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Sample records for propulsion orthosis argo

  1. Propulsion System with Pneumatic Artificial Muscles for Powering Ankle-Foot Orthosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneva, Ivanka; Vanderborght, Bram; Lefeber, Dirk; Cherelle, Pierre

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the design of device for control of new propulsion system with pneumatic artificial muscles. The propulsion system can be used for ankle joint articulation, for assisting and rehabilitation in cases of injured ankle-foot complex, stroke patients or elderly with functional weakness. Proposed device for control is composed by microcontroller, generator for muscles contractions and sensor system. The microcontroller receives the control signals from sensors and modulates ankle joint flex- ion and extension during human motion. The local joint control with a PID (Proportional-Integral Derivative) position feedback directly calculates desired pressure levels and dictates the necessary contractions. The main goal is to achieve an adaptation of the system and provide the necessary joint torque using position control with feedback.

  2. The influence of the reciprocal hip joint link in the advanced reciprocating gait orthosis on standing performance in paraplegia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baardman, G.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Veltink, Petrus H.; Boom, H.B.K.; Zilvold, G.; Zilvold, G.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of reciprocally linking the hip hinges of a hip-knee-ankle-foot orthosis on standing performance was studied in a comparative trial of the Advanced Reciprocating Gait Orthosis (ARGO) and an ARGO in which the Bowden cable was removed (A_GO). Six male subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI)

  3. Project ARGO: The design and analysis of an all-propulsive and an aeroassisted version of a manned space transportation vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Seifert, D.; Waidelich, J.; Mileski, M.; Herr, D.; Wilks, M.; Law, G.; Folz, A.

    1989-01-01

    The Senior Aerospace System Design class at the University of Michigan undertook the design of a manned space transportation vehicle (STV) that would transport payloads between low earth orbit (LEO) and geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO). Designated ARGO after the ship of the Greek adventurer Jason, two different versions of an STV that would be based, refueled, and serviced at the Space Station Freedom were designed and analyzed by the class. With the same 2-man/7-day nominal mission of transporting a 10,000-kg payload up to GEO and bringing a 5000-kg payload back to LEO, the two versions of ARGO differ in the manner in which the delta V is applied to insert the vehicle into LEO upon return from GEO. The all-propulsive ARGO (or CSTV for chemical STV) uses thrust from its LH2/LOX rocket engines to produce the delta V during all phases of its mission. While the aeroassisted ARGO (or ASTV for aeroassisted STV) also uses the same engines for the majority of the mission, the final delta V used to insert the ASTV into LEO is produced by skimming the Earth's atmosphere and using the drag on the vehicle to apply the required delta V. This procedure allows for large propellant, and thus cost, savings, but creates many design problems such as the high heating rates and decelerations experienced by a vehicle moving through the atmosphere at hypersonic velocities. The design class, consisting of 43 senior aerospace engineering students, was divided into one managerial and eight technical groups. The technical groups consisted of spacecraft configuration and integration, mission analysis, atmospheric flight, propulsion, power and communications, life support and human factors, logistics and support, and systems analysis. Two committees were set up with members from each group to create the scale models of the STV's and to produce the final report.

  4. Argo Navis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Ship) a large southern constellation representing the ship Argo of Jason and the Argonauts in Greek mythology whose brightest stars were cataloged by Ptolemy (c. AD 100-175) in the Almagest. It was divided up by the French astronomer Nicolas L de Lacaille (1713-62), who charted the southern sky in 1751-2, into the constellations Carina (the Keel), Vela (the Sails), Puppis (the Poop or Stern)...

  5. A Motor Learning Oriented, Compliant and Mobile Gait Orthosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Calanca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available People affected by Cerebral Palsy suffer from physical disabilities due to irreversible neural impairment since the very beginning of their life. Difficulties in motor control and coordination often relegate these patients to the use of a wheelchair and to the unavoidable upcoming of disuse syndromes. As pointed out in recent literature Damiano [7] physical exercise, especially in young ages, can have a deep impact on the patient health and quality of life. For training purposes is very important to keep an upright position, although in some severe cases this is not trivial. Many commercial mobile orthoses are designed to facilitate the standing, but not all the patients are able to deploy them. ARGO, the Active Reciprocated Gait Orthosis we developed, is a device that overcomes some of the limitations of these devices. It is an active device that is realized starting from a commercial reciprocated Gait Orthosis applying sensors and actuators to it. With ARGO we aim to develop a device for helping limbs in a non-coercive way accordingly to user’s intention. In this way patients can drive the orthosis by themselves, deploying augmented biofeedback over movements. In fact Cerebral Palsy patients usually have weak biofeedback mechanisms and consequently are hardly inclined to learn movements. To achieve this behavior ARGO deploys a torque planning algorithm and a force control system. Data collected from a single case of study shows benefits of the orthosis. We will show that our test patient reaches complete autonomous walking after few hour of training with prototype.

  6. Respon Iran Terhadap Film Argo

    OpenAIRE

    Utami, Nidya; Pakpahan, Saiman

    2017-01-01

    This research discusses Iran's response to the political thriller movie Argo and how the movie represents Iranians. Argo movie was launch in October 2012 focusing on an exfiltration mission in Iran by the CIA, which is based on true events in 1979 when the Islamic Revolution broke in Iran. Iranian in 2012 was shocked by Argo's Iranian depiction that was deem by president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad ‘anti Iranian' and American propaganda. Iran further their accusation when Argo receive the prestigious...

  7. Argo (2012) : Motion Picture

    OpenAIRE

    Lauri Lucente, Gloria; Buhagiar, Celaine

    2013-01-01

    Argo : Acting under the cover of a Hollywood producer scouting a location for a science fiction film, a CIA agent launches a dangerous operation to rescue six Americans in Tehran during the U.S. hostage crisis in Iran in 1980.

  8. The ARGO Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozameh, C. N.

    El proyecto µARGO propone el desarrollo, construcción y operación del Observatorio Espacial de Rayos Gamma, que operará en una órbita terrestre. Este observatorio constará de un telescopio con capacidad de medir simultáneamente dirección de incidencia y polarización de rayos Gamma en dos rangos de energía: 50 KeV - 3 MeV y 10 MeV - 1 GeV. Para ello se usarán detectores de silicio de última generación y microelectrónica adaptada a la configuración. La masa total en órbita del observatorio estará en el orden de los 60 - 100 kg. dependiendo de la geometría adoptada lo que permitirá minimizar costos de desarrollo y construcción, sin perder por ello calidad en su misión científica. ? Desde el punto de vista energético μARGO cubrirá el rango cubierto por COMPTEL y EGRET del CGRO, duplicando como mínimo la resolución angular de ambos con una reducción de peso de dos órdenes de magnitud. En adición, μARGO podr´ medir la polarización incidente de los rayos energéticos. Si bien existen otros dos proyectos en marcha (GLAST y AGILE) para reemplazar EGRET que serán lanzados antes que μARGO, estos proyectos no están diseñados para medir polarización ni tampoco cubren el rango mas bajo de energía arriba mencionado.

  9. The influence of ankle joint mobility when using an orthosis on stability in patients with spinal cord injury: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazpour, M; Bani, M A; Hutchins, S W; Curran, S; Javanshir, M A

    2013-10-01

    Perceived risk of falling is an important factor for people with spinal cord injury (SCI). This study investigated the influence of ankle joint motion on postural stability and walking in people with SCI when using an orthosis. Volunteer subjects with SCI (n=5) participated in this study. Each subject was fitted with an advanced reciprocating gait orthosis (ARGO) equipped with either solid or dorsiflexion-assist type ankle-foot orthosis (AFOs) and walked at their self-selected speed along a flat walkway to enable the comparison of walking speed, cadence and endurance. A force plate system and a modified Falls Efficacy Scale (MFES) were utilized to measure postural sway and the perceived fear of falling, respectively. There were significant differences in the mean MFES scores between two types of orthosis (P=0.023). When using two crutches, there was no significant difference in static standing postural sway in the medio-lateral (M/L) direction (P=0.799), but significant difference in the antero-posterior (A/P) direction (P=0.014). However, during single crutch support, there was a significant difference in both M/L (P=0.019) and A/P (P=0.022) directions. Walking speed (7%) and endurance (5%) significantly increased when using the ARGO with dorsi flexion assisted AFOs. There was no significant deference between two types of orthoses in cadence (P=0.54). Using an ARGO with dorsiflexion-assisted AFOs increased the fear of falling, but improved static postural stability and increased walking speed and endurance, and should therefore be considered as an effective orthosis during the rehabilitation of people with SCI.

  10. The effect of ankle foot orthosis stiffness on the energy cost of walking: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, D J J; van der Krogt, M M; de Groot, V; Harlaar, J; Wisse, M; Collins, S H

    2011-11-01

    In stroke and multiple sclerosis patients, gait is frequently hampered by a reduced ability to push-off with the ankle caused by weakness of the plantar-flexor muscles. To enhance ankle push-off and to decrease the high energy cost of walking, spring-like carbon-composite Ankle Foot Orthoses are frequently prescribed. However, it is unknown what Ankle Foot Orthoses stiffness should be used to obtain the most efficient gait. The aim of this simulation study was to gain insights into the effect of variation in Ankle Foot Orthosis stiffness on the amount of energy stored in the Ankle Foot Orthosis and the energy cost of walking. We developed a two-dimensional forward-dynamic walking model with a passive spring at the ankle representing the Ankle Foot Orthosis and two constant torques at the hip for propulsion. We varied Ankle Foot Orthosis stiffness while keeping speed and step length constant. We found an optimal stiffness, at which the energy delivered at the hip joint was minimal. Energy cost decreased with increasing energy storage in the ankle foot orthosis, but the most efficient gait did not occur with maximal energy storage. With maximum storage, push-off occurred too late to reduce the impact of the contralateral leg with the floor. Maximum return prior to foot strike was also suboptimal, as push-off occurred too early and its effects were subsequently counteracted by gravity. The optimal Ankle Foot Orthosis stiffness resulted in significant push-off timed just prior to foot strike and led to greater ankle plantar-flexion velocity just before contralateral foot strike. Our results suggest that patient energy cost might be reduced by the proper choice of Ankle Foot Orthosis stiffness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Systemwide Power Management with Argo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellsworth, Daniel; Patki, Tapasya; Perarnau, Swann; Seo, Sangmin; Yoshii, Kazutomo; Hoffmann, Henry; Schulz, Martin; Beckman, Pete

    2016-05-23

    The Argo project is a DOE initiative for designing a modular operating system/runtime for the next generation of supercomputers. A key focus area in this project is power management, which is one of the main challenges on the path to exascale. In this paper, we discuss ideas for systemwide power management in the Argo project. We present a hierarchical and scalable approach to maintain a power bound at scale, and we highlight some early results.

  12. Puitmaja klaster : intervjuu Argo Sauliga / Argo Saul ; intervjueerinud Kalle Komissarov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saul, Argo

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Puitmajaliidu juhatuse esimehe ning Nordic Houses osaniku ja juhatuse esimehe Argo Sauliga arhitektide ja tüüpmaja tootjate võimalikust koostööst Eesti puitmaja klastris, millega Eesti Arhitektide Liit on liitunud. Nordic Houses on norra arhitektide projektide järgi tootnud ja tarninud üle 700 puhkemaja Norrasse

  13. The Argo NOC: Combining TDM and GALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasapaki, Evangelia; Sparsø, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Argo is a network-on-chip developed for use in a multi-core platform designed specifically for hard real-time applications and it supports message passing across virtual end-to-end channels. Argo implements these channels using time-division-multiplexing (TDM) of the resources in the NOC following...

  14. An ankle-foot orthosis powered by artificial pneumatic muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Daniel P; Czerniecki, Joseph M; Hannaford, Blake

    2005-05-01

    We developed a pneumatically powered orthosis for the human ankle joint. The orthosis consisted of a carbon fiber shell, hinge joint, and two artificial pneumatic muscles. One artificial pneumatic muscle provided plantar flexion torque and the second one provided dorsiflexion torque. Computer software adjusted air pressure in each artificial muscle independently so that artificial muscle force was proportional to rectified low-pass-filtered electromyography (EMG) amplitude (i.e., proportional myoelectric control). Tibialis anterior EMG activated the artificial dorsiflexor and soleus EMG activated the artificial plantar flexor. We collected joint kinematic and artificial muscle force data as one healthy participant walked on a treadmill with the orthosis. Peak plantar flexor torque provided by the orthosis was 70 Nm, and peak dorsiflexor torque provided by the orthosis was 38 Nm. The orthosis could be useful for basic science studies on human locomotion or possibly for gait rehabilitation after neurological injury.

  15. Moderating Argos location errors in animal tracking data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, David C.; Weinziert, Rolf; Davidson, Sarah C.; Kays, Roland; Wikelski, Martin; Bohrer, Gil

    2012-01-01

    1. The Argos System is used worldwide to satellite-track free-ranging animals, but location errors can range from tens of metres to hundreds of kilometres. Low-quality locations (Argos classes A, 0, B and Z) dominate animal tracking data. Standard-quality animal tracking locations (Argos classes 3, 2 and 1) have larger errors than those reported in Argos manuals.

  16. Euro-Argo: The European contribution to the global Argo ocean observations network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourcuff, Claire

    2017-04-01

    The international Argo programme is a major element of the global in-situ ocean observing system. More than 3900 floats are now globally measuring temperature and salinity throughout the global oceans, down to 2,000 meters depth and delivering data both in real time for operational users and after careful scientific quality control for climate change research and monitoring. Argo is the single most important in-situ observing system for the Copernicus Marine Service. The Euro-Argo research infrastructure organizes and federates European contribution to Argo. A legal and governance framework (Euro-Argo ERIC) was set up in May 2014; it allows European countries to consolidate and improve their contribution to Argo international. We will provide an overview of the development of Euro-Argo over the past years and present the now agreed Euro-Argo long term organization. The capability of the Euro-Argo infrastructure to organize Argo floats procurement, deployment and processing at European level and to conduct R&D driven by Copernicus needs will be highlighted. During the recent years, within the H2020 E-AIMS project, Euro-Argo carried R&D activities on new Argo floats, equipped with biogeochemical sensors or able to dive up to 4000m, from the floats design up to the analysis of their measurements. European Argo data centers were adapted so that they can handle the new data. Observing System Evaluations and Simulation Experiments were also conducted to provide robust recommendations for the next phase of Argo. One of the main challenges for Euro-Argo is now to implement the next phase of Argo with an extension towards biogeochemistry (e.g. oxygen, biology), the polar oceans, the marginal seas and the deep ocean. Meeting such challenges is essential for the long term sustainability and evolution of the Copernicus Marine Service. We will present Euro-Argo strategy and provide some highlights on the implementation-plan for the years to come and the Argo extensions for the

  17. Argo packing friction research update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanTassell, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper focuses on the issue of valve packing friction and its affect on the operability of motor- and air-operated valves (MOVs and AOVs). At this time, most nuclear power plants are required to perform postmaintenance testing following a packing adjustment or replacement. In many cases, the friction generated by the packing does not impact the operability window of a valve. However, to date there has not been a concerted effort to substantiate this claim. To quantify the effects of packing friction, it has become necessary to develop a formula to predict the friction effects accurately. This formula provides a much more accurate method of predicting packing friction than previously used factors based strictly on stem diameter. Over the past 5 years, Argo Packing Company has been developing and testing improved graphite packing systems at research facilities, such as AECL Chalk River and Wyle Laboratories. Much of this testing has centered around reducing and predicting friction that is related to packing. In addition, diagnostic testing for Generic Letter 89-10 MOVs and AOVs has created a significant data base. In July 1992 Argo asked several utilities to provide running load data that could be used to quantify packing friction repeatability and predictability. This technical paper provides the basis to predict packing friction, which will improve calculations for thrust requirements for Generic Leter 89-10 and future AOV programs. In addition, having an accurate packing friction formula will improve packing performance when low running loads are identified that would indicate insufficient sealing force

  18. ARGOS laser system mechanical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deysenroth, M.; Honsberg, M.; Gemperlein, H.; Ziegleder, J.; Raab, W.; Rabien, S.; Barl, L.; Gässler, W.; Borelli, J. L.

    2014-07-01

    ARGOS, a multi-star adaptive optics system is designed for the wide-field imager and multi-object spectrograph LUCI on the LBT (Large Binocular Telescope). Based on Rayleigh scattering the laser constellation images 3 artificial stars (at 532 nm) per each of the 2 eyes of the LBT, focused at a height of 12 km (Ground Layer Adaptive Optics). The stars are nominally positioned on a circle 2' in radius, but each star can be moved by up to 0.5' in any direction. For all of these needs are following main subsystems necessary: 1. A laser system with its 3 Lasers (Nd:YAG ~18W each) for delivering strong collimated light as for LGS indispensable. 2. The Launch system to project 3 beams per main mirror as a 40 cm telescope to the sky. 3. The Wave Front Sensor with a dichroic mirror. 4. The dichroic mirror unit to grab and interpret the data. 5. A Calibration Unit to adjust the system independently also during day time. 6. Racks + platforms for the WFS units. 7. Platforms and ladders for a secure access. This paper should mainly demonstrate how the ARGOS Laser System is configured and designed to support all other systems.

  19. OBIS - ARGOS Satellite Tracking of Animals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various species have been tracked using ARGOS PTT trackers since the early 1990's. These include Emperor, King and Adelie pengiuns, Light-mantled Sooty, Grey-headed...

  20. A Study on the Deriving Requirements of ARGO Operation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Kyung Seo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI has been developing one mobile and one stationary SLR system since 2008 named as ARGO-M and ARGO-F, respectively. KASI finished the step of deriving the system requirements of ARGO. The requirements include definitions and scopes of various software and hardware components which are necessary for developing the ARGO-M operation system. And the requirements define function, performance, and interface requirements. The operation system consisting of ARGO-M site, ARGO-F site, and Remote Operation Center (ROC inside KASI is designed for remote access and the automatic tracking and control system which are the main operation concept of ARGO system. To accomplish remote operation, we are considering remote access to ARGO-F and ARGO-M from ROC. The mobile-phone service allows us to access the ARGO-F remotely and to control the system in an emergency. To implement fully automatic tracking and control function in ARGO-F, we have investigated and described the requirements about the automatic aircraft detection system and the various meteorological sensors. This paper addresses the requirements of ARGO Operation System.

  1. Argos Americano: incertidumbre e independencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Penagos Carreño

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es el resultado del análisis léxico métrico al periódico cartagenero el Argos Americano. Papel político, económico y literario de Cartagena de Indias (Septiembre de 1810 -Marzo de 1812 , que muestra las distintas discusiones que se dieron en torno a temas como nación, gobierno e independencia durante una época turbulenta cuando España había sido invadida por los ejércitos de Napoleón, y el rey Fernando VII fue hecho prisionero, lo cual dejó un vacío de poder que sumió a las provincias del continente americano en la incertidumbre por definir un gobierno. Este trabajo hace parte del proyecto de investigación Historia Cultural de la Prensa en la Nueva Granada ( 1810-1820 , patrocinado por la Dirección de Investigaciones y la Facultad de Comunicación de la Universidad de La Sabana.

  2. Prototyping of Individual Ankle Orthosis Using Additive Manufacturing Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Wierzbicka

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents design and manufacturing process of an individualized ankle orthosis using additive manufacturing technologies and reverse engineering. Conventional processes of manufacturing of orthosesareexpensive and time consuming -an alternative method was proposed. The patient’s leg was 3D scanned and the orthosis was designed using a CAD system. It was then manufactured using the Fused Deposition Modelling technology, assembled and fully tested. Positive results were obtained.

  3. Propulsion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Propulsion Lab simulates field test conditions in a controlled environment, using standardized or customized test procedures. The Propulsion Lab's 11 cells can...

  4. Multimodal Discourse Analysis of the Movie "Argo"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Xu

    2018-01-01

    Based on multimodal discourse theory, this paper makes a multimodal discourse analysis of some shots in the movie "Argo" from the perspective of context of culture, context of situation and meaning of image. Results show that this movie constructs multimodal discourse through particular context, language and image, and successfully…

  5. Effect of New Kypho-Remainder Orthosis on Curve Intensity in Adults With Postural Hyper Kyphosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Torkaman

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion Considering the importance of maintaining a proper posture to optimize the muscles activity in preventing deformity and orthosis with a bio-feedback mechanism may be the solution. The long-term effect of using a bio-feedback orthosis indicated that kypho-remainder orthosis can significantly improve the kyphosis curve in individuals with postural hyper-kyphosis. 

  6. The Argo-Ybj experiment in Tibet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloisio, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Naples (Italy)]|[Benevento Universita' del Sannio, Benevento, (Italy); Bacci, C.; Pistilli, P.; Branchini, P.; Bussino, S.; De Vincenzi, M.; Iucci, N.; Mari, S.M.; Stanescu, C.; Storini, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Naples (Italy)]|[Rome Univ. Tre, Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Bao, K.Z.; Li, B.; Sun, L.R.; Sun, S.C.; Wei, Y.N.; Yao, Q.K.; Yue, X.D. [Zhenghou University, Henan (China); Barone, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Naples (Italy)]|[Salerno Univ. Salerno (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Farmaceutiche; Bartoli, B.; Calloni, E.; Cavaliere, S.; Catalanotti, S.; Di Sciascio, G.; Di Girolamo, T.; D' Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Iacovacci, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Naples (Italy)]|[Naples Univ., Naples (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Bernardini, P.; Bleve, C.; Cesaroni, F.; Creti, P.; Mancarella, G.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Orlando, D.; Panareo, M.; Sudo, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy)]|[Lecce Univ., Lecce (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Camarri, P.; Cardarelli, R.; Casolino, M.; Cavaliere, A.; D' Elia, V.; Liberti, B.; Paoloni, A.; Santonico, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy)]|[Rome Univ. Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Cao, B.Y.; Fu, Y.; Kong, F.M.; Li, J.Y. [Shandong University, Jinan (China); Cha, M.; He, H.H.; Kuang, H.H.; Lu, H.; Ma, X.H.; Peng, Z.R.; Shen, P.R.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.Y.; Zhang, H.M.; Zhang, J.L.; Zhu, Q.Q. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Cusimano, G.; D' Ali Staiti, G.; Mineo, T.; Nicastro, L.; Raso, G.; Sacco, B.; Scarsi, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy)]|[Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Fisica Cosmica, Palermo (Italy); Danzengluobu; Gluo, H.W.; Labaciren; Meng, X.H.; Yuan, A.F.; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhaxiciren [Tibet University, Lhasa (China); Feng, Z.Y.; Huang, Q.; Jai, H.Y.; Yu, G.C. [South West Jiaotong University, Chengdu (China)

    2001-10-01

    The Argo-Ybj experiment (Astrophysical Radiation Ground-based Observatory at YangBaJing) is under construction in Tibet, 90 km to the north of Lhasa. The full coverage approach and the high altitude location allow the study of many physics items in the field of low energy cosmic rays, namely gamma-ray astronomy, diffuse gamma-rays, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), proton/antiproton ratio, primary proton spectrum and heliosphere physics. In this paper the expected sensitivities of Argo-Ybj for gamma astronomy and GRB physics are presented and compared with the present experimental techniques and results. The performance of a test-module of {approx} 50 m{sup 2} operated on-site is also discussed.

  7. Modelling of the Human Knee Joint Supported by Active Orthosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musalimov, V.; Monahov, Y.; Tamre, M.; Rõbak, D.; Sivitski, A.; Aryassov, G.; Penkov, I.

    2018-02-01

    The article discusses motion of a healthy knee joint in the sagittal plane and motion of an injured knee joint supported by an active orthosis. A kinematic scheme of a mechanism for the simulation of a knee joint motion is developed and motion of healthy and injured knee joints are modelled in Matlab. Angles between links, which simulate the femur and tibia are controlled by Simulink block of Model predictive control (MPC). The results of simulation have been compared with several samples of real motion of the human knee joint obtained from motion capture systems. On the basis of these analyses and also of the analysis of the forces in human lower limbs created at motion, an active smart orthosis is developed. The orthosis design was optimized to achieve an energy saving system with sufficient anatomy, necessary reliability, easy exploitation and low cost. With the orthosis it is possible to unload the knee joint, and also partially or fully compensate muscle forces required for the bending of the lower limb.

  8. Modelling of the Human Knee Joint Supported by Active Orthosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musalimov V.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses motion of a healthy knee joint in the sagittal plane and motion of an injured knee joint supported by an active orthosis. A kinematic scheme of a mechanism for the simulation of a knee joint motion is developed and motion of healthy and injured knee joints are modelled in Matlab. Angles between links, which simulate the femur and tibia are controlled by Simulink block of Model predictive control (MPC. The results of simulation have been compared with several samples of real motion of the human knee joint obtained from motion capture systems. On the basis of these analyses and also of the analysis of the forces in human lower limbs created at motion, an active smart orthosis is developed. The orthosis design was optimized to achieve an energy saving system with sufficient anatomy, necessary reliability, easy exploitation and low cost. With the orthosis it is possible to unload the knee joint, and also partially or fully compensate muscle forces required for the bending of the lower limb.

  9. Hip orthosis powered by pneumatic artificial muscle: voluntary activation in absence of myoelectrical signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Breno Gontijo; Vimieiro, Claysson Bruno Santos; Nagem, Danilo Alves Pinto; Pinotti, Marcos

    2008-04-01

    Powered orthosis is a special class of gait assist device that employs a mechanical or electromechanical actuator to enhance movement of hip, knee, or ankle articulations. Pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM) has been suggested as a pneumatic actuator because its performance is similar to biological muscle. The electromyography (EMG) signal interpretation is the most popular and simplest method to establish the patient voluntary control of the orthosis. However, this technique is not suitable for patients presenting neurological lesions causing absence or very low quality of EMG signal. For those cases, an alternative control strategy should be provided. The aim of the present study is to develop a gait assistance orthosis for lower limb powered by PAMs controlled by a voluntary activation method based on the angular behavior of hip joint. In the present study, an orthosis that has been molded in a patient was employed and, by taking her anthropometric parameters and movement constraints, the adaptation of the existing orthosis to the powered orthosis was planned. A control system was devised allowing voluntary control of a powered orthosis suitable for patients presenting neurological lesions causing absence or very low quality of EMG signal. A pilot clinical study was reported where a patient, victim of poliovirus, successfully tested a hip orthosis especially modified for the gait test evaluation in the parallel bar system. The hip orthosis design and the control circuitry parameters were able to be set to provide satisfactory and comfortable use of the orthosis during the gait cycle.

  10. Highlights from the ARGO-YBJ experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aielli, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, dell& #x27; Universita & #x27; Tor Vergata& #x27; , via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Bacci, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, dell& #x27; Universita & #x27; Roma Tre& #x27; , via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma 3, via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); Bartoli, B. [Dipartimento di Fisica, dell& #x27; Universita di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant& #x27; Angelo, via Cintia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant& #x27; Angelo, via Cintia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Bernardini, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, dell& #x27; Universita del Salento, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Bi, X.J. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophyics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 918, 100049 Beijing (China); Bleve, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, dell& #x27; Universita del Salento, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Branchini, P.; Budano, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma 3, via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); and others

    2012-01-01

    The ARGO-YBJ experiment at YangBaJing in Tibet (4300 m a.s.l.) has been taking data with its full layout since October 2007. Here we present a few significant results obtained in gamma-ray astronomy and cosmic-ray physics. Emphasis is placed on the analysis of gamma-ray emission from point-like sources (Crab Nebula, MRK 421), on the preliminary limit on the antiproton/proton flux ratio, on the large-scale cosmic-ray anisotropy and on the proton-air cross-section. The performance of the detector is also discussed, and the perspectives of the experiment are outlined.

  11. Implementation in ARGOS of ERMIN and AGRICP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, L.H.; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Charnock, T.

    2010-01-01

    The ERMIN model is a new implement developed to enable estimation of the radiological consequences in inhabited areas of accidents in nuclear installations. Similarly, AGRICP is a model developed to enable estimation of the radiological consequences of contamination of agricultural production areas....... This paper provides a short overview of the background of the two models and describes the features enabled through their implementation in the ARGOS decision support system. The integration allows calculation of both dose rates and doses in particular areas, and can be used to evaluate the effectiveness...... and costs of countermeasure strategies. © EDP Sciences, 2010...

  12. A Powered Lower Limb Orthosis for Providing Legged Mobility in Paraplegic Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Quintero, Hugo A.; Farris, Ryan J.; Hartigan, Clare; Clesson, Ismari; Goldfarb, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary results on the development of a powered lower limb orthosis intended to provide legged mobility (with the use of a stability aid, such as forearm crutches) to paraplegic individuals. The orthosis contains electric motors at both hip and both knee joints, which in conjunction with ankle-foot orthoses, provides appropriate joint kinematics for legged locomotion. The paper describes the orthosis and the nature of the controller that enables the SCI patient to comm...

  13. A Powered Lower Limb Orthosis for Providing Legged Mobility in Paraplegic Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Hugo A; Farris, Ryan J; Hartigan, Clare; Clesson, Ismari; Goldfarb, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary results on the development of a powered lower limb orthosis intended to provide legged mobility (with the use of a stability aid, such as forearm crutches) to paraplegic individuals. The orthosis contains electric motors at both hip and both knee joints, which in conjunction with ankle-foot orthoses, provides appropriate joint kinematics for legged locomotion. The paper describes the orthosis and the nature of the controller that enables the SCI patient to command the device, and presents data from preliminary trials that indicate the efficacy of the orthosis and controller in providing legged mobility.

  14. Experience of the ARGO autonomous vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertozzi, Massimo; Broggi, Alberto; Conte, Gianni; Fascioli, Alessandra

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents and discusses the first results obtained by the GOLD (Generic Obstacle and Lane Detection) system as an automatic driver of ARGO. ARGO is a Lancia Thema passenger car equipped with a vision-based system that allows to extract road and environmental information from the acquired scene. By means of stereo vision, obstacles on the road are detected and localized, while the processing of a single monocular image allows to extract the road geometry in front of the vehicle. The generality of the underlying approach allows to detect generic obstacles (without constraints on shape, color, or symmetry) and to detect lane markings even in dark and in strong shadow conditions. The hardware system consists of a PC Pentium 200 Mhz with MMX technology and a frame-grabber board able to acquire 3 b/w images simultaneously; the result of the processing (position of obstacles and geometry of the road) is used to drive an actuator on the steering wheel, while debug information are presented to the user on an on-board monitor and a led-based control panel.

  15. Argo workstation: a key component of operational oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Mingmei; Xu, Shanshan; Miao, Qingsheng; Yue, Xinyang; Lu, Jiawei; Yang, Yang

    2018-02-01

    Operational oceanography requires the quantity, quality, and availability of data set and the timeliness and effectiveness of data products. Without steady and strong operational system supporting, operational oceanography will never be proceeded far. In this paper we describe an integrated platform named Argo Workstation. It operates as a data processing and management system, capable of data collection, automatic data quality control, visualized data check, statistical data search and data service. After it is set up, Argo workstation provides global high quality Argo data to users every day timely and effectively. It has not only played a key role in operational oceanography but also set up an example for operational system.

  16. Counterforce Orthosis In The Management Of Lateral Epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellilappilly, Daison Varghese; Rai, Heroor Ravindranath; Varghese, Jaison; Renjith, Vishnu

    2017-01-01

    Lateral Epicondylitis (LE), is a condition characterized by the pain and tenderness over the lateral epicondyle of the humerus. LE is commonly seen among people who are involved in sports such as tennis and golf. Any activity that repeatedly overstrains the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon can lead to LE. The management of lateral epicondylitis generally involves the use of counterforce orthosis. The aim of this review is to summarize the evidence regarding the effectiveness of counterforce orthoses on the clinical outcomes of patients with lateral epicondylitis. The PubMed, Ovid, and ProQuest databases were searched for potential studies which explored the use of counterforce orthosis in the management of lateral epicondylitis. To have a better understanding of the effectiveness of various types of orthoses, the review is organized into four sections. The first section explores the use of a single orthotic device, the second section focuses on the combined use of orthotic devices, the third section explore studies that compared the effect of local steroid injection along with orthosis and the last section narrate the studies that compared various types of orthotic devices. The studies support the use of orthotic devices as a treatment modality for lateral epicondylitis. There is rising evidence which supports the use of a comprehensive approach, (by combining routine physiotherapy with orthotic devices) in the management of LE. Orthosis alone or in combination with routine physical therapy can be considered as an evidence-based treatment strategy for patients with lateral epicondylitis. However, on the basis of the literature review conducted, the authors recommend that further high-quality clinical trials regarding the management of lateral epicondylitis are necessary to strengthen the evidence-based physiotherapy practice.

  17. Hotelli Palace**** renoveerimine = Renovation of the hotel Palace**** / Argo Vaikla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaikla, Argo, 1966-

    2015-01-01

    Hotell Palace Tallinnas Vabaduse väljak 3, valminud 2014. Hoone rekonstrueerimisprojekt Reet Valk (AB Reet Valk), sisearhitektid Katrin Vaikla, Argo Vaikla, Mari-Liis Süld, Riin Luuk. 2014. aasta Kultuurkapitali Arhitektuuripreemia kandidaat

  18. Monte Carlo simulation of the ARGO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depaola, G.O.

    1997-01-01

    We use GEANT Monte Carlo code to design an outline of the geometry and simulate the performance of the Argentine gamma-ray observer (ARGO), a telescope based on silicon strip detector technlogy. The γ-ray direction is determined by geometrical means and the angular resolution is calculated for small variations of the basic design. The results show that the angular resolutions vary from a few degrees at low energies (∝50 MeV) to 0.2 , approximately, at high energies (>500 MeV). We also made simulations using as incoming γ-ray the energy spectrum of PKS0208-512 and PKS0528+134 quasars. Moreover, a method based on multiple scattering theory is also used to determine the incoming energy. We show that this method is applicable to energy spectrum. (orig.)

  19. ARGO-YBJ: Highlights and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Di Sciascio

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The ARGO-YBJ experiment has been in stable data taking for 5 years at the YangBaJing Cosmic Ray Laboratory (Tibet, P.R. China, 4300 m a.s.l., 606 g/cm2. With a duty-cycle greater than 86% the detector collected about 51011 events in a wide energy range, from few hundreds GeV up to the PeV. A number of open problems in cosmic ray physics has been faced exploiting dierent analyses. In this paper we summarize the last results in gamma-ray astronomy and in the cosmic ray physics and introduce the LHAASO project, mainly driven by the Chinese community, to study the cosmic ray physics up to 1017 eV.

  20. Development of Optical System for ARGO-M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakyoung Nah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ARGO-M is a satellite laser ranging (SLR system developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute with the consideration of mobility and daytime and nighttime satellite observation. The ARGO-M optical system consists of 40 cm receiving telescope, 10 cm transmitting telescope, and detecting optics. For the development of ARGO-M optical system, the structural analysis was performed with regard to the optics and optomechanics design and the optical components. To ensure the optical performance, the quality was tested at the level of parts using the laser interferometer and ultra-high-precision measuring instruments. The assembly and alignment of ARGO-M optical system were conducted at an auto-collimation facility. As the transmission and reception are separated in the ARGO-M optical system, the pointing alignment between the transmitting telescope and receiving telescope is critical for precise target pointing. Thus, the alignment using the ground target and the radiant point observation of transmitting laser beam was carried out, and the lines of sight for the two telescopes were aligned within the required pointing precision. This paper describes the design, structural analysis, manufacture and assembly of parts, and entire process related with the alignment for the ARGO-M optical system.

  1. Validation of salinity data from ARGO floats: Comparison between the older ARGO floats and that of later deployments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Youn, Y.-H.; Lee, H.; Chang, Y.-S.; Pankajakshan, T.

    Continued observation of ARGO floats or years (about 4 years) makes the conductivity sensor more vulnerable to fouling by marine life and associated drift in salinity measurements. In this paper, we address this issue by making use of floats...

  2. Design a New Orthosis and Assessment of Its Effects on Knee Joint Kinetics and Kinematics During Gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Kamali

    2015-12-01

    Methods: Ten subjects without any neuromuscular disease participated in this study. New orhosis with the same structure of Scottish rite orthosis was designed. Qualysis system analyses with seven cameras as well as a Kistler force plate were used to measure the kinematics and kinetics variables during the gait with and without orthosis. For statistical analysis independent student-t test was used. The significance level was set at p0.05. There was significant difference between peak medio-lateral forces applied on knee during walking with and without orthosis (p<0.05. Conclusion: The new orthosis decreases the adductor moment on knee joint therefore, it can decrease the forces applied on medial compartment of the knee joint. This orthosis improves walking because it does not let inferior transition. This orthosis can improve femur alignment. It is recommended that physiotherapist prescribe this orthosis in order to decrease pain in patients with OA.

  3. Text-mining-assisted biocuration workflows in Argo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rak, Rafal; Batista-Navarro, Riza Theresa; Rowley, Andrew; Carter, Jacob; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    Biocuration activities have been broadly categorized into the selection of relevant documents, the annotation of biological concepts of interest and identification of interactions between the concepts. Text mining has been shown to have a potential to significantly reduce the effort of biocurators in all the three activities, and various semi-automatic methodologies have been integrated into curation pipelines to support them. We investigate the suitability of Argo, a workbench for building text-mining solutions with the use of a rich graphical user interface, for the process of biocuration. Central to Argo are customizable workflows that users compose by arranging available elementary analytics to form task-specific processing units. A built-in manual annotation editor is the single most used biocuration tool of the workbench, as it allows users to create annotations directly in text, as well as modify or delete annotations created by automatic processing components. Apart from syntactic and semantic analytics, the ever-growing library of components includes several data readers and consumers that support well-established as well as emerging data interchange formats such as XMI, RDF and BioC, which facilitate the interoperability of Argo with other platforms or resources. To validate the suitability of Argo for curation activities, we participated in the BioCreative IV challenge whose purpose was to evaluate Web-based systems addressing user-defined biocuration tasks. Argo proved to have the edge over other systems in terms of flexibility of defining biocuration tasks. As expected, the versatility of the workbench inevitably lengthened the time the curators spent on learning the system before taking on the task, which may have affected the usability of Argo. The participation in the challenge gave us an opportunity to gather valuable feedback and identify areas of improvement, some of which have already been introduced. Database URL: http://argo.nactem.ac.uk PMID

  4. The influence of a powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis on walking in poliomyelitis subjects: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazpour, Mokhtar; Moradi, Alireza; Samadian, Mohammad; Bahramizadeh, Mahmood; Joghtaei, Mahmoud; Ahmadi Bani, Monireh; Hutchins, Stephen W; Mardani, Mohammad A

    2016-06-01

    Traditionally, the anatomical knee joint is locked in extension when walking with a conventional knee-ankle-foot orthosis. A powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis was developed to provide restriction of knee flexion during stance phase and active flexion and extension of the knee during swing phase of gait. The purpose of this study was to determine differences of the powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis compared to a locked knee-ankle-foot orthosis in kinematic data and temporospatial parameters during ambulation. Quasi-experimental design. Subjects with poliomyelitis (n = 7) volunteered for this study and undertook gait analysis with both the powered and the conventional knee-ankle-foot orthoses. Three trials per orthosis were collected while each subject walked along a 6-m walkway using a calibrated six-camera three-dimensional video-based motion analysis system. Walking with the powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis resulted in a significant reduction in both walking speed and step length (both 18%), but a significant increase in stance phase percentage compared to walking with the conventional knee-ankle-foot orthosis. Cadence was not significantly different between the two test conditions (p = 0.751). There was significantly higher knee flexion during swing phase and increased hip hiking when using the powered orthosis. The new powered orthosis permitted improved knee joint kinematic for knee-ankle-foot orthosis users while providing knee support in stance and active knee motion in swing in the gait cycle. Therefore, the new powered orthosis provided more natural knee flexion during swing for orthosis users compared to the locked knee-ankle-foot orthosis. This orthosis has the potential to improve knee joint kinematics and gait pattern in poliomyelitis subjects during walking activities. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.

  5. Effectiveness of an Articulated Knee Hyperextension Orthosis in Genu Recurvatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul ASRM

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Genu Recurvatum is a deformity of knee joint that tends to push it backwards by excessive extension in tibio-femoral joints. This poses a significant challenge because of technical difficulties and a high incidence of recurrence. This report describes a 63 years old male diagnosed as post-polio residual paralysis who showed excessive genu recurvatum of his left knee during long standing and walking. An Articulated Knee Hyperextension Orthosis (KAFO was tried to check its effectiveness in terms of gait and energy expenditure.

  6. Quality of temperature and salinity data from Argo profiling floats in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parvathi, V.; Pankajakshan, T.; Rajkumar, M.; Prasannakumar, S.; Muraleedharan, P.M.; Ravichandran, M.; Rao, R.R.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.

    In the present study, temperature and salinity from APEX -Argo floats with reported SPB (Argo-SPB) and salinity from normal floats without any reported SPB (Argo-N) in the BoB have been subjected to quality check (QC) Method used for QC depends...

  7. Use and tolerability of a side pole static ankle foot orthosis in children with neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvert, Céline; Rippert, Pascal; Margirier, Françoise; Vadot, Jean-Pierre; Bérard, Carole; Poirot, Isabelle; Vuillerot, Carole

    2017-04-01

    Transverse-plane foot deformities are a frequently encountered issue in children with neurological disorders. They are the source of many symptoms, such as pain and walking difficulties, making their prevention very important. We aim to describe the use and tolerability of a side pole static ankle foot orthosis used to prevent transverse-plane foot deformities in children with neurologic disorders. Monocentric, retrospective, observational study. Medical data were collected from 103 children with transverse-plane foot deformities in one or both feet caused by a neurological impairment. All children were braced between 2001 and 2010. Unilateral orthosis was prescribed for 32 children and bilateral orthosis for 71. Transverse-plane foot deformities were varus in 66% of the cases and an equinus was associated in 59.2% of the cases. Mean age for the first prescription was 8.6 years. For the 23 patients present at the 4-year visit, 84.8% still wore the orthosis daily, and 64.7% wore the orthosis more than 6 h per day. The rate of permanent discontinuation of wearing the orthosis was 14.7%. The side pole static ankle foot orthosis is well tolerated with very few side effects, which promotes regular wearing and observance. Clinical relevance Side pole static ankle foot orthoses are well tolerated and can be safely used for children with foot abnormalities in the frontal plane that have a neurological pathology origin.

  8. The effects of a new designed forearm orthosis in treatment of lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forogh, Bijan; Khalighi, Mohsen; Javanshir, Mohammad Ali; Ghoseiri, Kamiar; Kamali, Mohammad; Raissi, Gholamreza

    2012-07-01

    This paper reports on the design and testing of a new designed forearm orthosis and explores its efficacious in comparison to the standard counterforce orthosis in patients with lateral epicondylitis. Twenty-four patients were enrolled in this assessor-blinded clinical trial and randomly assigned to two parallel treatment groups. The measures of pain and function, the pain threshold and grip strength were compared using patient rated tennis elbow evaluation (PRTEE) form, algometer and dynamometer respectively at baseline and 4 weeks after treatment. Paired and independent t-test statistical methods recruited for within and between groups comparisons respectively. The both orthoses, counterforce and new-designed, significantly relieved pain, and improved function, pain threshold and grip strength of all patients after 4 weeks application. The new-designed orthosis seemed to be more effective than the counterforce orthosis in pain relief, but there was not any significant difference in efficacious of two types of orthoses regarding function. The new-designed orthosis can significantly relieve pain, improve function, increase pain threshold and grip strength after application. This orthosis seemed to be more effective than counterforce orthosis in relieving pain and increasing the pain threshold probably due to the limitation of forearm supination.

  9. The vibration compensation system for ARGOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, D.; Gaessler, W.; Borelli, J.; Kulas, M.

    2011-09-01

    For every adaptive optics system telescope vibrations can strongly reduce the performance. This is true for the receiver part of the system i.e. the telescope and wave front sensor part as well as for the transmitter part in the case of a laser guide star system. Especially observations in deep fields observed with a laser guide star system without any tip-tilt star will be greatly spoiled by telescope vibrations. The ARGOS GLAO system actually being built for the LBT aims to implement this kind of mode where wave front correction will rely purely on signals from the laser beacons. To remove the vibrations from the uplink path a vibration compensation system will be installed. This system uses accelerometers to measure the vibrations and corrects their effect with a small fast tip-tilt mirror. The controller of the system is built based on the assumption that the vibrations take place at a few distinct frequencies. Here I present a lab set-up of this system and show first results of the performance.

  10. Locomotor adaptation to a powered ankle-foot orthosis depends on control method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Keith E

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We studied human locomotor adaptation to powered ankle-foot orthoses with the intent of identifying differences between two different orthosis control methods. The first orthosis control method used a footswitch to provide bang-bang control (a kinematic control and the second orthosis control method used a proportional myoelectric signal from the soleus (a physiological control. Both controllers activated an artificial pneumatic muscle providing plantar flexion torque. Methods Subjects walked on a treadmill for two thirty-minute sessions spaced three days apart under either footswitch control (n = 6 or myoelectric control (n = 6. We recorded lower limb electromyography (EMG, joint kinematics, and orthosis kinetics. We compared stance phase EMG amplitudes, correlation of joint angle patterns, and mechanical work performed by the powered orthosis between the two controllers over time. Results During steady state at the end of the second session, subjects using proportional myoelectric control had much lower soleus and gastrocnemius activation than the subjects using footswitch control. The substantial decrease in triceps surae recruitment allowed the proportional myoelectric control subjects to walk with ankle kinematics close to normal and reduce negative work performed by the orthosis. The footswitch control subjects walked with substantially perturbed ankle kinematics and performed more negative work with the orthosis. Conclusion These results provide evidence that the choice of orthosis control method can greatly alter how humans adapt to powered orthosis assistance during walking. Specifically, proportional myoelectric control results in larger reductions in muscle activation and gait kinematics more similar to normal compared to footswitch control.

  11. Can an ankle-foot orthosis change hearts and minds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzkowski, Jeanne C; Blanck, Ryan V; Owens, Johnny G; Wilken, Jason M; Blair, James A; Hsu, Joseph R

    2011-01-01

    The current military conflicts of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom have been characterized by high-energy explosive wounding patterns, with the majority affecting the extremities. While many injuries have resulted in amputation, surgical advances have allowed the orthopaedic surgeon to pursue limb salvage in the face of injuries once considered unsalvageable. The military limb salvage patient is frequently highly active and motivated and expresses significant frustration with the slow nature of limb salvage rehabilitation and continued functional deficits. Inspired by these patients, efforts at this institution began to provide them with a more dynamic orthosis. Utilizing techniques and technology resulting from cerebral palsy, stroke, and amputation research, the Intrepid Dynamic Exoskeletal Orthosis was created. To date, this device has significantly improved the functional capabilities of the limb salvage wounded warrior population when combined with a high-intensity rehabilitation program. Clinical and biomechanical research is currently underway at this institution in order to fully characterize the device, its effect on patients, and what can be done to modify future generations of the device to best serve the combat-wounded limb salvage population.

  12. Radiotracking large wilderness mammals: Integration of GPS and Argos technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Charles C.; Arthur, Steve M.

    1999-01-01

    We tested 30 prototype global positioning system (GPS) radiocollars on brown bears (Ursus arctos) over a 3-year period on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Collars were of 2 design types: GPS with an Argos (Argos Data collection and Location System) satellite uplink (n=19) and GPS unites where the data were stored on board (n=10) for retrieval at a later date. All units also contained a conventional VHF (very high frequency) transmitter and weighed 1.7 kg. GPS-Argos united obtained 10-82% of expected GPS fixes, and fix rate declined significantly (Pbears varied more and were lower than fix rates for stationary collars placed in various vegetation types, suggesting that the bear, terrain, and movement all influence both fix and uplink success rate. Application of this new technology to grizzly and brown bear research and comparisons to studies with moose (Alces alces) are discussed.

  13. Validation of argo data in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Muraleedharan, P.M.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Reddy, G.V.; Ratnakaran, L.; Revichandran, C.; Murty, V.S.N.

    Gayana (Concepción) - VALIDATION OF ARGO DATA IN THE INDIAN OCEA... 8/11/2006http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-65382004000300025&lng=... susceptible to fouling and associated drift because of the possible change... initial profiles (profiles 1 and 2). Figure-1b represents the same as that in figure-1a, but for 29 match-ups involving profile numbers 5 and above. Page 2 of 5Gayana (Concepción) - VALIDATION OF ARGO DATA IN THE INDIAN OCEA... 8/11/2006http://www...

  14. The international Argo data infrastructure; past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, J. J. H.; Pouliquen, S.; Thresher, A.; Schmechtig, C.; Ignaszewski, M.; Carval, T.; Scanderbeg, M.; Frost, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Argo array is composed of over 3,000 autonomous profiling floats that measure the temperature and salinity of the upper 2,000 m of the global deep ocean every ten days. Argo is a key component of the global ocean observing system and the data addresses crucial questions such as quantifying the heat content of the upper ocean and steric sea level change. Further to this data are routinely assimilated into operational ocean forecast models. Argo is underpinned by an international data system that was founded in the year 2,000 at the first meeting of the Argo data management team. The Argo data system is built on principles of open data and supplying data to both operational ocean models and research communities within 24 hours of collection. The data system served as a template for the established international OceanSITES community and the emerging Everyones Glider Observatories initiative. The Argo data system is composed of national Data Assembly Centers (DAC) that supply data to two mirrored Global Data Assembly Centres (GDAC). GDAC data exchanges are based on File Transfer Protocol (FTP). A significant recent data system development is the assignment of a single dynamic DOI to GDAC holdings enabling time dependent unambiguous data citation at a monthly granularity. The on-going evolution of Argo to address new global questions requires deeper data, shallower data, biogeochemical sampling and increased spatial coverage. These enhancements are increasing data complexity and volumes necessitating significant recent data format adaptation. The challenge and achievement was to preserve data formats and quality for existing established users while still allowing the integration of new data streams. The implementation of these adaptations is currently in progress within DACs. Argo data have been traditionally delivered via FTP protocol with developments are on-going to facilitate new users and emerging expectations on data delivery mechanisms. These experimental

  15. ARGOS - a decision support system for nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoe, S.; Mueller, H.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The Danish developed ARGOS system is in operation in Denmark, Canada, Ireland, Norway and 4 Baltic Sea states. ARGOS is a dynamic system that is modified regularly in order to cope with new requirements. The present version of the system includes features such as: presentations of monitoring data including high-resolution data from airborne gamma surveys and use of these data in food dose modelling; presentation of meteorological data including precipitation; atmospheric dispersion calculations; food dose modelling based on atmospheric dispersion and/or monitoring; web features such as animations and exchange of source terms. Atmospheric dispersion in ARGOS is divided in two parts, a short and mesoscale dispersion model LSMC /RIMPUFF and a long-range models: DERMA (Danish) and MLDPO (Canada). The short range model -LSMC comprises a meteorological pre-processor, which calculates time and height dependent fields of meteorological parameters (deposition, stability, wind etc.) based on the data provided by the DMI-HIRLAM model or by meteorological masts. Based on these data calculations of gamma doses and concentrations are made by the puff model RIMPUFF. Input data for the Food Dose Module, FDM, are also created. RIMPUFF may be used up to distance of a few hundred kilometres from the source. RIMPUFF has been validated with success against several experiments. The long range models are executed at the National Meteorological institutes. The inputs to the long-range models are automatically uploaded from ARGOS to the Meteorological centres where the meteorological data is taken from the operational weather prediction models (NWP). At the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI) up to 4 calculations are executed on different versions of the NWP model, with various geographical coverage and resolution. When the calculations are finalized, the monitor function in ARGOS will prompt the users for download of the results. The most recent version of ARGOS includes a

  16. Mesh three-dimensional arm orthosis with built-in ultrasound physiotherapy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashapova, R. M.; Kashapov, R. N.; Kashapova, R. S.

    2017-09-01

    The possibility of using the built-in ultrasound physiotherapy system of the hand orthosis is explored in the work. The individual mesh orthosis from nylon 12 was manufactured by the 3D prototyping method on the installation of selective laser sintering SLS SPro 60HD. The applied technology of three-dimensional scanning made it possible to obtain a model of the patient’s hand and on the basis of it to build a virtual model of the mesh frame. In the course of the research, the developed system of ultrasound exposure was installed on the orthosis and its tests were carried out. As a result, the acceleration of the healing process and the reduction in the time of wearing orthosis were found.

  17. Distributed propulsion.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Robin; Rosvall, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    En prestandaanalys utfördes på en SAAB 2000 som referensobjekt. Olika metoder för att driva flygplan på ett miljövänligare sätt utvärderades tillsammans med distributed propulsion. Efter undersökningar valdes elmotorer tillsammans med Zink-luft batterier för att driva SAAB 2000 med distributed propulsion. En prestandaanalys utfördes på detta plan på samma sätt som för den ursprungliga SAAB 2000. Resultaten jämfördes och slutsatsen blev att räckvidden var för kort för att konfigurationen skull...

  18. Propulsion materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Edward J. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States); Sullivan, Rogelio A. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States); Gibbs, Jerry L. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Vehicle Technologies (OVT) is pleased to introduce the FY 2007 Annual Progress Report for the Propulsion Materials Research and Development Program. Together with DOE national laboratories and in partnership with private industry and universities across the United States, the program continues to engage in research and development (R&D) that provides enabling materials technology for fuel-efficient and environmentally friendly commercial and passenger vehicles.

  19. Mechanical performance of artificial pneumatic muscles to power an ankle-foot orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Keith E; Sawicki, Gregory S; Ferris, Daniel P

    2006-01-01

    We developed a powered ankle-foot orthosis that uses artificial pneumatic muscles to produce active plantar flexor torque. The purpose of this study was to quantify the mechanical performance of the orthosis during human walking. Three subjects walked at a range of speeds wearing ankle-foot orthoses with either one or two artificial muscles working in parallel. The orthosis produced similar total peak plantar flexor torque and network across speeds independent of the number of muscles used. The orthosis generated approximately 57% of the peak ankle plantar flexor torque during stance and performed approximately 70% of the positive plantar flexor work done during normal walking. Artificial muscle bandwidth and force-length properties were the two primary factors limiting torque production. The lack of peak force and work differences between single and double muscle conditions can be explained by force-length properties. Subjects altered their ankle kinematics between conditions resulting in changes in artificial muscle length. In the double muscle condition greater plantar flexion yielded shorter artificial muscles lengths and decreased muscle forces. This finding emphasizes the importance of human testing in the design and development of robotic exoskeleton devices for assisting human movement. The results of this study outline the mechanical performance limitations of an ankle-foot orthosis powered by artificial pneumatic muscles. This orthosis could be valuable for gait rehabilitation and for studies investigating neuromechanical control of human walking.

  20. Simulations and experimental evaluation of an active orthosis for interaction in virtual environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsveov Mihail

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the development of a human arm active orthosis is presented. The orthosis is designed primarily for training and rehabilitation in virtual environments.The orthosis system is intended for embodiment in virtual reality where it is allowing human to perceive forces at different body parts or the weight of lifted objects. In the paper the choice of a mechanical structure is shown equivalent to the structure of the human arm. A mechanical model of the orthosis arm as haptic device is built, where kinematic and dynamic parameters are evaluated. Impedance control scheme is selected as the most suitable for force refection at the hand or arm. An open-loop impedance controller is presented in the paper. Computer experiments are carried out using the dimensions of a real arm orthosis. Computer experiments have been carried out to provide force reflection by VR, according to virtual scenario. The conducted simulations show the range of the forces on the operator hand, orthosis can provide. The results of additional measurements and experimental evaluations of physical quantities in the interaction in a virtual environment are revealed in the paper.

  1. Design and Evaluation of the AIRGAIT Exoskeleton: Leg Orthosis Control for Assistive Gait Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Azuwan Mat Dzahir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the body weight support gait training system known as the AIRGAIT exoskeleton and delves into the design and evaluation of its leg orthosis control algorithm. The implementation of the mono- and biarticular pneumatic muscle actuators (PMAs as the actuation system was initiated to generate more power and precisely control the leg orthosis. This research proposes a simple paradigm for controlling the mono- and bi-articular actuator movements cocontractively by introducing a cocontraction model. Three tests were performed. The first test involved control of the orthosis with monoarticular actuators alone without a subject (WO/S; the second involved control of the orthosis with mono- and bi-articular actuators tested WO/S; and the third test involved control of the orthosis with mono- and bi-articular actuators tested with a subject (W/S. Full body weight support (BWS was implemented in this study during the test W/S as the load supported by the orthosis was at its maximum capacity. This assessment will optimize the control system strategy so that the system operates to its full capacity. The results revealed that the proposed control strategy was able to co-contractively actuate the mono- and bi-articular actuators simultaneously and increase stiffness at both hip and knee joints.

  2. Maize and Arabidopsis ARGOS Proteins Interact with Ethylene Receptor Signaling Complex, Supporting a Regulatory Role for ARGOS in Ethylene Signal Transduction[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinrui; Wang, Hongyu; Habben, Jeffrey E.

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone ethylene regulates plant growth and development as well as plant response to environmental cues. ARGOS genes reduce plant sensitivity to ethylene when overexpressed in transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and maize (Zea mays). A previous genetic study suggested that the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi-localized maize ARGOS1 targets the ethylene signal transduction components at or upstream of CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1, but the mechanism of ARGOS modulating ethylene signaling is unknown. Here, we demonstrate in Arabidopsis that ZmARGOS1, as well as the Arabidopsis ARGOS homolog ORGAN SIZE RELATED1, physically interacts with Arabidopsis REVERSION-TO-ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY1 (RTE1), an ethylene receptor interacting protein that regulates the activity of ETHYLENE RESPONSE1. The protein-protein interaction was also detected with the yeast split-ubiquitin two-hybrid system. Using the same yeast assay, we found that maize RTE1 homolog REVERSION-TO-ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY1 LIKE4 (ZmRTL4) and ZmRTL2 also interact with maize and Arabidopsis ARGOS proteins. Like AtRTE1 in Arabidopsis, ZmRTL4 and ZmRTL2 reduce ethylene responses when overexpressed in maize, indicating a similar mechanism for ARGOS regulating ethylene signaling in maize. A polypeptide fragment derived from ZmARGOS8, consisting of a Pro-rich motif flanked by two transmembrane helices that are conserved among members of the ARGOS family, can interact with AtRTE1 and maize RTL proteins in Arabidopsis. The conserved domain is necessary and sufficient to reduce ethylene sensitivity in Arabidopsis and maize. Overall, these results suggest a physical association between ARGOS and the ethylene receptor signaling complex via AtRTE1 and maize RTL proteins, supporting a role for ARGOS in regulating ethylene perception and the early steps of signal transduction in Arabidopsis and maize. PMID:27268962

  3. The effect of a knee ankle foot orthosis incorporating an active knee mechanism on gait of a person with poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazpour, Mokhtar; Chitsazan, Ahmad; Bani, Monireh Ahmadi; Rouhi, Gholamreza; Ghomshe, Farhad Tabatabai; Hutchins, Stephen W

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this case study was to identify the effect of a powered stance control knee ankle foot orthosis on the kinematics and temporospatial parameters of walking by a person with poliomyelitis when compared to a knee ankle foot orthosis. A knee ankle foot orthosis was initially manufactured by incorporating drop lock knee joints and custom molded ankle foot orthoses and fitted to a person with poliomyelitis. The orthosis was then adapted by adding electrically activated powered knee joints to provide knee extension torque during stance and also flexion torque in swing phase. Lower limb kinematic and kinetic data plus data for temporospatial parameters were acquired from three test walks using each orthosis. Walking speed, step length, and vertical and horizontal displacement of the pelvis decreased when walking with the powered stance control knee ankle foot orthosis compared to the knee ankle foot orthosis. When using the powered stance control knee ankle foot orthosis, the knee flexion achieved during swing and also the overall pattern of walking more closely matched that of normal human walking. The reduced walking speed may have caused the smaller compensatory motions detected when the powered stance control knee ankle foot orthosis was used. The new powered SCKAFO facilitated controlled knee flexion and extension during ambulation for a volunteer poliomyelitis person.

  4. The Euro-Argo education web site: using Argo data to teach data analysis and marine science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byfield, Valborg; Scheurle, Carolyn; Gould, John; Macama, Emina; King, Brian

    2013-04-01

    The Euro-Argo education website (www.euroargo-edu.org) aims to make Argo and its data accessible to a non-specialist audience. The site is centred on a selection of floats, which have been chosen because of the insight they provide into key oceanographic processes, the physical and biogeochemical characteristics of different ocean regions around the world, and the role of the ocean in the global climate system. The float selection is a vehicle for teaching data analysis skills, linking these to current topics in the ocean and climate sciences. Each float in the selection has its own page, which provides access to the float data, data plots, background information on the ocean region in which the float can be found, and questions to guide data interpretation. Hidden 'model answers' allow users to check their understanding by comparing their own answers to those provided. The interactive component of the site also includes a series of quizzes, designed to teach data interpretation skills. These start at a basic level and take the students step by step through the most common ways to plot oceanographic data in space and time. More general background information covers the main aspects of the Argo programme, its history and applications, and basic technical information about the floats and sensors. 'World Tour' pages linked to the float selection provide information about the main ocean regions and link information from the Argo programme to oceanographic information from other sources such as satellite observations. The site is primarily aimed at young people between 11 and 18 years of age. However experience from using selected material from the site during science open days shows that children as young as 8-9 and adults of all ages also enjoy the challenge of using and interpreting the Argo data in different contexts.

  5. Propulsion Systems Panel deliberations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianca, Carmelo J.; Miner, Robert; Johnston, Lawrence M.; Bruce, R.; Dennies, Daniel P.; Dickenson, W.; Dreshfield, Robert; Karakulko, Walt; Mcgaw, Mike; Munafo, Paul M.

    1993-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Panel was established because of the specialized nature of many of the materials and structures technology issues related to propulsion systems. This panel was co-chaired by Carmelo Bianca, MSFC, and Bob Miner, LeRC. Because of the diverse range of missions anticipated for the Space Transportation program, three distinct propulsion system types were identified in the workshop planning process: liquid propulsion systems, solid propulsion systems and nuclear electric/nuclear thermal propulsion systems.

  6. Performance of spinal cord injury individuals while standing with the Mohammad Taghi Karimi reciprocal gait orthosis (MTK-RGO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimi, Mohammad Taghi; Amiri, Pouya; Esrafilian, Amir; Sedigh, Jafar; Fatoye, Francis

    2013-01-01

    Most patients with spinal cord injury use a wheelchair to transfer from place to place, however they need to stand and walk with orthosis to improve their health status. Although many orthoses have been designed for paraplegic patients, they have experienced various problems while in use. A new type of reciprocal gait orthosis was designed in the Bioengineering Unit of Strathclyde University to solve the problems of the available orthoses. Since there was no research undertaken regarding testing of the new orthosis on paraplegic subjects, this study was aimed to evaluate the new orthosis during standing of paraplegic subjects. Five paraplegic patients with lesion level between T12 and L1 and aged matched normal subjects were recruited into this study. The stability of subjects was evaluated during quiet standing and while undertaking hand tasks during standing with the new orthosis and the knee ankle foot orthosis (KAFO). The difference between the performances of paraplegic subjects while standing with both orthoses, and between the function of normal and paraplegic subjects were compared using the paired t test and independent sample t test, respectively. The stability of paraplegic subjects in standing with the new orthosis was better than that of the KAFO orthosis (p < 0.05). Moreover, the force applied on the crutch differed between the orthoses. The functional performance of paraplegic subjects was better with the new orthosis compared with normal subjects. The performance of paraplegic subjects while standing with the new orthosis was better than the KAFO. Therefore, the new orthosis may be useful to improve standing and walking in patients with paraplegia.

  7. Electric vehicle propulsion alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunde, R. R.; Schuh, R. M.; Beach, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Propulsion technology development for electric vehicles is summarized. Analytical studies, technology evaluation, and the development of technology for motors, controllers, transmissions, and complete propulsion systems are included.

  8. Examination of a muscular activity estimation model using a Bayesian network for the influence of an ankle foot orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Jun; Kawamura, Kazuya; Fujie, Masakatsu G

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper, we examine the appropriateness of a new model to examine the activity of the foot in gait. We developed an estimation model for foot-ankle muscular activity in the design of an ankle-foot orthosis by means of a statistical method. We chose three muscles for measuring muscular activity and built a Bayesian network model to confirm the appropriateness of the estimation model. We experimentally examined the normal gait of a non-disabled subject. We measured the muscular activity of the lower foot muscles using electromyography, the joint angles, and the pressure on each part of the sole. From these data, we obtained the causal relationship at every 10% level for these factors and built models for the stance phase, control term, and propulsive term. Our model has three advantages. First, it can express the influences that change during gait because we use 10% level nodes for each factor. Second, it can express the influences of factors that differ for low and high muscular-activity levels. Third, we created divided models that are able to reflect the actual features of gait. In evaluating the new model, we confirmed it is able to estimate all muscular activity level with an accuracy of over 90%.

  9. A pneumatically powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis (KAFO with myoelectric activation and inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferris Daniel P

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of this study was to test the mechanical performance of a prototype knee-ankle-foot orthosis (KAFO powered by artificial pneumatic muscles during human walking. We had previously built a powered ankle-foot orthosis (AFO and used it effectively in studies on human motor adaptation, locomotion energetics, and gait rehabilitation. Extending the previous AFO to a KAFO presented additional challenges related to the force-length properties of the artificial pneumatic muscles and the presence of multiple antagonistic artificial pneumatic muscle pairs. Methods Three healthy males were fitted with custom KAFOs equipped with artificial pneumatic muscles to power ankle plantar flexion/dorsiflexion and knee extension/flexion. Subjects walked over ground at 1.25 m/s under four conditions without extensive practice: 1 without wearing the orthosis, 2 wearing the orthosis with artificial muscles turned off, 3 wearing the orthosis activated under direct proportional myoelectric control, and 4 wearing the orthosis activated under proportional myoelectric control with flexor inhibition produced by leg extensor muscle activation. We collected joint kinematics, ground reaction forces, electromyography, and orthosis kinetics. Results The KAFO produced ~22%–33% of the peak knee flexor moment, ~15%–33% of the peak extensor moment, ~42%–46% of the peak plantar flexor moment, and ~83%–129% of the peak dorsiflexor moment during normal walking. With flexor inhibition produced by leg extensor muscle activation, ankle (Pearson r-value = 0.74 ± 0.04 and knee ( r = 0.95 ± 0.04 joint kinematic profiles were more similar to the without orthosis condition compared to when there was no flexor inhibition (r = 0.49 ± 0.13 for ankle, p = 0.05, and r = 0.90 ± 0.03 for knee, p = 0.17. Conclusion The proportional myoelectric control with flexor inhibition allowed for a more normal gait than direct proportional myoelectric control. The current

  10. A pneumatically powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis (KAFO) with myoelectric activation and inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Gregory S; Ferris, Daniel P

    2009-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to test the mechanical performance of a prototype knee-ankle-foot orthosis (KAFO) powered by artificial pneumatic muscles during human walking. We had previously built a powered ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) and used it effectively in studies on human motor adaptation, locomotion energetics, and gait rehabilitation. Extending the previous AFO to a KAFO presented additional challenges related to the force-length properties of the artificial pneumatic muscles and the presence of multiple antagonistic artificial pneumatic muscle pairs. Methods Three healthy males were fitted with custom KAFOs equipped with artificial pneumatic muscles to power ankle plantar flexion/dorsiflexion and knee extension/flexion. Subjects walked over ground at 1.25 m/s under four conditions without extensive practice: 1) without wearing the orthosis, 2) wearing the orthosis with artificial muscles turned off, 3) wearing the orthosis activated under direct proportional myoelectric control, and 4) wearing the orthosis activated under proportional myoelectric control with flexor inhibition produced by leg extensor muscle activation. We collected joint kinematics, ground reaction forces, electromyography, and orthosis kinetics. Results The KAFO produced ~22%–33% of the peak knee flexor moment, ~15%–33% of the peak extensor moment, ~42%–46% of the peak plantar flexor moment, and ~83%–129% of the peak dorsiflexor moment during normal walking. With flexor inhibition produced by leg extensor muscle activation, ankle (Pearson r-value = 0.74 ± 0.04) and knee ( r = 0.95 ± 0.04) joint kinematic profiles were more similar to the without orthosis condition compared to when there was no flexor inhibition (r = 0.49 ± 0.13 for ankle, p = 0.05, and r = 0.90 ± 0.03 for knee, p = 0.17). Conclusion The proportional myoelectric control with flexor inhibition allowed for a more normal gait than direct proportional myoelectric control. The current orthosis design

  11. [Effect of abducens orthosis combined with walker on developmental dysplasia of the hip].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhiyong; Xu, Yongqiang; Liang, Jieyu; Li, Kanghua; Liao, Qiande

    2009-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of abducens orthosis combined with walker on developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). A total of 126 patients (224 hips) with DDH aged 6-36 months in Xiangya Hospital was randomly divided into 2 groups: an orthosis combined with walker group and an improved hip frog cast fixation group. Seventy patients (130 hips) were treated by the orthosis combined with walker and 56 patients (94 hips) were treated by the improved hip frog cast fixation. We compared the effect and complications of the 2 groups. The fineness rates of the orthosis combined with walker group and the improved hip frog cast fixation group were 89.2% and 90.4%, respectively, with no significant difference (P>0.05). The rate of femoral head osteonecrosis in the orthosis combined with walker group was significantly lower than that in the improved hip frog cast fixation group (1.5% vs. 5.3%,Pwalker has a lower proportion of femoral head osteonecrosis, but a higher proportion of re-dislocation.

  12. Active lower limb orthosis with one degree of freedom for people with paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloger, Michal; Obinata, Goro; Genda, Eiichi; Babjak, Jan; Pei, Yanling

    2017-07-01

    The main challenges of designing devices for paraplegic walking can be summarized into three groups, stability and comfort, high efficiency or low energy consumption, dimensions and weight. A new economical device for people with paraplegia which tackles all problems of the three groups is introduced in this paper. The main idea of this device is based on HALO mechanism. HALO is compact passive medial hip joint orthosis with contralateral hip and ankle linkage, which keeps the feet always parallel to the ground and assists swinging the leg. The medial hip joint is equipped with one actuator in the new design and the new orthosis is called @halo. Due to this update, we can achieve more stable and smoother walking patterns with decreased energy consumption of the users, yet maintain its compact and lightweight features. It is proven by the results from preliminary experiments with able-bodied subjects during which the same device with and without actuator was evaluated. Waddling and excessive vertical elevation of the center of gravity were decreased by 40% with significantly smaller standard deviations in case of the active orthosis. There was 52% less energy spent by the user wearing @halo which was calculated from the vertical excursion difference. There was measured 38.5% bigger impulse in crutches while using passive orthosis. The new @halo device is the first active orthosis for lower limbs with just one actuated degree of freedom for users with paraplegia.

  13. Scoliosis curve analysis with Milwaukee orthosis based on Open SIMM modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Karimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scoliosis is a three-dimensional spinal deformity characterized by lateral curvature and rotational deformity of the spine. Various methods have been used to investigate the performance of the subjects during walking with an orthosis, but nobody study the biomechanics of orthotic use by understanding the length of the muscles and the force produced by them. Therefore, the aim of this research is to test the effect of the orthosis on the muscular force, tendon length during walking with and without orthosis. Materials and Methods: A 12-year-old scoliosis subject was recruited in this study. The forces produced by trunk musculature, joint reaction force, length of trunk musculature were some parameters selected in this study. Open SIMM and Visual 3D software were used to model the subject. Results: The results of this research showed that the length of erector spine muscles increased follow the use of orthosis. Moreover, the force produced by trunk muscles differed during walking with and without orthosis and also between right and left sides. Discussion: It seems that Open SIMM software can be used to predict the length of muscles, active-passive forces produced by muscles in scoliotic subjects. Therefore, it is recommended this research be done on more number of subjects.

  14. Scoliosis curve analysis with Milwaukee orthosis based on Open SIMM modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohammad; Kavyani, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    Scoliosis is a three-dimensional spinal deformity characterized by lateral curvature and rotational deformity of the spine. Various methods have been used to investigate the performance of the subjects during walking with an orthosis, but nobody study the biomechanics of orthotic use by understanding the length of the muscles and the force produced by them. Therefore, the aim of this research is to test the effect of the orthosis on the muscular force, tendon length during walking with and without orthosis. A 12-year-old scoliosis subject was recruited in this study. The forces produced by trunk musculature, joint reaction force, length of trunk musculature were some parameters selected in this study. Open SIMM and Visual 3D software were used to model the subject. The results of this research showed that the length of erector spine muscles increased follow the use of orthosis. Moreover, the force produced by trunk muscles differed during walking with and without orthosis and also between right and left sides. It seems that Open SIMM software can be used to predict the length of muscles, active-passive forces produced by muscles in scoliotic subjects. Therefore, it is recommended this research be done on more number of subjects.

  15. Chemistry and propulsion; Chimie et propulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potier, P [Maison de la Chimie, 75 - Paris (France); Davenas, A [societe Nationale des Poudres et des Explosifs - SNPE (France); Berman, M [Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Arlington, VA (United States); and others

    2002-07-01

    During the colloquium on chemistry and propulsion, held in march 2002, ten papers have been presented. The proceedings are brought in this document: ramjet, scram-jet and Pulse Detonation Engine; researches and applications on energetic materials and propulsion; advances in poly-nitrogen chemistry; evolution of space propulsion; environmental and technological stakes of aeronautic propulsion; ramjet engines and pulse detonation engines, automobiles thermal engines for 2015, high temperature fuel cells for the propulsion domain, the hydrogen and the fuel cells in the future transports. (A.L.B.)

  16. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2009-10-01 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2007-06-10 to 2009-10-07 (NODC Accession 0058661)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  17. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the month of March 2008 for the Global Argo Data Repository, 1979-05-15 to 2008-03-31 (NODC Accession 0040187)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  18. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2007-04-22 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2003-02-02 to 2007-04-28 (NODC Accession 0014931)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  19. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2005-11-20 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2002-03-21 to 2005-11-26 (NODC Accession 0002459)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  20. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2010-09-09 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 1999-10-24 to 2010-08-30 (NODC Accession 0067580)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository(GADR as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  1. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the month of September 2007 for the Global Argo Data Repository, 1996-01-05 to 2007-09-30 (NODC Accession 0033660)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  2. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2005-09-25 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2001-12-21 to 2005-10-01 (NODC Accession 0002389)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  3. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2010-01-07 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2003-09-15 to 2010-01-13 (NODC Accession 0061249)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  4. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2010-05-27 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2002-03-08 to 2010-06-02 (NODC Accession 0064761)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository(GADR as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  5. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2006-03-19 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2004-07-14 to 2006-03-25 (NODC Accession 0002612)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  6. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2003-11-23 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2003-07-20 to 2003-11-29 (NODC Accession 0001246)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  7. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the month of August 2006 for the Global Argo Data Repository, 1996-01-05 to 2006-08-31 (NODC Accession 0002818)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  8. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2005-01-30 for the Global Argo Data Repository, 2002-12-13 to 2005-02-05 (NODC Accession 0002012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  9. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2004-05-23 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2000-07-01 to 2004-05-29 (NODC Accession 0001478)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  10. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2004-01-18 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2003-11-08 to 2004-01-24 (NODC Accession 0001357)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  11. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2009-03-05 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 1998-05-18 to 2009-03-10 (NODC Accession 0001641)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  12. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2004-10-03 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2001-08-08 to 2004-10-09 (NODC Accession 0001749)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  13. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2007-02-25 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2001-08-25 to 2007-03-03 (NODC Accession 0013725)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  14. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2004-04-25 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 1999-10-24 to 2004-05-01 (NODC Accession 0001437)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  15. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2006-06-04 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2005-01-22 to 2006-06-10 (NODC Accession 0002711)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  16. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2007-07-08 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2002-03-30 to 2007-07-14 (NODC Accession 0029182)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  17. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the month of December 2003 for the Global Argo Data Repository, 1996-01-05 to 2003-12-31 (NODC Accession 0001286)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  18. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2005-01-23 for the Global Argo Data Repository, 2002-12-03 to 2005-01-29 (NODC Accession 0002001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  19. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2004-11-21 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2002-08-30 to 2004-11-27 (NODC Accession 0001911)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  20. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2009-01-22 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2001-02-10 to 2009-01-28 (NODC Accession 0050189)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  1. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the month of January 2005 for the Global Argo Data Repository, 1996-01-05 to 2005-01-31 (NODC Accession 0002005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  2. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2006-03-12 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2005-10-27 to 2006-03-18 (NODC Accession 0002605)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  3. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2004-02-08 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2000-08-30 to 2004-02-14 (NODC Accession 0001360)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  4. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2006-04-16 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 1999-07-01 to 2006-04-22 (NODC Accession 0002646)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  5. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2005-10-16 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2001-07-12 to 2005-10-19 (NODC Accession 0002413)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  6. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2009-08-20 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2001-09-30 to 2009-08-26 (NODC Accession 0057201)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  7. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2006-10-22 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2004-02-25 to 2006-10-28 (NODC Accession 0010636)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  8. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2010-09-16 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 1999-10-21 to 2010-09-22 (NODC Accession 0067581)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository(GADR as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  9. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the month of August 2007 for the Global Argo Data Repository, 1996-01-05 to 2007-08-31 (NODC Accession 0032684)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  10. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2003-07-06 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 1997-07-28 to 2003-07-12 (NODC Accession 0001095)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  11. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2007-02-04 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2000-02-05 to 2007-02-10 (NODC Accession 0013171)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  12. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2006-09-17 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2000-06-02 to 2006-09-23 (NODC Accession 0006774)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  13. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2007-03-25 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2002-03-30 to 2007-03-31 (NODC Accession 0014451)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  14. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2009-07-16 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2002-03-01 2009-07-22 (NODC Accession 0056186)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  15. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2009-11-19 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2000-02-01 to 2009-11-25 (NODC Accession 0059843)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  16. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2007-01-21 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2003-01-09 to 2007-01-27 (NODC Accession 0012971)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  17. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2004-04-11 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2000-11-22 to 2004-04-17 (NODC Accession 0001428)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  18. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2005-01-16 for the Global Argo Data Repository, 2003-11-12 to 2005-01-22 (NODC Accession 0001993)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  19. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2004-02-01 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2000-09-21 to 2004-02-07 (NODC Accession 0001359)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  20. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2004-06-20 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2003-07-05 to 2004-06-26 (NODC Accession 0001514)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  1. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2007-07-01 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2001-11-22 to 2007-07-07 (NODC Accession 0026390)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  2. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the month of December 2004 for the Global Argo Data Repository, 1996-01-05 to 2004-12-31 (NODC Accession 0001960)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  3. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2007-06-03 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2003-12-03 to 2007-06-09 (NODC Accession 0020394)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository(GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  4. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2005-01-09 for the Global Argo Data Repository, 2000-03-01 to 2005-01-15 (NODC Accession 0001981)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  5. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2007-05-20 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2003-07-29 to 2007-05-26 (NODC Accession 0019205)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  6. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2005-05-08 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2005-03-31 to 2005-05-14 (NODC Accession 0002178)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  7. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2006-07-16 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2000-05-10 to 2006-07-22 (NODC Accession 0002765)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  8. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2003-09-21 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2003-05-28 to 2003-09-27 (NODC Accession 0001182)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  9. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2007-06-17 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2002-08-04 to 2007-06-23 (NODC Accession 0020556)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  10. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the month of October 2004 for the Global Argo Data Repository, 1996-01-05 to 2004-10-31 (NODC Accession 0001897)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  11. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the month of April 2005 for the Global Argo Data Repository, 1996-01-05 to 2005-04-30 (NODC Accession 0002163)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  12. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2003-12-07 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2003-11-24 to 2003-12-13 (NODC Accession 0001266)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  13. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2007-09-30 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2001-12-02 to 2007-10-06 (NODC Accession 0035503)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository(GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  14. Temperature and Salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2008-11-06 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 1997-07-05 to 2008-11-12 (NODC Accession 0048682)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  15. Temperature and Salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2008-08-14 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2006-10-22 to 2008-08-20 (NODC Accession 0044799)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  16. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2008-02-24 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 1979-05-15 to 2008-03-01 (NODC Accession 0039348)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  17. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2007-11-04 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 1995-09-07 to 2007-11-10 (NODC Accession 0036509)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  18. Temperature and Salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2008-10-23 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 1998-05-22 to 2008-10-29 (NODC Accession 0047147)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  19. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2007-10-14 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 1995-09-07 to 2007-10-20 (NODC Accession 0035978)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  20. Temperature and Salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2008-06-19 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2003-05-02 to 2008-06-25 (NODC Accession 0043160)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  1. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2007-10-21 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2001-06-04 to 2007-10-27 (NODC Accession 0036107)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  2. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2007-12-30 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2007-09-26 to 2008-01-05 (NODC Accession 0037968)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  3. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2007-11-25 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2000-05-10 to 2007-12-01 (NODC Accession 0036984)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  4. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2007-12-09 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2001-11-21 to 2007-12-15 (NODC Accession 0037174)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  5. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2008-02-17 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2004-06-16 to 2008-02-23 (NODC Accession 0039187)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  6. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2008-03-20 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2005-09-03 to 2008-03-26 (NODC Accession 0039831)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  7. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2008-05-08 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 1999-10-22 to 2008-05-14 (NODC Accession 0042233)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  8. Temperature and Salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2008-07-10 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2007-12-18 to 2008-07-17 (NODC Accession 0043460)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  9. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2008-02-10 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2002-06-21 to 2008-02-16 (NODC Accession 0038996)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  10. Temperature and Salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2008-07-17 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2002-08-06 to 2008-07-23 (NODC Accession 0043700)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  11. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2008-02-03 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2005-03-15 to 2008-02-09 (NODC Accession 0038806)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  12. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2008-04-10 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2003-01-04 to 2008-04-16 (NODC Accession 0041438)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  13. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2008-05-29 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2006-03-01 to 2008-06-04 (NODC Accession 0042701)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  14. Temperature and Salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2008-09-18 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 1997-07-28 to 2008-09-24 (NODC Accession 0045718)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  15. Temperature and Salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2008-07-24 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2002-04-06 to 2008-07-30 (NODC Accession 0044081)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  16. Temperature and Salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2008- 10-16 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 1998-05-22 to 2008-10-22 (NODC Accession 0046744)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  17. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2007-12-16 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2002-09-28 to 2007-12-22 (NODC Accession 0037749)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  18. Temperature and Salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2008-10-02 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2002-01-19 to 2008-10-08 (NODC Accession 0046221)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  19. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2008-03-13 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2002-03-30 to 2008-03-19 (NODC Accession 0039736)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  20. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2007-12-02 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 1999-10-22 to 2007-12-08 (NODC Accession 0037064)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  1. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2008-05-22 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2006-10-03 to 2008-05-27 (NODC Accession 0042581)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  2. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2008-01-20 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2001-06-13 to 2008-01-26 (NODC Accession 0038512)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  3. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2008-01-27 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2001-06-06 to 2008-02-02 (NODC Accession 0038684)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  4. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2007-11-11 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2002-01-11 to 2007-11-17 (NODC Accession 0036655)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  5. Temperature and Salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2008-07-31 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2005-09-23 to 2008-08-06 (NODC Accession 0044418)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  6. Temperature and Salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2008-10-30 for the Global Argo Data Repository from 1998-05-18 to 2008-11-05 (NODC Accession 0048681)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  7. Temperature and Salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2008-05-01 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 1999-10-21 to 2008-05-07 (NODC Accession 0042027)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  8. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2008-04-24 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 1992-02-07 to 2008-04-30 (NODC Accession 0041852)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  9. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling for the week of 2008-03-02 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2002-03-30 to 2008-03-11 (NODC Accession 0039531)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  10. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2007-11-18 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2004-04-08 to 2007-11-24 (NODC Accession 0036810)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  11. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2008-06-12 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2006-03-24 to 2008-06-18 (NODC Accession 0042993)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  12. Temperature and Salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2008-10-09 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 1999-10-21 to 2008-10-15 (NODC Accession 0046551)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  13. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2008-01-06 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2002-12-13 to 2008-01-12 (NODC Accession 0038182)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  14. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2008-05-15 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2008-05-04 to 2008-05-21 (NODC Accession 0042436)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  15. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2008-04-17 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2004-01-01 to 2008-04-23 (NODC Accession 0041687)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  16. Temperature and Salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2008-09-04 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2000-12-28 to 2008-09-10 (NODC Accession 0045433)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  17. Temperature and Salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2008-08-28 for the Global Argo Data Repository from 2001-11-01 to 2008-09-03 (NODC Accession 0045171)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  18. Temperature and Salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2008-07-03 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2002-08-02 to 2008-07-09 (NODC Accession 0043301)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  19. Temperature and Salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2008-06-26 for the Global Argo Data Repository from 2006-10-24 to 2008-07-02 (NODC Accession 0043168)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  20. Temperature and Salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2008-06-05 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2006-10-08 to 2008-06-11 (NODC Accession 0042829)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  1. Temperature and Salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2008-09-11 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 1999-11-22 to 2008-09-17 (NODC Accession 0045501)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  2. Temperature and Salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2008-08-07 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2006-09-25 to 2008-08-12 (NODC Accession 0044571)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  3. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2007-12-23 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2001-12-13 to 2007-12-29 (NODC Accession 0037840)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  4. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2007-01-13 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2000-05-19 to 2008-01-19 (NODC Accession 0038416)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  5. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2009-02-12 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 1998-05-13 to 2009-02-18 (NODC Accession 0051087)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  6. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2004-09-12 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2004-01-12 to 2004-09-18 (NODC Accession 0001719)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  7. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2009-11-26 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2001-12-21 to 2009-12-02 (NODC Accession 0059941)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  8. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2007-01-14 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2002-11-10 to 2007-01-20 (NODC Accession 0012843)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  9. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the month of September 2004 for the Global Argo Data Repository, 1996-01-05 to 2004-09-30 (NODC Accession 0001735)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  10. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the month of February 2005 for the Global Argo Data Repository, 1996-01-05 to 2005-02-28 (NODC Accession 0002048)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  11. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the month of January 2006 for the Global Argo Data Repository, 1996-01-05 to 2006-01-31 (NODC Accession 0002524)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  12. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2006-09-24 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2001-02-10 to 2006-09-30 (NODC Accession 0009915)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  13. ARGOS-NT: A computer based emergency management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoe, S.; Thykier-Nielsen, S.; Steffensen, L.B.

    2000-01-01

    In case of a nuclear accident or a threat of a release the Danish Emergency Management Agency is responsible for actions to minimize the consequences in Danish territory. To provide an overview of the situation, a computer based system called ARGOS-NT has been developed in 1993/94. This paper gives an overview of the system with emphasis on the prognostic part of the system. An example calculation shows the importance of correct landscape modeling. (author)

  14. Argos at NRPA - added value and major challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorshaug, S.; Holo, E.N.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The national emergency response organization with the Crisis Committee for Nuclear Accidents, their advisors and their information group will gather at NRPA in case of a nuclear or radiological accident. Prognoses and actual measurements presented through a decision support system are regarded being of major importance as a basis for the decision making. ARGOS presents predictions of several quantities that are likely to be of interest to decision makers during and alter an accident, such as air concentration, deposition, effective dose and foodstuff activity. It is expected that ARGOS will be an important tool for the decision makers in case of an accident at a foreign nuclear power plant, at one of the two research reactors in Norway or in case of a nuclear accident in a nuclear powered vessel. Information from meteorological forecasts and atmospheric dispersion models will be of key importance in case of such an accident. Therefore, the main emphasis in the implementation process so far has been on the integration between ARGOS and the long-range dispersion model, SNAP, used at the Norwegian Meteorological Institute. A new technical solution represents an improvement of the existing arrangement within the Norwegian emergency preparedness organization, and facilitates presentation of dose calculations based on numerical weather prediction data in a clear and intuitive manner. ARGOS also represents an improved and more centralized approach to data handling and data processing within the Norwegian nuclear emergency response organization. This is due mainly to its quality as a central repository for different types of measurement data. The data of interest are produced for example by mobile ground- or air-based measuring teams (civilian or military), by measuring stations within the automatic monitoring network or by laboratory analysis of air samples or environmental- and food samples. The ability to graphically present such measuring data together with

  15. Vibration control for the ARGOS laser launch path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Diethard; Gässler, Wolfgang; Borelli, Jose; Barl, Lothar; Rabien, S.

    2012-07-01

    Present and future adaptive optics systems aim for the correction of the atmospheric turbulence over a large field of view combined with large sky coverage. To achieve this goal the telescope is equipped with multiple laser beacons. Still, to measure tip-tilt aberrations a natural guide star is used. For some fields such a tilt-star is not available and a correction on the laser beacons alone is applied. For this method to work well the laser beacons must not be affected by telescope vibrations on their up-link path. For the ARGOS system the jitter of the beacons is specified to be below 0.05. To achieve this goal a vibration compensation system is necessary to mitigate the mechanical disturbances. The ARGOS vibration compensation system is an accelerometer based feed forward system. The accelerometer measurements are fed into a real time controller. To achieve high performance the controller of the system is model based. The output is applied to a fast steering mirror. This paper presents the concept of the ARGOS vibration compensation, the hardware, and laboratory results.

  16. Fully embedded myoelectric control for a wearable robotic hand orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryser, Franziska; Butzer, Tobias; Held, Jeremia P; Lambercy, Olivier; Gassert, Roger

    2017-07-01

    To prevent learned non-use of the affected hand in chronic stroke survivors, rehabilitative training should be continued after discharge from the hospital. Robotic hand orthoses are a promising approach for home rehabilitation. When combined with intuitive control based on electromyography, the therapy outcome can be improved. However, such systems often require extensive cabling, experience in electrode placement and connection to external computers. This paper presents the framework for a stand-alone, fully wearable and real-time myoelectric intention detection system based on the Myo armband. The hard and software for real-time gesture classification were developed and combined with a routine to train and customize the classifier, leading to a unique ease of use. The system including training of the classifier can be set up within less than one minute. Results demonstrated that: (1) the proposed algorithm can classify five gestures with an accuracy of 98%, (2) the final system can online classify three gestures with an accuracy of 94.3% and, in a preliminary test, (3) classify three gestures from data acquired from mildly to severely impaired stroke survivors with an accuracy of over 78.8%. These results highlight the potential of the presented system for electromyography-based intention detection for stroke survivors and, with the integration of the system into a robotic hand orthosis, the potential for a wearable platform for all day robot-assisted home rehabilitation.

  17. Design and evaluation of Mina: a robotic orthosis for paraplegics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Peter D; Noorden, Jerryll H; Craig, Travis J; Torres, Tecalote; Kirschbaum, Justin; Pratt, Jerry E

    2011-01-01

    Mobility options for persons suffering from paraplegia or paraparesis are limited to mainly wheeled devices. There are significant health, psychological, and social consequences related to being confined to a wheelchair. We present the Mina, a robotic orthosis for assisting mobility, which offers a legged mobility option for these persons. Mina is an overground robotic device that is worn on the back and around the legs to provide mobility assistance for people suffering from paraplegia or paraparesis. Mina uses compliant actuation to power the hip and knee joints. For paralyzed users, balance is provided with the assistance of forearm crutches. This paper presents the evaluation of Mina with two paraplegics (SCI ASIA-A). We confirmed that with a few hours of training and practice, Mina is currently able to provide paraplegics walking mobility at speeds of up to 0.20 m/s. We further confirmed that using Mina is not physically taxing and requires little cognitive effort, allowing the user to converse and maintain eye contact while walking. © 2011 IEEE

  18. Mina: A Sensorimotor Robotic Orthosis for Mobility Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K. Raj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available While most mobility options for persons with paraplegia or paraparesis employ wheeled solutions, significant adverse health, psychological, and social consequences result from wheelchair confinement. Modern robotic exoskeleton devices for gait assistance and rehabilitation, however, can support legged locomotion systems for those with lower extremity weakness or paralysis. The Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC has developed the Mina, a prototype sensorimotor robotic orthosis for mobility assistance that provides mobility capability for paraplegic and paraparetic users. This paper describes the initial concept, design goals, and methods of this wearable overground robotic mobility device, which uses compliant actuation to power the hip and knee joints. Paralyzed users can balance and walk using the device over level terrain with the assistance of forearm crutches employing a quadrupedal gait. We have initiated sensory substitution feedback mechanisms to augment user sensory perception of his or her lower extremities. Using this sensory feedback, we hypothesize that users will ambulate with a more natural, upright gait and will be able to directly control the gait parameters and respond to perturbations. This may allow bipedal (with minimal support gait in future prototypes.

  19. Wearing an active spinal orthosis improves back extensor strength in women with osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Gitte Hoff; Pedersen, Louise Nymann; Maribo, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    .Study design:Experimental follow-up.Methods:The women used the active spinal orthosis for 3 months. Outcomes were changes in isometric back extensor strength, changes in back pain and changes in physical functioning.Results:A total of 13 women were included in the trial. Wearing the orthosis during a 3-month......Background:Vertebral fractures are the most common clinical manifestations of osteoporosis. Vertebral fractures and reduced back extensor strength can result in hyperkyphosis. Hyperkyphosis is associated with diminished daily functioning and an increased risk of falling. Improvements in back...... extensor strength can result in decreased kyphosis and thus a decreased risk of falls and fractures.Objectives:The aim was to examine the effects of an active spinal orthosis - Spinomed III - on back extensor strength, back pain and physical functioning in women with osteoporotic vertebral fractures...

  20. Gastrocnemius tendon strain in a dog treated with autologous mesenchymal stem cells and a custom orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, J Brad; Palmer, Ross; Valdes-Martinez, Alex; Egger, Erick L; Haussler, Kevin K

    2013-05-01

    To report clinical findings and outcome in a dog with gastrocnemius tendon strain treated with autologous mesenchymal stem cells and a custom orthosis. Clinical report. A 4-year-old spayed female Border Collie. Bone-marrow derived, autologous mesenchymal stem cells were transplanted into the tendon core lesion. A custom, progressive, dynamic orthosis was fit to the tarsus. Serial orthopedic examinations and ultrasonography as well as long-term force-plate gait analysis were utilized for follow up. Lameness subjectively resolved and peak vertical force increased from 43% to 92% of the contralateral pelvic limb. Serial ultrasonographic examinations revealed improved but incomplete restoration of normal linear fiber pattern of the gastrocnemius tendon. Findings suggest that autologous mesenchymal stem cell transplantation with custom, progressive, dynamic orthosis may be a viable, minimally invasive technique for treatment of calcaneal tendon injuries in dogs. © Copyright 2013 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  1. Weight transfer analysis in adults with hemiplegia using ankle foot orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Karen J; Yarossi, Mathew

    2011-03-01

    Identifying and understanding the changes in transfer of momentum that are directly affected by orthotic intervention are significant factors related to the improvement of mobility in individuals with hemiplegia. The purpose of this investigation was to use a novel analysis technique to objectively measure weight transfer during double support (DS) in healthy individuals and individuals with hemiplegia secondary to stroke with and without an ankle foot orthosis. Prospective, Repeated measures, case-controlled trial. Participants included 25 adults with stroke-related hemiplegia >6 months using a prescribed ankle foot orthosis and 12 age-matched healthy controls. Main outcome measures included the weight transfer point timing (WTP, %DS), maximum total force timing (MTF, %DS), timing difference between WTP and MTF (MTF-WTP, %DS) and the linearity of loading (LOL, R(2)) during the DS phase of the gait cycle. The WTP and LOL were significantly different between conditions with and without the ankle foot orthosis for the affected and unaffected limb in post-stroke individuals, p ≤ 0.01. The MTF and difference in timing between MTF-WTP were significantly different during affected limb loading with and without the ankle foot orthosis in the stroke group, p ≤ 0.0001 and p = 0.03, respectively. MTF, MTF-WTP and LOL were significantly different between individuals with stroke (during affected limb loading) and healthy controls (during right limb loading). This research established a systematic method for analysing weight transfer during walking to evaluate the effect of an ankle foot orthosis on loading during double support in hemiplegic gait. This novel method can be used to elucidate biomechanical mechanisms behind orthosis-mediated changes in gait patterns and quantify functional mobility outcomes in rehabilitation. This novel approach to orthotic assessment will provide the clinician with needed objective evidence to select the most effective orthotic

  2. The USAF Electric Propulsion Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spores, Ronald

    1999-01-01

    ...: Propulsion Directorate and Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR). The Propulsion Directorate conducts electric propulsion efforts in basic research, engineering development, and space experiments...

  3. An OSSE Study for Deep Argo Array using the GFDL Ensemble Coupled Data Assimilation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, You-Soon; Zhang, Shaoqing; Rosati, Anthony; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Yang, Xiaosong

    2018-03-01

    An observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) using an ensemble coupled data assimilation system was designed to investigate the impact of deep ocean Argo profile assimilation in a biased numerical climate system. Based on the modern Argo observational array and an artificial extension to full depth, "observations" drawn from one coupled general circulation model (CM2.0) were assimilated into another model (CM2.1). Our results showed that coupled data assimilation with simultaneous atmospheric and oceanic constraints plays a significant role in preventing deep ocean drift. However, the extension of the Argo array to full depth did not significantly improve the quality of the oceanic climate estimation within the bias magnitude in the twin experiment. Even in the "identical" twin experiment for the deep Argo array from the same model (CM2.1) with the assimilation model, no significant changes were shown in the deep ocean, such as in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and the Antarctic bottom water cell. The small ensemble spread and corresponding weak constraints by the deep Argo profiles with medium spatial and temporal resolution may explain why the deep Argo profiles did not improve the deep ocean features in the assimilation system. Additional studies using different assimilation methods with improved spatial and temporal resolution of the deep Argo array are necessary in order to more thoroughly understand the impact of the deep Argo array on the assimilation system.

  4. Resistant metatarsus adductus: prospective randomized trial of casting versus orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzenberg, John E; Burghardt, Rolf D

    2014-03-01

    Metatarsus adductus is a common pediatric foot deformity related to intrauterine molding. It is usually a mild deformity that responds well to simple observation or minimal treatment with a home program of stretching. Resistant cases may need a more aggressive approach such as serial casting or special bracing to avoid the need for surgical intervention. We compared clinical outcomes using serial casting with orthoses for resistant metatarsus adductus. We prospectively treated 27 infants (43 feet) between the ages 3 and 9 months who failed home stretching treatment. Patients were randomized to either serial plaster casting or Bebax orthoses. Footprints and simulated weight-bearing anteroposterior and lateral view radiographs were made at entry and follow-up. There was no statistical difference between casting and Bebax for the following parameters: age at study entry, length of treatment, number of clinic visits, follow-up, and follow-up maintenance treatments. Both groups showed improvement in footprint and radiographic measurements post-treatment, without worsening of heel valgus. The Bebax group had greater improvement in the footprint heel bisector measurement than the casting group. The Bebax treatment requires more active parental cooperation. A simulated cost analysis of materials and office visit charges, however, revealed that Bebax treatment was significantly less expensive, about half the cost of casting. Because of the cost savings and virtually identical clinical results, we recommend the Bebax orthosis for resistant metatarsus in pre-walking infants with parents who are compliant. Other considerations include specific insurance plans, which may pay for casts but not orthoses.

  5. Ankle foot orthosis-footwear combination tuning: an investigation into common clinical practice in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddison, Nicola; Chockalingam, Nachiappan; Osborne, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    Ankle foot orthoses are used to treat a wide variety of gait pathologies. Ankle foot orthosis-footwear combination tuning should be routine clinical practice when prescribing an ankle foot orthosis. Current research suggests that failure to tune ankle foot orthosis-footwear combinations can lead to immediate detrimental effect on function, and in the longer term, it may actually contribute to deterioration. The purpose of this preliminary study was to identify the current level of knowledge clinicians have in the United Kingdom regarding ankle foot orthosis-footwear combination tuning and to investigate common clinical practice regarding ankle foot orthosis-footwear combination tuning among UK orthotists. Cross-sectional survey. A prospective study employing a multi-item questionnaire was sent out to registered orthotists and uploaded on to the official website of British Association of Prosthetists and Orthotists to be accessed by their members. A total of 41 completed questionnaires were received. The results demonstrate that only 50% of participants use ankle foot orthosis-footwear combination tuning as standard clinical practice. The most prevalent factors preventing participants from carrying out ankle foot orthosis-footwear combination tuning are a lack of access to three-dimensional gait analysis equipment (37%) and a lack of time available in their clinics (27%). Although, ankle foot orthosis-footwear combination tuning has been identified as an essential aspect of the prescription of ankle foot orthoses, the results of this study show a lack of understanding of the key principles behind ankle foot orthosis-footwear combination tuning. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  6. Three dimensional design, simulation and optimization of a novel, universal diabetic foot offloading orthosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumar, Chand; Ramachandran, K. I.

    2016-09-01

    Leg amputation is a major consequence of aggregated foot ulceration in diabetic patients. A common sense based treatment approach for diabetic foot ulceration is foot offloading where the patient is required to wear a foot offloading orthosis during the entire treatment course. Removable walker is an excellent foot offloading modality compared to the golden standard solution - total contact cast and felt padding. Commercially available foot offloaders are generally customized with huge cost and less patient compliance. This work suggests an optimized 3D model of a new type light weight removable foot offloading orthosis for diabetic patients. The device has simple adjustable features which make this suitable for wide range of patients with weight of 35 to 74 kg and height of 137 to 180 cm. Foot plate of this orthosis is unisexual, with a size adjustability of (US size) 6 to 10. Materials like Aluminum alloy 6061-T6, Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) and Polyurethane acted as the key player in reducing weight of the device to 0.804 kg. Static analysis of this device indicated that maximum stress developed in this device under a load of 1000 N is only 37.8 MPa, with a small deflection of 0.150 cm and factor of safety of 3.28, keeping the safety limits, whereas dynamic analysis results assures the load bearing capacity of this device. Thus, the proposed device can be safely used as an orthosis for offloading diabetic ulcerated foot.

  7. Foot loading with an ankle-foot orthosis: the accuracy of an integrated physical strain trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauser, Johannes; Jendrissek, Andreas; Brem, Matthias; Gelse, Kolja; Swoboda, Bernd; Carl, Hans-Dieter

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the value of a built-in physical strain trainer for the monitoring of partial weight bearing with an ankle-foot orthosis. 12 healthy volunteers were asked to perform three trials. Plantar peak pressure values from normal gait (trial one) were defined as 100% (baseline). The following trials were performed with the Vacoped® dynamic vacuum ankle orthosis worn in a neutral position with full weight bearing (trial two) and a restriction to 10% body weight (BW) (trial three), as monitored with an integrated physical strain trainer. Peak plantar pressure values were obtained using the pedar® X system. Peak pressure values were statistically significantly reduced wearing the Vacoped® shoe with full weight bearing for the hindfoot to 68% of the baseline (normal gait) and for the midfoot and forefoot to 83% and 60%, respectively. Limited weight bearing with 10% BW as controlled by physical strain trainer further reduced plantar peak pressure values for the hindfoot to 19%, for the midfoot to 43% of the baseline and the forefoot to 22% of the baseline. The Vacoped® vacuum ankle orthosis significantly reduces plantar peak pressure. The integrated physical strain trainer seems unsuitable to monitor a limitation to 10% BW adequately for the total foot. The concept of controlling partial weight bearing with the hindfoot-addressing device within the orthosis seems debatable but may be useful when the hindfoot in particular must be off-loaded.

  8. Role of three side support ankle–foot orthosis in improving the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a heterogeneous group of permanent, non-progressive motor disorders of movement and posture. Ankle–foot orthoses (AFOs) are frequently prescribed to correct skeletal misalignments in spastic CP. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of the three side support ankle–foot orthosis on ...

  9. Advanced Propulsion Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Eric

    2004-01-01

    ... that show promise of leading to a major advance in Earth-to-orbit (ETO) propulsion. The study also reviewed and evaluated a select number of credible far-term breakthrough propulsion physics concepts pertaining...

  10. Assessing and Optimizing Argo profile mapping : An example in the Equatorial Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparin, Florent; Roemmich, Dean; Gilson, John; Sprintall, Janet

    2014-05-01

    Estimation of subsurface temperature, salinity and velocity has been revolutionized over the last decade as a result of development and deployment of the Argo Program. Argo products have become one of the major observational tools in Oceanography, used in a wide range of basic research, operational models, and education applications. To assess the skill of Argo in estimating oceanic conditions at different scales of variability in the Equatorial Pacific, we optimize Argo profile mapping by focusing on the covariance function. Decorrelation scales are discussed as well as impacts of several different interpolation schemes. The optimization is based on three points 1) Functional representation of the Argo sampled covariance, 2) Realism/Accuracy of the mapping errors and 3) Comparison with independent data such as TAO moorings and sea surface height. The last points show that Argo can represent more than 90% of the total TAO variance and around 80% of the intraseasonal TAO variability (between 10 and 100 days) at the Equator. As an illustration of the improvement, we show how Argo profiles can reveal the vertical structure and vertical phase propagation corresponding to the steric height annual cycle. We also discuss how this unique equatorial wave phenomena is modified during El Nino/La Nina events. This work anticipates a field experiment beginning in early 2014 and can be used for assessing and adapting the equatorial observational network.

  11. Service-oriented architecture for the ARGOS instrument control software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, J.; Barl, L.; Gässler, W.; Kulas, M.; Rabien, Sebastian

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Rayleigh Guided ground layer Adaptive optic System, ARGOS, equips the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) with a constellation of six rayleigh laser guide stars. By correcting atmospheric turbulence near the ground, the system is designed to increase the image quality of the multi-object spectrograph LUCIFER approximately by a factor of 3 over a field of 4 arc minute diameter. The control software has the critical task of orchestrating several devices, instruments, and high level services, including the already existing adaptive optic system and the telescope control software. All these components are widely distributed over the telescope, adding more complexity to the system design. The approach used by the ARGOS engineers is to write loosely coupled and distributed services under the control of different ownership systems, providing a uniform mechanism to offer, discover, interact and use these distributed capabilities. The control system counts with several finite state machines, vibration and flexure compensation loops, and safety mechanism, such as interlocks, aircraft, and satellite avoidance systems.

  12. The Status of the ARGO Experiment at YBJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aielli, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' Tor Vergata' di Roma and INFN Sezione di Roma2 (Italy); Bacci, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' Roma Tre' di Roma and INFN Sezione di Roma3 (Italy); Bartoli, B. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Napoli and INFN Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Bernardini, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Lecce and INFN Sezione di Lecce (Italy); Bi, X.J. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophyics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, Beijing (China); Bleve, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Lecce and INFN Sezione di Lecce (Italy); Bussino, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' Roma Tre' di Roma and INFN Sezione di Roma3 (Italy); Calabrese Melcarne, A.K. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Lecce and INFN Sezione di Lecce (Italy); Camarri, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' Tor Vergata' di Roma and INFN Sezione di Roma2 (Italy); Campana, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Napoli and INFN Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Cao, Z. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophyics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, Beijing (China); Cardarelli, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' Tor Vergata' di Roma and INFN Sezione di Roma2 (Italy); Catalanotti, S.; Cavaliere, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Napoli and INFN Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Celio, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' Roma Tre' di Roma and INFN Sezione di Roma3 (Italy); Chen, S.Z.; Cheng, N. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophyics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, Beijing (China); Creti, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Lecce and INFN Sezione di Lecce(Italy); Cui, S.W. [Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016, Hebei (China)] (and others)

    2007-04-15

    The ARGO-YBJ experiment, located at Yangbajing, Tibet, China, performed by a wide Sino-Italian collaboration, is designed to study cosmic rays, sub-TeV gamma ray sources and GeV Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) emission in the northern hemisphere, by means of detecting small size EAS (Extensive Air Shower) using a full coverage RPC (Resistive Plate Chamber) carpet. The central carpet of the detector is installed and put into operation to date, with 1900m{sup 2} of the carpet already operating since December 2004. With a trigger multiplicity of {>=}60 hits, corresponding to a primary mode energy of 2 TeV, the angular resolution of EAS measurements is < 1{sup o} for showers with more than 500 recorded hits. We report the preliminary results of data taking performed during 2005: the all-sky survey for gamma ray sources and the search for GRBs, as well as the cosmic ray spectrum up to about 100 TeV. The Forbush decrease of the cosmic ray flux during January, 2005 is observed using the ARGO data.

  13. The effectiveness of combined prescription of ankle–foot orthosis and stretching program for the treatment of recalcitrant plantar fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehab A.E. Sallam

    2016-01-01

    Combined prescription of night-stretch ankle–foot orthosis and stretching exercises for plantar flexors and fascia had greater therapeutic effects compared with each treatment alone. Stretching exercises alone are not beneficial in the treatment of recalcitrant plantar fasciitis.

  14. Assessment of the Sheffield Support Snood, an innovative cervical orthosis designed for people affected by neck muscle weakness

    OpenAIRE

    Pancani, Silvia; Rowson, Jennifer; Tindale, Wendy; Heron, Nicola; Langley, Joe; McCarthy, Avril D.; Quinn, Ann; Reed, Heath; Stanton, Andrew; Shaw, Pamela J.; McDermott, Christopher J.; Mazzà, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the biomechanical features of the Sheffield Support Snood (SSS), a cervical orthosis specifically designed for patients with neck weakness. The orthosis is designed to be adaptable to a patient’s level of functional limitation using adjustable removable supports, which contribute support and restrict movement only in desired anatomical planes. \\ud Methods: The SSS was evaluated along with two commercially available orthoses, the Vista and Headmaster. The ...

  15. Effect of Ankle-foot Orthosis on Lower Limb Muscle Activities and Static Balance of Stroke Patients Authors’ Names

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Youngmin; Her, Jin Gang; Choi, Youngeun; Kim, Heesoo

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of an ankle-foot orthosis worn during balance training on lower limb muscle activity and static balance of chronic stroke patients. [Subjects] The subjects were twenty-five inpatients receiving physical therapy for chronic stroke. [Methods] The chronic stroke patients were divided into two groups: thirteen patients were assigned to the ankle-foot orthosis group, while the remaining twelve patients wore only their shoes. Each group performed balance tr...

  16. Evaluation of gait performance of a participant with Perthes disease while walking with and without a Scottish-Rite orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohammad; Sedigh, Jafar; Fatoye, Francis

    2013-06-01

    Scottish-Rite orthosis is one of the conservative methods used to treat Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. As there was not enough evidence to show the effects of using this orthosis on reducing the loads applied on the limb, this research aimed to find the influence of this orthosis. A participant with Perthes disease on the left hip joint was recruited into this study to walk with and without the orthosis. The kinetic and kinematic parameters were collected by a motion analysis system and a Kistler force platform. No significant differences were noted between the hip joint flexion/extension range of motion and the moments between the sound side and the side affected by Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. It may be concluded that use of orthosis may not have any positive effects to decrease the loads or to improve the alignment of the hip joint in participants with Perthes disease, as expected. The use of Scottish-Rite orthosis not only does not improve the containment of the hip joint, but also does not have any significant influence on loads applied on the joint during walking of the subject with Perthes disease. The results of this research can be used by clinicians involved in treatment of patients with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease.

  17. Biomechanics of an orthosis-managed cranial cruciate ligament-deficient canine stifle joint predicted by use of a computer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertocci, Gina E; Brown, Nathan P; Mich, Patrice M

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of an orthosis on biomechanics of a cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL)-deficient canine stifle joint by use of a 3-D quasistatic rigid-body pelvic limb computer model simulating the stance phase of gait and to investigate influences of orthosis hinge stiffness (durometer). SAMPLE A previously developed computer simulation model for a healthy 33-kg 5-year-old neutered Golden Retriever. PROCEDURES A custom stifle joint orthosis was implemented in the CrCL-deficient pelvic limb computer simulation model. Ligament loads, relative tibial translation, and relative tibial rotation in the orthosis-stabilized stifle joint (baseline scenario; high-durometer hinge]) were determined and compared with values for CrCL-intact and CrCL-deficient stifle joints. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the influence of orthosis hinge stiffness on model outcome measures. RESULTS The orthosis decreased loads placed on the caudal cruciate and lateral collateral ligaments and increased load placed on the medial collateral ligament, compared with loads for the CrCL-intact stifle joint. Ligament loads were decreased in the orthosis-managed CrCL-deficient stifle joint, compared with loads for the CrCL-deficient stifle joint. Relative tibial translation and rotation decreased but were not eliminated after orthosis management. Increased orthosis hinge stiffness reduced tibial translation and rotation, whereas decreased hinge stiffness increased internal tibial rotation, compared with values for the baseline scenario. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Stifle joint biomechanics were improved following orthosis implementation, compared with biomechanics of the CrCL-deficient stifle joint. Orthosis hinge stiffness influenced stifle joint biomechanics. An orthosis may be a viable option to stabilize a CrCL-deficient canine stifle joint.

  18. Centralized versus distributed propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    The functions and requirements of auxiliary propulsion systems are reviewed. None of the three major tasks (attitude control, stationkeeping, and shape control) can be performed by a collection of thrusters at a single central location. If a centralized system is defined as a collection of separated clusters, made up of the minimum number of propulsion units, then such a system can provide attitude control and stationkeeping for most vehicles. A distributed propulsion system is characterized by more numerous propulsion units in a regularly distributed arrangement. Various proposed large space systems are reviewed and it is concluded that centralized auxiliary propulsion is best suited to vehicles with a relatively rigid core. These vehicles may carry a number of flexible or movable appendages. A second group, consisting of one or more large flexible flat plates, may need distributed propulsion for shape control. There is a third group, consisting of vehicles built up from multiple shuttle launches, which may be forced into a distributed system because of the need to add additional propulsion units as the vehicles grow. The effects of distributed propulsion on a beam-like structure were examined. The deflection of the structure under both translational and rotational thrusts is shown as a function of the number of equally spaced thrusters. When two thrusters only are used it is shown that location is an important parameter. The possibility of using distributed propulsion to achieve minimum overall system weight is also examined. Finally, an examination of the active damping by distributed propulsion is described.

  19. The physiological cost index of walking with a powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis in subjects with poliomyelitis: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazpour, Mokhtar; Ahmadi Bani, Monireh; Samadian, Mohammad; Mousavi, Mohammad E; Hutchins, Stephen W; Bahramizadeh, Mahmood; Curran, Sarah; Mardani, Mohammad A

    2016-08-01

    A powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis was developed to provide restriction of knee flexion during stance phase and active flexion and extension of the knee during swing phase of gait. The purpose of this study was to determine its effect on the physiological cost index, walking speed and the distance walked in people with poliomyelitis compared to when walking with a knee-ankle-foot orthosis with drop lock knee joints. Quasi experimental study. Seven subjects with poliomyelitis volunteered for the study and undertook gait analysis with both types of knee-ankle-foot orthosis. Walking with the powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis significantly reduced walking speed (p = 0.015) and the distance walked (p = 0.004), and also, it did not improve physiological cost index values (p = 0.009) compared to walking with the locked knee-ankle-foot orthosis. Using a powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis did not significantly improve any of the primary outcome measures during walking for poliomyelitis subjects. This powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis design did not improve the physiological cost index of walking for people with poliomyelitis when compared to walking with a knee-ankle-foot orthosis with drop lock knee joints. This may have been due to the short training period used or the bulky design and additional weight of the powered orthosis. Further research is therefore warranted. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.

  20. Accurate estimation of influenza epidemics using Google search data via ARGO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shihao; Santillana, Mauricio; Kou, S C

    2015-11-24

    Accurate real-time tracking of influenza outbreaks helps public health officials make timely and meaningful decisions that could save lives. We propose an influenza tracking model, ARGO (AutoRegression with GOogle search data), that uses publicly available online search data. In addition to having a rigorous statistical foundation, ARGO outperforms all previously available Google-search-based tracking models, including the latest version of Google Flu Trends, even though it uses only low-quality search data as input from publicly available Google Trends and Google Correlate websites. ARGO not only incorporates the seasonality in influenza epidemics but also captures changes in people's online search behavior over time. ARGO is also flexible, self-correcting, robust, and scalable, making it a potentially powerful tool that can be used for real-time tracking of other social events at multiple temporal and spatial resolutions.

  1. Report on the Deep Argo Implementation Workshop. Hobart, May 5-7th 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Zilberman, Nathalie; Maze, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Deep-ocean (> 2000 m) hydrographic observations are limited to sparse ship-board hydrographic sections repeated every decade and short-lived moored arrays of confined spatial coverage. Upper-ocean (< 2000 m) sampling, largely carried out by the conventional Argo array, has much higher resolution in space and time. The need for more intensive sampling in the deep ocean has been widely recognized by the scientific community. The development of deep profiling Argo floats, a new generation of aut...

  2. Nuclear propulsion for orbital transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beale, G.A.; Lawrence, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    The state of the art in nuclear propulsion for orbital transfer is discussed. Cryogenic propulsion, electric propulsion, solar-thermal propulsion and direct nuclear propulsion are examined in this context. New technologies with exceptional promise are addressed, emphasizing the particle test bed nuclear engine

  3. A new approach to implement a customized anatomic insole in orthopaedic footwear of lower limb orthosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, J.; Flores, P.; Souto, A. P.

    2017-10-01

    This paper concerns the development of a new approach for orthopaedic footwear to apply in KAFO orthosis (acronym for Knee Ankle Foot Orthosis). This procedure starts with full characterization of the problem with the purpose to characterize a plantar of a patient’s foot with polio. A 3D Scanner was used to collect their feet’s data to produce an anatomic insole. After this step, the patient performs a study of his gait using a static and dynamic study with the aim of characterizing the parameters to improve quality in the footwear. The insole was produced using a 3D printing technology. It was essential to optimize manufacturing processes and it was developed a footwear prototype with innovative characteristics, which is 25% lighter, allowing the user to consume less energy in daily routines.

  4. A Novel Approach For Ankle Foot Orthosis Developed By Three Dimensional Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belokar, R. M.; Banga, H. K.; Kumar, R.

    2017-12-01

    This study presents a novel approach for testing mechanical properties of medical orthosis developed by three dimensional (3D) technologies. A hand-held type 3D laser scanner is used for generating 3D mesh geometry directly from patient’s limb. Subsequently 3D printable orthotic design is produced from crude input model by means of Computer Aided Design (CAD) software. Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) method in Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies is used to fabricate the 3D printable Ankle Foot Orthosis (AFO) prototype in order to test the mechanical properties on printout. According to test results, printed Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) AFO prototype has sufficient elasticity modulus and durability for patient-specific medical device manufactured by the 3D technologies.

  5. Design and Development of Effective Transmission Mechanisms on a Tendon Driven Hand Orthosis for Stroke Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sangwoo; Weber, Lynne; Bishop, Lauri; Stein, Joel; Ciocarlie, Matei

    2018-01-01

    Tendon-driven hand orthoses have advantages over exoskeletons with respect to wearability and safety because of their low-profile design and ability to fit a range of patients without requiring custom joint alignment. However, no existing study on a wearable tendon-driven hand orthosis for stroke patients presents evidence that such devices can overcome spasticity given repeated use and fatigue, or discusses transmission efficiency. In this study, we propose two designs that provide effective...

  6. iGrab: hand orthosis powered by twisted and coiled polymer muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saharan, Lokesh; de Andrade, Monica Jung; Saleem, Wahaj; Baughman, Ray H.; Tadesse, Yonas

    2017-10-01

    Several works have been reported in powered hand orthosis in the last ten years for assistive or rehabilitative purposes. However, most of these approaches uses conventional actuators such as servo motors to power orthosis. In this work, we demonstrate the recently reported twisted and coiled polymeric (TCP) muscles to drive a compact, light, inexpensive and wearable upper extremity device, iGrab. A 3D printed orthotic hand module was designed, developed and tested for the performance. The device has six 2-ply muscles of diameter 1.35 mm with a length of 380 mm. We used a single 2-ply muscle for each finger and two 2-ply muscles for the thumb. Pulsed actuation of the muscles at 1.8 A current for 25 s with 7% duty cycle under natural cooling showed full flexion of the fingers within 2 s. Modeling and simulation were performed on the device using standard Euler-Lagrangian equations. Our artificial muscles powered hand orthosis demonstrated the capability of pinching and picking objects of different shapes, weights, and sizes.

  7. Exoskeleton Technology in Rehabilitation: Towards an EMG-Based Orthosis System for Upper Limb Neuromotor Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Manuel Vaca Benitez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The rehabilitation of patients should not only be limited to the first phases during intense hospital care but also support and therapy should be guaranteed in later stages, especially during daily life activities if the patient’s state requires this. However, aid should only be given to the patient if needed and as much as it is required. To allow this, automatic self-initiated movement support and patient-cooperative control strategies have to be developed and integrated into assistive systems. In this work, we first give an overview of different kinds of neuromuscular diseases, review different forms of therapy, and explain possible fields of rehabilitation and benefits of robotic aided rehabilitation. Next, the mechanical design and control scheme of an upper limb orthosis for rehabilitation are presented. Two control models for the orthosis are explained which compute the triggering function and the level of assistance provided by the device. As input to the model fused sensor data from the orthosis and physiology data in terms of electromyography (EMG signals are used.

  8. Single DoF Hand Orthosis for Rehabilitation of Stroke and SCI Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan Megalingam, Rajesh; Apuroop, K. G. S.; Boddupalli, Sricharan

    2017-08-01

    Many stroke and spinal cord injury patients suffer from paralysis which range from severe to nominal. Some of them, after therapy, could regain most of the motor control, particularly in hands if the severity level is not so high. In this paper we propose a hand orthosis for such patients whose stroke and spinal cord injury severity is nominal and the motor control in hands can be regained by therapy as part of their rehabilitation process. The patients can wear this orthosis and the therapy can be done with simple Human Computer Interface. The physicians, the physiotherapists and the patients themselves can carry out the therapy with the help of this device. The tests conducted in the lab and the results obtained are very promising that this can be an effective mechanism for stroke and spinal cord injury patients in their rehabilitation process. The hand orthosis is designed and fabricated locally so that it can be made available to such patients at an affordable cost.

  9. A Critical Analysis of a Hand Orthosis Reverse Engineering and 3D Printing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Baronio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility to realize highly customized orthoses is receiving boost thanks to the widespread diffusion of low-cost 3D printing technologies. However, rapid prototyping (RP with 3D printers is only the final stage of patient personalized orthotics processes. A reverse engineering (RE process is in fact essential before RP, to digitize the 3D anatomy of interest and to process the obtained surface with suitable modeling software, in order to produce the virtual solid model of the orthosis to be printed. In this paper, we focus on the specific and demanding case of the customized production of hand orthosis. We design and test the essential steps of the entire production process with particular emphasis on the accurate acquisition of the forearm geometry and on the subsequent production of a printable model of the orthosis. The choice of the various hardware and software tools (3D scanner, modeling software, and FDM printer is aimed at the mitigation of the design and production costs while guaranteeing suitable levels of data accuracy, process efficiency, and design versatility. Eventually, the proposed method is critically analyzed so that the residual issues and critical aspects are highlighted in order to discuss possible alternative approaches and to derive insightful observations that could guide future research activities.

  10. Overexpression of ARGOS Genes Modifies Plant Sensitivity to Ethylene, Leading to Improved Drought Tolerance in Both Arabidopsis and Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinrui; Habben, Jeffrey E; Archibald, Rayeann L; Drummond, Bruce J; Chamberlin, Mark A; Williams, Robert W; Lafitte, H Renee; Weers, Ben P

    2015-09-01

    Lack of sufficient water is a major limiting factor to crop production worldwide, and the development of drought-tolerant germplasm is needed to improve crop productivity. The phytohormone ethylene modulates plant growth and development as well as plant response to abiotic stress. Recent research has shown that modifying ethylene biosynthesis and signaling can enhance plant drought tolerance. Here, we report novel negative regulators of ethylene signal transduction in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and maize (Zea mays). These regulators are encoded by the ARGOS gene family. In Arabidopsis, overexpression of maize ARGOS1 (ZmARGOS1), ZmARGOS8, Arabidopsis ARGOS homolog ORGAN SIZE RELATED1 (AtOSR1), and AtOSR2 reduced plant sensitivity to ethylene, leading to enhanced drought tolerance. RNA profiling and genetic analysis suggested that the ZmARGOS1 transgene acts between an ethylene receptor and CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1 in the ethylene signaling pathway, affecting ethylene perception or the early stages of ethylene signaling. Overexpressed ZmARGOS1 is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi membrane, where the ethylene receptors and the ethylene signaling protein ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE2 and REVERSION-TO-ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY1 reside. In transgenic maize plants, overexpression of ARGOS genes also reduces ethylene sensitivity. Moreover, field testing showed that UBIQUITIN1:ZmARGOS8 maize events had a greater grain yield than nontransgenic controls under both drought stress and well-watered conditions. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  11. NASA's Propulsion Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The grand opening of NASA's new, world-class laboratory for research into future space transportation technologies located at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, took place in July 2004. The state-of-the-art Propulsion Research Laboratory (PRL) serves as a leading national resource for advanced space propulsion research. Its purpose is to conduct research that will lead to the creation and development of innovative propulsion technologies for space exploration. The facility is the epicenter of the effort to move the U.S. space program beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of greatly improved access to space and rapid transit throughout the solar system. The laboratory is designed to accommodate researchers from across the United States, including scientists and engineers from NASA, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, universities, and industry. The facility, with 66,000 square feet of useable laboratory space, features a high degree of experimental capability. Its flexibility allows it to address a broad range of propulsion technologies and concepts, such as plasma, electromagnetic, thermodynamic, and propellant propulsion. An important area of emphasis is the development and utilization of advanced energy sources, including highly energetic chemical reactions, solar energy, and processes based on fission, fusion, and antimatter. The Propulsion Research Laboratory is vital for developing the advanced propulsion technologies needed to open up the space frontier, and sets the stage of research that could revolutionize space transportation for a broad range of applications.

  12. Cold Gas Micro Propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwerse, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of a micro propulsion system. The trend of miniaturization of satellites requires small sized propulsion systems. For particular missions it is important to maintain an accurate distance between multiple satellites. Satellites drift apart due to differences in

  13. Laser Propulsion - Quo Vadis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohn, Willy L.

    2008-01-01

    First, an introductory overview of the different types of laser propulsion techniques will be given and illustrated by some historical examples. Second, laser devices available for basic experiments will be reviewed ranging from low power lasers sources to inertial confinement laser facilities. Subsequently, a status of work will show the impasse in which the laser propulsion community is currently engaged. Revisiting the basic relations leads to new avenues in ablative and direct laser propulsion for ground based and space based applications. Hereby, special attention will be devoted to the impact of emerging ultra-short pulse lasers on the coupling coefficient and specific impulse. In particular, laser sources and laser propulsion techniques will be tested in microgravity environment. A novel approach to debris removal will be discussed with respect to the Satellite Laser Ranging (SRL) facilities. Finally, some non technical issues will be raised aimed at the future prospects of laser propulsion in the international community

  14. One- or Two-Legged Standing: What Is the More Suitable Protocol to Assess the Postural Effects of the Rigid Ankle Orthosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougier, Patrice; Genthon, Nicolas; Gallois-Montbrun, Thibault; Brugiere, Steve; Bouvat, Eric

    2009-01-01

    To highlight the capacity of one- and two-legged standing protocols when assessing postural behavior induced by a rigid ankle orthosis, 14 healthy individuals stood upright barefoot and wore either an elastic stocking on the preferred leg or a rigid orthosis with or without additional taping in one- or two-legged (TL) conditions. Traditional…

  15. A Newly Designed Tennis Elbow Orthosis With a Traditional Tennis Elbow Strap in Patients With Lateral Epicondylitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, Hossein; Chamani, Vahid; Vahab-Kashani, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Lateral epicondylitis is a common cause of pain and upper limb dysfunction. The use of counterforce straps for treatment of lateral epicondylitis is widespread. This kind of orthosis can be modified to have a greater effect on relieving pain by reducing tension on the origin of the extensor pronator muscles. Objectives To determine the immediate effects of a newly designed orthosis on pain and grip strength in patients with lateral epicondylitis. Materials and Methods Twelve participants (six men and six women) were recruited (mean age = 41 ± 6.7 years) and evaluated for pain and grip strength in three sessions. A 48-hour break was taken between each session. The first session was without any orthosis, the second session was with the new modified tennis elbow orthosis, and the third session was with a conventional tennis elbow strap. Results Both counterforce straps were effective. However, significantly more improvement was observed in pain and grip strength after using the newly modified orthosis (P < 0.05). Conclusions The newly designed strap reduces pain more effectively and improves grip strength by causing greater localized pressure on two regions with different force applications (two component vectors versus one). PMID:28180116

  16. A Newly Designed Tennis Elbow Orthosis With a Traditional Tennis Elbow Strap in Patients With Lateral Epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, Hossein; Chamani, Vahid; Vahab-Kashani, Reza

    2016-07-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is a common cause of pain and upper limb dysfunction. The use of counterforce straps for treatment of lateral epicondylitis is widespread. This kind of orthosis can be modified to have a greater effect on relieving pain by reducing tension on the origin of the extensor pronator muscles. To determine the immediate effects of a newly designed orthosis on pain and grip strength in patients with lateral epicondylitis. Twelve participants (six men and six women) were recruited (mean age = 41 ± 6.7 years) and evaluated for pain and grip strength in three sessions. A 48-hour break was taken between each session. The first session was without any orthosis, the second session was with the new modified tennis elbow orthosis, and the third session was with a conventional tennis elbow strap. Both counterforce straps were effective. However, significantly more improvement was observed in pain and grip strength after using the newly modified orthosis (P < 0.05). The newly designed strap reduces pain more effectively and improves grip strength by causing greater localized pressure on two regions with different force applications (two component vectors versus one).

  17. Effect of an ankle-foot orthosis on knee joint mechanics: a novel conservative treatment for knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantini Pagani, Cynthia H; Willwacher, Steffen; Benker, Rita; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter

    2014-12-01

    Several conservative treatments for medial knee osteoarthritis such as knee orthosis and laterally wedged insoles have been shown to reduce the load in the medial knee compartment. However, those treatments also present limitations such as patient compliance and inconsistent results regarding the treatment success. To analyze the effect of an ankle-foot orthosis on the knee adduction moment and knee joint alignment in the frontal plane in subjects with knee varus alignment. Controlled laboratory study, repeated measurements. In total, 14 healthy subjects with knee varus alignment were analyzed in five different conditions: without orthotic, with laterally wedged insoles, and with an ankle-foot orthosis in three different adjustments. Three-dimensional kinetic and kinematic data were collected during gait analysis. Significant decreases in knee adduction moment, knee lever arm, and joint alignment in the frontal plane were observed with the ankle-foot orthosis in all three different adjustments. No significant differences could be found in any parameter while using the laterally wedged insoles. The ankle-foot orthosis was effective in reducing the knee adduction moment. The decreases in this parameter seem to be achieved by changing the knee joint alignment and thereby reducing the knee lever arm in the frontal plane. This study presents a novel approach for reducing the load in the medial knee compartment, which could be developed as a new treatment option for patients with medial knee osteoarthritis. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2013.

  18. Distributed Propulsion Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Dae

    2010-01-01

    Since the introduction of large jet-powered transport aircraft, the majority of these vehicles have been designed by placing thrust-generating engines either under the wings or on the fuselage to minimize aerodynamic interactions on the vehicle operation. However, advances in computational and experimental tools along with new technologies in materials, structures, and aircraft controls, etc. are enabling a high degree of integration of the airframe and propulsion system in aircraft design. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been investigating a number of revolutionary distributed propulsion vehicle concepts to increase aircraft performance. The concept of distributed propulsion is to fully integrate a propulsion system within an airframe such that the aircraft takes full synergistic benefits of coupling of airframe aerodynamics and the propulsion thrust stream by distributing thrust using many propulsors on the airframe. Some of the concepts are based on the use of distributed jet flaps, distributed small multiple engines, gas-driven multi-fans, mechanically driven multifans, cross-flow fans, and electric fans driven by turboelectric generators. This paper describes some early concepts of the distributed propulsion vehicles and the current turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) vehicle concepts being studied under the NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project to drastically reduce aircraft-related fuel burn, emissions, and noise by the year 2030 to 2035.

  19. Accuracy of ARGOS locations of Pinnipeds at-sea estimated using Fastloc GPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Costa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: ARGOS satellite telemetry is one of the most widely used methods to track the movements of free-ranging marine and terrestrial animals and is fundamental to studies of foraging ecology, migratory behavior and habitat-use. ARGOS location estimates do not include complete error estimations, and for many marine organisms, the most commonly acquired locations (Location Class 0, A, B, or Z are provided with no declared error estimate. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared the accuracy of ARGOS Locations to those obtained using Fastloc GPS from the same electronic tags on five species of pinnipeds: 9 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus, 4 Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki, 6 Cape fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus, 3 Australian fur seals (A. p. doriferus and 5 northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris. These species encompass a range of marine habitats (highly pelagic vs coastal, diving behaviors (mean dive durations 2-21 min and range of latitudes (equator to temperate. A total of 7,318 ARGOS positions and 27,046 GPS positions were collected. Of these, 1,105 ARGOS positions were obtained within five minutes of a GPS position and were used for comparison. The 68(th percentile ARGOS location errors as measured in this study were LC-3 0.49 km, LC-2 1.01 km, LC-1 1.20 km, LC-0 4.18 km, LC-A 6.19 km, LC-B 10.28 km. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The ARGOS errors measured here are greater than those provided by ARGOS, but within the range of other studies. The error was non-normally distributed with each LC highly right-skewed. Locations of species that make short duration dives and spend extended periods on the surface (sea lions and fur seals had less error than species like elephant seals that spend more time underwater and have shorter surface intervals. Supplemental data (S1 are provided allowing the creation of density distributions that can be used in a variety of filtering algorithms to improve the

  20. Assist-as-Needed Control of a Robotic Orthosis Actuated by Pneumatic Artificial Muscle for Gait Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quy-Thinh Dao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation robots are designed to help patients improve their recovery from injury by supporting them to perform repetitive and systematic training sessions. These robots are not only able to guide the subjects’ lower-limb to a designate trajectory, but also estimate their disability and adapt the compliance accordingly. In this research, a new control strategy for a high compliant lower-limb rehabilitation orthosis system named AIRGAIT is developed. The AIRGAIT orthosis is powered by pneumatic artificial muscle actuators. The trajectory tracking controller based on a modified computed torque control which employs a fractional derivative is proposed for the tracking purpose. In addition, a new method is proposed for compliance control of the robotic orthosis which results in the successful implementation of the assist-as-needed training strategy. Finally, various subject-based experiments are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the developed control system.

  1. Instrument control software development process for the multi-star AO system ARGOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulas, M.; Barl, L.; Borelli, J. L.; Gässler, W.; Rabien, S.

    2012-09-01

    The ARGOS project (Advanced Rayleigh guided Ground layer adaptive Optics System) will upgrade the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) with an AO System consisting of six Rayleigh laser guide stars. This adaptive optics system integrates several control loops and many different components like lasers, calibration swing arms and slope computers that are dispersed throughout the telescope. The purpose of the instrument control software (ICS) is running this AO system and providing convenient client interfaces to the instruments and the control loops. The challenges for the ARGOS ICS are the development of a distributed and safety-critical software system with no defects in a short time, the creation of huge and complex software programs with a maintainable code base, the delivery of software components with the desired functionality and the support of geographically distributed project partners. To tackle these difficult tasks, the ARGOS software engineers reuse existing software like the novel middleware from LINC-NIRVANA, an instrument for the LBT, provide many tests at different functional levels like unit tests and regression tests, agree about code and architecture style and deliver software incrementally while closely collaborating with the project partners. Many ARGOS ICS components are already successfully in use in the laboratories for testing ARGOS control loops.

  2. Immediate effect of a functional wrist orthosis for children with cerebral palsy or brain injury: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Michelle; Novak, Iona; Lannin, Natasha; Galea, Claire

    2017-10-28

    Two-group randomized controlled trial. Upper limb orthoses worn during functional tasks are commonly used in pediatric neurologic rehabilitation, despite a paucity of high-level evidence. The purpose of this study was to investigate if a customized functional wrist orthosis, when placed on the limb, leads to an immediate improvement in hand function for children with cerebral palsy or brain injury. A 2-group randomized controlled trial involving 30 children was conducted. Participants were randomized to either receive a customized functional wrist orthosis (experimental, n = 15) or not receive an orthosis (control, n = 15). The box and blocks test was administered at baseline and repeated 1 hour after experimental intervention, with the orthosis on if randomized to the orthotic group. After intervention, there were no significant differences on the box and blocks test between the orthotic group (mean, 10.13; standard deviation, 11.476) and the no orthotic group (mean, 14.07; standard deviation, 11.106; t[28], -0.954; P = .348; and 95% confidence interval, -12.380 to 4.513). In contrast to the findings of previous studies, our results suggest that a functional wrist orthosis, when supporting the joint in a 'typical' position, may not lead to an immediate improvement in hand function. Wearing a functional wrist orthosis did not lead to an immediate improvement in the ability of children with cerebral palsy or brain injury to grasp and release. Further research is needed combining upper limb orthoses with task-specific training and measuring outcomes over the medium to long term. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. All rights reserved.

  3. Observations of Bacterial Behavior during Infection Using the ARGOS Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charest, A. J.; Algarni, S.; Iannacchione, G. S.

    2015-03-01

    This research employed the Area Recorded Generalized Optical Scattering (ARGOS) approach which allowed for the observation of bacterial changes in terms of individual particles and population dynamics in real time. This new approach allows for an aqueous environment to be manipulated while conducting time-specific measurements over an indefinite amount of time. This current study provides a more time-specific method in which the bacteria remained within the initial conditions and allows for more time precision than provided by analyzing concentrations of plaque-forming units (PFU). This study involved the bacteria (F-amp) during infection by bacteriophage (MS2). The relative total intensity allows for detailed measurements of the bacteria population over time. The bacteria characteristics were also evaluated such as the root mean square image difference (at specific wavevectors), fractal dimension and effective radius. The growth rate of the infected bacteria occurred at a rate higher than the uninfected bacteria similarly, the death rates were also higher for the infected bacteria than the uninfected bacteria. The present study indicates that bacteria may react to infection by increasing the rate of population growth.

  4. Advanced Chemical Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, S. Don

    2000-01-01

    Design, propellant selection, and launch assistance for advanced chemical propulsion system is discussed. Topics discussed include: rocket design, advance fuel and high energy density materials, launch assist, and criteria for fuel selection.

  5. Alternative propulsion for automobiles

    CERN Document Server

    Stan, Cornel

    2017-01-01

    The book presents – based on the most recent research and development results worldwide - the perspectives of new propulsion concepts such as electric cars with batteries and fuel cells, and furthermore plug in hybrids with conventional and alternative fuels. The propulsion concepts are evaluated based on specific power, torque characteristic, acceleration behaviour, specific fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. The alternative fuels are discussed in terms of availability, production, technical complexity of the storage on board, costs, safety and infrastructure. The book presents summarized data about vehicles with electric and hybrid propulsion. The propulsion of future cars will be marked by diversity – from compact electric city cars and range extender vehicles for suburban and rural areas up to hybrid or plug in SUV´s, Pick up´s and luxury class automobiles.

  6. Ship propulsion reactors technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fribourg, Ch.

    2002-01-01

    This paper takes the state of the art on ship propulsion reactors technology. The french research programs with the corresponding technological stakes, the reactors specifications and advantages are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  7. [Influence of spinal orthosis on gait and physical functioning in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, K; Hübscher, M; Vogt, L; Klinkmüller, U; Hildebrandt, H D; Fink, M; Banzer, W

    2012-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a widespread chronic bone disease leading to an increased risk of bone fractures. The most common clinical consequences are back pain, hyperkyphosis, limitations of physical functioning and activities of daily living as well as reduced quality of life. Furthermore, osteoporosis is associated with decreased strength and deficits of gait and balance, all together resulting in an increased risk of falls and a subsequent aggravation of fracture risk. Besides pharmaceutical and exercise therapy, back orthoses are increasingly being used in the therapy of osteoporosis and rehabilitation after vertebral fractures. Previous studies have shown that wearing a spinal orthosis results in a reduction of pain as well as improvements of posture and back extensor strength. To date there is no study that has evaluated the effects of a spinal orthosis on gait stability and physical functioning in patients with osteoporosis. Therefore the purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of a spinal orthosis on gait and pain-induced limitations of activities of daily living (ADL) in women with osteoporosis. A total of 69 postmenopausal osteoporotic women with and without vertebral fractures were randomly assigned to receive either a spinal orthosis (Thämert Osteo-med intervention group n=35; average age 74 ± 8.3 years, height 158.3 ± 6.3 cm, weight 62.8 ± 9.6 kg, t-score -2.6  ± 1.0, number of vertebral fractures 1.4 ± 2.0) or to a waiting list control group (n= 34, age 74.1 ± 7.7 years, height 159.6 ± 5.9 cm, weight 65.4 ± 11.3 kg, t-score -2.9± 0.8, number of vertebral fractures: 0.9 ± 1.2). The following outcome measures were collected at baseline and at 3 and 6 months follow-up: gait parameters including gait analysis: velocity, stride length and width, double support time (% of gait cycle) and perceived limitations in activities of daily living (numeric rating scale 1-10; 1=best, 10= worst situation). The ANCOVA indicated a

  8. Distributed propulsion for ships

    OpenAIRE

    Nylund, Vilde

    2017-01-01

    It is anticipated that using distributed electric propulsion (DEP) on conventional ships will increase the total propulsive efficiency. This is mainly due to two reasons; firstly, because the total propeller disk area can be increased. Secondly, because each propeller can be optimised for the local wake where it is operating. In this work, the benefits of using DEP has been investigated for a 14 000 TEU container ship. Based on a literary study of the present state of propeller modelling ...

  9. Clinical practice guidelines for rest orthosis, knee sleeves, and unloading knee braces in knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudreuil, Johann; Bendaya, Samy; Faucher, Marc; Coudeyre, Emmanuel; Ribinik, Patricia; Revel, Michel; Rannou, François

    2009-12-01

    To develop clinical practice guidelines concerning the use of bracing--rest orthosis, knee sleeves and unloading knee braces--for knee osteoarthritis. The French Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Society (SOFMER) methodology, associating a systematic literature review, collection of everyday clinical practice, and external review by multidisciplinary expert panel, was used. Few high-level studies of bracing for knee osteoarthritis were found. No evidence exists for the effectiveness of rest orthosis. Evidence for knee sleeves suggests that they decrease pain in knee osteoarthritis, and their use is associated with subjective improvement. These actions do not appear to depend on a local thermal effect. The effectiveness of knee sleeves for disability is not demonstrated for knee osteoarthritis. Short- and mid-term follow-up indicates that valgus knee bracing decreases pain and disability in medial knee osteoarthritis, appears to be more effective than knee sleeves, and improves quality of life, knee proprioception, quadriceps strength, and gait symmetry, and decreases compressive loads in the medial femoro-tibial compartment. However, results of response to valgus knee bracing remain inconsistent; discomfort and side effects can result. Thrombophlebitis of the lower limbs has been reported with the braces. Braces, whatever kind, are infrequently prescribed in clinical practice for osteoarthritis of the lower limbs. Modest evidence exists for the effectiveness of bracing--rest orthosis, knee sleeves and unloading knee braces--for knee osteoarthritis, with only low level recommendations for its use. Braces are prescribed infrequently in French clinical practice for osteoarthritis of the knee. Randomized clinical trials concerning bracing in knee osteoarthritis are still necessary.

  10. Wheelchairs propulsion analysis: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimasa Sagawa Júnior

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To analyze aspects related with wheelchair propulsion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In order to delineate this review the search for information was carried out within electronics databases, using the following descriptors: "wheelchair propulsion", "wheelchair biomechanics" e "wheelchair users". Full papers published in English and French were included in the study. RESULTS: The wheelchair propulsion is a complex movement that requires the execution of repeated bi manual forces applications during a short time period. In this movement high levels of force must be produced due to the bad mechanical performance of the wheelchair. Could be characterized that wheelchair users are not satisfied with their wheelchair, the places are not adapted to their presence and lack of specific criteria for the adjustment of this equipment. The main points to look at are the seat height in relation to elbow flexion (100-120 degrees with his hand in the propulsion rim and tire pressure. The semicircular mode of technique propulsion seems to be more appropriate; in this pattern the wheelchair user returns his hand under the rim after propulsion. Efforts in wheelchairs are high and the incidence of injuries in wheelchair users is high. CONCLUSION: One can conclude that in spite of researchers’ efforts there are still many divergences between topics and methods of evaluation, what makes difficult to apply the experimental results to the wheelchairs users’ daily life.

  11. Fuel Effective Photonic Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalakshmi, N.; Srivarshini, S.

    2017-09-01

    With the entry of miniaturization in electronics and ultra-small light-weight materials, energy efficient propulsion techniques for space travel can soon be possible. We need to go for such high speeds so that the generation’s time long interstellar missions can be done in incredibly short time. Also renewable energy like sunlight, nuclear energy can be used for propulsion instead of fuel. These propulsion techniques are being worked on currently. The recently proposed photon propulsion concepts are reviewed, that utilize momentum of photons generated by sunlight or onboard photon generators, such as blackbody radiation or lasers, powered by nuclear or solar power. With the understanding of nuclear photonic propulsion, in this paper, a rough estimate of nuclear fuel required to achieve the escape velocity of Earth is done. An overview of the IKAROS space mission for interplanetary travel by JAXA, that was successful in demonstrating that photonic propulsion works and also generated additional solar power on board, is provided; which can be used as a case study. An extension of this idea for interstellar travel, termed as ‘Star Shot’, aims to send a nanocraft to an exoplanet in the nearest star system, which could be potentially habitable. A brief overview of the idea is presented.

  12. Ion Beam Propulsion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Ion Beam Propulsion Study was a joint high-level study between the Applied Physics Laboratory operated by NASA and ASRC Aerospace at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, and Berkeley Scientific, Berkeley, California. The results were promising and suggested that work should continue if future funding becomes available. The application of ion thrusters for spacecraft propulsion is limited to quite modest ion sources with similarly modest ion beam parameters because of the mass penalty associated with the ion source and its power supply system. Also, the ion source technology has not been able to provide very high-power ion beams. Small ion beam propulsion systems were used with considerable success. Ion propulsion systems brought into practice use an onboard ion source to form an energetic ion beam, typically Xe+ ions, as the propellant. Such systems were used for steering and correction of telecommunication satellites and as the main thruster for the Deep Space 1 demonstration mission. In recent years, "giant" ion sources were developed for the controlled-fusion research effort worldwide, with beam parameters many orders of magnitude greater than the tiny ones of conventional space thruster application. The advent of such huge ion beam sources and the need for advanced propulsion systems for exploration of the solar system suggest a fresh look at ion beam propulsion, now with the giant fusion sources in mind.

  13. Calibration of the RPC charge readout in the ARGO-YBJ experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aielli, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell& #x27; Universita & #x27; Tor Vergata& #x27; , via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Bacci, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell& #x27; Universita & #x27; Roma Tre& #x27; , via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma3, via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); Bartoli, B. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell& #x27; Universita di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant& #x27; Angelo, via Cintia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant& #x27; Angelo, via Cintia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Bernardini, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell& #x27; Universita del Salento, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Bi, X.J. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophyics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 918, 100049 Beijing (China); Bleve, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell& #x27; Universita del Salento, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Branchini, P.; Budano, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma3, via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); and others

    2012-01-01

    The charge readout of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) is implemented in the ARGO-YBJ experiment to measure the charged particle density of the shower front up to 10{sup 4}/m{sup 2}, enabling the study of the primary cosmic rays with energies in the 'knee' region. As the first time for RPCs being used this way, a telescope with RPCs and scintillation detectors is setup to calibrate the number of charged particles hitting a RPC versus its charge readout. Air shower particles are taken as the calibration beam. The telescope was tested at sea level and then moved to the ARGO-YBJ site for coincident operation with the ARGO-YBJ experiment. The charge readout shows good linearity with the particle density in the dynamic range (up to 200/m{sup 2}).

  14. Temperature effect on RPC performance in the ARGO-YBJ experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aielli, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' Tor Vergata' , via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Bacci, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' Roma Tre' , via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma3, via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); Bartoli, B. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Bernardini, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita del Salento, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Bi, X.J. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophyics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 918, 100049 Beijing (China); Bleve, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita del Salento, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Branchini, P.; Budano, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma3, via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); Bussino, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' Roma Tre' , via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma3, via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); Calabrese Melcarne, A.K. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - CNAF - viale Berti-Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Camarri, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' Tor Vergata' , via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy)] (and others)

    2009-09-11

    The ARGO-YBJ experiment has been taking data for nearly 2 years. In order to monitor continuously the performance of the Resistive Plate Chamber detectors and to study the daily temperature effects on the detector performance, a cosmic ray muon telescope was setup near the carpet detector array in the ARGO-YBJ laboratory. Based on the measurements performed using this telescope, it is found that, at the actual operating voltage of 7.2 kV, the temperature effect on the RPC time resolution is about 0.04ns/deg. C and on the particle detection efficiency is about 0.03%/deg. C. Based on these figures we conclude that the environmental effects do not affect substantially the angular resolution of the ARGO-YBJ detector.

  15. Radio-tracking large wilderness mammals: integration of GPS and Argos technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Charles C.; Arthur, Steve M.

    1999-01-01

    We tested 30 prototype global positioning system (GPS) radiocollars on brown bears (Ursus arctos) over a 3-year period on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Collars were of 2 design types: GPS units with an Argos (Argos Data collection and Location System) satellite uplink (n = 19) and GPS units where the data were stored on board (n = 10) for retrieval at a later date. All units also contained a conventional VHF (very high frequency) transmitter and weighed 1.7 kg. GPS-Argos units obtained 10-82% of expected GPS fixes, and fix rate declined significantly (P bears varied more and were lower than fix rates for stationary collars placed in various vegetation types, suggesting that the bear, terrain, and movement all influence both fix and uplink success rate. Application of this new technology to grizzly and brown bear research and comparisons to studies with moose (Alces alces) are discussed.

  16. Biogeochemical-Argo: achievements, challenges for the future and potential synergies with other components of ocean observation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claustre, Hervé; Johnson, Ken

    2017-04-01

    The recently launched Biogeochemical-Argo (BGC-Argo) program aims at developing a global network of biogeochemical sensors on Argo profiling floats for acquiring long-term high-quality time-series of oceanic properties. BGC-Argo is in particular poised to address a number of challenges in ocean science (e.g. hypoxia, carbon uptake, ocean acidification, biological-carbon pump and phytoplankton communities), topics that are difficult, if not impossible, to address with our present observing assets. Presently six variables are considered as core BGC-Argo variables (O2, NO3, pH, Chla, suspended particles and downwelling irradiance). Historically, BGC-Argo has been initiated through small-scale "showcase" projects progressively scaling up into regional case studies essentially addressing key biological pump-related questions in specific regions (e.g. sub-tropical gyres, North Atlantic, Southern Ocean). Now BGC-Argo is transitioning towards a global and sustained observation system thanks to progressive international coordination of national contributions and to increasingly mature and efficient data management and distribution systems. In this presentation, we will highlight a variety of results derived from BGC-Argo observations and encompassing a wide range of topics related to ocean biogeochemistry. Challenges for the future and long-term sustainability of the system will be addressed in particular with respect to maintaining a high-quality and interoperable dataset over long-term. Part of this can be achieved through a tight interaction with programs (e.g. GOSHIP) and their historical databases, which should constitute a corner stone to assess data quality. Example on the interplay between BGC-Argo and GlodapV2 databases will be particularly exemplified in this context. Furthermore, we will illustrate the potential synergies between synoptically measured surface satellite-quantities and their vertically resolved (BGC-Argo) counterparts into the development of 3D

  17. Temperature and Salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling float s for the week of 2008-08-21 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2002-08-04 to 2008-08-27 (NODC Accession 0045045)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR)as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  18. Effect of pneumatic compressing powered orthosis in stroke patients: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Sil; Yoon, Yong-Soon; Sohn, Min Kyun; Kwak, Soo-Hyun; Choi, Jong Ho; Oh, Ji Sun

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of a knee-ankle-foot orthosis powered by artificial pneumatic muscles (PKAFO). Twenty-three hemiplegic patients (age, 59.6±13.7 years) were assessed 19.7±36.6 months after brain lesion. The 10-m walking time was measured as a gait parameter while the individual walked on a treadmill. Walking speed (m/s), step cycle (cycle/s), and step length (m) were also measured on a treadmill with and without PKAFO, and before and after gait training. Clinical parameters measured before and after gait training included Korean version of Modified Bathel Index (K-MBI), manual muscle test (MMT), and Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) of hemiplegic ankle. Gait training comprised treadmill walking for 20 minutes, 5 days a week for 3 weeks at a comfortable speed. The 10-m walking time, walking speed, step length, and step cycle were significantly greater with PKAFO than without PKAFO, and after gait training (both p<0.05). K-MBI was improved after gait training (p<0.05), but MMT and MAS were not. PKAFO may improve gait function in hemiplegic patients. It can be a useful orthosis for gait training in hemiplegic patients.

  19. The smart Peano fluidic muscle: a low profile flexible orthosis actuator that feels pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Allan J.; Anderson, Iain A.; Xie, Shane Q.

    2015-03-01

    Robotic orthoses have the potential to provide effective rehabilitation while overcoming the availability and cost constraints of therapists. These orthoses must be characterized by the naturally safe, reliable, and controlled motion of a human therapist's muscles. Such characteristics are only possible in the natural kingdom through the pain sensing realized by the interaction of an intelligent nervous system and muscles' embedded sensing organs. McKibben fluidic muscles or pneumatic muscle actuators (PMAs) are a popular orthosis actuator because of their inherent compliance, high force, and muscle-like load-displacement characteristics. However, the circular cross-section of PMA increases their profile. PMA are also notoriously unreliable and difficult to control, lacking the intelligent pain sensing systems of their biological muscle counterparts. Here the Peano fluidic muscle, a new low profile yet high-force soft actuator is introduced. This muscle is smart, featuring bioinspired embedded pressure and soft capacitive strain sensors. Given this pressure and strain feedback, experimental validation shows that a lumped parameter model based on the muscle geometry and material parameters can be used to predict its force for quasistatic motion with an average error of 10 - 15N. Combining this with a force threshold pain sensing algorithm sets a precedent for flexible orthosis actuation that uses embedded sensors to prevent damage to the actuator and its environment.

  20. Advanced Chemical Propulsion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Gordon; Byers, Dave; Alexander, Leslie A.; Krebsbach, Al

    2004-01-01

    A study was performed of advanced chemical propulsion technology application to space science (Code S) missions. The purpose was to begin the process of selecting chemical propulsion technology advancement activities that would provide greatest benefits to Code S missions. Several missions were selected from Code S planning data, and a range of advanced chemical propulsion options was analyzed to assess capabilities and benefits re these missions. Selected beneficial applications were found for higher-performing bipropellants, gelled propellants, and cryogenic propellants. Technology advancement recommendations included cryocoolers and small turbopump engines for cryogenic propellants; space storable propellants such as LOX-hydrazine; and advanced monopropellants. It was noted that fluorine-bearing oxidizers offer performance gains over more benign oxidizers. Potential benefits were observed for gelled propellants that could be allowed to freeze, then thawed for use.

  1. Space transportation propulsion USSR launcher technology, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Space transportation propulsion U.S.S.R. launcher technology is discussed. The following subject areas are covered: Energia background (launch vehicle summary, Soviet launcher family) and Energia propulsion characteristics (booster propulsion, core propulsion, and growth capability).

  2. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  3. Airbreathing Propulsion An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Bose, Tarit

    2012-01-01

    Airbreathing Propulsion covers the physics of combustion, fluid and thermo-dynamics, and structural mechanics of airbreathing engines, including piston, turboprop, turbojet, turbofan, and ramjet engines. End-of-chapter exercises allow the reader to practice the fundamental concepts behind airbreathing propulsion, and the included PAGIC computer code will help the reader to examine the relationships between the performance parameters of different engines. Large amounts of data on many different piston, turbojet, and turboprop engines have been compiled for this book and are included as an appendix. This textbook is ideal for senior undergraduate and graduate students studying aeronautical engineering, aerospace engineering, and mechanical engineering.

  4. On-line satellite/central computer facility of the Multiparticle Argo Spectrometer System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, E.W.; Fisher, G.P.; Hien, N.C.; Larson, G.P.; Thorndike, A.M.; Turkot, F.; von Lindern, L.; Clifford, T.S.; Ficenec, J.R.; Trower, W.P.

    1974-09-01

    An on-line satellite/central computer facility has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory as part of the Multiparticle Argo Spectrometer System (MASS). This facility consisting of a PDP-9 and a CDC-6600, has been successfully used in study of proton-proton interactions at 28.5 GeV/c. (U.S.)

  5. Agricultural countermeasure program - AGRICP: food and dose module in ARGOS- accident reporting and Guidance Operational System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calábria, Jaqueline A.A.; Morais, Gustavo F.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear or radiological emergencies can affect food, feed and commodities grown. The regulatory bodies has a role in the post-accident phase instructing the population regarding the consumption of agricultural products, monitoring and recovering the contaminated areas and disposing the generated waste. To deal with nuclear/radiological emergencies, in the end of 2007, Brazil took part of the ARGOS consortium. ARGOS is a software used for support the Preparedness and Response of a nuclear emergency. Specifically for use during the recovery phase, ARGOS has a module called AgriCP (Agricultural Countermeasure Program). This functionality was add to the version 9.0 of ARGOS, in 2012, replacing FMD (Food and Dose Module) model. AgriCP can be very useful in the post-accident phasing, helping to planning the actions that must be taken, saving human and budged resources. However, most of the parameters used by default for the model are specific for Central Europe and must be adapted to the Brazilian characteristics. In this paper the basic functionalities of AgriCP are presented and a general view of the issues to be addressed while implementing AgriCP for the Brazilian case is given. Besides the lack of specific parameters for the Brazilian reality, the definition of the area to be considering for intervention in an accident, taking into account the very complex meteorological characteristic of the Brazilian NPPs (nuclear power plants) site, are some of the matters of concern. (author)

  6. On the observability of turbulent transport rates by Argo: supporting evidence from an inversion experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Forget

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although estimation of turbulent transport parameters using inverse methods is not new, there is little evaluation of the method in the literature. Here, it is shown that extended observation of the broad-scale hydrography by Argo provides a path to improved estimates of regional turbulent transport rates. Results from a 20-year ocean state estimate produced with the ECCO v4 (Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean, version 4 non-linear inverse modeling framework provide supporting evidence. Turbulent transport parameter maps are estimated under the constraints of fitting the extensive collection of Argo profiles collected through 2011. The adjusted parameters dramatically reduce misfits to in situ profiles as compared with earlier ECCO solutions. They also yield a clear reduction in the model drift away from observations over multi-century-long simulations, both for assimilated variables (temperature and salinity and independent variables (biogeochemical tracers. Despite the minimal constraints imposed specifically on the estimated parameters, their geography is physically plausible and exhibits close connections with the upper-ocean stratification as observed by Argo. The estimated parameter adjustments furthermore have first-order impacts on upper-ocean stratification and mixed layer depths over 20 years. These results identify the constraint of fitting Argo profiles as an effective observational basis for regional turbulent transport rate inversions. Uncertainties and further improvements of the method are discussed.

  7. Üks suund, kaks vaadet / Tiit Land, Argo Ralja ; intervjueerinud Katrin Reimann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Land, Tiit, 1964-

    2012-01-01

    Intervjuu Tallinna Ülikooli rektori Tiit Landi ja Üliõpilaskonna juhatuse esimehe Argo Raljaga Tallinna Ülikooli iseloomustavatest märksõnadest möödunud aastal, positsioonist Eesti hariduses, ülikooli koostööst instituutide ja kolledžitega

  8. Agricultural countermeasure program - AGRICP: food and dose module in ARGOS- accident reporting and Guidance Operational System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calábria, Jaqueline A.A.; Morais, Gustavo F., E-mail: jaqueline.calabria@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: gustavo.morais@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Nuclear or radiological emergencies can affect food, feed and commodities grown. The regulatory bodies has a role in the post-accident phase instructing the population regarding the consumption of agricultural products, monitoring and recovering the contaminated areas and disposing the generated waste. To deal with nuclear/radiological emergencies, in the end of 2007, Brazil took part of the ARGOS consortium. ARGOS is a software used for support the Preparedness and Response of a nuclear emergency. Specifically for use during the recovery phase, ARGOS has a module called AgriCP (Agricultural Countermeasure Program). This functionality was add to the version 9.0 of ARGOS, in 2012, replacing FMD (Food and Dose Module) model. AgriCP can be very useful in the post-accident phasing, helping to planning the actions that must be taken, saving human and budged resources. However, most of the parameters used by default for the model are specific for Central Europe and must be adapted to the Brazilian characteristics. In this paper the basic functionalities of AgriCP are presented and a general view of the issues to be addressed while implementing AgriCP for the Brazilian case is given. Besides the lack of specific parameters for the Brazilian reality, the definition of the area to be considering for intervention in an accident, taking into account the very complex meteorological characteristic of the Brazilian NPPs (nuclear power plants) site, are some of the matters of concern. (author)

  9. Improving ingestion dose modelling for the ARGOS and RODOS decision support systems: A Nordic Initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Nielsen, Sven Poul; Thørring, Håvard

    2011-01-01

    A Nordic work group under the NKS-B activity PARDNOR has revised the input parameters in the ECOSYS model that is incorporated for ingestion dose modelling in the ARGOS and RODOS decision support systems. The new parameterisation takes into account recent measurement data, and targets the model f...

  10. NASA Electric Propulsion System Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, James L.

    2015-01-01

    An overview of NASA efforts in the area of hybrid electric and turboelectric propulsion in large transport. This overview includes a list of reasons why we are looking at transmitting some or all of the propulsive power for the aircraft electrically, a list of the different types of hybrid-turbo electric propulsion systems, and the results of 4 aircraft studies that examined different types of hybrid-turbo electric propulsion systems.

  11. Modeling of Ship Propulsion Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Benjamin Pjedsted; Larsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Full scale measurements of the propulsion power, ship speed, wind speed and direction, sea and air temperature, from four different loading conditions has been used to train a neural network for prediction of propulsion power. The network was able to predict the propulsion power with accuracy...

  12. Turboprop Propulsion Mechanic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanute AFB Technical Training Center, IL.

    This instructional package consists of a plan of instruction, glossary, and student handouts and exercises for use in training Air Force personnel to become turboprop propulsion mechanics. Addressed in the individual lessons of the course are the following: common hand tools, hardware, measuring devices, and safety wiring; aircraft and engine…

  13. Reactors. Nuclear propulsion ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fribourg, Ch.

    2001-01-01

    This article has for object the development of nuclear-powered ships and the conception of the nuclear-powered ship. The technology of the naval propulsion P.W.R. type reactor is described in the article B.N.3 141 'Nuclear Boilers ships'. (N.C.)

  14. Temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats through the month of August 2017 for the Global Argo Data Repository, 1995-09-07 to 2017-08-31 (NCEI Accession 0042682)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent all data collected from Argo profiling floats through the current month (August 2017). The NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information...

  15. Pneumatic Muscles Actuated Lower-Limb Orthosis Model Verification with Actual Human Muscle Activation Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzahir M.A.M

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A review study was conducted on existing lower-limb orthosis systems for rehabilitation which implemented pneumatic muscle type of actuators with the aim to clarify the current and on-going research in this field. The implementation of pneumatic artificial muscle will play an important role for the development of the advanced robotic system. In this research a derivation model for the antagonistic mono- and bi-articular muscles using pneumatic artificial muscles of a lower limb orthosis will be verified with actual human’s muscle activities models. A healthy and young male 29 years old subject with height 174cm and weight 68kg was used as a test subject. Two mono-articular muscles Vastus Medialis (VM and Vastus Lateralis (VL were selected to verify the mono-articular muscle models and muscle synergy between anterior muscles. Two biarticular muscles Rectus Femoris (RF and Bicep Femoris (BF were selected to verify the bi-articular muscle models and muscle co-contraction between anterior-posterior muscles. The test was carried out on a treadmill with a speed of 4.0 km/h, which approximately around 1.25 m/s for completing one cycle of walking motion. The data was collected for about one minute on a treadmill and 20 complete cycles of walking motion were successfully recorded. For the evaluations, the mathematical model obtained from the derivation and the actual human muscle activation patterns obtained using the surface electromyography (sEMG system were compared and analysed. The results shown that, high correlation values ranging from 0.83 up to 0.93 were obtained in between the derivation model and the actual human muscle’s model for both mono- and biarticular muscles. As a conclusion, based on the verification with the sEMG muscle activities data and its correlation values, the proposed derivation models of the antagonistic mono- and bi-articular muscles were suitable to simulate and controls the pneumatic muscles actuated lower limb

  16. Nuclear merchant ship propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, E.; Jager, W.; Schafstall, H.G.

    1977-01-01

    The operation of about 300 nuclear naval vessels has proven the feasibility of nuclear ship propulsion. Until now six non military ships have been built or are under construction. In the Soviet Union two nuclear icebreakers are in operation, and a third one is under construction. In the western world three prototype merchant ships have been built. Of these ships only the NS OTTO HAHN is in operation and provides valuable experience for future large scale use of nuclear merchant ship propulsion. In many countries studies and plans are made for future nuclear merchant ships. Types of vessels investigated are large containerships, tankers and specialized ships like icebreakers or ice-breaking ships. The future of nuclear merchant ship propulsion depends on three interrelated items: (1) nuclear ship technology; (2) economy of nuclear ship propulsion; (3) legal questions. Nuclear merchant ship technology is based until now on standard ship technology and light water reactor technology. Except for special questions due to the non-stationary type of the plant entirely new problems do not arise. This has been proven by the recent conceptual licensing procedure for a large nuclear containership in Germany. The economics of nuclear propulsion will be under discussion until they are proven by the operation of privately owned lead ships. Unsolved legal questions e.g. in connection with port entry permissions are at present another problem for nuclear shipping. Efforts are made to solve these questions on an international basis. The future development of nuclear energy electricity production in large land based plants will stimulate the employment of smaller units. Any future development of long distance sea transport will have to take this opportunity of a reliable and economic energy supply into account

  17. Fusion propulsion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haloulakos, V.E.; Bourque, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    The continuing and expanding national efforts in both the military and commercial sectors for exploration and utilization of space will require launch, assembly in space, and orbital transfer of large payloads. The currently available delivery systems, utilizing various forms of chemical propulsion, do not have the payload capacity to fulfill the planned missions. National planning documents such as Air Force Project Forecast II and the National Commission on Space Report to the President contain numerous missions and payload delivery schedules that are beyond the present capabilities of the available systems, such as the Space Shuttle and the Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELVs). The need, therefore, is very pressing to design, develop, and deploy propulsion systems that offer a quantum level increase in delivered performance. One such potential system is fusion propulsion. This paper summarizes the result of an Air Force Astronautics Laboratory (AFAL) sponsored study of fusion propulsion conducted by the McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company (MDAC), and its subcontractor General Atomics This study explored the potential of fusion propulsion for Air Force missions. Fusion fuels and existing confinement concepts were evaluated according to elaborate criteria. Two fuels, deuterium-tritium and deuterium-helium 3 (D- 3 He) were considered worthy of further consideration. D- 3 He was selected as the most attractive for this Air Force study. The colliding translating compact torus confinement concept was evaluated in depth and found to possibly possess the low mass and compactness required. Another possible concept is inertial confinement with the propellant surrounding the target. 5 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs

  18. Effect of medial arch support foot orthosis on plantar pressure distribution in females with mild-to-moderate hallux valgus after one month of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzadi, Maede; Safaeepour, Zahra; Mousavi, Mohammad E; Saeedi, Hassan

    2015-04-01

    Higher plantar pressures at the medial forefoot are reported in hallux valgus. Foot orthoses with medial arch support are considered as an intervention in this pathology. However, little is known about the effect of foot orthoses on plantar pressure distribution in hallux valgus. To investigate the effect of a foot orthosis with medial arch support on pressure distribution in females with mild-to-moderate hallux valgus. Quasi-experimental. Sixteen female volunteers with mild-to-moderate hallux valgus participated in this study and used a medial arch support foot orthosis for 4 weeks. Plantar pressure for each participant was assessed using the Pedar-X(®) in-shoe system in four conditions including shoe-only and foot orthosis before and after the intervention. The use of the foot orthosis for 1 month led to a decrease in peak pressure and maximum force under the hallux, first metatarsal, and metatarsals 3-5 (p hallux and the first metatarsal head by transferring the load to the other regions. It would appear that this type of foot orthosis can be an effective method of intervention in this pathology. Findings of this study will improve the clinical knowledge about the effect of the medial arch support foot orthosis used on plantar pressure distribution in hallux valgus pathology. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  19. CRED APEX Drifting Buoy Argos_ID 25321 Data in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 200110-200404 (NODC Accession 0049436)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED APEX drifter Argos_ID 25321 was deployed in the region of NW Hawaiian Islands to assess ocean currents and sea surface temperature. APEX drifter data files...

  20. CRED SVP Drifting Buoy Argos_ID 35647 Data Tutuila, American Samoa, 200202-200307 (NODC Accession 0067474)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED SVP drifter Argos_ID 35647 was deployed in the region of American Samoa to assess ocean currents and sea surface temperature. SVP drifter data files contain...

  1. CRED SVP Drifting Buoy Argos_ID 30291 Data in the NW Hawaiian Islands, 20020920-20050105 (NODC Accession 0049436)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED SVP drifter Argos_ID 30291 was deployed in the region of NW Hawaiian Islands to assess ocean currents and sea surface temperature. SVP drifter data files...

  2. CRED SVP Drifting Buoy Argos_ID 35651 Data Rose Atoll, American Samoa, 200202-200411 (NODC Accession 0067474)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED SVP drifter Argos_ID 35651 was deployed in the region of American Samoa to assess ocean currents and sea surface temperature. SVP drifter data files contain...

  3. CRED SVP Drifting Buoy Argos_ID 35649 Data Tutuila, American Samoa, 200202-200308 (NODC Accession 0067474)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED SVP drifter Argos_ID 35649 was deployed in the region of American Samoa to assess ocean currents and sea surface temperature. SVP drifter data files contain...

  4. CRED APEX Drifting Buoy Argos_ID 24963 Data in the NW Hawaiian Islands, 200109-200506 (NODC Accession 0049436)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED APEX drifter Argos_ID 24963 was deployed in the region of NW Hawaiian Islands to assess ocean currents and sea surface temperature. APEX drifter data files...

  5. CRED SVP Drifting Buoy Argos_ID 28638 Data, Saipan in the Marianas Archipelago, 200308-200503 (NODC Accession 0067473)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED SVP drifter Argos_ID 28638 was deployed in the region of Marianas Archipelago to assess ocean currents and sea surface temperature. SVP drifter data files...

  6. CRED APEX Drifting Buoy Argos_ID 26070 Data in the NW Hawaiian Islands, the Pacific Ocean

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED APEX drifter Argos_ID 26070 was deployed in the region of NW Hawaiian Islands to assess ocean currents and sea surface temperature. APEX drifter data files...

  7. CRED SVP Drifting Buoy Argos_ID 29099 Data, Rota in the Marianas Archipelago, 200309-200402 (NODC Accession 0067473)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED SVP drifter Argos_ID 29099 was deployed in the region of Marianas Archipelago to assess ocean currents and sea surface temperature. SVP drifter data files...

  8. Transforming Ocean Observations of the Carbon Budget, Acidification, Hypoxia, Nutrients, and Biological Productivity: a Global Array of Biogeochemical Argo Floats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, L. D.; Johnson, K. S.; Claustre, H.; Boss, E.; Emerson, S. R.; Westberry, T. K.; Sarmiento, J. L.; Mazloff, M. R.; Riser, S.; Russell, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Our ability to detect changes in biogeochemical (BGC) processes in the ocean that may be driven by increasing atmospheric CO2, as well as by natural climate variability, is greatly hindered by undersampling in vast areas of the open ocean. Argo is a major international program that measures ocean heat content and salinity with about 4000 floats distributed throughout the ocean, profiling to 2000 m every 10 days. Extending this approach to a global BGC-Argo float array, using recent, proven sensor technology, and in close synergy with satellite systems, will drive a transformative shift in observing and predicting the effects of climate change on ocean metabolism, carbon uptake, acidification, deoxygenation, and living marine resource management. BGC-Argo will add sensors for pH, oxygen, nitrate, chlorophyll, suspended particles, and downwelling irradiance, with sufficient accuracy for climate studies. Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) using BGC models indicate that 1000 BGC floats would provide sufficient coverage, hence equipping 1/4 of the Argo array. BGC-Argo (http://biogeochemical-argo.org) will enhance current sustained observational programs such as Argo, GO-SHIP, and long-term ocean time series. BGC-Argo will benefit from deployments on GO-SHIP vessels, which provide sensor verification. Empirically derived algorithms that relate the observed BGC float parameters to the carbon system parameters will provide global information on seasonal ocean-atmosphere carbon exchange. BGC Argo measurements could be paired with other emerging technology, such as pCO2 measurements from ships of opportunity and wave gliders, to extend and validate exchange estimates. BGC-Argo prototype programs already show the potential of a global observing system that can measure seasonal to decadal variability. Various countries have developed regional BGC arrays: Southern Ocean (SOCCOM), North Atlantic Subpolar Gyre (remOcean), Mediterranean (NAOS), the Kuroshio (INBOX

  9. Powered Upper Limb Orthosis Actuation System Based on Pneumatic Artificial Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakarov, Dimitar; Veneva, Ivanka; Tsveov, Mihail; Venev, Pavel

    2018-03-01

    The actuation system of a powered upper limb orthosis is studied in the work. To create natural safety in the mutual "man-robot" interaction, an actuation system based on pneumatic artificial muscles (PAM) is selected. Experimentally obtained force/contraction diagrams for bundles, consisting of different number of muscles are shown in the paper. The pooling force and the stiffness of the pneumatic actuators is assessed as a function of the number of muscles in the bundle and the supply pressure. Joint motion and torque is achieved by antagonistic actions through pulleys, driven by bundles of pneumatic muscles. Joint stiffness and joint torques are determined on condition of a power balance, as a function of the joint position, pressure, number of muscles and muscles

  10. Development and simulation of a passive upper extremity orthosis for amyoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Føge; Raunsbæk, Joakim; Lund, Jan Nørgaard

    2018-01-01

    Introduction People who are born with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita are typically not able to perform activities of daily living (ADL) due to decreased muscle mass, joint contractures and unnatural upper extremity positioning. They are, therefore, potential users of an assistive device capable....... Results For a given configuration using a mono- and a bi-articular spring, the simulations showed that spring stiffnesses of 400?Nm?1 and of 1029?Nm?1, respectively, were able to lower the maximal muscle activity estimated by the musculoskeletal model to a level in which the 10 postures can be realized....... Conclusion By augmenting residual muscle strength with a partially gravity-balanced passive orthosis, ADLs may be achievable for people with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita....

  11. Development of Ankle Foot Orthosis (AFO Using Pneumatic Artificial Muscle for Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak N.Z.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ankle foot orthosis (AFO are commonly used to correct the instabilities and joint weakness of lower limb. In this research, AFO was developed by using pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM to prevent plantarflexion to occur and also to correct the foot from the inversion syndrome. The research started with designing the AFO by using SolidWorks software based on anthropometry measurement data (n=5, age=12 years old. The mechanical simulation was conducted by using Autodesk Inventor software to obtain a safety factor before the fabrication process was conducted. The AFO was fabricated using 3D printer and the thermoplastic elastomer (TPE rubber was selected as the material. PAM was tested by using test bed machine to generate the force and contraction by muscle. The result shows that the PAM was suitable for low speed as the displacement was greater. The AFO could be valuable for the gait rehabilitation.

  12. Enhancing the use of Argos satellite data for home range and long distance migration studies of marine animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Hoenner

    Full Text Available Accurately quantifying animals' spatial utilisation is critical for conservation, but has long remained an elusive goal due to technological impediments. The Argos telemetry system has been extensively used to remotely track marine animals, however location estimates are characterised by substantial spatial error. State-space models (SSM constitute a robust statistical approach to refine Argos tracking data by accounting for observation errors and stochasticity in animal movement. Despite their wide use in ecology, few studies have thoroughly quantified the error associated with SSM predicted locations and no research has assessed their validity for describing animal movement behaviour. We compared home ranges and migratory pathways of seven hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata estimated from (a highly accurate Fastloc GPS data and (b locations computed using common Argos data analytical approaches. Argos 68(th percentile error was 4 km for LC ≤ 0. Argos error structure was highly longitudinally skewed and was, for all LC, adequately modelled by a Student's t distribution. Both habitat use and migration routes were best recreated using SSM locations post-processed by re-adding good Argos positions (LC 1, 2 and 3 and filtering terrestrial points (mean distance to migratory tracks ± SD = 2.2 ± 2.4 km; mean home range overlap and error ratio = 92.2% and 285.6 respectively. This parsimonious and objective statistical procedure however still markedly overestimated true home range sizes, especially for animals exhibiting restricted movements. Post-processing SSM locations nonetheless constitutes the best analytical technique for remotely sensed Argos tracking data and we therefore recommend using this approach to rework historical Argos datasets for better estimation of animal spatial utilisation for research and evidence-based conservation purposes.

  13. A pneumatic power harvesting ankle-foot orthosis to prevent foot-drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Robin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A self-contained, self-controlled, pneumatic power harvesting ankle-foot orthosis (PhAFO to manage foot-drop was developed and tested. Foot-drop is due to a disruption of the motor control pathway and may occur in numerous pathologies such as stroke, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, and cerebral palsy. The objectives for the prototype PhAFO are to provide toe clearance during swing, permit free ankle motion during stance, and harvest the needed power with an underfoot bellow pump pressurized during the stance phase of walking. Methods The PhAFO was constructed from a two-part (tibia and foot carbon composite structure with an articulating ankle joint. Ankle motion control was accomplished through a cam-follower locking mechanism actuated via a pneumatic circuit connected to the bellow pump and embedded in the foam sole. Biomechanical performance of the prototype orthosis was assessed during multiple trials of treadmill walking of an able-bodied control subject (n = 1. Motion capture and pressure measurements were used to investigate the effect of the PhAFO on lower limb joint behavior and the capacity of the bellow pump to repeatedly generate the required pneumatic pressure for toe clearance. Results Toe clearance during swing was successfully achieved during all trials; average clearance 44 ± 5 mm. Free ankle motion was observed during stance and plantarflexion was blocked during swing. In addition, the bellow component repeatedly generated an average of 169 kPa per step of pressure during ten minutes of walking. Conclusion This study demonstrated that fluid power could be harvested with a pneumatic circuit built into an AFO, and used to operate an actuated cam-lock mechanism that controls ankle-foot motion at specific periods of the gait cycle.

  14. Sea surface freshening inferred from SMOS and ARGO salinity: impact of rain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Boutin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The sea surface salinity (SSS measured from space by the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS mission has recently been revisited by the European Space Agency first campaign reprocessing. We show that, with respect to the previous version, biases close to land and ice greatly decrease. The accuracy of SMOS SSS averaged over 10 days, 100 × 100 km2 in the open ocean and estimated by comparison to ARGO (Array for Real-Time Geostrophic Oceanography SSS is on the order of 0.3–0.4 in tropical and subtropical regions and 0.5 in a cold region. The averaged negative SSS bias (−0.1 observed in the tropical Pacific Ocean between 5° N and 15° N, relatively to other regions, is suppressed when SMOS observations concomitant with rain events, as detected from SSM/Is (Special Sensor Microwave Imager rain rates, are removed from the SMOS–ARGO comparisons. The SMOS freshening is linearly correlated to SSM/Is rain rate with a slope estimated to −0.14 mm−1 h, after correction for rain atmospheric contribution. This tendency is the signature of the temporal SSS variability between the time of SMOS and ARGO measurements linked to rain variability and of the vertical salinity stratification between the first centimeter of the sea surface layer sampled by SMOS and the 5 m depth sampled by ARGO. However, given that the whole set of collocations includes situations with ARGO measurements concomitant with rain events collocated with SMOS measurements under no rain, the mean −0.1 bias and the negative skewness of the statistical distribution of SMOS minus ARGO SSS difference are very likely the mean signature of the vertical salinity stratification. In the future, the analysis of ongoing in situ salinity measurements in the top 50 cm of the sea surface and of Aquarius satellite SSS are expected to provide complementary information about the sea surface salinity stratification.

  15. CFD for hypersonic propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povinelli, Louis A.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is given of research activity on the application of computational fluid dynamics (CDF) for hypersonic propulsion systems. After the initial consideration of the highly integrated nature of air-breathing hypersonic engines and airframe, attention is directed toward computations carried out for the components of the engine. A generic inlet configuration is considered in order to demonstrate the highly three dimensional viscous flow behavior occurring within rectangular inlets. Reacting flow computations for simple jet injection as well as for more complex combustion chambers are then discussed in order to show the capability of viscous finite rate chemical reaction computer simulations. Finally, the nozzle flow fields are demonstrated, showing the existence of complex shear layers and shock structure in the exhaust plume. The general issues associated with code validation as well as the specific issue associated with the use of CFD for design are discussed. A prognosis for the success of CFD in the design of future propulsion systems is offered.

  16. Hydrodynamics of Peristaltic Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanassiadis, Athanasios; Hart, Douglas

    2014-11-01

    A curious class of animals called salps live in marine environments and self-propel by ejecting vortex rings much like jellyfish and squid. However, unlike other jetting creatures that siphon and eject water from one side of their body, salps produce vortex rings by pumping water through siphons on opposite ends of their hollow cylindrical bodies. In the simplest cases, it seems like some species of salp can successfully move by contracting just two siphons connected by an elastic body. When thought of as a chain of timed contractions, salp propulsion is reminiscent of peristaltic pumping applied to marine locomotion. Inspired by salps, we investigate the hydrodynamics of peristaltic propulsion, focusing on the scaling relationships that determine flow rate, thrust production, and energy usage in a model system. We discuss possible actuation methods for a model peristaltic vehicle, considering both the material and geometrical requirements for such a system.

  17. Why Density Dependent Propulsion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2004 Khoury and Weltman produced a density dependent cosmology theory they call the Chameleon, as at its nature, it is hidden within known physics. The Chameleon theory has implications to dark matter/energy with universe acceleration properties, which implies a new force mechanism with ties to the far and local density environment. In this paper, the Chameleon Density Model is discussed in terms of propulsion toward new propellant-less engineering methods.

  18. Propulsion for CubeSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmer, Kristina

    2017-05-01

    At present, very few CubeSats have flown in space featuring propulsion systems. Of those that have, the literature is scattered, published in a variety of formats (conference proceedings, contractor websites, technical notes, and journal articles), and often not available for public release. This paper seeks to collect the relevant publically releasable information in one location. To date, only two missions have featured propulsion systems as part of the technology demonstration. The IMPACT mission from the Aerospace Corporation launched several electrospray thrusters from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and BricSAT-P from the United States Naval Academy had four micro-Cathode Arc Thrusters from George Washington University. Other than these two missions, propulsion on CubeSats has been used only for attitude control and reaction wheel desaturation via cold gas propulsion systems. As the desired capability of CubeSats increases, and more complex missions are planned, propulsion is required to accomplish the science and engineering objectives. This survey includes propulsion systems that have been designed specifically for the CubeSat platform and systems that fit within CubeSat constraints but were developed for other platforms. Throughout the survey, discussion of flight heritage and results of the mission are included where publicly released information and data have been made available. Major categories of propulsion systems that are in this survey are solar sails, cold gas propulsion, electric propulsion, and chemical propulsion systems. Only systems that have been tested in a laboratory or with some flight history are included.

  19. Recent Advances in Airframe-Propulsion Concepts with Distributed Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Isikveren , A.T.; Seitz , A.; Bijewitz , J.; Hornung , M.; Mirzoyan , A.; Isyanov , A.; Godard , J.L.; Stückl , S.; Van Toor , J.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; This paper discusses design and integration associated with distributed propulsion as a means of providing motive power for future aircraft concepts. The technical work reflects activities performed within a European Commission funded Framework 7 project entitled Distributed Propulsion and Ultra-high By-Pass Rotor Study at Aircraft Level, or, DisPURSAL. In this instance, the approach of distributed propulsion includes one unique solution that integrates the fuselage wi...

  20. Overexpression of ARGOS Genes Modifies Plant Sensitivity to Ethylene, Leading to Improved Drought Tolerance in Both Arabidopsis and Maize[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinrui; Habben, Jeffrey E.; Archibald, Rayeann L.; Drummond, Bruce J.; Chamberlin, Mark A.; Williams, Robert W.; Lafitte, H. Renee; Weers, Ben P.

    2015-01-01

    Lack of sufficient water is a major limiting factor to crop production worldwide, and the development of drought-tolerant germplasm is needed to improve crop productivity. The phytohormone ethylene modulates plant growth and development as well as plant response to abiotic stress. Recent research has shown that modifying ethylene biosynthesis and signaling can enhance plant drought tolerance. Here, we report novel negative regulators of ethylene signal transduction in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and maize (Zea mays). These regulators are encoded by the ARGOS gene family. In Arabidopsis, overexpression of maize ARGOS1 (ZmARGOS1), ZmARGOS8, Arabidopsis ARGOS homolog ORGAN SIZE RELATED1 (AtOSR1), and AtOSR2 reduced plant sensitivity to ethylene, leading to enhanced drought tolerance. RNA profiling and genetic analysis suggested that the ZmARGOS1 transgene acts between an ethylene receptor and CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1 in the ethylene signaling pathway, affecting ethylene perception or the early stages of ethylene signaling. Overexpressed ZmARGOS1 is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi membrane, where the ethylene receptors and the ethylene signaling protein ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE2 and REVERSION-TO-ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY1 reside. In transgenic maize plants, overexpression of ARGOS genes also reduces ethylene sensitivity. Moreover, field testing showed that UBIQUITIN1:ZmARGOS8 maize events had a greater grain yield than nontransgenic controls under both drought stress and well-watered conditions. PMID:26220950

  1. Effect of Posture Training with Weighted Kypho-Orthosis (WKO) on Improving Balance in Women with Osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    Raeissadat, Seyed Ahmad; Sedighipour, Leyla; Pournajaf, Safura; Vahab Kashani, Reza; Sadeghi, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the effect of weighted kypho-orthosis (WKO) on improving balance in women with osteoporosis. In this nonrandomized controlled clinical trial, 31 patients with osteoporosis were included. The patients were assigned to two groups: (1) control group who received 4-week home-based daily exercise program including weight bearing, back strengthening, and balance exercises and (2) intervention group (WKO) who performed aforementioned exercises and wore WKO for one hour twice...

  2. Preliminary results of the Moon shadow using ARGO-YBJ detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yungang [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences 19B Yuquan Lu, Shijingshan, Beijing, 100049 (China)], E-mail: wangyg@mail.ihep.ac.cn

    2008-01-15

    ARGO-YBJ is a 'full coverage' air shower detector consisting of Resistive Plate Chambers(RPCs) at the Yangbajing High Altitude Cosmic Ray Laboratory (Tibet, China) at 4300 m a.s.l. (lat=30.11{sup o} N, long=90.53{sup o} E). Using the data collected with a carpet of RPCs (1900 m{sup 2}, about 1/3 of the whole ARGO-YBJ detector), the cosmic ray shadowing effect due to the Moon was studied. The 50% angular resolution is found to be {approx}1.2{sup o} with the Chess-board method and the Moon shadow with a significance of 4.9 {sigma} is found displaced by 0.7{sup o} westward and 0.5{sup o} northward with respect to the expected position by the equi-zenith angle Method.

  3. The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). Nuclear propulsion can be affordable and viable compared to other propulsion systems and must overcome a biased public fear due to hyper-environmentalism and a false perception of radiation and explosion risk.

  4. Development of an orthosis for walking assistance using pneumatic artificial muscle: a quantitative assessment of the effect of assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, T; Takanaka, K; Nakamura, T; Osumi, H

    2013-06-01

    In recent years, there is an increase in the number of people that require support during walking as a result of a decrease in the leg muscle strength accompanying aging. An important index for evaluating walking ability is step length. A key cause for a decrease in step length is the loss of muscle strength in the legs. Many researchers have designed and developed orthoses for walking assistance. In this study, we advanced the design of an orthosis for walking assistance that assists the forward swing of the leg to increase step length. We employed a pneumatic artificial muscle as the actuator so that flexible assistance with low rigidity can be achieved. To evaluate the performance of the system, we measured the effect of assistance quantitatively. In this study, we constructed a prototype of the orthosis and measure EMG and step length on fitting it to a healthy subject so as to determine the effect of assistance, noting the increase in the obtained step length. Although there was an increase in EMG stemming from the need to maintain body balance during the stance phase, we observed that the EMG of the sartorius muscle, which helps swing the leg forward, decreased, and the strength of the semitendinosus muscle, which restrains the leg against over-assistance, did not increase but decreased. Our experiments showed that the assistance force provided by the developed orthosis is not adequate for the intended task, and the development of a mechanism that provides appropriate assistance is required in the future.

  5. Characteristics of the muscle activities of the elderly for various pressures in the pneumatic actuator of lower limb orthosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyong; Yu, Chang-Ho; Kwon, Tae-Kyu; Hong, Chul-Un; Kim, Nam-Gyun

    2005-12-01

    There developed a lower limb orthosis with a pneumatic rubber actuator, which can assist and improve the muscular activities in the lower limb of the elderly. For this purpose, the characteristics of the lower limbs muscle activities for various pressures in the pneumatic actuator for the lower limb orthosis was investigated. To find out the characteristics of the muscle activities for various pneumatic pressures, it analyzed the flexing and extending movement of the knees, and measured the lower limbs muscular power. The subjects wearing the lower limbs orthosis were instructed to perform flexing and extending movement of the knees. The variation in the air pressure of the pneumatic actuator was varies from one kgf/cm2 to four kgf/cm2. The muscular power was measured by monitoring electromyogram using MP100 (BIOPAC Systems, Inc.) and detailed three-dimensional motions of the lower limbs were collected by APAS 3D Motion Analysis system. Through this study, it expected to find the most suitable air pressure for the improvement of the muscular power of the aged.

  6. Gait comparison of subjects with hemiplegia walking unbraced, with ankle-foot orthosis, and with Air-Stirrup brace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdett, R G; Borello-France, D; Blatchly, C; Potter, C

    1988-08-01

    The effects of the Air-Stirrup (AS) standard ankle brace on the gait of 19 subjects with hemiplegia resulting from a cerebrovascular accident who exhibited excessive subtalar joint motion were studied. Videotaped trials and footprint analyses were used to measure subjects' hip, knee, and ankle sagittal plane angles; inversion and eversion of the calcaneus; and time-distance gait characteristics. A one-way analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to compare the gait of 19 subjects with the AS brace and unbraced and 11 subjects with the AS brace, unbraced, and with an ankle-foot orthosis. The AS brace was associated with more calcaneal stability during standing than the unbraced condition. The ankle-foot orthosis was associated with less plantar flexion at foot-strike than either the AS brace or unbraced condition. Both the AS brace and the ankle-foot orthosis were associated with less mid-swing plantar flexion and increased step length on the paretic side compared with no brace. These results support the effectiveness of the AS brace in controlling inversion and eversion instability in patients with hemiplegia.

  7. On the road to a neuroprosthetic hand: a novel hand grasp orthosis based on functional electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeb, Robert; Gubler, Miguel; Tavella, Michele; Miller, Heather; Del Millan, Jose R

    2010-01-01

    To patients who have lost the functionality of their hands as a result of a severe spinal cord injury or brain stroke, the development of new techniques for grasping is indispensable for reintegration and independency in daily life. Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) of residual muscles can reproduce the most dominant grasping tasks and can be initialized by brain signals. However, due to the very complex hand anatomy and current limitations in FES-technology with surface electrodes, these grasp patterns cannot be smoothly executed. In this paper, we present an adaptable passive hand orthosis which is capable of producing natural and smooth movements when coupled with FES. It evenly synchronizes the grasping movements and applied forces on all fingers, allowing for naturalistic gestures and functional grasps of everyday objects. The orthosis is also equipped with a lock, which allows it to remain in the desired position without the need for long-term stimulation. Furthermore, we quantify improvements offered by the orthosis compare them with natural grasps on healthy subjects.

  8. Argo: an integrative, interactive, text mining-based workbench supporting curation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rak, Rafal; Rowley, Andrew; Black, William; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2012-01-01

    Curation of biomedical literature is often supported by the automatic analysis of textual content that generally involves a sequence of individual processing components. Text mining (TM) has been used to enhance the process of manual biocuration, but has been focused on specific databases and tasks rather than an environment integrating TM tools into the curation pipeline, catering for a variety of tasks, types of information and applications. Processing components usually come from different sources and often lack interoperability. The well established Unstructured Information Management Architecture is a framework that addresses interoperability by defining common data structures and interfaces. However, most of the efforts are targeted towards software developers and are not suitable for curators, or are otherwise inconvenient to use on a higher level of abstraction. To overcome these issues we introduce Argo, an interoperable, integrative, interactive and collaborative system for text analysis with a convenient graphic user interface to ease the development of processing workflows and boost productivity in labour-intensive manual curation. Robust, scalable text analytics follow a modular approach, adopting component modules for distinct levels of text analysis. The user interface is available entirely through a web browser that saves the user from going through often complicated and platform-dependent installation procedures. Argo comes with a predefined set of processing components commonly used in text analysis, while giving the users the ability to deposit their own components. The system accommodates various areas and levels of user expertise, from TM and computational linguistics to ontology-based curation. One of the key functionalities of Argo is its ability to seamlessly incorporate user-interactive components, such as manual annotation editors, into otherwise completely automatic pipelines. As a use case, we demonstrate the functionality of an in

  9. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe & Latin America, Argentina: Specifications of ARGOS 380 MW Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-18

    and economy in operation. ENACE is an acronym for Empresa Nuclear Argentina de Centrales Electricas, or Argentine Nuclear Power Plant Corporation...products. The fuel transport system can be used during full reactor power operation to remove specially de - signed fuel assemblies containing rods for...SPECIFICATIONS OF ARGOS 380 MW REACTOR [Buenos Aires COMISION NACIONAL DE ENERGIA ATOMICA: INFORME in English 1987 pp 1-93] CONTENTS Argentine Offer of

  10. COMPARISON BETWEEN PHYSIOLOGICAL COST INDEX IN HEALTHY NORMAL CHILDREN AS AGAINST AMBULATORY SPASTIC DIPLEGIC CEREBRAL PALSY (WITH AND WITHOUT ORTHOSIS IN THE AGE GROUP 6 TO 18 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swatia Bhise

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Efficacy of rehabilitation program for subjects with orthosis with objective measurement. The study aiming to objectively compare the PCI and walking speed of normal children with ambulatory spastic diaplegic. Also we aimed to analyze whether BMIhad impact on energy cost. Methods: 41 normal children and 41 community walking spastic diaplegic aged between 6 to 18 yrs. were assessed to compare the PCI. Speed of walking and heart rate were checked constantlyboth barefoot and in shoes in normal children and with and without conventional AFO in children with spastic diaplegic at their chosen velocities over four consecutive lengths of a 12.5m walkway i.e. total 50m.,Pre and Post readings are taken. Heart rate is affected by speed; PCI with speed of walking and heart rate was calculated for each child. Results: The mean PCI in shoes and barefoot was same in normal children i.e. 0.05 ±0.039beats/meter. The PCI for children with pathological gait i.e. spastic diaplegic without orthosis and with orthosis is 0.199 ±0.176 and 0.104± 0.093beats/meter appreciably greater than that for normal children(p less than 0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that walking with orthosis in spastic diplegic CP children showed higher costs of energy and slower walking speed compared normal children with age matched. The PCI of walking, with orthosis in children with spastic Diplegic cerebral palsy is less as compared to without orthosis i.e. gait is more energy efficient with orthosis. BMI doesn’t show any correlation with PCI further study may require.

  11. Search for Gamma-Ray Bursts with the ARGO-YBJ Detector in Shower Mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartoli, B.; Catalanotti, S.; Piazzoli, B. D’Ettorre; Girolamo, T. Di [Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Universitá di Napoli “Federico II,” Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant’Angelo, via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Bernardini, P.; D’Amone, A.; Mitri, I. De [Dipartimento Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi,” Universitá del Salento, via per Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Chen, S. Z.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Gao, W.; Gou, Q. B. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 918, 100049 Beijing (China); Chen, T. L.; Danzengluobu [Tibet University, 850000 Lhasa, Xizang (China); Cui, S. W. [Hebei Normal University, 050024 Shijiazhuang Hebei (China); Dai, B. Z. [Yunnan University, 2 North Cuihu Road, 650091 Kunming, Yunnan (China); Sciascio, G. Di [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Feng, C. F. [Shandong University, 250100 Jinan, Shandong (China); Feng, Zhenyong, E-mail: chensz@ihep.ac.cn, E-mail: zhouxx@swjtu.edu.cn [Southwest Jiaotong University, 610031 Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Collaboration: ARGO-YBJ Collaboration; and others

    2017-06-10

    The ARGO-YBJ detector, located at the Yangbajing Cosmic Ray Laboratory (4300 m a. s. l., Tibet, China), was a “full coverage” (central carpet with an active area of ∼93%) air shower array dedicated to gamma-ray astronomy and cosmic-ray studies. The wide field of view (∼2 sr) and high duty cycle (>86%), made ARGO-YBJ suitable to search for short and unexpected gamma-ray emissions like gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Between 2007 November 6 and 2013 February 7, 156 satellite-triggered GRBs (24 of them with known redshift) occurred within the ARGO-YBJ field of view (zenith angle θ ≤ 45°). A search for possible emission associated with these GRBs has been made in the two energy ranges 10–100 GeV and 10–1000 GeV. No significant excess has been found in time coincidence with the satellite detections nor in a set of different time windows inside the interval of one hour after the bursts. Taking into account the EBL absorption, upper limits to the energy fluence at a 99% confidence level have been evaluated, with values ranging from ∼10{sup −5} erg cm{sup −2} to ∼10{sup −1} erg cm{sup −2}. The Fermi -GBM burst GRB 090902B, with a high-energy photon of 33.4 GeV detected by Fermi -LAT, is discussed in detail.

  12. Argo_CUDA: Exhaustive GPU based approach for motif discovery in large DNA datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevsky, Oleg V; Bocharnikov, Andrey V; Kolchanov, Nikolay A

    2018-02-01

    The development of chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) technology has revolutionized the genetic analysis of the basic mechanisms underlying transcription regulation and led to accumulation of information about a huge amount of DNA sequences. There are a lot of web services which are currently available for de novo motif discovery in datasets containing information about DNA/protein binding. An enormous motif diversity makes their finding challenging. In order to avoid the difficulties, researchers use different stochastic approaches. Unfortunately, the efficiency of the motif discovery programs dramatically declines with the query set size increase. This leads to the fact that only a fraction of top "peak" ChIP-Seq segments can be analyzed or the area of analysis should be narrowed. Thus, the motif discovery in massive datasets remains a challenging issue. Argo_Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) web service is designed to process the massive DNA data. It is a program for the detection of degenerate oligonucleotide motifs of fixed length written in 15-letter IUPAC code. Argo_CUDA is a full-exhaustive approach based on the high-performance GPU technologies. Compared with the existing motif discovery web services, Argo_CUDA shows good prediction quality on simulated sets. The analysis of ChIP-Seq sequences revealed the motifs which correspond to known transcription factor binding sites.

  13. The ARGO Project: assessing NA-TECH risks on off-shore oil platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Paolo; Basco, Anna; Di Ruocco, Angela; Esposito, Simona; Fusco, Giannetta; Garcia-Aristizabal, Alexander; Mercogliano, Paola; Salzano, Ernesto; Solaro, Giuseppe; Teofilo, Gianvito; Scandone, Paolo; Gasparini, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    ARGO (Analysis of natural and anthropogenic risks on off-shore oil platforms) is a 2 years project, funded by the DGS-UNMIG (Directorate General for Safety of Mining and Energy Activities - National Mining Office for Hydrocarbons and Georesources) of Italian Ministry of Economic Development. The project, coordinated by AMRA (Center for the Analysis and Monitoring of Environmental Risk), aims at providing technical support for the analysis of natural and anthropogenic risks on offshore oil platforms. In order to achieve this challenging objective, ARGO brings together climate experts, risk management experts, seismologists, geologists, chemical engineers, earth and coastal observation experts. ARGO has developed methodologies for the probabilistic analysis of industrial accidents triggered by natural events (NA-TECH) on offshore oil platforms in the Italian seas, including extreme events related to climate changes. Furthermore the environmental effect of offshore activities has been investigated, including: changes on seismicity and on the evolution of coastal areas close to offshore platforms. Then a probabilistic multi-risk framework has been developed for the analysis of NA-TECH events on offshore installations for hydrocarbon extraction.

  14. Controller Design and Experiment for Tracking Mount of Movable SLR, ARGO-M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol Hoon Park

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Controller design procedure for prototype tracking mount of Movable SLR (Satellite Laser Ranging, ARGO-M is presented. Tracking mount of ARGO-M is altitude-azimuth type and it has two axes of elevation and azimuth to control its position. Controller consists of velocity and acceleration feed-forward controller, position controller at outer loop, velocity controller at inner loop. There are two kinds of position control modes. One is the pointing mode to move from one position to the other position as fast as possible and the other one is tracking mode to follow SLR trajectory as precise as possible. Because the requirement of tracking accuracy is less than 5 arcsec and it is very tight error budget, a sophisticated controller needs to be prepared to meet the accuracy. Especially, ARGO-M is using the cross-roller bearing at each axis to increase the mechanical accuracy, which requires add-on controller DOB (Disturbance observer to suppress friction load and low frequency disturbances. The pointing and tracking performance of the designed controller is simulated and visualized using MATLAB/ Simulink and SimMechanics and the experimental results using test are presented as well.

  15. Impact study of the Argo array definition in the Mediterranean Sea based on satellite altimetry gridded data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Roman, Antonio; Ruiz, Simón; Pascual, Ananda; Guinehut, Stéphanie; Mourre, Baptiste

    2016-04-01

    The existing Argo network provides essential data in near real time to constrain monitoring and forecasting centers and strongly complements the observations of the ocean surface from space. The comparison of Sea Level Anomalies (SLA) provided by satellite altimeters with in-situ Dynamic Heights Anomalies (DHA) derived from the temperature and salinity profiles of Argo floats contribute to better characterize the error budget associated with the altimeter observations. In this work, performed in the frame of the E-AIMS FP7 European Project, we focus on the Argo observing system in the Mediterranean Sea and its impact on SLA fields provided by satellite altimetry measurements in the basin. Namely, we focus on the sensitivity of specific SLA gridded merged products provided by AVISO in the Mediterranean to the reference depth (400 or 900 dbar) selected in the computation of the Argo Dynamic Height (DH) as an integration of the Argo T/S profiles through the water column. This reference depth will have impact on the number of valid Argo profiles and therefore on their temporal sampling and the coverage by the network used to compare with altimeter data. To compare both datasets, altimeter grids and synthetic climatologies used to compute DHA were spatially and temporally interpolated at the position and time of each in-situ Argo profile by a mapping method based on an optimal interpolation scheme. The analysis was conducted in the entire Mediterranean Sea and different sub-regions of the basin. The second part of this work is devoted to investigate which configuration in terms of spatial sampling of the Argo array in the Mediterranean will properly reproduce the mesoscale dynamics in this basin, which is comprehensively captured by new standards of specific altimeter products for this region. To do that, several Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) were conducted assuming that altimetry data computed from AVISO specific reanalysis gridded merged product for

  16. Electric Propulsion Research Building (EPRB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electric Propulsion Research Building (EPRB) capability centers on its suite of vacuum chambers, which are configured to meet the unique requirements related to...

  17. Reactors for nuclear electric propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J.A. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Propulsion is the key to space exploitation and power is the key to propulsion. This paper examines the role of nuclear fission reactors as the primary power source for high specific impulse electric propulsion systems for space missions of the 1980s and 1990s. Particular mission applications include transfer to and a reusable orbital transfer vehicle from low-Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit, outer planet exploration and reconnaissance missions, and as a versatile space tug supporting lunar resource development. Nuclear electric propulsion is examined as an indispensable component in space activities of the next two decades.

  18. Reactors for nuclear electric propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J.A. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Propulsion is the key to space exploitation and power is the key to propulsion. This paper examines the role of nuclear fission reactors as the primary power source for high specific impulse electric propulsion systems for space missions of the 1980s and 1990s. Particular mission applications include transfer to and a reusable orbital transfer vehicle from low-Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit, outer planet exploration and reconnaissance missions, and as a versatile space tug supporting lunar resource development. Nuclear electric propulsion is examined as an indispensable component in space activities of the next two decades

  19. Nuclear rocket propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.S.; Miller, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    NASA has initiated planning for a technology development project for nuclear rocket propulsion systems for Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) human and robotic missions to the Moon and to Mars. An Interagency project is underway that includes the Department of Energy National Laboratories for nuclear technology development. This paper summarizes the activities of the project planning team in FY 1990 and FY 1991, discusses the progress to date, and reviews the project plan. Critical technology issues have been identified and include: nuclear fuel temperature, life, and reliability; nuclear system ground test; safety; autonomous system operation and health monitoring; minimum mass and high specific impulse

  20. Nuclear propulsion systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960's and early 1970's was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts

  1. Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Grady, Joseph E.; Carter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of ongoing activities on additive manufacturing of aerospace propulsion components, which included rocket propulsion and gas turbine engines. Future opportunities on additive manufacturing of hybrid electric propulsion components will be discussed.

  2. Exotic power and propulsion concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forward, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    The status of some exotic physical phenomena and unconventional spacecraft concepts that might produce breakthroughs in power and propulsion in the 21st Century are reviewed. The subjects covered include: electric, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, antimatter, high energy density materials, metallic hydrogen, laser thermal, solar thermal, solar sail, magnetic sail, and tether propulsion

  3. In-Space Propulsion (346620) Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Technologies include, but are not limited to, electric and advanced chemical propulsion, propellantless propulsion such as aerocapture and solar sails, sample return...

  4. Monofilament Vaporization Propulsion (MVP) System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Monofilament Vaporization Propulsion (MVP) is a new propulsion technology targeted at secondary payload applications. It does not compromise on performance while...

  5. Nuclear-microwave-electric propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordley, G.D.; Brown, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    Electric propulsion can move more mass through space than chemical propulsion by virtue of the higher exhaust velocities achieved by electric propulsion devices. This performance is achieved at the expense of very heavy power sources or very long trip times, which in turn create technical and economic penalties of varying severity. These penalties include: higher operations costs, delayed availability of the payload, and increased exposure to Van Allen Belt radiation. It is proposed to reduce these penalties by physically separating the power source from the propulsion and use microwave energy beaming technology, recently explored and partially developed/tested for Solar Power Satellite concept studies, as an extension cord. This paper summarizes the state of the art of the technology needed for space based beam microwave power cost/performance trades involved with the use beamed microwave/electric propulsion for some typical orbit transfer missions and offers some suggestions for additional work

  6. Effects of joint alignment and type on mechanical properties of thermoplastic articulated ankle-foot orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fan; Carlton, William; Kapp, Susan

    2011-06-01

    Articulated or hinged ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) allow more range of motion. However, quantitative investigation on articulated AFO is still sparse. The objective of the study was to quantitatively investigate effects of alignment and joint types on mechanical properties of the thermoplastic articulated AFO. Tamarack dorsiflexion assist flexure joints with three durometers (75, 85 and 95) and free motion joint were tested. The AFO joint was aligned with the center of the motor shaft (surrogate ankle joint), 10 mm superior, inferior, anterior and posterior with respect to the motor shaft center. The AFO was passively moved from 20° plantar flexion to 15° dorsiflexion at a speed of 10°/s using a motorized device. Mechanical properties including index of hysteresis, passive resistance torque and quasi-static stiffness (at neutral, 5°, 10° and 15° in plantar flexion) were quantified. Significant effects of joint types and joint alignment on the mechanical properties of an articulated thermoplastic AFO were revealed. Specifically, center alignment showed minimum resistance and stiffness while anterior and posterior alignment showed significantly higher resistance and stiffness. The dorsiflexion assist torques at neutral position ranged from 0.69 ± 0.09 to 1.88 ± 0.10 Nm. Anterior and posterior alignment should be avoided as much as possible. The current study suggested that anterior and posterior alignment be avoided as much as possible in clinical practice due to potential skin irritation and increase in stress around the ankle joint.

  7. Robotic gait trainer in water: development of an underwater gait-training orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Tasuku; Hiramatsu, Kazuaki; Yamamoto, Shin-Ichiro; Nakazawa, Kimitaka; Akai, Masami

    2008-01-01

    To develop a robotic gait trainer that can be used in water (RGTW) and achieve repetitive physiological gait patterns to improve the movement dysfunctions. The RGTW is a hip-knee-ankle-foot orthosis with pneumatic actuators; the control software was developed on the basis of the angular motions of the hip and knee joint of a healthy subject as he walked in water. Three-dimensional motions and electromyographic (EMG) activities were recorded in nine healthy subjects to evaluate the efficacy of using the RGTW while walking on a treadmill in water. The device could preserve the angular displacement patterns of the hip and knee and foot trajectories under all experimental conditions. The tibialis anterior EMG activities in the late swing phase and the biceps femoris throughout the stance phase were reduced whose joint torques were assisted by the RGTW while walking on a treadmill in water. Using the RGTW could expect not only the effect of the hydrotherapy but also the standard treadmill gait training, in particular, and may be particularly effective for treating individuals with hip joint movement dysfunction.

  8. Ankle-Foot Orthosis Made by 3D Printing Technique and Automated Design Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Ho Cha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We described 3D printing technique and automated design software and clinical results after the application of this AFO to a patient with a foot drop. After acquiring a 3D modelling file of a patient’s lower leg with peroneal neuropathy by a 3D scanner, we loaded this file on the automated orthosis software and created the “STL” file. The designed AFO was printed using a fused filament fabrication type 3D printer, and a mechanical stress test was performed. The patient alternated between the 3D-printed and conventional AFOs for 2 months. There was no crack or damage, and the shape and stiffness of the AFO did not change after the durability test. The gait speed increased after wearing the conventional AFO (56.5 cm/sec and 3D-printed AFO (56.5 cm/sec compared to that without an AFO (42.2 cm/sec. The patient was more satisfied with the 3D-printed AFO than the conventional AFO in terms of the weight and ease of use. The 3D-printed AFO exhibited similar functionality as the conventional AFO and considerably satisfied the patient in terms of the weight and ease of use. We suggest the possibility of the individualized AFO with 3D printing techniques and automated design software.

  9. Development of an assistive motorized hip orthosis: kinematics analysis and mechanical design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Jeremy; Bouri, Mohamed; Ortlieb, Amalric; Bleuler, Hannes; Clavel, Reymond

    2013-06-01

    With the increase of life expectancy, a higher number of elderly need assistance to maintain their mobility and their independance. The hip joint is crucial for walking and is problematic for a large number of aged people. In this paper we present a novel design of a motorized hip orthosis to assist elderly people while walking, stair climbing and during the sit-to-stand transistions. The kinematics was developed based on biomechanics considerations. To be able to achieve a large assistance rate, velocity and torques of the hip joint were studied from the literature. In order to fit with these requirements, an amplification mechanism inspired by excavators was developed and implemented. Comfort considerations were also taken into account and a custom interface was designed with the collaboration of a professional orthopaedic technician. First tests with the prototype showed that the workspace is sufficient for walking, for stair climbing as well as for sit-to-stand transitions. The assistance rate can go up to 30% for a 70 kg subject during walking at a cadence of 100 steps/min. The comfort is guaranteed despite the important weight (4.3 kg) of this first prototype.

  10. Effect of ankle-foot orthosis on postural control after stroke: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra Padilla, M; Molina Rueda, F; Alguacil Diego, I M

    2014-09-01

    Stroke is currently the main cause of permanent disability in adults. The impairments are a combination of sensory, motor, cognitive and emotional changes that result in restrictions on the ability to perform basic activities of daily living (BADL). Postural control is affected and causes problems with static and dynamic balance, thus increasing the risk of falls and secondary injuries. The purpose of this review was to compile the literature to date, and assess the impact of ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) on postural control and gait in individuals who have suffered a stroke. The review included randomised and controlled trials that examined the effects of AFO in stroke patients between 18 and 80 years old, with acute or chronic evolution. No search limits on the date of the studies were included, and the search lasted until April 2011. The following databases were used: Pubmed, Trip Database, Cochrane library, Embase, ISI Web Knowledge, CINHAL and PEDro. Intervention succeeded in improving some gait parameters, such as speed and cadence. However it is not clear if there was improvement in the symmetry, postural sway or balance. Because of the limitations of this systematic review, due to the clinical diversity of the studies and the methodological limitations, 0these results should be considered with caution. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Physical human-robot interaction of an active pelvis orthosis: toward ergonomic assessment of wearable robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Elia, Nicolò; Vanetti, Federica; Cempini, Marco; Pasquini, Guido; Parri, Andrea; Rabuffetti, Marco; Ferrarin, Maurizio; Molino Lova, Raffaele; Vitiello, Nicola

    2017-04-14

    In human-centered robotics, exoskeletons are becoming relevant for addressing needs in the healthcare and industrial domains. Owing to their close interaction with the user, the safety and ergonomics of these systems are critical design features that require systematic evaluation methodologies. Proper transfer of mechanical power requires optimal tuning of the kinematic coupling between the robotic and anatomical joint rotation axes. We present the methods and results of an experimental evaluation of the physical interaction with an active pelvis orthosis (APO). This device was designed to effectively assist in hip flexion-extension during locomotion with a minimum impact on the physiological human kinematics, owing to a set of passive degrees of freedom for self-alignment of the human and robotic hip flexion-extension axes. Five healthy volunteers walked on a treadmill at different speeds without and with the APO under different levels of assistance. The user-APO physical interaction was evaluated in terms of: (i) the deviation of human lower-limb joint kinematics when wearing the APO with respect to the physiological behavior (i.e., without the APO); (ii) relative displacements between the APO orthotic shells and the corresponding body segments; and (iii) the discrepancy between the kinematics of the APO and the wearer's hip joints. The results show: (i) negligible interference of the APO in human kinematics under all the experimented conditions; (ii) small (i.e., ergonomics assessment of wearable robots.

  12. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Cole, John; Lineberry, John; Chapman, Jim; Schmidt, Harold; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A fundamental obstacle to routine space access is the specific energy limitations associated with chemical fuels. In the case of vertical take-off, the high thrust needed for vertical liftoff and acceleration to orbit translates into power levels in the 10 GW range. Furthermore, useful payload mass fractions are possible only if the exhaust particle energy (i.e., exhaust velocity) is much greater than that available with traditional chemical propulsion. The electronic binding energy released by the best chemical reactions (e.g., LOX/LH2 for example, is less than 2 eV per product molecule (approx. 1.8 eV per H2O molecule), which translates into particle velocities less than 5 km/s. Useful payload fractions, however, will require exhaust velocities exceeding 15 km/s (i.e., particle energies greater than 20 eV). As an added challenge, the envisioned hypothetical RLV (reusable launch vehicle) should accomplish these amazing performance feats while providing relatively low acceleration levels to orbit (2-3g maximum). From such fundamental considerations, it is painfully obvious that planned and current RLV solutions based on chemical fuels alone represent only a temporary solution and can only result in minor gains, at best. What is truly needed is a revolutionary approach that will dramatically reduce the amount of fuel and size of the launch vehicle. This implies the need for new compact high-power energy sources as well as advanced accelerator technologies for increasing engine exhaust velocity. Electromagnetic acceleration techniques are of immense interest since they can be used to circumvent the thermal limits associated with conventional propulsion systems. This paper describes the Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment (MAPX) being undertaken at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). In this experiment, a 1-MW arc heater is being used as a feeder for a 1-MW magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accelerator. The purpose of the experiment is to demonstrate

  13. Enabling Electric Propulsion for Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginn, Starr Renee

    2015-01-01

    Team Seedling project AFRC and LaRC 31ft distributed electric propulsion wing on truck bed up 75 miles per hour for coefficient of lift validation. Convergent Aeronautic Solutions project, sub-project Convergent Electric Propulsion Technologies AFRC, LaRC and GRC, re-winging a 4 passenger Tecnam aircraft with a 31ft distributed electric propulsion wing. Advanced Air Transport Technologies (Fixed Wing), Hybrid Electric Research Theme, developing a series hybrid ironbird and flight sim to study integration and performance challenges in preparation for a 1-2 MW flight project.

  14. NASA's Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.; Mitchell, Doyce P.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Clement, Steven; Borowski, Stanley K.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation NTP system could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of a first generation NTP in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC- 3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NTP project could also help enable high performance fission power systems and Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  15. Mediterranean intermediate circulation estimated from Argo data in 2003–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Menna

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Data from 38 Argo profiling floats are used to describe the intermediate Mediterranean currents for the period October 2003–January 2010. These floats were programmed to execute 5-day cycles, to drift at a neutral parking depth of 350 m and measure temperature and salinity profiles from either 700 or 2000 m up to the surface. At the end of each cycle the floats remained at the sea surface for about 6 h, enough time to be localised and transmit the data to the Argos satellite system. The Argos positions were used to determine the float surface and intermediate displacements. At the surface, the float motion was approximated by a linear displacement and inertial motion. Intermediate velocities estimates were used to investigate the Mediterranean circulation at 350 m, to compute the pseudo-Eulerian statistics and to study the influence of bathymetry on the intermediate currents. Maximum speeds, as large as 33 cm/s, were found northeast of the Balearic Islands (western basin and in the Ierapetra eddy (eastern basin. Typical speeds in the main along-slope currents (Liguro-Provençal-Catalan, Algerian and Libyo-Egyptian Currents were ~20 cm/s. In the central and western part of Mediterranean basin, the pseudo-Eulerian statistics show typical intermediate circulation pathways which can be related to the motion of Levantine Intermediate Water. In general our results agree with the qualitative intermediate circulation schemes proposed in the literature, except in the southern Ionian where we found westward-flowing intermediate currents. Fluctuating currents appeared to be usually larger than the mean flow. Intermediate currents were found to be essentially parallel to the isobaths over most of the areas characterized by strong bathymetry gradients, in particular, in the vicinity of the continental slopes.

  16. The ARGOS laser system: green light for ground layer adaptive optics at the LBT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Walfried; Rabien, Sebastian; Gässler, Wolfgang; Esposito, Simone; Barl, Lothar; Borelli, Jose; Daysenroth, Matthias; Gemperlein, Hans; Kulas, Martin; Ziegleder, Julian

    2014-07-01

    We report on the development of the laser system of ARGOS, the multiple laser guide star adaptive optics system for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The system uses a total of six high powered, pulsed Nd:YAG lasers frequency-doubled to a wavelength of 532 nm to generate a set of three guide stars above each of the LBT telescopes. The position of each of the LGS constellations on sky as well as the relative position of the individual laser guide stars within this constellation is controlled by a set of steerable mirrors and a fast tip-tilt mirror within the laser system. The entire opto-mechanical system is housed in two hermetically sealed and thermally controlled enclosures on the SX and DX side of the LBT telescope. The laser beams are propagated through two refractive launch telescopes which focus the beams at an altitude of 12 km, creating a constellation of laser guide stars around a 4 arcminute diameter circle by means of Rayleigh scattering. In addition to the GLAO Rayleigh beacon system, ARGOS has also been designed for a possible future upgrade with a hybrid sodium laser - Rayleigh beacon combination, enabling diffraction limited operation. The ARGOS laser system was successfully installed at the LBT in April 2013. Extensive functional tests have been carried out and have verified the operation of the systems according to specifications. The alignment of the laser system with respect to the launch telescope was carried out during two more runs in June and October 2013, followed by the first propagation of laser light on sky in November 2013.

  17. Mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea as revealed by ARGO floats

    OpenAIRE

    Carton, X.; L'Hegaret, P.; Baraille, R.

    2012-01-01

    By analysing ARGO float data over the last four years, a few aspects of the mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea are described.

    The Red Sea Outflow Water (RSOW) is concentrated in the Southwestern Gulf of Aden, in particular when a cyclonic gyre predominates in this region. Salinities of 36.5 and temperatures of 16 °C are found in this area at depths between 600 and 1000 m. RSOW is more dilute in the eastern part of the Gulf, where intense and relative...

  18. Mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea as revealed by ARGO floats

    OpenAIRE

    X. Carton; P. L'Hegaret

    2011-01-01

    By analysing ARGO float data over the last four years, some aspects of the mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea are described.

    The Red Sea Water outflow is strong in the Southwestern Gulf of Aden, in particular when a cyclonic gyre predominates in this region. Salinities of 36.5 and temperatures of 16 °C are found there between 600 and 1000 m depths. The Red Sea Water is more dilute in the eastern part of the Gulf, and fragments of this ...

  19. Operational features, monitoring and control for the RPCs in the ARGO-YBJ experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camarri, P

    2013-01-01

    The ARGO-YBJ experiment is a full-coverage array of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) covering a surface of 74 × 78 m 2 surrounded by a guard ring. It has been running almost uninterruptedly with its complete layout since November 2007. However, the work to optimize the stability of the experimental setup is still going on. The recorded daily and seasonal changes of temperature and barometric pressure affect the behaviour of the detector, in particular the time resolution and somehow the efficiency. Here a procedure is described for the equalization and the stabilization of the detector response.

  20. Early warning for VHE gamma-ray flares with the ARGO-YBJ detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartoli, B. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Bernardini, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita del Salento, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Bi, X.J. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 918, 100049 Beijing (China); Bleve, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita del Salento, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Bolognino, I. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica dell' Universita di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Branchini, P.; Budano, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); Calabrese Melcarne, A.K. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - CNAF, Viale Berti-Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Camarri, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Cao, Z. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 918, 100049 Beijing (China); and others

    2011-12-11

    Detecting and monitoring emissions from flaring gamma-ray sources in the very-high-energy (VHE, > 100 GeV) band is a very important topic in gamma-ray astronomy. The ARGO-YBJ detector is characterized by a high duty cycle and a wide field of view. Therefore, it is particularly capable of detecting flares from extragalactic objects. Based on fast reconstruction and analysis, real-time monitoring of 33 selected VHE extragalactic sources is implemented. Flares exceeding a specific threshold are reported timely, hence enabling the follow-up observation of these objects using more sensitive detectors, such as Cherenkov telescopes.

  1. Development of Cubesat Propulsion Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of this IRAD will be to develop a propulsion system that can be cheaply and reliably used for NASA GSFC cubesat missions. Reliability will be...

  2. Propulsion Systems Laboratory, Bldg. 125

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) is NASAs only ground test facility capable of providing true altitude and flight speed simulation for testing full scale gas...

  3. Lunar Robotic Precursor Missions Using Electric Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Winski, Richard G.

    2006-01-01

    A trade study is carried out for the design of electric propulsion based lunar robotic precursor missions. The focus is to understand the relationships between payload mass delivered, electric propulsion power, and trip time. The results are compared against a baseline system using chemical propulsion with LOX/H2. The major differences between the chemical propulsion based and electric propulsion based systems are presented in terms of the payload mass and trip time. It is shown that solar e...

  4. Electric Motors for Vehicle Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This work is intended to contribute with knowledge to the area of electic motorsfor propulsion in the vehicle industry. This is done by first studying the differentelectric motors available, the motors suitable for vehicle propulsion are then dividedinto four different types to be studied separately. These four types are thedirect current, induction, permanent magnet and switched reluctance motors. Thedesign and construction are then studied to understand how the different typesdiffer from ea...

  5. A new perspective on origin of the East Sea Intermediate Water: Observations of Argo floats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, JongJin; Lim, Byunghwan

    2018-01-01

    The East Sea Intermediate Water (ESIW), defined as the salinity minimum in the East Sea (hereafter ES) (Sea of Japan), is examined with respect to its overall characteristics and its low salinity origin using historical Argo float data from 1999 to 2015. Our findings suggest that the ESIW is formed in the western Japan Basin (40-42°N, 130-133°E), especially west of the North Korean front in North Korean waters, where strong negative surface wind stress curl resides in wintertime. The core ESIW near the formation site has temperatures of 3-4 °C and less than 33.98 psu salinity, warmer and fresher than that in the southern part of the ES. In order to trace the origin of the warmer and fresher water at the sea surface in winter, we analyzed the data in three different ways: (1) spatial distribution of surface water properties using monthly climatology from the Argo float data, (2) seasonal variation of heat and salt contents at the formation site, and (3) backtracking of surface drifter trajectories. Based on these analyses, it is likely that the warmer and fresher surface water properties found in the ESIW formation site are attributed to the low-salinity surface water advected from the southern part of the ES in autumn.

  6. Seasonal variation of the global mixed layer depth: comparison between Argo data and FIO-ESM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yutong; Xu, Haiming; Qiao, Fangli; Dong, Changming

    2018-03-01

    The present study evaluates a simulation of the global ocean mixed layer depth (MLD) using the First Institute of Oceanography-Earth System Model (FIOESM). The seasonal variation of the global MLD from the FIO-ESM simulation is compared to Argo observational data. The Argo data show that the global ocean MLD has a strong seasonal variation with a deep MLD in winter and a shallow MLD in summer, while the spring and fall seasons act as transitional periods. Overall, the FIO-ESM simulation accurately captures the seasonal variation in MLD in most areas. It exhibits a better performance during summer and fall than during winter and spring. The simulated MLD in the Southern Hemisphere is much closer to observations than that in the Northern Hemisphere. In general, the simulated MLD over the South Atlantic Ocean matches the observation best among the six areas. Additionally, the model slightly underestimates the MLD in parts of the North Atlantic Ocean, and slightly overestimates the MLD over the other ocean basins.

  7. Global sea level variations from altimetry, GRACE and Argo data over 2005–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Feng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Total sea level variations (SLVs are caused by two major components: steric variations due to thermal expansion of seawater, and mass-induced variations due to mass exchange between ocean and land. In this study, the global SLV and its steric and mass components were estimated by satellite altimetry, Argo float data and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE data over 2005–2014. Space gravimetry observations from GRACE suggested that two-thirds of the global mean sea level rise rate observed by altimetry (i.e., 3.1 ± 0.3 mm/a from 2005 to 2014 could be explained by an increase in ocean mass. Furthermore, the global mean sea level was observed to drop significantly during the 2010/2011 La Niña event, which may be attributed to the decline of ocean mass and steric SLV. Since early 2011, the global mean sea level began to rise rapidly, which was attributed to an increase in ocean mass. The findings in this study suggested that the global mean sea-level budget was closed from 2005 to 2014 based on altimetry, GRACE, and Argo data.

  8. Resolving the host galaxy of a distant blazar with LBT/LUCI 1 + ARGOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, E. P.; Georgiev, I. Y.; Decarli, R.; Terzić, T.; Busoni, L.; Gässler, W.; Mazzoni, T.; Borelli, J.; Rosensteiner, M.; Ziegleder, J.; Bonaglia, M.; Rabien, S.; Buschkamp, P.; Orban de Xivry, G.; Rahmer, G.; Kulas, M.; Peter, D.

    2018-05-01

    BL Lac objects emitting in the very high energy (VHE) regime are unique tools to peer into the properties of the extragalactic background light (EBL). However, due to the typical absence of features in their spectra, the determination of their redshifts has proven challenging. In this work, we exploit the superb spatial resolution delivered by the new Advanced Rayleigh guided Ground layer adaptive Optics System (ARGOS) at the Large Binocular Telescope to detect the host galaxy of HESS J1943+213, a VHE emitting BL Lac shining through the Galaxy. Deep H-band imaging collected during the ARGOS commissioning allowed us to separate the contribution of the nuclear emission and to unveil the properties of the host galaxy with unprecedented detail. The host galaxy is well fitted by a Sérsic profile with index of n ˜ 2 and total magnitude of HHost ˜ 16.15 mag. Under the assumption that BL Lac host galaxies are standard candles, we infer a redshift of z ˜ 0.21. In the framework of the current model for the EBL, this value is in agreement with the observed dimming of the VHE spectrum due to the annihilation of energetic photons on the EBL

  9. Development of body weight support gait training system using pneumatic Mckibben actuators -control of lower extremity orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Dzahir, M A; Nobutomo, T; Yamamoto, S I

    2013-01-01

    Recently, robot assisted therapy devices are increasingly used for spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation in assisting handicapped patients to regain their impaired movements. Assistive robotic systems may not be able to cure or fully compensate impairments, but it should be able to assist certain impaired functions and ease movements. In this study, the control system of lower extremity orthosis for the body weight support gait training system which implements pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM) is proposed. The hip and knee joint angles of the gait orthosis system are controlled based on the PAM coordinates information from the simulation. This information provides the contraction data for the mono- and bi-articular PAMs that are arranged as posterior and anterior actuators to simulate the human walking motion. The proposed control system estimates the actuators' contraction as a function of hip and knee joint angles. Based on the contraction model obtained, input pressures for each actuators are measured. The control system are performed at different gait cycles and two PMA settings for the mono- and bi-articular actuators are evaluated in this research. The results showed that the system was able to achieve the maximum muscle moment at the joints, and able to perform the heel contact movement. This explained that the antagonistic mono- and bi-articular actuators worked effectively.

  10. Motor Imagery-Based Brain-Computer Interface Coupled to a Robotic Hand Orthosis Aimed for Neurorehabilitation of Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Cantillo-Negrete

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor imagery-based brain-computer interfaces (BCI have shown potential for the rehabilitation of stroke patients; however, low performance has restricted their application in clinical environments. Therefore, this work presents the implementation of a BCI system, coupled to a robotic hand orthosis and driven by hand motor imagery of healthy subjects and the paralysed hand of stroke patients. A novel processing stage was designed using a bank of temporal filters, the common spatial pattern algorithm for feature extraction and particle swarm optimisation for feature selection. Offline tests were performed for testing the proposed processing stage, and results were compared with those computed with common spatial patterns. Afterwards, online tests with healthy subjects were performed in which the orthosis was activated by the system. Stroke patients’ average performance was 74.1 ± 11%. For 4 out of 6 patients, the proposed method showed a statistically significant higher performance than the common spatial pattern method. Healthy subjects’ average offline and online performances were of 76.2 ± 7.6% and 70 ± 6.7, respectively. For 3 out of 8 healthy subjects, the proposed method showed a statistically significant higher performance than the common spatial pattern method. System’s performance showed that it has a potential to be used for hand rehabilitation of stroke patients.

  11. Polymer optical fiber strain gauge for human-robot interaction forces assessment on an active knee orthosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Junior, Arnaldo G.; Frizera, Anselmo; Marques, Carlos; Sánchez, Manuel R. A.; Botelho, Thomaz R.; Segatto, Marcelo V.; Pontes, Maria José

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the development of a polymer optical fiber (POF) strain gauge based on the light coupling principle, which the power attenuation is created by the misalignment between two POFs. The misalignment, in this case, is proportional to the strain on the structure that the fibers are attached. This principle has the advantages of low cost, ease of implementation, temperature insensitiveness, electromagnetic fields immunity and simplicity on the sensor interrogation and signal processing. Such advantages make the proposed solution an interesting alternative to the electronic strain gauges. For this reason, an analytical model for the POF strain gauge is proposed and validated. Furthermore, the proposed POF sensor is applied on an active orthosis for knee rehabilitation exercises through flexion/extension cycles. The controller of the orthosis provides 10 different levels of robotic assistance on the flexion/extension movement. The POF strain gauge is tested at each one of these levels. Results show good correlation between the optical and electronic strain gauges with root mean squared deviation (RMSD) of 1.87 Nm when all cycles are analyzed, which represents a deviation of less than 8%. For the application, the proposed sensor presented higher stability than the electronic one, which can provide advantages on the rehabilitation exercises and on the inner controller of the device.

  12. Recent Trends in Lower-Limb Robotic Rehabilitation Orthosis: Control Scheme and Strategy for Pneumatic Muscle Actuated Gait Trainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Azuwan Mat Dzahir

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is a general assumption that pneumatic muscle-type actuators will play an important role in the development of an assistive rehabilitation robotics system. In the last decade, the development of a pneumatic muscle actuated lower-limb leg orthosis has been rather slow compared to other types of actuated leg orthoses that use AC motors, DC motors, pneumatic cylinders, linear actuators, series elastic actuators (SEA and brushless servomotors. However, recent years have shown that the interest in this field has grown exponentially, mainly due to the demand for a more compliant and interactive human-robotics system. This paper presents a survey of existing lower-limb leg orthoses for rehabilitation, which implement pneumatic muscle-type actuators, such as McKibben artificial muscles, rubbertuators, air muscles, pneumatic artificial muscles (PAM or pneumatic muscle actuators (PMA. It reviews all the currently existing lower-limb rehabilitation orthosis systems in terms of comparison and evaluation of the design, as well as the control scheme and strategy, with the aim of clarifying the current and on-going research in the lower-limb robotic rehabilitation field.

  13. Comparison of custom-moulded ankle orthosis with hinged joints and off-the-shelf ankle braces in preventing ankle sprain in lateral cutting movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Winson C C; Kobayashi, Toshiki; Choy, Barton T S; Leung, Aaron K L

    2012-06-01

    A custom moulded ankle orthosis with hinged joints potentially offers a better control over the subtalar joint and the ankle joint during lateral cutting movements, due to total contact design and increase in material strength. To test the above hypothesis by comparing it to three other available orthoses. Repeated measures. Eight subjects with a history of ankle sprains (Grade 2), and 11 subjects without such history performed lateral cutting movements in four test conditions: 1) non-orthotic, 2) custom-moulded ankle orthosis with hinges, 3) Sport-Stirrup, and 4) elastic ankle sleeve with plastic support. A VICON motion analysis system was used to study the motions at the ankle and subtalar joints. The custom-moulded ankle orthosis significantly lowered the inversion angle at initial contact (p = 0.006) and the peak inversion angle (p = 0.000) during lateral cutting movements in comparison to non-orthotic condition, while the other two orthoses did not. The three orthoses did not affect the plantarflexion motions, which had been suggested by previous studies to be important in shock wave attenuation. The custom-moulded ankle orthosis with hinges could better control inversion and thus expected to better prevent ankle sprain in lateral cutting movements. Custom-moulded ankle orthoses are not commonly used in preventing ankle sprains. This study raises the awareness of the use of custom-moulded ankle orthoses which are expected to better prevent ankle sprains.

  14. Guillain-Barre Syndrome – rehabilitation outcome, residual deficits and requirement of lower limb orthosis for locomotion at 1 year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anupam; Taly, Arun B; Srivastava, Abhishek; Murali, Thyloth

    2010-01-01

    To analyse long-term functional recovery, deficits and requirement of lower limb orthosis (LLO) for locomotion in patients with Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS). Prospective longitudinal follow-up study. Neurological Rehabilitation unit of university hospital. Sixty-nine patients of GBS admitted for inpatient rehabilitation. Thirty-five patients (M:F, 19:16) reporting after 1 year follow-up (50.72%) were included in study (between September 2005 and July 2009). Their residual deficits and requirement of LLO were recorded and analysed. Age ranged from 4 to 65 year (29.74 ± 15.75). Twenty-seven patients had typical GBS and eight patients had acute motor axonal neuropathy variant. Twenty-eight patients (80%) had neuropathic pain needing medication with 11 required more than one drug. Twenty-one patients (60%) had foot drop and advised ankle-foot orthosis-AFO (20 bilateral AFO). Thirty patients (85.71%) needed assistive devices also for locomotion at discharge. After 1 year, foot drop was still present in 12 patients (34.28%) using orthosis. Modified Barthel Index scores, Modified Rankin Scale and Hughes Disability Scale were used to assess functional disabilities. Significant recovery was observed at the time of discharge and after 1 year (p < 0.001 each). Patients with GBS continue to show significant functional recovery for long period. They have residual deficits even after 1 year with requirement of orthosis in large number of patients.

  15. Design and Evaluation of a New Type of Knee Orthosis to Align the Mediolateral Angle of the Knee Joint with Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Esrafilian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Osteoarthritis (OA is a disease which influences the performance of the knee joint. Moreover, the force and moments applied on the joint increase in contrast to normal subjects. Various types of knee orthoses have been designed to solve the mentioned problems. However, there are other problems in terms of distal migration during walking and the alignment of the orthosis which cannot be changed following the use of brace. Therefore, the main aim of the research was to design an orthosis to solve the aforementioned problems. Method. A new type of knee orthosis was designed with a modular structure. Two patients with knee OA participated in this research project. The force applied on the foot, moment transmitted through the knee joint, and spatiotemporal gait parameters were measured by use of a motion analysis system. Results. The results of the research showed that the adduction moment applied on the knee joint decreased while subjects walked with the new knee orthosis (P-value < 0.05. Conclusion. The new design of the knee brace can be used as an effective treatment to decrease the loads applied on the knee joint and to improve the alignment whilst walking.

  16. Microwave Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Kevin L. G.; Lambot, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We have conducted research in microwave thermal propulsion as part of the space exploration access technologies (SEAT) research program, a cooperative agreement (NNX09AF52A) between NASA and Carnegie Mellon University. The SEAT program commenced on the 19th of February 2009 and concluded on the 30th of September 2015. The DARPA/NASA Millimeter-wave Thermal Launch System (MTLS) project subsumed the SEAT program from May 2012 to March 2014 and one of us (Parkin) served as its principal investigator and chief engineer. The MTLS project had no final report of its own, so we have included the MTLS work in this report and incorporate its conclusions here. In the six years from 2009 until 2015 there has been significant progress in millimeter-wave thermal rocketry (a subset of microwave thermal rocketry), most of which has been made under the auspices of the SEAT and MTLS programs. This final report is intended for multiple audiences. For researchers, we present techniques that we have developed to simplify and quantify the performance of thermal rockets and their constituent technologies. For program managers, we detail the facilities that we have built and the outcomes of experiments that were conducted using them. We also include incomplete and unfruitful lines of research. For decision-makers, we introduce the millimeter-wave thermal rocket in historical context. Considering the economic significance of space launch, we present a brief but significant cost-benefit analysis, for the first time showing that there is a compelling economic case for replacing conventional rockets with millimeter-wave thermal rockets.

  17. Case report on the use of a functional electrical orthosis in rehabilitation of upper limb function in a chronic stroke patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Moghioroiu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The increasing incidence of strokes and their occurrence in younger active people require the development of solutions that allow participation, despite the debilitating deficit that is not always solved by rehabilitation. The present report shows such a potential solution. Objective. In this presentation we will show the effects of using a functional electric orthosis, the high number of repetitions and daily electrostimulation in a young stroke patient with motor deficit in the upper limb, the difficulties encountered in attempting to use orthosis, the results and the course of its recovery over the years. Materials and Methods. The present report shows the evolution of a 31-year-old female patient with hemiplegia, resulting from a hemorrhagic stroke, from the moment of surgery to the moment of purchasing a functional electrical orthosis and a few months later, highlighting a 3-week period when the training method focused on performing a large number of repetitions of a single exercise helped by the orthosis – 3 weekly physical therapy sessions, with a duration of one hour and 15 minutes, plus 2 electrostimulation sessions lasting 20 minutes each and 100 elbow extension, daily, 6 times a week. The patient was evaluated and filmed at the beginning and end of the 3 week period. The patient's consent was obtained for the use of the data and images presented. Results. Invalidating motor deficiency and problems specific to the use of upper limb functional electrostimulation in patients with stroke sequelae (flexion synergy, exaggeration of reflex response, wrist position during stimulation, etc. made it impossible to use orthosis in functional activities within ADL although it allowed the achievement of a single task. Evaluation on the FuglMayer assessment does not show any quantifiable progress, although it is possible to have slightly improved the control of the shoulder and elbow and increased the speed of task execution

  18. A COMPARATIVE STUDY TO FIND OUT IMMEDIATE EFFECTIVENESS OF MOVEMENT WITH MOBILIZATION VERSUS ELBOW ORTHOSIS ON PAIN AND GRIP STRENGTH IN LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS IN HOUSEWIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trishna Kakati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are various studies using Mulligan’s MWM with or without combining with electrotherapy modalities and proved the efficacy of the technique in immediately decreasing pain and improving grip strength in patients with lateral epicondylitis. Orthotic as a treatment is also proved to be beneficial in decreasing pain and improving grip strength. There is evidence that housewives are prone to develop lateral epicondylitis due to their routine household work. But there is lack of evidence which compare initial effects of MWM and orthosis in housewives bringing up better outcome measures. The purpose of this study is to compare the initial effectiveness of Mulligan’s MWM and elbow orthosis on pain and grip strength in housewives with lateral epicondylitis. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Mulligan’s MWM technique versus counterforce elbow orthosis in immediately reducing pain and improving grip strength in lateral epicondylitis in housewives. Methodos: All subjects underwent a pre-treatment examination to assess pain and pain free hand grip strength with the help of outcome measures. Subjects were randomly assigned into two groups, A and B respectively; having 25 subjects in each group. Group A was treated with one session of Mulligan’s MWM technique. Group B was treated with Counterforce elbow strap orthosis. Data was assessed pre-treatment and immediately after treatment. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and hand grip on Hand Grip Dynamometer (HGD were used as outcome measures. Results: Independent t-test was performed to see the effectiveness between Mulligan’s MWM and elbow orthosis. For VAS, t = - 2.243 which is significant at 5% level of significance. It has been inferred that VAS decreases more when Mulligan’s MWM was applied. For HGD, t = 0.878 which is not significant implying that increase in HGD do not differ remarkably for the two treatments. Conclusion: It has been recorded from the study that

  19. A Southern Ocean variability study using the Argo-based Model for Investigation of the Global Ocean (AMIGO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, Konstantin

    2017-04-01

    The era of satellite observations of the ocean surface that started at the end of the 20th century and the development of the Argo project in the first years of the 21st century, designed to collect information of the upper 2000 m of the ocean using satellites, provides unique opportunities for continuous monitoring of the Global Ocean state. Starting from 2005, measurements with the Argo floats have been performed over the majority of the World Ocean. In November 2007, the Argo program reached coverage of 3000 simultaneously operating floats (one float in a three-degree square) planned during the development of the program. Currently, 4000 Argo floats autonomously profile the upper 2000-m water column of the ocean from Antarctica to Spitsbergen increasing World Ocean temperature and salinity databases by 12000 profiles per month. This makes it possible to solve problems on reconstructing and monitoring the ocean state on an almost real-time basis, study the ocean dynamics, obtain reasonable estimates of the climatic state of the ocean in the last decade and estimate existing intraclimatic trends. We present the newly developed Argo-Based Model for Investigation of the Global Ocean (AMIGO), which consists of a block for variational interpolation of the profiles of drifting Argo floats to a regular grid and a block for model hydrodynamic adjustment of variationally interpolated fields. Such a method makes it possible to obtain a full set of oceanographic characteristics - temperature, salinity, density, and current velocity - using irregularly located Argo measurements (the principle of the variational interpolation technique entails minimization of the misfit between the interpolated fields defined on the regular grid and irregularly distributed data; hence the optimal solution passes as close to the data as possible). The simulations were performed for the entire globe limited in the north by 85.5° N using 1° grid spacing in both longitude and latitude. At the

  20. Research Opportunities in Space Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Stephen L.

    2007-01-01

    Rocket propulsion determines the primary characteristics of any space vehicle; how fast and far it can go, its lifetime, and its capabilities. It is the primary factor in safety and reliability and the biggest cost driver. The extremes of heat and pressure produced by propulsion systems push the limits of materials used for manufacturing. Space travel is very unforgiving with little room for errors, and so many things can go wrong with these very complex systems. So we have to plan for failure and that makes it costly. But what is more exciting than the roar of a rocket blasting into space? By its nature the propulsion world is conservative. The stakes are so high at every launch, in terms of payload value or in human life, that to introduce new components to a working, qualified system is extremely difficult and costly. Every launch counts and no risks are tolerated, which leads to the space world's version of Catch-22:"You can't fly till you flown." The last big 'game changer' in propulsion was the use of liquid hydrogen as a fuel. No new breakthrough, low cost access to space system will be developed without new efficient propulsion systems. Because there is no large commercial market driving investment in propulsion, what propulsion research is done is sponsored by government funding agencies. A further difficulty in propulsion technology development is that there are so few new systems flying. There is little opportunity to evolve propulsion technologies and to update existing systems with results coming out of research as there is in, for example, the auto industry. The biggest hurdle to space exploration is getting off the ground. The launch phase will consume most of the energy required for any foreseeable space exploration mission. The fundamental physical energy requirements of escaping earth's gravity make it difficult. It takes 60,000 kJ to put a kilogram into an escape orbit. The vast majority (-97%) of the energy produced by a launch vehicle is used

  1. A functional comparison of conventional knee-ankle-foot orthoses and a microprocessor-controlled leg orthosis system based on biomechanical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Thomas; Pröbsting, Eva; Auberger, Roland; Siewert, Gordon

    2016-04-01

    The microprocessor-controlled leg orthosis C-Brace enables patients with paretic or paralysed lower limb muscles to use dampened knee flexion under weight-bearing and speed-adapted control of the swing phase. The objective of the present study was to investigate the new technical functions of the C-Brace orthosis, based on biomechanical parameters. The study enrolled six patients. The C-Brace orthosis is compared with conventional leg orthoses (four stance control orthoses, two locked knee-ankle-foot orthoses) using biomechanical parameters of level walking, descending ramps and descending stairs. Ground reaction forces, joint moments and kinematic parameters were measured for level walking as well as ascending and descending ramps and stairs. With the C-Brace, a nearly natural stance phase knee flexion was measured during level walking (mean value 11° ± 5.6°). The maximum swing phase knee flexion angle of the C-Brace approached the normal value of 65° more closely than the stance control orthoses (66° ± 8.5° vs 74° ± 6.4°). No significant differences in the joint moments were found between the C-Brace and stance control orthosis conditions. In contrast to the conventional orthoses, all patients were able to ambulate ramps and stairs using a step-over-step technique with C-Brace (flexion angle 64.6° ± 8.2° and 70.5° ± 12.4°). The results show that the functions of the C-Brace for situation-dependent knee flexion under weight bearing have been used by patients with a high level of confidence. The functional benefits of the C-Brace in comparison with the conventional orthotic mechanisms could be demonstrated most clearly for descending ramps and stairs. The C-Brace orthosis is able to combine improved orthotic function with sustained orthotic safety. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  2. Magnetic levitation and MHD propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tixador, P [CNRS/CRTBT-LEG, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1994-04-01

    Magnetic levitation and MHD propulsion are now attracting attention in several countries. Different superconducting MagLev and MHD systems will be described concentrating on, above all, the electromagnetic aspect. Some programmes occurring throughout the world will be described. Magnetic levitated trains could be the new high speed transportation system for the 21st century. Intensive studies involving MagLev trains using superconductivity have been carried our in Japan since 1970. The construction of a 43 km long track is to be the next step. In 1991 a six year programme was launched in the United States to evaluate the performances of MagLev systems for transportation. The MHD (MagnetoHydroDynamic) offers some interesting advantages (efficiency, stealth characteristics, ..) for naval propulsion and increasing attention is being paid towards it nowadays. Japan is also up at the top with the tests of Yamato I, a 260 ton MHD propulsed ship. (orig.).

  3. Magnetic levitation and MHD propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tixador, P.

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic levitation and MHD propulsion are now attracting attention in several countries. Different superconducting MagLev and MHD systems will be described concentrating on, above all, the electromagnetic aspect. Some programmes occurring throughout the world will be described. Magnetic levitated trains could be the new high speed transportation system for the 21st century. Intensive studies involving MagLev trains using superconductivity have been carried our in Japan since 1970. The construction of a 43 km long track is to be the next step. In 1991 a six year programme was launched in the United States to evaluate the performances of MagLev systems for transportation. The MHD (MagnetoHydroDynamic) offers some interesting advantages (efficiency, stealth characteristics, ..) for naval propulsion and increasing attention is being paid towards it nowadays. Japan is also up at the top with the tests of Yamato I, a 260 ton MHD propulsed ship. (orig.)

  4. Main Propulsion Test Article (MPTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoddy, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Scope: The Main Propulsion Test Article integrated the main propulsion subsystem with the clustered Space Shuttle Main Engines, the External Tank and associated GSE. The test program consisted of cryogenic tanking tests and short- and long duration static firings including gimbaling and throttling. The test program was conducted on the S1-C test stand (Position B-2) at the National Space Technology Laboratories (NSTL)/Stennis Space Center. 3 tanking tests and 20 hot fire tests conducted between December 21 1 1977 and December 17, 1980 Configuration: The main propulsion test article consisted of the three space shuttle main engines, flightweight external tank, flightweight aft fuselage, interface section and a boilerplate mid/fwd fuselage truss structure.

  5. Nuclear thermal propulsion workshop overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    NASA is planning an Exploration Technology Program as part of the Space Exploration Initiative to return U.S. astronauts to the moon, conduct intensive robotic exploration of the moon and Mars, and to conduct a piloted mission to Mars by 2019. Nuclear Propulsion is one of the key technology thrust for the human mission to Mars. The workshop addresses NTP (Nuclear Thermal Rocket) technologies with purpose to: assess the state-of-the-art of nuclear propulsion concepts; assess the potential benefits of the concepts for the mission to Mars; identify critical, enabling technologies; lay-out (first order) technology development plans including facility requirements; and estimate the cost of developing these technologies to flight-ready status. The output from the workshop will serve as a data base for nuclear propulsion project planning

  6. From satellite altimetry to Argo and operational oceanography: three revolutions in oceanography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Y. Le Traon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The launch of the French/US mission Topex/Poseidon (T/P (CNES/NASA in August 1992 was the start of a revolution in oceanography. For the first time, a very precise altimeter system optimized for large-scale sea level and ocean circulation observations was flying. T/P alone could not observe the mesoscale circulation. In the 1990s, the ESA satellites ERS-1/2 were flying simultaneously with T/P. Together with my CLS colleagues, we demonstrated that we could use T/P as a reference mission for ERS-1/2 and bring the ERS-1/2 data to an accuracy level comparable to T/P. Near-real-time high-resolution global sea level anomaly maps were then derived. These maps have been operationally produced as part of the SSALTO/DUACS system for the last 15 yr. They are now widely used by the oceanographic community and have contributed to a much better understanding and recognition of the role and importance of mesoscale dynamics. Altimetry needs to be complemented with global in situ observations. At the end of the 90s, a major international initiative was launched to develop Argo, the global array of profiling floats. This has been an outstanding success. Argo floats now provide the most important in situ observations to monitor and understand the role of the ocean on the earth climate and for operational oceanography. This is a second revolution in oceanography. The unique capability of satellite altimetry to observe the global ocean in near-real-time at high resolution and the development of Argo were essential for the development of global operational oceanography, the third revolution in oceanography. The Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE was instrumental in the development of the required capabilities. This paper provides an historical perspective on the development of these three revolutions in oceanography which are very much interlinked. This is not an exhaustive review and I will mainly focus on the contributions we made together with many

  7. Materials Advance Chemical Propulsion Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In the future, the Planetary Science Division of NASA's Science Mission Directorate hopes to use better-performing and lower-cost propulsion systems to send rovers, probes, and observers to places like Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. For such purposes, a new propulsion technology called the Advanced Materials Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) was developed under NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) project, located at Glenn Research Center. As an advanced chemical propulsion system, AMBR uses nitrogen tetroxide oxidizer and hydrazine fuel to propel a spacecraft. Based on current research and development efforts, the technology shows great promise for increasing engine operation and engine lifespan, as well as lowering manufacturing costs. In developing AMBR, ISPT has several goals: to decrease the time it takes for a spacecraft to travel to its destination, reduce the cost of making the propulsion system, and lessen the weight of the propulsion system. If goals like these are met, it could result in greater capabilities for in-space science investigations. For example, if the amount (and weight) of propellant required on a spacecraft is reduced, more scientific instruments (and weight) could be added to the spacecraft. To achieve AMBR s maximum potential performance, the engine needed to be capable of operating at extremely high temperatures and pressure. To this end, ISPT required engine chambers made of iridium-coated rhenium (strong, high-temperature metallic elements) that allowed operation at temperatures close to 4,000 F. In addition, ISPT needed an advanced manufacturing technique for better coating methods to increase the strength of the engine chamber without increasing the costs of fabricating the chamber.

  8. CRED SVP Drifting Buoy Argos_ID 24946 Data, north of Niihau, in the NW Hawaiian Islands, 200110-200209 (NODC Accession 0049436)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED SVP drifter Argos_ID 24946 was deployed in the region of NW Hawaiian Islands to assess ocean currents and sea surface temperature. SVP drifter data files...

  9. CRED SVP Drifting Buoy Argos_ID 30111 Data, French Frigate Shoals in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 200210-200309 (NODC Accession 0049436)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED SVP drifter Argos_ID 30111 was deployed in the region of NW Hawaiian Islands to assess ocean currents and sea surface temperature. SVP drifter data files...

  10. CRED SVP Drifting Buoy Argos_ID 24949 Data, between Maro Reef and Raita Bank in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands , 200109-200309 (NODC Accession 0049436)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED SVP drifter Argos_ID 24949 was deployed in the region of NW Hawaiian Islands to assess ocean currents and sea surface temperature. SVP drifter data files...

  11. CRED SVP Drifting Buoy Argos_ID 29105 Data, Gardner Pinnacles in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 200307-200508 (NODC Accession 0049436)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED SVP drifter Argos_ID 29105 was deployed in the region of NW Hawaiian Islands to assess ocean currents and sea surface temperature. SVP drifter data files...

  12. CRED SVP Drifting Buoy Argos_ID 24955 Data at Bank 8, in the NW Hawaiian Islands, 200110-200504 (NODC Accession 0049436)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED SVP drifter Argos_ID 24955 was deployed in the region of NW Hawaiian Islands to assess ocean currents and sea surface temperature. SVP drifter data files...

  13. CRED SVP Drifting Buoy Argos_ID 24953 Data at Laysan/Pioneer Bank in the NW Hawaiian Islands, 200110-200504 (NODC Accession 0049436)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED SVP drifter Argos_ID 24953 was deployed in the region of NW Hawaiian Islands to assess ocean currents and sea surface temperature. SVP drifter data files...

  14. CRED SVP Drifting Buoy Argos_ID 44770 Data, NW Tutuila in the American Samoa, 200402-200503 (NODC Accession 0067474)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED SVP drifter Argos_ID 44770 was deployed in the region of American Samoa to assess ocean currents and sea surface temperature. SVP drifter data files contain...

  15. CRED SVP Drifting Buoy Argos_ID 29103 Data, Pathfinder Reef in the Marianas Archipelago, 200309-200406 (NODC Accession 0067473)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED SVP drifter Argos_ID 29103 was deployed in the region of Marianas Archipelago to assess ocean currents and sea surface temperature. SVP drifter data files...

  16. Center for Advanced Space Propulsion Second Annual Technical Symposium Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The proceedings for the Center for Advanced Space Propulsion Second Annual Technical Symposium are divided as follows: Chemical Propulsion, CFD; Space Propulsion; Electric Propulsion; Artificial Intelligence; Low-G Fluid Management; and Rocket Engine Materials.

  17. Propulsion of magnetically levitated trains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wipf, S L

    1976-05-01

    A propulsion system for magnetically levitated trains is proposed. A method of periodically energizing magnetic loops on a train moving over a periodically undulating track allows the net repulsive magnetic force to tilt forward or backward for either propulsion or braking. The principle is explained and a specific example discussed. Approximate calculations show feasibility. Problems requiring technical solutions which cannot be considered present state-of-the-art are AC losses at frequencies up to 20 Hz and mechanical fatigue properties at low temperatures. Suitable primary power could be derived from hydrogen-fueled turbines yet to be developed.

  18. Aeronautic propulsion systems; Propulseurs aeronautiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepourry, P; Ciryci, R

    1992-12-31

    This book is devoted to airplane pilots having a private licence and who would like to take up a professional rank. It comprises 8 chapters dealing with: the different type of propulsion systems, turbojet, turbofan and piston engines; the propeller (characteristics, different types, functioning, protection systems..); the piston engines (4-stroke cycle, power and efficiency, description, characteristics); the gas generator and its limitations (air intake, combustion chamber, turbines, nozzles, fuel systems..); the performances of propulsion systems; the drive, control and instruments; and the use of engines. The last chapter is a self-evaluation questionnaire about the notions developed in the book. (J.S.)

  19. Antimatter Propulsion Developed by NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This Quick Time movie shows possible forms of an antimatter propulsion system being developed by NASA. Antimatter annihilation offers the highest possible physical energy density of any known reaction substance. It is about 10 billion times more powerful than that of chemical energy such as hydrogen and oxygen combustion. Antimatter would be the perfect rocket fuel, but the problem is that the basic component of antimatter, antiprotons, doesn't exist in nature and has to manufactured. The process of antimatter development is ongoing and making some strides, but production of this as a propulsion system is far into the future.

  20. In-Space Propulsion Technology Program Solar Electric Propulsion Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.

    2006-01-01

    NASA's In-space Propulsion (ISP) Technology Project is developing new propulsion technologies that can enable or enhance near and mid-term NASA science missions. The Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) technology area has been investing in NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), the High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAC), lightweight reliable feed systems, wear testing, and thruster modeling. These investments are specifically targeted to increase planetary science payload capability, expand the envelope of planetary science destinations, and significantly reduce the travel times, risk, and cost of NASA planetary science missions. Status and expected capabilities of the SEP technologies are reviewed in this presentation. The SEP technology area supports numerous mission studies and architecture analyses to determine which investments will give the greatest benefit to science missions. Both the NEXT and HiVHAC thrusters have modified their nominal throttle tables to better utilize diminished solar array power on outbound missions. A new life extension mechanism has been implemented on HiVHAC to increase the throughput capability on low-power systems to meet the needs of cost-capped missions. Lower complexity, more reliable feed system components common to all electric propulsion (EP) systems are being developed. ISP has also leveraged commercial investments to further validate new ion and hall thruster technologies and to potentially lower EP mission costs.

  1. Brief review on pulse laser propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haichao; Li, Hanyang; Wang, Yan; Cui, Lugui; Liu, Shuangqiang; Yang, Jun

    2018-03-01

    Pulse laser propulsion (PLP) is an advanced propulsion concept can be used across a variety of fields with a wide range of applications. PLP reflects superior payload as well as decreased launch costs in comparison with other conventional methods of producing thrust, such as chemical propulsion or electric propulsion. Numerous researchers have attempted to exploit the potential applications of PLP. This paper first reviews concepts relevant to PLP, including the propulsion modes, breakdown regimes, and propulsion efficiency; the propulsion targets for different materials with the pulse laser are then discussed in detail, including the propulsion of solid and liquid microspheres. PLP applications such as the driven microsatellite, target surface particle removal, and orbital debris removal are also discussed. Although the PLP has been applied to a variety of fields, further research is yet warranted to establish its application in the aerospace field.

  2. On the warm pool dynamics in the southeastern Arabian Sea during April – May 2005 based on the satellite remote sensing and ARGO float data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, V.S.N.; Krishna, S.M.; Nagaraju, A.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; RameshBabu, V.; Sengupta, D; Sindu, P.R.; Ravichandran, M.; Rajesh, G.

    profiles from an ARGO float (ID No. 2900345) in a 3°x1° box closer to ARMEX-II buoy (8.3°N, 72.68°E) in the SEAS during January – September 2005 revealed evolution of warm pool (SST>28°C) in spring 2005. The Argo data derived D20 (depth of 20°C isotherm...

  3. Dose modelling for 'dirty bomb' scenarios - an ARGOS DSS feature under development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Mikkelsen, Torben; Astrup, Poul

    number of people could become directly affected. Current versions of European decision support systems are inapplicable in this context, as they do not take into account the specific characteristics of ’dirty bomb’ scenarios, with respect to radionuclides (dose conversion factors), initial......The world of today is not only facing the risk of accidents (e.g., in nuclear facilities, as considered in the EURANOS project). Also other types of emergencies, notably involving radiological terrorism, pose a threat. Acts of terror would be most likely to take place in a city, where the greatest...... physicochemical forms, blast contaminant transformations, plume height and propagation, deposition velocities, post-deposition migration and clearance, as well as countermeasure effectiveness. This problem is being addressed for a new version of the ARGOS decision support system....

  4. Measurement of the Cosmic Ray primary spectrum with ARGO-YBJ experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panico, B; Iuppa, R; Di Sciascio, G

    2013-01-01

    The study of cosmic ray physic of 10 12 – 10 15 primary cosmic energy is one of the main goals of ARGO-YBJ experiment. The detector, located at the Yangbajing Cosmic Ray Laboratory (Tibet, 4300 m a.s.l., 606 g/cm 2 ), is an EAS array consisting of a continuous carpet of RPCs. The low energy threshold of the detector allows to study an energy region characterized by the transition from the direct to the indirect measurements. In this talk we will report on the measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum at different zenith angles. The phenomenology of horizontal air shower (θ > 70°) will be described and discussed.

  5. Overview of the ARGOS X-ray framing camera for Laser MegaJoule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trosseille, C., E-mail: clement.trosseille@cea.fr; Aubert, D.; Auger, L.; Bazzoli, S.; Brunel, P.; Burillo, M.; Chollet, C.; Jasmin, S.; Maruenda, P.; Moreau, I.; Oudot, G.; Raimbourg, J.; Soullié, G.; Stemmler, P.; Zuber, C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Beck, T. [CEA, DEN, CADARACHE, F-13108 St Paul lez Durance (France); Gazave, J. [CEA, DAM, CESTA, F-33116 Le Barp (France)

    2014-11-15

    Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives has developed the ARGOS X-ray framing camera to perform two-dimensional, high-timing resolution imaging of an imploding target on the French high-power laser facility Laser MegaJoule. The main features of this camera are: a microchannel plate gated X-ray detector, a spring-loaded CCD camera that maintains proximity focus in any orientation, and electronics packages that provide remotely-selectable high-voltages to modify the exposure-time of the camera. These components are integrated into an “air-box” that protects them from the harsh environmental conditions. A miniaturized X-ray generator is also part of the device for in situ self-testing purposes.

  6. Argo: A Time-Elastic Time-Division-Multiplexed NOC using Asynchronous Routers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasapaki, Evangelia; Sparsø, Jens

    2014-01-01

    are either synchronous or mesochronous. We use asynchronous routers to achieve a simpler, smaller, and more robust, self-timed design. Our design exploits the fact that pipelined asynchronous circuits also behave as ripple FIFOs. Thus, it avoids the need for explicit synchronization FIFOs between the routers......In this paper we explore the use of asynchronous routers in a time-division-multiplexed (TDM) network-on-chip (NOC), Argo, that is being developed for a multi-processor platform for hard real-time systems. TDM inherently requires a common time reference, and existing TDM-based NOC designs...... delays derived from a 65nm CMOS implementation, a worstcase analysis shows that a typical design can tolerate a skew of 1-5 cycles (depending on FIFO depths and NI clock frequency). Simulation results of a 2 x 2 NOC confirm this....

  7. THE FUTURE OF SPACECRAFT NUCLEAR PROPULSION

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Frank

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the advantages of space nuclear power and propulsion systems. It describes the actual status of international power level dependent spacecraft nuclear propulsion missions, especially the high power EU-Russian MEGAHIT study including the Russian Megawatt-Class Nuclear Power Propulsion System, the NASA GRC project and the low and medium power EU DiPoP study. Space nuclear propulsion based mission scenarios of these studies are sketched as well.

  8. Vehicle with inclinable caterpillar propulsion units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clar, G.

    1991-01-01

    This vehicle usable in hostile environment such nuclear industry has four propulsion units with a caterpillar track and two integrated motors: one for advancing the caterpillar track and the other for inclining the propulsion unit when overcoming obstacles. Each propulsion unit is easily replaceable because there are no mechanical parts in the body of the vehicle [fr

  9. Distributed propulsion and future aerospace technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Ameyugo, Gregorio

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes an Engineering Doctorate project in Distributed Propulsion carried out from 2004 to 2007 at Cranfield University. Distributed propulsion is a propulsion system arrangement that consists in spreading the engine thrust along the aircraft span. This can be accomplished by distributing a series of driven fans or the engines themselves. The aim of this project is to determine the feasibility of ...

  10. Ultrasonic propulsion of kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip C; Bailey, Michael R; Harper, Jonathan D

    2016-05-01

    Ultrasonic propulsion is a novel technique that uses short bursts of focused ultrasonic pulses to reposition stones transcutaneously within the renal collecting system and ureter. The purpose of this review is to discuss the initial testing of effectiveness and safety, directions for refinement of technique and technology, and opinions on clinical application. Preclinical studies with a range of probes, interfaces, and outputs have demonstrated feasibility and consistent safety of ultrasonic propulsion with room for increased outputs and refinement toward specific applications. Ultrasonic propulsion was used painlessly and without adverse events to reposition stones in 14 of 15 human study participants without restrictions on patient size, stone size, or stone location. The initial feasibility study showed applicability in a range of clinically relevant situations, including facilitating passage of residual fragments following ureteroscopy or shock wave lithotripsy, moving a large stone at the ureteropelvic junction with relief of pain, and differentiating large stones from a collection of small fragments. Ultrasonic propulsion shows promise as an office-based system for transcutaneously repositioning kidney stones. Potential applications include facilitating expulsion of residual fragments following ureteroscopy or shock wave lithotripsy, repositioning stones prior to treatment, and repositioning obstructing ureteropelvic junction stones into the kidney to alleviate acute renal colic.

  11. Software To Secure Distributed Propulsion Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaser, Tammy M.

    2003-01-01

    Distributed-object computing systems are presented with many security threats, including network eavesdropping, message tampering, and communications middleware masquerading. NASA Glenn Research Center, and its industry partners, has taken an active role in mitigating the security threats associated with developing and operating their proprietary aerospace propulsion simulations. In particular, they are developing a collaborative Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Security (CORBASec) test bed to secure their distributed aerospace propulsion simulations. Glenn has been working with its aerospace propulsion industry partners to deploy the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) object-based technology. NPSS is a program focused on reducing the cost and time in developing aerospace propulsion engines

  12. Liderazgo, la competencia esencial que transformó una empresa colombiana en un gigante internacional : el caso de Cementos Argos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Ochoa Díaz, Ph.D.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cementos Argos ha sido catalogado como uno de los gigantes de la industria cementera colombiana por su gran capacidad de consolidación en el mercado nacional y sus estrategias de internacionalización poco convencionales. Esta investigación documenta la experiencia internacional de Argos bajo la perspectiva de las teorías de internacionalización de mayor aceptación en la literatura internacional, haciendo uso del enfoque metodológico de los estudios de caso. Como resultado se encontró que las estrategias de fidelización, aunadas al rediseño organizacional resultado del liderazgo de la alta gerencia, han sido herramientas vitales para asegurar el crecimiento de la compañía en los mercados local y externo.

  13. LIDERAZGO, LA COMPETENCIA ESENCIAL QUE TRANSFORMÓ UNA EMPRESA COLOMBIANA EN UN GIGANTE INTERNACIONAL: EL CASO DE CEMENTOS ARGOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HÉCTOR OCHOA DÍAZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cementos Argos ha sido catalogado como uno de los gigantes de la industria cementera colombiana por su gran capacidad de consolidación en el mercado nacional y sus estrategias de internacionalización poco convencionales. Esta investigación documenta la experiencia internacional de Argos bajo la perspectiva de las teorías de internacionalización de mayor aceptación en laliteratura internacional, haciendo uso del enfoque metodológico de los estudios de caso. Como resultado se encontró que las estrategias de fidelización,aunadas al rediseño organizacional resultado del liderazgo de la alta gerencia, han sido herramientas vitales para asegurar el crecimiento de la compañía en los mercados local y externo.

  14. Optimization of extended propulsion time nuclear-electric propulsion trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, C. G., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology used in optimizing extended propulsion time NEP missions considering realistic thruster lifetime constraints. These missions consist of a powered spiral escape from a 700-km circular orbit at the earth, followed by a powered heliocentric transfer with an optimized coast phase, and terminating in a spiral capture phase at the target planet. This analysis is most applicable to those missions with very high energy requirements such as outer planet orbiter missions or sample return missions where the total propulsion time could greatly exceed the expected lifetime of an individual thruster. This methodology has been applied to the investigation of NEP missions to the outer planets where examples are presented of both constrained and optimized trajectories.

  15. The Argos-CLS Kalman Filter: Error Structures and State-Space Modelling Relative to Fastloc GPS Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Lowther

    Full Text Available Understanding how an animal utilises its surroundings requires its movements through space to be described accurately. Satellite telemetry is the only means of acquiring movement data for many species however data are prone to varying amounts of spatial error; the recent application of state-space models (SSMs to the location estimation problem have provided a means to incorporate spatial errors when characterising animal movements. The predominant platform for collecting satellite telemetry data on free-ranging animals, Service Argos, recently provided an alternative Doppler location estimation algorithm that is purported to be more accurate and generate a greater number of locations that its predecessor. We provide a comprehensive assessment of this new estimation process performance on data from free-ranging animals relative to concurrently collected Fastloc GPS data. Additionally, we test the efficacy of three readily-available SSM in predicting the movement of two focal animals. Raw Argos location estimates generated by the new algorithm were greatly improved compared to the old system. Approximately twice as many Argos locations were derived compared to GPS on the devices used. Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE for each optimal SSM were less than 4.25 km with some producing RMSE of less than 2.50 km. Differences in the biological plausibility of the tracks between the two focal animals used to investigate the utility of SSM highlights the importance of considering animal behaviour in movement studies. The ability to reprocess Argos data collected since 2008 with the new algorithm should permit questions of animal movement to be revisited at a finer resolution.

  16. Are Organic Standards Sufficient to Ensure Sustainable Agriculture? Lessons From New Zealand’s ARGOS and Sustainability Dashboard Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Merfield, Charles; Moller, Henrik; Manhire, Jon; Rosin, Chris; Norton, Solis; Carey, Peter; Hunt, Lesley; Reid, John; Fairweather, John; Benge, Jayson; Le Quellec, Isabelle; Campbell, Hugh; Lucock, David; Saunders, Caroline; MacLeod, Catriona

    2015-01-01

    Our review concludes that organic standards need to account for a broader set of criteria in order to retain claims to ‘sustainability’. Measurements of the ecological, economic and social outcomes from over 96 kiwifruit, sheep/beef and dairy farms in New Zealand between 2004 and 2012 by The Agricultural Research Group on Sustainability (ARGOS) project showed some enhanced ecosystem services from organic agriculture that will assist a “land-sharing” approach for sustainable land management. H...

  17. Magnetic levitation and MHD propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tixador, P.

    1994-04-01

    Magnetic levitation and MHD propulsion are now attracting attention in several countries. Different superconducting MagLev and MHD systems will be described concentrating on, above all, the electromagnetic aspect. Some programmes occurring throughout the world will be described. Magnetic levitated trains could be the new high speed transportation system for the 21st century. Intensive studies involving MagLev trains using superconductivity have been carried out in Japan since 1970. The construction of a 43 km long track is to be the next step. In 1991 a six year programme was launched in the United States to evaluate the performances of MagLev systems for transportation. The MHD (MagnetoHydroDynamic) offers some interesting advantages (efficiency, stealth characteristics, ...) for naval propulsion and increasing attention is being paid towards it nowadays. Japan is also up at the top with the tests of Yamato I, a 260 ton MHD propulsed ship. Depuis quelques années nous assistons à un redémarrage de programmes concernant la lévitation et la propulsion supraconductrices. Différents systèmes supraconducteurs de lévitation et de propulsion seront décrits en examinant plus particulièrement l'aspect électromagnétique. Quelques programmes à travers le monde seront abordés. Les trains à sustentation magnétique pourraient constituer un nouveau mode de transport terrestre à vitesse élevée (500 km/h) pour le 21^e siècle. Les japonais n'ont cessé de s'intéresser à ce système avec bobine supraconductrice. Ils envisagent un stade préindustriel avec la construction d'une ligne de 43 km. En 1991 un programme américain pour une durée de six ans a été lancé pour évaluer les performances des systèmes à lévitation pour le transport aux Etats Unis. La MHD (Magnéto- Hydro-Dynamique) présente des avantages intéressants pour la propulsion navale et un regain d'intérêt apparaît à l'heure actuelle. Le japon se situe là encore à la pointe des d

  18. How can push-off be preserved during use of an ankle foot orthosis in children with hemiplegia? A prospective controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Desloovere, Kaat; Molenaers, Guy; Van Gestel, Leen; Huenaerts, Catherine; Van Campenhout, Anja; Callewaert, Barbara; Van De Walle, Patricia; Seyler, J

    2006-01-01

    Several studies indicated that walking with an ankle foot orthosis (AFO) impaired third rocker. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of two types of orthoses, with similar goal settings, on gait, in a homogeneous group of children, using both barefoot and shoe walking as control conditions. Fifteen children with hemiplegia, aged between 4 and 10 years, received two types of individually tuned AFOs: common posterior leaf-spring (PLS) and Dual Carbon Fiber Spring AFO (CFO) (wit...

  19. Early functional postoperative therapy of distal radius fracture with a dynamic orthosis: results of a prospective randomized cross-over comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian M Stuby

    Full Text Available This study was conducted according to GCP criteria as a prospective randomized cross-over study. The primary goal of the study was to determine clinical findings and patient satisfaction with postoperative treatment. 29 patients with a distal radius fracture that was surgically stabilized from volar and who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled over a 12-month period. Each patient randomly received either a dorsal plaster splint or a vacuum-fit flexible but blocked orthosis applied postoperatively in the operating theatre to achieve postoperative immobilization. After one week all patients were crossed over to the complementary device maintaining the immobilization until end of week 2. After week 2 both groups were allowed to exercise wrist mobility with a physiotherapist, in the orthosis group the device was deblocked, thus allowing limited wrist mobility. After week 4 the devices were removed in both groups. Follow-up exams were performed after postoperative weeks 1, 2, 4 and 12.Results were determined after week 1 and 2 using SF 36 and a personally compiled questionnaire; after weeks 4 and 12 with a clinical check-up, calculation of ROM and the DASH Score. Comparison of the two groups showed a significant difference in ROM for volar flexion after 4 weeks, but no significant differences in DASH Score, duration of disability or x-ray findings. With regard to satisfaction with comfort and hygiene, patients were significantly more satisfied with the dynamic orthosis, and 23 of the 29 patients would prefer the flexible vacuum orthosis in future.German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS DRKS00006097.

  20. Evaluation of the magnitude of hip joint deformation in subjects with avascular necrosis of the hip joint during walking with and without Scottish Rite orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohammad Taghi; Mohammadi, Ali; Ebrahimi, Mohammad Hossein; McGarry, Anthony

    2017-02-01

    The femoral head in subjects with leg calve perthes disease (LCPD) is generally considerably deformed. It is debatable whether this deformation is due to an increase in applied loads, a decrease in bone mineral density or a change in containment of articular surfaces. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of these factors on deformation of the femoral head. Two subjects with LCPD participated in this study. Subject motion and the forces applied on the affected leg were recorded using a motion analysis system (Qualsis TM ) and a Kistler force plate. OpenSim software was used to determine joint contact force of the hip joint whilst walking with and without a Scottish Rite orthosis. 3D Models of hip joints of both subjects were produced by Mimics software. The deformation of femoral bone was determined by Abaqus. Mean values of the force applied on the leg increased while walking with the orthosis. There was no difference between bone mineral density (BMD) of the femoral bone of normal and LCPD sides (p-value>0.05) and no difference between hip joint contact force of normal and LCPD sides. Hip joint containment appeared to decrease follow the use of the orthosis. It can be concluded that the deformation of femoral head in LCPD may not be due to change in BMD or applied load. Although the Scottish Rite orthosis is used mostly to increase hip joint containment, it appears to reduce hip joint contact area. It is recommended that a similar study is conducted using a higher number of subjects. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. All rights reserved.

  1. Planetary explorer liquid propulsion study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckevitt, F. X.; Eggers, R. F.; Bolz, C. W.

    1971-01-01

    An analytical evaluation of several candidate monopropellant hydrazine propulsion system approaches is conducted in order to define the most suitable configuration for the combined velocity and attitude control system for the Planetary Explorer spacecraft. Both orbiter and probe-type missions to the planet Venus are considered. The spacecraft concept is that of a Delta launched spin-stabilized vehicle. Velocity control is obtained through preprogrammed pulse-mode firing of the thrusters in synchronism with the spacecraft spin rate. Configuration selection is found to be strongly influenced by the possible error torques induced by uncertainties in thruster operation and installation. The propulsion systems defined are based on maximum use of existing, qualified components. Ground support equipment requirements are defined and system development testing outlined.

  2. Assessing Hypothetical Gravity Control Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Millis, Marc G.

    2006-01-01

    Gauging the benefits of hypothetical gravity control propulsion is difficult, but addressable. The major challenge is that such breakthroughs are still only notional concepts rather than being specific methods from which performance can be rigorously quantified. A recent assessment by Tajmar and Bertolami used the rocket equation to correct naive misconceptions, but a more fundamental analysis requires the use of energy as the basis for comparison. The energy of a rocket is compared to an ide...

  3. Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion System Modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chengyuan

    2013-01-01

    The Blended-Wing-Body is a conceptual aircraft design with rear-mounted, over wing engines. Turboelectric distributed propulsion system with boundary layer ingestion has been considered for this aircraft. It uses electricity to transmit power from the core turbine to the fans, therefore dramatically increases bypass ratio to reduce fuel consumption and noise. This dissertation presents methods on designing the TeDP system, evaluating effects of boundary layer ingestion, modelling engine perfo...

  4. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Development Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tony

    2015-01-01

    There are clear advantages of development of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) for a crewed mission to Mars. NTP for in-space propulsion enables more ambitious space missions by providing high thrust at high specific impulse ((is) approximately 900 sec) that is 2 times the best theoretical performance possible for chemical rockets. Missions can be optimized for maximum payload capability to take more payload with reduced total mass to orbit; saving cost on reduction of the number of launch vehicles needed. Or missions can be optimized to minimize trip time significantly to reduce the deep space radiation exposure to the crew. NTR propulsion technology is a game changer for space exploration to Mars and beyond. However, 'NUCLEAR' is a word that is feared and vilified by some groups and the hostility towards development of any nuclear systems can meet great opposition by the public as well as from national leaders and people in authority. The public often associates the 'nuclear' word with weapons of mass destruction. The development NTP is at risk due to unwarranted public fears and clear honest communication of nuclear safety will be critical to the success of the development of the NTP technology. Reducing cost to NTP development is critical to its acceptance and funding. In the past, highly inflated cost estimates of a full-scale development nuclear engine due to Category I nuclear security requirements and costly regulatory requirements have put the NTP technology as a low priority. Innovative approaches utilizing low enriched uranium (LEU). Even though NTP can be a small source of radiation to the crew, NTP can facilitate significant reduction of crew exposure to solar and cosmic radiation by reducing trip times by 3-4 months. Current Human Mars Mission (HMM) trajectories with conventional propulsion systems and fuel-efficient transfer orbits exceed astronaut radiation exposure limits. Utilizing extra propellant from one additional SLS launch and available

  5. Propulsion Systems in Water Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Fujisawa

    1995-01-01

    agreement with the field experiment with prototype craft. Measurements are also made for the losses in the intake and the nozzle. The optimization study of the water jet systems is conducted by simulating the change of the nozzle outlet diameter with the variable nozzle arrangement. It is suggested that the nozzle outlet diameter should be decreased as the craft velocity increases to obtain an optimum propulsive efficiency in a wide range of craft velocity.

  6. Space station propulsion requirements study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, C. L.; Brennan, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    Propulsion system requirements to support Low Earth Orbit (LEO) manned space station development and evolution over a wide range of potential capabilities and for a variety of STS servicing and space station operating strategies are described. The term space station and the overall space station configuration refers, for the purpose of this report, to a group of potential LEO spacecraft that support the overall space station mission. The group consisted of the central space station at 28.5 deg or 90 deg inclinations, unmanned free-flying spacecraft that are both tethered and untethered, a short-range servicing vehicle, and a longer range servicing vehicle capable of GEO payload transfer. The time phasing for preferred propulsion technology approaches is also investigated, as well as the high-leverage, state-of-the-art advancements needed, and the qualitative and quantitative benefits of these advancements on STS/space station operations. The time frame of propulsion technologies applicable to this study is the early 1990's to approximately the year 2000.

  7. Antimatter propulsion, status and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Steven D.; Hynes, Michael V.

    1986-01-01

    The use of advanced propulsion techniques must be considered if the currently envisioned launch date of the manned Mars mission were delayed until 2020 or later. Within the next thirty years, technological advances may allow such methods as beaming power to the ship, inertial-confinement fusion, or mass-conversion of antiprotons to become feasible. A propulsion system with an ISP of around 5000 s would allow the currently envisioned mission module to fly to Mars in 3 months and would require about one million pounds to be assembled in Earth orbit. Of the possible methods to achieve this, the antiproton mass-conversion reaction offers the highest potential, the greatest problems, and the most fascination. Increasing the production rates of antiprotons is a high priority task at facilities around the world. The application of antiprotons to propulsion requires the coupling of the energy released in the mass-conversion reaction to thrust-producing mechanisms. Recent proposals entail using the antiprotons to produce inertial confinement fusion or to produce negative muons which can catalyze fusion. By increasing the energy released per antiproton, the effective cost, (dollars/joule) can be reduced. These proposals and other areas of research can be investigated now. These short term results will be important in assessing the long range feasibility of an antiproton powered engine.

  8. Climatology and seasonality of upper ocean salinity: a three-dimensional view from argo floats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ge; Peng, Lin; Ma, Chunyong

    2018-03-01

    Primarily due to the constraints of observation technologies (both field and satellite measurements), our understanding of ocean salinity is much less mature compared to ocean temperature. As a result, the characterizations of the two most important properties of the ocean are unfortunately out of step: the former is one generation behind the latter in terms of data availability and applicability. This situation has been substantially changed with the advent of the Argo floats which measure the two variables simultaneously on a global scale since early this century. The first decade of Argo-acquired salinity data are analyzed here in the context of climatology and seasonality, yielding the following main findings for the global upper oceans. First, the six well-defined "salty pools" observed around ±20° in each hemisphere of the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans are found to tilt westward vertically from the sea surface to about 600 m depth, forming six saline cores within the subsurface oceans. Second, while potential temperature climatology decreases monotonically to the bottom in most places of the ocean, the vertical distribution of salinity can be classified into two categories: A double-halocline type forming immediately above and below the local salinity maximum around 100-150 m depths in the tropical and subtropical oceans, and a single halocline type existing at about 100 m depth in the extratropical oceans. Third, in contrast to the midlatitude dominance for temperature, seasonal variability of salinity in the oceanic mixed layer has a clear tropical dominance. Meanwhile, it is found that a two-mode structure with annual and semiannual periodicities can effectively penetrate through the upper ocean into a depth of 2000 m. Fourth, signature of Rossby waves is identified in the annual phase map of ocean salinity within 200-600 m depths in the tropical oceans, revealing a strongly co-varying nature of ocean temperature and salinity at specific depths

  9. On the nature of the Madagascar dipoles: An analysis from Argo profiling floats and altimetry measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar-González, Borja; Ponsoni, Leandro; Ridderinkhof, Herman; de Ruijter, Will P. M.; Maas, Leo R. M.

    2016-04-01

    The South East Madagascar Current (SEMC) flows poleward along the eastern coast of Madagascar as a western boundary current which further south provides some of the source waters of the Agulhas Current, either directly or in the form of eddies. We investigate the region of dipole formation south of Madagascar combining vertical T/S profiles from Argo floats, altimetry measurements and an existing eddy detection algorithm. Results from our analysis show that the dipole consists of an anticyclonic intrathermocline eddy (ITE) formed on its southern flank and a cyclonic ITE formed on its northern flank. Both lobes of the dipole exhibit similar T/S properties throughout the water column, although vertically shifted within the thermocline depending on its nature: upward in a cyclonic ITE and downward in an anticyclonic ITE. A subsurface salinity maximum of about 35.5 psu characterizes the upper layers with Subtropical Surface Water (STSW). At intermediate levels, a well defined path of South Indian Central Water (SICW) extends throughout the water column up to reach a minimum in salinity of 34.5 psu, corresponding to Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW). Below, at deep layers, the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) is found. The intrathermocline nature of the Madagascar dipoles has not been previously reported and represents an important feature to be considered when assessing the heat and salt fluxes driven by eddy movement and contributing to the Agulhas Current. Unlike surface eddies, intrathermocline eddies strongly influence the intermediate/deeper layers in the oceans and, hence, may have a larger contribution in the spreading rates and pathways of water masses. Because the intrathermocline nature of eddies is invisible to altimetry measurements, these results stress the importance of combining altimetry with historical records of Argo profiles which uncover eddy dynamics below the sea surface. Lastly, we further investigate from altimetry the area of dipole formation

  10. Powered Flight The Engineering of Aerospace Propulsion

    CERN Document Server

    Greatrix, David R

    2012-01-01

    Whilst most contemporary books in the aerospace propulsion field are dedicated primarily to gas turbine engines, there is often little or no coverage of other propulsion systems and devices such as propeller and helicopter rotors or detailed attention to rocket engines. By taking a wider viewpoint, Powered Flight - The Engineering of Aerospace Propulsion aims to provide a broader context, allowing observations and comparisons to be made across systems that are overlooked by focusing on a single aspect alone. The physics and history of aerospace propulsion are built on step-by-step, coupled with the development of an appreciation for the mathematics involved in the science and engineering of propulsion. Combining the author’s experience as a researcher, an industry professional and a lecturer in graduate and undergraduate aerospace engineering, Powered Flight - The Engineering of Aerospace Propulsion covers its subject matter both theoretically and with an awareness of the practicalities of the industry. To ...

  11. In-Space Propulsion (ISP) Solar Sail Propulsion Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Edward E., IV

    2004-01-01

    An overview of the rationale and content for Solar Sail Propulsion (SSP), the on-going project to advance solar technology from technology readiness level 3 to 6 will be provided. A descriptive summary of the major and minor component efforts underway will include identification of the technology providers and a listing of anticipated products Recent important results from major system ground demonstrators will be provided. Finally, a current status of all activities will provided along with the most recent roadmap for the SSP technology development program.

  12. Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Development for Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Scheidegger, Robert J.; Woodworth, Andrew A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    NASA is developing technologies to prepare for human exploration missions to Mars. Solar electric propulsion (SEP) systems are expected to enable a new cost effective means to deliver cargo to the Mars surface. Nearer term missions to Mars moons or near-Earth asteroids can be used to both develop and demonstrate the needed technology for these future Mars missions while demonstrating new capabilities in their own right. This presentation discusses recent technology development accomplishments for high power, high voltage solar arrays and power management that enable a new class of SEP missions.

  13. Propulsion of liposomes using bacterial motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhenhai; Li Kejie; Li Zhifei; Yu Wei; Xie Zhihong; Shi Zhiguo

    2013-01-01

    Here we describe the utilization of flagellated bacteria as actuators to propel spherical liposomes by attaching bacteria to the liposome surface. Bacteria were stably attached to liposomes using a cross-linking antibody. The effect of the number of attached bacteria on propulsion speed was experimentally determined. The effects of bacterial propulsion on the bacteria–antibody–liposome complex were stochastic. We demonstrated that liposomal mobility increased when bacteria were attached, and the propulsion speed correlated with the number of bacteria. (paper)

  14. A Conceptual Tree of Laser Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakhomov, Andrew V.; Sinko, John E.

    2008-01-01

    An original attempt to develop a conceptual tree for laser propulsion is offered. The tree provides a systematic view for practically all possible laser propulsion concepts and all inter-conceptual links, based on propellant phases and phase transfers. It also helps to see which fields of laser propulsion have been already thoroughly explored, where the next effort must be applied, and which paths should be taken with proper care or avoided entirely

  15. Medeia na Argonáutica: um plano trágico de Argo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Gerônimo Mota Diniz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O propósito desse trabalho é analisar como a relação entre os personagens Medeia e Jasão na Argonáutica de Apolônio de Rodes se estabelece a partir de seu encontro no canto III da obra, por intermédio da discussão acerca do poder de sedução do discurso de Jasão. Exemplos do canto III da obra permitirão compreender como Argo, sobrinho de Medeia, utiliza as habilidades retóricas de Jasão para conquistar o auxílio de Medeia no cumprimento das provas que levarão à conquista do velo de ouro. Além disso, uma análise mais atenta permitirá entender como Apolônio insere nesse discurso elementos ligados a Medeia de Eurípides, fazendo com que a Argonáutica sirva como uma antecipação das situações da peça trágica. 

  16. Observation of the thunderstorm-related ground cosmic ray flux variations by ARGO-YBJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, B.; Bernardini, P.; Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Catalanotti, S.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, T. L.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; D'Amone, A.; Danzengluobu; De Mitri, I.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Sciascio, G.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Zhenyong; Gao, W.; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, Hongbo; Iacovacci, M.; Iuppa, R.; Jia, H. Y.; Labaciren; Li, H. J.; Liu, C.; Liu, J.; Liu, M. Y.; Lu, H.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, X. H.; Mancarella, G.; Mari, S. M.; Marsella, G.; Mastroianni, S.; Montini, P.; Ning, C. C.; Perrone, L.; Pistilli, P.; Salvini, P.; Santonico, R.; Shen, P. R.; Sheng, X. D.; Shi, F.; Surdo, A.; Tan, Y. H.; Vallania, P.; Vernetto, S.; Vigorito, C.; Wang, H.; Wu, C. Y.; Wu, H. R.; Xue, L.; Yang, Q. Y.; Yang, X. C.; Yao, Z. G.; Yuan, A. F.; Zha, M.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, J.; Zhaxiciren; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.; Zhu, F. R.; Zhu, Q. Q.; D'Alessandro, F.; ARGO-YBJ Collaboration

    2018-02-01

    A correlation between the secondary cosmic ray flux and the near-earth electric field intensity, measured during thunderstorms, has been found by analyzing the data of the ARGO-YBJ experiment, a full coverage air shower array located at the Yangbajing Cosmic Ray Laboratory (4300 m a. s. l., Tibet, China). The counting rates of showers with different particle multiplicities (m =1 , 2, 3, and ≥4 ) have been found to be strongly dependent upon the intensity and polarity of the electric field measured during the course of 15 thunderstorms. In negative electric fields (i.e., accelerating negative charges downwards), the counting rates increase with increasing electric field strength. In positive fields, the rates decrease with field intensity until a certain value of the field EFmin (whose value depends on the event multiplicity), above which the rates begin increasing. By using Monte Carlo simulations, we found that this peculiar behavior can be well described by the presence of an electric field in a layer of thickness of a few hundred meters in the atmosphere above the detector, which accelerates/decelerates the secondary shower particles of opposite charge, modifying the number of particles with energy exceeding the detector threshold. These results, for the first time to our knowledge, give a consistent explanation for the origin of the variation of the electron/positron flux observed for decades by high altitude cosmic ray detectors during thunderstorms.

  17. Aeroelastic Wing Shaping Using Distributed Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan T. (Inventor); Reynolds, Kevin Wayne (Inventor); Ting, Eric B. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An aircraft has wings configured to twist during flight. Inboard and outboard propulsion devices, such as turbofans or other propulsors, are connected to each wing, and are spaced along the wing span. A flight controller independently controls thrust of the inboard and outboard propulsion devices to significantly change flight dynamics, including changing thrust of outboard propulsion devices to twist the wing, and to differentially apply thrust on each wing to change yaw and other aspects of the aircraft during various stages of a flight mission. One or more generators can be positioned upon the wing to provide power for propulsion devices on the same wing, and on an opposite wing.

  18. Electrospray Propulsion Engineering Toolkit (ESPET), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To accelerate the development of scaled-up Electrospray Propulsion emitter array systems with practical thrust levels, Spectral Sciences, Inc. (SSI), in...

  19. The SMPR for the naval propulsion; Les RPMP pour la propulsion navale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauducheau, B. [Technicatome, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2002-07-01

    The first controlled application of the fissile energy was the american nuclear reactor for the ship propulsion. Since the sixties, the France begun researches to secure the independence of its nuclear propulsion program. The historical aspects, the french program management and the perspectives of the ship nuclear propulsion, are discussed in this paper. (A.L.B.)

  20. Advanced Chemical Propulsion System Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portz, Ron; Alexander, Leslie; Chapman, Jack; England, Chris; Henderson, Scott; Krismer, David; Lu, Frank; Wilson, Kim; Miller, Scott

    2007-01-01

    A detailed; mission-level systems study has been performed to show the benefit resulting from engine performance gains that will result from NASA's In-Space Propulsion ROSS Cycle 3A NRA, Advanced Chemical Technology sub-topic. The technology development roadmap to accomplish the NRA goals are also detailed in this paper. NASA-Marshall and NASA-JPL have conducted mission-level studies to define engine requirements, operating conditions, and interfaces. Five reference missions have been chosen for this analysis based on scientific interest, current launch vehicle capability and trends in space craft size: a) GTO to GEO, 4800 kg, delta-V for GEO insertion only approx.1830 m/s; b) Titan Orbiter with aerocapture, 6620 kg, total delta V approx.210 m/s, mostly for periapsis raise after aerocapture; c) Enceladus Orbiter (Titan aerocapture) 6620 kg, delta V approx.2400 m/s; d) Europa Orbiter, 2170 kg, total delta V approx.2600 m/s; and e) Mars Orbiter, 2250 kg, total delta V approx.1860 m/s. The figures of merit used to define the benefit of increased propulsion efficiency at the spacecraft level include propulsion subsystem wet mass, volume and overall cost. The objective of the NRA is to increase the specific impulse of pressure-fed earth storable bipropellant rocket engines to greater than 330 seconds with nitrogen tetroxide and monomothylhydrazine propellants and greater than 335 , seconds with nitrogen tetroxide and hydrazine. Achievement of the NRA goals will significantly benefit NASA interplanetary missions and other government and commercial opportunities by enabling reduced launch weight and/or increased payload. The study also constitutes a crucial stepping stone to future development, such as pump-fed storable engines.

  1. Propulsion at low Reynolds number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najafi, Ali; Golestanian, Ramin

    2005-01-01

    We study the propulsion of two model swimmers at low Reynolds number. Inspired by Purcell's model, we propose a very simple one-dimensional swimmer consisting of three spheres that are connected by two arms whose lengths can change between two values. The proposed swimmer can swim with a special type of motion, which breaks the time-reversal symmetry. We also show that an ellipsoidal membrane with tangential travelling wave on it can also propel itself in the direction preferred by the travelling wave. This system resembles the realistic biological animals like Paramecium

  2. Propulsion at low Reynolds number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najafi, Ali [Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan 45195-159 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faculty of Science, Zanjan University, Zanjan 313 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Golestanian, Ramin [Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan 45195-159 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2005-04-13

    We study the propulsion of two model swimmers at low Reynolds number. Inspired by Purcell's model, we propose a very simple one-dimensional swimmer consisting of three spheres that are connected by two arms whose lengths can change between two values. The proposed swimmer can swim with a special type of motion, which breaks the time-reversal symmetry. We also show that an ellipsoidal membrane with tangential travelling wave on it can also propel itself in the direction preferred by the travelling wave. This system resembles the realistic biological animals like Paramecium.

  3. Space storable propulsion components development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, R., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The current development status of components to control the flow of propellants (liquid fluorine and hydrazine) in a demonstration space storable propulsion system is discussed. The criteria which determined the designs for the pressure regulator, explosive-actuated valves, propellant shutoff valve, latching solenoid-actuated valve and propellant filter are presented. The test philosophy that was followed during component development is outlined. The results from compatibility demonstrations for reusable connectors, flange seals, and CRES/Ti-6Al4V transition tubes and the evaluations of processes for welding (hand-held TIG, automated TIG, and EB), cleaning for fluorine service, and decontamination after fluorine exposure are described.

  4. Laser Diagnostics for Spacecraft Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-13

    for public release; distribution unlimited.  AFTC/PA Clearance No.  XXXX 3 Motivation • Many satellite propulsion technologies were developed in the...distribution unlimited.  AFTC/PA Clearance No.  XXXX Propellant Catalyst Bed Decomposition Chamber Thrust Chamber 5 Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy Beer...Hydrazine Thruster NH3 Iν(L)Iν0 Ramp t I L DISTRIBUTION A:  Approved for public release; distribution unlimited.  AFTC/PA Clearance No.  XXXX 6 Wavelength

  5. Effect of Posture Training with Weighted Kypho-Orthosis (WKO on Improving Balance in Women with Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ahmad Raeissadat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the effect of weighted kypho-orthosis (WKO on improving balance in women with osteoporosis. In this nonrandomized controlled clinical trial, 31 patients with osteoporosis were included. The patients were assigned to two groups: (1 control group who received 4-week home-based daily exercise program including weight bearing, back strengthening, and balance exercises and (2 intervention group (WKO who performed aforementioned exercises and wore WKO for one hour twice a day. Patients were assessed using clinical balance tests (timed up and go test, functional reach test, and unilateral balance test before and 4 weeks after start of treatment. Results. Functional reach and timed up and go test were improved significantly in both groups compared to baseline. The improvement in intervention group was more significant in comparison to control group (P<0.05. Discussion. Posture training with WKO together with exercise program improved two clinical balance tests in women with osteoporosis. Conclusion. Posture training support (PTS applied as WKO together with back extension exercises can be prescribed as an intervention in elderly women in order to reduce the risk of falling.

  6. Detection of Gait Modes Using an Artificial Neural Network during Walking with a Powered Ankle-Foot Orthosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm, for use with a Portable Powered Ankle-Foot Orthosis (i.e., PPAFO) that can automatically detect changes in gait modes (level ground, ascent and descent of stairs or ramps), thus allowing for appropriate ankle actuation control during swing phase. An artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm used input signals from an inertial measurement unit and foot switches, that is, vertical velocity and segment angle of the foot. Output from the ANN was filtered and adjusted to generate a final data set used to classify different gait modes. Five healthy male subjects walked with the PPAFO on the right leg for two test scenarios (walking over level ground and up and down stairs or a ramp; three trials per scenario). Success rate was quantified by the number of correctly classified steps with respect to the total number of steps. The results indicated that the proposed algorithm's success rate was high (99.3%, 100%, and 98.3% for level, ascent, and descent modes in the stairs scenario, respectively; 98.9%, 97.8%, and 100% in the ramp scenario). The proposed algorithm continuously detected each step's gait mode with faster timing and higher accuracy compared to a previous algorithm that used a decision tree based on maximizing the reliability of the mode recognition. PMID:28070188

  7. Development of an Active Ankle Foot Orthosis to Prevent Foot Drop and Toe Drag in Hemiplegic Patients: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungyoon Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed an active ankle-foot orthosis (AAFO that controls dorsiflexion/plantarflexion of the ankle joint to prevent foot drop and toe drag during hemiplegic walking. To prevent foot slap after initial contact, the ankle joint must remain active to minimize forefoot collision against the ground. During late stance, the ankle joint must also remain active to provide toe clearance and to aid with push-off. We implemented a series elastic actuator in our AAFO to induce ankle dorsiflexion/plantarflexion. The activator was controlled by signals from force sensing register (FSR sensors that detected gait events. Three dimensional gait analyses were performed for three hemiplegic patients under three different gait conditions: gait without AFO (NAFO, gait with a conventional hinged AFO that did not control the ankle joint (HAFO, and gait with the newly-developed AFO (AAFO. Our results demonstrate that our newly-developed AAFO not only prevents foot drop by inducing plantarflexion during loading response, but also prevents toe drag by facilitating plantarflexion during pre-swing and dorsiflexion during swing phase, leading to improvement in most temporal-spatial parameters. However, only three hemiplegic patients were included in this gait analysis. Studies including more subjects will be required to evaluate the functionality of our newly developed AAFO.

  8. The Effect of Rocker Bar Ankle Foot Orthosis on Functional Mobility in Post-Stroke Hemiplegic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Farmani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Ankle Foot Orthoses (AFOs are widely utilized to improve walking ability in hemiplegic patients. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of Rocker bar Ankle Foot Orthosis (RAFO on functional mobility in post-stroke hemiplegic patients. Methods: Fifteen hemiplegic patients (men and women who were at least 6-months post-stroke and able to walk without assistive device for at least 10 meters voluntarily participated in this study. The patients were examined with and without RAFO. Their functional mobility was evaluated through 10-meter walk test and Timed Up and Go (TUG test. Also, paired t-test was used to analyze obtained data. Results: When patients used RAFO, their gait speed significantly increased (P<0.05. Also, the time of performing TUG test experienced a significant decrease using RAFO compared with utilizing shoe only (P<0.05. Discussion: RAFO led to a significant improvement in functional mobility in hemiplegic patient’s secondary to stroke. It seems that, it has been due to the positive effect of rocker modification on improving push off and transferring weight during stance phase of gait.

  9. Effects on foot external rotation of the modified ankle-foot orthosis on post-stroke hemiparetic gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha Jeong; Chun, Min Ho; Kim, Hong Min; Kim, Bo Ryun

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of heel-opened ankle foot orthosis (HOAFO) on hemiparetic gait after stroke, especially on external foot rotation, and to compare the effects of HOAFO with conventional plastic-AFO (pAFO) and barefoot during gait. This cross-over observational study involved 15 hemiparetic patients with external rotation of the affected foot. All subjects were able to walk independently, regardless of their usual use of a single cane, and had a less than fair-grade in ankle dorsiflexion power. Each patient was asked to walk in three conditions with randomized sequences: 1) barefoot, 2) with a pAFO, and 3) with an HOAFO. Their gait patterns were analyzed using a motion analysis system. Fifteen patients consisted of nine males and six females. On gait analysis, hip and foot external rotation were significantly greater in pAFO (-3.35° and -23.68°) than in barefoot and HOAFO conditions (pexternal rotation compared with pAFO; although there was no significant difference between HOAFO and barefoot walking. Walking speed and percentage of single limb support were significantly greater for HOAFO than in barefoot walking. HOAFO was superior to pAFO in reducing hip and foot external rotation during the stance phase in patients with post-stroke hemiparesis. HOAFO may, therefore, be useful in patients with excessive external rotation of the foot during conventional pAFO.

  10. Power processing for electric propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, R. C.; Herron, B. G.; Gant, G. D.

    1975-01-01

    The potential of achieving up to 30 per cent more spacecraft payload or 50 per cent more useful operating life by the use of electric propulsion in place of conventional cold gas or hydrazine systems in science, communications, and earth applications spacecraft is a compelling reason to consider the inclusion of electric thruster systems in new spacecraft design. The propulsion requirements of such spacecraft dictate a wide range of thruster power levels and operational lifetimes, which must be matched by lightweight, efficient, and reliable thruster power processing systems. This paper will present electron bombardment ion thruster requirements; review the performance characteristics of present power processing systems; discuss design philosophies and alternatives in areas such as inverter type, arc protection, and control methods; and project future performance potentials for meeting goals in the areas of power processor weight (10 kg/kW), efficiency (approaching 92 per cent), reliability (0.96 for 15,000 hr), and thermal control capability (0.3 to 5 AU).

  11. Gasdynamic Mirror Fusion Propulsion Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, Bill; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A gasdynamic mirror (GDM) fusion propulsion experiment is currently being constructed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to test the feasibility of this particular type of fusion device. Because of the open magnetic field line configuration of mirror fusion devices, they are particularly well suited for propulsion system applications since they allow for the easy ejection of thrust producing plasma. Currently, the MSFC GDM is constructed in three segments. The vacuum chamber mirror segment, the plasma injector mirror segment, and the main plasma chamber segment. Enough magnets are currently available to construct up to three main plasma chamber segments. The mirror segments are also segmented such that they can be expanded to accommodate new end plugging strategies with out requiring the disassembly of the entire mirror segment. The plasma for the experiment is generated in a microwave cavity located between the main magnets and the mirror magnets. Ion heating is accomplished through ambipolar diffusion. The objective of the experiment is to investigate the stability characteristics of the gasdynamic mirror and to map a region of parameter space within which the plasma can be confined in a stable steady state configuration. The mirror ratio, plasma density, and plasma "b" will be varied over a range of values and measurements subsequently taken to determine the degree of plasma stability.

  12. Development of superconducting ship propulsion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuraba, Junji; Mori, Hiroyuki; Hata, Fumiaki; Sotooka, Koukichi

    1991-01-01

    When we plan displacement-type monohull high speed vessels, it is difficult to get the hull form with the wave-making resistance minimum, because the stern shape is restricted by arrangement of propulsive machines and shafts. A small-sized and light-weight propulsive machines will reduce the limit to full form design. Superconducting technology will have capability of realizing the small-sized and light-weight propulsion motor. The superconducting electric propulsion system which is composed of superconducting propulsion motors and generators, seems to be an ideal propulsion system for future vehicles. We have constructed a 480 kW superconducting DC homopolar laboratory test motor for developing this propulsion system. The characteristic of this motor is that it has a superconducting field winding and a segmented armature drum. The superconducting field winding which operates in the persistent current mode, is cooled by a condensation heat exchanger and helium refigerating system built into the cryostat of the superconducting field winding. The operating parameters of this motor agreed well with the design parameters. Using the design concepts of this motor, we have conceptually designed a 150,000-200,000 PS superconducting electric propulsive system for a displacement-type monohull high speed ship. (author)

  13. Integrated Propulsion Data System Public Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kimberly

    2001-01-01

    The Integrated Propulsion Data System's (IPDS) focus is to provide technologically-advanced philosophies of doing business at SSC that will enhance the existing operations, engineering and management strategies and provide insight and metrics to assess their daily impacts, especially as related to the Propulsion Test Directorate testing scenarios for the 21st Century.

  14. 46 CFR 109.555 - Propulsion boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Propulsion boilers. 109.555 Section 109.555 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.555 Propulsion boilers. The master or person in charge and the engineer in charge shall...

  15. Research Activities on Special Propulsion in BUAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Haibin; Wang Haixing; Liu Chang; Xiang Min; Yao Jie; Liu Yu

    2007-01-01

    An overview is presented of special propulsion research carried out in Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics of China. The research activities are supported by NSFC (National Natural Science Foundation of China), other governmental agencies and industrial partners, which include experimental, analytical and numerical work related to arcjet thrusters, ion thrusters, plasma sail and other new concept propulsions

  16. Propulsive efficiency and non- expert swimmers performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Barbosa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Propulsive efficiency is one of the most interesting issues for competitive swimming researchers, has it presents significant relationships with the swimmer’s biophysical behavior and his/her performance. Although propulsive efficiency is a variable that has been quite studied in elite swimmers, there is no research on this issue in young and non-expert swimmers. Thus, the aim of this study was to: (i estimate the propulsive efficiency on non-expert swimmers; (ii identify biomechanical and anthropometrical parameters that are associated with propulsive efficiency; (iii identify the association between the propulsive efficiency and swim performance. Twenty-eight non-expert swimmers participated on this study. It was assessed the propulsive efficiency, biomechanical and anthropometrical parameters, as well as, the swim performance. The propulsive efficiency of non-expert swimmers is lower than data reported in the literature to higher competitive levels swimmers and there are no significant differences between boys and girls. It was also noted that several biomechanical and anthropometrical parameters, as well as, the swim performance are associated with the propulsive efficiency.

  17. Powersail High Power Propulsion System Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulczinski, Frank S., III

    2000-11-01

    A desire by the United States Air Force to exploit the space environment has led to a need for increased on-orbit electrical power availability. To enable this, the Air Force Research Laboratory Space Vehicles Directorate (AFRL/ VS) is developing Powersail: a two-phased program to demonstrate high power (100 kW to 1 MW) capability in space using a deployable, flexible solar array connected to the host spacecraft using a slack umbilical. The first phase will be a proof-of-concept demonstration at 50 kW, followed by the second phase, an operational system at full power. In support of this program, the AFRL propulsion Directorate's Spacecraft Propulsion Branch (AFRL/PRS ) at Edwards AFB has commissioned a design study of the Powersail High Power Propulsion System. The purpose of this study, the results of which are summarized in this paper, is to perform mission and design trades to identify potential full-power applications (both near-Earth and interplanetary) and the corresponding propulsion system requirements and design. The design study shall farther identify a suitable low power demonstration flight that maximizes risk reduction for the fully operational system. This propulsion system is expected to be threefold: (1) primary propulsion for moving the entire vehicle, (2) a propulsion unit that maintains the solar array position relative to the host spacecraft, and (3) control propulsion for maintaining proper orientation for the flexible solar array.

  18. 46 CFR 130.120 - Propulsion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Propulsion control. 130.120 Section 130.120 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Vessel Control § 130.120 Propulsion control. (a) Each vessel must have— (1...

  19. Ablative Laser Propulsion: An Update, Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakhomov, Andrew V.; Cohen, Timothy; Lin Jun; Thompson, M. Shane; Herren, Kenneth A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an updated review of studies on Ablative Laser Propulsion conducted by the Laser Propulsion Group (LPG) at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. In particular, we describe the newest results of our experimental study of specific impulses and coupling coefficients achieved by double-pulsed ablation of graphite, aluminum, copper and lead targets

  20. OBSERVATION OF THE TeV GAMMA-RAY SOURCE MGRO J1908+06 WITH ARGO-YBJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartoli, B.; Catalanotti, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Bernardini, P.; Bleve, C. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica ' Ennio De Giorgi' , Universita del Salento, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, Y. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 918, 100049 Beijing (China); Bolognino, I. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica dell' Universita di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Branchini, P.; Budano, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); Melcarne, A. K. Calabrese [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-CNAF, Viale Berti-Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Camarri, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Cardarelli, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Cattaneo, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Chen, T. L. [Tibet University, 850000 Lhasa, Xizang (China); Creti, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Cui, S. W. [Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016, Hebei (China); Dai, B. Z. [Yunnan University, 2 North Cuihu Rd., 650091 Kunming, Yunnan (China); Staiti, G. D' Ali [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Collaboration: Argo-YBJ Collaboration; and others

    2012-12-01

    The extended gamma-ray source MGRO J1908+06, discovered by the Milagro air shower detector in 2007, has been observed for {approx}4 years by the ARGO-YBJ experiment at TeV energies, with a statistical significance of 6.2 standard deviations. The peak of the signal is found at a position consistent with the pulsar PSR J1907+0602. Parameterizing the source shape with a two-dimensional Gauss function, we estimate an extension of {sigma}{sub ext} = 0.{sup 0}49 {+-} 0.{sup 0}22, which is consistent with a previous measurement by the Cherenkov Array H.E.S.S. The observed energy spectrum is dN/dE = 6.1 {+-} 1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -13} (E/4 TeV){sup -2.54{+-}0.36} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} TeV{sup -1}, in the energy range of {approx}1-20 TeV. The measured gamma-ray flux is consistent with the results of the Milagro detector, but is {approx}2-3 times larger than the flux previously derived by H.E.S.S. at energies of a few TeV. The continuity of the Milagro and ARGO-YBJ observations and the stable excess rate observed by ARGO-YBJ and recorded in four years of data support the identification of MGRO J1908+06 as the steady powerful TeV pulsar wind nebula of PSR J1907+0602, with an integrated luminosity over 1 TeV {approx} 1.8 times the luminosity of the Crab Nebula.

  1. Plankton Assemblage Estimated with BGC-Argo Floats in the Southern Ocean: Implications for Seasonal Successions and Particle Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembauville, Mathieu; Briggs, Nathan; Ardyna, Mathieu; Uitz, Julia; Catala, Philippe; Penkerc'h, Cristophe; Poteau, Antoine; Claustre, Hervé; Blain, Stéphane

    2017-10-01

    The Southern Ocean (SO) hosts plankton communities that impact the biogeochemical cycles of the global ocean. However, weather conditions in the SO restrict mainly in situ observations of plankton communities to spring and summer, preventing the description of biological successions at an annual scale. Here, we use shipboard observations collected in the Indian sector of the SO to develop a multivariate relationship between physical and bio-optical data, and, the composition and carbon content of the plankton community. Then we apply this multivariate relationship to five biogeochemical Argo (BGC-Argo) floats deployed within the same bio-geographical zone as the ship-board observations to describe spatial and seasonal changes in plankton assemblage. The floats reveal a high contribution of bacteria below the mixed layer, an overall low abundance of picoplankton and a seasonal succession from nano- to microplankton during the spring bloom. Both naturally iron-fertilized waters downstream of the Crozet and Kerguelen Plateaus show elevated phytoplankton biomass in spring and summer but they differ by a nano- or microplankton dominance at Crozet and Kerguelen, respectively. The estimated plankton group successions appear consistent with independent estimations of particle diameter based on the optical signals. Furthermore, the comparison of the plankton community composition in the surface layer with the presence of large mesopelagic particles diagnosed by spikes of optical signals provides insight into the nature and temporal changes of ecological vectors that drive particle export. This study emphasizes the power of BGC-Argo floats for investigating important biogeochemical processes at high temporal and spatial resolution.

  2. An objective algorithm for reconstructing the three-dimensional ocean temperature field based on Argo profiles and SST data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chaojie; Ding, Xiaohua; Zhang, Jie; Yang, Jungang; Ma, Qiang

    2017-12-01

    While global oceanic surface information with large-scale, real-time, high-resolution data is collected by satellite remote sensing instrumentation, three-dimensional (3D) observations are usually obtained from in situ measurements, but with minimal coverage and spatial resolution. To meet the needs of 3D ocean investigations, we have developed a new algorithm to reconstruct the 3D ocean temperature field based on the Array for Real-time Geostrophic Oceanography (Argo) profiles and sea surface temperature (SST) data. The Argo temperature profiles are first optimally fitted to generate a series of temperature functions of depth, with the vertical temperature structure represented continuously. By calculating the derivatives of the fitted functions, the calculation of the vertical temperature gradient of the Argo profiles at an arbitrary depth is accomplished. A gridded 3D temperature gradient field is then found by applying inverse distance weighting interpolation in the horizontal direction. Combined with the processed SST, the 3D temperature field reconstruction is realized below the surface using the gridded temperature gradient. Finally, to confirm the effectiveness of the algorithm, an experiment in the Pacific Ocean south of Japan is conducted, for which a 3D temperature field is generated. Compared with other similar gridded products, the reconstructed 3D temperature field derived by the proposed algorithm achieves satisfactory accuracy, with correlation coefficients of 0.99 obtained, including a higher spatial resolution (0.25° × 0.25°), resulting in the capture of smaller-scale characteristics. Finally, both the accuracy and the superiority of the algorithm are validated.

  3. Assessing performance of Bayesian state-space models fit to Argos satellite telemetry locations processed with Kalman filtering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica A Silva

    Full Text Available Argos recently implemented a new algorithm to calculate locations of satellite-tracked animals that uses a Kalman filter (KF. The KF algorithm is reported to increase the number and accuracy of estimated positions over the traditional Least Squares (LS algorithm, with potential advantages to the application of state-space methods to model animal movement data. We tested the performance of two Bayesian state-space models (SSMs fitted to satellite tracking data processed with KF algorithm. Tracks from 7 harbour seals (Phoca vitulina tagged with ARGOS satellite transmitters equipped with Fastloc GPS loggers were used to calculate the error of locations estimated from SSMs fitted to KF and LS data, by comparing those to "true" GPS locations. Data on 6 fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus were used to investigate consistency in movement parameters, location and behavioural states estimated by switching state-space models (SSSM fitted to data derived from KF and LS methods. The model fit to KF locations improved the accuracy of seal trips by 27% over the LS model. 82% of locations predicted from the KF model and 73% of locations from the LS model were <5 km from the corresponding interpolated GPS position. Uncertainty in KF model estimates (5.6 ± 5.6 km was nearly half that of LS estimates (11.6 ± 8.4 km. Accuracy of KF and LS modelled locations was sensitive to precision but not to observation frequency or temporal resolution of raw Argos data. On average, 88% of whale locations estimated by KF models fell within the 95% probability ellipse of paired locations from LS models. Precision of KF locations for whales was generally higher. Whales' behavioural mode inferred by KF models matched the classification from LS models in 94% of the cases. State-space models fit to KF data can improve spatial accuracy of location estimates over LS models and produce equally reliable behavioural estimates.

  4. Investigation on the possible interconnection between Kanata sinkhole, on the high plateau of Tripolis, and springs of Argos area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leontiadis, I.; Dimitroulas, C.; Zouridakis, N.; Dounas, A.; Morfis, A.; Paraskevopoulou, P.

    1984-07-01

    /sup 51/Cr-EDTA has been used as tracer for the investigation of possible interconnection between the sinkhole Kanata, on the high Plateau of Tripolis, and springs of the areas of Argos, Achladokambos and Kinouria. By this experiment, the interconnection between the sinkhole and the submarine spring of Kiveri, as well as the springs of Xovrios Achladokambos river, is proved. Furthermore, the percentage of connection between the sinkhole and the springs, the mean transit time of the water from the sinkhole to the springs, the volume of the underground reservoir feeding the springs, etc., have been calculated.

  5. ARGO, 1-D Neutron Diffusion in Slab, Cylindrical, Spherical Geometry from JAERI Fast-Set, ABBN, RCBN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikawa, Koji

    1971-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: ARGO is a one-dimensional (slab, cylinder or sphere), multigroup diffusion code for use in fast reactor criticality and kinetic parameter analysis. Three cross section sets, i.e., JAERI-Fast-Set, ABBN-Set and RCBN-Set, of 25 groups are prepared for the code as its library tapes. 2 - Method of solution: Eigenvalues are computed by ordinary source-iteration techniques with ordinary acceleration methods for convergence. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Sphere geometry

  6. BIO ARGO floats: tools for operational monitoring of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Slabakova, Violeta; Peneva, Elisaveta; Stanev, Emil

    2014-05-01

    The assessment of ecological status in the context of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires comprehensive knowledge and understanding of the physical and biogeochemical processes that determine the functioning of marine ecosystems. One of the main challenges however is the need of data with frequency relevant to the spatial and temporal scales of the ecological processes. The majority of in situ observations that are commonly used for ecological monitoring of the Black Sea are generally based on near-shore monitoring programs or irregular oceanographic cruises that provide either non-synoptic, coarse resolution realizations of large scale processes or detailed, but time and site specific snapshots of local features. These gaps can be filled by two independent sources: satellite observation and profiling floats. In fact satellite ocean color sensors allows for determination at synoptic scale of water quality parameters through its absorption properties. However the satellite ocean color methods have a number of limitations such as: measurements can only be made during daylight hours; require cloud-free conditions and are sensitive to atmospheric aerosols; provide information only for the upper layer of the ocean (approximately the depth of 10% incident light); algorithms developed for global applications are a source of large uncertainties in the marginal seas and costal areas. These constrains of the optical remote sensing observations can be avoided by using miniature biogeochemical sensors and autonomous platforms that offer remarkable perspectives for observing the "biological" ocean, notably at critical spatiotemporal scales which have been out of reach until recently (Claustre et al., 2010). In the frame of "E-AIMS: Euro-Argo Improvements for the GMES marine Service" 7 EC FP project two Bio Argo floats were deployed in the Black Sea. Beside the traditionally CTD the floats were equipped with biogeochemical

  7. Oxygen in the Southern Ocean From Argo Floats: Determination of Processes Driving Air-Sea Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushinsky, Seth M.; Gray, Alison R.; Johnson, Kenneth S.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.

    2017-11-01

    The Southern Ocean is of outsized significance to the global oxygen and carbon cycles with relatively poor measurement coverage due to harsh winters and seasonal ice cover. In this study, we use recent advances in the parameterization of air-sea oxygen fluxes to analyze 9 years of oxygen data from a recalibrated Argo oxygen data set and from air-calibrated oxygen floats deployed as part of the Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modeling (SOCCOM) project. From this combined data set of 150 floats, we find a total Southern Ocean oxygen sink of -183 ± 80 Tmol yr-1 (positive to the atmosphere), greater than prior estimates. The uptake occurs primarily in the Polar-Frontal Antarctic Zone (PAZ, -94 ± 30 Tmol O2 yr-1) and Seasonal Ice Zone (SIZ, -111 ± 9.3 Tmol O2 yr-1). This flux is driven by wintertime ventilation, with a large portion of the flux in the SIZ passing through regions with fractional sea ice. The Subtropical Zone (STZ) is seasonally driven by thermal fluxes and exhibits a net outgassing of 47 ± 29 Tmol O2 yr-1 that is likely driven by biological production. The Subantarctic Zone (SAZ) uptake is -25 ± 12 Tmol O2 yr-1. Total oxygen fluxes were separated into a thermal and nonthermal component. The nonthermal flux is correlated with net primary production and mixed layer depth in the STZ, SAZ, and PAZ, but not in the SIZ where seasonal sea ice slows the air-sea gas flux response to the entrainment of deep, low-oxygen waters.

  8. Philosophy for nuclear thermal propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Madsen, W.; Redd, L.

    1993-01-01

    The philosophy used for development of nuclear thermal propulsion will determine the cost, schedule and risk associated with the activities. As important is the impression of the decision makers. If the development cost is higher than the product value, it is doubtful that funding will ever be available. On the other hand, if the development supports the economic welfare of the country with a high rate of return, the probability of funding greatly increases. The philosophy is divided into: realism, design, operations and qualification. ''Realism'' addresses such items as political acceptability, potential customers, robustness-flexibility, public acceptance, decisions as needed, concurrent engineering, and the possible role of the CIS. ''Design'' addresses ''minimum requirement,'' built in safety and reliability redundancy, emphasize on eliminating risk at lowest levels, and the possible inclusion of electric generation. ''Operations'' addresses sately, environment, operations, design margins and degradation modes. ''Qualification'' addresses testing needs and test facilities

  9. A Review of Laser Ablation Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phipps, Claude; Bohn, Willy; Lippert, Thomas; Sasoh, Akihiro; Schall, Wolfgang; Sinko, John

    2010-01-01

    Laser Ablation Propulsion is a broad field with a wide range of applications. We review the 30-year history of laser ablation propulsion from the transition from earlier pure photon propulsion concepts of Oberth and Saenger through Kantrowitz's original laser ablation propulsion idea to the development of air-breathing 'Lightcraft' and advanced spacecraft propulsion engines. The polymers POM and GAP have played an important role in experiments and liquid ablation fuels show great promise. Some applications use a laser system which is distant from the propelled object, for example, on another spacecraft, the Earth or a planet. Others use a laser that is part of the spacecraft propulsion system on the spacecraft. Propulsion is produced when an intense laser beam strikes a condensed matter surface and produces a vapor or plasma jet. The advantages of this idea are that exhaust velocity of the propulsion engine covers a broader range than is available from chemistry, that it can be varied to meet the instantaneous demands of the particular mission, and that practical realizations give lower mass and greater simplicity for a payload delivery system. We review the underlying theory, buttressed by extensive experimental data. The primary problem in laser space propulsion theory has been the absence of a way to predict thrust and specific impulse over the transition from the vapor to the plasma regimes. We briefly discuss a method for combining two new vapor regime treatments with plasma regime theory, giving a smooth transition from one regime to the other. We conclude with a section on future directions.

  10. (abstract) ARGOS: a System to Monitor Ulysses Nutation and Thruster Firings from Variations of the Spacecraft Radio Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElrath, T. P.; Cangahuala, L. A.; Miller, K. J.; Stravert, L. R.; Garcia-Perez, Raul

    1995-01-01

    Ulysses is a spin-stabilized spacecraft that experienced significant nutation after its launch in October 1990. This was due to the Sun-spacecraft-Earth geometry, and a study of the phenomenon predicted that the nutation would again be a problem during 1994-95. The difficulty of obtaining nutation estimates in real time from the spacecraft telemetry forced the ESA/NASA Ulysses Team to explore alternative information sources. The work performed by the ESA Operations Team provided a model for a system that uses the radio signal strength measurements to monitor the spacecraft dynamics. These measurements (referred to as AGC) are provided once per second by the tracking stations of the DSN. The system was named ARGOS (Attitude Reckoning from Ground Observable Signals) after the ever-vigilant, hundred-eyed giant of Greek Mythology. The ARGOS design also included Doppler processing, because Doppler shifts indicate thruster firings commanded by the active nutation control carried out onboard the spacecraft. While there is some visibility into thruster activity from telemetry, careful processing of the high-sample-rate Doppler data provides an accurate means of detecting the presence and time of thruster firings. DSN Doppler measurements are available at a ten-per-second rate in the same tracking data block as the AGC data.

  11. A needlet-based approach to the shower-mode data analysis in the ARGO-YBJ experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iuppa, R.; Di Sciascio, G.; Hansen, F.K.; Marinucci, D.; Santonico, R.

    2012-01-01

    The ARGO-YBJ experiment, located at the Yangbajing Cosmic Ray Laboratory (Tibet, 4300 m a.s.l., 606 g/cm 2 ), is an EAS-array exploiting the full coverage approach at high altitude. The large field of view (2 sr) and the low energy threshold (few hundreds of GeV) result in a trigger rate of ∼3.5kHz and ∼10 11 EAS collected per year. Such a data set contains signals laying on different angular scales: point-like and extended gamma-ray sources, as well as large and intermediate scale cosmic-ray anisotropies. The separation of all these contributions is crucial, mostly when they overlap with each other. Needlets are a new form of spherical wavelets that have recently drawn a lot of attention in the cosmological literature, especially in connection with the analysis of CMB data. Needlets enjoy a number of important statistical and numerical properties which suggest that they can be very effective in handling cosmic-ray and gamma-ray data analysis. An unprecedented application to astroparticle physics is shown here. In particular, we focus on their use for background estimation, which is expected to be optimal or nearly-optimal in a well-defined mathematical sense, and for point-source detection. This technique is applied here to the ARGO-YBJ data set, stressing its advantages with respect to standard methods.

  12. OBSERVATION OF TeV GAMMA RAYS FROM THE CYGNUS REGION WITH THE ARGO-YBJ EXPERIMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartoli, B.; Catalanotti, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Bernardini, P.; Bleve, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita del Salento, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, Y. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 918, 100049 Beijing (China); Bolognino, I. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica dell' Universita di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Branchini, P.; Budano, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); Calabrese Melcarne, A. K. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-CNAF, Viale Berti-Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Camarri, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Cardarelli, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Cattaneo, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Chen, T. L. [Tibet University, 850000 Lhasa, Xizang (China); Creti, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Cui, S. W. [Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016, Hebei (China); Dai, B. Z. [Yunnan University, 2 North Cuihu Road, 650091 Kunming, Yunnan (China); D' Ali Staiti, G., E-mail: chensz@ihep.ac.cn [Dipartimento di Fisica e Tecnologie Relative, Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Collaboration: ARGO-YBJ Collaboration; and others

    2012-02-15

    We report the observation of TeV {gamma}-rays from the Cygnus region using the ARGO-YBJ data collected from 2007 November to 2011 August. Several TeV sources are located in this region including the two bright extended MGRO J2019+37 and MGRO J2031+41. According to the Milagro data set, at 20 TeV MGRO J2019+37 is the most significant source apart from the Crab Nebula. No signal from MGRO J2019+37 is detected by the ARGO-YBJ experiment, and the derived flux upper limits at the 90% confidence level for all the events above 600 GeV with medium energy of 3 TeV are lower than the Milagro flux, implying that the source might be variable and hard to be identified as a pulsar wind nebula. The only statistically significant (6.4 standard deviations) {gamma}-ray signal is found from MGRO J2031+41, with a flux consistent with the measurement by Milagro.

  13. An Ensemble Recentering Kalman Filter with an Application to Argo Temperature Data Assimilation into the NASA GEOS-5 Coupled Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppenne, Christian L.

    2013-01-01

    A two-step ensemble recentering Kalman filter (ERKF) analysis scheme is introduced. The algorithm consists of a recentering step followed by an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) analysis step. The recentering step is formulated such as to adjust the prior distribution of an ensemble of model states so that the deviations of individual samples from the sample mean are unchanged but the original sample mean is shifted to the prior position of the most likely particle, where the likelihood of each particle is measured in terms of closeness to a chosen subset of the observations. The computational cost of the ERKF is essentially the same as that of a same size EnKF. The ERKF is applied to the assimilation of Argo temperature profiles into the OGCM component of an ensemble of NASA GEOS-5 coupled models. Unassimilated Argo salt data are used for validation. A surprisingly small number (16) of model trajectories is sufficient to significantly improve model estimates of salinity over estimates from an ensemble run without assimilation. The two-step algorithm also performs better than the EnKF although its performance is degraded in poorly observed regions.

  14. NASA program planning on nuclear electric propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, G.L.; Miller, T.J.

    1992-03-01

    As part of the focused technology planning for future NASA space science and exploration missions, NASA has initiated a focused technology program to develop the technologies for nuclear electric propulsion and nuclear thermal propulsion. Beginning in 1990, NASA began a series of interagency planning workshops and meetings to identify key technologies and program priorities for nuclear propulsion. The high-priority, near-term technologies that must be developed to make NEP operational for space exploration include scaling thrusters to higher power, developing high-temperature power processing units, and developing high power, low-mass, long-lived nuclear reactors. 28 refs

  15. Fitting aerodynamics and propulsion into the puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Patrick J.; Whitehead, Allen H., Jr.; Chapman, Gary T.

    1987-01-01

    The development of an airbreathing single-stage-to-orbit vehicle, in particular the problems of aerodynamics and propulsion integration, is examined. The boundary layer transition on constant pressure surfaces at hypersonic velocities, and the effects of noise on the transition are investigated. The importance of viscosity, real-gas effects, and drag at hypersonic speeds is discussed. A propulsion system with sufficient propulsive lift to enhance the performance of the vehicle is being developed. The difficulties of engine-airframe integration are analyzed.

  16. Application of the Superelastic NiTi Spring in Ankle Foot Orthosis (AFO to Create Normal Ankle Joint Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirhesam Amerinatanzi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hinge-based Ankle Foot Orthosis (HAFO is one of the most common non-surgical solutions for the foot drop. In conventional HAFOs, the ankle joint is almost locked, and plantar flexion is restricted due to the high stiffness of the hinge mechanism. This often leads to a rigid walking gate cycle, poor muscle activity, and muscle atrophy. Since the ankle torque-angle loop has a non-linear profile, the use of a superelastic NiTi spring within the hinge, due to its nonlinear behavior, could recreate a close-to-normal stiffness of the normal ankle joint, which, in turn, could create a more natural walk. The focus of this study is to evaluate the performance of a superelastic NiTi spring versus a conventional Stainless Steel spring in a hinge mechanism of a custom-fit HAFO. To this aim, a custom-fit HAFO was fabricated via the fast casting technique. Then, motion analysis was performed for two healthy subjects (Case I and Case II: (i subjects with bare foot; (ii subjects wearing a conventional HAFO with no spring; (iii subjects wearing a conventional Stainless Steel-based HAFO; and (iv subjects wearing a NiTi spring-based HAFO. The data related to the ankle angle and the amount of moment applied to the ankle during walking were recorded using Cortex software and used for the evaluations. Finally, Finite Element Analysis (FEA was performed to evaluate the safety of the designed HAFO. The NiTi spring offers a higher range of motion (7.9 versus 4.14 degree and an increased level of moment (0.55 versus 0.36 N·m/kg. Furthermore, a NiTi spring offers an ankle torque-angle loop closer to that of the healthy subjects.

  17. Application of the Superelastic NiTi Spring in Ankle Foot Orthosis (AFO) to Create Normal Ankle Joint Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amerinatanzi, Amirhesam; Zamanian, Hashem; Shayesteh Moghaddam, Narges; Jahadakbar, Ahmadreza; Elahinia, Mohammad

    2017-12-07

    Hinge-based Ankle Foot Orthosis (HAFO) is one of the most common non-surgical solutions for the foot drop. In conventional HAFOs, the ankle joint is almost locked, and plantar flexion is restricted due to the high stiffness of the hinge mechanism. This often leads to a rigid walking gate cycle, poor muscle activity, and muscle atrophy. Since the ankle torque-angle loop has a non-linear profile, the use of a superelastic NiTi spring within the hinge, due to its nonlinear behavior, could recreate a close-to-normal stiffness of the normal ankle joint, which, in turn, could create a more natural walk. The focus of this study is to evaluate the performance of a superelastic NiTi spring versus a conventional Stainless Steel spring in a hinge mechanism of a custom-fit HAFO. To this aim, a custom-fit HAFO was fabricated via the fast casting technique. Then, motion analysis was performed for two healthy subjects (Case I and Case II): (i) subjects with bare foot; (ii) subjects wearing a conventional HAFO with no spring; (iii) subjects wearing a conventional Stainless Steel-based HAFO; and (iv) subjects wearing a NiTi spring-based HAFO. The data related to the ankle angle and the amount of moment applied to the ankle during walking were recorded using Cortex software and used for the evaluations. Finally, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was performed to evaluate the safety of the designed HAFO. The NiTi spring offers a higher range of motion (7.9 versus 4.14 degree) and an increased level of moment (0.55 versus 0.36 N·m/kg). Furthermore, a NiTi spring offers an ankle torque-angle loop closer to that of the healthy subjects.

  18. Is effective force application in handrim wheelchair propulsion also efficient?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bregman, D.J.J.; van Drongelen, S.V.; Veeger, H.E.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Efficiency in manual wheelchair propulsion is low, as is the fraction of the propulsion force that is attributed to the moment of propulsion of the wheelchair. In this study we tested the hypothesis that a tangential propulsion force direction leads to an increase in physiological cost,

  19. Development of a multi-data assimilation scheme to integrate Bio-Argo floats data with ocean colour satellite data into the CMEMS MFC-Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossarini, Gianpiero; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Mariotti, Laura; Mignot, Alexandre; Salon, Stefano

    2017-04-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is a very promising site to develop and test the assimilation of Bio-Argo data since 1) the Bio-Argo network is one of the densest of the global ocean, and 2) a consolidate data assimilation framework of biogeochemical variables (3DVAR-BIO, presently based on assimilation of satellite-estimated surface chlorophyll data) already exists within the CMEMS biogeochemical model system for Mediterranean Sea. The MASSIMILI project, granted by the CMEMS Service Evolution initiative, is aimed to develop the assimilation of Bio-Argo Floats data into the CMEMS biogeochemical model system of the Mediterranean Sea, by means of an upgrade of the 3DVAR-BIO scheme. Specific developments of the 3DVAR-BIO scheme focus on the estimate of new operators of the variational decomposition of the background error covariance matrix and on the implementation of the new observation operator specifically for the Bio-Argo float vertical profile data. In particular, a new horizontal covariance operator for chlorophyll, nitrate and oxygen is based on 3D fields of horizontal correlation radius calculated from a long-term reanalysis simulation. A new vertical covariance operator is built on monthly and spatial varying EOF decomposition to account for the spatiotemporal variability of vertical structure of the three variables error covariance. Further, the observation error covariance is a key factor for an effective assimilation of the Bio-Argo data into the model dynamics. The sensitivities of assimilation to the different factors are estimated. First results of the implementation of the new 3DVAR-BIO scheme show the impact of Bio-Argo data on the 3D fields of chlorophyll, nitrate and oxygen. Tuning the length scale factors of horizontal covariance, analysing the sensitivity of the observation error covariance, introducing non-diagonal biogeochemical covariance operator and non-diagonal multi-platform operator (i.e. Bio-Argo and satellite) are crucial future steps for the

  20. Mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea as revealed by ARGO floats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carton, X.; L'Hegaret, P.; Baraille, R.

    2012-03-01

    By analysing ARGO float data over the last four years, a few aspects of the mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea are described. The Red Sea Outflow Water (RSOW) is concentrated in the Southwestern Gulf of Aden, in particular when a cyclonic gyre predominates in this region. Salinities of 36.5 and temperatures of 16 °C are found in this area at depths between 600 and 1000 m. RSOW is more dilute in the eastern part of the Gulf, where intense and relatively barotropic gyres mix it with Indian ocean Central Water. RSOW is also detected along the northeastern coast of Socotra, and fragments of RSOW are found between one and three degrees of latitude north of this island. In the whole Gulf of Aden, the correlation between the deep motions of the floats and the sea-level anomaly measured by altimetry is strong, at regional scale. The finer scale details of the float trajectories are not sampled by altimetry and are often related to the anomalous water masses that the floats encounter. The Persian Gulf Water (PGW) is found in the float profiles near Ras ash Sharbatat (near 57° E, 18° N), again with 36.5 in salinity and about 18-19 °C in temperature. These observations were achieved in winter when the southwestward monsoon currents can advect PGW along the South Arabian coast. Fragments of PGW were also observed in the Arabian Sea between 18 and 20° N and 63 and 65° E in summer, showing that this water mass can escape the Gulf of Oman southeastward, during that season. Kinetic energy distributions of floats with respect to distance or angle share common features between the two regions (Gulf of Aden and Arabian Sea), in particular peaks at 30, 50 and 150 km scales and along the axis of monsoon currents. Hydrological measurements by floats are also influenced by the seasonal variations of PGW and RSOW in these regions.

  1. Mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea as revealed by ARGO floats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Carton

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available By analysing ARGO float data over the last four years, a few aspects of the mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea are described.

    The Red Sea Outflow Water (RSOW is concentrated in the Southwestern Gulf of Aden, in particular when a cyclonic gyre predominates in this region. Salinities of 36.5 and temperatures of 16 °C are found in this area at depths between 600 and 1000 m. RSOW is more dilute in the eastern part of the Gulf, where intense and relatively barotropic gyres mix it with Indian ocean Central Water. RSOW is also detected along the northeastern coast of Socotra, and fragments of RSOW are found between one and three degrees of latitude north of this island. In the whole Gulf of Aden, the correlation between the deep motions of the floats and the sea-level anomaly measured by altimetry is strong, at regional scale. The finer scale details of the float trajectories are not sampled by altimetry and are often related to the anomalous water masses that the floats encounter.

    The Persian Gulf Water (PGW is found in the float profiles near Ras ash Sharbatat (near 57° E, 18° N, again with 36.5 in salinity and about 18–19 °C in temperature. These observations were achieved in winter when the southwestward monsoon currents can advect PGW along the South Arabian coast. Fragments of PGW were also observed in the Arabian Sea between 18 and 20° N and 63 and 65° E in summer, showing that this water mass can escape the Gulf of Oman southeastward, during that season.

    Kinetic energy distributions of floats with respect to distance or angle share common features between the two regions (Gulf of Aden and Arabian Sea, in particular peaks at 30, 50 and 150 km scales and along the axis of monsoon currents. Hydrological measurements by floats are also influenced by the seasonal variations of PGW and RSOW in these regions.

  2. Lower Cretaceous smarl turbidites of the Argo Abyssal Plain, Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Stewart, Sondra K.; Kennett, Diana; Mazzullo, Elsa K.

    1992-01-01

    Sediments recovered during Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 123 from the Argo Abyssal Plain (AAP) consist largely of turbidites derived from the adjacent Australian continental margin. The oldest abundant turbidites are Valanginian-Aptian in age and have a mixed (smarl) composition; they contain subequal amounts of calcareous and siliceous biogenic components, as well as clay and lesser quartz. Most are thin-bedded, fine sand to mud-sized, and best described by Stow and Piper's model (1984) for fine-grained biogenic turbidites. Thicker (to 3 m), coarser-grained (medium-to-coarse sand-sized) turbidites fit Bouma's model (1962) for sandy turbidites; these generally are base-cut-out (BCDE, BDE) sequences, with B-division parallel lamination as the dominant structure. Parallel laminae most commonly concentrate quartz and/or calcispheres vs. lithic clasts or clay, but distinctive millimeter to centimeter-thick, radiolarian-rich laminae occur in both fine and coarse-grained Valanginian-Hauterivian turbidites.AAP turbidites were derived from relatively deep parts of the continental margin (outer shelf, slope, or rise) that lay below the photic zone, but above the calcite compensation depth (CCD). Biogenic components are largely pelagic (calcispheres, foraminifers, radiolarians, nannofossils); lesser benthic foraminifers are characteristic of deep-water (abyssal to bathyal) environments. Abundant nonbiogenic components are mostly clay and clay clasts; smectite is the dominant clay species, and indicates a volcanogenic provenance, most likely the Triassic-Jurassic volcanic suite exposed along the northern Exmouth Plateau.Lower Cretaceous smarl turbidites were generated during eustatic lowstands and may have reached the abyssal plain via Swan Canyon, a submarine canyon thought to have formed during the Late Jurassic. In contrast to younger AAP turbidites, however, Lower Cretaceous turbidites are relatively fine-grained and do not contain notably older reworked fossils. Early

  3. Propulsion Wheel Motor for an Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuered, Joshua M. (Inventor); Herrera, Eduardo (Inventor); Waligora, Thomas M. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Farrell, Logan Christopher (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Winn, Ross Briant (Inventor); Eggleston, IV, Raymond Edward (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); hide

    2016-01-01

    A wheel assembly for an electric vehicle includes a wheel rim that is concentrically disposed about a central axis. A propulsion-braking module is disposed within an interior region of the wheel rim. The propulsion-braking module rotatably supports the wheel rim for rotation about the central axis. The propulsion-braking module includes a liquid cooled electric motor having a rotor rotatable about the central axis, and a stator disposed radially inside the rotor relative to the central axis. A motor-wheel interface hub is fixedly attached to the wheel rim, and is directly attached to the rotor for rotation with the rotor. The motor-wheel interface hub directly transmits torque from the electric motor to the wheel rim at a 1:1 ratio. The propulsion-braking module includes a drum brake system having an electric motor that rotates a cam device, which actuates the brake shoes.

  4. Advanced Chemical Propulsion for Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Larry

    2008-01-01

    The advanced chemical propulsion technology area of NASA's In-Space Technology Project is investing in systems and components for increased performance and reduced cost of chemical propulsion technologies applicable to near-term science missions. Presently the primary investment in the advanced chemical propulsion technology area is in the AMBR high temperature storable bipropellant rocket engine. Scheduled to be available for flight development starting in year 2008, AMBR engine shows a 60 kg payload gain in an analysis for the Titan-Enceladus orbiter mission and a 33 percent manufacturing cost reduction over its baseline, state-of-the-art counterpart. Other technologies invested include the reliable lightweight tanks for propellant and the precision propellant management and mixture ratio control. Both technologies show significant mission benefit, can be applied to any liquid propulsion system, and upon completion of the efforts described in this paper, are at least in parts ready for flight infusion. Details of the technologies are discussed.

  5. Reusable Orbit Transfer Vehicle Propulsion Technology Considerations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perkins, Dave

    1998-01-01

    .... ROTV propulsion technologies to consider chemical rockets have limited mission capture, solar thermal rockets capture most missions but LH2 issues, and electric has highest PL without volume constraint...

  6. Hybrid Electric Propulsion Technologies for Commercial Transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Cheryl; Jansen, Ralph; Jankovsky, Amy

    2016-01-01

    NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate has set strategic research thrusts to address the major drivers of aviation such as growth in demand for high-speed mobility, addressing global climate and capitalizing in the convergence of technological advances. Transitioning aviation to low carbon propulsion is one of the key strategic research thrust and drives the search for alternative and greener propulsion system for advanced aircraft configurations. This work requires multidisciplinary skills coming from multiple entities. The Hybrid Gas-Electric Subproject in the Advanced Air Transportation Project is energizing the transport class landscape by accepting the technical challenge of identifying and validating a transport class aircraft with net benefit from hybrid propulsion. This highly integrated aircraft of the future will only happen if airframe expertise from NASA Langley, modeling and simulation expertise from NASA Ames, propulsion expertise from NASA Glenn, and the flight research capabilities from NASA Armstrong are brought together to leverage the rich capabilities of U.S. Industry and Academia.

  7. Magnetic propulsion for magnetically levitated trains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melville, P H

    1973-12-01

    One of the main problems associated with magnetically levitated trains is the means of propulsion. A system is described whereby the repulsion from the superconducting magnets, in addition to levitating the train, can also be used to propel it.

  8. Authentication for Propulsion Test Streaming Video

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A streaming video system was developed and implemented at SSC to support various propulsion projects at SSC. These projects included J-2X and AJ-26 rocket engine...

  9. Cycloidal Propulsion for UAV VTOL Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boschma, James

    1998-01-01

    .... This propulsion concept holds significant promise for adaptation to UAV VTOL operations. Thrust levels demonstrated were substantially higher than achievable by the best screw type propellers, and approximately equal to those of high end helicopters...

  10. Test report : alternative fuels propulsion durability evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    This document, prepared by Honeywell Aerospace, Phoenix, AZ (Honeywell), contains the final : test report (public version) for the U.S. Department of Transportation/Federal Aviation : Administration (USDOT/FAA) Alternative Fuels Propulsion Engine Dur...

  11. Visions of the Future: Hybrid Electric Aircraft Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is investing continually in improving civil aviation. Hybridization of aircraft propulsion is one aspect of a technology suite which will transform future aircraft. In this context, hybrid propulsion is considered a combination of traditional gas turbine propulsion and electric drive enabled propulsion. This technology suite includes elements of propulsion and airframe integration, parallel hybrid shaft power, turbo-electric generation, electric drive systems, component development, materials development and system integration at multiple levels.

  12. Solar electric propulsion for Mars transport vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, J. M.; Curtis, H. B.; Alexander, S. W.; Gilland, J. H.; Hack, K. J.; Lawrence, C.; Swartz, C. K.

    1990-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) is an alternative to chemical and nuclear powered propulsion systems for both piloted and unpiloted Mars transport vehicles. Photovoltaic solar cell and array technologies were evaluated as components of SEP power systems. Of the systems considered, the SEP power system composed of multijunction solar cells in an ENTECH domed fresnel concentrator array had the least array mass and area. Trip times to Mars optimized for minimum propellant mass were calculated. Additionally, a preliminary vehicle concept was designed.

  13. Institute for Computational Mechanics in Propulsion (ICOMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr. (Editor); Balog, Karen (Editor); Povinelli, Louis A. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The Institute for Computational Mechanics in Propulsion (ICOMP) was formed to develop techniques to improve problem-solving capabilities in all aspects of computational mechanics related to propulsion. ICOMP is operated by the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) and funded via numerous cooperative agreements by the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. This report describes the activities at ICOMP during 1999, the Institute's fourteenth year of operation.

  14. Design of a 3D printed lightweight orthotic device based on twisted and coiled polymer muscle: iGrab hand orthosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saharan, Lokesh; Sharma, Ashvath; Jung de Andrade, Monica; Baughman, Ray H.; Tadesse, Yonas

    2017-04-01

    Partial or total upper extremity impairment affects the quality of life of a vast number of people due to stroke, neuromuscular disease, or trauma. Many researchers have presented hand orthosis to address the needs of rehabilitation or assistance on upper extremity function. Most of the devices available commercially and in literature are powered by conventional actuators such as DC motors, servomotors or pneumatic actuators. Some prototypes are developed based on shape memory alloy (SMA) and dielectric elastomers (DE). This study presents a customizable, 3D printed, a lightweight exoskeleton (iGrab) based on recently reported Twisted and Coiled Polymer (TCP) muscles, which are lightweight, provide high power to weight ratio and large stroke. We used silver coated nylon 6, 6 threads to make the TCP muscles, which can be easily actuated electrothermally. We reviewed briefly hand orthosis created with various actuation technologies and present our design of tendon-driven exoskeleton with the muscles confined in the forearm area. A single muscle is used to facilitate the motion of all three joints namely DIP (Distal interphalangeal), PIP (Proximal Interphalangeal) and MCP (Metacarpophalangeal) using passive tendons though circular rings. The grasping capabilities, along with TCP muscle properties utilized in the design such as life cycle, actuation under load and power inputs are discussed.

  15. Ambulatory Function and Perception of Confidence in Persons with Stroke with a Custom-Made Hinged versus a Standard Ankle Foot Orthosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélique Slijper

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim was to compare walking with an individually designed dynamic hinged ankle foot orthosis (DAFO and a standard carbon composite ankle foot orthosis (C-AFO. Methods. Twelve participants, mean age 56 years (range 26–72, with hemiparesis due to stroke were included in the study. During the six-minute walk test (6MW, walking velocity, the Physiological Cost Index (PCI, and the degree of experienced exertion were measured with a DAFO and C-AFO, respectively, followed by a Stairs Test velocity and perceived confidence was rated. Results. The mean differences in favor for the DAFO were in 6MW 24.3 m (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.90, 43.76, PCI −0.09 beats/m (95% CI −0.27, 0.95, velocity 0.04 m/s (95% CI −0.01, 0.097, and in the Stairs Test −11.8 s (95% CI −19.05, −4.48. All participants except one perceived the degree of experienced exertion lower and felt more confident when walking with the DAFO. Conclusions. Wearing a DAFO resulted in longer walking distance and faster stair climbing compared to walking with a C-AFO. Eleven of twelve participants felt more confident with the DAFO, which may be more important than speed and distance and the most important reason for prescribing an AFO.

  16. Is transcutaneous peroneal stimulation beneficial to patients with chronic stroke using an ankle-foot orthosis? A within-subjects study of patients' satisfaction, walking speed and physical activity level.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swigchem, R. van; Vloothuis, J.; Boer, J. de; Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether community-dwelling chronic stroke patients wearing an ankle-foot orthosis would benefit from changing to functional electrical stimulation of the peroneal nerve. METHODS: In 26 community-dwelling chronic (> 6 months post-onset) patients after

  17. Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Project: Project Management Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, Marc G.

    2004-01-01

    To leap past the limitations of existing propulsion, the NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics (BPP) Project seeks further advancements in physics from which new propulsion methods can eventually be derived. Three visionary breakthroughs are sought: (1) propulsion that requires no propellant, (2) propulsion that circumvents existing speed limits, and (3) breakthrough methods of energy production to power such devices. Because these propulsion goals are presumably far from fruition, a special emphasis is to identify credible research that will make measurable progress toward these goals in the near-term. The management techniques to address this challenge are presented, with a special emphasis on the process used to review, prioritize, and select research tasks. This selection process includes these key features: (a) research tasks are constrained to only address the immediate unknowns, curious effects or critical issues, (b) reliability of assertions is more important than the implications of the assertions, which includes the practice where the reviewers judge credibility rather than feasibility, and (c) total scores are obtained by multiplying the criteria scores rather than by adding. Lessons learned and revisions planned are discussed.

  18. Passive propulsion in vortex wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, D. N.; Hover, F. S.; Triantafyllou, M. S.; Liao, J. C.; Lauder, G. V.

    A dead fish is propelled upstream when its flexible body resonates with oncoming vortices formed in the wake of a bluff cylinder, despite being well outside the suction region of the cylinder. Within this passive propulsion mode, the body of the fish extracts sufficient energy from the oncoming vortices to develop thrust to overcome its own drag. In a similar turbulent wake and at roughly the same distance behind a bluff cylinder, a passively mounted high-aspect-ratio foil is also shown to propel itself upstream employing a similar flow energy extraction mechanism. In this case, mechanical energy is extracted from the flow at the same time that thrust is produced. These results prove experimentally that, under proper conditions, a body can follow at a distance or even catch up to another upstream body without expending any energy of its own. This observation is also significant in the development of low-drag energy harvesting devices, and in the energetics of fish dwelling in flowing water and swimming behind wake-forming obstacles.

  19. Deep and surface circulation in the Northwest Indian Ocean from Argo, surface drifter, and in situ profiling current observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, S. A.; Dimarco, S. F.; Stoessel, M. M.; Wang, Z.

    2010-12-01

    The northwest Indian Ocean is a region of complex circulation and atmospheric influence. The Persian (Arabian) Gulf and Red Sea contribute toward the complexity of the region. This study encompasses the surface and deep circulation in the region ranging from 0°N-35°N and 40°E-80°E from January 2002-December 2009. Emphasis is in the Persian Gulf, Oman Sea and Arabian Sea (roughly from 21°N-26°N and 56°E-63°E) using a variety of in situ and observation data sets. While there is a lot known about the Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea, little is known about the Oman Sea. Circulation in the northwest Indian Ocean is largely influenced by seasonal monsoon winds. From the winter monsoon to the summer monsoon, current direction reverses. Marginal sea inflow and outflow are also seasonally variable, which greatly impacts the physical water mass properties in the region. In situ and observation data sets include data from Argo floats (US GODAE), surface drifters (AOML) and an observation system consisting of 4 independent moorings and a cabled ocean observatory in the Oman Sea. The observing system in the Oman Sea was installed by Lighthouse R & D Enterprises, Inc. beginning in 2005, and measures current, temperature, conductivity, pressure, dissolved oxygen and turbidity, using the Aanderaa Recording Doppler Current Profiler (RDCP) 600 and the Aanderaa Recording Current Meter (RCM) 11. The cabled ocean observatory measures dissolved oxygen, temperature and salinity between 65 m and 1000 m and reports in real-time. Argo floats in the region have a parking depth range from 500 m to 2000 m. At 1000 m depth, 98% of the velocity magnitudes range from less than 1 cm/s to 20 cm/s. The Somali Current and Northeast/Southwest Monsoon Currents are present, reversing from summer to winter. At 2000 m depth, the Somali and Monsoon Currents are still present but have smaller velocities with 98% ranging from less than 1 cm/s to 13 cm/s. At both 1000 m and 2000 m, larger velocities occur

  20. Assessing the impact of multiple altimeter missions and Argo in a global eddy-permitting data assimilation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrier, Simon; Le Traon, Pierre-Yves; Remy, Elisabeth

    2017-12-01

    A series of observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) is carried out with a global data assimilation system at 1/4° resolution using simulated data derived from a 1/12° resolution free-run simulation. The objective is to not only quantify how well multiple altimeter missions and Argo profiling floats can constrain the global ocean analysis and 7-day forecast at 1/4° resolution but also to better understand the sensitivity of results to data assimilation techniques used in Mercator Ocean operational systems. The impact of multiple altimeter data is clearly evidenced even at a 1/4° resolution. Seven-day forecasts of sea level and ocean currents are significantly improved when moving from one altimeter to two altimeters not only on the sea level, but also on the 3-D thermohaline structure and currents. In high-eddy-energy regions, sea level and surface current 7-day forecast errors when assimilating one altimeter data set are respectively 20 and 45 % of the error of the simulation without assimilation. Seven-day forecasts of sea level and ocean currents continue to be improved when moving from one altimeter to two altimeters with a relative error reduction of almost 30 %. The addition of a third altimeter still improves the 7-day forecasts even at this medium 1/4° resolution and brings an additional relative error reduction of about 10 %. The error level of the analysis with one altimeter is close to the 7-day forecast error level when two or three altimeter data sets are assimilated. Assimilating altimeter data also improves the representation of the 3-D ocean fields. The addition of Argo has a major impact on improving temperature and demonstrates the essential role of Argo together with altimetry in constraining a global data assimilation system. Salinity fields are only marginally improved. Results derived from these OSSEs are consistent with those derived from experiments with real data (observing system evaluations, OSEs) but they allow for more

  1. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the AMERICAN ARGO and other platforms as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1975-01-25 to 1975-03-15 (NODC Accession 7500203)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the AMERICAN ARGO and other platforms from 25 January 1975 to 15 March 1975. Data were collected by the...

  2. Temperature and salinity profiles from CTD casts from the ARGOS and other PLATFORMS from a World-Wide Distribution in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 01 November 1989 to 30 November 1989 (NODC Accession 8900297)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD and other data were collected from the ARGOS and other PLATFORMS in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by US...

  3. Turbidity, SOLAR RADIATION - ATMOSPHERIC and other data from PELICAN, CHARTER/FISHING BOATS and ARGO MAINE in the Gulf of Maine, NW Atlantic and other waters from 1990-10-04 to 1995-09-04 (NODC Accession 9600131)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hydrochemical, hydrophysical, and other data were collected from the CHARTER/FISHING BOATS, PELICAN and ARGO MAINE, from October 4, 1990 to September 4, 1995. Data...

  4. The Ion Propulsion System for the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Santiago, Walter; Kamhawi, Hani; Polk, James E.; Snyder, John Steven; Hofer, Richard R.; Parker, J. Morgan

    2015-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission is a candidate Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission whose main objectives are to develop and demonstrate a high-power solar electric propulsion capability for the Agency and return an asteroidal mass for rendezvous and characterization in a companion human-crewed mission. The ion propulsion system must be capable of operating over an 8-year time period and processing up to 10,000 kg of xenon propellant. This high-power solar electric propulsion capability, or an extensible derivative of it, has been identified as a critical part of an affordable, beyond-low-Earth-orbit, manned-exploration architecture. Under the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate the critical electric propulsion and solar array technologies are being developed. The ion propulsion system being co-developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle is based on the NASA-developed 12.5 kW Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS0 thruster and power processing technologies. This paper presents the conceptual design for the ion propulsion system, the status of the NASA in-house thruster and power processing activity, and an update on flight hardware.

  5. Optimum cycle frequencies in hand-rim wheelchair propulsion. Wheelchair propulsion technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L H; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); Rozendal, R H; Sargeant, A J

    1989-01-01

    To study the effect of different cycle frequencies on cardio-respiratory responses and propulsion technique in hand-rim wheelchair propulsion, experienced wheelchair sportsmen (WS group; n = 6) and non-wheelchair users (NW group; n = 6) performed wheelchair exercise tests on a motor-driven

  6. Effect of workload setting on propulsion technique in handrim wheelchair propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Drongelen, Stefan; Arnet, Ursina; Veeger, DirkJan (H E. J); van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    Objective: To investigate the influence of workload setting (speed at constant power, method to impose power) on the propulsion technique (i.e. force and timing characteristics) in handrim wheelchair propulsion. Method: Twelve able-bodied men participated in this study. External forces were measured

  7. Coordination and propulsion and non-propulsion phases in 100 meter breaststroke swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzała, Marek; Krężałek, Piotr; Kucia-Czyszczoń, Katarzyna; Ostrowski, Andrzej; Stanula, Arkadiusz; Tyka, Anna K; Sagalara, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to analyze the coordination, propulsion and non-propulsion phases in the 100 meter breaststroke race. Twenty-seven male swimmers (15.7 ± 1.98 years old) with the total body length (TBL) of 247.0 ± 10.60 [cm] performed an all-out 100 m breaststroke bout. The bouts were recorded with an underwater camera installed on a portable trolley. The swimming kinematic parameters, stroke rate (SR) and stroke length (SL), as well as the coordination indices based on propulsive or non-propulsive movement phases of the arms and legs were distinguished. Swimming speed (V100surface breast) was associated with SL (R = 0.41, p study were measured using partial correlations with controlled age. SL interplayed negatively with the limbs propulsive phase Overlap indicator (R = -0.46, p propulsion Glide indicator. The propulsion in-sweep (AP3) phase of arms and their non-propulsion partial air recovery (ARair) phase interplayed with V100surface breast (R = 0.51, p < 0.05 and 0.48 p < 0.05) respectively, displaying the importance of proper execution of this phase (AP3) and in reducing the resistance recovery phases in consecutive ones.

  8. Modifications in Wheelchair Propulsion Technique with Speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Ian M; Raina, Shashank; Requejo, Philip S; Wilcox, Rand R; Mulroy, Sara; McNitt-Gray, Jill L

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive loading of the upper limb joints during manual wheelchair (WC) propulsion (WCP) has been identified as a factor that contributes to shoulder pain, leading to loss of independence and decreased quality of life. The purpose of this study was to determine how individual manual WC users with paraplegia modify propulsion mechanics to accommodate expected increases in reaction forces (RFs) generated at the pushrim with self-selected increases in WCP speed. Upper extremity kinematics and pushrim RFs were measured for 40 experienced manual WC users with paraplegia while propelling on a stationary ergometer at self-selected free and fast propulsion speeds. Upper extremity kinematics and kinetics were compared within subject between propulsion speeds. Between group and within-subject differences were determined (α = 0.05). Increased propulsion speed was accompanied by increases in RF magnitude (22 of 40, >10 N) and shoulder net joint moment (NJM, 15 of 40, >10 Nm) and decreases in pushrim contact duration. Within-subject comparison indicated that 27% of participants modified their WCP mechanics with increases in speed by regulating RF orientation relative to the upper extremity segments. Reorientation of the RF relative to the upper extremity segments can be used as an effective strategy for mitigating rotational demands (NJM) imposed on the shoulder at increased propulsion speeds. Identification of propulsion strategies that individuals can use to effectively accommodate for increases in RFs is an important step toward preserving musculoskeletal health of the shoulder and improving health-related quality of life.

  9. Nuclear electric propulsion: An integral part of NASA's nuclear propulsion project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    NASA has initiated a technology program to establish the readiness of nuclear propulsion technology for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). This program was initiated with a very modest effort identified with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP); however, nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) is also an integral part of this program and builds upon NASA's Base Research and Technology Program in power and electric propulsion as well as the SP-100 space nuclear power program. Although the Synthesis Group On America's SEI has identified NEP only as an option for cargo missions, recent studies conducted by NASA-Lewis show that NEP offers the potential for early manned Mars missions as well. Lower power NEP is also of current interest for outer planetary robotic missions. Current plans are reviewed for the overall nuclear propulsion project, with emphasis on NEP and those elements of NTP program which have synergism with NEP

  10. Effect of workload setting on propulsion technique in handrim wheelchair propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drongelen, Stefan; Arnet, Ursina; Veeger, Dirkjan H E J; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the influence of workload setting (speed at constant power, method to impose power) on the propulsion technique (i.e. force and timing characteristics) in handrim wheelchair propulsion. Twelve able-bodied men participated in this study. External forces were measured during handrim wheelchair propulsion on a motor driven treadmill at different velocities and constant power output (to test the forced effect of speed) and at power outputs imposed by incline vs. pulley system (to test the effect of method to impose power). Outcome measures were the force and timing variables of the propulsion technique. FEF and timing variables showed significant differences between the speed conditions when propelling at the same power output (p propulsion technique parameters despite an overall constant power output. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Revision of deposition and weathering parameters for the ingestion dose module (ECOSYS) of the ARGOS and RODOS decision support systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Nielsen, Sven Poul; Thørring, Håvard

    2011-01-01

    The ECOSYS model is the ingestion dose model integrated in the ARGOS and RODOS decision support systems for nuclear emergency management. The parameters used in this model have however not been updated in recent years, where the level of knowledge on various environmental processes has increased...... considerably. A Nordic work group has carried out a series of evaluations of the general validity of current ECOSYS default parameters. This paper specifically discusses the parameter revisions required with respect to the modelling of deposition and natural weathering of contaminants on agricultural crops......, to enable the trustworthy prognostic modelling that is essential to ensure justification and optimisation of countermeasure strategies. New modelling approaches are outlined, since it was found that current ECOSYS approaches for deposition and natural weathering could lead to large prognostic errors....

  12. Selection of the number of moderator circuits for Argos PHWR 380 by means of multicriteria decision aiding technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espejo, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    One of the problems in the design of Argos PHWR 380 was the selection of the number of moderator circuits. Two options were proposed, one with three circuits and the other with two circuits. The multicriteria outranking technique was applied to choose the best option. This method has the ability to handle both commensurable and qualitative criteria. It was considered The following prior criteria were cosidered to estimate the weighting factors in decreasing order of importance: public safety, licensing risk, availability (from the point of view of service quality), investment, normal operating dose. The qualification of these factors is discussed in the report as well as the utility functions. For the criteria operating cost and normal operating dose the differences between the utility values of the two options are masked by other factors. For this reason these two criteria were excluded and the analysis was made taking into account the remainding four criteria. The utility matrix was made with the utility values. From the utility matrix and the weighting factors, the concordance and the discordance matrixes were obtained. Adopting appropriate thresholds, both options were compared with the aid of the code Mulcri - I. The result of the comparison, described in the report, shows that the option of three moderator circuits is preferable to the option of two circuits. With the help of code Mulcri - I, a sensitivity analysis by modifying the utility values one by one was made. The analysis shows those variations lower than 50 % which do not revert the result. Variations from 50 % to 80 % revert the result in only a few cases. This means that it is not necessary to go deeper in the analysis of the estimations of the utility values. It is concluded that the option of three circuits finally adopted in Argos PHWR 380 design is preferable to the option of two circuits. (Author)

  13. MW-Class Electric Propulsion System Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPointe, Michael R.; Oleson, Steven; Pencil, Eric; Mercer, Carolyn; Distefano, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    Electric propulsion systems are well developed and have been in commercial use for several years. Ion and Hall thrusters have propelled robotic spacecraft to encounters with asteroids, the Moon, and minor planetary bodies within the solar system, while higher power systems are being considered to support even more demanding future space science and exploration missions. Such missions may include orbit raising and station-keeping for large platforms, robotic and human missions to near earth asteroids, cargo transport for sustained lunar or Mars exploration, and at very high-power, fast piloted missions to Mars and the outer planets. The Advanced In-Space Propulsion Project, High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project, and High Power Electric Propulsion Demonstration Project were established within the NASA Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration Program to develop and advance the fundamental technologies required for these long-range, future exploration missions. Under the auspices of the High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project, and supported by the Advanced In-Space Propulsion and High Power Electric Propulsion Projects, the COMPASS design team at the NASA Glenn Research Center performed multiple parametric design analyses to determine solar and nuclear electric power technology requirements for representative 300-kW class and pulsed and steady-state MW-class electric propulsion systems. This paper describes the results of the MW-class electric power and propulsion design analysis. Starting with the representative MW-class vehicle configurations, and using design reference missions bounded by launch dates, several power system technology improvements were introduced into the parametric COMPASS simulations to determine the potential system level benefits such technologies might provide. Those technologies providing quantitative system level benefits were then assessed for technical feasibility, cost, and time to develop. Key assumptions and primary

  14. 28th Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.R.; Sovey, J.S.

    1992-07-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has initiated a program to establish the readiness of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) technology for relatively near-term applications to outer planet robotic science missions with potential future evolution to system for piloted Mars vehicles. This program was initiated in 1991 with a very modest effort identified with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP); however, NEP is also an integral part of this program and builds upon NASA's Base Research and Technology Program in power and electric propulsion as well as the SP-100 space nuclear power program. The NEP Program will establish the feasibility and practicality of electric propulsion for robotic and piloted solar system exploration. The performance objectives are high specific impulse (200 greater than I(sub sp) greater than 10000 s), high efficiency (over 0.50), and low specific mass. The planning for this program was initially focussed on piloted Mars missions, but has since been redirected to first focus on 100-kW class systems for relatively near-term robotic missions, with possible future evolution to megawatt- and multi-megawatt-class systems applicable to cargo vehicles supporting human missions as well as to the piloted vehicles. This paper reviews current plans and recent progress for the overall nuclear electric propulsion project and closely related activities

  15. NASA's nuclear electric propulsion technology project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.R.; Sovey, J.S.

    1992-07-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has initiated a program to establish the readiness of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) technology for relatively near-term applications to outer planet robotic science missions with potential future evolution to system for piloted Mars vehicles. This program was initiated in 1991 with a very modest effort identified with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP); however, NEP is also an integral part of this program and builds upon NASA's Base Research and Technology Program in power and electric propulsion as well as the SP-100 space nuclear power program. The NEP Program will establish the feasibility and practicality of electric propulsion for robotic and piloted solar system exploration. The performance objectives are high specific impulse (200 greater than I(sub sp) greater than 10000 s), high efficiency (over 0.50), and low specific mass. The planning for this program was initially focussed on piloted Mars missions, but has since been redirected to first focus on 100-kW class systems for relatively near-term robotic missions, with possible future evolution to megawatt-and multi-megawatt-class systems applicable to cargo vehicles supporting human missions as well as to the piloted vehicles. This paper reviews current plans and recent progress for the overall nuclear electric propulsion project and closely related activities. 33 refs

  16. Nuclear thermal propulsion engine cost trade studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschall, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA transportation strategy for the Mars Exploration architecture includes the use of nuclear thermal propulsion as the primary propulsion system for Mars transits. It is anticipated that the outgrowth of the NERVA/ROVER programs will be a nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) system capable of providing the propulsion for missions to Mars. The specific impulse (Isp) for such a system is expected to be in the 870 s range. Trade studies were conducted to investigate whether or not it may be cost effective to invest in a higher performance (Isp>870 s) engine for nuclear thermal propulsion for missions to Mars. The basic cost trades revolved around the amount of mass that must be transported to low-earth orbit prior to each Mars flight and the cost to launch that mass. The mass required depended on the assumptions made for Mars missions scenarios including piloted/cargo flights, number of Mars missions, and transit time to Mars. Cost parameters included launch cost, program schedule for development and operations, and net discount rate. The results were very dependent on the assumptions that were made. Under some assumptions, higher performance engines showed cost savings in the billions of dollars; under other assumptions, the additional cost to develop higher performance engines was not justified

  17. Dynamic simulator for PEFC propulsion plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraide, Masataka; Kaneda, Eiichi; Sato, Takao [Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    This report covers part of a joint study on a PEFC propulsion system for surface ships, summarized in a presentation to this Seminar, entitled {open_quote}Study on a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC) Propulsion System for Surface Ships{close_quotes}, and which envisages application to a 1,500 DWT cargo vessel. The work presented here focuses on a simulation study on PEFC propulsion plant performance, and particularly on the system response to changes in load. Using a dynamic simulator composed of system components including fuel cell, various simulations were executed, to examine the performance of the system as a whole and of the individual system components under quick and large load changes such as occasioned by maneuvering operations and by racing when the propeller emerges above water in heavy sea.

  18. NASA's Launch Propulsion Systems Technology Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnaughey, Paul K.; Femminineo, Mark G.; Koelfgen, Syri J.; Lepsch, Roger A; Ryan, Richard M.; Taylor, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    Safe, reliable, and affordable access to low-Earth (LEO) orbit is necessary for all of the United States (US) space endeavors. In 2010, NASA s Office of the Chief Technologist commissioned 14 teams to develop technology roadmaps that could be used to guide the Agency s and US technology investment decisions for the next few decades. The Launch Propulsion Systems Technology Area (LPSTA) team was tasked to address the propulsion technology challenges for access to LEO. The developed LPSTA roadmap addresses technologies that enhance existing solid or liquid propulsion technologies and their related ancillary systems or significantly advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of less mature systems like airbreathing, unconventional, and other launch technologies. In developing this roadmap, the LPSTA team consulted previous NASA, military, and industry studies as well as subject matter experts to develop their assessment of this field, which has fundamental technological and strategic impacts for US space capabilities.

  19. Manual wheelchair propulsion patterns on natural surfaces during start-up propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Alicia M; Roche, Bailey M; Collinger, Jennifer L; Cooper, Rory A; Boninger, Michael L

    2009-11-01

    To classify propulsion patterns over surfaces encountered in the natural environment during start-up and compare selected biomechanical variables between pattern types. Case series. National Veterans Wheelchair Games, Minneapolis, MN, 2005. Manual wheelchair users (N=29). Subjects pushed their wheelchairs from a resting position over high-pile carpet, over linoleum, and up a ramp with a 5 degrees incline while propulsion kinematics and kinetics were recorded with a motion capture system and an instrumented wheel. Three raters classified the first 3 strokes as 1 of 4 types on each surface: arc, semicircular (SC), single looping over propulsion (SL), and double looping over propulsion (DL). The Fisher exact test was used to assess pattern changes between strokes and surface type. A multiple analysis of variance test was used to compare peak and average resultant force and moment about the hub, average wheel velocity, stroke frequency, contact angle, and distance traveled between stroke patterns. SL was the most common pattern used during start-up propulsion (44.9%), followed by arc (35.9%), DL (14.1%), and SC (5.1%). Subjects who dropped their hands below the rim during recovery achieved faster velocities and covered greater distances (.016propulsion patterns is a difficult task that should use multiple raters. In addition, propulsion patterns change during start-up, with an arc pattern most prevalent initially. The biomechanical findings in this study agree with current clinical guidelines that recommend training users to drop the hand below the pushrim during recovery.

  20. FY1995 development of rehabilitation system for promoting social integration of people with disabilities. Development of a robotic orthosis assisting motion capabilities; 1995 nendo shogaino aru hito no shakai shinshutsu wo sokushinsuru rehabilitation system no kaihatsu. Rehabilitation kino wo yusuru doryoku sogu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    People with slight disabilities on motion. capability can be active in daily life using properly designed motion-assisting devices. Using these device in various cases would help the disabled participate in production activities, and would promote social integration of the disabled as rehabilitation in a broad sense. This research aims at developing such a device capable to help human motion by forearm based on technology and science in robotics. Two different methods are discussed in this research in order to develop robotic orthosis with good performance for assisting human motion by forearm. The first method is constructing a robotic orthosis with electronic motors and force sensors to produce a desired mechanical impedance. This orthosis was carefully designed such that mechanical safety for human is realized. The validity of the mechanism is illustrated by several experiments. The second method is constructing a low cost robotic orthosis with pneumatic actuators. A new type of pneumatic actuator is developed to realize this orthosis. Experimental results show that physical therapy can be performed effectively using this orthosis operated by direct teaching. (NEDO)