time. Establishments that had a close neighbor (within 125 m) checked in the past 90 days were also less likely to sell alcohol to young-appearing buyers. The spatial effect of compliance checks on other establishments decayed rapidly with increasing distance. Results confirm the hypothesis that the effects of police compliance checks do spill over to neighboring establishments. These findings have implications for the development of an optimal schedule of police compliance checks.

  1. LUMBAR CORSETS CAN DECREASE LUMBAR MOTION IN GOLF SWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Hashimoto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Swinging a golf club includes the rotation and extension of the lumbar spine. Golf-related low back pain has been associated with degeneration of the lumbar facet and intervertebral discs, and with spondylolysis. Reflective markers were placed directly onto the skin of 11young male amateur golfers without a previous history of back pain. Using a VICON system (Oxford Metrics, U.K., full golf swings were monitored without a corset (WOC, with a soft corset (SC, and with a hard corset (HC, with each subject taking 3 swings. Changes in the angle between the pelvis and the thorax (maximum range of motion and angular velocity in 3 dimensions (lumbar rotation, flexion-extension, and lateral tilt were analyzed, as was rotation of the hip joint. Peak changes in lumbar extension and rotation occurred just after impact with the ball. The extension angle of the lumbar spine at finish was significantly lower under SC (38° or HC (28° than under WOC (44° conditions (p < 0.05. The maximum angular velocity after impact was significantly smaller under HC (94°/sec than under SC (177°/sec and WOC (191° /sec conditions, as were the lumbar rotation angles at top and finish. In contrast, right hip rotation angles at top showed a compensatory increase under HC conditions. Wearing a lumbar corset while swinging a golf club can effectively decrease lumbar extension and rotation angles from impact until the end of the swing. These effects were significantly enhanced while wearing an HC

  2. Decreased Blastocyst Production in Mice Exposed to Increased Rack Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Bernadette M; Jiang, Meisheng; Wang, Ying; Chai, Minghua; Lawson, P Timothy; Lawson, Gregory W

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the possible effect of rack type on the blastocyst yield of mouse embryo donors. The first phase of the study consisted of housing some mice (group A) in a ventilated rack and others (group B) in a static rack in the same room for 3 d, followed by euthanasia for blastocyst collection and corticosterone assay. Parametric tests were used to compare groups. The number of blastocysts per donor was lower in group A (5.0 ± 1.4 blastocysts) than group B (13.1 ± 3.7 blastocysts). Mean noise was higher in the ventilated rack (80.4 dBC) than in the static rack (69.2 dBC). Serum corticosterone concentrations did not differ between groups. For the second phase of the study, a third group of mice (group C) was housed in a static rack without a ventilated rack in the same room. The noise level for group C was even lower (45.18 ± 2.91 dBC), and the blastocyst count per donor (16.4 ± 2.4) was higher than that of group B. The mean noise levels of empty ventilated and static racks differed significantly between groups for 10 different sound frequencies. Plotting mean blastocyst production against mean rack noise revealed a negative linear relationship with good strength of correlation. These results support the earlier observation that decreased blastocyst count occurs following housing of bred C57BL/6 donor mice in ventilated cages. PMID:19807968

  3. Decreased Brain Neurokinin-1 Receptor Availability in Chronic Tennis Elbow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clas Linnman

    Full Text Available Substance P is released in painful and inflammatory conditions, affecting both peripheral processes and the central nervous system neurokinin 1 (NK1 receptor. There is a paucity of data on human brain alterations in NK1 expression, how this system may be affected by treatment, and interactions between central and peripheral tissue alterations. Ten subjects with chronic tennis elbow (lateral epicondylosis were selected out of a larger (n = 120 randomized controlled trial evaluating graded exercise as a treatment for chronic tennis elbow (lateral epicondylosis. These ten subjects were examined by positron emission tomography (PET with the NK1-specific radioligand 11C-GR205171 before, and eight patients were followed up after treatment with graded exercise. Brain binding in the ten patients before treatment, reflecting NK1-receptor availability (NK1-RA, was compared to that of 18 healthy subjects and, longitudinally, to the eight of the original ten patients that agreed to a second PET examination after treatment. Before treatment, patients had significantly lower NK1-RA in the insula, vmPFC, postcentral gyrus, anterior cingulate, caudate, putamen, amygdala and the midbrain but not the thalamus and cerebellum, with the largest difference in the insula contralateral to the injured elbow. No significant correlations between brain NK1-RA and pain, functional severity, or peripheral NK1-RA in the affected limb were observed. In the eight patients examined after treatment, pain ratings decreased in everyone, but there were no significant changes in NK1-RA. These findings indicate a role for the substance P (SP / NK1 receptor system in musculoskeletal pain and tissue healing. As neither clinical parameters nor successful treatment response was reflected in brain NK1-RA after treatment, this may reflect the diverse function of the SP/NK1 system in CNS and peripheral tissue, or a change too small or slow to capture over the three-month treatment.

  4. Statin use decreases coagulation in users of vitamin K antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rein, Nienke; Biedermann, J S; Bonafacio, S M; Kruip, M J H A; van der Meer, F J M; Lijfering, W M

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine the immediate and long-term effect of statins on coagulation in patients treated with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). We selected patients on VKAs of two Dutch anticoagulation clinics who initiated treatment with a statin between 2009 and 2013. Patients who initiated or stopped concomitant drugs that interact with VKAs or were hospitalised during follow-up were excluded. The VKA dosage (mg/day) after statin initiation was compared with the last VKA dosage before the statin was started. Immediate and long-term differences in VKA dosage (at 6 and 12 weeks) were calculated with a paired student t test. Four hundred thirty-five phenprocoumon users (mean age 70 years, 60 % men) and 303 acenocoumarol users (mean age 69 years, 58 % men) were included. After start of statin use, the immediate phenprocoumon dosage was 0.02 mg/day (95 % CI, 0.00 to 0.03) lower. At 6 and 12 weeks, these phenprocoumon dosages were 0.03 (95 % CI, 0.01 to 0.05) and 0.07 mg/day (95 % CI, 0.04 to 0.09) lower as compared with the dosage before first statin use. In acenocoumarol users, VKA dosage was 0.04 mg/day (95%CI, 0.01 to 0.07) (immediate effect), 0.10 (95 % CI, 0.03 to 0.16) (at 6 weeks), and 0.11 mg/day (95 % CI, 0.04 to 0.18) (after 12 weeks) lower. Initiation of statin treatment was associated with an immediate and long-term minor although statistically significant decrease in VKA dosage in both phenprocoumon and acenocoumarol users, which suggests that statins may have anticoagulant properties.

  5. Hippocampal volume is decreased in adults with hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Gillian E; Mullally, Sinead; Correia, Neuman; O'Mara, Shane M; Gibney, James

    2014-03-01

    Thyroid hormones are important for the adult brain, particularly regions of the hippocampus including the dentate gyrus and CA1 and CA3 regions. The hippocampus is a thyroid hormone receptor-rich region of the brain involved in learning and memory. Consequently, alterations in thyroid hormone levels have been reported to impair hippocampal-associated learning and memory, synaptic plasticity, and neurogenesis. While these effects have been shown primarily in developing rats, as well as in adult rats, little is known about the effects in adult humans. There are currently no data regarding structural changes in the hippocampus as a result of adult-onset hypothyroidism. We aimed to establish whether hippocampal volume was reduced in patients with untreated adult-onset hypothyroidism compared to age-matched healthy controls. High-resolution magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition with gradient echo (MPRAGE) scans were performed on 11 untreated hypothyroid adults and 9 age-matched control subjects. Hypothyroidism was diagnosed based on increased levels of thyrotropin (TSH) and reduced levels of free thyroxine (fT4). Volumetric analysis of the right and left hippocampal regions, using functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain (FMRIB) integrated registration and segmentation tool (FIRST), demonstrated significant volume reduction in the right hippocampus in the hypothyroid patients relative to the control group. These findings provide preliminary evidence that hypothyroidism results in structural deficits in the adult human brain. Decreases in volume in the right hippocampus were evident in patients with adult-onset overt hypothyroidism, supporting some of the findings in animal models.

  6. Severe geomagnetic storms and Forbush decreases: interplanetary relationships reexamined

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Kane

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Severe storms (Dst and Forbush decreases (FD during cycle 23 showed that maximum negative Dst magnitudes usually occurred almost simultaneously with the maximum negative values of the Bz component of interplanetary magnetic field B, but the maximum magnitudes of negative Dst and Bz were poorly correlated (+0.28. A parameter Bz(CP was calculated (cumulative partial Bz as sum of the hourly negative values of Bz from the time of start to the maximum negative value. The correlation of negative Dst maximum with Bz(CP was higher (+0.59 as compared to that of Dst with Bz alone (+0.28. When the product of Bz with the solar wind speed V (at the hour of negative Bz maximum was considered, the correlation of negative Dst maximum with VBz was +0.59 and with VBz(CP, 0.71. Thus, including V improved the correlations. However, ground-based Dst values have a considerable contribution from magnetopause currents (several tens of nT, even exceeding 100 nT in very severe storms. When their contribution is subtracted from Dst(nT, the residue Dst* representing true ring current effect is much better correlated with Bz and Bz(CP, but not with VBz or VBz(CP, indicating that these are unimportant parameters and the effect of V is seen only through the solar wind ram pressure causing magnetopause currents. Maximum negative Dst (or Dst* did not occur at the same hour as maximum FD. The time evolutions of Dst and FD were very different. The correlations were almost zero. Basically, negative Dst (or Dst* and FDs are uncorrelated, indicating altogether different mechanism.

  7. Intermittent pressure decreases human keratinocyte proliferation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasca, Maria R; Shih, Alan T; West, Dennis P; Martinez, Wanda M; Micali, Giuseppe; Landsman, Adam S

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between pressure changes and keratinocyte proliferation by determining whether keratinocytes exposed to altered mechanical pressures would proliferate at different rates compared to control cells not subjected to pressure changes. Tissue culture flasks of human keratinocytes plated at an approximate density of 15,000 cells/cm(2) undergoing an intermittent cyclic pressure of 362 mm Hg at a frequency of 2.28 or 5.16 cycles/min (0.038 or 0.086 Hz) for 8 h were compared to control flasks grown at ambient room pressure. An in-line pressure transducer was used to monitor and adjust pressure within the cell chambers, using a solenoid valve. A thymidine incorporation assay assessed the amount of cell proliferation in each set of experiments. Differences in proliferation between keratinocytes subjected to cyclic pressure changes and control cells were found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05) in 4 out of 5 proliferation assays. Also, a higher frequency of pressure changes consistently generated a reduced proliferation rate compared to that seen in cells exposed to a lower frequency of pressure changes. These data indicate that keratinocytes undergoing intermittent pressure changes exhibit decreased proliferation rates compared to controls. Furthermore, an increased frequency rate seems to have a greater effect on proliferation than low-frequency rate pressure changes, suggesting that the stress caused by frequently changed pressure may play a greater role in reducing keratinocyte proliferation than the actual magnitude of load applied to the cells. Our results support the current treatment protocol of reducing speed and duration of walking on the site of the wound to promote healing of foot ulcers. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Decreased endothelium-dependent coronary vasomotion in healthy young smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwado, Yasuyoshi; Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Furuyama, Hideto; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Tamaki, Nagara; Ito, Yoshinori; Noriyasu, Kazuyuki; Katoh, Chietsugu; Kuge, Yuji

    2002-01-01

    Chronic cigarette smoking alters coronary vascular endothelial response. To determine whether altered response also occurs in young individuals without manifest coronary disease we quantified coronary blood flow at rest, following adenosine vasodilator stress and during the cold pressor test in healthy young smokers. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was quantified by oxygen-15 labelled water positron emission tomography in 30 healthy men aged from 20 to 35 years (18 smokers and 12 non-smokers, aged 27.4±4.4 vs 26.3±3.3). The smokers had been smoking cigarettes for 9.4±4.9 pack-years. MBF was measured at rest, during intravenous adenosine triphosphate (ATP: 0.16 mg kg -1 min -1 ) infusion (hyperaemic response), and during cold pressor test (CPT) (endothelial vasodilator response). Rest MBF and hyperaemic MBF did not differ significantly between the smokers and the non-smokers (rest: 0.86±0.11 vs 0.92±0.14 and ATP: 3.20±1.12 vs 3.69±0.76 ml g -1 min -1 ; P=NS). Coronary flow reserve was similar between the two groups (smokers: 3.78±1.83; non-smokers: 4.03±0.68; P=NS). Although CPT induced a similar increase in rate-pressure product (RPP) in the smokers and the non-smokers (10,430±1,820 vs 9,236±1,356 beats min -1 mmHg -1 ), CPT MBF corrected by RPP was significantly decreased in the smokers (0.65±0.12 ml g -1 min -1 ) compared with the non-smokers (0.87±0.12 ml g -1 min -1 ) (P<0.05). In addition, the ratio of CPT MBF to resting MBF was inversely correlated with pack-years (r=-0.57, P=0.014). Endothelium-dependent coronary artery vasodilator function is impaired in apparently healthy young smokers. (orig.)

  9. Decreased endothelium-dependent coronary vasomotion in healthy young smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwado, Yasuyoshi; Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Furuyama, Hideto; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Tamaki, Nagara [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Kita-Ku, Kita 15 Nishi 7, Sapporo, 060-8638 (Japan); Ito, Yoshinori; Noriyasu, Kazuyuki [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Katoh, Chietsugu; Kuge, Yuji [Department of Tracer Kinetics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    Chronic cigarette smoking alters coronary vascular endothelial response. To determine whether altered response also occurs in young individuals without manifest coronary disease we quantified coronary blood flow at rest, following adenosine vasodilator stress and during the cold pressor test in healthy young smokers. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was quantified by oxygen-15 labelled water positron emission tomography in 30 healthy men aged from 20 to 35 years (18 smokers and 12 non-smokers, aged 27.4{+-}4.4 vs 26.3{+-}3.3). The smokers had been smoking cigarettes for 9.4{+-}4.9 pack-years. MBF was measured at rest, during intravenous adenosine triphosphate (ATP: 0.16 mg kg{sup -1} min{sup -1}) infusion (hyperaemic response), and during cold pressor test (CPT) (endothelial vasodilator response). Rest MBF and hyperaemic MBF did not differ significantly between the smokers and the non-smokers (rest: 0.86{+-}0.11 vs 0.92{+-}0.14 and ATP: 3.20{+-}1.12 vs 3.69{+-}0.76 ml g{sup -1} min{sup -1}; P=NS). Coronary flow reserve was similar between the two groups (smokers: 3.78{+-}1.83; non-smokers: 4.03{+-}0.68; P=NS). Although CPT induced a similar increase in rate-pressure product (RPP) in the smokers and the non-smokers (10,430{+-}1,820 vs 9,236{+-}1,356 beats min{sup -1} mmHg{sup -1}), CPT MBF corrected by RPP was significantly decreased in the smokers (0.65{+-}0.12 ml g{sup -1} min{sup -1}) compared with the non-smokers (0.87{+-}0.12 ml g{sup -1} min{sup -1}) (P<0.05). In addition, the ratio of CPT MBF to resting MBF was inversely correlated with pack-years (r=-0.57, P=0.014). Endothelium-dependent coronary artery vasodilator function is impaired in apparently healthy young smokers. (orig.)

  10. Martial arts intervention decreases pain scores in children with malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluth, Martin H; Thomas, Ronald; Cohen, Cindy; Bluth, Amanda C; Goldberg, Elimelech

    2016-01-01

    Martial arts intervention in disease has been mostly limited to adult inflammatory, musculoskeletal, or motor diseases, where a mechanical intervention effects positive change. However, the application and benefit to pain management in childhood malignancy are not well described. Here, we assess the effects of defined martial arts intervention in children with cancer with respect to their pain perception and management. Sixty-four children with childhood malignancies were enrolled in a martial arts program, which encompassed both meditation and movement modalities. Pain scores (0-10) were recorded pre- and post- 1-hour session intervention. Pain scores were crossed by total visits and tabulated by whether participant pain reduced at least 1 unit, stayed the same, or increased in intensity immediately after (post) participation session. Differences in pain scores were further compared by age and sex. Prepain and postpain scale data were measured for 64 participants, 43 males (67.2%) and 21 females (32.8%), ranging from 3 years to 19 years. Preintervention and postintervention data were obtained for 223 individual session visits. Mean number of patient participation visits was 1.8±1.6 (range one to nine visits). Of 116 individual measured sessions where the participants began with a pain score of at least 1, pain intensity reduced ≥1 unit in 85.3% (99/116) of visits, remained the same in 7.8% (9/116), and increased in 6.9% (8/116). For the majority (96.3%; 77/80) of sessions, participants began with a prepain intensity score of at least 5-10 with reduction in pain intensity following the session. The overall mean pain score presession visit was reduced bŷ40% (pre: 5.95±2.64 and post: 3.03±2.45 [95% CI: 2.34-3.50]; P ≤0.001). Median pain intensity scores had greater reductions with increased age of participants (3-6 years [-1], 7-10 years [-2], 11-14 years [-3], and 15-19 years [-4]). Martial arts intervention can provide a useful modality to decrease pain in

  11. Neck ligament strength is decreased following whiplash trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubin Wolfgang

    2006-12-01

    -exposed ligaments had significantly lower (P = 0.036 failure force, 149.4 vs. 186.0 N, and a trend (P = 0.078 towards less energy absorption capacity, 308.6 vs. 397.0 J, as compared to the control data. Conclusion The present decreases in neck ligament strength due to whiplash provide support for the ligament-injury hypothesis of whiplash syndrome.

  12. Execution of local budgets in 2014: tension is not decreasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ivanovna Povarova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Vladimir Putin’s “May decrees” have received the status of a national goal. On the background of decreasing economic performance exacerbated by external shocks, the implementation of these decrees has become a heavy burden for regional budgets without an adequate financial support from the federal budget. As a result, almost every Russian region has suffered losses by the end of 2014. The fallacy of the ongoing course of budget policy has long been criticized by many leading scholars and experts; moreover, they proposed positive recommendations on the development of alternative policies. Unfortunately, the results of 2014 prove that the RF Government has not abandoned the policy of budget consolidation. On the contrary, gratuitous financial assistance to the regions is actively transformed into debt financing in the form of budget loans. However, the regional authorities can rely on this quasi-support, which is a temporary factor, only provided that the budget is deficit-free and at the expense of abandonment of spending on economic development and on the improvement of welfare of the population. The results of the analysis of the facts indicate that the budget-related problems of the regions, arising largely from the inefficient federal budget policy, have reached the critical level. One fourth of the subjects that had a predominant share of market debt turned out to be in a pre-default state. The breakdown of public finances has affected the most prosperous regions, which is contrary to the paradigm of sustainable regional development. The regions entered the crisis of 2014 with huge debt and budget deficit; the situation was not so grave during the financial and economic crisis of 2009. In terms of the upcoming 10% cut of federal budget expenditures [5], the subjects of the Russian Federation can hardly expect an increase in financial support. They will obviously have to adapt their budgets to the changing economic situation. But in

  13. Serum carnitine concentration is decreased in patients with Lyme borreliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Kępka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lyme borreliosis (LB is a serious infectious disease. Carnitine plays a crucial role in metabolism and inflammatory responses. Carnitine may be important in improving neuronal dysfunction and loss of neurons. Aim: To evaluate serum carnitine concentration in adult patients with various clinical types of LB. Material/Methods: Groups: 1 patients with erythema migrans (EM, n=16, 2 neuroborreliosis (NB, n=10, 3 post-Lyme disease (PLD, n=22 and healthy controls (HC, n=32. Total (TC and free (FC carnitine were determined with the spectrophotometric method. Results: TC levels (44.9±10.4, 28.0±8.4, 35.9±15.6 μmol/L in the EM, NB and PLD patients were lower than in HC (54.0±11.4 μmol/L, p < 0.001. FC levels (32.7±7.7, 23.6±6.8, 26.3±11.2 μmol/L in the EM, NB and PLD patients were lower than in HC (40.5±7.6 μmol/L, p < 0.001. AC levels (12.2±5.2, 4.4±2.6, 9.6±7.4 μmol/L in the EM, NB and PLD patients were lower in the NB and PLD patients than in HC (13.5±8.40 μmol/L, p <0.001. AC/FC ratio was 0.31±0.14, 0.18±0.09, 0.39±0.33 in the EM, NB and PLD patients. Conclusions: LB patients exhibit a significant decrease of their serum carnitine concentrations. The largest changes were in the NB and PLD patients. To prevent late complications of the disease a possibility of early supplementation with carnitine should be considered. Further studies are required to explain the pathophysiological significance of our findings.

  14. Top-down modulation from inferior frontal junction to FEFs and intraparietal sulcus during short-term memory for visual features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneve, Markus H; Magnussen, Svein; Alnæs, Dag; Endestad, Tor; D'Esposito, Mark

    2013-11-01

    Visual STM of simple features is achieved through interactions between retinotopic visual cortex and a set of frontal and parietal regions. In the present fMRI study, we investigated effective connectivity between central nodes in this network during the different task epochs of a modified delayed orientation discrimination task. Our univariate analyses demonstrate that the inferior frontal junction (IFJ) is preferentially involved in memory encoding, whereas activity in the putative FEFs and anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) remains elevated throughout periods of memory maintenance. We have earlier reported, using the same task, that areas in visual cortex sustain information about task-relevant stimulus properties during delay intervals [Sneve, M. H., Alnæs, D., Endestad, T., Greenlee, M. W., & Magnussen, S. Visual short-term memory: Activity supporting encoding and maintenance in retinotopic visual cortex. Neuroimage, 63, 166-178, 2012]. To elucidate the temporal dynamics of the IFJ-FEF-aIPS-visual cortex network during memory operations, we estimated Granger causality effects between these regions with fMRI data representing memory encoding/maintenance as well as during memory retrieval. We also investigated a set of control conditions involving active processing of stimuli not associated with a memory task and passive viewing. In line with the developing understanding of IFJ as a region critical for control processes with a possible initiating role in visual STM operations, we observed influence from IFJ to FEF and aIPS during memory encoding. Furthermore, FEF predicted activity in a set of higher-order visual areas during memory retrieval, a finding consistent with its suggested role in top-down biasing of sensory cortex.

  15. HIV-1 Nef down-modulates C-C and C-X-C chemokine receptors via ubiquitin and ubiquitin-independent mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabha Chandrasekaran

    Full Text Available Human and Simian Immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV encode an accessory protein, Nef, which is a pathogenesis and virulence factor. Nef is a multivalent adapter that dysregulates the trafficking of many immune cell receptors, including chemokine receptors (CKRs. Physiological endocytic itinerary of agonist occupied CXCR4 involves ubiquitinylation of the phosphorylated receptor at three critical lysine residues and dynamin-dependent trafficking through the ESCRT pathway into lysosomes for degradation. Likewise, Nef induced CXCR4 degradation was critically dependent on the three lysines in the C-terminal -SSLKILSKGK- motif. Nef directly recruits the HECT domain E3 ligases AIP4 or NEDD4 to CXCR4 in the resting state. This mechanism was confirmed by ternary interactions of Nef, CXCR4 and AIP4 or NEDD4; by reversal of Nef effect by expression of catalytically inactive AIP4-C830A mutant; and siRNA knockdown of AIP4, NEDD4 or some ESCRT-0 adapters. However, ubiquitinylation dependent lysosomal degradation was not the only mechanism by which Nef downregulated CKRs. Agonist and Nef mediated CXCR2 (and CXCR1 degradation was ubiquitinylation independent. Nef also profoundly downregulated the naturally truncated CXCR4 associated with WHIM syndrome and engineered variants of CXCR4 that resist CXCL12 induced internalization via an ubiquitinylation independent mechanism.

  16. Activation of erythropoietin receptors by Friend viral gp55 and by erythropoietin and down-modulation by the murine Fv-2r resistance gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoatlin, M.E.; Kozak, S.L.; Kabat, D.; Lilly, F.; Chakraborti, A.; Kozak, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    The leukemogenic membrane glycoprotein (gp55) encoded by Friend spleen focus-forming virus appears to bind to erythropoietin receptors (EpoR) to stimulate erythroblastosis. To directly compare the effects of gp55 with erythropoietin (Epo), the authors produced retrovirions that encode either gp55, Epo, or EpoR. After infection with EpoR virus, interleukin 3-dependent DA-3 cells bound 125 I-labeled Epo and grew without interleukin 3 in the presence of Epo. These latter cells, but not parental DA-3 cells, became factor-independent after superinfection either with Epo virus or with Friend spleen focus-forming virus. In addition, Epo virus caused a disease in mice that mimicked Friend erythroleukemia. Although Fv-2 r homozygotes are susceptible to all other retroviral diseases, they are resistant to both Epo viral and Friend viral erythroleukemia. These results indicate that both gp55 and Epo stimulate EpoR and that the Fv-2 gene encodes a protein that controls response to these ligands. However, the Fv-2 protein is not EpoR because the corresponding genes map to opposite ends of mouse chromosome 9. These results have important implications for understanding signal transduction by EpoR and the role of host genetic variation in controlling susceptibility to an oncogenic protein

  17. Decreased Libido

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone ... an Endocrinologist Clinical Trials Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone ...

  18. Decreased alertness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is due to alcohol intoxication , fainting , or a seizure disorder that has already been diagnosed. People with epilepsy or other seizure disorders should wear a medical ID bracelet or necklace ...

  19. A note on inverses of non-decreasing Lévy processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Ferreira

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe show that, apart from deterministic processes, compound Poisson processes with exponential jumps are the only (shifted) non-decreasing Lévy processes whose inverses are also (shifted) non-decreasing Lévy processes.

  20. Decreased Sudomotor Function is Involved in the Formation of Atopic Eczema in the Cubital Fossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Takahashi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: These results suggest that decreased sweating is a major source of water in the stratum corneum, and decreased sudomotor function may be involved in both the cause and aggravation of representative atopic eczema in the cubital fossa.

  1. Decrease in effective electron mobility in the channel of a metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor as the gate length is decreased

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantsuzov, A. A.; Boyarkina, N. I.; Popov, V. P.

    2008-01-01

    Effective electron mobility μ eff in channels of metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors with a gate length L in the range of 3.8 to 0.34 μm was measured; the transistors were formed on wafers of the silicon-oninsulator type. It was found that μ eff decreases as L is decreased. It is shown that this decrease can be accounted for by the effect of series resistances of the source and drain only if it is assumed that there is a rapid increase in these resistances as the gate voltage is decreased. This assumption is difficult to substantiate. A more realistic model is suggested; this model accounts for the observed decrease in μ eff as L is decreased. The model implies that zones with a mobility lower than that in the middle part of the channel originate at the edges of the gate. An analysis shows that, in this case, the plot of the dependence of 1/μ eff on 1/L should be linear, which is exactly what is observed experimentally. The use of this plot makes it possible to determine both the electron mobility μ 0 in the middle part of the channel and the quantity A that characterizes the zones with lowered mobility at the gate’s edges.

  2. Decreased autophosphorylation of EGF receptor in insulin-deficient diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, M.; Kahn, C.R.; Maron, R.; White, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have previously reported that despite an increase in receptor concentration, there is a decrease in autophosphorylation and tyrosine kinase activity of the insulin receptor in insulin-deficient diabetic rats. To determine if other tyrosine kinases might be altered, they have studied the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor kinase in wheat germ agglutinin-purified, Triton X-100-solubilized liver membranes from streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and the insulin-deficient BB rat. They find that autophosphorylation of EGF receptor is decreased in proportion to the severity of the diabetic state in STZ rats with a maximal decrease of 67%. A similar decrease in autophosphorylation was observed in diabetic BB rats that was partially normalized by insulin treatment. Separation of tryptic phosphopeptides by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography revealed a decrease in labeling at all sites of autophosphorylation. A parallel decrease in EGF receptor phosphorylation was also found by immunoblotting with an antiphosphotyrosine antibody. EGF receptor concentration, determined by Scatchard analysis of 125 I-labeled EGF binding, was decreased by 39% in the STZ rat and 27% in the diabetic BB rat. Thus autophosphorylation of EGF receptor, like that of the insulin receptor, is decreased in insulin-deficient rat liver. In the case of EGF receptor, this is due in part to a decrease in receptor number and in part to a decrease in the specific activity of the kinase

  3. Video x-ray progressive scanning: new technique for decreasing x-ray exposure without decreasing image quality during cardiac catheterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, D.R. Jr.; Bove, A.A.; Wondrow, M.A.; Gray, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    A newly developed video x-ray progressive scanning system improves image quality, decreases radiation exposure, and can be added to any pulsed fluoroscopic x-ray system using a video display without major system modifications. With use of progressive video scanning, the radiation entrance exposure rate measured with a vascular phantom was decreased by 32 to 53% in comparison with a conventional fluoroscopic x-ray system. In addition to this substantial decrease in radiation exposure, the quality of the image was improved because of less motion blur and artifact. Progressive video scanning has the potential for widespread application to all pulsed fluoroscopic x-ray systems. Use of this technique should make cardiac catheterization procedures and all other fluoroscopic procedures safer for the patient and the involved medical and paramedical staff

  4. Role of hypotension in decreasing cerebral blood flow in porcine endotoxemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.F.; Breslow, M.J.; Shapiro, R.M.; Traystman, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The role of reduced arterial blood pressure (MAP) in decreasing cerebral blood flow (CBF) during endotoxemia was studied in pentobarbital-anesthetized pigs. Microspheres were used to measure regional CBF changes during MAP manipulations in animals with and without endotoxin. Endotoxin decreased MAP to 50 mmHg and decreased blood flow to the cortex and cerebellum without affecting cerebral cortical oxygen consumption (CMRo 2 ). Elevating MAP from 50 to 70 mmHg during endotoxemia with norepinephrine did not change cortical blood flow or CMRo 2 but increased cerebellar blood flow. Brain stem blood flow was not affected by endotoxin or norepinephrine. When MAP was decreased to 50 mmHg by hemorrhage without endotoxin, no change in blood flow to cortex, cerebellum, or brain stem was observed from base-line levels. These results suggest that decreased MAP below a lower limit for cerebral autoregulation does not account for the decreased CBF observed after endotoxin

  5. The amount of decrease of the background white noise intensity as a cue for differentiation training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, K

    1981-01-01

    The course of differentiation learning, using the conditioned emotional response (CER) method, was investigated in two groups of 16 rats. The discriminative stimuli consisted of decreases in the 80 dB background white noise to either 70 dB or 60 dB. Differentiation learning was more efficient with the larger decrease of background noise intensity as the CS(+) and the smaller decrease as the CS(-) than vice versa.

  6. The RESET Mindset Model applied on decreasing antibiotic usage in dairy cattle in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, T. J. G. M.; Wessels, R. J.; Jansen, Jolanda

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prudent use of antibiotics is important to prevent antibiotic resistance in humans and in animals. For this reason politicians demanded a decrease of total antibiotic use and of use of critically important antibiotics in animal husbandry in the Netherlands. In the dairy sector the use of antibiotics almost halved in the years 2009-2015, with a decrease of the use of critically important antibiotics to very low levels. THEORY OF BEHAVIOUR CHANGE: To realize a sustainable decrease i...

  7. Skeletal muscle fatigue and decreased efficiency: two sides of the same coin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Bruno; Rossiter, Harry B; Zoladz, Jerzy A

    2015-04-01

    During high-intensity submaximal exercise, muscle fatigue and decreased efficiency are intertwined closely, and each contributes to exercise intolerance. Fatigue and muscle inefficiency share common mechanisms, for example, decreased "metabolic stability," muscle metabolite accumulation, decreased free energy of adenosine triphosphate breakdown, limited O2 or substrate availability, increased glycolysis, pH disturbance, increased muscle temperature, reactive oxygen species production, and altered motor unit recruitment patterns.

  8. Salt as a mitigation option for decreasing nitrogen leaching losses from grazed pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledgard, Stewart F; Welten, Brendon; Betteridge, Keith

    2015-12-01

    The main source of nitrogen (N) leaching from grazed pastures is animal urine with a high N deposition rate (i.e. per urine patch), particularly between late summer and early winter. Salt is a potential mitigation option as a diuretic to induce greater drinking-water intake, increase urination frequency, decrease urine N concentration and urine N deposition rate, and thereby potentially decrease N leaching. This hypothesis was tested in three phases: a cattle metabolism stall study to examine effects of salt supplementation rate on water consumption, urination frequency and urine N concentration; a grazing trial to assess effects of salt (150 g per heifer per day) on urination frequency; and a lysimeter study on effects of urine N rate on N leaching. Salt supplementation increased cattle water intake. Urination frequency increased by up to 69%, with a similar decrease in urine N deposition rate and no change in individual urination volume. Under field grazing, sensors showed increased urination frequency by 17%. Lysimeter studies showed a proportionally greater decrease in N leaching with decreased urine N rate. Modelling revealed that this could decrease per-hectare N leaching by 10-22%. Salt supplementation increases cattle water intake and urination frequency, resulting in a lower urine N deposition rate and proportionally greater decrease in urine N leaching. Strategic salt supplementation in autumn/early winter with feed is a practical mitigation option to decrease N leaching in grazed pastures. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. 76 FR 60361 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ...; FV-983-2 IR] Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Decreased Assessment Rate...: This rule decreases the assessment rate established for the Administrative Committee for Pistachios... weight pistachios. The Committee locally administers the marketing order which regulates the handling of...

  10. Vegetation succession as affected by decreasing nitrogen deposition, soil characteristics and site management: A modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wamelink, G.W.W.; Dobben, van H.F.; Berendse, F.

    2009-01-01

    After many years of increasing nitrogen deposition, the deposition rates are now decreasing. A major question is whether this will result in the expected positive effects on plant species diversity. Long-term experiments that investigate the effects of decreasing deposition are not available. Model

  11. Decreasing dialysis catheter rates by creating a multidisciplinary dialysis access program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberry, Patricia M; Niederhaus, Silke V; Schweitzer, Eugene J; Leeser, David B

    2018-03-01

    Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services have determined that chronic dialysis units should have 45%. A multidisciplinary program was established with goals of decreasing catheter rates in order to decrease central line-associated bloodstream infections, decrease mortality associated with central line-associated bloodstream infection, decrease hospital days, and provide savings to the healthcare system. We collected the catheter rates within three dialysis centers served over a 5-year period. Using published data surrounding the incidence and related costs of central line-associated bloodstream infection and mortality per catheter day, the number of central line-associated bloodstream infection events, the costs, and the related mortality could be determined prior to and after the initiation of the dialysis access program. An organized dialysis access program resulted in a 82% decrease in the number of central venous catheter days which lead to a concurrent reduction in central line-associated bloodstream infection and deaths. As a result of creating an access program, central venous catheter rates decreased from an average rate of 45% to 8%. The cost savings related to the program was calculated to be over US$5 million. The decrease in the number of mortalities is estimated to be between 13 and 27 patients. We conclude that a formalized access program decreases catheter rates, central line-associated bloodstream infection, and the resultant hospitalizations, mortality, and costs. Areas with high hemodialysis catheter rates should develop access programs to better serve their patient population.

  12. Causes of decreased activity of daily life in elderly patients who need daily living care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Takashi; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Yokono, Koichi

    2011-07-01

    The causes of decreased activity of daily life (ADL) in elderly patients include cerebrovascular diseases, bone fracture by falls, and dementia. The present study was conducted among elderly patients with decreased ADL who were hospitalized in nursing wards in order to investigate the causes of becoming early bedridden and to determine precautionary measures against decreased ADL. The study subjects were 224 elderly patients with decreased ADL (mean age: 83.3 ± 8.0 years) and 49 outpatients without decreased ADL (mean age: 76.8 ± 5.3 years). Current age, age at the start of ADL decrease, medical history and history of smoking were investigated. In the groups with decreased ADL, current age and the age of becoming bedridden in non-diabetic versus diabetic groups were 84.7 ± 7.9 versus 80.3 ± 7.5 and 82.7 ± 8.3 versus 77.6 ± 8.0 years, respectively, both showing significantly lower values in the diabetic group (P bedridden. Diabetic patients with smoking habit were significantly younger than diabetic and non-diabetic patients without smoking habit. Sex difference, smoking habit and presence of diabetes mellitus are independent risk factors of becoming early bedridden. Therefore, the major targets of medical care among elderly should be diabetic men with a smoking habit to lower the risks of decreased ADL. © 2011 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  13. 13 CFR 108.585 - Voluntary decrease in NMVC Company's Regulatory Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...'s Regulatory Capital. 108.585 Section 108.585 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Managing the Operations of a NMVC Company Voluntary Decrease in Regulatory Capital § 108.585 Voluntary decrease in NMVC Company's Regulatory Capital. You must...

  14. The importance of job control for workers with decreased work ability to remain productive at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.I.J. van den Berg (Tilja); S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan); J.F. Plat (Jan); M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Workers with decreased work ability are at greater risk of reduced productivity at work. We hypothesized that work-related characteristics play an important role in supporting workers to remain productive despite decreased work ability. Methods: The study population consisted of

  15. Nitrogen fertilization decreases forest soil fungal and bacterial biomass in three long-term experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew D. Wallenstein; Steven McNulty; Ivan J. Fernandez; Johnny Boggs; William H. Schlesinger

    2006-01-01

    We examined the effects of N fertilization on forest soil fungal and bacterial biomass at three long-term experiments in New England (Harvard Forest, MA; Mt. Ascutney, VT; Bear Brook, ME). At Harvard Forest, chronic N fertilization has decreased organic soil microbial biomass C (MBC) by an average of 54% and substrate induced respiration (SIR) was decreased by an...

  16. Obstructive sleep apnea decreases central nervous system-derived proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yo-El S; Finn, Mary Beth; Sutphen, Courtney L; Herries, Elizabeth M; Jerome, Gina M; Ladenson, Jack H; Crimmins, Daniel L; Fagan, Anne M; Holtzman, David M

    2016-07-01

    We hypothesized that one mechanism underlying the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and Alzheimer's disease is OSA leading to decreased slow wave activity (SWA), increased synaptic activity, decreased glymphatic clearance, and increased amyloid-β. Polysomnography and lumbar puncture were performed in OSA and control groups. SWA negatively correlated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid-β-40 among controls and was decreased in the OSA group. Unexpectedly, amyloid-β-40 was decreased in the OSA group. Other neuronally derived proteins, but not total protein, were also decreased in the OSA group, suggesting that OSA may affect the interaction between interstitial and cerebrospinal fluid. Ann Neurol 2016;80:154-159. © 2016 American Neurological Association.

  17. Running as Interoceptive Exposure for Decreasing Anxiety Sensitivity: Replication and Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourin, Brigitte C; Stewart, Sherry H; Watt, Margo C; Krigolson, Olav E

    2015-01-01

    A brief, group cognitive behavioural therapy with running as the interoceptive exposure (IE; exposure to physiological sensations) component was effective in decreasing anxiety sensitivity (AS; fear of arousal sensations) levels in female undergraduates (Watt et al., Anxiety and Substance Use Disorders: The Vicious Cycle of Comorbidity, 201-219, 2008). Additionally, repeated exposure to running resulted in decreases in cognitive (i.e., catastrophic thoughts) and affective (i.e., feelings of anxiety) reactions to running over time for high AS, but not low AS, participants (Sabourin et al., "Physical exercise as interoceptive exposure within a brief cognitive-behavioral treatment for anxiety-sensitive women", Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 22:302-320, 2008). A follow-up study including the above-mentioned intervention with an expanded IE component also resulted in decreases in AS levels (Sabourin et al., under review). The goals of the present process study were (1) to replicate the original process study, with the expanded IE component, and (2) to determine whether decreases in cognitive, affective, and/or somatic (physiological sensations) reactions to running would be related to decreases in AS. Eighteen high AS and 10 low AS participants completed 20 IE running trials following the 3-day group intervention. As predicted, high AS participants, but not low AS participants, experienced decreases in cognitive, affective, and somatic reactions to running over time. Furthermore, decreases in cognitive and affective, but not in somatic, reactions to running were related to decreases in AS levels. These results suggest that the therapeutic effects of repeated exposure to running in decreasing sensitivity to anxiety-related sensations are not related to decreasing the experience of somatic sensations themselves. Rather, they are related to altering the cognitive and affective reactions to these sensations.

  18. Supplementation with Folic Acid, but Not Creatine, Increases Plasma Betaine, Decreases Plasma Dimethylglycine, and Prevents a Decrease in Plasma Choline in Arsenic-Exposed Bangladeshi Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Megan N; Howe, Caitlin G; Liu, Xinhua; Caudill, Marie A; Malysheva, Olga; Ilievski, Vesna; Lomax-Luu, Angela M; Parvez, Faruque; Siddique, Abu B; Shahriar, Hasan; Uddin, Mohammad N; Islam, Tariqul; Graziano, Joseph H; Gamble, Mary V

    2016-05-01

    Folic acid (FA) supplementation facilitates urinary excretion of arsenic, a human carcinogen. A better understanding of interactions between one-carbon metabolism intermediates may improve the ability to design nutrition interventions that further facilitate arsenic excretion. The objective was to determine if FA and/or creatine supplementation increase choline and betaine and decrease dimethylglycine (DMG). We conducted a secondary analysis of the Folic Acid and Creatine Trial, a randomized trial in arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi adults (n = 605, aged 24-55 y, 50.3% male) who received arsenic-removal water filters. We examined treatment effects of FA and/or creatine supplementation on plasma choline, betaine, and DMG concentrations, measured by LC-tandem mass spectrometry at baseline and at week 12. Group comparisons were between 1) 400 and 800 μg FA/d (FA400 and FA800, respectively) compared with placebo, 2) creatine (3 g/d) compared with placebo, and 3) creatine plus FA400 compared with FA400. Choline decreased in the placebo group (-6.6%; 95% CI: -10.2%, -2.9%) but did not change in the FA groups (FA400: 2.5%; 95% CI: -0.9%, 6.1%; FA800: 1.4%; 95% CI: -2.5%, 5.5%; P creatine treatment arms and their respective reference groups. Supplementation for 12 wk with FA, but not creatine, increases plasma betaine, decreases plasma DMG, and prevents a decrease in plasma choline in arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01050556. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Decreased renal function and hypertension are long-term complications of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.M.; Kaude, J.V.; Newman, R.C.; Peterson, J.C.; Thomas, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    Quantitative radionuclide renography performed in 21 patients 17-21 months after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy showed a significant decrease in the percentage of effective renal plasma flow (%ERPF) of the treated kidney; in five (24%) patients the %ERPF had decreased by more than 5 percentage units. In seven (8%) of 91 patients sustained hypertension developed that required pharmacologic treatment after lithotripsy. Decreased %ERPF of a treated kidney and hypertension may be related to a Page kidney or similar process resulting from renal trauma and hemorrhage occurring as a side effect of lithotripsy. Hypertension is an important complication of lithotripsy in about 8% of patients

  20. Analysis of an inventory model for both linearly decreasing demand and holding cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, A. K.; Singh, Parth Raj; Tomar, Ajay; Kumar, Satish; Yadav, S. K.

    2016-03-01

    This study proposes the analysis of an inventory model for linearly decreasing demand and holding cost for non-instantaneous deteriorating items. The inventory model focuses on commodities having linearly decreasing demand without shortages. The holding cost doesn't remain uniform with time due to any form of variation in the time value of money. Here we consider that the holding cost decreases with respect to time. The optimal time interval for the total profit and the optimal order quantity are determined. The developed inventory model is pointed up through a numerical example. It also includes the sensitivity analysis.

  1. A method of reactor power decrease by 2DOF control system during BWR power oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Katsuo

    1998-09-01

    Occurrence of power oscillation events caused by void feedback effects in BWRs operated at low-flow and high-power condition has been reported. After thoroughly examining these events, BWRs have been equipped with the SRI (Selected Rod Insertion) system to avoid the power oscillation by decreasing the power under such reactor condition. This report presents a power control method for decreasing the reactor power stably by a two degree of freedom (2DOF) control. Performing a numerical simulation by utilizing a simple reactor dynamics model, it is found that the control system designed attains a satisfactory control performance of power decrease from a viewpoint of setting time and oscillation. (author)

  2. Tinnitus retraining therapy for patients with tinnitus and decreased sound tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, Pawel J; Jastreboff, Margaret M

    2003-04-01

    Our experience has revealed the following: (1) TRT is applicable for all types of tinnitus, as well as for decreased sound tolerance, with significant improvement of tinnitus occurring in over 80% of the cases, and at least equal success rate for decreased sound tolerance. (2) TRT can provide cure for decreased sound tolerance. (3) TRT does not require frequent clinic visits and has no side effects; however, (4) Special training of health providers involved in this treatment is required for this treatment to be effective.

  3. A photo-tunable membrane based on inter-particle crosslinking for decreasing diffusion rates

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Song; Moosa, Basem; Chen, Ye; Li, Wengang; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2015-01-01

    %. To prove the applicability of the designed system, the composite membrane was coated on a model drug reservoir tablet. Upon irradiating the tablet with UV light, the original permeability decreased by 57%, and consequently the diffusion rate of the cargo

  4. Psidium guajava leaves decrease arthritic symptoms in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanif Nasiatul Baroroh

    2016-04-01

    Psidium guajava leaf extract is effective in decreasing the inflammatory response and arthritic symptoms in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis. Psidium guajava leaves can be developed into an alternative anti-arthritis treatment.

  5. Prolonged bed rest decreases skeletal muscle and whole body protein synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, A. A.; Lane, H. W.; Stuart, C. A.; Davis-Street, J.; Wolfe, R. R.

    1996-01-01

    We sought to determine the extent to which the loss of lean body mass and nitrogen during inactivity was due to alterations in skeletal muscle protein metabolism. Six male subjects were studied during 7 days of diet stabilization and after 14 days of stimulated microgravity (-6 degrees bed rest). Nitrogen balance became more negative (P protein synthesis (PS; P protein also decreased by 46% (P protein breakdown and inward transport. Whole body protein synthesis determined by [15N]alanine ingestion on six subjects also revealed a 14% decrease (P protein breakdown change significantly. These results indicate that the loss of body protein with inactivity is predominantly due to a decrease in muscle PS and that this decrease is reflected in both whole body and skeletal muscle measures.

  6. The eco-efficiency of tourism. Decrease of effects of tourism on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeters, P.

    2004-01-01

    Without governmental regulations emission of greenhouses, caused by tourism, will most likely not be reduced. In particular, reduction of emission is not feasible without decrease of air transport for tourism activities [nl

  7. The decrease of cardiac chamber volumes and output during positive-pressure ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kasper Kyhl; Ahtarovski, Kiril Aleksov; Iversen, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    the effect of PPV on the central circulation by studying cardiac chamber volumes with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). We hypothesized that PPV lowers cardiac output (CO) mainly via the Frank-Starling relationship. In 18 healthy volunteers, cardiac chamber volumes and flow in aorta and the pulmonary...... artery were measured by CMR during PPV levels of 0, 10, and 20 cmH2O applied via a respirator and a face mask. All cardiac chamber volumes decreased in proportion to the level of PPV. Following 20-cmH2O PPV, the total diastolic and systolic cardiac volumes (±SE) decreased from 605 (±29) ml to 446 (±29......) ml (P volume decreased by 27 (±4) ml/beat; heart rate increased by 7 (±2) beats/min; and CO decreased by 1.0 (±0.4) l/min (P

  8. Catechins decrease neurological severity score through apoptosis and neurotropic factor pathway in rat traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retty Ratnawati

    2017-08-01

    Administration of catechins decreased NSS through inhibiting inflammation and apoptosis, as well as induced the neurotrophic factors in rat brain injury. Catechins may serve as a potential intervention for TBI.

  9. Effects of Group Counseling Based on Logo Therapy to Decrease Loneliness in Elderly Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negin Yazdanbakhsh

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion Group counseling based on logo therapy was found to decrease loneliness scores of elderly men. Therefore, the approach taken in this study can be considered as an appropriate method for psychological interventions in elderly men.

  10. An asymptotic formula for decreasing solutions to coupled nonlinear differential systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matucci, S.; Řehák, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 2 (2012), s. 67-75 ISSN 1064-9735 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : system of quasilinear equations * strongly decreasing solutions * asymptotic equivalence Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  11. Disruption of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 in macrophages decreases chemokine gene expression and atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ai, Ding; Jiang, Hongfeng; Westerterp, Marit; Murphy, Andrew J.; Wang, Mi; Ganda, Anjali; Abramowicz, Sandra; Welch, Carrie; Almazan, Felicidad; Zhu, Yi; Miller, Yury I.; Tall, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 inhibitor, rapamycin, has been shown to decrease atherosclerosis, even while increasing plasma low-density lipoprotein levels. This suggests an antiatherogenic effect possibly mediated by the modulation of inflammatory responses in atherosclerotic plaques.

  12. Peer Instruction in the Learning Laboratory: A Strategy To Decrease Student Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Laura D.; Walden, Debra J.

    2001-01-01

    To decrease nursing students' anxiety during psychomotor skills testing in learning laboratories, paid peer instructors were trained to assist. Over 3 years, 270 students participated and reported positive outcomes. (SK)

  13. Introducing Upfront Money Can Decrease Discounting in Intertemporal Choices with Losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cheng-Ming; Sun, Hong-Yue; Zheng, Sheng-Hua; Wang, Liang-Jun; Qin, Yu

    2016-01-01

    People generally tend to advance gains and postpone losses in intertemporal choice. Jiang et al. (2014) recently showed that adding upfront losses or gains to both smaller and sooner (SS) and larger and later (LL) rewards can decrease people's discounting. To account for this decrease, they proposed the salience hypothesis, which states that introducing upfront losses or gains makes the money dimension more salient than not, thus increasing people's preference for LL rewards. Considering that decreasing the discounting of delayed losses is imperative and that most previous studies have focused on intertemporal choices with gains, in the current paper we conducted two experiments and used hypothetical money outcomes to examine whether the effect of upfront money could be extended to intertemporal choices with losses. The results showed that when both SS and LL intertemporal losses were combined with an upfront loss or gain, people's discounting rate decreased and the preference for the SS option increased. This finding further supports the salience account.

  14. Educational level and decreases in leisure time physical activity: predictors from the longitudinal GLOBE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Droomers (Mariël); C.Th.M. Schrijvers (Carola); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractSTUDY OBJECTIVE: This study describes educational differences in decreases in leisure time physical activity among an adult, physically active population and additionally attempts to identify predictors of these differences from information on health status

  15. Solar activity associated with an unusual series of microwave flux decreases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawyer, C.

    1976-01-01

    East-limb passage of an activity complex in the spring of 1974 was accompanied by a remarkable series of microwave flux decreases. Within an interval of four days, two post-burst decreases and five 'absorption' events occurred, along with two oscillations. Hα patrol films and a spectrogram show a surge and flare sprays with an unusually large velocity of approach at the time of the first post-burst decrease. Two other 'absorption' events were loosely associated with prominence activations, but no outstanding Hα activity was seen at the time of the oscillations. These observations, along with published data, show that the flux decreases followed only flares that lay westward of the major microwave source; ejections from this location would likely have overlain the source while the region was near the east limb. Absorption by flare-ejected material is a plausible, though not exclusive, explanation of these events. (author)

  16. Decreasing warfarin sensitivity during the first three months after heart valve surgery : Implications for dosing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, K.; Kim, Y. -K.; Schulman, S.

    Introduction: Vitamin K antagonists are prescribed to prevent thromboembolic complications after heart valve surgery. In our experience, patients often show a progressive decrease in sensitivity to warfarin after surgery making it difficult to reach and maintain a therapeutic International

  17. Decreased Retinol Binding Protein 4 Concentrations are Associated With Cholesterol Gallstone Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Nien Wang

    2010-06-01

    Conclusion: Circulating RBP4 decreases in cholesterol gallstone disease independent of renal function. Further studies are needed to investigate the relationship between liver function and RBP4 levels in these patients.

  18. Relations between Scots pine needle element concentrations and decreased needle longevity along pollution gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamppu, Jukka; Huttunen, Satu

    2003-01-01

    Deceased needle longevity was related to increased heavy metal concentrations. - Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) shoots were sampled along transects near one urban pollution source and two smelters. Needle Mg, P and K concentrations decreased from the second to the fourth age class linearly with needle survival along the urban pollution gradient. Still, over 80% of the average concentration of these nutrients remained in the fourth needle age class. Decreased needle longevity was closely related to the increased heavy metal concentrations near the smelters. Near the urban pollution source, it was related to the increased annual needle mass and the increased needle nutrient concentrations. Decreased Mn accumulation along with needle age was detected near all pollution sources. Leaching of Mn from needles and especially from soil as a cause of decreased needle concentrations is discussed

  19. BAMBOO: Accelerating Closed Itemset Mining by Deeply Pushing the Length-Decreasing Support Constraint

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Jianyong; Karypis, George

    2003-01-01

    Previous study has shown that mining frequent patterns with length-decreasing support constraint is very helpful in removing some uninteresting patterns based on the observation that short patterns...

  20. Plasma prolactin and homovanillic acid as markers for psychopathology and abnormal movements after neuroleptic dose decrease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, J W; Riney, S J; Vinogradov, S; Csernansky, J G

    1992-01-01

    Plasma prolactin concentration (pPRL), plasma homovanillic acid concentration (pHVA), and symptomatology were measured in 24 male subjects with schizophrenia during maintenance haloperidol treatment. Fourteen subjects subsequently underwent 50 percent dose decreases under placebo-controlled, double-blind conditions. At baseline, a significant inverse correlation was found between pPRL and both tardive dyskinesia (TD) and "thinking disorder"; pPRL was directly correlated with negative symptoms. No such relationship was found with pHVA. In the patients who underwent a dose decrease, no relationship was found between baseline pPRL or pHVA and any clinical variable after the decrease. These data do not support the use of baseline pPRL or pHVA as markers of central dopamine function subsequent to a neuroleptic dose decrease.

  1. Supplementation with Folic Acid, but Not Creatine, Increases Plasma Betaine, Decreases Plasma Dimethylglycine, and Prevents a Decrease in Plasma Choline in Arsenic-Exposed Bangladeshi Adults123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Megan N; Liu, Xinhua; Caudill, Marie A; Malysheva, Olga; Ilievski, Vesna; Lomax-Luu, Angela M; Parvez, Faruque; Siddique, Abu B; Shahriar, Hasan; Uddin, Mohammad N; Islam, Tariqul; Graziano, Joseph H; Gamble, Mary V

    2016-01-01

    Background: Folic acid (FA) supplementation facilitates urinary excretion of arsenic, a human carcinogen. A better understanding of interactions between one-carbon metabolism intermediates may improve the ability to design nutrition interventions that further facilitate arsenic excretion. Objective: The objective was to determine if FA and/or creatine supplementation increase choline and betaine and decrease dimethylglycine (DMG). Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of the Folic Acid and Creatine Trial, a randomized trial in arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi adults (n = 605, aged 24–55 y, 50.3% male) who received arsenic-removal water filters. We examined treatment effects of FA and/or creatine supplementation on plasma choline, betaine, and DMG concentrations, measured by LC–tandem mass spectrometry at baseline and at week 12. Group comparisons were between 1) 400 and 800 μg FA/d (FA400 and FA800, respectively) compared with placebo, 2) creatine (3 g/d) compared with placebo, and 3) creatine plus FA400 compared with FA400. Results: Choline decreased in the placebo group (−6.6%; 95% CI: −10.2%, −2.9%) but did not change in the FA groups (FA400: 2.5%; 95% CI: −0.9%, 6.1%; FA800: 1.4%; 95% CI: −2.5%, 5.5%; P DMG was greater in the FA groups (FA400: −26.7%; 95% CI: −30.9%, −22.2%; FA800: −27.8%; 95% CI: −31.8%, −23.4%) than in the placebo group (−12.3%; 95% CI: −18.1%, −6.2%; P DMG did not differ between creatine treatment arms and their respective reference groups. Conclusion: Supplementation for 12 wk with FA, but not creatine, increases plasma betaine, decreases plasma DMG, and prevents a decrease in plasma choline in arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01050556. PMID:27052531

  2. Decreasing Skin Graft Contraction through Topical Wound Bed Preparation with Anti-Inflammatory Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-14-2-0153 TITLE: Decreasing Skin Graft Contraction through Topical Wound Bed Preparation with Anti-Inflammatory Agents...09/14/2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE “Decreasing Skin Graft Contraction through Topical Wound Bed Preparation with Anti-Inflammatory Agents” 5a...of a specific topical anti-inflammatory drug that will reduce and shorten the inflammatory state of the recipient wound bed and thus, skin graft

  3. Have U.S. Manufacturing Inventories Really Decreased? An Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    S. Rajagopalan; Arvind Malhotra

    2001-01-01

    Numerous normative models have been developed to determine optimal inventory levels, and several articles and case studies have been written about the concerted efforts and practices adopted by manufacturing firms in the United States to reduce inventories. But little is known about whether inventories have indeed decreased in U.S. manufacturing and whether such a decrease has been restricted to a few well-publicized firms or is true at an industry level. Using data published by the U.S. Cens...

  4. Nabilone Decreases Marijuana Withdrawal and a Laboratory Measure of Marijuana Relapse

    OpenAIRE

    Haney, Margaret; Cooper, Ziva D; Bedi, Gillinder; Vosburg, Suzanne K; Comer, Sandra D; Foltin, Richard W

    2013-01-01

    Few individuals seeking treatment for marijuana use achieve sustained abstinence. The cannabinoid receptor agonist, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; dronabinol), decreases marijuana withdrawal symptoms, yet does not decrease marijuana use in the laboratory or clinic. Dronabinol has poor bioavailability, which may contribute to its poor efficacy. The FDA-approved synthetic analog of THC, nabilone, has higher bioavailability and clearer dose-linearity than dronabinol. This study tested whether nab...

  5. Observation of the February 2011 Forbush decrease by the EEE telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Abbrescia, M; Antolini, R; Avanzini, C; Baldini Ferroli, R; Bencivenni, G; Bossini, E; Bressan, E; Chiavassa, A; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Coccetti, F; Coccia, E; De Gruttola, D; De Pasquale, S; Di Giovanni, A; D'Incecco, M; Doroud, K; Dreucci, M; Fabbri, F.L; Frolov, V; Garbini, M; Gemme, G; Gnesi, I; Gustavino, C; Hatzifotiadou, D; La Rocca, P; Li, S; Librizzi, F; Maggiora, A; Massai, M; Menghetti, H; Miozzi, S; Moro, R; Panareo, M; Paoletti, R; Perasso, L; Pilo, F; Piragino, G; Regano, A; Riggi, F; Romano, F; Sartorelli, G; Scapparone, E; Scribano, A; Selvi, M; Serci, S; Siddi, E; Spandre, G; Squarcia, S; Taiuti, M; Tosello, F; Votano, L; Williams, M.C.S; Zichichi, A; Zouyevski, R

    2011-01-01

    The Forbush decrease following the large X2 solar flare on mid-February 2011 has been observed by the muon telescopes of the EEE Project, which are located in several Italian sites and at CERN. Data from two different telescopes of the EEE network have been analyzed and compared to those measured by neutron monitor stations. The variation of the muon counting rate during the Forbush decrease was also extracted for different intervals of the azimuthal angle of the incoming muons.

  6. Decreased cerebral blood flow and prognosis of Alzheimer's disease. A multicenter HMPAO-SPECT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Hashikawa, Kazuo; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for evaluating the severity and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Eighty-four AD patients were included. At entry, 99m Tc-HMPAO-SPECT, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Mental Function Impairment Scale (MENFIS), and the Raven Colored Progression Matrix (RCPM) were performed for all 84 patients. During the follow-up periods, two individual MMSE evaluations in 34 patients, two MENFIS evaluations in 30 patients, and two RCPM evaluations in 20 patients were performed. Based on the regions of decreased cerebral blood flow demonstrated on three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) images of SPECT, the cases were classified as type A (no decrease), type B (decreased blood flow in the parietal or temporal lobe), type C (decreased blood flow in the frontal lobe and parietal or temporal lobe), type Pc (decreased blood flow in posterior cingulate gyrus only), and ''other types''. The types of decreased blood flow, scores on neuropsychological evaluations, and symptom progression were analyzed. The MENFIS, MMSE, and RCPM scores were poorest in type C patients at entry. The degree of decrease of these scores during the follow-up periods was also greatest in type C. The greatest difference between patients with and without rapid progression in SPECT data of the mild AD patients (MMSE score≥24) was in the frontal lobe. Decreased blood flow in the frontal lobe of AD patients is correlated not only with reduced cognitive function at the time of the evaluation but with rapid progression in the subsequent clinical course. (author)

  7. String Bean Juice Decreases Blood Glucose Level Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Harmayetty, Harmayetty; Krisnana, Ilya; Anisa, Faida

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is deficiency of insulin and caused by decreases of insulin receptor or bad quality of insulin. As a result, insulin hormone does not work effectively in blood glucose regulation. String bean juice contains thiamin and fiber may regulate blood glucose level. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of string bean juice to decrease blood glucose level of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Method: This study employed a quasy-experimental pre-po...

  8. Inorganic phosphorus decrease after intravenous glucose tolerance test is associated with insulin resistance in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Cincović, Marko R.; Djoković, Radojica; Belić, Branislavav; Potkonjak, Aleksandar; Toholj, Bojan; Stojanac, Nenad; Stevančević, Ognjen; Starič, Jože

    2017-01-01

    Inorganic phosphorus (Pi) concentration in blood decreases during an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) due to the increase in the level of insulin and glucose. The objective of the present study was to determine the relationship between the intensity of Pi decrease with a dynamic change of insulin and glucose during IVGTT (AUC - total area under curve, AUC increment - area under curve from start of IVGTT to time of maximal response and glucose CR-clearance rate), as well as RQUICKI (...

  9. Sustained, Low?Intensity Exercise Achieved by a Dynamic Feeding System Decreases Body Fat in Ponies

    OpenAIRE

    de Laat, M.A.; Hampson, B.A.; Sillence, M.N.; Pollitt, C.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity in horses is increasing in prevalence and can be associated with insulin insensitivity and laminitis. Current treatment strategies for obesity include dietary restriction and exercise. However, whether exercise alone is effective for decreasing body fat is uncertain. Hypothesis Our hypothesis was that twice daily use of a dynamic feeding system for 3 months would induce sustained, low?intensity exercise thereby decreasing adiposity and improving insulin sensitivity (SI). An...

  10. Relationship between cognitive function and prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Decrease in intrinsic motivation is a common complaint among elementary and junior high school students, and is related to poor academic performance. Since grade-dependent development of cognitive functions also influences academic performance by these students, we examined whether cognitive functions are related to the prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation. Methods The study group consisted of 134 elementary school students from 4th to 6th grades and 133 junior high school students from 7th to 9th grades. Participants completed a questionnaire on intrinsic academic motivation. They also performed paper-and-pencil and computerized cognitive tests to measure abilities in motor processing, spatial construction, semantic fluency, immediate memory, short-term memory, delayed memory, spatial working memory, and selective, alternative, and divided attention. Results In multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for grade and gender, scores of none of the cognitive tests were correlated with the prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation in elementary school students. However, low digit span forward test score and score for comprehension of the story in the kana pick-out test were positively correlated with the prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation in junior high school students. Conclusions The present findings suggest that decrease in capacity for verbal memory is associated with the prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation among junior high school students. PMID:21235802

  11. Relationship between cognitive function and prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuda Sanae

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decrease in intrinsic motivation is a common complaint among elementary and junior high school students, and is related to poor academic performance. Since grade-dependent development of cognitive functions also influences academic performance by these students, we examined whether cognitive functions are related to the prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation. Methods The study group consisted of 134 elementary school students from 4th to 6th grades and 133 junior high school students from 7th to 9th grades. Participants completed a questionnaire on intrinsic academic motivation. They also performed paper-and-pencil and computerized cognitive tests to measure abilities in motor processing, spatial construction, semantic fluency, immediate memory, short-term memory, delayed memory, spatial working memory, and selective, alternative, and divided attention. Results In multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for grade and gender, scores of none of the cognitive tests were correlated with the prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation in elementary school students. However, low digit span forward test score and score for comprehension of the story in the kana pick-out test were positively correlated with the prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation in junior high school students. Conclusions The present findings suggest that decrease in capacity for verbal memory is associated with the prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation among junior high school students.

  12. Relationship between cognitive function and prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Kei; Tanaka, Masaaki; Fukuda, Sanae; Imai-Matsumura, Kyoko; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2011-01-14

    Decrease in intrinsic motivation is a common complaint among elementary and junior high school students, and is related to poor academic performance. Since grade-dependent development of cognitive functions also influences academic performance by these students, we examined whether cognitive functions are related to the prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation. The study group consisted of 134 elementary school students from 4th to 6th grades and 133 junior high school students from 7th to 9th grades. Participants completed a questionnaire on intrinsic academic motivation. They also performed paper-and-pencil and computerized cognitive tests to measure abilities in motor processing, spatial construction, semantic fluency, immediate memory, short-term memory, delayed memory, spatial working memory, and selective, alternative, and divided attention. In multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for grade and gender, scores of none of the cognitive tests were correlated with the prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation in elementary school students. However, low digit span forward test score and score for comprehension of the story in the kana pick-out test were positively correlated with the prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation in junior high school students. The present findings suggest that decrease in capacity for verbal memory is associated with the prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation among junior high school students.

  13. Decreased ADAMTS 13 Activity is Associated With Disease Severity and Outcome in Pediatric Severe Sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jainn-Jim; Chan, Oi-Wa; Hsiao, Hsiang-Ju; Wang, Yu; Hsia, Shao-Hsuan; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Decreased ADAMTS 13 activity has been reported in severe sepsis and in sepsis-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation. This study aimed to investigate the role of ADAMTS 13 in different pediatric sepsis syndromes and evaluate its relationship with disease severity and outcome. We prospectively collected cases of sepsis treated in a pediatric intensive care unit, between July 2012 and June 2014 in Chang Gung Children's Hospital in Taoyuan, Taiwan. Clinical characteristics and ADAMTS-13 activity were analyzed. All sepsis syndromes had decreased ADAMTS 13 activity on days 1 and 3 of admission compared to healthy controls. Patients with septic shock had significantly decreased ADAMTS 13 activity on days 1 and 3 compared to those with sepsis and severe sepsis. There was a significant negative correlation between ADAMTS 13 activity on day 1 and day 1 PRISM-II, PELOD, P-MOD, and DIC scores. Patients with mortality had significantly decreased ADAMTS 13 activity on day 1 than survivors, but not on day 3. Different pediatric sepsis syndromes have varying degrees of decreased ADAMTS 13 activity. ADAMTS 13 activity is strongly negatively correlated with disease severity of pediatric sepsis syndrome, whereas decreased ADAMTS 13 activity on day 1 is associated with increased risk of mortality. PMID:27100422

  14. The Effectiveness of Parent-Child Play Therapy on Decreasing Depression Symptoms in Children with Cancer, Decreasing Perceived Stress on Their Mothers and Improving Parent-Child Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    رویا سادات علویان

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Present study, aimed to assess the effect of parent-child play therapy on decreasing depression symptoms in children with cancer, decreasing perceived stress of their mothers and improving the parent-child relationship. A total of 14 children diagnosed with cancer were selected, among the patients of Dr. Sheikh Hospital in the city of Mashhad, and randomly assigned into two groups of intervention and control. Mothers completed the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS and the Parent-Child Relationship Scale (PCRS, the children completed the Child Depression Inventory (CDI, both in pre-test and post-test. Eight sessions of parent-child play therapy were adminstered separately for every pair of mother-child from intervention group. Data were analyzed by using analysis of covariance. Compared to the control group, CDI scores of intervention group reduced significantly from pre to post test. Also scores of PCRS increased significantly for the intervention group. PSS Scores of intervention groups was not significantly different from control group. As a result, parent-child play therapy can be effective in reducing depression symptoms of children with cancer, and improving the parent-child relationship; while, it was not effective for reducing mothers' level of perceived stress.

  15. The response of soil solution chemistry in European forests to decreasing acid deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James; Graf Pannatier, Elisabeth; Carnicelli, Stefano; Cecchini, Guia; Clarke, Nicholas; Cools, Nathalie; Hansen, Karin; Meesenburg, Henning; Nieminen, Tiina M; Pihl-Karlsson, Gunilla; Titeux, Hugues; Vanguelova, Elena; Verstraeten, Arne; Vesterdal, Lars; Waldner, Peter; Jonard, Mathieu

    2018-03-31

    Acid deposition arising from sulphur (S) and nitrogen (N) emissions from fossil fuel combustion and agriculture has contributed to the acidification of terrestrial ecosystems in many regions globally. However, in Europe and North America, S deposition has greatly decreased in recent decades due to emissions controls. In this study, we assessed the response of soil solution chemistry in mineral horizons of European forests to these changes. Trends in pH, acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), major ions, total aluminium (Al tot ) and dissolved organic carbon were determined for the period 1995-2012. Plots with at least 10 years of observations from the ICP Forests monitoring network were used. Trends were assessed for the upper mineral soil (10-20 cm, 104 plots) and subsoil (40-80 cm, 162 plots). There was a large decrease in the concentration of sulphate (SO42-) in soil solution; over a 10-year period (2000-2010), SO42- decreased by 52% at 10-20 cm and 40% at 40-80 cm. Nitrate was unchanged at 10-20 cm but decreased at 40-80 cm. The decrease in acid anions was accompanied by a large and significant decrease in the concentration of the nutrient base cations: calcium, magnesium and potassium (Bc = Ca 2+  + Mg 2+  + K + ) and Al tot over the entire dataset. The response of soil solution acidity was nonuniform. At 10-20 cm, ANC increased in acid-sensitive soils (base saturation ≤10%) indicating a recovery, but ANC decreased in soils with base saturation >10%. At 40-80 cm, ANC remained unchanged in acid-sensitive soils (base saturation ≤20%, pHCaCl2 ≤ 4.5) and decreased in better-buffered soils (base saturation >20%, pHCaCl2 > 4.5). In addition, the molar ratio of Bc to Al tot either did not change or decreased. The results suggest a long-time lag between emission abatement and changes in soil solution acidity and underline the importance of long-term monitoring in evaluating ecosystem response to decreases in deposition. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons

  16. High fat feeding results in a decrease in insulin responsiveness of isolated solei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundleger, M.L.; Preves, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between diet and insulin responsiveness was examined in isolated solei from 6 week old female Sprague-Dawley rats. Weanling rats were fed either a high fat (HF) (67%kcal) or a high carbohydrate diet (HC) (67% kcal) for 21 days. A significant decrease in plasma insulin (I) but not glucose was observed in the HF fed rats. Insulin stimulated (IS) glucose (G) metabolism was examined using a maximal concentration of I (20 mU/m1). G uptake was estimated using 14 C-2 deoxyglucose (2DG). Basal and IS 2DG uptake decreased in HF rats. However, I sensitivity but not responsiveness remained intact in the HF rats. Total G utilization (GU) was estimated by the sum of the rate of formation of: 3 H 2 O from 5- 3 H-glucose [glycolysis- (GL)] and 3 H-glycogen (GLY). IS GU decreased in HF versus HC fed rats. I failed to stimulate GL while GLY remained sensitive. Glucose oxidation (GO) was measured by 14 CO 2 . I failed to stimulated GO. Intracellular metabolite concentrations (IC) were measured in solei from HF and HC fed rats. IS IC-G6P decreased in HF compared to HC fed rats. Basal IC-F6P but not IC-F 1.6 BP increased in HF compared to HC fed rats. I failed to stimulate an increase in IC-F 1,6BP concentrations. Glycolytic activators were determined. HF produced a significant decrease in F2, 6BP concentration when compared to HC rats. Prostaglandins (PG) have been implicated in mediating insulin action. HF produced a significant decrease in basal and insulin stimulated PGE 2 . These data demonstrate that postreceptor - postmembrane alterations are in part responsible for the decreased insulin responsiveness observed after HF feeding

  17. Minocycline Decreases Liver Injury after Hemorrhagic Shock and Resuscitation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Czerny

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients that survive hemorrhage and resuscitation (H/R may develop a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS that leads to dysfunction of vital organs (multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, MODS. SIRS and MODS may involve mitochondrial dysfunction. Under pentobarbital anesthesia, C57BL6 mice were hemorrhaged to 30 mm Hg for 3 h and then resuscitated with shed blood plus half the volume of lactated Ringer’s solution containing minocycline, tetracycline (both 10 mg/kg body weight or vehicle. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, necrosis, apoptosis and oxidative stress were assessed 6 h after resuscitation. Mitochondrial polarization was assessed by intravital microscopy. After H/R with vehicle or tetracycline, ALT increased to 4538 U/L and 3999 U/L, respectively, which minocycline decreased to 1763 U/L (P<0.01. Necrosis and TUNEL also decreased from 24.5% and 17.7 cells/field, respectively, after vehicle to 8.3% and 8.7 cells/field after minocycline. Tetracycline failed to decrease necrosis (23.3% but decreased apoptosis to 9 cells/field (P<0.05. Minocycline and tetracycline also decreased caspase-3 activity in liver homogenates. Minocycline but not tetracycline decreased lipid peroxidation after resuscitation by 70% (P<0.05. Intravital microscopy showed that minocycline preserved mitochondrial polarization after H/R (P<0.05. In conclusion, minocycline decreases liver injury and oxidative stress after H/R by preventing mitochondrial dysfunction.

  18. Epidermal growth factor treatment decreases mortality and is associated with improved gut integrity in sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jessica A; Clark, Andrew T; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Buchman, Timothy G; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2008-07-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a cytoprotective peptide that has healing effects on the intestinal mucosa. We sought to determine whether systemic administration of EGF after the onset of sepsis improved intestinal integrity and decreased mortality. FVB/N mice were subjected to either sham laparotomy or 2 x 23 cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Septic mice were further randomized to receive injection of either 150 microg kg(-1) d(-1) (i.p.) EGF or 0.9% saline (i.p.). Circulating EGF levels were decreased after CLP compared with sham animals but were unaffected by giving exogenous EGF treatment. In contrast, intestinal EGF levels increased after CLP and were further augmented by exogenous EGF treatment. Intestinal EGF receptor was increased after CLP, whether assayed by immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction, or Western blot, and exogenous EGF treatment decreased intestinal EGF receptor. Villus length decreased 2-fold between sham and septic animals, and EGF treatment resulted in near total restitution of villus length. Sepsis decreased intestinal proliferation and increased intestinal apoptosis. This was accompanied by increased expression of the proapoptotic proteins Bid and Fas-associated death domain, as well as the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 cip1/waf Epidermal growth factor treatment after the onset of sepsis restored both proliferation and apoptosis to levels seen in sham animals and normalized expression of Bid, Fas-associated death domain, and p21 cip1/waf . To determine whether improvements in gut homeostasis were associated with a decrease in sepsis-induced mortality, septic mice with or without EGF treatment after CLP were followed 7 days for survival. Mortality decreased from 60% to 30% in mice treated with EGF after the onset of sepsis (P < 0.05). Thus, EGF may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of sepsis in part due to its ability to protect intestinal integrity.

  19. Decrease in oil prices: which consequences for the World economy and for France?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camatte, Hadrien; Darmet-Cucchiarini, Maxime; Gillet, Thomas; Masson, Emmanuelle; Meslin, Olivier; Padieu, Ysaline; Tavin, Alexandre

    2016-04-01

    Based of various statistics, this public publication first describes that, since summer 2014, oil price has been sharply decreasing (70 per cent) and keeping on decreasing due to a still abundant supply (with non conventional oil in the USA, and a still high production by OPEC countries) and a rather disappointing demand. It also outlines that production commitments stated by producers are still uncertain. This paper then notices that this oil price decrease could remain positive for World economy, but that some short term factors still impair these effects. This positive effect is indeed slow to appear in importing countries. Negative effects in exporting countries are emphasized by local economic policies. Moreover, there could be a transmission of this oil price decrease to the financial sphere, oil price decrease makes monetary policy more complex, and the USA are increasingly exposed to the energy sector activity. The third part shows that oil prices have positive effects on the French economy. They favour a wealth transfer from the rest of the world to the French economy, positively impacts companies margins and household purchase power on the short and medium terms, induces external effects as it also affects trade partners, and could result in an activity gain in the finance bill

  20. Is decreased diameter of renal pelvis in prone position an indicator of successful pyeloplasty?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Gyanendra; Sharma, Anshu; Leung, Vivian Yee-Fong; Chu, Winnie Chiu-Wing

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate patients who had undergone pyeloplasty for pelviureteric junction obstruction, by measuring the anteroposterior diameter (APD) of the renal pelvis in supine and prone positions, and determine whether a decrease in APD in prone position can exclude obstruction in dilated renal system. From January 2012 to December 2013, patients who had undergone pyeloplasty were evaluated by ultrasound in two centers. The difference of APD of the renal pelvis in supine and prone positions was obtained. Correlation was made with the pre- and post-pyeloplasty renal function by radionuclide renogram. There were 42 patients (31 males, 11 females; age range 5 months to 18 years). Residual hydronephrosis was detected in 41 patients of whom 35 patients (85%) showed decrease in APD by >10% in prone position. These patients and the one without hydronephrosis showed either no deterioration or improvement in renal function. Six patients (15%) showed either no change or increase in APD in prone position. Three patients (7.5%) were confirmed to have decrease in renal function indicating obstruction. Three patients (7.5%) showed no deterioration of renal function, but sluggish drainage on radionuclide renogram. Demonstration of decreased APD of renal pelvis in prone position by ultrasound is useful to differentiate obstructed from non-obstructed dilated renal system, and it correctly identified 85% candidates with successful pyeloplasty. In patients with no decrease or increase in APD at prone position, further follow-up is recommended to rule out obstruction

  1. Low-Concentration Tributyltin Decreases GluR2 Expression via Nuclear Respiratory Factor-1 Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Keishi; Aoki, Kaori; Takishita, Tomoko; Miyara, Masatsugu; Sakamoto, Shuichiro; Sanoh, Seigo; Kimura, Tomoki; Kanda, Yasunari; Ohta, Shigeru; Kotake, Yaichiro

    2017-08-11

    Tributyltin (TBT), which has been widely used as an antifouling agent in paints, is a common environmental pollutant. Although the toxicity of high-dose TBT has been extensively reported, the effects of low concentrations of TBT are relatively less well studied. We have previously reported that low-concentration TBT decreases α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptor subunit 2 ( GluR2 ) expression in cortical neurons and enhances neuronal vulnerability to glutamate. However, the mechanism of this TBT-induced GluR2 decrease remains unknown. Therefore, we examined the effects of TBT on the activity of transcription factors that control GluR2 expression. Exposure of primary cortical neurons to 20 nM TBT for 3 h to 9 days resulted in a decrease in GluR2 mRNA expression. Moreover, TBT inhibited the DNA binding activity of nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1), a transcription factor that positively regulates the GluR2 . This result indicates that TBT inhibits the activity of NRF-1 and subsequently decreases GluR2 expression. In addition, 20 nM TBT decreased the expression of genes such as cytochrome c, cytochrome c oxidase (COX) 4, and COX 6c, which are downstream of NRF-1. Our results suggest that NRF-1 inhibition is an important molecular action of the neurotoxicity induced by low-concentration TBT.

  2. Prenatal Exposure to Tributyltin Decreases GluR2 Expression in the Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Keishi; Saiki, Takashi; Umeda, Kanae; Miyara, Masatsugu; Sanoh, Seigo; Ohta, Shigeru; Kotake, Yaichiro

    2017-01-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), a common environmental contaminant, is widely used as an antifouling agent in paint. We previously reported that exposure of primary cortical neurons to TBT in vitro decreased the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunit glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2) expression and subsequently increased neuronal vulnerability to glutamate. Therefore, to identify whether GluR2 expression also decreases after TBT exposure in vivo, we evaluated the changes in GluR2 expression in the mouse brain after prenatal or postnatal exposure to 10 and 25 ppm TBT through pellet diets. Although the mean feed intake and body weight did not decrease in TBT-exposed mice compared with that in control mice, GluR2 expression in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus decreased after TBT exposure during the prenatal period. These results indicate that a decrease in neuronal GluR2 may be involved in TBT-induced neurotoxicity, especially during the fetal period.

  3. Low-Concentration Tributyltin Decreases GluR2 Expression via Nuclear Respiratory Factor-1 Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Keishi; Aoki, Kaori; Takishita, Tomoko; Miyara, Masatsugu; Sakamoto, Shuichiro; Sanoh, Seigo; Kimura, Tomoki; Kanda, Yasunari; Ohta, Shigeru; Kotake, Yaichiro

    2017-01-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), which has been widely used as an antifouling agent in paints, is a common environmental pollutant. Although the toxicity of high-dose TBT has been extensively reported, the effects of low concentrations of TBT are relatively less well studied. We have previously reported that low-concentration TBT decreases α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptor subunit 2 (GluR2) expression in cortical neurons and enhances neuronal vulnerability to glutamate. However, the mechanism of this TBT-induced GluR2 decrease remains unknown. Therefore, we examined the effects of TBT on the activity of transcription factors that control GluR2 expression. Exposure of primary cortical neurons to 20 nM TBT for 3 h to 9 days resulted in a decrease in GluR2 mRNA expression. Moreover, TBT inhibited the DNA binding activity of nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1), a transcription factor that positively regulates the GluR2. This result indicates that TBT inhibits the activity of NRF-1 and subsequently decreases GluR2 expression. In addition, 20 nM TBT decreased the expression of genes such as cytochrome c, cytochrome c oxidase (COX) 4, and COX 6c, which are downstream of NRF-1. Our results suggest that NRF-1 inhibition is an important molecular action of the neurotoxicity induced by low-concentration TBT. PMID:28800112

  4. Macropinocytosis is decreased in diabetic mouse macrophages and is regulated by AMPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakour Kenneth S

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrophages (MΦs utilize macropinocytosis to integrate immune and metabolic signals in order to initiate an effective immune response. Diabetes is characterized by metabolic abnormalities and altered immune function. Here we examine the influence of diabetes on macropinocytosis in primary mouse macrophages and in an in vitro diabetes model. Results The data demonstrate that peritoneal MΦs from diabetic (db/db mice had reduced macropinocytosis when compared to MΦs from non-diabetic (db/+ mice. Additionally, MΦs cultured in hyperglycemic conditions were less adept at macropinocytosis than those cultured in low glucose. Notably, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activity was decreased in MΦs cultured in hyperglycemic conditions. Activation of AMPK with leptin or 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-riboside (AICAR increased macropinocytosis and inhibition of AMPK with compound C decreased macropinocytosis. Conclusion Taken together, these findings indicate that MΦs from diabetic mice have decreased macropinocytosis. This decrease appears dependent on reduced AMPK activity. These results demonstrate a previously unrealized role for AMPK in MΦs and suggest that increasing AMPK activity in diabetic MΦs could improve innate immunity and decrease susceptibility to infection.

  5. Inhibition of myeloperoxidase decreases vascular oxidative stress and increases vasodilatation in sickle cell disease mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Xu, Hao; Weihrauch, Dorothee; Jones, Deron W; Jing, Xigang; Shi, Yang; Gourlay, David; Oldham, Keith T; Hillery, Cheryl A; Pritchard, Kirkwood A

    2013-11-01

    Activated leukocytes and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) release myeloperoxidase (MPO), which binds to endothelial cells (EC), is translocated, and generates oxidants that scavenge nitric oxide (NO) and impair EC function. To determine whether MPO impairs EC function in sickle cell disease (SCD), control (AA) and SCD mice were treated with N-acetyl-lysyltyrosylcysteine-amide (KYC). SCD humans and mice have high plasma MPO and soluble L-selectin (sL-selectin). KYC had no effect on MPO but decreased plasma sL-selectin and malondialdehyde in SCD mice. MPO and 3-chlorotyrosine (3-ClTyr) were increased in SCD aortas. KYC decreased MPO and 3-ClTyr in SCD aortas to the levels in AA aortas. Vasodilatation in SCD mice was impaired. KYC increased vasodilatation in SCD mice more than 2-fold, to ∼60% of levels in AA mice. KYC inhibited MPO-dependent 3-ClTyr formation in EC proteins. SCD mice had high plasma alanine transaminase (ALT), which tended to decrease in KYC-treated SCD mice (P = 0.07). KYC increased MPO and XO/XDH and decreased 3-ClTyr and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NO₂Tyr) in SCD livers. These data support the hypothesis that SCD increases release of MPO, which generates oxidants that impair EC function and injure livers. Inhibiting MPO is an effective strategy for decreasing oxidative stress and liver injury and restoring EC function in SCD.

  6. Decreased hedonic responsiveness following chronic mild stress is not secondary to loss of body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, P; Moreau, J L; Nielsen, C K; Papp, M; Sluzewska, A

    1996-07-01

    Chronic exposure to mild unpredictable stress (CMS) has previously been found to decrease hedonic responsiveness, as measured by the consumption of palatable sweet solutions or sensitivity to brain stimulation reward. These effects are reversed by chronic treatment with antidepressant drugs, and the CMS procedure has been proposed as a relatively valid animal model of depression. It has recently been suggested that the behavioural effects of CMS may be secondary to loss of body weight. This article collates data from five laboratories using the CMS procedure. Data are presented from seven studies using five different rat strains, as well as CD1 mice. Three-week exposure to CMS significantly decreased sucrose consumption by Lister hooded, PVG hooded, Wistar, and Wistar WU rats, and by CD1 mice, and sensitivity to brain stimulation reward in Ibm:Ro Ro rats. Weight loss in different experiments varied between 0 and 10%. Hedonic sensitivity relative to body weight (e.g., mg sucrose/g body weight) decreased significantly in all experiments. Animals maintained on a restricted feeding regime lost weight but did not show decreases in sucrose intake. It is concluded that decreased hedonic sensitivity following chronic mild stress cannot be attributed to loss of body weight.

  7. Decreasing Asian summer monsoon intensity after 1860 AD in the global warming epoch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hai [Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province (China); Hong, Yetang; Hong, Bin [Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Guiyang (China)

    2012-10-15

    The trend of the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) intensity and its nature during the past 100 and 200 years still remain unclear. In this study we reconstructed the ISM intensity during the past 270 years from tree ring {delta}{sup 18}O at Hongyuan, eastern edge of the Tibet Plateau. The monsoon failures inferred from {delta}{sup 18}O{sub tree} {sub ring} correlate well with those recorded in ice cores, speleothem, and historical literature sources. 22.6, 59.0, and 110.9-years frequency components in the Hongyuan {delta}{sup 18}O{sub tree} {sub ring} series, which may be the responses to solar activities, synchronize well with those recorded in other ISM indices. A notable feature of the reconstructed ISM intensity is the gradually decreasing trend from about 1860 to the present, which is inversely related to the increasing temperature trend contemporaneously. Such ''decreasing ISM intensity-increasing temperature'' tendency can also be supported by ice core records and meteorological records over a wide geographic extension. The decrease in sea surface temperature gradient between tropical and north Indian Ocean, and the decrease in land-sea thermal contrast between tropical Indian Ocean and ''Indian sub-continent-western Himalaya'' are possibly responsible for the observed decreasing ISM trend. (orig.)

  8. Krill oil significantly decreases 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels in obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Elena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have previously shown that krill oil (KO, more efficiently than fish oil, was able to downregulate the endocannabinoid system in different tissues of obese zucker rats. We therefore aimed at investigating whether an intake of 2 g/d of either KO or menhaden oil (MO, which provides 309 mg/d of EPA/DHA 2:1 and 390 mg/d of EPA/DHA 1:1 respectively, or olive oil (OO for four weeks, is able to modify plasma endocannabinoids in overweight and obese subjects. The results confirmed data in the literature describing increased levels of endocannabinoids in overweight and obese with respect to normo-weight subjects. KO, but not MO or OO, was able to significantly decrease 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, although only in obese subjects. In addition, the decrease of 2-AG was correlated to the plasma n-6/n-3 phospholipid long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA ratio. These data show for the first time in humans that relatively low doses of LCPUFA n-3 as KO can significantly decrease plasma 2-AG levels in obese subjects in relation to decrease of plasma phospholipid n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio. This effect is not linked to changes of metabolic syndrome parameters but is most likely due to a decrease of 2-AG biosynthesis caused by the replacement of 2-AG ultimate precursor, arachidonic acid, with n-3 PUFAs, as previously described in obese Zucker rats.

  9. Environmental enrichment decreases asphyxia-induced neurobehavioral developmental delay in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Peter; Vadasz, Gyongyver; Kiss-Illes, Blanka; Horvath, Gabor; Tamas, Andrea; Reglodi, Dora; Koppan, Miklos

    2013-11-13

    Perinatal asphyxia during delivery produces long-term disability and represents a major problem in neonatal and pediatric care. Numerous neuroprotective approaches have been described to decrease the effects of perinatal asphyxia. Enriched environment is a popular strategy to counteract nervous system injuries. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether enriched environment is able to decrease the asphyxia-induced neurobehavioral developmental delay in neonatal rats. Asphyxia was induced in ready-to-deliver mothers by removing the pups by caesarian section after 15 min of asphyxia. Somatic and neurobehavioral development was tested daily and motor coordination weekly. Our results show that rats undergoing perinatal asphyxia had a marked developmental delay and worse performance in motor coordination tests. However, pups kept in enriched environment showed a decrease in the developmental delay observed in control asphyctic pups. Rats growing up in enriched environment did not show decrease in weight gain after the first week and the delay in reflex appearance was not as marked as in control rats. In addition, the development of motor coordination was not as strikingly delayed as in the control group. Short-term neurofunctional outcome are known to correlate with long-term deficits. Our results thus show that enriched environment could be a powerful strategy to decrease the deleterious developmental effects of perinatal asphyxia.

  10. Inhibition of fatty acid synthesis decreases very low density lipoprotein secretion in the hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeeny, C M; Meyers, D S; Bergquist, K E; Gregg, R E

    1992-06-01

    The hamster was developed as a model to study very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) metabolism, since, as is the case in humans, the hamster liver was found to synthesize apoB-100 and not apoB-48. The effect of inhibiting fatty acid synthesis on the hepatic secretion of VLDL triglyceride (TG) and apolipoprotein (apo) B-100 in this model was then investigated. In an in vivo study, hamsters were fed a chow diet containing 0.15% TOFA (5-tetradecyloxy-2-furancarboxylic acid), an inhibitor of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. After 6 days of treatment, plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels were decreased by 30.2% and 11.6%, respectively. When the secretion of VLDL-TG by the liver was measured in vivo after injection of Triton WR 1339, TOFA treatment was found to decrease VLDL-TG secretion by 40%. In subsequent in vitro studies utilizing cultured primary hamster hepatocytes, incubation with 20 microM TOFA for 4 h resulted in 98% and 76% inhibition in fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis, respectively; VLDL-TG secretion was decreased by 90%. When hepatocytes were pulsed with [3H]leucine, incubation with TOFA resulted in a 50% decrease in the incorporation of radiolabel into secreted VLDL apoB-100. The results of this study indicate that inhibition of intracellular triglyceride synthesis decreases the secretion of VLDL-TG and apoB-100, and does not result in the secretion of a dense, triglyceride-depleted lipoprotein.

  11. Nutritional Methods to Decrease N Losses from Open-Dirt Feedlots in Nebraska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galen E. Erickson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N losses from cattle feedlots are of concern due to loss of valuable N and enrichment of the atmospheric N pool. Nutritional methods to decrease such losses would have economic and environmental benefits. One method to decrease N losses is by increasing carbon (C on the pen surface. The most cost effective method of decreasing N losses with C may be feeding diets lower in digestibility compared to adding C directly to pens. Therefore, three experiments evaluated feeding corn bran (which is less digestible than corn as either 0, 15, or 30% of the diet. The 15- and 30%-bran diets increase organic matter (OM excretion by approximately 0.5 and 1.0 kg per steer per day, respectively. Compared with no bran, feeding 15 and 30% decreased feed efficiency by 7.8 and 10.4%, respectively. Nutrient balance was assessed in two trials from October through May and in one trial from June to September. During the trials from October to May, N losses were decreased by 14.5 and 20.7% for the 15- and 30%-bran diets compared with no bran. Feeding 15 or 30% bran did not influence N losses in the experiment from June to September. Increasing the C:N ratio of manure prior to cleaning open-dirt feedlots had variable results depending on time of year.

  12. BOLD repetition decreases in object-responsive ventral visual areas depend on spatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eger, E; Henson, R N A; Driver, J; Dolan, R J

    2004-08-01

    Functional imaging studies of priming-related repetition phenomena have become widely used to study neural object representation. Although blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) repetition decreases can sometimes be observed without awareness of repetition, any role for spatial attention in BOLD repetition effects remains largely unknown. We used fMRI in 13 healthy subjects to test whether BOLD repetition decreases for repeated objects in ventral visual cortices depend on allocation of spatial attention to the prime. Subjects performed a size-judgment task on a probe object that had been attended or ignored in a preceding prime display of 2 lateralized objects. Reaction times showed faster responses when the probe was the same object as the attended prime, independent of the view tested (identical vs. mirror image). No behavioral effect was evident from unattended primes. BOLD repetition decreases for attended primes were found in lateral occipital and fusiform regions bilaterally, which generalized across identical and mirror-image repeats. No repetition decreases were observed for ignored primes. Our results suggest a critical role for attention in achieving visual representations of objects that lead to both BOLD signal decreases and behavioral priming on repeated presentation.

  13. Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Ischemic Stroke: Decreased Insulin Sensitivity and Decreases in Antioxidant Enzyme Activity Are Related to Different Stroke Subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Jotic

    2013-01-01

    C (1.14±0.58, 1.00±0.26 versus 3.14±0.62 min−1/mU/l × 104, P<0.001 and in nondiabetics in D and E versus F (3.38±0.77, 3.03±0.72 versus 6.03±1.69 min−1/mU/l × 104, P<0.001. Also, GSH-Px and GR activities were lower in A and B versus C (GSH-Px: 21.96±3.56,  22.51±1.23 versus 25.12±1.67; GR: 44.37±3.58,  43.50±2.39 versus 48.58±3.67 U/gHb; P<0.001 and in D and E versus F (GSH-Px: 24.75±3.02,  25.57±1.92 versus 28.56±3.91; GR: 48.27±6.81,  49.17±6.24 versus 53.67±3.96 U/gHb; P<0.001. Decreases in Si and GR were significantly related to both ATI and LI in T2D. Our results showed that decreased IS and impaired antioxidant enzymes activity influence ischemic stroke subtypes in T2D. The influence of insulin resistance might be exerted on the level of glutathione-dependent antioxidant enzymes.

  14. Decreased Time from 9-1-1 Call to PCI among Patients Experiencing STEMI Results in a Decreased One Year Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studnek, Jonathan R; Infinger, Allison; Wilson, Hadley; Niess, Gary; Jackson, Patrick; Swanson, Doug

    2018-03-29

    The impact on mortality due to prompt recognition of ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) patients by EMS has not been well described. The objective of this study was to describe the association between the time interval, 9-1-1 call to percutaneous intervention (PCI), and mortality at one year. This retrospective analysis included patients that were transported by EMS as a "code STEMI" and underwent PCI.  Total time from 9-1-1 call to PCI was calculated for each patient and was the independent variable of interest. Each patient's mortality status at one year was the outcome variable, collected by querying medical records and the national death index. Confounding variables were abstracted from hospital records. Logistic regression was conducted to determine the likelihood of survival given differences in time to PCI. A total of 550 patients were included in the analyses of which 68% were male with an average age 59.8 (SD 12.8). Mean reperfusion time was 81.8 min (SD 20.0) and was significantly lower in patients alive at one year (80.8 min, SD 19.7) vs. deceased at one year (93.9 min, SD 19.6), respectively. Odds of survival at one year decreased by 3% (OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.96-0.99) for every one minute increase in time to PCI. This relationship practically represents a 30% increase in mortality for every 10 minute delay from 9-1-1 call to PCI. The model produced suggests that a linear relationship exists between time to PCI and mortality in the prehospital environment with the probability of survival decreasing significantly as time to PCI increases.

  15. Dexmedetomidine decreases inhibitory but not excitatory neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons in the nucleus ambiguus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Douglas B; Wang, Xin; Mendelowitz, David

    2014-07-29

    Dexmedetomidine, an α2 adrenergic agonist, is a useful sedative but can also cause significant bradycardia. This decrease in heart rate may be due to decreased central sympathetic output as well as increased parasympathetic output from brainstem cardiac vagal neurons. In this study, using whole cell voltage clamp methodology, the actions of dexmedetomidine on excitatory glutamatergic and inhibitory GABAergic and glycinergic neurotransmission to parasympathetic cardiac vagal neurons in the rat nucleus ambiguus was determined. The results indicate that dexmedetomidine decreases both GABAergic and glycinergic inhibitory input to cardiac vagal neurons, with no significant effect on excitatory input. These results provide a mechanism for dexmedetomidine induced bradycardia and has implications for the management of this potentially harmful side effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Decrease in spermatic parameters of mice treated with hydroalcoholic extract Tropaeolum tuberosum “mashua”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan H. Vásquez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we provided a Tropaeolum tuberosum hydroalcoholic extract to male mice (780 mg kg-1 for 7, 14 and 21 days treatment, there was no significant difference in body weight gain, testes, epididymides and prostate weight (p> 0.05, nevertheless progressive motility decreased and immobile sperm count increased significantly after 21 days treatment (p <0.05. The sperm count in the epididymis cauda decreased in the 3 three assessments, concentration on 21 days treatment was significantly lower than those of 7 and 14 days treatments (p <0.05. Our results suggest, that T. tuberosum has a direct action on the male reproductive system decreasing spermatic parameters without exerting toxic effects on mice.

  17. A low free-parameter stochastic model of daily Forbush decrease indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Sankar Narayan; Bhattacharya, Gautam; Panja, Subhash Chandra; Ghosh, Koushik

    2014-01-01

    Forbush decrease is a rapid decrease in the observed galactic cosmic ray intensity pattern occurring after a coronal mass ejection. In the present paper we have analyzed the daily Forbush decrease indices from January, 1967 to December, 2003 generated in IZMIRAN, Russia. First the entire indices have been smoothened and next we have made an attempt to fit a suitable stochastic model for the present time series by means of a necessary number of process parameters. The study reveals that the present time series is governed by a stationary autoregressive process of order 2 with a trace of white noise. Under the consideration of the present model we have shown that chaos is not expected in the present time series which opens up the possibility of validation of its forecasting (both short-term and long-term) as well as its multi-periodic behavior.

  18. Noise stimulation decreases the concentration of norepinephrine in the rat cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Torres, M A; Gil-Loyzaga, P

    1999-05-14

    The present study was designed to analyze, by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the effect of acoustic stimulation on the cochlear concentration of norepinephrine (NE). Independently of the rat strain (Long-Evans or Wistar strains), NE concentration decreased about 18% when animals were exposed to white noise (90 dB SPL for 1 h). The same decrease was observed in animals perfused by aortic pathway to remove the blood, indicating that this decrease corresponds exclusively to a neurophysiological process. In fact, these findings could indicate that noise stimulation is involved in the NE release from sympathetic fibers innervating the cochlea. This likely release of NE supports that sympathetic fibers play a functional role in cochleae exposed to noisy situations.

  19. Test accuracy of metabolic indicators in predicting decreased fertility in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomander, H; Gustafsson, H; Svensson, C

    2012-01-01

    Negative energy balance is a known risk factor for decreased fertility in dairy cows. This study evaluated the accuracy of plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)—factors related to negative energy balance...... was low when metabolic indicators measured as single values in early lactation were used to predict fertility in dairy cows, but accuracy was influenced by cow-level factors such as parity. The prevalence of the target condition (in this case, decreased fertility) also influences test usefulness......—in predicting decreased fertility. One plasma sample per cow was collected from 480 cows in 12 herds during the period from d 4 to 21 in milk and analyzed for NEFA, BHBA, and IGF-1. For each cow, data on breed, parity, calving date, gynecological examinations, and insemination dates were obtained. Milk samples...

  20. Inhibition of Geranylgeranyl Transferase-I Decreases Cell Viability of HTLV-1-Transformed Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia A. Pise-Masison

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL, an aggressive and highly chemoresistant malignancy. Rho family GTPases regulate multiple signaling pathways in tumorigenesis: cytoskeletal organization, transcription, cell cycle progression, and cell proliferation. Geranylgeranylation of Rho family GTPases is essential for cell membrane localization and activation of these proteins. It is currently unknown whether HTLV-1-transformed cells are preferentially sensitive to geranylgeranylation inhibitors, such as GGTI-298. In this report, we demonstrate that GGTI-298 decreased cell viability and induced G2/M phase accumulation of HTLV-1-transformed cells, independent of p53 reactivation. HTLV-1-LTR transcriptional activity was inhibited and Tax protein levels decreased following treatment with GGTI-298. Furthermore, GGTI-298 decreased activation of NF-κB, a downstream target of Rho family GTPases. These studies suggest that protein geranylgeranylation contributes to dysregulation of cell survival pathways in HTLV-1-transformed cells.

  1. Cold stress decreases the capacity for respiratory NADH oxidation in potato leaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Å.S.; Johansson, F.I.; Møller, I.M.

    2002-01-01

    is 10% of the original level. This decrease is accompanied by specific decreases of immunodetected NDA protein and internal rotenone-insensitive NADH oxidation in mitochondria isolated from cold-treated plants. The alternative oxidase is not cold-induced neither at the protein nor at the activity level......Cold stress effects on the expression of genes for respiratory chain enzymes were investigated in potato (Solarium tuberosum L., cv. Desiree) leaves. The nda1 and ndb1 genes, homologues to genes encoding the non-proton-pumping respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenases of Escherichia coli and yeast......, were compared to genes encoding catalytic subunits of the proton-pumping NADH dehydrogenase (complex I). Using a real-time PCR system, we demonstrate a specific and gradual decrease of the NDA1 transcript after exposing the plants to 5 C. After 6 days of cold treatment the NDA1 transcript abundance...

  2. Hopelessness is associated with decreased heart rate variability during championship chess games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Alfons M; Schächinger, Hartmut; Adler, Rolf H; Goetz, Stefan M

    2003-01-01

    Clinical observations suggest that negative affects such as helplessness/hopelessness (HE/HO) may induce autonomic duration; affects were assessed for every move after reconstruction of the games. In all games compiled, 18 situation of intense confidence/optimism and 20 of intense helplessness/hopelessness were observed. Intense affects of HE/HO were associated with decreasing HF-HRV (Fisher exact test, p =.003), increasing "nervousness" (p =.0005), decreasing "optimism" (p =.0005), and decreasing "calmness" (p =.0005). Investigation of championship chess game players with an ELO strength > or = 2300 in a natural field setting revealed increasing HE/HO being associated with reduced HF-HRV suggestive of vagal withdrawal. Thus, our data may help link negative mood states, autonomic nervous system disturbances, and cardiac events.

  3. Climate change and electricity consumption-Witnessing increasing or decreasing use and costs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilli-Sihvola, Karoliina; Aatola, Piia; Ollikainen, Markku; Tuomenvirta, Heikki

    2010-01-01

    Climate change affects the need for heating and cooling. This paper examines the impact of gradually warming climate on the need for heating and cooling with an econometric multivariate regression model for five countries in Europe along the south-north line. The predicted changes in electricity demand are then used to analyze how climate change impacts the cost of electricity use, including carbon costs. Our main findings are, that in Central and North Europe, the decrease in heating due to climate warming, dominates and thus costs will decrease for both users of electricity and in carbon markets. In Southern Europe climate warming, and the consequential increase in cooling and electricity demand, overcomes the decreased need for heating. Therefore costs also increase. The main contributors are the role of electricity in heating and cooling, and the climatic zone.

  4. Decreasing influenza impact in lodges: 1997-2000 Calgary Regional Health Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, L; Lau, W W

    2001-01-01

    Influenza causes high morbidity and hospitalization rates in residents of seniors lodges, I causing increased pressure on emergency departments and hospital beds every winter. This quasi-experimental study assessed the prevention of influenza outbreaks and their consequences in Calgary lodges. A multidisciplinary team worked to improve communication between health professionals, increase resident and staff immunization coverage, obtain weights and creatinines prior to influenza season, and facilitate amantadine prophylaxis during influenza A outbreaks. We had an increase in standing orders for amantadine and up to 56% of residents from one lodge had documented creatinine levels. Amantadine was administered to residents within two days of outbreak notification. Influenza morbidity in lodge outbreaks decreased from a rate of 37% to 9% over the three years and hospitalization rates decreased from 9% to 1%. We recommend that other regions consider a similar approach to decreasing influenza morbidity and hospitalization in lodge residents.

  5. Experimental-calculation technique for Ksub(IC) determination using the samples of decreased dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinokurov, V.A.; Dymshits, A.V.; Pirusskij, M.V.; Ovsyannikov, B.M.; Kononov, V.V.

    1981-01-01

    A possibility to decrease the size of samples, which is necessary for the reliable determination of fractUre toughness Ksub(1c), is established. The dependences of crack-resistance caracteristics on the sample dimensions are determined experimentally. The static bending tests are made using the 1251 model of ''Instron'' installation with a specially designed device. The samples of the 20KhNMF steel have been tested. It is shown that the Ksub(1c) value, determined for the samples with the largest netto cross section (50x100 rm), is considerably lower than Ksub(1c) values, determined for the samples with the decreased sizes. it is shown that the developed experimental-calculated method of Ksub(1c) determination can be practically used for the samples of the decreased sizes with the introduction of the corresponding amendment coefficient [ru

  6. Investigation of distributor vane jets to decrease the unsteady load on hydro turbine runner blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, B. J.; Cimbala, J. M.; Wouden, A. M.

    2012-11-01

    As the runner blades of a Francis hydroturbine pass though the wakes created from the wicket gates, they experience a significant change in absolute velocity, flow angle, and pressure. The concept of adding jets to the trailing edge of the wicket gates is proposed as a method for reducing the dynamic load on the hydroturbine runner blades. Computational experiments show a decrease in velocity variation experienced by the runner blade with the addition of the jets. The decrease in velocity variation resulted in a 43% decrease in global torque variation at the runner passing frequency. However, an increased variation was observed at the wicket gate passing frequency. Also, a 5.7% increase in average global torque was observed with the addition of blowing from the trailing-edge of the wicket gates.

  7. Investigation of distributor vane jets to decrease the unsteady load on hydro turbine runner blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, B J; Cimbala, J M; Wouden, A M

    2012-01-01

    As the runner blades of a Francis hydroturbine pass though the wakes created from the wicket gates, they experience a significant change in absolute velocity, flow angle, and pressure. The concept of adding jets to the trailing edge of the wicket gates is proposed as a method for reducing the dynamic load on the hydroturbine runner blades. Computational experiments show a decrease in velocity variation experienced by the runner blade with the addition of the jets. The decrease in velocity variation resulted in a 43% decrease in global torque variation at the runner passing frequency. However, an increased variation was observed at the wicket gate passing frequency. Also, a 5.7% increase in average global torque was observed with the addition of blowing from the trailing-edge of the wicket gates.

  8. CT evaluation of decrease in attenuation in the superior segment of the left lower lobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaoka, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Koji; Ono, Hidetoshi

    2003-01-01

    We occasionally see decrease in attenuation in the superior segment of the left lower lobe on normal chest CT and notice that this finding could be seen in elder population. Then, we assessed the frequency, age distribution and cause of decrease in attenuation in the superior segment of the left lower lobe. Chest CT scans of 246 patients without lung or cardiac disorders were retrospectively reviewed. Segmental low attenuation area in the superior segment of the left lower lobe was identified in 12 patients (4.9%), which were 65-92 years old with mean age of 77.2 years old. In all of them, chest CT demonstrated that the tortuous descending aorta compressed directly the superior segmental bronchus of the left lower lobe. It is concluded that the lateral tortuousity of the descending aorta could cause decrease in attenuation in the superior segment of the left lower lobe. (author)

  9. Decreasing internal focus of attention improves postural control during quiet standing in young healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafati, Gilel; Vuillerme, Nicolas

    2011-12-01

    This experiment was designed to investigate whether and how decreasing the amount of attentional focus invested in postural control could affect bipedal postural control. Twelve participants were asked to stand upright as immobile as possible on a force platform in one control condition and one cognitive condition. In the latter condition, they performed a short-term digit-span memory task. Decreased center-of-gravity displacements and decreased center-of-foot-pressure displacements minus center-of-gravity displacements were observed in the cognitive condition relative to the control condition. These results suggest that shifting the attentional focus away from postural control by executing a concurrent attention-demanding task could increase postural performance and postural efficiency.

  10. Methyl gallate from Acer barbinerve decreases melanin synthesis in Mel-Ab cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In Wook; jeong, Hyo-Soon; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Jin-Koo; Kim, Hak Rim; Yun, Hye-Young; Baek, Kwang Jin; Kwon, Nyoun Soo; Park, Kyoung-Chan; Kim, Dong-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Methyl gallate (MG) was isolated from the bark of Acer barbinerve, which has traditionally been used in Oriental medicine. In the present study, we examined the effects of MG on melanin synthesis in Mel-Ab melanocyte cells. MG decreased melanin pigmentation in a concentration-dependent manner, but did not directly inhibit tyrosinase activity. Further analysis showed that MG had no effect on extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation, but induced phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)3β, which is known to increase β-catenin accumulation. Accordingly, the β-catenin level was increased by MG. However, a specific GSK3β inhibitor did not rescue the MG-induced inhibition of melanogenesis. Additionally, MG decreased the protein expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and tyrosinase, which regulate melanin synthesis. Based on these results, we conclude that MG inhibits melanogenesis by decreasing the expression of MITF and tyrosinase.

  11. Soliton-effect generation of Raman pulses in optical fibers with slowly decreasing dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenhua Cao; Youwei Zhang

    1995-01-01

    We suggested that single-mode fibers with slowly decreasing dispersion (FSDD) should be used for the generation of tunable ultrashort RAman pulses. A mathematical model is obtained for the description of ultrafast stimulated Raman scattering in optical fibers with slowly decreasing dispersion. Numerical simulations show that, under identical pump conditions, Raman pulse generated from this kind of fiber is shorter with a higher peak power than that generated from conventional fibers. This means that the Raman threshold of fibers with slowly decreasing dispersion may be lower than that of conventional fibers. Given pump conditions, we found that the highest peak power and narrowest width of the Raman pulse correspond to an optimal decrement velocity of the fiber dispersion

  12. Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid decreases de novo lipid synthesis in human adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obsen, Thomas; Faergeman, Nils J; Chung, Soonkyu

    2012-01-01

    7-12 h, respectively. The mRNA levels of liver X receptor (LXR)α and sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1c, transcription factors that regulate SCD-1, were decreased by 10,12 CLA within 5 h. These data suggest that the isomer-specific decrease in de novo lipid synthesis by 10,12 CLA......]-oleic or [(14)C]-linoleic acids. When using [(14)C]-acetic acid and [(14)C]-pyruvic acid as substrates, 30 μM 10,12 CLA, but not 9,11 CLA, decreased de novo synthesis of triglyceride, free FA, diacylglycerol, cholesterol esters, cardiolipin, phospholipids and ceramides within 3-24 h. Treatment with 30 μM 10...... is due, in part, to the rapid repression of lipogenic transcription factors that regulate MUFA synthesis, suggesting an anti-obesity mechanism unique to this trans FA....

  13. WATER SUPPLY PIPE REPLACEMENT CONSIDERING SUSTAINABLE TRANSITION TO POPULATION DECREASED SOCIETY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoi, Yoshihiko; Iwasaki, Yoji; Aklog, Dagnachew; Masuda, Takanori

    Social infrastructures are aging and population is decreasing in Japan. The aged social infrastructures should be renewed. At the same time, they are required to be moved into new framework suitable for population decreased societies. Furthermore, they have to continue to supply sufficient services even during transition term that renewal projects are carried out. Authors propose sustainable soft landing management of infrastructures and it is tried to apply to water supply pipe replacement in this study. Methodology to replace aged pipes not only aiming for the new water supply network which suits for population decreased condition but also ensuring supply service and feasibility while the project is carried out was developed. It is applied for a model water supply network and discussions were carried out.

  14. Brief communication Decreasing fires in a Mediterranean region (1970–2010, NE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Turco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the recent evolution of fires in Catalonia (north-eastern Iberian Peninsula, a typical Mediterranean region. We examine a homogeneous series of forest fires in the period 1970–2010. During this period, more than 9000 fire events greater than 0.5 ha were recorded, and the total burned area was more than 400 kha. Our analysis shows that both the burned area and number of fire series display a decreasing trend. Superposed onto this general decrease, strong oscillations on shorter time scales are evident. After the large fires of 1986 and 1994, the increased effort in fire prevention and suppression could explain part of the decreasing trend. Although it is often stated that fires have increased in Mediterranean regions, the higher efficiency in fire detection could have led to spurious trends and misleading conclusions.

  15. Prenatal Protein Malnutrition Decreases KCNJ3 and 2DG Activity in Rat Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, A.C.; Jakovcevski, M.; McGaughy, J.A.; Calderwood, S.K.; Mokler, D.J.; Rushmore, R.J.; Galler, J.R.; Akbarian, S.A.; Rosene, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal protein malnutrition (PPM) in rats causes enduring changes in brain and behavior including increased cognitive rigidity and decreased inhibitory control. A preliminary gene microarray screen of PPM rat prefrontal cortex (PFC) identified alterations in KCNJ3 (GIRK1/Kir3.1), a gene important for regulating neuronal excitability. Follow-up with polymerase chain reaction and Western blot showed decreased KCNJ3 expression in PFC, but not hippocampus or brainstem. To verify localization of the effect to the PFC, baseline regional brain activity was assessed with 14C-2-deoxyglucose. Results showed decreased activation in PFC but not hippocampus. Together these findings point to the unique vulnerability of the PFC to the nutritional insult during early brain development, with enduring effects in adulthood on KCNJ3 expression and baseline metabolic activity. PMID:25446346

  16. Relationships among nocturnal jaw muscle activities, decreased esophageal pH, and sleep positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Shouichi; Tanimoto, Yuko; Araki, Yoshiko; Katayama, Akira; Imai, Mikako; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among nocturnal jaw muscle activities, decreased esophageal pH, and sleep positions. Twelve adult volunteers, including 4 bruxism patients, participated in this study. Portable pH monitoring, electromyography of the temporal muscle, and audio-video recordings were conducted during the night in the subjects' homes. Rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) episodes were observed most frequently, with single short-burst episodes the second most frequent. The frequencies of RMMA, single short-burst, and clenching episodes were significantly higher during decreased esophageal pH episodes than those during other times. Both the electromyography and the decreased esophageal pH episodes were most frequently observed in the supine position. These results suggest that most jaw muscle activities, ie, RMMA, single short-burst, and clenching episodes, occur in relation to gastroesophageal reflux mainly in the supine position.

  17. Decreased medial prefrontal cortex activation during self-referential processing in bipolar mania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Dorrit; Usnich, Tatiana; Spengler, Stephanie; Sajonz, Bastian; Bauer, Michael; Bermpohl, Felix

    2017-09-01

    Patients with bipolar disorder in mania exhibit symptoms pointing towards altered self-referential processing, such as decreased self-focus, flight of ideas and high distractibility. In depression, the opposite pattern of symptoms has been connected to increased activation of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during self-referential processing. In this study, we hypothesized that (1) patients with mania will exhibit decreased activation in the mPFC during self-referential processing and (2) will be more alexithymic and that levels of alexithymia will correlate negatively with mPFC activation. The neural response to standardized pictures was compared in 14 patients with bipolar I disorder in mania to 14 healthy controls using blood oxygen level dependent contrast magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were asked to indicate with button press during the scanning session for each picture whether the pictures personally related to them or not. Toronto alexithymia scale (TAS) scores were recorded from all participants. In the group analysis, patients with mania exhibited decreased activation in a predefined region of interest in the mPFC during self-referential processing compared to healthy controls. Patients with mania showed significantly higher levels of alexithymia, attributable to difficulties in identifying and describing emotions. Activation in the mPFC correlated negatively with levels of alexithymia. Results presented here should be replicated in a larger group, potentially including unmedicated patients. The finding of decreased mPFC activation during self-referential processing in mania may reflect decreased self-focus and high distractibility. Support for this view comes from the negative correlation between higher alexithymia scores and decreased mPFC activation. These findings represent an opposite clinical and neuroimaging pattern to findings in depression. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Warm Parenting Associated with Decreasing or Stable Child BMI during Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Kyung E; Jelalian, Elissa; Boutelle, Kerri; Dickstein, Susan; Seifer, Ronald; Wing, Rena

    2016-04-01

    While authoritative parenting, which includes high levels of warmth and behavioral control, has been associated with lower risk of obesity, little is known about how general parenting impacts child weight loss during treatment. Our goal was to examine the relationship between several general parenting dimensions and 'decreasing /stable' child BMI during a 16-week family-based behavioral weight control program. Forty-four overweight parent-child dyads (child age 8 to 12 years) enrolled in the program. Families were videotaped at baseline eating dinner in their home. Using the General Parenting Observational Scale (GPOS), meals were coded for several general parenting dimensions. Primary outcome was percent of children whose BMI 'decreased or stayed the same.' Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between general parenting and decreasing/stable child BMI. Forty families (91%) completed the program. Children had a mean BMI change of -0.40 (SD 1.57), which corresponds to a -0.15 (SD 0.20) change in BMI z-score (BMI-Z); 75% of children had decreasing/stable BMI. In the unadjusted models, lower parent BMI, higher parent education, and higher levels of parental warmth were significantly associated with decreasing/stable child BMI. In the multivariable model, only higher level of warmth was associated with increased odds of decreasing/stable child BMI (OR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.01, 1.62). Baseline parental warmth may influence a child's ability to lower/maintain BMI during a standard family-based behavioral weight control program. Efforts to increase parent displays of warmth and emotional support towards their overweight child may help to increase the likelihood of treatment success.

  19. High-sodium intake prevents pregnancy-induced decrease of blood pressure in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauséjour, Annie; Auger, Karine; St-Louis, Jean; Brochu, Michéle

    2003-07-01

    Despite an increase of circulatory volume and of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activity, pregnancy is paradoxically accompanied by a decrease in blood pressure. We have reported that the decrease in blood pressure was maintained in pregnant rats despite overactivation of RAAS following reduction in sodium intake. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the opposite condition, e.g., decreased activation of RAAS during pregnancy in the rat. To do so, 0.9% or 1.8% NaCl in drinking water was given to nonpregnant and pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats for 7 days (last week of gestation). Increased sodium intakes (between 10- and 20-fold) produced reduction of plasma renin activity and aldosterone in both nonpregnant and pregnant rats. Systolic blood pressure was not affected in nonpregnant rats. However, in pregnant rats, 0.9% sodium supplement prevented the decreased blood pressure. Moreover, an increase of systolic blood pressure was obtained in pregnant rats receiving 1.8% NaCl. The 0.9% sodium supplement did not affect plasma and fetal parameters. However, 1.8% NaCl supplement has larger effects during gestation as shown by increased plasma sodium concentration, hematocrit level, negative water balance, proteinuria, and intrauterine growth restriction. With both sodium supplements, decreased AT1 mRNA levels in the kidney and in the placenta were observed. Our results showed that a high-sodium intake prevents the pregnancy-induced decrease of blood pressure in rats. Nonpregnant rats were able to maintain homeostasis but not the pregnant ones in response to sodium load. Furthermore, pregnant rats on a high-sodium intake (1.8% NaCl) showed some physiological responses that resemble manifestations observed in preeclampsia.

  20. The importance of job control for workers with decreased work ability to remain productive at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Tilja I; Robroek, Suzan J; Plat, Jan F; Koopmanschap, Marc A; Burdorf, Alex

    2011-08-01

    Workers with decreased work ability are at greater risk of reduced productivity at work. We hypothesized that work-related characteristics play an important role in supporting workers to remain productive despite decreased work ability. The study population consisted of 10,542 workers in 49 different companies in the Netherlands in 2005-2009. Productivity loss at work was defined on a 10-point scale by asking how much work was actually performed during regular hours on the last regular workday when compared with normal. Independent variables in the logistic regression analysis were individual characteristics, work-related factors, and the work ability index. Additive interactions between work-related factors and decreased work ability were evaluated by the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI). The odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the likelihood of productivity loss at work were 2.03 (1.85-2.22), 3.50 (3.10-3.95), and 5.54 (4.37-7.03) for a good, moderate, and poor work ability, compared with an excellent work ability (reference group). Productivity loss at work was associated with lack of job control, poor skill discretion, and high work demands. There was a significant interaction between decreased work ability and lack of job control (RERI = 0.63 95% CI 0.11-1.16) with productivity loss at work. The negative effects on work performance of decreased work ability may be partly counterbalanced by increased job control. This suggests that interventions among workers with (chronic) disease that cause a decreased work ability should include enlargement of possibilities to plan and pace their own activities at work.

  1. Hydrogen Sulfide Alleviates Aluminum Toxicity via Decreasing Apoplast and Symplast Al Contents in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Q. Zhu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S plays a vital role in Al3+ stress resistance in plants, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. In the present study, pretreatment with 2 μM of the H2S donor NaHS significantly alleviated the inhibition of root elongation caused by Al toxicity in rice roots, which was accompanied by a decrease in Al contents in root tips under 50 μM Al3+ treatment. NaHS pretreatment decreased the negative charge in cell walls by reducing the activity of pectin methylesterase and decreasing the pectin and hemicellulose contents in rice roots. This treatment also masked Al-binding sites in the cell wall by upregulating the expression of OsSATR1 and OsSTAR2 in roots and reduced Al binding in the cell wall by stimulating the expression of the citrate acid exudation gene OsFRDL4 and increasing the secretion of citrate acid. In addition, NaHS pretreatment decreased the symplasmic Al content by downregulating the expression of OsNRAT1, and increasing the translocation of cytoplasmic Al to the vacuole via upregulating the expression of OsALS1. The increment of antioxidant enzyme [superoxide dismutase (SOD, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT, and peroxidase (POD] activity with NaHS pretreatment significantly decreased the MDA and H2O2 content in rice roots, thereby reducing the damage of Al3+ toxicity on membrane integrity in rice. H2S exhibits crosstalk with nitric oxide (NO in response to Al toxicity, and through reducing NO content in root tips to alleviate Al toxicity. Together, this study establishes that H2S alleviates Al toxicity by decreasing the Al content in the apoplast and symplast of rice roots.

  2. Numerical simulation on dimension decrease for annular casing of one centrifugal boiler circulation pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Y Z; Zuo, Z G; Liu, S H; Wu, Y L; Sha, Y J

    2012-01-01

    Primary formulation derivation indicates that the dimension of one existing centrifugal boiler circulation pump casing is too large. As great manufacture cost can be saved by dimension decrease, a numerical simulation research is developed in this paper on dimension decrease for annular casing of this pump with a specific speed equaling to 189, which aims at finding an appropriately smaller dimension of the casing while hydraulic performance and strength performance will hardly be changed according to the requirements of the cooperative company. The research object is one existing centrifugal pump with a diffuser and a semi-spherical annular casing, working as the boiler circulation pump for (ultra) supercritical units in power plants. Dimension decrease, the modification method, is achieved by decreasing the existing casing's internal radius (marked as R i0 ) while keeping the wall thickness. The research analysis is based on primary formulation derivation, CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation and FEM (Finite Element Method) simulation. Primary formulation derivation estimates that a design casing's internal radius should be less than 0.75 R i0 . CFD analysis indicates that smaller casing with 0.75 R i0 has a worse hydraulic performance when working at large flow rates and a better hydraulic performance when working at small flow rates. In consideration of hydraulic performance and dimension decrease, an appropriate casing's internal radius is determined, which equals to 0.875 R i0 . FEM analysis then confirms that modified pump casing has nearly the same strength performance as the existing pump casing. It is concluded that dimension decrease can be an economical method as well as a practical method for large pumps in engineering fields.

  3. Numerical simulation on dimension decrease for annular casing of one centrifugal boiler circulation pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Y. Z.; Zuo, Z. G.; Liu, S. H.; Wu, Y. L.; Sha, Y. J.

    2012-11-01

    Primary formulation derivation indicates that the dimension of one existing centrifugal boiler circulation pump casing is too large. As great manufacture cost can be saved by dimension decrease, a numerical simulation research is developed in this paper on dimension decrease for annular casing of this pump with a specific speed equaling to 189, which aims at finding an appropriately smaller dimension of the casing while hydraulic performance and strength performance will hardly be changed according to the requirements of the cooperative company. The research object is one existing centrifugal pump with a diffuser and a semi-spherical annular casing, working as the boiler circulation pump for (ultra) supercritical units in power plants. Dimension decrease, the modification method, is achieved by decreasing the existing casing's internal radius (marked as "Ri0") while keeping the wall thickness. The research analysis is based on primary formulation derivation, CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation and FEM (Finite Element Method) simulation. Primary formulation derivation estimates that a design casing's internal radius should be less than 0.75 Ri0. CFD analysis indicates that smaller casing with 0.75 Ri0 has a worse hydraulic performance when working at large flow rates and a better hydraulic performance when working at small flow rates. In consideration of hydraulic performance and dimension decrease, an appropriate casing's internal radius is determined, which equals to 0.875 Ri0. FEM analysis then confirms that modified pump casing has nearly the same strength performance as the existing pump casing. It is concluded that dimension decrease can be an economical method as well as a practical method for large pumps in engineering fields.

  4. Significant decreases in frontal and temporal [11C]-raclopride binding after THC challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Paul R A; Egerton, Alice; Watson, Ben; Reid, Alistair; Breen, Gerome; Lingford-Hughes, Anne; Nutt, David J; Mehta, Mitul A

    2010-10-01

    Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) increases prefrontal cortical dopamine release in animals, but this is yet to be examined in humans. In man, striatal dopamine release can be indexed using [11C]-raclopride positron emission tomography (PET), and recent reports suggest that cortical [11C]-raclopride binding may also be sensitive to dopaminergic challenges. Using an existing dataset we examined whether THC alters [11C]-raclopride binding potential (BP(ND)) in cortical regions. Thirteen healthy volunteers underwent two [11C]-raclopride PET scans following either oral 10 mg THC or placebo. Significant areas of decreased cortical [11C]-raclopride BP(ND) were identified using whole brain voxel-wise analysis and quantified using a region of interest (ROI) ratio analysis. Effect of blood flow on binding was estimated using a simplified reference tissue model analysis. Results were compared to [11C]-raclopride test-retest reliability in the ROIs identified using a separate cohort of volunteers. Voxel-wise analysis identified three significant clusters of decreased [11C]-raclopride BP(ND) after THC in the right middle frontal gyrus, left superior frontal gyrus and left superior temporal gyrus. Decreases in [11C]-raclopride BPND following THC were greater than test-retest variability in these ROIs. R1, an estimate of blood flow, significantly decreased in the left superior frontal gyrus in the THC condition but was unchanged in the other ROIs. Decreased frontal binding significantly correlated to catechol-o-methyl transferase (COMT) val108 status. We have demonstrated for the first time significant decreases in bilateral frontopolar cortical and left superior temporal gyrus [11C]-raclopride binding after THC. The interpretation of these findings in relation to prefrontal dopamine release is discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Coronal mass ejections, interplanetary shocks in relation with forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, P L; Patel, Nand Kumar; Prajapati, Mateswari

    2014-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs} are the most energetic solar events in which large amount of solar plasma materials are ejected from the sun into heliosphere, causing major disturbances in solar wind plasma, Interplanetary shocks, Forbush decrease(Fds) in cosmic ray intensity and geomagnetic storms. We have studied Forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms observed at Oulu super neutron monitor, during the period of May 1998-Dec 2006 with coronal mass ejections (CMEs), X-ray solar flares and interplanetary shocks. We have found that all the (100%) Forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms are associated with halo and partial halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The association rate between halo and partial halo coronal mass ejections are found 96.00%and 04.00% respectively. Most of the Forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms (96.29%) are associated with X-ray solar flares of different categories . The association rates for X-Class, M-Class, and C- Class X -ray solar flares are found 34.62%, 50.00% and 15.38% respectively .Further we have concluded that majority of the Forbush decrease associated with intense geomagnetic storms are related to interplanetary shocks (92.30 %) and the related shocks are forward shocks. We have found positive co-relation with co-relation co-efficient .7025 between magnitudes of Forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms and speed of associated coronal mass ejections. Positive co-relation with co-relation co-efficient 0.48 has also been found between magnitudes of intense geomagnetic storms and speed of associated coronal mass ejections.

  6. Dietary non-esterified oleic Acid decreases the jejunal levels of anorectic N-acylethanolamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diep, Thi Ai; Madsen, Andreas N; Krogh-Hansen, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    mice respond to dietary fat (olive oil) by reducing levels of anorectic NAEs, and 3) whether dietary non-esterified oleic acid also can decrease levels of anorectic NAEs in mice. We are searching for the fat sensor in the intestine, which mediates the decreased levels of anorectic NAEs. METHODS: Male...... of anorectic NAEs in mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the down-regulation of the jejunal level of anorectic NAEs by dietary fat is not restricted to rats, and that the fatty acid component oleic acid, in dietary olive oil may be sufficient to mediate this regulation. Thus, a fatty acid sensor may...

  7. Use of biofuels in road transport decreases; Verbruik biobrandstoffen in wegverkeer daalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segers, R.

    2011-04-27

    The use of biofuels decreased from 3.5 percent, for all gasoline and diesel used by road transport in 2009, to 2 percent in 2010. Particularly the use of biodiesel decreased, dropping from 3.5 to 1.5 percent. The use of biogasoline remained stable, catering for 3 percent of all gasoline use. [Dutch] Het verbruik van biobrandstoffen daalde van 3,5 procent, van alle benzine en diesel voor het wegverkeer in 2009, naar 2 procent in 2010. Vooral het verbruik van biodiesel daalde: van 3,5 procent naar 1,5 procent. Het verbruik van biobenzine bleef, met 3 procent van alle benzine, gelijk.

  8. Study about ion exchange for decreasing the conductivity of water in power plant and refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khosravi, M.; Samani; Hajihosseini, N.

    2002-01-01

    Water has been used directly or indirectly for industries, its use would be in factories: such as steam or as a cooler or the product of the industrial material. water is used more than other material in many industries and what ever is obtained as the effect of industrial activities, it is destabilising like waste. By the control of P H and reducing (total dissolved solid) of water or decreasing conductivity of water, we can protect boiler from corrosion. We want to study this article for different method of decreasing (TDS) in order to produce <1μs/cm conductivity. The suitable method which is ion exchange system will be selected

  9. Differentiation-associated decrease in muscarinic receptor sensitivity in human neuroblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkilae, J.E.; Scott, J.G.; Suominen, L.A.; Akerman, K.E.O.

    1987-01-01

    Muscarinic receptor-linked increases in intracellular free Ca 2+ as measured with quin-2 and Ca 2+ release from monolayers of cells have been measured in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Induction of differentiation with the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) leads to a decrease in the sensitivity of the cells to low concentrations of agonists with respect to the induced increase in cytosolic free Ca 2+ and stimulation of Ca 2+ efflux. No decrease in agonist binding affinity was observed when the displacement of a labelled antagonist, 3 H-NMS, by a non-labelled agonist was studied

  10. Minoxidil specifically decreases the expression of lysine hydroxylase in cultured human skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautala, T; Heikkinen, J; Kivirikko, K I; Myllylä, R

    1992-01-01

    The levels of lysine hydroxylase protein and the levels of the mRNAs for lysine hydroxylase and the alpha- and beta-subunits of proline 4-hydroxylase were measured in cultured human skin fibroblasts treated with 1 mM-minoxidil. The data demonstrate that minoxidil decreases the amount of lysine hydroxylase protein, this being due to a decrease in the level of lysine hydroxylase mRNA. The effect of minoxidil appears to be highly specific, as no changes were observed in the amounts of mRNAs for the alpha- and beta-subunits of proline 4-hydroxylase. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:1314568

  11. Thiazolidinediones are associated with a decreased risk of atrial fibrillation compared with other antidiabetic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallisgaard, Jannik Langtved; Lindhardt, Tommi Bo; Staerk, Laila

    2017-01-01

    sensitizer that also has anti-inflammatory effects, which might decrease the risk of AF compared with other antidiabetic drugs. We used data from the Danish nationwide registries to study 108 624 patients with diabetes and without prior AF who were treated with metformin or sulfonylurea as first-line drugs...... drugs. The decreased risk of AF remained significant after adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities with a hazard ratio (95% CI) of 0.76 (0.57-1.00), P = 0.047 associated with TZD treatment compared with other antidiabetic drugs. CONCLUSION: Use of a TZD to treat diabetes was associated with reduced...

  12. Oil price volatility and the asymmetric response of gasoline prices to oil price increases and decreases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radchenko, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of volatility in oil prices on the degree of asymmetry in the response of gasoline prices to oil price increases and decreases. Several time series measures of the asymmetry between the responses of gasoline prices to oil price increases and decreases and several measures of the oil price volatility are constructed. In all models, the degree of asymmetry in gasoline prices declines with an increase in oil price volatility. The results support the oligopolistic coordination theory as a likely explanation of the observed asymmetry and are not consistent with the standard search theory and the search theory with Bayesian updating. (author)

  13. Evolution of late blood damage from decreasing doses of 241Am following injection in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, M.J.; Boncorps, Janine.

    1982-04-01

    Rats were given intravenous or intramuscular injections of 241 Am at decreasing doses ranging from 7.5 μCi to 0.075 μCi per kg of body weight. Blood examinations showed that higher doses exerted an irreversible destructive effect on all blood cells. As the administered doses decreased, the destructive effect of 241 Am dropped and even became reversible for white cells. Proliferative disorders such as leukocytosis with myelemias, leukemias -chiefly acute or chronic granulocytic leukemias- were then demonstrated. Red cells only dropped but more and more slowly. At the lowest doses, life-span shortening was the most evident effect [fr

  14. Trends in Accounting Education: Decreasing Accounting Anxiety and Promoting New Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckhaults, Jessica; Fisher, Diane

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, authors (a) identified accounting anxiety for the educator and the student as a possible explanation for the decline in accounting education and (b) investigated new methods for teaching accounting at the secondary and postsecondary levels that will increase interest in accounting education as well as decrease educator and student…

  15. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity decreases during storage of leukoreduced red blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Anna L.; van Bruggen, Robin; de Korte, Dirk; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; Vlaar, Alexander P. J.

    2016-01-01

    During storage, the activity of the red blood cell (RBC) antioxidant system decreases. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is essential for protection against oxidative stress by producing NADPH. G6PD function of RBC transfusion products is reported to remain stable during storage, but activity

  16. There was a large decrease in numbers of African penguins during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    20th century, the main reasons were excessive harvests of eggs and disturbance and habitat degradation arising from the scraping of guano (Frost et al. 1976). In the latter part of the 20th century, at-sea influences, such as oiling and scarcity of food, were believed to be factors driving the ongoing decreases (Crawford et al.

  17. Decreasing electrical resistivity of silver along the melting boundary up to 5 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Joshua A. H.; Secco, Richard A.; Yong, Wenjun

    2018-04-01

    The electrical resistivity of Ag was experimentally measured at high pressures up to 5 GPa and at temperatures up to ∼300 K above melting. The resistivity decreased as a function of pressure and increased as a function of temperature as expected and is in very good agreement with 1 atm data. Observed melting temperatures at high pressures also agree well with previous experimental and theoretical studies. The main finding of this study is that resistivity of Ag decreases along the pressure- and temperature-dependent melting boundary, in conflict with prediction of resistivity invariance. This result is discussed in terms of the dominant contribution of the increasing energy separation between the Fermi level and 4d-band as a function of pressure. Calculated from the resistivity using the Wiedemann-Franz law, the electronic thermal conductivity increased as a function of pressure and decreased as a function of temperature as expected. The decrease in the high pressure thermal conductivity in the liquid phase as a function of temperature contrasts with the behavior of the 1 atm data.

  18. Vitamin D and Its Analogues Decrease Amyloid-β (Aβ Formation and Increase Aβ-Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus O. W. Grimm

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is characterized by extracellular plaques in the brain, mainly consisting of amyloid-β (Aβ, as derived from sequential cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein. Epidemiological studies suggest a tight link between hypovitaminosis of the secosteroid vitamin D and AD. Besides decreased vitamin D level in AD patients, an effect of vitamin D on Aβ-homeostasis is discussed. However, the exact underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated and nothing is known about the potential effect of vitamin D analogues. Here we systematically investigate the effect of vitamin D and therapeutically used analogues (maxacalcitol, calcipotriol, alfacalcidol, paricalcitol, doxercalciferol on AD-relevant mechanisms. D2 and D3 analogues decreased Aβ-production and increased Aβ-degradation in neuroblastoma cells or vitamin D deficient mouse brains. Effects were mediated by affecting the Aβ-producing enzymes BACE1 and γ-secretase. A reduced secretase activity was accompanied by a decreased BACE1 protein level and nicastrin expression, an essential component of the γ-secretase. Vitamin D and analogues decreased β-secretase activity, not only in mouse brains with mild vitamin D hypovitaminosis, but also in non-deficient mouse brains. Our results further strengthen the link between AD and vitamin D, suggesting that supplementation of vitamin D or vitamin D analogues might have beneficial effects in AD prevention.

  19. Vitamin D and Its Analogues Decrease Amyloid-β (Aβ) Formation and Increase Aβ-Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Marcus O W; Thiel, Andrea; Lauer, Anna A; Winkler, Jakob; Lehmann, Johannes; Regner, Liesa; Nelke, Christopher; Janitschke, Daniel; Benoist, Céline; Streidenberger, Olga; Stötzel, Hannah; Endres, Kristina; Herr, Christian; Beisswenger, Christoph; Grimm, Heike S; Bals, Robert; Lammert, Frank; Hartmann, Tobias

    2017-12-19

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by extracellular plaques in the brain, mainly consisting of amyloid-β (Aβ), as derived from sequential cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein. Epidemiological studies suggest a tight link between hypovitaminosis of the secosteroid vitamin D and AD. Besides decreased vitamin D level in AD patients, an effect of vitamin D on Aβ-homeostasis is discussed. However, the exact underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated and nothing is known about the potential effect of vitamin D analogues. Here we systematically investigate the effect of vitamin D and therapeutically used analogues (maxacalcitol, calcipotriol, alfacalcidol, paricalcitol, doxercalciferol) on AD-relevant mechanisms. D₂ and D₃ analogues decreased Aβ-production and increased Aβ-degradation in neuroblastoma cells or vitamin D deficient mouse brains. Effects were mediated by affecting the Aβ-producing enzymes BACE1 and γ-secretase. A reduced secretase activity was accompanied by a decreased BACE1 protein level and nicastrin expression, an essential component of the γ-secretase. Vitamin D and analogues decreased β-secretase activity, not only in mouse brains with mild vitamin D hypovitaminosis, but also in non-deficient mouse brains. Our results further strengthen the link between AD and vitamin D, suggesting that supplementation of vitamin D or vitamin D analogues might have beneficial effects in AD prevention.

  20. Growth of soybean at future tropospheric ozone concentrations decreases canopy evapotranspiration and soil water depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernacchi, Carl J., E-mail: bernacch@illinois.edu [Global Change and Photosynthesis Research Unit, United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Institute for Genomic Biology and Department of Plant Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Leakey, Andrew D.B. [Institute for Genomic Biology and Department of Plant Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Kimball, Bruce A. [USDA-ARS US Arid-Land Agricultural Research Center, 21881 N. Cardon Lane, Maricopa, AZ 85238 (United States); Ort, Donald R. [Global Change and Photosynthesis Research Unit, United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Institute for Genomic Biology and Department of Plant Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Tropospheric ozone is increasing in many agricultural regions resulting in decreased stomatal conductance and overall biomass of sensitive crop species. These physiological effects of ozone forecast changes in evapotranspiration and thus in the terrestrial hydrological cycle, particularly in intercontinental interiors. Soybean plots were fumigated with ozone to achieve concentrations above ambient levels over five growing seasons in open-air field conditions. Mean season increases in ozone concentrations ([O{sub 3}]) varied between growing seasons from 22 to 37% above background concentrations. The objective of this experiment was to examine the effects of future [O{sub 3}] on crop ecosystem energy fluxes and water use. Elevated [O{sub 3}] caused decreases in canopy evapotranspiration resulting in decreased water use by as much as 15% in high ozone years and decreased soil water removal. In addition, ozone treatment resulted in increased sensible heat flux in all years indicative of day-time increase in canopy temperature of up to 0.7 deg. C. - Highlights: > Globally, tropospheric ozone is currently and will likely continue to increase into the future. > We examine the impact of elevated ozone on water use by soybean at the SoyFACE research facility. > High ozone grown soybean had reduced rates of evapotranspiration and higher soil moisture. > Increases in ozone have the potential to impact the hydrologic cycle where these crops are grown. - Soybean grown in elevated concentrations of ozone is shown to evapotranspire less water compared with soybean canopies grown under current atmospheric conditions.