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Sample records for pros tate cancer

  1. Evaluation and comparison of Ga-68 DOTA-TATE and Ga-68 DOTA-NOC PET/CT imaging in well-differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocak, Meltem; Demirci, Emre; Kabasakal, Levent; Aygun, Aslan; Tutar, Rumeysa O; Araman, Ahmet; Kanmaz, Bedii

    2013-11-01

    Somatostatin receptor (Sstr) scintigraphy with radiolabelled somatostatin analogues has been used extensively for the diagnosis and therapy of Sstr-expressing tumours. It has been shown that well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC) cells have a high expression of Sstr2, Sstr3 and Sstr5. Hence, WDTC cells could be an ideal target for the evaluation of lesion uptake of Ga-68 DOTA-1-NaI3-octreotide (DOTA-NOC), which has a high affinity not only to Sstr2 but also to Sstr3 and Sstr5. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the value of Ga-68 DOTA-NOC as a target for Sstr2-expressing, Sstr3-expressing and Sstr5-expressing tumours in WDTC patients and to compare the results with those of Ga-68 DOTA-TATE in the same patient population. Thirteen patients with WDTC were included in our study: nine with papillary thyroid cancer, three with Hurthle cell carcinoma and one with follicular thyroid carcinoma. All patients had elevated serum thyroglobulin levels and negative post-therapeutic I-131 whole-body scans, which were obtained after the last radioiodine treatment. All patients had undergone two consecutive PET imaging studies with Ga-68 DOTA-D-Phe1-Tyr3-octreotate (DOTA-TATE) and Ga-68 DOTA-NOC, respectively. All images were evaluated visually, and maximum standardized uptake values were calculated. Both Ga-68 DOTA-TATE and Ga-68 DOTA-NOC PET images gave comparable results. Among the 13 patients, imaging with both Ga-68 DOTA-TATE and Ga-68 DOTA-NOC gave negative results in five (38%) patients and positive results in eight (62%) patients. A total of 45 lesions were identified on Ga-68 DOTA-TATE images and 42 on Ga-68 DOTA-NOC images; three lesions were missed. Lesion uptake was significantly higher on Ga-68 DOTA-TATE images. Maximum standardized uptake values of Ga-68 DOTA-TATE and Ga-68 DOTA-NOC were 12.9±9.1 and 6.3±4.1 (n=54, PDOTA-TATE has a higher lesion uptake even in WDTC patients and may have potential advantage over Ga-68 DOTA-NOC.

  2. PET/CT With 68Ga-DOTA-TATE for Diagnosis of Neuroendocrine: Differentiation in Patients With Castrate-Resistant Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gofrit, Ofer Nathan; Frank, Stephen; Meirovitz, Amichay; Nechushtan, Hovav; Orevi, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) often shows histological evidence of neuroendocrine differentiation (NED). To evaluate the extent of NED in patients with CRPC, we used PET/CT with Ga-[DOTA-Tyr]-octreotate (Ga-DOTA-TATE), a somatostatin analog that binds somatostatin receptor 2 with high affinity. This radiotracer is used in imaging of neuroendocrine tumors. Twelve patients (mean age, 65 [SD, 12] years) with CRPC were studied. Their mean prostate-specific antigen level at scanning was 85.6 (SD, 144.6) ng/mL. PET/CT images were obtained after the injection of 120 to 200 MBq of Ga-DOTA-TATE. All participants had at least 1 blastic metastasis demonstrating uptake of Ga-DOTA-TATE (mean SUVmax of 5.3 [SD, 2.3]). In 6 patients, moderately high to high uptakes (SUVmax, >5) were seen. Patients with multiple bone metastases had a significantly higher SUVmax compared with patients with few metastases (mean of 5.8 vs 3.8, P = 0.05). In 4 patients, lytic bone lesions or lymph node metastases also showed uptake of the tracer (mean SUVmax of 7.2 [SD, 3.2]). Uptake of the radiotracer was also observed in bones showing normal architecture in CT, suggesting that NED cells appear early during metastases development. Uptake of Ga-DOTA-TATE is a common finding in metastases of CRPC patients, suggesting that NED is frequent in these patients. In half of the patients, widespread uptake of Ga-DOTA-TATE was observed. This suggests that the possibility of treating selected CRCP patients with anti-neuroendocrine tumor therapies should be explored and that Ga-DOTA-TATE scanning could have a role in predicting the efficacy of these treatments.

  3. Autophagic Mechanism in Anti-Cancer Immunity: Its Pros and Cons for Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-Ying; Feun, Lynn G; Thongkum, Angkana; Tu, Chiao-Hui; Chen, Shu-Mei; Wangpaichitr, Medhi; Wu, Chunjing; Kuo, Macus T; Savaraj, Niramol

    2017-06-19

    Autophagy, a self-eating machinery, has been reported as an adaptive response to maintain metabolic homeostasis when cancer cells encounter stress. It has been appreciated that autophagy acts as a double-edge sword to decide the fate of cancer cells upon stress factors, molecular subtypes, and microenvironmental conditions. Currently, the majority of evidence support that autophagy in cancer cells is a vital mechanism bringing on resistance to current and prospective treatments, yet whether autophagy affects the anticancer immune response remains unclear and controversial. Accumulated studies have demonstrated that triggering autophagy is able to facilitate anticancer immunity due to an increase in immunogenicity, whereas other studies suggested that autophagy is likely to disarm anticancer immunity mediated by cytotoxic T cells and nature killer (NK) cells. Hence, this contradiction needs to be elucidated. In this review, we discuss the role of autophagy in cancer cells per se and in cancer microenvironment as well as its dual regulatory roles in immune surveillance through modulating presentation of tumor antigens, development of immune cells, and expression of immune checkpoints. We further focus on emerging roles of autophagy induced by current treatments and its impact on anticancer immune response, and illustrate the pros and cons of utilizing autophagy in cancer immunotherapy based on preclinical references.

  4. Pros and cons of prognostic disclosure to Japanese cancer patients and their families from the family's point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Saran; Shiozaki, Mariko; Sanjo, Makiko; Morita, Tatsuya; Hirai, Kei; Tsuneto, Satoru; Shima, Yasuo

    2012-12-01

    The primary goals of this analysis were to explore the pros and cons of prognostic disclosure to patients and their families from the bereaved family's point of view. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 60 bereaved family members of patients with cancer in Japan. There were eight categories of influence related to the disclosure of prognosis to the family, including pros (e.g., "Enabling mental preparedness for the patient's death") and cons (e.g., "Being distressed by acknowledging the patient's prognosis"); and seven categories of influence of not disclosing the prognosis to family, including pros (e.g., "Being able to maintain hope") and cons (e.g., "Being prevented from providing adequate care for the patient"). There were also nine categories of influence related to the disclosure of prognosis to patients (e.g., "Enabling various discussions regarding death with the patient"), and eight categories of influence related to not disclosing the prognosis to patients (e.g., "Maintaining the patient's hope"). Although prognostic disclosure to family members can contribute to psychological distress and hopelessness, at the same time, it has the potential to prepare them for the future both emotionally and practically, and also to make the time until the patient's death as meaningful as possible. It is useful for physicians to introduce pros and cons of prognostic disclosure to family members at the time of decision making, to understand the family members' psychological state, and to provide support considering pros and cons whether or not they disclosed prognosis.

  5. Hirsti "Apteek" Tate'is

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Londoni Tate Galerii näituste sarjas "New Display" näidatakse 2. maini inglise kunstniku Damien Hirsti 1992. a. valminud ruumiinstallatsiooni "Apteek" ("Pharmacy"), mis kujutab endast reaalse apteegiruumi koopiat

  6. Comparison of 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC and HYNIC-TATE octreotide scintigraphy with FDG PET and 99mTc-MIBI in local recurrent or distant metastatic thyroid cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Sait; Kabasakal, Levent; Halac, Metin; Maecke, Helmut; Uslu, Lebriz; Önsel, Çetin; Kanmaz, Bedii

    2013-05-01

    There have been various studies for early diagnosis of local recurrent or distant metastatic thyroid cancers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical utility of 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC and 99mTc-HYNIC-TATE, octreotide derivatives, to detect recurrences or distant metastases in 131I-negative thyroglobulin positive thyroid cancer patients and to compare the lesions with FDG PET and 99mTc-MIBI studies in the same patient group. Twenty differentiated thyroid cancer patients, 7 male and 13 female, mean age 54.6 ± 15.3 (range 13-78 years), were included in this study. Eighteen patients had papillary thyroid cancer and 2 had follicular thyroid cancer. Fifteen patients received HYNIC-TOC and 5 patients received HYNIC-TATE as a radiopharmaceutical. All patients underwent whole-body scan 1 and 4 hours after injection of octreotide derivatives and SPECT imagings were performed from the suspicious sites. The lesions that were seen in 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC and 99mTc-HYNIC-TATE studies were compared with 99mTc-MIBI and FDG-PET studies. Among 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC and 99mTc-HYNIC-TATE scintigraphies, 15 patient studies were evaluated as true positive (75%) and 5 were false negative (25%). The total number of lesions in octreotide scintigraphy was 48 in 20 patients. Of 20 patients, 19 had FDG-PET study, 15 of them were evaluated as true positive (78.9%), and 4 them were evaluated as false negative (21.1%). Total number of lesions in FDG PET was 74. 99mTc-MIBI study was positive in 11 patients (55%) and negative in 9 patients (45%). Total number of lesions in 99mTc-MIBI was 25. Technetium-labeled somatostatin receptor scintigraphy analogues HYNIC-TOC and HYNIC-TATE are useful imaging alternatives in somatostatin receptor expressing thyroid cancer patients. Radiolabeling is easy and they are readily available for routine use.

  7. Pros and cons of the liposome platform in cancer drug targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabizon, Alberto A; Shmeeda, Hilary; Zalipsky, Samuel

    2006-01-01

    Coating of liposomes with polyethylene-glycol (PEG) by incorporation in the liposome bilayer of PEG-derivatized lipids results in inhibition of liposome uptake by the reticulo-endothelial system and significant prolongation of liposome residence time in the blood stream. Parallel developments in drug loading technology have improved the efficiency and stability of drug entrapment in liposomes, particularly with regard to cationic amphiphiles such as anthracyclines. An example of this new generation of liposomes is a formulation of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin known as Doxil or Caelyx, whose clinical pharmacokinetic profile is characterized by slow plasma clearance and small volume of distribution. A hallmark of these long-circulating liposomal drug carriers is their enhanced accumulation in tumors. The mechanism underlying this passive targeting effect is the phenomenon known as enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) which has been described in a broad variety of experimental tumor types. Further to the passive targeting effect, the liposome drug delivery platform offers the possibility of grafting tumor-specific ligands on the liposome membrane for active targeting to tumor cells, and potentially intracellular drug delivery. The pros and cons of the liposome platform in cancer targeting are discussed vis-à-vis nontargeted drugs, using as an example a liposome drug delivery system targeted to the folate receptor.

  8. Pros and cons of intraperitoneal chemotherapy in the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeimet, Alain G; Reimer, Daniel; Radl, Alice C; Reinthaller, Alexander; Schauer, Christian; Petru, Edgar; Concin, Nicole; Braun, Stephan; Marth, Christian

    2009-07-01

    Development of the pros and cons of intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy in the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer based on the most prominent data published on the evolution of IP chemotherapy and on experience with this therapeutic strategy in clinical routine. The literature published on IP chemotherapy in ovarian cancer between 1970 and 2008 was identified systematically by computer-based searches in MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library. Furthermore, a preliminary analysis of data recorded during an observational nationwide multicenter study of the Austrian AGO on IP-IV chemotherapy using the GOG-172 treatment regimen was performed. The literature review unequivocally revealed a significantly greater toxicity for IP than for intravenous (IV) cisplatin-based chemotherapy. However, according to a Cochrane meta-analysis, IP-IV administration of chemotherapy is associated with a 21.6% decrease in the risk for death. In agreement with earlier reports, the most frequently mentioned side-effects in the Austria-wide observational study were long-lasting neurotoxicity, abdominal pain, fatigue, gastrointestinal and metabolic toxicities, and catheter-related complications. Most of these toxicities were identified as mirroring the toxicity profile of high-dose IV cisplatin (>or=100 mg/m(2)). In some patients, the classic IP-IV regimen with cisplatin/paclitaxel was changed to an alternative schedule comprising carboplatin AUC 5 (d1) and weekly paclitaxel 60 mg/m(2) (d1, 8, 15) completely administered via the IP route. This treatment was better tolerated and quality of life was significantly less compromised. However, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were the limiting side-effects of this IP regimen. In cases where optimal cytoreduction with residual disease

  9. Circulating Tumor Cells Versus Circulating Tumor DNA in Colorectal Cancer: Pros and Cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Carlyn Rose C; Zhou, Lanlan; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2016-06-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) are emerging noninvasive multifunctional biomarkers in liquid biopsy allowing for early diagnosis, accurate prognosis, therapeutic target selection, spatiotemporal monitoring of metastasis, as well as monitoring response and resistance to treatment. CTCs and ctDNA are released from different tumor types at different stages and contribute complementary information for clinical decision. Although big strides have been taken in technology development for detection, isolation and characterization of CTCs and sensitive and specific detection of ctDNA, CTC-, and ctDNA-based liquid biopsies may not be widely adopted for routine cancer patient care until the suitability, accuracy, and reliability of these tests are validated and more standardized protocols are corroborated in large, independent, prospectively designed trials. This review covers CTC- and ctDNA-related technologies and their application in colorectal cancer. The promise of CTC-and ctDNA-based liquid biopsies is envisioned.

  10. Pros and cons of HaloPlex enrichment in cancer predisposition genetic diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès Collet

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Panel sequencing is a practical option in genetic diagnosis. Enrichment and library preparation steps are critical in the diagnostic setting. In order to test the value of HaloPlex technology in diagnosis, we designed a custom oncogenetic panel including 62 genes. The procedure was tested on a training set of 71 controls and then blindly validated on 48 consecutive hereditary breast/ovarian cancer (HBOC patients tested negative for BRCA1/2 mutation. Libraries were sequenced on HiSeq2500 and data were analysed with our academic bioinformatics pipeline. Point mutations were detected using Varscan2, median size indels were detected using Pindel and large genomic rearrangements (LGR were detected by DESeq. Proper coverage was obtained. However, highly variable read depth was observed within genes. Excluding pseudogene analysis, all point mutations were detected on the training set. All indels were also detected using Pindel. On the other hand, DESeq allowed LGR detection but with poor specificity, preventing its use in diagnostics. Mutations were detected in 8% of BRCA1/2-negative HBOC cases. HaloPlex technology appears to be an efficient and promising solution for gene panel diagnostics. Data analysis remains a major challenge and geneticists should enhance their bioinformatics knowledge in order to ensure good quality diagnostic results.

  11. The early development phases of a European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) module to assess patient reported outcomes (PROs) in women undergoing breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, H J; Winters, Z E; Brandberg, Y; Didier, F; Blazeby, J M; Mills, J

    2013-03-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of breast reconstruction (BRR) surgery includes measurement of patient reported outcomes (PROs). There is, however, a lack of validated BRR-specific PRO measures (PROMs) that adequately assess relevant issues. This study is developing a European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) questionnaire/module specific for PROs in BRR to supplement the cancer-core and breast cancer EORTC questionnaires, respectively: the QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23. Phases I and II of questionnaire development followed EORTC guidelines including a systematic literature review to identify all potential 'issues' (concepts relevant to PROs) and semi-structured interviews with 89 patients and 9 European multi-disciplinary health care professionals (HCPs) (Sweden, Italy and the United Kingdom [UK]). Interviewers asked participants the 'relevance' of outcomes identified in the literature and captured additional 'issues' of importance. The literature search and interviews of patients and HCPs yielded 69 issues relating to BRR operationalised into 31 provisional items (single questions) for the module, which was conceptualised to contain five scales: treatment/surgery related symptoms (affecting the shoulder, arm and reconstructed breast), body image, sexuality, cosmetic outcomes (pertaining to three areas: breast, donor site and nipple) and overall satisfaction. The provisional development of the EORTC BRR module has 31 items addressing issues of importance to patients as well as HCPs. Further international testing is underway as a UK National Cancer Research Network trial to ensure that this PROM will be psychometrically and clinically robust and applicable for use in clinical trials, cohort studies, national audit and clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Lubin-Tate extensions, an elementary approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, Yu L

    2007-01-01

    We give an elementary proof of the assertion that the Lubin-Tate extension L≥K is an Abelian extension whose Galois group is isomorphic to U K /N L/K (U L ) for arbitrary fields K that have Henselian discrete valuation rings with finite residue fields. The term 'elementary' only means that the proofs are algebraic (that is, no transcedental methods are used)

  13. Overview of Development and Formulation of ¹⁷⁷Lu-DOTA-TATE for PRRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeman, Wouter A P; Chan, Ho Sze; de Zanger, Rory M S; Konijnenberg, Mark K; de Blois, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) using radiolabeled somatostatin analogs has become an established procedure for the treatment of patients suffering from inoperable neuroendocrine cancers over-expressing somatostatin receptors. Success of PRRT depends on the availability of the radiolabeled peptide with adequately high specific activity, so that required therapeutic efficacy can be achieved without saturating the limited number of receptors available on the target lesions. Specific activity of the radionuclide and the radiolabeled somatostatin analog are therefore an important parameters. Although these analogs have been investigated and improved, and successfully applied for PRRT for more than 15 years, there are still many possibilities for further improvements that fully exploit PRRT with 177Lu-DOTA-TATE. The here summarized data presented herein on increased knowledge of the components of 177Lu-DOTA-TATE (especially the purity of 177Lu and specific activity of 177Lu) and the reaction kinetics during labeling 177Lu-DOTA-TATE clearly show that the peptide dose and dose in GBq can be varied. Here we present an overview of the development, formulation and optimisation of 177Lu-DOTA-TATE, mainly addressing radiochemical parameters.

  14. NADiA® ProsVue™ PSA Slope Is an Independent Prognostic Marker for Identifying Men at Reduced Risk for Clinical Recurrence of Prostate Cancer after Radical Prostatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moul, Judd W.; Lilja, Hans; Semmes, O. John; Lance, Raymond S.; Vessella, Robert L.; Fleisher, Martin; Mazzola, Clarisse; Sarno, Mark J.; Stevens, Barbara; Klem, Robert E.; McDermed, Jonathan E.; Triebell, Melissa T.; Adams, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To validate the hypothesis that men displaying serum PSA slopes ≤2.0 pg/mL/month postprostatectomy, measured with a new immuno-PCR diagnostic test (NADiA® ProsVue™) were at a reduced risk of clinical recurrence as determined by positive biopsy, imaging or death due to prostate cancer. Methods From 4 clinical sites, we selected a cohort of 304 men followed up to 17.6 years postprostatectomy for clinical recurrence. We assessed the prognostic value of a PSA slope cutpoint of 2.0 pg/mL/month against established risk factors to identify men at very low risk of clinical recurrence using uni- and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results The univariate HR (95% CI) of a PSA slope >2.0 pg/mL/month was 18.3 (10.6–31.8), compared to a slope ≤2.0 pg/mL/month (P free survival was 4.8 years versus >10 years in the 2 groups (P <0.0001). Multivariate HR for PSA slope with the covariates of preprostatectomy PSA, pathologic stage and Gleason score was 9.8 (5.4–17.8), an 89.8% risk reduction, for men with PSA slopes ≤2.0 pg/mL/month (P <0.0001). Gleason Score (<7 vs. ≥7) was the only other significant predictor (HR 5.4, 2.1–13.8, P = 0.0004). Conclusions Clinical recurrence following radical prostatectomy is often difficult to predict since established factors do not reliably stratify risk. We demonstrate that a NADiA ProsVue slope ≤2.0 pg/mL/month postprostatectomy is prognostic for reduced risk of prostate cancer recurrence and adds predictive power to established risk factors. PMID:23107099

  15. The added value of 68Ga-DOTA-TATE-PET to contrast-enhanced CT for primary site detection in CUP of neuroendocrine origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmierczak, Philipp M; Rominger, Axel; Wenter, Vera; Spitzweg, Christine; Auernhammer, Christoph; Angele, Martin K; Rist, Carsten; Cyran, Clemens C

    2017-04-01

    To quantify the additional value of 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE PET/CT in comparison with contrast-enhanced CT alone for primary tumour detection in neuroendocrine cancer of unknown primary (CUP-NET). In total, 38 consecutive patients (27 men, 11 women; mean age 62 years) with histologically proven CUP-NET who underwent a contrast-enhanced 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE PET/CT scan for primary tumour detection and staging between 2010 and 2014 were included in this IRB-approved retrospective study. Two blinded readers independently analysed the contrast-enhanced CT and 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE PET datasets separately and noted from which modality they suspected a primary tumour. Consensus was reached if the results were divergent. Postoperative histopathology (24 patients) and follow-up 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE PET/CT imaging (14 patients) served as the reference standards and statistical measures of diagnostic accuracy were calculated accordingly. The majority of confirmed primary tumours were located in the abdomen (ileum in 19 patients, pancreas in 12, lung in 2, small pelvis in 1). High interobserver agreement was noted regarding the suspected primary tumour site (Cohen's k 0.90, p DOTA-TATE PET demonstrated a significantly higher sensitivity (94 % vs. 63 %, p = 0.005) and a significantly higher accuracy (87 % vs. 68 %, p = 0.003) than contrast-enhanced CT. Ga-DOTA-TATE PET/CT compared with contrast-enhanced CT alone provides an improvement in sensitivity of 50 % and an improvement in accuracy of 30 % in primary tumour detection in CUP-NET. • 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE PET augments the sensitivity of contrast-enhanced CT by 50 % • 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE PET augments the accuracy of contrast-enhanced CT by 30 % • Somatostatin receptor-targeted hybrid imaging optimizes primary tumour detection in CUP-NET.

  16. Targeted radiotherapy with 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE in athymic mice with induced pancreatic malignant tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez C, J.; Murphy, C.A. de; Pedraza L, M.; Ferro F, G.; Murphy S, E.

    2006-01-01

    Malignant pancreas tumours induced in athymic mice are a good model for peptide receptor targeted radiotherapy. The objective of this research was to estimate pancreatic tumour absorbed radiation doses after administration of 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE in mice as a therapeutic radiopharmaceutical that could be used in humans. AR42J murine pancreas cancer cells expressing somatostatin receptors, were implanted in athymic mice (n=18) to obtain the 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE biokinetics and dosimetry. To estimate its therapeutic efficacy 87 MBq were injected in a tail vein of 3 mice and 19 days p.i. there were a partial relapse. There was an epithelial and sarcoma mixed tumour in the kidneys of mouse III. The absorbed dose to tumour, kidney and pancreas was 50.5 ± 7.2 Gy, 17.5 ± 2.5 Gy and 12.6 ± 2.3 Gy respectively. These studies justify further therapeutic and dosimetry estimations to ensure that 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE will act as expected in man considering its kidney radiotoxicity. (Author)

  17. Targeted radiotherapy with 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE in athymic mice with induced pancreatic malignant tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M. A de; Pedraza L, M.; Rodriguez C, J.; Ferro F, G.; Murphy S, E.

    2006-01-01

    Malignant pancreas tumours induced in athymic mice are a good model for targeted radiotherapy. The objective of this research was to estimate pancreatic tumour absorbed radiation doses and to evaluate 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE as a therapeutic radiopharmaceutical that could be used in humans. AR42J murine pancreas cancer cells, which over-express somatostatin receptors, were injected in athymic mice and 20 days later the mean tumour size was 3.08 square cm (n=3). A mean of 86.3 MBq 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE, was injected in a tail vein and 19 days after therapy the size of the tumours was 0.81 square cm. There was a partial relapse and after 16 days, when sacrificed, the mean tumour size was 8.28 cubic cm. An epithelial and sarcoma mixed tumour in the kidney of one treated mouse was found. The tumour of the control mouse was 8.61 cubic cm when sacrificed 14 days after tumour induction. Radiotherapy estimates to the tumours was 35.9-39.7 Gy and the tumours might have been completely reduced with a second therapy dose. These preliminary studies justify further therapeutic and dosimetry estimations to ensure that Lu- 177 -DOTA-TATE will act as expected in man, considering kidney radiation. (Author)

  18. Preparation of therapeutic dose of 177Lu-DOTA-TATE using a novel single vial freeze-dried kit: a comparison with 'in-situ' preparation at hospital radiopharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Tapas; Banerjee, Sharmila; Shinto, Ajit; Kamaleshwaran, K K; Sarma, H D

    2014-01-01

    Patient dose of (177)Lu-DOTA-TATE, used for providing radiotherapeutic treatment to the patients suffering from cancers of neuroendocrine origin, could be prepared at the hospital radiopharmacy either 'in-situ' or by using freezedried kits. The objective of the present work is to formulate and evaluate a single vial freeze-dried DOTA-TATE kit, which is capable of producing up to 7.4 GBq (200 mCi) dose of (177)Lu-DOTA-TATE and to compare the two methodologies presently used for the preparation of the agent. Freeze-dried DOTA-TATE kits, comprising a lyophilized mixture of DOTA-TATE, gentisic acid and ammonium acetate, were prepared and used for the formulation of patient doses of (177)Lu-DOTA-TATE. The kits were subjected to detailed radiochemical evaluation and the shelf-life of the kits was determined. The pharmacokinetic behavior of the agent was studied in normal Wistar rats. These kits were utilized for treating the patients suffering from various types of neuroendocrine cancers. The freeze-dried kits were used for the preparation of up to 7.4 GBq (200 mCi) therapeutic doses of (177)Lu- DOTA-TATE with a radiochemical purity of >99% and were found to have sufficiently long shelf-life. Biological studies carried out in normal Wistar rats exhibited no significant accumulation of activity in any of the vital organs/tissue except in kidneys and non-accumulated activity showed major renal clearance. Clinical studies carried out in cancer patients exhibited accumulation of activity in the cancerous lesions and metastatic sites. The kit was useful for the convenient preparation of therapeutic dose of (177)Lu-DOTA-TATE, suitable for human administration. The use of kit is expected to reduce the batch failure and radiation exposure to the working personnel.

  19. Collected works of John Tate part I (1951--1975)

    CERN Document Server

    Tate, John; Serre, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In these volumes, a reader will find all of John Tate's published mathematical papers-spanning more than six decades-enriched by new comments made by the author. Included also is a selection of his letters. His letters give us a close view of how he works and of his ideas in process of formation.

  20. Collected works of John Tate part II (1976--2006)

    CERN Document Server

    Tate, John; Serre, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In these volumes, a reader will find all of John Tate's published mathematical papers-spanning more than six decades-enriched by new comments made by the author. Included also is a selection of his letters. His letters give us a close view of how he works and of his ideas in process of formation.

  1. The added value of {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TATE-PET to contrast-enhanced CT for primary site detection in CUP of neuroendocrine origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmierczak, Philipp M. [Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Muenchen (Germany); Rominger, Axel; Wenter, Vera [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Muenchen (Germany); Spitzweg, Christine; Auernhammer, Christoph [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Department of Internal Medicine II, Muenchen (Germany); Angele, Martin K. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Department of General, Visceral, Transplantation, Vascular and Thoracic Surgery, Muenchen (Germany); Rist, Carsten; Cyran, Clemens C. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Muenchen (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    To quantify the additional value of {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TATE PET/CT in comparison with contrast-enhanced CT alone for primary tumour detection in neuroendocrine cancer of unknown primary (CUP-NET). In total, 38 consecutive patients (27 men, 11 women; mean age 62 years) with histologically proven CUP-NET who underwent a contrast-enhanced {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TATE PET/CT scan for primary tumour detection and staging between 2010 and 2014 were included in this IRB-approved retrospective study. Two blinded readers independently analysed the contrast-enhanced CT and {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TATE PET datasets separately and noted from which modality they suspected a primary tumour. Consensus was reached if the results were divergent. Postoperative histopathology (24 patients) and follow-up {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TATE PET/CT imaging (14 patients) served as the reference standards and statistical measures of diagnostic accuracy were calculated accordingly. The majority of confirmed primary tumours were located in the abdomen (ileum in 19 patients, pancreas in 12, lung in 2, small pelvis in 1). High interobserver agreement was noted regarding the suspected primary tumour site (Cohen's k 0.90, p < 0.001). {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TATE PET demonstrated a significantly higher sensitivity (94 % vs. 63 %, p = 0.005) and a significantly higher accuracy (87 % vs. 68 %, p = 0.003) than contrast-enhanced CT. Ga-DOTA-TATE PET/CT compared with contrast-enhanced CT alone provides an improvement in sensitivity of 50 % and an improvement in accuracy of 30 % in primary tumour detection in CUP-NET. (orig.)

  2. DOTA-TATE peptides labelling with Lutetium 177: Preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliaga, Eleazar; Robles, Anita; Ramos, Bertha; Martinez, Flor

    2014-01-01

    he peptide DOTA-TATE was labeled with lutetium 177 according to the methodology provided under the regional project RLA/6/074, sponsored by the IAEA. The labeling was done in 0.26 M gentisic acid solution in 0.8 M sodium acetate buffer, pH 5, at 100 °C for 30 minutes in a dry heating block. The radiochemical purity was assessed by thin layer chromatography, using ITLC SG strips and a mixture of 0.15 M ammonium acetate - methanol (1:1) as solvent. The radiolabeled peptide 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE reached a radiochemical purity of 98 % with a specific activity of 2,8 mCi/µg of peptide. (authors).

  3. Targeted radiotherapy with {sup 177} Lu-DOTA-TATE in athymic mice with induced pancreatic malignant tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M. A de; Pedraza L, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Rodriguez C, J. [Faculty of Medicine, UAEM, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ferro F, G. [ININ, 52045 Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Murphy S, E. [Hospital Santelena, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    Malignant pancreas tumours induced in athymic mice are a good model for targeted radiotherapy. The objective of this research was to estimate pancreatic tumour absorbed radiation doses and to evaluate {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE as a therapeutic radiopharmaceutical that could be used in humans. AR42J murine pancreas cancer cells, which over-express somatostatin receptors, were injected in athymic mice and 20 days later the mean tumour size was 3.08 square cm (n=3). A mean of 86.3 MBq {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE, was injected in a tail vein and 19 days after therapy the size of the tumours was 0.81 square cm. There was a partial relapse and after 16 days, when sacrificed, the mean tumour size was 8.28 cubic cm. An epithelial and sarcoma mixed tumour in the kidney of one treated mouse was found. The tumour of the control mouse was 8.61 cubic cm when sacrificed 14 days after tumour induction. Radiotherapy estimates to the tumours was 35.9-39.7 Gy and the tumours might have been completely reduced with a second therapy dose. These preliminary studies justify further therapeutic and dosimetry estimations to ensure that Lu-{sup 177}-DOTA-TATE will act as expected in man, considering kidney radiation. (Author)

  4. Targeted radiotherapy with {sup 177} Lu-DOTA-TATE in athymic mice with induced pancreatic malignant tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez C, J.; Murphy, C.A. de; Pedraza L, M. [Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, 14000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ferro F, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Murphy S, E. [Hospital Santelena, 06000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    Malignant pancreas tumours induced in athymic mice are a good model for peptide receptor targeted radiotherapy. The objective of this research was to estimate pancreatic tumour absorbed radiation doses after administration of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE in mice as a therapeutic radiopharmaceutical that could be used in humans. AR42J murine pancreas cancer cells expressing somatostatin receptors, were implanted in athymic mice (n=18) to obtain the {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE biokinetics and dosimetry. To estimate its therapeutic efficacy 87 MBq were injected in a tail vein of 3 mice and 19 days p.i. there were a partial relapse. There was an epithelial and sarcoma mixed tumour in the kidneys of mouse III. The absorbed dose to tumour, kidney and pancreas was 50.5 {+-} 7.2 Gy, 17.5 {+-} 2.5 Gy and 12.6 {+-} 2.3 Gy respectively. These studies justify further therapeutic and dosimetry estimations to ensure that {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE will act as expected in man considering its kidney radiotoxicity. (Author)

  5. Biokinetics and dosimetry with 177Lu-DOTA-TATE in athymic mice with induced pancreatic malignant tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cortés, J.; de Murphy, C. Arteaga; Ferro-Flores, Ge; Pedraza-López, M.; Murphy-Stack, E.

    Malignant pancreatic tumours induced in athymic mice are a good model for peptide receptor targeted radiotherapy. The objective of this research was to determine biokinetic parameters in mice, in order to estimate the induced pancreatic tumour absorbed doses and to evaluate an `in house' 177Lu-DOTA-TATE radiopharmaceutical as part of preclinical studies for targeted therapy in humans. AR42J murine pancreas cancer cells expressing somatostatin receptors, were implanted in athymic mice (nD22) to obtain biokinetic and dosimetric data of 177Lu-DOTA-TATE. The mean tumour uptake 2 h post injection was 14.76±1.9% I.A./g; kidney and pancreas uptake, at the same time, were 7.27±1.1% I.A./g (1.71±0.90%/organ) and 4.20±0.98% I.A./g (0.42±0.03%/organ), respectively. The mean absorbed dose to tumour, kidney and pancreas was 0.58±0.02 Gy/MBq; 0.23±0.01 Gy/MBq and 0.14±0.01 Gy/MBq, respectively. These studies justify further dosimetric estimations to ensure that 177Lu-DOTA-TATE will act as expected in humans.

  6. Treatment with tandem [{sup 90}Y]DOTA-TATE and [{sup 177}Lu]DOTA-TATE of neuroendocrine tumours refractory to conventional therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seregni, E.; Maccauro, M.; Chiesa, C.; Pascali, C.; Lorenzoni, A.; Bogni, A.; Coliva, A.; Bombardieri, E. [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Nuclear Medicine, Milan (Italy); Mariani, L.; Vullo, S.Lo [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Statistics and Biometry Unit, Milan (Italy); Mazzaferro, V. [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Surgery and Liver Transplantation, Milan (Italy); De Braud, F.; Buzzoni, R. [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Medical Oncology, Milan (Italy); Milione, M. [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Pathology Department, Milan (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with radiolabelled somatostatin analogues has been demonstrated to be an effective therapeutic option in patients with disseminated neuroendocrine tumours (NET). Treatment with tandem [{sup 90}Y]DOTA-TATE and [{sup 177}Lu]DOTA-TATE may improve the efficacy of PRRT without increasing the toxicity. In a phase II study we evaluated the feasibility of combined PPRT with a high-energy beta emitter ({sup 90}Y) and a medium-energy beta/gamma emitter ({sup 177}Lu) in patients with metastatic NET refractory to conventional therapy. A group of 26 patients with metastatic NET were treated with four therapeutic cycles of alternating [{sup 177}Lu]DOTA-TATE (5.55 GBq) and [{sup 90}Y]DOTA-TATE (2.6 GBq). A dosimetric evaluation was carried out after administration of [{sup 177}Lu]DOTA-TATE to calculate the absorbed doses in healthy organs. The acute and long-term toxicities of repeated treatment were analysed. PRRT efficacy was evaluated according to RECIST. Administration of tandem [{sup 90}Y]DOTA-TATE and [{sup 177}Lu]DOTA-TATE induced objective responses in 42.3 % of patients with metastatic NET with a median progression-free survival longer than 24 months. Of patients with pretreatment carcinoid syndrome, 90 % showed a symptomatic response or a reduction in tumour-associated pain. The cumulative biologically effective doses (BED) were below the toxicity limit in the majority of patients, in the absence of renal function impairment The results of our study indicates that combined [{sup 90}Y]DOTA-TATE and [{sup 177}Lu]DOTA-TATE therapy is a feasible and effective therapeutic option in NET refractory to conventional therapy. Furthermore, the absence of kidney damage and the evaluated cumulative BEDs suggest that increasing the number of tandem administrations is an interesting approach. (orig.)

  7. Treatment with tandem [90Y]DOTA-TATE and [177Lu]DOTA-TATE of neuroendocrine tumours refractory to conventional therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seregni, E; Maccauro, M; Chiesa, C; Mariani, L; Pascali, C; Mazzaferro, V; De Braud, F; Buzzoni, R; Milione, M; Lorenzoni, A; Bogni, A; Coliva, A; Lo Vullo, S; Bombardieri, E

    2014-02-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with radiolabelled somatostatin analogues has been demonstrated to be an effective therapeutic option in patients with disseminated neuroendocrine tumours (NET). Treatment with tandem [(90)Y]DOTA-TATE and [(177)Lu]DOTA-TATE may improve the efficacy of PRRT without increasing the toxicity. In a phase II study we evaluated the feasibility of combined PPRT with a high-energy beta emitter ((90)Y) and a medium-energy beta/gamma emitter ([(177)Lu) in patients with metastatic NET refractory to conventional therapy. A group of 26 patients with metastatic NET were treated with four therapeutic cycles of alternating [[(177)Lu]DOTA-TATE (5.55 GBq) and [(90)Y]DOTA-TATE (2.6 GBq). A dosimetric evaluation was carried out after administration of [[(177)Lu]DOTA-TATE to calculate the absorbed doses in healthy organs. The acute and long-term toxicities of repeated treatment were analysed. PRRT efficacy was evaluated according to RECIST. Administration of tandem [(90)Y]DOTA-TATE and [[(177)Lu]DOTA-TATE induced objective responses in 42.3 % of patients with metastatic NET with a median progression-free survival longer than 24 months. Of patients with pretreatment carcinoid syndrome, 90 % showed a symptomatic response or a reduction in tumour-associated pain. The cumulative biologically effective doses (BED) were below the toxicity limit in the majority of patients, in the absence of renal function impairment. The results of our study indicates that combined [(90)Y]DOTA-TATE and [(177)Lu]DOTA-TATE therapy is a feasible and effective therapeutic option in NET refractory to conventional therapy. Furthermore, the absence of kidney damage and the evaluated cumulative BEDs suggest that increasing the number of tandem administrations is an interesting approach.

  8. Circumcision: Pros and cons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgu Berk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Circumcision is possibly the most frequently performed elective surgical procedure in men. It can simply be described as the excision of the preputium. There have been several studies about the association between circumcision and urinary tract infections (UTI. Many studies have demonstrated that the frequency of UTI increase in uncircumcised males, especially in the first year of life. This review discusses the embryology of the preputium, epidemiology, indications, complications and benefits of circumcision, as well as operation and anesthesiology techniques. It especially examines the association between UTI and circumcision and the importance of circumcision in congenital urinary system anomalies. In addition, this review examines the associations between circumcision and sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV, and the protective role of circumcision on penile cancer.

  9. 68Ga/177Lu-labeled DOTA-TATE shows similar imaging and biodistribution in neuroendocrine tumor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Zhu, Hua; Yu, Jiangyuan; Han, Xuedi; Xie, Qinghua; Liu, Teli; Xia, Chuanqin; Li, Nan; Yang, Zhi

    2017-06-01

    Somatostatin receptors are overexpressed in neuroendocrine tumors, whose endogenous ligands are somatostatin. DOTA-TATE is an analogue of somatostatin, which shows high binding affinity to somatostatin receptors. We aim to evaluate the 68 Ga/ 177 Lu-labeling DOTA-TATE kit in neuroendocrine tumor model for molecular imaging and to try human-positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging of 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE in neuroendocrine tumor patients. DOTA-TATE kits were formulated and radiolabeled with 68 Ga/ 177 Lu for 68 Ga/ 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE (M-DOTA-TATE). In vitro and in vivo stability of 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE were performed. Nude mice bearing human tumors were injected with 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE or 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE for micro-positron emission tomography and micro-single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography imaging separately, and clinical positron emission tomography/computed tomography images of 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE were obtained at 1 h post-intravenous injection from patients with neuroendocrine tumors. Micro-positron emission tomography and micro-single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography imaging of 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE and 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE both showed clear tumor uptake which could be blocked by excess DOTA-TATE. In addition, 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE-positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging in neuroendocrine tumor patients could show primary and metastatic lesions. 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE and 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE could accumulate in tumors in animal models, paving the way for better clinical peptide receptor radionuclide therapy for neuroendocrine tumor patients in Asian population.

  10. NADiA ProsVue prostate-specific antigen slope is an independent prognostic marker for identifying men at reduced risk of clinical recurrence of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moul, Judd W; Lilja, Hans; Semmes, O John; Lance, Raymond S; Vessella, Robert L; Fleisher, Martin; Mazzola, Clarisse; Sarno, Mark J; Stevens, Barbara; Klem, Robert E; McDermed, Jonathan E; Triebell, Melissa T; Adams, Thomas H

    2012-12-01

    To validate the hypothesis that men displaying serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) slopes ≤ 2.0 pg/mL/mo after prostatectomy, measured using a new immuno-polymerase chain reaction diagnostic test (NADiA ProsVue), have a reduced risk of clinical recurrence as determined by positive biopsy, imaging findings, or death from prostate cancer. From 4 clinical sites, we selected a cohort of 304 men who had been followed up for 17.6 years after prostatectomy for clinical recurrence. We assessed the prognostic value of a PSA slope cutpoint of 2.0 pg/mL/mo against established risk factors to identify men at low risk of clinical recurrence using uni- and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses. The univariate hazard ratio of a PSA slope >2.0 pg/mL/mo was 18.3 (95% confidence interval 10.6-31.8) compared with a slope ≤ 2.0 pg/mL/mo (P free survival interval was 4.8 years vs >10 years in the 2 groups (P <.0001). The multivariate hazard ratio for PSA slope with the covariates of preprostatectomy PSA, pathologic stage, and Gleason score was 9.8 (95% confidence interval 5.4-17.8), an 89.8% risk reduction for men with PSA slopes ≤ 2.0 pg/mL/mo (P <.0001). The Gleason score (<7 vs ≥ 7) was the only other significant predictor (hazard ratio 5.4, 95% confidence interval 2.1-13.8, P = .0004). Clinical recurrence after radical prostatectomy is difficult to predict using established risk factors. We have demonstrated that a NADiA ProsVue PSA slope of ≤ 2.0 pg/mL/mo after prostatectomy is prognostic for a reduced risk of prostate cancer recurrence and adds predictive power to the established risk factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of Ga-68 DOTA-TATE and Ga-68 DOTA-LAN PET/CT imaging in the same patient group with neuroendocrine tumours: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Emre; Ocak, Meltem; Kabasakal, Levent; Araman, Ahmet; Ozsoy, Yildiz; Kanmaz, Bedii

    2013-08-01

    Recent studies have suggested that PET imaging with Ga-68-labelled DOTA-somatostatin analogues such as octreotide and octreotate is useful in diagnosing neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) and has superior value over both computed tomography and planar and SPECT somatostatin receptor scintigraphy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of Ga-68 DOTA-lanreotide (Ga-68-DOTA-LAN) in patients with somatostatin receptor (sst)-expressing tumours and to compare the results of Ga-68 DOTA-D-Phe1-Tyr3-octreotate (Ga-68-DOTA-TATE) in the same patient population. Twelve patients with NETs who were referred to our department for somatostatin receptor scintigraphy were included in the study. There were four patients with well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumour (WDNET) grade 1, two patients with WDNET grade 2, and three patients with poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (PDNEC) grade 3. There was also one patient with medullary thyroid cancer, one patient with meningioma and one patient with MEN-1. All patients underwent two consecutive PET imaging studies with Ga-68-DOTA-TATE and Ga-68 DOTA-LAN. All images were evaluated visually, and maximum standardized uptake value was calculated for quantitative evaluation. On visual examination of maximum intensity projection images, GA-68 DOTA-LAN was seen to have high background activity and high bone marrow uptake. Both tracers defined 67 lesions. Ga-68 DOTA-TATE images revealed 63 (94%) clearly defined lesions, missing four lesions. In contrast, Ga-68 DOTA-LAN images defined only 23 (44%) lesions, missing 44 (56%) lesions. Thirty-two bone lesions were detected on Ga-68-DOTA-TATE images. Among them, only 11 (34%) were positive on Ga-68 DOTA-LAN images, whereas 21 (66%) were negative. When we evaluated liver, mediastinum and gastrointestinal tract lesions, Ga-68 DOTA-LAN was seen to be positive for 12 (34%) lesions and negative for 23 (66%) lesions. Although the results are preliminary, the image quality obtained by

  12. Food irradiation - pros and cons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The use of ionising radiation for food preservation is a much-disputed topic, both among experts and among consumers. Pros and cons of this issue were discussed in detail at the consumers' forum. Professor Dr. Johannes Friedrich Diehl, Director of the Institute for Biochemistry of the Food Research Centre, Karlsruhe, is a well-known supporter of the new method of food preservation; he sees advantages in the radiopreservation of food because, for example, losses due to inedibility are reduced, the danger of salmonellosis is decreased, just as the use of chemicals. He thinks this method to be without danger to health, shown by many years of experience. Opponents to food irradiation like Prof. Dr. Konrad Pfeilsticker, Professor for food science and food chemistry at the Bonn University deem the method to be unnecessary and raise the problem of qualitative changes caused in the food. In the course of the discussions, the pros and cons seemed to balance each other out. (orig./AJ) [de

  13. 68Ga-autoclabeling of DOTA-TATE and DOTA-NOC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, Elisabeth; Koziorowski, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    A new method combining (68)Ga-labeling and steam sterilization, here called autoclabeling, has been evaluated for two somatostatin receptor binding tracers used for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of neuroendocrine tumors; DOTA-TATE and -NOC....

  14. Positron emission tomography evaluation of somatostatin receptor targeted (64)Cu-TATE-liposomes in a human neuroendocrine carcinoma mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anncatrine Luisa; Binderup, Tina; Jølck, Rasmus Irming

    2012-01-01

    -liposomes without TATE. PEGylated liposomes with or without TATE accumulated at significantly higher quantities in NETs (5.1±0.3 and 5.8±0.2 %ID/g, respectively) than the free peptide (64)Cu-DOTA-TATE (1.4±0.3 %ID/g) 24h post-injection. Importantly, (64)Cu-loaded PEGylated liposomes with TATE showed significantly...... higher tumor-to-muscle (T/M) ratio (12.7±1.0) than the control-liposomes without TATE (8.9±0.9) and the (64)Cu-DOTA-TATE free peptide (7.2±0.3). The higher T/M ratio of the PEGylated liposomes with TATE suggests some advantage of active targeting of NETs, although no absolute benefit in tumor...... to image NETs was evaluated using PET. Additionally, the liposome accumulation and imaging capability was compared with free radiolabelled TATE peptide administered as (64)Cu-DOTA-TATE. The presence of TATE on the liposomes resulted in a significantly faster initial blood clearance in comparison to control...

  15. Crystal structure of rubidium methyl-diazo-tate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassl, Tobias; Korber, Nikolaus

    2017-02-01

    The title compound, Rb + ·H 3 CN 2 O - , has been crystallized in liquid ammonia as a reaction product of the reductive ammonolysis of the natural compound streptozocin. Elemental rubidium was used as reduction agent as it is soluble in liquid ammonia, forming a blue solution. Reductive bond cleavage in biogenic materials under kinetically controlled conditions offers a new approach to gain access to sustainably produced raw materials. The anion is nearly planar [dihedral angle O-N-N-C = -0.4 (2)°]. The Rb + cation has a coordination number of seven, and coordinates to five anions. One anion is bound via both its N atoms, one by both O and N, two anions are bound by only their O atoms, and the last is bound via the N atom adjacent to the methyl group. The diazo-tate anions are bridged by cations and do not exhibit any direct contacts with each other. The cations form corrugated layers that propagate in the (-101) plane.

  16. Correlation of Somatostatin Receptor-2 Expression with Gallium-68-DOTA-TATE Uptake in Neuroblastoma Xenograft Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Libo; Vines, Douglass C; Scollard, Deborah A; McKee, Trevor; Komal, Teesha; Ganguly, Milan; Do, Trevor; Wu, Bing; Alexander, Natasha; Vali, Reza; Shammas, Amer; Besanger, Travis; Baruchel, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    Peptide-receptor imaging and therapy with radiolabeled somatostatin analogs such as 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE and 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE have become an effective treatment option for SSTR-positive neuroendocrine tumors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation of somatostatin receptor-2 (SSTR2) expression with 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE uptake and 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE therapy in neuroblastoma (NB) xenograft models. We demonstrated variable SSTR2 expression profiles in eight NB cell lines. From micro-PET imaging and autoradiography, a higher uptake of 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE was observed in SSTR2 high-expressing NB xenografts (CHLA-15) compared to SSTR2 low-expressing NB xenografts (SK-N-BE(2)). Combined autoradiography-immunohistochemistry revealed histological colocalization of SSTR2 and 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE uptake in CHLA-15 tumors. With a low dose of 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE (20 MBq/animal), tumor growth inhibition was achieved in the CHLA-15 high SSTR2 expressing xenograft model. Although, in vitro , NB cells showed variable expression levels of norepinephrine transporter (NET), a molecular target for 131 I-MIBG therapy, low 123 I-MIBG uptake was observed in all selected NB xenografts. In conclusion, SSTR2 expression levels are associated with 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE uptake and antitumor efficacy of 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE. 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE PET is superior to 123 I-MIBG SPECT imaging in detecting NB tumors in our model. Radiolabeled DOTA-TATE can be used as an agent for NB tumor imaging to potentially discriminate tumors eligible for 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE therapy.

  17. Correlation of Somatostatin Receptor-2 Expression with Gallium-68-DOTA-TATE Uptake in Neuroblastoma Xenograft Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libo Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Peptide-receptor imaging and therapy with radiolabeled somatostatin analogs such as 68Ga-DOTA-TATE and 177Lu-DOTA-TATE have become an effective treatment option for SSTR-positive neuroendocrine tumors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation of somatostatin receptor-2 (SSTR2 expression with 68Ga-DOTA-TATE uptake and 177Lu-DOTA-TATE therapy in neuroblastoma (NB xenograft models. We demonstrated variable SSTR2 expression profiles in eight NB cell lines. From micro-PET imaging and autoradiography, a higher uptake of 68Ga-DOTA-TATE was observed in SSTR2 high-expressing NB xenografts (CHLA-15 compared to SSTR2 low-expressing NB xenografts (SK-N-BE(2. Combined autoradiography-immunohistochemistry revealed histological colocalization of SSTR2 and 68Ga-DOTA-TATE uptake in CHLA-15 tumors. With a low dose of 177Lu-DOTA-TATE (20 MBq/animal, tumor growth inhibition was achieved in the CHLA-15 high SSTR2 expressing xenograft model. Although, in vitro, NB cells showed variable expression levels of norepinephrine transporter (NET, a molecular target for 131I-MIBG therapy, low 123I-MIBG uptake was observed in all selected NB xenografts. In conclusion, SSTR2 expression levels are associated with 68Ga-DOTA-TATE uptake and antitumor efficacy of 177Lu-DOTA-TATE. 68Ga-DOTA-TATE PET is superior to 123I-MIBG SPECT imaging in detecting NB tumors in our model. Radiolabeled DOTA-TATE can be used as an agent for NB tumor imaging to potentially discriminate tumors eligible for 177Lu-DOTA-TATE therapy.

  18. Correlation of Somatostatin Receptor-2 Expression with Gallium-68-DOTA-TATE Uptake in Neuroblastoma Xenograft Models

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Libo; Vines, Douglass C.; Scollard, Deborah A.; McKee, Trevor; Komal, Teesha; Ganguly, Milan; Do, Trevor; Wu, Bing; Alexander, Natasha; Vali, Reza; Shammas, Amer; Besanger, Travis; Baruchel, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    Peptide-receptor imaging and therapy with radiolabeled somatostatin analogs such as 68Ga-DOTA-TATE and 177Lu-DOTA-TATE have become an effective treatment option for SSTR-positive neuroendocrine tumors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation of somatostatin receptor-2 (SSTR2) expression with 68Ga-DOTA-TATE uptake and 177Lu-DOTA-TATE therapy in neuroblastoma (NB) xenograft models. We demonstrated variable SSTR2 expression profiles in eight NB cell lines. From micro-PET imagin...

  19. Interaction Modeling at PROS Research Center

    OpenAIRE

    Panach , José ,; Aquino , Nathalie; PASTOR , Oscar

    2011-01-01

    Part 1: Long and Short Papers; International audience; This paper describes how the PROS Research Center deals with interaction in the context of a model-driven approach for the development of information systems. Interaction is specified in a conceptual model together with the structure and behavior of the system. Major achievements and current research challenges of PROS in the field of interaction modeling are presented.

  20. Ga-68-DOTA-TATE PET/CT for discrimination of tumors of the optic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingenstein, Annemarie; Haug, Alexander R; Miller, Christina; Hintschich, Christoph

    2015-02-01

    Symptomatic tumors of the optic nerve pathway may endanger vision. They are difficult to classify by imaging alone and biopsy may damage visual function. Tumor pathology influences treatment decision and a diagnostic tool with a high sensitivity and specificity would therefore be invaluable. We hypothesized that Ga-68-DOTA-TATE PET/CT may help in discriminating optic nerve tumors as uptake of somatostatin is elevated in meningiomas. Ga-68-DOTA-TATE PET/CT was used to examine 13 patients with ambiguous, symptomatic lesions of the optic pathway for treatment planning. The presence or absence of meningioma was validated by histopathology or supplementary diagnostic work-up. Ga-68-DOTA-TATE PET/CT identified 10 meningiomas (en plaque = 1, optic nerve sheath = 4, sphenoidal = 5) correctly via increased SSTR (somatostatin receptor) expression (mean SUVmax (maximum standardized uptake value) = 14.3 ± 15.4). 3 tumors did not show elevated Ga-68-DOTA-TATE uptake (SUVmax = 2.1 ± 1.0). Subsumizing all clinical-radiological follow-up tools available, these lesions were classified as an intracerebral metastasis of an advanced gastric carcinoma, histologically proven inflammatory collagenous connective tissue and presumed leukemic infiltration of a newly diagnosed chronic lymphocytic leukemia. In this case series, Ga-68-DOTA-TATE PET/CT demonstrated both a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. Yet, the golden standard of histopathology was only available in a subset of patients included. Ga-68-DOTA-TATE PET/CT proved to be a valuable diagnostic tool for the correct classification of equivocal, symptomatic tumors of the anterior optic pathway requiring therapy. PET/CT results influenced therapy decision essentially in all cases.

  1. Comparison of sequential planar 177Lu-DOTA-TATE dosimetry scans with 68Ga-DOTA-TATE PET/CT images in patients with metastasized neuroendocrine tumours undergoing peptide receptor radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sainz-Esteban, Aurora; Carril, Jose Manuel; Prasad, Vikas; Schuchardt, Christiane; Zachert, Carolin; Baum, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare sequential 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE planar scans ( 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE) in patients with metastasized neuroendocrine tumours (NET) acquired during peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) for dosimetry purposes with the pre-therapeutic 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE positron emission tomography (PET)/CT ( 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE) maximum intensity projection (MIP) images obtained in the same patients concerning the sensitivity of the different methods. A total of 44 patients (59 ± 11 years old) with biopsy-proven NET underwent 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE and 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE imaging within 7.9 ± 7.5 days between the two examinations. 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE planar images were acquired at 0.5, 2, 24, 48 and 72 h post-injection; lesions were given a score from 0 to 4 depending on the uptake of the radiopharmaceutical (0 being lowest and 4 highest). The number of tumour lesions which were identified on 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE scans (in relation to the acquisition time after injection of the therapeutic dose as well as with regard to the body region) was compared to those detected on 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE studies obtained before PRRT. A total of 318 lesions were detected; 280 (88%) lesions were concordant. Among the discordant lesions, 29 were 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE positive and 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE negative, whereas 9 were 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE negative and 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE positive. The sensitivity, positive predictive value and accuracy for 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE as compared to 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE were 91, 97 and 88%, respectively. Significantly more lesions were seen on the delayed (72 h) 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE images (91%) as compared to the immediate (30 min) images (68%). The highest concordance was observed for bone metastases (97%) and the lowest for head/neck lesions (75%). Concordant lesions (n = 77; mean size 3.8 cm) were significantly larger than discordant lesions (n = 38; mean size 1.6 cm) (p max ). However, concordant liver lesions with a score from 1 to 3 in the 72-h 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE scan had a lower SUV max

  2. Comparison of sequential planar {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE dosimetry scans with {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TATE PET/CT images in patients with metastasized neuroendocrine tumours undergoing peptide receptor radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sainz-Esteban, Aurora; Carril, Jose Manuel [Hospital Universitario Marques de Valdecilla, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Santander (Spain); Prasad, Vikas; Schuchardt, Christiane; Zachert, Carolin; Baum, Richard P. [Zentralklinik Bad Berka, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Centre for PET/CT, Bad Berka (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    The aim of the study was to compare sequential {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE planar scans ({sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE) in patients with metastasized neuroendocrine tumours (NET) acquired during peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) for dosimetry purposes with the pre-therapeutic {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TATE positron emission tomography (PET)/CT ({sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TATE) maximum intensity projection (MIP) images obtained in the same patients concerning the sensitivity of the different methods. A total of 44 patients (59 {+-} 11 years old) with biopsy-proven NET underwent {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TATE and {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE imaging within 7.9 {+-} 7.5 days between the two examinations. {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE planar images were acquired at 0.5, 2, 24, 48 and 72 h post-injection; lesions were given a score from 0 to 4 depending on the uptake of the radiopharmaceutical (0 being lowest and 4 highest). The number of tumour lesions which were identified on {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE scans (in relation to the acquisition time after injection of the therapeutic dose as well as with regard to the body region) was compared to those detected on {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TATE studies obtained before PRRT. A total of 318 lesions were detected; 280 (88%) lesions were concordant. Among the discordant lesions, 29 were {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TATE positive and {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE negative, whereas 9 were {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TATE negative and {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE positive. The sensitivity, positive predictive value and accuracy for {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE as compared to {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TATE were 91, 97 and 88%, respectively. Significantly more lesions were seen on the delayed (72 h) {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE images (91%) as compared to the immediate (30 min) images (68%). The highest concordance was observed for bone metastases (97%) and the lowest for head/neck lesions (75%). Concordant lesions (n = 77; mean size 3.8 cm) were significantly larger than discordant lesions (n = 38; mean size 1.6 cm) (p < 0.05). No such significance was

  3. Robust labeling and comparative preclinical characterization of DOTA-TOC and DOTA-TATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikyan, Irina; Xu Hui; Nair, Manoj; Hall, Håkan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Various radionuclide-labeled somatostatin analogues are used currently for diagnosis and therapy of neuroendocrine tumors. In particular, [ 68 Ga]Ga-DOTA-TOC is commonly used for diagnosis, while [ 177 Lu]Lu-DOTA-TATE is used for therapy. With the development of theranostics and personalized medicine where the imaging diagnosis is tailored to the subsequent radiotherapy, it is of paramount importance to investigate the relevance of the ligand exchange. The aim of this study was to compare binding capacity of [ 67/68 Ga]Ga-DOTA-TOC ([ 67/68 Ga]Ga-N-(4,7,10-(tris(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7, 10-tetraazacyclododecan-1-yl) acetyl-D-Phe-c[Cys-D-Tyr-Trp-Lys-Thr-Cys]-Thr(ol)) and [ 67/68 Ga]Ga-DOTA-TATE ([ 67/68 Ga]Ga-N-(4,7,10-(tris(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7, 10-tetraazacyclododecan-1-yl)acetyl-D-Phe-c[Cys-D-Tyr-Trp-Lys-Thr-Cys]-Thr) in vitro in monkey brain cryosections and in vivo in the rat, where, in contrast to transfected cell lines, there is a heterogeneous distribution of somatostatin receptor (SSTR) subtypes. The influence of various production methods of [ 68 Ga]Ga-DOTA-TOC and [ 68 Ga]Ga-DOTA-TATE on the biological performance of the tracers was also studied. Material and Methods: [ 67 Ga]Ga-DOTA-TOC, [ 68 Ga]Ga-DOTA-TOC, [ 67 Ga]Ga-DOTA-TATE and [ 68 Ga]Ga-DOTA-TATE were synthesized including preconcentration and purification of the generator eluate. The binding of the radioligands was assessed in vitro using autoradiography on cryosections of Rhesus monkey brains and in vivo/ex vivo using organ distribution studies in rats. Results and Discussion: The tracer production method was improved in terms of higher robustness, simplification and good manufacturing practice (GMP) relevance. The synthesis variation did not influence the biological performance of the tracers. There was no statistically significant difference observed in the binding of [ 67/68 Ga]Ga-DOTA-TOC and [ 67/68 Ga]Ga-DOTA-TATE either in brain cortex in vitro or in rat biodistribution and uptake

  4. Robust labeling and comparative preclinical characterization of DOTA-TOC and DOTA-TATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikyan, Irina; Xu, Hui; Nair, Manoj; Hall, Håkan

    2012-07-01

    Various radionuclide-labeled somatostatin analogues are used currently for diagnosis and therapy of neuroendocrine tumors. In particular, [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-TOC is commonly used for diagnosis, while [177Lu]Lu-DOTA-TATE is used for therapy. With the development of theranostics and personalized medicine where the imaging diagnosis is tailored to the subsequent radiotherapy, it is of paramount importance to investigate the relevance of the ligand exchange. The aim of this study was to compare binding capacity of [67/68Ga]Ga-DOTA-TOC ([67/68Ga]Ga-N-(4,7,10-(tris(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecan-1-yl)acetyl-D-Phe-c[Cys-D-Tyr-Trp-Lys-Thr-Cys]-Thr(ol)) and [67/68Ga]Ga-DOTA-TATE ([67/68Ga]Ga-N-(4,7,10-(tris(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecan-1-yl)acetyl-D-Phe-c[Cys-D-Tyr-Trp-Lys-Thr-Cys]-Thr) in vitro in monkey brain cryosections and in vivo in the rat, where, in contrast to transfected cell lines, there is a heterogeneous distribution of somatostatin receptor (SSTR) subtypes. The influence of various production methods of [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-TOC and [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-TATE on the biological performance of the tracers was also studied. [67Ga]Ga-DOTA-TOC, [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-TOC, [67Ga]Ga-DOTA-TATE and [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-TATE were synthesized including preconcentration and purification of the generator eluate. The binding of the radioligands was assessed in vitro using autoradiography on cryosections of Rhesus monkey brains and in vivo/ex vivo using organ distribution studies in rats. The tracer production method was improved in terms of higher robustness, simplification and good manufacturing practice (GMP) relevance. The synthesis variation did not influence the biological performance of the tracers. There was no statistically significant difference observed in the binding of [67/68Ga]Ga-DOTA-TOC and [67/68Ga]Ga-DOTA-TATE either in brain cortex in vitro or in rat biodistribution and uptake in SSTR-positive tissues such as pancreas, adrenals and pituitary. The uptake in these

  5. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) using Lu-177 DOTA-NOC and Lu-177 DOTA-TATE: Comparative results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehrmann, C.; Senftleben, S.; Baum, R.P.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Aim: One of the few treatment options for inoperable neuroendocrine tumors (NET) is peptide receptor radiotherapy with somatostatin analogues. DOTA-NOC shows the highest affinity to the somatostatin receptors (sstr) 3 and 5 and a very high affinity to sstr 2. We compared the dosimetric parameters uptake, half-life (kinetics) and mean absorbed organ and tumor doses of 177 Lu DOTANOC and 177 Lu DOTA-TATE. Methods: 139 patients with neuroendocrine tumors with high sstr expression (verified by Ga-68 DOTA-NOC PET/CT) were studied. 130 patients (57m, 73f; aged 60±11a) were treated with 2.5-7.4 GBq Lu-177 DOTA-TATE and 9 patients (3m, 6f, aged 64±10a) with 3.6-7.4 GBq Lu-177 DOTA-NOC. Whole-body scans were performed after 0.5h, 3h, 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h p.i. Blood samples from 23 patients were obtained after therapy. By means of geometric mean and after background correction, ROI results were used to calculate the estimated absorbed organ and tumor doses according to the MIRD-scheme (OLINDA software). Results: Lu-177 DOTA-NOC showed a higher uptake as compared to Lu-177 DOTATATE (=100%): for whole-body about 38% and in normal tissue 36%, in the spleen 17% and in the kidneys 18%. The tumor uptake was about 5% higher for DOTA-TATE. The effective half-life for whole-body was comparable for both peptides (t1/2a NOC 2.9h vs. TATE 2.4h and t1/2b NOC 54h vs. TATE 56h). In normal tissue, t1/2a was similar (NOC 3.3h; TATE 2.6h) but the t1/2b was longer for DOTA-TATE (NOC 43h; TATE 48h). t1/2b was longer for DOTA-NOC in the spleen (NOC 81h; TATE 72h) and in the kidney (NOC 68.1h; TATE 65h). The mean absorbed dose in the kidney (TATE 5Sv; NOC 6Sv) and spleen (TATE 7Sv; NOC 8Sv) was higher for DOTA-NOC. In the tumor, the t1/2b was higher for DOTA-TATE (NOC 65h; TATE 77h). For DOTA-TATE the whole-body dose was lower (0.27Sv) as compared to DOTA-NOC (0.38 Sv) (significant by unpaired sign test). The estimated mean absorbed tumor doses were 47+/-66 Sv for DOTA-TATE and 35

  6. An Interview with Marcia Tate: Formative Assessment and Brain Based Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Shaughnessy, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In this interview, Dr. Marcia Tate discusses her work and focuses on critical issues in brain based learning, and the need for both formative and summative assessment. Tangential issues such as grade retention, and response to intervention are also discussed. It is hope that this interview will assist teachers in the instructional and learning process and aid in both formative and summative assessment.  

  7. Preliminary PET/CT Imaging with Somatostatin Analogs [68Ga]DOTAGA-TATE and [68Ga]DOTAGA-TOC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpati, Drishty; Shinto, Ajit; Kamaleshwaran, K K; Sarma, Haladhar Dev; Dash, Ashutosh

    2017-12-01

    Somatostatin receptor positron emission tomography/X-ray computed tomography (SSTR-PET/CT) is a well-established technique for staging and detection of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Ga-68-labeled DOTA-conjugated octreotide analogs are the privileged radiotracers for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of NETs. Hence, we were interested in assessing the influence of promising, newer variant DOTAGA on the hydrophilicity, pharmacokinetics, and lesion pick-up of somatostatin analogs. Herein, the potential of ([ 68 Ga]DOTAGA, Tyr 3 , Thr 8 ) octreotide ([ 68 Ga]DOTAGA-TATE) and ([ 68 Ga]DOTAGA, Tyr 3 ) octreotide ([ 68 Ga]DOTAGA-TOC) as NET imaging agents has been investigated. Amenability of [ 68 Ga]DOTAGA-(TATE/TOC) to kit-type formulation has been demonstrated. Biodistribution studies were carried out in normal rats at 1 h post-injection (p.i.). [ 68 Ga]DOTAGA-(TATE/TOC) PET/CT scans were carried out in patients (70-170 MBq, 1 h p.i.) with histologically confirmed well-differentiated NETs. [ 68 Ga]DOTAGA-TATE exhibited hydrophilicity similar to [ 68 Ga]DOTA-TATE (log P = -3.51 vs -3.69) whereas [ 68 Ga]DOTAGA-TOC was more hydrophilic than [ 68 Ga]DOTA-TOC (log P = -3.27 vs -2.93). [ 68 Ga]DOTAGA-TATE and [ 68 Ga]DOTA-TATE showed almost identical blood and kidney uptake in normal rats whereas significantly fast clearance (p TOC also demonstrated rapid clearance from blood and kidneys (p TOC. The metastatic lesions in NET patients were well identified by [ 68 Ga]DOTAGA-TATE and [ 68 Ga]DOTAGA-TOC. The phenomenal analogy was observed between [ 68 Ga]DOTAGA-TATE and [ 68 Ga]DOTA-TATE as well as between [ 68 Ga]DOTAGA-TOC and [ 68 Ga]DOTA-TOC in biodistribution studies in rats. The good lesion detection ability of the two radiotracers indicates their potential as NET imaging radiotracers.

  8. Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy with ''9''0Y DOTA TATE - First Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artiko, V.; Sobic-Saranovic, D.; Petrovic, N.; Damjanovic, S.; Obradovic, V.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this work is presentation of the preliminary results of the therapy of NETs with 90 Y DOTA TATE. Patients and methods: We investigated 15 patients with various neuroendocrine tumors. In all of them, together with other laboratory analyses and imaging methods, scintigraphy with somatostatin analogues was performed (in 3 with 111 In Octreoscan and in the other 4 with 99m Tc Tektrotyd) and high tumor uptake observed. The therapy was performed with 2-4,5 GBq 90 Y DOTA TATE per patient per one cycle, in the slow infusion in the physiological liquid (150 ml/15 min).Between the cycles, there was a time delay of 6-8 weeks. 30 minutes before the therapy, patients began receiving the infusion of amino acids (arginine and lysine) which lasted 4h. Before that, all therapies with somatostatin analogues were withdrawn. 24h-96h after the therapy, ''bremsstrahlung'' whole body imaging, SPECT and particular planar images were performed with gamma camera. Results: Analysis of the ''bremsstrahlung'' images showed uptake of the radiopharmaceutical in the liver, but the most of the activity was observed in the regions of the ''hot spots'' registered with previous 99m Tc Tektrotyd and 111 In Octreoscan images. According to our results, after the therapy, in two patients occurred progressive disease (PD), in seven stable disease (SD), and in six partial remission (PR). Up to now, there were no major clinical side effects hepatic function. Transient pancytopenia occurred in two patients, and impairment of kidney function in one. Conclusion: In spite of insufficient data, beneficial effects on clinical symptoms, hormone production and tumor proliferation were found, without major clinical side effects. Thus, according to preliminary results, treatment with 90 Y DOTA TATE is feasible method and might be useful for the management of patients with inoperable or disseminated neuroendocrine tumors. (author)

  9. Noncardiac findings on cardiac CT part I: Pros and cons.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, Ronan P

    2012-02-01

    Cardiac computed tomography (CT) has evolved into an effective imaging technique for the evaluation of coronary artery disease in selected patients. Two distinct advantages over other noninvasive imaging modalities include its ability to evaluate directly the coronary arteries and to provide an opportunity to evaluate extracardiac structures, such as the lungs and mediastinum. Some centers reconstruct a small field of view (FOV) cropped around the heart, but a full FOV (from skin to skin in the irradiated area) is obtainable in the raw data of every scan so that clinically relevant noncardiac findings are identifiable. Debate in the scientific community has centered on the necessity for this large FOV evaluation. A review of noncardiac structures provides the opportunity to make alternative diagnoses that may account for the patient\\'s presentation or to detect important but clinically silent problems such as lung cancer. Critics argue that the yield of biopsy-proven cancers is low and that the follow-up of incidental noncardiac findings is expensive, resulting in increased radiation exposure and possibly unnecessary further testing. In this two-part review we outline the issues surrounding the concept of the noncardiac read looking for noncardiac findings on cardiac CT. Part I focuses on the pros and cons of the practice of identifying noncardiac findings on cardiac CT.

  10. A Model of Small Capacity Power Plant in Tateli Village, North Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangari, F. J.; Rompas, P. T. D.

    2017-03-01

    The electricity supply in North Sulawesi is still very limited so ubiquitous electric current outage. It makes rural communities have problems in life because most uses electrical energy. One of the solutions is a model of power plants to supply electricity in Tateli village, Minahasa, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. The objective of this research is to get the model that generate electrical energy for household needs through power plant that using a model of Picohydro with cross flow turbine in Tateli village. The method used the study of literature, survey the construction site of the power plant and the characteristics of the location being a place of research, analysis of hydropower ability and analyzing costs of power plant. The result showed that the design model of cross flow turbines used in pico-hydro hydropower installations is connected to a generator to produce electrical energy maximum of 3.29 kW for household needs. This analyze will be propose to local government of Minahasa, North Sulawesi, Indonesia to be followed.

  11. Cervical disc arthroplasty: Pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moatz, Bradley; Tortolani, P Justin

    2012-01-01

    Cervical disc arthroplasty has emerged as a promising potential alternative to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in appropriately selected patients. Despite a history of excellent outcomes after ACDF, the question as to whether a fusion leads to adjacent segment degeneration remains unanswered. Numerous US investigational device exemption trials comparing cervical arthroplasty to fusion have been conducted to answer this question. This study reviews the current research regarding cervical athroplasty, and emphasizes both the pros and cons of arthroplasty as compared with ACDF. Early clinical outcomes show that cervical arthroplasty is as effective as the standard ACDF. However, this new technology is also associated with an expanding list of novel complications. Although there is no definitive evidence that cervical disc replacement reduces the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration, it does show other advantages; for example, faster return to work, and reduced need for postoperative bracing.

  12. Pros and cons of healthcare information technology implementation: the pros win.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, Roxana

    2006-01-01

    Countless studies and investigations have been performed siding either for or against the implementation of technology in the healthcare setting. This article presents both sides of this debate, with an obvious conclusion that the pros of this debate win. The practice of information technology in the medical domain lags behind its knowledge and discovery by at least 7 years. The key to closing this gap is to show, through various studies, how information technology systems provide decision support to users at the point in time when decisions are needed. What the reader will obtain from this article is that the pros for information technology implementation in healthcare settings weigh much more and have a greater effect than the cons.

  13. [Treatment of Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors with 177Lu-DOTA-TATE: Experience of the Portuguese Institute of Oncology in Porto].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Inês Lucena; Luiz, Henrique Vara; Violante, Liliana Sobral; Santos, Ana Paula; Antunes, Luís; Torres, Isabel; Sanches, Cristina; Azevedo, Isabel; Duarte, Hugo

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to report the experience of the Portuguese Institute of Oncology - Porto in the treatment of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors with 177Lu-DOTA-TATE, regarding the safety and efficacy of this treatment modality. A retrospective analysis of clinical reports of patients with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors undergoing treatment with 177Lu-DOTA-TATE between April 2011 and November 2013 was performed. Thirty six cases were reviewed and 30 completed all 3 cycles of 177Lu-DOTA-TATE (83.3%). In these patients it was registered: acute side effects in 8.9% of cycles; grade 3 CTCAE liver toxicity in 13.3% of patients (all with previous abnormal liver function); absence of significant renal or hematologic toxicity; symptomatic improvement in 71.4% of patients; median overall time to progression of 25.6 months; median overall survival from diagnosis of 121.7 months. Patients with higher expression of somatostatin receptors had longer progression-free survival and overall survival times (p DOTA-TATE is an effective, safe and well-tolerated treatment, as evidenced in our study by the following findings: symptomatic improvement in most patients and increased time to disease progression and survival (especially in those with higher sstr expression), with acute and significant subacute/chronic side effects reported only in a minority of cases. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with 177Lu-DOTA-TATE is a promising treatment for patients with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, with demonstrated benefits in terms of safety and efficacy.

  14. Rhododendron farrerae Tate ex Sweet (Ericaceae, a Reconfirmed Species in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-You Lu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhododendron farrerae Tate ex Sweet was first recorded in Taiwan by Kawakami in 1910. Since then, this species has been grouped with R. tashiroi Maxim. due to insufficient reports and specimens, and was eliminated from Flora of Taiwan in 1998. By examining all the specimens preserved in Taiwan herbaria and documents, we confirm that the native population of R. farrerae is actually distributed in southern Taiwan, ranging from Peitawushan to Tajen Township, in the southern part of the Central Mountain Range. The diagnostic character distinguishing R. farrerae from R. tashiroi and R. mariesii Hemsl. & E. H. Wils. is that R. tashiroi and R. mariesii bear 2-3 flowers from each bud at anthesis; in contrast, R. farrerae bears only one flower during the flowering period. We provide in this paper a detailed taxonomic treatment, morphological description, distribution map, line drawing, and a comparison table of these three species of Taiwan, together with photographs.

  15. On Tate Modern’s Turbine Hall and 'The Unilever Series'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Davidts

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the opening Tate Modern in 2000, the vast space of the Turbine Hall has hosted The Unilever Series. Widely acclaimed artists Louise Bourgeois, Juan Munõz, Anish Kapoor, Olafur Eliasson, Bruce Nauman, Rachel Whiteread, Carsten Höller and most lately Doris Salcedo accepted the invitation to ‘tackle’ what is arguably the biggest museum space in the world and realized what is invariably held to be their ‘biggest work ever.’The Unilever Series is not the only large-scale installation series. In recent years, we witnessed the worldwide launch of ever-larger art commissions for increasingly vaster spaces, resulting in all the more colossal artworks. Only recently, Paris announced its own yearly art commission for the central nave of the Grand Palais, suitably entitled Monumenta. The essay examines The Unilever Series in Tate Modern’s Turbine Hall, and discuss it within the global leap in scale and massive expansion of the art and museum world, of which the London institution and its vestibule in particular are the most blatant exponents. While it is certainly true that the spectacular expansion of art installations has occurred in tandem with a profusion of large international exhibitions and ‘destination’ museum of inordinately vast proportions, the assumption that large exhibition spaces demand an art of size is too simplistic. By examining the institutional, spatial and material disposition of the Turbine Hall, I will demonstrate that it is far more than a plain and abstract emblem of the global inflation and growth of museum and exhibition spaces. It’s a distinct architectural exponent of this tendency that essentially in and of itself has informed the inflation of the artworks that have been commissioned for it.

  16. Taking PROs and patient-centered care seriously: incremental and disruptive ideas for incorporating PROs in oncology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Molla Sloane

    2008-12-01

    Using patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in clinical practice poses challenges for health care teams and organizations to respond to individual patient needs in a timely fashion. Well-validated tools and feasibility studies are available, but successful spread will require knowledge of effective technology dissemination in complex health delivery systems. Given what has been learned about effective implementation, it is reasonable to ask whether the broad adoption of PROs can occur incrementally using current models of care to apply PRO technology. Another approach is to start with patient needs and focus on how to meet those needs most effectively using PROs in new ways of organizing health care.

  17. Gallium-68 DOTA-TATE Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography: Scintigraphic Changes of Adrenal Glands Following Management of Ectopic Cushing's Syndrome by Steroidogenesis Inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yu-Ting; Aziz, Shaikh Irfan; Kumar, Aravind S. Ravi

    2014-01-01

    In the era of emerging functional imaging techniques, an understanding of the effects of hormonal therapies on the scintigraphic appearance of endocrine organs is desirable to minimize the erroneous scan interpretation. The mechanisms by which changes in the scintigraphic appearance of endocrine organs occur however sometimes remain ambiguous. This case demonstrates the gallium-68 (Ga-68) DOTA-TATE positron emission tomography/computed tomography (CT) appearance of adrenal glands following management with steroidogenesis inhibitors. The potential mechanisms underlying this change are discussed. A 17-year-old boy with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) dependent Cushing's syndrome secondary to ectopic ACTH secretion underwent pre- and post-metyrapone and dexamethasone treatment Ga-68 DOTA-TATE scans 4 months apart. Pretreatment, both adrenals demonstrated normal symmetrical prominent Ga-68 DOTA-TATE uptake and normal CT appearance. The posttherapy scan revealed marked symmetrical suppression of Ga-68 DOTA-TATE uptake, but with bilateral adrenal hypertrophy on CT

  18. Lu-177 DOTA-TATE for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT): organ-, tumor- and blood kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehrmann, C.; Senftleben, S.; Baum, R.P.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Aim: Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy (PRRT) with Lu-177 DOTA-TATE is used for the treatment of patients with neuroendocrine tumors. The aim of our study was to determine the organ and tumor kinetics for dosimetric calculations. Material and Methods: 130 patients (aged 60+/-11 years; 57m, 73f) with metastasized neuroendocrine tumors (somatostatin expression verified before by Ga-68 DOTA-NOC PET/CT) were treated with activities of 2.5- 7.4 GBq Lu-177 DOTA-TATE (1-5 cycles). On the basis of conjugated planar whole-body scintigraphies 0.5h, 3h, 24h, 48h and 72h p.i. the time-dependent whole-body, organ and tumor activities were determined and dosimetric calculations were performed according to the MIRD scheme using OLINDA software. Blood samples were drawn from 23 patients to estimate the absorbed dose to the red marrow. To describe the kinetics we used the following parameters: mean half-life and uptake (fraction of injected activity/dose, ID) which were calculated using the fit of the time-dependent activity curve to a mono- or bi-exponential function. Results: The renal uptake decreased for the first 3- 5 hours p.i. with a mean half-life of 1.0+/-0.5h, followed by a second phase with a longer half-life of 65+/-17h. The maximum kidney uptake was 4+/-1%. The uptake in the spleen was with 2+/-1.8% ID stable until 24 hours p.i. and then showed a decline with a half-life of 72+/-19h. The tumor uptake showed an increase until 24h p.i. to a maximum of 0.1+/-0.1% ID per unit mass and then slowly decreased with a half-life of 77+/-25h. Liver metastases showed a higher maximal uptake (0.1+/-0.1%) as compared to lymph node metastases (0.08+/-0.07%). The blood kinetics were fitted to a tri-exponential function with large variation: half-life 1: 0.2+/-0.2h; half-life 2: 2+/-1.8h and half-life 3: 21+/-10h. The following organ absorbed doses were calculated: kidneys: 5+/-2 Sv; spleen: 7+/-4 Sv; metastases: 47+/-66 Sv (44+/-38 Sv for lymph node, and 60+/-86 Sv for

  19. Art engagement and mental health: experiences of service users of a community-based arts programme at Tate Modern, London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Eamonn; Weir, Hannele; Berridge, Emma-Jane; Ellis, Liz; Kyratsis, Yiannis

    2016-01-01

    To examine the experiences of mental health service users who took part in an arts-based programme at Tate Modern, a major London art gallery. Exploratory qualitative design. Data were collected using in-depth semi-structured interviews with 10 mental health service users who had taken part in a community-based programme at Tate Modern. Additionally, six art educators from Tate Modern were interviewed. Concepts that emerged from the text were identified using thematic analysis. All participants valued the gallery-based programme. The three overarching thematic areas were: the symbolic and physical context in which the programme workshops were located; the relational and social context of the programme workshops; and reflections on the relationship between the arts-based programme and subsequent mental health. Art galleries are increasingly seen to function as vehicles for popular education with mental health service users. This study adds to the growing body of evidence related to how mental health service users experience and reflect on arts-related programmes targeted at them. This study indicates that emphasis on how users experience gallery-based programmes may contribute to a more nuanced understanding of the relationship between art and mental health. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ruins in Reverse. An Exhibition at Tate Modern (March 1st - June 24th 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Philip Sterling

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the same week Ruins in Reverse opened at the Tate Modern gallery in London, Jonathan Jones asked on his Guardian Blog whether archaeology might be ‘the new art’ (2013. He posed this question as a result of two recent exhibitions at The British Museum, namely Ice Age Art and Life and Death in Pompeii and Herculaneum, both of which sought to emphasise the aesthetic qualities of archaeological objects. As Jones argued, such exhibitions ‘popularise’ the discipline by drawing attention to the ‘stupendous beauty of things that survive from the past’. While visitor numbers go some way to demonstrating the veracity of this comment, it seems restrictive both to art and to archaeology to frame any relationship between the two in this way. The spectacular archaeological find is atypical and potentially deceptive. A more potent line of enquiry - one adopted by several of the artists featured in Ruins in Reverse - might be to consider the present itself through an archaeological lens, applying the language of ‘discovery’ and ‘excavation’ to artefacts and locations that few would call stupendous or beautiful.

  1. Diagnostic value of combined tet of cPSA, IGF-1 and TGFα for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Feng; Yang Qingling

    2006-01-01

    To assess the clinical value of serum complexed prostate specific antigen (cPSA), insulinlike growth factor(IGF-1),transforming growth factor a (TGFα) in the diagnosis of pros- tate cancer (PCα), serum samples were obtained from 46 men with PCa, 64 men with untreated benign prostatic hyperplasia(BPH) and 73 men of a healthy control group. The levels of cPSA, IGF-1 and TGFα were determined by autoimmunochemistry luminescence method, IRMA and RIA method. Postoperative observation was conducted for the change of cPSA, IGF-1 and TGFa in the serum from men with PCa obtained in one month, three months and six months after the operations. Results showed that the levels of cPSA, IGF-1 and TGFα in PCa serum were significantly higher than the BPH group and control group(P 0.05). The combined test of cPSA, IGF-1 and TGFα is meaningful for the prevision, diagnosis and therapy of PCa. (authors)

  2. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in chronic urticaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moestrup, Kristian; Ghazanfar, Misbah N.; Thomsen, Simon F.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic urticaria is an itching skin disease which persists for more than 6 weeks. Chronic urticaria has great impact on the daily life of the patient, and the fluctuating nature of the symptoms complicates the monitoring and treatment of the disease. Currently, there are no reliable biomarkers...... to identify and measure disease activity in chronic spontaneous urticaria. Consequently, use of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) is crucial when evaluating and monitoring different aspects of chronic urticaria such as disease activity/severity, disease control, and quality of life. We present an overview...... of seven different PROs used in chronic urticaria and highlight their strengths, limitations, and use in clinical practice and research....

  3. Regulation of human protein S gene (PROS1) transcription

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, Cornelia de

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes the investigation of the transcriptional regulation of the gene for anticoagulant plasma Protein S, PROS1. Protein S is a cofactor for Protein C in the Protein C anticoagulant pathway. The coagulation cascade is negatively regulated by this pathway through inactivation of

  4. Aspectos prosódicos da fala de sujeitos parkinsonianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourenço Chacon

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Problemas de prosódia na fala de parkinsonianos têm sido apontados nos estudos sobre parkinsonismo. Contudo, nesses estudos a prosódia é freqüentemente desvinculada dos fatores comunicativos da fala. O propósito deste artigo foi investigar fatores comunicativos relacionados a aspectos prosódicos da fala de sujeitos com doença de Parkinson. As amostras 'de fala foram extraídas de conversas espontâneas de dois sujeitos parkinsonianos, do sexo masculino. A análise mostrou que os elementos prosódicos ocorreram em diversas combinações, possibilitando a identificação de: a atos de fala; b alguns aspectos da organização conversacional; e c diferentes vozes no discurso. Foram destacadas algumas implicações desses resultados para uma melhor compreensão da atividade verbal em condições patológicas, bem como para avaliação, diagnóstico e terapia de parkinsonianos.

  5. The pros and cons of dubbing and subtitling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolstra, C.M.; Peeters, A.L.; Spinhof, H.

    2002-01-01

    Dubbing and subtitling are the most prevalent methods used to make foreign-language television programmes available to a,domestic market: Each adaptation method has its advantages and disadvantages. This article provides an inventory of the pros and cons of both methods on the basis of three

  6. Triplet superconductivity in PrOs4Sb12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, K.; Won, H.; Parker, David; Haas, Stephan; Izawa, K.; Matsuda, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Here we propose spin triplet superconductors for the A- and B-phase in PrOs 4 Sb 12 . The present model describes consistently the thermal conductivity κ zz data obtained by Izawa et al. for T>=150mK

  7. Pros and cons of flowers strips for farmers. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uyttenbroeck, R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. To counteract environmental problems due to agricultural intensification, European farmers can apply agri-environmental schemes in their fields. Flower strips are one example of these schemes, with the aim of supporting biodiversity, leading to an increase in "useful" species groups such as pollinators for crop pollination and natural enemies for pest control. However, to our knowledge, a complete appraisal of the pros and cons of flower strips, from a farmer's point of view, does not yet exist. It is proposed that better and more complete information could increase the adoption and implementation of such agri-environmental schemes. Objectives. This study aims 1 to assess the pros and cons of flower strips, from a farmer's point of view, and 2 to highlight the knowledge gaps that exist in the scientific literature, for the different types of pros and cons. Method. We listed the different components of the appraisal of pros and cons and conducted a systematic screening of the scientific literature on flower strips and these components. Results. The largest part of the 31 selected studies was concerning agronomical and ecological processes, such as pollination and animal pest control. Most of them indicated positive effects of flower strips. For many components of the appraisal, mostly economic and social ones, few or no studies were found. Conclusions. While a positive balance of pros and cons, from a farmer's point of view, came from our literature screening, large research gaps still remain and more research is required, especially in the economic and social components of the evaluation.

  8. Initial direct comparison of 99mTc-TOC and 99mTc-TATE in identifying sites of disease in patients with proven GEP NETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwikla, Jaroslaw B; Mikolajczak, Renata; Pawlak, Dariusz; Buscombe, John R; Nasierowska-Guttmejer, Anna; Bator, Andrzej; Maecke, Helmut R; Walecki, Jerzy

    2008-07-01

    The imaging of neuroendocrine tumors has become one of the most significant areas in nuclear oncology. In an attempt to provide high-quality imaging and possible sensitivity at a reduced cost, time, and radiation dose, several (99m)Tc agents have been proposed. The aim of this initial study was to compare the tumor uptake and biodistribution of 2 new 6-hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid (HYNIC)-derivatized Tyr(3)-octreotide analogs, (99m)Tc-[HYNIC,Tyr(3)]octreotide ((99m)Tc-TOC) and (99m)Tc-[HYNIC,Tyr(3),Thr(8)]octreotide ((99m)Tc-TATE), in patients with somatostatin receptor-expressing tumors. Each of 12 patients with proven gastrointestinal pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors received a mean activity of 520 MBq of (99m)Tc-TOC and (99m)Tc-TATE. Scintigraphy with both tracers was performed 3-4 h after their injection using standard whole-body and SPECT imaging. The images were reviewed subjectively by 2 readers, who reported tumor uptake lesion by lesion. Both radiotracers demonstrated concordance between the results in 7 patients (58%). In total, 110 sites of disease were identified with (99m)Tc-TOC, compared with 115 with (99m)Tc-TATE. There was 1 case in which (99m)Tc-TOC identified sites of disease not seen on (99m)Tc-TATE imaging but 4 cases in which some sites of disease were seen with (99m)Tc-TATE and not (99m)Tc-TOC. In this initial study, both tracers seem to show similar sites of tumor, with (99m)Tc-TATE having a slight edge in the total number of lesions seen, especially in lymph node metastases.

  9. Manual on the proper use of lutetium-177-labeled somatostatin analogue (Lu-177-DOTA-TATE) injectable in radionuclide therapy (2nd ed.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosono, Makoto; Ikebuchi, Hideharu; Nakamura, Yoshihide; Nakamura, Nobutaka; Yamada, Takahiro; Yanagida, Sachiko; Kitaoka, Asami; Kojima, Kiyotaka; Sugano, Hiroyasu; Kinuya, Seigo; Inoue, Tomio; Hatazawa, Jun

    2018-04-01

    Here we present the guideline for the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors using Lu-177-DOTA-TATE on the basis of radiation safety aspects in Japan. This guideline was prepared by a study supported by Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare, and approved by Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine. Lu-177-DOTA-TATE treatment in Japan should be carried out according to this guideline. Although this guideline is applied in Japan, the issues for radiation protection shown in this guideline are considered internationally useful as well. Only the original Japanese version is the formal document.

  10. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) of neuroendocrine tumors: First comparative results using the somatostatin analogues Lu-177 DOTA-NOC and Lu-177 DOTA-TATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehrmann, C.; Senftleben, S.; Baum, R.P.

    2005-01-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is used in our department since 5 years (approx. 400 applications) for the treatment of patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors. Of all known peptides, the somatostatin analogue DOTA-NOC shows in vitro the highest affinity to somatostatin receptors (sstr) 3 and 5 and a very high affinity to sstr 2. We studied the in vivo behaviour of the two peptides DOTA-NOC and DOTA-TATE (highest affinity to sstr 2) by the use of different parameters like tumor and organ uptake, effective half-lifes (kinetics) and mean absorbed organ and tumor doses. We studied 27 patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors with high somatostatin expression, as verified prior to treatment by Ga-68 DOTA-NOC receptor PET/CT or somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (Tc-99m EDDA-Hynic TOC or In-111 OctreoScan, planar and SPECT). 22 patients (8M and 14F; aged 619 years) were treated with 2500 6790 MBq Lu-177 DOTA-TATE. Another 5 patients (1M and 4F, aged 6310 years) were treated with 4000 7400 MBq Lu-177 DOTA-NOC. Labelling efficiency and radiochemical purity using Lutetium-177 chloride (obtained from PerkinElmer Life Sciences, USA) were constantly over 99.5%. Whole-body scans (anterior/posterior) were performed at 0.5h, 3h, 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h p.i. ROIs were drawn over the whole-body, organs, and different metastases (mainly in the liver). Blood samples were obtained in 12 patients after therapy with Lu-177 DOTA-TATE over 5 days for calculating the kinetics in blood. The ROI results were used to determine the uptake and effective half-life in different organs (kidney, spleen, liver, bone etc.) and the tumor residence times. By means of geometric mean, and after background correction, the ROI results were also used to calculate the estimated absorbed organ and tumor doses using the OLINDA software. Compared to Lu-177 DOTA-TATE (=100%), the uptake of Lu-177 DOTA-NOC was higher for the whole-body (45%) and for normal tissues (28%), and also in the

  11. Cabazitaxel-loaded human serum albumin nanoparticles as a therapeutic agent against prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu N

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Na Qu,1 Robert J Lee,1,2 Yating Sun,1 Guangsheng Cai,1 Junyang Wang,1 Mengqiao Wang,1 Jiahui Lu,1 Qingfan Meng,1 Lirong Teng,1 Di Wang,1 Lesheng Teng1,3 1School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, People’s Republic of China; 2Division of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA; 3State Key Laboratory of Long-acting and Targeting Drug Delivery System, Yantai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Cabazitaxel-loaded human serum albumin nanoparticles (Cbz-NPs were synthesized to overcome vehicle-related toxicity of current clinical formulation of the drug based on Tween-80 (Cbz-Tween. A salting-out method was used for NP synthesis that avoids the use of chlorinated organic solvent and is simpler compared to the methods based on emulsion-solvent evaporation. Cbz-NPs had a narrow particle size distribution, suitable drug loading content (4.9%, and superior blood biocompatibility based on in vitro hemolysis assay. Blood circulation, tumor uptake, and antitumor activity of Cbz-NPs were assessed in prostatic cancer xenograft-bearing nude mice. Cbz-NPs exhibited prolonged blood circulation and greater accumulation of Cbz in tumors along with reduced toxicity compared to Cbz-Tween. Moreover, hematoxylin and eosin histopathological staining of organs revealed consistent results. The levels of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine in drug-treated mice showed that Cbz-NPs were less toxic than Cbz-Tween to the kidneys. In conclusion, Cbz-NPs provide a promising therapeutic for prostate cancer. Keywords: cabazitaxel, human serum albumin, nanoparticle, drug delivery, toxicity, pros­tate cancer

  12. Intraindividual comparison of 68Ga-DOTA-TATE and 18F-DOPA PET in patients with well-differentiated metastatic neuroendocrine tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haug, Alexander; Auernhammer, Christoph J.; Goeke, Burkhard; Waengler, Bjoern; Tiling, Reinhold; Bartenstein, Peter; Poepperl, Gabriele; Schmidt, Gerwin

    2009-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic impact of 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE and 18 F-DOPA PET in the diagnosis of well-differentiated metastatic neuroendocrine tumours (NET). PET/CT using both 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE and 18 F-DOPA was performed in 25 patients with histologically proven metastatic NET (nine gut, five pancreas, six lung, one paranasal sinus, four with unknown primary). Analyses of PET examinations were patient-based (pathological uptake: yes/no), and based on tumour regions (primary tumour if present and metastases of liver, lung, bones and lymph nodes). The results were compared with the results of contrast enhanced CT, and with plasma serotonin levels, which were available in 24 of the 25 patients. Patient-based sensitivities were 96% for 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE PET and 56% for 18 F-DOPA PET. 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE PET delineated metastases in 54 of 55 positive metastatic tumour regions in contrast to 29 of 55 delineated by 18 F-DOPA PET. Overall, 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE was superior to 18 F-DOPA in 13 patients (two patients showed fewer positive tumour regions with 18 F-DOPA PET). The results were comparable in 12 patients. In 13 of 24 patients, plasma serotonin levels were elevated, and 11 of these 13 patients showed pathological uptake of 18 F-DOPA. Of the 11 patients with normal levels of serotonin, 3 also showed positive 18 F-DOPA uptake. In patients positive for 18 F-DOPA uptake the maximum tumour SUVs were correlated with the levels of serotonin (r=0.66, p=0.01). In this study 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE PET proved clearly superior to 18 F-DOPA PET for detection and staging of NET. 18 F-DOPA uptake tended to be increased in those patients with elevated plasma serotonin. We conclude that 18 F-DOPA PET should be employed in patients with NET with negative 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE PET and elevated plasma serotonin. (orig.)

  13. Safety, Pharmacokinetics and Dosimetry of a Long-Acting Radiolabeled Somatostatin Analogue 177Lu-DOTA-EB-TATE in Patients with Advanced Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Wang, Hao; Jacobson Weiss, Orit; Cheng, Yuejuan; Niu, Gang; Li, Fang; Bai, Chunmei; Zhu, Zhaohui; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2018-04-13

    Radiolabeled somatostatin analogue therapy has become an established treatment method for patients with well to moderately differentiated unresectable or metastatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). The most frequently used somatostatin analogues in clinical practice are octreotide and octreotate. However, both peptides showed suboptimal retention within tumors. The aim of this first-in-human study is to explore the safety and dosimetry of a long-acting radiolabeled somatostatin analogue, lutetium-177-1, 4, 7, 10-tetra-azacyclododecane-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraacetic acid-Evans blue-octreotate ( 177 Lu-DOTA-EB-TATE). Methods: Eight patients (6 males and 2 females; age range, 27-61 y) with advanced metastatic neuroendocrine tumors were recruited. Five patients received a single dose 0.35-0.70 GBq (9.5-18.9 mCi) of 177 Lu-DOTA-EB-TATE and underwent serial whole body planar and single-photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography (SPECT-CT) scans at 2, 24, 72, 120 and 168 h after injection. The other 3 patients received intravenous injection of 0.28-0.41 GBq (7.5-11.1 mCi) of 177 Lu-DOTATATE for the same imaging acquisition procedures at 1, 3, 4, 24 and 72 h after injection. The dosimetry was calculated using the OLINDA/EXM 1.1 software. Results: Administration of 177 Lu-DOTA-EB-TATE was well tolerated, with no adverse symptoms being noticed or reported in any of the patients. Compared with 177 Lu-DOTATATE, 177 Lu-DOTA-EB-TATE showed extended circulation in the blood and achieved 7.9-fold increase of tumor dose delivery. The total body effective doses were 0.205 ± 0.161 mSv/MBq for 177 Lu-DOTA-EB-TATE and 0.174 ± 0.072 mSv/MBq for 177 Lu-DOTATATE. Significant dose delivery increases to the kidneys and bone marrow were also observed in patients receiving 177 Lu-DOTA-EB-TATE than those receiving 177 Lu-DOTATATE (3.2 and 18.2-fold, respectively). Conclusion: By introducing an albumin binding moiety, 177 Lu-DOTA-EB-TATE showed remarkably higher uptake and retention in NET

  14. Ectopic ACTH and CRH co-secreting tumor localized by 68Ga-DOTA-TATE PET/CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Georgios Z.; Bagci, Ulas; Sadowski, Samira M.; Patronas, Nicholas J.; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) co-secreting tumors causing Cushing syndrome (CS) is challenging, since these tumors are rare and their diagnosis is frequently confused with Cushing disease (CD), due to the effect of CRH on the pituitary. We report a case of a 21-year-old male who was referred to our institution with persistent hypercortisolemia and CS after undergoing unnecessary transsphenoidal surgery (TSS). 68Ga-DOTA-TATE PET/CT revealed increased tracer uptake in the thymus which was histologically proved to be neuroendocrine tumor (NET) staining positive for ACTH and CRH. Imaging with 18F-FDG PET/CT was not diagnostic. PMID:26018709

  15. Esperienze estetiche nella quotidianità. Il caso delle tavole da skateboard: Damien Hirst e Supreme, Palace e Tate Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Greci

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A reflection on the aesthetic status of some typical objects of everyday life, and the relationship we have with them, may originate from the development of “aesthetic experience” by John Dewey and Neopragmatism. The continuity between the common practices and aesthetic ones determines the significance of ordinary objects if they are linked to a project of enrichment and fulfillment of experience. A case that thematizes the richness of these practices in the contemporary world, and also the related theoretical and critical problems, is the production of skateboards. An established artist like Damien Hirst collaborates with the NYC-based streetwear brand Supreme; a new London-based brand, Palace Skateboards, and Tate realize together a few skateboard and a video.

  16. Public mental hospital work: pros and cons for psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R D

    1984-09-01

    The extensive literature concerning public mental hospitals has largely been written from the perspective of administrators and systems analysts; most of the reports emphasize the frustrations and problems of working in public mental hospitals and the continued exodus of psychiatrists from these facilities. The author addresses the pros and cons of such a career choice from the viewpoint of one who has been an "Indian" rather than a "chief" for a decade. He suggests that the current financial situation in both private practice and academia makes work in public mental hospitals increasingly attractive.

  17. Comparison of tumour and whole body absorbed doses of 177-Lu-DOTA-TATE and Lu-177-DOTA-NOC treatment in the same patient group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeyin, N.; Kabasakal, L.; Akyel, R.; Demir, M.; Kanmaz, B.; Ocak, M.; Toklu, T.; Selcuk, N.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy (PRRT) with Lu-177 labelled peptides in patients with neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) aroused great interest. An estimation of actual radiation doses to tumours is very important for therapy planning. There are several radiolabelled peptides, which can be used for PRRT with different biological behaviour. Aim: the aim of the study was to compare the tumour and normal organ absorbed doses in patients who have received Lu-177-DOTA-TATE and Lu-177 DOTA-NOC. Materials and methods: study was composed of 20 patients (M/F: 10/10, mean age: 51.5 ± 14.9) with histologically proven inoperable NETs. All patients received Lu-177-DOTA-NOC treatment 6 to 12 weeks after last Lu-177-DOTA-TATE treatment. Dosimetric calculations were performed using MIRD scheme and lesion doses were calculated using post therapy whole body images obtained at 4, 20, 44, and 68 hours after injection. Tumour volumes were determined from CT images. Thirteen blood samples beginning from time zero to 4 days after injection were obtained for bone marrow and whole body dosimetry. Results: There were 53 lesions in Lu-177-DOTA-TATE post-therapy whole body images and 49 lesions in Lu-177 DOTA-NOC post therapy images. Lesions were selected according to lesion delineation and superimposed lesions were excluded. Mean lesion absorbed dose is calculated to be 47.4 ± 53.4 and 42.9 ± 52.8 Gy per 370 MBq for Lu-177-DOTA-TATE and DOTA-NOC respectively (p>0.5). There were significantly higher absorbed doses for kidney and bone marrow after Lu-177-DOTA-NOC treatment as compared to Lu-177-DOTA-TATE treatment, which were 6.9 ± 2.7 vs 3.9 ± 1.7 (p<0.05) and 0.12 ± 0.0 vs 0.10 ± 0.0 (p<0.05) Gy, respectively. There was not any difference in plasma elimination times between two tracers. On the other hand the whole body absorbed dose was significantly higher after Lu-177-DOTA-NOC treatment, which was 0.24 ± 0.07 vs 0.20 ± 0.06 Gy (p<0

  18. Bulk Scale Formulation of Therapeutic Doses of Clinical Grade Ready-to-Use 177Lu-DOTA-TATE: The Intricate Radiochemistry Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Anupam; Prashant, Vrinda; Sakhare, Navin; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Vimalnath, K V; Mohan, Repaka Krishna; Arjun, Chanda; Karkhanis, Barkha; Seshan, Ravi; Basu, Sandip; Korde, Aruna; Banerjee, Sharmila; Dash, Ashutosh; Sachdev, Satbir Singh

    2017-09-01

    177 Lu-DOTA-TATE is a clinically useful and promising therapeutic radiopharmaceutical for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) overexpressing somatostatin receptors. Currently, the radiopharmaceutical is prepared in-house at nuclear medicine centers, thereby restricting its use to limited centers only. In this article, the authors describe systematic studies toward bulk scale formulation of "ready-to-use" 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE using medium specific activity 177 Lu (740-1110 GBq/mg) at a centralized radiopharmacy facility. In an optimized protocol, 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE synthesis was carried out by direct heating of 177 LuCl 3 (Sp. act. 740-1110 GBq/mg) with DOTA-TATE peptide (1.5-3.0 equivalents) in ammonium acetate buffer (0.2 M) containing 2,5-dihydroxy benzoic acid (gentisic acid). Thereafter, the crude labeled product was purified using a Sep-Pak ® C18 column and diluted with acetate buffer-gentisic acid (1.5% w/v) solution to final radioactive concentration of 740 MBq/mL. This was further sterilized and dispensed as 7.4 GBq patient dose/vial with 2 days postformulation calibration. A peptide/metal ratio of 1.5-3.0 is essential for complexation wherein radiolabeling yields >90% are obtained minimizing free 177 Lu waste. For formulation of 7.4 GBq patient dose (2 days postproduction), even specific activity of about 555 GBq/mg was found to be adequate for the radiometal. The ready-to-use 740 MBq/mL 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE formulation with gentisic acid (1.5% w/v) is observed to be safe for human use for more than 1 week (radiochemical purity >98%) from the day of production when stored at -70°C. However, the target specificity may get affected beyond 2 days as the total peptide content for 7.4 GBq dose may exceed the critical peptide limit of 300 μg. Patient treatment carried with several batches of present formulation in diseased NET patients exhibited desired distribution at the tumor and its metastatic site. A ready

  19. Gestational surrogacy: could be a way to be a way to reproduction? Pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementina, Peris

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this article was to address pros and cons of gestational surrogacy, the social and psychological issues involved in surrogate motherhood triads. Pros and cons of surrogacy, the possible insurgence of a hematologic disease in the fetus, hemolytic disease of the newborn, naturally acquired microchimerism in surrogacy cases, ethical, medical, psychologic, legal and religious issues of a problem are discussed.

  20. A National Look at Postmodernism's Pros and Cons in Educational Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsell, Rhodena

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to take a look at the pros and cons of postmodernism. It is imperative for administrators to closely examine educational theories and practices prior to instituting changes. The ability to read and digest challenging material keeps one informed and prepared to lead effectively. This paper will list the pros and cons…

  1. [Modern tribology in total hip arthroplasty: pros and cons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-García, F

    2014-01-01

    The wear products and adverse reactions that occur on bearing surfaces represent one of the greatest challenges in prosthetic replacements, as the latter experience increasing demands due to the large number of young and older adult patients that have a long life expectancy and remarkable activity. The purpose of this review is to analyze the pros and cons of the new advances in the bearing components of the articular surfaces of current total hip arthroplasties. We also discuss the strategies used historically, their problems, results and the surgeon's role in prescribing the tribologic couple that best fits each patient's needs. We conclude with practical recommendations for the prescription and management of the latest articular couples for total hip arthroplasty.

  2. Pros and cons of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terré, Juan A; George, Isaac; Smith, Craig R

    2017-09-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) or replacement (TAVR) was recently approved by the FDA for intermediate risk patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). This technique was already worldwide adopted for inoperable and high-risk patients. Improved device technology, imaging analysis and operator expertise has reduced the initial worrisome higher complications rate associated with TAVR, making it comparable to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). However, many answers need to be addressed before adoption in lower risk patients. This paper highlights the pros and cons of TAVI based mostly on randomized clinical trials involving the two device platforms approved in the United States. We focused our analysis on metrics that will play a key role in expanding TAVR indication in healthier individuals. We review the significance and gave a perspective on paravalvular leak (PVL), valve performance, valve durability, leaflet thrombosis, stroke and pacemaker requirement.

  3. Balancing Ethical Pros and Cons of Stem Cell Derived Gametes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segers, Seppe; Mertes, Heidi; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo; Pennings, Guido

    2017-07-01

    In this review we aim to provide an overview of the most important ethical pros and cons of stem cell derived gametes (SCD-gametes), as a contribution to the debate about reproductive tissue engineering. Derivation of gametes from stem cells holds promising applications both for research and for clinical use in assisted reproduction. We explore the ethical issues connected to gametes derived from embryonic stem cells (both patient specific and non-patient specific) as well as those related to gametes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. The technology of SCD-gametes raises moral concerns of how reproductive autonomy relates to issues of embryo destruction, safety, access, and applications beyond clinical infertility.

  4. The Right to Whistleblowing - the Pros and Cons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The freedom of expression of public employees is protected as part of the ECHR and of a number of Constitutions. Thus, the freedom of expression is a fundamental right. Conversely, there are a number of legal limitations that are inter alia inherent in the employees' duty to loyalty and discretion....... The balancing of these considerations is legally complex and gives rise to legal conflicts e.g. in cases where an employee chooses to blow the whistle as to irregularities within the public administration and as a result of this is accused of being not loyal and is meet with retaliations as regards employment...... situation. The paper contains a legal analysis of the mosaic of regulation that is of relevance to the legal position of a whistleblower. On this backdrop, the paper discusses the pros and cons as to enhanced protection of the right to whistleblowing....

  5. PATIENT-REPORTED OUTCOMES (PROs): PUTTING THE PATIENT PERSPECTIVE IN PATIENT-CENTERED OUTCOMES RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Claire F.; Jensen, Roxanne E.; Segal, Jodi B.; Wu, Albert W.

    2013-01-01

    Patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR) aims to improve care quality and patient outcomes by providing information that patients, clinicians, and family members need regarding treatment alternatives, and emphasizing patient input to inform the research process. PCOR capitalizes on available data sources and generates new evidence to provide timely and relevant information and can be conducted using prospective data collection, disease registries, electronic medical records, aggregated results from prior research, and administrative claims. Given PCOR’s emphasis on the patient perspective, methods to incorporate patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are critical. PROs are defined by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration as “Any report coming directly from patients… about a health condition and its treatment.” However, PROs have not routinely been collected in a way that facilitates their use in PCOR. Electronic medical records, disease registries, and administrative data have only rarely collected, or been linked to, PROs. Recent technological developments facilitate the electronic collection of PROs and linkage of PRO data, offering new opportunities for putting the patient perspective in PCOR. This paper describes the importance of and methods for using PROs for PCOR. We (1) define PROs; (2) identify how PROs can be used in PCOR, and the critical role of electronic data methods for facilitating the use of PRO data in PCOR; (3) outline the challenges and key unanswered questions that need to be addressed for the routine use of PROs in PCOR; and (4) discuss policy and research interventions to accelerate the integration of PROs with clinical data. PMID:23774513

  6. Renal toxicity of 2 cycles of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy as determined by serial measurements of the Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR): comparison between Y-90 DOTA-TATE and Lu-177 DOTA-TATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, R.P.; Prasad, V.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Aim: To determine the effect of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy on GFR after 2 cycles of Y-90-DTATATE as compared to Lu-177-DOTA-TATE. Methods: Group A (Y-90), Group B (Lu-177). Group A1: 24 pts (age 60.5±11a), injected with 4.00± 0.72 GBq of Y-90 (1st cycle). Group A2: 16 pts (age 62.2±9.4a, followed up after 7.8 GBq±0.82 GBq of Y-90 (after 2nd cycle). Group B1: 14 pts (age 62.2±10.6a) 4.8± 0.8 GBq Lu-177 (1st cycle). Group B2: 6 patients (age 58.5±12a) after 9.57±1.5 GBq of Lu-177 (after 2nd cycle). GFR was determined using 110- 185 MBq of Tc-99m DTPA before and 3-4 months after therapy. Absolute/normalized values for GFR pre/post PRRT were compared (paired T-test).The effect of total amount of radioactivity administered, pre-existing diabetes, hypertension and age on renal function post 2 cycles of PRRT were also evaluated. Results: In group A1 normalized GFR dropped by 2% (absol. GFR fall: 2 ml/min) as compared to 16% in group A2 (absol. GFR fall: 7 ml/min). Baseline normalized/absol. GFR values were 1.02/87.5 ml/min in subgroup A1 and 1.02 / 86.5 ml/min in A2. The fall in both, the absolute and normalized GFR values was not significant after the 1st cycle (p=0.555), but was significant (p= 0.007) after the 2nd PRRT. In group B1 there was a fall of normalized GFR value by 10% vs. 8% in group B2. The fall in absol. GFR value was 7.7 ml/min in group B1 and 9.7 ml/min in group B2. Baseline normalized GFR values was 0.86 and 0.89 in subgroups B1 and B2, respectively. Baseline absol. GFR value was 78.3 ml/min and 81 ml/min in subgroups B1 and B2. The fall in the absol. GFR values was significant after the 1st cycle (p=.009), but was not significant (p=0.486) after the 2nd cycle of PRRT. The fall in normalized GFR value was not significant in both subgroups (p=0.07 after 1st cycle and p=0.49 after 2nd cycle). No correlation between the activity administered and the percentage change in the GFR values in both the groups (Pearson's correlation

  7. Three-Index Symmetric Matter Representations of SU(2) in F-Theory from Non-Tate Form Weierstrass Models

    CERN Document Server

    Klevers, Denis

    2016-01-01

    We give an explicit construction of a class of F-theory models with matter in the three-index symmetric (4) representation of SU(2). This matter is realized at codimension two loci in the F-theory base where the divisor carrying the gauge group is singular; the associated Weierstrass model does not have the form associated with a generic SU(2) Tate model. For 6D theories, the matter is localized at a triple point singularity of arithmetic genus g=3 in the curve supporting the SU(2) group. This is the first explicit realization of matter in F-theory in a representation corresponding to a genus contribution greater than one. The construction is realized by "unHiggsing" a model with a U(1) gauge factor under which there is matter with charge q=3. The resulting SU(2) models can be further unHiggsed to realize non-Abelian G_2xSU(2) models with more conventional matter content or SU(2)^3 models with trifundamental matter. The U(1) models used as the basis for this construction do not seem to have a Weierstrass real...

  8. Three-index symmetric matter representations of SU(2) in F-theory from non-Tate form Weierstrass models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klevers, Denis [Theoretical Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Taylor, Washington [Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-06-29

    We give an explicit construction of a class of F-theory models with matter in the three-index symmetric (4) representation of SU(2). This matter is realized at codimension two loci in the F-theory base where the divisor carrying the gauge group is singular; the associated Weierstrass model does not have the form associated with a generic SU(2) Tate model. For 6D theories, the matter is localized at a triple point singularity of arithmetic genus g=3 in the curve supporting the SU(2) group. This is the first explicit realization of matter in F-theory in a representation corresponding to a genus contribution greater than one. The construction is realized by “unHiggsing” a model with a U(1) gauge factor under which there is matter with charge q=3. The resulting SU(2) models can be further unHiggsed to realize non-Abelian G{sub 2}×SU(2) models with more conventional matter content or SU(2){sup 3} models with trifundamental matter. The U(1) models used as the basis for this construction do not seem to have a Weierstrass realization in the general form found by Morrison-Park, suggesting that a generalization of that form may be needed to incorporate models with arbitrary matter representations and gauge groups localized on singular divisors.

  9. [99mTc]Demotate 2 in the detection of sst2-positive tumours: a preclinical comparison with [111In]DOTA-tate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maina, Theodosia; Nock, Berthold A.; Cordopatis, Paul; Bernard, Bert F.; Breeman, Wout A.P.; Gameren, Arthur van; Berg, Ria van den; Krenning, Eric P.; Jong, Marion de; Reubi, Jean-Claude

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate [ 99m Tc]Demotate 2 ([ 99m Tc-N 4 0-1 ,Asp 0 ,Tyr 3 ]octreotate) as a candidate for in vivo imaging of sst 2 -positive tumours and to compare it with [ 111 In]DOTA-tate ([ 111 In-DOTA 0 ,Tyr 3 ]octreotate). Labelling of Demotate 2 with 99m Tc was performed at room temperature using SnCl 2 as reductant in the presence of citrate at alkaline pH. Radiochemical analysis involved ITLC and HPLC methods. Peptide conjugate affinities for sst 2 were determined by receptor autoradiography on rat brain cortex sections using [DOTA 0 , 125 I-Tyr 3 ]octreotate as the radioligand. The affinity profile of Demotate 2 for human sst 1 -sst 5 was studied by receptor autoradiography in cell preparations using the universal somatostatin radioligand [ 125 I][Leu 8 ,(D)Trp 22 ,Tyr 25 ]somatostatin-28. The internalisation rates of [ 99m Tc]Demotate 2 and [ 111 In]DOTA-tate were compared in sst 2 -positive and -negative control cell lines. Biodistribution of radiopeptides was studied in male Lewis rats bearing CA20948 tumours. Peptide conjugates showed selectivity and a high affinity binding for sst 2 (Demotate 2 IC 50 =3.2 nM and DOTA-tate IC 50 =5.4 nM). [ 99m Tc]Demotate 2, like [ 111 In]DOTA-tate, internalised rapidly in all sst 2 -positive cells tested, but not in sst 2 -negative control cells. After injection in CA20948 tumour-bearing rats both radiopeptides showed high and specific uptake in the sst 2 -positive organs and in the implanted tumour and rapid excretion from non-target tissues via the kidneys. [ 99m Tc]Demotate 2, similarly to the known sst 2 -targeting agent [ 111 In]DOTA-tate, showed promising biological qualities for application in the scintigraphy of sst 2 -positive tumours. (orig.)

  10. Radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma: pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Hyunchul; Lim, Hyo K

    2010-09-01

    Among locoregional treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been accepted as the most popular alternative to curative transplantation or resection, and it shows an excellent local tumor control rate and acceptable morbidity. The benefits of RFA have been universally validated by the practice guidelines of international societies of hepatology. The main advantages of RFA include 1) it is minimally invasive with acceptable morbidity, 2) it enables excellent local tumor control, 3) it has promising long-term survival, and 4) it is a multimodal approach. Based on these pros, RFA will play an important role in managing the patient with early HCC (smaller than 3 cm with fewer than four tumors). The main limitations of current RFA technology in hepatic ablation include 1) limitation of ablation volume, 2) technically infeasible in some tumors due to conspicuity and dangerous location, and 3) the heat-sink effect. Many technical approaches have been introduced to overcome those limitations, including a novel guiding modality, use of artificial fluid or air, and combined treatment strategies. RFA will continue to play a role as a representative ablative modality in the management of HCC, even in the era of targeted agents.

  11. Pros and cons of vaccination against serogroup B meningococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Rodríguez, Miguel; Domínguez García, Ángela

    2018-02-09

    A vaccine has recently been approved in the EU against meningococcal serogroup B, the main cause of meningococcal disease. There is a fierce debate about the decision regarding a universal vaccination in infants older than 2 months, as recommended by the majority of scientific societies. In western Europe the only country to have included the universal vaccination is the United Kingdom, with a lower incidence of the disease than Ireland. Other countries have also adopted it, such as the Czech Republic, Cuba and certain regions of Italy. Numerous cost-effectiveness studies have been published regarding the vaccination with different assumptions, which have supported the decision not to implant the universal vaccination because it exceeds the will to pay for a health benefit. We discuss the pros and cons of the universal vaccination against meningococcal B, recommended by the Sociedad Española de Pediatría (Spanish Society of Paediatrics), which as yet has not been implemented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Specific heat of filled skutterudite PrOs4P12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuhira, Kazuyuki; Doi, Yoshihiro; Wakeshima, Makoto; Hinatsu, Yukio; Kihou, Kunihiro; Sekine, Chihiro; Shirotani, Ichimin

    2005-01-01

    We report the specific heat of filled skutterudite compounds PrOs 4 P 12 and LaOs 4 P 12 down to 1.8K. The specific heat divided by temperature C(T)/T in PrOs 4 P 12 shows a shoulder around 13K. This shoulder is caused by a Schottky anomaly due to a crystalline electric field effect. The electronic specific heat coefficients γ of PrOs 4 P 12 and LaOs 4 P 12 are estimated to be 56.5 and 21.6mJ/K 2 mol, respectively. The value of γ in PrOs 4 P 12 is 2.6 times larger than that in LaOs 4 P 12

  13. Dificuldades prosódicas em sujeitos cérebro-lesados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Miriam Scarpa

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Os distúrbios prosódicos da afasia e disartria, na literatura daárea, têm sido vinculados à questão da lateralização da lesão e, conseqüentemente,do processamento lingüístico: a prosódia "lingüística" seria processadano hemisfério esquerdo e a "afetiva" processar-se-ia no hemisfériodireito. Sujeitos lesados no hemisfério direito nâo produziriam satisfatoriamentea chamada de "prosódia afetiva": apresentam poucas variações de F0, achatamento na tessitura, fala lentificada. Já afásicos lesados no hemisférioesquerdo teriam dificuldade de processar a prosódia responsável pela estruturaçãointerna das sentenças. Porém, contra-evidências a hipóteses de lateralizaçãohemisférica, mostradas por estudos de distúrbios prosódicosdecorrentes de lesões cerebrais diversas, bem como a contribuição de teoriasprosódicas recentes têm mostrado que esta divisão estrita deve ser revista.Um estudo comparativo realizado com dois sujeitos, um afásico e um disártrico,mostra que o conceito de prosódia usado na literatura é inadequado.Mostra também que os domínios prosódicos superiores da hierarquia prosódicaencontram-se preservados, em graus variados, tanto em afásicos (lesãoesquerda quanto em disártricos (lesão frontal ou direita.

  14. ‘Looking for Civilisation, Discovering Clark’: ‘Kenneth Clark – Looking for Civilisation’, An Exhibition at Tate Britain, 20 May – 10 August 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Potter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses upon the art historiographical lessons to be learned from the ‘Kenneth Clark – Looking for Civilisation’ exhibition at Tate Britain. It considers the challenges represented by art galleries choosing to present displays centred on art historians generally and Clark in particular. The political contexts that existed during Clark’s career and the recent exhibition are mapped in order to explore both how the actions of this democratic patriarch were motivated by his understanding of the shortcomings of humanist and Marxist ideologies, and how an opportunity for reassessment has presented itself since the declining dominance of the New Art History.

  15. 68Ga DOTA-TATE PET/CT allows tumor localization in patients with tumor-induced osteomalacia but negative 111In-octreotide SPECT/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breer, Stefan; Brunkhorst, Thomas; Beil, F Timo; Peldschus, Kersten; Heiland, Max; Klutmann, Susanne; Barvencik, Florian; Zustin, Jozef; Gratz, Klaus-Friedrich; Amling, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by renal phosphate wasting, hypophosphatemia and low calcitriol levels as well as clinical symptoms like diffuse bone and muscle pain, fatigue fractures or increased fracture risk. Conventional imaging methods, however, often fail to detect the small tumors. Lately, tumor localization clearly improved by somatostatin-receptor (SSTR) imaging, such as octreotide scintigraphy or octreotide SPECT/CT. However, recent studies revealed that still a large number of tumors remained undetected by octreotide imaging. Hence, studies focused on different SSTR imaging methods such as 68Ga DOTA-NOC, 68Ga DOTA-TOC and 68Ga DOTA-TATE PET/CT with promising first results. Studies comparing different SSTR imaging methods for tumor localization in TIO are rare and thus little is known about diagnostic alternatives once a particular method failed to detect a tumor in patients with TIO. Here, we report the data of 5 consecutive patients suffering from TIO, who underwent both 111Indium-octreotide scintigraphy (111In-OCT) SPECT/CT as well as 68Ga DOTA-TATE PET/CT for tumor detection. While 111In-OCT SPECT/CT allowed tumor detection in only 1 of 5 patients, 68Ga DOTA-TATE PET/CT was able to localize the tumor in all patients. Afterwards, anatomical imaging of the region of interest was performed with CT and MRI. Thus, successful surgical resection of the tumor was achieved in all patients. Serum phosphate levels returned to normal and all patients reported relief of symptoms within weeks. Moreover, an iliac crest biopsy was obtained from every patient and revealed marked osteomalacia in all cases. Follow-up DXA revealed an increase in BMD of up to 34.5% 1-year postoperative, indicating remineralization. No recurrence was observed. In conclusion our data indicates that 68Ga DOTA-TATE PET/CT is an effective and promising diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of TIO, even in patients in whom 111In-OCT prior failed to detect

  16. [Outcome Quality in Medical Rehabilitation: Relationship Between "Patient-Reported Outcomes" (PROs) and Social Security Contributions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nübling, R; Kaluscha, R; Krischak, G; Kriz, D; Martin, H; Müller, G; Renzland, J; Reuss-Borst, M; Schmidt, J; Kaiser, U; Toepler, E

    2017-02-01

    Aim of the Study The outcome quality of medical rehabilitation is evaluated often by "Patient Reported Outcomes" (PROs). It is examined to what extent these PROs are corresponding with "hard" or "objective" outcomes such as payments of contributions to social insurance. Methods The "rehabilitation QM outcome study" includes self-reports of patients as well as data from the Rehabilitation Statistics Database (RSD) of the German pension insurance Baden-Wurttemberg. The sample for the question posed includes N=2 947 insured who were treated in 2011 in 21 clinics of the "health quality network" and who were either employed or unemployed at the time of the rehabilitation application (e. g. the workforce or labour force group, response rate: 55%). The sample turned out widely representative for the population of the insured persons. Results PROs and payment of contributions to pension insurance clearly correspond. In the year after the rehabilitation improved vs. not improved rehabilitees differed clearly with regard to their payments of contributions. Conclusions The results support the validity of PROs. For a comprehensive depiction of the outcome quality of rehabilitation PROs and payments of contributions should be considered supplementary. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. The somatostatin receptor 2 antagonist 64Cu-NODAGA-JR11 outperforms 64Cu-DOTA-TATE in a mouse xenograft model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylova, Svetlana N.; Stoykow, Christian; Del Pozzo, Luigi; Abiraj, Keelara; Tamma, Maria Luisa; Kiefer, Yvonne; Fani, Melpomeni; Maecke, Helmut R.

    2018-01-01

    Copper-64 is an attractive radionuclide for PET imaging and is frequently used in clinical applications. The aim of this study was to perform a side-by-side comparison of the in vitro and in vivo performance of 64Cu-NODAGA-JR11 (NODAGA = 1,4,7-triazacyclononane,1-glutaric acid,4,7-acetic acid, JR11 = p-Cl-Phe-cyclo(D-Cys-Aph(Hor)-D-Aph(cbm)-Lys-Thr-Cys)D-Tyr-NH2), a somatostatin receptor 2 antagonist, with the clinically used sst2 agonist 64Cu-DOTA-TATE ((TATE = D-Phe-cyclo(Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Lys-Thr-Cys)Thr). In vitro studies demonstrated Kd values of 5.7±0.95 nM (Bmax = 4.1±0.18 nM) for the antagonist 64/natCu-NODAGA-JR11 and 20.1±4.4. nM (Bmax = 0.48±0.18 nM) for the agonist 64/natCu-DOTA-TATE. Cell uptake studies showed the expected differences between agonists and antagonists. Whereas 64Cu-DOTA-TATE (the agonist) showed very effective internalization in the cell culture assay (with 50% internalized at 4 hours post-peptide addition under the given experimental conditions), 64Cu-NODAGA-JR11 (the antagonist) showed little internalization but strong receptor-mediated uptake at the cell membrane. Biodistribution studies of 64Cu-NODAGA-JR11 showed rapid blood clearance and tumor uptake with increasing tumor-to-relevant organ ratios within the first 4 hours and in some cases, 24 hours, respectively. The tumor washout was slow or non-existent in the first 4 hours, whereas the kidney washout was very efficient, leading to high and increasing tumor-to-kidney ratios over time. Specificity of tumor uptake was proven by co-injection of high excess of non-radiolabeled peptide, which led to >80% tumor blocking. 64Cu-DOTA-TATE showed less favorable pharmacokinetics, with the exception of lower kidney uptake. Blood clearance was distinctly slower and persistent higher blood values were found at 24 hours. Uptake in the liver and lung was relatively high and also persistent. The tumor uptake was specific and similar to that of 64Cu-NODAGA-JR11 at 1 h, but release from the tumor

  18. BASEMAP, Tate COUNTY, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  19. Inelastic neutron scattering study of crystal field levels in PrOs4As12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Songxue; Dai, Pengcheng; Barnes, T.F.E.; Kang, H. J.; Lynn, J. W.; Ye, Feng; Maple, M. B.

    2008-01-01

    We use neutron scattering to study the Pr 3+ crystalline electric field (CEF) excitations in the filled skutterudite PrOs 4 As 12 . By comparing the observed levels and their strengths under neutron excitation with the theoretical spectrum and neutron excitation intensities, we identify the Pr 3+ CEF levels, and show that the ground state is a magnetic Γ 4 (2) triplet, and the excited states Γ 1 , Γ 4 (1) and Γ 23 are at 0.4, 13 and 23 meV, respectively. A comparison of the observed CEF levels in PrOs 4 As 12 with the heavy fermion superconductor PrOs 4 Sb 12 reveals the microscopic origin of the differences in the ground states of these two filled skutterudites

  20. Breast cancer cell lines: friend or foe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdall, Sarah E; Hanby, Andrew M; Lansdown, Mark RJ; Speirs, Valerie

    2003-01-01

    The majority of breast cancer research is conducted using established breast cancer cell lines as in vitro models. An alternative is to use cultures established from primary breast tumours. Here, we discuss the pros and cons of using both of these models in translational breast cancer research

  1. Pros & Cons of Using Blackboard Collaborate for Blended Learning on Students' Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Mona M.

    2017-01-01

    Blackboard Collaborate was introduced to King Khalid University recently in the last decade; instructors and students were trained to use it in an effective way. The objective of this study is to find pros and cons of using Blackboard Collaborate for Blended Learning and its effect on students' learning outcomes. The researcher used the…

  2. The establishment of minority affairs offices in schools of dentistry: pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Billy R

    2003-09-01

    The establishment of Minority Affairs Offices in dental schools following the American Association of Medical Colleges' model is discussed as one method of addressing the declining enrollment and compounding oral health disparities of underrepresented minorities African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans in U.S. dental schools. The pros and cons of the approach are discussed, with recommendations.

  3. There Is Something about Aristotle: The Pros and Cons of Aristotelianism in Contemporary Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjánsson, Kristján

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to pinpoint some of the features that do--or should--make Aristotelianism attractive to current moral educators. At the same time, it also identifies theoretical and practical shortcomings that contemporary Aristotelians have been overly cavalier about. Section II presents a brisk tour of ten of the "pros":…

  4. Pros and cons of eliminating veld burning | JD | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pros and cons of eliminating veld burning. Scott JD. Abstract. Fire has been a factor of the environment in Africa since time immemorial and it is often caused by natural agencies such as lightning. It is maintained that there is much prejudice against veld burning, often ill-founded. Fire has caused and maintained most of the ...

  5. pros sundis offshore firmad oma musta raha deklareerima / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    Euroopa Liiduga liitudes pidi Küpros kaotama offshore-sektori. Riik kehtestas kõigile ettevõtetele ühtse 10-protsendilise tulumaksumäära. Eelarvedefitsiidi kärpimiseks kutsus ta üles deklareerima välispankades oleva mustalt teenitud raha ning maksma selle eest 5% makse

  6. Pros and Cons of Long-Term use of Nicotine Replacement Therapies: A Qualitative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Gitte; Kaae, Susanne; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig

    2016-01-01

    , intrapersonal processes, the social environment of smoking vs. NRTs and finances. None of the ex-smokers feared to relapse to smoking, and few were motivated to quit NRTs. Non-nicotinic factors were found to have an important role in developing an addiction to NRTs. The use of NRTs yields some of the expected......, including perceived pros and cons of using NRTs, the risk of relapse to smoking and their motivation to quit using NRTs. The results identified five major themes that entailed pros and cons of the long-term use of NRTs. These were the non-nicotinic factors of NRTs, health risks of NRTs vs. smoking......In the last decade, harm reduction has been increasingly suggested as a method to reduce the harm caused by smoking in smokers who are unable or unwilling to quit all nicotine products. One of these methods includes long-term substitution of tobacco with nicotine replacement therapies (NRTs...

  7. What are the pros and cons of electronically monitoring inhaler use in asthma? A multistakeholder perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Sam; Lang, Alexandra; Sharples, Sarah; Shaw, Dominick

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Electronic monitoring devices (EMDs) are the optimal method for collecting objective data on inhaler use in asthma. Recent research has investigated the attitudes of patients with asthma towards these devices. However, no research to date has formally considered the opinions of stakeholders and decision-makers in asthma care. These individuals have important clinical requirements that need to be taken into account if EMDs are to be successfully provisioned, making collecting their opinions on the key barriers facing these devices a valuable process. Methods Three rounds of surveys in a Delphi format were used to assess the most important pros and cons of EMDs for asthma care in a sample of 31 stakeholders which included healthcare professionals and members of clinical commissioning groups. Results The respondents identified 29 pros and 32 cons. Pros that were rated as most important included new visual evidence to aid clinical discussions with a patient and an increase in patient involvement and motivation. The cons that were rated as most important included a need for more clinical evidence of the effectiveness of EMDs, as well as better clarity over who has responsibilities in managing, interpreting and discussing data with a patient. Conclusions The research provides a guide for EMD developers by highlighting where these devices may provide the most benefit as well as prioritising the key issues that need addressing if they are to be used effectively in everyday asthma care. PMID:27933181

  8. Genetics Home Reference: prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jan;73(2):169-75. doi: 10.1002/pros.22552. Epub 2012 Jun 21. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central Nakagawa H. Prostate cancer genomics by high-throughput technologies: genome-wide association study and sequencing analysis. Endocr ...

  9. Sobre algunos factores prosódicos en pacientes con afasia de Wernicke

    OpenAIRE

    Cabedo Nebot, Adrián

    2009-01-01

    Aquest treball d’investigació pretén fer una comparativa de caràcter descriptiu entre la prosòdia de pacients amb afàsia de Wernicke i la d’altres parlants que no experimenten aquest trastorn del llenguatge. En general, s’intenta observar el comportament idiosincràtic de la parla afàsica davant la no afàsica, sempre tenint en compte que, habitualment, l’afàsia fluent o de Wernicke es considera funcional i comuna des d’un punt de vista de l’articulació fonètica.

  10. Sobre algunos factores prosódicos en pacientes con afasia de Wernicke

    OpenAIRE

    Cabedo Nebot, Adrián

    2013-01-01

    Aquest treball d’investigació pretén fer una comparativa de caràcter descriptiu entre la prosòdia de pacients amb afàsia de Wernicke i la d’altres parlants que no experimenten aquest trastorn del llenguatge. En general, s’intenta observar el comportament idiosincràtic de la parla afàsica davant la no afàsica, sempre tenint en compte que, habitualment, l’afàsia fluent o de Wernicke es considera funcional i comuna des d’un punt de vista de l’articulació fonètica.

  11. Sobre algunos factores prosódicos en pacientes con afasia de Wernicke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Cabedo Nebot

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aquest treball d’investigació pretén fer una comparativa de caràcter descriptiu entre la prosòdia de pacients amb afàsia de Wernicke i la d’altres parlants que no experimenten aquest trastorn del llenguatge. En general, s’intenta observar el comportament idiosincràtic de la parla afàsica davant la no afàsica, sempre tenint en compte que, habitualment, l’afàsia fluent o de Wernicke es considera funcional i comuna des d’un punt de vista de l’articulació fonètica.

  12. Photoemission of heavy fermion superconductor PrOs4Sb12 and other Pr compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imada, S.; Yamasaki, A.; Sekiyama, A.; Settai, R.; Onuki, Y.; Suga, S.; Sugawara, H.; Sato, H.; Ochiai, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Strongly correlated electronic states due to Pr 4f electrons found in several Pr compounds have recently been attracting much attention. The Pr 4f electrons are much more localized than in Ce due to the lanthanoid contraction. Therefore, the number of the Pr systems that show strong electron correlation is much smaller than Ce systems. We will present a comparative study of Pr 4f electronic states in such systems as the heavy fermion superconductor PrOs 4 Sb 12 , the Kondo system PrSn 3 and the localized 4f systems Pr 4 X 3 (X = Sb and Bi). The Pr 4f electronic state was probed by means of the Pr 3d → 4f resonant photoemission (RPES). Because the kinetic energy (E K ) of the photoelectrons is as high as ∼ 900 eV, this method is much more bulk sensitive than the 4d → 4f RPES with E K ∼ 100 eV. The energy resolution could be set to about 100 meV by utilizing the soft X-rays from BL25SU in SPring-8 and the SCIENTA SES-200 analyzer. The Pr 4f excitation spectrum of PrSn 3 was found to show a very strong intensity at the Fermi level (E F ). This can be interpreted as the Kondo resonance which has been observed in the Kondo Ce and Yb compounds. In the Pr 4f spectrum of the heavy fermion superconductor PrOs 4 Sb 12 , the intensity at E F was smaller than in PrSn 3 . This clearly shows that the Kondo temperature (T K ) is much lower in PrOs 4 Sb 12 than in PrSn 3 . We have further found a strong excitation energy dependence in the RPES line shape. In the case of Pr 4 X 3 (X = Sb and Bi), the intensity at E B was much smaller than PrSn 3 and PrOs 4 Sb 12 , which is consistent with the localized character of Pr 4f electrons in Pr 4 X 3 . The Pr 4f spectra of these localized systems are qualitatively well reproduced by a cluster model calculation that takes into account the hybridization between the Pr 4f orbital and the conduction and valence bands made up by the X p and Pr 5d states

  13. Blocking CGRP in migraine patients - a review of pros and cons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deen, Marie; Correnti, Edvige; Kamm, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    Migraine is the most prevalent neurological disorder worldwide and it has immense socioeconomic impact. Currently, preventative treatment options for migraine include drugs developed for diseases other than migraine such as hypertension, depression and epilepsy. During the last decade, however......, blocking calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has emerged as a possible mechanism for prevention of migraine attacks. CGRP has been shown to be released during migraine attacks and it may play a causative role in induction of migraine attacks. Here, we review the pros and cons of blocking CGRP...

  14. Mobile Backend as a Service: the pros and cons of parse

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Phu

    2016-01-01

    Using a pre-built backend for an application is an affordable and swift approach to prototyping new application ideas. Mobile Backend as a Service (MBaaS) is the term for pre-built backend systems that developers can use. However, it is advisable to understand the pros and the cons of an MBaaS before deciding to use it. The aim of the thesis was to determine the advantages and disadvantages of using Parse, a provider of mobile backend as a service, in application development. Parse’s defin...

  15. Changes to perceptions of the pros and cons of genetic susceptibility testing after APOE genotyping for Alzheimer disease risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kurt D.; Roberts, J. Scott; Uhlmann, Wendy R.; Green, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Perceptions about the pros and cons of genetic susceptibility testing are among the best predictors of test utilization. How actual testing changes such perceptions has yet to be examined. Methods In a clinical trial, first-degree relatives of patients with Alzheimer disease received genetic risk assessments for Alzheimer disease including APOE disclosure. Participants rated 11 possible benefits associated with genetic testing (pros) and 10 risks or limitations (cons) before genetic risk disclosure and again 12 months afterward. Results Pros were rated higher than cons at baseline (3.53 vs. 1.83, P cons did not change (1.88 vs. 1.83, P = 0.199) except for a three-item discrimination subscale which increased (2.07 vs. 1.92, P = 0.012). Among specific pros and cons, three items related to prevention and treatment changed the most. Conclusion The process of APOE genetic risk assessment for Alzheimer disease sensitizes some to its limitations and the risks of discrimination; however, 1-year after disclosure, test recipients still consider the pros to strongly outweigh the cons. PMID:21270636

  16. Crystalline-electric field of Pr(Os1-xRux)4Sb12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akita, H.; Yoshino, G.; Ochiai, A.

    2006-01-01

    High-quality single crystals of Pr(Os 1-x Ru x ) 4 Sb 12 were grown by the Sb self-flux method. Magnetic susceptibility χ(T) was measured precisely. The characteristic temperature T max , where χ(T) exhibits a maximum, varies as a function of Ru-content x but its functional form changes at around x=0.6 where competition of two types of superconductivity is suggested. Since T max is thought to be relevant to the splitting energy between a ground state and a first excited state, we analyzed χ(T) considering the crystalline electric field (CEF) of the T h symmetry. χ(T) is well fitted assuming a Γ 1 singlet ground state for all x values. As expected from T max , the energy of the first excited state (Γ 4 (2) ) changes its functional form at around x=0.6. Furthermore, the energies of the second and third excited states (Γ 4 (1) and Γ 23 ) exhibit a minimum at almost the same value of x=0.6. These results suggest that the CEF is related to the superconductivity in Pr(Os 1-x Ru x ) 4 Sb 12

  17. To share or not to share? Expected pros and cons of data sharing in radiological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardanelli, Francesco; Alì, Marco; Hunink, Myriam G; Houssami, Nehmat; Sconfienza, Luca M; Di Leo, Giovanni

    2018-06-01

    The aims of this paper are to illustrate the trend towards data sharing, i.e. the regulated availability of the original patient-level data obtained during a study, and to discuss the expected advantages (pros) and disadvantages (cons) of data sharing in radiological research. Expected pros include the potential for verification of original results with alternative or supplementary analyses (including estimation of reproducibility), advancement of knowledge by providing new results by testing new hypotheses (not explored by the original authors) on pre-existing databases, larger scale analyses based on individual-patient data, enhanced multidisciplinary cooperation, reduced publication of false studies, improved clinical practice, and reduced cost and time for clinical research. Expected cons are outlined as the risk that the original authors could not exploit the entire potential of the data they obtained, possible failures in patients' privacy protection, technical barriers such as the lack of standard formats, and possible data misinterpretation. Finally, open issues regarding data ownership, the role of individual patients, advocacy groups and funding institutions in decision making about sharing of data and images are discussed. • Regulated availability of patient-level data of published clinical studies (data-sharing) is expected. • Expected benefits include verification/advancement of knowledge, reduced cost/time of research, clinical improvement. • Potential drawbacks include faults in patients' identity protection and data misinterpretation.

  18. Field-orientation dependence of the specific heat of PrOs4Sb12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custers, Jeroen; Namai, Yukie; Tayama, Takashi; Sakakibara, Toshiro; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Aoki, Yuji; Sato, Hideyuki

    2006-01-01

    The superconducting (SC) gap of the Pr-based skutterudite PrOs 4 Sb 12 has been investigated by means of field-angle-dependent specific heat C(H,φ) experiments. At fixed temperatures, H was varied and rotated in the basal planes. A 4-fold oscillation of C(H,φ) is observed in the entire H-T SC phase diagram. The minima are located along the [100] directions suggesting the excistence of gap nodes or minima along these directions. The oscillation amplitude vertical bar A vertical bar becomes maximum at H/H c2 ∼0.3. Below, vertical bar A vertical bar->0. The temperature variation of vertical bar A vertical bar follows a quadratic dependence

  19. What to consider when regulating electronic cigarettes: Pros, cons and unintended consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponnetto, Pasquale; Saitta, Daniela; Sweanor, David; Polosa, Riccardo

    2015-06-01

    Many public health experts, medical research societies, large health organizations and policy makers have expressed concerns about the increased popularity of electronic cigarettes and have pushed for more restrictive measures ranging from complete bans to tight regulations of these products either as medicines or as tobacco products. But these concerns have never been adequately qualified nor quantified. Without judicious assessment and thorough evaluation, regulations may have unintended consequences that can do more damage than good in public health terms. In this article, we will appraise the existing prominent regulatory frameworks for e-cigarettes, namely, general consumer product, medicinal product and tobacco product regulation, to highlight their pros and cons. Moreover, we provide concrete examples of the unintended consequences which may arise from inappropriate regulatory action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. An Economic Evaluation of TENS in Addition to Usual Primary Care Management for the Treatment of Tennis Elbow: Results from the TATE Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyn Lewis

    Full Text Available The TATE trial was a multicentre pragmatic randomized controlled trial of supplementing primary care management (PCM-consisting of a GP consultation followed by information and advice on exercises-with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS, to reduce pain intensity in patients with tennis elbow. This paper reports the health economic evaluation.Adults with new diagnosis of tennis elbow were recruited from 38 general practices in the UK, and randomly allocated to PCM (n = 120 or PCM plus TENS (n = 121. Outcomes included reduction in pain intensity and quality-adjusted-life-years (QALYs based on the EQ5D and SF6D. Two economic perspectives were evaluated: (i healthcare-inclusive of NHS and private health costs for the tennis elbow; (ii societal-healthcare costs plus productivity losses through work absenteeism. Mean outcome and cost differences between the groups were evaluated using a multiple imputed dataset as the base case evaluation, with uncertainty represented in cost-effectiveness planes and through probabilistic cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. Incremental healthcare cost was £33 (95%CI -40, 106 and societal cost £65 (95%CI -307, 176 for PCM plus TENS. Mean differences in outcome were: 0.11 (95%CI -0.13, 0.35 for change in pain (0-10 pain scale; -0.015 (95%CI -0.058, 0.029 for QALYEQ5D; 0.007 (95%CI -0.022, 0.035 for QALYSF6D (higher score differences denote greater benefit for PCM plus TENS. The ICER (incremental cost effectiveness ratio for the main evaluation of mean difference in societal cost (£ relative to mean difference in pain outcome was -582 (95%CI -8666, 8113. However, incremental ICERs show differences in cost-effectiveness of additional TENS, according to the outcome being evaluated.Our findings do not provide evidence for or against the cost-effectiveness of TENS as an adjunct to primary care management of tennis elbow.

  1. Preliminary clinical evaluation of Somatostatin Receptor Scintigraphy (SRS) with 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TATE in comparison to 111In-Octreoscan and 131 I MIBG scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubalewska, A.; Fross, K.; Staszczak, A.; Huszno, B.; Mikolajczak, R.; Gorska, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Over expression of somatostatin receptors in various neuroendocrine tumours prompted development of somatostatin analogues, which after radioactive labelling, could be used in oncological diagnostics. Somatostatin Receptor Positive Tumour (Spt) imaging with 111In-DTPA-DPhe1- octreotide (111In-Octreoscan) has become a widely used diagnostic procedure in clinical nuclear medicine. However 111In as a radiolabel has several drawbacks, including limited availability, sub optimal gamma energy and high radiation burden to the patient. Technetium (99mTc) labelling of somatostatin analogues is especially attractive due to the ready availability of 99mTc from generators and its well recognised favourable imaging characteristics. HYNIC conjugated Tyr 3 -Octreotate (HYNIC-TATE) prepared in our laboratory in a dry kit form was labelled with technetium-99mTc, with tricine and EDDA used as coligands. Tyr3-octreotate differs from octreotide (OC) by more hydrophilic tyrosine in the third position and the terminal threonine, which replaced threoninol present in OC. In vitro studies using cell lines transfected with somatostatin receptors (SSTR) revealed that octreotate shows 14- 17 times better binding affinity for SSTR type 2 than does OC. It is expected to clear more rapidly from non-target tissues as a result of the carboxylic group at the C-terminal of the peptide. HYNIC has been used as bifunctional chelator in 99mTc-HYNIC-Tyr3-octreotide (TOC) by Maecke and Behe, who reported on its favourable preclinical characteristics when EDDA was used as a co-ligand. These pre-clinical data were confirmed by Decristoforo and Mather and their early clinical studies appeared recently. The new radiopharmaceutical - 99mTc-DDA/HYNICTATE was evaluated in-vitro and in-vivo in an animal model and its potential for SSTR scintigraphy was documented. In the current patient study the diagnostic usefulness of the new radiopharmaceutical was tested for detection of tumours expressing SSTR

  2. Montreal Accord on Patient-Reported Outcomes (PROs) use series - Paper 3: patient-reported outcomes can facilitate shared decision-making and guide self-management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Vanessa K; Lyddiatt, Anne; Ware, Patrick; Jaglal, Susan B; Riopelle, Richard J; Bingham, Clifton O; Figueiredo, Sabrina; Sawatzky, Richard; Santana, Maria; Bartlett, Susan J; Ahmed, Sara

    2017-09-01

    There is a shift toward making health care patient centered, whereby patients are part of medical decision-making and take responsibility for managing their health. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) capture the patient voice and can be used to engage patients in medical decision-making. The objective of this paper is to present important factors from patients', clinicians', researchers', and decision-makers' perspectives that influence successful adoption of PROs in clinical practice. Factors recommended in this paper were informed by a patient partner. Based on themes arising from the Montreal Accord proceedings, we describe factors that influence the adoption of PROs and how PROs can have a positive effect by enhancing communication and providing opportunities to engage patients, carers, and clinicians in care. Consideration of patient factors (e.g., health literacy), family support and networks (e.g., peer-support networks), technology (e.g., e-health), and health care system factors (e.g., resources to implement PROs) is necessary to ensure PROs are successfully adopted. PRO evaluation plans most likely to succeed over the long term are those incorporating PROs identified by patients as necessary for self-management and that coincide with providers' needs for collaboratively developing treatment plans with patients and families. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Future of clip-on weapon sights: pros and cons from an applications perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, C. Reed; Greenslade, Ken; Francisco, Glen

    2015-05-01

    US Domestic, International, allied Foreign National Warfighters and Para-Military First Responders (Police, SWAT, Special Operations, Law Enforcement, Government, Security and more) are put in harm's way all the time. To successfully complete their missions and return home safely are the primary goals of these professionals. Tactical product improvements that affect mission effectiveness and solider survivability are pivotal to understanding the past, present and future of Clip-On in-line weapon sights. Clip-On Weapon Sight (WS) technology was deemed an interim solution by the US Government for use until integrated and fused (day/night multi-sensor) Weapon Sights (WSs) were developed/fielded. Clip-On has now become the solution of choice by Users, Warriors, Soldiers and the US Government. SWaP-C (size, weight and power -cost) has been improved through progressive advances in Clip-On Image Intensified (I2), passive thermal, LL-CMOS and fused technology. Clip-On Weapon Sights are now no longer mounting position sensitive. Now they maintain aim point boresight, so they can be used for longer ranges with increased capabilities while utilizing the existing zeroed weapon and daysight optic. Active illuminated low-light level (both analog I2 and digital LL-CMOS) imaging is rightfully a real-world technology, proven to deliver daytime and low-light level identification confidence. Passive thermal imaging is also a real-world technology, proven to deliver daytime, nighttime and all-weather (including dirty battlefield) target detection confidence. Image processing detection algorithms with intelligent analytics provide documented promise to improve confidence by reducing Users, Warriors and Soldiers' work-loads and improving overall system engagement solution outcomes. In order to understand the future of Clip-On in-line weapon sights, addressing pros and cons, this paper starts with an overview of historical weapon sight applications, technologies and stakeholder decisions

  4. L'expressió de la incredulitat en català: un estudi prosòdic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verònica Crespo-Sendra

    2014-02-01

    l’anàlisi de les oracions interrogatives absolutes neutres i les interrogatives absolutes que denoten incredulitat de l’"Atles interactiu de l’entonació del català", tot iniciant el traçat de les isoglosses prosòdiques en el domini lingüístic català. En la segona part de l’article presentem els resultats d’un experiment de percepció en català central que pretén investigar quins trets prosòdics són els que calen als parlants per a distingir els dos tipus d’oracions interrogatives que analitzem.

  5. Understanding the pros and cons of organ donation decision-making: Decisional balance and expressing donation intentions among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Shauna St Clair; Redmond, Nakeva; Williamson, Dana Hz; Thompson, Nancy J; Perryman, Jennie P; Patzer, Rachel E; Arriola, Kimberly Jacob

    2018-04-01

    Increasing public commitment to organ donation is critical to improving donor kidney availability for end-stage renal disease patients desiring transplant. This study surveyed ( N = 1339) African Americans, measuring perceived pros relative to cons of organ donation, to evaluate an existing Transtheoretical Model decisional balance scale and associations between decisional balance and expressing donation intentions. Findings supported the existing scale structure. More positive decisional balance ratios were associated with 1.76 times the odds of expressing intentions (95% confidence interval = 1.52-2.04). Pros were more strongly linked to donation intentions than cons. Greater understanding of organ donation decision-making is valuable for informing interventions that encourage donation.

  6. Ultrasonic dispersion and off-center rattling in heavy fermion superconductor PrOs4Sb12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Yuichi; Ueno, Takafumi; Takeda, Naoya; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Yanagisawa, Tatsuya; Goto, Terutaka; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Sato, Hideyuki

    2006-01-01

    Ultrasonic attenuation measurements have been firstly performed for a large single crystal of PrOs 4 Sb 12 with the dimensions of 5.97x0.6x0.6mm 3 . Remarkable frequency dependence around 20-40K has been observed in the elastic constant and attenuation coefficient of the longitudinal C 11 mode associated with E g symmetry strain in part, which results from a thermally activated off-center rattling with E g symmetry of a Pr ion inside a Sb icosahedron cage. Parameters of a characteristic time τ 0 =3.1x10 -11 s and an activation energy E=225K were obtained. This E g rattling involving a local charge fluctuation inside a Sb cage periodically arranged may couple to the conduction electrons. As a result, the electron-phonon coupling would lead to heavy fermion and its superconductivity in PrOs 4 Sb 12

  7. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs): the significance of using humanistic measures in clinical trial and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refolo, P; Minacori, R; Mele, V; Sacchini, D; Spagnolo, A G

    2012-10-01

    Patient-reported outcome (PRO) is an "umbrella term" that covers a whole range of potential types of measurement but it is used specifically to refer to all measures quantifying the state of health through the evaluation of outcomes reported by the patient himself/herself. PROs are increasingly seen as complementary to biomedical measures and they are being incorporated more frequently into clinical trials and clinical practice. After considering the cultural background of PROs - that is the well known patient-centered model of medicine -, their historical profile (since 1914, the year of the first outcome measure) and typologies, the paper aims at debating their methodological complexity and implementation into practice. Some clinical trials and therapeutic managements utilizing patient-centered measures will be also analyzed.

  8. Synthesis of colloidal metal nanocrystals in droplet reactors: the pros and cons of interfacial adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yi; Tong, Limin; Xia, Younan

    2014-07-09

    Droplet reactors have received considerable attention in recent years as an alternative route to the synthesis and potentially high-volume production of colloidal metal nanocrystals. Interfacial adsorption will immediately become an important issue to address when one seeks to translate a nanocrystal synthesis from batch reactors to droplet reactors due to the involvement of higher surface-to-volume ratios for the droplets and the fact that nanocrystals tend to be concentrated at the water-oil interface. Here we report a systematic study to compare the pros and cons of interfacial adsorption of metal nanocrystals during their synthesis in droplet reactors. On the one hand, interfacial adsorption can be used to generate nanocrystals with asymmetric shapes or structures, including one-sixth-truncated Ag octahedra and Au-Ag nanocups. On the other hand, interfacial adsorption has to be mitigated to obtain nanocrystals with uniform sizes and controlled shapes. We confirmed that Triton X-100, a nonionic surfactant, could effectively alleviate interfacial adsorption while imposing no impact on the capping agent typically needed for a shape-controlled synthesis. With the introduction of a proper surfactant, droplet reactors offer an attractive platform for the continuous production of colloidal metal nanocrystals.

  9. Arab-American Hookah Smokers: Initiation, and Pros and Cons of Hookah Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Nada O F; Kassem, Noura O; Jackson, Sheila R; Daffa, Reem M; Liles, Sandy; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2015-09-01

    To examine initiation, pros and cons of hookah tobacco smoking among Arab Americans. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, we recruited a community-based convenience sample of 458 adult Arab-American hookah smokers, mean age 28.4 years, who completed self-administered questionnaires. Irrespective of sex, most participants initiated hookah tobacco use by young adulthood in private homes or hookah lounges influenced by friends and family. Women initiated hookah use later than men. Ever dual smokers (hookah smokers who ever smoked a cigarette) initiated hookah use later than cigarettes; however, early hookah initiators < 18 years initiated hookah and cigarettes concurrently. Participants enjoyed the flavors of hookah tobacco, and complained about coughing, dizziness, and headaches. Early and late initiation of hookah tobacco use warrant prevention programs targeting the youth and older adults in communities, colleges, and middle and high schools that include health education campaigns, and encouragement of voluntary smokefree home rules. Tobacco control policies aimed to prevent initiation of hookah use should include regulation of hookah tobacco flavors, and should target the physical environments in neighborhoods, especially around schools and colleges, to reduce the proliferation of hookah lounges. Dual hookah tobacco and cigarette use warrant continuous monitoring.

  10. CLOVES syndrome: review of a PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Lopez, A; Blasco-Morente, G; Perez-Lopez, I; Herrera-Garcia, J D; Luque-Valenzuela, M; Sanchez-Cano, D; Lopez-Gutierrez, J C; Ruiz-Villaverde, R; Tercedor-Sanchez, J

    2017-01-01

    Overgrowth syndromes are characterized by global or localized disproportionate growth associated with other anomalies, including vascular malformations and neurological and/or visceral disorders. CLOVES (Congenital Lipomatous asymmetric Overgrowth of the trunk with lymphatic, capillary, venous, and combined-type Vascular malformations, Epidermal naevi, Scoliosis/Skeletal and spinal anomalies) is an overgrowth syndrome caused by mosaic activating mutation in gene PIK3CA, which gives rise to abnormal PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway activation. These mutations are responsible for the clinical manifestations of the syndrome, which include low- and high-flow vascular malformations, thoracic lipomatous hyperplasia, asymmetric growth, and visceral and neurological disorders. These common anomalies are illustrated with figures from two personal cases. Identification of the clinical and genetic characteristics of CLOVES syndrome is crucial for the differential diagnosis with other overgrowth syndromes, such as Proteus or Klippel-Trenaunay (K-T) syndromes, and for the therapeutic management of the different anomalies. In this context, a new entity comprising different syndromes with phenotypic mutations in PIK3CA has been proposed, designated PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS), with the aim of facilitating clinical management and establishing appropriate genetic study criteria. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Fish stakes: the pros and cons of the Marine Stewardship Council initiative: a debate from the pages of SAMUDRA Report

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    The recent effort by two global organizations, the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and the Anglo-Dutch multinational, Unilever, to establish an independent Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) as a conservation partnership to create market incentives for sustainable fishing has attracted a great deal of attention-as well as controversy. In this dossier, the pros and cons of the SC initiative are argued out in a series of articles that first appeared in SAMUDRA Report, the triannual publication o...

  12. Robot-assisted surgery for gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procopiuc, Livia; Tudor, Ştefan; Mănuc, Mircea; Diculescu, Mircea; Vasilescu, Cătălin

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery for gastric cancer is a relatively new research field, with convincing results mostly stemming from Asian countries. The use of the robotic surgery platform, thus far assessed as a safe procedure, which is also easier to learn, sets the background for a wider spread of minimally invasive technique in the treatment of gastric cancer. This review will cover the literature published so far, analyzing the pros and cons of robotic surgery and highlighting the remaining study questions. PMID:26798433

  13. Iliac crest autograft versus alternative constructs for anterior cervical spine surgery: Pros, cons, and costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Grafting choices available for performing anterior cervical diskectomy/fusion (ACDF) procedures have become a major concern for spinal surgeons, and their institutions. The “gold standard”, iliac crest autograft, may still be the best and least expensive grafting option; it deserves to be reassessed along with the pros, cons, and costs for alternative grafts/spacers. Methods: Although single or multilevel ACDF have utilized iliac crest autograft for decades, the implant industry now offers multiple alternative grafting and spacer devices; (allografts, cages, polyether-etherketone (PEEK) amongst others). While most studies have focused on fusion rates and clinical outcomes following ACDF, few have analyzed the “value-added” of these various constructs (e.g. safety/efficacy, risks/complications, costs). Results: The majority of studies document 95%-100% fusion rates when iliac crest autograft is utilized to perform single level ACDF (X-ray or CT confirmed at 6-12 postoperative months). Although many allograft studies similarly quote 90%-100% fusion rates (X-ray alone confirmed at 6-12 postoperative months), a recent “post hoc analysis of data from a prospective multicenter trial” (Riew KD et. al., CSRS Abstract Dec. 2011; unpublished) revealed a much higher delayed fusion rate using allografts at one year 55.7%, 2 years 87%, and four years 92%. Conclusion: Iliac crest autograft utilized for single or multilevel ACDF is associated with the highest fusion, lowest complication rates, and significantly lower costs compared with allograft, cages, PEEK, or other grafts. As spinal surgeons and institutions become more cost conscious, we will have to account for the “value added” of these increasingly expensive graft constructs. PMID:22905321

  14. Exploring the pros and cons of mechanistic case diagrams for problem-based learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjeong Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Mechanistic case diagram (MCD was recommended for increasing the depth of understanding of disease, but with few articles on its specific methods. We address the experience of making MCD in the fullest depth to identify the pros and cons of using MCDs in such ways. Methods During problem-based learning, we gave guidelines of MCD for its mechanistic exploration from subcellular processes to clinical features, being laid out in as much detail as possible. To understand the students’ attitudes and depth of study using MCDs, we analyzed the results of a questionnaire in an open format about experiencing MCDs and examined the resulting products. Results Through the responses to questionnaire, we found several favorable outcomes, major of which was deeper insight and comprehensive understanding of disease facilitated by the process of making well-organized diagram. The main disadvantages of these guidelines were the feeling of too much workload and difficulty of finding mechanisms. Students gave suggestions to overcome these problems: cautious reading of comprehensive texts, additional guidance from staff about depth and focus of mechanisms, and cooperative group work. From the analysis of maps, we recognized there should be allowance of diversities in the appearance of maps and many hypothetical connections, which could be related to an insufficient understanding of mechanisms in nature. Conclusion The more detailed an MCD task is, the better students can become acquainted with deep knowledges. However, this advantage should be balanced by the results that there are many ensuing difficulties for the work and deliberate help plans should be prepared.

  15. Molecular detection of pathogens in water--the pros and cons of molecular techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girones, Rosina; Ferrús, Maria Antonia; Alonso, José Luis; Rodriguez-Manzano, Jesus; Calgua, Byron; Corrêa, Adriana de Abreu; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Carratala, Anna; Bofill-Mas, Sílvia

    2010-08-01

    Pollution of water by sewage and run-off from farms produces a serious public health problem in many countries. Viruses, along with bacteria and protozoa in the intestine or in urine are shed and transported through the sewer system. Even in highly industrialized countries, pathogens, including viruses, are prevalent throughout the environment. Molecular methods are used to monitor viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens, and to track pathogen- and source-specific markers in the environment. Molecular techniques, specifically polymerase chain reaction-based methods, provide sensitive, rapid, and quantitative analytical tools with which to study such pathogens, including new or emerging strains. These techniques are used to evaluate the microbiological quality of food and water, and to assess the efficiency of virus removal in drinking and wastewater treatment plants. The range of methods available for the application of molecular techniques has increased, and the costs involved have fallen. These developments have allowed the potential standardization and automation of certain techniques. In some cases they facilitate the identification, genotyping, enumeration, viability assessment, and source-tracking of human and animal contamination. Additionally, recent improvements in detection technologies have allowed the simultaneous detection of multiple targets in a single assay. However, the molecular techniques available today and those under development require further refinement in order to be standardized and applicable to a diversity of matrices. Water disinfection treatments may have an effect on the viability of pathogens and the numbers obtained by molecular techniques may overestimate the quantification of infectious microorganisms. The pros and cons of molecular techniques for the detection and quantification of pathogens in water are discussed. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fifth Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference of the Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, M K; Pujade-Lauraine, E; Aoki, D

    2017-01-01

    This manuscript reports the consensus statements regarding recurrent ovarian cancer (ROC), reached at the fifth Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference (OCCC), which was held in Tokyo, Japan, in November 2015. Three important questions were identified: (i) What are the subgroups for clinical trials i...... including pre-defined patient reported outcomes (PROs), time to second subsequent therapy (TSST), or time until definitive deterioration of quality of life (TUDD)....

  17. Role of Hsp90 in Androgen-Refractory Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    designed siRNA sequence using Intergrated DNA Technologies RNAi online software tool (IDT, Coralville, IA). The sequence of siRNA specific for...proliferation and production of prostate-specific antigen in androgen-sensitive pros- tatic cancer cells, LNCaP, by dihydrotestosterone. Endocrinology 136

  18. Standard psychological consultations and follow up for women at increased risk of hereditary breast cancer considering prophylactic mastectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.M. Tan; E.M.A. Bleiker (Eveline); M.B.E. Menke-Pluymers (Marian); A.R. van Gool (Arthur); S. van Dooren (Silvia); B.N. van Geel (Bert); M.M.A. Tilanus-Linthorst (Madeleine); C.C.M. Bartels (Carina); J.G.M. Klijn (Jan); C.T. Brekelmans (Cecile); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Women at increased (genetic) risk of breast cancer have to weigh the personal pros and cons of prophylactic mastectomy (PM) as an option to reduce their cancer risk. So far, no routine referral to a psychologist has been investigated for women considering PM. Aim of this

  19. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  20. The filled skutterudite PrOs4Sb12: superconductivity and correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measson, M.A.

    2005-12-01

    The filled skutterudite PrOs 4 Sb 12 is the first Pr-based heavy fermion superconductor. This thesis addresses several important open questions including the determination of the quasi-particle mass renormalisation, the nature and mechanism of superconductivity, and the intrinsic or extrinsic nature of the double superconducting transition seen in the specific heat. A fit of the specific heat with magnetic interactions between the ions Pr is proposed. We extract from it an electronic term of between 300-750 mJ/K 2 .mol(Pr). Analysis of the specific heat jump provides evidence that heavy carriers are involved in Cooper pairing and that superconductivity is strongly coupled. Extensive characterizations by specific heat, resistivity, susceptibility measurements show that a double transition appears in the best samples. Nevertheless we bring the first serious doubts on the intrinsic nature of the double transition, because we have found samples with a single sharp transition at Tc2 and because the ratio of the two specific heat jumps shows strong dispersion among the samples. Furthermore we have measured the superconducting phase diagrams with an A.C. specific heat technique under magnetic field and under pressure up to 4.2 GPa, and we show that the two transitions, Tc1 and Tc2, exhibit similar behaviours with magnetic field and pressure. We find a strong change in the pressure dependence of Tc's above 2 GPa which might be related to a change in the nature of the superconductivity under pressure (at least partially mediated by fluctuations and only by phonons at respectively low and high pressure) which may be linked to the increase of the crystal field gap of the Pr ions. Analysis of the upper critical field shows the presence of at least two superconducting bands and concludes to a singlet nature of the pairing. A strong distortion of the flux-line lattice, which is constant with temperature and field, is obtained by small angle neutron scattering measurement

  1. Detection of gonococcal infection : pros and cons of a rapid test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickerman, Peter; Peeling, Rosanna W; Watts, Charlotte; Mabey, David

    2005-01-01

    populations with high sexual activity and/or low return rates. Unfortunately, however, most of the rapid tests currently available are immunoassays that are quite expensive and involve many steps, which limit their current usefulness. In summary, the pros and cons of using a rapid test are dependent on the setting. Culture or NAATs remain the best choice in an ideal setting. However, in settings where laboratory facilities are not available, or in high-risk populations where return rates are low, rapid tests may be the most effective way of diagnosing gonorrhea. Their optimal use in these settings requires the development of simpler and cheaper rapid tests.

  2. Segmentación automática de noticias mediante procesamiento de formas prosódicas

    OpenAIRE

    Mas Manchón, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    La segmentación automatizada de noticias en tiempo real es un problema que ha tenido un abordaje fundamentalmente lingüístico y de procesamiento de la señal en los últimos años. El trabajo que presentamos tiene un enfoque sustancialmente diferente: desde una perspectiva comunicológica, se toman las formas prosódicas típicas del discurso informativo y se intentan programar mediante el procesamiento cepstrum en el entorno Labview. Después de numerosas pruebas se fijan los diferentes parámetros ...

  3. PROS-1/Prospero Is a Major Regulator of the Glia-Specific Secretome Controlling Sensory-Neuron Shape and Function in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Sean W; Singhvi, Aakanksha; Liang, Yupu; Lu, Yun; Shaham, Shai

    2016-04-19

    Sensory neurons are an animal's gateway to the world, and their receptive endings, the sites of sensory signal transduction, are often associated with glia. Although glia are known to promote sensory-neuron functions, the molecular bases of these interactions are poorly explored. Here, we describe a post-developmental glial role for the PROS-1/Prospero/PROX1 homeodomain protein in sensory-neuron function in C. elegans. Using glia expression profiling, we demonstrate that, unlike previously characterized cell fate roles, PROS-1 functions post-embryonically to control sense-organ glia-specific secretome expression. PROS-1 functions cell autonomously to regulate glial secretion and membrane structure, and non-cell autonomously to control the shape and function of the receptive endings of sensory neurons. Known glial genes controlling sensory-neuron function are PROS-1 targets, and we identify additional PROS-1-dependent genes required for neuron attributes. Drosophila Prospero and vertebrate PROX1 are expressed in post-mitotic sense-organ glia and astrocytes, suggesting conserved roles for this class of transcription factors. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. References for HNF-SD-WM-TRD-007, ''System specification for the double-shell tank system: HNF-PROs, CFRs, DOE Orders, WACs''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, C.P.

    1998-01-01

    HNF-SD-WM-TRD-O07, System Specification for the Double-Shell Tank System, (hereafter referred to as DST Specification), defines the requirements of the double-shell tank system at the Hanford Site for Phase 1 privatization. Many of the sections in this document reference other documents for design guidance and requirements. Referenced documents include Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) procedures (HNF-PROS), Codes of Federal Regulation (CFRs), DOE Orders, and Washington Administrative Codes (WACs). This document provides rationale for the selection and inclusion of HNF-PROS, CFRs, DOE Orders and WACs

  5. Inherited protein S deficiency due to a novel nonsense mutation in the PROS1 gene in the patient with recurrent vascular access thrombosis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Jin Cho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Vascular access thrombosis is one of the major causes of morbidity in patients maintained on chronic hemodialysis. Thrombophilia has been recognized as a risk factor of vascular access thrombosis. The authors report a case of inherited protein S deficiency associated with vascular access thrombotic events. DNA sequence analysis of the PROS1 gene identified a novel heterozygous nonsense mutation in exon 10 by transition of AAG (lysine to TAG (stop codon at codon 473 (c.1417A>T, p.K473X. Results from the study suggest that the inherited protein S deficiency due to a PROS1 gene mutation may cause vascular access thrombosis in hemodialysis patients.

  6. Self-efficacy, pros, and cons as variables associated with adjacent stages of change for regular exercise in Japanese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Satoshi; Tsuda, Akira; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Fallon, Elizabeth A; Sakano, Yuji

    2017-07-01

    This study examined self-efficacy (confidence to exercise), pros (exercise's advantages), and cons (exercise's disadvantages) as variables associated across the transtheoretical model's six stages of change in 403 Japanese college students. A series of logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results showed that higher pros and lower cons were associated with being in contemplation compared to precontemplation. Lower cons were associated with being in preparation compared to contemplation. Higher self-efficacy was associated with being in action compared to preparation as well as being in maintenance compared to action. Lower cons were associated with being in termination compared to maintenance.

  7. Action des copolymères éthylène-acétate de vinyle sur la cinétique de nucléation et de croissance des n-paraffines n milieu hydrocarbure. Effect of Vinyl Ethyleneacetate Copolymers on the Nucleation and Growth Kinetics of N-Paraffins in a Hydrocarbon Medium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petinelli J. C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On cherche à mettre en évidence le mode d'action des copolymères éthylène-acétate de vinyle sur la cinétique de cristallisation des n-paraffines en milieu hydro-carbure. On s'attache, notamment, à déterminer si l'efficacité de ces additifs est peu ou prou influencée par le nombre de motifs non paraffiniques contenus dans leur chaîne.On décrit deux montages expérimentaux, l'un permettant d'étudier la cinétique de nucléation, l'autre la cinétique de croissance en solution. On observe, grâce à ces deux dispositifs, que la fréquence de germination tridimensionnelle et la vitesse de croissance des n-paraffines diminuent quand la concentration d'acétate de vinyle dans la solution augmente.On établit une relation entre le taux d'acétate de vinyle de la chaîne des copo-lymères et leur efficacité à retarder la cinétique de nucléation. La cinétique de croissance est discutée. On montre l'adsorption très forte de ces additifs sur les faces des cristaux et que le copolymère le plus riche en groupes acétate de vinyle est celui qui retarde le plus la cinétique de nucléation et de croissance des n- paraffines. An effort is made ta détermine how vinyl ethyleneacetate copolymers effect thé crystallization kinetics of n-paraffins in a hydrocarbon medium. In particular, research was done ta see if thé effectiveness of such additives is in thé least bit influenced by thé number of non-paraffinic patterns contained in their chain.Two expérimental assemblies are described, one for investigating nucléation kinetics, thé other growth kinetics in solution. These two devices are used ta observe thot thé theee-dimensional germination fréquency and growth rate of n-paraffins decrease as thé vinyl-acétate concentration in thé solution increases.A relationship is established between thé vinyl-acétate ratio of thé copolymer chain and thé effectiveness of thé copolymer in delaying thé nucléation kinetics. Growth kinetics

  8. Pros, cons, and ethics of HPV vaccine in teens?Why such controversy?

    OpenAIRE

    White, Mark Donald

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection remains one of the most commonly sexually transmitted infections in both females and males. HPV viruses are associated with several manifestations including genital warts, but more importantly for urology practitioners, cervical and penile carcinomas and recurrent genital condylomata in both sexes. The incidence of HPV-related carcinomas has increased in cervical, oropharyngeal, vulvar, penile, and anal cancers. Effective vaccines have been av...

  9. Colorectal Cancer Screening among Latinos in Three Communities on the Texas-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María E.; Savas, Lara S.; Wilson, Katherine M.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Atkinson, John; Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Vernon, Sally W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) prevalence and psychosocial correlates of CRCS among Latinos in South Texas. Method: Using multivariable analyses, we examined the association of perceived susceptibility, self-efficacy, pros and cons, subjective norms, knowledge and fatalism on CRCS among 544 Latinos (50 years and older).…

  10. Getting the Most from Your CD-ROM Dollars: The CD-ROM Bundle [and] The Pros and Cons of CD-ROM Bundling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarjeant, Eric W.; O'Connor, Mary Ann

    1992-01-01

    Discusses and reviews CD-ROM bundles--i.e., hardware, software and CD-ROM kits--including their features, specifications, drawbacks, and prices. Recommends buying through mail order for the best selection and price. The pros and cons of bundling as a marketing strategy are discussed and a list of vendors is provided. (EA)

  11. Comparison between dynamic cystocolpoproctography and dynamic pelvic floor MRI: pros and cons: which is the "functional" examination for anorectal and pelvic floor dysfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglinte, Dean D T; Hale, Douglass S; Sandrasegaran, Kumar

    2013-10-01

    "Functional" imaging of anorectal and pelvic floor dysfunction has assumed an important role in the diagnosis and management of these disorders. Although defecography has been widely practiced for decades to evaluate the dynamics of rectal emptying, debate concerning its clinical relevance, how it should be done and interpreted continues. Due to the recognition of the association of defecatory disorders with pelvic organ prolapse in women, the need to evaluate the pelvic floor as a unit has arisen. To meet this need, defecography has been extended to include not only evaluation of defecation disorders but also the rest of the pelvic floor by opacifying the small bowel, vagina, and the urinary bladder. The term "dynamic cystocolpoproctography" (DCP) has been appropriately applied to this examination. Rectal emptying performed with DCP provides the maximum stress to the pelvic floor resulting in complete levator ani relaxation. In addition to diagnosing defecatory disorders, this method of examination demonstrates maximum pelvic organ descent and provides organ-specific quantification of organ prolapse, information that is only inferred by means of physical examination. It has been found to be of clinical value in patients with defecation disorders and the diagnosis of associated prolapse in other compartments that are frequently unrecognized by history taking and the limitations of physical examination. Pelvic floor anatomy is complex and DCP does not show the anatomical details pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides. Technical advances allowing acquisition of dynamic rapid MRI sequences has been applied to pelvic floor imaging. Early reports have shown that pelvic MRI may be a useful tool in pre-operative planning of these disorders and may lead to a change in surgical therapy. Predictions of hypothetical increase cancer incidence and deaths in patients exposed to radiation, the emergence of pelvic floor MRI in addition to questions relating to the

  12. Clinical results of intravenous and intra-arterial peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) using Y-90 and Lu-177 DOTA-TYR3-OCTREOTATE (Y-90 DOTA-TATE) in 151 patents with metastatic progressive neuroendocrine tumors (NET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, R.P.; Soeldner, J.; Strauss, H.-J.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the anti-tumor efficacy and adverse effects of the somatostatin analog octreotate labelled with Y-90 or Lu-177 in patients with progressive neuroendocrine tumors and severe tumour burden. 151 patients (69 f and 82 m, age range=19-81 yrs), 307 administrations, Mean activity per cycle 3.35 GBq (max. 7000 MBq) and time between cycles 3 to 6 months. 7 pts received intra-arterial injections (8 cycles). All patients were selected based on high SST-R expression as proven by immunohistochemistry and Ga-68 DOTA-NOC receptor PET/CT or somatostatin scintigraphy. Re-staging was done using Ga-68 DOTA-NOC PET/CT, MRI, FDG-PET/CT, SST-R scintigraphy, F-18-Fluoride-PET/CT, renal scintigraphy (MAG 3), GFR measurements (DTPA) and monthly laboratory tests (haematology, liver enzymes, renal parameters, tumour markers). Results revealed 2 patients with complete remission (de novo therapy), Partial remission (PR) in 37 %, Stable disease (SD) in 52 % and disease progression (DP) in 11%. Objective tumour response (including improvement of symptoms) was seen in 85 % of the patients. A few adverse effects were also noted: Nausea and vomiting occurred in 35 % of female, and in 15 % of male patients. Anemia, leucocytopenia and thrombocytopenia (G2-3) observed in less than <15 %. None of the pts developed myelodysplastic syndrome. No hair loss was observed. We conclude that PRRT with Y-90/Lu-177 DOTA-TATE results in a high response rate with significant improvement of clinical symptoms; the treatment is tolerated with low toxicity and few adverse effects and shows promising results also in pts with progressive neuroendocrine tumours after biological treatment(interferon/sandostatin) or after chemotherapy. Renal toxicity can be reduced by prolonging the intervals between therapy cycles and reducing the maximum activity per cycle ('Bad Berka concept')

  13. Pros, cons, and ethics of HPV vaccine in teens-Why such controversy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mark Donald

    2014-12-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection remains one of the most commonly sexually transmitted infections in both females and males. HPV viruses are associated with several manifestations including genital warts, but more importantly for urology practitioners, cervical and penile carcinomas and recurrent genital condylomata in both sexes. The incidence of HPV-related carcinomas has increased in cervical, oropharyngeal, vulvar, penile, and anal cancers. Effective vaccines have been available for almost a decade, but widespread adoption of vaccine administration has been problematic for multiple reasons. Many countries (over 100) have adopted vaccine programs for females and an increasing number of countries are extending the indications to include males between the ages of 9-26. There still seems to be controversy surrounding these universal vaccination programs as well as some ethical and practical concerns regarding the administration of a vaccine for diseases that are associated with sexual contact in both sexes, especially during the early adolescent years. The objective was to provide a review of the available literature so pediatric and adult urologists may be more aware of the issues related to HPV vaccination in order to more effectively counsel patients and parents regarding the risks, benefits, and public health issues regarding HPV vaccination. This topic is especially relevant to pediatric urologists who see patients in the target age group for the HPV vaccine. There has been an explosion of literature regarding HPV vaccination programs and the relative difficulty in adopting the vaccine series with a completion rate of under 50% of patients in the recommended age ranges for vaccination. Articles were obtained from an extensive Medline literature search (1998-present) to evaluate the current HPV vaccination regimens for teenagers with special emphasis on the urologically focused disease burden. The adoption of universal HPV vaccination has been difficult

  14. Establishment of a National ecological network to conserve biodiversity. Pros and cons of ecological corridors Establishment of a National ecological network to conserve biodiversity. Pros and cons of ecological corridors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Bergès, Philip Roche and Catherine Avon

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecological corridors are a fundamental element in the National ecological network approved by the Grenelle environmental agreement in order to reduce ecosystem damage caused by fragmentation of the natural habitat zones of species. How can their effectiveness be evaluated? This article sums up current knowledge on their pros and cons.Fragmentation of natural habitats is considered one of the main causes of biodiversity loss. One of the proposed solutions to limit the effects of fragmentation is to restore ecological connectivity by creating ecological corridors between zones containing natural habitats. The concept remains controversial among scientists, but now serves as the basis for one of the operational projects of the Grenelle environmental agreements in the form of the National ecological network. After examining the ecological concepts justifying the political goal and presenting the various ecological roles of corridors, we briefly discuss their overall advantages and disadvantages. Then, we look closely at the methodological difficulties in detecting a corridor effect. Finally, we recommend a close partnership between research and policy to design biodiversity monitoring and evaluation systems in the different land-management plans.

  15. Polar Kerr Effect from Time-Reversal Symmetry Breaking in the Heavy-Fermion Superconductor PrOs4Sb12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson-Falk, E. M.; Schemm, E. R.; Aoki, Y.; Maple, M. B.; Kapitulnik, A.

    2018-05-01

    We present polar Kerr effect measurements of the filled skutterudite superconductor PrOs4 Sb12 . Simultaneous ac susceptibility measurements allow us to observe the superconducting transition under the influence of heating from the optical beam. A nonzero Kerr angle θK develops below the superconducting transition, saturating at ˜300 nrad at low temperatures. This result is repeated across several measurements of multiple samples. By extrapolating the measured θK(T ) to zero optical power, we are able to show that the Kerr angle onset temperature in one set of measurements is consistent with the transition to the B phase at TC 2. We discuss the possible explanations for this result and its impact on the understanding of multiphase and inhomogeneous superconductivity in PrOs4 Sb12 .

  16. Theoretical investigation of the vortex state in new superconductors: MgB2 and PrOs4Sb12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, V.H.

    2006-01-01

    As illustrated by the present thesis work, gap function anisotropy and crystal anisotropy are combined when influencing superconducting properties under a magnetic field. In order to study the mixed state of the recently discovered multiband superconductor MgB 2 , we first derive the Ginzburg-Landau functional for a two-gap superconductor from a weak coupling BCS model. The interaction between the two condensates is then described by a unique Josephson-type coupling. The two-gap theory then enables to explain the curvature and the anisotropy of the upper critical field, as well as the 30 degrees change of orientation for the vortex lattice which is observed when increasing the strength of the magnetic field applied along the c-tilde axis. Besides, we investigate the vortex lattice geometry in the superconducting heavy fermion PrOs 4 Sb 12 . When taking into account non local corrections for an s-wave T h -tetrahedral superconductor, we can explain the observed deformation of the lattice by the crystal symmetry of the compound. Ab initio results of the band structures confirm quantitatively our analysis. (author)

  17. The Use of Laser Microdissection in Forensic Sexual Assault Casework: Pros and Cons Compared to Standard Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sergio; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo; Porto, Maria J; Cainé, Laura

    2017-07-01

    Sexual assault samples are among the most frequently analyzed in a forensic laboratory. These account for almost half of all samples processed routinely, and a large portion of these cases remain unsolved. These samples often pose problems to traditional analytic methods of identification because they consist most frequently of cell mixtures from at least two contributors: the victim (usually female) and the perpetrator (usually male). In this study, we propose the use of current preliminary testing for sperm detection in order to determine the chances of success when faced with samples which can be good candidates to undergo analysis with the laser microdissection technology. Also, we used laser microdissection technology to capture fluorescently stained cells of interest differentiated by gender. Collected materials were then used for DNA genotyping with commercially available amplification kits such as Minifiler, Identifiler Plus, NGM, and Y-Filer. Both the methodology and the quality of the results were evaluated to assess the pros and cons of laser microdissection compared with standard methods. Overall, the combination of fluorescent staining combined with the Minifiler amplification kit provided the best results for autosomal markers, whereas the Y-Filer kit returned the expected results regardless of the used method. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Monitoring chemical reactions by low-field benchtop NMR at 45 MHz: pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Elipe, Maria Victoria; Milburn, Robert R

    2016-06-01

    Monitoring chemical reactions is the key to controlling chemical processes where NMR can provide support. High-field NMR gives detailed structural information on chemical compounds and reactions; however, it is expensive and complex to operate. Conversely, low-field NMR instruments are simple and relatively inexpensive alternatives. While low-field NMR does not provide the detailed information as the high-field instruments as a result of their smaller chemical shift dispersion and the complex secondary coupling, it remains of practical value as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool and is complimentary to other established methods, such as ReactIR and Raman spectroscopy. We have tested a picoSpin-45 (currently under ThermoFisher Scientific) benchtop NMR instrument to monitor three types of reactions by 1D (1) H NMR: a Fischer esterification, a Suzuki cross-coupling, and the formation of an oxime. The Fischer esterification is a relatively simple reaction run at high concentration and served as proof of concept. The Suzuki coupling is an example of a more complex, commonly used reaction involving overlapping signals. Finally, the oxime formation involved a reaction in two phases that cannot be monitored by other PAT tools. Here, we discuss the pros and cons of monitoring these reactions at a low-field of 45 MHz by 1D (1) H NMR. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Special funding schemes for innovative medical devices in French hospitals: the pros and cons of two different approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Nicolas; van den Brink, Hélène

    2014-07-01

    Financing innovative medical devices is an important challenge for national health policy makers, and a crucial issue for hospitals. However, when innovative medical devices are launched on the European market there is generally little clinical evidence regarding both efficacy and safety, both because of the flaws in the European system for regulating such devices, and because they are at an early stage of development. To manage the uncertainty surrounding the reimbursement of innovation, several European countries have set up temporary funding schemes to generate evidence about the effectiveness of devices. This article explores two different French approaches to funding innovative in-hospital devices and collecting supplementary data: the coverage with evidence development (CED) scheme introduced under Article L. 165-1-1 of the French Social Security Code; and national programs for hospital-based research. We discuss pros and cons of both approaches in the light of CED policies in Germany and the UK. The CED policies for devices share common limitations. Thus, transparency of CED processes should be enhanced and decisions need to be made in a timely way. Finally, we think that closer collaboration between manufacturers, health authorities and hospitals is essential to make CED policies more operational. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Providing Databases for Different Indoor Positioning Technologies: Pros and Cons of Magnetic Field and Wi-Fi Based Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Torres-Sospedra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Localization is one of the main pillars for indoor services. However, it is still very difficult for the mobile sensing community to compare state-of-the-art indoor positioning systems due to the scarcity of publicly available databases. To make fair and meaningful comparisons between indoor positioning systems, they must be evaluated in the same situation, or in the same sets of situations. In this paper, two databases are introduced for studying the performance of magnetic field and Wi-Fi fingerprinting based positioning systems in the same environment (i.e., indoor area. The “magnetic” database contains more than 40,000 discrete captures (270 continuous samples, whereas the “Wi-Fi” one contains 1,140 ones. The environment and both databases are fully detailed in this paper. A set of experiments is also presented where two simple but effective baselines have been developed to test the suitability of the databases. Finally, the pros and cons of both types of positioning techniques are discussed in detail.

  1. Desarrollo de la competencia prosódica en la lectura en voz alta: importancia de las pausas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aintzane Etxebarria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años se ha constatado un aumento de estudios sobre los elemen - tos prosódicos del texto (tono, pausas, etc., que defienden la necesidad de trabajar estos componentes de la competencia comuni - cativa oral para mejorar la comprensión de los textos leídos en voz alta. Con el objetivo de estudiar las pausas como elementos que estructuran el discurso, en este estudio se computan los tipos de pausas, se identifican algunos aspectos a trabajar y, por último, se especifica el peso de algunas variables como las lenguas maternas, el género y la proce - dencia en la realización de las pausas den - tro de estructuras indivisibles. Para ello se ha realizado un experimento a partir de un texto periodístico, leído en voz alta, sobre un corpus de 100 informantes vascos bilingües con edades comprendidas entre los 18 y 25 años, y estudiantes de las Escuelas de Ma - gisterio de la UPV/EHU. Del estudio estadís - tico de los datos se concluye que los tipos de pausas más empleados por los jóvenes lecto - res son las silenciosas, que la posición de las pausas a menudo es incorrecta y que las len - guas maternas influyen significativamente en este hecho.

  2. Balancing the pros and cons of GMOs: socio-scientific argumentation in pre-service teacher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinici, Ayhan

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates the role of the discursive process in the act of scientific knowledge building. Specifically, it links scientific knowledge building to risk perception of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). To this end, this study designed and implemented a three-stage argumentation programme giving pre-service teachers (PSTs) the opportunity to consider, discuss and construct shared decisions about GMOs. The study involved 101 third-year PSTs from two different classes, randomly divided into control and experimental groups. The study utilised both quantitative and qualitative methods. During the quantitative phase, researchers administered a pre- and post-intervention scale to measure both groups' risk perception of GMOs. During the qualitative phase, data were collected from the experimental group alone through individual and group reports and an open-ended questionnaire. T-test results showed a statistically significant difference between the experimental and control groups' risk perception of GMOs. Qualitative analysis also revealed differences, for example, in PSTs' weighing of the pros and cons of scientific research demonstrating positive results of GMOs. In addition, PSTs' acceptance of GMOs increased. Consequently, this study suggests that developing familiarity with scientific enterprise may play an effective role in adopting a scientific perspective as well as a more balanced risk perception of GMOs.

  3. Effects of Pros and Cons of Applying Big Data Analytics to Consumers’ Responses in an E-Commerce Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Mai Le

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The era of Big Data analytics has begun in most industries within developed countries. This new analytics tool has raised motivation for experts and researchers to study its impacts to business values and challenges. However, studies which help to understand customers’ views and their behavior towards the applications of Big Data analytics are lacking. This research aims to explore and determine the pros and cons of applying Big Data analytics that affects customers’ responses in an e-commerce environment. Data analyses were conducted in a sample of 273 respondents from Vietnam. The findings found that information search, recommendation system, dynamic pricing, and customer services had significant positive effects on customers’ responses. Privacy and security, shopping addiction, and group influences were found to have significant negative effects on customers’ responses. Customers’ responses were measured at intention and behavior stages. Moreover, positive and negative effects simultaneously presented significant effect on customers’ responses. Each dimension of positive and negative factors had different significant impacts on customers’ intention and behavior. Specifically, information search had a significant influence on customers’ intention and improved customers’ behavior. Shopping addiction had a drastic change from intention to behavior compared to group influences and privacy and security. This study contributes to improve understanding of customers’ responses under big data era. This could play an important role to develop sustainable consumers market. E-vendors can rely on Big Data analytics but over usage may have some negative applications.

  4. Hierarquia prosódica e hierarquia melódica na canção Gabriela Prosodic hierarchy and melodic hierarchy in Gabriela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto do Carmo Jr

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo propõe uma investigação das relações de interface entre o componente linguístico - prosódico - e o componente musical na palavra cantada. Tomando como objeto a canção Gabriela, de Tom Jobim, investigamos as relações que se estabelecem entre a hierarquia prosódica (Nespor & Vogel, 1986 e a hierarquia melódica (Carmo Jr 2007. Mostramos que no caso de incompatibilidade entre a estrutura prosódica e melódica, os processos fonológicos do português brasileiro de elisão, degeminação, ditongação e retração acentual podem violar seus domínios prosódicos de aplicação, mas ainda assim são organizados de acordo com os domínios melódicos.In this article we investigate the relation between the linguistic (prosodic component and the musical grammar in lyrics. Specifically, by analyzing Gabriela, by Tom Jobim, we discuss the relation between the Prosodic Hierarchy (Nespor & Vogel 1986 and the Melodic Hierarchy (Carmo Jr 2007. We show that when there is a mismatch between these two hierarchies, the phonological processes of elision, degemination, dipthongation and stress retraction in Brazilian Portuguese may not comply with the prosodic domain for their application, while still satisfying the restrictions related to the melodic domains.

  5. ÎNVĂŢĂMÂNTUL PRIMAR ÎN COLONIILE GERMANE DIN BASARABIA SUB REGIMUL ŢARIST (A DOUA JUMĂTATE A SECOLULUI XIX – ÎNCEPUTUL SECOLULUI XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie GULICA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Şcoala germană, în urma procesului de formare în prima jumătate a secolului al XIX-lea, începând cu anii 1860 este supusă treptat controlului din partea statului. Ca urmare, s-a încercat o rusificare cuprinzătoare a acestor instituţii de învăţământ, însă demersul respectiv a fost deranjat de diverşi factori de conjunctură, în special de lipsa profesorilor de limbă rusă. Cu toate acestea, acţiunea a continuat în deceniile ce au urmat, prin introducerea predării limbii ruse – la început în clasa a treia, apoi în clasa întâi. În consecinţă, procesul de alfabetizare a scăzut faţă de perioada în care şcoala germană s-a bucurat de libertate – fenomen înregistrat şi în alte comunităţi etnice ale Imperiului Rus.PRIMARY EDUCATION IN THE GERMAN COLONIES IN BESSARABIA UNDER THE TSARIST REGIME (SECOND HALF OF THE XIX – EARLY XX CENTURY The German school, after the process of foundation in the first half of XIXth century, beginning with the years 1860 is supposed gradually to the control of the state. First, it is controlled by the Ministry of Public Education through the Ministry of Imperial Domains from Odessa, but then, beginning with 1880 years, the intermediary of this ministry was suppressed. As results, it was attempted a comprehensive Russification of these educational institutions, but the respective demarche was disturbed by various conjuncture factors, especially the lack of teachers of Russian language. However, the action continued during the decades that followed by introducing the teaching of Russian language, at the beginning in the third grade, then in the first grade. Consequently, the literacy process has decreased compared to the period in which the German school enjoyed freedom, a phenomenon recorded also in other ethnic communities of Russian Empire.

  6. Epoetin alfa improves anemia and anemia-related, patient-reported outcomes in patients with breast cancer receiving myelotoxic chemotherapy: Results of a european, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Pronzato (Paolo); E. Cortesi (Enrico); C.C.D. van der Rijt (Carin); A. Bols (Alain); J.A. Moreno-Nogueira (José); C.F. de Oliveira; P. Barrett-Lee (Peter); P.J. Ostler (Peter); R. Rosso (Ricardo)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPurpose. To evaluate the effects of epoetin alfa on patient- reported outcomes (PROs) in patients with breast cancer receiving myelotoxic chemotherapy. Materials and Methods. Women with hemoglobin concentrations ≤12.0 g/dl and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status

  7. Development of MijnAVL, an interactive portal to empower breast and lung cancer survivors: an iterative, multi-stakeholder approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, W.; Groen, W.G.; Oldenburg, H.S.A.; Wouters, M.W.J.M.; Aaronson, N.K.; van Harten, W.H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: MijnAVL (MyAVL) is an interactive portal being developed to empower cancer survivors. Literature review and focus groups yielded the selection of features such as access to the electronic medical record (EMR), patient reported outcomes (PROs) and related feedback, and a physical activity

  8. Development of MijnAVL, an Interactive Portal to Empower Breast and Lung Cancer Survivors: An Iterative, Multi-Stakeholder Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, Wilma; Groen, Wim G.; Oldenburg, Hester S.A.; Wouters, Michel W.J.M.; Aaronson, Neil K.; van Harten, Willem H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: MijnAVL (MyAVL) is an interactive portal being developed to empower cancer survivors. Literature review and focus groups yielded the selection of features such as access to the electronic medical record (EMR), patient reported outcomes (PROs) and related feedback, and a physical activity

  9. An inevitable wave of prescription drug monitoring programs in the context of prescription opioids: pros, cons and tensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Mofizul; McRae, Ian S

    2014-08-16

    In an effort to control non-medical use and/or medical abuse of prescription drugs, particularly prescription opioids, electronic prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMP) have been introduced in North-American countries, Australia and some parts of Europe. Paradoxically, there are simultaneous pressures to increase opioid prescribing for the benefit of individual patients and to reduce it for the sake of public health, and this pressure warrants a delicate balance of appropriate therapeutic uses of these drugs with the risk of developing dependence. This article discusses pros and cons of PDMP in reducing diversion of prescription opioids, without hampering access to those medications for those with genuine needs, and highlights tensions around PDMP implementation. PDMPs may help alleviate diversion, over-prescription and fraudulent prescribing/dispensing; prompt drug treatment referrals; avoid awkward drug urine test; and inform spatial changes in prescribing practices and help designing tailored interventions. Fear of legal retribution, privacy and data security, potential confusion about addiction and pseudo-addiction, and potential undue pressure of detecting misuse/diversion - are the major problems. There are tensions about unintended consequence of excessive regulatory enforcements, corresponding collateral damages particularly about inadequate prescribing for patients with genuine needs, and mandatory consultation requirements of PDMP. In this era of information technology PDMP is likely to flourish and remain with us for a long time. A clear standard of practice against which physicians' care will be judged may expedite the utilisation of PDMP. In addition, adequate training on addiction and pain management along with public awareness, point-of-supply data entry from pharmacy, point-of-care real-time access to data, increasing access to addiction treatment and appropriate regulatory enforcement preferably through healthcare administration, together

  10. Reprocessing. Pros and cons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This brochure represents arguments of the topical discussion in form of thesis and counter-thesis-quotations from publications of the DWK on the one hand, and the statements of a collaborator of the Oeko-Institut, Hannover, on the other hand. (orig./HP) [de

  11. SUPERCOLLIDER: Pros and cons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    As this issue goes to press, proponents and opponents of the US Superconducting Supercollider (SSC), now under construction in Ellis County, Texas, are preparing for a major confrontation in the US Senate. (In June, the House of Representatives voted 280-150 to pull the rug out from under the SSC's feet, and prematurely terminate construction of the 87-kilometre proton-proton collider.) In the face of such uncertainty, the Texas National Research Laboratory Commission has withheld $79 million of state support, making for major SSC cash flow problems. Just as tunneling progress was starting to overtake the planned schedule, one of the four big tunneling machines has been stopped

  12. Flexiplace: Pros and Cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Frank W.

    1983-01-01

    Workers and employers must carefully weigh the advantages and disadvantages of new "work at home" (flexiplace) arrangements. Discussed are: advantages of flexiplace for workers, such as no commuting; advantages for employers, such as increased productivity; and arguments against, such as supervisory problems. (NW)

  13. Statins: pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinal-Fernandez, Iago; Casal-Dominguez, Maria; Mammen, Andrew L

    2018-05-23

    Statins inhibit the critical step of cholesterol synthesis in which 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMGC) is transformed to mevalonate by the enzyme HMGC reductase. By doing so, they have a potent lipid-lowering effect that reduces cardiovascular risk and decreases mortality. Since the mevalonate pathway also influences endothelial function, the inflammatory response, and coagulation, the effects of statins reach well beyond their cholesterol lowering properties. As with all drugs, statins may have adverse effects; these include musculoskeletal symptoms, increased risk of diabetes, and higher rates of hemorrhagic stroke. However, the frequency of adverse effects is extremely low and, in selected patient populations, the benefits of statins considerably outweigh the potential risks. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  14. Dams: Pros and Cons

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Steve

    From the figures, malaria and fever (Typhoid, yellow etc) showed an increased incidence before and during construction. ... and fever prevalence tend to follow seasonal rainfall variations. .... people live in or close to irrigation systems in malaria endemic .... Used for Mosquito Surveillance and Control”, Virginia. Department ...

  15. The beliefs about pros and cons of drinking and intention to change among hazardous and moderate alcohol users: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansker, Fredrik G; Helgason, Asgeir R; Ahacic, Kozma

    2014-08-01

    Fundamental to supporting hazardous alcohol users are the rationales for reducing alcohol intake highlighted by the users themselves. This study analyses the relative importance of beliefs about pros and cons of drinking in relation to having an intention to reduce intake among both hazardous and moderate alcohol users. Intention to change was assessed in a representative sample of Stockholm's population (n = 4278, response rate 56.5%). Alcohol use was assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test measure. A decisional balance inventory was used to examine various beliefs about the pros and cons of drinking, which covered affect changes, social gains and losses, and possible adverse effects. Independent correlations were determined by logistic regression using a backward exclusion procedure (P > 0.05). Higher ratings of importance were generally related to intent, whether or not the contrast was with having no intent or already having made a reduction. This was especially true for hazardous users. Only two beliefs were independently correlated with change among hazardous users: 'Drinking could get me addicted' and 'Drinking makes me more relaxed/less tense' (pseudo-R2 change rated pro arguments as more important than those with no intent to change. Of the investigated pros and cons, only a few were independently related to intention to change drinking behaviour. These arguments provide interesting topics in consultations. Little support was found for any rational decision making behind the intention to reduce alcohol intake. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  16. The pros and cons of ecological risk assessment based on data from different levels of biological organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Jason R.; Salice, Christopher J.; Nisbet, Roger M.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological risk assessment (ERA) is the process used to evaluate the safety of manufactured chemicals to the environment. Here we review the pros and cons of ERA across levels of biological organization, including suborganismal (e.g. biomarkers), individual, population, community, ecosystem, and landscapes levels. Our review revealed that level of biological organization is often related negatively with ease at assessing cause-effect relationships, ease of high-throughput screening of large numbers of chemicals (it is especially easier for suborganismal endpoints), and uncertainty of the ERA because low levels of biological organization tend to have a large distance between their measurement (what is quantified) and assessment endpoints (what is to be protected). In contrast, level of biological organization is often related positively with sensitivity to important negative and positive feedbacks and context dependencies within biological systems, and ease at capturing recovery from adverse contaminant effects. Some endpoints did not show obvious trends across levels of biological organization, such as the use of vertebrate animals in chemical testing and ease at screening large numbers of species, and other factors lacked sufficient data across levels of biological organization, such as repeatability, variability, cost per study, and cost per species of effects assessment, the latter of which might be a more defensible way to compare costs of ERAs than cost per study. To compensate for weaknesses of ERA at any particular level of biological organization, we also review mathematical modeling approaches commonly used to extrapolate effects across levels of organization. Finally, we provide recommendations for next generation ERA, submitting that if there is an ideal level of biological organization to conduct ERA, it will only emerge if ERA is approached simultaneously from the bottom of biological organization up as well as from the top down, all while employing

  17. The pros and cons of ecological risk assessment based on data from different levels of biological organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Jason R; Salice, Christopher J; Nisbet, Roger M

    2016-10-01

    Ecological risk assessment (ERA) is the process used to evaluate the safety of manufactured chemicals to the environment. Here we review the pros and cons of ERA across levels of biological organization, including suborganismal (e.g., biomarkers), individual, population, community, ecosystem and landscapes levels. Our review revealed that level of biological organization is often related negatively with ease at assessing cause-effect relationships, ease of high-throughput screening of large numbers of chemicals (it is especially easier for suborganismal endpoints), and uncertainty of the ERA because low levels of biological organization tend to have a large distance between their measurement (what is quantified) and assessment endpoints (what is to be protected). In contrast, level of biological organization is often related positively with sensitivity to important negative and positive feedbacks and context dependencies within biological systems, and ease at capturing recovery from adverse contaminant effects. Some endpoints did not show obvious trends across levels of biological organization, such as the use of vertebrate animals in chemical testing and ease at screening large numbers of species, and other factors lacked sufficient data across levels of biological organization, such as repeatability, variability, cost per study and cost per species of effects assessment, the latter of which might be a more defensible way to compare costs of ERAs than cost per study. To compensate for weaknesses of ERA at any particular level of biological organization, we also review mathematical modeling approaches commonly used to extrapolate effects across levels of organization. Finally, we provide recommendations for next generation ERA, submitting that if there is an ideal level of biological organization to conduct ERA, it will only emerge if ERA is approached simultaneously from the bottom of biological organization up as well as from the top down, all while employing

  18. The pros and cons of vaious optical media for the soldier's interfacility radiographic record (SIRR) in the combat casualty care system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerlin, B.D.; Johnson, W.P.

    1989-01-01

    Ongoing research and evaluation projects sponsored by the Army Medical Research and Development Command are leading towards filmless radiography in the combat casualty care system of the 1990s. With the elimination of film, the question arises as to the most appropriate medium for archiving and transporting X-ray images and related patient data with the wounded between facilities. This paper considers the pros and cons of the various candidate media in relation to their specifications, availability, and appropriateness under simulated combat casualty care conditions

  19. The Pros And Cons Of Various Optical Media For The Soldier's Interfacility Radiographic Record (SIRR) In The Combat Casualty Care System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerlin, Barbara D.; Johnson, William P.

    1989-05-01

    Ongoing research and evaluation projects sponsored by the Army Medical Research and Development Command are leading towards filmless radiography in the combat casualty care system of the 1990s. With the elimination of film, the question arises as to the most appropriate medium for archiving and transporting x-ray images and related patient data with the wounded between facilities. This paper considers the pros and cons of the various candidate media in relation to their specifications, availability, and appropriateness under simulated combat casualty care conditions.

  20. Estudio del uso de información prosódica en reconocimiento del locutor en ámbito forense

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Pozo, Rubén; Fombella Mourelle, Carlos; Toledano, Doroteo T.; López Gonzalo, Eduardo; Hernández Gómez, Luis

    2006-01-01

    Actas de las IV Jornadas de Tecnología del Habla (JTH 2006) En este trabajo se realiza un estudio de un conjunto de técnicas que hacen uso de la información prosódica aplicadas a la verificación de locutor dentro del campo de la Acústica Forense. Esta información ha sido aplicada siguiendo dos enfoques. Por un lado, se han implementado herramientas de modelado de lenguaje de la secuencia de segmentos obtenidos de la evolución de f0 y energía. Por otro lado, se han estudiado las posibilidad...

  1. Issues and Challenges With Integrating Patient-Reported Outcomes in Clinical Trials Supported by the National Cancer Institute–Sponsored Clinical Trials Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Deborah Watkins; Bryan, Charlene J.; Aaronson, Neil; Blackmore, C. Craig; Brundage, Michael; Cella, David; Ganz, Patricia A.; Gotay, Carolyn; Hinds, Pamela S.; Kornblith, Alice B.; Movsas, Benjamin; Sloan, Jeff; Wenzel, Lari; Whalen, Giles

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this report is to provide a historical overview of and the issues and challenges inherent in the incorporation of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) into multinational cancer clinical trials in the cancer cooperative groups. Methods An online survey of 12 cancer cooperative groups from the United States, Canada, and Europe was conducted between June and August of 2006. Each of the cooperative groups designated one respondent, who was a member of one of the PRO committees within the cooperative group. Results There was a 100% response rate, and all of the cancer clinical trial cooperative groups reported conducting PRO research. PRO research has been conducted in the cancer cooperative groups for an average of 15 years (range, 6 to 30 years), and all groups had multidisciplinary committees focused on the design of PRO end points and the choice of appropriate PRO measures for cancer clinical trials. The cooperative groups reported that 5% to 50% of cancer treatment trials and an estimated 50% to 75% of cancer control trials contained PRO primary and secondary end points. There was considerable heterogeneity among the cooperative groups with respect to the formal and informal policies and procedures or cooperative group culture towards PROs, investigator training/mentorship, and resource availability for the measurement and conduct of PRO research within the individual cooperatives. Conclusion The challenges faced by the cooperative groups to the incorporation of PROs into cancer clinical trials are varied. Some common opportunities for improvement include the adoption of standardized training/mentorship mechanisms for investigators for the conduct of PRO assessments and data collection and the development of minimal criteria for PRO measure acceptability. A positive cultural shift has occurred in most of the cooperative groups related to the incorporation of PROs in clinical trials; however, financial and other resource barriers remain and need

  2. Potential pros and cons of external healthcare performance evaluation systems: real-life perspectives on Iranian hospital evaluation and accreditation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafaripooyan, Ebrahim

    2014-09-01

    Performance evaluation is essential to quality improvement in healthcare. The current study has identified the potential pros and cons of external healthcare evaluation programs, utilizing them subsequently to look into the merits of a similar case in a developing country. A mixed method study employing both qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis techniques was adopted to achieve the study end. Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) and professionals were approached for two-stage process of data collection. Potential advantages included greater attractiveness of high accreditation rank healthcare organizations to their customers/purchasers and boosted morale of their personnel. Downsides, as such, comprised the programs' over-reliance on value judgment of surveyors, routinization and incurring undue cost on the organizations. In addition, the improved, standardized care processes as well as the judgmental nature of program survey were associated, as pros and cons, to the program investigated by the professionals. Besides rendering a tentative assessment of Iranian hospital evaluation program, the study provides those running external performance evaluations with a lens to scrutinize the virtues of their own evaluation systems through identifying the potential advantages and drawbacks of such programs. Moreover, the approach followed could be utilized for performance assessment of similar evaluation programs.

  3. Food for thought: a pilot study of the pros and cons of changing eating patterns within cognitive-behavioural therapy for the eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Glenn; Evans, Jane; Pugh, Matthew

    2013-09-01

    Evidence-based cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for the eating disorders has an early focus on behavioural changes around food intake. However, patients' anxiety around such change might account for why they often seem unmotivated in treatment. In order to determine the impact of changing intake, this pilot study of patients with bulimic disorders (N = 19) or anorexia nervosa (N = 9) used a mixed quantitative and qualitative design to retrospectively examine their perspectives of the short- and long-term pros and cons of such change. As expected, change was seen negatively in the short-term (with particularly high numbers reporting anxiety), but there were few reports of long-term negative outcomes. In contrast, there were both short- and long-term benefits of changing eating. The patients described what was helpful in making changes and what they had learned as a result. In both cases, their descriptions mapped closely onto the content and process of evidence-based CBT for the eating disorders. Although there is a need for more extensive research, these findings suggest that patients (and therapists) might benefit from being aware of the contrast between the short- and the long-term pros and cons of changing eating within CBT for the eating disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Short-Term Results of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer with Curative Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Sung Ja; Park, Seung Jin; Chung, Woong Ki; Nah, Byung Sik

    1990-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was performed on 102 patients with non-small cell lung cancer who received the curative radiotherapy from August 1985 to October 1988 at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology of Chonnam University Hospital. The follow-up period was ranged from 1 to 37 months and the median follow-up time was 15 months. The actuarial 1 and 2 year survival rate of all the patients was 28% and 5%, respectively. The median survival was 10 months for stage II, 6 months for stage III A, and 9 for III B and the actuarial 2 year survival tate was 12.5%, 12.1%, and 0% respectively. The treatment failure was identified in 32 patients and the locoregional failure was seem in 9 patients (28%) and the distant failure in 23 patients (72%). The initial performance status was related to the survival with statistical significance (p 0.05)

  5. Insight into the stereospecificity of short-chain thermus thermophilus alcohol dehydrogenase showing pro-S hydride transfer and prelog enantioselectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennacchio, Angela; Giordano, Assunta; Esposito, Luciana; Langella, Emma; Rossi, Mosè; Raia, Carlo A

    2010-04-01

    The stereochemistry of the hydride transfer in reactions catalyzed by NAD(H)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Thermus thermophilus HB27 was determined by means of (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. The enzyme transfers the pro-S hydrogen of [4R-(2)H]NADH and exhibits Prelog specificity. Enzyme-substrate docking calculations provided structural details about the enantioselectivity of this thermophilic enzyme. These results give additional insights into the diverse active site architectures of the largely versatile short-chain dehydrogenase superfamily enzymes. A feasible protocol for the synthesis of [4R-(2)H]NADH with high yield was also set up by enzymatic oxidation of 2-propanol-d(8) catalyzed by Bacillus stearothermophilus alcohol dehydrogenase.

  6. Montreal Accord on Patient-Reported Outcomes (PROs) use series - Paper 6: creating national initiatives to support development and use-the PROMIS example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Susan J; Witter, James; Cella, David; Ahmed, Sara

    2017-09-01

    Patient-reported outcome (PRO) data are beneficial to a range of stakeholders including patients, clinicians, researchers, national funding and regulatory agencies, health system administrators, and policymakers. Because stakeholders represent diverse groups and needs, it is challenging to reach consensus on how to advance PRO development and harmonize data across settings to enable use for multiple secondary purposes. Collaborative national networks can facilitate the sharing of expertise, resources, and necessary infrastructure; create development, use, and reporting standards; optimize formats to efficiently store and transfer data; and disseminate tools and information for widespread uptake. In the United States, the National Institutes of Health's Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System offers an example of how collaborators can work across distances to form essential partnerships, create a common vision, and leverage technology to accelerate the development and testing of universal PROs that are broadly applicable across health conditions and settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A proven and highly cost-effective method of early detection of breast cancer for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebentisch, D.P.; Rebentisch, H.D.; Thomas, K.; Karat, S.; Jadhav, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    Carcinoma of the breast is the third most common cancer in Indian women. With rapid industrialization and effective control of communicable diseases, better diagnostic and treatment facilities, cancer is emerging as a major health problem. Since early detection is the only way to reduce morbidity and mortality from breast cancer, we undertook a pilot project to evaluate efficacy of using existing manpower and resources for screening women in the high risk group. Methodology pros and cons, results, and recommendations are presented. Our method can be adopted by any developing country interested in a screening programme for malignant disease

  8. A proven and highly cost-effective method of early detection of breast cancer for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebentisch, D P; Rebentisch, H D; Thomas, K; Karat, S; Jadhav, A J

    1995-12-01

    Carcinoma of the breast is the third most common cancer in Indian women. With rapid industrialization and effective control of communicable diseases, better diagnostic and treatment facilities, cancer is emerging as a major health problem. Since early detection is the only way to reduce morbidity and mortality from breast cancer, we undertook a pilot project to evaluate efficacy of using existing manpower and resources for screening women in the high risk group. Methodology pros and cons, results, and recommendations are presented. Our method can be adopted by any developing country interested in a screening programme for malignant disease.

  9. Computer modeling of lung cancer diagnosis-to-treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Feng; Lee, Hyo Kyung; Osarogiagbon, Raymond U; Yu, Xinhua; Faris, Nick; Li, Jingshan

    2015-08-01

    We introduce an example of a rigorous, quantitative method for quality improvement in lung cancer care-delivery. Computer process modeling methods are introduced for lung cancer diagnosis, staging and treatment selection process. Two types of process modeling techniques, discrete event simulation (DES) and analytical models, are briefly reviewed. Recent developments in DES are outlined and the necessary data and procedures to develop a DES model for lung cancer diagnosis, leading up to surgical treatment process are summarized. The analytical models include both Markov chain model and closed formulas. The Markov chain models with its application in healthcare are introduced and the approach to derive a lung cancer diagnosis process model is presented. Similarly, the procedure to derive closed formulas evaluating the diagnosis process performance is outlined. Finally, the pros and cons of these methods are discussed.

  10. A relação da postura corporal com a prosódia na doença de parkinson: estudo de caso The relations between body posture and prosody in Parkinson's disease: case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Vargas Ferreira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar a associação entre a postura corporal e a prosódia em indivíduos com Doença de Parkinson. MÉTODOS: estudo de corte transversal realizado com cinco sujeitos com Doença de Parkinson da cidade de Santa Maria, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, em 2006. Utilizaram-se avaliações da prosódia lingüística e emocional bem como da postura corporal. A análise estatística utilizada foi descritiva. RESULTADOS: foram estudados quatro sujeitos do sexo masculino e um sujeito do sexo feminino com idades entre 37 e 53 anos. Três sujeitos encontravam-se no estágio I, um sujeito no estágio III e um sujeito no estágio IV da doença conforme a escala de classificação da função motora Hohen &Yahr, todos sob o uso de medicação e apresentando os sinais da tríade característica da patologia (rigidez, tremor, bradicinesia bem como as alterações posturais típicas. Na comparação entre prosódia emocional e prosódia lingüística, encontrou-se melhor desempenho na prosódia emocional e não se evidenciou associação entre os estágios da patologia e alterações na postura corporal e prosódia. CONCLUSÃO: as alterações posturais são sinais característicos da Doença de Parkinson, assim como alterações na prosódia lingüística e emocional. A ocorrência de alterações posturais foi elevada entre os parkinsonianos. Os sujeitos apresentaram melhor performance na prosódia emocional. Não houve evidências de que os estágios da doença estivessem associados às alterações da prosódia e da postura corporal.PORPOSE: to investigate the relationship between body posture and prosody in patients with Parkinson Disease. METHODS: the study was carried out with five patients (four males and one female from Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, by means of cross-section study, in 2006. Evaluations of linguistic and emotional prosody as well as analysis of body posture were carried out. The statistical analysis was descriptive

  11. Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... review all the options for surgery and the pros and cons of each option. Some people may also need ... BodyGenetic Testing: What You Should KnowRead Article >>Genetic Testing: What ... Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight ...

  12. The pros and cons about restarting and awareness about nuclear power generation. Further findings from INSS's analysis of the opinion survey answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitada, Atsuko

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the pros and cons and the awareness of their background on the restart of nuclear power plants (NPPs) were analyzed based on the data of opinion polls conducted by news organizations and INSS. The results were as follows: (1) Although opposition to restart has been nearly 60% in the case when the question has only 2 choices of pros and cons, the 60% includes many people who “cannot say either way”. (2) For approval of restarting, it is necessary to have the attitude to tolerate the use of nuclear power generation (NPG), and it is extremely important that people think “safety has been confirmed,” but it does not seem to be enough reason to hesitate in the restart. (3) From the open-ended question about the influences of long-term shutdown of NPPs on the respondents and Japanese society, 50% of the respondents said there was no influence. 20% said they felt safe or easy because no accident could occur. Only 20% described economic influence, such as a real increase in electricity cost, especially among men or the people who were in favor of restarting. (4) When the above-described influences, people's recognition of the utility of NPG (or thinking about the problems that occur when reducing NPG) and people's criteria for selecting an electric power generation method were organized in terms of the 3Es (Energy security, Economic efficiency, Environment), there was quite a difference from the idea of energy policy that emphasizes a good balance among these 3Es. People's recognition of the utility of NPG has been declining. This was considered to be the reason that neither the present influences nor the importance of the invisible influence at a macro-level had been recognized. For restarting to be supported by many people, there is a need for appropriate information about not only the safety, but also the importance from the viewpoints of the 3Es and the benefits of NPG in the 3Es. (author)

  13. MicroRNA Signatures as Biomarkers and Therapeutic Target for CNS Embryonal Tumors: The Pros and the Cons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Shalaby

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Embryonal tumors of the central nervous system represent a heterogeneous group of childhood cancers with an unknown pathogenesis; diagnosis, on the basis of histological appearance alone, is controversial and patients’ response to therapy is difficult to predict. They encompass medulloblastoma, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors and a group of primitive neuroectodermal tumors. All are aggressive tumors with the tendency to disseminate throughout the central nervous system. The large amount of genomic and molecular data generated over the last 5–10 years encourages optimism that new molecular targets will soon improve outcomes. Recent neurobiological studies have uncovered the key role of microRNAs (miRNAs in embryonal tumors biology and their potential use as biomarkers is increasingly being recognized and investigated. However the successful use of microRNAs as reliable biomarkers for the detection and management of pediatric brain tumors represents a substantial challenge. This review debates the importance of miRNAs in the biology of central nervous systemembryonal tumors focusing on medulloblastoma and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors and highlights the advantages as well as the limitations of their prospective application as biomarkers and candidates for molecular therapeutic targets.

  14. The Impact of Participation in Online Cancer Communities on Patient Reported Outcomes: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eenbergen, Mies C; van de Poll-Franse, Lonneke V; Heine, Peter; Mols, Floortje

    2017-09-28

    In recent years, the question of how patients' participating in online communities affects various patient reported outcomes (PROs) has been investigated in several ways. This study aimed to systematically review all relevant literature identified using key search terms, with regard to, first, changes in PROs for cancer patients who participate in online communities and, second, the characteristics of patients who report such effects. A computerized search of the literature via PubMed (MEDLINE), PsycINFO (5 and 4 stars), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ScienceDirect was performed. Last search was conducted in June 2017. Studies with the following terms were included: (cancer patient) and (support group or health communities) and (online or Internet). A total of 21 studies were included and independently assessed by 2 investigators using an 11-item quality checklist. The methodological quality of the selected studies varied: 12 were of high quality, eight were of adequate quality, and only one was of low quality. Most of the respondents were women (about 80%), most with breast cancer; their mean age was 50 years. The patients who were active in online support groups were mostly younger and more highly educated than the nonusers. The investigated PROs included general well-being (ie, mood and health), anxiety, depression, quality of life, posttraumatic growth, and cancer-related concerns. Only marginal effects-that is, PRO improvements-were found; in most cases they were insignificant, and in some cases they were contradictory. The main shortcoming of this kind of study is the lack of methodological instruments for reliable measurements. Furthermore, some patients who participate in online communities or interact with peers via Internet do not expect to measure changes in their PROs. If cancer survivors want to meet other survivors and share information or get support, online communities can be a trustworthy and reliable platform to facilitate

  15. Montreal Accord on Patient-Reported Outcomes (PROs) use series - Paper 9: anonymization and ethics considerations for capturing and sharing patient reported outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuckle, Luk; Moher, Ester; Bartlett, Susan J; Ahmed, Sara; El Emam, Khaled

    2017-09-01

    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are collected with consent for care; however, using the data for any other purpose requires consent for that additional purpose, or the anonymization of the data. Collecting explicit consent to use this data for secondary purposes, before the patient completes a PRO, can also bias the responses. We consider the ethical and security issues related to the collection of data at the point of care or in the population and the aggregation and integration of PRO data with administrative databases to facilitate decision making and comparative effectiveness research. In this article, we describe risk-based anonymization, taking the context of the data release into account, so that we may consider the degree by which the release is considered anonymized. We also consider the ethical use of anonymized data, the anonymization of free-form text, and the secure linking data sets without sharing any personal information. Many good standards and best practices exist for the sharing of health data and could be used as a baseline in the development of a national PRO initiative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Montreal Accord on Patient-Reported Outcomes (PROs) use series - Paper 8: patient-reported outcomes in electronic health records can inform clinical and policy decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sara; Ware, Patrick; Gardner, William; Witter, James; Bingham, Clifton O; Kairy, Dahlia; Bartlett, Susan J

    2017-09-01

    Given that the goal of health care systems is to improve and maintain the health of the populations they serve, the indicators of performance must include outcomes that are meaningful to patients. The growth of health technologies provides an unprecedented opportunity to integrate the patient voice into clinical care by linking electronic health records (EHRs) to patient-reported outcome (PRO) data collection. However, PRO data must be relevant, meaningful, and actionable for those who will have to invest the time and effort to collect it. In this study, we highlight opportunities to integrate PRO data collection into EHRs. We consider how stakeholder perspectives should influence the selection of PROs and ways to enhance engagement in and commitment to PRO implementation. We propose a research and policy agenda to address unanswered questions and facilitate the widespread adoption of PRO data collection into EHRs. Building a learning health care system that gathers PRO data in ways that can inform individual patient care, quality improvement, and comparative effectiveness research has the potential to accelerate the application of new evidence and knowledge to patient care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Is atherosclerosis imaging the most sensitive way to assess patients' risk and the best way to conduct future drug trials? A pros-and-cons debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanchen, David; Raggi, Paolo

    2017-11-01

    Atherosclerosis imaging has been the focus of intense debate and research for several decades. Among its primary applications are risk stratification of asymptomatic individuals and follow-up of atherosclerosis progression under a variety of treatments designed to retard or regress the development of arterial disease. Although endorsed and supported by many, this approach has been fiercely opposed by several key opinion leaders over the years. Similarly, regulatory agencies have raised a number of objections to resist the approval of new drugs and devices based on surrogate imaging markers. However, there is a large body of evidence in the medical literature that shows that risk stratification is improved with implementation of atherosclerosis imaging. Additionally, numerous lipid-modifying agents have been tested as far as their ability to affect progression of atherosclerosis, and in many cases the information obtained with imaging was in line with the outcome of subsequent clinical trials. This pros-and-cons debate was staged to bring up in a fun and provoking way the main arguments in favour or against the application of atherosclerosis imaging in the main settings described above. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Object-Based Canopy Gap Segmentation and Classification: Quantifying the Pros and Cons of Integrating Optical and LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Delineating canopy gaps and quantifying gap characteristics (e.g., size, shape, and dynamics are essential for understanding regeneration dynamics and understory species diversity in structurally complex forests. Both high spatial resolution optical and light detection and ranging (LiDAR remote sensing data have been used to identify canopy gaps through object-based image analysis, but few studies have quantified the pros and cons of integrating optical and LiDAR for image segmentation and classification. In this study, we investigate whether the synergistic use of optical and LiDAR data improves segmentation quality and classification accuracy. The segmentation results indicate that the LiDAR-based segmentation best delineates canopy gaps, compared to segmentation with optical data alone, and even the integration of optical and LiDAR data. In contrast, the synergistic use of two datasets provides higher classification accuracy than the independent use of optical or LiDAR (overall accuracy of 80.28% ± 6.16% vs. 68.54% ± 9.03% and 64.51% ± 11.32%, separately. High correlations between segmentation quality and object-based classification accuracy indicate that classification accuracy is largely dependent on segmentation quality in the selected experimental area. The outcome of this study provides valuable insights of the usefulness of data integration into segmentation and classification not only for canopy gap identification but also for many other object-based applications.

  19. Effects of high-intensity interval training on fatigue and quality of life in testicular cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Scott C; DeLorey, Darren S; Davenport, Margie H; Fairey, Adrian S; North, Scott; Courneya, Kerry S

    2018-05-08

    Testicular cancer survivors (TCS) are at increased risk of cancer-related fatigue (CRF), psychosocial impairment, and poor mental health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Here, we examine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in TCS. Secondarily, we explore cardiorespiratory fitness as a mediator of intervention effects and select baseline characteristics as moderators of intervention effects. TCS (n = 63) were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of supervised HIIT or usual care (UC). PROs included CRF, depression, anxiety, stress, self-esteem, sleep quality, and HRQoL assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and 3-month follow-up. TCS (median 7 years postdiagnosis) completed 99% of training sessions and achieved 98% of target training intensity. ANCOVA revealed that, compared to UC, HIIT significantly improved post-intervention CRF (p = 0.003), self-esteem (p = 0.029), and multiple HRQoL domains (ps ≤ 0.05). Effects on CRF (p = 0.031) and vitality (p = 0.015) persisted at 3-month follow-up. Cardiorespiratory fitness changes mediated CRF and HRQoL improvements. CRF effects were larger for TCS with an inactive lifestyle, lower fitness, higher testosterone, and clinical fatigue at baseline. HIIT significantly improves CRF and HRQoL in TCS. Mediation by cardiorespiratory fitness and moderation by clinical characteristics suggests opportunities for targeted exercise interventions to optimise PROs in TCS.

  20. Oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... National Cancer Institute. PDQ lip and oral cavity cancer ... September 25, 2015. www.cancer.gov/types/head-and-neck/hp/lip- ...

  1. Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Cancer Statistics Cancer has a major impact on society in ... success of efforts to control and manage cancer. Statistics at a Glance: The Burden of Cancer in ...

  2. Life after endometrial cancer: A systematic review of patient-reported outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shisler, Robert; Sinnott, Jennifer A; Wang, Vivian; Hebert, Courtney; Salani, Ritu; Felix, Ashley S

    2018-02-01

    Women with endometrial cancer (EC) are the second largest population of female cancer survivors in the United States. However, the outcomes of EC survivors, from the patient perspective, are not well-understood. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) following an EC diagnosis. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, CINAHL, and reference lists to identify published observational studies that examined PROs among women with EC. Reviewers independently reviewed eligible full-text study articles and conducted data extraction. We qualitatively summarized included articles according to exposures [e.g. body mass index (BMI), treatment, etc.] or specific PROs (e.g. sexual function). Of 1722 unique studies, 102 full-text articles were reviewed, of which a total of 27 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The most commonly used PRO questionnaires were the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) (n=9), Short Form 36 Questionnaire (SF-36, n=8), the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G, n=5), and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI, n=4). Obesity was associated with lower quality of life (QOL) and physical functioning. Treatment type affected several outcomes. Laparoscopy generally resulted in better QOL outcomes than laparotomy. Likewise, vaginal brachytherapy was associated with better outcomes compared to external beam radiation. Sexual function outcomes were dependent on age, time since diagnosis, and having consulted a physician before engaging in sexual activities. In addition, a physical activity intervention was associated with improved sexual interest but not sexual function. Our review provides insight into the experience of EC survivors from the patient perspective. Factors that contribute to QOL, such as pain, fatigue, emotional and social functioning, should be monitored following an EC diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc

  3. Aspectos prosódicos temporais da leitura de escolares com dislexia do desenvolvimento Temporal prosodic aspects of reading in students with developmental dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Mendonça Alves

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar, do ponto de vista fonético, por meio de medidas acústicas e perceptivas, os aspectos prosódicos temporais presentes na leitura em voz alta de escolares com e sem dislexia, a fim de identificar diferenças de desempenho entre os dois tipos de leitores que possam apontar para características peculiares da dislexia. MÉTODOS: Gravação da leitura de um texto por 40 escolares (entre nove e 14 anos, cursando da 3ª à 5ª série, sendo 10 disléxicos (grupo clínico e 30 escolares sem queixas de alterações de aprendizagem (grupo não-clínico. Os dados foram analisados perceptivamente e acusticamente, utilizando-se o programa WinPitch. As seguintes medidas foram realizadas: duração e localização das pausas, tempo total de elocução, taxa de elocução, tempo de articulação e taxa de articulação. RESULTADOS: Em comparação com o grupo não-clínico, o grupo clínico apresentou maior número de pausas e pausas mais longas; os valores obtidos para as taxas de elocução e de articulação indicaram respectivamente menor velocidade de leitura e uma lentidão na produção de cada gesto articulatório. CONCLUSÃO: As dificuldades identificadas no processamento da leitura pelas crianças com dislexia dificultam a organização prosódica na leitura de um texto.PURPOSE: To analyze the temporal prosodic aspect in loud reading of students with and without dyslexia from the phonetic point of view through acoustic and perceptual evaluation, in order to identify differences in performance between the two types of readers that may point to particular characteristics of dyslexia. METHODS: Forty students from 3rd to 5th grades with ages ranging from nine to 14 years, ten dyslexic (clinical group and 30 without any complaints of learning deficits (non-clinical group were recorded during loud reading of a text. Data were perceptually and acoustically analyzed using the software WinPitch. The following measures were taken: pause

  4. L'Inde de 1919 à 1941 : nationalismes, « communalisme », prosélytisme et fondamentalisme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Gaborieau

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Durant l'entre-deux-guerres, se produisit la rupture définitive, sur le plan politique, entre hindous et musulmans, avec la revendication dès 1930 par le poète philosophe Iqbâl (1876-1938 d'un État séparé pour les musulmans, dont le nom (Pakistan fut forgé dès 1935. Une rupture idéologique avait précédé ce divorce politique. La droite hindoue avait forgé dès 1923 la notion d' « hindouité » (hin-dutva fondée sur un rejet de l'héritage de l'Inde médiévale musulmane, notamment moghole. Les musulmans ripostèrent avec Mawdûdî (1903-1979 qui, dans son premier livre de 1927, fit l'apologie du jihâd guerrier, cherchant à réhabiliter l'islam médiéval dans sa pureté et son agressivité. Ces écrits portaient en germe la jamâ'at-i Islâmî, organisation militante qui vit formellement le jour en 1941. La détérioration des relations entre les communautés religieuses alla de pair avec cette double rupture : cette confrontation est appelé « communalisme » en anglo-indien. Des organisations missionnaires prosélytes furent créées de part et d'autre, dont la Tablîghî Jamâ'at pour les musulmans en 1927.

  5. Capturing the value of green space in urban parks in a sustainable urban planning and design context: pros and cons of hedonic pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav Engström

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixty percent of the land that will be urban in 2030 has yet to be built. Contemporary urban development is unsustainable and focus is on building dense, often at the expense of urban green space (UGS, at the same time as our understanding of links between green spaces and human well-being, especially health, is increasing. There is a need to better understand and analyze human well-being qualities of UGS in a planning context. Our aim is to increase this understanding by analyzing the pros and cons of hedonic pricing in this context. Hedonic pricing is commonly used for analyzing benefits associated with UGS to make them more visible and to provide support for urban planning. However, the validity of this approach has been questioned. To increase the accuracy of a hedonic pricing method we incorporate state-of-the-art methods to assess the value of public parks in a case study. Although our results suggest that urban parks indeed have a positive effect on property value and that this effect tends to increase with reduced distance to the parks, the hedonic pricing information is not enough to make well-advised decisions in a sustainable planning context. We thus suggest (1 including and quantifying additional health benefit dimensions and (2 replacing straight-line measures with an axial line step distance measure, to better capture accessibility. To better capture the range of benefits generated by urban parks, irrespective of whether these benefits are enjoyed in direct relation to the park or not, we suggest complementing hedonic pricing via (3 applying an ecosystem service lens, thus also improving the accuracy of trade-off and synergy analysis Also, a sustainable planning approach will benefit from (4 taking the surrounding land use configuration into account for optimizing the different values of urban parks.

  6. Experimental peptide receptor radionuclide therapy in radioiodine negative somatostatin receptor positive thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilica, B.; Kroiss, A.; Putzer, D.; Uprimmy, C.; Warwitz, B.; Kendler, D.; Waitz, D.; Virgolini, I.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Purpose: This retrospective analysis evaluated the time to progression (TTP), progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with radioiodine negative thyroid cancer who had undergone peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE, 177 Lu-DOTA-LAN, 90 Y-DOTA-TOC or 90 Y-DOTA-LAN after tumor progression. Methods: Data derived from twenty patients with either differentiated (n=15), anaplastic (n=1) or medullary (n=4) somatostatin receptor positive thyroid cancer who had received treatment with PRRT after tumor progression. TTP, PFS and OS were defined according to the clinical trial endpoints suggested by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration). Progressive disease was defined by sonography, FDG-PET, Ga-DOTA-TOC-PET, or CT (RECIST Criteria). Results: In 17 patients the median overall survival time after the first PRRT was 17.3 (range: 0.1 - 109.7) months. Three patients still alive are actually showing stable disease. The median of PFS in 20 Patients (6 with more than one PRRT-cycle or PRRT-substance) has been 10.9 (range: 0.1 - 44.0) months. The median TTP was 15.6 (range 4.4 to 29.2) months. Conclusion: PRRT appears to be useful in patients with somatostatin receptor positive but radioiodine negative thyroid cancer as a complementary palliative cytotoxic therapy. (authors)

  7. Emerging applications of nanoparticles for lung cancer diagnosis and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumar, Uday Kumar; Bhushan, Bharat; Dubey, Poornima; Matai, Ishita; Sachdev, Abhay; Packirisamy, Gopinath

    2013-07-01

    Lung cancer is by far the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, most of them being active tobacco smokers. Non small cell lung cancer accounts for around 85% to 90% of deaths, whereas the rest is contributed by small cell lung cancer. The extreme lethality of lung cancer arises due to lack of suitable diagnostic procedures for early detection of lung cancer and ineffective conventional therapeutic strategies. In course with desperate attempts to address these issues independently, a multifunctional nanotherapeutic or diagnostic system is being sought as a favorable solution. The manifestation of physiochemical properties of such nanoscale systems is tuned favorably to come up with a versatile cancer cell targeted diagnostic and therapeutic system. Apart from this, the aspect of being at nanoscale by itself confers the system with an advantage of passive accumulation at the site of tumor. This review provides a broad perspective of three major subclasses of such nanoscale therapeutic and diagnostic systems which include polymeric nanoparticles-based approaches, metal nanoparticles-based approaches, and bio-nanoparticles-based approaches. This review work also serves the purpose of gaining an insight into the pros and cons of each of these approaches with a prospective improvement in lung cancer therapeutics and diagnostics.

  8. Colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma; Colon carcinoma ... eat may play a role in getting colon cancer. Colon cancer may be linked to a high-fat, ...

  9. Integrating patient reported outcomes with clinical cancer registry data: a feasibility study of the electronic Patient-Reported Outcomes From Cancer Survivors (ePOCS) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Laura; Jones, Helen; Thomas, James; Newsham, Alex; Downing, Amy; Morris, Eva; Brown, Julia; Velikova, Galina; Forman, David; Wright, Penny

    2013-10-25

    Routine measurement of Patient Reported Outcomes (PROs) linked with clinical data across the patient pathway is increasingly important for informing future care planning. The innovative electronic Patient-reported Outcomes from Cancer Survivors (ePOCS) system was developed to integrate PROs, collected online at specified post-diagnostic time-points, with clinical and treatment data in cancer registries. This study tested the technical and clinical feasibility of ePOCS by running the system with a sample of potentially curable breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer patients in their first 15 months post diagnosis. Patients completed questionnaires comprising multiple Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) via ePOCS within 6 months (T1), and at 9 (T2) and 15 (T3) months, post diagnosis. Feasibility outcomes included system informatics performance, patient recruitment, retention, representativeness and questionnaire completion (response rate), patient feedback, and administration burden involved in running the system. ePOCS ran efficiently with few technical problems. Patient participation was 55.21% (636/1152) overall, although varied by approach mode, and was considerably higher among patients approached face-to-face (61.4%, 490/798) than by telephone (48.8%, 21/43) or letter (41.0%, 125/305). Older and less affluent patients were less likely to join (both Pplanning and for targeting service provision.

  10. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Research Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... Genomics Research Research on Causes of Cancer Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer ...

  11. Nuclear Energy: Pros and Cons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentukevicius, V.

    1999-01-01

    Early this year the Government of the Republic of Lithuania has basically approved and submitted to the Parliament (Seimas) for their approval the new draft of the National Energy Strategy. It still envisages two scenarios for the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant. In accordance with one of them, the nuclear plant is to be shut down fairly soon. The greatest advantage of any commercial nuclear plant is that the share of fuel in the production cost is low. That is why efforts are being made to operate nuclear power plants to their full capacity all over the world. At the meantime a system of legal regulation and organisational management has been created and is functioning in Lithuania; Lithuania has joined the key international agreements that regulate the use of nuclear energy; a lot has been done to upgrade safety and reliability of the Ignalina NPP. Lithuania is going to stick to the policy of openness and co-operation with international organisations concerned, at the same time defends the interests of country's population

  12. Processing Controlled PROs in Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancort, Moises; Carreiras, Manuel; Acuna-Farina, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to investigate the processing of the empty category PRO and the time-course of this in Spanish. Eye movements were recorded while participants read sentences in which a matrix clause was followed by a subordinate infinitival clause, so that the subject or the object of the main clause could act as controller of…

  13. Nuclear power: pros and cons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, H.

    1977-01-01

    The author deals with the nuclear power controversy in science and indicates the main points of the nuclear power debate by the population. The different scientific and ideological positions shown by the results of the campaign are explained. (HP) [de

  14. A comprehensive systematic review of the development process of 104 patient-reported outcomes (PROs for physical activity in chronically ill and elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frei Anja

    2011-12-01

    dimensions of physical activity in chronically ill and elderly patient populations, which reflects the relevance of this outcome. However, the development processes often lacked definitions of the instruments' aims and patient input. If PROs for physical activity were to be used in clinical trials more attention needs to be paid to the establishment of content validity through patient input and to the assessment of their evaluative measurement properties.

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver ... on Causes of Cancer Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer Treatment Research Cancer & ...

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver ... of Cancer Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer Treatment Research Cancer & Public Health ...

  17. Eyelid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Content ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  18. Anal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Content ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  19. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Content ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  20. Appendix Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Content ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  1. Testicular cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Germ cell tumor; Seminoma testicular cancer; Nonseminoma testicular cancer; Testicular neoplasm ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 86. National Cancer Institute. PDQ testicular cancer treatment. Updated February 17, 2016. www.cancer. ...

  2. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... of colon cancer. Photo: AP Photo/Ron Edmonds Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the colon (large intestine) or rectum ( ...

  3. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer ...

  4. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  5. Relationship between patient-reported outcomes and clinical outcomes in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: post hoc analysis of COU-AA-301 and COU-AA-302.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cella, D; Traina, S; Li, T; Johnson, K; Ho, K F; Molina, A; Shore, N D

    2018-02-01

    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are used to assess benefit-risk in drug development. The relationship between PROs and clinical outcomes is not well understood. We aim to elucidate the relationships between changes in PRO measures and clinical outcomes in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). We investigated relationships between changes in self-reported fatigue, pain, functional well-being (FWB), physical well-being (PWB) and prostate cancer-specific symptoms with overall survival (OS) and radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) after 6 and 12 months of treatment in COU-AA-301 (N = 1195) or COU-AA-302 (N = 1088). Eligible COU-AA-301 patients had progressed after docetaxel and had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) ≤ 2. Eligible COU-AA-302 patients had no prior chemotherapy and ECOG PS 0 or 1. Patients were treated with abiraterone acetate (1000 mg/day) plus prednisone (10 mg/day) or prednisone alone daily. Association between self-reported fatigue, pain and functional status, and OS and/or rPFS, using pooled data regardless of treatment, was assessed. Cox proportional hazard regression modeled time to death or radiographic progression. In COU-AA-301 patients, PRO improvements were associated with longer OS and longer time to radiographic progression versus worsening or stable PROs (P AA-302 patients, worsening PROs were associated with higher likelihood of radiographic progression (P ≤ 0.025) compared with improved or stable PROs. In multivariate models, worsening PWB remained associated with worse rPFS. The 12-month analysis confirmed the 6-month results. PROs are significantly associated with clinically relevant time-to-event efficacy outcomes in clinical trials and may complement and help predict traditional clinical practice methods for monitoring patients for disease progression. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Childhood Cancer Genomics Study Findings Metastatic Cancer Metastatic Cancer Research Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types ...

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate ... Genomics Research Research on Causes of Cancer Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer ...

  8. Lung Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer ... following PDQ summaries for more information about lung cancer: Lung Cancer Screening Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment ...

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver ... Genomics Research Research on Causes of Cancer Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer ...

  10. Liquid-based cervical cytology using ThinPrep technology: weighing the pros and cons in a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker-Grob, E.W. de; Kok, I.M. de; Bulten, J.; Rosmalen, J. van; Vedder, J.E.M.; Arbyn, M.; Klinkhamer, P.J.; Siebers, A.G.; Ballegooijen, M. van

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cervical cancer screening with liquid-based cytology (LBC) has been developed as an alternative to the conventional Papanicolaou (CP) smear. Cost-effectiveness is one of the issues when evaluating LBC. Based on the results of a Dutch randomised controlled trial, we conducted

  11. Metastatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metastatic cancer is cancer that spreads from its site of origin to another part of the body. Learn how cancer spreads, possible symptoms, common sites where cancer spreads, and how to find out about treatment options.

  12. Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast cancer (BRCA1 or BRCA2) or a very strong family history of breast cancer, your risk of prostate cancer may be higher. Obesity. Obese men diagnosed with prostate cancer may be more likely ...

  13. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I find more information about cervical and other gynecologic cancers? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: 800-CDC-INFO or www. cdc. gov/ cancer/ gynecologic National Cancer Institute: 800-4-CANCER or www. ...

  14. Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I find more information about ovarian and other gynecologic cancers? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: 800-CDC-INFO or www. cdc. gov/ cancer/ gynecologic National Cancer Institute: 800-4-CANCER or www. ...

  15. Lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisner, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Pathology of Lung Cancer; Radiotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Cancer of the Lung; Chemotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; Immunotherapy in the Management of Lung Cancer; Preoperative Staging and Surgery for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; and Prognostic Factors in Lung Cancer

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late Effects of Childhood Cancer ... to Z List of Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer ...

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Understanding Cancer What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Understanding Cancer What Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview ...

  18. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Screening Cancer ... Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview ...

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers ... Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s ...

  20. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next three ...

  1. Dose–Volume Effects on Patient-Reported Acute Gastrointestinal Symptoms During Chemoradiation Therapy for Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ronald C.; Mamon, Harvey J.; Ancukiewicz, Marek; Killoran, Joseph H.; Crowley, Elizabeth M.; Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S.; Wo, Jennifer Y.; Ryan, David P.; Hong, Theodore S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Research on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in rectal cancer is limited. We examined whether dose–volume parameters of the small bowel and large bowel were associated with patient-reported gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms during 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)–based chemoradiation treatment for rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: 66 patients treated at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital or Massachusetts General Hospital between 2006 and 2008 were included. Weekly during treatment, patients completed a questionnaire assessing severity of diarrhea, urgency, pain, cramping, mucus, and tenesmus. The association between dosimetric parameters and changes in overall GI symptoms from baseline through treatment was examined by using Spearman’s correlation. Potential associations between these parameters and individual GI symptoms were also explored. Results: The amount of small bowel receiving at least 15 Gy (V15) was significantly associated with acute symptoms (p = 0.01), and other dosimetric parameters ranging from V5 to V45 also trended toward association. For the large bowel, correlations between dosimetric parameters and overall GI symptoms at the higher dose levels from V25 to V45 did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.1), and a significant association was seen with rectal pain from V15 to V45 (p < 0.01). Other individual symptoms did not correlate with small bowel or large bowel dosimetric parameters. Conclusions: The results of this study using PROs are consistent with prior studies with physician-assessed acute toxicity, and they identify small bowel V15 as an important predictor of acute GI symptoms during 5-FU–based chemoradiation treatment. A better understanding of the relationship between radiation dosimetric parameters and PROs may allow physicians to improve radiation planning to optimize patient outcomes.

  2. Urological Cancers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results. A total of 8829 cancers were diagnosed over the 15 year study period, 749 (8.4%) were Urological malignancies. The male to female ratio of the. Urological cancers was 10.7 to 1. Cancer of the prostate was the most common urological malignancy (54.6%), followed by cancer of the bladder (21.1%) and cancer of ...

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung ... need for different kinds of information about her colorectal cancer prognosis. Diving Out of the Dark View this ...

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer ... need for different kinds of information about her colorectal cancer prognosis. Diving Out of the Dark View ...

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung ... need for different kinds of information about her colorectal cancer prognosis. Diving Out of the Dark View this ...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Screening ... What Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening ...

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Screening ... Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening ...

  8. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid ... and where it is in your body The stage of the cancer, which refers to the size ...

  9. Cancer and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Materials Infographics Cancer and Alcohol Web Features Breast Cancer Awareness Breast Cancer in Young Women Cancer and Men ... in Childhood Cancer, the Flu, and You Cervical Cancer Awareness Colorectal Cancer Awareness Gynecologic Cancer Awareness Health Disparities ...

  10. CDC's Cervical Cancer Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Materials Infographics Cancer and Alcohol Web Features Breast Cancer Awareness Breast Cancer in Young Women Cancer and Men ... in Childhood Cancer, the Flu, and You Cervical Cancer Awareness Colorectal Cancer Awareness Gynecologic Cancer Awareness Health Disparities ...

  11. Cancer and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Materials Infographics Cancer and Alcohol Web Features Breast Cancer Awareness Breast Cancer in Young Women Cancer and Men ... in Childhood Cancer, the Flu, and You Cervical Cancer Awareness Colorectal Cancer Awareness Gynecologic Cancer Awareness Health Disparities ...

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by ... Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role ...

  13. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer Treatment Research Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health ... Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood ...

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    Full Text Available ... Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer Treatment Research Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancers Clinical Trials Global ... Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancer Clinical Trials Global ...

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Cancer Coping with Your Feelings During Advanced Cancer Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer and Caregivers Questions ... Talking About Advanced Cancer Coping With Your Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer ...

  16. Stages of Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... cancer cells have places where hormones can attach ( receptors ), drugs , surgery, or radiation therapy is used to ...

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Screening Cancer Screening ... Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening ...

  18. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and ... of Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research ...

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer Treatment Research Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancers Clinical Trials ... Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancer Clinical Trials ...

  20. Importance ratings on patient-reported outcome items for survivorship care: comparison between pediatric cancer survivors, parents, and clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Conor M; Baker, Justin N; Keesey, Rachel M; Eliason, Ruth J; Lanctot, Jennifer Q; Clegg, Jennifer L; Mandrell, Belinda N; Ness, Kirsten K; Krull, Kevin R; Srivastava, Deokumar; Forrest, Christopher B; Hudson, Melissa M; Robison, Leslie L; Huang, I-Chan

    2018-04-18

    To compare importance ratings of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) items from the viewpoints of childhood cancer survivors, parents, and clinicians for further developing short-forms to use in survivorship care. 101 cancer survivors, 101 their parents, and 36 clinicians were recruited from St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. Participants were asked to select eight items that they deemed useful for clinical decision making from each of the four Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Pediatric item banks. These item banks were pain interference (20 items), fatigue (23 items), psychological stress (19 items), and positive affect (37 items). Compared to survivors, clinicians rated more items across four domains that were statistically different than did parents (23 vs. 13 items). Clinicians rated five items in pain interference domain (ORs 2.33-6.01; p's important but rated three items in psychological stress domain (ORs 0.14-0.42; p's important than did survivors. In contrast, parents rated seven items in positive affect domain (ORs 0.25-0.47; p's important than did survivors. Survivors, parents, and clinicians viewed importance of PRO items for survivorship care differently. These perspectives should be used to assist the development of PROs tools.

  1. Revisiting the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Cancer Registry and Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (SEER-MHOS) Linked Data Resource for Patient-Reported Outcomes Research in Older Adults with Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Erin E; Malinoff, Rochelle; Rozjabek, Heather M; Ambs, Anita; Clauser, Steven B; Topor, Marie A; Yuan, Gigi; Burroughs, James; Rodgers, Anne B; DeMichele, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Researchers and clinicians are increasingly recognizing the value of patient-reported outcome (PRO) data to better characterize people's health and experiences with illness and care. Considering the rising prevalence of cancer in adults aged 65 and older, PRO data are particularly relevant for older adults with cancer, who often require complex cancer care and have additional comorbid conditions. A data linkage between the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) cancer registry and the Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (MHOS) was created through a partnership between the National Cancer Institute and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services that created the opportunity to examine PROs in Medicare Advantage enrollees with and without cancer. The December 2013 linkage of SEER-MHOS data included the linked data for 12 cohorts, bringing the number of individuals in the linked data set to 95,723 with cancer and 1,510,127 without. This article reviews the features of the resource and provides information on some descriptive characteristics of the individuals in the data set (health-related quality of life, body mass index, fall risk management, number of unhealthy days in the past month). Individuals without (n=258,108) and with (n=3,440) cancer (1,311 men with prostate cancer, 982 women with breast cancer, 689 with colorectal cancer, 458 with lung cancer) were included in the current descriptive analysis. Given increasing longevity, advances in effective therapies and earlier detection, and population growth, the number of individuals aged 65 and older with cancer is expected to reach more than 12 million by 2020. SEER-MHOS provides population-level, self-reported, cancer registry-linked data for person-centered surveillance research on this growing population. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  2. Stomach Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with stomach acid and helps digest protein. Stomach cancer mostly affects older people - two-thirds of people ... Smoke cigarettes Have a family history of stomach cancer It is hard to diagnose stomach cancer in ...

  3. Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI is the nation's leader in cancer research. Learn more about NCI's cancer research areas, key initiatives, progress made in cancer research, and resources for researchers like research tools, specimens and data.

  4. Cancer Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunotherapy is a cancer treatment that helps your immune system fight cancer. It is a type of biological therapy. Biological therapy uses substances ... t yet use immunotherapy as often as other cancer treatments, such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. ...

  5. Uterine Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is pregnant. There are different types of uterine cancer. The most common type starts in the endometrium, ... the uterus. This type is also called endometrial cancer. The symptoms of uterine cancer include Abnormal vaginal ...

  6. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  7. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  8. Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... toxins. In children, a genetic condition, such as Down syndrome , can sometimes increase the risk of cancer. Kids who have had chemotherapy or radiation treatment for cancer are more likely to get cancer ...

  9. Stomach Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Men, Seniors, WomenTags: cancer, gastric cancer, stomach cancer May 1, 1999 Copyright © American Academy ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ...

  10. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... and nerves. If the cancer starts inside the eyeball it's called intraocular cancer. The most common intraocular ...

  11. Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral cancer can form in any part of the mouth. Most oral cancers begin in the flat cells that cover the ... your mouth, tongue, and lips. Anyone can get oral cancer, but the risk is higher if you are ...

  12. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types ... face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ...

  13. Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common cancers in the United States. Cancer Home Kidney Cancer Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Anatomy of the male urinary system (left panel) and ...

  14. US Food and Drug Administration's Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy for extended-release and long-acting opioids: pros and cons, and a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadante, Sebastiano; Craig, David; Giarratano, Antonello

    2012-12-24

    Prescriptions for opioid analgesics to manage moderate-to-severe chronic non-cancer pain have increased markedly over the last decade. An unintentional consequence of greater prescription opioid utilization has been the parallel increase in misuse, abuse and overdose, which are serious risks associated with all opioid analgesics. In response to disturbing rises in prescription opioid abuse, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has proposed the implementation of aggressive Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS). While REMS could dramatically change the development, release, marketing and prescription of extended-release opioids, questions remain on how these programmes may influence prescribing practices, patient safety and ultimately patient access to these agents. The extent of the availability and misuse of prescription opioids in Europe is difficult to assess from the data currently available, due in large part to the considerable differences in prescribing patterns and regulations between countries. Balancing the availability of prescription opioids for those patients who have pain, while discouraging illicit use, is a complex challenge and requires effective efforts on many levels, particularly in Europe where policies are quite different between countries.

  15. Cancer Disparities - Cancer Currents Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blog posts on cancer health disparities research—including factors that influence disparities, disparities-related research efforts, and diversity in the cancer research workforce—from NCI Cancer Currents.

  16. Cancer Technology - Cancer Currents Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blog posts on technologies that affect cancer research and care—including new technologies for detecting cancer, testing treatments, storing/analyzing data, and improving patient care—from NCI Cancer Currents.

  17. Improving the care of children with advanced cancer by using an electronic patient-reported feedback intervention: results from the PediQUEST randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Joanne; Orellana, Liliana; Cook, E Francis; Ullrich, Christina; Kang, Tammy; Geyer, Jeffrey Russell; Feudtner, Chris; Weeks, Jane C; Dussel, Veronica

    2014-04-10

    This study aimed to determine whether feeding back patient-reported outcomes (PROs) to providers and families of children with advanced cancer improves symptom distress and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This study was a parallel, multicentered pilot randomized controlled trial. At most once per week, children age ≥ 2 years old with advanced cancer or their parent completed the computer-based Pediatric Quality of Life and Evaluation of Symptoms Technology (PediQUEST) survey consisting of age- and respondent-adapted versions of the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS), Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 Generic Core Scales (PedsQL4.0), and an overall Sickness question. In the intervention group (n = 51), oncologists and families received printed reports summarizing PROs; e-mails were sent to oncologists and subspecialists when predetermined scores were exceeded. No feedback was provided in the control group (n = 53). Primary outcomes included linear trends of MSAS, PedsQL4.0 total and subscale scores, and Sickness scores during 20 weeks of follow-up, along with child, parent, and provider satisfaction with PediQUEST feedback. Feedback did not significantly affect average MSAS, PedsQL4.0, or Sickness score trends. Post hoc subgroup analyses among children age ≥ 8 years who survived 20 weeks showed that feedback improved PedsQL4.0 emotional (+8.1; 95% CI, 1.8 to 14.4) and Sickness (-8.2; 95% CI, -14.2 to -2.2) scores. PediQUEST reports were valued by children, parents, and providers and contributed at least sometimes to physician initiation of a psychosocial consult (56%). Although routine feedback of PROs did not significantly affect the child's symptoms or HRQoL, changes were in expected directions and improvements observed in emotional HRQoL through exploratory analyses were encouraging. Importantly, children, parents, and providers value PRO feedback.

  18. Uterine Cancer: Cancer of the Uterus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe To receive Publications email updates Submit Uterine cancer Cancer of the uterus (uterine cancer) is cancer ... Institute . Expand all | Collapse all What is uterine cancer? Cancer is a disease in which certain body ...

  19. Liquid-based cervical cytology using ThinPrep technology: weighing the pros and cons in a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bekker-Grob, Esther W; de Kok, Inge M C M; Bulten, Johan; van Rosmalen, Joost; Vedder, Judith E M; Arbyn, Marc; Klinkhamer, Paul J J M; Siebers, Albertus G; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein

    2012-08-01

    Cervical cancer screening with liquid-based cytology (LBC) has been developed as an alternative to the conventional Papanicolaou (CP) smear. Cost-effectiveness is one of the issues when evaluating LBC. Based on the results of a Dutch randomised controlled trial, we conducted cost-effectiveness threshold analyses to investigate under what circumstances manually screened ThinPrep LBC is cost-effective for screening. The MISCAN-Cervix microsimulation model and data from the Dutch NETHCON trial (including 89,784 women) were used to estimate the costs and (quality-adjusted) life years ((QA)LYs) gained for EU screening schedules, varying cost-effectiveness threshold values. Screening strategies were primary cytological screening with LBC or CP, and triage with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing. Threshold analyses showed that screening with LBC as a primary test can be cost-effective if LBC is less than 3.2 more costly per test than CP, if the sensitivity of LBC is at least 3-5 % points higher than CP, if the quality of life for women in triage follow-up is only 0.39, or if the rate of inadequate CP smears is at least 16.2 %. Regarding test characteristics and costs of LBC and CP, only under certain conditions will a change from CP to manually screened ThinPrep LBC be cost-effective. If none of these conditions are met, implementation of manually screened ThinPrep LBC seems warranted only if there are advantages other than cost-effectiveness. Further research is needed to establish whether other LBC systems will be more favorable with regard to cost-effectiveness.

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancers Clinical Trials Global Cancer Research Key Initiatives The RAS Initiative Cancer Moonshot℠ Immunotherapy ...

  1. Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  2. Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaginal cancer is a rare type of cancer. It is more common in women 60 and older. You are also more likely to get it if you have had a human ... test can find abnormal cells that may be cancer. Vaginal cancer can often be cured in its ...

  3. Gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglass, H.O.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 10 selections. Some of the titles are: Radiation therapy for gastric cancer; Experimental stomach cancer: Drug selection based on in vitro testing; Western surgical adjuvant trials in gastric cancers: Lessons from current trials to be applied in the future; and Chemotherapy of gastric cancer

  4. Do doctors understand the test characteristics of lung cancer screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Richard; Breyer, Marie; Breyer-Kohansal, Robab; Urban, Matthias; Funk, Georg-Christian

    2018-04-01

    Screening for lung cancer with a low-dose computed tomography (CT) scan is estimated to prevent 3 deaths per 1000 individuals at high risk; however, false positive results and radiation exposure are relevant harms and deserve careful consideration. Screening candidates can only make an autonomous decision if doctors correctly inform them of the pros and cons of the method; therefore, this study aimed to evaluate whether doctors understand the test characteristics of lung cancer screening. In a randomized trial 556 doctors (members of the Austrian Respiratory Society) were invited to answer questions regarding lung cancer screening based on online case vignettes. Half of the participants were randomized to the group 'solutions provided' and received the correct solutions in advance. The group 'solutions withheld' had to rely on prior knowledge or estimates. The primary endpoint was the between-group difference in the estimated number of deaths preventable by screening. Secondary endpoints were the between-group differences in the prevalence of lung cancer, prevalence of a positive screening results, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and false negative rate. Estimations were also compared with current data from the literature. The response rate was 29% in both groups. The reduction in the number of deaths due to screening was overestimated six-fold (95% confidence interval CI: 4-8) compared with the actual data, and there was no effect of group allocation. Providing the correct solutions to doctors had no systematic effect on their answers. Doctors poorly understand the test characteristics of lung cancer screening. Providing the correct solutions in advance did not improve the answers. Continuing education regarding lung cancer screening and the interpretation of test characteristics may be a simple remedy. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02542332).

  5. Enteral versus parenteral nutrition in cancer patients: evidences and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotogni, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The debate over the use of enteral nutrition (EN) and parenteral nutrition (PN) is an old but evergreen and hot topic. Since many years, studies comparing EN and PN have been a pivotal 'leitmotif' in the published literature on artificial nutrition (AN). Actually, there is a background misunderstanding in this debate; specifically, that EN and PN are competitors in the choice of the route for delivering nutrition support in cancer patients. Conversely, EN and PN have specific indications and contraindications. This review has the purpose to discuss the indications and complications as well as pros and cons of EN and PN in cancer patients, the crucial role of nutrition support in oncology patients during anticancer treatments and throughout the course of disease, and, finally, the role of AN in advanced cancer patients. In summary, we have no evidence-based data able to definitively indicate the optimal method for delivering AN in cancer patients. EN and PN have to be considered equally effective in maintaining or improving nutritional status in cancer patients. Besides, this review strongly supports the recommendation that a baseline nutritional assessment should be carried out by a healthcare professional expert in AN for all cancer patients at the time of diagnosis or anticancer treatment plan, taking the nutritional status, estimated duration of AN, AN-related potential benefits and possible complications into consideration on an individual basis. Moreover, the patient symptoms, performance status, estimated life expectancy, and mainly, will or preferences have to be evaluated and incorporated into the nutrition support plan before the definitive choice of the route for delivering nutrients is decided. Finally, applying a decision-making process tailored to patient needs-regardless of whether receiving or not anticancer treatment-allows to choose reasonably the optimal nutritional support strategy.

  6. Diet and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... DIET AND BREAST CANCER The link between nutrition and breast cancer has been well studied. To reduce risk of breast cancer the American ...

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic ... grade, which refers to how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope. Grade provides clues about ...

  8. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late Effects of Childhood ... A to Z List of Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic ...

  9. Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... white women. Inflammatory breast tumors are frequently hormone receptor negative, which means they cannot be treated with ...

  10. Stages of Rectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... VEGF inhibitors and angiogenesis inhibitors . Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor therapy: EGFRs are proteins found on ...

  11. Stages of Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... VEGF inhibitors and angiogenesis inhibitors . Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor therapy: EGFRs are proteins found on ...

  12. Obesity and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... hormone therapy and for tumors that express hormone receptors . Obesity is also a risk factor for breast ...

  13. Testicular Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... undescended testicle) is a risk factor for testicular cancer. Testicular cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... Testicular Cancer Treatment for more information about testicular cancer. Testicular cancer is the most common cancer in men ...

  14. Broadening the examination of sociocultural constructs relevant to African-American colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, V L Sanders; Harris, J; Clark, E M; Purnell, J; Deshpande, A D

    2015-01-01

    The importance of sociocultural constructs as influences on cancer attitudes and screening has been established in the literature. This paper reports on the efforts to explore alternatives to sociocultural constructs previously associated with African-American cancer screening, but with low acceptance among community members or incomplete measurement (empowerment and collectivism) and develop a measure for a recently identified construct of interest (privacy). We report preliminary psychometric data on these sociocultural scales and their associations with cancer attitudes. African-Americans (N = 1021), 50-75 years of age participated in this study. Participants were identified via a listed sample and completed a telephone survey administered via call center. Sociocultural attitudes were assessed using items identified through computerized database searches, reviewed by advisory panels, edited and tested using cognitive response strategies. Cancer screening pros and cons, cancer worry, perceived cancer risk, colorectal cancer (CRC) screening subjective norms, and perceived self-efficacy for colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) were also assessed. Confirmatory factor analyses and multivariate analyses were conducted to provide support for the validity of the constructs and to understand the associations among the selected sociocultural constructs (empowerment, collectivism, and privacy) and cancer beliefs and attitudes (CRC perceived benefits and barriers, perceived risks, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control/self-efficacy). Consistent with the literature, the factor analytic model (RMSEA for the model was .062; 90% CI: .060-.065) provided support for the empowerment, collectivism, and privacy constructs. The modified collectivism and privacy scales had acceptable reliability. The privacy scale demonstrated the strongest associations with measures of cancer beliefs and attitudes. The implication of the findings and need for further scale

  15. Broadening the examination of socio-cultural constructs relevant to African American colorectal cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders Thompson, V. L.; Harris, J.; Clark, E.M.; Purnell, J.; Deshpande, A.D.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of socio-cultural constructs as influences on cancer attitudes and screening has been established in the literature. This paper reports on efforts to explore alternatives to constructs previously associated with African American cancer screening, but with low acceptance among community members or incomplete measurement (empowerment and collectivism) and develop a measure for a recently identified construct of interest (privacy). We report preliminary psychometric data on these socio-cultural scales and their associations with cancer attitudes. African Americans (N=1021), 50 to 75 years of age participated in this study. Participants were identified via a listed sample and completed a telephone survey administered via call center. Socio-cultural attitudes were assessed using items identified through computerized database searches, reviewed by advisory panels, edited and tested using cognitive response strategies. Cancer screening pros and cons, cancer worry, perceived cancer risk, colorectal cancer screening subjective norms, and perceived self-efficacy for colorectal cancer screening were also assessed. Confirmatory factor analyses and multivariate analyses were conducted to provide support for the validity of the constructs and to understand the associations among the selected socio-cultural constructs (empowerment, collectivism and empowerment) and cancer beliefs and attitudes (CRC perceived benefits and barriers, perceived risks, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control/self-efficacy). Consistent with the literature, the factor analytic model (RMSEA for the model was 0.062; 90% CI: 0.060-0.065) provided support for the empowerment, collectivism and privacy constructs. The modified collectivism and privacy scales had acceptable reliability. The privacy scale demonstrated the strongest associations with measures of cancer beliefs and attitudes. The implication of the findings and need for further scale development activities is discussed

  16. Occupational cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, N.

    1987-01-01

    Cancer resulting from occupational exposure is now receiving major attention, focusing on identification, regulation, and control of cancer-causing agents. Such cancer can result from exposure to chemicals and ionizing and nonionizing radiation. Extended exposure (often years) and an extended latent period of perhaps decades may intervene before tumor appearance. Although the actual extent of occupational cancer is in debate, estimates have ranged from 4 to 15 per cent of all cancer

  17. Occupational cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alderson, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book aims to review the occurrence and causes of occupational cancer and is aimed at assisting medical and safety staff, management and health and safety representatives. It is presented in the following chapters: 1) Epidemiological method 2) Agents causing occupationally induced cancer, including radiation 3) Occupations associated with risk of cancer 4) Aetiology of cancer 5) Control of occupationally induced cancer, research, prevention, legislation, national and international bodies, control of specific occupational carcinogens, including irradiation. (U.K.)

  18. Distribution and removal of transuranic elements and cerium deposited by the inhalation route; Distribution et elimination des transuraniens et du cerium deposes par l'intermediaire des voies respiratoires; Raspredelenie transuranovykh ehlementov i tseriya, otkladyvayushchikhsya v rezul'tate vdykhaniya i ikh udalenie; Distribucion y eliminacion de elementos transuranicos y de cerio depositados por inhalacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bair, W. J.; Tombropoulos, E. G.; Park, J. F. [Hanford Atomic Products Operation, General Electric Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    1963-02-15

    , parasimpatominmeticos, parasiinpatoliticos y antihistamfnicos. El agente de quelacion, acido dietilentriaminopentaacetico.administ'rado en forma de aerosol o por via intraperitoneal elimina rapidamente el {sup 144}Ce-{sup 144}Pr de los pulmones y del organismo por excrecion urinaria. Un mes despues de ser expuestos a la accion del {sup 144}CeO{sub 2}, las ratas y perros tratados retienen una cantidad de {sup 144}Ce-{sup 144}Pr inferior al 10% de la retenida por los animales no tratados. (author) [Russian] Raspredelenie v tkanyakh i vydelenie vdykhaemykh radioaktivnykh izotopov menyaetsya vmeste s khimicheskoj formoj i razmerom chastits aehrozolej. U sobak cherez tridtsat' dnej posle vdykhaniya 70% nitrata plutoniya bylo obnaruzheno v legkikh, 10% - v, pecheni i 15% - v kostyakh skeleta. Posle vdykhaniya aehrozolya P{sup 239} O{sub 2} s vyschityvaemym srednim diametrom chastits (VSD), ravnym 0,12 mikron, 71% ehtogo veshchestva v organizme bylo skontsentrirovano v legkikh, 3% - v bronkhial'nykh limfaticheskikh uzlakh, 4,4% - v myshtsakh, 1,3% - v kostyakh skeleta i 20% bylo ravnomerno raspredeleno v ostal'nykh tkanyakh. Posle vdykhaniya aehrozolya P{sup 239} O{sub 2} s VSD chastits v intervale 0,3 - 0,6 mikron v legkikh soderzhalos' 98% veshchestva, v bronkhial'nykh limfaticheskikh uzlakh - okolo 1% i v ostal'nykh tkanyakh - 1%. Ehti dannye i issledovaniya mochi i isprazhnenij ukazyvayut na otnositel'nuyu vazhnost' trekh putej, po kotorym vdykhaemye radioaktivnye izotopy vyvodilis' iz legkikh, a imenno cherez trakheyu v rezul'tate dvizheniya resnichen s posledueshchem vydeleniem s isprazhneniyami, cherez al'veolyarnuyu membranu i pereraspredelenie v drugikh lgkanyakh s postepennym vydeleniem s mochoj i, nakonets, putem peremeshcheniya v bronkhial'nye limfaticheskie uzly, kotorye nakoplyayut vdykhaemye nerastvorimye veshchestva. Byli oprobovany terapevticheskie sredstva, kotorye, kak mozhno bylo ozhidat', povyshayut ochishchenie legkikh ot radioaktivnykh izotopov takimi putyami, pri

  19. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of 68Ga-DOTA-PA1 for Lung Cancer: A Novel PET Tracer for Multiple Somatostatin Receptor Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Liu, Teli; Xu, Xiaoxia; Guo, Xiaoyi; Li, Nan; Xiong, Chiyi; Li, Chun; Zhu, Hua; Yang, Zhi

    2018-02-05

    Most of the radiolabeled somatostatin analogues (SSAs) are specific for subtype somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR 2 ). Lack of ligands targeting other subtypes of SSTRs, especially SSTR 1, SSTR 3 , and SSTR 5 , limited their applications in tumors of low SSTR 2 expression, including lung tumor. In this study, we aimed to design and synthesize a positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer targeting multi-subtypes of SSTRs for PET imaging. PA1 peptide and its conjugate with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) chelator or fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) at the N-terminal of the lysine position were synthesized. 68 Ga was chelated to DOTA-PA1 to obtain 68 Ga-DOTA-PA1 radiotracer. The stability, lipophilicity, binding affinity, and binding specificity of 68 Ga-DOTA-PA1 and FITC-PA1 were evaluated by various in vitro experiments. Micro-PET imaging of 68 Ga-DOTA-PA1 was performed in nude mice bearing A549 lung adenocarcinoma, as compared with 68 Ga-DOTA-(Tyr3)-octreotate ( 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE). Histological analysis of SSTR expression in A549 tumor tissues and human tumor tissues was conducted using immunofluorescence staining and immunohistochemical assay. 68 Ga-DOTA-PA1 had high radiochemical yield and radiochemical purity of over 95% and 99%, respectively. The radiotracer was stable in vitro in different buffers over a 2 h incubation period. Cell uptake of 68 Ga-DOTA-PA1 was 1.31-, 1.33-, and 1.90-fold that of 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE, which has high binding affinity only for SSTR 2 , after 2 h incubation in H520, PG, and A549 lung cancer cell lines, respectively. Micro-PET images of 68 Ga-DOTA-PA1 showed that the PET imaging signal correlated with the total expression of SSTRs, instead of SSTR 2 only, which was measured by Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis in mice bearing A549 tumors. In summary, a novel PET radiotracer, 68 Ga-DOTA-PA1, targeting multi-subtypes of SSTRs, was successfully synthesized and was confirmed to be useful for PET

  20. Development of MijnAVL, an Interactive Portal to Empower Breast and Lung Cancer Survivors: An Iterative, Multi-Stakeholder Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijpers, Wilma; Groen, Wim G; Oldenburg, Hester SA; Wouters, Michel WJM; Aaronson, Neil K

    2015-01-01

    Background MijnAVL (MyAVL) is an interactive portal being developed to empower cancer survivors. Literature review and focus groups yielded the selection of features such as access to the electronic medical record (EMR), patient reported outcomes (PROs) and related feedback, and a physical activity support program. Objective Our aim was to present a final design of MijnAVL based on (1) health professionals' evaluation of proposed features, (2) cancer survivors’ evaluation of a first draft, and (3) cancer survivors’ evaluation of a functional online prototype. Methods Professionals from various disciplines gave input to the content of and procedures related to MijnAVL. Subsequently, 16 cancer survivors participated in an interview to evaluate content and graphic design of a first draft (shown with screenshots). Finally, 7 survivors participated in a usability test with a fully functional prototype. They performed predefined tasks (eg, logging in, finding a test result, completing a questionnaire) while thinking aloud. Descriptive statistics and simple content analysis were used to analyze the data of both the interviews and the usability tests. Results Professionals supported access to the EMR (eg, histology reports, lab results, and their letters to general practitioners). They also informed the development of PROs and the physical activity support program. Based on the first draft, survivors selected the preferred graphic design, approved the features and provided suggestions for the content (eg, explanation of medical jargon, more concise texts, notification by emails). Usability tests revealed that it was relatively easy to navigate the website and use the different features. Recommendations included, among others, a frequently asked questions section and the use of hyperlinks between different parts of the website. Conclusions The development of MijnAVL, an interactive portal to empower breast and lung cancer survivors, was performed iteratively and

  1. Immunohistochemistry for predictive biomarkers in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mino-Kenudson, Mari

    2017-10-01

    In the era of targeted therapy, predictive biomarker testing has become increasingly important for non-small cell lung cancer. Of multiple predictive biomarker testing methods, immunohistochemistry (IHC) is widely available and technically less challenging, can provide clinically meaningful results with a rapid turn-around-time and is more cost efficient than molecular platforms. In fact, several IHC assays for predictive biomarkers have already been implemented in routine pathology practice. In this review, we will discuss: (I) the details of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase ROS (ROS1) IHC assays including the performance of multiple antibody clones, pros and cons of IHC platforms and various scoring systems to design an optimal algorithm for predictive biomarker testing; (II) issues associated with programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) IHC assays; (III) appropriate pre-analytical tissue handling and selection of optimal tissue samples for predictive biomarker IHC.

  2. Development of a cancer clinical trials multi-media intervention: clinical trials: are they right for you?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kristen J; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Meade, Cathy D; Fletcher, Michelle; Tyson, Dinorah Martinez; Jim, Heather; Jacobsen, Paul B

    2012-08-01

    To describe processes used to develop a multi-media psycho-educational intervention to prepare patients for a discussion about cancer clinical trials (CTs). Guided by a Steering Committee, formative research was conducted to develop an informative and engaging tool about cancer CTs. Twenty-three patients and caregivers participated in formative in-depth interviews to elicit information about perceptions of cancer CTs to inform production of a new media product. Formative research revealed participants had concerns about experimentation, held beliefs that cancer CTs were for patients who had no other treatment options, and wanted a balance of information about pros and cons of CT participation. The value of physicians as credible spokespersons and the use of patients as role-models were supported. Using iterative processes, the production team infused the results into creation of a multimedia psycho-educational intervention titled Clinical Trials: Are they Right for You? An intervention, developed through an iterative consumer-focused process involving multiple stakeholders and formative research, may result in an engaging informative product. If found to be efficacious, Clinical Trials: Are they Right for You? is a low-cost and easily disseminated multimedia psycho-educational intervention to assist cancer patients with making an informed decision about cancer CTs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  4. Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rectum are part of the large intestine. Colorectal cancer occurs when tumors form in the lining of ... men and women. The risk of developing colorectal cancer rises after age 50. You're also more ...

  5. Gallbladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your gallbladder and liver to your small intestine. Cancer of the gallbladder is rare. It is more ... the abdomen It is hard to diagnose gallbladder cancer in its early stages. Sometimes doctors find it ...

  6. Nasal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the way to your throat as you breathe. Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is ... be like those of infections. Doctors diagnose nasal cancer with imaging tests, lighted tube-like instruments that ...

  7. Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basic information about cancer disparities in the U.S., factors that contribute to the disproportionate burden of cancer in some groups, and examples of disparities in incidence and mortality among certain populations.

  8. Thymus Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell. These cells help protect you from infections. Cancer of the thymus is rare. You are more ... Sometimes there are no symptoms. Other times, thymus cancer can cause A cough that doesn't go ...

  9. Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hormones that help control blood sugar levels. Pancreatic cancer usually begins in the cells that produce the juices. Some risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer include Smoking Long-term diabetes Chronic pancreatitis Certain ...

  10. Intestinal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

  11. Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from your throat to your stomach. Early esophageal cancer usually does not cause symptoms. Later, you may ... You're at greater risk for getting esophageal cancer if you smoke, drink heavily, or have acid ...

  12. Cancer treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000901.htm Cancer treatments To use the sharing features on this page, ... or IV. Immunotherapy Immunotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that relies on the body's ability to fight ...

  13. Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... organ in your lower abdomen that stores urine. Bladder cancer occurs in the lining of the bladder. It ... urinate Low back pain Risk factors for developing bladder cancer include smoking and exposure to certain chemicals in ...

  14. Breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can help you know how to prevent breast cancer. Breast implants, using antiperspirants, and wearing underwire bras do not increase the risk for breast cancer. There is also no evidence of a direct ...

  15. Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kind of kidney cancer called Wilms' tumor. The incidence of kidney cancer seems to be increasing. One ... doesn't go away Loss of appetite Unexplained weight loss Tiredness Fever, which usually comes and goes ( ...

  16. Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thick and show changes that look like cancer. Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common sign of EIN. Diagnosis and ... The most common symptom of endometrial cancer is abnormal uterine bleeding. For women who are premenopausal, this includes irregular ...

  17. Breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A collaborative article gives an overview of breast cancer in LICs, ... approach to the problem; therefore they are published as two separate ... attached to the diagnosis of breast cancer. ... Their founding statement in its early form is included.

  18. Cancer - vulva

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... freckle, which may be pink, red, white, or gray Skin thickening or lump Skin sore (ulcer) Other ... vulvar cancer; HPV - vulvar cancer Images Female perineal anatomy References Jhingran A, Russell AH, Seiden MV, et ...

  19. Cancer - penis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an organ that makes up part of the male reproductive system. Causes Cancer of the penis is rare. Its ... penis; Glansectomy; Partial penectomy Images Male reproductive anatomy Male reproductive system References Heinlen JE, Culkin DJ. Cancer of the ...

  20. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. The ... for a long time, or have HIV infection. Cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms at first. Later, ...

  1. Cancer Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The treatment of cancer using medication is called chemotherapy . Certain cancers respond well to chemo, which often can be given on an outpatient basis. Someone who is having chemotherapy may experience nausea, fatigue, hair loss, or other ...

  2. Prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R.; Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results

  3. Prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R., Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results.

  4. Profiling cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciro, Marco; Bracken, Adrian P; Helin, Kristian

    2003-01-01

    In the past couple of years, several very exciting studies have demonstrated the enormous power of gene-expression profiling for cancer classification and prediction of patient survival. In addition to promising a more accurate classification of cancer and therefore better treatment of patients......, gene-expression profiling can result in the identification of novel potential targets for cancer therapy and a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cancer....

  5. Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  6. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors increase or decrease the risk of lung cancer. Lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... following PDQ summaries for more information about lung cancer: Lung Cancer Prevention Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment ...

  7. Nutrition for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Become An Advocate Volunteer Ways To Give Lung Cancer www.lung.org > Lung Health and Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > ... Cancer Learn About Lung Cancer What Is Lung Cancer Lung Cancer Basics Causes & Risk Factors Lung Cancer Staging ...

  8. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National ... Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National ...

  9. Throat or larynx cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocal cord cancer; Throat cancer; Laryngeal cancer; Cancer of the glottis; Cancer of oropharynx or hypopharynx ... use tobacco are at risk of developing throat cancer. Drinking too much alcohol over a long time ...

  10. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Coping with Cancer Feelings and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self-Image & Sexuality ... Talking about Your Advanced Cancer Coping with Your Feelings During Advanced Cancer Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced ...

  11. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... can be addressed as quickly as possible. Recurrent breast cancer If the cancer does return after treatment for ...

  12. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  13. Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of skin behind the penis. You can get cancer in one or both testicles. Testicular cancer mainly affects young men between the ages of ... undescended testicle Have a family history of the cancer Symptoms include pain, swelling, or lumps in your ...

  14. Breast cancer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Cancer specialists will soon be able to compare mammograms with computerized images of breast cancer from across Europe, in a bid to improve diagnosis and treatment....The new project, known as MammoGrid, brings together computer and medical imaging experts, cancer specialists, radiologists and epidemiologists from Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge, France and Italy" (1 page).

  15. Perfusion lung scintigraphy in primary broncho-pulmonary cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapergue, Paul.

    1976-01-01

    Research on primary broncho-pulmonary cancer has called extensively on scintigraphy and it seemed interesting to weigh up the pros and cons of the technique in this particular case. Our intention is to sum up objectively from recent documents the applications of scintigraphy in the study of primary broncho-pulmonary cancers and to attempt, on the basis of the results compiled, to show what benefits have been gained from this technique and to find out whether it has any pre-surgical value and of what kind. The technique was invariable; the tracer consists of human albumin macro-aggregates labelled with technetium 99m which by its short half-life and slight penetration enables four exposures to be taken during the same examination (front, back, right and left profiles), thus reducing the risks of mistaken diagnoses due to the use of a single incidence. Similarly the detection method was always the scintillation camera which explores the whole organ at once, considerably shortening the examination time. Lung scintigraphy by perfusion of labelled human albumin macro-aggregates offers the great advantage of being simple to use and harmless. It is easy to understand the important place it has taken in the range of methods available for lung circulation exploration [fr

  16. The Role of End-of-Life Issues in the Design and Reporting of Cancer Clinical Trials: A Structured Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, Jan; Weingärtner, Vera; Lange, Stefan; Hausner, Elke; Gerhardus, Ansgar; Simon, Steffen T; Voltz, Raymond; Becker, Gerhild; Schmacke, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are important sources of information on the benefits and harms patients may expect from treatment options. The aim of this structured literature review by the German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care was to explore whether and how the end-of-life (EoL) situation of patients with advanced cancer is considered in RCTs investigating anti-cancer treatments. Our journal pool comprised 19 medical journals, namely five preselected key general medical journals as well as 14 specialist journals (mainly cancer) identified via a scoping search. We systematically searched these journals in MEDLINE to identify RCTs investigating anti-cancer treatments for the following four cancer types: glioblastoma, lung cancer (stage IIIb-IV), malignant melanoma (stage IV), and pancreatic cancer (search via OVID; November 2012). We selected a representative sample of 100 publications, that is, the 25 most recent publications for each cancer type. EoL was defined as a life expectancy of ≤ two years. We assessed the information provided on (1) the descriptions of the terminal stage of the disease, (2) the therapeutic goal (i.e. the intended therapeutic benefit of the intervention studied), (3) the study endpoints assessed, (4) the authors' concluding appraisal of the intervention's effects, and (5) the terminology referring to the patients' EoL situation. Median survival was ≤ one year for each of the four cancer types. Descriptions of the terminal stage of the disease were ambiguous or lacking in 29/100 publications. One or more therapeutic goals were mentioned in 51/100 publications; these goals were patient-relevant in 38 publications (survival alone: 30/38; health-related quality of life (HRQoL) or HRQoL and survival: 6/38; symptom control or symptom control and survival: 2/38). Primary endpoints included survival (50%), surrogates (44%), and safety (3%). Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) were assessed in 36/100 RCTs. The

  17. The Role of End-of-Life Issues in the Design and Reporting of Cancer Clinical Trials: A Structured Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Stefan; Hausner, Elke; Gerhardus, Ansgar; Simon, Steffen T.; Voltz, Raymond; Becker, Gerhild; Schmacke, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Background Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are important sources of information on the benefits and harms patients may expect from treatment options. The aim of this structured literature review by the German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care was to explore whether and how the end-of-life (EoL) situation of patients with advanced cancer is considered in RCTs investigating anti-cancer treatments. Methods Our journal pool comprised 19 medical journals, namely five preselected key general medical journals as well as 14 specialist journals (mainly cancer) identified via a scoping search. We systematically searched these journals in MEDLINE to identify RCTs investigating anti-cancer treatments for the following four cancer types: glioblastoma, lung cancer (stage IIIb-IV), malignant melanoma (stage IV), and pancreatic cancer (search via OVID; November 2012). We selected a representative sample of 100 publications, that is, the 25 most recent publications for each cancer type. EoL was defined as a life expectancy of ≤ two years. We assessed the information provided on (1) the descriptions of the terminal stage of the disease, (2) the therapeutic goal (i.e. the intended therapeutic benefit of the intervention studied), (3) the study endpoints assessed, (4) the authors’ concluding appraisal of the intervention’s effects, and (5) the terminology referring to the patients’ EoL situation. Results Median survival was ≤ one year for each of the four cancer types. Descriptions of the terminal stage of the disease were ambiguous or lacking in 29/100 publications. One or more therapeutic goals were mentioned in 51/100 publications; these goals were patient-relevant in 38 publications (survival alone: 30/38; health-related quality of life (HRQoL) or HRQoL and survival: 6/38; symptom control or symptom control and survival: 2/38). Primary endpoints included survival (50%), surrogates (44%), and safety (3%). Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) were

  18. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by ... Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role ...

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Biology Research Cancer Genomics Research Research on Causes of Cancer Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research Screening & Early ... Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public ...

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment Pediatric Supportive Care Unusual ...

  1. Childhood Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Watchdog Ratings Feedback Contact Select Page Childhood Cancer Statistics Home > Cancer Resources > Childhood Cancer Statistics Childhood Cancer Statistics – Graphs and Infographics Number of Diagnoses Incidence Rates ...

  2. The Role of TAM Family Receptors in Immune Cell Function: Implications for Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolino, Magdalena; Penninger, Josef M

    2016-10-21

    The TAM receptor protein tyrosine kinases-Tyro3, Axl, and Mer-are essential regulators of immune homeostasis. Guided by their cognate ligands Growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6) and Protein S (Pros1), these receptors ensure the resolution of inflammation by dampening the activation of innate cells as well as by restoring tissue function through promotion of tissue repair and clearance of apoptotic cells. Their central role as negative immune regulators is highlighted by the fact that deregulation of TAM signaling has been linked to the pathogenesis of autoimmune, inflammatory, and infectious diseases. Importantly, TAM receptors have also been associated with cancer development and progression. In a cancer setting, TAM receptors have a dual regulatory role, controlling the initiation and progression of tumor development and, at the same time, the associated anti-tumor responses of diverse immune cells. Thus, modulation of TAM receptors has emerged as a potential novel strategy for cancer treatment. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of how TAM receptors control immunity, with a particular focus on the regulation of anti-tumor responses and its implications for cancer immunotherapy.

  3. Psychological and behavioral mechanisms influencing the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, K; Komura, K; Tokoro, A; Kuromaru, T; Ohshima, A; Ito, T; Sumiyoshi, Y; Hyodo, I

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the psychological and behavioral mechanisms of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in Japanese cancer patients using two applied behavioral models, the transtheoretical model (TTM), and theory of planned behavior (TPB). Questionnaires were distributed to 1100 patients at three cancer treatment facilities in Japan and data on 521 cancer patients were used in the final analysis. The questionnaire included items based on TTM and TPB variables, as well as three psychological batteries. According to the TTM, 88 patients (17%) were in precontemplation, 226 (43%) in contemplation, 33 (6%) in preparation, 71 (14%) in action, and 103 (20%) in maintenance. The model derived from structural equation modeling revealed that the stage of CAM use was significantly affected by the pros, cons, expectation from family, norms of medical staff, use of chemotherapy, period from diagnosis, and place of treatment. The primary factor for the stage of CAM use was the expectation from family. The findings revealed the existence of a number of psychologically induced potential CAM users, and psychological variables including positive attitude for CAM use and perceived family expectation greatly influence CAM use in cancer patients.

  4. Frailty Testing Pilot Study: Pros and Pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlam, Taylor; Ulrich, Elizabeth; Kent, Missy; Malinzak, Lauren

    2018-02-01

    Frailty can be defined as an inflammatory state with a loss of physiologic reserve in multiple systems that manifests as a decreased ability to respond to stressors that ultimately leads to an increased risk of adverse outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the ease of frailty testing in a pre-kidney transplant clinic and the resources required to do so. A secondary goal was to better understand the utility of frailty testing when evaluating potential kidney transplant recipients. Frailty testing was conducted at a pre-kidney transplant clinic in three phases using Fried's frailty phenotype (shrinking, exhaustion, low physical activity, slowness, and grip strength). A total of 132 frailty tests were completed on 128 patients. Frail patients had significantly higher rates of shrinking (26% vs. 8.5%, P testing was most complete when an examiner dedicated to frailty testing performed the testing. Frailty testing is feasible to complete in a pre-transplant clinic with an appropriate investment in personnel and resources.

  5. BUSINESS TYPES – PROS AND CONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIȚESCU ALINA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, social and economic environment, both at macroeconomic and world economic it is characterized by a particularly dynamism, he decisively influencing entrepreneurial activity. The success of a business depends on the entrepreneur's economic knowledge and the ability to anticipate and correct decisions in critical moments. This paper aims to outline the advantages and limitations and risks of the main types of business. Thus, a potential entrepreneur can easily discern on what type of business to focus its capital, being able to make effective decisions in a rapidly changing economic environment.

  6. Stepwise versus Hierarchical Regression: Pros and Cons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Mitzi

    2007-01-01

    Multiple regression is commonly used in social and behavioral data analysis. In multiple regression contexts, researchers are very often interested in determining the "best" predictors in the analysis. This focus may stem from a need to identify those predictors that are supportive of theory. Alternatively, the researcher may simply be interested…

  7. Gene Therapy: Potential, Pros, Cons and Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Ananth Nanjunda Rao

    2002-01-01

    Genetic technology poses risks along with its rewards, just as any technology has in the past. To stop its development and forfeit the benefits gene therapy could offer would be a far greater mistake than forging ahead could ever be. People must always try to be responsible with their new technology, but gene therapy has the potential to be the future of medicine and its possibilities must be explored.

  8. Gene Therapy: Potential, Pros, Cons and Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananth Nanjunda Rao

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic technology poses risks along with its rewards, just as any technology has in the past. To stop its development and forfeit the benefits gene therapy could offer would be a far greater mistake than forging ahead could ever be. People must always try to be responsible with their new technology, but gene therapy has the potential to be the future of medicine and its possibilities must be explored.

  9. Pros and cons of marketing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacStravic, R S

    1988-10-01

    For years, high technologies have provided hospitals with marketing advantages. Hospitals used them to recruit and keep physicians and to lure patients and purchasers. Having the latest technology in a given field provided hospitals with status and prestige and enabled smaller facilities to compete with major medical centers. From a marketing point of view, technologies can produce four distinct effects that benefit the hospital: halo, monopoly, opportunity, and momentum effects. The best technology, from a competitive marketing viewpoint, meets the following criteria: The hospital can operate it at acceptable and, hopefully, competitive quality levels. The hospital can offer it at acceptable and, hopefully, competitive cost. It is sufficiently accessible to patients who need it. It gives the hospital a distinct competence in its market that can be preserved for a long time. But technology can become a risky business if: The hospital cannot attract the volume of patients needed to maintain quality. The low-volume hospital prices itself out of the competitive market. The new technology has undisclosed or undiscovered side effects. The technology is recruited by a competitor. Hospitals place more value on it than do their customers.

  10. VANET Routing Protocols: Pros and Cons

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Bijan; Ibrahim, Md.; Bikas, Md. Abu Naser

    2012-01-01

    VANET (Vehicular Ad-hoc Network) is a new technology which has taken enormous attention in the recent years. Due to rapid topology changing and frequent disconnection makes it difficult to design an efficient routing protocol for routing data among vehicles, called V2V or vehicle to vehicle communication and vehicle to road side infrastructure, called V2I. The existing routing protocols for VANET are not efficient to meet every traffic scenarios. Thus design of an efficient routing protocol h...

  11. IAEA safeguards: some pros and cons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, P.

    1986-01-01

    The author gives a personal view of the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) safeguards. The IAEA safeguards system is described (including containment, surveillance and inspection), and the limitations and strengths of the system are examined. (U.K.)

  12. Cost–effectiveness thresholds: pros and cons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Jeremy A; De Joncheere, Kees; Edejer, Tessa; Hutubessy, Raymond; Kieny, Marie-Paule; Hill, Suzanne R

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cost–effectiveness analysis is used to compare the costs and outcomes of alternative policy options. Each resulting cost–effectiveness ratio represents the magnitude of additional health gained per additional unit of resources spent. Cost–effectiveness thresholds allow cost–effectiveness ratios that represent good or very good value for money to be identified. In 2001, the World Health Organization’s Commission on Macroeconomics in Health suggested cost–effectiveness thresholds based on multiples of a country’s per-capita gross domestic product (GDP). In some contexts, in choosing which health interventions to fund and which not to fund, these thresholds have been used as decision rules. However, experience with the use of such GDP-based thresholds in decision-making processes at country level shows them to lack country specificity and this – in addition to uncertainty in the modelled cost–effectiveness ratios – can lead to the wrong decision on how to spend health-care resources. Cost–effectiveness information should be used alongside other considerations – e.g. budget impact and feasibility considerations – in a transparent decision-making process, rather than in isolation based on a single threshold value. Although cost–effectiveness ratios are undoubtedly informative in assessing value for money, countries should be encouraged to develop a context-specific process for decision-making that is supported by legislation, has stakeholder buy-in, for example the involvement of civil society organizations and patient groups, and is transparent, consistent and fair. PMID:27994285

  13. Pros and Cons of Having a Mentor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opsata, Margaret

    1985-01-01

    Discusses mentoring relationships for women in engineering. Advice and guideline include: (1) advantages (meeting new people, making career decisions, development as an employee); (2) disadvantages (overdependence, ethical disagreements, personal involvement); and (3) finding and using mentors. (DH)

  14. Pros and cons nuclear energy. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Excited discussions, general interest, heavy, sometimes even bloody confrontations - the subject of 'nuclear energy' has become a central problem nowadays. Texts about important aspects of the conflict will appear in irregular intervals within the frame of the epd-documentation. This is a composition of official declarations, press releases, etc., which deal with the behaviour of the church and individual christians during and concerning the events in Brokdorf of late 1976. The last essay in this booklet deals with the Brokdorf demonstration of 1977 (19th Feb). (orig.) [de

  15. Cost-effectiveness thresholds: pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Melanie Y; Lauer, Jeremy A; De Joncheere, Kees; Edejer, Tessa; Hutubessy, Raymond; Kieny, Marie-Paule; Hill, Suzanne R

    2016-12-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis is used to compare the costs and outcomes of alternative policy options. Each resulting cost-effectiveness ratio represents the magnitude of additional health gained per additional unit of resources spent. Cost-effectiveness thresholds allow cost-effectiveness ratios that represent good or very good value for money to be identified. In 2001, the World Health Organization's Commission on Macroeconomics in Health suggested cost-effectiveness thresholds based on multiples of a country's per-capita gross domestic product (GDP). In some contexts, in choosing which health interventions to fund and which not to fund, these thresholds have been used as decision rules. However, experience with the use of such GDP-based thresholds in decision-making processes at country level shows them to lack country specificity and this - in addition to uncertainty in the modelled cost-effectiveness ratios - can lead to the wrong decision on how to spend health-care resources. Cost-effectiveness information should be used alongside other considerations - e.g. budget impact and feasibility considerations - in a transparent decision-making process, rather than in isolation based on a single threshold value. Although cost-effectiveness ratios are undoubtedly informative in assessing value for money, countries should be encouraged to develop a context-specific process for decision-making that is supported by legislation, has stakeholder buy-in, for example the involvement of civil society organizations and patient groups, and is transparent, consistent and fair.

  16. The pros and cons of masked priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, K I

    1998-03-01

    Masked priming paradigms offer the promise of tapping automatic, strategy-free lexical processing, as evidenced by the lack of expectancy disconfirmation effects, and proportionality effects in semantic priming experiments. But several recent findings suggest the effects may be prelexical. These findings concern nonword priming effects in lexical decision and naming, the effects of mixed-case presentation on nonword priming, and the dependence of priming on the nature of the distractors in lexical decision, suggesting possible strategy effects. The theory underlying each of these effects is discussed, and alternative explanations are developed that do not preclude a lexical basis for masked priming effects.

  17. Insect cadaver applications: pros and cons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Application of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) formulated as insect cadavers has become an alternative to aqueous application for the control of agricultural pests. In this approach, the infected insect host cadaver is applied directly to the target site and pest suppression is achieved by the inf...

  18. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: Atypical Pros and Cons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal neurologic diseases that affect several mammalian species including human beings. Four animal TSE agents have been reported: scrapie of sheep and goats; chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer, elk, and moose; transmissible mink encephalopath...

  19. Reprocessing of irradiated fuel: pros and cons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, O.G.; Novikov, V.M.

    1991-01-01

    The acceptable-safety nuclear reactors (APWR, LMFBR, MSBR, MSCR) can be provided by the enrichment industry and by plutonium reserves. But steady accumulation of spent fuel will inevitably make to return to the problems of fuel recycle. PUREX-processing increases a danger of radionuclides spreading due to the presence of large buffer tanks. Using of compact fluoride - volatility process will sharply reduce a nuclide leakage likewise permit to reprocess a fuel with a burnup as high as possible. Success of a powerful robots development give an opportunity to design a fluoride-volatility plant twice cheaper than PUREX. (author)

  20. The office surgical suite: pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, R L

    1980-05-01

    Today interest and enthusiasm regarding facial plastic surgery is burgeoning. Office surgery provides a new, more expedient, comfortable method of delivery of health care while directly responding to the growing concern among the public and government for improved cost containment of medical services. Awareness of improved surgical techniques and facilities will help to ensure tomorrow's continued growth and satisfaction for both the surgeon and his patient.

  1. [Centralization in obstetrics: pros and cons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, V M; Ramb, S

    1996-01-01

    Possible advantages and disadvantages of a general centralization of German obstetric facilities are analysed in the study. The need for centralization of risk cases, especially premature births (regionalization) is pointed out. Centralization appears appropriate, since every fifth maternity unit in Germany (19.78%) has 300 or fewer deliveries per year. This one fifth of perinatal clinics accounts for 6.3% of all deliveries (N = 49450). There are appreciable differences between the old and new federal states (Bundesländer): in the recently acceded federal states, 48.7% of all perinatal clinics have deliveries of 300 and less per year. This group of perinatal clinics accounts for 29% of all deliveries in the new federal states. We have carried out a survey of the mother's attitude to centralization: out of 416 patients in the Detmold women's hospital whose mean age was 29.0 +/- 4.2 years, 90.4% were not in favor of general centralization of obstetrics. 43% were also against a centralization of risk cases (regionalization). 75% of the women surveyed objected to centralized obstetrics because of the 'possible absence of the family', the 'possible absence of students and trainees' (44.9%), the 'unfamiliarity with staff and premises' (41.8%) and 'fear of anonymity' (44.5%). The majority of all women (84.1%) did not want to have a drive more than 20 km to an obstetrics center. Fear of 'delivery in a taxi'(78.6%), the 'fear that the husband will come too late to the delivery' (65.4%) and that the 'overall course of the delivery might not be adequate for reasons of time'. The presence of a pediatrics department in conjunction with the perinatal clinic was rated very positively (93%). It is concluded from the data and further juridical considerations that centralization of risk cases (regionalization) is indispensable in the near future and that somewhat more further into the future decentralization should be carried out by closing obstetrics departments with substantially less than 350 deliveries per year. Attention is drawn to some consequences of such a structural reform which will probably have to be initiated by the German Association of Gynecologists and Obstetricians.

  2. The pros and cons of safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerzler, P.

    1988-01-01

    The author discusses three cases in relation to confidence in nuclear energy: the fire at Windscale, the leaks at Sellafield reprocessing plant; and the Transnuklear/Nukem scandal. The first involved a reactor used for purely military purposes and it has been shown that there has been no verifiable damage to public health as a result of radiation leaks following the fire. Concerning the Sellafield radiation leaks it is stated that the assertion that there is a link between them and an increasing occurrence of leukemia is false. On the other hand, the offences verified in the Transnuklear scandal (bribery and false declarations) are to be severely condemned, although the safety of the population and the environment was never at risk. The author concludes that these events do not alter the fact that the nuclear power plants in the western world have an excellent safety record

  3. Fair value accounting – pros and cons

    OpenAIRE

    Gorgieva-Trajkovska, Olivera; Temjanovski, Riste; Koleva, Blagica

    2016-01-01

    Fair value accounting continues to be a topic of significant interest and debate among the preparers and users of financial information. Fair value continues to be an important measurement basis in financial reporting. It provides information about what an entity might realize if it sold an asset or might pay to transfer a liability. In recent years, the use of fair value as a measurement basis for financial reporting has been expanded, even as the debate over its usefulness to stakeholders c...

  4. Home Birth: Know the Pros and Cons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including: A desire to give birth without medical intervention, such as pain medication, labor augmentation, labor induction or fetal heart rate monitoring A desire to give birth in a comfortable, familiar place surrounded by family Dissatisfaction with hospital care ...

  5. An Electric Preschool: Pros and Cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Marjorie W.

    An electric preschool is a classroom or center for children 3 to 5 years of age in which the curriculum with its supportive activities, materials, and equipment depends more on technology that is powered by electricity than on manually operated objects. Certainly, preschoolers need stimulating and safe environments managed by adults who allow them…

  6. A systematic review of exercise and psychosocial rehabilitation interventions to improve health-related outcomes in patients with bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammant, Elke; Decaestecker, Karel; Bultijnck, Renée; Sundahl, Nora; Ost, Piet; Pauwels, Nele S; Deforche, Benedicte; Pieters, Ronny; Fonteyne, Valérie

    2018-05-01

    Summarizing the evidence on the effects of pre- and postoperative exercise and psychosocial rehabilitation interventions on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and physical fitness in bladder cancer patients undergoing radical cystectomy. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database were searched independently by two authors from inception until 10 November 2017. Cited references of the studies and citing references retrieved via Web of Science were also checked. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomized studies assessing effects of exercise and psychosocial interventions in bladder cancer patients undergoing radical cystectomy were eligible. Primary outcome measures were PROs and physical fitness. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration tool and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Five RCTs (three exercise and two psychosocial studies) and one non-randomized psychosocial study comprising 317 bladder cancer patients were included. Timing of the intervention was preoperative ( n = 2), postoperative ( n = 2) or both pre- and postoperative ( n = 2). Positive effects of exercise were found for physical fitness ( n = 3), some health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) domains ( n = 2), personal activities in daily living ( n = 1) and muscle strength ( n = 1). Psychosocial interventions showed positive effects on anxiety ( n = 1), fatigue ( n = 1), depression ( n = 1), HRQoL ( n = 1) and posttraumatic growth ( n = 1). Quality assessment showed most shortcomings with sample sizes and strong heterogeneity was observed between studies. The evidence relating to the effects of exercise in bladder cancer is very limited and is even less for psychosocial interventions.

  7. Living at a residency away from home during radiotherapy as narrated by 52 patients with breast cancer: a cage of safety and discomfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilliehorn, Sara; Salander, Pär

    2018-02-01

    In the Nordic countries many patients with cancer conclude their treatment with 5-6 weeks of radiotherapy while staying at a residency far away from home. The experience of this stay, from a rehabilitation perspective, has not previously been studied. Fifty-two women with breast cancer were followed with repeated thematic interviews from diagnosis up to 2 years. The majority of women saw both pros and cons with their stay, and overall the stay could be described as "A cage of safety and discomfort". Pros included "Safety", "Closeness and learning", and "Feeling like being on holiday", while cons included "An intruding self-image", "Isolation and increased vulnerability", and "A loss of function". Some patients supported their own rehabilitation by socializing with their "fellow sisters", while others isolated themselves and mainly found it burdensome to be there. The residence becomes an interactional field with the potential to facilitate patients in resuming a new everyday life. The women who do not interact with others and/or who are stuck with feelings of anxiety should be offered the opportunity to take part in a group exclusively for "fellow sisters" in a similar situation. Implications for Rehabilitation Staying in accommodations together with other patients receiving daily radiotherapy for cancer for 5-6 weeks lends itself to personal interactions with a rehabilitative impact. Some patients take advantage of this possibility, which might facilitate the integration of the cancer experience into a new self-image. To some more vulnerable patients the stay at the patient hotel is burdensome, and these patients represent a target group for staff interventions aiming to facilitate their stay and their resumption of a new everyday life. A suggestion is that the specialist nurses meet with every patient after about a week in order to identify women who would benefit from psychosocial interventions.

  8. Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maghfoor, Irfan; Perry, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Since tobacco smoking is the cause in vast majority of cases, the incidence of lung cancer is expected to rise in those countries with high or rising incidence of tobacco smoking. Even though population at a risk of developing lung cancer are easily identified, mass screening for lung cancer is not supported by currently available evidence. In case of non-small cell lung cancer, a cure may be possible with surgical resection followed by post-operative chemotherapy in those diagnosed at an early stage. A small minority of patients who present with locally advanced disease may also benefit from preoperative chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy to down stage the tumor to render it potentially operable. In a vast majority of patients, however, lung cancer presents at an advanced stage and a cure is not possible with currently available therapeutic strategies. Similarly small cell lung cancer confined to one hemi-thorax may be curable with a combination of chemotherapy and thoracic irradiation followed by prophylactic cranial irradiation, if complete remission is achieved at the primary site. Small cell lung cancer that is spread beyond the confines of one hemi-thorax is however, considered incurable. In this era of molecular targeted therapies, new agents are constantly undergoing pre-clinical and clinical testing with the aim of targeting the molecular pathways thought to involved in etiology and pathogenesis of lung cancer. (author)

  9. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... sensitive breast cancer cells contain proteins called hormone receptors that become activated when hormones bind to them. ...

  10. General Information About Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... cancer cells have places where hormones can attach ( receptors ), drugs , surgery, or radiation therapy is used to ...

  11. Treatment Option Overview (Endometrial Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... cancer cells have places where hormones can attach ( receptors ), drugs , surgery, or radiation therapy is used to ...

  12. Cancer immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cairns, Linda; Aspeslagh, Sandrine; Anichini, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This report covers the Immunotherapy sessions of the 2016 Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI) Oncology Days meeting, which was held on 15th-17th June 2016 in Brussels, Belgium. Immunotherapy is a potential cancer treatment that uses an individual's immune system to fight the tumour....... In recent years significant advances have been made in this field in the treatment of several advanced cancers. Cancer immunotherapies include monoclonal antibodies that are designed to attack a very specific part of the cancer cell and immune checkpoint inhibitors which are molecules that stimulate...... or block the inhibition of the immune system. Other cancer immunotherapies include vaccines and T cell infusions. This report will summarise some of the research that is going on in this field and will give us an update on where we are at present....

  13. Oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, S J

    1990-01-01

    In the U.S. oral cancer accounts for 2.1% of all cancers and 1% of cancer deaths. Two to three times as many males as females are affected. Blacks have more intra-oral cancer than whites, and their incidence and mortality rates have increased in recent years. The etiologic process very likely involves several factors. The major etiologic agents are tobacco (all types) and alcoholic beverages. Herpes simplex virus, human papilloma virus, and Candida have been implicated. Host factors include poor state of dentition, nutritional aberrations, cirrhosis of liver, lichen planus, and immunologic impairmant. Cellular changes include amplification of some oncogenes, alterations in antigen expression, production of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and disturbance of keratin and involucrin production. Experimentally, cancer is readily produced on the hamster cheek pouch and rat oral mucosa. Unlike oral cancer in humans, most experimental lesions are exophytic, and they rarely metastasize.

  14. Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Content ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  15. Gallbladder Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Español ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  16. Vulvar Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Content ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer ... cancer’s grade, which refers to how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope. Grade provides clues about ...

  18. Breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gablerová, Pavlína

    2010-01-01

    In this work the topic of breast cancer treated more generally and mainly focused on risk factors for the development. The theoretical part describes the general knowledge about breast cancer as a stage or treatment. The practical part is to have clarified the risk factors that have some bearing on the diagnosis of breast cancer. What level are involved in the probability of occurrence? Can we eliminate them? As a comparison of risk factors examined in the Czech Republic, England, Australia a...

  19. Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-03-06

    Did you know that cervical cancer rates differ by race/ethnicity and region? Or that cervical cancer can usually be prevented if precancerous cervical lesions are found by a Pap test and treated? Find out how getting regular Pap tests can save a woman's life.  Created: 3/6/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 4/25/2007.

  20. Cancer cachexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Rotovnik Kozjek

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article presents the Slovenian multidisciplinary agreement statement on the definition, staging, clinical classification and multimodal approach to the treatment of cachexia in cancer patients. The consensus was reached during a multidisciplinary plenary session, and is based on the international definition of cancer cachexia adopted in 2011. Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial metabolic syndrome defined by an ongoing loss of skeletal muscle with or without concomitant loss of fat, which cannot be fully reversed by conventional nutritional support and leads to progressive functional impairment. Its pathophysiology is characterized by a negative energy and protein balance due to a variable combination of reduced food intake and metabolic changes. In cancer patients, the cachexia syndrome can develop progressively through various stages – from precachexia to cachexia and finally, to refractory cachexia–represent-ing a continuum of metabolic changes, clini-cal signs and symptoms. Patients can progress from precachexia to cachexia, and reverse from cachexia into precachectic stages, while (as the term itself implies, the condition of refractory or irreversible cachexia has poor therapeutic response. A clinical algorithm for recognition and treatment of cachexia in cancer patients is presented. All cancer patients should be screened for cachexia and precachexia on presentation. Patients who fulfil diagnostic criteria for cancer cachexia should have its clinical stage determined. According to phenotype / clinical stage, a multimodal approach should be adopted in the treatment of all cases of cancer cachexia. A typical multimodal management plan in cachectic patients consists of early dietary intervention, exercise, anti-inflammatory therapy and early cancer-related symptom relief. The cachexia treatment pathway should be adopted as a pathway parallel to conventional cancer treatment. Practical implementation of cancer cachexia

  1. Prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spera, G.

    2010-01-01

    This work is about diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of prostate cancer. The techniques used are: transrectal ultrasound, laparascopy, bone scan, chest x-ray, radiography, chemoterapy and radiotherapy

  2. Esophagus cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Ways of metastatic spreading of esophagus cancer, depending on segmental division of esophagus are considered. Classification of esophagus cancer according to morphological structure, domestic clinical classification according to stages and international classification according to TNM system are presented. Diagnosis of esophagus cancer should be complex and based on results of clinical examination of patients, radiological, endoscopic and morphological investigations. Radiological, surgical and combined (preoperative radiotherapy with successive operation) methods of treatment are used in the case of esophagus cancer. Versions of preoperative radiotherapy are given. Favourable results of applying combined surgical treatment with preoperative radiotherapy are shown

  3. Gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salek, T.

    2007-01-01

    Gastric cancer is still a major health problem and a leading cause of cancer mortality despite a worldwide decline in incidence. Primarily due to early detection of the disease, the results of treatment for gastric cancer have improved in Japan, Korea and several specialized Western centres. Surgery offers excellent long-term survival results for early gastric cancer (EGC). In the Western world, however more than 80 % of patients at diagnosis have an advanced gastric cancer with a poor prognosis. The aim of surgery is the complete removal of the tumour (UICC R0-resection), which is known to be the only proven, effective treatment modality and the most important treatmentrelated prognostic factor. The prognosis after surgical treatment of gastric cancer remains poor. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is a rising option in locally advanced gastric cancer. Adjuvant chemoradiation has been shown to be beneficial in gastric cancer patients who have undergone suboptimal surgical resection. The benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy alone seem to be very small, Untreated metastatic gastric cancer is associated with a median survival of only 3 - 4 months, but this can be increased to 8 - 10 months, associated with improved quality of life, with combination chemotherapy. Currently, no standard combination chemotherapy regimen exists, although regimens utilizing both cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil, such as epirubicin/cisplatin/fluorouracil (ECF) or docetaxel/cisplatin/fluorouracil (DCF) are amongst the most active. Newer chemotherapeutic agents, including irinotecan, oxaliplatin and taxanes, show promising activity, and are currently being tested with biologics in clinical trials. (author)

  4. Endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephanie

    2002-08-01

    To provide an update for nurses involved in the care of women at risk or being treated for endometrial cancer. Review articles, research reports, and medical and nursing text-books. Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy. Although most women with endometrial cancer present with early stage disease and have an excellent chance of cure, approximately 6,600 women in the United States are expected to die from the disease in 2002. Treatment of patients with advanced or recurrent disease remains challenging, with no proven best standard of treatment. Nursing plays an important role in prevention and early detection of endometrial cancer, patient education, patient care, and rehabilitation.

  5. Prostate Cancer FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundraise for PCF: Many vs Cancer Contact Us Prostate Cancer FAQs Top 10 Things You Should Know About ... prostate cancer detected? What are the symptoms of prostate cancer? If the cancer is caught at its earliest ...

  6. Cancer during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Older Adults Prevention and Healthy Living Cancer.Net Videos Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About Us You are here Home > Navigating Cancer Care > Dating, Sex, and Reproduction > Cancer During Pregnancy Request Permissions Cancer ...

  7. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  8. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics ... Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics ...

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment Pediatric Supportive Care Unusual ...

  10. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Research Cancer Genomics Research Research on Causes of ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  11. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Feelings and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self-Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for Caregivers ... Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support for ...

  13. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Research Cancer Genomics Research ... Centers Frederick National Lab Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes ...

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators ... Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National Lab Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists ...

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by Body Location/System ... The RAS Initiative Cancer Moonshot℠ Immunotherapy Progress Annual Report to the Nation Milestones in Cancer Research and ...

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Cancer Feelings and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self-Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for ... Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support ...

  17. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Request Permissions Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 10/2017 What is hereditary diffuse gastric cancer? Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is a rare ...

  18. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Key Points Stomach cancer is a disease in ...

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask About Cancer Research Advanced Cancer Choices for Care Talking about Your Advanced Cancer Coping with Your ... to Ask about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical Information Advance ...

  20. Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma) Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma) This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma). Use the menu below to ...

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Caregivers Questions to Ask about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical ... Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Managing Costs ...

  2. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Key Points Liver cancer is a ...

  3. Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... from starting. Risk-reducing surgery . General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for Caregivers Survivorship Questions to Ask About Cancer Research Advanced ... Cancer Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer and Caregivers Questions to Ask about Advanced Cancer Research Managing ...

  5. Skin Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Miguel A; Zakaria, Alan; Nizran, Parminder

    2015-12-01

    Skin cancer accounts for most malignancies across the globe. They are primarily divided into melanoma and nonmelanoma skin malignancies. Nonmelanoma skin cancer includes basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Fair skin and chronic ultraviolet B exposure are the most important risk factors. Primary prevention is achieved by avoiding sun exposure and tanning beds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cancer Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and number of cases of each type, the age of the people with cancer, and the area and time period over which the cancers were diagnosed. They also ask about specific environmental hazards or concerns in the affected area. If the review of ...

  7. Renal cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, E.; Betti, M.; Gatta, G.; Roila, F.; Mulder, P.H.M. de

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all

  8. Skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Michiko

    1992-01-01

    This chapter reviews the development of skin cancer associated with radiation, focusing on the knowledge of A-bomb radiation-induced skin cancer. Since the discovery of X radiation in 1895, acute and chronic radiation dermatitis has been the first matter of concern. Then, in 1902, skin cancer found among radiological personnel has posed a social problem. In earlier study determining the relationship between skin cancer and A-bomb radiation, there is no increase in the incidence of either skin cancer or precancerous condition during the first 20 years after A-bombing. More recent studies have showed that there is a significant correlation between the incidence of skin cancer and distance from the hypocenter; and the incidence of skin cancer is found to be remarkably increased since 1975 in the group exposed at ≤2,000 m. Excess relative risk is 2.2 at one Gy dose. The incidence of skin cancer is also found to be extremely increased with aging. Relative risk is high in younger A-bomb survivors at the time of exposure. Histologically, basal cell carcinoma is more senstitive to ionizing radiation than squamous cell carcinoma. (N.K.)

  9. Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Did you know that cervical cancer rates differ by race/ethnicity and region? Or that cervical cancer can usually be prevented if precancerous cervical lesions are found by a Pap test and treated? Find out how getting regular Pap tests can save a woman's life.

  10. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... layer of tissue underneath the retina that contains connective tissue and melanocytes, which are pigmented (colored) cells, and nourishes the inside of the eye. The choroid is the most common site for a tumor. Types of intraocular cancer The most common intraocular cancer in adults is ...

  11. Renal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, Enrichetta; Betti, Maura; Gatta, Gemma; Roila, Fausto; De Mulder, Pieter H. M.

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all

  12. Baseline characteristics and concerns of female cancer patients/survivors seeking treatment at a Female Sexual Medicine Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jeanne; Stabile, Cara; Seidel, Barbara; Baser, Raymond E; Gunn, Abigail R; Chi, Stephanie; Steed, Rebecca F; Goldfarb, Shari; Goldfrank, Deborah J

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize patients seeking treatment at a Female Sexual Medicine and Women's Health Program and examine their sexual/vaginal health issues. Data from clinical assessment forms were extracted from 509 women referred to the Female Sexual Medicine and Women's Health Program during/after cancer treatment. The form consists of a Vaginal Assessment Scale (VAS), vaginal health items, patient-reported outcomes (PROs) (Sexual Activity Questionnaire [SAQ], Sexual Self-Schema Scale [SSS], Female Sexual Function Index [FSFI]), and exploratory items. Of 509 patients, 493 (97 %) completed PROs; 253 (50 %) received a pelvic examination. The majority had a history of breast (n = 260, 51 %), gynecologic (n = 184, 36 %), or colorectal/anal (n = 35, 7 %) cancer. Mean age was 51.2 years; 313 (62 %) were married/partnered. Approximately two thirds had elevated vaginal pH scores (5-6.5 [35 %] or 6.5+ [33 %]) and minimal (62 %) or no (5 %) vaginal moisture. Eighty-seven patients (44 %) experienced pain during their exam (23 % mild, 11 % moderate, 1.5 % severe, and 8.5 % not indicated). Fifty-three percent engaged in sexual activity with a partner; only 43 % felt confident about future sexual activity. Ninety-three percent were somewhat to very concerned/worried about sexual function/vaginal health. Approximately half had moderate/severe dryness (n = 133, 51 %) and dyspareunia (n = 120, 46 %). The mean SSS score was 60.7, indicating a slightly positive sexual self-view. However, 93.5 % (n = 429) had an FSFI score <26.55, suggesting sexual dysfunction. At initial consult, women reported vaginal dryness, pain, and sexual dysfunction. For many women, pelvic exams showed elevated vaginal pH, lack of moisture, and discomfort with the exam itself. Future analyses will examine changes over time.

  13. Occupational cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choril, A.C.; McCracken, W.J.; Dowd, E.C.; Stewart, Charles; Burton, D.F.; Dyer, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    This paper reviews the experience of the Workmen's Compensation Board of Ontario in identifying cases of cancer that could be attributed to occupational hazards. Workers' claims for compensation are allowed if there is reasonable medical evidence that their cancer was caused by exposure to risk factors associated with their occupation. Details of the types of cancers associated with specific carcinogens or fields of employment are discussed. About 50% of the cases were related to exposure in particular industrial operations that functioned for relatively brief periods. The number of deaths from cancer identified as being caused by occupational factors is compared with the total for cancer from all causes in Ontario during the period 1971 through 1975. Although all workers eligible for compensation may not have been identified, the data suggest that less than 1% is presently caused by occupational factors

  14. Breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Masayoshi

    1992-01-01

    More than 20-year follow-up of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki has a crucial role in determining the relationship of radiation to the occurrence of breast cancer. In 1967, Wanebo et al have first reported 27 cases of breast cancer during the period 1950-1966 among the Adult Health Study population of A-bomb survivors. Since then, follow-up surveys for breast cancer have been made using the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, and the incidence of breast cancer has increased year by year; that is breast cancer was identified in 231 cases by the first LSS series (1950-1969), 360 cases by the second LSS series (1950-1974), 564 cases by the third LSS series (1950-1980), and 816 cases in the fourth LSS series (1950-1085). The third LSS series have revealed a high risk for radiation-induced breast cancer in women aged 10 or less at the time of exposure (ATE). Both relative and absolute risks are found to be decreased with increasing ages ATE. Based on the above-mentioned findings and other studies on persons exposed medical radiation, radiation-induced breast cancer is characterized by the following: (1) the incidence of breast cancer is linearly increased with increasing radiation doses; (2) both relative and absolute risks for breast cancer are high in younger persons ATE; (3) age distribution of breast cancer in proximally exposed A-bomb survivors is the same as that in both distally A-bomb survivors and non-exposed persons, and there is no difference in histology between the former and latter groups. Thus, immature mammary gland cells before the age of puberty are found to be most radiosensitive. (N.K.)

  15. Electronic patient-reported data capture as a foundation of rapid learning cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, Amy P; Ahmad, Asif; Zafar, S Yousuf; Wheeler, Jane L; Reese, Jennifer Barsky; Lyerly, H Kim

    2010-06-01

    "Rapid learning healthcare" presents a new infrastructure to support comparative effectiveness research. By leveraging heterogeneous datasets (eg, clinical, administrative, genomic, registry, and research), health information technology, and sophisticated iterative analyses, rapid learning healthcare provides a real-time framework in which clinical studies can evaluate the relative impact of therapeutic approaches on a diverse array of measures. This article describes an effort, at 1 academic medical center, to demonstrate what rapid learning healthcare might look like in operation. The article describes the process of developing and testing the components of this new model of integrated clinical/research function, with the pilot site being an academic oncology clinic and with electronic patient-reported outcomes (ePROs) being the foundational dataset. Steps included: feasibility study of the ePRO system; validation study of ePRO collection across 3 cancers; linking ePRO and other datasets; implementation; stakeholder alignment and buy in, and; demonstration through use cases. Two use cases are presented; participants were metastatic breast cancer (n = 65) and gastrointestinal cancer (n = 113) patients at 2 academic medical centers. (1) Patient-reported symptom data were collected with tablet computers; patients with breast and gastrointestinal cancer indicated high levels of sexual distress, which prompted multidisciplinary response, design of an intervention, and successful application for funding to study the intervention's impact. (2) The system evaluated the longitudinal impact of a psychosocial care program provided to patients with breast cancer. Participants used tablet computers to complete PRO surveys; data indicated significant impact on psychosocial outcomes, notably distress and despair, despite advanced disease. Results return to the clinic, allowing iterative update and evaluation. An ePRO-based rapid learning cancer clinic is feasible, providing

  16. Genetics Home Reference: lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Lung cancer Lung cancer Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... cancer, childhood Additional NIH Resources (3 links) National Cancer Institute: Lung Cancer Overview National Cancer Institute: Lung Cancer Prevention ...

  17. Get Tested for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print This Topic En español Get Tested for Cervical Cancer Browse Sections The Basics Overview Cervical Cancer Cervical ... Cervical Cancer 1 of 5 sections The Basics: Cervical Cancer What is cervical cancer? Cervical cancer is cancer ...

  18. General Information about Rectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... VEGF inhibitors and angiogenesis inhibitors . Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor therapy: EGFRs are proteins found on ...

  19. General Information about Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... VEGF inhibitors and angiogenesis inhibitors . Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor therapy: EGFRs are proteins found on ...

  20. Treatment Option Overview (Colon Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... VEGF inhibitors and angiogenesis inhibitors . Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor therapy: EGFRs are proteins found on ...

  1. Treatment Option Overview (Rectal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... VEGF inhibitors and angiogenesis inhibitors . Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor therapy: EGFRs are proteins found on ...

  2. Treatment Option Overview (Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... only hormone therapy after a hysterectomy . Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). Aromatase inhibitors . Less exposure of breast ...

  3. Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... compete with androgens for binding to the androgen receptor. By competing for binding to the androgen receptor, ...

  4. Vaginal Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Vaginal Cancer Vaginal Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Vaginal Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Vaginal Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors and ...

  5. Breast Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer Breast Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the Overview/ ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  6. Breast Cancer -- Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Introduction Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  7. Animal models of pancreatic cancer for drug research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapischke, Matthias; Pries, Alexandra

    2008-10-01

    The operative and conservative results of therapy in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma remain appallingly poor. This underlines the demand for further research for effective anticancer drugs. The various animal models remain the essential method for the determination of efficacy of substances during preclinical phase. Unfortunately, most of these tested substances showed a good efficacy in pancreatic carcinoma in the animal model but were not confirmed during the clinical phase. The available literature in PubMed, Medline, Ovid and secondary literature was searched regarding the available animal models for drug testing against pancreatic cancer. The models were analyzed regarding their pros and cons in anticancer drug testing. The different modifications of the orthotopic model (especially in mice) seem at present to be the best model for anticancer testing in pancreatic carcinoma. The value of genetically engineered animal model (GEM) and syngeneic models is on debate. A good selection of the model concerning the questions supposed to be clarified may improve the comparability of the results of animal experiments compared to clinical trials.

  8. Cancer world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, E.R.

    1981-01-01

    The author attempts to point out the relationships between various factors of our environment favouring disease (profession, chemicals, air pollution, nuclear power plants, ultra-violet rays etc.) respectively our ways of living (nutrition, drink, smoking), and the incidence and frequence of cancer. In his opinion, cancer is the toll man has to pay for industrialization and the destruction of the environment, and cancer therapy must begin long before the patient's treatment by changing that same einvironment. The different carcinogenous factors are discussed in detail and each chapter concludes with recommendations to those concerned and request for legislation. (MG) [de

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening Tests Research Diagnosis and Staging Symptoms Diagnosis Staging Prognosis Questions ...

  10. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Talking About Advanced Cancer Coping With Your Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer ... 1: Application Development & Submission Step 2: Application Receipt & Assignment Step 3: ...

  11. Physical Activity and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Physical Activity and Cancer On This Page What is physical activity? What is known about the relationship between physical ...

  12. Breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, L.; Krygier, G.; Castillo, C.

    2009-01-01

    This article is about the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of breast cancer. Positive diagnosis is based on clinical mammary exam, mammography, mammary ultrasonography, and histological study. Before the chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment are evaluated the risks

  13. Lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causing chemicals such as uranium, beryllium, vinyl chloride, nickel chromates, coal products, mustard gas, chloromethyl ethers, gasoline, and diesel exhaust Exposure to radon gas Family history of lung cancer ...

  14. Lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Toshio

    1982-01-01

    Based on the own experience and world literatures, contribution of radiation in the treatment of lung cancer was reviewed and discussed. Although the patients with advanced cancer were referred to radiation usually, the results of radiotherapy were superior to those by chemotherapy. Of course the radiotherapy was a local one, radiation combined with chemotherapy was highly recommended, besides systemic administration of chemotherapeutics, special methods such as bronchial arterial infusion (BAI) and chemoembolization would be more favourable in selected patients. Treatment of undifferentiated small cell carcinoma was becoming more dependent on chemotherapy, radiation showed as excellent local control as ever. To treat locally extended cancer patients with involvement of the thoracic wall and Pancoast's syndrome, external radiation alone were not successful, interstitial radiation or a single exposure with a large dose during the thoracotomy would be promising. Finally, data indicated that aged and poor risk patients in early stage of cancer might be treated by radiation instead of unjustifiable operation. (author)

  15. Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chemicals used in the manufacture of dyes, rubber, leather, textiles and paint products. Previous cancer treatment. Treatment ... instructions to avoid exposure. Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables. Choose a diet rich in a ...

  16. Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... getting it in the other one? Is my son more likely to get testicular cancer if I ... and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional ...

  17. Colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Suminori

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes colorectal cancer risk in relation to A-bomb radiation. The RERF Life Span Study has revealed the incidence of colorectal cancer to be significantly high in the group of A-bomb survivors than the control group. With regard to relative risk or excess relative risk, there is no definitive difference among sites in the colon. Risk for colon cancer is found to be linearly increased with increasing radiation doses, and in younger A-bomb survivors at the time of exposure. Risk associated with one Gy is estimated to be increased by double. There is no definitive variation between sex and between Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Excess relative risk would be increased rapidly with aging in the whole group of A-bomb survivors and with the cancer-prone age in younger A-bomb survivors at the time of exposure. (N.K.)

  18. Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... possible. Research will help us better understand whether chemotherapy can benefit elderly colorectal cancer patients. Such patients often do not receive chemotherapy due to concerns about side effects. We will ...

  19. Adrenocortical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Payabyab, Eden C.; Balasubramaniam, Sanjeeve; Edgerly, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    The development of new therapies has lagged behind for rare cancers without defined therapeutic targets. Adrenocortical cancer is no exception. Mitotane, an older agent considered "adrenolytic," is used both to control symptoms in advanced disease and as adjuvant therapy after surgical resection....... Molecular characterization of adrenocortical cancer has deepened our understanding of this genetically complex disease while identifying subgroups whose importance remains to be determined. Unfortunately, such studies have yet to demonstrate a therapeutic target for drug development, and to date......, no targeted therapy has achieved meaningful outcomes. Consequently, first-line therapy for metastatic disease remains a combination regimen of etoposide, doxorubicin, and cisplatinum established in a randomized clinical trial. In addition to evaluating recent studies in adrenocortical cancer, we raise one...

  20. Cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bleeding between periods, after intercourse, or after menopause Vaginal discharge that does not stop, and may be pale, ... Instructions Hysterectomy - abdominal - discharge Hysterectomy - laparoscopic - ... Images Cervical cancer Cervical neoplasia ...

  1. Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up of several layers of tissue, including muscle, connective tissue that supports the framework of the body, and an inner lining called the mucosa. Cancer is an abnormal growth of cells (the building ...

  2. Vaginal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker NF. Vulvar and vaginal cancer. In: Hacker NF, Gambone JC, Hobel CJ, eds. Hacker and Moore's Essentials of Obstetrics and Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 40. Jhingran ...

  3. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sunlamps. There are 2 types of UV rays: UVA rays (long-wave) – UVA rays penetrate clouds and glass. They penetrate the ... to cancer. But studies have shown that both UVA and UVB damage the skin and can cause ...

  4. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... modulators and aromatase inhibitors, reduce the risk of breast cancer in women with a high risk of the disease. These medications carry a risk of side effects, so doctors reserve these medications for women who ...

  5. Cancer nanotheranostics

    CERN Document Server

    Gopinath, P; Matai, Ishita; Bhushan, Bharat; Malwal, Deepika; Sachdev, Abhay; Dubey, Poornima

    2015-01-01

    This Brief provides a clear insight of the recent advances in the field of cancer theranostics with special emphasis upon nano scale carrier molecules (polymeric, protein and lipid based) and imaging agents (organic and inorganic).

  6. Prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Balslev, Ingegerd; Logager, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data.......To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data....

  7. Tradução, padrões e nuances: um estudo de Linguística de Corpus sobre diferentes prosódias semânticas na língua fonte e na língua alvo Translation, patterns and nuance: a study based on Corpus Linguistics about different semantic prosodies found in the source and target languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Lopes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo propomos uma discussão sobre a importância da prosódia semântica em traduções. Para tanto, estudamos sete itens lexicais analisados anteriormente por Coterril (2001, em inglês, que também ocorreram nos 162 textos jornalísticos do corpus paralelo desta pesquisa, formado por dados originalmente escritos em inglês (língua fonte e traduzidos para o português (língua-alvo. As ferramentas Alinhador, Concordanciador Paralelo (CEPRIL, LAEL, PUC-SP e WordSmith Tools 4 (SCOTT, 2004 foram usadas para a organização e o processamento dos dados. Como corpus de referência usou-se o Corpus do Português (DAVIES; FERREIRA, 2008. A análise mostrou resultados diferentes entre as prosódias semânticas de itens usados na língua fonte e na língua-alvo sugerindo que as escolhas tradutórias não imprimem o mesmo sentido do original. Concluimos este artigo sinalizando para a importância de estudos bilíngues que descrevam padrões lexicogramaticais, como a prosódia semântica, de maneira a contribuir para o estudo e a prática de tradução.This article aims to discuss the importance of semantic prosody in translation. Therefore, we present the analysis of seven lexical items previously studied in English by Coterril (2001 which also occurred in our parallel corpus (English-Portuguese composed by 162 journalistic texts. The methodology included data submitted to Alinhador Paralelo, Concordanciador Paralelo (CEPRIL, LAEL, PUC-SP and WordSmith Tools 4 (SCOTT, 2004. Corpus do Português (DAVIES; FERREIRA, 2008 was used as a reference corpus. The results showed different semantic prosody when comparing the itens used in the source and target languages (English-Portuguese. In our conclusion we offer some suggestions for future research considering two languages when investigating lexicogrammatical patterns such as the semantic prosody for Translation studies and practice.

  8. Stomach cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Chikako

    1992-01-01

    Malignant tumors have received much attention as delayed effects of A-bomb radiation. Above all, it is of a major concern to determine how the incidence of stomach cancer, commonly observed among Japanese, is influenced by A-bomb radiation. This article focusses on the relationship between A-bomb radiation and the incidence of stomach cancer, and its histological features with a brief review of the literature. Mass screening for stomach cancer has showed in 1973 that the incidence of stomach cancer is definitely high among the heavily exposed A-bomb survivors. Since then, data analyses using the T65DR have showed it to be higher in the 100 rad exposed group than the 0 rad exposed group. On the basis of death certificates, the incidence of stomach cancer is found to be increased around 1976. When using DS86, the calculated lowest dose that produces a significantly high mortality incidence from stomach cancer is 1 Gy at the sheilding kerma and 0.5 Gy at organ absorbed dose. Histopathologically, the incidence of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma is increased with increasing radiation doses; it is significantly increased in the 1 rad exposed group. The incidence of medullary type is decreased and the incidence of scirrhous type is increased with increasing radiation doses. (N.K.)

  9. Prostate Cancer Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundraise for PCF: Many vs Cancer Contact Us Prostate Cancer Symptoms and Signs Prostate Cancer Basics Risk Factors ... earlier. So what are the warning signs of prostate cancer? Unfortunately, there usually aren’t any early warning ...

  10. Stages of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Prostate Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Prostate ...

  11. Basic Cancer Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Considerations How Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young Adults For Older Adults Prevention and Healthy Living Cancer.Net Videos Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog ...

  12. Cancer Terms: After Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Considerations How Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young Adults For Older Adults Prevention and Healthy Living Cancer.Net Videos Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog ...

  13. Screening for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer screening is checking for cancer in people who don't have symptoms. Screening tests can help doctors find and treat several types of cancer early, but cancer screening can have harms as well as benefits.

  14. What Is Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shareable Graphics Infographics “African-American Men and Lung Cancer” “Lung Cancer Is the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both ... starts in the lungs, it is called lung cancer. Lung cancer begins in the lungs and may spread ...

  15. Prostate cancer - treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000403.htm Prostate cancer - treatment To use the sharing features on this page, ... drugs is recommended. References National Cancer Institute. Prostate cancer treatment (PDQ): Stages of prostate cancer. Updated July 31, ...

  16. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  17. Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research ... Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & ...

  18. Stages of Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research ... Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & ...

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Skip to content Español 1-800-4-CANCER Live Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer ...

  20. Cancer and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Cancer and obesity Overweight and obesity are associated with cancer Language: ... a cancer associated with overweight and obesity. Problem Obesity is a leading cancer risk factor. What’s happening? ...

  1. Cancer Genetics Services Directory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research NCI Cancer Genetics Services Directory This directory lists professionals who provide services related to cancer genetics (cancer risk assessment, genetic counseling, genetic susceptibility testing, ...

  2. Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grants Bladder Cancer Think Tank Bladder Cancer Research Network Bladder Cancer Genomics Consortium Get Involved Ways to ... us? Who we are The Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network (BCAN) is a community of patients, caregivers, survivors, ...

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Feelings and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self-Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for Caregivers Survivorship ... Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support for Caregivers ...

  4. Oral Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decrease the risk of oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer. Oral cavity, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancer are diseases in ... and treatment of oral cavity, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancer: Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Prevention Lip and Oral ...

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancers Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment Pediatric Supportive Care Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Childhood Cancer ... can talk about it in a clear and supportive way. Two viewer guides are also available: for ...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research ... Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & ...

  7. Pediatric Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Pediatric Thyroid Cancer Pediatric Thyroid Cancer Patient Health Information News media ... and neck issues, should be consulted. Types of thyroid cancer in children: Papillary : This form of thyroid cancer ...

  8. Anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000352.htm Anaplastic thyroid cancer To use the sharing features on this page, ... of cancer of the thyroid gland. Causes Anaplastic thyroid cancer is an invasive type of thyroid cancer that ...

  9. Stephenson Cancer Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson Cancer Center at the University of Oklahoma in Oklahoma City is an NCI-designated cancer center at the forefront of NCI-supported cancer research. Learn more about the Stephenson Cancer Center's mission.

  10. Skin Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Host a Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the ... Handbook A "Sunscreen Gene"? Skin Cancer Facts & Statistics Skin Cancer Treatment Glossary Information on medications and procedures ...

  11. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources ... Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Managing Costs and Medical Information Advance Directives Using ...

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Overview Research Cancer Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening Tests Research Diagnosis and Staging Symptoms Diagnosis Staging Prognosis ... Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening Tests Diagnosis & Staging Symptoms Diagnosis Staging Prognosis Treatment Types ...

  13. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment ... Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self ...

  14. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by the cancer. This blockage can cause the kidney to enlarge or stop working. Stage IIIB cervical cancer. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Cancer Types -- Cervical Cancer Staging Type: Color, ...

  15. Uterine Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Doing AMIGAS Stay Informed Cancer Home Uterine Cancer Statistics Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... the most commonly diagnosed gynecologic cancer. U.S. Cancer Statistics Data Visualizations Tool The Data Visualizations tool makes ...

  16. Cancer in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Navigating Cancer Care > For Older Adults For Older Adults A full-text transcript is available. More than ... Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young Adults For Older Adults Aging and Cancer Cancer Care Decisions for ...

  17. Breast cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... is performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  18. Stages of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  19. Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  20. Chemotherapy to Treat Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses drugs to kill cancer cells. Learn how chemotherapy works against cancer, why it causes side effects, and how it is used with other cancer treatments.

  1. Lung Cancer Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both Men and Women” Stay Informed Trends for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal (Colon) Ovarian Prostate Skin Cancer Home Lung Cancer Trends Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ...

  2. Feasibility, safety, and efficacy of aerobic training in pretreated patients with metastatic breast cancer: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jessica M; Iyengar, Neil M; Nilsen, Tormod S; Michalski, Meghan; Thomas, Samantha M; Herndon, James; Sasso, John; Yu, Anthony; Chandarlapaty, Sarat; Dang, Chau T; Comen, Elizabeth A; Dickler, Maura N; Peppercorn, Jeffrey M; Jones, Lee W

    2018-04-06

    The investigation of exercise training in metastatic breast cancer has received minimal attention. This study determined the feasibility and safety of aerobic training in metastatic breast cancer. Sixty-five women (age, 21-80 years) with metastatic (stage IV) breast cancer (57% were receiving chemotherapy, and >40% had ≥ 2 lines of prior therapy) were allocated to an aerobic training group (n = 33) or a stretching group (n = 32). Aerobic training consisted of 36 supervised treadmill walking sessions delivered thrice weekly between 55% and 80% of peak oxygen consumption (VO 2peak ) for 12 consecutive weeks. Stretching was matched to aerobic training with respect to location, frequency, duration, and intervention length. The primary endpoint was aerobic training feasibility, which was a priori defined as the lost to follow-up (LTF) rate (aerobic training was LTF, whereas the mean attendance rate was 63% ± 30%. The rates of permanent discontinuation and dose modification were 27% and 49%, respectively. Intention-to-treat analyses indicated improvements in PROs, which favored the attention control group (P values > .05). Per protocol analyses indicated that 14 of 33 patients (42%) receiving aerobic training had acceptable tolerability (relative dose intensity ≥ 70%), and this led to improvements in VO 2peak and functional capacity (P values Aerobic training at the dose and schedule tested is safe but not feasible for a significant proportion of patients with metastatic breast cancer. The acceptable feasibility and promising benefit for select patients warrant further evaluation in a dose-finding phase 1/2 study. Cancer 2018. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  3. Cancer Surgery: Physically Removing Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the hospital for a time before going home. Your health care team will give you specific directions for your ... Cancer.Net. ... robotics, electronics. In: Sabiston Textbook of Surgery: The Biological ...

  4. More Cancer Types - SEER Cancer Stat Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer Statistical Fact Sheets are summaries of common cancer types developed to provide an overview of frequently-requested cancer statistics including incidence, mortality, survival, stage, prevalence, and lifetime risk.

  5. Patient-reported outcome (PRO) questionnaires for men who have radical surgery for prostate cancer: a conceptual review of existing instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopapa, Evangelia; van der Meulen, Jan; Moore, Caroline M; Smith, Sarah C

    2017-10-01

    To critically review conceptual frameworks for available patient-reported outcome (PRO) questionnaires in men having radical prostatectomy (RP), psychometrically evaluate each questionnaire, and identify whether each is appropriate for use at the level of the individual patient. We searched PubMed, the Reports and Publications database of the University of Oxford Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Group and the website of the International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM) for psychometric reviews of prostate cancer-specific PRO questionnaires. From these we identified relevant questionnaires and critically appraised the conceptual content, guided by the Wilson and Cleary framework and psychometric properties, using well established criteria. The searches found four reviews and one recommendation paper. We identified seven prostate cancer-specific PROs: the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite-26 (EPIC-26), Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite-50 (EPIC-50), University of California-Los Angeles Prostate Cancer Index (UCLA-PCI), Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Prostate Cancer Subscale (FACT-P PCS), European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire - prostate specific 25-item (EORTC QLQ-PR25), Prostate Cancer - Quality of Life (PC-QoL), and Symptom Tracking and Reporting (STAR). Six out of seven measures purported to measure health-related quality of life (HRQL), but items focused strongly on urinary and sexual symptoms/functioning. The remaining questionnaire (STAR) claimed to assess functional recovery after RP. The psychometric evidence for these questionnaires was incomplete and variable in quality; none had evidence that they were appropriate for use with individual patients. Several questionnaires provide the basis of measures of urinary and/or sexual symptoms/functioning. Further work should explore other aspects of HRQL that are important for men having RP. Further psychometric work

  6. Análise acústica da prosódia em mulheres com doença de Parkinson: efeito da Levodopa Acoustic analysis of prosody in females with Parkinson's disease: effect of L-dopa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana L. Azevedo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available MOTIVO DO ESTUDO: Pacientes com doença de Parkinson (DP apresentam anormalidades da fala caracterizadas por pequena variação da frequência fundamental (Fo e maior amplitude. O papel dos sistemas dopaminérgicos na patogênese dessas alterações e o efeito terapêutico da L-dopa não se encontram claramente determinados. O objetivo desta investigação é avaliar o efeito da L-dopa nas caraterísticas da prosódia de mulheres com DP. MÉTODO: Nós estudamos 8 mulheres com DP (68,4 ± 6,4 anos e 8 mulheres controles (63,5 ± 6,8 anos. As pacientes (estágio H-Y 2, uma; estágio 2,5, quatro; estágio 3, três foram examinadas quando off e on. A frequência fundamental intensidade e duração da fala de sentenças afirmativas foram analisadas com o programa WinPitch 1.8 (Philippe Martin®. Os parâmetros Fo analisados foram: Fo usual (Fo us, Fo máxima (Fo max, Fo mínima (Fo min, Fo max da tônica prénuclear (Fo max PNT, Fo min da tônica prénuclear (Fo min PNT, Fo max da tônica nuclear (Fo max NT, Fo min da tônica nuclear (Fo min TN, velocidade da variação melódica da PNT (VPNT, velocidade da variação melódica da NT (VNT, amplitude da variação melódica da PNT (APNT, e amplitude da variação melódica da NT (ANT. Duração da sentença (D, duração da PNT (DPNT, duração da NT (DNT e número de sílabas por segundo (NSS foram os parâmetros de duração investigados. Foram estudadas as seguintes variáveis da intensidade: intensidade média (MI, intensidade máxima (I max, intensidade mínima (I min, intensidade da PNT (IPNT e intensidade da NT (INT. Diferenças foram estatisticamente significativas se pBACKGROUND: Untreated Parkinson's disease (PD patients display speech abnormalities characterized by narrow range of fundamental frequency (Fo variation and higher amplitude. The role of dopaminergic systems in the pathogenesis of these changes as well as the therapeutic effect of L-dopa have not been clearly determined. The aim

  7. Gynecologic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Takashi; Katsumata, Noriyuki

    2008-01-01

    Surgery and radiation therapy have been the main types of treatment for gynecologic cancer. However, chemotherapy in gynecologic oncology has recently made dramatic progress and presently is becoming the most widespread treatment. After the discovery of cisplatin in the field of chemotherapy for epithelial ovarian cancer, it has now become the leading treatment modality. According to the result of several important phase III randomized control trials (RCTs), the platinum-taxane combined therapy has now become the standard treatment regimen. Regarding endometrial cancer, Cisplatin-Adriamycin-Cyclophosphamide (CAP) therapy has been used as an effective adjuvant chemotherapy in Japan. The adjuvant chemotherapy (Adriamycin-Cisplatin therapy) for the endometrial cancer has now been recognized worldwide as the standard therapy based on the findings of a phase III RCT. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for cervical cancer has also been recommended as the standard therapy in Japan since 1999 based on the successful results of numerous RCTs which proved its efficacy. The chemotherapy for gynecologic cancers has been investigated and standardized based on the results of numerous clinical trials. These trials have been conducted by many clinical trial groups, such as the Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG), Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG), and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) throughout the world, in addition to the Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG) and the Japanese Gynecologic Oncology Group (JGOG) in Japan. The valuable contributions of these clinical trials are helping in the development of new drug therapies, thus leading to such treatment regimens playing increasingly important and wider roles in the field of gynecologic oncology treatment in the future. (author)

  8. Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is almost always due to smoking. TREATING LUNG CANCER Lung cancer treatment depends on several factors, including the ... org TARGETING CANCER CARE Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer Lung cancer is the second most common cancer in ...

  9. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors increase or decrease the risk of skin cancer. Skin cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... following PDQ summaries for more information about skin cancer: Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Genetics ...

  10. Nutritional risk assessment in critically ill cancer patients: systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruchtenicht, Ana Valéria Gonçalves; Poziomyck, Aline Kirjner; Kabke, Geórgia Brum; Loss, Sérgio Henrique; Antoniazzi, Jorge Luiz; Steemburgo, Thais; Moreira, Luis Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Objective To systematically review the main methods for nutritional risk assessment used in critically ill cancer patients and present the methods that better assess risks and predict relevant clinical outcomes in this group of patients, as well as to discuss the pros and cons of these methods according to the current literature. Methods The study consisted of a systematic review based on analysis of manuscripts retrieved from the PubMed, LILACS and SciELO databases by searching for the key words “nutritional risk assessment”, “critically ill” and “cancer”. Results Only 6 (17.7%) of 34 initially retrieved papers met the inclusion criteria and were selected for the review. The main outcomes of these studies were that resting energy expenditure was associated with undernourishment and overfeeding. The high Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment score was significantly associated with low food intake, weight loss and malnutrition. In terms of biochemical markers, higher levels of creatinine, albumin and urea were significantly associated with lower mortality. The worst survival was found for patients with worse Eastern Cooperative Oncologic Group - performance status, high Glasgow Prognostic Score, low albumin, high Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment score and high alkaline phosphatase levels. Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index values < 87 were significantly associated with mortality. A high Prognostic Inflammatory and Nutritional Index score was associated with abnormal nutritional status in critically ill cancer patients. Among the reviewed studies that examined weight and body mass index alone, no significant clinical outcome was found. Conclusion None of the methods reviewed helped to define risk among these patients. Therefore, assessment by a combination of weight loss and serum measurements, preferably in combination with other methods using scores such as Eastern Cooperative Oncologic Group - performance status, Glasgow Prognostic

  11. Cancer section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1985-01-01

    An overview is presented of the program at ORNL which is concerned with the study of cancer. The studies range from those at the molecular level and the control of gene expression to those concerning cell interactions and the role of immune responses. Since the agents capable of inducing cancer are multiple, the approaches must encompass the specific characteristics of chemical carcinogens, ionizing radiation, ultraviolet radiation and viruses. The approach of the molecular biological studies is centered on the role of activation of transposable gene elements. One investigation is concerned with the study of radiation-induced myelogenous leukemia. The other radiation carcinogenesis studies fall into two major groups. First, there are investigations of various facets of the mechanisms of cancer induction. The molecular and chromosomal studies fall into this category. The second group of studies includes those that are concerned with risk estimates

  12. Cervix cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pointreau, Y.; Ruffier Loubiere, A.; Barillot, I.; Pointreau, Y.; Denis, F.; Barillot, I.

    2010-01-01

    Cervix cancers declined in most developed countries in recent years, but remain, the third worldwide leading cause of cancer death in women. A precise staging, based on clinical exam, an abdominal and pelvic MRI, a possible PET-CT and a possible lymph node sampling is necessary to adapt the best therapeutic strategy. In France, the treatments of tumors of less than 4 cm without nodal involvement are often based on radiotherapy followed by surgery and, whereas tumors larger than 4 cm and involved nodes are treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Based on an illustrated clinical case, indications, delineation, dosimetry and complications expected with radiotherapy are demonstrated. (authors)

  13. Gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineur, L.; Jaegle, E.; Pointreau, Y.; Denis, F.

    2010-01-01

    Radio-chemotherapy Gastro-intestinal inter-group study have demonstrated a convincing local control and overall survival benefit. Oncologists and GI workshops have in the present not had a major interest in the radiotherapy treatment of gastric cancer due to a number of factors. Primary because toxicities may be severe, second physicians may have low experience in definition of clinical target volume and in third perioperative chemotherapy is widely used in this indication. In Summary this issue should be used as guides for defining appropriate radiation planning treatment for the adjuvant postoperative therapy of gastric cancer. (authors)

  14. Esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, O.; Ganem, G.; Denis, F.; Bera, G.; Pointreau, Y.; Pradier, O.; Martin, P.; Mirabel, X.

    2010-01-01

    Esophageal cancers are highly malignant tumours with often a poor prognosis, except for minimal lesions treated with surgery. Radiation therapy, or combined radiation and chemotherapy is the most used therapeutic modality, alone or before oesophagectomy. The delineation of target volumes is now more accurate owing the possibility to use routinely the new imaging techniques (mainly PET). The aim of this work is to precise the radio-anatomical particularities, the pattern of spread of esophageal cancer and the principles of 3D conformal radiotherapy illustrated with a clinical case. (authors)

  15. Penile Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Peter E.; Spiess, Philippe E.; Agarwal, Neeraj; Biagioli, Matthew C.; Eisenberger, Mario A.; Greenberg, Richard E.; Herr, Harry W.; Inman, Brant A.; Kuban, Deborah A.; Kuzel, Timothy M.; Lele, Subodh M.; Michalski, Jeff; Pagliaro, Lance; Pal, Sumanta K.; Patterson, Anthony; Plimack, Elizabeth R.; Pohar, Kamal S.; Porter, Michael P.; Richie, Jerome P.; Sexton, Wade J.; Shipley, William U.; Small, Eric J.; Trump, Donald L.; Wile, Geoffrey; Wilson, Timothy G.; Dwyer, Mary; Ho, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis represents approximately 0.5% of all cancers among men in the United States and other developed countries. Although rare, it is associated with significant disfigurement, and only half of the patients survive beyond 5 years. Proper evaluation of both the primary lesion and lymph nodes is critical, because nodal involvement is the most important factor of survival. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Penile Cancer provide recommendations on the diagnosis and management of this devastating disease based on evidence and expert consensus. PMID:23667209

  16. Clinician and cancer patient views on patient participation in treatment decision-making: a quantitative and qualitative exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, A H; Baas-Thijssen, M C M; Marijnen, C A M; Stiggelbout, A M

    2008-01-01

    Patient participation in treatment decision-making is being increasingly advocated, although cancer treatments are often guideline-driven. Trade-offs between benefits and side effects underlying guidelines are made by clinicians. Evidence suggests that clinicians are inaccurate at predicting patient values. The aim was to assess what role oncologists and cancer patients prefer in deciding about treatment, and how they view patient participation in treatment decision-making. Seventy disease-free cancer patients and 60 oncologists (surgical, radiation, and medical) were interviewed about their role preferences using the Control Preferences Scale (CPS) and about their views on patient participation using closed- and open-ended questions. Almost all participants preferred treatment decisions to be the outcome of a shared process. Clinicians viewed participation more often as reaching an agreement, whereas 23% of patients defined participation exclusively as being informed. Of the participants, ⩾81% thought not all patients are able to participate and ⩾74% thought clinicians are not always able to weigh the pros and cons of treatment for patients, especially not quality as compared with length of life. Clinicians seemed reluctant to share probability information on the likely impact of adjuvant treatment. Clinicians should acknowledge the legitimacy of patients' values in treatment decisions. Guidelines should recommend elicitation of patient values at specific decision points. PMID:18781148

  17. Halfway between 2D and Animal Models: Are 3D Cultures the Ideal Tool to Study Cancer-Microenvironment Interactions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Hoarau-Véchot

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An area that has come to be of tremendous interest in tumor research in the last decade is the role of the microenvironment in the biology of neoplastic diseases. The tumor microenvironment (TME comprises various cells that are collectively important for normal tissue homeostasis as well as tumor progression or regression. Seminal studies have demonstrated the role of the dialogue between cancer cells (at many sites and the cellular component of the microenvironment in tumor progression, metastasis, and resistance to treatment. Using an appropriate system of microenvironment and tumor culture is the first step towards a better understanding of the complex interaction between cancer cells and their surroundings. Three-dimensional (3D models have been widely described recently. However, while it is claimed that they can bridge the gap between in vitro and in vivo, it is sometimes hard to decipher their advantage or limitation compared to classical two-dimensional (2D cultures, especially given the broad number of techniques used. We present here a comprehensive review of the different 3D methods developed recently, and, secondly, we discuss the pros and cons of 3D culture compared to 2D when studying interactions between cancer cells and their microenvironment.

  18. Halfway between 2D and Animal Models: Are 3D Cultures the Ideal Tool to Study Cancer-Microenvironment Interactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoarau-Véchot, Jessica; Rafii, Arash; Touboul, Cyril; Pasquier, Jennifer

    2018-01-18

    An area that has come to be of tremendous interest in tumor research in the last decade is the role of the microenvironment in the biology of neoplastic diseases. The tumor microenvironment (TME) comprises various cells that are collectively important for normal tissue homeostasis as well as tumor progression or regression. Seminal studies have demonstrated the role of the dialogue between cancer cells (at many sites) and the cellular component of the microenvironment in tumor progression, metastasis, and resistance to treatment. Using an appropriate system of microenvironment and tumor culture is the first step towards a better understanding of the complex interaction between cancer cells and their surroundings. Three-dimensional (3D) models have been widely described recently. However, while it is claimed that they can bridge the gap between in vitro and in vivo, it is sometimes hard to decipher their advantage or limitation compared to classical two-dimensional (2D) cultures, especially given the broad number of techniques used. We present here a comprehensive review of the different 3D methods developed recently, and, secondly, we discuss the pros and cons of 3D culture compared to 2D when studying interactions between cancer cells and their microenvironment.

  19. For Some Skin Cancers, Targeted Drug Hits the Mark

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer Types ... Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research For Some Skin Cancers, Targeted ...

  20. Pancreas cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Shigeru; Kato, Hirotoshi; Hara, Ryusuke

    2006-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the pancreas continues to be a significant source of cancer mortality in Japan, resulting in approximately 19,000 deaths a year. It is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Japan, with a less than 5% 5-year expected survival rate. About 70-75% of patients with pancreas cancer present with locally advanced disease or distant metastases and have a median survival time of only 6 months. For unresectable pancreas cancer, the median survival time with external beam radiation (EBRT) was better than with surgical bypass or stents alone. The median survival of EBRT alone was 4 to 7 months. The median survival with combined EBRT and chemotherapy for locally unresectable tumor are 8 to 10 months and better than with the EBRT alone. Local failure of these combined therapies was still 26 to 48%. On the other hand, surgery with curative intent is undertaken in 15-20% of patients. Even after resection, the predicted 5-year survival rates are still less than 20%. Local recurrences in the pancreatic bed are seen in 50% of the patients undergoing presumed curative resection. We examined the effect of carbon ion therapy in terms of reducing the rate of local recurrence in patients with locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the pancreas or undergoing resection for adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. (author)