WorldWideScience

Sample records for propulsion engine systems

  1. 46 CFR 184.620 - Propulsion engine control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Propulsion engine control systems. 184.620 Section 184... Communications Systems § 184.620 Propulsion engine control systems. (a) A vessel must have two independent means of controlling each propulsion engine. Control must be provided for the engine speed, direction of...

  2. 46 CFR 121.620 - Propulsion engine control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Propulsion engine control systems. 121.620 Section 121... Propulsion engine control systems. (a) A vessel must have two independent means of controlling each propulsion engine. Control must be provided for the engine speed, direction of shaft rotation, and engine...

  3. Nuclear propulsion systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960's and early 1970's was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts

  4. Engine cycle design considerations for nuclear thermal propulsion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelaccio, D.G.; Scheil, C.M.; Collins, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    A top-level study was performed which addresses nuclear thermal propulsion system engine cycle options and their applicability to support future Space Exploration Initiative manned lunar and Mars missions. Technical and development issues associated with expander, gas generator, and bleed cycle near-term, solid core nuclear thermal propulsion engines are identified and examined. In addition to performance and weight the influence of the engine cycle type on key design selection parameters such as design complexity, reliability, development time, and cost are discussed. Representative engine designs are presented and compared. Their applicability and performance impact on typical near-term lunar and Mars missions are shown

  5. A Brief Review of the Need for Robust Smart Wireless Sensor Systems for Future Propulsion Systems, Distributed Engine Controls, and Propulsion Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Behbahani, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    Smart Sensor Systems with wireless capability operational in high temperature, harsh environments are a significant component in enabling future propulsion systems to meet a range of increasingly demanding requirements. These propulsion systems must incorporate technology that will monitor engine component conditions, analyze the incoming data, and modify operating parameters to optimize propulsion system operations. This paper discusses the motivation towards the development of high temperature, smart wireless sensor systems that include sensors, electronics, wireless communication, and power. The challenges associated with the use of traditional wired sensor systems will be reviewed and potential advantages of Smart Sensor Systems will be discussed. A brief review of potential applications for wireless smart sensor networks and their potential impact on propulsion system operation, with emphasis on Distributed Engine Control and Propulsion Health Management, will be given. A specific example related to the development of high temperature Smart Sensor Systems based on silicon carbide electronics will be discussed. It is concluded that the development of a range of robust smart wireless sensor systems are a foundation for future development of intelligent propulsion systems with enhanced capabilities.

  6. Powered Flight The Engineering of Aerospace Propulsion

    CERN Document Server

    Greatrix, David R

    2012-01-01

    Whilst most contemporary books in the aerospace propulsion field are dedicated primarily to gas turbine engines, there is often little or no coverage of other propulsion systems and devices such as propeller and helicopter rotors or detailed attention to rocket engines. By taking a wider viewpoint, Powered Flight - The Engineering of Aerospace Propulsion aims to provide a broader context, allowing observations and comparisons to be made across systems that are overlooked by focusing on a single aspect alone. The physics and history of aerospace propulsion are built on step-by-step, coupled with the development of an appreciation for the mathematics involved in the science and engineering of propulsion. Combining the author’s experience as a researcher, an industry professional and a lecturer in graduate and undergraduate aerospace engineering, Powered Flight - The Engineering of Aerospace Propulsion covers its subject matter both theoretically and with an awareness of the practicalities of the industry. To ...

  7. High energy density propulsion systems and small engine dynamometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Scope and Method of Study. This study investigates all possible methods of powering small unmanned vehicles, provides reasoning for the propulsion system down select, and covers in detail the design and production of a dynamometer to confirm theoretical energy density calculations for small engines. Initial energy density calculations are based upon manufacturer data, pressure vessel theory, and ideal thermodynamic cycle efficiencies. Engine tests are conducted with a braking type dynamometer for constant load energy density tests, and show true energy densities in excess of 1400 WH/lb of fuel. Findings and Conclusions. Theory predicts lithium polymer, the present unmanned system energy storage device of choice, to have much lower energy densities than other conversion energy sources. Small engines designed for efficiency, instead of maximum power, would provide the most advantageous method for powering small unmanned vehicles because these engines have widely variable power output, loss of mass during flight, and generate rotational power directly. Theoretical predictions for the energy density of small engines has been verified through testing. Tested values up to 1400 WH/lb can be seen under proper operating conditions. The implementation of such a high energy density system will require a significant amount of follow-on design work to enable the engines to tolerate the higher temperatures of lean operation. Suggestions are proposed to enable a reliable, small-engine propulsion system in future work. Performance calculations show that a mature system is capable of month long flight times, and unrefueled circumnavigation of the globe.

  8. Stirling engine electric hybrid vehicle propulsion system conceptual design study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dochat, G; Artiles, A; Killough, J; Ray, A; Chen, H S

    1978-08-01

    Results of a six-month study to characterize a series Stirling engine electric hybrid vehicle propulsion system are presented. The Stirling engine was selected as the heat conversion element to exploit the high efficiency (> .36), low pollution, multi-fuel and quiet operation of this machine. A free-piston Stirling engine driving a linear alternator in a hermatically sealed enclosure was chosen to gain the reliability, long life, and maintenance free characteristics of a sealed unit. The study performs trade off evaluations, selection of engine, battery, motor and inverter size, optimization of components, and develops a conceptual design and characterization of the total propulsion system. The conclusion of the study is that a Stirling engine electric hybrid propulsion system can be used successfully to augment the battery storage of a passenger vehicle and will result in significant savings of petroleum energy over present passenger vehicles. The performance and range augmentation of the hybrid design results in significant improvements over an all electric vehicle. The hybrid will be capable of performing 99% of the passenger vehicle annual trip distribution requirements with extremely low fuel usage. (TFD)

  9. Computational simulation of concurrent engineering for aerospace propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Singhal, S. N.

    1992-01-01

    Results are summarized of an investigation to assess the infrastructure available and the technology readiness in order to develop computational simulation methods/software for concurrent engineering. These results demonstrate that development of computational simulations methods for concurrent engineering is timely. Extensive infrastructure, in terms of multi-discipline simulation, component-specific simulation, system simulators, fabrication process simulation, and simulation of uncertainties - fundamental in developing such methods, is available. An approach is recommended which can be used to develop computational simulation methods for concurrent engineering for propulsion systems and systems in general. Benefits and facets needing early attention in the development are outlined.

  10. Computational simulation for concurrent engineering of aerospace propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Singhal, S. N.

    1993-01-01

    Results are summarized for an investigation to assess the infrastructure available and the technology readiness in order to develop computational simulation methods/software for concurrent engineering. These results demonstrate that development of computational simulation methods for concurrent engineering is timely. Extensive infrastructure, in terms of multi-discipline simulation, component-specific simulation, system simulators, fabrication process simulation, and simulation of uncertainties--fundamental to develop such methods, is available. An approach is recommended which can be used to develop computational simulation methods for concurrent engineering of propulsion systems and systems in general. Benefits and issues needing early attention in the development are outlined.

  11. Airbreathing engine selection criteria for SSTO propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkami, Yoshiaki; Maita, Masataka

    1995-02-01

    This paper presents airbreathing engine selection criteria to be applied to the propulsion system of a Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO). To establish the criteria, a relation among three major parameters, i.e., delta-V capability, weight penalty, and effective specific impulse of the engine subsystem, is derived as compared to these parameters of the LH2/LOX rocket engine. The effective specific impulse is a function of the engine I(sub sp) and vehicle thrust-to-drag ratio which is approximated by a function of the vehicle velocity. The weight penalty includes the engine dry weight, cooling subsystem weight. The delta-V capability is defined by the velocity region starting from the minimum operating velocity up to the maximum velocity. The vehicle feasibility is investigated in terms of the structural and propellant weights, which requires an iteration process adjusting the system parameters. The system parameters are computed by iteration based on the Newton-Raphson method. It has been concluded that performance in the higher velocity region is extremely important so that the airbreathing engines are required to operate beyond the velocity equivalent to the rocket engine exhaust velocity (approximately 4500 m/s).

  12. Simulation research on operation scheme of dissymmetrical main engine of CODOG propulsion system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Bin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] How to maintain propulsion capability in a CODOG propulsion system damage situation has important significance. [Methods] A ‘Hull-Engine-CPP-Rudder’ simulation model of a CODOG marine power plant is established on Simulink using the modularized method, and a dissymmetrical main engine urgent working mode is proposed and simulated. [Results] The results show that in the dissymmetrical working mode, two different engines cannot work simultaneously at designed capacity. However, by adjusting the pitch of the CPP, one engine can work at designed capacity and the other can work at partial load capacity; under this working mode, if high speed is demanded, the gas turbine should work at designed capacity. The CPP pitch driven by diesel should be maintained at a high value near the maximum. The maximum speed of this working mode is 84.4% of the designed speed, which is higher than the speed of the single shaft working mode driven by a gas turbine. [Conclusions] The research results of this paper can provide useful references for the design of ship propulsion systems.

  13. Nuclear thermal propulsion engine cost trade studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschall, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA transportation strategy for the Mars Exploration architecture includes the use of nuclear thermal propulsion as the primary propulsion system for Mars transits. It is anticipated that the outgrowth of the NERVA/ROVER programs will be a nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) system capable of providing the propulsion for missions to Mars. The specific impulse (Isp) for such a system is expected to be in the 870 s range. Trade studies were conducted to investigate whether or not it may be cost effective to invest in a higher performance (Isp>870 s) engine for nuclear thermal propulsion for missions to Mars. The basic cost trades revolved around the amount of mass that must be transported to low-earth orbit prior to each Mars flight and the cost to launch that mass. The mass required depended on the assumptions made for Mars missions scenarios including piloted/cargo flights, number of Mars missions, and transit time to Mars. Cost parameters included launch cost, program schedule for development and operations, and net discount rate. The results were very dependent on the assumptions that were made. Under some assumptions, higher performance engines showed cost savings in the billions of dollars; under other assumptions, the additional cost to develop higher performance engines was not justified

  14. Aeronautic propulsion systems; Propulseurs aeronautiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepourry, P; Ciryci, R

    1992-12-31

    This book is devoted to airplane pilots having a private licence and who would like to take up a professional rank. It comprises 8 chapters dealing with: the different type of propulsion systems, turbojet, turbofan and piston engines; the propeller (characteristics, different types, functioning, protection systems..); the piston engines (4-stroke cycle, power and efficiency, description, characteristics); the gas generator and its limitations (air intake, combustion chamber, turbines, nozzles, fuel systems..); the performances of propulsion systems; the drive, control and instruments; and the use of engines. The last chapter is a self-evaluation questionnaire about the notions developed in the book. (J.S.)

  15. Advanced propulsion system for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrup, L. V.; Lintz, A. T.

    1980-01-01

    A number of hybrid propulsion systems were evaluated for application in several different vehicle sizes. A conceptual design was prepared for the most promising configuration. Various system configurations were parametrically evaluated and compared, design tradeoffs performed, and a conceptual design produced. Fifteen vehicle/propulsion systems concepts were parametrically evaluated to select two systems and one vehicle for detailed design tradeoff studies. A single hybrid propulsion system concept and vehicle (five passenger family sedan)were selected for optimization based on the results of the tradeoff studies. The final propulsion system consists of a 65 kW spark-ignition heat engine, a mechanical continuously variable traction transmission, a 20 kW permanent magnet axial-gap traction motor, a variable frequency inverter, a 386 kg lead-acid improved state-of-the-art battery, and a transaxle. The system was configured with a parallel power path between the heat engine and battery. It has two automatic operational modes: electric mode and heat engine mode. Power is always shared between the heat engine and battery during acceleration periods. In both modes, regenerative braking energy is absorbed by the battery.

  16. A Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation of a Large Commercial Aircraft Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCastro, Jonathan A.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Frederick, Dean K.

    2008-01-01

    A simulation of a commercial engine has been developed in a graphical environment to meet the increasing need across the controls and health management community for a common research and development platform. This paper describes the Commercial Modular Aero Propulsion System Simulation (C-MAPSS), which is representative of a 90,000-lb thrust class two spool, high bypass ratio commercial turbofan engine. A control law resembling the state-of-the-art on board modern aircraft engines is included, consisting of a fan-speed control loop supplemented by relevant engine limit protection regulator loops. The objective of this paper is to provide a top-down overview of the complete engine simulation package.

  17. Evaluation of advanced propulsion options for the next manned transportation system: Propulsion evolution study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, L. T.; Kramer, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives were to examine launch vehicle applications and propulsion requirements for potential future manned space transportation systems and to support planning toward the evolution of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) engines beyond their current or initial launch vehicle applications. As a basis for examinations of potential future manned launch vehicle applications, we used three classes of manned space transportation concepts currently under study: Space Transportation System Evolution, Personal Launch System (PLS), and Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS). Tasks included studies of launch vehicle applications and requirements for hydrogen-oxygen rocket engines; the development of suggestions for STME engine evolution beyond the mid-1990's; the development of suggestions for STME evolution beyond the Advanced Launch System (ALS) application; the study of booster propulsion options, including LOX-Hydrocarbon options; the analysis of the prospects and requirements for utilization of a single engine configuration over the full range of vehicle applications, including manned vehicles plus ALS and Shuttle C; and a brief review of on-going and planned LOX-Hydrogen propulsion technology activities.

  18. Investigation of novel propulsion systems – the exoskeletal engine concept. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian JUHASZ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The exoskeletal engine represents a relatively new concept in the world of propulsion systems. It is a drum-rotor engine concept in which conventionally heavy shafts and discs are eliminated and replaced by rotating casings that support the blades in span wise compression. Thus the rotating blades are in compression rather than in tension. The resulting open channel at the engine centerline has immense potential for jet noise reduction and can also accommodate an inner combined-cycle thruster such as a ramjet. This is the second part of the article.

  19. Propulsion Controls Modeling for a Small Turbofan Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Joseph W.; Csank, Jeffrey T.; Chicatelli, Amy; Franco, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    A nonlinear dynamic model and propulsion controller are developed for a small-scale turbofan engine. The small-scale turbofan engine is based on the Price Induction company's DGEN 380, one of the few turbofan engines targeted for the personal light jet category. Comparisons of the nonlinear dynamic turbofan engine model to actual DGEN 380 engine test data and a Price Induction simulation are provided. During engine transients, the nonlinear model typically agrees within 10 percent error, even though the nonlinear model was developed from limited available engine data. A gain scheduled proportional integral low speed shaft controller with limiter safety logic is created to replicate the baseline DGEN 380 controller. The new controller provides desired gain and phase margins and is verified to meet Federal Aviation Administration transient propulsion system requirements. In understanding benefits, there is a need to move beyond simulation for the demonstration of advanced control architectures and technologies by using real-time systems and hardware. The small-scale DGEN 380 provides a cost effective means to accomplish advanced controls testing on a relevant turbofan engine platform.

  20. Performance Criteria of Nuclear Space Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, L. R.

    Future exploration of the solar system on a major scale will require propulsion systems capable of performance far greater than is achievable with the present generation of rocket engines using chemical propellants. Viable missions going deeper into interstellar space will be even more demanding. Propulsion systems based on nuclear energy sources, fission or (eventually) fusion offer the best prospect for meeting the requirements. The most obvious gain coming from the application of nuclear reactions is the possibility, at least in principle, of obtaining specific impulses a thousandfold greater than can be achieved in chemically energised rockets. However, practical considerations preclude the possibility of exploiting the full potential of nuclear energy sources in any engines conceivable in terms of presently known technology. Achievable propulsive power is a particularly limiting factor, since this determines the acceleration that may be obtained. Conventional chemical rocket engines have specific propulsive powers (power per unit engine mass) in the order of gigawatts per tonne. One cannot envisage the possibility of approaching such a level of performance by orders of magnitude in presently conceivable nuclear propulsive systems. The time taken, under power, to reach a given terminal velocity is proportional to the square of the engine's exhaust velocity and the inverse of its specific power. An assessment of various nuclear propulsion concepts suggests that, even with the most optimistic assumptions, it could take many hundreds of years to attain the velocities necessary to reach the nearest stars. Exploration within a range of the order of a thousand AU, however, would appear to offer viable prospects, even with the low levels of specific power of presently conceivable nuclear engines.

  1. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS): An Award Winning Propulsion System Simulation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, Laurel J.; Naiman, Cynthia G.

    2002-01-01

    The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) is a full propulsion system simulation tool used by aerospace engineers to predict and analyze the aerothermodynamic behavior of commercial jet aircraft, military applications, and space transportation. The NPSS framework was developed to support aerospace, but other applications are already leveraging the initial capabilities, such as aviation safety, ground-based power, and alternative energy conversion devices such as fuel cells. By using the framework and developing the necessary components, future applications that NPSS could support include nuclear power, water treatment, biomedicine, chemical processing, and marine propulsion. NPSS will dramatically reduce the time, effort, and expense necessary to design and test jet engines. It accomplishes that by generating sophisticated computer simulations of an aerospace object or system, thus enabling engineers to "test" various design options without having to conduct costly, time-consuming real-life tests. The ultimate goal of NPSS is to create a numerical "test cell" that enables engineers to create complete engine simulations overnight on cost-effective computing platforms. Using NPSS, engine designers will be able to analyze different parts of the engine simultaneously, perform different types of analysis simultaneously (e.g., aerodynamic and structural), and perform analysis in a more efficient and less costly manner. NPSS will cut the development time of a new engine in half, from 10 years to 5 years. And NPSS will have a similar effect on the cost of development: new jet engines will cost about a billion dollars to develop rather than two billion. NPSS is also being applied to the development of space transportation technologies, and it is expected that similar efficiencies and cost savings will result. Advancements of NPSS in fiscal year 2001 included enhancing the NPSS Developer's Kit to easily integrate external components of varying fidelities, providing

  2. An N+3 Technology Level Reference Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Scott M.; Haller, William J.; Tong, Michael To-Hing

    2017-01-01

    An N+3 technology level engine, suitable as a propulsion system for an advanced single-aisle transport, was developed as a reference cycle for use in technology assessment and decision-making efforts. This reference engine serves three main purposes: it provides thermodynamic quantities at each major engine station, it provides overall propulsion system performance data for vehicle designers to use in their analyses, and it can be used for comparison against other proposed N+3 technology-level propulsion systems on an equal basis. This reference cycle is meant to represent the expected capability of gas turbine engines in the N+3 timeframe given reasonable extrapolations of technology improvements and the ability to take full advantage of those improvements.

  3. Engine Power Turbine and Propulsion Pod Arrangement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robuck, Mark; Zhang, Yiyi

    2014-01-01

    A study has been conducted for NASA Glenn Research Center under contract NNC10BA05B, Task NNC11TA80T to identify beneficial arrangements of the turboshaft engine, transmissions and related systems within the propulsion pod nacelle of NASA's Large Civil Tilt-Rotor 2nd iteration (LCTR2) vehicle. Propulsion pod layouts were used to investigate potential advantages, disadvantages, as well as constraints of various arrangements assuming front or aft shafted engines. Results from previous NASA LCTR2 propulsion system studies and tasks performed by Boeing under NASA contracts are used as the basis for this study. This configuration consists of two Fixed Geometry Variable Speed Power Turbine Engines and related drive and rotor systems (per nacelle) arranged in tilting nacelles near the wing tip. Entry-into-service (EIS) 2035 technology is assumed for both the engine and drive systems. The variable speed rotor system changes from 100 percent speed for hover to 54 percent speed for cruise by the means of a two speed gearbox concept developed under previous NASA contracts. Propulsion and drive system configurations that resulted in minimum vehicle gross weight were identified in previous work and used here. Results reported in this study illustrate that a forward shafted engine has a slight weight benefit over an aft shafted engine for the LCTR2 vehicle. Although the aft shafted engines provide a more controlled and centered CG (between hover and cruise), the length of the long rotor shaft and complicated engine exhaust arrangement outweighed the potential benefits. A Multi-Disciplinary Analysis and Optimization (MDAO) approach for transmission sizing was also explored for this study. This tool offers quick analysis of gear loads, bearing lives, efficiencies, etc., through use of commercially available RomaxDESIGNER software. The goal was to create quick methods to explore various concept models. The output results from RomaxDESIGNER have been successfully linked to Boeing

  4. Hierarchical Discrete Event Supervisory Control of Aircraft Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, Murat; Tolani, Devendra; Ray, Asok; Shah, Neerav; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a hierarchical application of Discrete Event Supervisory (DES) control theory for intelligent decision and control of a twin-engine aircraft propulsion system. A dual layer hierarchical DES controller is designed to supervise and coordinate the operation of two engines of the propulsion system. The two engines are individually controlled to achieve enhanced performance and reliability, necessary for fulfilling the mission objectives. Each engine is operated under a continuously varying control system that maintains the specified performance and a local discrete-event supervisor for condition monitoring and life extending control. A global upper level DES controller is designed for load balancing and overall health management of the propulsion system.

  5. Integrated Main Propulsion System Performance Reconstruction Process/Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Eduardo; Elliott, Katie; Snell, Steven; Evans, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Main Propulsion System (MPS) Performance Reconstruction process provides the MPS post-flight data files needed for postflight reporting to the project integration management and key customers to verify flight performance. This process/model was used as the baseline for the currently ongoing Space Launch System (SLS) work. The process utilizes several methodologies, including multiple software programs, to model integrated propulsion system performance through space shuttle ascent. It is used to evaluate integrated propulsion systems, including propellant tanks, feed systems, rocket engine, and pressurization systems performance throughout ascent based on flight pressure and temperature data. The latest revision incorporates new methods based on main engine power balance model updates to model higher mixture ratio operation at lower engine power levels.

  6. Investigation of novel propulsion systems – the exoskeletal engine concept. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian JUHASZ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The exoskeletal engine represents a relatively new concept in the world of propulsion systems. It is a drum-rotor engine concept in which conventionally heavy shafts and discs are eliminated and replaced by rotating casings that support the blades in span wise compression. Thus the rotating blades are in compression rather than in tension. The resulting open channel at the engine centreline has an immense potential for the jet noise reduction and can also accommodate an inner combined-cycle thruster such as a ramjet. This is the first part of an article constituted out of two parts.

  7. Volume Dynamics Propulsion System Modeling for Supersonics Vehicle Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Paxson, Daniel E.; Ma, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Under the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program the Supersonics Project is working to overcome the obstacles to supersonic commercial flight. The proposed vehicles are long slim body aircraft with pronounced aero-servo-elastic modes. These modes can potentially couple with propulsion system dynamics; leading to performance challenges such as aircraft ride quality and stability. Other disturbances upstream of the engine generated from atmospheric wind gusts, angle of attack, and yaw can have similar effects. In addition, for optimal propulsion system performance, normal inlet-engine operations are required to be closer to compressor stall and inlet unstart. To study these phenomena an integrated model is needed that includes both airframe structural dynamics as well as the propulsion system dynamics. This paper covers the propulsion system component volume dynamics modeling of a turbojet engine that will be used for an integrated vehicle Aero-Propulso-Servo-Elastic model and for propulsion efficiency studies.

  8. Specialized data analysis for the Space Shuttle Main Engine and diagnostic evaluation of advanced propulsion system components

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center is responsible for the development and management of advanced launch vehicle propulsion systems, including the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), which is presently operational, and the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) under development. The SSME's provide high performance within stringent constraints on size, weight, and reliability. Based on operational experience, continuous design improvement is in progress to enhance system durability and reliability. Specialized data analysis and interpretation is required in support of SSME and advanced propulsion system diagnostic evaluations. Comprehensive evaluation of the dynamic measurements obtained from test and flight operations is necessary to provide timely assessment of the vibrational characteristics indicating the operational status of turbomachinery and other critical engine components. Efficient performance of this effort is critical due to the significant impact of dynamic evaluation results on ground test and launch schedules, and requires direct familiarity with SSME and derivative systems, test data acquisition, and diagnostic software. Detailed analysis and evaluation of dynamic measurements obtained during SSME and advanced system ground test and flight operations was performed including analytical/statistical assessment of component dynamic behavior, and the development and implementation of analytical/statistical models to efficiently define nominal component dynamic characteristics, detect anomalous behavior, and assess machinery operational condition. In addition, the SSME and J-2 data will be applied to develop vibroacoustic environments for advanced propulsion system components, as required. This study will provide timely assessment of engine component operational status, identify probable causes of malfunction, and indicate feasible engineering solutions. This contract will be performed through accomplishment of negotiated task orders.

  9. Definition of propulsion system for V/STOL research and technology aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Wind tunnel test support, aircraft contractor support, a propulsion system computer card deck, preliminary design studies, and propulsion system development plan are reported. The Propulsion system consists of two lift/cruise turbofan engines, one turboshaft engine and one lift fan connected together with shafting into a combiner gearbox. Distortion parameter levels from 40 x 80 test data were within the established XT701-AD-700 limits. The three engine-three fan system card deck calculates either vertical or conventional flight performance, installed or uninstalled. Design study results for XT701 engine modifications, bevel gear cross shaft location, fixed and tilt fan frames and propulsion system controls are described. Optional water-alcohol injection increased total net thrust 10.3% on a 90 F day. Engines have sufficient turbine life for 500 hours of the RTA duty cycle.

  10. Advanced Propulsion System Studies for General Aviation Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Joseph D. (Technical Monitor); German, Jon

    2003-01-01

    This final report addresses the following topics: Market Impact Analysis (1) assessment of general aviation, including commuter/regional, aircraft market impact due to incorporation of advanced technology propulsion system on acquisition and operating costs, job creation and/or manpower demand, and future fleet size; (2) selecting an aircraft and engine for the study by focusing on the next generation 19-passenger commuter and the Williams International FJ44 turbofan engine growth. Propulsion System Analysis Conducted mission analysis studies and engine cycle analysis to define a new commuter mission and required engine performance, define acquisition and operating costs and, select engine configuration and initiated preliminary design for hardware modifications required. Propulsion System Benefits (1) assessed and defined engine emissions improvements, (2) assessed and defined noise reduction potential and, (3) conducted a cost analysis impact study. Review of Relevant NASA Programs Conducted literature searches using NERAC and NASA RECON services for related technology in the emissions and acoustics area. Preliminary Technology Development Plans Defined plan to incorporate technology improvements for an FJ44-2 growth engine in performance, emissions, and noise suppression.

  11. A comparison of propulsion systems for potential space mission applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvego, E.A.; Sulmeisters, T.K.

    1987-01-01

    A derivative of the NERVA nuclear rocket engine was compared with a chemical propulsion system and a nuclear electric propulsion system to assess the relative capabilities of the different propulsion system options for three potential space missions. The missions considered were (1) orbital transfer from low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO), (2) LEO to a lunar base, and (3) LEO to Mars. The results of this comparison indicate that the direct-thrust NERVA-derivative nuclear rocket engine has the best performance characteristics for the missions considered. The combined high thrust and high specific impulse achievable with a direct-thrust nuclear stage permits short operating times (transfer times) comparable to chemical propulsion systems, but with considerably less required propellant. While nuclear-electric propulsion systems are more fuel efficient than either direct-nuclear or chemical propulsion, they are not stand-alone systems, since their relatively low thrust levels require the use of high-thrust ferry or lander stages in high gravity applications such as surface-to-orbit propulsion. The extremely long transfer times and inefficient trajectories associated with electric propulsion systems were also found to be a significant drawback

  12. Advanced hybrid vehicle propulsion system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, R.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of a study of an advanced heat engine/electric automotive hybrid propulsion system. The system uses a rotary stratified charge engine and ac motor/controller in a parallel hybrid configuration. The three tasks of the study were (1) parametric studies involving five different vehicle types, (2) design trade-off studies to determine the influence of various vehicle and propulsion system paramaters on system performance fuel economy and cost, and (3) a conceptual design establishing feasibility at the selected approach. Energy consumption for the selected system was .034 1/km (61.3 mpg) for the heat engine and .221 kWh/km (.356 kWh/mi) for the electric power system over a modified J227 a schedule D driving cycle. Life cycle costs were 7.13 cents/km (11.5 cents/mi) at $2/gal gasoline and 7 cents/kWh electricity for 160,000 km (100,000 mi) life.

  13. Hybrid Propulsion Systems for Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithun Abdul Sathar Eqbal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of more efficient propulsion systems for aerospace vehicles is essential to achieve key objectives. These objectives are to increase efficiency while reducing the amount of carbon-based emissions. Hybrid electric propulsion (HEP is an ideal means to maintain the energy density of hydrocarbon-based fuels and utilize energy-efficient electric machines. A system that integrates different propulsion systems into a single system, with one being electric, is termed an HEP system. HEP systems have been studied previously and introduced into Land, Water, and Aerial Vehicles. This work presents research into the use of HEP systems in Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS. The systems discussed in this paper are Internal Combustion Engine (ICE–Electric Hybrid systems, ICE–Photovoltaic (PV Hybrid systems, and Fuel-Cell Hybrid systems. The improved performance characteristics in terms of fuel consumption and endurance are discussed.

  14. Discrete Event Supervisory Control Applied to Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Shah, Neerav

    2005-01-01

    The theory of discrete event supervisory (DES) control was applied to the optimal control of a twin-engine aircraft propulsion system and demonstrated in a simulation. The supervisory control, which is implemented as a finite-state automaton, oversees the behavior of a system and manages it in such a way that it maximizes a performance criterion, similar to a traditional optimal control problem. DES controllers can be nested such that a high-level controller supervises multiple lower level controllers. This structure can be expanded to control huge, complex systems, providing optimal performance and increasing autonomy with each additional level. The DES control strategy for propulsion systems was validated using a distributed testbed consisting of multiple computers--each representing a module of the overall propulsion system--to simulate real-time hardware-in-the-loop testing. In the first experiment, DES control was applied to the operation of a nonlinear simulation of a turbofan engine (running in closed loop using its own feedback controller) to minimize engine structural damage caused by a combination of thermal and structural loads. This enables increased on-wing time for the engine through better management of the engine-component life usage. Thus, the engine-level DES acts as a life-extending controller through its interaction with and manipulation of the engine s operation.

  15. Development of Liquid Propulsion Systems Testbed at MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Reginald; Nelson, Graham

    2016-01-01

    As NASA, the Department of Defense and the aerospace industry in general strive to develop capabilities to explore near-Earth, Cis-lunar and deep space, the need to create more cost effective techniques of propulsion system design, manufacturing and test is imperative in the current budget constrained environment. The physics of space exploration have not changed, but the manner in which systems are developed and certified needs to change if there is going to be any hope of designing and building the high performance liquid propulsion systems necessary to deliver crew and cargo to the further reaches of space. To further the objective of developing these systems, the Marshall Space Flight Center is currently in the process of formulating a Liquid Propulsion Systems testbed, which will enable rapid integration of components to be tested and assessed for performance in integrated systems. The manifestation of this testbed is a breadboard engine configuration (BBE) with facility support for consumables and/or other components as needed. The goal of the facility is to test NASA developed elements, but can be used to test articles developed by other government agencies, industry or academia. Joint government/private partnership is likely the approach that will be required to enable efficient propulsion system development. MSFC has recently tested its own additively manufactured liquid hydrogen pump, injector, and valves in a BBE hot firing. It is rapidly building toward testing the pump and a new CH4 injector in the BBE configuration to demonstrate a 22,000 lbf, pump-fed LO2/LCH4 engine for the Mars lander or in-space transportation. The value of having this BBE testbed is that as components are developed they may be easily integrated in the testbed and tested. MSFC is striving to enhance its liquid propulsion system development capability. Rapid design, analysis, build and test will be critical to fielding the next high thrust rocket engine. With the maturity of the

  16. Integrated Propulsion Data System Public Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kimberly

    2001-01-01

    The Integrated Propulsion Data System's (IPDS) focus is to provide technologically-advanced philosophies of doing business at SSC that will enhance the existing operations, engineering and management strategies and provide insight and metrics to assess their daily impacts, especially as related to the Propulsion Test Directorate testing scenarios for the 21st Century.

  17. Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion System Modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chengyuan

    2013-01-01

    The Blended-Wing-Body is a conceptual aircraft design with rear-mounted, over wing engines. Turboelectric distributed propulsion system with boundary layer ingestion has been considered for this aircraft. It uses electricity to transmit power from the core turbine to the fans, therefore dramatically increases bypass ratio to reduce fuel consumption and noise. This dissertation presents methods on designing the TeDP system, evaluating effects of boundary layer ingestion, modelling engine perfo...

  18. Nuclear electric propulsion mission engineering study. Volume 2: Final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Results of a mission engineering analysis of nuclear-thermionic electric propulsion spacecraft for unmanned interplanetary and geocentric missions are summarized. Critical technologies associated with the development of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) are assessed, along with the impact of its availability on future space programs. Outer planet and comet rendezvous mission analysis, NEP stage design for geocentric and interplanetary missions, NEP system development cost and unit costs, and technology requirements for NEP stage development are studied.

  19. Comprehensive Modeling and Analysis of Rotorcraft Variable Speed Propulsion System With Coupled Engine/Transmission/Rotor Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSmidt, Hans A.; Smith, Edward C.; Bill, Robert C.; Wang, Kon-Well

    2013-01-01

    This project develops comprehensive modeling and simulation tools for analysis of variable rotor speed helicopter propulsion system dynamics. The Comprehensive Variable-Speed Rotorcraft Propulsion Modeling (CVSRPM) tool developed in this research is used to investigate coupled rotor/engine/fuel control/gearbox/shaft/clutch/flight control system dynamic interactions for several variable rotor speed mission scenarios. In this investigation, a prototypical two-speed Dual-Clutch Transmission (DCT) is proposed and designed to achieve 50 percent rotor speed variation. The comprehensive modeling tool developed in this study is utilized to analyze the two-speed shift response of both a conventional single rotor helicopter and a tiltrotor drive system. In the tiltrotor system, both a Parallel Shift Control (PSC) strategy and a Sequential Shift Control (SSC) strategy for constant and variable forward speed mission profiles are analyzed. Under the PSC strategy, selecting clutch shift-rate results in a design tradeoff between transient engine surge margins and clutch frictional power dissipation. In the case of SSC, clutch power dissipation is drastically reduced in exchange for the necessity to disengage one engine at a time which requires a multi-DCT drive system topology. In addition to comprehensive simulations, several sections are dedicated to detailed analysis of driveline subsystem components under variable speed operation. In particular an aeroelastic simulation of a stiff in-plane rotor using nonlinear quasi-steady blade element theory was conducted to investigate variable speed rotor dynamics. It was found that 2/rev and 4/rev flap and lag vibrations were significant during resonance crossings with 4/rev lagwise loads being directly transferred into drive-system torque disturbances. To capture the clutch engagement dynamics, a nonlinear stick-slip clutch torque model is developed. Also, a transient gas-turbine engine model based on first principles mean

  20. Main propulsion system design recommendations for an advanced Orbit Transfer Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redd, L.

    1985-01-01

    Various main propulsion system configurations of an advanced OTV are evaluated with respect to the probability of nonindependent failures, i.e., engine failures that disable the entire main propulsion system. Analysis of the life-cycle cost (LCC) indicates that LCC is sensitive to the main propulsion system reliability, vehicle dry weight, and propellant cost; it is relatively insensitive to the number of missions/overhaul, failures per mission, and EVA and IVA cost. In conclusion, two or three engines are recommended in view of their highest reliability, minimum life-cycle cost, and fail operational/fail safe capability.

  1. Comparative Analysis of Miniature Internal Combustion Engine and Electric Motor for UAV Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiclana, Branden Mark

    This thesis compares the performance of an engine/fuel tank based propulsion system to a motor/battery based propulsion system of equal total mass. The results show that the endurance of the engine/fuel system at the same thrust output is approximately 5 times greater than that of the motor/battery system. This is a direct result of the fact that the specific energy of the fuel is 20 times that of the lithium-polymer batteries used to power the motor. A method is also developed to account for the additional benefits of fuel consumption (and hence weight reduction) over the course of the flight. Accounting for this effect can increase endurance exponentially. Taken together, the results also demonstrate the dramatic performance improvements that are possible simply by replacing motor/battery systems with engine/fuel systems on small unmanned air vehicles.

  2. Design and evaluation of an integrated Quiet, Clean General Aviation Turbofan (QCGAT) engine and aircraft propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, J.; Fogel, P.; Wilson, C.

    1980-01-01

    The design was based on the LTS-101 engine family for the core engine. A high bypass fan design (BPR=9.4) was incorporated to provide reduced fuel consumption for the design mission. All acoustic and pollutant emissions goals were achieved. A discussion of the preliminary design of a business jet suitable for the developed propulsion system is included. It is concluded that large engine technology can be successfully applied to small turbofans, and noise or pollutant levels need not be constraints for the design of future small general aviation turbofan engines.

  3. Propulsion Powertrain Real-Time Simulation Using Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) for Aircraft Electric Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Benjamin B.; Brown, Gerald V.

    2017-01-01

    It is essential to design a propulsion powertrain real-time simulator using the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) system that emulates an electrified aircraft propulsion (EAP) systems power grid. This simulator would enable us to facilitate in-depth understanding of the system principles, to validate system model analysis and performance prediction, and to demonstrate the proof-of-concept of the EAP electrical system. This paper describes how subscale electrical machines with their controllers can mimic the power components in an EAP powertrain. In particular, three powertrain emulations are presented to mimic 1) a gas turbo-=shaft engine driving a generator, consisting of two permanent magnet (PM) motors with brushless motor drives, coupled by a shaft, 2) a motor driving a propulsive fan, and 3) a turbo-shaft engine driven fan (turbofan engine) operation. As a first step towards the demonstration, experimental dynamic characterization of the two motor drive systems, coupled by a mechanical shaft, were performed. The previously developed analytical motor models1 were then replaced with the experimental motor models to perform the real-time demonstration in the predefined flight path profiles. This technique can convert the plain motor system into a unique EAP power grid emulator that enables rapid analysis and real-time simulation performance using hardware-in-the-loop (HIL).

  4. LOX/LH2 propulsion system for launch vehicle upper stage, test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, T.; Imachi, U.; Yuzawa, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Miyoshi, K.; Higashino, K.

    1984-01-01

    The test results of small LOX/LH2 engines for two propulsion systems, a pump fed system and a pressure fed system are reported. The pump fed system has the advantages of higher performances and higher mass fraction. The pressure fed system has the advantages of higher reliability and relative simplicity. Adoption of these cryogenic propulsion systems for upper stage of launch vehicle increases the payload capability with low cost. The 1,000 kg thrust class engine was selected for this cryogenic stage. A thrust chamber assembly for the pressure fed propulsion system was tested. It is indicated that it has good performance to meet system requirements.

  5. Intelligent Propulsion System Foundation Technology: Summary of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this cooperative agreement was to develop a foundation of intelligent propulsion technologies for NASA and industry that will have an impact on safety, noise, emissions, and cost. These intelligent engine technologies included sensors, electronics, communications, control logic, actuators, smart materials and structures, and system studies. Furthermore, this cooperative agreement helped prepare future graduates to develop the revolutionary intelligent propulsion technologies that will be needed to ensure pre-eminence of the U.S. aerospace industry. This Propulsion 21 - Phase 11 program consisted of four primary research areas and associated work elements at Ohio universities: 1.0 Turbine Engine Prognostics, 2.0 Active Controls for Emissions and Noise Reduction, 3.0 Active Structural Controls and Performance, and 4.0 System Studies and Integration. Phase l, which was conducted during the period August 1, 2003, through September 30, 2004, has been reported separately.

  6. METHODOLOGY OF THE HYBRID PROPULSION SYSTEM (DMP & DEP FOR TRIMARAN TYPE FAST PATROL BOAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Widyandari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There are lot of research done to develop a patrol boat, from the modification of hull model until propulsion system equipment. For example the model ship type AMV (Advanced Marine Vehicle was developed starting from the Catamaran, Trimaran and  Pentamaran model. Everything is aimed at obtaining the ship design that has the speed and stability. In addition to achieving high-speed vessel must be equipped with propulsion (Main Power is great, that means the main engine dimensions, auxiliary equipments and fuel tanks is too large. Many Limitations of space on the ship's engine room trimaran vessel is the main obstacle in designing propulsion system. Beside that Patrol boat should have many missions speed, so propulsion system should be designed at that conditions.   Hybrid propulsion is a combination of Diesel Mechanical Propulsion (DMP with Diesel Electric Propulsion (DEP. DMP system is connected directly to the propeller shaft (or through a reduction-gear. DMP has provide more efficiency rate of 95%. While DEP is only able to provide efficiency by 85% - 89% is slightly lower than DMP, but the DEP offers many advantages such as simplicity and suitability in the rotational speed settings, control systems, engine power production Redundancy, Flexibility in the design of equipments layout in engine rooms, noise, vibration and fuel consumption efficiency which affects the lower pollution.   Design of Hybrid Propulsion system can be satisfied and achieved the Power requirements and optimally at all speed condition of patrol boat. Therefore the author made using modeling Maxsurf-11.12 software and carried out various optimization of the choice of main engine, propeller and system conditions for fast patrol boat cruise. 

  7. Advanced propulsion system concept for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhate, S.; Chen, H.; Dochat, G.

    1980-01-01

    A series hybrid system, utilizing a free piston Stirling engine with a linear alternator, and a parallel hybrid system, incorporating a kinematic Stirling engine, are analyzed for various specified reference missions/vehicles ranging from a small two passenger commuter vehicle to a van. Parametric studies for each configuration, detail tradeoff studies to determine engine, battery and system definition, short term energy storage evaluation, and detail life cycle cost studies were performed. Results indicate that the selection of a parallel Stirling engine/electric, hybrid propulsion system can significantly reduce petroleum consumption by 70 percent over present conventional vehicles.

  8. Health management and controls for Earth-to-orbit propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, R. L.

    1995-03-01

    Avionics and health management technologies increase the safety and reliability while decreasing the overall cost for Earth-to-orbit (ETO) propulsion systems. New ETO propulsion systems will depend on highly reliable fault tolerant flight avionics, advanced sensing systems and artificial intelligence aided software to ensure critical control, safety and maintenance requirements are met in a cost effective manner. Propulsion avionics consist of the engine controller, actuators, sensors, software and ground support elements. In addition to control and safety functions, these elements perform system monitoring for health management. Health management is enhanced by advanced sensing systems and algorithms which provide automated fault detection and enable adaptive control and/or maintenance approaches. Aerojet is developing advanced fault tolerant rocket engine controllers which provide very high levels of reliability. Smart sensors and software systems which significantly enhance fault coverage and enable automated operations are also under development. Smart sensing systems, such as flight capable plume spectrometers, have reached maturity in ground-based applications and are suitable for bridging to flight. Software to detect failed sensors has reached similar maturity. This paper will discuss fault detection and isolation for advanced rocket engine controllers as well as examples of advanced sensing systems and software which significantly improve component failure detection for engine system safety and health management.

  9. Defining the Ecological Coefficient of Performance for an Aircraft Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şöhret, Yasin

    2018-05-01

    The aircraft industry, along with other industries, is considered responsible these days regarding environmental issues. Therefore, the performance evaluation of aircraft propulsion systems should be conducted with respect to environmental and ecological considerations. The current paper aims to present the ecological coefficient of performance calculation methodology for aircraft propulsion systems. The ecological coefficient performance is a widely-preferred performance indicator of numerous energy conversion systems. On the basis of thermodynamic laws, the methodology used to determine the ecological coefficient of performance for an aircraft propulsion system is parametrically explained and illustrated in this paper for the first time. For a better understanding, to begin with, the exergy analysis of a turbojet engine is described in detail. Following this, the outputs of the analysis are employed to define the ecological coefficient of performance for a turbojet engine. At the end of the study, the ecological coefficient of performance is evaluated parametrically and discussed depending on selected engine design parameters and performance measures. The author asserts the ecological coefficient of performance to be a beneficial indicator for researchers interested in aircraft propulsion system design and related topics.

  10. Definition of an arcjet propulsion sub-system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, T.W.

    1989-01-01

    An engineering flight demonstration of a 100 kW3 Space Reactor Power System is planned for the mid to late 1990s. An arcjet based propulsion subsystem will be included on the flight demonstraction as a secondary experiment. Two studies, sponsored by the Kay Technologies Directorate of the SDI Organization and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are currently under way to define that propulsion subsystem. The principal tasks of those contracts and the plans for two later phases, an experimental verification of the concept and a flight qualification/delivery of a flight unit, are described. 9 refs

  11. Propulsion Systems Panel deliberations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianca, Carmelo J.; Miner, Robert; Johnston, Lawrence M.; Bruce, R.; Dennies, Daniel P.; Dickenson, W.; Dreshfield, Robert; Karakulko, Walt; Mcgaw, Mike; Munafo, Paul M.

    1993-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Panel was established because of the specialized nature of many of the materials and structures technology issues related to propulsion systems. This panel was co-chaired by Carmelo Bianca, MSFC, and Bob Miner, LeRC. Because of the diverse range of missions anticipated for the Space Transportation program, three distinct propulsion system types were identified in the workshop planning process: liquid propulsion systems, solid propulsion systems and nuclear electric/nuclear thermal propulsion systems.

  12. Nuclear electric propulsion mission engineering study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Results of a mission engineering analysis of nuclear-thermionic electric propulsion spacecraft for unmanned interplanetary and geocentric missions are summarized. Critical technologies associated with the development of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) are assessed. Outer planet and comet rendezvous mission analysis, NEP stage design for geocentric and interplanetary missions, NEP system development cost and unit costs, and technology requirements for NEP stage development are studied. The NEP stage design provides both inherent reliability and high payload mass capability. The NEP stage and payload integration was found to be compatible with the space shuttle.

  13. Gravity-assist engine for space propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, Arne

    2014-06-01

    As a possible alternative to rockets, the present article describes a new type of engine for space travel, based on the gravity-assist concept for space propulsion. The new engine is to a great extent inspired by the conversion of rotational angular momentum to orbital angular momentum occurring in tidal locking between astronomical bodies. It is also greatly influenced by Minovitch's gravity-assist concept, which has revolutionized modern space technology, and without which the deep-space probes to the outer planets and beyond would not have been possible. Two of the three gravitating bodies in Minovitch's concept are in the gravity-assist engine discussed in this article replaced by an extremely massive ‘springbell' (in principle a spinning dumbbell with a powerful spring) incorporated into the spacecraft itself, and creating a three-body interaction when orbiting around a gravitating body. This makes gravity-assist propulsion possible without having to find suitably aligned astronomical bodies. Detailed numerical simulations are presented, showing how an actual spacecraft can use a ca 10-m diameter springbell engine in order to leave the earth's gravitational field and enter an escape trajectory towards interplanetary destinations.

  14. Propulsion system research and development for electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1980-01-01

    An approach to propulsion subsystem technology is presented. Various tests of component reliability are described to aid in the production of better quality vehicles. component characterization work is described to provide engineering data to manufacturers on component performance and on important component propulsion system interactions.

  15. Chemistry and propulsion; Chimie et propulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potier, P [Maison de la Chimie, 75 - Paris (France); Davenas, A [societe Nationale des Poudres et des Explosifs - SNPE (France); Berman, M [Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Arlington, VA (United States); and others

    2002-07-01

    During the colloquium on chemistry and propulsion, held in march 2002, ten papers have been presented. The proceedings are brought in this document: ramjet, scram-jet and Pulse Detonation Engine; researches and applications on energetic materials and propulsion; advances in poly-nitrogen chemistry; evolution of space propulsion; environmental and technological stakes of aeronautic propulsion; ramjet engines and pulse detonation engines, automobiles thermal engines for 2015, high temperature fuel cells for the propulsion domain, the hydrogen and the fuel cells in the future transports. (A.L.B.)

  16. MW-Class Electric Propulsion System Designs for Mars Cargo Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilland, James H.; LaPointe, Michael R.; Oleson, Steven; Mercer, Carolyn; Pencil, Eric; Maosn, Lee

    2011-01-01

    Multi-kilowatt electric propulsion systems are well developed and have been used on commercial and military satellites in Earth orbit for several years. Ion and Hall thrusters have also propelled robotic spacecraft to encounters with asteroids, the Moon, and minor planetary bodies within the solar system. High power electric propulsion systems are currently being considered to support piloted missions to near earth asteroids, as cargo transport for sustained lunar or Mars exploration, and for very high-power piloted missions to Mars and the outer planets. Using NASA Mars Design Architecture 5.0 as a reference, a preliminary parametric analysis was performed to determine the suitability of a nuclear powered, MW-class electric propulsion system for Mars cargo transport. For this initial analysis, high power 100-kW Hall thrusters and 250-kW VASIMR engines were separately evaluated to determine optimum vehicle architecture and estimated performance. The DRA 5.0 cargo mission closed for both propulsion options, delivering a 100 t payload to Mars orbit and reducing the number of heavy lift launch vehicles from five in the baseline DRA 5.0 architecture to two using electric propulsion. Under an imposed single engine-out mission success criteria, the VASIMR system took longer to reach Mars than did the Hall system, arising from the need to operate the VASIMR thrusters in pairs during the spiral out from low Earth orbit.

  17. Critical Propulsion Components. Volume 1; Summary, Introduction, and Propulsion Systems Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have concluded that a supersonic aircraft, if environmentally acceptable and economically viable, could successfully compete in the 21st century marketplace. However, before industry can commit to what is estimated as a 15 to 20 billion dollar investment, several barrier issues must be resolved. In an effort to address these barrier issues, NASA and Industry teamed to form the High-Speed Research (HSR) program. As part of this program, the Critical Propulsion Components (CPC) element was created and assigned the task of developing those propulsion component technologies necessary to: (1) reduce cruise emissions by a factor of 10 and (2) meet the ever-increasing airport noise restrictions with an economically viable propulsion system. The CPC-identified critical components were ultra-low emission combustors, low-noise/high-performance exhaust nozzles, low-noise fans, and stable/high-performance inlets. Propulsion cycle studies (coordinated with NASA Langley Research Center sponsored airplane studies) were conducted throughout this CPC program to help evaluate candidate components and select the best concepts for the more complex and larger scale research efforts. The propulsion cycle and components ultimately selected were a mixed-flow turbofan (MFTF) engine employing a lean, premixed, prevaporized (LPP) combustor coupled to a two-dimensional mixed compression inlet and a two-dimensional mixer/ejector nozzle. Due to the large amount of material presented in this report, it was prepared in four volumes; Volume 1: Summary, Introduction, and Propulsion System Studies, Volume 2: Combustor, Volume 3: Exhaust Nozzle, and Volume 4: Inlet and Fan/ Inlet Acoustic Team.

  18. Thermodynamic analysis of a dual loop heat recovery system with trilateral cycle applied to exhaust gases of internal combustion engine for propulsion of the 6800 TEU container ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung Chul; Kim, Young Min

    2013-01-01

    A dual loop waste heat recovery power generation system that comprises an upper trilateral cycle and a lower organic Rankine cycle, in which discharged exhaust gas heat is recovered and re-used for propulsion power, was theoretically applied to an internal combustion engine for propulsion in a 6800 TEU container ship. The thermodynamic properties of this exhaust gas heat recovery system, which vary depending on the boundary temperature between the upper and lower cycles, were also investigated. The results confirmed that this dual loop exhaust gas heat recovery power generation system exhibited a maximum net output of 2069.8 kW, and a maximum system efficiency of 10.93% according to the first law of thermodynamics and a maximum system exergy efficiency of 58.77% according to the second law of thermodynamics. In this case, the energy and exergy efficiencies of the dual loop system were larger than those of the single loop trilateral cycle. Further, in the upper trilateral cycle, the volumetric expansion ratio of the turbine could be considerably reduced to an adequate level to be employed in the practical system. When this dual loop exhaust gas heat recovery power generation system was applied to the main engine of the container ship, which was actually in operation, a 2.824% improvement in propulsion efficiency was confirmed in comparison to the case of a base engine. This improvement in propulsion efficiency resulted in about 6.06% reduction in the specific fuel oil consumption and specific CO 2 emissions of the main engine during actual operation. - Highlights: • WHRS was theoretically applied to exhaust gas of a main engine for ship propulsion. • A dual loop EG-WHRS using water and R1234yf as working fluids has been suggested. • Limitation of single loop trilateral cycle was improved by the dual loop system. • The propulsion efficiency of 2.824% was improved by the dual loop EG-WHRS. • This resulted in about 6.06% reduction in the SFOC and specific CO

  19. Ground test facilities for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion engines and fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, G.C.; Beck, D.F.; Harmon, C.D.; Shipers, L.R.

    1992-01-01

    Interagency panels evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion development options have consistently recognized the need for constructing a major new ground test facility to support fuel element and engine testing. This paper summarizes the requirements, configuration, and design issues of a proposed ground test complex for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion engines and fuel elements being developed for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. 2 refs

  20. Design and development of the MITEE-B bi-modal nuclear propulsion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paniagua, John C.; Powell, James R.; Maise, George

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies of compact, ultra-lightweight high performance nuclear thermal propulsion engines have concentrated on systems that only deliver high thrust. However, many potential missions also require substantial amounts of electric power. Studies of a new, very compact and lightweight bi-modal nuclear engine that provides both high propulsive thrust and high electric power for planetary science missions are described. The design is a modification of the MITEE nuclear thermal engine concept that provided only high propulsive thrust. In the new design, MITEE-B, separate closed cooling circuits are incorporated into the reactor, which transfers useful amounts of thermal energy to a small power conversion system that generates continuous electric power over the full life of the mission, even when the engine is not delivering propulsive thrust. Two versions of the MITEE-B design are described and analyzed. Version 1 generates 1 kW(e) of continuous power for control of the spacecraft, sensors, data transmission, etc. This power level eliminates the need for RTG's on missions to the outer planets, and allowing considerably greater operational capability for the spacecraft. This, plus its high thrust and high specific impulse propulsive capabilities, makes MITEE-B very attractive for such missions. In Version 2, of MITEE-B, a total of 20 kW(e) is generated, enabling the use of electric propulsion. The combination of high open cycle propulsion thrust (20,000 Newtons) with a specific impulse of ∼1000 seconds for short impulse burns, and long term (months to years), electric propulsion greatly increases MITEE's ΔV capability. Version 2 of MITEE-B also enables the production and replenishment of H2 propellant using in-situ resources, such as electrolysis of water from the ice sheet on Europa and other Jovian moons. This capability would greatly increase the ΔV available for certain planetary science missions. The modifications to the MITEE multiple pressure tube

  1. Advanced Chemical Propulsion System Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portz, Ron; Alexander, Leslie; Chapman, Jack; England, Chris; Henderson, Scott; Krismer, David; Lu, Frank; Wilson, Kim; Miller, Scott

    2007-01-01

    A detailed; mission-level systems study has been performed to show the benefit resulting from engine performance gains that will result from NASA's In-Space Propulsion ROSS Cycle 3A NRA, Advanced Chemical Technology sub-topic. The technology development roadmap to accomplish the NRA goals are also detailed in this paper. NASA-Marshall and NASA-JPL have conducted mission-level studies to define engine requirements, operating conditions, and interfaces. Five reference missions have been chosen for this analysis based on scientific interest, current launch vehicle capability and trends in space craft size: a) GTO to GEO, 4800 kg, delta-V for GEO insertion only approx.1830 m/s; b) Titan Orbiter with aerocapture, 6620 kg, total delta V approx.210 m/s, mostly for periapsis raise after aerocapture; c) Enceladus Orbiter (Titan aerocapture) 6620 kg, delta V approx.2400 m/s; d) Europa Orbiter, 2170 kg, total delta V approx.2600 m/s; and e) Mars Orbiter, 2250 kg, total delta V approx.1860 m/s. The figures of merit used to define the benefit of increased propulsion efficiency at the spacecraft level include propulsion subsystem wet mass, volume and overall cost. The objective of the NRA is to increase the specific impulse of pressure-fed earth storable bipropellant rocket engines to greater than 330 seconds with nitrogen tetroxide and monomothylhydrazine propellants and greater than 335 , seconds with nitrogen tetroxide and hydrazine. Achievement of the NRA goals will significantly benefit NASA interplanetary missions and other government and commercial opportunities by enabling reduced launch weight and/or increased payload. The study also constitutes a crucial stepping stone to future development, such as pump-fed storable engines.

  2. Use of Soft Computing Technologies for a Qualitative and Reliable Engine Control System for Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Luis; Brown, Terry; Crumbley, R. T. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The problem to be addressed in this paper is to explore how the use of Soft Computing Technologies (SCT) could be employed to improve overall vehicle system safety, reliability, and rocket engine performance by development of a qualitative and reliable engine control system (QRECS). Specifically, this will be addressed by enhancing rocket engine control using SCT, innovative data mining tools, and sound software engineering practices used in Marshall's Flight Software Group (FSG). The principle goals for addressing the issue of quality are to improve software management, software development time, software maintenance, processor execution, fault tolerance and mitigation, and nonlinear control in power level transitions. The intent is not to discuss any shortcomings of existing engine control methodologies, but to provide alternative design choices for control, implementation, performance, and sustaining engineering, all relative to addressing the issue of reliability. The approaches outlined in this paper will require knowledge in the fields of rocket engine propulsion (system level), software engineering for embedded flight software systems, and soft computing technologies (i.e., neural networks, fuzzy logic, data mining, and Bayesian belief networks); some of which are briefed in this paper. For this effort, the targeted demonstration rocket engine testbed is the MC-1 engine (formerly FASTRAC) which is simulated with hardware and software in the Marshall Avionics & Software Testbed (MAST) laboratory that currently resides at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, building 4476, and is managed by the Avionics Department. A brief plan of action for design, development, implementation, and testing a Phase One effort for QRECS is given, along with expected results. Phase One will focus on development of a Smart Start Engine Module and a Mainstage Engine Module for proper engine start and mainstage engine operations. The overall intent is to demonstrate that by

  3. Kinetic---a system code for analyzing nuclear thermal propulsion rocket engine transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, E.; Lazareth, O.; Ludewig, H.

    1993-01-01

    A system code suitable for analyzing Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) rocket engines is described in this paper. The code consists of a point reactor model and nodes to describe the fluid dynamics and heat transfer mechanism. Feedback from the fuel, coolant, moderator and reflector are allowed for, and the control of the reactor is by motion of controls element (drums or rods). The worth of the control element and feedback coefficients are predetermined. Separate models for the turbo-pump assembly (TPA) and nozzle are also included. The model to be described in this paper is specific for the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR). An illustrative problem is solved. This problem consists of a PBR operating in a blowdown mode

  4. Kinetic—a system code for analyzing nuclear thermal propulsion rocket engine transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Eldon; Lazareth, Otto; Ludewig, Hans

    1993-01-01

    A system code suitable for analyzing Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) rocket engines is described in this paper. The code consists of a point reactor model and nodes to describe the fluid dynamics and heat transfer mechanism. Feedback from the fuel, coolant, moderator and reflector are allowed for, and the control of the reactor is by motion of controls element (drums or rods). The worth of the control element and feedback coefficients are predetermined. Separate models for the turbo-pump assembly (TPA) and nozzle are also included. The model to be described in this paper is specific for the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR). An illustrative problem is solved. This problem consists of a PBR operating in a blowdown mode.

  5. KINETIC: A system code for analyzing Nuclear thermal propulsion rocket engine transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, E.; Lazareth, O.; Ludewig, H.

    1993-07-01

    A system code suitable for analyzing Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) rocket engines is described in this paper. The code consists of a point reactor model and nodes to describe the fluid dynamics and heat transfer mechanism. Feedback from the fuel coolant, moderator and reflector are allowed for, and the control of the reactor is by motion of control elements (drums or rods). The worth of the control clement and feedback coefficients are predetermined. Separate models for the turbo-pump assembly (TPA) and nozzle are also included. The model to be described in this paper is specific for the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR). An illustrative problem is solved. This problem consists of a PBR operating in a blowdown mode.

  6. A graphical user-interface for propulsion system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curlett, Brian P.; Ryall, Kathleen

    1993-01-01

    NASA LeRC uses a series of computer codes to calculate installed propulsion system performance and weight. The need to evaluate more advanced engine concepts with a greater degree of accuracy has resulted in an increase in complexity of this analysis system. Therefore, a graphical user interface was developed to allow the analyst to more quickly and easily apply these codes. The development of this interface and the rationale for the approach taken are described. The interface consists of a method of pictorially representing and editing the propulsion system configuration, forms for entering numerical data, on-line help and documentation, post processing of data, and a menu system to control execution.

  7. A study on optimal control of the aero-propulsion system acceleration process under the supersonic state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengyong Sun

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the aero-propulsion system acceleration optimal problem, the necessity of inlet control is discussed, and a fully new aero-propulsion system acceleration process control design including the inlet, engine, and nozzle is proposed in this paper. In the proposed propulsion system control scheme, the inlet, engine, and nozzle are simultaneously adjusted through the FSQP method. In order to implement the control scheme design, an aero-propulsion system component-level model is built to simulate the inlet working performance and the matching problems between the inlet and engine. Meanwhile, a stabilizing inlet control scheme is designed to solve the inlet control problems. In optimal control of the aero-propulsion system acceleration process, the inlet is an emphasized control unit in the optimal acceleration control system. Two inlet control patterns are discussed in the simulation. The simulation results prove that by taking the inlet ramp angle as an active control variable instead of being modulated passively, acceleration performance could be obviously enhanced. Acceleration objectives could be obtained with a faster acceleration time by 5%.

  8. Rocket propulsion elements - An introduction to the engineering of rockets (6th revised and enlarged edition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, George P.

    The subject of rocket propulsion is treated with emphasis on the basic technology, performance, and design rationale. Attention is given to definitions and fundamentals, nozzle theory and thermodynamic relations, heat transfer, flight performance, chemical rocket propellant performance analysis, and liquid propellant rocket engine fundamentals. The discussion also covers solid propellant rocket fundamentals, hybrid propellant rockets, thrust vector control, selection of rocket propulsion systems, electric propulsion, and rocket testing.

  9. Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion Engine Cycle Analysis for Hybrid-Wing-Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, James L.; Kim, Hyun Dae; Brown, Gerald V.

    2009-01-01

    Meeting NASA's N+3 goals requires a fundamental shift in approach to aircraft and engine design. Material and design improvements allow higher pressure and higher temperature core engines which improve the thermal efficiency. Propulsive efficiency, the other half of the overall efficiency equation, however, is largely determined by the fan pressure ratio (FPR). Lower FPR increases propulsive efficiency, but also dramatically reduces fan shaft speed through the combination of larger diameter fans and reduced fan tip speed limits. The result is that below an FPR of 1.5 the maximum fan shaft speed makes direct drive turbines problematic. However, it is the low pressure ratio fans that allow the improvement in propulsive efficiency which, along with improvements in thermal efficiency in the core, contributes strongly to meeting the N+3 goals for fuel burn reduction. The lower fan exhaust velocities resulting from lower FPRs are also key to meeting the aircraft noise goals. Adding a gear box to the standard turbofan engine allows acceptable turbine speeds to be maintained. However, development of a 50,000+ hp gearbox required by fans in a large twin engine transport aircraft presents an extreme technical challenge, therefore another approach is needed. This paper presents a propulsion system which transmits power from the turbine to the fan electrically rather than mechanically. Recent and anticipated advances in high temperature superconducting generators, motors, and power lines offer the possibility that such devices can be used to transmit turbine power in aircraft without an excessive weight penalty. Moving to such a power transmission system does more than provide better matching between fan and turbine shaft speeds. The relative ease with which electrical power can be distributed throughout the aircraft opens up numerous other possibilities for new aircraft and propulsion configurations and modes of operation. This paper discusses a number of these new

  10. Supersonic propulsion technology. [variable cycle engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, A. G.; Coltrin, R. E.; Stitt, L. E.; Weber, R. J.; Whitlow, J. B., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Propulsion concepts for commercial supersonic transports are discussed. It is concluded that variable cycle engines, together with advanced supersonic inlets and low noise coannular nozzles, provide good operating performance for both supersonic and subsonic flight. In addition, they are reasonably quiet during takeoff and landing and have acceptable exhaust emissions.

  11. Distributed propulsion and future aerospace technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Ameyugo, Gregorio

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes an Engineering Doctorate project in Distributed Propulsion carried out from 2004 to 2007 at Cranfield University. Distributed propulsion is a propulsion system arrangement that consists in spreading the engine thrust along the aircraft span. This can be accomplished by distributing a series of driven fans or the engines themselves. The aim of this project is to determine the feasibility of ...

  12. Propulsion systems from takeoff to high-speed flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billig, F. S.

    Potential applications for missiles and aircraft requiring highly efficient engines serve as the basis for discussing new propulsion concepts and novel combinations of existing cycles. Comparisons are made between rocket and airbreathing powered missiles for anti-ballistic and surface-to-air missions. The properties of cryogenic hydrogen are presented to explain the mechanics and limitations of liquid air cycles. Conceptual vehicle designs of a transatmospheric accelerator are introduced to permit examination of the factors that guide the choice of the optimal propulsion system.

  13. Mathematical model of marine diesel engine simulator for a new methodology of self propulsion tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izzuddin, Nur; Sunarsih,; Priyanto, Agoes [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    As a vessel operates in the open seas, a marine diesel engine simulator whose engine rotation is controlled to transmit through propeller shaft is a new methodology for the self propulsion tests to track the fuel saving in a real time. Considering the circumstance, this paper presents the real time of marine diesel engine simulator system to track the real performance of a ship through a computer-simulated model. A mathematical model of marine diesel engine and the propeller are used in the simulation to estimate fuel rate, engine rotating speed, thrust and torque of the propeller thus achieve the target vessel’s speed. The input and output are a real time control system of fuel saving rate and propeller rotating speed representing the marine diesel engine characteristics. The self-propulsion tests in calm waters were conducted using a vessel model to validate the marine diesel engine simulator. The simulator then was used to evaluate the fuel saving by employing a new mathematical model of turbochargers for the marine diesel engine simulator. The control system developed will be beneficial for users as to analyze different condition of vessel’s speed to obtain better characteristics and hence optimize the fuel saving rate.

  14. Titan I propulsion system modeling and possible performance improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Oreste

    This thesis features the Titan I propulsion systems and offers data-supported suggestions for improvements to increase performance. The original propulsion systems were modeled both graphically in CAD and via equations. Due to the limited availability of published information, it was necessary to create a more detailed, secondary set of models. Various engineering equations---pertinent to rocket engine design---were implemented in order to generate the desired extra detail. This study describes how these new models were then imported into the ESI CFD Suite. Various parameters are applied to these imported models as inputs that include, for example, bi-propellant combinations, pressure, temperatures, and mass flow rates. The results were then processed with ESI VIEW, which is visualization software. The output files were analyzed for forces in the nozzle, and various results were generated, including sea level thrust and ISP. Experimental data are provided to compare the original engine configuration models to the derivative suggested improvement models.

  15. Investigation of Various Novel Air-Breathing Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhite, Jarred M.

    The current research investigates the operation and performance of various air-breathing propulsion systems, which are capable of utilizing different types of fuel. This study first focuses on a modular RDE configuration, which was mainly studied to determine which conditions yield stable, continuous rotating detonation for an ethylene-air mixture. The performance of this RDE was analyzed by studying various parameters such as mass flow rate, equivalence ratios, wave speed and cell size. For relatively low mass flow rates near stoichiometric conditions, a rotating detonation wave is observed for an ethylene-RDE, but at speeds less than an ideal detonation wave. The current research also involves investigating the newly designed, Twin Oxidizer Injection Capable (TOXIC) RDE. Mixtures of hydrogen and air were utilized for this configuration, resulting in sustained rotating detonation for various mass flow rates and equivalence ratios. A thrust stand was also developed to observe and further measure the performance of the TOXIC RDE. Further analysis was conducted to accurately model and simulate the response of thrust stand during operation of the RDE. Also included in this research are findings and analysis of a propulsion system capable of operating on the Inverse Brayton Cycle. The feasibility of this novel concept was validated in a previous study to be sufficient for small-scale propulsion systems, namely UAV applications. This type of propulsion system consists of a reorganization of traditional gas turbine engine components, which incorporates expansion before compression. This cycle also requires a heat exchanger to reduce the temperature of the flow entering the compressor downstream. While adding a heat exchanger improves the efficiency of the cycle, it also increases the engine weight, resulting in less endurance for the aircraft. Therefore, this study focuses on the selection and development of a new heat exchanger design that is lightweight, and is capable

  16. Ion engine auxiliary propulsion applications and integration study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafran, S. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    The benefits derived from application of the 8-cm mercury electron bombardment ion thruster were assessed. Two specific spacecraft missions were studied. A thruster was tested to provide additional needed information on its efflux characteristics and interactive effects. A Users Manual was then prepared describing how to integrate the thruster for auxiliary propulsion on geosynchronous satellites. By incorporating ion engines on an advanced communications mission, the weight available for added payload increases by about 82 kg (181 lb) for a 100 kg (2200 lb) satellite which otherwise uses electrothermal hydrazine. Ion engines can be integrated into a high performance propulsion module that is compatible with the multimission modular spacecraft and can be used for both geosynchronous and low earth orbit applications. The low disturbance torques introduced by the ion engines permit accurate spacecraft pointing with the payload in operation during thrusting periods. The feasibility of using the thruster's neutralizer assembly for neutralization of differentially charged spacecraft surfaces at geosynchronous altitude was demonstrated during the testing program.

  17. Systems Analysis Developed for All-Electric Aircraft Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohout, Lisa L.

    2004-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of fuel cells as a power source for all-electric aircraft propulsion as a means to substantially reduce or eliminate environmentally harmful emissions. Among the technologies under consideration for these concepts are advanced proton exchange membrane (PEM) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), alternative fuels and fuel processing, and fuel storage. A multidisciplinary effort is underway at the NASA Glenn Research Center to develop and evaluate concepts for revolutionary, nontraditional fuel cell power and propulsion systems for aircraft applications. As part of this effort, system studies are being conducted to identify concepts with high payoff potential and associated technology areas for further development. To support this effort, a suite of component models was developed to estimate the mass, volume, and performance for a given system architecture. These models include a hydrogen-air PEM fuel cell; an SOFC; balance-of-plant components (compressor, humidifier, separator, and heat exchangers); compressed gas, cryogenic, and liquid fuel storage tanks; and gas turbine/generator models for hybrid system applications. First-order feasibility studies were completed for an all-electric personal air vehicle utilizing a fuel-cell-powered propulsion system. A representative aircraft with an internal combustion engine was chosen as a baseline to provide key parameters to the study, including engine power and subsystem mass, fuel storage volume and mass, and aircraft range. The engine, fuel tank, and associated ancillaries were then replaced with a fuel cell subsystem. Various configurations were considered including a PEM fuel cell with liquid hydrogen storage, a direct methanol PEM fuel cell, and a direct internal reforming SOFC/turbine hybrid system using liquid methane fuel. Each configuration was compared with the baseline case on a mass and range basis.

  18. Enabling the Use of Space Fission Propulsion Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mike Houts; Melissa Van Dyke; Tom Godfroy; James Martin; Kevin Pedersen; Ricky Dickens; Ivana Hrbud; Leo Bitteker; Bruce Patton; Suman Chakrabarti; Joe Bonometti

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives brief descriptions of advantages of fission technology for reaching any point in the solar system and of earlier efforts to develop space fission propulsion systems, and gives a more detailed description of the safe, affordable fission engine (SAFE) concept being pursued at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Marshall Space Flight Center

  19. Guide to Flow Measurement for Electric Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieman, Jason D.; Walker, Mitchell L. R.; Snyder, Steve

    2013-01-01

    In electric propulsion (EP) systems, accurate measurement of the propellant mass flow rate of gas or liquid to the thruster and external cathode is a key input in the calculation of thruster efficiency and specific impulse. Although such measurements are often achieved with commercial mass flow controllers and meters integrated into propellant feed systems, the variability in potential propellant options and flow requirements amongst the spectrum of EP power regimes and devices complicates meter selection, integration, and operation. At the direction of the Committee on Standards for Electric Propulsion Testing, a guide was jointly developed by members of the electric propulsion community to establish a unified document that contains the working principles, methods of implementation and analysis, and calibration techniques and recommendations on the use of mass flow meters in laboratory and spacecraft electric propulsion systems. The guide is applicable to EP devices of all types and power levels ranging from microthrusters to high-power ion engines and Hall effect thrusters. The establishment of a community standard on mass flow metering will help ensure the selection of the proper meter for each application. It will also improve the quality of system performance estimates by providing comprehensive information on the physical phenomena and systematic errors that must be accounted for during the analysis of flow measurement data. This paper will outline the standard methods and recommended practices described in the guide titled "Flow Measurement for Electric Propulsion Systems."

  20. Materials Advance Chemical Propulsion Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In the future, the Planetary Science Division of NASA's Science Mission Directorate hopes to use better-performing and lower-cost propulsion systems to send rovers, probes, and observers to places like Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. For such purposes, a new propulsion technology called the Advanced Materials Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) was developed under NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) project, located at Glenn Research Center. As an advanced chemical propulsion system, AMBR uses nitrogen tetroxide oxidizer and hydrazine fuel to propel a spacecraft. Based on current research and development efforts, the technology shows great promise for increasing engine operation and engine lifespan, as well as lowering manufacturing costs. In developing AMBR, ISPT has several goals: to decrease the time it takes for a spacecraft to travel to its destination, reduce the cost of making the propulsion system, and lessen the weight of the propulsion system. If goals like these are met, it could result in greater capabilities for in-space science investigations. For example, if the amount (and weight) of propellant required on a spacecraft is reduced, more scientific instruments (and weight) could be added to the spacecraft. To achieve AMBR s maximum potential performance, the engine needed to be capable of operating at extremely high temperatures and pressure. To this end, ISPT required engine chambers made of iridium-coated rhenium (strong, high-temperature metallic elements) that allowed operation at temperatures close to 4,000 F. In addition, ISPT needed an advanced manufacturing technique for better coating methods to increase the strength of the engine chamber without increasing the costs of fabricating the chamber.

  1. INSPACE CHEMICAL PROPULSION SYSTEMS AT NASA's MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER: HERITAGE AND CAPABILITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRight, P. S.; Sheehy, J. A.; Blevins, J. A.

    2005-01-01

    NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is well known for its contributions to large ascent propulsion systems such as the Saturn V rocket and the Space Shuttle external tank, solid rocket boosters, and main engines. This paper highlights a lesser known but very rich side of MSFC-its heritage in the development of in-space chemical propulsion systems and its current capabilities for spacecraft propulsion system development and chemical propulsion research. The historical narrative describes the flight development activities associated with upper stage main propulsion systems such as the Saturn S-IVB as well as orbital maneuvering and reaction control systems such as the S-IVB auxiliary propulsion system, the Skylab thruster attitude control system, and many more recent activities such as Chandra, the Demonstration of Automated Rendezvous Technology (DART), X-37, the X-38 de-orbit propulsion system, the Interim Control Module, the US Propulsion Module, and multiple technology development activities. This paper also highlights MSFC s advanced chemical propulsion research capabilities, including an overview of the center s Propulsion Systems Department and ongoing activities. The authors highlight near-term and long-term technology challenges to which MSFC research and system development competencies are relevant. This paper concludes by assessing the value of the full range of aforementioned activities, strengths, and capabilities in light of NASA s exploration missions.

  2. An Introduction to Transient Engine Applications Using the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) and MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jeffrey C.; Csank, Jeffrey T.; Haller, William J.; Seidel, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    This document outlines methodologies designed to improve the interface between the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation framework and various control and dynamic analyses developed in the Matlab and Simulink environment. Although NPSS is most commonly used for steady-state modeling, this paper is intended to supplement the relatively sparse documentation on it's transient analysis functionality. Matlab has become an extremely popular engineering environment, and better methodologies are necessary to develop tools that leverage the benefits of these disparate frameworks. Transient analysis is not a new feature of the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS), but transient considerations are becoming more pertinent as multidisciplinary trade-offs begin to play a larger role in advanced engine designs. This paper serves to supplement the relatively sparse documentation on transient modeling and cover the budding convergence between NPSS and Matlab based modeling toolsets. The following sections explore various design patterns to rapidly develop transient models. Each approach starts with a base model built with NPSS, and assumes the reader already has a basic understanding of how to construct a steady-state model. The second half of the paper focuses on further enhancements required to subsequently interface NPSS with Matlab codes. The first method being the simplest and most straightforward but performance constrained, and the last being the most abstract. These methods aren't mutually exclusive and the specific implementation details could vary greatly based on the designer's discretion. Basic recommendations are provided to organize model logic in a format most easily amenable to integration with existing Matlab control toolsets.

  3. Predicted performance of an integrated modular engine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Michael; Felder, James L.

    1993-01-01

    Space vehicle propulsion systems are traditionally comprised of a cluster of discrete engines, each with its own set of turbopumps, valves, and a thrust chamber. The Integrated Modular Engine (IME) concept proposes a vehicle propulsion system comprised of multiple turbopumps, valves, and thrust chambers which are all interconnected. The IME concept has potential advantages in fault-tolerance, weight, and operational efficiency compared with the traditional clustered engine configuration. The purpose of this study is to examine the steady-state performance of an IME system with various components removed to simulate fault conditions. An IME configuration for a hydrogen/oxygen expander cycle propulsion system with four sets of turbopumps and eight thrust chambers has been modeled using the Rocket Engine Transient Simulator (ROCETS) program. The nominal steady-state performance is simulated, as well as turbopump thrust chamber and duct failures. The impact of component failures on system performance is discussed in the context of the system's fault tolerant capabilities.

  4. Modeling of Highly Instrumented Honeywell Turbofan Engine Tested with Ice Crystal Ingestion in the NASA Propulsion System Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Joseph P.; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Jones, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL), an altitude test facility at NASA Glenn Research Center, has been used to test a highly instrumented turbine engine at simulated altitude operating conditions. This is a continuation of the PSL testing that successfully duplicated the icing events that were experienced in a previous engine (serial LF01) during flight through ice crystal clouds, which was the first turbofan engine tested in PSL. This second model of the ALF502R-5A serial number LF11 is a highly instrumented version of the previous engine. The PSL facility provides a continuous cloud of ice crystals with controlled characteristics of size and concentration, which are ingested by the engine during operation at simulated altitudes. Several of the previous operating points tested in the LF01 engine were duplicated to confirm repeatability in LF11. The instrumentation included video cameras to visually illustrate the accretion of ice in the low pressure compressor (LPC) exit guide vane region in order to confirm the ice accretion, which was suspected during the testing of the LF01. Traditional instrumentation included static pressure taps in the low pressure compressor inner and outer flow path walls, as well as total pressure and temperature rakes in the low pressure compressor region. The test data was utilized to determine the losses and blockages due to accretion in the exit guide vane region of the LPC. Multiple data points were analyzed with the Honeywell Customer Deck. A full engine roll back point was modeled with the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) code. The mean line compressor flow analysis code with ice crystal modeling was utilized to estimate the parameters that indicate the risk of accretion, as well as to estimate the degree of blockage and losses caused by accretion during a full engine roll back point. The analysis provided additional validation of the icing risk parameters within the LPC, as well as the creation of models for

  5. Test facilities for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, D.F.; Allen, G.C.; Shipers, L.R.; Dobranich, D.; Ottinger, C.A.; Harmon, C.D.; Fan, W.C.; Todosow, M.

    1992-01-01

    Interagency panels evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) development options have consistently recognized the need for constructing a major new ground test facility to support fuel element and engine testing. This paper summarizes the requirements, configuration, and baseline performance of some of the major subsystems designed to support a proposed ground test complex for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion fuel elements and engines being developed for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. Some preliminary results of evaluating this facility for use in testing other NTP concepts are also summarized

  6. Network Flow Simulation of Fluid Transients in Rocket Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Alak; Hamill, Brian; Ramachandran, Narayanan; Majumdar, Alok

    2011-01-01

    Fluid transients, also known as water hammer, can have a significant impact on the design and operation of both spacecraft and launch vehicle propulsion systems. These transients often occur at system activation and shutdown. The pressure rise due to sudden opening and closing of valves of propulsion feed lines can cause serious damage during activation and shutdown of propulsion systems. During activation (valve opening) and shutdown (valve closing), pressure surges must be predicted accurately to ensure structural integrity of the propulsion system fluid network. In the current work, a network flow simulation software (Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program) based on Finite Volume Method has been used to predict the pressure surges in the feed line due to both valve closing and valve opening using two separate geometrical configurations. The valve opening pressure surge results are compared with experimental data available in the literature and the numerical results compared very well within reasonable accuracy (< 5%) for a wide range of inlet-to-initial pressure ratios. A Fast Fourier Transform is preformed on the pressure oscillations to predict the various modal frequencies of the pressure wave. The shutdown problem, i.e. valve closing problem, the simulation results are compared with the results of Method of Characteristics. Most rocket engines experience a longitudinal acceleration, known as "pogo" during the later stage of engine burn. In the shutdown example problem, an accumulator has been used in the feed system to demonstrate the "pogo" mitigation effects in the feed system of propellant. The simulation results using GFSSP compared very well with the results of Method of Characteristics.

  7. Economic effects of propulsion system technology on existing and future transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallee, G. P.

    1974-01-01

    The results of an airline study of the economic effects of propulsion system technology on current and future transport aircraft are presented. This report represents the results of a detailed study of propulsion system operating economics. The study has four major parts: (1) a detailed analysis of current propulsion system maintenance with respect to the material and labor costs encountered versus years in service and the design characteristics of the major elements of the propulsion system of the B707, b727, and B747. (2) an analysis of the economic impact of a future representative 1979 propulsion system is presented with emphasis on depreciation of investment, fuel costs and maintenance costs developed on the basis of the analysis of the historical trends observed. (3) recommendations concerning improved methods of forecasting the maintenance cost of future propulsion systems are presented. A detailed method based on the summation of the projected labor and material repair costs for each major engine module and its installation along with a shorter form suitable for quick, less detailed analysis are presented, and (4) recommendations concerning areas where additional technology is needed to improve the economics of future commercial propulsion systems are presented along with the suggested economic benefits available from such advanced technology efforts.

  8. The Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Program: Propulsion for the twenty first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleeker, G.; Moody, J.; Kesaree, M.

    1993-01-01

    As mission requirements approach the limits of the chemical propulsion systems, new engines must be investigated that can meet the advanced mission requirements of higher payload fractions, higher velocities, and consequently higher specific Impulses (Isp). The propulsion system that can meet these high demands is a nuclear thermal rocket engine. This engine generates the thrust by expanding/existing the hydrogen, heated from the energy derived from the fission process in a reactor, through a nozzle. The Department of Defense (DoD), however, initiated a new nuclear rocket development program in 1987 for ballistic missile defense application. The Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program that seeks to improve on the technology of ROVER/NERVA grew out of this beginning and has been managed by the Air Force, with the involvement of DoE and NASA. The goal of the SNTP Program is to develop an engine to meet potential Air Force requirements for upper stage engine, bimodal propulsion/power applications, and orbital transfer vehicles, as well as the NASA requirements for possible missions to the Moon and Mars. During the entire life of the program, the DoD has considered safety to be of paramount importance, and is following all national environmental policies

  9. Analysis of airframe/engine interactions in integrated flight and propulsion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierman, John D.; Schmidt, David K.

    1991-01-01

    An analysis framework for the assessment of dynamic cross-coupling between airframe and engine systems from the perspective of integrated flight/propulsion control is presented. This analysis involves to determining the significance of the interactions with respect to deterioration in stability robustness and performance, as well as critical frequency ranges where problems may occur due to these interactions. The analysis illustrated here investigates both the airframe's effects on the engine control loops and the engine's effects on the airframe control loops in two case studies. The second case study involves a multi-input/multi-output analysis of the airframe. Sensitivity studies are performed on critical interactions to examine the degradations in the system's stability robustness and performance. Magnitudes of the interactions required to cause instabilities, as well as the frequencies at which the instabilities occur are recorded. Finally, the analysis framework is expanded to include control laws which contain cross-feeds between the airframe and engine systems.

  10. MITEE-B: A compact ultra lightweight bi-modal nuclear propulsion engine for robotic planetary science missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, James; Maise, George; Paniagua, John; Borowski, Stanley

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) enables unique new robotic planetary science missions that are impossible with chemical or nuclear electric propulsion systems. A compact and ultra lightweight bi-modal nuclear engine, termed MITEE-B (MInature ReacTor EnginE - Bi-Modal) can deliver 1000's of kilograms of propulsive thrust when it operates in the NTP mode, and many kilowatts of continuous electric power when it operates in the electric generation mode. The high propulsive thrust NTP mode enables spacecraft to land and takeoff from the surface of a planet or moon, to hop to multiple widely separated sites on the surface, and virtually unlimited flight in planetary atmospheres. The continuous electric generation mode enables a spacecraft to replenish its propellant by processing in-situ resources, provide power for controls, instruments, and communications while in space and on the surface, and operate electric propulsion units. Six examples of unique and important missions enabled by the MITEE-B engine are described, including: (1) Pluto lander and sample return; (2) Europa lander and ocean explorer; (3) Mars Hopper; (4) Jupiter atmospheric flyer; (5) SunBurn hypervelocity spacecraft; and (6) He3 mining from Uranus. Many additional important missions are enabled by MITEE-B. A strong technology base for MITEE-B already exists. With a vigorous development program, it could be ready for initial robotic science and exploration missions by 2010 AD. Potential mission benefits include much shorter in-space times, reduced IMLEO requirements, and replenishment of supplies from in-situ resources

  11. A Survey of Intelligent Control and Health Management Technologies for Aircraft Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Simon, Donald L.; Garg, Sanjay; Guo, Ten-Heui; Mercer, Carolyn; Behbahani, Alireza; Bajwa, Anupa; Jensen, Daniel T.

    2005-01-01

    Intelligent Control and Health Management technology for aircraft propulsion systems is much more developed in the laboratory than in practice. With a renewed emphasis on reducing engine life cycle costs, improving fuel efficiency, increasing durability and life, etc., driven by various government programs, there is a strong push to move these technologies out of the laboratory and onto the engine. This paper describes the existing state of engine control and on-board health management, and surveys some specific technologies under development that will enable an aircraft propulsion system to operate in an intelligent way--defined as self-diagnostic, self-prognostic, self-optimizing, and mission adaptable. These technologies offer the potential for creating extremely safe, highly reliable systems. The technologies will help to enable a level of performance that far exceeds that of today s propulsion systems in terms of reduction of harmful emissions, maximization of fuel efficiency, and minimization of noise, while improving system affordability and safety. Technologies that are discussed include various aspects of propulsion control, diagnostics, prognostics, and their integration. The paper focuses on the improvements that can be achieved through innovative software and algorithms. It concentrates on those areas that do not require significant advances in sensors and actuators to make them achievable, while acknowledging the additional benefit that can be realized when those technologies become available. The paper also discusses issues associated with the introduction of some of the technologies.

  12. An Integrated Heavy Fuel Piston Engine Ducted Fan Propulsion Unit for Personal Air Vehicles, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed PAVE propulsion system technology demonstration combines an innovative high-speed aero-diesel engine with a novel ducted fan assembly resulting in a low...

  13. An Integrated Heavy Fuel Piston Engine Ducted Fan Propulsion Unit for Personal Air Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed PAVE propulsion system technology demonstration combines an innovative high-speed aero-diesel engine with a novel ducted fan assembly resulting in a low...

  14. Advanced supersonic propulsion study. [with emphasis on noise level reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatella, J. A. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the promising propulsion systems for advanced supersonic transport application, and to identify the critical propulsion technology requirements. It is shown that noise constraints have a major effect on the selection of the various engine types and cycle parameters. Several promising advanced propulsion systems were identified which show the potential of achieving lower levels of sideline jet noise than the first generation supersonic transport systems. The non-afterburning turbojet engine, utilizing a very high level of jet suppression, shows the potential to achieve FAR 36 noise level. The duct-heating turbofan with a low level of jet suppression is the most attractive engine for noise levels from FAR 36 to FAR 36 minus 5 EPNdb, and some series/parallel variable cycle engines show the potential of achieving noise levels down to FAR 36 minus 10 EPNdb with moderate additional penalty. The study also shows that an advanced supersonic commercial transport would benefit appreciably from advanced propulsion technology. The critical propulsion technology needed for a viable supersonic propulsion system, and the required specific propulsion technology programs are outlined.

  15. The designing of launch vehicles with liquid propulsion engines ensuring fire, explosion and environmental safety requirements of worked-off stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushlyakov, V.; Shatrov, Ya.; Sujmenbaev, B.; Baranov, D.

    2017-02-01

    The paper addresses the problem of the launch vehicles (LV) with main liquid propulsion engines launch technogenic impact in different environment areas. Therefore, as the study subjects were chosen the worked-off stages (WS) with unused propellant residues in tanks, the cosmodrome ecological monitoring system, the worked-off stage design and construction solutions development system and the unified system with the "WS+the cosmodrome ecological monitoring system+design and construction solutions development system" feedback allowing to form the optimal ways of the WS design and construction parameters variations for its fire and explosion hazard management in different areas of the environment. It is demonstrated that the fire hazard effects of propellant residues in WS tanks increase the ecosystem disorder level for the Vostochny cosmodrome impact area ecosystem. Applying the system analysis, the proposals on the selection of technologies, schematic and WS design and construction solutions aimed to the fire and explosion safety improvement during the LV worked-off stages with the main liquid propulsion engines operation were formulated. Among them are the following: firstly, the unused propellant residues in tanks convective gasification based on the hot gas (heat carrier) supply in WS tanks after main liquid propulsion engines cutoff is proposed as the basic technology; secondly, the obtained unused propellant residues in WS tanks gasification products (evaporated propellant residues + pressurizing agent + heat carrier) are used for WS stabilization and orientation while descending trajectory moving. The applying of the proposed technologies allows providing fire and explosion safety requirements of LV with main liquid propulsion engines practically.

  16. Distributed Propulsion Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Dae

    2010-01-01

    Since the introduction of large jet-powered transport aircraft, the majority of these vehicles have been designed by placing thrust-generating engines either under the wings or on the fuselage to minimize aerodynamic interactions on the vehicle operation. However, advances in computational and experimental tools along with new technologies in materials, structures, and aircraft controls, etc. are enabling a high degree of integration of the airframe and propulsion system in aircraft design. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been investigating a number of revolutionary distributed propulsion vehicle concepts to increase aircraft performance. The concept of distributed propulsion is to fully integrate a propulsion system within an airframe such that the aircraft takes full synergistic benefits of coupling of airframe aerodynamics and the propulsion thrust stream by distributing thrust using many propulsors on the airframe. Some of the concepts are based on the use of distributed jet flaps, distributed small multiple engines, gas-driven multi-fans, mechanically driven multifans, cross-flow fans, and electric fans driven by turboelectric generators. This paper describes some early concepts of the distributed propulsion vehicles and the current turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) vehicle concepts being studied under the NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project to drastically reduce aircraft-related fuel burn, emissions, and noise by the year 2030 to 2035.

  17. NASA Electric Propulsion System Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, James L.

    2015-01-01

    An overview of NASA efforts in the area of hybrid electric and turboelectric propulsion in large transport. This overview includes a list of reasons why we are looking at transmitting some or all of the propulsive power for the aircraft electrically, a list of the different types of hybrid-turbo electric propulsion systems, and the results of 4 aircraft studies that examined different types of hybrid-turbo electric propulsion systems.

  18. Probabilistic structural analysis methods for space transportation propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Moore, N.; Anis, C.; Newell, J.; Nagpal, V.; Singhal, S.

    1991-01-01

    Information on probabilistic structural analysis methods for space propulsion systems is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on deterministic certification methods, probability of failure, component response analysis, stress responses for 2nd stage turbine blades, Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) structural durability, and program plans. .

  19. Advanced Development of a Compact 5-15 lbf Lox/Methane Thruster for an Integrated Reaction Control and Main Engine Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbert, Eric A.; McManamen, John Patrick; Sooknanen, Josh; Studak, Joseph W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the advanced development and testing of a compact 5 to 15 lbf LOX/LCH4 thruster for a pressure-fed integrated main engine and RCS propulsion system to be used on a spacecraft "vertical" test bed (VTB). The ability of the RCS thruster and the main engine to operate off the same propellant supply in zero-g reduces mass and improves mission flexibility. This compact RCS engine incorporates several features to dramatically reduce mass and parts count, to ease manufacturing, and to maintain acceptable performance given that specific impulse (Isp) is not the driver. For example, radial injection holes placed on the chamber body for easier drilling, and high temperature Haynes 230 were selected for the chamber over other more expensive options. The valve inlets are rotatable before welding allowing different orientations for vehicle integration. In addition, the engine design effort selected a coil-on-plug ignition system which integrates a relay and coil with the plug electrode, and moves some exciter electronics to avionics driver board. The engine injector design has small dribble volumes to target minimum pulse widths of 20 msec. and an efficient minimum impulse bit of less than 0.05 lbf-sec. The propellants, oxygen and methane, were chosen because together they are a non-toxic, Mars-forward, high density, space storable, and high performance propellant combination that is capable of pressure-fed and pump-fed configurations and integration with life support and power subsystems. This paper will present the results of the advanced development testing to date of the RCS thruster and the integration with a vehicle propulsion system.

  20. Advanced supersonic propulsion study, phase 2. [propulsion system performance, design analysis and technology assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A continuation of the NASA/P and WA study to evaluate various types of propulsion systems for advanced commercial supersonic transports has resulted in the identification of two very promising engine concepts. They are the Variable Stream Control Engine which provides independent temperature and velocity control for two coannular exhaust streams, and a derivative of this engine, a Variable Cycle Engine that employs a rear flow-inverter valve to vary the bypass ratio of the cycle. Both concepts are based on advanced engine technology and have the potential for significant improvements in jet noise, exhaust emissions and economic characteristics relative to current technology supersonic engines. Extensive research and technology programs are required in several critical areas that are unique to these supersonic Variable Cycle Engines to realize these potential improvements. Parametric cycle and integration studies of conventional and Variable Cycle Engines are reviewed, features of the two most promising engine concepts are described, and critical technology requirements and required programs are summarized.

  1. Comparative analysis of aluminum-air battery propulsion systems for passenger vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, J. D.; Behrin, E.; Kong, M. K.; Whisler, D. J.

    1980-02-01

    Three electric propulsion systems using an aluminum air battery were analyzed and compared to the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle. The engine and fuel systems of a representative five passenger highway vehicle were replaced conceptually by each of the three electric propulsion systems. The electrical vehicles were constrained by the computer simulation to be equivalent to the ICE vehicle in range and acceleration performance. The vehicle masses and aluminum consumption rates were then calculated for the electric vehicles and these data were used as figures of merit. The Al-air vehicles analyzed were (1) an Al-air battery only electric vehicle; (2) an Al-air battery combined with a nickel zinc secondary battery for power leveling and regenerative braking; and (3) an Al-air battery combined with a flywheel for power leveling and regenerative braking. All three electric systems compared favorably with the ICE vehicle.

  2. Advanced Transportation System Studies. Technical Area 3: Alternate Propulsion Subsystem Concepts. Volume 1; Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levack, Daniel J. H.

    2000-01-01

    The Alternate Propulsion Subsystem Concepts contract had seven tasks defined that are reported under this contract deliverable. The tasks were: FAA Restart Study, J-2S Restart Study, Propulsion Database Development. SSME Upper Stage Use. CERs for Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines. Advanced Low Cost Engines, and Tripropellant Comparison Study. The two restart studies, F-1A and J-2S, generated program plans for restarting production of each engine. Special emphasis was placed on determining changes to individual parts due to obsolete materials, changes in OSHA and environmental concerns, new processes available, and any configuration changes to the engines. The Propulsion Database Development task developed a database structure and format which is easy to use and modify while also being comprehensive in the level of detail available. The database structure included extensive engine information and allows for parametric data generation for conceptual engine concepts. The SSME Upper Stage Use task examined the changes needed or desirable to use the SSME as an upper stage engine both in a second stage and in a translunar injection stage. The CERs for Liquid Engines task developed qualitative parametric cost estimating relationships at the engine and major subassembly level for estimating development and production costs of chemical propulsion liquid rocket engines. The Advanced Low Cost Engines task examined propulsion systems for SSTO applications including engine concept definition, mission analysis. trade studies. operating point selection, turbomachinery alternatives, life cycle cost, weight definition. and point design conceptual drawings and component design. The task concentrated on bipropellant engines, but also examined tripropellant engines. The Tripropellant Comparison Study task provided an unambiguous comparison among various tripropellant implementation approaches and cycle choices, and then compared them to similarly designed bipropellant engines in the

  3. Controls and Health Management Technologies for Intelligent Aerospace Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2004-01-01

    With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Technology Branch at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced controls and health management technologies that will help meet these challenges through the concept of an Intelligent Engine. The key enabling technologies for an Intelligent Engine are the increased efficiencies of components through active control, advanced diagnostics and prognostics integrated with intelligent engine control to enhance component life, and distributed control with smart sensors and actuators in an adaptive fault tolerant architecture. This paper describes the current activities of the Controls and Dynamics Technology Branch in the areas of active component control and propulsion system intelligent control, and presents some recent analytical and experimental results in these areas.

  4. Airbreathing combined cycle engine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, John

    1992-01-01

    The Air Force and NASA share a common interest in developing advanced propulsion systems for commercial and military aerospace vehicles which require efficient acceleration and cruise operation in the Mach 4 to 6 flight regime. The principle engine of interest is the turboramjet; however, other combined cycles such as the turboscramjet, air turborocket, supercharged ejector ramjet, ejector ramjet, and air liquefaction based propulsion are also of interest. Over the past months careful planning and program implementation have resulted in a number of development efforts that will lead to a broad technology base for those combined cycle propulsion systems. Individual development programs are underway in thermal management, controls materials, endothermic hydrocarbon fuels, air intake systems, nozzle exhaust systems, gas turbines and ramjet ramburners.

  5. Fusion propulsion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haloulakos, V.E.; Bourque, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    The continuing and expanding national efforts in both the military and commercial sectors for exploration and utilization of space will require launch, assembly in space, and orbital transfer of large payloads. The currently available delivery systems, utilizing various forms of chemical propulsion, do not have the payload capacity to fulfill the planned missions. National planning documents such as Air Force Project Forecast II and the National Commission on Space Report to the President contain numerous missions and payload delivery schedules that are beyond the present capabilities of the available systems, such as the Space Shuttle and the Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELVs). The need, therefore, is very pressing to design, develop, and deploy propulsion systems that offer a quantum level increase in delivered performance. One such potential system is fusion propulsion. This paper summarizes the result of an Air Force Astronautics Laboratory (AFAL) sponsored study of fusion propulsion conducted by the McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company (MDAC), and its subcontractor General Atomics This study explored the potential of fusion propulsion for Air Force missions. Fusion fuels and existing confinement concepts were evaluated according to elaborate criteria. Two fuels, deuterium-tritium and deuterium-helium 3 (D- 3 He) were considered worthy of further consideration. D- 3 He was selected as the most attractive for this Air Force study. The colliding translating compact torus confinement concept was evaluated in depth and found to possibly possess the low mass and compactness required. Another possible concept is inertial confinement with the propellant surrounding the target. 5 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs

  6. Propulsion Mechanism of Catalytic Microjet Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomin, Vladimir M; Hippler, Markus; Magdanz, Veronika; Soler, Lluís; Sanchez, Samuel; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2014-02-01

    We describe the propulsion mechanism of the catalytic microjet engines that are fabricated using rolled-up nanotech. Microjets have recently shown numerous potential applications in nanorobotics but currently there is a lack of an accurate theoretical model that describes the origin of the motion as well as the mechanism of self-propulsion. The geometric asymmetry of a tubular microjet leads to the development of a capillary force, which tends to propel a bubble toward the larger opening of the tube. Because of this motion in an asymmetric tube, there emerges a momentum transfer to the fluid. In order to compensate this momentum transfer, a jet force acting on the tube occurs. This force, which is counterbalanced by the linear drag force, enables tube velocities of the order of 100 μ m/s. This mechanism provides a fundamental explanation for the development of driving forces that are acting on bubbles in tubular microjets.

  7. Features of Load and Wear of Main Propulsion Devices on Sea-Going Ships with Piston Combustion Engines and Their Impact on Changes in Technical States of the Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girtler Jerzy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the specificity of operation of propulsion systems of seagoing ships which causes the need to control the load on them, especially on their engines called main engines. The characteristics of the load on the propulsion systems, especially on the main engines as well as on the shaft lines and propellers driven by the engines, along with the process of wear in tribological joints (sliding tribological systems of the machines have been described herein. Using examples of typical types of wear (both linear and volumetric for the tribological systems of this sort, interpretation of states of their wear has been provided with regards to the wear levels defined as acceptable, unacceptable and catastrophic. The following hypotheses have been formulated: 1 hypothesis explaining necessity to consider the loads on the systems under operation as stochastic processes; 2 hypothesis explaining a possibility of considering the processes as stationary; and 3 hypothesis explaining why it can be assumed that a given technical state of any tribological system can be considered as dependent only on the directly preceding state and stochastically independent of the states that existed earlier. Accepting the hypotheses as true, a four-state continuous-time semi-Markov process has been proposed in the form of a model of changes in condition of a propulsion system (PS of any ship. The model includes the most significant states affecting safety of a ship at sea, such as: s0 - PS ability state, s1 - PS disability state due to damage to the main engine (ME, s2 - PS disability state due to damage to the shaft line (SL and s3 - PS disability state due to damage to the propeller (P. Probability of occurrence (changes of the states has also been demonstrated.

  8. The use of engineering features and schematic solutions of propulsion nuclear steam supply systems for floating nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achkasov, A.N.; Grechko, G.I.; Pepa, V.N.; Shishkin, V.A.

    2000-01-01

    In recent years many countries and the international community represented by the IAEA have shown a notable interest in designing small and medium size nuclear power plants intended for electricity and heat generation for remote areas. These power plants can be also used for desalination purposes. As these nuclear plants are planned for use in areas without a well-developed power grid, the design shall account for their transportation to the site in complete preparedness for operation. Since the late 80s, the Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering (RDIPE) has carried out active efforts in designing reactor facilities for floating nuclear power plants. This work relies on the long-term experience of RDIPE engineers in designing the propulsion NSSS. Advantages can be gained from the specific engineering solutions that are already applied in the design of propulsion Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) or from development of new designs based on the proven technologies. Successful implementation of the experience has been made easier owing to rather similar design requirements prescribed to ship-mounted NSSS and floating NPP. The common design targets are, in particular, minimization of mass and dimensions, resistance to such external impacts as rolling, heel and trim, operability in case of running aground or collision with other ships, etc. (author)

  9. Status report on nuclear electric propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    Progress in nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems for a multipayload multimission vehicle needed in both deep-space missions and a variety of geocentric missions is reviewed. The space system power level is a function of the initial launch vehicle mass, but developments in out-of-core nuclear thermionic direct conversion have broadened design options. Cost, design, and performance parameters are compared for reusable chemical space tugs and NEP reusable space tugs. Improvements in heat pipes, ion engines, and magnetoplasmadynamic arc jet thrust subsystems are discussed.

  10. Propulsion for CubeSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmer, Kristina

    2017-05-01

    At present, very few CubeSats have flown in space featuring propulsion systems. Of those that have, the literature is scattered, published in a variety of formats (conference proceedings, contractor websites, technical notes, and journal articles), and often not available for public release. This paper seeks to collect the relevant publically releasable information in one location. To date, only two missions have featured propulsion systems as part of the technology demonstration. The IMPACT mission from the Aerospace Corporation launched several electrospray thrusters from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and BricSAT-P from the United States Naval Academy had four micro-Cathode Arc Thrusters from George Washington University. Other than these two missions, propulsion on CubeSats has been used only for attitude control and reaction wheel desaturation via cold gas propulsion systems. As the desired capability of CubeSats increases, and more complex missions are planned, propulsion is required to accomplish the science and engineering objectives. This survey includes propulsion systems that have been designed specifically for the CubeSat platform and systems that fit within CubeSat constraints but were developed for other platforms. Throughout the survey, discussion of flight heritage and results of the mission are included where publicly released information and data have been made available. Major categories of propulsion systems that are in this survey are solar sails, cold gas propulsion, electric propulsion, and chemical propulsion systems. Only systems that have been tested in a laboratory or with some flight history are included.

  11. The influence of the waterjet propulsion system on the ships' energy consumption and emissions inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán-Grados, Vanesa; Mejías, Javier; Musina, Liliya; Moreno-Gutiérrez, Juan

    2018-08-01

    In this study we consider the problems associated with calculating ships' energy and emission inventories. Various related uncertainties are described in many similar studies published in the last decade, and applying to Europe, the USA and Canada. However, none of them have taken into account the performance of ships' propulsion systems. On the one hand, when a ship uses its propellers, there is no unanimous agreement on the equations used to calculate the main engines load factor and, on the other, the performance of waterjet propulsion systems (for which this variable depends on the speed of the ship) has not been taken into account in any previous studies. This paper proposes that the efficiency of the propulsion system should be included as a new parameter in the equation that defines the actual power delivered by a ship's main engines, as applied to calculate energy consumption and emissions in maritime transport. To highlight the influence of the propulsion system on calculated energy consumption and emissions, the bottom-up method has been applied using data from eight fast ferries operating across the Strait of Gibraltar over the course of one year. This study shows that the uncertainty about the efficiency of the propulsion system should be added as one more uncertainty in the energy and emission inventories for maritime transport as currently prepared. After comparing four methods for this calculation, the authors propose a new method for eight cases. For the calculation of the Main Engine's fuel oil consumption, differences up to 22% between some methods were obtained at low loads. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of superconducting ship propulsion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuraba, Junji; Mori, Hiroyuki; Hata, Fumiaki; Sotooka, Koukichi

    1991-01-01

    When we plan displacement-type monohull high speed vessels, it is difficult to get the hull form with the wave-making resistance minimum, because the stern shape is restricted by arrangement of propulsive machines and shafts. A small-sized and light-weight propulsive machines will reduce the limit to full form design. Superconducting technology will have capability of realizing the small-sized and light-weight propulsion motor. The superconducting electric propulsion system which is composed of superconducting propulsion motors and generators, seems to be an ideal propulsion system for future vehicles. We have constructed a 480 kW superconducting DC homopolar laboratory test motor for developing this propulsion system. The characteristic of this motor is that it has a superconducting field winding and a segmented armature drum. The superconducting field winding which operates in the persistent current mode, is cooled by a condensation heat exchanger and helium refigerating system built into the cryostat of the superconducting field winding. The operating parameters of this motor agreed well with the design parameters. Using the design concepts of this motor, we have conceptually designed a 150,000-200,000 PS superconducting electric propulsive system for a displacement-type monohull high speed ship. (author)

  13. REFINED MODEL OF THE OPTICAL SYSTEM FOR SPACE MINI-VEHICLES WITH LASER PROPULSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Egorov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Simulation results for on-board optical system of a space mini-vehicle with laser propulsion are presented. This system gives the possibility for receiving theremote laser radiation power independently of a system telescope mutual orientation to the vehicle orbiting direction. The on-board optical system is designed with the use of such optical elements as optical hinges and turrets. The system incorporates the optical switch that is a special optical system adapting optically both receiving telescope and laser propulsion engines. Modeling and numerical simulation of the system have been performed with the use of ZEMAX software (Radiant Ltd. The object matter of calculations lied in size definition of system optical elements, requirements to accuracy of their manufacturing and reciprocal adjusting to achieve an efficient radiation energy delivery to laser propulsion engine. Calculations have been performed with account to the limitations on the mini-vehicle mass, its overall dimensions, and radiation threshold density of the optical elements utilized. The requirements to the laser beam quality at the entrance aperture of laser propulsion engine have been considered too. State-of-the-art optical technologies make it possible to manufacture space reflectors made of CO-115M glassceramics with weight-reducing coefficient of 0.72 and the radiation threshold of 5 J/cm2 for the radiation with a 1.064 microns wavelength at 10-20 ns pulse duration. The optimal diameter of a receiving telescope primary mirror has been 0.5 m when a coordinated transmitting telescope diameter is equal to 1 m. This provides the reception of at least 84% of laser energy. The main losses of radiation energy are caused by improper installation of receiving telescope mirrors and by in-process errors arising at manufacturing the telescope mirrors with a parabolic surface. It is shown that requirements to the in-process admissible errors for the on-board optical system elements

  14. Nonlinear Dynamic Modeling and Controls Development for Supersonic Propulsion System Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Joseph W.; Kopasakis, George; Paxson, Daniel E.; Stuber, Eric; Woolwine, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    This paper covers the propulsion system component modeling and controls development of an integrated nonlinear dynamic simulation for an inlet and engine that can be used for an overall vehicle (APSE) model. The focus here is on developing a methodology for the propulsion model integration, which allows for controls design that prevents inlet instabilities and minimizes the thrust oscillation experienced by the vehicle. Limiting thrust oscillations will be critical to avoid exciting vehicle aeroelastic modes. Model development includes both inlet normal shock position control and engine rotor speed control for a potential supersonic commercial transport. A loop shaping control design process is used that has previously been developed for the engine and verified on linear models, while a simpler approach is used for the inlet control design. Verification of the modeling approach is conducted by simulating a two-dimensional bifurcated inlet and a representative J-85 jet engine previously used in a NASA supersonics project. Preliminary results are presented for the current supersonics project concept variable cycle turbofan engine design.

  15. The Ion Propulsion System for the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Santiago, Walter; Kamhawi, Hani; Polk, James E.; Snyder, John Steven; Hofer, Richard R.; Parker, J. Morgan

    2015-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission is a candidate Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission whose main objectives are to develop and demonstrate a high-power solar electric propulsion capability for the Agency and return an asteroidal mass for rendezvous and characterization in a companion human-crewed mission. The ion propulsion system must be capable of operating over an 8-year time period and processing up to 10,000 kg of xenon propellant. This high-power solar electric propulsion capability, or an extensible derivative of it, has been identified as a critical part of an affordable, beyond-low-Earth-orbit, manned-exploration architecture. Under the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate the critical electric propulsion and solar array technologies are being developed. The ion propulsion system being co-developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle is based on the NASA-developed 12.5 kW Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS0 thruster and power processing technologies. This paper presents the conceptual design for the ion propulsion system, the status of the NASA in-house thruster and power processing activity, and an update on flight hardware.

  16. Application of Recommended Design Practices for Conceptual Nuclear Fusion Space Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Craig H.

    2004-01-01

    An AIAA Special Project Report was recently produced by AIAA's Nuclear and Future Flight Propulsion Technical Committee and is currently in peer review. The Report provides recommended design practices for conceptual engineering studies of nuclear fusion space propulsion systems. Discussion and recommendations are made on key topics including design reference missions, degree of technological extrapolation and concomitant risk, thoroughness in calculating mass properties (nominal mass properties, weight-growth contingency and propellant margins, and specific impulse), and thoroughness in calculating power generation and usage (power-flow, power contingencies, specific power). The report represents a general consensus of the nuclear fusion space propulsion system conceptual design community and proposes 15 recommendations. This paper expands on the Report by providing specific examples illustrating how to apply each of the recommendations.

  17. Integrated Control Modeling for Propulsion Systems Using NPSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Khary I.; Felder, James L.; Lavelle, Thomas M.; Withrow, Colleen A.; Yu, Albert Y.; Lehmann, William V. A.

    2004-01-01

    The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS), an advanced engineering simulation environment used to design and analyze aircraft engines, has been enhanced by integrating control development tools into it. One of these tools is a generic controller interface that allows NPSS to communicate with control development software environments such as MATLAB and EASY5. The other tool is a linear model generator (LMG) that gives NPSS the ability to generate linear, time-invariant state-space models. Integrating these tools into NPSS enables it to be used for control system development. This paper will discuss the development and integration of these tools into NPSS. In addition, it will show a comparison of transient model results of a generic, dual-spool, military-type engine model that has been implemented in NPSS and Simulink. It will also show the linear model generator s ability to approximate the dynamics of a nonlinear NPSS engine model.

  18. The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). Nuclear propulsion can be affordable and viable compared to other propulsion systems and must overcome a biased public fear due to hyper-environmentalism and a false perception of radiation and explosion risk.

  19. Nonlinear Dynamic Modeling of a Supersonic Commercial Transport Turbo-Machinery Propulsion System for Aero-Propulso-Servo-Elasticity Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Joe; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Kopasakis, George; Woolwine, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers the development of an integrated nonlinear dynamic model for a variable cycle turbofan engine, supersonic inlet, and convergent-divergent nozzle that can be integrated with an aeroelastic vehicle model to create an overall Aero-Propulso-Servo-Elastic (APSE) modeling tool. The primary focus of this study is to provide a means to capture relevant thrust dynamics of a full supersonic propulsion system by using relatively simple quasi-one dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods that will allow for accurate control algorithm development and capture the key aspects of the thrust to feed into an APSE model. Previously, propulsion system component models have been developed and are used for this study of the fully integrated propulsion system. An overview of the methodology is presented for the modeling of each propulsion component, with a focus on its associated coupling for the overall model. To conduct APSE studies the described dynamic propulsion system model is integrated into a high fidelity CFD model of the full vehicle capable of conducting aero-elastic studies. Dynamic thrust analysis for the quasi-one dimensional dynamic propulsion system model is presented along with an initial three dimensional flow field model of the engine integrated into a supersonic commercial transport.

  20. Computational Investigation of a Boundary-Layer Ingesting Propulsion System for the Common Research Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Brennan T.; Elmiligui, Alaa; Geiselhart, Karl A.; Campbell, Richard L.; Maughmer, Mark D.; Schmitz, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The present paper examines potential propulsive and aerodynamic benefits of integrating a Boundary-Layer Ingestion (BLI) propulsion system into a typical commercial aircraft using the Common Research Model (CRM) geometry and the NASA Tetrahedral Unstructured Software System (TetrUSS). The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) environment is used to generate engine conditions for CFD analysis. Improvements to the BLI geometry are made using the Constrained Direct Iterative Surface Curvature (CDISC) design method. Previous studies have shown reductions of up to 25% in terms of propulsive power required for cruise for other axisymmetric geometries using the BLI concept. An analysis of engine power requirements, drag, and lift coefficients using the baseline and BLI geometries coupled with the NPSS model are shown. Potential benefits of the BLI system relating to cruise propulsive power are quantified using a power balance method, and a comparison to the baseline case is made. Iterations of the BLI geometric design are shown and any improvements between subsequent BLI designs presented. Simulations are conducted for a cruise flight condition of Mach 0.85 at an altitude of 38,500 feet and an angle of attack of 2 deg for all geometries. A comparison between available wind tunnel data, previous computational results, and the original CRM model is presented for model verification purposes along with full results for BLI power savings. Results indicate a 14.4% reduction in engine power requirements at cruise for the BLI configuration over the baseline geometry. Minor shaping of the aft portion of the fuselage using CDISC has been shown to increase the benefit from Boundary-Layer Ingestion further, resulting in a 15.6% reduction in power requirements for cruise as well as a drag reduction of eighteen counts over the baseline geometry.

  1. Computational Investigation of a Boundary-Layer Ingestion Propulsion System for the Common Research Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Brennan

    2016-01-01

    This thesis will examine potential propulsive and aerodynamic benefits of integrating a boundary-layer ingestion (BLI) propulsion system with a typical commercial aircraft using the Common Research Model geometry and the NASA Tetrahedral Unstructured Software System (TetrUSS). The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) environment will be used to generate engine conditions for CFD analysis. Improvements to the BLI geometry will be made using the Constrained Direct Iterative Surface Curvature (CDISC) design method. Previous studies have shown reductions of up to 25% in terms of propulsive power required for cruise for other axisymmetric geometries using the BLI concept. An analysis of engine power requirements, drag, and lift coefficients using the baseline and BLI geometries coupled with the NPSS model are shown. Potential benefits of the BLI system relating to cruise propulsive power are quantified using a power balance method and a comparison to the baseline case is made. Iterations of the BLI geometric design are shown and any improvements between subsequent BLI designs presented. Simulations are conducted for a cruise flight condition of Mach 0.85 at an altitude of 38,500 feet and an angle of attack of 2deg for all geometries. A comparison between available wind tunnel data, previous computational results, and the original CRM model is presented for model verification purposes along with full results for BLI power savings. Results indicate a 14.3% reduction in engine power requirements at cruise for the BLI configuration over the baseline geometry. Minor shaping of the aft portion of the fuselage using CDISC has been shown to increase the benefit from boundary-layer ingestion further, resulting in a 15.6% reduction in power requirements for cruise as well as a drag reduction of eighteen counts over the baseline geometry.

  2. Mirror fusion propulsion system - A performance comparison with alternate propulsion systems for the manned Mars mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deveny, M.; Carpenter, S.; O'connell, T.; Schulze, N.

    1993-06-01

    The performance characteristics of several propulsion technologies applied to piloted Mars missions are compared. The characteristics that are compared are Initial Mass in Low Earth Orbit (IMLEO), mission flexibility, and flight times. The propulsion systems being compared are both demonstrated and envisioned: Chemical (or Cryogenic), Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) solid core, NTR gas core, Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP), and a mirror fusion space propulsion system. The proposed magnetic mirror fusion reactor, known as the Mirror Fusion Propulsion System (MFPS), is described. The description is an overview of a design study that was conducted to convert a mirror reactor experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) into a viable space propulsion system. Design principles geared towards minimizing mass and maximizing power available for thrust are identified and applied to the LLNL reactor design, resulting in the MFPS. The MFPS' design evolution, reactor and fuel choices, and system configuration are described. Results of the performance comparison shows that the MFPS minimizes flight time to 60 to 90 days for flights to Mars while allowing continuous return-home capability while at Mars. Total MFPS IMLEO including propellant and payloads is kept to about 1,000 metric tons. 50 refs

  3. An Intelligent Propulsion Control Architecture to Enable More Autonomous Vehicle Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Sowers, T. Shane; Simon, Donald L.; Owen, A. Karl; Rinehart, Aidan W.; Chicatelli, Amy K.; Acheson, Michael J.; Hueschen, Richard M.; Spiers, Christopher W.

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes an intelligent propulsion control architecture that coordinates with the flight control to reduce the amount of pilot intervention required to operate the vehicle. Objectives of the architecture include the ability to: automatically recognize the aircraft operating state and flight phase; configure engine control to optimize performance with knowledge of engine condition and capability; enhance aircraft performance by coordinating propulsion control with flight control; and recognize off-nominal propulsion situations and to respond to them autonomously. The hierarchical intelligent propulsion system control can be decomposed into a propulsion system level and an individual engine level. The architecture is designed to be flexible to accommodate evolving requirements, adapt to technology improvements, and maintain safety.

  4. MW-Class Electric Propulsion System Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPointe, Michael R.; Oleson, Steven; Pencil, Eric; Mercer, Carolyn; Distefano, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    Electric propulsion systems are well developed and have been in commercial use for several years. Ion and Hall thrusters have propelled robotic spacecraft to encounters with asteroids, the Moon, and minor planetary bodies within the solar system, while higher power systems are being considered to support even more demanding future space science and exploration missions. Such missions may include orbit raising and station-keeping for large platforms, robotic and human missions to near earth asteroids, cargo transport for sustained lunar or Mars exploration, and at very high-power, fast piloted missions to Mars and the outer planets. The Advanced In-Space Propulsion Project, High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project, and High Power Electric Propulsion Demonstration Project were established within the NASA Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration Program to develop and advance the fundamental technologies required for these long-range, future exploration missions. Under the auspices of the High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project, and supported by the Advanced In-Space Propulsion and High Power Electric Propulsion Projects, the COMPASS design team at the NASA Glenn Research Center performed multiple parametric design analyses to determine solar and nuclear electric power technology requirements for representative 300-kW class and pulsed and steady-state MW-class electric propulsion systems. This paper describes the results of the MW-class electric power and propulsion design analysis. Starting with the representative MW-class vehicle configurations, and using design reference missions bounded by launch dates, several power system technology improvements were introduced into the parametric COMPASS simulations to determine the potential system level benefits such technologies might provide. Those technologies providing quantitative system level benefits were then assessed for technical feasibility, cost, and time to develop. Key assumptions and primary

  5. System Engineering and Technical Challenges Overcome in the J-2X Rocket Engine Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2012-01-01

    Beginning in 2006, NASA initiated the J-2X engine development effort to develop an upper stage propulsion system to enable the achievement of the primary objectives of the Constellation program (CxP): provide continued access to the International Space Station following the retirement of the Space Station and return humans to the moon. The J-2X system requirements identified to accomplish this were very challenging and the time expended over the five years following the beginning of the J- 2X effort have been noteworthy in the development of innovations in both the fields for liquid rocket propulsion and system engineering.

  6. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1045 - Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine... Pt. 1045, App. II Appendix II to Part 1045—Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines (a) The following duty cycle applies for discrete-mode testing: E4 Mode No. Enginespeed 1 Torque(percent) 2...

  7. Configuration Management File Manager Developed for Numerical Propulsion System Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follen, Gregory J.

    1997-01-01

    One of the objectives of the High Performance Computing and Communication Project's (HPCCP) Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) is to provide a common and consistent way to manage applications, data, and engine simulations. The NPSS Configuration Management (CM) File Manager integrated with the Common Desktop Environment (CDE) window management system provides a common look and feel for the configuration management of data, applications, and engine simulations for U.S. engine companies. In addition, CM File Manager provides tools to manage a simulation. Features include managing input files, output files, textual notes, and any other material normally associated with simulation. The CM File Manager includes a generic configuration management Application Program Interface (API) that can be adapted for the configuration management repositories of any U.S. engine company.

  8. Tool for the Integrated Dynamic Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS)/Turbine Engine Closed-Loop Transient Analysis (TTECTrA) User's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jeffrey C.; Csank, Jeffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    The Tool for Turbine Engine Closed-Loop Transient Analysis (TTECTrA ver2) is a control design tool thatenables preliminary estimation of transient performance for models without requiring a full nonlinear controller to bedesigned. The program is compatible with subsonic engine models implemented in the MATLAB/Simulink (TheMathworks, Inc.) environment and Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) framework. At a specified flightcondition, TTECTrA will design a closed-loop controller meeting user-defined requirements in a semi or fully automatedfashion. Multiple specifications may be provided, in which case TTECTrA will design one controller for each, producing acollection of controllers in a single run. Each resulting controller contains a setpoint map, a schedule of setpointcontroller gains, and limiters; all contributing to transient characteristics. The goal of the program is to providesteady-state engine designers with more immediate feedback on the transient engine performance earlier in the design cycle.

  9. Software To Secure Distributed Propulsion Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaser, Tammy M.

    2003-01-01

    Distributed-object computing systems are presented with many security threats, including network eavesdropping, message tampering, and communications middleware masquerading. NASA Glenn Research Center, and its industry partners, has taken an active role in mitigating the security threats associated with developing and operating their proprietary aerospace propulsion simulations. In particular, they are developing a collaborative Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Security (CORBASec) test bed to secure their distributed aerospace propulsion simulations. Glenn has been working with its aerospace propulsion industry partners to deploy the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) object-based technology. NPSS is a program focused on reducing the cost and time in developing aerospace propulsion engines

  10. AeroPropulsoServoElasticity: Dynamic Modeling of the Variable Cycle Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George

    2012-01-01

    This presentation was made at the 2012 Fundamental Aeronautics Program Technical Conference and it covers research work for the Dynamic Modeling of the Variable cycle Propulsion System that was done under the Supersonics Project, in the area of AeroPropulsoServoElasticity. The presentation covers the objective for the propulsion system dynamic modeling work, followed by the work that has been done so far to model the variable Cycle Engine, modeling of the inlet, the nozzle, the modeling that has been done to model the affects of flow distortion, and finally presenting some concluding remarks and future plans.

  11. Neural network control of a parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system for a small unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Frederick G.

    2005-11-01

    Parallel hybrid-electric propulsion systems would be beneficial for small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) used for military, homeland security, and disaster-monitoring missions. The benefits, due to the hybrid and electric-only modes, include increased time-on-station and greater range as compared to electric-powered UAVs and stealth modes not available with gasoline-powered UAVs. This dissertation contributes to the research fields of small unmanned aerial vehicles, hybrid-electric propulsion system control, and intelligent control. A conceptual design of a small UAV with a parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system is provided. The UAV is intended for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) missions. A conceptual design reveals the trade-offs that must be considered to take advantage of the hybrid-electric propulsion system. The resulting hybrid-electric propulsion system is a two-point design that includes an engine primarily sized for cruise speed and an electric motor and battery pack that are primarily sized for a slower endurance speed. The electric motor provides additional power for take-off, climbing, and acceleration and also serves as a generator during charge-sustaining operation or regeneration. The intelligent control of the hybrid-electric propulsion system is based on an instantaneous optimization algorithm that generates a hyper-plane from the nonlinear efficiency maps for the internal combustion engine, electric motor, and lithium-ion battery pack. The hyper-plane incorporates charge-depletion and charge-sustaining strategies. The optimization algorithm is flexible and allows the operator/user to assign relative importance between the use of gasoline, electricity, and recharging depending on the intended mission. A MATLAB/Simulink model was developed to test the control algorithms. The Cerebellar Model Arithmetic Computer (CMAC) associative memory neural network is applied to the control of the UAVs parallel hybrid

  12. Liquid Oxygen Rotating Friction Ignition Testing of Aluminum and Titanium with Monel and Inconel for Rocket Engine Propulsion System Contamination Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, S.; Rosales, Keisa R.; Stoltzfus, Joel M.

    2009-01-01

    Metallic contaminant was found in the liquid oxygen (LOX) pre-valve screen of the shuttle main engine propulsion system on two orbiter vehicles. To investigate the potential for an ignition, NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility performed (modified) rotating friction ignition testing in LOX. This testing simulated a contaminant particle in the low-pressure oxygen turbo pump (LPOTP) and the high-pressure oxygen turbo pump (HPOTP) of the shuttle main propulsion system. Monel(R) K-500 and Inconel(R) 718 samples represented the LPOTP and HPOTP materials. Aluminum foil tape and titanium foil represented the contaminant particles. In both the Monel(R) and Inconel(R) material configurations, the aluminum foil tape samples did not ignite after 30 s of rubbing. In contrast, all of the titanium foil samples ignited regardless of the rubbing duration or material configuration. However, the titanium foil ignitions did not propagate to the Monel and Inconel materials.

  13. Propulsion Electric Grid Simulator (PEGS) for Future Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Benjamin B.; Morrison, Carlos; Dever, Timothy; Brown, Gerald V.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center, in collaboration with the aerospace industry and academia, has begun the development of technology for a future hybrid-wing body electric airplane with a turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) system. It is essential to design a subscale system to emulate the TeDP power grid, which would enable rapid analysis and demonstration of the proof-of-concept of the TeDP electrical system. This paper describes how small electrical machines with their controllers can emulate all the components in a TeDP power train. The whole system model in Matlab/Simulink was first developed and tested in simulation, and the simulation results showed that system dynamic characteristics could be implemented by using the closed-loop control of the electric motor drive systems. Then we designed a subscale experimental system to emulate the entire power system from the turbine engine to the propulsive fans. Firstly, we built a system to emulate a gas turbine engine driving a generator, consisting of two permanent magnet (PM) motors with brushless motor drives, coupled by a shaft. We programmed the first motor and its drive to mimic the speed-torque characteristic of the gas turbine engine, while the second motor and drive act as a generator and produce a torque load on the first motor. Secondly, we built another system of two PM motors and drives to emulate a motor driving a propulsive fan. We programmed the first motor and drive to emulate a wound-rotor synchronous motor. The propulsive fan was emulated by implementing fan maps and flight conditions into the fourth motor and drive, which produce a torque load on the driving motor. The stator of each PM motor is designed to travel axially to change the coupling between rotor and stator. This feature allows the PM motor to more closely emulate a wound-rotor synchronous machine. These techniques can convert the plain motor system into a unique TeDP power grid emulator that enables real-time simulation performance

  14. High Voltage Hall Accelerator Propulsion System Development for NASA Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Haag, Thomas; Huang, Wensheng; Shastry, Rohit; Pinero, Luis; Peterson, Todd; Dankanich, John; Mathers, Alex

    2013-01-01

    NASA Science Mission Directorates In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is sponsoring the development of a 3.8 kW-class engineering development unit Hall thruster for implementation in NASA science and exploration missions. NASA Glenn Research Center and Aerojet are developing a high fidelity high voltage Hall accelerator (HiVHAc) thruster that can achieve specific impulse magnitudes greater than 2,700 seconds and xenon throughput capability in excess of 300 kilograms. Performance, plume mappings, thermal characterization, and vibration tests of the HiVHAc engineering development unit thruster have been performed. In addition, the HiVHAc project is also pursuing the development of a power processing unit (PPU) and xenon feed system (XFS) for integration with the HiVHAc engineering development unit thruster. Colorado Power Electronics and NASA Glenn Research Center have tested a brassboard PPU for more than 1,500 hours in a vacuum environment, and a new brassboard and engineering model PPU units are under development. VACCO Industries developed a xenon flow control module which has undergone qualification testing and will be integrated with the HiVHAc thruster extended duration tests. Finally, recent mission studies have shown that the HiVHAc propulsion system has sufficient performance for four Discovery- and two New Frontiers-class NASA design reference missions.

  15. Study of Scramjet Engine System

    OpenAIRE

    苅田, 丈士; KANDA, Takeshi

    2001-01-01

    1. Introduction The scramjet engine for the single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) aerospace plane has been studied in the ramjet propulsion research division. The problems of the scramjet are (1) combustion, (2) light structure, (3) startability of the inlet, (4) integration of engines, and (5) cooling. The construction of the cooling system is important for the scramjet engine, because of high heat flux during operation. Cooling is not only a problem for the engine itself, but also for the airframe. ...

  16. A Review of Laser Ablation Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phipps, Claude; Bohn, Willy; Lippert, Thomas; Sasoh, Akihiro; Schall, Wolfgang; Sinko, John

    2010-01-01

    Laser Ablation Propulsion is a broad field with a wide range of applications. We review the 30-year history of laser ablation propulsion from the transition from earlier pure photon propulsion concepts of Oberth and Saenger through Kantrowitz's original laser ablation propulsion idea to the development of air-breathing 'Lightcraft' and advanced spacecraft propulsion engines. The polymers POM and GAP have played an important role in experiments and liquid ablation fuels show great promise. Some applications use a laser system which is distant from the propelled object, for example, on another spacecraft, the Earth or a planet. Others use a laser that is part of the spacecraft propulsion system on the spacecraft. Propulsion is produced when an intense laser beam strikes a condensed matter surface and produces a vapor or plasma jet. The advantages of this idea are that exhaust velocity of the propulsion engine covers a broader range than is available from chemistry, that it can be varied to meet the instantaneous demands of the particular mission, and that practical realizations give lower mass and greater simplicity for a payload delivery system. We review the underlying theory, buttressed by extensive experimental data. The primary problem in laser space propulsion theory has been the absence of a way to predict thrust and specific impulse over the transition from the vapor to the plasma regimes. We briefly discuss a method for combining two new vapor regime treatments with plasma regime theory, giving a smooth transition from one regime to the other. We conclude with a section on future directions.

  17. Applying design principles to fusion reactor configurations for propulsion in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, S.A.; Deveny, M.E.; Schulze, N.R.

    1993-01-01

    The application of fusion power to space propulsion requires rethinking the engineering-design solution to controlled-fusion energy. Whereas the unit cost of electricity (COE) drives the engineering-design solution for utility-based fusion reactor configurations; initial mass to low earth orbit (IMLEO), specific jet power (kW(thrust)/kg(engine)), and reusability drive the engineering-design solution for successful application of fusion power to space propulsion. Three design principles (DP's) were applied to adapt and optimize three candidate-terrestrial-fusion-reactor configurations for propulsion in space. The three design principles are: provide maximum direct access to space for waste radiation, operate components as passive radiators to minimize cooling-system mass, and optimize the plasma fuel, fuel mix, and temperature for best specific jet power. The three candidate terrestrial fusion reactor configurations are: the thermal barrier tandem mirror (TBTM), field reversed mirror (FRM), and levitated dipole field (LDF). The resulting three candidate space fusion propulsion systems have their IMLEO minimized and their specific jet power and reusability maximized. A preliminary rating of these configurations was performed, and it was concluded that the leading engineering-design solution to space fusion propulsion is a modified TBTM that we call the Mirror Fusion Propulsion System (MFPS)

  18. NASA's Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.; Mitchell, Doyce P.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Clement, Steven; Borowski, Stanley K.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation NTP system could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of a first generation NTP in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC- 3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NTP project could also help enable high performance fission power systems and Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  19. Techno-economic investigation of alternative propulsion plants for Ferries and RoRo ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livanos, George A.; Theotokatos, Gerasimos; Pagonis, Dimitrios-Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Alternative Diesel and Gas engine propulsion plants of Ferries and RoRos were studied. • Special focus on marine Natural Gas burning engines and ship waste heat recovery systems. • Significant savings in annual operating costs were predicted in the case of Natural Gas engines. • Environmental and economic optimum propulsion plant alternative was proposed in a specific case study. - Abstract: In this paper, the main alternative propulsion plants based on reciprocating internal combustion engines of a ferry or RoRo ship operating in routes that include Emission Control Areas (ECAs) are comparatively assessed. Specifically, a dual fuel engine propulsion plant is compared with a conventional Diesel engine plant. For both cases, the installation of a waste heat recovery system, which covers a part of the ship electric energy demand, is also considered. The ship main DF engines are assumed to operate using LNG and a small amount of MDO for initiating combustion, whereas low sulphur MDO was regarded as the fuel for the case of the Diesel engine plant. The installation of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) after-treatment unit for reducing the NOx emissions for the case of Diesel engines plant is also taken into account. The propulsion plants were modelled under steady state conditions, and the simulation results were analysed in order to compare the alternative configurations. Furthermore, the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) values were calculated and the two examined propulsion system cases were compared on EEDI basis. Finally, the Life Cycle Cost for each alternative propulsion plant was calculated and used for completing an economic evaluation of the Dual fuel propulsion plant versus the conventional designs applied in ferries

  20. The rationale/benefits of nuclear thermal rocket propulsion for NASA's lunar space transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.

    1994-09-01

    The solid core nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) represents the next major evolutionary step in propulsion technology. With its attractive operating characteristics, which include high specific impulse (approximately 850-1000 s) and engine thrust-to-weight (approximately 4-20), the NTR can form the basis for an efficient lunar space transportation system (LTS) capable of supporting both piloted and cargo missions. Studies conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center indicate that an NTR-based LTS could transport a fully-fueled, cargo-laden, lunar excursion vehicle to the Moon, and return it to low Earth orbit (LEO) after mission completion, for less initial mass in LEO than an aerobraked chemical system of the type studied by NASA during its '90-Day Study.' The all-propulsive NTR-powered LTS would also be 'fully reusable' and would have a 'return payload' mass fraction of approximately 23 percent--twice that of the 'partially reusable' aerobraked chemical system. Two NTR technology options are examined--one derived from the graphite-moderated reactor concept developed by NASA and the AEC under the Rover/NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) programs, and a second concept, the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR). The paper also summarizes NASA's lunar outpost scenario, compares relative performance provided by different LTS concepts, and discusses important operational issues (e.g., reusability, engine 'end-of life' disposal, etc.) associated with using this important propulsion technology.

  1. Advanced Chemical Propulsion for Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Larry

    2008-01-01

    The advanced chemical propulsion technology area of NASA's In-Space Technology Project is investing in systems and components for increased performance and reduced cost of chemical propulsion technologies applicable to near-term science missions. Presently the primary investment in the advanced chemical propulsion technology area is in the AMBR high temperature storable bipropellant rocket engine. Scheduled to be available for flight development starting in year 2008, AMBR engine shows a 60 kg payload gain in an analysis for the Titan-Enceladus orbiter mission and a 33 percent manufacturing cost reduction over its baseline, state-of-the-art counterpart. Other technologies invested include the reliable lightweight tanks for propellant and the precision propellant management and mixture ratio control. Both technologies show significant mission benefit, can be applied to any liquid propulsion system, and upon completion of the efforts described in this paper, are at least in parts ready for flight infusion. Details of the technologies are discussed.

  2. A development approach for nuclear thermal propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.

    1992-01-01

    The cost and time to develop nuclear thermal propulsion systems are very approach dependent. The objectives addressed are the development of an ''acceptable'' nuclear thermal propulsion system that can be used as part of the transportation system for people to explore Mars and the enhancement performance of other missions, within highly constrained budgets and schedules. To accomplish this, it was necessary to identify the cost drivers considering mission parameters, safety of the crew, mission success, facility availability and time and cost to construct new facilities, qualification criteria, status of technologies, management structure, and use of such system engineering techniques as concurrent engineering

  3. 46 CFR 62.35-35 - Starting systems for internal-combustion engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Starting systems for internal-combustion engines. 62.35-35 Section 62.35-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE... Starting systems for internal-combustion engines. The starting systems for propulsion engines and for prime...

  4. Lunar lander and return propulsion system trade study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbert, Eric A.; Moreland, Robert; Sanders, Gerald B.; Robertson, Edward A.; Amidei, David; Mulholland, John

    1993-01-01

    This trade study was initiated at NASA/JSC in May 1992 to develop and evaluate main propulsion system alternatives to the reference First Lunar Outpost (FLO) lander and return-stage transportation system concept. Thirteen alternative configurations were developed to explore the impacts of various combinations of return stage propellants, using either pressure or pump-fed propulsion systems and various staging options. Besides two-stage vehicle concepts, the merits of single-stage and stage-and-a-half options were also assessed in combination with high-performance liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen propellants. Configurations using an integrated modular cryogenic engine were developed to assess potential improvements in packaging efficiency, mass performance, and system reliability compared to non-modular cryogenic designs. The selection process to evaluate the various designs was the analytic hierarchy process. The trade study showed that a pressure-fed MMH/N2O4 return stage and RL10-based lander stage is the best option for a 1999 launch. While results of this study are tailored to FLO needs, the design date, criteria, and selection methodology are applicable to the design of other crewed lunar landing and return vehicles.

  5. A Crewed Mission to Apophis Using a Hybrid Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Electric Propulsion (BNTEP) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccurdy, David R.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Burke, Laura M.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    A BNTEP system is a dual propellant, hybrid propulsion concept that utilizes Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket (BNTR) propulsion during high thrust operations, providing 10's of kilo-Newtons of thrust per engine at a high specific impulse (Isp) of 900 s, and an Electric Propulsion (EP) system during low thrust operations at even higher Isp of around 3000 s. Electrical power for the EP system is provided by the BNTR engines in combination with a Brayton Power Conversion (BPC) closed loop system, which can provide electrical power on the order of 100's of kWe. High thrust BNTR operation uses liquid hydrogen (LH2) as reactor coolant propellant expelled out a nozzle, while low thrust EP uses high pressure xenon expelled by an electric grid. By utilizing an optimized combination of low and high thrust propulsion, significant mass savings over a conventional NTR vehicle can be realized. Low thrust mission events, such as midcourse corrections (MCC), tank settling burns, some reaction control system (RCS) burns, and even a small portion at the end of the departure burn can be performed with EP. Crewed and robotic deep space missions to a near Earth asteroid (NEA) are best suited for this hybrid propulsion approach. For these mission scenarios, the Earth return V is typically small enough that EP alone is sufficient. A crewed mission to the NEA Apophis in the year 2028 with an expendable BNTEP transfer vehicle is presented. Assembly operations, launch element masses, and other key characteristics of the vehicle are described. A comparison with a conventional NTR vehicle performing the same mission is also provided. Finally, reusability of the BNTEP transfer vehicle is explored.

  6. Powersail High Power Propulsion System Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulczinski, Frank S., III

    2000-11-01

    A desire by the United States Air Force to exploit the space environment has led to a need for increased on-orbit electrical power availability. To enable this, the Air Force Research Laboratory Space Vehicles Directorate (AFRL/ VS) is developing Powersail: a two-phased program to demonstrate high power (100 kW to 1 MW) capability in space using a deployable, flexible solar array connected to the host spacecraft using a slack umbilical. The first phase will be a proof-of-concept demonstration at 50 kW, followed by the second phase, an operational system at full power. In support of this program, the AFRL propulsion Directorate's Spacecraft Propulsion Branch (AFRL/PRS ) at Edwards AFB has commissioned a design study of the Powersail High Power Propulsion System. The purpose of this study, the results of which are summarized in this paper, is to perform mission and design trades to identify potential full-power applications (both near-Earth and interplanetary) and the corresponding propulsion system requirements and design. The design study shall farther identify a suitable low power demonstration flight that maximizes risk reduction for the fully operational system. This propulsion system is expected to be threefold: (1) primary propulsion for moving the entire vehicle, (2) a propulsion unit that maintains the solar array position relative to the host spacecraft, and (3) control propulsion for maintaining proper orientation for the flexible solar array.

  7. Feasibility study of a contained pulsed nuclear propulsion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlos, A.G.; Metzger, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    The result of a feasibility analysis of a contained pulsed nuclear propulsion (CPNP) engine concept utilizing the enormously dense energy generated by small nuclear detonations is presented in this article. This concept was initially proposed and studied in the 1950s and 1960s under the program name HELIOS. The current feasibility of the concept is based upon materials technology that has advanced to a state that allows the design of pressure vessels required to contain the blast associated with small nuclear detonations. The impulsive nature of the energy source provides the means for circumventing the materials thermal barriers that are inherent in steady-state nuclear propulsion concepts. The rapid energy transfer to the propellant results in high thrust levels for times less than 1 s following the detonation. The preliminary feasibility analysis using off-the-shelf materials technology appears to indicate that the CPNP concept can have thrust-to-weight ratios on the order of 1 or greater. Though the specific impulse is not a good indicator for impulsive engines, an operating-cycle averaged specific impulse of approximately 1000 or greater seconds was calculated. 16 refs

  8. A Step by Step Approach for Evaluating the Reliability of the Main Engine Lube Oil System for a Ship's Propulsion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Anantharaman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Effective and efficient maintenance is essential to ensure reliability of a ship's main propulsion system, which in turn is interdependent on the reliability of a number of associated sub- systems. A primary step in evaluating the reliability of the ship's propulsion system will be to evaluate the reliability of each of the sub- system. This paper discusses the methodology adopted to quantify reliability of one of the vital sub-system viz. the lubricating oil system, and development of a model, based on Markov analysis thereof. Having developed the model, means to improve reliability of the system should be considered. The cost of the incremental reliability should be measured to evaluate cost benefits. A maintenance plan can then be devised to achieve the higher level of reliability. Similar approach could be considered to evaluate the reliability of all other sub-systems. This will finally lead to development of a model to evaluate and improve the reliability of the main propulsion system.

  9. A novel nuclear-powered propulsion system for ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tao; Han Weishi

    2003-01-01

    A novel nuclear-powered propulsion system for ship is presented in this paper. In this system, a minitype liquid sodium-cooled reactor is used as power; alkali-metal thermal-to-electric conversion (AMTEC) cells are utilized to transform the heat energy to electric energy and superconducting magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) work as propulsion. This nuclear-powered propulsion system has great advantages in low noise, high speed, long survivability and simple manipulation. It has great significance for the development of propulsion system. (author)

  10. Electrospray Propulsion Engineering Toolkit (ESPET), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To accelerate the development of scaled-up Electrospray Propulsion emitter array systems with practical thrust levels, Spectral Sciences, Inc. (SSI), in...

  11. Validation Ice Crystal Icing Engine Test in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) is an existing altitude simulation jet engine test facility located at NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, OH. It was modified in 2012 with the integration of an ice crystal cloud generation system. This paper documents the inaugural ice crystal cloud test in PSL--the first ever full scale, high altitude ice crystal cloud turbofan engine test to be conducted in a ground based facility. The test article was a Lycoming ALF502-R5 high bypass turbofan engine, serial number LF01. The objectives of the test were to validate the PSL ice crystal cloud calibration and engine testing methodologies by demonstrating the capability to calibrate and duplicate known flight test events that occurred on the same LF01 engine and to generate engine data to support fundamental and computational research to investigate and better understand the physics of ice crystal icing in a turbofan engine environment while duplicating known revenue service events and conducting test points while varying facility and engine parameters. During PSL calibration testing it was discovered than heated probes installed through tunnel sidewalls experienced ice buildup aft of their location due to ice crystals impinging upon them, melting and running back. Filtered city water was used in the cloud generation nozzle system to provide ice crystal nucleation sites. This resulted in mineralization forming on flow path hardware that led to a chronic degradation of performance during the month long test. Lacking internal flow path cameras, the response of thermocouples along the flow path was interpreted as ice building up. Using this interpretation, a strong correlation between total water content (TWC) and a weaker correlation between median volumetric diameter (MVD) of the ice crystal cloud and the rate of ice buildup along the instrumented flow path was identified. For this test article the engine anti-ice system was required to be turned on before ice crystal

  12. Design and development of an automotive propulsion system utilizing a Rankine cycle engine (water based fluid). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demler, R.L.

    1977-09-01

    Under EPA and ERDA sponsorship, SES successfully designed, fabricated and tested the first federally sponsored steam powered automobile. The automobile - referred to as the simulator - is a 1975 Dodge Monaco standard size passenger car with the SES preprototype Rankine cycle automotive propulsion system mounted in the engine compartment. In the latter half of 1975, the simulator successfully underwent test operations at the facilities of SES in Watertown, Massachusetts and demonstrated emission levels below those of the stringent federally established automotive requirements originally set for implementation by 1976. The demonstration was accomplished during testing over the Federal Driving Cycle on a Clayton chassis dynamometer. The design and performance of the vehicle are described.

  13. Web-Based Distributed Simulation of Aeronautical Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Desheng; Follen, Gregory J.; Pavlik, William R.; Kim, Chan M.; Liu, Xianyou; Blaser, Tammy M.; Lopez, Isaac

    2001-01-01

    An application was developed to allow users to run and view the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) engine simulations from web browsers. Simulations were performed on multiple INFORMATION POWER GRID (IPG) test beds. The Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) was used for brokering data exchange among machines and IPG/Globus for job scheduling and remote process invocation. Web server scripting was performed by JavaServer Pages (JSP). This application has proven to be an effective and efficient way to couple heterogeneous distributed components.

  14. Cycle Trades for Nuclear Thermal Rocket Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C.; Guidos, M.; Greene, W.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear fission has been used as a reliable source for utility power in the United States for decades. Even in the 1940's, long before the United States had a viable space program, the theoretical benefits of nuclear power as applied to space travel were being explored. These benefits include long-life operation and high performance, particularly in the form of vehicle power density, enabling longer-lasting space missions. The configurations for nuclear rocket systems and chemical rocket systems are similar except that a nuclear rocket utilizes a fission reactor as its heat source. This thermal energy can be utilized directly to heat propellants that are then accelerated through a nozzle to generate thrust or it can be used as part of an electricity generation system. The former approach is Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) and the latter is Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP), which is then used to power thruster technologies such as ion thrusters. This paper will explore a number of indirect-NTP engine cycle configurations using assumed performance constraints and requirements, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each cycle configuration, and present preliminary performance and size results. This paper is intended to lay the groundwork for future efforts in the development of a practical NTP system or a combined NTP/NEP hybrid system.

  15. The Effect of Hull Biofouling on Parameters Characterising Ship Propulsion System Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarełko Wiesła

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of most important issues concerning technical objects is the increase of their operating performance. For a ship this performance mainly depends on the efficiency of its main pro-pulsion system and the resistance generated during its motion on water. The overall ship re-sistance, in turn, mainly depends on the hull friction resistance, closely related with the pres-ence of different types of roughness on the hull surface, including underwater part biofouling. The article analyses the effect of hull biofouling on selected parameters characterising the efficiency of the ship propulsion system with adjustable propeller. For this purpose a two-year research experiment was performed on a sailing vessel during its motor navigation phases. Based on the obtained results, three groups of characteristics were worked out for different combinations of engine rotational speed and adjustable propeller pitch settings. The obtained results have revealed that the phenomenon of underwater hull biofouling affects remarkably the parameters characterising propulsion system efficiency. In particular, the development of the biofouling layer leads to significant reduction of the speed of navigation.

  16. Advanced supersonic propulsion study, phases 3 and 4. [variable cycle engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, R. D.; Joy, W.

    1977-01-01

    An evaluation of various advanced propulsion concepts for supersonic cruise aircraft resulted in the identification of the double-bypass variable cycle engine as the most promising concept. This engine design utilizes special variable geometry components and an annular exhaust nozzle to provide high take-off thrust and low jet noise. The engine also provides good performance at both supersonic cruise and subsonic cruise. Emission characteristics are excellent. The advanced technology double-bypass variable cycle engine offers an improvement in aircraft range performance relative to earlier supersonic jet engine designs and yet at a lower level of engine noise. Research and technology programs required in certain design areas for this engine concept to realize its potential benefits include refined parametric analysis of selected variable cycle engines, screening of additional unconventional concepts, and engine preliminary design studies. Required critical technology programs are summarized.

  17. Development of An Intelligent Flight Propulsion Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calise, A. J.; Rysdyk, R. T.; Leonhardt, B. K.

    1999-01-01

    The initial design and demonstration of an Intelligent Flight Propulsion and Control System (IFPCS) is documented. The design is based on the implementation of a nonlinear adaptive flight control architecture. This initial design of the IFPCS enhances flight safety by using propulsion sources to provide redundancy in flight control. The IFPCS enhances the conventional gain scheduled approach in significant ways: (1) The IFPCS provides a back up flight control system that results in consistent responses over a wide range of unanticipated failures. (2) The IFPCS is applicable to a variety of aircraft models without redesign and,(3) significantly reduces the laborious research and design necessary in a gain scheduled approach. The control augmentation is detailed within an approximate Input-Output Linearization setting. The availability of propulsion only provides two control inputs, symmetric and differential thrust. Earlier Propulsion Control Augmentation (PCA) work performed by NASA provided for a trajectory controller with pilot command input of glidepath and heading. This work is aimed at demonstrating the flexibility of the IFPCS in providing consistency in flying qualities under a variety of failure scenarios. This report documents the initial design phase where propulsion only is used. Results confirm that the engine dynamics and associated hard nonlineaaities result in poor handling qualities at best. However, as demonstrated in simulation, the IFPCS is capable of results similar to the gain scheduled designs of the NASA PCA work. The IFPCS design uses crude estimates of aircraft behaviour. The adaptive control architecture demonstrates robust stability and provides robust performance. In this work, robust stability means that all states, errors, and adaptive parameters remain bounded under a wide class of uncertainties and input and output disturbances. Robust performance is measured in the quality of the tracking. The results demonstrate the flexibility of

  18. Distributed Multi-propulsion Units System

    OpenAIRE

    原田, 正志; HARADA, Masashi

    2002-01-01

    Reduction of the weight of the propulsion system is important in the design of a stratospheric airship. However, it also important to increaseefficiency of the system because available energy generated by solar cells on the hull is quite limited. One solution to increase efficiency of the propulsion system is to use a stern propeller, the propeller mounted on the stern of the hull as shown in Figure 1. Mounted on the stern of the hull, the stern propeller is merged with the boundary layer of ...

  19. Hybrid-electric propulsion for automotive and aviation applications

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrich, C; Robertson, Paul Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In parallel with the automotive industry, hybrid-electric propulsion is becoming a viable alternative propulsion technology for the aviation sector and reveals potential advantages including fuel savings, lower pollution, and reduced noise emission. Hybrid-electric propulsion systems can take advantage of the synergy between two technologies by utilizing both internal combustion engines and electric motors together, each operating at their respective optimum conditions...

  20. The Livingstone Model of a Main Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Anupa; Sweet, Adam; Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Livingstone is a discrete, propositional logic-based inference engine that has been used for diagnosis of physical systems. We present a component-based model of a Main Propulsion System (MPS) and say how it is used with Livingstone (L2) in order to implement a diagnostic system for integrated vehicle health management (IVHM) for the Propulsion IVHM Technology Experiment (PITEX). We start by discussing the process of conceptualizing such a model. We describe graphical tools that facilitated the generation of the model. The model is composed of components (which map onto physical components), connections between components and constraints. A component is specified by variables, with a set of discrete, qualitative values for each variable in its local nominal and failure modes. For each mode, the model specifies the component's behavior and transitions. We describe the MPS components' nominal and fault modes and associated Livingstone variables and data structures. Given this model, and observed external commands and observations from the system, Livingstone tracks the state of the MPS over discrete time-steps by choosing trajectories that are consistent with observations. We briefly discuss how the compiled model fits into the overall PITEX architecture. Finally we summarize our modeling experience, discuss advantages and disadvantages of our approach, and suggest enhancements to the modeling process.

  1. PEGASUS: a multi-megawatt nuclear electric propulsion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coomes, E.P.; Cuta, J.M.; Webb, B.J.; King, D.Q.

    1985-06-01

    With the Space Transportation System (STS), the advent of space station Columbus and the development of expertise at working in space that this will entail, the gateway is open to the final frontier. The exploration of this frontier is possible with state-of-the-art hydrogen/oxygen propulsion but would be greatly enhanced by the higher specific impulse of electric propulsion. This paper presents a concept that uses a multi-megawatt nuclear power plant to drive an electric propulsion system. The concept has been named PEGASUS, PowEr GenerAting System for Use in Space, and is intended as a ''work horse'' for general space transportation needs, both long- and short-haul missions. The recent efforts of the SP-100 program indicate that a power system capable of producing upwards of 1 megawatt of electric power should be available in the next decade. Additionally, efforts in other areas indicate that a power system with a constant power capability an order of magnitude greater could be available near the turn of the century. With the advances expected in megawatt-class space power systems, the high specific impulse propulsion systems must be reconsidered as potential propulsion systems. The power system is capable of meeting both the propulsion system and spacecraft power requirements

  2. Nuclear propulsion for orbital transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beale, G.A.; Lawrence, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    The state of the art in nuclear propulsion for orbital transfer is discussed. Cryogenic propulsion, electric propulsion, solar-thermal propulsion and direct nuclear propulsion are examined in this context. New technologies with exceptional promise are addressed, emphasizing the particle test bed nuclear engine

  3. Overview of solutions and analysis of the ability to evaluate the performance parameters of unmanned aerial vehicles propulsion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpiński Dominik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of aircraft engines development is the propulsion which is characterized by high power-to-mass ratio. Therefore, the alternative solutions that provide the required power by the low weight propulsion are sought after. The main advantage of these solutions is improvement of environmental and economic properties. This paper presents the overview of solutions and studies conducted for the unmanned aerial vehicles propulsion. For the purposes of studies a test bench was prepared. Its enables the comparison of the propulsion operating parameters taking into account changes in the values of thrust and propulsion power. The summary includes a proposal to improve the environmental indicators of propulsion systems for unmanned aerial vehicles.

  4. Analysis of Engine Propeller Matching of DC Motor as a Main Propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Setyo Koenhardono

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of ship always searches through the most benefits system for reducing costs of propulsion system without increase pollution. Diesel propulsion system or also known as conventional propulsion system is efficient but requires high operating costs and increase high level of marine pollution. Electrical propulsion system is using electric motors as the prime mover of the propeller. There are 2 types of electric motors that will be used for research of electric propulsion system, there are; DC motors and three-phases induction motor. As the use of DC motor as a prime mover for this electrical propulsion system, this study determines the characteristic between voltage terminal with torque and also field current with torque. It results that torque produced by the DC motor is in the same magnitude with the speed (RPM. The higher the speed have shaped the value of the torque. The input and terminal voltages adjusts all variables and results. In this study, different field voltage creates different pattern of motor envelope. Its manner to propeller curve occurs total different results. With field voltage of 50 V, the ranges of motor envelope immoveable in the point of 150% of present speed and 160%. While field voltage of 60 V serves larger ranges of motor envelope which possible to reach further than 50 V curve.

  5. Propulsion System and Orbit Maneuver Integration in CubeSats: Trajectory Control Strategies Using Micro Ion Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Jennifer; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Propulsion System and Orbit Maneuver Integration in CubeSats project aims to solve the challenges of integrating a micro electric propulsion system on a CubeSat in order to perform orbital maneuvers and control attitude. This represents a fundamentally new capability for CubeSats, which typically do not contain propulsion systems and cannot maneuver far beyond their initial orbits.

  6. The Design and Integration of a Distributed Fan Propulsion System within a Split-Wing, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A baseline propulsion system has been designed as a starting point in a previous SBIR effort for this project which consists of two turboshaft engines, a generator...

  7. The nature of operating flight loads and their effect on propulsion system structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickenson, K. H.; Martin, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Past diagnostics studies revealed the primary causes of performance deterioration of high by-pass turbofan engines to be flight loads, erosion, and thermal distortion. The various types of airplane loads that are imposed on the engine throughout the lifetime of an airplane are examined. These include flight loads from gusts and maneuvers and ground loads from takeoff, landing, and taxi conditions. Clarification is made in definitions of the airframer's limit and ultimate design loads and the engine manufacturer's operating design loads. Finally, the influence of these loads on the propulsion system structures is discussed.

  8. Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS). Volume 1: Program user's guide. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelaccio, D.G.; Scheil, C.M.; Petrosky, L.J.

    1993-03-01

    A Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) engine system design analysis tool is required to support current and future Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) propulsion and vehicle design studies. Currently available NTP engine design models are those developed during the NERVA program in the 1960's and early 1970's and are highly unique to that design or are modifications of current liquid propulsion system design models. To date, NTP engine-based liquid design models lack integrated design of key NTP engine design features in the areas of reactor, shielding, multi-propellant capability, and multi-redundant pump feed fuel systems. Additionally, since the SEI effort is in the initial development stage, a robust, verified NTP analysis design tool could be of great use to the community. This effort developed an NTP engine system design analysis program (tool), known as the Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS) program, to support ongoing and future engine system and stage design study efforts. In this effort, Science Applications International Corporation's (SAIC) NTP version of the Expanded Liquid Engine Simulation (ELES) program was modified extensively to include Westinghouse Electric Corporation's near-term solid-core reactor design model. The ELES program has extensive capability to conduct preliminary system design analysis of liquid rocket systems and vehicles. The program is modular in nature and is versatile in terms of modeling state-of-the-art component and system options as discussed. The Westinghouse reactor design model, which was integrated in the NESS program, is based on the near-term solid-core ENABLER NTP reactor design concept. This program is now capable of accurately modeling (characterizing) a complete near-term solid-core NTP engine system in great detail, for a number of design options, in an efficient manner

  9. Vehicle configuration options using nuclear propulsion for Mars missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, William J.

    1993-01-01

    The solid core nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) provides an attractive means of providing the propulsive force needed to accomplish a wide array of space missions. With its factor of two or more advantage in Isp over chemical engines, nuclear propulsion provides the opportunity to accomplish space missions which are impractical by other means. This paper focuses on the use of a nuclear thermal rocket to accomplish a variety of space missions with emphasis on the manned Mars mission. The particle bed reactor (PBR) type nuclear engine was chosen as the baseline engine used to conduct the present study because of its perceived versatility over other nuclear propulsion systems in conducting a wide variety of tasks. This study baselines a particle bed reactor engine with an engine thrust-to-weight ratio (~11.5) and a specific impulse of ~950 s. It is shown that a PBR engine of this type will offer distinct advantages over the larger and heavier NERVA type nuclear engines.

  10. Vehicle configuration options using nuclear propulsion for Mars missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrich, W.J. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The solid core nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) provides an attractive means of providing the propulsive force needed to accomplish a wide array of space missions. With its factor of two or more advantage in Isp over chemical engines, nuclear propulsion provides the opportunity to accomplish space missions which are impractical by other means. This paper focuses on the use of a nuclear thermal rocket to accomplish a variety of space missions with emphasis on the manned Mars mission. The particle bed reactor (PBR) type nuclear engine was chosen as the baseline engine used to conduct the present study because of its perceived versatility over other nuclear propulsion systems in conducting a wide variety of tasks. This study baselines a particle bed reactor engine with an engine thrust-to-weight ratio (∼11.5) and a specific impulse of ∼950 s. It is shown that a PBR engine of this type will offer distinct advantages over the larger and heavier NERVA type nuclear engines

  11. The USAF Electric Propulsion Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spores, Ronald

    1999-01-01

    ...: Propulsion Directorate and Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR). The Propulsion Directorate conducts electric propulsion efforts in basic research, engineering development, and space experiments...

  12. An Overview of the NASA Aviation Safety Program Propulsion Health Monitoring Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) has been initiated with aggressive goals to reduce the civil aviation accident rate, To meet these goals, several technology investment areas have been identified including a sub-element in propulsion health monitoring (PHM). Specific AvSP PHM objectives are to develop and validate propulsion system health monitoring technologies designed to prevent engine malfunctions from occurring in flight, and to mitigate detrimental effects in the event an in-flight malfunction does occur. A review of available propulsion system safety information was conducted to help prioritize PHM areas to focus on under the AvSP. It is noted that when a propulsion malfunction is involved in an aviation accident or incident, it is often a contributing factor rather than the sole cause for the event. Challenging aspects of the development and implementation of PHM technology such as cost, weight, robustness, and reliability are discussed. Specific technology plans are overviewed including vibration diagnostics, model-based controls and diagnostics, advanced instrumentation, and general aviation propulsion system health monitoring technology. Propulsion system health monitoring, in addition to engine design, inspection, maintenance, and pilot training and awareness, is intrinsic to enhancing aviation propulsion system safety.

  13. Reusable Reentry Satellite (RRS): Propulsion system trade study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the Reusable Reentry Satellite (RRS) Propulsion System Trade Study described in this summary report was to investigate various propulsion options available for incorporation on the RRS and to select the option best suited for RRS application. The design requirements for the RRS propulsion system were driven by the total impulse requirements necessary to operate within the performance envelope specified in the RRS System Requirements Documents. These requirements were incorporated within the Design Reference Missions (DRM's) identified for use in this and other subsystem trade studies. This study investigated the following propulsion systems: solid rocket, monopropellant, bipropellant (monomethyl hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide or MMH/NTO), dual-mode bipropellant (hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide or N2H4/NTO), liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen (LO2/LH2), and an advanced design propulsion system using SDI-developed components. A liquid monopropellant blowdown propulsion system was found to be best suited for meeting the RRS requirements and is recommended as the baseline system. This system was chosen because it is the simplest of all investigated, has the fewest components, and is the most cost effective. The monopropellant system meets all RRS performance requirements and has the capability to provide a very accurate deorbit burn which minimizes reentry dispersions. In addition, no new hardware qualification is required for a monopropellant system. Although the bipropellant systems offered some weight savings capability for missions requiring large deorbit velocities, the advantage of a lower mass system only applies if the total vehicle design can be reduced to allow a cheaper launch vehicle to be used. At the time of this trade study, the overall RRS weight budget and launch vehicle selection were not being driven by the propulsion system selection. Thus, the added cost and complexity of more advanced systems did not warrant application.

  14. Electrosprayed Heavy Ion and Nanodrop Beams for Surface Engineering and Electrical Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-10

    Studies At the macroscale, the surface of a Taylor cone just before ion emission is an equipotential with a normal electric field strength found from...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0246 Electrosprayed Heavy Ion and Nanodrop Beams for Surface Engineering M Gamero-Castano UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA IRVINE Final...298 (Re . 8-98) v Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 1 Electrosprayed Heavy Ion and Nanodrop Beams for Surface Engineering and Electrical Propulsion

  15. Configurations of hybrid-electric cars propulsion systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cundev, Dobri; Sarac, Vasilija; Stefanov, Goce

    2011-01-01

    Over the last few years, hybrid electric cars have taken significant role in automotive market. There are successful technological solutions of hybrid-electric propulsion systems implemented in commercial passenger cars. Every automobile manufacturer of hybrid vehicles has unique hybrid propulsion system. In this paper, all implemented systems are described, analyzed and compared.

  16. Effluent Containment System for space thermal nuclear propulsion ground test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the research and development study work performed for the Space Reactor Power System Division of the U.S. Department of Energy on an innovative ECS that would be used during ground testing of a space nuclear thermal rocket engine. A significant portion of the ground test facilities for a space nuclear thermal propulsion engine are the effluent treatment and containment systems. The proposed ECS configuration developed recycles all engine coolant media and does not impact the environment by venting radioactive material. All coolant media, hydrogen and water, are collected, treated for removal of radioactive particulates, and recycled for use in subsequent tests until the end of the facility life. Radioactive materials removed by the treatment systems are recovered, stored for decay of short-lived isotopes, or packaged for disposal as waste. At the end of the useful life, the facility will be decontaminated and dismantled for disposal

  17. Airbreathing Propulsion An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Bose, Tarit

    2012-01-01

    Airbreathing Propulsion covers the physics of combustion, fluid and thermo-dynamics, and structural mechanics of airbreathing engines, including piston, turboprop, turbojet, turbofan, and ramjet engines. End-of-chapter exercises allow the reader to practice the fundamental concepts behind airbreathing propulsion, and the included PAGIC computer code will help the reader to examine the relationships between the performance parameters of different engines. Large amounts of data on many different piston, turbojet, and turboprop engines have been compiled for this book and are included as an appendix. This textbook is ideal for senior undergraduate and graduate students studying aeronautical engineering, aerospace engineering, and mechanical engineering.

  18. Oxygen Containment System Options for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — All nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) ground testing conducted in the 1950s and 1960s during the ROVER/(Nuclear Engine Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program...

  19. Application of Taguchi methods to dual mixture ratio propulsion system optimization for SSTO vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Douglas O.; Unal, Resit; Joyner, C. R.

    1992-01-01

    The application of advanced technologies to future launch vehicle designs would allow the introduction of a rocket-powered, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch system early in the next century. For a selected SSTO concept, a dual mixture ratio, staged combustion cycle engine that employs a number of innovative technologies was selected as the baseline propulsion system. A series of parametric trade studies are presented to optimize both a dual mixture ratio engine and a single mixture ratio engine of similar design and technology level. The effect of varying lift-off thrust-to-weight ratio, engine mode transition Mach number, mixture ratios, area ratios, and chamber pressure values on overall vehicle weight is examined. The sensitivity of the advanced SSTO vehicle to variations in each of these parameters is presented, taking into account the interaction of each of the parameters with each other. This parametric optimization and sensitivity study employs a Taguchi design method. The Taguchi method is an efficient approach for determining near-optimum design parameters using orthogonal matrices from design of experiments (DOE) theory. Using orthogonal matrices significantly reduces the number of experimental configurations to be studied. The effectiveness and limitations of the Taguchi method for propulsion/vehicle optimization studies as compared to traditional single-variable parametric trade studies is also discussed.

  20. The multidisciplinary design optimization of a distributed propulsion blended-wing-body aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Yan-Yee Andy

    The purpose of this study is to examine the multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) of a distributed propulsion blended-wing-body (BWB) aircraft. The BWB is a hybrid shape resembling a flying wing, placing the payload in the inboard sections of the wing. The distributed propulsion concept involves replacing a small number of large engines with many smaller engines. The distributed propulsion concept considered here ducts part of the engine exhaust to exit out along the trailing edge of the wing. The distributed propulsion concept affects almost every aspect of the BWB design. Methods to model these effects and integrate them into an MDO framework were developed. The most important effect modeled is the impact on the propulsive efficiency. There has been conjecture that there will be an increase in propulsive efficiency when there is blowing out of the trailing edge of a wing. A mathematical formulation was derived to explain this. The formulation showed that the jet 'fills in' the wake behind the body, improving the overall aerodynamic/propulsion system, resulting in an increased propulsive efficiency. The distributed propulsion concept also replaces the conventional elevons with a vectored thrust system for longitudinal control. An extension of Spence's Jet Flap theory was developed to estimate the effects of this vectored thrust system on the aircraft longitudinal control. It was found to provide a reasonable estimate of the control capability of the aircraft. An MDO framework was developed, integrating all the distributed propulsion effects modeled. Using a gradient based optimization algorithm, the distributed propulsion BWB aircraft was optimized and compared with a similarly optimized conventional BWB design. Both designs are for an 800 passenger, 0.85 cruise Mach number and 7000 nmi mission. The MDO results found that the distributed propulsion BWB aircraft has a 4% takeoff gross weight and a 2% fuel weight. Both designs have similar planform shapes

  1. Aero-Propulsion Technology (APT) Task V Low Noise ADP Engine Definition Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, V.

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify and evaluate noise reduction technologies for advanced ducted prop propulsion systems that would allow increased capacity operation and result in an economically competitive commercial transport. The study investigated the aero/acoustic/structural advancements in fan and nacelle technology required to match or exceed the fuel burned and economic benefits of a constrained diameter large Advanced Ducted Propeller (ADP) compared to an unconstrained ADP propulsion system with a noise goal of 5 to 10 EPNDB reduction relative to FAR 36 Stage 3 at each of the three measuring stations namely, takeoff (cutback), approach and sideline. A second generation ADP was selected to operate within the maximum nacelle diameter constrain of 160 deg to allow installation under the wing. The impact of fan and nacelle technologies of the second generation ADP on fuel burn and direct operating costs for a typical 3000 nm mission was evaluated through use of a large, twin engine commercial airplane simulation model. The major emphasis of this study focused on fan blade aero/acoustic and structural technology evaluations and advanced nacelle designs. Results of this study have identified the testing required to verify the interactive performance of these components, along with noise characteristics, by wind tunnel testing utilizing and advanced interaction rig.

  2. Fitting aerodynamics and propulsion into the puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Patrick J.; Whitehead, Allen H., Jr.; Chapman, Gary T.

    1987-01-01

    The development of an airbreathing single-stage-to-orbit vehicle, in particular the problems of aerodynamics and propulsion integration, is examined. The boundary layer transition on constant pressure surfaces at hypersonic velocities, and the effects of noise on the transition are investigated. The importance of viscosity, real-gas effects, and drag at hypersonic speeds is discussed. A propulsion system with sufficient propulsive lift to enhance the performance of the vehicle is being developed. The difficulties of engine-airframe integration are analyzed.

  3. Options for development of space fission propulsion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houts, Mike; Van Dyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Pedersen, Kevin; Martin, James; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Hrbud, Ivana

    2001-01-01

    Fission technology can enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. Potential fission-based transportation options include high specific power continuous impulse propulsion systems and bimodal nuclear thermal rockets. Despite their tremendous potential for enhancing or enabling deep space and planetary missions, to date space fission systems have only been used in Earth orbit. The first step towards utilizing advanced fission propulsion systems is development of a safe, near-term, affordable fission system that can enhance or enable near-term missions of interest. An evolutionary approach for developing space fission propulsion systems is proposed

  4. Innovative Approaches to Development and Ground Testing of Advanced Bimodal Space Power and Propulsion Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, T.; Noble, C.; Martinell, J.; Borowski, S.

    2000-01-01

    The last major development effort for nuclear power and propulsion systems ended in 1993. Currently, there is not an initiative at either the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that requires the development of new nuclear power and propulsion systems. Studies continue to show nuclear technology as a strong technical candidate to lead the way toward human exploration of adjacent planets or provide power for deep space missions, particularly a 15,000 lbf bimodal nuclear system with 115 kW power capability. The development of nuclear technology for space applications would require technology development in some areas and a major flight qualification program. The last major ground test facility considered for nuclear propulsion qualification was the U.S. Air Force/DOE Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project. Seven years have passed since that effort, and the questions remain the same, how to qualify nuclear power and propulsion systems for future space flight. It can be reasonably assumed that much of the nuclear testing required to qualify a nuclear system for space application will be performed at DOE facilities as demonstrated by the Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor Experiment (NERVA) and Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) programs. The nuclear infrastructure to support testing in this country is aging and getting smaller, though facilities still exist to support many of the technology development needs. By renewing efforts, an innovative approach to qualifying these systems through the use of existing facilities either in the U.S. (DOE's Advance Test Reactor, High Flux Irradiation Facility and the Contained Test Facility) or overseas should be possible

  5. Innovation Approaches to Development and Ground Testing of Advanced Bimodal Space Power and Propulsion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, T.; Noble, C.; Martinell, J. (INEEL); Borowski, S. (NASA Glenn Research Center)

    2000-07-14

    The last major development effort for nuclear power and propulsion systems ended in 1993. Currently, there is not an initiative at either the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that requires the development of new nuclear power and propulsion systems. Studies continue to show nuclear technology as a strong technical candidate to lead the way toward human exploration of adjacent planets or provide power for deep space missions, particularly a 15,000 lbf bimodal nuclear system with 115 kW power capability. The development of nuclear technology for space applications would require technology development in some areas and a major flight qualification program. The last major ground test facility considered for nuclear propulsion qualification was the U.S. Air Force/DOE Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project. Seven years have passed since that effort, and the questions remain the same, how to qualify nuclear power and propulsion systems for future space flight. It can be reasonably assumed that much of the nuclear testing required to qualify a nuclear system for space application will be performed at DOE facilities as demonstrated by the Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor Experiment (NERVA) and Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) programs. The nuclear infrastructure to support testing in this country is aging and getting smaller, though facilities still exist to support many of the technology development needs. By renewing efforts, an innovative approach to qualifying these systems through the use of existing facilities either in the U.S. (DOE's Advance Test Reactor, High Flux Irradiation Facility and the Contained Test Facility) or overseas should be possible.

  6. Innovative Approaches to Development and Ground Testing of Advanced Bimodal Space Power and Propulsion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Thomas Johnathan; Noble, Cheryl Ann; Noble, C.; Martinell, John Stephen; Borowski, S.

    2000-07-01

    The last major development effort for nuclear power and propulsion systems ended in 1993. Currently, there is not an initiative at either the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that requires the development of new nuclear power and propulsion systems. Studies continue to show nuclear technology as a strong technical candidate to lead the way toward human exploration of adjacent planets or provide power for deep space missions, particularly a 15,000 lbf bimodal nuclear system with 115 kW power capability. The development of nuclear technology for space applications would require technology development in some areas and a major flight qualification program. The last major ground test facility considered for nuclear propulsion qualification was the U.S. Air Force/DOE Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project. Seven years have passed since that effort, and the questions remain the same, how to qualify nuclear power and propulsion systems for future space flight. It can be reasonable assumed that much of the nuclear testing required to qualify a nuclear system for space application will be performed at DOE facilities as demonstrated by the Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor Experiment (NERVA) and Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) programs. The nuclear infrastructure to support testing in this country is aging and getting smaller, though facilities still exist to support many of the technology development needs. By renewing efforts, an innovative approach to qualifying these systems through the use of existing facilities either in the U.S. (DOE's Advance Test Reactor, High Flux Irradiation Facility and the Contained Test Facility) or overseas should be possible.

  7. Propulsive options for a manned Mars transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, R.D.; Blersch, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    In this investigation, five potential manned Mars transportation systems are compared. These options include: (1) a single vehicle, chemically propelled (CHEM) option, (2) a single vehicle, nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) option, (3) a single vehicle solar electric propulsion (SEP) option, (4) a single vehicle hybrid nuclear electric propulsion (NEP)/CHEM option, and (5) a dual vehicle option (NEP cargo spacecraft and CHEM manned vehicle). In addition to utilizing the initial vehicle weight in low-earth orbit as a measure of mission feasibility, this study addresses the major technological barriers each propulsive scenario must surpass. It is shown that instead of a single clearly superior propulsion system, each means of propulsion may be favored depending upon the specified program policy and the extent of the desired manned flight time. Furthermore, the effect which aerobraking and multiple transfer cycles have upon mission feasibility is considered. 18 refs

  8. Nuclear engine system simulation (NESS) program update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheil, C.M.; Pelaccio, D.G.; Petrosky, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    The second phase of development of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) engine system design analysis code has been completed. The standalone, versatile Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS) code provides an accurate, detailed assessment of engine system operating performance, weight, and sizes. The critical information is required to support ongoing and future engine system and stage design study efforts. This recent development effort included incorporation of an updated solid-core nuclear thermal reactor model that yields a reduced core weight and higher fuel power density when compared to a NERVA type reactor. NESS can now analyze expander, gas generator, and bleed cycles, along with multi-redundant propellant pump feed systems. Performance and weight of efficient multi-stage axial turbopump can now be determined, in addition to the traditional centrifugal pump

  9. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  10. Optimal allocation of thermodynamic irreversibility for the integrated design of propulsion and thermal management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maser, Adam Charles

    More electric aircraft systems, high power avionics, and a reduction in heat sink capacity have placed a larger emphasis on correctly satisfying aircraft thermal management requirements during conceptual design. Thermal management systems must be capable of dealing with these rising heat loads, while simultaneously meeting mission performance. Since all subsystem power and cooling requirements are ultimately traced back to the engine, the growing interactions between the propulsion and thermal management systems are becoming more significant. As a result, it is necessary to consider their integrated performance during the conceptual design of the aircraft gas turbine engine cycle to ensure that thermal requirements are met. This can be accomplished by using thermodynamic subsystem modeling and simulation while conducting the necessary design trades to establish the engine cycle. However, this approach also poses technical challenges associated with the existence of elaborate aircraft subsystem interactions. This research addresses these challenges through the creation of a parsimonious, transparent thermodynamic model of propulsion and thermal management systems performance with a focus on capturing the physics that have the largest impact on propulsion design choices. This modeling environment, known as Cycle Refinement for Aircraft Thermodynamically Optimized Subsystems (CRATOS), is capable of operating in on-design (parametric) and off-design (performance) modes and includes a system-level solver to enforce design constraints. A key aspect of this approach is the incorporation of physics-based formulations involving the concurrent usage of the first and second laws of thermodynamics, which are necessary to achieve a clearer view of the component-level losses across the propulsion and thermal management systems. This is facilitated by the direct prediction of the exergy destruction distribution throughout the system and the resulting quantification of available

  11. Performance optimization of a Two-Stroke supercharged diesel engine for aircraft propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlucci, Antonio Paolo; Ficarella, Antonio; Trullo, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A Two-Stroke diesel engine for aircraft propulsion was modeled with a 0D/1D approach. • The results of the 0D/1D model are compared with those resulting from a 3D model. • The effect of several design and thermodynamic parameters have been analyzed. • Guidelines for the optimization of engine performance are provided. - Abstract: In Two-Stroke engines, the cylinder filling efficiency is antithetical to the cylinder scavenging efficiency; moreover, both of them are influenced by geometric and thermodynamic parameters characterizing the design and operation of both the engine and the related supercharging system. Aim of this work is to provide several guidelines about the definition of design and operation parameters for a Two-Stroke two banks Uniflow diesel engine, supercharged with two sequential turbochargers and an aftercooler per bank, with the goal of either increasing the engine brake power at take-off or decreasing the engine fuel consumption in cruise conditions. The engine has been modeled with a 0D/1D modeling approach. Then, the model capability in describing the effect of several parameters on engine performance has been assessed comparing the results of 3D simulations with those of 0D/1D model. The validated 0D/1D model has been used to simulate the engine behavior varying several design and operation engine parameters (exhaust valves opening and closing angles and maximum valve lift, scavenging ports opening angle, distance between bottom edge of the scavenging ports and bottom dead center, area of the single scavenging port and number of ports, engine volumetric compression ratio, low and high pressure compressor pressure ratios, air/fuel ratio) on a wide range of possible values. The parameters most influencing the engine performance are then recognized and their effect on engine thermodynamic behavior is discussed. Finally, the system configurations leading to best engine power at sea level and lowest fuel consumption in cruise

  12. Particle Bed Reactor engine technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, S.; Feddersen, R.

    1992-03-01

    This paper discusses the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) based propulsion system being developed under the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. A PBR engine is a light weight, compact propulsion system which offers significant improvement over current technology systems. Current performance goals are a system thrust of 75,000 pounds at an Isp of 1000 sec. A target thrust to weight ratio (T/W) of 30 has been established for an unshielded engine. The functionality of the PBR, its pertinent technology issues and the systems required to make up a propulsion system are described herein. Accomplishments to date which include hardware development and tests for the PBR engine are also discussed. This paper is intended to provide information on and describe the current state-of-the-art of PBR technology.

  13. Particle Bed Reactor engine technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandler, S.; Feddersen, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) based propulsion system being developed under the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. A PBR engine is a light weight, compact propulsion system which offers significant improvement over current technology systems. Current performance goals are a system thrust of 75,000 pounds at an Isp of 1000 sec. A target thrust to weight ratio (T/W) of 30 has been established for an unshielded engine. The functionality of the PBR, its pertinent technology issues and the systems required to make up a propulsion system are described herein. Accomplishments to date which include hardware development and tests for the PBR engine are also discussed. This paper is intended to provide information on and describe the current state-of-the-art of PBR technology. 4 refs

  14. Non-Toxic Orbital Maneuvering System Engine Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher; Claflin, Scott; Maeding, Chris; Butas, John

    1999-01-01

    Recent results using the Aestus engine operated with LOx/ethanol propellant are presented. An experimental program at Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power is underway to adapt this engine for the Boeing Reusable Space Systems Division non-toxic Orbital Maneuvering System/Reaction control System (OMS/RCS) system. Daimler-Chrysler Aerospace designed the Aestus as an nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine (NTO/MMH) upper-stage engine for the Ariane 5. The non-toxic OMS/RCS system's preliminary design requires a LOx/ethanol (O2/C2H5OH) engine that operates with a mixture ratio of 1.8, a specific impulse of 323 seconds, and fits within the original OMS design envelope. This paper describes current efforts to meet these requirements including, investigating engine performance using LOx/ethanol, developing the en-ine system sizing package, and meeting the vehicle operation parameters. Data from hot-fire testing are also presented and discussed.

  15. The Case for Distributed Engine Control in Turbo-Shaft Engine Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, Dennis E.; Paluszewski, Paul J.; Storey, William; Smith, Bert J.

    2009-01-01

    The turbo-shaft engine is an important propulsion system used to power vehicles on land, sea, and in the air. As the power plant for many high performance helicopters, the characteristics of the engine and control are critical to proper vehicle operation as well as being the main determinant to overall vehicle performance. When applied to vertical flight, important distinctions exist in the turbo-shaft engine control system due to the high degree of dynamic coupling between the engine and airframe and the affect on vehicle handling characteristics. In this study, the impact of engine control system architecture is explored relative to engine performance, weight, reliability, safety, and overall cost. Comparison of the impact of architecture on these metrics is investigated as the control system is modified from a legacy centralized structure to a more distributed configuration. A composite strawman system which is typical of turbo-shaft engines in the 1000 to 2000 hp class is described and used for comparison. The overall benefits of these changes to control system architecture are assessed. The availability of supporting technologies to achieve this evolution is also discussed.

  16. Some Thoughts About Water Analysis in Shipboard Steam Propulsion Systems for Marine Engineering Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.; And Others

    Information is presented about the problems involved in using sea water in the steam propulsion systems of large, modern ships. Discussions supply background chemical information concerning the problems of corrosion, scale buildup, and sludge production. Suggestions are given for ways to maintain a good water treatment program to effectively deal…

  17. Distributed Turboelectric Propulsion for Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Dae; Brown, Gerald V.; Felder, James L.

    2008-01-01

    Meeting future goals for aircraft and air traffic system performance will require new airframes with more highly integrated propulsion. Previous studies have evaluated hybrid wing body (HWB) configurations with various numbers of engines and with increasing degrees of propulsion-airframe integration. A recently published configuration with 12 small engines partially embedded in a HWB aircraft, reviewed herein, serves as the airframe baseline for the new concept aircraft that is the subject of this paper. To achieve high cruise efficiency, a high lift-to-drag ratio HWB was adopted as the baseline airframe along with boundary layer ingestion inlets and distributed thrust nozzles to fill in the wakes generated by the vehicle. The distributed powered-lift propulsion concept for the baseline vehicle used a simple, high-lift-capable internally blown flap or jet flap system with a number of small high bypass ratio turbofan engines in the airframe. In that concept, the engine flow path from the inlet to the nozzle is direct and does not involve complicated internal ducts through the airframe to redistribute the engine flow. In addition, partially embedded engines, distributed along the upper surface of the HWB airframe, provide noise reduction through airframe shielding and promote jet flow mixing with the ambient airflow. To improve performance and to reduce noise and environmental impact even further, a drastic change in the propulsion system is proposed in this paper. The new concept adopts the previous baseline cruise-efficient short take-off and landing (CESTOL) airframe but employs a number of superconducting motors to drive the distributed fans rather than using many small conventional engines. The power to drive these electric fans is generated by two remotely located gas-turbine-driven superconducting generators. This arrangement allows many small partially embedded fans while retaining the superior efficiency of large core engines, which are physically separated

  18. Observer-based FDI for Gain Fault Detection in Ship Propulsion Benchmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lootsma, T.F.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Nijmeijer, H.

    2001-01-01

    A geometric approach for input-affine nonlinear systems is briefly described and then applied to a ship propulsion benchmark. The obtained results are used to design a diagnostic nonlinear observer for successful FDI of the diesel engine gain fault......A geometric approach for input-affine nonlinear systems is briefly described and then applied to a ship propulsion benchmark. The obtained results are used to design a diagnostic nonlinear observer for successful FDI of the diesel engine gain fault...

  19. Observer-based FDI for Gain Fault Detection in Ship Propulsion Benchmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lootsma, T.F.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Nijmeijer, H.

    2001-01-01

    A geometric approach for input-affine nonlinear systems is briefly described and then applied to a ship propulsion benchmark. The obtained results are used to design a diagnostic nonlinear observer for successful FDI of the diesel engine gain fault.......A geometric approach for input-affine nonlinear systems is briefly described and then applied to a ship propulsion benchmark. The obtained results are used to design a diagnostic nonlinear observer for successful FDI of the diesel engine gain fault....

  20. Propulsion System Materials Program semiannual progress report for April 1995 through September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for the DOE, NASA, and DOD advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. These programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and data base and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. An assessment of needs was completed, and a 5-year program plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. During the course of the Propulsion System Materials Program, remarkable progress has been made in the development of reliable structural ceramics. However, further work is needed to reduce the cost of ceramics to facilitate their commercial introduction, especially in the highly cost-sensitive automotive market. To this end, the direction of the Propulsion System Materials Program is now shifting toward reducing the cost of ceramics to facilitate commercial introduction of ceramic components for near-term engine applications. In response to extensive input from industry, the plan is to extend the engine types which were previously supported to include near-term (5--10 years) applications in conventional automobile and diesel truck engines. To facilitate the rapid transfer of this technology to US industry, the major portion of the work is being done in the ceramic industry, with technological support from government laboratories, other industrial laboratories, and universities. A systematic approach to reducing the cost of components is envisioned. The work elements are as follows: economic cost modeling, ceramic machining, powder synthesis, alternative forming and densification processes, yield improvement, system design studies, standards development, low-expansion ceramics, and testing and data base development.

  1. CFD for hypersonic propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povinelli, Louis A.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is given of research activity on the application of computational fluid dynamics (CDF) for hypersonic propulsion systems. After the initial consideration of the highly integrated nature of air-breathing hypersonic engines and airframe, attention is directed toward computations carried out for the components of the engine. A generic inlet configuration is considered in order to demonstrate the highly three dimensional viscous flow behavior occurring within rectangular inlets. Reacting flow computations for simple jet injection as well as for more complex combustion chambers are then discussed in order to show the capability of viscous finite rate chemical reaction computer simulations. Finally, the nozzle flow fields are demonstrated, showing the existence of complex shear layers and shock structure in the exhaust plume. The general issues associated with code validation as well as the specific issue associated with the use of CFD for design are discussed. A prognosis for the success of CFD in the design of future propulsion systems is offered.

  2. FY 1995 annual report on research and development of propulsion systems for supersonic transport aircraft. Pt. 2. Research and development of methane-fueled engines for aircraft; 1995 nendo choonsoku yusokiyo suishin system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2. Methane nenryo kokukiyo engine no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Described herein are the R and D results of FY 1995 for the total system as part of R and D of propulsion systems for supersonic transport aircraft. For R and D of the intake, researches on aerodynamic flow passages at a combined intake design point of Mach 5 are conducted, in which the effects of the boundary layer are taken into consideration, and the wind tunnel tests are conducted for the combined intake. For R and D of the nozzle, experiments are conducted to establish the techniques for designing exhaust nozzle variable schedules in the turbo region, aerodynamic force in the turbo and ram regions, cooling systems, and composite liners. For R and D of the turbojet engines, the second phase engine tests are conducted with the engine of improved designs and two-dimensional variable exhaust nozzle. The tests produce good results in terms of engine endurance and mechanical soundness of the low-pressure systems. For R and D of the combined cycle engine incorporating the turbojet and ramjet engines, the model tests are conducted to understand aerodynamic characteristics when these engines are switched to each other. (NEDO)

  3. Energetic Combustion Devices for Aerospace Propulsion and Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchford, Ron J.

    2000-01-01

    Chemical reactions have long been the mainstay thermal energy source for aerospace propulsion and power. Although it is widely recognized that the intrinsic energy density limitations of chemical bonds place severe constraints on maximum realizable performance, it will likely be several years before systems based on high energy density nuclear fuels can be placed into routine service. In the mean time, efforts to develop high energy density chemicals and advanced combustion devices which can utilize such energetic fuels may yield worthwhile returns in overall system performance and cost. Current efforts in this vein are being carried out at NASA MSFC under the direction of the author in the areas of pulse detonation engine technology development and light metals combustion devices. Pulse detonation engines are touted as a low cost alternative to gas turbine engines and to conventional rocket engines, but actual performance and cost benefits have yet to be convincingly demonstrated. Light metal fueled engines also offer potential benefits in certain niche applications such as aluminum/CO2 fueled engines for endo-atmospheric Martian propulsion. Light metal fueled MHD generators also present promising opportunities with respect to electric power generation for electromagnetic launch assist. This presentation will discuss the applications potential of these concepts with respect to aero ace propulsion and power and will review the current status of the development efforts.

  4. Interstellar propulsion using a pellet stream for momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, C.E.

    1979-10-01

    A pellet-stream concept for interstellar propulsion is described. Small pellets are accelerated in the solar system and accurately guided to an interstellar probe where they are intercepted and transfer momentum. This propulsion system appears to offer orders-of-magnitude improvements in terms of engineering simplicity and power requirements over any other known feasible system for transport over interstellar distance in a time comparable to a human lifespan

  5. Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program semiannual progress report for April 1998 thru September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1--3 trucks to realize a 35{percent} fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7--8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OTT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advanced LE-55 diesel engines with 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NO{sub x} and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulates. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy-duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies.

  6. Nuclear thermal propulsion transportation systems for lunar/Mars exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.S.; Borowski, S.K.; Mcilwain, M.C.; Pellaccio, D.G.

    1992-09-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion technology development is underway at NASA and DoE for Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions to Mars, with initial near-earth flights to validate flight readiness. Several reactor concepts are being considered for these missions, and important selection criteria will be evaluated before final selection of a system. These criteria include: safety and reliability, technical risk, cost, and performance, in that order. Of the concepts evaluated to date, the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications (NERVA) derivative (NDR) is the only concept that has demonstrated full power, life, and performance in actual reactor tests. Other concepts will require significant design work and must demonstrate proof-of-concept. Technical risk, and hence, development cost should therefore be lowest for the concept, and the NDR concept is currently being considered for the initial SEI missions. As lighter weight, higher performance systems are developed and validated, including appropriate safety and astronaut-rating requirements, they will be considered to support future SEI application. A space transportation system using a modular nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) system for lunar and Mars missions is expected to result in significant life cycle cost savings. Finally, several key issues remain for NTR's, including public acceptance and operational issues. Nonetheless, NTR's are believed to be the next generation of space propulsion systems - the key to space exploration

  7. Authentication for Propulsion Test Streaming Video

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A streaming video system was developed and implemented at SSC to support various propulsion projects at SSC. These projects included J-2X and AJ-26 rocket engine...

  8. Hybrid rocket propulsion systems for outer planet exploration missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jens, Elizabeth T.; Cantwell, Brian J.; Hubbard, G. Scott

    2016-11-01

    Outer planet exploration missions require significant propulsive capability, particularly to achieve orbit insertion. Missions to explore the moons of outer planets place even more demanding requirements on propulsion systems, since they involve multiple large ΔV maneuvers. Hybrid rockets present a favorable alternative to conventional propulsion systems for many of these missions. They typically enjoy higher specific impulse than solids, can be throttled, stopped/restarted, and have more flexibility in their packaging configuration. Hybrids are more compact and easier to throttle than liquids and have similar performance levels. In order to investigate the suitability of these propulsion systems for exploration missions, this paper presents novel hybrid motor designs for two interplanetary missions. Hybrid propulsion systems for missions to Europa and Uranus are presented and compared to conventional in-space propulsion systems. The hybrid motor design for each of these missions is optimized across a range of parameters, including propellant selection, O/F ratio, nozzle area ratio, and chamber pressure. Details of the design process are described in order to provide guidance for researchers wishing to evaluate hybrid rocket motor designs for other missions and applications.

  9. NASA's Launch Propulsion Systems Technology Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnaughey, Paul K.; Femminineo, Mark G.; Koelfgen, Syri J.; Lepsch, Roger A; Ryan, Richard M.; Taylor, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    Safe, reliable, and affordable access to low-Earth (LEO) orbit is necessary for all of the United States (US) space endeavors. In 2010, NASA s Office of the Chief Technologist commissioned 14 teams to develop technology roadmaps that could be used to guide the Agency s and US technology investment decisions for the next few decades. The Launch Propulsion Systems Technology Area (LPSTA) team was tasked to address the propulsion technology challenges for access to LEO. The developed LPSTA roadmap addresses technologies that enhance existing solid or liquid propulsion technologies and their related ancillary systems or significantly advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of less mature systems like airbreathing, unconventional, and other launch technologies. In developing this roadmap, the LPSTA team consulted previous NASA, military, and industry studies as well as subject matter experts to develop their assessment of this field, which has fundamental technological and strategic impacts for US space capabilities.

  10. Power Requirements Determined for High-Power-Density Electric Motors for Electric Aircraft Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dexter; Brown, Gerald V.

    2005-01-01

    Future advanced aircraft fueled by hydrogen are being developed to use electric drive systems instead of gas turbine engines for propulsion. Current conventional electric motor power densities cannot match those of today s gas turbine aircraft engines. However, if significant technological advances could be made in high-power-density motor development, the benefits of an electric propulsion system, such as the reduction of harmful emissions, could be realized.

  11. Aircraft Electric Propulsion Systems Applied Research at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Researchers at NASA are investigating the potential for electric propulsion systems to revolutionize the design of aircraft from the small-scale general aviation sector to commuter and transport-class vehicles. Electric propulsion provides new degrees of design freedom that may enable opportunities for tightly coupled design and optimization of the propulsion system with the aircraft structure and control systems. This could lead to extraordinary reductions in ownership and operating costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and noise annoyance levels. We are building testbeds, high-fidelity aircraft simulations, and the first highly distributed electric inhabited flight test vehicle to begin to explore these opportunities.

  12. Advanced Space Transportation Concepts and Propulsion Technologies for a New Delivery Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, John W.; McCleskey, Carey M.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Henderson, Edward M.; Joyner, Claude R., III; Levack, Daniel J. H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes Advanced Space Transportation Concepts and Propulsion Technologies for a New Delivery Paradigm. It builds on the work of the previous paper "Approach to an Affordable and Productive Space Transportation System". The scope includes both flight and ground system elements, and focuses on their compatibility and capability to achieve a technical solution that is operationally productive and also affordable. A clear and revolutionary approach, including advanced propulsion systems (advanced LOX rich booster engine concept having independent LOX and fuel cooling systems, thrust augmentation with LOX rich boost and fuel rich operation at altitude), improved vehicle concepts (autogeneous pressurization, turbo alternator for electric power during ascent, hot gases to purge system and keep moisture out), and ground delivery systems, was examined. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on space flight system engineering methods, along with operationally efficient propulsion system concepts and technologies. This paper continues the previous work by exploring the propulsion technology aspects in more depth and how they may enable the vehicle designs from the previous paper. Subsequent papers will explore the vehicle design, the ground support system, and the operations aspects of the new delivery paradigm in greater detail.

  13. Simulator Evaluation of Simplified Propulsion-Only Emergency Flight Control Systems on Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Kaneshige, John; Bull, John; Maine, Trindel A.

    1999-01-01

    With the advent of digital engine control systems, considering the use of engine thrust for emergency flight control has become feasible. Many incidents have occurred in which engine thrust supplemented or replaced normal aircraft flight controls. In most of these cases, a crash has resulted, and more than 1100 lives have been lost. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has developed a propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system in which computer-controlled engine thrust provides emergency flight control capability. Using this PCA system, an F-15 and an MD-11 airplane have been landed without using any flight controls. In simulations, C-17, B-757, and B-747 PCA systems have also been evaluated successfully. These tests used full-authority digital electronic control systems on the engines. Developing simpler PCA systems that can operate without full-authority engine control, thus allowing PCA technology to be installed on less capable airplanes or at lower cost, is also a desire. Studies have examined simplified ?PCA Ultralite? concepts in which thrust control is provided using an autothrottle system supplemented by manual differential throttle control. Some of these concepts have worked well. The PCA Ultralite study results are presented for simulation tests of MD-11, B-757, C-17, and B-747 aircraft.

  14. State-of-the-Art for Small Satellite Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Khary I.

    2016-01-01

    SmallSats are a low cost access to space with an increasing need for propulsion systems. NASA, and other organizations, will be using SmallSats that require propulsion systems to: a) Conduct high quality near and far reaching on-orbit research and b) Perform technology demonstrations. Increasing call for high reliability and high performing for SmallSat components. Many SmallSat propulsion technologies are currently under development: a) Systems at various levels of maturity and b) Wide variety of systems for many mission applications.

  15. Using Additive Manufacturing to Print a CubeSat Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, William M.

    2015-01-01

    CubeSats are increasingly being utilized for missions traditionally ascribed to larger satellites CubeSat unit (1U) defined as 10 cm x 10 cm x 11 cm. Have been built up to 6U sizes. CubeSats are typically built up from commercially available off-the-shelf components, but have limited capabilities. By using additive manufacturing, mission specific capabilities (such as propulsion), can be built into a system. This effort is part of STMD Small Satellite program Printing the Complete CubeSat. Interest in propulsion concepts for CubeSats is rapidly gaining interest-Numerous concepts exist for CubeSat scale propulsion concepts. The focus of this effort is how to incorporate into structure using additive manufacturing. End-use of propulsion system dictates which type of system to develop-Pulse-mode RCS would require different system than a delta-V orbital maneuvering system. Team chose an RCS system based on available propulsion systems and feasibility of printing using a materials extrusion process. Initially investigated a cold-gas propulsion system for RCS applications-Materials extrusion process did not permit adequate sealing of part to make this a functional approach.

  16. Turbine main engines

    CERN Document Server

    Main, John B; Herbert, C W; Bennett, A J S

    1965-01-01

    Turbine Main Engines deals with the principle of operation of turbine main engines. Topics covered include practical considerations that affect turbine design and efficiency; steam turbine rotors, blades, nozzles, and diaphragms; lubricating oil systems; and gas turbines for use with nuclear reactors. Gas turbines for naval boost propulsion, merchant ship propulsion, and naval main propulsion are also considered. This book is divided into three parts and begins with an overview of the basic mode of operation of the steam turbine engine and how it converts the pressure energy of the ingoing ste

  17. Analysis of Electric Propulsion Performance on Submersible with Motor DC, Supply Power 10260AH at Voltage 115VDC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Ranu Kusuma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Electric propulsion is the ship system using propulsion motor to replace performance of main engine. The application of diesel engine as propulsion system have some problems and weaknesses such as diesel engine unability to operate when submersible vessel is operating under sea. To overcome that problems in submersible vessel, alternative solution of ship propulsion is required. DC Motor can be used as this alternative solution. Submersible vessel use electric propulsion system with DC Motor because DC Motor has advantages of easy rotation setting and does not cause noise when submersible vessel is diving. This bachelor thesis will study the application of DC Motor as an electric propulsion system on submersible vessel with length 59,57 m in series and parallel circuit by simulation using MATLAB software. The simulation data obtained are rotation and torque of DC Motor. From these simulation, it can be concluded that parallel circuit rotation is greater than series circuit rotation. It caused the greater speed and lower power in parallel circuit. 

  18. The Effect of Rotor Cruise Tip Speed, Engine Technology and Engine/Drive System RPM on the NASA Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR2) Size and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robuck, Mark; Wilkerson, Joseph; Maciolek, Robert; Vonderwell, Dan

    2012-01-01

    A multi-year study was conducted under NASA NNA06BC41C Task Order 10 and NASA NNA09DA56C task orders 2, 4, and 5 to identify the most promising propulsion system concepts that enable rotor cruise tip speeds down to 54% of the hover tip speed for a civil tiltrotor aircraft. Combinations of engine RPM reduction and 2-speed drive systems were evaluated. Three levels of engine and the drive system advanced technology were assessed; 2015, 2025 and 2035. Propulsion and drive system configurations that resulted in minimum vehicle gross weight were identified. Design variables included engine speed reduction, drive system speed reduction, technology, and rotor cruise propulsion efficiency. The NASA Large Civil Tiltrotor, LCTR, aircraft served as the base vehicle concept for this study and was resized for over thirty combinations of operating cruise RPM and technology level, quantifying LCTR2 Gross Weight, size, and mission fuel. Additional studies show design sensitivity to other mission ranges and design airspeeds, with corresponding relative estimated operational cost. The lightest vehicle gross weight solution consistently came from rotor cruise tip speeds between 422 fps and 500 fps. Nearly equivalent results were achieved with operating at reduced engine RPM with a single-speed drive system or with a two-speed drive system and 100% engine RPM. Projected performance for a 2025 engine technology provided improved fuel flow over a wide range of operating speeds relative to the 2015 technology, but increased engine weight nullified the improved fuel flow resulting in increased aircraft gross weights. The 2035 engine technology provided further fuel flow reduction and 25% lower engine weight, and the 2035 drive system technology provided a 12% reduction in drive system weight. In combination, the 2035 technologies reduced aircraft takeoff gross weight by 14% relative to the 2015 technologies.

  19. Revolutionary Aeropropulsion Concept for Sustainable Aviation: Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Dae; Felder, James L.; Tong, Michael. T.; Armstrong, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In response to growing aviation demands and concerns about the environment and energy usage, a team at NASA proposed and examined a revolutionary aeropropulsion concept, a turboelectric distributed propulsion system, which employs multiple electric motor-driven propulsors that are distributed on a large transport vehicle. The power to drive these electric propulsors is generated by separately located gas-turbine-driven electric generators on the airframe. This arrangement enables the use of many small-distributed propulsors, allowing a very high effective bypass ratio, while retaining the superior efficiency of large core engines, which are physically separated but connected to the propulsors through electric power lines. Because of the physical separation of propulsors from power generating devices, a new class of vehicles with unprecedented performance employing such revolutionary propulsion system is possible in vehicle design. One such vehicle currently being investigated by NASA is called the "N3-X" that uses a hybrid-wing-body for an airframe and superconducting generators, motors, and transmission lines for its propulsion system. On the N3-X these new degrees of design freedom are used (1) to place two large turboshaft engines driving generators in freestream conditions to minimize total pressure losses and (2) to embed a broad continuous array of 14 motor-driven fans on the upper surface of the aircraft near the trailing edge of the hybrid-wing-body airframe to maximize propulsive efficiency by ingesting thick airframe boundary layer flow. Through a system analysis in engine cycle and weight estimation, it was determined that the N3-X would be able to achieve a reduction of 70% or 72% (depending on the cooling system) in energy usage relative to the reference aircraft, a Boeing 777-200LR. Since the high-power electric system is used in its propulsion system, a study of the electric power distribution system was performed to identify critical dynamic and

  20. Simulation of hybrid propulsion system using LSRG and single cylinder engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, C.; Ohyama, K.; Wang, W. Q.

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays, more and more people are beginning to use hybrid vehicles (HVs). The drive system of HVs needs to produce the electric energy with the electric generator and gearbox powered by an engine. Therefore, the structure becomes complex and the cost is high. To solve this issue, this research proposes a new drive system design that combines the engine and a linear switched reluctance generator (LSRG). When the engine is operating, the LSRG can simultaneously assist the engine’s mechanical output or can generate power to charge the battery. In this research, three research steps are executed. In the first step, the LSRG is designed according to the size of normal engine. Then, finite element analysis is used to get the data of flux linkage and calculate the inductance and translator force. Finally, Simulink models of control system are constructed to verify the performance of LSRG.

  1. Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program semi-annual progress report for October 1997 through March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1--3 trucks to realize a 35{percent} fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7--8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OTT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advanced LE-55 diesel engines with 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NO{sub x} and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulates. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy-duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies.

  2. NASA's Propulsion Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The grand opening of NASA's new, world-class laboratory for research into future space transportation technologies located at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, took place in July 2004. The state-of-the-art Propulsion Research Laboratory (PRL) serves as a leading national resource for advanced space propulsion research. Its purpose is to conduct research that will lead to the creation and development of innovative propulsion technologies for space exploration. The facility is the epicenter of the effort to move the U.S. space program beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of greatly improved access to space and rapid transit throughout the solar system. The laboratory is designed to accommodate researchers from across the United States, including scientists and engineers from NASA, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, universities, and industry. The facility, with 66,000 square feet of useable laboratory space, features a high degree of experimental capability. Its flexibility allows it to address a broad range of propulsion technologies and concepts, such as plasma, electromagnetic, thermodynamic, and propellant propulsion. An important area of emphasis is the development and utilization of advanced energy sources, including highly energetic chemical reactions, solar energy, and processes based on fission, fusion, and antimatter. The Propulsion Research Laboratory is vital for developing the advanced propulsion technologies needed to open up the space frontier, and sets the stage of research that could revolutionize space transportation for a broad range of applications.

  3. Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program: Semiannual progress report, April 1996--September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1-3 trucks to realize a 35% fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7-8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OTT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advanced LE-55 diesel engines with 55% efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NO{sub x} and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulates. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55% efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies. OTT OHVT also recognizes a significant opportunity for reduction in petroleum consumption by dieselization of pickup trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles. Application of the diesel engine to class 1, 2, and 3 trucks is expected to yield a 35% increase in fuel economy per vehicle. The foremost barrier to diesel use in this market is emission control. Once an engine is made certifiable, subsequent challenges will be in cost; noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH); and performance. Separate abstracts have been submitted to the database for contributions to this report.

  4. Control Volume Analysis of Boundary Layer Ingesting Propulsion Systems With or Without Shock Wave Ahead of the Inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Dae; Felder, James L.

    2011-01-01

    The performance benefit of boundary layer or wake ingestion on marine and air vehicles has been well documented and explored. In this article, a quasi-one-dimensional boundary layer ingestion (BLI) benefit analysis for subsonic and transonic propulsion systems is performed using a control volume of a ducted propulsion system that ingests the boundary layer developed by the external airframe surface. To illustrate the BLI benefit, a relationship between the amount of BLI and the net thrust is established and analyzed for two propulsor types. One propulsor is an electric fan, and the other is a pure turbojet. These engines can be modeled as a turbofan with an infinite bypass ratio for the electric fan, and with a zero bypass ratio for the pure turbojet. The analysis considers two flow processes: a boundary layer being ingested by an aircraft inlet and a shock wave sitting in front of the inlet. Though the two processes are completely unrelated, both represent a loss of total pressure and velocity. In real applications, it is possible to have both processes occurring in front of the inlet of a transonic vehicle. Preliminary analysis indicates that the electrically driven propulsion system benefits most from the boundary layer ingestion and the presence of transonic shock waves, whereas the benefit for the turbojet engine is near zero or negative depending on the amount of total temperature rise across the engine.

  5. Propulsion Systems Laboratory, Bldg. 125

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) is NASAs only ground test facility capable of providing true altitude and flight speed simulation for testing full scale gas...

  6. Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Grady, Joseph E.; Carter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of ongoing activities on additive manufacturing of aerospace propulsion components, which included rocket propulsion and gas turbine engines. Future opportunities on additive manufacturing of hybrid electric propulsion components will be discussed.

  7. Electric propulsion options for 10 kW class earth space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, M. J.; Curran, Francis M.

    1989-01-01

    Five and 10 kW ion and arcjet propulsion system options for a near-term space demonstration experiment have been evaluated. Analyses were conducted to determine first-order propulsion system performance and system component mass estimates. Overall mission performance of the electric propulsion systems was quantified in terms of the maximum thrusting time, total impulse, and velocity increment capability available when integrated onto a generic spacecraft under fixed mission model assumptions. Maximum available thrusting times for the ion-propelled spacecraft options, launched on a DELTA II 6920 vehicle, range from approximately 8,600 hours for a 4-engine 10 kW system to more than 29,600 hours for a single-engine 5 kW system. Maximum total impulse values and maximum delta-v's range from 1.2x10(7) to 2.1x10(7) N-s, and 3550 to 6200 m/s, respectively. Maximum available thrusting times for the arcjet propelled spacecraft launched on the DELTA II 6920 vehicle range from approximately 528 hours for the 6-engine 10 kW hydrazine system to 2328 hours for the single-engine 5 kW system. Maximum total impulse values and maximum delta-v's range from 2.2x10(6) to 3.6x10(6) N-s, and approximately 662 to 1072 m/s, respectively.

  8. Electric Propulsion Options for 10 kW Class Earth-Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, M. J.; Curran, Francis M.

    1989-01-01

    Five and 10 kW ion and arcjet propulsion system options for a near-term space demonstration experiment were evaluated. Analyses were conducted to determine first-order propulsion system performance and system component mass estimates. Overall mission performance of the electric propulsion systems was quantified in terms of the maximum thrusting time, total impulse, and velocity increment capability available when integrated onto a generic spacecraft under fixed mission model assumptions. Maximum available thrusting times for the ion-propelled spacecraft options, launched on a DELTA 2 6920 vehicle, range from approximately 8,600 hours for a 4-engine 10 kW system to more than 29,600 hours for a single-engine 5 kW system. Maximum total impulse values and maximum delta-v's range from 1.2x10 (exp 7) to 2.1x10 (exp 7) N-s, and 3550 to 6200 m/s, respectively. Maximum available thrusting times for the arcjet propelled spacecraft launched on the DELTA 2 6920 vehicle range from approximately 528 hours for the 6-engine 10 kW hydrazine system to 2328 hours for the single-engine 5 kW system. Maximum total impulse values and maximum delta-v's range from 2.2x10 (exp 6) to 3.6x10 (exp 6) N-s, and approximately 662 to 1072 m/s, respectively.

  9. Cryogenic propulsion for lunar and Mars missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redd, Larry

    1988-01-01

    Future missions to the moon and Mars have been investigated with regard to propulsion system selection. The results of this analysis show that near state-of-the-art LO2/LH2 propulsion technology provides a feasible means of performing lunar missions and trans-Mars injections. In other words, existing cryogenic space engines with certain modifications and product improvements would be suitable for these missions. In addition, present day cryogenic system tankage and structural weights appear to scale reasonably when sizing for large payload and high energy missions such as sending men to Mars.

  10. An Examination of the Effect of Boundary Layer Ingestion on Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, James L.; Kim, Huyn Dae; Brown, Gerald V.; Chu, Julio

    2011-01-01

    A Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion (TeDP) system differs from other propulsion systems by the use of electrical power to transmit power from the turbine to the fan. Electrical power can be efficiently transmitted over longer distances and with complex topologies. Also the use of power inverters allows the generator and motors speeds to be independent of one another. This decoupling allows the aircraft designer to place the core engines and the fans in locations most advantageous for each. The result can be very different installation environments for the different devices. Thus the installation effects on this system can be quite different than conventional turbofans where the fan and core both see the same installed environments. This paper examines a propulsion system consisting of two superconducting generators, each driven by a turboshaft engine located so that their inlets ingest freestream air, superconducting electrical transmission lines, and an array of superconducting motor driven fan positioned across the upper/rear fuselage area of a hybrid wing body aircraft in a continuous nacelle that ingests all of the upper fuselage boundary layer. The effect of ingesting the boundary layer on the design of the system with a range of design pressure ratios is examined. Also the impact of ingesting the boundary layer on off-design performance is examined. The results show that when examining different design fan pressure ratios it is important to recalculate of the boundary layer mass-average Pt and MN up the height for each inlet height during convergence of the design point for each fan design pressure ratio examined. Correct estimation of off-design performance is dependent on the height of the column of air measured from the aircraft surface immediately prior to any external diffusion that will flow through the fan propulsors. The mass-averaged Pt and MN calculated for this column of air determine the Pt and MN seen by the propulsor inlet. Since the height

  11. NASA's Electric Sail Propulsion System Investigations over the Past Three Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegmann, Bruce M.

    2017-01-01

    Personnel from NASA's MSFC have been investigating the feasibility of an advanced propulsion system known as the Electric Sail for future scientific missions of exploration. This team initially won a NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Phase I NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) award and then a two year follow-on Phase II NIAC award. This paper documents the findings from this three year investigation. An Electric sail propulsion system is a propellant-less and extremely fast propulsion system that takes advantage of the ions that are present in the solar wind to provide very rapid transit speeds whether to deep space or to the inner solar system. Scientific spacecraft could arrive to Pluto in 5 years, to the boundary of the solar system in ten to twelve years vs. thirty five plus years it took the Voyager spacecraft. The team's recent focused activities are: 1) Developing a Particle in Cell (PIC) numeric engineering model from the experimental data collected at MSFC's Solar Wind Facility on the interaction between simulated solar wind interaction with a charged bare wire that can be applied to a variety of missions, 2) The development of the necessary tether deployers/tethers to enable successful deployment of multiple, multi km length bare tethers, 3) Determining the different missions that can be captured from this revolutionary propulsion system 4) Conceptual designs of spacecraft to reach various destinations whether to the edge of the solar system, or as Heliophysics sentinels around the sun, or to trips to examine a multitude of asteroids These above activities, once demonstrated analytically, will require a technology demonstration mission (2021 to 2023) to demonstrate that all systems work together seamlessly before a Heliophysics Electrostatic Rapid Transit System (HERTS) could be given the go-ahead. The proposed demonstration mission will require that a small spacecraft must first travel to cis-lunar space as the Electric Sail must be

  12. Artist's concept of Antimatter propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This is an artist's rendition of an antimatter propulsion system. Matter - antimatter arnihilation offers the highest possible physical energy density of any known reaction substance. It is about 10 billion times more powerful than that of chemical engergy such as hydrogen and oxygen combustion. Antimatter would be the perfect rocket fuel, but the problem is that the basic component of antimatter, antiprotons, doesn't exist in nature and has to manufactured. The process of antimatter development is on-going and making some strides, but production of this as a propulsion system is far into the future.

  13. Operationally efficient propulsion system study (OEPSS) data book. Volume 6; Space Transfer Propulsion Operational Efficiency Study Task of OEPSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Timothy J.

    1992-01-01

    This document is the final report for the Space Transfer Propulsion Operational Efficiency Study Task of the Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) conducted by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International. This Study task studied, evaluated and identified design concepts and technologies which minimized launch and in-space operations and optimized in-space vehicle propulsion system operability.

  14. Modeling of a Turbofan Engine with Ice Crystal Ingestion in the NASA Propulsion System Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Joseph P.; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Jones, Scott M.; Nili, Samaun

    2017-01-01

    The main focus of this study is to apply a computational tool for the flow analysis of the turbine engine that has been tested with ice crystal ingestion in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) at NASA Glenn Research Center. The PSL has been used to test a highly instrumented Honeywell ALF502R-5A (LF11) turbofan engine at simulated altitude operating conditions. Test data analysis with an engine cycle code and a compressor flow code was conducted to determine the values of key icing parameters, that can indicate the risk of ice accretion, which can lead to engine rollback (un-commanded loss of engine thrust). The full engine aerothermodynamic performance was modeled with the Honeywell Customer Deck specifically created for the ALF502R-5A engine. The mean-line compressor flow analysis code, which includes a code that models the state of the ice crystal, was used to model the air flow through the fan-core and low pressure compressor. The results of the compressor flow analyses included calculations of the ice-water flow rate to air flow rate ratio (IWAR), the local static wet bulb temperature, and the particle melt ratio throughout the flow field. It was found that the assumed particle size had a large effect on the particle melt ratio, and on the local wet bulb temperature. In this study the particle size was varied parametrically to produce a non-zero calculated melt ratio in the exit guide vane (EGV) region of the low pressure compressor (LPC) for the data points that experienced a growth of blockage there, and a subsequent engine called rollback (CRB). At data points where the engine experienced a CRB having the lowest wet bulb temperature of 492 degrees Rankine at the EGV trailing edge, the smallest particle size that produced a non-zero melt ratio (between 3 percent - 4 percent) was on the order of 1 micron. This value of melt ratio was utilized as the target for all other subsequent data points analyzed, while the particle size was varied from 1 micron - 9

  15. A hierarchy for modeling high speed propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Tom T.; Deabreu, Alex

    1991-01-01

    General research efforts on reduced order propulsion models for control systems design are overviewed. Methods for modeling high speed propulsion systems are discussed including internal flow propulsion systems that do not contain rotating machinery such as inlets, ramjets, and scramjets. The discussion is separated into four sections: (1) computational fluid dynamics model for the entire nonlinear system or high order nonlinear models; (2) high order linearized model derived from fundamental physics; (3) low order linear models obtained from other high order models; and (4) low order nonlinear models. Included are special considerations on any relevant control system designs. The methods discussed are for the quasi-one dimensional Euler equations of gasdynamic flow. The essential nonlinear features represented are large amplitude nonlinear waves, moving normal shocks, hammershocks, subsonic combustion via heat addition, temperature dependent gases, detonation, and thermal choking.

  16. RSMASS-D nuclear thermal propulsion and bimodal system mass models

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Donald B.; Marshall, Albert C.

    1997-01-01

    Two relatively simple models have been developed to estimate reactor, radiation shield, and balance of system masses for a particle bed reactor (PBR) nuclear thermal propulsion concept and a cermet-core power and propulsion (bimodal) concept. The approach was based on the methodology developed for the RSMASS-D models. The RSMASS-D approach for the reactor and shield sub-systems uses a combination of simple equations derived from reactor physics and other fundamental considerations along with tabulations of data from more detailed neutron and gamma transport theory computations. Relatively simple models are used to estimate the masses of other subsystem components of the nuclear propulsion and bimodal systems. Other subsystem components include instrumentation and control (I&C), boom, safety systems, radiator, thermoelectrics, heat pipes, and nozzle. The user of these models can vary basic design parameters within an allowed range to achieve a parameter choice which yields a minimum mass for the operational conditions of interest. Estimated system masses are presented for a range of reactor power levels for propulsion for the PBR propulsion concept and for both electrical power and propulsion for the cermet-core bimodal concept. The estimated reactor system masses agree with mass predictions from detailed calculations with xx percent for both models.

  17. Advanced transportation system studies technical area 3: Alternate propulsion subsystem concepts, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levak, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    The Alternate Propulsion Subsystem Concepts contract had five tasks defined for the first year. The tasks were: F-1A Restart Study, J-2S Restart Study, Propulsion Database Development, Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Upper Stage Use, and CER's for Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines. The detailed study results, with the data to support the conclusions from various analyses, are being reported as a series of five separate Final Task Reports. Consequently, this volume only reports the required programmatic information concerning Computer Aided Design Documentation, and New Technology Reports. A detailed Executive Summary, covering all the tasks, is also available as Volume 1.

  18. Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion in a Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, James L.; Brown, Gerald V.; DaeKim, Hyun; Chu, Julio

    2011-01-01

    The performance of the N3-X, a 300 passenger hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft with turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP), has been analyzed to see if it can meet the 70% fuel burn reduction goal of the NASA Subsonic Fixed Wing project for N+3 generation aircraft. The TeDP system utilizes superconducting electric generators, motors and transmission lines to allow the power producing and thrust producing portions of the system to be widely separated. It also allows a small number of large turboshaft engines to drive any number of propulsors. On the N3-X these new degrees of freedom were used to (1) place two large turboshaft engines driving generators in freestream conditions to maximize thermal efficiency and (2) to embed a broad continuous array of 15 motor driven propulsors on the upper surface of the aircraft near the trailing edge. That location maximizes the amount of the boundary layer ingested and thus maximizes propulsive efficiency. The Boeing B777-200LR flying 7500 nm (13890 km) with a cruise speed of Mach 0.84 and an 118100 lb payload was selected as the reference aircraft and mission for this study. In order to distinguish between improvements due to technology and aircraft configuration changes from those due to the propulsion configuration changes, an intermediate configuration was included in this study. In this configuration a pylon mounted, ultra high bypass (UHB) geared turbofan engine with identical propulsion technology was integrated into the same hybrid wing body airframe. That aircraft achieved a 52% reduction in mission fuel burn relative to the reference aircraft. The N3-X was able to achieve a reduction of 70% and 72% (depending on the cooling system) relative to the reference aircraft. The additional 18% - 20% reduction in the mission fuel burn can therefore be attributed to the additional degrees of freedom in the propulsion system configuration afforded by the TeDP system that eliminates nacelle and pylon drag, maximizes boundary

  19. Multi-disciplinary coupling for integrated design of propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Singhal, S. N.

    1993-01-01

    Effective computational simulation procedures are described for modeling the inherent multi-disciplinary interactions for determining the true response of propulsion systems. Results are presented for propulsion system responses including multi-discipline coupling effects via (1) coupled multi-discipline tailoring, (2) an integrated system of multidisciplinary simulators, (3) coupled material-behavior/fabrication-process tailoring, (4) sensitivities using a probabilistic simulator, and (5) coupled materials/structures/fracture/probabilistic behavior simulator. The results show that the best designs can be determined if the analysis/tailoring methods account for the multi-disciplinary coupling effects. The coupling across disciplines can be used to develop an integrated interactive multi-discipline numerical propulsion system simulator.

  20. Development of Cubesat Propulsion Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of this IRAD will be to develop a propulsion system that can be cheaply and reliably used for NASA GSFC cubesat missions. Reliability will be...

  1. Risk communication strategy development using the aerospace systems engineering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, S.; Sklar, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explains the goals and challenges of NASA's risk communication efforts and how the Aerospace Systems Engineering Process (ASEP) was used to map the risk communication strategy used at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to achieve these goals.

  2. A Collaborative Analysis Tool for Integrating Hypersonic Aerodynamics, Thermal Protection Systems, and RBCC Engine Performance for Single Stage to Orbit Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas Troy; Alexander, Reginald

    1999-01-01

    Presented is a computer-based tool that connects several disciplines that are needed in the complex and integrated design of high performance reusable single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles. Every system is linked to every other system, as is the case of SSTO vehicles with air breathing propulsion, which is currently being studied by NASA. The deficiencies in the scramjet powered concept led to a revival of interest in Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle (RBCC) propulsion systems. An RBCC propulsion system integrates airbreathing and rocket propulsion into a single engine assembly enclosed within a cowl or duct. A typical RBCC propulsion system operates as a ducted rocket up to approximately Mach 3. At this point the transitions to a ramjet mode for supersonic-to-hypersonic acceleration. Around Mach 8 the engine transitions to a scram4jet mode. During the ramjet and scramjet modes, the integral rockets operate as fuel injectors. Around Mach 10-12 (the actual value depends on vehicle and mission requirements), the inlet is physically closed and the engine transitions to an integral rocket mode for orbit insertion. A common feature of RBCC propelled vehicles is the high degree of integration between the propulsion system and airframe. At high speeds the vehicle forebody is fundamentally part of the engine inlet, providing a compression surface for air flowing into the engine. The compressed air is mixed with fuel and burned. The combusted mixture must be expanded to an area larger than the incoming stream to provide thrust. Since a conventional nozzle would be too large, the entire lower after body of the vehicle is used as an expansion surface. Because of the high external temperatures seen during atmospheric flight, the design of an airbreathing SSTO vehicle requires delicate tradeoffs between engine design, vehicle shape, and thermal protection system (TPS) sizing in order to produce an optimum system in terms of weight (and cost) and maximum performance.

  3. Highlights from a Mach 4 Experimental Demonstration of Inlet Mode Transition for Turbine-Based Combined Cycle Hypersonic Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Lancert E.; Saunders, John D., Jr.; Sanders, Bobby W.; Weir, Lois J.

    2012-01-01

    NASA is focused on technologies for combined cycle, air-breathing propulsion systems to enable reusable launch systems for access to space. Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC) propulsion systems offer specific impulse (Isp) improvements over rocket-based propulsion systems in the subsonic takeoff and return mission segments along with improved safety. Among the most critical TBCC enabling technologies are: 1) mode transition from the low speed propulsion system to the high speed propulsion system, 2) high Mach turbine engine development and 3) innovative turbine based combined cycle integration. To address these challenges, NASA initiated an experimental mode transition task including analytical methods to assess the state-of-the-art of propulsion system performance and design codes. One effort has been the Combined-Cycle Engine Large Scale Inlet Mode Transition Experiment (CCE-LIMX) which is a fully integrated TBCC propulsion system with flowpath sizing consistent with previous NASA and DoD proposed Hypersonic experimental flight test plans. This experiment was tested in the NASA GRC 10 by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT) Facility. The goal of this activity is to address key hypersonic combined-cycle engine issues including: (1) dual integrated inlet operability and performance issues-unstart constraints, distortion constraints, bleed requirements, and controls, (2) mode-transition sequence elements caused by switching between the turbine and the ramjet/scramjet flowpaths (imposed variable geometry requirements), and (3) turbine engine transients (and associated time scales) during transition. Testing of the initial inlet and dynamic characterization phases were completed and smooth mode transition was demonstrated. A database focused on a Mach 4 transition speed with limited off-design elements was developed and will serve to guide future TBCC system studies and to validate higher level analyses.

  4. An Airbreathing Launch Vehicle Design with Turbine-Based Low-Speed Propulsion and Dual Mode Scramjet High-Speed Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, P. L.; Bouchard, K. A.; Vause, R. F.; Pinckney, S. Z.; Ferlemann, S. M.; Leonard, C. P.; Taylor, L. W., III; Robinson, J. S.; Martin, J. G.; Petley, D. H.

    1999-01-01

    Airbreathing launch vehicles continue to be a subject of great interest in the space access community. In particular, horizontal takeoff and horizontal landing vehicles are attractive with their airplane-like benefits and flexibility for future space launch requirements. The most promising of these concepts involve airframe integrated propulsion systems, in which the external undersurface of the vehicle forms part of the propulsion flowpath. Combining of airframe and engine functions in this manner involves all of the design disciplines interacting at once. Design and optimization of these configurations is a most difficult activity, requiring a multi-discipline process to analytically resolve the numerous interactions among the design variables. This paper describes the design and optimization of one configuration in this vehicle class, a lifting body with turbine-based low-speed propulsion. The integration of propulsion and airframe, both from an aero-propulsive and mechanical perspective are addressed. This paper primarily focuses on the design details of the preferred configuration and the analyses performed to assess its performance. The integration of both low-speed and high-speed propulsion is covered. Structural and mechanical designs are described along with materials and technologies used. Propellant and systems packaging are shown and the mission-sized vehicle weights are disclosed.

  5. The Case for Intelligent Propulsion Control for Fast Engine Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Frederick, Dean K.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2009-01-01

    Damaged aircraft have occasionally had to rely solely on thrust to maneuver as a consequence of losing hydraulic power needed to operate flight control surfaces. The lack of successful landings in these cases inspired research into more effective methods of utilizing propulsion-only control. That research demonstrated that one of the major contributors to the difficulty in landing is the slow response of the engines as compared to using traditional flight control. To address this, research is being conducted into ways of making the engine more responsive under emergency conditions. This can be achieved by relaxing controller limits, adjusting schedules, and/or redesigning the regulators to increase bandwidth. Any of these methods can enable faster response at the potential expense of engine life and increased likelihood of stall. However, an example sensitivity analysis revealed a complex interaction of the limits and the difficulty in predicting the way to achieve the fastest response. The sensitivity analysis was performed on a realistic engine model, and demonstrated that significantly faster engine response can be achieved compared to standard Bill of Material control. However, the example indicates the need for an intelligent approach to controller limit adjustment in order for the potential to be fulfilled.

  6. Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Pictured is a component of the Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine. This engine was designed to ultimately serve as the near term basis for Two Stage to Orbit (TSTO) air breathing propulsion systems and ultimately a Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) air breathing propulsion system.

  7. Thermal Management Tools for Propulsion System Trade Studies and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Kevin; Hodge, Ernie

    2011-01-01

    Energy-related subsystems in modern aircraft are more tightly coupled with less design margin. These subsystems include thermal management subsystems, vehicle electric power generation and distribution, aircraft engines, and flight control. Tighter coupling, lower design margins, and higher system complexity all make preliminary trade studies difficult. A suite of thermal management analysis tools has been developed to facilitate trade studies during preliminary design of air-vehicle propulsion systems. Simulink blocksets (from MathWorks) for developing quasi-steady-state and transient system models of aircraft thermal management systems and related energy systems have been developed. These blocksets extend the Simulink modeling environment in the thermal sciences and aircraft systems disciplines. The blocksets include blocks for modeling aircraft system heat loads, heat exchangers, pumps, reservoirs, fuel tanks, and other components at varying levels of model fidelity. The blocksets have been applied in a first-principles, physics-based modeling and simulation architecture for rapid prototyping of aircraft thermal management and related systems. They have been applied in representative modern aircraft thermal management system studies. The modeling and simulation architecture has also been used to conduct trade studies in a vehicle level model that incorporates coupling effects among the aircraft mission, engine cycle, fuel, and multi-phase heat-transfer materials.

  8. Investigation of propulsion system for large LNG ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, R P; Wan Nik, Wan Mohd Norsani

    2012-01-01

    Requirements to move away from coal for power generation has made LNG as the most sought after fuel source, raising steep demands on its supply and production. Added to this scenario is the gradual depletion of the offshore oil and gas fields which is pushing future explorations and production activities far away into the hostile environment of deep sea. Production of gas in such environment has great technical and commercial impacts on gas business. For instance, laying gas pipes from deep sea to distant receiving terminals will be technically and economically challenging. Alternative to laying gas pipes will require installing re-liquefaction unit on board FPSOs to convert gas into liquid for transportation by sea. But, then because of increased distance between gas source and receiving terminals the current medium size LNG ships will no longer remain economical to operate. Recognizing this business scenario shipowners are making huge investments in the acquisition of large LNG ships. As power need of large LNG ships is very different from the current small ones, a variety of propulsion derivatives such as UST, DFDE, 2-Stroke DRL and Combined cycle GT have been proposed by leading engine manufacturers. Since, propulsion system constitutes major element of the ship's capital and life cycle cost, which of these options is most suited for large LNG ships is currently a major concern of the shipping industry and must be thoroughly assessed. In this paper the authors investigate relative merits of these propulsion options against the benchmark performance criteria of BOG disposal, fuel consumption, gas emissions, plant availability and overall life cycle cost.

  9. Investigation of propulsion system for large LNG ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, R. P.; Nik, Wan Mohd Norsani Wan

    2012-09-01

    Requirements to move away from coal for power generation has made LNG as the most sought after fuel source, raising steep demands on its supply and production. Added to this scenario is the gradual depletion of the offshore oil and gas fields which is pushing future explorations and production activities far away into the hostile environment of deep sea. Production of gas in such environment has great technical and commercial impacts on gas business. For instance, laying gas pipes from deep sea to distant receiving terminals will be technically and economically challenging. Alternative to laying gas pipes will require installing re-liquefaction unit on board FPSOs to convert gas into liquid for transportation by sea. But, then because of increased distance between gas source and receiving terminals the current medium size LNG ships will no longer remain economical to operate. Recognizing this business scenario shipowners are making huge investments in the acquisition of large LNG ships. As power need of large LNG ships is very different from the current small ones, a variety of propulsion derivatives such as UST, DFDE, 2-Stroke DRL and Combined cycle GT have been proposed by leading engine manufacturers. Since, propulsion system constitutes major element of the ship's capital and life cycle cost, which of these options is most suited for large LNG ships is currently a major concern of the shipping industry and must be thoroughly assessed. In this paper the authors investigate relative merits of these propulsion options against the benchmark performance criteria of BOG disposal, fuel consumption, gas emissions, plant availability and overall life cycle cost.

  10. Validation of an Integrated Airframe and Turbofan Engine Simulation for Evaluation of Propulsion Control Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Sowers, T Shane; Liu, Yuan; Owen, A. Karl; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed independent airframe and engine models that have been integrated into a single real-time aircraft simulation for piloted evaluation of propulsion control algorithms. In order to have confidence in the results of these evaluations, the integrated simulation must be validated to demonstrate that its behavior is realistic and that it meets the appropriate Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification requirements for aircraft. The paper describes the test procedures and results, demonstrating that the integrated simulation generally meets the FAA requirements and is thus a valid testbed for evaluation of propulsion control modes.

  11. Flow Visualization of a Rotating Detonation Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-05

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The rotating detonation engine ( RDE ) is a propulsion system that obtains thrust using continuously existing...2014 – 12/4/2015 Summary: The rotating detonation engine ( RDE ) is a propulsion system that obtains thrust using continuously existing detonation...structure. Studies have been conducted on rotating detonation engines ( RDE ) that obtain thrust from the continuously propagating detonation waves in the

  12. Preliminary Assessment of Using Gelled and Hybrid Propellant Propulsion for VTOL/SSTO Launch Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan; OLeary, Robert; Pelaccio, Dennis G.

    1998-01-01

    A novel, reusable, Vertical-Takeoff-and-Vertical-Takeoff-and-Landing, Single-Stage-to-Orbit (VTOL/SSTO) launch system concept, named AUGMENT-SSTO, is presented in this paper to help quantify the advantages of employing gelled and hybrid propellant propulsion system options for such applications. The launch vehicle system concept considered uses a highly coupled, main high performance liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen (LO2/LH2) propulsion system, that is used only for launch, while a gelled or hybrid propellant propulsion system auxiliary propulsion system is used during final orbit insertion, major orbit maneuvering, and landing propulsive burn phases of flight. Using a gelled or hybrid propellant propulsion system for major orbit maneuver burns and landing has many advantages over conventional VTOL/SSTO concepts that use LO2/LH2 propulsion system(s) burns for all phases of flight. The applicability of three gelled propellant systems, O2/H2/Al, O2/RP-1/Al, and NTO/MMH/Al, and a state-of-the-art (SOA) hybrid propulsion system are examined in this study. Additionally, this paper addresses the applicability of a high performance gelled O2/H2 propulsion system to perform the primary, as well as the auxiliary propulsion system functions of the vehicle.

  13. Numerical Modeling of Cavitating Venturi: A Flow Control Element of Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Alok; Saxon, Jeff (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In a propulsion system, the propellant flow and mixture ratio could be controlled either by variable area flow control valves or by passive flow control elements such as cavitating venturies. Cavitating venturies maintain constant propellant flowrate for fixed inlet conditions (pressure and temperature) and wide range of outlet pressures, thereby maintain constant, engine thrust and mixture ratio. The flowrate through the venturi reaches a constant value and becomes independent of outlet pressure when the pressure at throat becomes equal to vapor pressure. In order to develop a numerical model of propulsion system, it is necessary to model cavitating venturies in propellant feed systems. This paper presents a finite volume model of flow network of a cavitating venturi. The venturi was discretized into a number of control volumes and mass, momentum and energy conservation equations in each control volume are simultaneously solved to calculate one-dimensional pressure, density, and flowrate and temperature distribution. The numerical model predicts cavitations at the throat when outlet pressure was gradually reduced. Once cavitation starts, with further reduction of downstream pressure, no change in flowrate is found. The numerical predictions have been compared with test data and empirical equation based on Bernoulli's equation.

  14. Power Processing Unit For Micro Satellite Electric Propulsion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savvas Spiridon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Micro Satellite Electric Propulsion System (MEPS program has been originated by the increasing need to provide a low-cost and low-power Electric Propulsion System (EPS for small satellites ( 92%, small size and weight and high reliability. Its functional modules and preliminary results obtained at breadboard level are also presented.

  15. Electro-optic architecture for servicing sensors and actuators in advanced aircraft propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppel, G. L.; Glasheen, W. M.

    1989-01-01

    A detailed design of a fiber optic propulsion control system, integrating favored sensors and electro-optics architecture is presented. Layouts, schematics, and sensor lists describe an advanced fighter engine system model. Components and attributes of candidate fiber optic sensors are identified, and evaluation criteria are used in a trade study resulting in favored sensors for each measurand. System architectural ground rules were applied to accomplish an electro-optics architecture for the favored sensors. A key result was a considerable reduction in signal conductors. Drawings, schematics, specifications, and printed circuit board layouts describe the detailed system design, including application of a planar optical waveguide interface.

  16. Interaction between propulsion and levitation system in the HTSC-permanent magnet conveyance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, S.; Nishio, R.; Hashikawa, T.

    2010-01-01

    The magnetically levitated conveyance system has been developed. Pinning force of high temperature bulk superconductors (HTSC) are used for the levitation and the guidance of the carrier. The magnetic rail is set on the ground, and flux from the magnetic rail is pinned by HTSCs on the carrier body. To increase the load weight, the repulsive force of the permanent magnet is introduced. The hybrid levitation system is composed. The repulsive force by the permanent magnet between the load stage on the carrier and the magnetic rail on the ground is used to support the load weight. As the load stage is connected to the carrier body by the linear sliders, the mass of the load weight does not act on the carrier body. The interaction between the electromagnet and the permanent magnet under the load stage generates the propulsion force. The electromagnet is constructed by the air core coils, and excited only when the load stage passes. The interaction between the propulsion and the levitation system is investigated. Disturbance of the propulsion system on the levitation and the guidance force is measured. The results show the influence of the propulsion electromagnet on the pinning force is little, and this propulsion system works effectively.

  17. Interaction between propulsion and levitation system in the HTSC-permanent magnet conveyance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, S., E-mail: ohashi@ipcku.kanasi-u.ac.j [Kansai University 3-3-35, Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Nishio, R.; Hashikawa, T. [Kansai University 3-3-35, Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan)

    2010-11-01

    The magnetically levitated conveyance system has been developed. Pinning force of high temperature bulk superconductors (HTSC) are used for the levitation and the guidance of the carrier. The magnetic rail is set on the ground, and flux from the magnetic rail is pinned by HTSCs on the carrier body. To increase the load weight, the repulsive force of the permanent magnet is introduced. The hybrid levitation system is composed. The repulsive force by the permanent magnet between the load stage on the carrier and the magnetic rail on the ground is used to support the load weight. As the load stage is connected to the carrier body by the linear sliders, the mass of the load weight does not act on the carrier body. The interaction between the electromagnet and the permanent magnet under the load stage generates the propulsion force. The electromagnet is constructed by the air core coils, and excited only when the load stage passes. The interaction between the propulsion and the levitation system is investigated. Disturbance of the propulsion system on the levitation and the guidance force is measured. The results show the influence of the propulsion electromagnet on the pinning force is little, and this propulsion system works effectively.

  18. Integrated Studies of Electric Propulsion Engines during Flights in the Earth's Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marov, M. Ya.; Filatyev, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    Fifty years ago, on October 1, 1966, the first Yantar satellite laboratory with a gas plasma-ion electric propulsion was launched into orbit as part of the Yantar Soviet space program. In 1966-1971, the program launched a total of four laboratories with thrusters operating on argon, nitrogen, and air with jet velocities of 40, 120, and 140 km/s, respectively. These space experiments were the first to demonstrate the long-term stable operation of these thrusters, which exceed chemical rocket engines in specific impulse by an order of magnitude and provide effective jet charge compensation, under the conditions of a real flight at altitudes of 100-400 km. In this article, we have analyzed the potential modern applications of the scientific results obtained by the Yantar space program for the development of air-breathing electric propulsion that ensure the longterm operation of spacecraft in very low orbits.

  19. Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program semiannual progress report for April 1999 through September 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1-3 trucks to realize a 35% fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7-8 trucks.

  20. Systems Analysis Initiated for All-Electric Aircraft Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohout, Lisa L.

    2003-01-01

    A multidisciplinary effort is underway at the NASA Glenn Research Center to develop concepts for revolutionary, nontraditional fuel cell power and propulsion systems for aircraft applications. There is a growing interest in the use of fuel cells as a power source for electric propulsion as well as an auxiliary power unit to substantially reduce or eliminate environmentally harmful emissions. A systems analysis effort was initiated to assess potential concepts in an effort to identify those configurations with the highest payoff potential. Among the technologies under consideration are advanced proton exchange membrane (PEM) and solid oxide fuel cells, alternative fuels and fuel processing, and fuel storage. Prior to this effort, the majority of fuel cell analysis done at Glenn was done for space applications. Because of this, a new suite of models was developed. These models include the hydrogen-air PEM fuel cell; internal reforming solid oxide fuel cell; balance-of-plant components (compressor, humidifier, separator, and heat exchangers); compressed gas, cryogenic, and liquid fuel storage tanks; and gas turbine/generator models for hybrid system applications. Initial mass, volume, and performance estimates of a variety of PEM systems operating on hydrogen and reformate have been completed for a baseline general aviation aircraft. Solid oxide/turbine hybrid systems are being analyzed. In conjunction with the analysis efforts, a joint effort has been initiated with Glenn s Computer Services Division to integrate fuel cell stack and component models with the visualization environment that supports the GRUVE lab, Glenn s virtual reality facility. The objective of this work is to provide an environment to assist engineers in the integration of fuel cell propulsion systems into aircraft and provide a better understanding of the interaction between system components and the resulting effect on the overall design and performance of the aircraft. Initially, three

  1. The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology Project, Products, and Mission Applicability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David J.; Pencil, Eric; Liou, Larry; Dankanich, John; Munk, Michelle M.; Kremic, Tibor

    2009-01-01

    The In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Project, funded by NASA s Science Mission Directorate (SMD), is continuing to invest in propulsion technologies that will enable or enhance NASA robotic science missions. This overview provides development status, near-term mission benefits, applicability, and availability of in-space propulsion technologies in the areas of aerocapture, electric propulsion, advanced chemical thrusters, and systems analysis tools. Aerocapture investments improved: guidance, navigation, and control models of blunt-body rigid aeroshells; atmospheric models for Earth, Titan, Mars, and Venus; and models for aerothermal effects. Investments in electric propulsion technologies focused on completing NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system, a 0.6 to 7 kW throttle-able gridded ion system. The project is also concluding its High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAC) mid-term product specifically designed for a low-cost electric propulsion option. The primary chemical propulsion investment is on the high-temperature Advanced Material Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) engine providing higher performance for lower cost. The project is also delivering products to assist technology infusion and quantify mission applicability and benefits through mission analysis and tools. In-space propulsion technologies are applicable, and potentially enabling for flagship destinations currently under evaluation, as well as having broad applicability to future Discovery and New Frontiers mission solicitations.

  2. Main Propulsion Test Article (MPTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoddy, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Scope: The Main Propulsion Test Article integrated the main propulsion subsystem with the clustered Space Shuttle Main Engines, the External Tank and associated GSE. The test program consisted of cryogenic tanking tests and short- and long duration static firings including gimbaling and throttling. The test program was conducted on the S1-C test stand (Position B-2) at the National Space Technology Laboratories (NSTL)/Stennis Space Center. 3 tanking tests and 20 hot fire tests conducted between December 21 1 1977 and December 17, 1980 Configuration: The main propulsion test article consisted of the three space shuttle main engines, flightweight external tank, flightweight aft fuselage, interface section and a boilerplate mid/fwd fuselage truss structure.

  3. Review of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Ground Test Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coote, David J.; Power, Kevin P.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen

    2015-01-01

    High efficiency rocket propulsion systems are essential for humanity to venture beyond the moon. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is a promising alternative to conventional chemical rockets with relatively high thrust and twice the efficiency of highest performing chemical propellant engines. NTP utilizes the coolant of a nuclear reactor to produce propulsive thrust. An NTP engine produces thrust by flowing hydrogen through a nuclear reactor to cool the reactor, heating the hydrogen and expelling it through a rocket nozzle. The hot gaseous hydrogen is nominally expected to be free of radioactive byproducts from the nuclear reactor; however, it has the potential to be contaminated due to off-nominal engine reactor performance. NTP ground testing is more difficult than chemical engine testing since current environmental regulations do not allow/permit open air testing of NTP as was done in the 1960's and 1970's for the Rover/NERVA program. A new and innovative approach to rocket engine ground test is required to mitigate the unique health and safety risks associated with the potential entrainment of radioactive waste from the NTP engine reactor core into the engine exhaust. Several studies have been conducted since the ROVER/NERVA program in the 1970's investigating NTP engine ground test options to understand the technical feasibility, identify technical challenges and associated risks and provide rough order of magnitude cost estimates for facility development and test operations. The options can be divided into two distinct schemes; (1) real-time filtering of the engine exhaust and its release to the environment or (2) capture and storage of engine exhaust for subsequent processing.

  4. A Comparison of Propulsion Concepts for SSTO Reusable Launchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvill, R.; Bond, A.

    This paper discusses the relevant selection criteria for a single stage to orbit (SSTO) propulsion system and then reviews the characteristics of the typical engine types proposed for this role against these criteria. The engine types considered include Hydrogen/Oxygen (H2/O2) rockets, Scramjets, Turbojets, Turborockets and Liquid Air Cycle Engines. In the authors opinion none of the above engines are able to meet all the necessary criteria for an SSTO propulsion system simultaneously. However by selecting appropriate features from each it is possible to synthesise a new class of engines which are specifically optimised for the SSTO role. The resulting engines employ precooling of the airstream and a high internal pressure ratio to enable a relatively conventional high pressure rocket combustion chamber to be utilised in both airbreathing and rocket modes. This results in a significant mass saving with installation advantages which by careful design of the cycle thermodynamics enables the full potential of airbreathing to be realised. The SABRE engine which powers the SKYLON launch vehicle is an example of one of these so called `Precooled hybrid airbreathing rocket engines' and the concep- tual reasoning which leads to its main design parameters are described in the paper.

  5. Deployable Propulsion, Power and Communications Systems for Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L.; Carr, J.; Boyd, D.

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing thin-film based, deployable propulsion, power, and communication systems for small spacecraft that could provide a revolutionary new capability allowing small spacecraft exploration of the solar system. By leveraging recent advancements in thin films, photovoltaics, and miniaturized electronics, new mission-level capabilities will be enabled aboard lower-cost small spacecraft instead of their more expensive, traditional counterparts, enabling a new generation of frequent, inexpensive deep space missions. Specifically, thin-film technologies are allowing the development and use of solar sails for propulsion, small, lightweight photovoltaics for power, and omnidirectional antennas for communication.

  6. Nuclear Bi-Brayton system for aircraft propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, B.L.

    1979-01-01

    Recent studies have shown the desirability of new system concept for nuclear aircraft propulsion utilizing the Bi-Brayton system concept, permits coupling of a gas cooled reactor to the power transmission and conversion system in a manner such as to fulfill the safety criteria while eliminating the need for a high temperature intermediate heat exchanger or shaft penetrations of the containment vessel. This system has been shown to minimize the component development required and to allow reduction in total propulsion system weight. This paper presents a description of the system concept and the results of the definition and evaluation studies to date. Parametric and reference system definition studies have been performed. The closed-cycle Bi-Brayton system and component configurations and weight estimates have been derived. Parametric evaluation and cycle variation studies have been performed and interpreted. 7 refs

  7. FJ44 Turbofan Engine Test at NASA Glenn Research Center's Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Joel T.; McAllister, Joseph; Loew, Raymond A.; Sutliff, Daniel L.; Harley, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    A Williams International FJ44-3A 3000-lb thrust class turbofan engine was tested in the NASA Glenn Research Center s Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory. This report presents the test set-up and documents the test conditions. Farfield directivity, in-duct unsteady pressures, duct mode data, and phased-array data were taken and are reported separately.

  8. Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS): OEPSS Video Script

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, George S.; Waldrop, Glen S.; Trent, Donnie (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The OEPSS video film, along with the OEPSS Databooks, provides a data base of current launch experience that will be useful for design of future expendable and reusable launch systems. The focus is on the launch processing of propulsion systems. A brief 15-minute overview of the OEPSS study results is found at the beginning of the film. The remainder of the film discusses in more detail: current ground operations at the Kennedy Space Center; typical operations issues and problems; critical operations technologies; and efficiency of booster and space propulsion systems. The impact of system architecture on the launch site and its facility infrastucture is emphasized. Finally, a particularly valuable analytical tool, developed during the OEPSS study, that will provide for the "first time" a quantitative measure of operations efficiency for a propulsion system is described.

  9. Solar Thermal Upper Stage Cryogen System Engineering Checkout Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, A. D; Cady, E. C.; Jenkins, D. S.

    1999-01-01

    The Solar Thermal Upper Stage technology (STUSTD) program is a solar thermal propulsion technology program cooperatively sponsored by a Boeing led team and by NASA MSFC. A key element of its technology program is development of a liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage and supply system which employs multi-layer insulation, liquid acquisition devices, active and passive thermodynamic vent systems, and variable 40W tank heaters to reliably provide near constant pressure H2 to a solar thermal engine in the low-gravity of space operation. The LH2 storage and supply system is designed to operate as a passive, pressure fed supply system at a constant pressure of about 45 psia. During operation of the solar thermal engine over a small portion of the orbit the LH2 storage and supply system propulsively vents through the enjoy at a controlled flowrate. During the long coast portion of the orbit, the LH2 tank is locked up (unvented). Thus, all of the vented H2 flow is used in the engine for thrust and none is wastefully vented overboard. The key to managing the tank pressure and therefore the H2 flow to the engine is to manage and balance the energy flow into the LH2 tank with the MLI and tank heaters with the energy flow out of the LH2 tank through the vented H2 flow. A moderate scale (71 cu ft) LH2 storage and supply system was installed and insulated at the NASA MSFC Test Area 300. The operation of the system is described in this paper. The test program for the LH2 system consisted of two parts: 1) a series of engineering tests to characterize the performance of the various components in the system: and 2) a 30-day simulation of a complete LEO and GEO transfer mission. This paper describes the results of the engineering tests, and correlates these results with analytical models used to design future advanced Solar Orbit Transfer Vehicles.

  10. Multi-disciplinary coupling effects for integrated design of propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Singhal, S. N.

    1993-01-01

    Effective computational simulation procedures are described for modeling the inherent multi-disciplinary interactions which govern the accurate response of propulsion systems. Results are presented for propulsion system responses including multi-disciplinary coupling effects using coupled multi-discipline thermal, structural, and acoustic tailoring; an integrated system of multi-disciplinary simulators; coupled material behavior/fabrication process tailoring; sensitivities using a probabilistic simulator; and coupled materials, structures, fracture, and probabilistic behavior simulator. The results demonstrate that superior designs can be achieved if the analysis/tailoring methods account for the multi-disciplinary coupling effects. The coupling across disciplines can be used to develop an integrated coupled multi-discipline numerical propulsion system simulator.

  11. FY2015 Propulsion Materials Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-12-30

    The Propulsion Materials Program actively supports the energy security and reduction of greenhouse emissions goals of VTO by investigating and identifying the materials properties that are most essential for continued development of cost-effective, highly efficient, and environmentally friendly next-generation heavy and light-duty powertrains. The technical approaches available to enhance propulsion systems focus on improvements in both vehicle efficiency and fuel substitution, both of which must overcome the performance limitations of the materials currently in use. Propulsion Materials Program activities work with national laboratories, industry experts, and VTO powertrain systems (e.g., Advanced Combustion Engines [ACE], Advanced Power Electronics and Electrical Machines [APEEM], and fuels) teams to develop strategies that overcome materials limitations in future powertrain performance. The technical maturity of the portfolio of funded projects ranges from basic science to subsystem prototype validation. Projects within a Propulsion Materials Program activity address materials concerns that directly impact critical technology barriers within each of the above programs, including barriers that impact fuel efficiency, thermal management, emissions reduction, improved reliability, and reduced manufacturing costs. The program engages only the barriers that result from material property limitations and represent fundamental, high-risk materials issues.

  12. Design of an Electric Propulsion System for SCEPTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Arthur; van der Geest, Martin; Bevirt, JoeBen; Clarke, Sean; Christie, Robert J.; Borer, Nicholas K.

    2016-01-01

    The rise of electric propulsion systems has pushed aircraft designers towards new and potentially transformative concepts. As part of this effort, NASA is leading the SCEPTOR program which aims at designing a fully electric distributed propulsion general aviation aircraft. This article highlights critical aspects of the design of SCEPTOR's propulsion system conceived at Joby Aviation in partnership with NASA, including motor electromagnetic design and optimization as well as cooling system integration. The motor is designed with a finite element based multi-objective optimization approach. This provides insight into important design tradeoffs such as mass versus efficiency, and enables a detailed quantitative comparison between different motor topologies. Secondly, a complete design and Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis of the air breathing cooling system is presented. The cooling system is fully integrated into the nacelle, contains little to no moving parts and only incurs a small drag penalty. Several concepts are considered and compared over a range of operating conditions. The study presents trade-offs between various parameters such as cooling efficiency, drag, mechanical simplicity and robustness.

  13. Advanced supersonic propulsion study, phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, R. A.; Johnson, J.; Sabatella, J.; Sewall, T.

    1976-01-01

    The variable stream control engine is determined to be the most promising propulsion system concept for advanced supersonic cruise aircraft. This concept uses variable geometry components and a unique throttle schedule for independent control of two flow streams to provide low jet noise at takeoff and high performance at both subsonic and supersonic cruise. The advanced technology offers a 25% improvement in airplane range and an 8 decibel reduction in takeoff noise, relative to first generation supersonic turbojet engines.

  14. Propulsion Health Management System Development for Affordable and Reliable Operation of Space Exploration Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Kevin J.; Maul, William A.; Garg, Sanjay

    2007-01-01

    The constraints of future Exploration Missions will require unique integrated system health management capabilities throughout the mission. An ambitious launch schedule, human-rating requirements, long quiescent periods, limited human access for repair or replacement, and long communication delays, all require an integrated approach to health management that can span distinct, yet interdependent vehicle subsystems, anticipate failure states, provide autonomous remediation and support the Exploration Mission from beginning to end. Propulsion is a critical part of any space exploration mission, and monitoring the health of the propulsion system is an integral part of assuring mission safety and success. Health management is a somewhat ubiquitous technology that encompasses a large spectrum of physical components and logical processes. For this reason, it is essential to develop a systematic plan for propulsion health management system development. This paper provides a high-level perspective of propulsion health management systems, and describes a logical approach for the future planning and early development that are crucial to planned space exploration programs. It also presents an overall approach, or roadmap, for propulsion health management system development and a discussion of the associated roadblocks and challenges.

  15. F-15 PCA (Propulsion Controlled Aircraft) Simulation Cockpit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The F-15 PCA (Propulsion Controlled Aircraft) simulation was used from 1990 to 1993. It was used for the development of propulsion algorithms and piloting techniques (using throttles only) to be used for emergency flight control in the advent of a major flight control system failure on a multi-engine aircraft. Following this program with the Dryden F-15, similiar capabilities were developed for other aircraft, such as the B-720, Lear 24, B-727, C-402, and B-747.

  16. Future spacecraft propulsion systems. Enabling technologies for space exploration. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czysz, Paul A. [St. Louis Univ., MO (United States). Oliver L. Parks Endowed Chair in Aerospace Engineering; Bruno, Claudio [Univ. degli Studi di Roma (Italy). Dipt. di Meccanica e Aeronautica

    2009-07-01

    In this second edition of Future Spacecraft Propulsion Systems, the authors demonstrate the need to break free from the old established concepts of expendable rockets, using chemical propulsion, and to develop new breeds of launch vehicle capable of both launching payloads into orbit at a dramatically reduced cost and for sustained operations in low-Earth orbit. The next steps to establishing a permanent 'presence' in the Solar System beyond Earth are the commercialisation of sustained operations on the Moon and the development of advanced nuclear or high-energy space propulsion systems for Solar System exploration out to the boundary of interstellar space. In the future, high-energy particle research facilities may one day yield a very high-energy propulsion system that will take us to the nearby stars, or even beyond. Space is not quiet: it is a continuous series of nuclear explosions that provide the material for new star systems to form and provide the challenge to explore. This book provides an assessment of the industrial capability required to construct and operate the necessary spacecraft. Time and distance communication and control limitations impose robotic constraints. Space environments restrict human sustained presence and put high demands on electronic, control and materials systems. This comprehensive and authoritative book puts spacecraft propulsion systems in perspective, from earth orbit launchers to astronomical/space exploration vehicles. It includes new material on fusion propulsion, new figures and updates and expands the information given in the first edition. (orig.)

  17. NASA Propulsion Sub-System Concept Studies and Risk Reduction Activities for Resource Prospector Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Huu P.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's exploration roadmap is focused on developing technologies and performing precursor missions to advance the state of the art for eventual human missions to Mars. One of the key components of this roadmap is various robotic missions to Near-Earth Objects, the Moon, and Mars to fill in some of the strategic knowledge gaps. The Resource Prospector (RP) project is one of these robotic precursor activities in the roadmap. RP is a multi-center and multi-institution project to investigate the polar regions of the Moon in search of volatiles. The mission is rated Class D and is approximately 10 days, assuming a five day direct Earth to Moon transfer. Because of the mission cost constraint, a trade study of the propulsion concepts was conducted with a focus on available low-cost hardware for reducing cost in development, while technical risk, system mass, and technology advancement requirements were also taken into consideration. The propulsion system for the lander is composed of a braking stage providing a high thrust to match the lander's velocity with the lunar surface and a lander stage performing the final lunar descent. For the braking stage, liquid oxygen (LOX) and liquid methane (LCH4) propulsion systems, derived from the Morpheus experimental lander, and storable bi-propellant systems, including the 4th stage Peacekeeper (PK) propulsion components and Space Shuttle orbital maneuvering engine (OME), and a solid motor were considered for the study. For the lander stage, the trade study included miniaturized Divert Attitude Control System (DACS) thrusters (Missile Defense Agency (MDA) heritage), their enhanced thruster versions, ISE-100 and ISE-5, and commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware. The lowest cost configuration of using the solid motor and the PK components while meeting the requirements was selected. The reference concept of the lander is shown in Figure 1. In the current reference configuration, the solid stage is the primary provider of delta

  18. Computerized systems analysis and optimization of aircraft engine performance, weight, and life cycle costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbach, L. H.

    1979-01-01

    The computational techniques utilized to determine the optimum propulsion systems for future aircraft applications and to identify system tradeoffs and technology requirements are described. The characteristics and use of the following computer codes are discussed: (1) NNEP - a very general cycle analysis code that can assemble an arbitrary matrix fans, turbines, ducts, shafts, etc., into a complete gas turbine engine and compute on- and off-design thermodynamic performance; (2) WATE - a preliminary design procedure for calculating engine weight using the component characteristics determined by NNEP; (3) POD DRG - a table look-up program to calculate wave and friction drag of nacelles; (4) LIFCYC - a computer code developed to calculate life cycle costs of engines based on the output from WATE; and (5) INSTAL - a computer code developed to calculate installation effects, inlet performance and inlet weight. Examples are given to illustrate how these computer techniques can be applied to analyze and optimize propulsion system fuel consumption, weight, and cost for representative types of aircraft and missions.

  19. Nuclear rockets: High-performance propulsion for Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, C.W.

    1994-05-01

    A new impetus to manned Mars exploration was introduced by President Bush in his Space Exploration Initiative. This has led, in turn, to a renewed interest in high-thrust nuclear thermal rocket propulsion (NTP). The purpose of this report is to give a brief tutorial introduction to NTP and provide a basic understanding of some of the technical issues in the realization of an operational NTP engine. Fundamental physical principles are outlined from which a variety of qualitative advantages of NTP over chemical propulsion systems derive, and quantitative performance comparisons are presented for illustrative Mars missions. Key technologies are described for a representative solid-core heat-exchanger class of engine, based on the extensive development work in the Rover and NERVA nuclear rocket programs (1955 to 1973). The most driving technology, fuel development, is discussed in some detail for these systems. Essential highlights are presented for the 19 full-scale reactor and engine tests performed in these programs. On the basis of these tests, the practicality of graphite-based nuclear rocket engines was established. Finally, several higher-performance advanced concepts are discussed. These have received considerable attention, but have not, as yet, developed enough credibility to receive large-scale development

  20. 'Bimodal' NTR and LANTR propulsion for human missions to Mars/Phobos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.; McGuire, Melissa L.

    1999-01-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) is one of the leading propulsion options for future human missions to Mars due to its high specific impulse (Isp ∼850-1000 s) and attractive engine thrust-to-weight ratio (∼3-10). Because only a miniscule amount of enriched uranium-235 fuel is consumed in a NTR during the primary propulsion maneuvers of a typical Mars mission, engines configured for both propulsive thrust and modest power generation (referred to as 'bimodal' operation) provide the basis for a robust, 'power-rich' stage enabling propulsive Mars capture and reuse capability. A family of modular 'bimodal' NTR (BNTR) vehicles are described which utilize a common 'core' stage powered by three 66.7 kN (∼15 klbf) BNTRs that produce 50 kWe of total electrical power for crew life support, an active refrigeration/reliquification system for long term, 'zero-boiloff' liquid hydrogen (LH 2 ) storage, and high data rate communications. Compared to other propulsion options, a Mars mission architecture using BNTR transfer vehicles requires fewer transportation system elements which reduces mission mass, cost and risk because of simplified space operations. For difficult Mars options, such as a Phobos rendezvous and sample return mission, volume (not mass) constraints limit the performance of the 'all LH 2 ' BNTR stage. The use of ''LOX-augmented' NTR (LANTR) engines, operating at a modest oxygen-to-hydrogen (O/H) mixture ratio (MR) of 0.5, helps to increase 'bulk' propellant density and total thrust during the trans-Mars injection (TMI) burn. On all subsequent burns, the bimodal LANTR engines operate on LH 2 only (MR=0) to maximize vehicle performance while staying within the mass limits of two ∼80 t 'Magnum' heavy lift launch vehicles (HLLVs)

  1. Center for Advanced Space Propulsion Second Annual Technical Symposium Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The proceedings for the Center for Advanced Space Propulsion Second Annual Technical Symposium are divided as follows: Chemical Propulsion, CFD; Space Propulsion; Electric Propulsion; Artificial Intelligence; Low-G Fluid Management; and Rocket Engine Materials.

  2. Phase 1 space fission propulsion system design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houts, Mike; Van Dyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Pedersen, Kevin; Martin, James; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Hrbud, Ivana; Carter, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Fission technology can enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. If fission propulsion systems are to be developed to their full potential; however, near-term customers must be identified and initial fission systems successfully developed, launched, and operated. Studies conducted in fiscal year 2001 (IISTP, 2001) show that fission electric propulsion (FEP) systems operating at 80 kWe or above could enhance or enable numerous robotic outer solar system missions of interest. At these power levels it is possible to develop safe, affordable systems that meet mission performance requirements. In selecting the system design to pursue, seven evaluation criteria were identified: safety, reliability, testability, specific mass, cost, schedule, and programmatic risk. A top-level comparison of three potential concepts was performed: an SP-100 based pumped liquid lithium system, a direct gas cooled system, and a heatpipe cooled system. For power levels up to at least 500 kWt (enabling electric power levels of 125-175 kWe, given 25-35% power conversion efficiency) the heatpipe system has advantages related to several criteria and is competitive with respect to all. Hardware-based research and development has further increased confidence in the heatpipe approach. Successful development and utilization of a 'Phase 1' fission electric propulsion system will enable advanced Phase 2 and Phase 3 systems capable of providing rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system

  3. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Sub-Scale Rocket Engine/Motor Design, Development & Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Manish; Seaford, Mark; Kovarik, Brian; Dufrene, Aaron; Solly, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    ATA-002 Technical Team has successfully designed, developed, tested and assessed the SLS Pathfinder propulsion systems for the Main Base Heating Test Program. Major Outcomes of the Pathfinder Test Program: Reach 90% of full-scale chamber pressure Achieved all engine/motor design parameter requirements Reach steady plume flow behavior in less than 35 msec Steady chamber pressure for 60 to 100 msec during engine/motor operation Similar model engine/motor performance to full-scale SLS system Mitigated nozzle throat and combustor thermal erosion Test data shows good agreement with numerical prediction codes Next phase of the ATA-002 Test Program Design & development of the SLS OML for the Main Base Heating Test Tweak BSRM design to optimize performance Tweak CS-REM design to increase robustness MSFC Aerosciences and CUBRC have the capability to develop sub-scale propulsion systems to meet desired performance requirements for short-duration testing.

  4. Overview of NASA Iodine Hall Thruster Propulsion System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy D.; Kamhawi, Hani; Hickman, Tyler; Haag, Thomas; Dankanich, John; Polzin, Kurt; Byrne, Lawrence; Szabo, James

    2016-01-01

    NASA is continuing to invest in advancing Hall thruster technologies for implementation in commercial and government missions. The most recent focus has been on increasing the power level for large-scale exploration applications. However, there has also been a similar push to examine applications of electric propulsion for small spacecraft in the range of 300 kg or less. There have been several recent iodine Hall propulsion system development activities performed by the team of the NASA Glenn Research Center, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and Busek Co. Inc. In particular, the work focused on qualification of the Busek 200-W BHT-200-I and development of the 600-W BHT-600-I systems. This paper discusses the current status of iodine Hall propulsion system developments along with supporting technology development efforts.

  5. Achievement report (2/2) on R and D in fiscal 1999 on environment adaptive next-generation supersonic propulsion system. R and D of environment adaptive next-generation supersonic propulsion engine; 1999 nendo seika hokokusho. Kankyo tekigo gata jisedai choonsoku suishin system no kenkyu kaihatsu - Kankyo tekigo gata jisedai choonsokuki you enjin kaihatsu (2/2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    With an objective to develop an environment adaptive next-generation supersonic propulsion system, research and development have been performed on noise reducing technologies, NOx exhaust reducing technologies, CO2 exhaust reducing technologies, and environment adaptive engine system technologies. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. In developing the CO2 exhaust reducing technologies, discussions were given on the following items as the researches on a technology to apply three-dimensional fiber-reinforced materials to large structures: application of metal-based composite materials (MMC) to the fan rotor; application of CMC, TiAl materials to turbine structural materials; TiAl shroud support, CMC shroud, high load turbine cascades supported by the composite materials, and application of the CMC, TiAl materials to the gas exhaust nozzle. In developing the environment adaptive engine system technologies, flows were established to judge the achievement of the project target of noise reduction, NOx exhaust reduction and CO2 exhaust suppression. Furthermore, in the demonstration and research of the engine integration, the setting was conducted on the engine test schedule, and so was the primary setting for criteria on parts to be assembled into the engine. (NEDO)

  6. The Heliopause Electrostatic Rapid Transit System (HERTS) - Design, Trades, and Analyses Performed in a Two Year NASA Investigation of Electric Sail Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegmann, Bruce M.; Scheider, Todd; Heaton, Andrew; Vaughn, Jason; Stone, Nobie; Wright, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Personnel from NASA's MSFC have been investigating the feasibility of an advanced propulsion system known as the Electric Sail (E-Sail) for future scientific exploration missions. This team initially won a NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Phase I NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) award and then a two-year follow-on Phase II NIAC award in October 2015. This paper documents the findings from this three-year investigation. An Electric sail, a propellant-less propulsion system, uses solar wind ions to rapidly travel either to deep space or the inner solar system. Scientific spacecraft could reach Pluto in 5 years, or the boundary of the solar system in ten to twelve years compared to the thirty-five plus years the Voyager spacecraft took. The team's recent focuses have been: 1) Developing a Particle in Cell (PIC) numeric engineering model from MSFC's experimental data on the interaction between simulated solar wind and a charged bare wire that can be applied to a variety of missions, 2) Determining what missions could benefit from this revolutionary propulsion system, 3) Conceptualizing spacecraft designs for various tasks: to reach the solar system's edge, to orbit the sun as Heliophysics sentinels, or to examine a multitude of asteroids.

  7. Operating system for a real-time multiprocessor propulsion system simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, G. L.

    1984-01-01

    The success of the Real Time Multiprocessor Operating System (RTMPOS) in the development and evaluation of experimental hardware and software systems for real time interactive simulation of air breathing propulsion systems was evaluated. The Real Time Multiprocessor Operating System (RTMPOS) provides the user with a versatile, interactive means for loading, running, debugging and obtaining results from a multiprocessor based simulator. A front end processor (FEP) serves as the simulator controller and interface between the user and the simulator. These functions are facilitated by the RTMPOS which resides on the FEP. The RTMPOS acts in conjunction with the FEP's manufacturer supplied disk operating system that provides typical utilities like an assembler, linkage editor, text editor, file handling services, etc. Once a simulation is formulated, the RTMPOS provides for engineering level, run time operations such as loading, modifying and specifying computation flow of programs, simulator mode control, data handling and run time monitoring. Run time monitoring is a powerful feature of RTMPOS that allows the user to record all actions taken during a simulation session and to receive advisories from the simulator via the FEP. The RTMPOS is programmed mainly in PASCAL along with some assembly language routines. The RTMPOS software is easily modified to be applicable to hardware from different manufacturers.

  8. A revolutionary lunar space transportation system architecture using extraterrestrial LOX-augmented NTR propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Corban, Robert R.; Culver, Donald W.; Bulman, Melvin J.; McIlwain, Mel C.

    1994-08-01

    The concept of a liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engine is introduced, and its potential for revolutionizing lunar space transportation system (LTS) performance using extraterrestrial 'lunar-derived' liquid oxygen (LUNOX) is outlined. The LOX-augmented NTR (LANTR) represents the marriage of conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and airbreathing engine technologies. The large divergent section of the NTR nozzle functions as an 'afterburner' into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging from the NTR's choked sonic throat: 'scramjet propulsion in reverse.' By varying the oxygen-to-fuel mixture ratio (MR), the LANTR concept can provide variable thrust and specific impulse (Isp) capability with a LH2-cooled NTR operating at relatively constant power output. For example, at a MR = 3, the thrust per engine can be increased by a factor of 2.75 while the Isp decreases by only 30 percent. With this thrust augmentation option, smaller, 'easier to develop' NTR's become more acceptable from a mission performance standpoint (e.g., earth escape gravity losses are reduced and perigee propulsion requirements are eliminated). Hydrogen mass and volume is also reduced resulting in smaller space vehicles. An evolutionary NTR-based lunar architecture requiring only Shuttle C and/or 'in-line' shuttle-derived launch vehicles (SDV's) would operate initially in an 'expandable mode' with NTR lunar transfer vehicles (LTV's) delivering 80 percent more payload on piloted missions than their LOX/LH2 chemical propulsion counterparts. With the establishment of LUNOX production facilities on the lunar surface and 'fuel/oxidizer' depot in low lunar orbit (LLO), monopropellant NTR's would be outfitted with an oxygen propellant module, feed system, and afterburner nozzle for 'bipropellant' operation. The LANTR cislunar LTV now transitions to a reusable mode with smaller vehicle and payload doubling benefits on

  9. Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Integrated Power and Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banker, Brian; Ryan, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    The proposed paper will cover ongoing work at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) on integrated power and propulsion for advanced human exploration. Specifically, it will present findings of the integrated design, testing, and operational challenges of a liquid oxygen / liquid methane (LOx/LCH4) propulsion brassboard and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system. Human-Mars architectures point to an oxygen-methane economy utilizing common commodities, scavenged from the planetary atmosphere and soil via In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), and common commodities across sub-systems. Due to the enormous mass gear-ratio required for human exploration beyond low-earth orbit, (for every 1 kg of payload landed on Mars, 226 kg will be required on Earth) increasing commonality between spacecraft subsystems such as power and propulsion can result in tremendous launch mass and volume savings. Historically, propulsion and fuel cell power subsystems have had little interaction outside of the generation (fuel cell) and consumption (propulsion) of electrical power. This was largely due to a mismatch in preferred commodities (hypergolics for propulsion; oxygen & hydrogen for fuel cells). Although this stove-piped approach benefits from simplicity in the design process, it means each subsystem has its own tanks, pressurization system, fluid feed system, etc. increasing overall spacecraft mass and volume. A liquid oxygen / liquid methane commodities architecture across propulsion and power subsystems would enable the use of common tankage and associated pressurization and commodity delivery hardware for both. Furthermore, a spacecraft utilizing integrated power and propulsion could use propellant residuals - propellant which could not be expelled from the tank near depletion due to hydrodynamic considerations caused by large flow demands of a rocket engine - to generate power after all propulsive maneuvers are complete thus utilizing

  10. Advanced Fusion Reactors for Space Propulsion and Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, John J.

    2011-06-15

    In recent years the methodology proposed for conversion of light elements into energy via fusion has made steady progress. Scientific studies and engineering efforts in advanced fusion systems designs have introduced some new concepts with unique aspects including consideration of Aneutronic fuels. The plant parameters for harnessing aneutronic fusion appear more exigent than those required for the conventional fusion fuel cycle. However aneutronic fusion propulsion plants for Space deployment will ultimately offer the possibility of enhanced performance from nuclear gain as compared to existing ionic engines as well as providing a clean solution to Planetary Protection considerations and requirements. Proton triggered 11Boron fuel (p- 11B) will produce abundant ion kinetic energy for In-Space vectored thrust. Thus energetic alpha particles' exhaust momentum can be used directly to produce high Isp thrust and also offer possibility of power conversion into electricity. p-11B is an advanced fusion plant fuel with well understood reaction kinematics but will require some new conceptual thinking as to the most effective implementation.

  11. Advanced Fusion Reactors for Space Propulsion and Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, John J.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the methodology proposed for conversion of light elements into energy via fusion has made steady progress. Scientific studies and engineering efforts in advanced fusion systems designs have introduced some new concepts with unique aspects including consideration of Aneutronic fuels. The plant parameters for harnessing aneutronic fusion appear more exigent than those required for the conventional fusion fuel cycle. However aneutronic fusion propulsion plants for Space deployment will ultimately offer the possibility of enhanced performance from nuclear gain as compared to existing ionic engines as well as providing a clean solution to Planetary Protection considerations and requirements. Proton triggered 11Boron fuel (p- 11B) will produce abundant ion kinetic energy for In-Space vectored thrust. Thus energetic alpha particles "exhaust" momentum can be used directly to produce high ISP thrust and also offer possibility of power conversion into electricity. p- 11B is an advanced fusion plant fuel with well understood reaction kinematics but will require some new conceptual thinking as to the most effective implementation.

  12. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage Affordable Development Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Glen E.; Gerrish, H. P.; Kenny, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    The development of nuclear power for space use in nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems will involve significant expenditures of funds and require major technology development efforts. The development effort must be economically viable yet sufficient to validate the systems designed. Efforts are underway within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage Project (NCPS) to study what a viable program would entail. The study will produce an integrated schedule, cost estimate and technology development plan. This will include the evaluation of various options for test facilities, types of testing and use of the engine, components, and technology developed. A "Human Rating" approach will also be developed and factored into the schedule, budget and technology development approach.

  13. Deployable Propulsion and Power Systems for Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Carr, John

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing thin-film based, deployable propulsion, power and communication systems for small spacecraft that could provide a revolutionary new capability allowing small spacecraft exploration of the solar system. The Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout reconnaissance mission will demonstrate solar sail propulsion on a 6U CubeSat interplanetary spacecraft and lay the groundwork for their future use in deep space science and exploration missions. Solar sails use sunlight to propel vehicles through space by reflecting solar photons from a large, mirror-like sail made of a lightweight, highly reflective material. This continuous photon pressure provides propellantless thrust, allowing for very high delta V maneuvers on long-duration, deep space exploration. Since reflected light produces thrust, solar sails require no onboard propellant. The Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) is a launch stowed, orbit deployed array on which thin-film photovoltaic and antenna elements are embedded. Inherently, small satellites are limited in surface area, volume, and mass allocation; driving competition between power, communications, and GN&C (guidance navigation and control) subsystems. This restricts payload capability and limits the value of these low-cost satellites. LISA-T is addressing this issue, deploying large-area arrays from a reduced volume and mass envelope - greatly enhancing power generation and communications capabilities of small spacecraft. The NEA Scout mission, funded by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program and managed by NASA MSFC, will use the solar sail as its primary propulsion system, allowing it to survey and image one or more NEA's of interest for possible future human exploration. NEA Scout uses a 6U cubesat (to be provided by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory), an 86 sq m solar sail and will weigh less than 12 kilograms. NEA Scout will be launched on the first flight of the Space Launch System in 2018. Similar in concept

  14. Small Reactor Designs Suitable for Direct Nuclear Thermal Propulsion: Interim Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnitzler, Bruce G.

    2012-01-01

    Advancement of U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests requires high performance propulsion systems to support missions beyond low Earth orbit. A robust space exploration program will include robotic outer planet and crewed missions to a variety of destinations including the moon, near Earth objects, and eventually Mars. Past studies, in particular those in support of both the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) and the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), have shown nuclear thermal propulsion systems provide superior performance for high mass high propulsive delta-V missions. In NASA's recent Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study, nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) was again selected over chemical propulsion as the preferred in-space transportation system option for the human exploration of Mars because of its high thrust and high specific impulse (∼900 s) capability, increased tolerance to payload mass growth and architecture changes, and lower total initial mass in low Earth orbit. The recently announced national space policy2 supports the development and use of space nuclear power systems where such systems safely enable or significantly enhance space exploration or operational capabilities. An extensive nuclear thermal rocket technology development effort was conducted under the Rover/NERVA, GE-710 and ANL nuclear rocket programs (1955-1973). Both graphite and refractory metal alloy fuel types were pursued. The primary and significantly larger Rover/NERVA program focused on graphite type fuels. Research, development, and testing of high temperature graphite fuels was conducted. Reactors and engines employing these fuels were designed, built, and ground tested. The GE-710 and ANL programs focused on an alternative ceramic-metallic 'cermet' fuel type consisting of UO2 (or UN) fuel embedded in a refractory metal matrix such as tungsten. The General Electric program examined closed loop concepts for space or terrestrial applications as well as

  15. Cooling of Electric Motors Used for Propulsion on SCEPTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Robert J.; Dubois, Arthur; Derlaga, Joseph M.

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing a suite of hybrid-electric propulsion technologies for aircraft. These technologies have the benefit of lower emissions, diminished noise, increased efficiency, and reduced fuel burn. These will provide lower operating costs for aircraft operators. Replacing internal combustion engines with distributed electric propulsion is a keystone of this technology suite, but presents many new problems to aircraft system designers. One of the problems is how to cool these electric motors without adding significant aerodynamic drag, cooling system weight or fan power. This paper discusses the options evaluated for cooling the motors on SCEPTOR (Scalable Convergent Electric Propulsion Technology and Operations Research): a project that will demonstrate Distributed Electric Propulsion technology in flight. Options for external and internal cooling, inlet and exhaust locations, ducting and adjustable cowling, and axial and centrifugal fans were evaluated. The final design was based on a trade between effectiveness, simplicity, robustness, mass and performance over a range of ground and flight operation environments.

  16. A Dual Mode Propulsion System for Small Satellite Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Gagne

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the development of a chemical micropropulsion system suitable for primary propulsion and/or attitude control for a nanosatellite. Due to the limitations and expense of current micropropulsion technologies, few nanosatellites with propulsion have been launched to date; however, the availability of such a propulsion system would allow for new nanosatellite mission concepts, such as deep space exploration, maneuvering in low gravity environments and formation flying. This work describes the design of “dual mode” monopropellant/bipropellant microthruster prototype that employs a novel homogeneous catalysis scheme. Results from prototype testing are reported that validate the concept. The micropropulsion system is designed to be fabricated using a combination of additively-manufactured and commercial off the shelf (COTS parts along with non-toxic fuels, thus making it a low-cost and environmentally-friendly option for future nanosatellite missions.

  17. JANNAF 17th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor); Rognan, Melanie (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Volume 1, the first of two volumes is a compilation of 16 unclassified/unlimited technical papers presented at the 17th meeting of the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) held jointly with the 35th Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS). The meeting was held on 7 - 11 December 1998 at Raytheon Systems Company and the Marriott Hotel, Tucson, AZ. Topics covered include projectile and shaped charge jet impact vulnerability of munitions; thermal decomposition and cookoff behavior of energetic materials; damage and hot spot initiation mechanisms with energetic materials; detonation phenomena of solid energetic materials; and hazard classification, insensitive munitions, and propulsion systems safety.

  18. Performance enhancement using power beaming for electric propulsion earth orbital transporters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    An electric propulsion Earth orbital transport vehicle (EOTV) can effectively deliver large payloads using much less propellant than chemical transfer methods. By using an EOTV instead of a chemical upper stage, either a smaller launch vehicle can be used for the same satellite mass or a larger satellite can be deployed using the same launch vehicle. However, the propellant mass savings from using the higher specific impulse of electric propulsion may not be enough to overcome the disadvantage of the added mass and cost of the electric propulsion power source. Power system limitations have been a major factor delaying the acceptance and use of electric propulsion. This paper outlines the power requirements of electric propulsion technology being developed today, including arcjets, magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters, and ion engines. Power supply characteristics are discussed for nuclear, solar, and power-beaming systems. Operational characteristics are given for each, as are the impacts of the power supply alternative on the overall craft performance. Because of its modular nature, the power-beaming approach is able to meet the power requirements of all three electric propulsion types. Also, commonality of approach allows different electric propulsion approaches to be powered by a single power supply approach. Power beaming exhibits better flexibility and performance than on-board nuclear or solar power systems

  19. Engine Test Facility (ETF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Air Force Arnold Engineering Development Center's Engine Test Facility (ETF) test cells are used for development and evaluation testing of propulsion systems for...

  20. FY2016 Propulsion Materials Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-05-01

    The Propulsion Materials Program actively supports the energy security and reduction of greenhouse emissions goals of VTO by investigating and identifying the materials properties that are most essential for continued development of cost-effective, highly efficient, and environmentally friendly next-generation heavy and light-duty powertrains. The technical approaches available to enhance propulsion systems focus on improvements in both vehicle efficiency and fuel substitution, both of which must overcome the performance limitations of the materials currently in use. Propulsion Materials Program activities work with national laboratories, industry experts, and VTO powertrain systems (e.g., Advanced Combustion Engines and Fuels) teams to develop strategies that overcome materials limitations in future powertrain performance. The technical maturity of the portfolio of funded projects ranges from basic science to subsystem prototype validation. Projects within a Propulsion Materials Program activity address materials concerns that directly impact critical technology barriers within each of the above programs, including barriers that impact fuel efficiency, thermal management, emissions reduction, improved reliability, and reduced manufacturing costs. The program engages only the barriers that result from material property limitations and represent fundamental, high-risk materials issues.

  1. Status and Mission Applicability of NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David J.; Munk, Michelle M.; Dankanich, John; Pencil, Eric; Liou, Larry

    2009-01-01

    The In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) project develops propulsion technologies that will enable or enhance NASA robotic science missions. Since 2001, the ISPT project developed and delivered products to assist technology infusion and quantify mission applicability and benefits through mission analysis and tools. These in-space propulsion technologies are applicable, and potentially enabling for flagship destinations currently under evaluation, as well as having broad applicability to future Discovery and New Frontiers mission solicitations. This paper provides status of the technology development, near-term mission benefits, applicability, and availability of in-space propulsion technologies in the areas of advanced chemical thrusters, electric propulsion, aerocapture, and systems analysis tools. The current chemical propulsion investment is on the high-temperature Advanced Material Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) engine providing higher performance for lower cost. Investments in electric propulsion technologies focused on completing NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system, a 0.6-7 kW throttle-able gridded ion system, and the High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAC) thruster, which is a mid-term product specifically designed for a low-cost electric propulsion option. Aerocapture investments developed a family of thermal protections system materials and structures; guidance, navigation, and control models of blunt-body rigid aeroshells; atmospheric models for Earth, Titan, Mars and Venus; and models for aerothermal effects. In 2009 ISPT started the development of propulsion technologies that would enable future sample return missions. The paper describes the ISPT project's future focus on propulsion for sample return missions. The future technology development areas for ISPT is: Planetary Ascent Vehicles (PAV), with a Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) being the initial development focus; multi-mission technologies for Earth Entry Vehicles (MMEEV) needed

  2. Propulsion System Dynamic Modeling for the NASA Supersonic Concept Vehicle: AeroPropulsoServoElasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph; Seidel, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    A summary of the propulsion system modeling under NASA's High Speed Project (HSP) AeroPropulsoServoElasticity (APSE) task is provided with a focus on the propulsion system for the low-boom supersonic configuration developed by Lockheed Martin and referred to as the N+2 configuration. This summary includes details on the effort to date to develop computational models for the various propulsion system components. The objective of this paper is to summarize the model development effort in this task, while providing more detail in the modeling areas that have not been previously published. The purpose of the propulsion system modeling and the overall APSE effort is to develop an integrated dynamic vehicle model to conduct appropriate unsteady analysis of supersonic vehicle performance. This integrated APSE system model concept includes the propulsion system model, and the vehicle structural-aerodynamics model. The development to date of such a preliminary integrated model will also be summarized in this report.propulsion system dynamics, the structural dynamics, and aerodynamics.

  3. Detection Damage in Bearing System of Jet Engine Using the Vibroacoustic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żokowski Mariusz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses typical, operational systems for monitoring vibrations of jet engines, which constitute the propulsion of combat aircraft of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland. After that, the paper presents the stage of installing vibration measuring sensors in the direct area of one of the jet engine bearings, which is a support system for its rotor. The article discusses results of carried out analyses of data gathered during tests of the engine in the conditions a jet engine test bed. Results of detecting damages to the bear-ing, using sensors built in the direct area will be presented.

  4. Development and Integration of the Janus Robotic Lander: A Liquid Oxygen-Liquid Methane Propulsion System Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Raul

    Initiatives have emerged with the goal of sending humans to other places in our solar system. New technologies are being developed that will allow for more efficient space systems to transport future astronauts. One of those technologies is the implementation of propulsion systems that use liquid oxygen and liquid methane (LO2-LCH4) as propellants. The benefits of a LO2-LCH4 propulsion system are plenty. One of the main advantages is the possibility of manufacturing the propellants at the destination body. A space vehicle which relies solely on liquid oxygen and liquid methane for its main propulsion and reaction control engines is necessary to exploit this advantage. At the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) MIRO Center for Space Exploration Technology Research (cSETR) such a vehicle is being developed. Janus is a robotic lander vehicle with the capability of vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) which integrates several LO2-LCH 4 systems that are being devised in-house. The vehicle will serve as a testbed for the parallel operation of these propulsion systems while being fed from common propellant tanks. The following work describes the efforts done at the cSETR to develop the first prototype of the vehicle as well as the plan to move forward in the design of the subsequent prototypes that will lead to a flight vehicle. In order to ensure an eventual smooth integration of the different subsystems that will form part of Janus, requirements were defined for each individual subsystem as well as the vehicle as a whole. Preliminary testing procedures and layouts have also been developed and will be discussed to detail in this text. Furthermore, the current endeavors in the design of each subsystem and the way that they interact with one another within the lander will be explained.

  5. Development of technology for creating intelligent control systems for power plants and propulsion systems for marine robotic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovleva, E. V.; Momot, B. A.

    2017-10-01

    The object of this study is to develop a power plant and an electric propulsion control system for autonomous remotely controlled vessels. The tasks of the study are as follows: to assess remotely controlled vessels usage reasonability, to define the requirements for this type of vessel navigation. In addition, the paper presents the analysis of technical diagnostics systems. The developed electric propulsion control systems for vessels should provide improved reliability and efficiency of the propulsion complex to ensure the profitability of remotely controlled vessels.

  6. Dynamic analysis and design of air spring mounting system for marine propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lin; Xu, Wei; Bu, Wenjun; Shi, Liang

    2014-09-01

    Marine propulsion unit (MPU) is one of the dominant vibration and noise sources onboard ship. Its vibration can be attenuated effectively by isolating MPU with low-frequency mounting system. But this is difficult to implement due to the stringent requirement of MPU alignment with the propulsion shafting. In this paper a novel air spring mounting system (ASMS) for propulsion system is proposed consisting of air spring subsystem, alignment control subsystem and safety protection subsystem. The load distribution optimization method and dynamic model of ASMS are presented. The factors that affect system stability and natural frequencies are analyzed, as well as the design measures to enhance system performance. A theoretical model is presented to estimate the isolation effect of ASMS. The monitoring model of alignment between MPU and propulsion shafting is established, followed by the alignment control algorithm and converge rule which assures the fast and uniform convergence of both air springs load distribution and alignment control process. Safety protection mechanism is designed to ensure that the MPU can operate safely in case of ASMS failure or other extreme circumstances. A scaled ASMS prototype is manufactured and tested on a special experimental setup. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of theoretical models and show that the performance of ASMS satisfies the operation requirements of MPU.

  7. A closed Brayton power conversion unit concept for nuclear electric propulsion for deep space missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyner, Claude Russell II; Fowler, Bruce; Matthews, John

    2003-01-01

    In space, whether in a stable satellite orbit around a planetary body or traveling as a deep space exploration craft, power is just as important as the propulsion. The need for power is especially important for in-space vehicles that use Electric Propulsion. Using nuclear power with electric propulsion has the potential to provide increased payload fractions and reduced mission times to the outer planets. One of the critical engineering and design aspects of nuclear electric propulsion at required mission optimized power levels is the mechanism that is used to convert the thermal energy of the reactor to electrical power. The use of closed Brayton cycles has been studied over the past 30 or years and shown to be the optimum approach for power requirements that range from ten to hundreds of kilowatts of power. It also has been found to be scalable to higher power levels. The Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) engine power conversion unit (PCU) is the most flexible for a wide range of power conversion needs and uses state-of-the-art, demonstrated engineering approaches. It also is in use with many commercial power plants today. The long life requirements and need for uninterrupted operation for nuclear electric propulsion demands high reliability from a CBC engine. A CBC engine design for use with a Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) system has been defined based on Pratt and Whitney's data from designing long-life turbo-machines such as the Space Shuttle turbopumps and military gas turbines and the use of proven integrated control/health management systems (EHMS). An integrated CBC and EHMS design that is focused on using low-risk and proven technologies will over come many of the life-related design issues. This paper will discuss the use of a CBC engine as the power conversion unit coupled to a gas-cooled nuclear reactor and the design trends relative to its use for powering electric thrusters in the 25 kWe to 100kWe power level

  8. Waves from Propulsion Systems of Fast Ferries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taatø, Søren Haugsted; Aage, Christian; Arnskov, Michael M.

    1998-01-01

    Waves from fast ferries have become an environmental problem of growing concern to the public. Fast ferries produce not only higher waves than conventional ships but also fundamentally different wave systems when they sail at supercritical speeds. Hitherto, ship waves have been considered as being...... generated by the ship hulls alone. Whereas this assumption may be reasonable for conventional ships with large hulls and limited propulsive power, the situation is different for fast ferries with their smaller hulls and very large installed power. A simple theoretical model and a series of model tests...... on a monohull fast ferry seem to indicate that a substantial part of the wave-making can be directly attributed to the propulsion system itself. Thus, two wave systems are created with different phases, but with similar frequency contents, which means that they merge into one system behind the ship, very...

  9. A Future with Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems: A NASA Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelRosario, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    The presentation highlights a NASA perspective on Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems for aeronautical applications. Discussed are results from NASA Advance Concepts Study for Aircraft Entering service in 2030 and beyond and the potential use of hybrid electric propulsion systems as a potential solution to the requirements for energy efficiency and environmental compatibility. Current progress and notional potential NASA research plans are presented.

  10. Solar System Exploration Augmented by In-Situ Resource Utilization: Mercury and Saturn Propulsion Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Human and robotic missions to Mercury and Saturn are presented and analyzed with a range of propulsion options. Historical studies of space exploration, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and industrialization all point to the vastness of natural resources in the solar system. Advanced propulsion benefitted from these resources in many ways. While advanced propulsion systems were proposed in these historical studies, further investigation of nuclear options using high power nuclear thermal and nuclear pulse propulsion as well as advanced chemical propulsion can significantly enhance these scenarios. Updated analyses based on these historical visions will be presented. Nuclear thermal propulsion and ISRU enhanced chemical propulsion landers are assessed for Mercury missions. At Saturn, nuclear pulse propulsion with alternate propellant feed systems and Titan exploration with chemical propulsion options are discussed. In-situ resource utilization was found to be critical in making Mercury missions more amenable for human visits. At Saturn, refueling using local atmospheric mining was found to be difficult to impractical, while refueling the Saturn missions from Uranus was more practical and less complex.

  11. Nuclear Electric Propulsion mission engineering study covering the period April 1971 to January 1973. Volume II. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-03-01

    The results of a mission engineering analysis of nuclear-thermionic electric propulsion spacecraft for unmanned interplanetary and geocentric missions are summarized. Critical technologies assessed are associated with the development of Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP), and the impact of its availability on future space programs. Specific areas of investigation include outer planet and comet rendezvous mission analysis, NEP Stage design for geocentric and interplanetary missions NEP system development cost and unit costs, and technology requirements for NEP Stage development. A multi-mission NEP Stage can be developed to perform both multiple geocentric and interplanetary missions. Development program costs for a 1983 launch would be of the order of $275 M, including hardware and reactor development, flight system hardware, and mission support. Recurring unit costs for flight NEP systems would be of the order of $25 M for a 120kWe NEP Stage. Identified pacing NEP technology requirements are the development of 20,000 full power hour ion thrusters and thermionic reactor, and the development of related power conditioning. The resulting NEP Stage design provides both inherent reliability and high payload mass capability. High payload mass capability can be translated into both low payload cost and high payload reliability. NEP Stage and payload integration is compatible with the Space Shuttle

  12. MITEE: A Compact Ultralight Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Engine for Planetary Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J.; Maise, G.; Paniagua, J.

    2001-01-01

    A new approach for a near-term compact, ultralight nuclear thermal propulsion engine, termed MITEE (Miniature Reactor Engine) is described. MITEE enables a wide range of new and unique planetary science missions that are not possible with chemical rockets. With U-235 nuclear fuel and hydrogen propellant the baseline MITEE engine achieves a specific impulse of approximately 1000 seconds, a thrust of 28,000 newtons, and a total mass of only 140 kilograms, including reactor, controls, and turbo-pump. Using higher performance nuclear fuels like U-233, engine mass can be reduced to as little as 80 kg. Using MITEE, V additions of 20 km/s for missions to outer planets are possible compared to only 10 km/s for H2/O2 engines. The much greater V with MITEE enables much faster trips to the outer planets, e.g., two years to Jupiter, three years to Saturn, and five years to Pluto, without needing multiple planetary gravity assists. Moreover, MITEE can utilize in-situ resources to further extend mission V. One example of a very attractive, unique mission enabled by MITEE is the exploration of a possible subsurface ocean on Europa and the return of samples to Earth. Using MITEE, a spacecraft would land on Europa after a two-year trip from Earth orbit and deploy a small nuclear heated probe that would melt down through its ice sheet. The probe would then convert to a submersible and travel through the ocean collecting samples. After a few months, the probe would melt its way back up to the MITEE lander, which would have replenished its hydrogen propellant by melting and electrolyzing Europa surface ice. The spacecraft would then return to Earth. Total mission time is only five years, starting from departure from Earth orbit. Other unique missions include Neptune and Pluto orbiter, and even a Pluto sample return. MITEE uses the cermet Tungsten-UO2 fuel developed in the 1960's for the 710 reactor program. The W-UO2 fuel has demonstrated capability to operate in 3000 K hydrogen for

  13. ac propulsion system for an electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geppert, S.

    1980-01-01

    It is pointed out that dc drives will be the logical choice for current production electric vehicles (EV). However, by the mid-80's, there is a good chance that the price and reliability of suitable high-power semiconductors will allow for a competitive ac system. The driving force behind the ac approach is the induction motor, which has specific advantages relative to a dc shunt or series traction motor. These advantages would be an important factor in the case of a vehicle for which low maintenance characteristics are of primary importance. A description of an EV ac propulsion system is provided, taking into account the logic controller, the inverter, the motor, and a two-speed transmission-differential-axle assembly. The main barrier to the employment of the considered propulsion system in EV is not any technical problem, but inverter transistor cost.

  14. Hypersonic Vehicle Propulsion System Simplified Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stueber, Thomas J.; Raitano, Paul; Le, Dzu K.; Ouzts, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This document addresses the modeling task plan for the hypersonic GN&C GRC team members. The overall propulsion system modeling task plan is a multi-step process and the task plan identified in this document addresses the first steps (short term modeling goals). The procedures and tools produced from this effort will be useful for creating simplified dynamic models applicable to a hypersonic vehicle propulsion system. The document continues with the GRC short term modeling goal. Next, a general description of the desired simplified model is presented along with simulations that are available to varying degrees. The simulations may be available in electronic form (FORTRAN, CFD, MatLab,...) or in paper form in published documents. Finally, roadmaps outlining possible avenues towards realizing simplified model are presented.

  15. Human Exploration Mission Capabilities to the Moon, Mars, and Near Earth Asteroids Using ''Bimodal'' NTR Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley K. Borowski; Leonard A. Dudzinski; Melissa L. McGuire

    2000-01-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) is one of the leading propulsion options for future human exploration missions because of its high specific impulse (Isp ∼ 850 to 1000 s) and attractive engine thrust-to-weight ratio (∼ 3 to 10). Because only a minuscule amount of enriched 235 U fuel is consumed in an NRT during the primary propulsion maneuvers of a typical Mars mission, engines configured both for propulsive thrust and modest power generation (referred to as 'bimodal' operation) provide the basis for a robust, power-rich stage with efficient propulsive capture capability at the moon and near-earth asteroids (NEAs), where aerobraking cannot be utilized. A family of modular bimodal NTR (BNTR) space transfer vehicles utilize a common core stage powered by three ∼15-klb f engines that produce 50 kW(electric) of total electrical power for crew life support, high data rate communications with Earth, and an active refrigeration system for long-term, zero-boiloff liquid hydrogen (LH 2 ) storage. This paper describes details of BNTR engines and designs of vehicles using them for various missions

  16. Space nuclear thermal propulsion test facilities accommodation at INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, T.J.; Reed, W.C.; Welland, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force (USAF) has proposed to develop the technology and demonstrate the feasibility of a particle bed reactor (PBR) propulsion system that could be used to power an advanced upper stage rocket engine. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is cooperating with the USAF in that it would host the test facility if the USAF decides to proceed with the technology demonstration. Two DOE locations have been proposed for testing the PBR technology, a new test facility at the Nevada Test Site, or the modification and use of an existing facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The preliminary evaluations performed at the INEL to support the PBR technology testing has been completed. Additional evaluations to scope the required changes or upgrade needed to make the proposed USAF PBR test facility meet the requirements for testing Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear thermal propulsion engines are underway

  17. Space nuclear thermal propulsion test facilities accommodation at INEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Thomas J.; Reed, William C.; Welland, Henry J.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force (USAF) has proposed to develop the technology and demonstrate the feasibility of a particle bed reactor (PBR) propulsion system that could be used to power an advanced upper stage rocket engine. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is cooperating with the USAF in that it would host the test facility if the USAF decides to proceed with the technology demonstration. Two DOE locations have been proposed for testing the PBR technology, a new test facility at the Nevada Test Site, or the modification and use of an existing facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The preliminary evaluations performed at the INEL to support the PBR technology testing has been completed. Additional evaluations to scope the required changes or upgrade needed to make the proposed USAF PBR test facility meet the requirements for testing Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear thermal propulsion engines are underway.

  18. Generation After Next Propulsor Research: Robust Design for Embedded Engine Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arend, David J.; Tillman, Gregory; O'Brien, Walter F.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration, United Technologies Research Center and Virginia Polytechnic and State University have contracted to pursue multi-disciplinary research into boundary layer ingesting (BLI) propulsors for generation after next environmentally responsible subsonic fixed wing aircraft. This Robust Design for Embedded Engine Systems project first conducted a high-level vehicle system study based on a large commercial transport class hybrid wing body aircraft, which determined that a 3 to 5 percent reduction in fuel burn could be achieved over a 7,500 nanometer mission. Both pylon-mounted baseline and BLI propulsion systems were based on a low-pressure-ratio fan (1.35) in an ultra-high-bypass ratio engine (16), consistent with the next generation of advanced commercial turbofans. An optimized, coupled BLI inlet and fan system was subsequently designed to achieve performance targets identified in the system study. The resulting system possesses an inlet with total pressure losses less than 0.5%, and a fan stage with an efficiency debit of less than 1.5 percent relative to the pylon-mounted, clean-inflow baseline. The subject research project has identified tools and methodologies necessary for the design of next-generation, highly-airframe-integrated propulsion systems. These tools will be validated in future large-scale testing of the BLI inlet / fan system in NASA's 8 foot x 6 foot transonic wind tunnel. In addition, fan unsteady response to screen-generated total pressure distortion is being characterized experimentally in a JT15D engine test rig. These data will document engine sensitivities to distortion magnitude and spatial distribution, providing early insight into key physical processes that will control BLI propulsor design.

  19. 46 CFR 109.555 - Propulsion boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Propulsion boilers. 109.555 Section 109.555 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.555 Propulsion boilers. The master or person in charge and the engineer in charge shall...

  20. Integrated null-flux suspension and multiphase propulsion system for magnetically-levitated vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rote, D.M.; He, J.; Johnson, L.R.

    1994-01-04

    A propulsion and stabilization system are described comprising a series of coils mounted vertically on the walls of the guideway to provide suspension, lateral guidance, and propulsion of a magnetically levitated vehicle. This system further allows for altering the magnetic field effects by changing the relative position of the loops comprising the coils either longitudinally and/or vertically with resulting changes in the propulsion, the vertical stability, and the suspension. 8 figures.

  1. Integrated null-flux suspension and multiphase propulsion system for magnetically-levitated vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rote, Donald M.; He, Jianliang; Johnson, Larry R.

    1994-01-01

    A propulsion and stabilization system comprising a series of FIG. 8 coils mounted vertically on the walls of the guideway to provide suspension, lateral guidance and propulsion of a magnetically levitated vehicle. This system further allows for altering the magnetic field effects by changing the relative position of the loops comprising the FIG. 8 coils either longitudinally and/or vertically with resulting changes in the propulsion, the vertical stability, and the suspension.

  2. Development of solid-gas equilibrium propulsion system for small spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chujo, Toshihiro; Mori, Osamu; Kubo, Yuki

    2017-11-01

    A phase equilibrium propulsion system is a kind of cold-gas jet in which the phase equilibrium state of the fuel is maintained in a tank and its vapor is ejected when a valve is opened. One such example is a gas-liquid equilibrium propulsion system that uses liquefied gas as fuel. This system was mounted on the IKAROS solar sail and has been demonstrated in orbit. The system has a higher storage efficiency and a lighter configuration than a high-pressure cold-gas jet because the vapor pressure is lower, and is suitable for small spacecraft. However, the system requires a gas-liquid separation device in order to avoid leakage of the liquid, which makes the system complex. As another example of a phase equilibrium propulsion system, we introduce a solid-gas equilibrium propulsion system, which uses a sublimable substance as fuel and ejects its vapor. This system has an even lower vapor pressure and does not require such a separation device, instead requiring only a filter to keep the solid inside the tank. Moreover, the system is much simpler and lighter, making it more suitable for small spacecraft, especially CubeSat-class spacecraft, and the low thrust of the system allows spacecraft motion to be controlled precisely. In addition, the thrust level can be controlled by controlling the temperature of the fuel, which changes the vapor pressure. The present paper introduces the concept of the proposed system, and describes ejection experiments and its evaluation. The basic function of the proposed system is demonstrated in order to verify its usefulness.

  3. A general purpose diagnostic technique for marine diesel engines - Application on the main propulsion and auxiliary diesel units of a marine vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamaris, V.T.; Hountalas, D.T.

    2010-01-01

    Diesel engines are widely used in marine applications (i.e. propulsion and auxiliaries) except from a few cases where gas or steam turbines are used. This is the result of their high efficiency, power concentration and reliability compared to other compatible or alternative power sources. The proper and efficient operation of the engines (main engine and diesel generator units) in marine applications is critical, and therefore techniques or systems that determine engine current condition and detect potential faults are extremely important. Furthermore, it is advantageous when such techniques can be applied on different engine configurations and provide reliable results, because on a vessel usually exist diesel engines of different type, i.e. the main propulsion unit is a large low-speed two-stroke diesel engine while the diesel generators are four-stroke medium or high speed engines. In the present work is described and evaluated for the first time the application of an improved diagnostic technique, developed by the authors, on both the main engine and the auxiliary units of a commercial marine vessel. The diagnostic technique is based on a thermodynamic simulation model. The simulation model embedded in the technique has been modified, namely an existing two-zone model is replaced by a multi-zone one. With this modification it is avoided model constant tuning with the operating conditions. This is extremely important for the diagnostic philosophy of the proposed technique. Using data from engine shop tests, the simulation model is calibrated (i.e. model constants are determined) and the engine reference condition is obtained. The simulation model is then used to estimate the current engine condition, using field measurements (i.e. cylinder pressure measurements, periphery data, etc.). From the results it is revealed that the diagnosis method provides detailed information for the operating condition of both engines and the values of parameters that cannot be

  4. Centralized versus distributed propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    The functions and requirements of auxiliary propulsion systems are reviewed. None of the three major tasks (attitude control, stationkeeping, and shape control) can be performed by a collection of thrusters at a single central location. If a centralized system is defined as a collection of separated clusters, made up of the minimum number of propulsion units, then such a system can provide attitude control and stationkeeping for most vehicles. A distributed propulsion system is characterized by more numerous propulsion units in a regularly distributed arrangement. Various proposed large space systems are reviewed and it is concluded that centralized auxiliary propulsion is best suited to vehicles with a relatively rigid core. These vehicles may carry a number of flexible or movable appendages. A second group, consisting of one or more large flexible flat plates, may need distributed propulsion for shape control. There is a third group, consisting of vehicles built up from multiple shuttle launches, which may be forced into a distributed system because of the need to add additional propulsion units as the vehicles grow. The effects of distributed propulsion on a beam-like structure were examined. The deflection of the structure under both translational and rotational thrusts is shown as a function of the number of equally spaced thrusters. When two thrusters only are used it is shown that location is an important parameter. The possibility of using distributed propulsion to achieve minimum overall system weight is also examined. Finally, an examination of the active damping by distributed propulsion is described.

  5. Misconceptions of Electric Propulsion Aircraft and Their Emergent Aviation Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mark D.; Fredericks, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Over the past several years there have been aircraft conceptual design and system studies that have reached conflicting conclusions relating to the feasibility of full and hybrid electric aircraft. Some studies and propulsion discipline experts have claimed that battery technologies will need to improve by 10 to 20 times before electric aircraft can effectively compete with reciprocating or turbine engines. However, such studies have approached comparative assessments without understanding the compelling differences that electric propulsion offers, how these technologies will fundamentally alter the way propulsion integration is approached, or how these new technologies can not only compete but far exceed existing propulsion solutions in many ways at battery specific energy densities of only 400 watt hours per kilogram. Electric propulsion characteristics offer the opportunity to achieve 4 to 8 time improvements in energy costs with dramatically lower total operating costs, while dramatically improving efficiency, community noise, propulsion system reliability and safety through redundancy, as well as life cycle Green House Gas emissions. Integration of electric propulsion will involve far greater degrees of distribution than existing propulsion solutions due to their compact and scale-free nature to achieve multi-disciplinary coupling and synergistic integration with the aerodynamics, highlift system, acoustics, vehicle control, balance, and aeroelasticity. Appropriate metrics of comparison and differences in analysis/design tools are discussed while comparing electric propulsion to other disruptive technologies. For several initial applications, battery energy density is already sufficient for competitive products, and for many additional markets energy densities will likely be adequate within the next 7 years for vibrant introduction. Market evolution and early adopter markets are discussed, along with the investment areas that will fill technology gaps and

  6. A new facility for advanced rocket propulsion research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoeckler, Joseph G.; Green, James M.; Raitano, Paul

    1993-06-01

    A new test facility was constructed at the NASA Lewis Research Center Rocket Laboratory for the purpose of conducting rocket propulsion research at up to 8.9 kN (2000 lbf) thrust, using liquid oxygen and gaseous hydrogen propellants. A laser room adjacent to the test cell provides access to the rocket engine for advanced laser diagnostic systems. The size and location of the test cell provide the ability to conduct large amounts of testing in short time periods, with rapid turnover between programs. These capabilities make the new test facility an important asset for basic and applied rocket propulsion research.

  7. Development costs for a nuclear electric propulsion stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondt, J. F.; Prickett, W. Z.

    1973-01-01

    Development costs are presented for an unmanned nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) stage based upon a liquid metal cooled, in-core thermionic reactor. A total of 120 kWe are delivered to the thrust subsystem which employs mercury ion engines for electric propulsion. This study represents the most recent cost evaluation of the development of a reactor power system for a wide range of nuclear space power applications. These include geocentric, and outer planet and other deep space missions. The development program is described for the total NEP stage, based upon specific development programs for key NEP stage components and subsystems.

  8. Recent Electric Propulsion Development Activities for NASA Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pencil, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    (The primary source of electric propulsion development throughout NASA is managed by the In-Space Propulsion Technology Project at the NASA Glenn Research Center for the Science Mission Directorate. The objective of the Electric Propulsion project area is to develop near-term electric propulsion technology to enhance or enable science missions while minimizing risk and cost to the end user. Major hardware tasks include developing NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), developing a long-life High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HIVHAC), developing an advanced feed system, and developing cross-platform components. The objective of the NEXT task is to advance next generation ion propulsion technology readiness. The baseline NEXT system consists of a high-performance, 7-kW ion thruster; a high-efficiency, 7-kW power processor unit (PPU); a highly flexible advanced xenon propellant management system (PMS); a lightweight engine gimbal; and key elements of a digital control interface unit (DCIU) including software algorithms. This design approach was selected to provide future NASA science missions with the greatest value in mission performance benefit at a low total development cost. The objective of the HIVHAC task is to advance the Hall thruster technology readiness for science mission applications. The task seeks to increase specific impulse, throttle-ability and lifetime to make Hall propulsion systems applicable to deep space science missions. The primary application focus for the resulting Hall propulsion system would be cost-capped missions, such as competitively selected, Discovery-class missions. The objective of the advanced xenon feed system task is to demonstrate novel manufacturing techniques that will significantly reduce mass, volume, and footprint size of xenon feed systems over conventional feed systems. This task has focused on the development of a flow control module, which consists of a three-channel flow system based on a piezo-electrically actuated

  9. Cryogenic system options for a superconducting aircraft propulsion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, F; Dodds, Graham; Palmer, J; Bertola, L; Miller, Paul

    2015-01-01

    There is a perceived need in the future for a move away from traditional aircraft designs in order to meet ambitious emissions and fuel burn targets. High temperature superconducting distributed propulsion may be an enabler for aircraft designs that have better propulsive efficiency and lower drag. There has been significant work considering the electrical systems required, but less on the cryogenics to enable it. This paper discusses some of the major choices to be faced in cryocooling for aircraft. The likely need for a disposable cryogen to reduce power demand is explained. A set of cryocooling methods are considered in a sensitivity study, which shows that the feasibility of the cryogenic system will depend strongly on the superconducting technology and the aircraft platform. It is argued that all three aspects must be researched and designed in close collaboration to reach a viable solution. (paper)

  10. Ramgen Power Systems-Supersonic Component Technology for Military Engine Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sohn, Chang W; Holcomb, Franklin H; Baldwin, Peter; Lawlor, Shawn; Steele, Robert C; Belshaw, Karen; Tamm, Gunnar

    2006-01-01

    ...) a unique configuration that minimizes flow stream turning losses throughout the engine. The RPS engine concept can be configured as a high-pressure ratio simple-cycle design for propulsion applications or as a low-pressure ratio recuperated engine...

  11. The circular form of the linear superconducting machine for marine propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakels, J. H.; Mahtani, J. L.; Rhodes, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    The superconducting linear synchronous machine (LSM) is an efficient method of propulsion of advanced ground transport systems and can also be used in marine engineering for the propulsion of large commercial vessels, tankers, and military ships. It provides high torque at low shaft speeds and ease of reversibility; a circular LSM design is proposed as a drive motor. The equipment is compared with the superconducting homopolar motors, showing flexibility in design, built in redundancy features, and reliability.

  12. JANNAF 18th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This volume, the first of two volumes is a compilation of 18 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 18th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) meeting held jointly with the 36th Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and 24th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS) meetings. The meeting was held 18-21 October 1999 at NASA Kennedy Space Center and The DoubleTree Oceanfront Hotel, Cocoa Beach, Florida. Topics covered at the PSHS meeting include: shaped charge jet and kinetic energy penetrator impact vulnerability of gun propellants; thermal decomposition and cookoff behavior of energetic materials; violent reaction; detonation phenomena of solid energetic materials subjected to shock and impact stimuli; and hazard classification, insensitive munitions, and propulsion systems safety.

  13. Handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipers, L.R.; Allen, G.C.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

  14. Engineering thermal engine rocket adventurer for space nuclear application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Seung H.; Suh, Kune Y.; Kang, Seong G.

    2008-01-01

    The conceptual design for the first-of-a-kind engineering of Thermal Engine Rocket Adventure (TERA) is described. TERA comprising the Battery Omnibus Reactor Integral System (BORIS) as the heat resource and the Space Propulsion Reactor Integral System (SPRIS) as the propulsion system, is one of the advanced Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) engine utilizing hydrogen (H 2 ) propellant being developed at present time. BORIS in this application is an open cycle high temperature gas cooled reactor that has eighteen fuel elements for propulsion and one fuel element for electricity generation and propellant pumping. Each fuel element for propulsion has its own small nozzle. The nineteen fuel elements are arranged into hexagonal prism shape in the core and surrounded by outer Be reflector. The TERA maximum power is 1,000 MW th , specific impulse 1,000 s, thrust 250,000 N, and the total mass is 550 kg including the reactor, turbo pump and auxiliaries. Each fuel element comprises the fuel assembly, moderators, pressure tube and small nozzle. The TERA fuel assembly is fabricated of 93% enriched 1.5 mm (U, Zr, Nb)C wafers in 25.3% voided Square Lattice Honeycomb (SLHC). The H 2 propellant passes through these flow channels. This study is concerned with thermohydrodynamic analysis of the fuel element for propulsion with hypothetical axial power distribution because nuclear analysis of TERA has not been performed yet. As a result, when the power distribution of INSPI's M-SLHC is applied to the fuel assembly, the local heat concentration of fuel is more serious and the pressure of the initial inlet H 2 is higher than those of constant average power distribution applied. This means the fuel assembly geometry of 1.5 mm fuel wafers and 25.3% voided SLHC needs to be changed in order to reduce thermal and mechanical shocks. (author)

  15. The Ion Propulsion System for the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Santiago, Walter; Kamhawi, Hani; Polk, James E.; Snyder, John Steven; Hofer, Richard; Sekerak, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission is a Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission (ARRM) whose main objectives are to develop and demonstrate a high-power solar electric propulsion capability for the Agency and return an asteroidal mass for rendezvous and characterization in a companion human-crewed mission. This high-power solar electric propulsion capability, or an extensible derivative of it, has been identified as a critical part of NASA's future beyond-low-Earth-orbit, human-crewed exploration plans. This presentation presents the conceptual design of the ARRM ion propulsion system, the status of the NASA in-house thruster and power processing development activities, the status of the planned technology maturation for the mission through flight hardware delivery, and the status of the mission formulation and spacecraft acquisition.

  16. The TRANSRAPID propulsion system - development and test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, U [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Kamp, P G [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Hochleitner, J [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The structure of the propulsion system for the Transrapid comprises a number of components which are located along the guideway. These drive components are temporarily switched together to form the drive control zones necessary to permit maglev operation over the guideway. The paper describes the development of the stationary propulsion converter with GTO thyristors. The drive components are tested under realistic operating conditions. The test results confirm the performance capability as well as verify the suitability of the concept for use in revenue service. (HW)

  17. A conceptual study of the use of a particle bed reactor nuclear propulsion module for the orbital maneuvering vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malloy, J.; Potekhen, D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines the use of a particle bed reactor nuclear engine for direct thrust in a spacecraft based on the NASA/TRW orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV). It presents the conceptual design of a 500 lb thrust engine that matches critical design features of the existing OMV bi-propellant propulsion system. This application contrasts with the usual tendency to consider a nuclear heat source either for high thrust direct propulsion or as a power source for electric propulsion. A nuclear propulsion module adapted to the OMV could potentially accomplish several Department of Defense missions, such as multiple round trips from a space-based support platform at 280 NM to service a constellation of satellites orbiting at 1800 NM

  18. Vehicle Propulsion Systems Introduction to Modeling and Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Guzzella, Lino

    2013-01-01

    This text provides an introduction to the mathematical modeling and subsequent optimization of vehicle propulsion systems and their supervisory control algorithms. Automobiles are responsible for a substantial part of the world's consumption of primary energy, mostly fossil liquid hydrocarbons and the reduction of the fuel consumption of these vehicles has become a top priority. Increasing concerns over fossil fuel consumption and the associated environmental impacts have motivated many groups in industry and academia to propose new propulsion systems and to explore new optimization methodologies. This third edition has been prepared to include many of these developments. In the third edition, exercises are included at the end of each chapter and the solutions are available on the web.

  19. Application of SDI technology in space propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    Numerous technologies developed by the DOD within the SDI program are now available for adaptation to the requirements of commercial spacecraft; SDI has accordingly organized the Technology Applications Information System data base, which contains nearly 2000 nonproprietary abstracts on SDI technology. Attention is here given to such illustrative systems as hydrogen arcjets, ammonia arcjets, ion engines, SSTO launch vehicles, gel propellants, lateral thrusters, pulsed electrothermal thrusters, laser-powered rockets, and nuclear propulsion

  20. NASA Propulsion Concept Studies and Risk Reduction Activities for Resource Prospector Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Huu P.; Williams, Hunter; Burnside, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The trade study has led to the selection of propulsion concept with the lowest cost and net lowest risk -Government-owned, flight qualified components -Meet mission requirements although the configuration is not optimized. Risk reduction activities have provided an opportunity -Implement design improvements while development with the early-test approach. -Gain knowledge on the operation and identify operation limit -Data to anchor analytical models for future flight designs; The propulsion system cold flow tests series have provided valuable data for future design. -The pressure surge from the system priming and waterhammer within component operation limits. -Enable to optimize the ullage volume to reduce the propellant tank mass; RS-34 hot fire tests have successfully demonstrated of using the engines for the RP mission -No degradation of performance due to extended storage life of the hardware. -Enable to operate the engine for RP flight mission scenarios, outside of the qualification regime. -Provide extended data for the thermal and GNC designs. Significant progress has been made on NASA propulsion concept design and risk reductions for Resource Prospector lander.

  1. Engineering method for aero-propulsive characteristics at hypersonic Mach numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goradia, Suresh; Torres, Abel O.; Stack, Sharon H.; Everhart, Joel L.

    1991-01-01

    An engineering method has been developed for the rapid analysis of external aerodynamics and propulsive performance characteristics of airbreathing vehicles at hypersonic Mach numbers. This method, based on the theory of characteristics, has been developed to analyze fuselage-wing body combinations and body flaps with blunt or sharp leading/trailing edges. Arbitrary ratio of specific heat for the flowing medium can be specified in the program. Furthermore, the capability exists in the code to compute the inviscid inlet mass capture and momentum flux. The method is under development for computations of pressure distribution, and flow characteristics in the inlet, along with the effect of viscosity. Correlative studies have been performed for representative hypersonic configurations using the current method. The results of these correlations for various aerodynamics parameters are encouraging.

  2. Shielding requirements for particle bed propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruneisen, S. J.

    1991-06-01

    Nuclear Thermal Propulsion systems present unique challenges in reliability and safety. Due to the radiation incident upon all components of the propulsion system, shielding must be used to keep nuclear heating in the materials within limits; in addition, electronic control systems must be protected. This report analyzes the nuclear heating due to the radiation and the shielding required to meet the established criteria while also minimizing the shield mass. Heating rates were determined in a 2000 MWt Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) system for all materials in the interstage region, between the reactor vessel and the propellant tank, with special emphasis on meeting the silicon dose criteria. Using a Lithium Hydride/Tungsten shield, the optimum shield design was found to be: 50 cm LiH/2 cm W on the axial reflector in the reactor vessel and 50 cm LiH/2 cm W in a collar extension of the inside shield outside of the pressure vessel. Within these parameters, the radiation doses in all of the components in the interstage and lower tank regions would be within acceptable limits for mission requirements.

  3. Thermal-hydraulics Analysis of a Radioisotope-powered Mars Hopper Propulsion System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, Robert C.; Klein, Andrew C.; Taitano, William T.; Gibson, Justice; Myers, Brian; Howe, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal-hydraulics analyses results produced using a combined suite of computational design and analysis codes are presented for the preliminary design of a concept Radioisotope Thermal Rocket (RTR) propulsion system. Modeling of the transient heating and steady state temperatures of the system is presented. Simulation results for propellant blow down during impulsive operation are also presented. The results from this study validate the feasibility of a practical thermally capacitive RTR propulsion system.

  4. Advancing the practice of systems engineering at JPL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansma, Patti A.; Jones, Ross M.

    2006-01-01

    In FY 2004, JPL launched an initiative to improve the way it practices systems engineering. The Lab's senior management formed the Systems Engineering Advancement (SEA) Project in order to "significantly advance the practice and organizational capabilities of systems engineering at JPL on flight projects and ground support tasks." The scope of the SEA Project includes the systems engineering work performed in all three dimensions of a program, project, or task: 1. the full life-cycle, i.e., concept through end of operations 2. the full depth, i.e., Program, Project, System, Subsystem, Element (SE Levels 1 to 5) 3. the full technical scope, e.g., the flight, ground and launch systems, avionics, power, propulsion, telecommunications, thermal, etc. The initial focus of their efforts defined the following basic systems engineering functions at JPL: systems architecture, requirements management, interface definition, technical resource management, system design and analysis, system verification and validation, risk management, technical peer reviews, design process management and systems engineering task management, They also developed a list of highly valued personal behaviors of systems engineers, and are working to inculcate those behaviors into members of their systems engineering community. The SEA Project is developing products, services, and training to support managers and practitioners throughout the entire system lifecycle. As these are developed, each one needs to be systematically deployed. Hence, the SEA Project developed a deployment process that includes four aspects: infrastructure and operations, communication and outreach, education and training, and consulting support. In addition, the SEA Project has taken a proactive approach to organizational change management and customer relationship management - both concepts and approaches not usually invoked in an engineering environment. This paper'3 describes JPL's approach to advancing the practice of

  5. Tools for advanced simulations to nuclear propulsion systems in rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Sepulveda, A.; Perez Vara, R.

    2004-01-01

    While chemical propulsion rockets have dominated space exploration, other forms of rocket propulsion based on nuclear power, electrostatic and magnetic drive, and other principles besides chemical reactions, have been considered from the earliest days of the field. The goal of most of these advanced rocket propulsion schemes is improved efficiency through higher exhaust velocities, in order to reduce the amount of fuel the rocket vehicle needs to carry, though generally at the expense of high thrust. Nuclear propulsion seems to be the most promising short term technology to plan realistic interplanetary missions. The development of a nuclear electric propulsion spacecraft shall require the development of models to analyse the mission and to understand the interaction between the related subsystems (nuclear reactor, electrical converter, power management and distribution, and electric propulsion) during the different phases of the mission. This paper explores the modelling of a nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) spacecraft type using EcosimPro simulation software. This software is a multi-disciplinary simulation tool with a powerful object-oriented simulation language and state-of-the-art solvers. EcosimPro is the recommended ESA simulation tool for environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and has been used successfully within the framework of the European activities of the International Space Station programme. Furthermore, propulsion libraries for chemical and electrical propulsion are currently being developed under ESA contracts to set this tool as standard usage in the propulsion community. At present, there is not any workable NEP spacecraft, but a standardized-modular, multi-purpose interplanetary spacecraft for post-2000 missions, called ISC-2000, has been proposed in reference. The simulation model presented on this paper is based on the preliminary designs for this spacecraft. (Author)

  6. Development priorities for in-space propulsion technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Meyer, Michael; Palaszewski, Bryan; Coote, David; Goebel, Dan; White, Harold

    2013-02-01

    During the summer of 2010, NASA's Office of Chief Technologist assembled 15 civil service teams to support the creation of a NASA integrated technology roadmap. The Aero-Space Technology Area Roadmap is an integrated set of technology area roadmaps recommending the overall technology investment strategy and prioritization for NASA's technology programs. The integrated set of roadmaps will provide technology paths needed to meet NASA's strategic goals. The roadmaps have been reviewed by senior NASA management and the National Research Council. With the exception of electric propulsion systems used for commercial communications satellite station-keeping and a handful of deep space science missions, almost all of the rocket engines in use today are chemical rockets; that is, they obtain the energy needed to generate thrust by combining reactive chemicals to create a hot gas that is expanded to produce thrust. A significant limitation of chemical propulsion is that it has a relatively low specific impulse. Numerous concepts for advanced propulsion technologies with significantly higher values of specific impulse have been developed over the past 50 years. Advanced in-space propulsion technologies will enable much more effective exploration of our solar system, near and far, and will permit mission designers to plan missions to "fly anytime, anywhere, and complete a host of science objectives at the destinations" with greater reliability and safety. With a wide range of possible missions and candidate propulsion technologies with very diverse characteristics, the question of which technologies are 'best' for future missions is a difficult one. A portfolio of technologies to allow optimum propulsion solutions for a diverse set of missions and destinations are described in the roadmap and herein.

  7. Propulsion Systems in Water Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Fujisawa

    1995-01-01

    agreement with the field experiment with prototype craft. Measurements are also made for the losses in the intake and the nozzle. The optimization study of the water jet systems is conducted by simulating the change of the nozzle outlet diameter with the variable nozzle arrangement. It is suggested that the nozzle outlet diameter should be decreased as the craft velocity increases to obtain an optimum propulsive efficiency in a wide range of craft velocity.

  8. In-Space Propulsion Technology Products for NASA's Future Science and Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David J.; Pencil, Eric; Peterson, Todd; Dankanich, John; Munk, Michelle M.

    2011-01-01

    Since 2001, the In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) project has been developing and delivering in-space propulsion technologies that will enable or enhance NASA robotic science missions. These in-space propulsion technologies are applicable, and potentially enabling, for future NASA flagship and sample return missions currently being considered, as well as having broad applicability to future competed mission solicitations. The high-temperature Advanced Material Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) engine providing higher performance for lower cost was completed in 2009. Two other ISPT technologies are nearing completion of their technology development phase: 1) NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system, a 0.6-7 kW throttle-able gridded ion system; and 2) Aerocapture technology development with investments in a family of thermal protection system (TPS) materials and structures; guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) models of blunt-body rigid aeroshells; aerothermal effect models: and atmospheric models for Earth, Titan, Mars and Venus. This paper provides status of the technology development, applicability, and availability of in-space propulsion technologies that have recently completed their technology development and will be ready for infusion into NASA s Discovery, New Frontiers, Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Flagship, and Exploration technology demonstration missions

  9. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program semiannual progress report for October 1996 through March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1-3 trucks to realize a 35% fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7-8 trucks. The design of advanced components for high-efficiency diesel engines has, in some cases, pushed the performance envelope for materials of construction past the point of reliable operation. Higher mechanical and tribological stresses and higher temperatures of advanced designs limit the engine designers; advanced materials allow the design of components that may operate reliably at higher stresses and temperatures, thus enabling more efficient engine designs. Advanced materials also offer the opportunity to improve the emissions, NVH, and performance of diesel engines for pickup trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles. The principal areas of research are: (1) cost effective high performance materials and processing; (2) advanced manufacturing technology; (3) testing and characterization; and (4) materials and testing standards.

  10. Integrated Neural Flight and Propulsion Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneshige, John; Gundy-Burlet, Karen; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated neural flight and propulsion control system. which uses a neural network based approach for applying alternate sources of control power in the presence of damage or failures. Under normal operating conditions, the system utilizes conventional flight control surfaces. Neural networks are used to provide consistent handling qualities across flight conditions and for different aircraft configurations. Under damage or failure conditions, the system may utilize unconventional flight control surface allocations, along with integrated propulsion control, when additional control power is necessary for achieving desired flight control performance. In this case, neural networks are used to adapt to changes in aircraft dynamics and control allocation schemes. Of significant importance here is the fact that this system can operate without emergency or backup flight control mode operations. An additional advantage is that this system can utilize, but does not require, fault detection and isolation information or explicit parameter identification. Piloted simulation studies were performed on a commercial transport aircraft simulator. Subjects included both NASA test pilots and commercial airline crews. Results demonstrate the potential for improving handing qualities and significantly increasing survivability rates under various simulated failure conditions.

  11. An historical collection of papers on nuclear thermal propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present volume of historical papers on nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) encompasses NTP technology development regarding solid-core NTP technology, advanced concepts from the early years of NTP research, and recent activities in the field. Specific issues addressed include NERVA rocket-engine technology, the development of nuclear rocket propulsion at Los Alamos, fuel-element development, reactor testing for the Rover program, and an overview of NTP concepts and research emphasizing two decades of NASA research. Also addressed are the development of the 'nuclear light bulb' closed-cycle gas core and a demonstration of a fissioning UF6 gas in an argon vortex. The recent developments reviewed include the application of NTP to NASA's Lunar Space Transportation System, the use of NTP for the Space Exploration Initiative, and the development of nuclear rocket engines in the former Soviet Union.

  12. Advanced supersonic propulsion study, phase 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    Installation characteristics for a Variable Stream Control Engine (VSCE) were studied for three advanced supersonic airplane designs. Sensitivity of the VSCE concept to change in technology projections was evaluated in terms of impact on overall installed performance. Based on these sensitivity results, critical technology requirements were reviewed, resulting in the reaffirmation of the following requirements: low-noise nozzle system; a high performance, low emissions duct burner and main burner; hot section technology; variable geometry components; and propulsion integration features, including an integrated electronic control system.

  13. Model-Based Systems Engineering Approach to Managing Mass Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Seung H.; Bayer, Todd J.; Cole, Bjorn; Cooke, Brian; Dekens, Frank; Delp, Christopher; Lam, Doris

    2012-01-01

    When designing a flight system from concept through implementation, one of the fundamental systems engineering tasks ismanaging the mass margin and a mass equipment list (MEL) of the flight system. While generating a MEL and computing a mass margin is conceptually a trivial task, maintaining consistent and correct MELs and mass margins can be challenging due to the current practices of maintaining duplicate information in various forms, such as diagrams and tables, and in various media, such as files and emails. We have overcome this challenge through a model-based systems engineering (MBSE) approach within which we allow only a single-source-of-truth. In this paper we describe the modeling patternsused to capture the single-source-of-truth and the views that have been developed for the Europa Habitability Mission (EHM) project, a mission concept study, at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).

  14. DUAL-MODE PROPULSION SYSTEM ENABLING CUBESAT EXPLORATION OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Phase I Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathan Jerred; Troy Howe; Adarsh Rajguru; Dr. Steven Howe

    2014-06-01

    It is apparent the cost of planetary exploration is rising as mission budgets declining. Currently small scientific beds geared to performing limited tasks are being developed and launched into low earth orbit (LEO) in the form of small-scale satellite units, i.e., CubeSats. These micro- and nano-satellites are gaining popularity among the university and science communities due to their relatively low cost and design flexibility. To date these small units have been limited to performing tasks in LEO utilizing solar-based power. If a reasonable propulsion system could be developed, these CubeSat platforms could perform exploration of various extra-terrestrial bodies within the solar system engaging a broader range of researchers. Additionally, being mindful of mass, smaller cheaper launch vehicles (~1,000 kgs to LEO) can be targeted. This, in effect, allows for beneficial explora-tion to be conducted within limited budgets. Researchers at the Center for Space Nuclear Re-search (CSNR) are proposing a low mass, radioisotope-based, dual-mode propulsion system capable of extending the exploration realm of these CubeSats out of LEO. The proposed radioisotope-based system would leverage the high specific energies [J/kg] associated with radioisotope materials and enhance their inherent low specific powers [W/g]. This is accomplished by accumulating thermal energy from nuclear decay within a central core over time. This allows for significant amounts of power to be transferred to a flowing gas over short periods of time. In the proposed configuration the stored energy can be utilized in two ways: (1) with direct propellant injection to the core, the energy can be converted into thrust through the use of a converging-diverging nozzle and (2) by flowing a working fluid through the core and subsequent Brayton engine, energy within the core can be converted to electrical energy. The first scenario achieves moderate ranges of thrust, but at a higher Isp than traditional chemical

  15. FY2014 Propulsion Materials R&D Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-01

    The Propulsion Materials Program actively supports the energy security and reduction of greenhouse emissions goals of VTO by investigating and identifying the materials properties that are most essential for continued development of cost-effective, highly efficient, and environmentally friendly next-generation heavy and light-duty powertrains. The technical approaches available to enhance propulsion systems focus on improvements in both vehicle efficiency and fuel substitution, both of which must overcome the performance limitations of the materials currently in use. Propulsion Materials Program activities work with national laboratories, industry experts, and VTO powertrain systems (e.g., Advanced Combustion Engines [ACE], Advanced Power Electronics and Electrical Machines [APEEM], and fuels) teams to develop strategies that overcome materials limitations in future powertrain performance. The technical maturity of the portfolio of funded projects ranges from basic science to subsystem prototype validation. Projects within a Propulsion Materials Program activity address materials concerns that directly impact critical technology barriers within each of the above programs, including barriers that impact fuel efficiency, thermal management, emissions reduction, improved reliability, and reduced manufacturing costs. The program engages only the barriers that result from material property limitations and represent fundamental, high-risk materials issues.

  16. Parallel Hybrid Gas-Electric Geared Turbofan Engine Conceptual Design and Benefits Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lents, Charles; Hardin, Larry; Rheaume, Jonathan; Kohlman, Lee

    2016-01-01

    The conceptual design of a parallel gas-electric hybrid propulsion system for a conventional single aisle twin engine tube and wing vehicle has been developed. The study baseline vehicle and engine technology are discussed, followed by results of the hybrid propulsion system sizing and performance analysis. The weights analysis for the electric energy storage & conversion system and thermal management system is described. Finally, the potential system benefits are assessed.

  17. Nuclear Electric Propulsion mission engineering study covering the period April 1971 to January 1973. Volume I. Executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-03-01

    The results of a mission engineering analysis of nuclear-thermionic electric propulsion spacecraft for unmanned interplanetary and geocentric missions are presented. Critical technologies assessed are associated with the development of Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP), and the impact of its availability on future space programs. Specific areas of investigation include outer planet and comet rendezvous mission analysis, NEP Stage design for geocentric and interplanetary missions, NEP system development cost and unit costs, and technology requirements for NEP Stage development. A multimission NEP Stage can be developed to perform both multiple geocentric and interplanetary missions. Development program costs for a 1983 launch would be of the order of $275 M, including hardware and reactor development, flight system hardware, and mission support. Recurring unit costs for flight NEP systems would be of the order of $25 M for a 120 kWe NEP Stage. Identified pacing NEP technology requirements are the development of 20,000 full power hour ion thrusters and thermionic reactor, and the development of related power conditioning. The resulting NEP Stage design provides both inherent reliability and high payload mass capability. High payload mass capability can be translated into both low payload cost and high payload reliability. NEP Stage and payload integration is compatible with the Space Shuttle

  18. Propulsion Noise Reduction Research in the NASA Advanced Air Transport Technology Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zante, Dale; Nark, Douglas; Fernandez, Hamilton

    2017-01-01

    The Aircraft Noise Reduction (ANR) sub-project is focused on the generation, development, and testing of component noise reduction technologies progressing toward the NASA far term noise goals while providing associated near and mid-term benefits. The ANR sub-project has efforts in airframe noise reduction, propulsion (including fan and core) noise reduction, acoustic liner technology, and propulsion airframe aeroacoustics for candidate conventional and unconventional aircraft configurations. The current suite of propulsion specific noise research areas is reviewed along with emerging facility and measurement capabilities. In the longer term, the changes in engine and aircraft configuration will influence the suite of technologies necessary to reduce noise in next generation systems.

  19. MSFC Propulsion Systems Department Knowledge Management Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraccioli, Paul A.

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Knowledge Management (KM) project of the Propulsion Systems Department at Marshall Space Flight Center. KM is needed to support knowledge capture, preservation and to support an information sharing culture. The presentation includes the strategic plan for the KM initiative, the system requirements, the technology description, the User Interface and custom features, and a search demonstration.

  20. Investigation of the I-40 Jet-Propulsion Engine in the Cleveland Altitude Wind Tunnel. V - Operational Characteristics. 5; Operational Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golladay, Richard L.; Gendler, Stanley L.

    1947-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel to determine the operational characteristics of the I-40 jet-propulsion engine over a range of pressure altitudes from 10,000 to 50,000 feet and ram-pressure ratios from 1.00 to 1.76. Engine operational data were obtained with the engine in the standard configuration and with various modifications of the fuel system, the electrical system, and the combustion chambers. The effects of altitude and airspeed on operating speed range, starting, windmilli.ng, acceleration, speed regulation, cooling, and vibration of the standard and modified engines were determined, and damage to parts was noted. Maximum engine speed was obtainable at all altitudes and airspeeds wi th each fuel-control system investigated. The minimum idling speed was raised by increases in altitude and airspeed. The lowest minimum stable speeds were obtained with the standard configuration using 40-gallon nozzles with individual metering plugs. The engine was started normally at altitudes as high as 20,000 feet with all of the fuel systems and ignition combinations except one. Ignition at 70,000 feet was difficult and, although successful ignition occurred, acceleration was slow and usually characterized by excessive tail-pipe temperature. During windmilling investigations of the engine equipped with the standard fuel system, the engine could not be started at ram-pressure ratios of 1.1 to 1.7 at altitudes of 10,000, 20,000 and 30,000 feet. When equipped with the production barometric and Monarch 40-gallon nozzles, the engine accelerated in 12 seconds from an engine speed of 6000 rpm to 11,000 rpm at 20,000 feet and an average tail-pipe temperature of 11000 F. At the same altitude and temperature, all the engine configurations had approximately the same rate of acceleration. The Woodward governor produced the safest accelerations, inasmuch as it could be adjusted to automatically prevent acceleration blow out. The engine speed was

  1. Overview of the Development and Mission Application of the Advanced Electric Propulsion System (AEPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Tofil, Todd A.; Santiago, Walter; Kamhawi, Hani; Polk, James E.; Snyder, John S.; Hofer, Richard R.; Picha, Frank Q.; Jackson, Jerry; Allen, May

    2018-01-01

    NASA remains committed to the development and demonstration of a high-power solar electric propulsion capability for the Agency. NASA is continuing to develop the 14 kW Advanced Electric Propulsion System (AEPS), which has recently completed an Early Integrated System Test and System Preliminary Design Review. NASA continues to pursue Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) Technology Demonstration Mission partners and mature high-power SEP mission concepts. The recent announcement of the development of a Power and Propulsion Element (PPE) as the first element of an evolvable human architecture to Mars has replaced the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM) as the most probable first application of the AEPS Hall thruster system. This high-power SEP capability, or an extensible derivative of it, has been identified as a critical part of an affordable, beyond-low-Earth-orbit, manned exploration architecture. This paper presents the status of the combined NASA and Aerojet Rocketdyne AEPS development activities and updated mission concept for implementation of the AEPS hardware as part of the ion propulsion system for a PPE.

  2. The Chameleon Solid Rocket Propulsion Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    2010-01-01

    The Khoury and Weltman (2004a and 2004b) Chameleon Model presents an addition to the gravitation force and was shown by the author (Robertson, 2009a and 2009b) to present a new means by which one can view other forces in the Universe. The Chameleon Model is basically a density-dependent model and while the idea is not new, this model is novel in that densities in the Universe to include the vacuum of space are viewed as scalar fields. Such an analogy gives the Chameleon scalar field, dark energy/dark matter like characteristics; fitting well within cosmological expansion theories. In respect to this forum, in this paper, it is shown how the Chameleon Model can be used to derive the thrust of a solid rocket motor. This presents a first step toward the development of new propulsion models using density variations verse mass ejection as the mechanism for thrust. Further, through the Chameleon Model connection, these new propulsion models can be tied to dark energy/dark matter toward new space propulsion systems utilizing the vacuum scalar field in a way understandable by engineers, the key toward the development of such systems. This paper provides corrections to the Chameleon rocket model in Robertson (2009b).

  3. Propulsion System Dynamic Modeling of the NASA Supersonic Concept Vehicle for AeroPropulsoServoElasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Seiel, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A summary of the propulsion system modeling under NASA's High Speed Project (HSP) AeroPropulsoServoElasticity (APSE) task is provided with a focus on the propulsion system for the low-boom supersonic configuration developed by Lockheed Martin and referred to as the N+2 configuration. This summary includes details on the effort to date to develop computational models for the various propulsion system components. The objective of this paper is to summarize the model development effort in this task, while providing more detail in the modeling areas that have not been previously published. The purpose of the propulsion system modeling and the overall APSE effort is to develop an integrated dynamic vehicle model to conduct appropriate unsteady analysis of supersonic vehicle performance. This integrated APSE system model concept includes the propulsion system model, and the vehicle structural aerodynamics model. The development to date of such a preliminary integrated model will also be summarized in this report

  4. Mars Hybrid Propulsion System Trajectory Analysis. Part II; Cargo Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Qu, Min

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Human Spaceflight Architecture Team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture in which both chemical and electric propulsion systems are used to send crew and cargo to Mars destinations such as Phobos, Deimos, the surface of Mars, and other orbits around Mars. By combining chemical and electrical propulsion into a single spaceship and applying each where it is more effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel-efficient than an all chemical architecture without significant increases in flight times. This paper shows the feasibility of the hybrid transportation architecture to pre-deploy cargo to Mars and Phobos in support of the Evolvable Mars Campaign crew missions. The analysis shows that the hybrid propulsion stage is able to deliver all of the current manifested payload to Phobos and Mars through the first three crew missions. The conjunction class trajectory also allows the hybrid propulsion stage to return to Earth in a timely fashion so it can be reused for additional cargo deployment. The 1,100 days total trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to deliver cargo to Mars every other Earth-Mars transit opportunity. For the first two Mars surface mission in the Evolvable Mars Campaign, the short trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to be reused for three round-trip journeys to Mars, which matches the hybrid propulsion stage's designed lifetime for three round-trip crew missions to the Martian sphere of influence.

  5. Adaptive Time Stepping for Transient Network Flow Simulation in Rocket Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Alok K.; Ravindran, S. S.

    2017-01-01

    Fluid and thermal transients found in rocket propulsion systems such as propellant feedline system is a complex process involving fast phases followed by slow phases. Therefore their time accurate computation requires use of short time step initially followed by the use of much larger time step. Yet there are instances that involve fast-slow-fast phases. In this paper, we present a feedback control based adaptive time stepping algorithm, and discuss its use in network flow simulation of fluid and thermal transients. The time step is automatically controlled during the simulation by monitoring changes in certain key variables and by feedback. In order to demonstrate the viability of time adaptivity for engineering problems, we applied it to simulate water hammer and cryogenic chill down in pipelines. Our comparison and validation demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of this adaptive strategy.

  6. Propulsion Study for Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, J. C.; Earle, R. V.; Staton, D. V.; Stolp, P. C.; Huelster, D. S.; Zolezzi, B. A.

    1980-01-01

    Propulsion requirements were determined for 0.5 and 0.7 Mach aircraft. Sensitivity studies were conducted on both these aircraft to determine parametrically the influence of propulsion characteristics on aircraft size and direct operating cost (DOC). Candidate technology elements and design features were identified and parametric studies conducted to select the STAT advanced engine cycle. Trade off studies were conducted to determine those advanced technologies and design features that would offer a reduction in DOC for operation of the STAT engines. These features were incorporated in the two STAT engines. A benefit assessment was conducted comparing the STAT engines to current technology engines of the same power and to 1985 derivatives of the current technology engines. Research and development programs were recommended as part of an overall technology development plan to ensure that full commercial development of the STAT engines could be initiated in 1988.

  7. REIMR - A Process for Utilizing Liquid Rocket Propulsion-Oriented 'Lessons Learned' to Mitigate Development Risk in Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a summary overview of a study conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA-MSFC) during the initial phases of the Space Launch Initiative (SLI) program to evaluate a large number of technical problems associated with the design, development, test, evaluation and operation of several major liquid propellant rocket engine systems (i.e., SSME, Fastrac, J-2, F-1). One of the primary results of this study was the identification of the 'Fundamental Root Causes' that enabled the technical problems to manifest, and practices that can be implemented to prevent them from recurring in future propulsion system development efforts, such as that which is currently envisioned in the field of nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP). This paper will discus the Fundamental Root Causes, cite some examples of how the technical problems arose from them, and provide a discussion of how they can be mitigated or avoided in the development of an NTP system

  8. REIMR - A Process for Utilizing Liquid Rocket Propulsion-Oriented 'Lessons Learned' to Mitigate Development Risk in Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, RIchard O.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a summary overview of a study conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA MSFC) during the initial phases of the Space Launch Initiative (SLI) program to evaluate a large number of technical problems associated with the design, development, test, evaluation and operation of several major liquid propellant rocket engine systems (i.e., SSME, Fastrac, J-2, F-1). One of the primary results of this study was the identification of the Fundamental Root Causes that enabled the technical problems to manifest, and practices that can be implemented to prevent them from recurring in future propulsion system development efforts, such as that which is currently envisioned in the field of nuclear thermal propulsion (NTF). This paper will discuss the Fundamental Root Causes, cite some examples of how the technical problems arose from them, and provide a discussion of how they can be mitigated or avoided in the development of an NTP system

  9. System Noise Prediction of the DGEN 380 Turbofan Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    The DGEN 380 is a small, separate-flow, geared turbofan. Its manufacturer, Price Induction, is promoting it for a small twinjet application in the emerging personal light jet market. Smaller, and producing less thrust than other entries in the industry, Price Induction is seeking to apply the engine to a 4- to 5-place twinjet designed to compete in an area currently dominated by propeller-driven airplanes. NASA is considering purchasing a DGEN 380 turbofan to test new propulsion noise reduction technologies in a relevant engine environment. To explore this possibility, NASA and Price Induction have signed a Space Act Agreement and have agreed to cooperate on engine acoustic testing. Static acoustic measurements of the engine were made by NASA researchers during July, 2014 at the Glenn Research Center. In the event that a DGEN turbofan becomes a NASA noise technology research testbed, it is in the interest of NASA to develop procedures to evaluate engine system noise metrics. This report documents the procedures used to project the DGEN static noise measurements to flight conditions and the prediction of system noise of a notional airplane powered by twin DGEN engines.

  10. Overview of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project's Propulsion Technology Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suder, Kenneth L.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project is focused on developing and demonstrating integrated systems technologies to TRL 4-6 by 2020 that enable reduced fuel burn, emissions, and noise for futuristic air vehicles. The specific goals aim to simultaneously reduce fuel burn by 50%, reduce Landing and Take-off Nitrous Oxides emissions by 75% relative to the CAEP 6 guidelines, and reduce cumulative noise by 42 Decibels relative to the Stage 4 guidelines. These goals apply to the integrated vehicle and propulsion system and are based on a reference mission of 3000nm flight of a Boeing 777-200 with GE90 engines. This paper will focus primarily on the ERA propulsion technology portfolio, which consists of advanced combustion, propulsor, and core technologies to enable these integrated air vehicle systems goals. An overview of the ERA propulsion technologies will be described and the status and results to date will be presented.

  11. In-Space Propulsion Technology Products Ready for Infusion on NASA's Future Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David J.; Pencil, Eric; Peterson, Todd; Dankanich, John; Munk, Michele M.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2001, the In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) program has been developing and delivering in-space propulsion technologies that will enable or enhance NASA robotic science missions. These in-space propulsion technologies are applicable, and potentially enabling, for future NASA flagship and sample return missions currently being considered. They have a broad applicability to future competed mission solicitations. The high-temperature Advanced Material Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) engine, providing higher performance for lower cost, was completed in 2009. Two other ISPT technologies are nearing completion of their technology development phase: 1) NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system, a 0.6-7 kW throttle-able gridded ion system; and 2) Aerocapture technology development with investments in a family of thermal protection system (TPS) materials and structures; guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) models of blunt-body rigid aeroshells; aerothermal effect models; and atmospheric models for Earth, Titan, Mars and Venus. This paper provides status of the technology development, applicability, and availability of in-space propulsion technologies that have recently completed their technology development and will be ready for infusion into NASA s Discovery, New Frontiers, SMD Flagship, or technology demonstration missions.

  12. Numerical analysis of a waterjet propulsion system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulten, N.W.H.

    2006-01-01

    A waterjet propulsion system is used to propel ships, using a pump which produces a high speed jet. A standard waterjet installation can be divided into an inlet, a pump and a nozzle. For manoeuvring and reversing purposes an additional steering device can be integrated into the installation. The

  13. Effluent treatment options for nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipers, L.R.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

  14. Nuclear thermal rocket propulsion application to Mars missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrich, W.J. Jr.; Young, A.C.; Mulqueen, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Options for vehicle configurations are reviewed in which nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion is used for a reference mission to Mars. The scenario assumes an opposition-class Mars transfer trajectory, a 435-day mission, and the use of a single nuclear engine with 75,000 lbs of thrust. Engine parameters are examined by calculating mission variables for a range of specific impulses and thrust/weight ratios. The reference mission is found to have optimal values of 925 s for the specific impulse and thrust/weight ratios of 4.0 and 0.06 for the engine and total stage ratios respectively. When the engine thrust/weight ratio is at least 4/1 the most critical engine parameter is engine specific impulse for reducing overall stage weight. In the context of this trans-Mars three-burn maneuver the NTR engine with an expander engine cycle is considered a more effective alternative than chemical/aerobrake and other propulsion options

  15. Advanced Chemical Propulsion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Gordon; Byers, Dave; Alexander, Leslie A.; Krebsbach, Al

    2004-01-01

    A study was performed of advanced chemical propulsion technology application to space science (Code S) missions. The purpose was to begin the process of selecting chemical propulsion technology advancement activities that would provide greatest benefits to Code S missions. Several missions were selected from Code S planning data, and a range of advanced chemical propulsion options was analyzed to assess capabilities and benefits re these missions. Selected beneficial applications were found for higher-performing bipropellants, gelled propellants, and cryogenic propellants. Technology advancement recommendations included cryocoolers and small turbopump engines for cryogenic propellants; space storable propellants such as LOX-hydrazine; and advanced monopropellants. It was noted that fluorine-bearing oxidizers offer performance gains over more benign oxidizers. Potential benefits were observed for gelled propellants that could be allowed to freeze, then thawed for use.

  16. Feasibility of a responsive, hybrid propulsion augmented, Vertical-Takeoff-and-Landing, Single-Stage-to-Orbit launch system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaccio, Dennis G.

    1996-03-01

    A novel, reusable, Vertical-Takeoff-and-Landing, Single-Stage-to-Orbit (VTOL/SSTO) launch system concept, named HYP-SSTO, is presented in this paper. This launch vehicle system concept uses a highly coupled, main high performance liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen (LOX/LH2) propulsion system, that is used only for launch, with a hybrid auxiliary propulsion system which is used during final orbit insertion, major orbit maneuvering, and landing propulsive burn phases of flight. By using a hybrid propulsion system for major orbit maneuver burns and landing, this launch system concept has many advantages over conventional VTOL/SSTO concepts that use LOX/LH2 propulsion system(s) burns for all phases of flight. Because hybrid propulsion systems are relatively simple and inert by their nature, this concept has the potential to support short turnaround times between launches, be economical to develop, and be competitive in terms of overall system life-cycle cost. This paper provides a technical description of the novel, reusable HYP-SSTO launch system concept. Launch capability performance, as well as major design and operational system attributes, are identified and discussed.

  17. NASA Data Acquisition System Software Development for Rocket Propulsion Test Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Phillip W., Sr.; Elliot, Alex C.; Graves, Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    Current NASA propulsion test facilities include Stennis Space Center in Mississippi, Marshall Space Flight Center in Alabama, Plum Brook Station in Ohio, and White Sands Test Facility in New Mexico. Within and across these centers, a diverse set of data acquisition systems exist with different hardware and software platforms. The NASA Data Acquisition System (NDAS) is a software suite designed to operate and control many critical aspects of rocket engine testing. The software suite combines real-time data visualization, data recording to a variety formats, short-term and long-term acquisition system calibration capabilities, test stand configuration control, and a variety of data post-processing capabilities. Additionally, data stream conversion functions exist to translate test facility data streams to and from downstream systems, including engine customer systems. The primary design goals for NDAS are flexibility, extensibility, and modularity. Providing a common user interface for a variety of hardware platforms helps drive consistency and error reduction during testing. In addition, with an understanding that test facilities have different requirements and setups, the software is designed to be modular. One engine program may require real-time displays and data recording; others may require more complex data stream conversion, measurement filtering, or test stand configuration management. The NDAS suite allows test facilities to choose which components to use based on their specific needs. The NDAS code is primarily written in LabVIEW, a graphical, data-flow driven language. Although LabVIEW is a general-purpose programming language; large-scale software development in the language is relatively rare compared to more commonly used languages. The NDAS software suite also makes extensive use of a new, advanced development framework called the Actor Framework. The Actor Framework provides a level of code reuse and extensibility that has previously been difficult

  18. A Review of Propulsion Industrial Base Studies and an Introduction to the National Institute of Rocket Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doreswamy, Rajiv; Fry, Emma K.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade there have been over 40 studies that have examined the state of the industrial base and infrastructure that supports propulsion systems development in the United States. This paper offers a comprehensive, systematic review of these studies and develops conclusions and recommendations in the areas of budget, policy, sustainment, infrastructure, workforce retention and development and mission/vision and policy. The National Institute for Rocket Propulsion System (NIRPS) is a coordinated, national organization that is responding to the key issues highlighted in these studies. The paper outlines the case for NIRPS and the specific actions that the Institute is taking to address these issues.

  19. Analysis of Electric Propulsion System for Exploration of Saturn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Huaura Solórzano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploration of the outer planets has experienced new interest with the launch of the Cassini and the New Horizons Missions. At the present time, new technologies are under study for the better use of electric propulsion system in deep space missions. In the present paper, the method of the transporting trajectory is used to study this problem. This approximated method for the flight optimization with power-limited low thrust is based on the linearization of the motion of a spacecraft near a keplerian orbit that is close to the transfer trajectory. With the goal of maximizing the mass to be delivered in Saturn, several transfers were studied using nuclear, radioisotopic and solar electric propulsion systems.

  20. CORBASec Used to Secure Distributed Aerospace Propulsion Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaser, Tammy M.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center and its industry partners are developing a Common Object Request Broker (CORBA) Security (CORBASec) test bed to secure their distributed aerospace propulsion simulations. Glenn has been working with its aerospace propulsion industry partners to deploy the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) object-based technology. NPSS is a program focused on reducing the cost and time in developing aerospace propulsion engines. It was developed by Glenn and is being managed by the NASA Ames Research Center as the lead center reporting directly to NASA Headquarters' Aerospace Technology Enterprise. Glenn is an active domain member of the Object Management Group: an open membership, not-for-profit consortium that produces and manages computer industry specifications (i.e., CORBA) for interoperable enterprise applications. When NPSS is deployed, it will assemble a distributed aerospace propulsion simulation scenario from proprietary analytical CORBA servers and execute them with security afforded by the CORBASec implementation. The NPSS CORBASec test bed was initially developed with the TPBroker Security Service product (Hitachi Computer Products (America), Inc., Waltham, MA) using the Object Request Broker (ORB), which is based on the TPBroker Basic Object Adaptor, and using NPSS software across different firewall products. The test bed has been migrated to the Portable Object Adaptor architecture using the Hitachi Security Service product based on the VisiBroker 4.x ORB (Borland, Scotts Valley, CA) and on the Orbix 2000 ORB (Dublin, Ireland, with U.S. headquarters in Waltham, MA). Glenn, GE Aircraft Engines, and Pratt & Whitney Aircraft are the initial industry partners contributing to the NPSS CORBASec test bed. The test bed uses Security SecurID (RSA Security Inc., Bedford, MA) two-factor token-based authentication together with Hitachi Security Service digital-certificate-based authentication to validate the various NPSS users. The test

  1. Electrical Pressurization Concept for the Orion MPCV European Service Module Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiss, Jan-Hendrik; Weber, Jorg; Ierardo, Nicola; Quinn, Frank D.; Paisley, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the design of the pressurization system of the European Service Module (ESM) of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). Being part of the propulsion subsystem, an electrical pressurization concept is implemented to condition propellants according to the engine needs via a bang-bang regulation system. Separate pressurization for the oxidizer and the fuel tank permits mixture ratio adjustments and prevents vapor mixing of the two hypergolic propellants during nominal operation. In case of loss of pressurization capability of a single side, the system can be converted into a common pressurization system. The regulation concept is based on evaluation of a set of tank pressure sensors and according activation of regulation valves, based on a single-failure tolerant weighting of three pressure signals. While regulation is performed on ESM level, commanding of regulation parameters as well as failure detection, isolation and recovery is performed from within the Crew Module, developed by Lockheed Martin Space System Company. The overall design and development maturity presented is post Preliminary Design Review (PDR) and reflects the current status of the MPCV ESM pressurization system.

  2. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Sub-Scale Rocket Engine/Motor Design, Development and Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Manish; Seaford, Mark; Kovarik, Brian; Dufrene, Aaron; Solly, Nathan; Kirchner, Robert; Engel, Carl D.

    2014-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) base heating test is broken down into two test programs: (1) Pathfinder and (2) Main Test. The Pathfinder Test Program focuses on the design, development, hot-fire test and performance analyses of the 2% sub-scale SLS core-stage and booster element propulsion systems. The core-stage propulsion system is composed of four gaseous oxygen/hydrogen RS-25D model engines and the booster element is composed of two aluminum-based model solid rocket motors (SRMs). The first section of the paper discusses the motivation and test facility specifications for the test program. The second section briefly investigates the internal flow path of the design. The third section briefly shows the performance of the model RS-25D engines and SRMs for the conducted short duration hot-fire tests. Good agreement is observed based on design prediction analysis and test data. This program is a challenging research and development effort that has not been attempted in 40+ years for a NASA vehicle.

  3. A propulsion technology challenge — An abortable. Continuous use vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czysz, Paul A.; Froning, H. David

    1996-02-01

    Propulsion is the enabling technology for an abortable, continuous use vehicle. Propulsion performance purchases margin in the other material, structural, and system requirements. But what is abortability, and continuous use? Why is it necessary? What are its characteristics? And, what specifically is required in the propulsion system to enable these characteristics? Is the cost of the launcher really trivial, or is that the incomplete cost analysis limited to expendables and rebuilt, reusables. This paper identifies what constitutes an abortable, continuous use vehicle, the propulsion characteristics required, and the technology necessary to provide those characteristics. The proposition resulting is that this is not a technology issue, it is a concept of operation and a bureaucratic issue. The required goal is not as distant as some might propose, and the technology not as unprepared for commercial application as some assumed. The conclusion is that clearly we cannot continue to base the next century's orbital operations on an expendable rebuilt for reuse concept. What is required is a rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) engine based on those now in space operation 1,2; not a combination of cycles that remains to be shown as a practical, achievable reality.

  4. SAFSIM: A computer program for engineering simulations of space reactor system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobranich, D.

    1992-01-01

    SAFSIM (System Analysis Flow SIMulator) is a FORTRAN computer program that provides engineering simulations of user-specified flow networks at the system level. It includes fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and reactor dynamics capabilities. SAFSIM provides sufficient versatility to allow the simulation of almost any flow system, from a backyard sprinkler system to a clustered nuclear reactor propulsion system. In addition to versatility, speed and robustness are primary goals of SAFSIM. The current capabilities of SAFSIM are summarized, and some illustrative example results are presented

  5. STATIC TESTS OF UNCONVENTIONAL PROPULSION UNITS FOR ULTRALIGHT AIRPLANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Helmich

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents static tests of a new unconventional propulsion unit for small aviation airplanes. Our laboratory stand – a fan drive demonstrator – enables us to compare various design options. We performed experiments to verify the propulsion functionality and a measurement procedure to determine the available thrust of the propulsion unit and its dependence on engine speed. The results used for subsequent optimization include the operating parameters of the propulsion unit, and the temperature and velocity fields in parts of the air duct.

  6. IEC fusion: The future power and propulsion system for space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, Walter E.; Coventry, Matt; Miley, George H.; Nadler, Jon; Hanson, John; Hrbud, Ivana

    2000-01-01

    Rapid access to any point in the solar system requires advanced propulsion concepts that will provide extremely high specific impulse, low specific power, and a high thrust-to-power ratio. Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion is one of many exciting concepts emerging through propulsion and power research in laboratories across the nation which will determine the future direction of space exploration. This is part of a series of papers that discuss different applications of the Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion concept for both in-space and terrestrial use. IEC will enable tremendous advances in faster travel times within the solar system. The technology is currently under investigation for proof of concept and transitioning into the first prototype units for commercial applications. In addition to use in propulsion for space applications, terrestrial applications include desalinization plants, high energy neutron sources for radioisotope generation, high flux sources for medical applications, proton sources for specialized medical applications, and tritium production

  7. Integrated controls pay-off. [for flight/propulsion aircraft systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Terrill W.; Christiansen, Richard S.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that the integration of the propulsion and flight control systems for high performance aircraft can help reduce pilot workload while simultaneously increasing overall aircraft performance. Results of the Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control (HiDEC) flight research program are presented to demonstrate the emerging payoffs of controls integration. Ways in which the performance of fighter aircraft can be improved through the use of propulsion for primary aircraft control are discussed. Research being conducted by NASA with the F-18 High Angle-of Attack Research Vehicle is described.

  8. Development of 1 MW-class HTS motor for podded ship propulsion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemoto, K; Aizawa, K; Yokoyama, M; Yoshikawa, K [Kawasaki Heavy Industries LTD., 673-8666, Hyogo (Japan); Kimura, Y; Izumi, M [Tokyo University of Marine Science Technology, 135-8533, Tokyo (Japan); Ohashi, K; Numano, M [National Maritime Research Institute, 181-0004, Tokyo (Japan); Okumura, K; Yamaguchi, M; Gocho, Y; Kosuge, E, E-mail: umemoto@ati.khi.co.j [Japan Super-conductivity Organization Co. LTD., 135-8533, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-06-01

    To reduce fuel consumption and lead to a major reduction of pollution from NOx, SOx and CO{sub 2}, the electric ship propulsion system is one of the most prospective substitutes for conventional ship propulsion systems. In order to spread it, innovative technologies for the improvement of the power transmission are required. The high temperature superconducting technology has the possibility for a drastic reduction of power transmission loss. Recently, electric podded propulsions have become popular for large cruise vessels, icebreakers and chemical tankers because of the flexibility of the equipment arrangement and the stern hull design, and better maneuverability in harbour, etc. In this paper, a 1 MW-class High temperature superconducting (HTS) motor with high efficiency, smaller size and simple structure, which is designed and manufactured for podded propulsion, is reported. For the case of a coastal ship driven by the optimized podded propulsion in which the 1MW HTS motor is equipped, the reductions of fluid dynamic resistance and power transmission losses are demonstrated. The present research and development has been supported by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO).

  9. An overview of integrated flight-propulsion controls flight research on the NASA F-15 research airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Gatlin, Donald H.; Stewart, James F.

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has been conducting integrated flight-propulsion control flight research using the NASA F-15 airplane for the past 12 years. The research began with the digital electronic engine control (DEEC) project, followed by the F100 Engine Model Derivative (EMD). HIDEC (Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control) became the umbrella name for a series of experiments including: the Advanced Digital Engine Controls System (ADECS), a twin jet acoustics flight experiment, self-repairing flight control system (SRFCS), performance-seeking control (PSC), and propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA). The upcoming F-15 project is ACTIVE (Advanced Control Technology for Integrated Vehicles). This paper provides a brief summary of these activities and provides background for the PCA and PSC papers, and includes a bibliography of all papers and reports from the NASA F-15 project.

  10. Flight Test of a Propulsion-Based Emergency Control System on the MD-11 Airplane with Emphasis on the Lateral Axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burken, John J.; Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Maine, Trindel A.; Feather, John; Goldthorpe, Steven; Kahler, Jeffrey A.

    1996-01-01

    A large, civilian, multi-engine transport MD-11 airplane control system was recently modified to perform as an emergency backup controller using engine thrust only. The emergency backup system, referred to as the propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system, would be used if a major primary flight control system fails. To allow for longitudinal and lateral-directional control, the PCA system requires at least two engines and is implemented through software modifications. A flight-test program was conducted to evaluate the PCA system high-altitude flying characteristics and to demonstrate its capacity to perform safe landings. The cruise flight conditions, several low approaches and one landing without any aerodynamic flight control surface movement, were demonstrated. This paper presents results that show satisfactory performance of the PCA system in the longitudinal axis. Test results indicate that the lateral-directional axis of the system performed well at high attitude but was sluggish and prone to thermal upsets during landing approaches. Flight-test experiences and test techniques are also discussed with emphasis on the lateral-directional axis because of the difficulties encountered in flight test.

  11. Electro-optic architecture (EOA) for sensors and actuators in aircraft propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glomb, W. L., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Results of a study to design an optimal architecture for electro-optical sensing and control in advanced aircraft and space systems are described. The propulsion full authority digital Electronic Engine Control (EEC) was the focus for the study. The recommended architecture is an on-engine EEC which contains electro-optic interface circuits for fiber-optic sensors on the engine. Size and weight are reduced by multiplexing arrays of functionally similar sensors on a pair of optical fibers to common electro-optical interfaces. The architecture contains common, multiplex interfaces to seven sensor groups: (1) self luminous sensors; (2) high temperatures; (3) low temperatures; (4) speeds and flows; (5) vibration; (6) pressures; and (7) mechanical positions. Nine distinct fiber-optic sensor types were found to provide these sensing functions: (1) continuous wave (CW) intensity modulators; (2) time division multiplexing (TDM) digital optic codeplates; (3) time division multiplexing (TDM) analog self-referenced sensors; (4) wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) digital optic code plates; (5) wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) analog self-referenced intensity modulators; (6) analog optical spectral shifters; (7) self-luminous bodies; (8) coherent optical interferometers; and (9) remote electrical sensors. The report includes the results of a trade study including engine sensor requirements, environment, the basic sensor types, and relevant evaluation criteria. These figures of merit for the candidate interface types were calculated from the data supplied by leading manufacturers of fiber-optic sensors.

  12. Experimental evaluation of hybrid propulsion rocket engine operating with paraffin fuel grain and gaseous oxygen

    OpenAIRE

    Genivaldo Pimenta dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade the hybrid propulsion has been considering as a viable alternative of chemical energy conversion stored in propellants into kinetic energy. This energy is applied in propulsive systems of manned platforms, maneuvering procedures and even in the repositioning process of micro satellites. It presents attractive features and good balance between performance and environmental impact. Paraffin based grains are the hybrid solid fuels appointed as polymeric fuel substitute. The li...

  13. Predicting Minimum Control Speed on the Ground (VMCG) and Minimum Control Airspeed (VMCA) of Engine Inoperative Flight Using Aerodynamic Database and Propulsion Database Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadder, Eric Michael

    There are many computer aided engineering tools and software used by aerospace engineers to design and predict specific parameters of an airplane. These tools help a design engineer predict and calculate such parameters such as lift, drag, pitching moment, takeoff range, maximum takeoff weight, maximum flight range and much more. However, there are very limited ways to predict and calculate the minimum control speeds of an airplane in engine inoperative flight. There are simple solutions, as well as complicated solutions, yet there is neither standard technique nor consistency throughout the aerospace industry. To further complicate this subject, airplane designers have the option of using an Automatic Thrust Control System (ATCS), which directly alters the minimum control speeds of an airplane. This work addresses this issue with a tool used to predict and calculate the Minimum Control Speed on the Ground (VMCG) as well as the Minimum Control Airspeed (VMCA) of any existing or design-stage airplane. With simple line art of an airplane, a program called VORLAX is used to generate an aerodynamic database used to calculate the stability derivatives of an airplane. Using another program called Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS), a propulsion database is generated to use with the aerodynamic database to calculate both VMCG and VMCA. This tool was tested using two airplanes, the Airbus A320 and the Lockheed Martin C130J-30 Super Hercules. The A320 does not use an Automatic Thrust Control System (ATCS), whereas the C130J-30 does use an ATCS. The tool was able to properly calculate and match known values of VMCG and VMCA for both of the airplanes. The fact that this tool was able to calculate the known values of VMCG and VMCA for both airplanes means that this tool would be able to predict the VMCG and VMCA of an airplane in the preliminary stages of design. This would allow design engineers the ability to use an Automatic Thrust Control System (ATCS) as part

  14. Ion Beam Propulsion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Ion Beam Propulsion Study was a joint high-level study between the Applied Physics Laboratory operated by NASA and ASRC Aerospace at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, and Berkeley Scientific, Berkeley, California. The results were promising and suggested that work should continue if future funding becomes available. The application of ion thrusters for spacecraft propulsion is limited to quite modest ion sources with similarly modest ion beam parameters because of the mass penalty associated with the ion source and its power supply system. Also, the ion source technology has not been able to provide very high-power ion beams. Small ion beam propulsion systems were used with considerable success. Ion propulsion systems brought into practice use an onboard ion source to form an energetic ion beam, typically Xe+ ions, as the propellant. Such systems were used for steering and correction of telecommunication satellites and as the main thruster for the Deep Space 1 demonstration mission. In recent years, "giant" ion sources were developed for the controlled-fusion research effort worldwide, with beam parameters many orders of magnitude greater than the tiny ones of conventional space thruster application. The advent of such huge ion beam sources and the need for advanced propulsion systems for exploration of the solar system suggest a fresh look at ion beam propulsion, now with the giant fusion sources in mind.

  15. Balancing Energy Processes in Turbine Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balicki Włodzimierz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the issue of balancing energy processes in turbine engines in operation in aeronautic and marine propulsion systems with the aim to analyse and evaluate basic operating parameters. The first part presents the problem of enormous amounts of energy needed for driving fans and compressors of the largest contemporary turbofan engines commonly used in long-distance aviation. The amounts of the transmitted power and the effect of flow parameters and constructional properties of the engines on their performance and real efficiency are evaluated. The second part of the article, devoted to marine applications of turbine engines, presents the energy balance of the kinetic system of torque transmission from main engine turbines to screw propellers in the combined system of COGAG type. The physical model of energy conversion processes executed in this system is presented, along with the physical model of gasodynamic processes taking place in a separate driving turbine of a reversing engine. These models have made the basis for formulating balance equations, which then were used for analysing static and dynamic properties of the analysed type of propulsion, in particular in the aspect of mechanical loss evaluation in its kinematic system.

  16. The PEGASUS Drive: A nuclear electric propulsion system for the space exploration initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coomes, E.P.; Dagle, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    The advantages of using electric propulsion for propulsion are well-known in the aerospace community. The high specific impulse, lower propellant requirements, and lower system mass make it a very attractive propulsion option for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), especially for the transport of cargo. One such propulsion system is the PEGASUS Drive (Coomes et al. 1987). In its original configuration, the PEGASUS Drive consisted of a 10-MWe power source coupled to a 6-MW magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster system. The PEGASUS Drive propelled a manned vechicle to Mars and back in 601 days. By removing the crew and their associated support systems from the space craft and by incorporating technology advances in reactor design and heat rejection systems, a second generation PEGASUS Drive can be developed with an alpha less than two. Utilizing this propulsion system, a 400-MT cargo vechicle, assembled and loaded in low Earth orbit (LEO), could deliver 262 MT of supplies and hardware to MARS 282 days after escaping Earth orbit. Upon arrival at Mars the transport vehicle would place its cargo in the desired parking orbit around Mars and then proceed to synchronous orbit above the desired landing sight. Using a laser transmitter, PEGASUS could provide 2-MW on the surface to operate automated systems deployed earlier and then provide surface power to support crew activities after their arrival. The additional supplies and hardware, coupled with the availability of megawatt levels of electric power on the Mars surface, would greatly enhance and even expand the mission options being considered under SEI

  17. Air Breathing Propulsion Controls and Diagnostics Research at NASA Glenn Under NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    This lecture will provide an overview of the aircraft turbine engine control research at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC). A brief introduction to the engine control problem is first provided with a description of the current state-of-the-art control law structure. A historical aspect of engine control development since the 1940s is then provided with a special emphasis on the contributions of GRC. The traditional engine control problem has been to provide a means to safely transition the engine from one steady-state operating point to another based on the pilot throttle inputs. With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at GRC is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, other government agencies, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced propulsion controls and diagnostics technologies that will help meet the challenging goals of NASA programs under the Aeronautics Research Mission. The second part of the lecture provides an overview of the various CDB technology development activities in aircraft engine control and diagnostics, both current and some accomplished in the recent past. The motivation for each of the research efforts, the research approach, technical challenges and the key progress to date are summarized. The technologies to be discussed include system level engine control concepts, gas path diagnostics, active component control, and distributed engine control architecture. The lecture will end with a futuristic perspective of how the various current technology developments will lead to an Intelligent and Autonomous Propulsion System requiring none to very minimum pilot interface

  18. Design Study of Propulsion and Drive Systems for the Large Civil TiltRotor (LCTR2) Rotorcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robuck, Mark; Wilkerson, Joseph; Zhang, Yiyi; Snyder, Christopher A.; Vonderwell, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Boeing, Rolls Royce, and NASA have worked together to complete a parametric sizing study for NASA's Large Civil Tilt Rotor (LCTR2) concept 2nd iteration. Vehicle gross weight and fuel usage were evaluated as propulsion and drive system characteristics were varied to maximize the benefit of reduced rotor tip speed during cruise conditions. The study examined different combinations of engine and gearbox variability to achieve rotor cruise tip speed reductions down to 54% of the hover tip speed. Previous NASA studies identified that a 54% rotor speed reduction in cruise minimizes vehicle gross weight and fuel burn. The LCTR2 was the study baseline for initial sizing. This study included rotor tip speed ratios (cruise to hover) of 100%, 77% and 54% at different combinations of engine RPM and gearbox speed reductions, which were analyzed to achieve the lightest overall vehicle gross weight (GW) at the chosen rotor tip speed ratio. Different engine and gearbox technology levels are applied ranging from commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) engines and gearbox technology to entry-in-service (EIS) dates of 2025 and 2035 to assess the benefits of advanced technology on vehicle gross weight and fuel burn. Interim results were previously reported1. This technical paper extends that work and summarizes the final study results including additional engine and drive system study accomplishments. New vehicle sizing data is presented for engine performance at a single operating speed with a multispeed drive system. Modeling details for LCTR2 vehicle sizing and subject engine and drive sub-systems are presented as well. This study was conducted in support of NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program, Subsonic Rotary Wing Project.

  19. Monofilament Vaporization Propulsion (MVP) System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Monofilament Vaporization Propulsion (MVP) is a new propulsion technology targeted at secondary payload applications. It does not compromise on performance while...

  20. High Temperature Radiators for Electric Propulsion Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The VASIMR propulsion system uses a high temperature Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) radiator to reject heat from the helicon section. The current baseline radiator uses...

  1. Development and analysis of startup strategies for particle bed nuclear rocket engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, David E.

    1993-06-01

    The particle bed reactor (PBR) nuclear thermal propulsion rocket engine concept is the focus of the Air Force's Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion program. While much progress has been made in developing the concept, several technical issues remain. Perhaps foremost among these concerns is the issue of flow stability through the porous, heated bed of fuel particles. There are two complementary technical issues associated with this concern: the identification of the flow stability boundary and the design of the engine controller to maintain stable operation. This thesis examines a portion of the latter issue which has yet to be addressed in detail. Specifically, it develops and analyzes general engine system startup strategies which maintain stable flow through the PBR fuel elements while reaching the design conditions as quickly as possible. The PBR engine studies are conducted using a computer model of a representative particle bed reactor and engine system. The computer program utilized is an augmented version of SAFSIM, an existing nuclear thermal propulsion modeling code; the augmentation, dubbed SAFSIM+, was developed by the author and provides a more complete engine system modeling tool.

  2. The History and Promise of Combined Cycle Engines for Access to Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Casie

    2010-01-01

    For the summer of 2010, I have been working in the Aerodynamics and Propulsion Branch at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center studying combined-cycle engines, a high speed propulsion concept. Combined cycle engines integrate multiple propulsion systems into a single engine capable of running in multiple modes. These different modes allow the engine to be extremely versatile and efficient in varied flight conditions. The two most common types of combined cycle engines are Rocket-Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) and Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC). The RBCC essentially combines a rocket and ramjet engine, while the TBCC integrates a turbojet and ramjet1. These two engines are able to switch between different propulsion modes to achieve maximum performance. Extensive conceptual and ground test studies of RBCC engines have been undertaken; however, an RBCC engine has never, to my knowledge, been demonstrated in flight. RBCC engines are of particular interest because they could potentially power a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) into space. The TBCC has been flight tested and shown to be effective at reaching supersonic speeds, most notably in the SR-71 Blackbird2.

  3. Thermodynamic Vent System for an On-Orbit Cryogenic Reaction Control Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbert, Eric A.; Romig, Kris A.; Jimenez, Rafael; Flores, Sam

    2012-01-01

    A report discusses a cryogenic reaction control system (RCS) that integrates a Joule-Thompson (JT) device (expansion valve) and thermodynamic vent system (TVS) with a cryogenic distribution system to allow fine control of the propellant quality (subcooled liquid) during operation of the device. It enables zero-venting when coupled with an RCS engine. The proper attachment locations and sizing of the orifice are required with the propellant distribution line to facilitate line conditioning. During operations, system instrumentation was strategically installed along the distribution/TVS line assembly, and temperature control bands were identified. A sub-scale run tank, full-scale distribution line, open-loop TVS, and a combination of procured and custom-fabricated cryogenic components were used in the cryogenic RCS build-up. Simulated on-orbit activation and thruster firing profiles were performed to quantify system heat gain and evaluate the TVS s capability to maintain the required propellant conditions at the inlet to the engine valves. Test data determined that a small control valve, such as a piezoelectric, is optimal to provide continuously the required thermal control. The data obtained from testing has also assisted with the development of fluid and thermal models of an RCS to refine integrated cryogenic propulsion system designs. This system allows a liquid oxygenbased main propulsion and reaction control system for a spacecraft, which improves performance, safety, and cost over conventional hypergolic systems due to higher performance, use of nontoxic propellants, potential for integration with life support and power subsystems, and compatibility with in-situ produced propellants.

  4. Mars Hybrid Propulsion System Trajectory Analysis. Part I; Crew Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Qu, Min

    2015-01-01

    NASAs Human spaceflight Architecture team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture in which both chemical and electric propulsion systems are used to send crew and cargo to Mars destinations such as Phobos, Deimos, the surface of Mars, and other orbits around Mars. By combining chemical and electrical propulsion into a single space- ship and applying each where it is more effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel-efficient than an all chemical architecture without significant increases in flight times. This paper provides the analysis of the interplanetary segments of the three Evolvable Mars Campaign crew missions to Mars using the hybrid transportation architecture. The trajectory analysis provides departure and arrival dates and propellant needs for the three crew missions that are used by the campaign analysis team for campaign build-up and logistics aggregation analysis. Sensitivity analyses were performed to investigate the impact of mass growth, departure window, and propulsion system performance on the hybrid transportation architecture. The results and system analysis from this paper contribute to analyses of the other human spaceflight architecture team tasks and feed into the definition of the Evolvable Mars Campaign.

  5. FY2009 Annual Progress Report for Propulsion Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-01-16

    The Propulsion Materials program focuses on enabling and innovative materials technologies that are critical in improving the efficiency of advanced engines. Projects within the Propulsion Materials Program address materials concerns that directly impact the critical technical barriers in each of these programs—barriers such as fuel efficiency, thermal management, emissions reduction, and reduced manufacturing costs.

  6. Replacement of HCFC-225 Solvent for Cleaning NASA Propulsion Oxygen Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Mark A.; Lowrey, Nikki M.

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990's, when the Class I Ozone Depleting Substance (ODS) chlorofluorocarbon-113 (CFC-113) was banned, NASA's rocket propulsion test facilities at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Stennis Space Center (SSC) have relied upon hydrochlorofluorocarbon-225 (HCFC-225) to safely clean and verify the cleanliness of large scale propulsion oxygen systems. Effective January 1, 2015, the production, import, export, and new use of HCFC-225, a Class II ODS, was prohibited by the Clean Air Act. In 2012 through 2014, leveraging resources from both the NASA Rocket Propulsion Test Program and the Defense Logistics Agency - Aviation Hazardous Minimization and Green Products Branch, test labs at MSFC, SSC, and Johnson Space Center's White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) collaborated to seek out, test, and qualify a replacement for HCFC-225 that is both an effective cleaner and safe for use with oxygen systems. Candidate solvents were selected and a test plan was developed following the guidelines of ASTM G127, Standard Guide for the Selection of Cleaning Agents for Oxygen Systems. Solvents were evaluated for materials compatibility, oxygen compatibility, cleaning effectiveness, and suitability for use in cleanliness verification and field cleaning operations. Two solvents were determined to be acceptable for cleaning oxygen systems and one was chosen for implementation at NASA's rocket propulsion test facilities. The test program and results are summarized. This project also demonstrated the benefits of cross-agency collaboration in a time of limited resources.

  7. General concept of a gas engine for a hybrid vehicle, operating on methanol dissociation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartakovsky, L.; Aleinikov, Y.; Fainberg, V.; Garbar, A.; Gutman, M.; Hetsroni, G.; Schindler, Y.; Zvirin, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents a general concept of a hybrid propulsion system, based on an SI internal combustion engine fueled by methanol dissociation products (MDP). The proposed hybrid propulsion scheme is a series hybrid, which allows the engine to be operated in an on-off mode at constant optimal regime. The engine is fed by gaseous products of methanol dissociation (mainly hydrogen and carbon monoxide) emerging from an on-board catalytic reformer. The general scheme and base operation features of the propulsion system are described. The benefits that may be achieved by combining the well-known idea of on-board methanol dissociation with the hybrid vehicle concept are discussed. The proposed scheme is compared with those of systems operating on gasoline, liquid methanol, hydrogen and also with the multi-regime (not hybrid) engine fed by MDP

  8. Small-Engine Research Laboratory (SERL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The Small-Engine Research Laboratory (SERL) is a facility designed to conduct experimental small-scale propulsion and power generation systems research....

  9. In-Space Propulsion Technology Program Solar Electric Propulsion Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.

    2006-01-01

    NASA's In-space Propulsion (ISP) Technology Project is developing new propulsion technologies that can enable or enhance near and mid-term NASA science missions. The Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) technology area has been investing in NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), the High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAC), lightweight reliable feed systems, wear testing, and thruster modeling. These investments are specifically targeted to increase planetary science payload capability, expand the envelope of planetary science destinations, and significantly reduce the travel times, risk, and cost of NASA planetary science missions. Status and expected capabilities of the SEP technologies are reviewed in this presentation. The SEP technology area supports numerous mission studies and architecture analyses to determine which investments will give the greatest benefit to science missions. Both the NEXT and HiVHAC thrusters have modified their nominal throttle tables to better utilize diminished solar array power on outbound missions. A new life extension mechanism has been implemented on HiVHAC to increase the throughput capability on low-power systems to meet the needs of cost-capped missions. Lower complexity, more reliable feed system components common to all electric propulsion (EP) systems are being developed. ISP has also leveraged commercial investments to further validate new ion and hall thruster technologies and to potentially lower EP mission costs.

  10. Fundamental Aeronautics Program: Overview of Propulsion Work in the Supersonic Cruise Efficiency Technical Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Ray

    2012-01-01

    The Supersonics Project, part of NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program, contains a number of technical challenge areas which include sonic boom community response, airport noise, high altitude emissions, cruise efficiency, light weight durable engines/airframes, and integrated multi-discipline system design. This presentation provides an overview of the current (2012) activities in the supersonic cruise efficiency technical challenge, and is focused specifically on propulsion technologies. The intent is to develop and validate high-performance supersonic inlet and nozzle technologies. Additional work is planned for design and analysis tools for highly-integrated low-noise, low-boom applications. If successful, the payoffs include improved technologies and tools for optimized propulsion systems, propulsion technologies for a minimized sonic boom signature, and a balanced approach to meeting efficiency and community noise goals. In this propulsion area, the work is divided into advanced supersonic inlet concepts, advanced supersonic nozzle concepts, low fidelity computational tool development, high fidelity computational tools, and improved sensors and measurement capability. The current work in each area is summarized.

  11. Mini-cavity plasma core reactors for dual-mode space nuclear power/propulsion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, S.

    1976-01-01

    A mini-cavity plasma core reactor is investigated for potential use in a dual-mode space power and propulsion system. In the propulsive mode, hydrogen propellant is injected radially inward through the reactor solid regions and into the cavity. The propellant is heated by both solid driver fuel elements surrounding the cavity and uranium plasma before it is exhausted out the nozzle. The propellant only removes a fraction of the driver power, the remainder is transferred by a coolant fluid to a power conversion system, which incorporates a radiator for heat rejection. In the power generation mode, the plasma and propellant flows are shut off, and the driver elements supply thermal power to the power conversion system, which generates electricity for primary electric propulsion purposes

  12. Neutronics Study of the KANUTER Space Propulsion Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venneri, Paolo; Nam, Seung Hyun; Kim, Yonghee

    2014-01-01

    The Korea Advanced Nuclear Thermal Engine Rocket (KANUTER) has been developed at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST). This space propulsion system is unique in that it implements a HEU fuel with a thermal spectrum system. This allows the system to be designed with a minimal amount of fissile material and an incredibly small and light system. This then allows the implementation of the system in a cluster format which enables redundancy and easy scalability for different mission requirements. This combination of low fissile content, compact size, and thermalized spectrum contribute to an interesting and novel behavior of the reactor system. The two codes were both used for the burn up calculations in order to verify their validity while the static calculations and characterization of the core were done principally with MCNPX. The KANUTER space propulsion reactor is in the process of being characterized and improved. Its basic neutronic characteristics have been studied, and its behavior over time has been identified. It has been shown that this reactor will have difficulty operating as hoped in a bimodal configuration where it is able to provide both propulsion and power throughout mission to Mars. The reason for this has been identified as Xe 135 , and it is believed that a possible solution to this issue does exist, either in the form of an appropriately designed neutron spectrum or the building in of sufficient excess reactivity

  13. Neutronics Study of the KANUTER Space Propulsion Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venneri, Paolo; Nam, Seung Hyun; Kim, Yonghee [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The Korea Advanced Nuclear Thermal Engine Rocket (KANUTER) has been developed at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST). This space propulsion system is unique in that it implements a HEU fuel with a thermal spectrum system. This allows the system to be designed with a minimal amount of fissile material and an incredibly small and light system. This then allows the implementation of the system in a cluster format which enables redundancy and easy scalability for different mission requirements. This combination of low fissile content, compact size, and thermalized spectrum contribute to an interesting and novel behavior of the reactor system. The two codes were both used for the burn up calculations in order to verify their validity while the static calculations and characterization of the core were done principally with MCNPX. The KANUTER space propulsion reactor is in the process of being characterized and improved. Its basic neutronic characteristics have been studied, and its behavior over time has been identified. It has been shown that this reactor will have difficulty operating as hoped in a bimodal configuration where it is able to provide both propulsion and power throughout mission to Mars. The reason for this has been identified as Xe{sup 135}, and it is believed that a possible solution to this issue does exist, either in the form of an appropriately designed neutron spectrum or the building in of sufficient excess reactivity.

  14. Design Challenges Encountered in a Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft Flight Test Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine, Trindel; Burken, John; Burcham, Frank; Schaefer, Peter

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center conducted flight tests of a propulsion-controlled aircraft system on an F-15 airplane. This system was designed to explore the feasibility of providing safe emergency landing capability using only the engines to provide flight control in the event of a catastrophic loss of conventional flight controls. Control laws were designed to control the flightpath and bank angle using only commands to the throttles. Although the program was highly successful, this paper highlights some of the challenges associated with using engine thrust as a control effector. These challenges include slow engine response time, poorly modeled nonlinear engine dynamics, unmodeled inlet-airframe interactions, and difficulties with ground effect and gust rejection. Flight and simulation data illustrate these difficulties.

  15. Reconfiguration of NASA GRC's Vacuum Facility 6 for Testing of Advanced Electric Propulsion System (AEPS) Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Peter Y.; Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Yim, John T.; Haag, Thomas W.; Mackey, Jonathan A.; McVetta, Michael S.; Sorrelle, Luke T.; Tomsik, Thomas M.; Gilligan, Ryan P.; hide

    2018-01-01

    The NASA Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS) 12.5 kW Hall thruster has been the subject of extensive technology maturation in preparation for development into a flight propulsion system. The HERMeS thruster is being developed and tested at NASA GRC and NASA JPL through support of the Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) and is intended to be used as the electric propulsion system on the Power and Propulsion Element (PPE) of the recently announced Deep Space Gateway (DSG). The Advanced Electric Propulsion System (AEPS) contract was awarded to Aerojet-Rocketdyne to develop the HERMeS system into a flight system for use by NASA. To address the hardware test needs of the AEPS project, NASA GRC launched an effort to reconfigure Vacuum Facility 6 (VF-6) for high-power electric propulsion testing including upgrades and reconfigurations necessary to conduct performance, plasma plume, and system level integration testing. Results of the verification and validation testing with HERMeS Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU)-1 and TDU-3 Hall thrusters are also included.

  16. In-Flight Operation of the Dawn Ion Propulsion System: Status at One Year from the Vesta Rendezvous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Charles E.; Rayman, Marc D.

    2010-01-01

    The Dawn mission, part of NASA's Discovery Program, has as its goal the scientific exploration of the two most massive main-belt asteroids, Vesta and Ceres. The Dawn spacecraft was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on September 27, 2007 on a Delta-II 7925H-9.5 (Delta-II Heavy) rocket that placed the 1218 kg spacecraft into an Earth-escape trajectory. On-board the spacecraft is an ion propulsion system (IPS) developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory which will provide most of the delta V needed for heliocentric transfer to Vesta, orbit capture at Vesta, transfer among Vesta science orbits, departure and escape from Vesta, heliocentric transfer to Ceres, orbit capture at Ceres, and transfer among Ceres science orbits. The Dawn ion thruster [I thought we only called it a thruster. Both terms are used in the paper, but I think a replacement of every occurrence of "engine" with "thruster" would be clearer.] design is based on the design validated on NASA's Deep Space 1 (DS1) mission. However, because of the very substantial (11 km/s) delta V requirements for this mission Dawn requires two engines to complete its mission objectives. The power processor units (PPU), digital control and interface units (DCIU) slice boards and the xenon control assembly (XCA) are derivatives of the components used on DS1. The DCIUs and thrust gimbal assemblies (TGA) were developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The spacecraft was provided by Orbital Sciences Corporation, Sterling, Virginia, and the mission is managed by and operated from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Dawn partnered with Germany, Italy and Los Alamos National Laboratory for the science instruments. The mission is led by the principal investigator, Dr. Christopher Russell, from the University of California, Los Angeles. The first 80 days after launch were dedicated to the initial checkout of the spacecraft followed by cruise to Mars. Cruise thrusting leading to a Mars gravity assist began on December 17

  17. Colliding beam fusion reactor space propulsion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessel, Frank J.; Binderbauer, Michl W.; Rostoker, Norman; Rahman, Hafiz Ur; O'Toole, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    We describe a space propulsion system based on the Colliding Beam Fusion Reactor (CBFR). The CBFR is a high-beta, field-reversed, magnetic configuration with ion energies in the range of hundreds of keV. Repetitively-pulsed ion beams sustain the plasma distribution and provide current drive. The confinement physics is based on the Vlasov-Maxwell equation, including a Fokker Planck collision operator and all sources and sinks for energy and particle flow. The mean azimuthal velocities and temperatures of the fuel ion species are equal and the plasma current is unneutralized by the electrons. The resulting distribution functions are thermal in a moving frame of reference. The ion gyro-orbit radius is comparable to the dimensions of the confinement system, hence classical transport of the particles and energy is expected and the device is scaleable. We have analyzed the design over a range of 10 6 -10 9 Watts of output power (0.15-150 Newtons thrust) with a specific impulse of, I sp ∼10 6 sec. A 50 MW propulsion system might involve the following parameters: 4-meters diameterx10-meters length, magnetic field ∼7 Tesla, ion beam current ∼10 A, and fuels of either D-He 3 ,P-B 11 ,P-Li 6 ,D-Li 6 , etc

  18. Water Vapour Propulsion Powered by a High-Power Laser-Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Y.; Uchida, S.

    Most of the laser propulsion schemes now being proposed and developed assume neither power supplies nor on-board laser devices and therefore are bound to remote laser stations like a kite via a laser beam “string”. This is a fatal disadvantage for a space vehicle that flies freely though it is often said that no need of installing an energy source is an advantage of a laser propulsion scheme. The possibility of an independent laser propulsion space vehicle that carries a laser source and a power supply on board is discussed. This is mainly due to the latest development of high power laser diode (LD) technology. Both high specific impulse-low thrust mode and high thrust-low specific impulse mode can be selected by controlling the laser output by using vapour or water as a propellant. This mode change can be performed by switching between a high power continuous wave (cw), LD engine for high thrust with a low specific impulse mode and high power LD pumping Q-switched Nd:YAG laser engine for low thrust with the high specific impulse mode. This paper describes an Orbital Transfer Vehicle equipped with the above-mentioned laser engine system and fuel cell that flies to the Moon from a space platform or space hotel in Earth orbit, with cargo shipment from lunar orbit to the surface of the Moon, including the possibility of a sightseeing trip.

  19. Radioisotope electric propulsion of sciencecraft to the outer Solar System and near-interstellar space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Radioisotopes have been used successfully for more than 25 years to supply the heat for thermoelectric generators on various deep-space probes. Radioisotope electric propulsion (REP) systems have been proposed as low-thrust ion propulsion units based on radioisotope electric generators and ion thrusters. The perceived liability of radioisotope electric generators for ion propulsion is their high mass. Conventional radioisotope thermoelectric generators have a specific mass of about 200 kg/kW of electric power. Many development efforts have been undertaken with the aim of reducing the specific mass of radioisotope electric systems. Recent performance estimates suggest that specific masses of 50 kg/kW may be achievable with thermophotovoltaic and alkali metal thermal-to-electric conversion generators. Powerplants constructed from these near-term radioisotope electric generators and long-life ion thrusters will likely have specific masses in the range of 100 to 200 kg/kW of thrust power if development continues over the next decade. In earlier studies, it was concluded that flight times within the Solar System are indeed insensitive to reductions in the powerplant specific mass, and that a timely scientific program of robotic planetary rendezvous and near-interstellar space missions is enabled by primary electric propulsion once the powerplant specific mass is in the range of 100 to 200 kg/kW. Flight times can be substantially reduced by using hybrid propulsion schemes that combine chemical propulsion, gravity assist, and electric propulsion. Hybrid schemes are further explored in this article to illustrate how the performance of REP is enhanced for Pluto rendezvous, heliopause orbiter, and gravitational lens missions

  20. Full fuel-cycle comparison of forklift propulsion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaines, L.L.; Elgowainy, A.; Wang, M.Q.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen has received considerable attention as an alternative to fossil fuels. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) investigates the technical and economic feasibility of promising new technologies, such as hydrogen fuel cells. A recent report for DOE identified three near-term markets for fuel cells: (1) Emergency power for state and local emergency response agencies, (2) Forklifts in warehousing and distribution centers, and (3) Airport ground support equipment markets. This report examines forklift propulsion systems and addresses the potential energy and environmental implications of substituting fuel-cell propulsion for existing technologies based on batteries and fossil fuels. Industry data and the Argonne Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model are used to estimate full fuel-cycle emissions and use of primary energy sources, back to the primary feedstocks for fuel production. Also considered are other environmental concerns at work locations. The benefits derived from using fuel-cell propulsion are determined by the sources of electricity and hydrogen. In particular, fuel-cell forklifts using hydrogen made from the reforming of natural gas had lower impacts than those using hydrogen from electrolysis

  1. Full fuel-cycle comparison of forklift propulsion systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L. L.; Elgowainy, A.; Wang, M. Q.; Energy Systems

    2008-11-05

    Hydrogen has received considerable attention as an alternative to fossil fuels. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) investigates the technical and economic feasibility of promising new technologies, such as hydrogen fuel cells. A recent report for DOE identified three near-term markets for fuel cells: (1) Emergency power for state and local emergency response agencies, (2) Forklifts in warehousing and distribution centers, and (3) Airport ground support equipment markets. This report examines forklift propulsion systems and addresses the potential energy and environmental implications of substituting fuel-cell propulsion for existing technologies based on batteries and fossil fuels. Industry data and the Argonne Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model are used to estimate full fuel-cycle emissions and use of primary energy sources, back to the primary feedstocks for fuel production. Also considered are other environmental concerns at work locations. The benefits derived from using fuel-cell propulsion are determined by the sources of electricity and hydrogen. In particular, fuel-cell forklifts using hydrogen made from the reforming of natural gas had lower impacts than those using hydrogen from electrolysis.

  2. Cold Gas Micro Propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwerse, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of a micro propulsion system. The trend of miniaturization of satellites requires small sized propulsion systems. For particular missions it is important to maintain an accurate distance between multiple satellites. Satellites drift apart due to differences in

  3. IMPULSE---an advanced, high performance nuclear thermal propulsion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrosky, L.J.; Disney, R.K.; Mangus, J.D.; Gunn, S.A.; Zweig, H.R.

    1993-01-01

    IMPULSE is an advanced nuclear propulsion engine for future space missions based on a novel conical fuel. Fuel assemblies are formed by stacking a series of truncated (U, Zr)C cones with non-fueled lips. Hydrogen flows radially inward between the cones to a central plenum connected to a high performance bell nozzle. The reference IMPULSE engine rated at 75,000 lb thrust and 1800 MWt weighs 1360 kg and is 3.65 meters in height and 81 cm in diameter. Specific impulse is estimated to be 1000 for a 15 minute life at full power. If longer life times are required, the operating temperature can be reduced with a concomitant decrease in specific impulse. Advantages of this concept include: well defined coolant paths without outlet flow restrictions; redundant orificing; very low thermal gradients and hence, thermal stresses, across the fuel elements; and reduced thermal stresses because of the truncated conical shape of the fuel elements

  4. Experimental approach of plasma supersonic expansion physics and of Hall effect propulsion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazouffre, Stephane

    2009-01-01

    This report for accreditation to supervise research (HDR) proposes a synthesis of scientific and research works performed by the author during about ten years. Thus, a first part addresses studies on plasma rarefied supersonic flows: expansion through a sonic hole and through a Laval nozzle. The next part addresses the study of plasma propulsion for spacecraft, and more particularly electric propulsion based on the Hall effect: phenomena of ionic and atomic transport, characteristics of the electric field, energy deposition on walls, basic scale laws, related works, hybrid Hall-RF propulsion systems. The third part presents perspectives and projects related to propulsion by Hall effect (research topics, planned researches, a European project on high power, hybrid Hall-RF propulsion) and to ions-ions plasma (the PEGASES concept, the NExET test installation, RF source of negative ions and magnetic trap)

  5. Electric vehicle propulsion alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunde, R. R.; Schuh, R. M.; Beach, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Propulsion technology development for electric vehicles is summarized. Analytical studies, technology evaluation, and the development of technology for motors, controllers, transmissions, and complete propulsion systems are included.

  6. A Programmatic and Engineering Approach to the Development of a Nuclear Thermal Rocket for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordelon, Wayne J., Jr.; Ballard, Rick O.; Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    With the announcement of the Vision for Space Exploration on January 14, 2004, there has been a renewed interest in nuclear thermal propulsion. Nuclear thermal propulsion is a leading candidate for in-space propulsion for human Mars missions; however, the cost to develop a nuclear thermal rocket engine system is uncertain. Key to determining the engine development cost will be the engine requirements, the technology used in the development and the development approach. The engine requirements and technology selection have not been defined and are awaiting definition of the Mars architecture and vehicle definitions. The paper discusses an engine development approach in light of top-level strategic questions and considerations for nuclear thermal propulsion and provides a suggested approach based on work conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to support planning and requirements for the Prometheus Power and Propulsion Office. This work is intended to help support the development of a comprehensive strategy for nuclear thermal propulsion, to help reduce the uncertainty in the development cost estimate, and to help assess the potential value of and need for nuclear thermal propulsion for a human Mars mission.

  7. Epitrochoid Power-law Nozzle Concept for Reducing Launch Architecture Propulsion Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    Merlin 1 C vacuum engine c. Energia booster RD-170-7Zenit RO-171-7Atlas V RD-180-7Angara RO-191 4. Develop a new propulsion system to incorporate...the four liquid boosters of the Energia launch vehicle designed to launch the Soviet Buran space shuttle. In parallel with the Buran development, a

  8. THE FUTURE OF SPACECRAFT NUCLEAR PROPULSION

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Frank

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the advantages of space nuclear power and propulsion systems. It describes the actual status of international power level dependent spacecraft nuclear propulsion missions, especially the high power EU-Russian MEGAHIT study including the Russian Megawatt-Class Nuclear Power Propulsion System, the NASA GRC project and the low and medium power EU DiPoP study. Space nuclear propulsion based mission scenarios of these studies are sketched as well.

  9. Alert-derivative bimodal space power and propulsion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houts, M.G.; Ranken, W.A.; Buksa, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    Safe, reliable, low-mass bimodal space power and propulsion systems could have numerous civilian and military applications. This paper discusses potential bimodal systems that could be derived from the ALERT space fission power supply concept. These bimodal concepts have the potential for providing 5 to 10 kW of electrical power and a total impulse of 100 MN-s at an average specific impulse of 770 s. System mass is on the order of 1000 kg

  10. Adaptive Distributed Intelligent Control Architecture for Future Propulsion Systems (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Behbahani, Alireza R

    2007-01-01

    .... Distributed control is potentially an enabling technology for advanced intelligent propulsion system concepts and is one of the few control approaches that is able to provide improved component...

  11. Plans and Preliminary Results of Fundamental Studies of Ice Crystal Icing Physics in the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struk, Peter; Tsao, Jen-Ching; Bartkus, Tadas

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes plans and preliminary results for using the NASA Propulsion Systems Lab (PSL) to experimentally study the fundamental physics of ice-crystal ice accretion. NASA is evaluating whether this facility, in addition to full-engine and motor-driven-rig tests, can be used for more fundamental ice-accretion studies that simulate the different mixed-phase icing conditions along the core flow passage of a turbo-fan engine compressor. The data from such fundamental accretion tests will be used to help develop and validate models of the accretion process. This paper presents data from some preliminary testing performed in May 2015 which examined how a mixed-phase cloud could be generated at PSL using evaporative cooling in a warmer-than-freezing environment.

  12. Antimatter propulsion, status and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Steven D.; Hynes, Michael V.

    1986-01-01

    The use of advanced propulsion techniques must be considered if the currently envisioned launch date of the manned Mars mission were delayed until 2020 or later. Within the next thirty years, technological advances may allow such methods as beaming power to the ship, inertial-confinement fusion, or mass-conversion of antiprotons to become feasible. A propulsion system with an ISP of around 5000 s would allow the currently envisioned mission module to fly to Mars in 3 months and would require about one million pounds to be assembled in Earth orbit. Of the possible methods to achieve this, the antiproton mass-conversion reaction offers the highest potential, the greatest problems, and the most fascination. Increasing the production rates of antiprotons is a high priority task at facilities around the world. The application of antiprotons to propulsion requires the coupling of the energy released in the mass-conversion reaction to thrust-producing mechanisms. Recent proposals entail using the antiprotons to produce inertial confinement fusion or to produce negative muons which can catalyze fusion. By increasing the energy released per antiproton, the effective cost, (dollars/joule) can be reduced. These proposals and other areas of research can be investigated now. These short term results will be important in assessing the long range feasibility of an antiproton powered engine.

  13. Hybrids of Solar Sail, Solar Electric, and Solar Thermal Propulsion for Solar-System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    Solar sails have long been known to be an attractive method of propulsion in the inner solar system if the areal density of the overall spacecraft (S/C) could be reduced to approx.10 g/sq m. It has also long been recognized that the figure (precise shape) of useful solar sails needs to be reasonably good, so that the reflected light goes mostly in the desired direction. If one could make large reflective surfaces with reasonable figure at an areal density of approx.10 g/sq m, then several other attractive options emerge. One is to use such sails as solar concentrators for solar-electric propulsion. Current flight solar arrays have a specific output of approx. 100W/kg at 1 Astronomical Unit (AU) from the sun, and near-term advances promise to significantly increase this figure. A S/C with an areal density of 10 g/sq m could accelerate up to 29 km/s per year as a solar sail at 1 AU. Using the same sail as a concentrator at 30 AU, the same spacecraft could have up to approx. 45 W of electric power per kg of total S/C mass available for electric propulsion (EP). With an EP system that is 50% power-efficient, exhausting 10% of the initial S/C mass per year as propellant, the exhaust velocity is approx. 119 km/s and the acceleration is approx. 12 km/s per year. This hybrid thus opens attractive options for missions to the outer solar system, including sample-return missions. If solar-thermal propulsion were perfected, it would offer an attractive intermediate between solar sailing in the inner solar system and solar electric propulsion for the outer solar system. In the example above, both the solar sail and solar electric systems don't have a specific impulse that is near-optimal for the mission. Solar thermal propulsion, with an exhaust velocity of the order of 10 km/s, is better matched to many solar system exploration missions. This paper derives the basic relationships between these three propulsion options and gives examples of missions that might be enabled by

  14. Effect of workload setting on propulsion technique in handrim wheelchair propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drongelen, Stefan; Arnet, Ursina; Veeger, Dirkjan H E J; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the influence of workload setting (speed at constant power, method to impose power) on the propulsion technique (i.e. force and timing characteristics) in handrim wheelchair propulsion. Twelve able-bodied men participated in this study. External forces were measured during handrim wheelchair propulsion on a motor driven treadmill at different velocities and constant power output (to test the forced effect of speed) and at power outputs imposed by incline vs. pulley system (to test the effect of method to impose power). Outcome measures were the force and timing variables of the propulsion technique. FEF and timing variables showed significant differences between the speed conditions when propelling at the same power output (p propulsion technique parameters despite an overall constant power output. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) Development Activities at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center - 2006 Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005-06, the Prometheus program funded a number of tasks at the NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to support development of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) system for future manned exploration missions. These tasks include the following: 1. NTP Design Develop Test & Evaluate (DDT&E) Planning 2. NTP Mission & Systems Analysis / Stage Concepts & Engine Requirements 3. NTP Engine System Trade Space Analysis and Studies 4. NTP Engine Ground Test Facility Assessment 5. Non-Nuclear Environmental Simulator (NTREES) 6. Non-Nuclear Materials Fabrication & Evaluation 7. Multi-Physics TCA Modeling. This presentation is a overview of these tasks and their accomplishments

  16. Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Pictured is an artist's concept of the Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) launch. The RBCC's overall objective is to provide a technology test bed to investigate critical technologies associated with opperational usage of these engines. The program will focus on near term technologies that can be leveraged to ultimately serve as the near term basis for Two Stage to Orbit (TSTO) air breathing propulsions systems and ultimately a Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) air breathing propulsion system.

  17. Control Strategy for Power Distribution in Dual Motor Propulsion System for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Daniel Urbina Coronado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric Vehicles with more than one electric motor can offer advantages in saving energy from the batteries. In order to do that, the control strategy plays an important role in distributing the required torque between the electric motors. A dual motor propulsion system with a differential transmission is simulated in this work. A rule based control strategy for this propulsion system is proposed and analyzed. Two parameters related to the output speed of the transmission and the required torque are used to switch the two modes of operation in which the propulsion system can work under acceleration. The effect of these parameters is presented over the driving cycles of NEDC, UDDS, and NYCC, which are followed using a PID controller. The produced energy losses are calculated as well as an indicator of drivability, which is related to the difference between the desired speed and the actual speed obtained. The results show that less energy losses are present when the vehicle is maintained with one electric motor most of the time, switching only when the extended speed granted by the second motor is required. The propulsion system with the proposed control strategy represents a feasible alternative in the spectrum of sustainable transportation architectures with extending range capabilities.

  18. Electromagnetic Spacecraft Propulsion Motor and a Permanent Magnet (PM-Drive) Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadov, B. A.

    2018-04-01

    Ion thrusters are designed to be used for realization of a Mars Sample Return mission. The competing technologies with ion thrusters are electromagnetic spacecraft propulsion motors. I'm an engineer and engage in the creation of the new electromagnetic propulsion motors.

  19. Parametric analysis of a down-scaled turbo jet engine suitable for drone and UAV propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessley, G. Jims John; Chauhan, Swati

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a detailed study on the need for downscaling gas turbine engines for UAV and drone propulsion. Also, the procedure for downscaling and the parametric analysis of a downscaled engine using Gas Turbine Simulation Program software GSP 11 is presented. The need for identifying a micro gas turbine engine in the thrust range of 0.13 to 4.45 kN to power UAVs and drones weighing in the range of 4.5 to 25 kg is considered and in order to meet the requirement a parametric analysis on the scaled down Allison J33-A-35 Turbojet engine is performed. It is evident from the analysis that the thrust developed by the scaled engine and the Thrust Specific Fuel Consumption TSFC depends on pressure ratio, mass flow rate of air and Mach number. A scaling factor of 0.195 corresponding to air mass flow rate of 7.69 kg/s produces a thrust in the range of 4.57 to 5.6 kN while operating at a Mach number of 0.3 within the altitude of 5000 to 9000 m. The thermal and overall efficiency of the scaled engine is found to be 67% and 75% respectively for a pressure ratio of 2. The outcomes of this analysis form a strong base for further analysis, design and fabrication of micro gas turbine engines to propel future UAVs and drones.

  20. Propulsion System with Pneumatic Artificial Muscles for Powering Ankle-Foot Orthosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneva, Ivanka; Vanderborght, Bram; Lefeber, Dirk; Cherelle, Pierre

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the design of device for control of new propulsion system with pneumatic artificial muscles. The propulsion system can be used for ankle joint articulation, for assisting and rehabilitation in cases of injured ankle-foot complex, stroke patients or elderly with functional weakness. Proposed device for control is composed by microcontroller, generator for muscles contractions and sensor system. The microcontroller receives the control signals from sensors and modulates ankle joint flex- ion and extension during human motion. The local joint control with a PID (Proportional-Integral Derivative) position feedback directly calculates desired pressure levels and dictates the necessary contractions. The main goal is to achieve an adaptation of the system and provide the necessary joint torque using position control with feedback.

  1. Lunar Robotic Precursor Missions Using Electric Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Winski, Richard G.

    2006-01-01

    A trade study is carried out for the design of electric propulsion based lunar robotic precursor missions. The focus is to understand the relationships between payload mass delivered, electric propulsion power, and trip time. The results are compared against a baseline system using chemical propulsion with LOX/H2. The major differences between the chemical propulsion based and electric propulsion based systems are presented in terms of the payload mass and trip time. It is shown that solar e...

  2. Research Opportunities in Space Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Stephen L.

    2007-01-01

    Rocket propulsion determines the primary characteristics of any space vehicle; how fast and far it can go, its lifetime, and its capabilities. It is the primary factor in safety and reliability and the biggest cost driver. The extremes of heat and pressure produced by propulsion systems push the limits of materials used for manufacturing. Space travel is very unforgiving with little room for errors, and so many things can go wrong with these very complex systems. So we have to plan for failure and that makes it costly. But what is more exciting than the roar of a rocket blasting into space? By its nature the propulsion world is conservative. The stakes are so high at every launch, in terms of payload value or in human life, that to introduce new components to a working, qualified system is extremely difficult and costly. Every launch counts and no risks are tolerated, which leads to the space world's version of Catch-22:"You can't fly till you flown." The last big 'game changer' in propulsion was the use of liquid hydrogen as a fuel. No new breakthrough, low cost access to space system will be developed without new efficient propulsion systems. Because there is no large commercial market driving investment in propulsion, what propulsion research is done is sponsored by government funding agencies. A further difficulty in propulsion technology development is that there are so few new systems flying. There is little opportunity to evolve propulsion technologies and to update existing systems with results coming out of research as there is in, for example, the auto industry. The biggest hurdle to space exploration is getting off the ground. The launch phase will consume most of the energy required for any foreseeable space exploration mission. The fundamental physical energy requirements of escaping earth's gravity make it difficult. It takes 60,000 kJ to put a kilogram into an escape orbit. The vast majority (-97%) of the energy produced by a launch vehicle is used

  3. Radioisotope electric propulsion of sciencecraft to the outer solar system and near-interstellar space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, R.J.

    1998-08-01

    Recent results are presented in the study of radioisotope electric propulsion as a near-term technology for sending small robotic sciencecraft to the outer Solar System and near-interstellar space. Radioisotope electric propulsion (REP) systems are low-thrust, ion propulsion units based on radioisotope electric generators and ion thrusters. Powerplant specific masses are expected to be in the range of 100 to 200 kg/kW of thrust power. Planetary rendezvous missions to Pluto, fast missions to the heliopause (100 AU) with the capability to decelerate an orbiter for an extended science program and prestellar missions to the first gravitational lens focus of the Sun (550 AU) are investigated

  4. Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS). Version 2.0: Program user's guide. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelaccio, D.G.; Scheil, C.M.; Petrosky, L.

    1993-03-01

    This Program User's Guide discusses the Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) engine system design features and capabilities modeled in the Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS): Version 2.0 program (referred to as NESS throughout the remainder of this document), as well as its operation. NESS was upgraded to include many new modeling capabilities not available in the original version delivered to NASA LeRC in Dec. 1991, NESS's new features include the following: (1) an improved input format; (2) an advanced solid-core NERVA-type reactor system model (ENABLER 2); (3) a bleed-cycle engine system option; (4) an axial-turbopump design option; (5) an automated pump-out turbopump assembly sizing option; (6) an off-design gas generator engine cycle design option; (7) updated hydrogen properties; (8) an improved output formnd (9) personal computer operation capability. Sample design cases are presented in the user's guide that demonstrate many of the new features associated with this upgraded version of NESS, as well as design modeling features associated with the original version of NESS

  5. Lift/cruise fan V/STOL technology aircraft design definition study. Volume 2: Propulsion transmission system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, W. J.

    1976-01-01

    Two types of lift/cruise fan technology aircraft were conceptually designed. One aircraft used turbotip fans pneumatically interconnected to three gas generators, and the other aircraft used variable pitch fans mechanically interconnected to three turboshaft engines. The components of each propulsion transmission system were analyzed and designed to the depth necessary to determine areas of risk, development methods, performance, weights and costs. The types of materials and manufacturing processes were identified to show that the designs followed a low cost approach. The lift/cruise fan thrust vectoring hoods, which are applicable to either aircraft configuration, were also evaluated to assure a low cost/low risk approach.

  6. Laser propulsion activity in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Michaelis, MM

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available hemisphere are becoming excited at the prospect of a considerable reduction in the cost of launch to low Earth orbit (LEO) by means of laser propulsion (LP) (see ref. 1). We argue here that developing nations also should assess the potential of a cheaper... of the grandiose scheme of ‘Space Port Kilimanjaro’ (Fig. 5), envis- aged by various authors becoming a reality, South African scien- tists, engineers and financiers would benefit. Kilimanjaro is regarded by some13 as the prime location for laser propulsion...

  7. Study of LH2-fueled topping cycle engine for aircraft propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, G. E.; Fishbach, L. H.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical investigation was made of a topping cycle aircraft engine system which uses a cryogenic fuel. This system consists of a main turboshaft engine which is mechanically coupled (by cross-shafting) to a topping loop which augments the shaft power output of the system. The thermodynamic performance of the topping cycle engine was analyzed and compared with that of a reference (conventional-type) turboshaft engine. For the cycle operating conditions selected, the performance of the topping cycle engine in terms of brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was determined to be about 12 percent better than that of the reference turboshaft engine. Engine weights were estimated for both the topping cycle engine and the reference turboshaft engine. These estimates were based on a common shaft power output for each engine. Results indicate that the weight of the topping cycle engine is comparable to that of the reference turboshaft engine.

  8. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Development Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tony

    2015-01-01

    There are clear advantages of development of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) for a crewed mission to Mars. NTP for in-space propulsion enables more ambitious space missions by providing high thrust at high specific impulse ((is) approximately 900 sec) that is 2 times the best theoretical performance possible for chemical rockets. Missions can be optimized for maximum payload capability to take more payload with reduced total mass to orbit; saving cost on reduction of the number of launch vehicles needed. Or missions can be optimized to minimize trip time significantly to reduce the deep space radiation exposure to the crew. NTR propulsion technology is a game changer for space exploration to Mars and beyond. However, 'NUCLEAR' is a word that is feared and vilified by some groups and the hostility towards development of any nuclear systems can meet great opposition by the public as well as from national leaders and people in authority. The public often associates the 'nuclear' word with weapons of mass destruction. The development NTP is at risk due to unwarranted public fears and clear honest communication of nuclear safety will be critical to the success of the development of the NTP technology. Reducing cost to NTP development is critical to its acceptance and funding. In the past, highly inflated cost estimates of a full-scale development nuclear engine due to Category I nuclear security requirements and costly regulatory requirements have put the NTP technology as a low priority. Innovative approaches utilizing low enriched uranium (LEU). Even though NTP can be a small source of radiation to the crew, NTP can facilitate significant reduction of crew exposure to solar and cosmic radiation by reducing trip times by 3-4 months. Current Human Mars Mission (HMM) trajectories with conventional propulsion systems and fuel-efficient transfer orbits exceed astronaut radiation exposure limits. Utilizing extra propellant from one additional SLS launch and available

  9. Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) Tug Power System Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Bury, Kristen M.; Hojinicki, Jeffrey S.; Sajdak, Adam M.; Scheiddegger, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) technology is truly at the "intersection of commercial and military space" as well as the intersection of NASA robotic and human space missions. Building on the use of SEP for geosynchronous spacecraft station keeping, there are numerous potential commercial and military mission applications for SEP stages operating in Earth orbit. At NASA, there is a resurgence of interest in robotic SEP missions for Earth orbit raising applications, 1-AU class heliocentric missions to near Earth objects (NEOs) and SEP spacecraft technology demonstrations. Beyond these nearer term robotic missions, potential future human space flight missions to NEOs with high-power SEP stages are being considered. To enhance or enable this broad class of commercial, military and NASA missions, advancements in the power level and performance of SEP technologies are needed. This presentation will focus on design considerations for the solar photovoltaic array (PVA) and electric power system (EPS) vital to the design and operation of an SEP stage. The engineering and programmatic pros and cons of various PVA and EPS technologies and architectures will be discussed in the context of operating voltage and power levels. The impacts of PVA and EPS design options on the remaining SEP stage subsystem designs, as well as spacecraft operations, will also be discussed.

  10. An Overview of Cube-Satellite Propulsion Technologies and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay Reddy Tummala

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available CubeSats provide a cost effective means to perform scientific and technological studies in space. Due to their affordability, CubeSat technologies have been diversely studied and developed by educational institutions, companies and space organizations all over the world. The CubeSat technology that is surveyed in this paper is the propulsion system. A propulsion system is the primary mobility device of a spacecraft and helps with orbit modifications and attitude control. This paper provides an overview of micro-propulsion technologies that have been developed or are currently being developed for CubeSats. Some of the micro-propulsion technologies listed have also flown as secondary propulsion systems on larger spacecraft. Operating principles and key design considerations for each class of propulsion system are outlined. Finally, the performance factors of micro-propulsion systems have been summarized in terms of: first, a comparison of thrust and specific impulse for all propulsion systems; second, a comparison of power and specific impulse, as also thrust-to-power ratio and specific impulse for electric propulsion systems.

  11. Software for Collaborative Engineering of Launch Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas Troy

    2003-01-01

    The Rocket Evaluation and Cost Integration for Propulsion and Engineering software enables collaborative computing with automated exchange of information in the design and analysis of launch rockets and other complex systems. RECIPE can interact with and incorporate a variety of programs, including legacy codes, that model aspects of a system from the perspectives of different technological disciplines (e.g., aerodynamics, structures, propulsion, trajectory, aeroheating, controls, and operations) and that are used by different engineers on different computers running different operating systems. RECIPE consists mainly of (1) ISCRM a file-transfer subprogram that makes it possible for legacy codes executed in their original operating systems on their original computers to exchange data and (2) CONES an easy-to-use filewrapper subprogram that enables the integration of legacy codes. RECIPE provides a tightly integrated conceptual framework that emphasizes connectivity among the programs used by the collaborators, linking these programs in a manner that provides some configuration control while facilitating collaborative engineering tradeoff studies, including design to cost studies. In comparison with prior collaborative-engineering schemes, one based on the use of RECIPE enables fewer engineers to do more in less time.

  12. In-Space Propulsion Technologies for Robotic Exploration of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Meyer, Rae Ann; Frame, Kyle

    2006-01-01

    Supporting NASA's Science Mission Directorate, the In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is developing the next generation of space propulsion technologies for robotic, deep-space exploration. Recent technological advancements and demonstrations of key, high-payoff propulsion technologies have been achieved and will be described. Technologies under development and test include aerocapture, solar electric propulsion, solar sail propulsion, and advanced chemical propulsion.

  13. Time-frequency distributions for propulsion-system diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Michael E.; Tulpule, Sharayu

    1991-12-01

    The Wigner distribution and its smoothed versions, i.e., Choi-Williams and Gaussian kernels, are evaluated for propulsion system diagnostics. The approach is intended for off-line kernel design by using the ambiguity domain to select the appropriate Gaussian kernel. The features produced by the Wigner distribution and its smoothed versions correlate remarkably well with documented failure indications. The selection of the kernel on the other hand is very subjective for our unstructured data.

  14. An Overview of In-Space Propulsion and Cryogenics Fluids Management Efforts for 2014 SBIR Phases I and II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program focuses on technological innovation by investing in the development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA's mission directorates address critical research and development needs for Agency programs. This report highlights 11 of the innovative SBIR 2014 Phase I and II projects from 2010 to 2012 that focus on one of NASA Glenn Research Center's six core competencies-In-Space Propulsion and Cryogenic Fluids Management. The technologies cover a wide spectrum of applications such as divergent field annular ion engines, miniature nontoxic nitrous oxide-propane propulsion, noncatalytic ignition systems for high-performance advanced monopropellant thrusters, nontoxic storable liquid propulsion, and superconducting electric boost pumps for nuclear thermal propulsion. Each article describes an innovation and technical objective and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report provides an opportunity for NASA engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn how NASA SBIR technologies could help their programs and projects, and lead to collaborations and partnerships between the small SBIR companies and NASA that would benefit both.

  15. Sizing Analysis for Aircraft Utilizing Hybrid-Electric Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    world, the paragon of animals -William Shakespeare I would not have made it this far without the love and support of my parents. Their work-ethic...xiii  I.  Introduction ...Condition 1 SIZING ANALYSIS FOR AIRCRAFT UTILIZING HYBRID- ELECTRIC PROPULSION SYSTEMS I. Introduction 1. Background Physically

  16. A Ship Propulsion System Model for Fault-tolerant Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Blanke, M.

    This report presents a propulsion system model for a low speed marine vehicle, which can be used as a test benchmark for Fault-Tolerant Control purposes. The benchmark serves the purpose of offering realistic and challenging problems relevant in both FDI and (autonomous) supervisory control area...

  17. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials: Recent Progress and Future Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Ray Johnson; Sidney Diamond

    2001-01-01

    The Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program provides enabling materials technology for the U.S. DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT). The technical agenda for the program is based on an industry assessment and the technology roadmap for the OHVT. A five-year program plan was published in 2000. Major efforts in the program are materials for diesel engine fuel systems, exhaust aftertreatment, and air handling. Additional efforts include diesel engine valve-train materials, structural components, and thermal management. Advanced materials, including high-temperature metal alloys, intermetallics, cermets, ceramics, amorphous materials, metal- and ceramic-matrix composites, and coatings, are investigated for critical engine applications. Selected technical issues and planned and ongoing projects as well as brief summaries of several technical highlights are given

  18. A unique nuclear thermal rocket engine using a particle bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Donald W.; Dahl, Wayne B.; McIlwain, Melvin C.

    1992-01-01

    Aerojet Propulsion Division (APD) studied 75-klb thrust Nuclear Thermal Rocket Engines (NTRE) with particle bed reactors (PBR) for application to NASA's manned Mars mission and prepared a conceptual design description of a unique engine that best satisfied mission-defined propulsion requirements and customer criteria. This paper describes the selection of a sprint-type Mars transfer mission and its impact on propulsion system design and operation. It shows how our NTRE concept was developed from this information. The resulting, unusual engine design is short, lightweight, and capable of high specific impulse operation, all factors that decrease Earth to orbit launch costs. Many unusual features of the NTRE are discussed, including nozzle area ratio variation and nozzle closure for closed loop after cooling. Mission performance calculations reveal that other well known engine options do not support this mission.

  19. Test report : alternative fuels propulsion durability evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    This document, prepared by Honeywell Aerospace, Phoenix, AZ (Honeywell), contains the final : test report (public version) for the U.S. Department of Transportation/Federal Aviation : Administration (USDOT/FAA) Alternative Fuels Propulsion Engine Dur...

  20. Thermal stratification in LH2 tank of cryogenic propulsion stage tested in ISRO facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, M.; Raj, R. Edwin; Narayanan, V.

    2017-02-01

    Liquid oxygen and hydrogen are used as oxidizer and fuel respectively in cryogenic propulsion system. These liquids are stored in foam insulated tanks of cryogenic propulsion system and are pressurized using warm pressurant gas supplied for tank pressure maintenance during cryogenic engine operation. Heat leak to cryogenic propellant tank causes buoyancy driven liquid stratification resulting in formation of warm liquid stratum at liquid free surface. This warm stratum is further heated by the admission of warm pressurant gas for tank pressurization during engine operation. Since stratified layer temperature has direct bearing on the cavitation free operation of turbo pumps integrated in cryogenic engine, it is necessary to model the thermal stratification for predicting stratified layer temperature and mass of stratified liquid in tank at the end of engine operation. These inputs are required for estimating the minimum pressure to be maintained by tank pressurization system. This paper describes configuration of cryogenic stage for ground qualification test, stage hot test sequence, a thermal model and its results for a foam insulated LH2 tank subjected to heat leak and pressurization with hydrogen gas at 200 K during liquid outflow at 38 lps for engine operation. The above model considers buoyancy flow in free convection boundary layer caused by heat flux from tank wall and energy transfer from warm pressurant gas etc. to predict temperature of liquid stratum and mass of stratified liquid in tank at the end of engine operation in stage qualification tests carried out in ISRO facility.

  1. The Gasdynamic Mirror Fusion Propulsion System -- Revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kammash, Terry; Tang, Ricky

    2005-01-01

    Many of the previous studies assessing the capability of the gasdynamic mirror (GDM) fusion propulsion system employed analyses that ignored the 'ambipolar' potential. This electrostatic potential arises as a result of the rapid escape of the electrons due to their small mass. As they escape, they leave behind an excess positive charge which manifests itself in an electric field that slows down the electrons while speeding up the ions until their respective axial diffusions are equalized. The indirect effect on the ions is that their confinement time is reduced relative to that of zero potential, and hence the plasma length must be increased to accommodate that change. But as they emerge from the thruster mirror - which serves as a magnetic nozzle - the ions acquire an added energy equal to that of the potential energy, and that in turn manifests itself in increased specific impulse and thrust. We assess the propulsive performance of the GDM thruster, based on the more rigorous theory, by applying it to a round trip Mars mission employing a continuous burn acceleration/deceleration type of trajectory. We find that the length of the device and travel time decrease with increasing plasma density, while the total vehicle mass reaches a minimum at a plasma density of 3 x 1016 cm-3. At such a density, and an initial DT ion temperature of 10 keV, a travel time of 60 days is found to be achievable at GDM propulsion parameters of about 200,000 seconds of specific impulse and approximately 47 kN of thrust

  2. Study of a Tricarbide Grooved Ring Fuel Element for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brian; Emrich, Bill; Tucker, Dennis; Barnes, Marvin; Donders, Nicolas; Benensky, Kelsa

    2018-01-01

    Deep space exploration, especially that of Mars, is on the horizon as the next big challenge for space exploration. Nuclear propulsion, through which high thrust and efficiency can be achieved, is a promising option for decreasing the cost and logistics of such a mission. Work on nuclear thermal engines goes back to the days of the NERVA program. Currently, nuclear thermal propulsion is under development again in various forms to provide a superior propulsion system for deep space exploration. The authors have been working to develop a concept nuclear thermal engine that uses a grooved ring fuel element as an alternative to the traditional hexagonal rod design. The authors are also studying the use of carbide fuels. The concept was developed in order to increase surface area and heat transfer to the propellant. The use of carbides would also raise the operating temperature of the reactor. It is hoped that this could lead to a higher thrust to weight nuclear thermal engine. This paper describes the modeling of neutronics, heat transfer, and fluid dynamics of this alternative nuclear fuel element geometry. Fabrication experiments of grooved rings from carbide refractory metals are also presented along with material characterization and interactions with a hot hydrogen environment. Results of experiments and associated analysis are discussed. The authors demonstrated success in reaching desired densities with some success in material distribution and reaching a solid solution. Future work is needed to improve distribution of material, minimize oxidation during the milling process, and define a fabrication process that will serve for constructing grooved ring fuel rods for large system tests.

  3. A Multi-disciplinary Tool for Space Launch Systems Propulsion Analysis, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An accurate predictive capability of coupled fluid-structure interaction in propulsion system is crucial in the development of NASA's new Space Launch System (SLS)....

  4. Computational Structures Technology for Airframes and Propulsion Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor, A.K.; Housner, J.M.; Starnes, J.H. Jr.; Hopkins, D.A.; Chamis, C.C.

    1992-05-01

    This conference publication contains the presentations and discussions from the joint University of Virginia (UVA)/NASA Workshops. The presentations included NASA Headquarters perspectives on High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), goals and objectives of the UVA Center for Computational Structures Technology (CST), NASA and Air Force CST activities, CST activities for airframes and propulsion systems in industry, and CST activities at Sandia National Laboratory

  5. Multimission nuclear electric propulsion system for outer planet exploration missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondt, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    A 100-kW reactor power system with a specific mass of 15 to 30 kg/kW/sub e/ and an electric thrust system with a specific mass of 5 to 10 kg/kW/sub e/ can be combined into a nuclear electric propulsion system. The system can be used for outer planet missions as well as earth orbital transfer vehicle missions. 5 refs

  6. Dynamic Systems Analysis for Turbine Based Aero Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    The aircraft engine design process seeks to optimize the overall system-level performance, weight, and cost for a given concept. Steady-state simulations and data are used to identify trade-offs that should be balanced to optimize the system in a process known as systems analysis. These systems analysis simulations and data may not adequately capture the true performance trade-offs that exist during transient operation. Dynamic systems analysis provides the capability for assessing the dynamic tradeoffs at an earlier stage of the engine design process. The dynamic systems analysis concept, developed tools, and potential benefit are presented in this paper. To provide this capability, the Tool for Turbine Engine Closed-loop Transient Analysis (TTECTrA) was developed to provide the user with an estimate of the closed-loop performance (response time) and operability (high pressure compressor surge margin) for a given engine design and set of control design requirements. TTECTrA along with engine deterioration information, can be used to develop a more generic relationship between performance and operability that can impact the engine design constraints and potentially lead to a more efficient engine.

  7. Sandwich Core Heat-Pipe Radiator for Power and Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Marc; Sanzi, James; Locci, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation heat-pipe radiator technologies are being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to provide advancements in heat-rejection systems for space power and propulsion systems. All spacecraft power and propulsion systems require their waste heat to be rejected to space in order to function at their desired design conditions. The thermal efficiency of these heat-rejection systems, balanced with structural requirements, directly affect the total mass of the system. Terrestrially, this technology could be used for thermal control of structural systems. One potential use is radiant heating systems for residential and commercial applications. The thin cross section and efficient heat transportability could easily be applied to flooring and wall structures that could evenly heat large surface areas. Using this heat-pipe technology, the evaporator of the radiators could be heated using any household heat source (electric, gas, etc.), which would vaporize the internal working fluid and carry the heat to the condenser sections (walls and/or floors). The temperature could be easily controlled, providing a comfortable and affordable living environment. Investigating the appropriate materials and working fluids is needed to determine this application's potential success and usage.

  8. Compact Hybrid Automotive Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.

    1986-01-01

    Power train proposed for experimental vehicle powered by internal combustion engine and electric motor. Intended for front-wheel drive automobile, power train mass produced using existing technology. System includes internal-combustion engine, electric motor, continuously variable transmission, torque converter, differential, and control and adjustment systems for electric motor and transmission. Continuously variable transmission integrated into hydraulic system that also handles power steering and power brakes. Batteries for electric motor mounted elsewhere in vehicle.

  9. Highly miniaturized FEEP propulsion system (NanoFEEP) for attitude and orbit control of CubeSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Daniel; Tajmar, Martin

    2018-03-01

    A highly miniaturized Field Emission Electric Propulsion (FEEP) system is currently under development at TU Dresden, called NanoFEEP [1]. The highly miniaturized thruster heads are very compact and have a volume of less than 3 cm3 and a weight of less than 6 g each. One thruster is able to generate continuous thrust of up to 8 μN with short term peaks of up to 22 μN. The very compact design and low power consumption (heating power demand between 50 and 150 mW) are achieved by using Gallium as metal propellant with its low melting point of approximately 30 °C. This makes it possible to implement an electric propulsion system consisting of four thruster heads, two neutralizers and the necessary electronics on a 1U CubeSat with its strong limitation in space, weight and available power. Even formation flying of 1U CubeSats using an electric propulsion system is possible with this system, which is shown by the example of a currently planned cooperation project between Wuerzburg University, Zentrum fuer Telematik and TU Dresden. It is planned to use the NanoFEEP electric propulsion system on the UWE (University Wuerzburg Experimental) 1U CubeSat platform [2] to demonstrate orbit and two axis attitude control with our electric propulsion system NanoFEEP. We present the latest performance characteristics of the NanoFEEP thrusters and the highly miniaturized electronics. Additionally, the concept and the current status of a novel cold neutralizer chip using Carbon Nano Tubes (CNTs) is presented.

  10. Development of Nuclear ship Engineering Simulation SYstem (NESSY)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Kyouya, Masahiko; Takahashi, Teruo; Kobayashi, Hideo; Ochiai, Masa-aki; Hashidate, Kouji.

    1993-11-01

    NESSY has been developed for design studies of advanced marine reactors as a part of nuclear ship research and development since 1987. Engineering simulation model of the Mutsu, which is the first nuclear ship in Japan, was completed in March of 1993. In this report we concentration on detail description of softwares for Mutsu modeling. The aims of development of NESSY are as follows; (1) Assessment and confirmation on plant performance of an advanced marine reactor in each step of nuclear ship design (2) Development of abnormality diagnosis system and operator support system as a part of enhanced automization study, and study of human interface with hardware The characteristics of NESSY are the followings. (1) Total engineering simulation system simulate simultaneously ship motions, propulsion system behavior, and nuclear plant behavior under given weather and sea conditions. (2) Models based on physical theory as far as possible. (3) The simulator has high extensibility and flexibility. It is able to apply to other reactors, as the simulation model consists of the part of basic model and the part of plant data which are easy to change. After completion of Mutsu modeling, we are planning to utilize this system as one of design tools for an advanced marine reactor. (author)

  11. A One-year, Short-Stay Crewed Mars Mission Using Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Electric Propulsion (BNTEP) - A Preliminary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Laura A.; Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    A crewed mission to Mars poses a signi cant challenge in dealing with the physiolog- ical issues that arise with the crew being exposed to a near zero-gravity environment as well as signi cant solar and galactic radiation for such a long duration. While long sur- face stay missions exceeding 500 days are the ultimate goal for human Mars exploration, short round trip, short surface stay missions could be an important intermediate step that would allow NASA to demonstrate technology as well as study the physiological e ects on the crew. However, for a 1-year round trip mission, the outbound and inbound hy- perbolic velocity at Earth and Mars can be very large resulting in a signi cant propellant requirement for a high thrust system like Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP). Similarly, a low thrust Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) system requires high electrical power lev- els (10 megawatts electric (MWe) or more), plus advanced power conversion technology to achieve the lower speci c mass values needed for such a mission. A Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Electric Propulsion (BNTEP) system is examined here that uses three high thrust Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket (BNTR) engines allowing short departure and capture maneuvers. The engines also generate electrical power that drives a low thrust Electric Propulsion (EP) system used for ecient interplanetary transit. This combined system can help reduce the total launch mass, system and operational requirements that would otherwise be required for equivalent NEP or Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) mission. The BNTEP system is a hybrid propulsion concept where the BNTR reactors operate in two separate modes. During high-thrust mode operation, each BNTR provides 10's of kilo- Newtons of thrust at reasonably high speci c impulse (Isp) of 900 seconds for impulsive trans-planetary injection and orbital insertion maneuvers. When in power generation / EP mode, the BNTR reactors are coupled to a Brayton power conversion system allowing each

  12. Wireless Networked Sensors for Remote Monitoring in Propulsion Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This NASA Phase I SBIR program would fabricate wireless networked nanomembrane (NM) based surface pressure sensors for remote monitoring in propulsion systems, using...

  13. The issue of ensuring the safe explosion of the spent orbital stages of a launch vehicle with propulsion rocket engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trushlyakov Valeriy I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for increasing the safe explosion of the spent orbital stages of a space launch vehicle (SLV with a propulsion rocket engine (PRE based on the gasification of unusable residues propellant and venting fuel tanks. For gasification and ventilation the hot gases used produced by combustion of the specially selected gas generating composition (GGC with a set of physical and chemical properties. Excluding the freezing of the drainage system on reset gasified products (residues propellant+pressurization gas+hot gases in the near-Earth space is achieved by selecting the physical-chemical characteristics of the GGC. Proposed steps to ensure rotation of gasified products due to dumping through the drainage system to ensure the most favorable conditions for propellant gasification residues. For example, a tank with liquid oxygen stays with the orbital spent second stage of the SLV “Zenit”, which shows the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Combining chemical and electric-nuclear propulsion for high speed flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, S.N.B.; Froning, H.D.

    1991-01-01

    In the development of propulsion for the high speed (greater than Mach 8) regime of a SSTO vehicle, an alternative to a combination of scramjets and conventional chemical rockets is a nuclear system such as the dense plasma fusion engine operated with aneutronic fuels. Several variants are then possible in the manner of energizing the working fluid. An attempt has been made to compare the effectiveness of nuclear and scramjet engines with respect to weights and utilization of energy availability. It is shown that nuclear engines can be as effective as the optimized combustion engines, and will yield a considerable reduction in GTOW in earth-based missions, and have a special use in other planetary atmospheres in which combustion may be difficult but collection and processing of working fluid is feasible. 9 refs

  15. Systems integration processes for space nuclear electric propulsion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, C.S.; Rice, J.W.; Stanley, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    The various components and subsystems that comprise a nuclear electric propulsion system should be developed and integrated so that each functions ideally and so that each is properly integrated with the other components and subsystems in the optimum way. This paper discusses how processes similar to those used in the development and intergration of the subsystems that comprise the Multimegawatt Space Nuclear Power System concepts can be and are being efficiently and effectively utilized for these purposes. The processes discussed include the development of functional and operational requirements at the system and subsystem level; the assessment of individual nuclear power supply and thruster concepts and their associated technologies; the conduct of systems integration efforts including the evaluation of the mission benefits for each system; the identification and resolution of concepts development, technology development, and systems integration feasibility issues; subsystem, system, and technology development and integration; and ground and flight subsystem and integrated system testing

  16. Visions of the Future: Hybrid Electric Aircraft Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is investing continually in improving civil aviation. Hybridization of aircraft propulsion is one aspect of a technology suite which will transform future aircraft. In this context, hybrid propulsion is considered a combination of traditional gas turbine propulsion and electric drive enabled propulsion. This technology suite includes elements of propulsion and airframe integration, parallel hybrid shaft power, turbo-electric generation, electric drive systems, component development, materials development and system integration at multiple levels.

  17. “You can get there from here”: Advanced low cost propulsion concepts for small satellites beyond LEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Adam M.; da Silva Curiel, Alex; Schaffner, Jake; Sweeting, Martin

    2005-07-01

    Small satellites have historically been forced to use low cost propulsion, or to do without in order to maintain low cost. Since 1999 an increasing number of SSTL's customers have demanded the capability to precisely position and subsequently manoeuvre their satellites, driven largely by the current attraction of small satellite constellations such as Disaster Monitoring (DMC), which require propulsion for launcher injection error correction, drag compensation, constellation phasing and proximity manoeuvring and rendezvous. SSTL has successfully flight qualified a simple, low cost propulsion system based on a low power (15-100 W) resistojet employing green propellants such as butane and xenon, and demonstrated key constellation manoeuvres. The system is capable of up to 60 m/s deltaV and will be described here. The SSTL low power resistojet is however limited by a low Isp ( ˜50s for Xenon in the present design, and ˜100s with nitrogen and butane) and a slow reaction time ( 10min warm-up required). An increasing desire to apply small satellite technology to high deltaV missions while retaining the low cost aspect demands new solutions. 'Industry standard' solutions based on cryogenic propulsion, or toxic, carcinogenic storable propellants such as hydrazine/nitrogen oxides combination are not favourable for small satellite missions developed within SSTL's low cost engineering environment. This paper describes a number of strawman missions with high deltaV and/or precision manoeuvring requirements and some low cost propulsion solutions which have been explored at the Surrey Space Centre to meet future needs: Deployment of a complex constellation of nano- or pico-satellites from a secondary launch to a new orbit. The S3TV concept has been developed to allow deployment up to 12 payloads from an 'off-the-shelf' thrust tube, using a restartable nitrous oxide hybrid engine, operating in a dual mode with resistojets for attitude control. Orbit transfer of an enhanced

  18. Conceptual Design of Electrical Propulsion System for Nuclear Operated Vessel Adventurer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halimi, B.; Suh, K. Y.

    2009-01-01

    A design concept of the electric propulsion system for the Nuclear Operated Vessel Adventure (NOVA) is presented. NOVA employs Battery Omnibus Reactor Integral System (BORIS), a liquid metal cooled small fast integral reactor, and Modular Optimized Brayton Integral System (MOBIS), a supercritical CO 2 (SCO 2 ) Brayton cycle as power converter to Naval Application Vessel Integral System (NAVIS)

  19. Dedicated Laboratory Setup for CO2 TEA Laser Propulsion Experiments at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvador, Israel I.; Kenoyer, David; Myrabo, Leik N.; Notaro, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    Laser propulsion research progress has traditionally been hindered by the scarcity of photon sources with desirable characteristics, as well as integrated specialized flow facilities in a dedicated laboratory environment. For TEA CO 2 lasers, the minimal requirements are time-average powers of >100 W), and pulse energies of >10 J pulses with short duration (e.g., 0.1 to 1 μs); furthermore, for the advanced pulsejet engines of interest here, the laser system must simulate pulse repetition frequencies of 1-10 kilohertz or more, at least for two (carefully sequenced) pulses. A well-equipped laser propulsion laboratory should have an arsenal of sensor and diagnostics tools (such as load cells, thrust stands, moment balances, pressure and heat transfer gages), Tesla-level electromagnet and permanent magnets, flow simulation facilities, and high-speed visualization systems, in addition to other related equipment, such as optics and gas supply systems. In this paper we introduce a cutting-edge Laser Propulsion Laboratory created at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, one of the very few in the world to be uniquely set up for beamed energy propulsion (BEP) experiments. The present BEP research program is described, along with the envisioned research strategy that will exploit current and expanded facilities in the near future.

  20. RF emission-based health monitoring for hybrid and/or all electric aircraft distributed propulsion systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future aircraft propulsion is destined to be electric. All electric aircraft propulsion systems promise significant improvements in energy efficiency,...

  1. An overview of the NASA Advanced Propulsion Concepts program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, F.M.; Bennett, G.L.; Frisbee, R.H.; Sercel, J.C.; Lapointe, M.R.

    1992-07-01

    NASA Advanced Propulsion Concepts (APC) program for the development of long-term space propulsion system schemes is managed by both NASA-Lewis and the JPL and is tasked with the identification and conceptual development of high-risk/high-payoff configurations. Both theoretical and experimental investigations have been undertaken in technology areas deemed essential to the implementation of candidate concepts. These APC candidates encompass very high energy density chemical propulsion systems, advanced electric propulsion systems, and an antiproton-catalyzed nuclear propulsion concept. A development status evaluation is presented for these systems. 45 refs

  2. Introduction to Advanced Engine Control Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjay, Garg

    2007-01-01

    With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced controls and health management technologies that will help meet these challenges through the concept of Intelligent Propulsion Systems. The key enabling technologies for an Intelligent Propulsion System are the increased efficiencies of components through active control, advanced diagnostics and prognostics integrated with intelligent engine control to enhance operational reliability and component life, and distributed control with smart sensors and actuators in an adaptive fault tolerant architecture. This presentation describes the current activities of the Controls and Dynamics Branch in the areas of active component control and propulsion system intelligent control, and presents some recent analytical and experimental results in these areas.

  3. Solar Sail Propulsion Technology Readiness Level Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Charles L.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Projects Office has been sponsoring 2 solar sail system design and development hardware demonstration activities over the past 20 months. Able Engineering Company (AEC) of Goleta, CA is leading one team and L Garde, Inc. of Tustin, CA is leading the other team. Component, subsystem and system fabrication and testing has been completed successfully. The goal of these activities is to advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of solar sail propulsion from 3 towards 6 by 2006. These activities will culminate in the deployment and testing of 20-meter solar sail system ground demonstration hardware in the 30 meter diameter thermal-vacuum chamber at NASA Glenn Plum Brook in 2005. This paper will describe the features of a computer database system that documents the results of the solar sail development activities to-date. Illustrations of the hardware components and systems, test results, analytical models, relevant space environment definition and current TRL assessment, as stored and manipulated within the database are presented. This database could serve as a central repository for all data related to the advancement of solar sail technology sponsored by the ISPT, providing an up-to-date assessment of the TRL of this technology. Current plans are to eventually make the database available to the Solar Sail community through the Space Transportation Information Network (STIN).

  4. Energy management and sizing of fuel cell hybrid propulsion systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tazelaar, E.

    2013-01-01

    Our dependency on road transportation of people and goods is huge. Unfortunately, this transportation is mainly fed by fossil fuels, with as accompanying disadvantages undesired local and global emissions and politically less desired dependencies. Electric propulsion systems can help to cover the

  5. Case Study on the Unavailability of a Ship Propulsion System under Aging Effects and Maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Tadatsugi Okazaki

    2016-01-01

    Unavailability of a ship propulsion system under aging effects and proper maintenance is estimated using GO-FLOW. GO-FLOW is an effective software tool for the unavailability analysis of complex systems. Aging effects are incorporated into GO-FLOW using a time-dependent technique and assuming a linear aging model. The results show that the aging effects and improper maintenance can potentially increase the frequency of accidents due to a malfunction of the propulsion system by a factor of three.

  6. Combining MHD Airbreathing and Fusion Rocket Propulsion for Earth-to-Orbit Flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froning, H. D. Jr; Yang, Yang; Momota, H.; Burton, E.; Miley, G. H.; Luo, Nie

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that Single-State-to-Orbit (SSTO) vehicle propellant can be reduced by Magnets-Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) processes that minimize airbreathing propulsion losses and propellant consumption during atmospheric flight. Similarly additional reduction in SSTO propellant is enabled by Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion, whose more energetic reactions reduce rocket propellant needs. MHD airbreathing propulsion during an SSTO vehicle's initial atmospheric flight phase and IEC fusion propulsion during its final exo-atmospheric flight phase is therefore being explored. Accomplished work is not yet sufficient for claiming such a vehicle's feasibility. But takeoff and propellant mass for an MHD airbreathing and IEC fusion vehicle could be as much as 25 and 40 percent less than one with ordinary airbreathing and IEC fusion; and as much as 50 and 70 percent less than SSTO takeoff and propellant mass with MHD airbreathing and chemical rocket propulsion. Thus this unusual combined cycle engine shows great promise for performance gains beyond contemporary combined-cycle airbreathing engines

  7. The Art and Science of Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Christopher E.

    2009-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was established in 1958, and its Marshall Space Flight Center was founded in 1960, as space-related work was transferred from the Army Ballistic Missile Agency at Redstone Arsenal, where Marshall is located. With this heritage, Marshall contributes almost 50 years of systems engineering experience with human-rated launch vehicles and scientific spacecraft to fulfill NASA's mission exploration and discovery. These complex, highly specialized systems have provided vital platforms for expanding the knowledge base about Earth, the solar system, and cosmos; developing new technologies that also benefit life on Earth; and opening new frontiers for America's strategic space goals. From Mercury and Gemini, to Apollo and the Space Shuttle, Marshall's systems engineering expertise is an unsurpassed foundational competency for NASA and the nation. Current assignments comprise managing Space Shuttle Propulsion systems; developing environmental control and life support systems and coordinating science operations on the International Space Station; and a number of exploration-related responsibilities. These include managing and performing science missions, such as the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter slated to launch for the Moon in April 2009, to developing the Ares I crew launch vehicle upper stage and integrating the vehicle stack in house, as well as designing the Ares V cargo launch vehicle and contributing to the development of the Altair Lunar Lander and an International Lunar Network with communications nodes and other infrastructure.

  8. Nuclear electric propulsion: A better, safer, cheaper transportation system for human exploration of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.S.; George, J.A.; Gefert, L.P.; Doherty, M.P.; Sefcik, R.J.

    1994-03-01

    NASA has completed a preliminary mission and systems study of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems for 'split-sprint' human exploration and related robotic cargo missions to Mars. This paper describes the study, the mission architecture selected, the NEP system and technology development needs, proposed development schedules, and estimated development costs. Since current administration policy makers have delayed funding for key technology development activities that could make Mars exploration missions a reality in the near future, NASA will have time to evaluate various alternate mission options, and it appears prudent to ensure that Mars mission plans focus on astronaut and mission safety, while reducing costs to acceptable levels. The split-sprint nuclear electric propulsion system offers trip times comparable to nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems, while providing mission abort opportunities that are not possible with 'reference' mission architectures. Thus, NEP systems offer short transit times for the astronauts, reducing the exposure of the crew to intergalactic cosmic radiation. The high specific impulse of the NEP system, which leads to very low propellant requirements, results in significantly lower 'initial mass in low earth orbit' (IMLEO). Launch vehicle packaging studies show that the NEP system can be launched, assembled, and deployed, with about one less 240-metric-ton heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) per mission opportunity - a very Technology development cost of the nuclear reactor for an NEP system would be shared with the proposed nuclear surface power systems, since nuclear systems will be required to provide substantial electrical power on the surface of Mars. The NEP development project plan proposed includes evolutionary technology development for nuclear electric propulsion systems that expands upon SP-100 (Space Power - 100 kw(e)) technology that has been developed for lunar and Mars surface nuclear power

  9. Vehicle and Mission Design Options for the Human Exploration of Mars/Phobos Using "Bimodal" NTR and LANTR Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.; McGuire, Melissa L.

    2002-12-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) is one of the leading propulsion options for future human missions to Mars because of its high specific impulse (1sp is approximately 850-1000 s) capability and its attractive engine thrust-to-weight ratio (approximately 3-10). To stay within the available mass and payload volume limits of a "Magnum" heavy lift vehicle, a high performance propulsion system is required for trans-Mars injection (TMI). An expendable TMI stage, powered by three 15 thousand pounds force (klbf) NTR engines is currently under consideration by NASA for its Design Reference Mission (DRM). However, because of the miniscule burnup of enriched uranium-235 during the Earth departure phase (approximately 10 grams out of 33 kilograms in each NTR core), disposal of the TMI stage and its engines after a single use is a costly and inefficient use of this high performance stage. By reconfiguring the engines for both propulsive thrust and modest power generation (referred to as "bimodal" operation), a robust, multiple burn, "power-rich" stage with propulsive Mars capture and reuse capability is possible. A family of modular bimodal NTR (BNTR) vehicles are described which utilize a common "core" stage powered by three 15 klbf BNTRs that produce 50 kWe of total electrical power for crew life support, an active refrigeration / reliquification system for long term, zero-boiloff liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage, and high data rate communications. An innovative, spine-like "saddle truss" design connects the core stage and payload element and is open underneath to allow supplemental "in-line" propellant tanks and contingency crew consumables to be easily jettisoned to improve vehicle performance. A "modified" DRM using BNTR transfer vehicles requires fewer transportation system elements, reduces IMLEO and mission risk, and simplifies space operations. By taking the next logical step--use of the BNTR for propulsive capture of all payload elements into Mars orbit--the power

  10. Coil-On-Plug Ignition for LOX/Methane Liquid Rocket Engines in Thermal Vacuum Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, John C.; Atwell, Matthew J.; Morehead, Robert L.; Hurlbert, Eric A.; Bugarin, Luz; Chaidez, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    A coil-on-plug ignition system has been developed and tested for Liquid Oxygen (LOX) / liquid methane rocket engines operating in thermal vacuum conditions. The igniters were developed and tested as part of the Integrated Cryogenic Propulsion Test Article (ICPTA), previously tested as part of the Project Morpheus test vehicle. The ICPTA uses an integrated, pressure-fed, cryogenic LOX/methane propulsion system including a reaction control system (RCS) and a main engine. The ICPTA was tested at NASA Glenn Research Center's Plum Brook Station in the Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility (B-2) under vacuum and thermal vacuum conditions. In order to successfully demonstrate ignition reliability in the vacuum conditions and eliminate corona discharge issues, a coil-on-plug ignition system has been developed. The ICPTA uses spark-plug ignition for both the main engine igniter and the RCS. The coil-on-plug configuration eliminates the conventional high-voltage spark plug cable by combining the coil and the spark-plug into a single component. Prior to ICPTA testing at Plum Brook, component-level reaction control engine (RCE) and main engine igniter testing was conducted at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), which demonstrated successful hot-fire ignition using the coil-on-plug from sea-level ambient conditions down to 10(exp.-2) torr. Integrated vehicle hot-fire testing at JSC demonstrated electrical and command/data system performance. Lastly, Plum Brook testing demonstrated successful ignitions at simulated altitude conditions at 30 torr and cold thermal-vacuum conditions at 6 torr. The test campaign successfully proved that coil-on-plug technology will enable integrated LOX/methane propulsion systems in future spacecraft.

  11. Coil-On-Plug Ignition for Oxygen/Methane Liquid Rocket Engines in Thermal-Vacuum Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, John C.; Atwell, Matthew J.; Morehead, Robert L.; Hurlbert, Eric A.; Bugarin, Luz; Chaidez, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    A coil-on-plug ignition system has been developed and tested for Liquid Oxygen (LOX)/liquid methane (LCH4) rocket engines operating in thermal vacuum conditions. The igniters were developed and tested as part of the Integrated Cryogenic Propulsion Test Article (ICPTA), previously tested as part of the Project Morpheus test vehicle. The ICPTA uses an integrated, pressure-fed, cryogenic LOX/LCH4 propulsion system including a reaction control system (RCS) and a main engine. The ICPTA was tested at NASA Glenn Research Center's Plum Brook Station in the Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility (B-2) under vacuum and thermal vacuum conditions. A coil-on-plug ignition system has been developed to successfully demonstrate ignition reliability at these conditions while preventing corona discharge issues. The ICPTA uses spark plug ignition for both the main engine igniter and the RCS. The coil-on-plug configuration eliminates the conventional high-voltage spark plug cable by combining the coil and the spark plug into a single component. Prior to ICPTA testing at Plum Brook, component-level reaction control engine (RCE) and main engine igniter testing was conducted at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), which demonstrated successful hot-fire ignition using the coil-on-plug from sea-level ambient conditions down to 10(exp -2) torr. Integrated vehicle hot-fire testing at JSC demonstrated electrical and command/data system performance. Lastly, hot-fire testing at Plum Brook demonstrated successful ignitions at simulated altitude conditions at 30 torr and cold thermal-vacuum conditions at 6 torr. The test campaign successfully proved that coil-on-plug technology will enable integrated LOX/LCH4 propulsion systems in future spacecraft.

  12. Advanced ceramic matrix composite materials for current and future propulsion technology applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, S.; Beyer, S.; Knabe, H.; Immich, H.; Meistring, R.; Gessler, A.

    2004-08-01

    Current rocket engines, due to their method of construction, the materials used and the extreme loads to which they are subjected, feature a limited number of load cycles. Various technology programmes in Europe are concerned, besides developing reliable and rugged, low cost, throwaway equipment, with preparing for future reusable propulsion technologies. One of the key roles for realizing reusable engine components is the use of modern and innovative materials. One of the key technologies which concern various engine manufacturers worldwide is the development of fibre-reinforced ceramics—ceramic matrix composites. The advantages for the developers are obvious—the low specific weight, the high specific strength over a large temperature range, and their great damage tolerance compared to monolithic ceramics make this material class extremely interesting as a construction material. Over the past years, the Astrium company (formerly DASA) has, together with various partners, worked intensively on developing components for hypersonic engines and liquid rocket propulsion systems. In the year 2000, various hot-firing tests with subscale (scale 1:5) and full-scale nozzle extensions were conducted. In this year, a further decisive milestone was achieved in the sector of small thrusters, and long-term tests served to demonstrate the extraordinary stability of the C/SiC material. Besides developing and testing radiation-cooled nozzle components and small-thruster combustion chambers, Astrium worked on the preliminary development of actively cooled structures for future reusable propulsion systems. In order to get one step nearer to this objective, the development of a new fibre composite was commenced within the framework of a regionally sponsored programme. The objective here is to create multidirectional (3D) textile structures combined with a cost-effective infiltration process. Besides material and process development, the project also encompasses the development of

  13. Design considerations for Mars transfer vehicles using nuclear thermal propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, William J.

    1995-01-01

    The design of a Mars Transfer Vehicle (MTV) utilizing nuclear propulsion will require that careful consideration be given to the nuclear radiation environment in which it will operate. The extremely high neutron and gamma fluxes characteristic of nuclear thermal propulsion systems will cause significant heating of the fluid systems in close proximity to the reactor, especially in the lower propellant tanks. Crew radiation doses are also a concern particularly late in a mission when there is less shielding from the propellant tanks. In this study, various vehicle configuration and shielding strategies were examined and the resulting time dependent radiation fields evaluated. A common cluster of three particle bed reactor (PBR) engines were used in all configurations examined. In general, it appears that long, relatively narrow vehicles perform the best from a radiation standpoint, however, good shield optimization will be critical in maintaining a low radiation environment while minimizing the shield weight penalty.

  14. An electric vehicle propulsion system's impact on battery performance: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozek, J. M.; Smithrick, J. J.; Cataldo, R. C.; Ewashinka, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    The performance of two types of batteries, lead-acid and nickel-zinc, was measured as a function of the charging and discharging demands anticipated from electric vehicle propulsion systems. The benefits of rapid high current charging were mixed: although it allowed quick charges, the energy efficiency was reduced. For low power (overnight) charging the current wave shapes delivered by the charger to the battery tended to have no effect on the battery cycle life. The use of chopper speed controllers with series traction motors resulted in a significant reduction in the energy available from a battery whenever the motor operates at part load. The demand placed on a battery by an electric vehicle propulsion system containing electrical regenerative braking confirmed significant improvment in short term performance of the battery.

  15. Propulsion/flight control integration technology (PROFIT) software system definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, C. M.; Hastings, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    The Propulsion Flight Control Integration Technology (PROFIT) program is designed to develop a flying testbed dedicated to controls research. The control software for PROFIT is defined. Maximum flexibility, needed for long term use of the flight facility, is achieved through a modular design. The Host program, processes inputs from the telemetry uplink, aircraft central computer, cockpit computer control and plant sensors to form an input data base for use by the control algorithms. The control algorithms, programmed as application modules, process the input data to generate an output data base. The Host program formats the data for output to the telemetry downlink, the cockpit computer control, and the control effectors. Two applications modules are defined - the bill of materials F-100 engine control and the bill of materials F-15 inlet control.

  16. Site systems engineering: Systems engineering management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)