WorldWideScience

Sample records for proprietary smartcoat delivery

  1. Proprietary and voluntary home care agency evolution: the emergence of a new entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balinsky, W; Shames, J N

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to document that the delivery of home care services and the corresponding ways in which they are marketed are evolving in both proprietary and voluntary providers. This evolution is producing the emergency of a new entity. In order to examine the present state, it is necessary to review the general history of the development of both voluntary (not-for-profit) and proprietary home health services. Then, an analysis of present conditions will show that these two forms of ownership are changing in ways that are making them more alike than different. This situation is leading to more intense competition for an expanding and diverse mix of home services. Program content and corresponding marketing techniques have crossed the industry's traditional lines blending into a wide array of services being offered by both voluntary and proprietary organizations. Despite their many shared goals and objectives, home care agencies still differ in their underlying philosophy which is based at least in part on their past.

  2. 27 CFR 20.113 - Proprietary solvents general-use formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proprietary solvents... Formulas and Statements of Process General-Use Formulas § 20.113 Proprietary solvents general-use formula. (a) A proprietary solvent is any article made with any other ingredients combined with the...

  3. Contrasting Proprietary and Free/Open Source Game Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Zamarian

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Free/Libre Open Source Software (F/LOSS development practices are gaining momentum in the computer game industry. This traditionally proprietary industry is becoming more interested in the F/LOSS paradigm for developing complex software projects. Software practitioners, both managers and developers, need to understand the potential in order to benefit properly from incorporating F/LOSS practices into their proprietary production cycle. Comparisons between proprietary and F/LOSS software development processes are usually characterized in terms of the relationship between property rights, revenue distribution and power within a network of actors. By contrast, coordination and control practices, mediating artifacts and development tools, and the interactions between the different actors involved in the development are often neglected. Proprietary and F/LOSS development differ in terms of the knowledge exchanges between the relevant actors and the different strategies employed to overcome information asymmetries. Recognizing this difference is an essential step for evaluating how proprietary, closed-source software houses can benefit by integrating various F/LOSS practices into their development agenda.

  4. How to establish precise proprietary Chinese medicine in post-marketing reappraisal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Tian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The clinical efficacy and safety of proprietary Chinese medicine has become a more prevailing public health concern. The China Food and Drug Administration has pushed drug companies to conduct post-marketing reappraisal for proprietary Chinese medicine to provide additional evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of these medicine. In this paper, we propose a reappraisal protocol called “precise proprietary Chinese medicine” to precisely i define the therapeutic aim; ii design the protocol; iii control the quality of proprietary Chinese medicine; iv implement the protocol in the trial; v study the mechanism-of-action of the proprietary Chinese medicine and vi describe the indications of the proprietary Chinese medicine. We hope that these steps facilitate the post-marketing reappraisal of proprietary Chinese medicine.

  5. Proprietary policy and production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeong, Byeongju

    -, č. 287 (2006), s. 1-14 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : proprietary regime * direct production * model Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp287.pdf

  6. 19 CFR 357.111 - Public and proprietary information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... conspicuously mark in the upper right corner of both versions, the words “proprietary document” or “public... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public and proprietary information. 357.111 Section 357.111 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SHORT SUPPLY...

  7. 48 CFR 1509.505-4 - Obtaining access to proprietary information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... proprietary information. 1509.505-4 Section 1509.505-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL....505-4 Obtaining access to proprietary information. Contractors gaining access to confidential business... business information. ...

  8. Disclosure Regulation in Duopoly Markets: Proprietary Costs and Social Welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijs, J.P.M.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    The argument of proprietary costs is commonly used by firms to object against proposed disclosure regulations. The goal of this paper is to improve our understanding of the welfare consequences of disclosure in duopoly markets and to identify market settings where proprietary costs are a viable

  9. Disclosure regulation in duopoly markets : Proprietary costs and social welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijs, J.P.M.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    The argument of proprietary costs is commonly used by firms to object against proposed disclosure regulations. The goal of this paper is to improve our understanding of the welfare consequences of disclosure in duopoly markets and to identify market settings where proprietary costs are a viable

  10. 15 CFR 1160.6 - Proprietary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proprietary data. 1160.6 Section 1160.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION Promotion of...

  11. A Perceptual Measure of the Degree of Development of Proprietary Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cua, Kristy O.; Junttila, Mikko A.; Schroeder, Roger G.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated the psychometric properties of a perceptual measure of the extent to which manufacturing organizations develop proprietary equipment, the Proprietary Equipment Scale (developed by the World Class Manufacturing study). Analysis of data from 164 manufacturing plants in 5 countries indicates that although method effects are present, the…

  12. 47 CFR 64.2011 - Notification of customer proprietary network information security breaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... information security breaches. 64.2011 Section 64.2011 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Proprietary Network Information § 64.2011 Notification of customer proprietary network information security... criminal investigation or national security, such agency may direct the carrier not to so disclose or...

  13. 47 CFR 76.938 - Proprietary information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.938 Proprietary information. A franchising authority... Form 393 (and/or FCC Forms 1200/1205) filing or a cost-of-service showing. The franchising authority... specifically relates. Upon request to the franchising authority, the parties to a rate proceeding shall have...

  14. 27 CFR 6.27 - Proprietary interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail License § 6.27 Proprietary interest. (a) Complete ownership. Outright ownership of a retail business by an industry member is.... Less than complete ownership of a retail business by an industry member constitutes an interest in a...

  15. 27 CFR 6.33 - Proprietary interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail Property § 6.33 Proprietary interest. (a) Complete ownership. Outright ownership of a retail business by an industry member is.... Less than complete ownership of a retail business by an industry member constitutes an interest in...

  16. 75 FR 61758 - Public Input for the Study Regarding the Implementation of the Prohibitions on Proprietary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... banking entities from engaging in proprietary trading and from maintaining certain relationships with... the Prohibitions on Proprietary Trading and Certain Relationships With Hedge Funds and Private Equity...-Frank Act, banking entities \\2\\ are prohibited from engaging in proprietary trading and from maintaining...

  17. When to make proprietary software open source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caulkins, J.P.; Feichtinger, G.; Grass, D.; Hartl, R.F.; Kort, P.M.; Seidl, A.

    Software can be distributed closed source (proprietary) or open source (developed collaboratively). While a firm cannot sell open source software, and so loses potential sales revenue, the open source software development process can have a substantial positive impact on the quality of a software,

  18. Cyclic Fatigue Resistance of 3 Proprietary Rotary File Brands and their Analogous EdgeEndo Counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-26

    Resistance of 3 Proprietary Rotary File Brands and their Analogous EdgeEndo Counterparts. 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd...Endodontics 14. ABSTRACT Cyclic Fatigue Resistance of 3 Proprietary Rotary File Brands and their Analogous EdgeEndo Counterparts. David J. Weyh DDS...Resistance of 3 Proprietary Rotary File Brands and their Analogous EdgeEndo Counterparts. David J. Weyh DDS Jarom J. Ray DDS Introduction: The aim of this

  19. Open Source and Proprietary Project Management Tools for SMEs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Abramova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The dimensional growth and increasing difficulty in project management promoted the development of different tools that serve to facilitate project management and track project schedule, resources and overall progress. These tools offer a variety of features, from task and time management, up to integrated CRM (Customer Relationship Management and ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning modules. Currently, a large number of project management software is available, to assist project team during the entire project lifecycle. We present the main differences between open source and proprietary project management tools and how those could be important for SMEs, describing the key features and how those can assist the project manager and the development team. In this paper, we analyse four open-source project management tools: OpenProject, ProjectLibre, Redmine, LibrePlan and four proprietary tools: Bitrix24, JIRA, Microsoft Project and Asana.

  20. Protection of proprietary rights of DIN standards in connection with statutory and administrative provisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzenberger, P.

    1985-01-01

    On the basis of contracts entered with the German Institute of Standardization (DIN), the state bodies and authorities tend to refer to Din standards in many ways when issuing statutory or administrative provisions. Some Din standards are also printed in official publications- with or without Din's prior consent. Such common practice leads to the question whether the Din standards which on pinciple meet the general requirements made on the protection of proprietary rights are losing this protection by the fact that official publications are exempt from the protection of proprietary rights (Art.5 UrhG). The author points out that the thorough analysis of the legal position in terms of interests, proprietary rights and constitution indicated that this is not, in principle, the case. (orig.) [de

  1. Regulation of proprietary traditional Chinese medicines in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, David T

    2017-01-01

    This review article describes the regulation of proprietary Chinese medicines for the Australian market, which may permit many medicines used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to have a simplified process of market access provided that certain criteria for acceptable public safety are met. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Change Strategies Used by a Proprietary School: The Dale Carnegie Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Paul J.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses recent developments regarding proprietary schools: recognition by accrediting associations, increased federal aid, and increased need for the specific training offered by these schools. Uses the Dale Carnegie organization as an example. (JOW)

  3. Using virtualization to protect the proprietary material science applications in volunteer computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrapov, Nikolay P.; Rozen, Valery V.; Samtsevich, Artem I.; Posypkin, Mikhail A.; Sukhomlin, Vladimir A.; Oganov, Artem R.

    2018-04-01

    USPEX is a world-leading software for computational material design. In essence, USPEX splits simulation into a large number of workunits that can be processed independently. This scheme ideally fits the desktop grid architecture. Workunit processing is done by a simulation package aimed at energy minimization. Many of such packages are proprietary and should be protected from unauthorized access when running on a volunteer PC. In this paper we present an original approach based on virtualization. In a nutshell, the proprietary code and input files are stored in an encrypted folder and run inside a virtual machine image that is also password protected. The paper describes this approach in detail and discusses its application in USPEX@home volunteer project.

  4. Proprietary, standard, and government-supported nuclear data bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poncelet, C.G.; Ozer, O.; Harris, D.R.

    1975-07-01

    This study presents an assessment of the complex situation surrounding nuclear data bases for nuclear power technology. Requirements for nuclear data bases are identified as regards engineering functions and system applications for the many and various user groups that rely on nuclear data bases. Current practices in the development and generation of nuclear data sets are described, and the competitive aspect of design nuclear data set development is noted. The past and current role of the federal government in nuclear data base development is reviewed, and the relative merits of continued government involvement are explored. National policies of the United States and other industrial countries regarding the availability of nationally supported nuclear data information are reviewed. Current proprietary policies of reactor vendors regarding design library data sets are discussed along with the basis for such proprietary policies. The legal aspects of protective policies are explored as are their impacts on the nuclear power industry as a whole. The effect of the regulatory process on the availability and documentation of nuclear data bases is examined. Current nuclear data standard developments are reviewed, including a discussion of the standard preparation process. Standards currently proposed or in preparation that directly relate to nuclear data bases are discussed in some detail. (auth)

  5. Information governance and security protecting and managing your company's proprietary information

    CERN Document Server

    Iannarelli, John G

    2014-01-01

    Information Governance and Security shows managers in any size organization how to create and implement the policies, procedures and training necessary to keep their organization's most important asset-its proprietary information-safe from cyber and physical compromise. Many intrusions can be prevented if appropriate precautions are taken, and this book establishes the enterprise-level systems and disciplines necessary for managing all the information generated by an organization. In addition, the book encompasses the human element by considering proprietary information lost, damaged, or destroyed through negligence. By implementing the policies and procedures outlined in Information Governance and Security, organizations can proactively protect their reputation against the threats that most managers have never even thought of. Provides a step-by-step outline for developing an information governance policy that is appropriate for your organization Includes real-world examples and cases to help illustrate key ...

  6. Using virtualization to protect the proprietary material science applications in volunteer computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khrapov Nikolay P.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available USPEX is a world-leading software for computational material design. In essence, USPEX splits simulation into a large number of workunits that can be processed independently. This scheme ideally fits the desktop grid architecture. Workunit processing is done by a simulation package aimed at energy minimization. Many of such packages are proprietary and should be protected from unauthorized access when running on a volunteer PC. In this paper we present an original approach based on virtualization. In a nutshell, the proprietary code and input files are stored in an encrypted folder and run inside a virtual machine image that is also password protected. The paper describes this approach in detail and discusses its application in USPEX@home volunteer project.

  7. The influence of temporary differences between accounting and tax revenues, proprietary costs and liquidity on profit growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NURAMALIA HASANAH

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the influence of temporary differences between accounting profit and tax, proprietary costs, and Liquidity toward earnings growth of the companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX 2011-2012. The factors examined in this study are temporary differences between accounting profit and tax, proprietary costs, and liquidity as an independent variable, while earnings growth has the dependent variable. This study used a descriptive quantitative method using secondary data and the number of samples collected was thirty- eight (38 that have met the criteria the researchers used purposive sampling. From the data that has been collected and then processed and analyzed using multiple regression analysis with a significance level of 0.05. This research proves temporary differences between accounting profit and tax has no significant influence on earnings growth, proprietary cost has no significant influence on earnings growth, and liquidity has negatively significant influence earnings growth. Temporary differences between accounting profit and tax, proprietary costs, and liquidity together or simultaneously significant influence toward the earnings growth.

  8. Continued development of a non-proprietary, high-tension, cable end terminal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-29

    A non-proprietary, cable guardrail system is currently under development for the Midwest States Pooled Fund Program. : A cable guardrail end terminal was necessary to accompany the cable guardrail system. The objective of this research : project was ...

  9. 19 CFR 356.10 - Procedures for obtaining access to proprietary information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... secretary if such person: (i) Is not involved in competitive decision-making for a participant in the panel review or for any person that would gain competitive advantage through knowledge of the proprietary... and each copy as the first page of the document. (4) Service of applications—(i) Persons described in...

  10. The influence of proprietary disclosure costs on the decision to go public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marra, T.A.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis studies the influence of proprietary disclosure costs related to informing product market competitors on management communication with investors. In doing so it focuses on the firm's decision to go public. A firm that goes public not only experiences a change in its financial and

  11. State of the Art of Proprietary Financial Reporting in the Department of the Navy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manning, Jeffrey

    1996-01-01

    .... To address this issue, a review of the laws, policies and agencies which affect proprietary reporting was conducted, along with a comparison between Federal government and private sector financial reporting...

  12. 47 CFR 64.2007 - Approval required for use of customer proprietary network information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of marketing communications-related services to that customer. A telecommunications carrier may..., for the purpose of marketing communications-related services to that customer, to its agents and its... proprietary network information. 64.2007 Section 64.2007 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION...

  13. Delivery of agricultural technology to resource-poor farmers in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignouna, Hodeba D; Abang, Mathew M; Omanya, Gospel; Nang'ayo, Francis; Bokanga, Mpoko; Boadi, Richard; Muchiri, Nancy; Terry, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Recent developments in agricultural science and technology have the potential to transform the agricultural sector in the developing world. These technological advances constitute key drivers of economic growth and hold great promise for poverty reduction in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Agricultural research and development in Africa is undergoing a major paradigm shift. Until recently, public-sector institutions in Africa worked in isolation to create and disseminate agricultural technologies to smallholder farmers. However, they need access to improved proprietary technologies developed for the most part by the private sector in developed countries. These technologies are currently concentrated in the hands of a few large corporations and are protected by intellectual property rights. The African Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF) is a new initiative addressing the challenges associated with the access, development, and deployment of agricultural technologies to smallholder farmers in SSA. This article describes the AATF model of facilitating the creation of partnership alliances dedicated to promote and support collaboration among a wide variety of public- and private-sector organizations around shared agricultural research and development goals for the public good. It explains AATF's public-private partnership framework for technology delivery in the light of market failures, institutional constraints, and systemic weaknesses, which impede public-sector organizations from accessing and delivering pro-poor knowledge and technology to farmers. The article provides policy makers, research managers, and business decision makers with an understanding of how access to, and delivery of, proprietary technologies could contribute to food security and the improvement of farmers' livelihoods in Africa.

  14. 34 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Ratio Methodology for Proprietary Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ratio Methodology for Proprietary Institutions A Appendix A to Subpart L of Part 668 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS...

  15. Leadership Style, Employee Satisfaction, and Productivity in the Enrollment Department of a Proprietary University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitwood, James

    2010-01-01

    The success of an enrollment department is critical to the success of an educational institution. The quantitative research study used a correlational design to measure the relationship between perceived leadership style, employee satisfaction, and departmental productivity. A sample of 41 admissions personnel from a Midwest proprietary university…

  16. Cable-to-post attachments for use in non-proprietary high-tension cable median barrier - phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-24

    The objective of this study was to reevaluate and improve the existing cable-to-post attachment hardware that is utilized : in the non-proprietary cable barrier being developed at MwRSF. The study focused on redesigning the bolted, tabbed : bracket (...

  17. 77 FR 23 - Prohibitions and Restrictions on Proprietary Trading and Certain Interests in, and Relationships...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... Relationships With, Hedge Funds and Private Equity Funds AGENCIES: Office of the Comptroller of the Currency... relationships with, a hedge fund or private equity fund (``proposed rule''). Due to the complexity of the issues... in proprietary trading and have certain interests in, or relationships with, a hedge fund or private...

  18. The Drug Discovery and Development Industry in India-Two Decades of Proprietary Small-Molecule R&D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differding, Edmond

    2017-06-07

    This review provides a comprehensive survey of proprietary drug discovery and development efforts performed by Indian companies between 1994 and mid-2016. It is based on the identification and detailed analysis of pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and contract research companies active in proprietary new chemical entity (NCE) research and development (R&D) in India. Information on preclinical and clinical development compounds was collected by company, therapeutic indication, mode of action, target class, and development status. The analysis focuses on the overall pipeline and its evolution over two decades, contributions by type of company, therapeutic focus, attrition rates, and contribution to Western pharmaceutical pipelines through licensing agreements. This comprehensive analysis is the first of its kind, and, in our view, represents a significant contribution to the understanding of the current state of the drug discovery and development industry in India. © 2017 The Author. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  19. Isolation and identification of phytoestrogens and flavonoids in an Ayurvedic proprietary medicine using chromatographic and Mass Spectroscopic analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sulaiman CT; Arun A; Anandan EM; Sandhya CR; Indira Balachandran

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To develop analytical methods for the isolation and structural identification of poly phenols including phytoestrogens in Mensokot tablet, a herbal proprietary medicine. Methods:Isolation consisted of an ultrasound-assisted extraction, followed by acid hydrolysis and a final liquid-liquid extraction step in diethyl ether. Identification and structural characterisation was done by liquid chromatography coupled with Q-TOF-ESI-MS/MS analysis. Results:Phytoestrogens such as Coumestrol, Genistein and Glycitein have been identified in Mensokot tablet along with several other flavonoids. Conclusion: In the present research, a rapid HPLC-MS/MS method has been developed for the identification of phytoestrogens and other flavonoids from an Ayurvedic proprietary medicine. Phytoestrogens are considered to play an important role in the prevention of cancers, heart disease, menopausal symptoms and osteoporosis.

  20. 14 CFR 11.35 - Does FAA include sensitive security information and proprietary information in the Federal Docket...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RULEMAKING PROCEDURES Rulemaking Procedures General § 11.35 Does FAA include sensitive security information and proprietary information in the Federal Docket Management System (FDMS)? (a) Sensitive security information. You should not submit sensitive security information to the rulemaking docket, unless you are...

  1. Assessing the potential impact of non-proprietary drug copies on quality of medicine and treatment in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis: the experience with fingolimod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correale J

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Jorge Correale,1 Erwin Chiquete,2 Snezana Milojevic,3 Nadina Frider,3 Imre Bajusz31Raúl Carrea Institute for Neurological Research, Foundation for the Fight against Infant Neurological Illnesses, Buenos Aires, Argentina; 2Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Salvador Zubirán National Institute of Medical Science and Nutrition, Mexico City, Mexico; 3Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, SwitzerlandBackground: Fingolimod is a once-daily oral treatment for relapsing multiple sclerosis, the proprietary production processes of which are tightly controlled, owing to its susceptibility to contamination by impurities, including genotoxic impurities. Many markets produce nonproprietary medicines; assessing their efficacy and safety is difficult as regulators may approve nonproprietary drugs without bioequivalence data, genotoxic evaluation, or risk management plans (RMPs. This assessment is especially important for fingolimod given its solubility/bioavailability profile, genotoxicity risk, and low-dose final product (0.5 mg. This paper presents an evaluation of the quality of proprietary and nonproprietary fingolimod variants.Methods: Proprietary fingolimod was used as a reference substance against which eleven nonproprietary fingolimod copies were assessed. The microparticle size distribution of each compound was assessed by laser light diffraction, and inorganic impurity content by sulfated ash testing. Heavy metals content was quantified using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, and levels of unspecified impurities by high-performance liquid chromatography. Solubility was assessed in a range of solvents at different pH values. Key information from the fingolimod RMP is also presented.Results: Nonproprietary fingolimod variants exhibited properties out of proprietary or internationally accepted specifications, including differences in particle size distribution and levels of impurities such as heavy metals. For microparticle size and

  2. A Reading Preference and Risk Taxonomy for Printed Proprietary Information Compromise in the Aerospace and Defense Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalker, Joshua Dylan

    2012-01-01

    The protection of proprietary information that users print from their information systems is a significant and relevant concern in the field of information security to both researchers and practitioners. Information security researchers have repeatedly indicated that human behaviors and perception are important factors influencing the information…

  3. Design optimization of a novel pMDI actuator for systemic drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakade, Prashant P; Versteeg, Henk K; Hargrave, Graham K; Genova, Perry; Williams Iii, Robert C; Deaton, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) are the most widely prescribed and economical respiratory drug delivery systems. Conventional pMDI actuators-those based on "two-orifice-and-sump" designs-produce an aerosol with a reasonable respirable fraction, but with high aerosol velocity. The latter is responsible for high oropharyngeal deposition, and consequently low drug delivery efficiency. Kos' pMDI technology is based on a proprietary vortex nozzle actuator (VNA), an innovative actuator configuration that seeks to reduce aerosol plume velocity, thereby promoting deep lung deposition. Using VNA development as a case study, this paper presents a systematic design optimization process to improve the actuator performance through use of advanced optical characterization tools. The optimization effort mainly relied on laser-based optical diagnostics to provide an improved understanding of the fundamentals of aerosol formation and interplay of various geometrical factors. The performance of the optimized VNA design thus evolved was characterized using phase Doppler anemometry and cascade impaction. The aerosol velocities for both standard and optimized VNA designs were found to be comparable, with both notably less than conventional actuators. The optimized VNA design also significantly reduces drug deposition in the actuator as well as USP throat adapter, which in turn, leads to a significantly higher fine particle fraction than the standard design (78 +/- 3% vs. 63 +/- 2% on an ex valve basis). This improved drug delivery efficiency makes VNA technology a practical proposition as a systemic drug delivery platform. Thus, this paper demonstrates how advanced optical diagnostic and characterization tools can be used in the development of high efficiency aerosol drug delivery devices.

  4. A Systematic Approach for Evaluating BPM Systems: Case Studies on Open Source and Proprietary Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado , Andrea; Calegari , Daniel; Milanese , Pablo; Falcon , Renatta; García , Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Part 3: Examples and Case Studies; International audience; Business Process Management Systems (BPMS) provide support for modeling, developing, deploying, executing and evaluating business processes in an organization. Selecting a BPMS is not a trivial task, not only due to the many existing alternatives, both in the open source and proprietary realms, but also because it requires a thorough evaluation of its capabilities, contextualizing them in the organizational environment in which they w...

  5. Effects of a proprietary Bacillus coagulans preparation on symptoms of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolin, B J

    2009-12-01

    Symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have a profound impact on quality of life for many patients and current treatments are sometimes unsatisfactory. This controlled pilot study was conducted to evaluate effects of the proprietary GanedenBC(30) (Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086) probiotic on IBS symptoms, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial including patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D). Patients were randomized to receive either B. coagulans GBI-30, 6086 or placebo once a day for 8 weeks. Patients filled out a quality-of-life questionnaire, and self-assessment diaries were provided to record stool count and consistency, symptom severity, and medication consumption. Of the 61 patients enrolled, six did not meet the inclusion criteria and three were lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 52 patients with IBS-D, the average number of bowel movements per day was significantly reduced for patients treated with B. coagulans GBI-30, 6086 when compared to placebo (P = 0.042). Large variability in baseline scores prevented the assessment of severity scores and quality of life. This small pilot study provides evidence that the proprietary B. coagulans GBI-30, 6086 probiotic is safe and effective for reducing daily bowel movements in patients with IBS-D. Copyright 2009 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  6. 17 CFR 240.3a44-1 - Proprietary government securities transactions incidental to the futures-related business of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proprietary government securities transactions incidental to the futures-related business of a CFTC-regulated person. 240.3a44-1 Section 240.3a44-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED...

  7. RIS modality interfaces. From proprietary solutions to DICOM worklist management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, D.; Kotter, E.; Langer, M.

    1999-01-01

    Radiologic information systems (RIS) and picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) are becoming increasingly widespread. This leads to new demands on the integration of the individual, formerly independent information systems (RIS, modalities, PACS). Possible ways of integrating individual systems are introduced. Besides the detailed description of different realizations of system communication, its role in the PACS at the university hospital in Freiburg is explained. The integration of different information systems still requires the use of proprietary interfaces. An appropriate integration generally has been realized in Freiburg. In the near future DICOM basic worklist management will standardize system integration and render an interdepartmental workflow concept possible. Even though an available communication standard exists, not all problems in the RIS-modality interface are solved. Different data models in the various RI systems and modalities demand certain degrees of freedom in the standard. Thus a satisfactory workflow cannot be guaranteed even when all involved systems conform with the standard. (orig.) [de

  8. Regulatory control of Chinese Proprietary Medicines in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Shen-Kuan; Chu, Swee-Seng; Xu, Yi-Min; Choo, Peck-Lin

    2005-02-01

    In Singapore, there has been a growing public interest in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which plays an important role in the healthcare system. With effect from 1 September 1999, the control on Chinese Proprietary Medicines (CPM) was implemented in three phases over a span of 3 years. Under the CPM regulatory framework, CPM importers, wholesalers, manufacturers and re-packers must be licensed and CPM products assessed and listed by the health authority before they are allowed for sale. Product assessment is based on the criteria of safety and quality which include limits of toxic heavy metals and microbial contents. During the 3-year CPM listing exercise, irregularities were detected, including intrinsic toxicity, adulteration, substitution, contamination, misidentification, non-traditional and/or inappropriate usage, incorrect preparation, inappropriate labelling, exaggerated claims and/or advertising. The full implementation of CPM control by September 2001 saw the listing of 7943 CPM products and brought about an improvement in the quality and safety of CPM in Singapore as well as the removal of sub-standard, fake/imitation and adulterated products. The standards of practices by local CPM dealers have also been raised. These improvements have, in turn, increased the level of public confidence in CPM products in Singapore.

  9. Social support in the practices of informal providers: The case of patent and proprietary medicine vendors in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieverding, Maia; Liu, Jenny; Beyeler, Naomi

    2015-10-01

    The social and institutional environments in which informal healthcare providers operate shape their health and business practices, particularly in contexts where regulatory enforcement is weak. In this study, we adopt a social capital perspective to understanding the social networks on which proprietary and patent medicine vendors (PPMVs) in Nigeria rely for support in the operation of their shops. Data are drawn from 70 in-depth interviews with PPMVs in three states, including interviews with local leaders of the PPMV professional association. We find that PPMVs primarily relied on more senior colleagues and formal healthcare professionals for informational support, including information about new medicines and advice on how to treat specific cases of illness. For instrumental support, including finance, start-up assistance, and intervention with regulatory agencies, PPMVs relied on extended family, the PPMVs with whom they apprenticed, and the leaders of their professional association. PPMVs' networks also provided continual reinforcement of what constitutes good PPMV practice through admonishments to follow scope of practice limitations. These informal reminders, as well as monitoring activities conducted by the professional association, served to reinforce PPMVs' concern with avoiding negative customer health outcomes, which were perceived to be detrimental to their business reputations. That PPMVs' networks both encouraged practices to reduce the likelihood of poor health outcomes, and provided advice regarding customers' health conditions, highlights the potential impact of informal providers' access to different forms of social capital on their delivery of health services, as well as their success as microenterprises. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Reversal of visceral hypersensitivity in rat by Menthacarin , a proprietary combination of essential oils from peppermint and caraway, coincides with mycobiome modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botschuijver, S.; Welting, O.; Levin, E.; Maria-Ferreira, D.; Koch, E.; Montijn, R. C.; Seppen, J.; Hakvoort, T. B. M.; Schuren, F. H. J.; de Jonge, W. J.; van den Wijngaard, R. M.

    2018-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder associated with altered gastrointestinal microflora and increased nociception to colonic distension. This visceral hypersensitivity can be reversed in our rat maternal separation model by fungicides. Menthacarin is a proprietary

  11. A systematic review of the role of proprietary and patent medicine vendors in healthcare provision in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Beyeler

    Full Text Available Interventions to reduce the burden of disease and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa increasingly recognize the important role that drug retailers play in delivering basic healthcare services. In Nigeria, owner-operated drug retail outlets, known as patent and proprietary medicine vendors (PPMVs, are a main source of medicines for acute conditions, but their practices are not well understood. Greater understanding of the role of PPMVs and the quality of care they provide is needed in order to inform ongoing national health initiatives that aim to incorporate PPMVs as a delivery mechanism.This paper reviews and synthesizes the existing published and grey literature on the characteristics, knowledge and practices of PPMVs in Nigeria. We searched published and grey literature using a number of electronic databases, supplemented with website searches of relevant international agencies. We included all studies providing outcome data on PPMVs in Nigeria, including non-experimental studies, and assessed the rigor of each study using the WHO-Johns Hopkins Rigor scale. We used narrative synthesis to evaluate the findings.We identified 50 articles for inclusion. These studies provided data on a wide range of PPMV outcomes: training; health knowledge; health practices, including drug stocking and dispensing, client interaction, and referral; compliance with regulatory guidelines; and the effects of interventions targeting PPMVs. In general, PPMVs have low health knowledge and poor health treatment practices. However, the literature focuses largely on services for adult malaria, and little is known about other health areas or services for children.This review highlights several concerns with the quality of the private drug retail sector in Nigeria, as well as gaps in the existing evidence base. Future research should adopt a more holistic view of the services provided by PPMV shops, and evaluate intervention strategies that may improve the services provided in

  12. Supplementation with a proprietary blend of ancient peat and apple extract may improve body composition without affecting hematology in resistance-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Jordan M; Falcone, Paul H; Vogel, Roxanne M; Mosman, Matt M; Kim, Michael P; Moon, Jordan R

    2015-11-01

    Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) is primarily known as a cellular source of energy. Increased ATP levels may have the potential to enhance body composition. A novel, proprietary blend of ancient peat and apple extracts has been reported to increase ATP levels, potentially by enhancing mitochondrial ATP production. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the supplement's effects on body composition when consumed during 12 weeks of resistance training. Twenty-five healthy, resistance-trained, male subjects (age, 27.7 ± 4.8 years; height, 176.0 ± 6.5 cm; body mass, 83.2 ± 12.1 kg) completed this study. Subjects supplemented once daily with either 1 serving (150 mg) of a proprietary blend of ancient peat and apple extracts (TRT) or placebo (PLA). Supervised resistance training consisted of 8 weeks of daily undulating periodized training followed by a 2-week overreach and a 2-week taper phase. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and ultrasound at weeks 0, 4, 8, 10, and 12. Vital signs and blood markers were assessed at weeks 0, 8, and 12. Significant group × time (p < 0.05) interactions were present for ultrasound-determined cross-sectional area, which increased in TRT (+0.91 cm(2)) versus PLA (-0.08 cm(2)), as well as muscle thickness (TRT: +0.46; PLA: +0.04 cm). A significant group × time (p < 0.05) interaction existed for creatinine (TRT: +0.06; PLA: +0.15 mg/dL), triglycerides (TRT: +24.1; PLA: -20.2 mg/dL), and very-low-density lipoprotein (TRT: +4.9; PLA: -3.9 mg/dL), which remained within clinical ranges. Supplementation with a proprietary blend of ancient peat and apple extracts may enhance resistance training-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy without affecting fat mass or blood chemistry in healthy males.

  13. Blocking carbohydrate absorption and weight loss: a clinical trial using a proprietary fractionated white bean extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Jay; Singh, Betsy B

    2007-01-01

    A proprietary fractionated white bean extract of Phaseolus vulgaris has been shown in vitro to inhibit the digestive enzyme alpha-amylase. This may prevent or delay the digestion of complex carbohydrates, potentially resulting in weight loss. A 4-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 25 healthy subjects consuming 1000 mg of a proprietary fractioned white bean extract or an identical placebo twice a day before meals in conjunction with a multi-component weight-loss program, including diet, exercise, and behavioral intervention, was conducted. Both groups reduced their weight and waist size significantly from baseline. The active group lost 6.0 lbs (P=.0002) and 2.2 in (P=.0050), and the placebo group lost 4.7 lbs (P=.0016) and 2.1 in (P=.0001). The differences between groups were not significant (weight P=.4235, waist size P=.8654). Through subsequent exploratory analysis to investigate group findings further, subjects were stratified by total dietary carbohydrate intake. This probative analysis revealed that the tertile of subjects who had consumed the most carbohydrates demonstrated significant reductions in both weight (8.7 lbs vs 1.7 lbs, P=.0412) and waist size (3.3 in vs 1.3 in P=.0100) compared with placebo subjects in the same tertile of carbohydrate intake. Subjects who adhere to a program including dietary modification, exercise, and behavioral intervention can significantly reduce their weight and waist size in a short period of time. In an exploratory analysis of data, the tertile of subjects who ate the most carbohydrates experienced a significant reduction in both weight and waist size with the addition of the white bean extract compared to the placebo group of the same tertile of carbohydrate consumption. Longer studies with a larger pool of subjects are required to validate these findings.

  14. Proprietary hospitals in cost containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D A

    1985-08-23

    Any effort to control the rise in health care costs must start with analyzing the causes, which are really quite simple. Most cost control efforts fail because they do not address the causes. The causes are large subsidies in several forms that send a false message that health care is free and should be used abundantly, and expansive reimbursement programs that reward inefficient providers with higher payments. This combination of demand stimulation and cost-plus reimbursement produced the world's most expensive health care delivery system and strident calls for reform. A long overdue change in public policy took effect October 1, 1983, when Medicare payments moved from cost-plus reimbursement to fixed, prospectively determined prices. Because it addressed one of the causes of medical inflation, this change has been effective in slowing the rise in Medicare expenditures. Sponsorship of a hospital is not a determinant of its cost-effectiveness. There are examples of efficient and inefficient hospitals in both the voluntary and the investor-owned or taxpaying hospitals. The determining factor is the will of management to keep costs under control.

  15. MASH TEST NO. 3-10 OF A NON-PROPRIETARY, HIGH-TENSION CABLE MEDIAN BARRIER FOR USE IN 6H:1V V-DITCH (TEST NO. MWP-8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-10

    The Midwest States Pooled Fund Program has been developing a prototype design for a non-proprietary, high-tension cable median barrier for use in a 6H:1V V-ditch. This system incorporates four evenly spaced cables, Midwest Weak Posts (MWP) spaced at ...

  16. Proprietary Schools. Millions Spent To Train Students for Oversupplied Occupations. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Human Resources, Committee on Government Reform and Oversight, House of Representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

    The General Accounting Office (GAO) examined the extent to which the financial aid provided under Title IV of the Higher Education Act to students enrolled in proprietary schools is being spent to train individuals for demand occupations. Job opening projections in 12 states were used to estimate job demand, the National Center for Education…

  17. Peptide and protein delivery using new drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ashish; Jain, Aviral; Gulbake, Arvind; Shilpi, Satish; Hurkat, Pooja; Jain, Sanjay K

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical and biotechnological research sorts protein drug delivery systems by importance based on their various therapeutic applications. The effective and potent action of the proteins/peptides makes them the drugs of choice for the treatment of numerous diseases. Major research issues in protein delivery include the stabilization of proteins in delivery devices and the design of appropriate target-specific protein carriers. Many efforts have been made for effective delivery of proteins/peptidal drugs through various routes of administrations for successful therapeutic effects. Nanoparticles made of biodegradable polymers such as poly lactic acid, polycaprolactone, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), the poly(fumaric-co-sebacic) anhydride chitosan, and modified chitosan, as well as solid lipids, have shown great potential in the delivery of proteins/peptidal drugs. Moreover, scientists also have used liposomes, PEGylated liposomes, niosomes, and aquasomes, among others, for peptidal drug delivery. They also have developed hydrogels and transdermal drug delivery systems for peptidal drug delivery. A receptor-mediated delivery system is another attractive strategy to overcome the limitation in drug absorption that enables the transcytosis of the protein across the epithelial barrier. Modification such as PEGnology is applied to various proteins and peptides of the desired protein and peptides also increases the circulating life, solubility and stability, pharmacokinetic properties, and antigenicity of protein. This review focuses on various approaches for effective protein/peptidal drug delivery, with special emphasis on insulin delivery.

  18. Comparison of HFNC, bubble CPAP and SiPAP on aerosol delivery in neonates: An in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunbul, Fatemah S; Fink, James B; Harwood, Robert; Sheard, Meryl M; Zimmerman, Ralph D; Ari, Arzu

    2015-11-01

    Aerosol drug delivery via high flow nasal cannula (HFNC), bubble continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), and synchronized inspiratory positive airway pressure (SiPAP) has not been quantified in spontaneously breathing premature infants. The purpose of this study was to compare aerosol delivery via HFNC, bubble CPAP, and SiPAP in a model of a simulated spontaneously breathing preterm infant. The types of CPAP systems and nebulizer positions used during aerosol therapy will impact aerosol deposition in simulated spontaneously breathing infants. Quantitative, comparative, in-vitro study. A breath simulator was set to preterm infant settings (VT : 9 ml, RR: 50 bpm and Ti: 0.5 sec) and connected to the trachea of an anatomical upper airway model of a preterm infant via collecting filter distal to the trachea. The HFNC (Optiflow; Fisher & Paykel), Bubble CPAP (Fisher & Paykel), and SiPAP (Carefusion) were attached to the nares of the model via each device's proprietary nasal cannula and set to deliver a baseline of 5 cm H2 O pressure. Albuterol sulfate (2.5 mg/0.5 ml) was aerosolized with a mesh nebulizer (Aeroneb Solo) positioned(1) proximal to the patient and(2) prior to the humidifier (n = 5). The drug was eluted from the filter with 0.1 N HCl and analyzed via spectrophotometry (276 nm). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-tests, and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), with P CPAP (1.24 ± 0.24; p = 0.008). Placement of the nebulizer prior to the humidifier increased deposition with all devices (P < 0.05). Aerosol can be delivered via all three devices used in this study. Device selection and nebulizer position impacted aerosol delivery in this simulated model of a spontaneously breathing preterm infant. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Delivery presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy - delivery presentation; Labor - delivery presentation; Occiput posterior; Occiput anterior; Brow presentation ... The mother can walk, rock, and try different delivery positions during labor to help encourage the baby ...

  20. Transdermal drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prausnitz, Mark R.; Langer, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery has made an important contribution to medical practice, but has yet to fully achieve its potential as an alternative to oral delivery and hypodermic injections. First-generation transdermal delivery systems have continued their steady increase in clinical use for delivery of small, lipophilic, low-dose drugs. Second-generation delivery systems using chemical enhancers, non-cavitational ultrasound and iontophoresis have also resulted in clinical products; the ability of iontophoresis to control delivery rates in real time provides added functionality. Third-generation delivery systems target their effects to skin’s barrier layer of stratum corneum using microneedles, thermal ablation, microdermabrasion, electroporation and cavitational ultrasound. Microneedles and thermal ablation are currently progressing through clinical trials for delivery of macromolecules and vaccines, such as insulin, parathyroid hormone and influenza vaccine. Using these novel second- and third-generation enhancement strategies, transdermal delivery is poised to significantly increase impact on medicine. PMID:18997767

  1. Assisted Vaginal Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Assisted Vaginal Delivery Home For Patients Search FAQs Assisted Vaginal ... Vaginal Delivery FAQ192, February 2016 PDF Format Assisted Vaginal Delivery Labor, Delivery, and Postpartum Care What is ...

  2. Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems for oral insulin delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ping; Tan, Angel; Prestidge, Clive A

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the combination of self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) and enteric-coated capsules as a potential delivery strategy for oral delivery of insulin. The SNEDDS preconcentrates, loaded with insulin-phospholipid complex at different levels (0, 2.5 and 10% w...

  3. Transdermal drug delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Prausnitz, Mark R.; Langer, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery has made an important contribution to medical practice, but has yet to fully achieve its potential as an alternative to oral delivery and hypodermic injections. First-generation transdermal delivery systems have continued their steady increase in clinical use for delivery of small, lipophilic, low-dose drugs. Second-generation delivery systems using chemical enhancers, non-cavitational ultrasound and iontophoresis have also resulted in clinical products; the ability ...

  4. Attitudes of physicians and pharmacists towards International Non-proprietary Name prescribing in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bever, Elien; Elseviers, Monique; Plovie, Marijke; Vandeputte, Lieselot; Van Bortel, Luc; Vander Stichele, Robert

    2015-03-01

    International Non-proprietary Name (INN) prescribing is the use of the name of the active ingredient(s) instead of the brand name for prescribing. In Belgium, INN prescribing began in 2005 and a major policy change occurred in 2012. The aim was to explore the opinions of Dutch-speaking general practitioners (GPs) and pharmacists. An electronic questionnaire with 39 five-point Likert scale statements and one open question was administered in 2013. Multivariate analysis was performed with multiple linear regression on a sum score for benefit statements and for drawback statements. Answers to the open question were qualitatively analysed. We received 745 valid responses with a representable sample for both subgroups. Participants perceived the motives to introduce INN prescribing as purely economic (to reduce pharmaceutical expenditures for the government and the patient). Participants accepted the concept of INN prescribing, but 88% stressed the importance of guaranteed treatment continuity, especially in older, chronic patients, to prevent patient confusion, medication non-adherence and erroneous drug use. In conclusion, the current way in which INN prescribing is applied in Belgium leads to many concerns among primary health professionals about patient confusion and medication adherence. Slightly adapting the current concept of INN prescribing to these concerns can turn INN prescribing into one of the major policies in Belgium to reduce pharmaceutical expenditures and to stimulate rational drug prescribing. © 2014 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  5. Interdelivery weight gain and risk of cesarean delivery following a prior vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dude, Annie M; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Grobman, William A

    2017-09-01

    Approximately one third of all deliveries in the United States are via cesarean. Previous research indicates weight gain during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of cesarean delivery. It remains unclear, however, whether and to what degree weight gain between deliveries (ie, interdelivery weight gain) is associated with cesarean delivery in a subsequent pregnancy following a vaginal delivery. The objective of the study was to determine whether interdelivery weight gain is associated with an increased risk of intrapartum cesarean delivery following a vaginal delivery. This was a case-control study of women who had 2 consecutive singleton births of at least 36 weeks' gestation between 2005 and 2016, with a vaginal delivery in the index pregnancy. Women were excluded if they had a contraindication to a trial of labor (eg, fetal malpresentation or placenta previa) in the subsequent pregnancy. Maternal characteristics and delivery outcomes for both pregnancies were abstracted from the medical record. Maternal weight gain between deliveries was measured as the change in body mass index at delivery. Women who underwent a subsequent cesarean delivery were compared with those who had a repeat vaginal delivery using χ 2 statistics for categorical variables and Student t tests or analysis of variance for continuous variables. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine whether interdelivery weight gain remained independently associated with intrapartum cesarean delivery after adjusting for potential confounders. Of 10,396 women who met eligibility criteria and had complete data, 218 (2.1%) had a cesarean delivery in the subsequent pregnancy. Interdelivery weight gain was significantly associated with cesarean delivery and remained significant in multivariable analysis for women with a body mass index increase of at least 2 kg/m 2 (adjusted odds ratio, 1.53, 95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.27 for a body mass index increase of 2 kg/m 2 to gained 2 kg

  6. eDelivery

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — eDelivery provides the electronic packaging and delivery of closed and complete OPM investigation files to government agencies, including USAID, in a secure manner....

  7. UAV Delivery Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Khin Thida

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available UAV-based delivery systems are increasingly being used in the logistics field, particularly to achieve faster last-mile delivery. This study develops a UAV delivery system that manages delivery order assignments, autonomous flight operation, real time control for UAV flights, and delivery status tracking. To manage the delivery item assignments, we apply the concurrent scheduler approach with a genetic algorithm. The present paper describes real time flight data based on a micro air vehicle communication protocol (MAVLink. It also presents the detailed hardware components used for the field tests. Finally, we provide UAV component analysis to choose the suitable components for delivery in terms of battery capacity, flight time, payload weight and motor thrust ratio.

  8. Speman®, A Proprietary Ayurvedic Formulation, Reverses Cyclophosphamide-Induced Oligospermia In Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Azeemuddin Mukram

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: This investigation was aimed to evaluate the effect of Speman®, a well known ayurvedic proprietary preparation, in an experimental model of cyclophosphamide-(CP induced oligospermia in rats.Materials and Methods: Thirty male rats were randomized in to five, equally-sized groups. Rats in group 1 served as a normal control; group 2 served as an untreated positive control; groups 3, 4, 5 received  Speman® granules  at doses of 300, 600, and 900mg/kg body weight p.o. respectively, once daily for 13 days. On day four, one hour after the respective treatment, oligospermia was induced by administering a single dose of CP (100mg/kg body weight p.o.  to all the groups except group1. At the end of the study period the rats were euthanised and accessory reproductive organs were weighed and subjected to histopathological examination. The semen samples were subject to enumeration of sperms.  Weight of the reproductive organs, histopathological examination of the tissues, and sperm count were the parameters studied to understand the effect of Speman® on rats with CP-induced oligospermia.Results: Changes that occurred due to the administration of CP at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight were dose dependently reversed with Speman® at a dose of 300, 600, and 900 mg/kg body weight. There was a statistically significant increase in sperm count and the weight of the seminal vesicle, epididymis, and prostate.Conclusion: Findings of this investigation indicate that Speman® dose dependently reversed the CP-induced derangement of various parameters pertaining to the reproductive system.  This could explain the total beneficial actions of Speman® reported in several other clinical trials.

  9. Outcome of deliveries in healthy but obese women: obesity and delivery outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplan-Sturk Rebecka

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity among fertile women is a global problem. 25% of pregnant Swedish women are overweight at admission to the antenatal clinic and 12% of them are considered as obese. Previous studies have shown an increased risk of delivery complications with an elevated maternal BMI. The aim of this study was to evaluate delivery outcomes in relation to maternal BMI on admission to the antenatal clinic. A healthy group of 787 women with full-term pregnancies and spontaneous onset of labor were included in the study. Delivery outcome was assessed in relation to maternal BMI when attending the antenatal clinic. Results The results indicated that in deliveries where the maternal BMI was >30 a high frequency of abnormal CTG trace during the last 30 minutes of labor was shown. A blood sample for evaluation of risk of fetal hypoxia was performed in only eight percent of these deliveries. A spontaneous vaginal delivery without intervention was noted in 85.7%, and 12% of neonates were delivered with an adverse fetal outcome compared to 2.8% in the group with a maternal BMI Conclusion These results indicate an increased risk at delivery for healthy, but obese women in labor. Furthermore, the delivery management may not always be optimal in these deliveries.

  10. Timing of delivery after external cephalic version and the risk for cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiri, Doron; Elram, Tamar; Aboo-Dia, Mushira; Elami-Suzin, Matan; Elchalal, Uriel; Ezra, Yossef

    2011-08-01

    To estimate the association between time of delivery after external cephalic version at term and the risk for cesarean delivery. This retrospective cohort study included all successful external cephalic versions performed in a tertiary center between January 1997 and January 2010. Stepwise logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) for cesarean delivery. We included 483 external cephalic versions in this study, representing 53.1% of all external cephalic version attempts. The incidence of cesarean delivery for 139 women (29%) who gave birth less than 96 hours from external cephalic version was 16.5%; for 344 women (71%) who gave birth greater than 96 hours from external cephalic version, the incidence of cesarean delivery was 7.8% (P = .004). The adjusted OR for cesarean delivery was 2.541 (95% confidence interval 1.36-4.72). When stratified by parity, the risk for cesarean delivery when delivery occurred less than 96 hours after external cephalic version was 2.97 and 2.28 for nulliparous and multiparous women, respectively. Delivery at less than 96 hours after successful external cephalic version was associated with an increased risk for cesarean delivery. III.

  11. Effects of a Proprietary Freeze-Dried Water Extract of Eurycoma longifolia (Physta) and Polygonum minus on Sexual Performance and Well-Being in Men: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Jay K; George, Annie A; Musthapa, Mufiza; Pakdaman, Michael N; Abas, Azreena

    2014-01-01

    Background. Physta is a proprietary product containing a freeze-dried water extract of Eurycoma longifolia (tongkat ali), which is traditionally used as an energy enhancer and aphrodisiac. We aim to evaluate a 300 mg combination of Physta and Polygonum minus, an antioxidant, with regard to sexual performance and well-being in men. Methods. Men that aged 40-65 years were screened for this 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Outcome measures included validated questionnaires that aimed to evaluate erectile function, satisfaction with intervention, sexual intercourse performance, erectile hardness, mood, and overall quality of life. Results. 12 subjects in the active group and 14 in the placebo group completed the study. Significant improvements were noted in scores for the Sexual Intercourse Attempt diary, Erection Hardness Scale, Sexual Health Inventory of Men, and Aging Male Symptom scale (P < 0.05 for all). Three adverse events were reported in the active group and four in the placebo group, none of which were attributed to study product. Laboratory evaluations, including liver and kidney function testing, showed no clinically significant abnormality. Conclusion. Supplementation for twelve weeks with Polygonum minus and the proprietary Eurycoma longifolia extract, Physta, was well tolerated and more effective than placebo in enhancing sexual performance in healthy volunteers.

  12. Effects of a Proprietary Freeze-Dried Water Extract of Eurycoma longifolia (Physta and Polygonum minus on Sexual Performance and Well-Being in Men: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay K. Udani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Physta is a proprietary product containing a freeze-dried water extract of Eurycoma longifolia (tongkat ali, which is traditionally used as an energy enhancer and aphrodisiac. We aim to evaluate a 300 mg combination of Physta and Polygonum minus, an antioxidant, with regard to sexual performance and well-being in men. Methods. Men that aged 40–65 years were screened for this 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Outcome measures included validated questionnaires that aimed to evaluate erectile function, satisfaction with intervention, sexual intercourse performance, erectile hardness, mood, and overall quality of life. Results. 12 subjects in the active group and 14 in the placebo group completed the study. Significant improvements were noted in scores for the Sexual Intercourse Attempt diary, Erection Hardness Scale, Sexual Health Inventory of Men, and Aging Male Symptom scale (P<0.05 for all. Three adverse events were reported in the active group and four in the placebo group, none of which were attributed to study product. Laboratory evaluations, including liver and kidney function testing, showed no clinically significant abnormality. Conclusion. Supplementation for twelve weeks with Polygonum minus and the proprietary Eurycoma longifolia extract, Physta, was well tolerated and more effective than placebo in enhancing sexual performance in healthy volunteers.

  13. Improved overall delivery documentation following implementation of a standardized shoulder dystocia delivery form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moragianni, Vasiliki A.; Hacker, Michele R.; Craparo, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to evaluate whether using a standardized shoulder dystocia delivery form improved documentation. A standardized delivery form was added to our institution’s obstetrical record in August 2003. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted comparing 100 vaginal deliveries complicated by shoulder dystocia before, and 81 after implementation of the standardized delivery form. The two groups were compared in terms of obstetric characteristics, neonatal outcomes and documentation components. Results Charts that included the standardized delivery form were more likely to contain documentation of estimated fetal weight (82.7% vs. 39.0% without the form, Pdystocia, and second stage duration. Conclusions Inclusion of a standardized form in the delivery record improves the rate of documentation of both shoulder dystocia-specific and general delivery components. PMID:22017330

  14. Multifunctional Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery Applications Imaging, Targeting, and Delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Prud'homme, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This book clearly demonstrates the progression of nanoparticle therapeutics from basic research to applications. Unlike other books covering nanoparticles used in medical applications, Multifunctional Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery Applications presents the medical challenges that can be reduced or even overcome by recent advances in nanoscale drug delivery. Each chapter highlights recent progress in the design and engineering of select multifunctional nanoparticles with topics covering targeting, imaging, delivery, diagnostics, and therapy.

  15. Colloidal drug delivery system: amplify the ocular delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Javed; Fazil, Mohd; Qumbar, Mohd; Khan, Nazia; Ali, Asgar

    2016-01-01

    The ocular perceivers are the most voluntarily accessible organs in terms of location in the body, yet drug distribution to these tissues is one of the most intriguing and challenging endeavors and problematic to the pharmaceutical scientist. The most of ocular diseases are treated with topical application of conventional formulation, i.e. solutions, suspensions and ointment. Typically on installation of these conventional formulations, only <5% of the applied dose penetrates the cornea and reaches intraocular tissues, while a major fraction of the instilled dose is wastage due to the presence of many ocular barriers like external barriers, rapid loss of the instilled solution from the precorneal area and nasolacrimal drainage system. Systemic absorption caused systemic side effects varying from mild to life-threatening events. The main objective of this review is to explore the role of colloidal delivery of drug to minimize the drawbacks associated with them. This review provides an insight into the various constraints associated with ocular drug delivery, summarizes recent findings and applications of colloidal delivery systems, i.e. nanoparticles, nanosuspensions, liposomes, niosomes, dendrimers and contact lenses containing nanoparticles have the capacity to distribute ocular drugs to categorical target sites and hold promise to revolutionize the therapy of many ocular perceiver diseases and minimized the circumscription of conventional delivery. Form the basis of literature review, it has been found that the novel delivery system have greater impact to maximize ocular drug absorption, and minimize systemic absorption and side effects.

  16. Neonatal outcomes and operative vaginal delivery versus cesarean delivery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Contag, Stephen A

    2010-06-01

    We compared outcomes for neonates with forceps-assisted, vacuum-assisted, or cesarean delivery in the second stage of labor. This is a secondary analysis of a randomized trial in laboring, low-risk, nulliparous women at >or=36 weeks\\' gestation. Neonatal outcomes after use of forceps, vacuum, and cesarean were compared among women in the second stage of labor at station +1 or below (thirds scale) for failure of descent or nonreassuring fetal status. Nine hundred ninety women were included in this analysis: 549 (55%) with an indication for delivery of failure of descent and 441 (45%) for a nonreassuring fetal status. Umbilical cord gases were available for 87% of neonates. We found no differences in the base excess (P = 0.35 and 0.78 for failure of descent and nonreassuring fetal status) or frequencies of pH below 7.0 (P = 0.73 and 0.34 for failure of descent and nonreassuring fetal status) among the three delivery methods. Birth outcomes and umbilical cord blood gas values were similar for those neonates with a forceps-assisted, vacuum-assisted, or cesarean delivery in the second stage of labor. The occurrence of significant fetal acidemia was not different among the three delivery methods regardless of the indication.

  17. Assisted delivery with forceps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000509.htm Assisted delivery with forceps To use the sharing features on ... called vacuum assisted delivery . When is a Forceps Delivery Needed? Even after your cervix is fully dilated ( ...

  18. TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Vishvakarama Prabhakar; Agarwal Shivendra; Sharma Ritika; Saurabh Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Various new technologies have been developed for the transdermal delivery of some important drugs. Today about 74% of drugs are taken orally and are found not to be as effective as desired. To improve such characters transdermal drug delivery system was emerged. Drug delivery through the skin to achieve a systemic effect of a drug is commonly known as transdermal drug delivery and differs from traditional topical drug delivery. Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) are dosage forms involve...

  19. Ethical issues in cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B

    2017-08-01

    Cesarean delivery is the most common and important surgical intervention in obstetric practice. Ethics provides essential guidance to obstetricians for offering, recommending, recommending against, and performing cesarean delivery. This chapter provides an ethical framework based on the professional responsibility model of obstetric ethics. This framework is then used to address two especially ethically challenging clinical topics in cesarean delivery: patient-choice cesarean delivery and trial of labor after cesarean delivery. This chapter emphasizes a preventive ethics approach, designed to prevent ethical conflict in clinical practice. To achieve this goal, a preventive ethics approach uses the informed consent process to offer cesarean delivery as a medically reasonable alternative to vaginal delivery, to recommend cesarean delivery, and to recommend against cesarean delivery. The limited role of shared decision making is also described. The professional responsibility model of obstetric ethics guides this multi-faceted preventive ethics approach. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Design of new polymeric formulations for drug nanocarriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattu, C.; Li, R.; Sartori, S.; Boffito, M.; Ramtoola, Z.; Ciardelli, G.

    2012-07-01

    In this work, novel strategies for the design and characterization of complex nanosized drug delivery systems for the release of different formulations were proposed and investigated. Natural or synthetic polymers, such as chitosan, poly (D,L lactide) (PLA) and proprietary polyesterurethanes, were used to prepare carriers for different applications in nanomedicine.

  1. The U.S. Twin Delivery Volume and Association with Cesarean Delivery Rates: A Hospital-Level Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easter, Sarah Rae; Robinson, Julian N; Carusi, Daniela; Little, Sarah E

    2018-03-01

     The objective of this study was to test whether hospitals experienced in twin delivery have lower rates of cesarean delivery for twins.  We divided obstetric hospitals in the 2011 National Inpatient Sample by quartile of annual twin deliveries and compared twin cesarean delivery rates between hospitals with weighted linear regression. We used Pearson's coefficients to correlate a hospital's twin cesarean delivery rate to its overall cesarean delivery and vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) rates.  Annual twin delivery volume ranged from 1 to 506 across the 547 analyzed hospitals with a median of 10 and mode of 3. Adjusted rates of cesarean delivery were independent of delivery volume with a rate of 75.5 versus 74.8% in the lowest and highest volume hospitals ( p  = 0.09 across quartiles). A hospital's cesarean delivery rate for twins moderately correlated with the overall cesarean rate ( r  = 0.52, p  < 0.01) and inversely correlated with VBAC rate ( r  =  - 0.42, p  < 0.01).  Most U.S. obstetrical units perform a low volume of twin deliveries with no decrease in cesarean delivery rates at higher volume hospitals. Twin cesarean delivery rates correlate with other obstetric parameters such as singleton cesarean delivery and VBAC rates suggesting twin cesarean delivery rate is more closely related to a hospital's general obstetric practice than its twin delivery volume. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  2. Chinese proprietary medicine in Singapore: regulatory control of toxic heavy metals and undeclared drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, H L; Woo, S O

    2000-11-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is gaining popularity as a form of complementary and alternative medicine. Reports of efficacy of TCM are increasing in numbers. TCM includes both crude Chinese medicinal materials (plants, animal parts and minerals) and Chinese proprietary medicine (CPM) [final dosage forms]. Despite the belief that CPM and herbal remedies are of natural origin, unlike Western medicine, and are hence safe and without many adverse effects, there have been numerous reports of adverse effects associated with herbal remedies. Factors affecting the safety of herbal medicines include intrinsic toxicity, adulteration, substitution, contamination, misidentification, lack of standardisation, incorrect preparation and/or dosage and inappropriate labelling and/or advertising. Hence, new regulations on the control of CPM were enforced in Singapore with effect from 1 September 1999. These include licensing and labelling requirements, as well as control of microbial contamination. This article also reviews reports of excessive toxic heavy metals and undeclared drugs in CPM in Singapore between 1990 and 1997. The names, uses, toxic heavy metal or drug detected and the year of detection are tabulated. Information on the brand or manufacturer's name are provided whenever available. The public and healthcare professionals should be better informed of the basic concept of TCM and its usefulness, as well as the potential adverse effects associated with its use. Greater control over the safety and quality of CPM could be achieved through good manufacturing practice, regulatory control, research, education, reporting usage of Chinese medicine (as in drug history) as well as reporting of adverse events.

  3. Normal Range of Head-to-body Delivery Interval by Two-step Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Yu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The average time of head-to-body delivery interval was longer than 60 s by two-step delivery. Majority shoulders were delivered at the first contraction. Majority shoulders emerged from perineum rather from under pubic arch. The routine one-step method of shoulder delivery where the downward force applied is not necessary and is not the right direction. Baby's breath, making faces, sucking, bubble from noses and mouth, and the light blue color of the faces, all those signs during shoulder delivery indicated a normal live birth.

  4. Levodopa delivery systems: advancements in delivery of the gold standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwuluka, Ndidi; Pillay, Viness; Du Toit, Lisa C; Ndesendo, Valence; Choonara, Yahya; Modi, Girish; Naidoo, Dinesh

    2010-02-01

    Despite the fact that Parkinson's disease (PD) was discovered almost 200 years ago, its treatment and management remain immense challenges because progressive loss of dopaminergic nigral neurons, motor complications experienced by the patients as the disease progresses and drawbacks of pharmacotherapeutic management still persist. Various therapeutic agents have been used in the management of PD, including levodopa (l-DOPA), selegiline, amantadine, bromocriptine, entacapone, pramipexole dihydrochloride and more recently istradefylline and rasagiline. Of all agents, l-DOPA although the oldest, remains the most effective. l-DOPA is easier to administer, better tolerated, less expensive and is required by almost all PD patients. However, l-DOPA's efficacy in advanced PD is significantly reduced due to metabolism, subsequent low bioavailability and irregular fluctuations in its plasma levels. Significant strides have been made to improve the delivery of l-DOPA in order to enhance its bioavailability and reduce plasma fluctuations as well as motor complications experienced by patients purportedly resulting from pulsatile stimulation of the striatal dopamine receptors. Drug delivery systems that have been instituted for the delivery of l-DOPA include immediate release formulations, liquid formulations, dispersible tablets, controlled release formulations, dual-release formulations, microspheres, infusion and transdermal delivery, among others. In this review, the l-DOPA-loaded drug delivery systems developed over the past three decades are elaborated. The ultimate aim was to assess critically the attempts made thus far directed at improving l-DOPA absorption, bioavailability and maintenance of constant plasma concentrations, including the drug delivery technologies implicated. This review highlights the fact that neuropharmaceutics is at a precipice, which is expected to spur investigators to take that leap to enable the generation of innovative delivery systems for the

  5. Reduction of treatment delivery variances with a computer-controlled treatment delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraass, B.A.; Lash, K.L.; Matrone, G.M.; Lichter, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze treatment delivery variances for 3-D conformal therapy performed at various levels of treatment delivery automation, ranging from manual field setup to virtually complete computer-controlled treatment delivery using a computer-controlled conformal radiotherapy system. Materials and Methods: All external beam treatments performed in our department during six months of 1996 were analyzed to study treatment delivery variances versus treatment complexity. Treatments for 505 patients (40,641 individual treatment ports) on four treatment machines were studied. All treatment variances noted by treatment therapists or quality assurance reviews (39 in all) were analyzed. Machines 'M1' (CLinac (6(100))) and 'M2' (CLinac 1800) were operated in a standard manual setup mode, with no record and verify system (R/V). Machines 'M3' (CLinac 2100CD/MLC) and ''M4'' (MM50 racetrack microtron system with MLC) treated patients under the control of a computer-controlled conformal radiotherapy system (CCRS) which 1) downloads the treatment delivery plan from the planning system, 2) performs some (or all) of the machine set-up and treatment delivery for each field, 3) monitors treatment delivery, 4) records all treatment parameters, and 5) notes exceptions to the electronically-prescribed plan. Complete external computer control is not available on M3, so it uses as many CCRS features as possible, while M4 operates completely under CCRS control and performs semi-automated and automated multi-segment intensity modulated treatments. Analysis of treatment complexity was based on numbers of fields, individual segments (ports), non-axial and non-coplanar plans, multi-segment intensity modulation, and pseudo-isocentric treatments (and other plans with computer-controlled table motions). Treatment delivery time was obtained from the computerized scheduling system (for manual treatments) or from CCRS system logs. Treatment therapists rotate among the machines, so this analysis

  6. Risk factors for cesarean delivery and adverse neonatal outcome in twin pregnancies attempting vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter-Safrai, Natali; Karavani, Gilad; Haj-Yahya, Rani; Ofek Shlomai, Noa; Porat, Shay

    2018-02-24

    Twin vaginal delivery presents a unique clinical challenge for obstetricians. The Twin Birth Study demonstrated the safety of planned vaginal delivery regarding neonatal outcomes. However, that study lacked a description of the risk factors associated with and the outcome of unplanned cesarean section. The aim of this study is to identify potential risk factors for cesarean section and delivery related neonatal morbidity and mortality in women with twin pregnancy attempting vaginal delivery. A retrospective cohort study including 1070 women with twin pregnancy that underwent a trial of labor between 2003 and 2015. The study population was divided according to the mode of delivery: vaginal delivery, combined vaginal-cesarean and intrapartum cesarean delivery of both twins. Several risk factors and neonatal outcomes were examined by both univariate analysis and multinomial logistic regression analysis. The rate of vaginal delivery of both twins was 88.3%, whereas the rates of combined vaginal cesarean and unplanned cesarean delivery were 4.6% and 7.1%, respectively. Nulliparity and nonvertex presentation of twin B were found to be independently associated with cesarean delivery for both twins. Additionally, nonvertex presentation of twin B was independently associated with combined vaginal-cesarean delivery. The proportion of neonates with Apgar score cesarean group compared with those delivered by the vaginal route alone. Nulliparity and nonvertex presentation of twin B were found to be associated with intrapartum cesarean delivery in twin pregnancies. © 2018 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. MRI in ocular drug delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Li, S. Kevin; Lizak, Martin J.; Jeong, Eun-Kee

    2008-01-01

    Conventional pharmacokinetic methods for studying ocular drug delivery are invasive and cannot be conveniently applied to humans. The advancement of MRI technology has provided new opportunities in ocular drug-delivery research. MRI provides a means to non-invasively and continuously monitor ocular drug-delivery systems with a contrast agent or compound labeled with a contrast agent. It is a useful technique in pharmacokinetic studies, evaluation of drug-delivery methods, and drug-delivery de...

  8. Vacuum-assisted delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000514.htm Vacuum-assisted delivery To use the sharing features on this page, ... through the birth canal. When is Vacuum-assisted Delivery Needed? Even after your cervix is fully dilated ( ...

  9. Stimuli-Responsive Polymeric Systems for Controlled Protein and Peptide Delivery: Future Implications for Ocular Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlumba, Pakama; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; Pillay, Viness

    2016-07-30

    Therapeutic proteins and peptides have become notable in the drug delivery arena for their compatibility with the human body as well as their high potency. However, their biocompatibility and high potency does not negate the existence of challenges resulting from physicochemical properties of proteins and peptides, including large size, short half-life, capability to provoke immune responses and susceptibility to degradation. Various delivery routes and delivery systems have been utilized to improve bioavailability, patient acceptability and reduce biodegradation. The ocular route remains of great interest, particularly for responsive delivery of macromolecules due to the anatomy and physiology of the eye that makes it a sensitive and complex environment. Research in this field is slowly gaining attention as this could be the breakthrough in ocular drug delivery of macromolecules. This work reviews stimuli-responsive polymeric delivery systems, their use in the delivery of therapeutic proteins and peptides as well as examples of proteins and peptides used in the treatment of ocular disorders. Stimuli reviewed include pH, temperature, enzymes, light, ultrasound and magnetic field. In addition, it discusses the current progress in responsive ocular drug delivery. Furthermore, it explores future prospects in the use of stimuli-responsive polymers for ocular delivery of proteins and peptides. Stimuli-responsive polymers offer great potential in improving the delivery of ocular therapeutics, therefore there is a need to consider them in order to guarantee a local, sustained and ideal delivery of ocular proteins and peptides, evading tissue invasion and systemic side-effects.

  10. Emerging Frontiers in Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbitt, Mark W; Dahlman, James E; Langer, Robert

    2016-01-27

    Medicine relies on the use of pharmacologically active agents (drugs) to manage and treat disease. However, drugs are not inherently effective; the benefit of a drug is directly related to the manner by which it is administered or delivered. Drug delivery can affect drug pharmacokinetics, absorption, distribution, metabolism, duration of therapeutic effect, excretion, and toxicity. As new therapeutics (e.g., biologics) are being developed, there is an accompanying need for improved chemistries and materials to deliver them to the target site in the body, at a therapeutic concentration, and for the required period of time. In this Perspective, we provide an historical overview of drug delivery and controlled release followed by highlights of four emerging areas in the field of drug delivery: systemic RNA delivery, drug delivery for localized therapy, oral drug delivery systems, and biologic drug delivery systems. In each case, we present the barriers to effective drug delivery as well as chemical and materials advances that are enabling the field to overcome these hurdles for clinical impact.

  11. Oral Chinese proprietary medicine for angina pectoris: an overview of systematic reviews/meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jing; Xu, Hao; Yang, Guoyan; Qiu, Yu; Liu, Jianping; Chen, Keji

    2014-08-01

    Oral Chinese proprietary medicine (CPM) is commonly used to treat angina pectoris, and many relevant systematic reviews/meta-analyses are available. However, these reviews have not been systematically summarized and evaluated. We conducted an overview of these reviews, and explored their methodological and reporting quality to inform both practice and further research. We included systematic reviews/meta-analyses on oral CPM in treating angina until March 2013 by searching PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library and four Chinese databases. We extracted data according to a pre-designed form, and assessed the methodological and reporting characteristics of the reviews in terms of AMSTAR and PRISMA respectively. Most of the data analyses were descriptive. 36 systematic reviews/meta-analyses involving over 82,105 participants with angina reviewing 13 kinds of oral CPM were included. The main outcomes assessed in the reviews were surrogate outcomes (34/36, 94.4%), adverse events (31/36, 86.1%), and symptoms (30/36, 83.3%). Six reviews (6/36, 16.7%) drew definitely positive conclusions, while the others suggested potential benefits in the symptoms, electrocardiogram, and adverse events. The overall methodological and reporting quality of the reviews was limited, with many serious flaws such as the lack of review protocol and incomprehensive literature searches. Though many systematic reviews/meta-analyses on oral CPM for angina suggested potential benefits or definitely positive effects, stakeholders should interpret the findings of these reviews with caution, considering the overall limited methodological and reporting quality. We recommend further studies should be appropriately conducted and systematic reviews reported according to PRISMA standard. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Teaching web application development: Microsoft proprietary or open systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Corich

    Full Text Available This paper revisits the debate concerning which development environment should be used to teach server-side Web Application Development courses to undergraduate students. In 2002, following an industry-based survey of Web developers, a decision was made to adopt an open source platform consisting of PHP and MySQL rather than a Microsoft platform utilising Access and Active Server Pages. Since that date there have been a number of significant changes within the computing industry that suggest that perhaps it is appropriate to revisit the original decision. This paper investigates expert opinion by reviewing current literature regarding web development environments, it looks at the results of a survey of web development companies and it examines the current employment trends in the web development area. The paper concludes by examining the impact of making a decision to change the development environment used to teach Web Application Development to a third year computing degree class and describes the impact on course delivery that the change has brought about.

  13. Adjuncts to local anesthesia: separating fact from fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J K

    2001-01-01

    Adjunctive local anesthetic techniques and their armamentaria, such as intraosseous injection, computer-controlled delivery systems, periodontal ligament injection and needleless jet injection, have been proposed to hold particular advantages over conventional means of achieving local anesthesia. This article describes the use of each technique and proprietary armamentarium and reviews the literature appraising their use.

  14. Global Delivery Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manning, Stephan; Larsen, Marcus M.; Bharati, Pratyush

    2013-01-01

    This article examines antecedents and performance implications of global delivery models (GDMs) in global business services. GDMs require geographically distributed operations to exploit both proximity to clients and time-zone spread for efficient service delivery. We propose and empirically show...

  15. Designing and assessing a sustainable networked delivery (SND) system: hybrid business-to-consumer book delivery case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junbeum; Xu, Ming; Kahhat, Ramzy; Allenby, Braden; Williams, Eric

    2009-01-01

    We attempted to design and assess an example of a sustainable networked delivery (SND) system: a hybrid business-to-consumer book delivery system. This system is intended to reduce costs, achieve significant reductions in energy consumption, and reduce environmental emissions of critical local pollutants and greenhouse gases. The energy consumption and concomitant emissions of this delivery system compared with existing alternative delivery systems were estimated. We found that regarding energy consumption, an emerging hybrid delivery system which is a sustainable networked delivery system (SND) would consume 47 and 7 times less than the traditional networked delivery system (TND) and e-commerce networked delivery system (END). Regarding concomitant emissions, in the case of CO2, the SND system produced 32 and 7 times fewer emissions than the TND and END systems. Also the SND system offer meaningful economic benefit such as the costs of delivery and packaging, to the online retailer, grocery, and consumer. Our research results show that the SND system has a lot of possibilities to save local transportation energy consumption and delivery costs, and reduce environmental emissions in delivery system.

  16. Mode of delivery following successful external cephalic version: comparison with spontaneous cephalic presentations at delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppens, Simone M I; Hutton, Eileen K; Hasaart, Tom H M; Aichi, Nassira; Wijnen, Henrica A; Pop, Victor J M

    2013-10-01

    To compare the obstetric outcomes of pregnant women after successful external cephalic version (ECV) (cases) with a large group of pregnant women with a spontaneously occurring cephalic fetal position at delivery (controls). We conducted a retrospective matched cohort study in a teaching hospital in the Netherlands. Delivery outcomes of women with a successful ECV were compared with those of women with spontaneously occurring cephalic presentations, controlling for maternal age, parity, gestational age at delivery, and onset of labour (spontaneous or induced). Exclusion criteria were a history of Caesarean section, delivery at < 35 weeks, and elective Caesarean section. The primary outcome was the prevalence of Caesarean section and instrumental delivery in both groups; secondary outcomes were the characteristics of cases requiring intervention such as Caesarean section or instrumental delivery. Women who had a successful ECV had a significantly higher Caesarean section rate than the women in the control group (33/220 [15%] vs. 62/1030 [6.0 %]; P < 0.001). There was no difference in the incidence of instrumental delivery (20/220 [9.1%] vs. 103/1030 [10%]). Comparison of characteristics of women in the cases group showed that nulliparity, induction of labour, and occiput posterior presentation were associated with Caesarean section and instrumental deliveries. Compared with delivery of spontaneous cephalic presenta-tions, delivery of cephalic presenting babies following successful ECV is associated with an increased rate of Caesarean section, especially in nulliparous women and women whose labour is induced.

  17. Articulating feedstock delivery device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kevin

    2013-11-05

    A fully articulable feedstock delivery device that is designed to operate at pressure and temperature extremes. The device incorporates an articulating ball assembly which allows for more accurate delivery of the feedstock to a target location. The device is suitable for a variety of applications including, but not limited to, delivery of feedstock to a high-pressure reaction chamber or process zone.

  18. Stoppage - Vat Return and Accounting Practice in Re-Delivery of a Delivery Subject to Stoppage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Yanık

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Value Added Tax (VAT is calculated based on the goods and service delivery costs realized by the corporations. Unless this VAT is subject to stoppage, seller takes the VAT from the purchaser in delivery of goods or services and then the corporate pays this amount to the tax office or sets off through the VAT he paid for his service or goods procurement. However, in some cases, Ministry of Finance holds not those providing the delivery or service but those purchasing or procuring the goods or services responsible partly or fully for the tax calculated based on the delivery or service fee. The purpose of this paper is to reveal VAT stoppage, accounting entries with regards to the corporation accepting the delivery and re-delivering it, VAT set off and VAT return in the re-delivery of a delivery subject to stoppage pursuant to General Communiqué of VAT Serial No 117

  19. The impact of treatment complexity and computer-control delivery technology on treatment delivery errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraass, Benedick A.; Lash, Kathy L.; Matrone, Gwynne M.; Volkman, Susan K.; McShan, Daniel L.; Kessler, Marc L.; Lichter, Allen S.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze treatment delivery errors for three-dimensional (3D) conformal therapy performed at various levels of treatment delivery automation and complexity, ranging from manual field setup to virtually complete computer-controlled treatment delivery using a computer-controlled conformal radiotherapy system (CCRS). Methods and Materials: All treatment delivery errors which occurred in our department during a 15-month period were analyzed. Approximately 34,000 treatment sessions (114,000 individual treatment segments [ports]) on four treatment machines were studied. All treatment delivery errors logged by treatment therapists or quality assurance reviews (152 in all) were analyzed. Machines 'M1' and 'M2' were operated in a standard manual setup mode, with no record and verify system (R/V). MLC machines 'M3' and 'M4' treated patients under the control of the CCRS system, which (1) downloads the treatment delivery plan from the planning system; (2) performs some (or all) of the machine set up and treatment delivery for each field; (3) monitors treatment delivery; (4) records all treatment parameters; and (5) notes exceptions to the electronically-prescribed plan. Complete external computer control is not available on M3; therefore, it uses as many CCRS features as possible, while M4 operates completely under CCRS control and performs semi-automated and automated multi-segment intensity modulated treatments. Analysis of treatment complexity was based on numbers of fields, individual segments, nonaxial and noncoplanar plans, multisegment intensity modulation, and pseudoisocentric treatments studied for a 6-month period (505 patients) concurrent with the period in which the delivery errors were obtained. Treatment delivery time was obtained from the computerized scheduling system (for manual treatments) or from CCRS system logs. Treatment therapists rotate among the machines; therefore, this analysis does not depend on fixed therapist staff on particular

  20. Global Delivery Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manning, Stephan; Møller Larsen, Marcus; Bharati, Pratyush

    -zone spread allowing for 24/7 service delivery and access to resources. Based on comprehensive data we show that providers are likely to establish GDM configurations when clients value access to globally distributed talent pools and speed of service delivery, and in particular when services are highly...

  1. What Is a Cesarean Delivery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Pinterest Email Print What is a cesarean delivery? A cesarean delivery is a surgical procedure in which a fetus ... 32.2% of U.S. births were by cesarean delivery. 2 The CDC also found that the number ...

  2. Synthetic sustained gene delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ankit; Mallapragada, Surya K

    2008-01-01

    Gene therapy today is hampered by the need of a safe and efficient gene delivery system that can provide a sustained therapeutic effect without cytotoxicity or unwanted immune responses. Bolus gene delivery in solution results in the loss of delivered factors via lymphatic system and may cause undesired effects by the escape of bioactive molecules to distant sites. Controlled gene delivery systems, acting as localized depot of genes, provide an extended sustained release of genes, giving prolonged maintenance of the therapeutic level of encoded proteins. They also limit the DNA degradation in the nuclease rich extra-cellular environment. While attempts have been made to adapt existing controlled drug delivery technologies, more novel approaches are being investigated for controlled gene delivery. DNA encapsulated in nano/micro spheres of polymers have been administered systemically/orally to be taken up by the targeted tissues and provide sustained release once internalized. Alternatively, DNA entrapped in hydrogels or scaffolds have been injected/implanted in tissues/cavities as platforms for gene delivery. The present review examines these different modalities for sustained delivery of viral and non-viral gene-delivery vectors. Design parameters and release mechanisms of different systems made with synthetic or natural polymers are presented along with their prospective applications and opportunities for continuous development.

  3. Proprietary arabinogalactan extract increases antibody response to the pneumonia vaccine: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot study in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udani Jay K

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arabinogalactan from Larch tree (Larix spp. bark has previously demonstrated immunostimulatory activity. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that ingestion of a proprietary arabinogalactan extract, ResistAid™, would selectively enhance the antibody response to the pneumococcal (pneumonia vaccine in healthy adults. Methods This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group pilot study included 45 healthy adults who had not previously been vaccinated against Streptococcus pneumoniae. The volunteers began taking the study product or placebo (daily dosage 4.5 g at the screening visit (V1-Day 0 and continued over the entire 72 day study period. After 30 days the subjects received the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine (V2. They were monitored the following day (V3-Day 31, as well as 21 days (V4-Day 51 and 42 days (V5-Day 72 after vaccination. Responses by the adaptive immune system (antigen specific were measured via pneumococcal IgG antibodies (subtypes 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F and salivary IgA levels. Responses by the innate immune system (non-specific were measured via white blood cell counts, inflammatory cytokines and the complement system. Results Vaccination significantly increased pneumococcal IgG levels as expected. The arabinogalactan group demonstrated a statistically significant greater IgG antibody response than the placebo group in two antibodies subtypes (18C and 23F at both Day 51 (p = 0.006 and p = 0.002 and at Day 72 (p = 0.008 and p = 0.041. These same subtypes (18C and 23F also demonstrated change scores from baseline which were significant, in favor of the arabinogalactan group, at Day 51 (p = 0.033 and 0.001 and at Day 72 (p = 0.012 and p = 0.003. Change scores from baseline and mean values were greater in the arabinogalactan group than placebo for most time points in antibody subtypes 4, 6B, 9V, and 19F, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. There

  4. Proprietary arabinogalactan extract increases antibody response to the pneumonia vaccine: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot study in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Jay K; Singh, Betsy B; Barrett, Marilyn L; Singh, Vijay J

    2010-08-26

    Arabinogalactan from Larch tree (Larix spp.) bark has previously demonstrated immunostimulatory activity. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that ingestion of a proprietary arabinogalactan extract, ResistAid™, would selectively enhance the antibody response to the pneumococcal (pneumonia) vaccine in healthy adults. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group pilot study included 45 healthy adults who had not previously been vaccinated against Streptococcus pneumoniae. The volunteers began taking the study product or placebo (daily dosage 4.5 g) at the screening visit (V1-Day 0) and continued over the entire 72 day study period. After 30 days the subjects received the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine (V2). They were monitored the following day (V3-Day 31), as well as 21 days (V4-Day 51) and 42 days (V5-Day 72) after vaccination. Responses by the adaptive immune system (antigen specific) were measured via pneumococcal IgG antibodies (subtypes 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F) and salivary IgA levels. Responses by the innate immune system (non-specific) were measured via white blood cell counts, inflammatory cytokines and the complement system. Vaccination significantly increased pneumococcal IgG levels as expected. The arabinogalactan group demonstrated a statistically significant greater IgG antibody response than the placebo group in two antibodies subtypes (18C and 23F) at both Day 51 (p = 0.006 and p = 0.002) and at Day 72 (p = 0.008 and p = 0.041). These same subtypes (18C and 23F) also demonstrated change scores from baseline which were significant, in favor of the arabinogalactan group, at Day 51 (p = 0.033 and 0.001) and at Day 72 (p = 0.012 and p = 0.003). Change scores from baseline and mean values were greater in the arabinogalactan group than placebo for most time points in antibody subtypes 4, 6B, 9V, and 19F, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. There was no effect from the vaccine or

  5. Project delivery system (PDS)

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    As business environments become increasingly competitive, companies seek more comprehensive solutions to the delivery of their projects. "Project Delivery System: Fourth Edition" describes the process-driven project delivery systems which incorporates the best practices from Total Quality and is aligned with the Project Management Institute and ISO Quality Standards is the means by which projects are consistently and efficiently planned, executed and completed to the satisfaction of clients and customers.

  6. Supplier Cooperation in Drone Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Sawadsitang, Suttinee; Niyato, Dusit; Siew, Tan Puay; Wang, Ping

    2018-01-01

    Recently, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), also known as drones, has emerged as an efficient and cost-effective solution for package delivery. Especially, drones are expected to incur lower cost, and achieve fast and environment friendly delivery. While most of existing drone research concentrates on surveillance applications, few works studied the drone package delivery planning problem. Even so, the previous works only focus on the drone delivery planning of a single supplier. In this paper...

  7. Noninvasive ocular drug delivery: potential transcorneal and other alternative delivery routes for therapeutic molecules in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldvari, Marianna

    2014-01-01

    Drug delivery to the eye is made difficult by multiple barriers (such as the tear film, cornea, and vitreous) between the surface of the eye and the treatment site. These barriers are difficult to surmount for the purposes of drug delivery without causing toxicity. Using nanotechnology tools to control, manipulate, and study delivery systems, new approaches to delivering drugs, genes, and antigens that are effective and safe can be developed. Topical administration to the ocular surface would be the safest method for delivery, as it is noninvasive and painless compared with other delivery methods. However, there is only limited success using topical delivery methods, especially for gene therapy. Current thinking on treatments of the future enabled by nanodelivery systems and the identification of target specificity parameters that require deeper understanding to develop successful topical delivery systems for glaucoma is highlighted.

  8. 6. Home deliveries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sitwala

    determine factors associated with home deliveries. Main outcome ... deliver at home than a health facility compared to those who .... regression analysis, women who had four years of schooling or .... by report bias, the burden of home deliveries is a real challenge .... Journal of Econometrics 1987; 36: 185-204. 14. Michelo ...

  9. [Fathers of first infants--preparatory courses about delivery, experience of delivery and paternity leave].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, J; Dueholm, M; Nielsen, K T; Wiese, J; Strand, J E; Jangaard, J K

    1989-05-22

    In the Central Hospital in Randers, 233 fathers of first infants replied to a questionnaire which illustrated their attitudes to the preparatory courses about delivery, experience of delivery and attitudes to paternity leave. 65% of the fathers participated in the course and 74% stated that they considered that this had been profitable. Where 77% of the men were concerned, these considered that participation in delivery had been a positive experience. 73% of the men had planned paternity leave around the time of delivery, which emphasizes the need for this arrangement.

  10. On the concavity of delivery games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, H.J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Delivery games, introduced by Hamers, Borm, van de Leensel and Tijs (1994), are combinatorial optimization games that arise from delivery problems closely related to the Chinese postman problem (CPP). They showed that delivery games are not necessarily balanced. For delivery problems corresponding

  11. Prenatal attitudes toward vaginal delivery and actual delivery mode: Variation by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasio, Laura B; Hardeman, Rachel R; Kozhimannil, Katy B; Kjerulff, Kristen H

    2017-12-01

    Researchers documenting persistent racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status disparities in chances of cesarean delivery have speculated that women's birth attitudes and preferences may partially explain these differences, but no studies have directly tested this hypothesis. We examined whether women's prenatal attitudes toward vaginal delivery differed by race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status, and whether attitudes were differently related to delivery mode depending on race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status. Data were from the First Baby Study, a cohort of 3006 women who gave birth to a first baby in Pennsylvania between 2009 and 2011. We used regression models to examine (1) predictors of prenatal attitudes toward vaginal delivery, and (2) the association between prenatal attitudes and actual delivery mode. To assess moderation, we estimated models adding interaction terms. Prenatal attitudes toward vaginal delivery were not associated with race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status. Positive attitudes toward vaginal delivery were associated with lower odds of cesarean delivery (AOR=0.60, P socioeconomic status women may be more able to realize their preferences in childbirth. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Characterization of particulate drug delivery systems for oral delivery of Peptide and protein drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Philip Carsten; Fano, Mathias; Saaby, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    Oral drug delivery is a preferred route because of good patient compliance. However, most peptide/ protein drugs are delivered via parenteral routes because of the absorption barriers in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract such as enzymatic degradation by proteases and low permeability acrossthe...... delivery of peptide/protein drugs and to provide an overview of formulationand characterization strategies. For a better understanding of the challenges in oral delivery of peptide/protein drugs, the composition of GI fluids and the digestion processes of different kinds of excipients in the GI tract...... biological membranes. To overcome these barriers, different formulation strategies for oral delivery of biomacromolecules have been proposed, including lipid based formulations and polymer-based particulate drug delivery systems (DDS). The aim of this review is to summarize the existing knowledge about oral...

  13. Efficiency and economics of hydrogen delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Bharadwaj, R.; Balan, C.; Garces, L.; Smith, D.

    2003-01-01

    The viability and penetration of fuel cell based electricity production will be mainly determined by the efficient, cost effective production and delivery of hydrogen. This study focuses on the transportation efficiency and cost of hydrogen delivery for both centrally produced hydrogen as well as electricity scenarios. The efficiency and economics of energy delivery depend on the quantity of energy to be transported and transportation distance. Energy delivery models were developed for Hydrogen delivery as compressed gas or cryogenic liquid using truck or pipeline. For comparison, models were also developed for high voltage AC electricity transmission. Major parameters that influence the performance of the energy transmission systems under normal operating conditions were modeled. The models use energy transported and delivery distance as independent variables. The results were validated against similar reports, government surveys and other publications. Energy delivery efficiency and costs were used to compare and evaluate the different delivery options. Effect of uncertainty and sensitivity of parameters on modeling results were also studied. The systems were compared on an equivalent basis. The analysis also identifies the trade-offs for electricity transmission and electrolysis application at the point of use for Hydrogen delivery. These results provide a consistent framework for evaluation of delivery options on energy efficiency basis. (author)

  14. 38 CFR 21.4505 - Check delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Check delivery. 21.4505...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Education Loans § 21.4505 Check delivery. (a) General. Education... surviving spouse is enrolled for delivery by the educational institution. (b) Delivery and certification. (1...

  15. 18 CFR 157.211 - Delivery points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Delivery points. 157... for Certain Transactions and Abandonment § 157.211 Delivery points. (a) Construction and operation—(1... delivery point, excluding the construction of certain delivery points subject to the prior notice...

  16. Advanced SLARette delivery machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodner, R.R.

    1995-01-01

    SLARette 1 equipment, comprising of a SLARette Delivery Machine, SLAR Tools, SLAR power supplies and SLAR Inspection Systems was designed, developed and manufactured to service fuel channels of CANDU 6 stations during the regular yearly station outages. The Mark 2 SLARette Delivery Machine uses a Push Tube system to provide the axial and rotary movements of the SLAR Tool. The Push Tubes are operated remotely but must be attached and removed manually. Since this operation is performed at the Reactor face, there is radiation dose involved for the workers. An Advanced SLARette Delivery Machine which incorporates a computer controlled telescoping Ram in the place of the Push Tubes has been recently designed and manufactured. Utilization of the Advanced SLARette Delivery Machine significantly reduces the amount of radiation dose picked up by the workers because the need to have workers at the face of the Reactor during the SLARette operation is greatly reduced. This paper describes the design, development and manufacturing process utilized to produce the Advanced SLARette Delivery Machine and the experience gained during the Gentilly-2 NGS Spring outage. (author)

  17. 19 CFR 10.101 - Immediate delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immediate delivery. 10.101 Section 10.101 Customs... Importations § 10.101 Immediate delivery. (a) Shipments entitled to immediate delivery. Shipments consigned to... as shipments the immediate delivery of which is necessary within the purview of section 448(b...

  18. Characterization of particulate drug delivery systems for oral delivery of Peptide and protein drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophersen, Philip Carsten; Fano, Mathias; Saaby, Lasse; Yang, Mingshi; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Mu, Huiling

    2015-01-01

    Oral drug delivery is a preferred route because of good patient compliance. However, most peptide/ protein drugs are delivered via parenteral routes because of the absorption barriers in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract such as enzymatic degradation by proteases and low permeability acrossthe biological membranes. To overcome these barriers, different formulation strategies for oral delivery of biomacromolecules have been proposed, including lipid based formulations and polymer-based particulate drug delivery systems (DDS). The aim of this review is to summarize the existing knowledge about oral delivery of peptide/protein drugs and to provide an overview of formulationand characterization strategies. For a better understanding of the challenges in oral delivery of peptide/protein drugs, the composition of GI fluids and the digestion processes of different kinds of excipients in the GI tract are summarized. Additionally, the paper provides an overview of recent studies on characterization of solid drug carriers for peptide/protein drugs, drug distribution in particles, drug release and stability in simulated GI fluids, as well as the absorption of peptide/protein drugs in cell-based models. The use of biorelevant media when applicable can increase the knowledge about the quality of DDS for oral protein delivery. Hopefully, the knowledge provided in this review will aid the establishment of improved biorelevant models capable of forecasting the performance of particulate DDS for oral peptide/protein delivery.

  19. Pregnancy week at delivery and the risk of shoulder dystocia: a population study of 2,014,956 deliveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øverland, E A; Vatten, L J; Eskild, A

    2014-01-01

    To study whether pregnancy week at delivery is an independent risk factor for shoulder dystocia. Population study. Medical Birth Registry of Norway. All vaginal deliveries of singleton offspring in cephalic presentation in Norway during 1967 through 2009 (n = 2,014,956). The incidence of shoulder dystocia was calculated according to pregnancy week at delivery. The associations of pregnancy week at delivery with shoulder dystocia were estimated as crude and adjusted odds ratios using logistic regression analyses. We repeated the analyses in pregnancies with and without maternal diabetes. Shoulder dystocia at delivery. The overall incidence of shoulder dystocia was 0.73% (n = 14,820), and the incidence increased by increasing pregnancy week at delivery. Birthweight was strongly associated with shoulder dystocia. After adjustment for birthweight, induction of labour, use of epidural analgesia at delivery, prolonged labour, forceps-assisted and vacuum-assisted delivery, parity, period of delivery and maternal age in multivariable analyses, the adjusted odds ratios for shoulder dystocia were 1.77 (1.42-2.20) for deliveries at 32-35 weeks of gestation, and 0.84 (0.79-0.88) at 42-43 weeks of gestation, using weeks 40-41 as the reference. In pregnancies affected by diabetes (n = 11,188), the incidence of shoulder dystocia was 3.95%, and after adjustment for birthweight the adjusted odds ratio for shoulder dystocia was 2.92 (95% CI 1.54-5.52) for deliveries at weeks 32-35 of gestation, and 0.91 (95% CI 0.50-1.66) at 42-43 weeks of gestation. The risk of shoulder dystocia was associated with increased birthweight, diabetes, induction of labour, use of epidural analgesia at delivery, prolonged labour, forceps-assisted and vacuum-assisted delivery, parity and period of delivery but not with post-term delivery. © 2013 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  20. Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Delivery: Deciding on a Trial of Labor After a Cesarean Delivery (TOLAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ070 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Delivery • What is a vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC)? • What is a trial of labor ...

  1. Floating Microparticulate Oral Diltiazem Hydrochloride Delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Delivery System for Improved Delivery to Heart ... Conclusion: Microparticulate floating (gastroretentive) oral drug delivery system of diltiazem prepared ..... treatment of cardiac disease. ... hydrochloride-loaded mucoadhesive microspheres.

  2. Drug delivery device including electrolytic pump

    KAUST Repository

    Foulds, Ian G.; Buttner, Ulrich; Yi, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods are provided for a drug delivery device and use of the device for drug delivery. In various aspects, the drug delivery device combines a “solid drug in reservoir” (SDR) system with an electrolytic pump. In various aspects an improved electrolytic pump is provided including, in particular, an improved electrolytic pump for use with a drug delivery device, for example an implantable drug delivery device. A catalytic reformer can be incorporated in a periodically pulsed electrolytic pump to provide stable pumping performance and reduced actuation cycle.

  3. Drug delivery device including electrolytic pump

    KAUST Repository

    Foulds, Ian G.

    2016-03-31

    Systems and methods are provided for a drug delivery device and use of the device for drug delivery. In various aspects, the drug delivery device combines a “solid drug in reservoir” (SDR) system with an electrolytic pump. In various aspects an improved electrolytic pump is provided including, in particular, an improved electrolytic pump for use with a drug delivery device, for example an implantable drug delivery device. A catalytic reformer can be incorporated in a periodically pulsed electrolytic pump to provide stable pumping performance and reduced actuation cycle.

  4. Early elective cesarean delivery before 36 weeks vs late spontaneous delivery in infants with gastroschisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadidi, Ahmed; Subotic, Ulrike; Goeppl, Maximilian; Waag, Karl-L

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the value of early elective cesarean delivery for patients with gastroschisis in comparison with late spontaneous delivery. Analysis of infants with gastroschisis admitted between 1986 and 2006 at a tertiary care center was performed. The findings were analyzed statistically. Eighty-six patients were involved in the study. This included 15 patients who underwent emergency cesarean delivery (EM CD group) because of fetal distress and/or bowel ischemia. The remaining 71 patients born electively were stratified into 4 groups. The early elective cesarean delivery (ECD) group included 23 patients born by ECD before 36 weeks; late vaginal delivery (LVD) group included 23 patients who had LVD after 36 weeks; 24 patients had LCD after 36 weeks because of delayed diagnosis that resulted in late referral; and 1 patient had early spontaneous vaginal delivery (EVD group) before 36 weeks. The mean time to start oral feeding, incidence of complications, and primary closure were significantly better in the ECD group than in the LVD group. The duration of ventilation and the length of stay were shorter in ECD group, but the difference was not statistically significant. Elective cesarean delivery before 36 weeks allows earlier enteral feeding and is associated with less complications and higher incidence of primary closure (statistically significant).

  5. Microfabrication for Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Brendan; Rubino, Ilaria; Quan, Fu-Shi; Yoo, Bongyoung; Choi, Hyo-Jick

    2016-01-01

    This review is devoted to discussing the application of microfabrication technologies to target challenges encountered in life processes by the development of drug delivery systems. Recently, microfabrication has been largely applied to solve health and pharmaceutical science issues. In particular, fabrication methods along with compatible materials have been successfully designed to produce multifunctional, highly effective drug delivery systems. Microfabrication offers unique tools that can tackle problems in this field, such as ease of mass production with high quality control and low cost, complexity of architecture design and a broad range of materials. Presented is an overview of silicon- and polymer-based fabrication methods that are key in the production of microfabricated drug delivery systems. Moreover, the efforts focused on studying the biocompatibility of materials used in microfabrication are analyzed. Finally, this review discusses representative ways microfabrication has been employed to develop systems delivering drugs through the transdermal and oral route, and to improve drug eluting implants. Additionally, microfabricated vaccine delivery systems are presented due to the great impact they can have in obtaining a cold chain-free vaccine, with long-term stability. Microfabrication will continue to offer new, alternative solutions for the development of smart, advanced drug delivery systems. PMID:28773770

  6. Protein nanoparticles for therapeutic protein delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Estrada, L P; Champion, J A

    2015-06-01

    Therapeutic proteins can face substantial challenges to their activity, requiring protein modification or use of a delivery vehicle. Nanoparticles can significantly enhance delivery of encapsulated cargo, but traditional small molecule carriers have some limitations in their use for protein delivery. Nanoparticles made from protein have been proposed as alternative carriers and have benefits specific to therapeutic protein delivery. This review describes protein nanoparticles made by self-assembly, including protein cages, protein polymers, and charged or amphipathic peptides, and by desolvation. It presents particle fabrication and delivery characterization for a variety of therapeutic and model proteins, as well as comparison of the features of different protein nanoparticles.

  7. Pectin-based colon-specific drug delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Shailendra Shukla; Deepak Jain; Kavita Verma; Shiddarth Verma

    2011-01-01

    Colon-specific drug delivery have a great importance in the delivery of drugs for the treatment of local colonic, as well as systemic diseases like Crohn′s disease, ulcerative colitis, colorectal cancer, amoebiasis, asthma, arthritis and inflammation which can be achieved by targeted delivery of drug to colon. Specific systemic absorption in the colon gave interesting possibilities for the delivery of protein and peptides. It contains relatively less proteolytic enzyme activities in the colon...

  8. Preterm delivery predicted by soluble CD163 and CRP in women with symptoms of preterm delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Ida; Grove, Jakob; Thorsen, Poul

    2005-01-01

    : High levels of sCD163 or CRP are associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery in women with symptoms of delivery. Good prediction of preterm delivery before 34 weeks of gestation was obtained by a combination of preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (PPROM), overweight, relaxin, CRP and s...

  9. Drug delivery and formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkreutz, Jörg; Boos, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Paediatric drug delivery is a major challenge in drug development. Because of the heterogeneous nature of the patient group, ranging from newborns to adolescents, there is a need to use appropriate excipients, drug dosage forms and delivery devices for different age groups. So far, there is a lack of suitable and safe drug formulations for children, especially for the very young and seriously ill patients. The new EU legislation will enforce paediatric clinical trials and drug development. Current advances in paediatric drug delivery include interesting new concepts such as fast-dissolving drug formulations, including orodispersible tablets and oral thin strips (buccal wafers), and multiparticulate dosage forms based on mini-tabletting or pelletization technologies. Parenteral administration is likely to remain the first choice for children in the neonatal period and for emergency cases. Alternative routes of administration include transdermal, pulmonary and nasal drug delivery systems. A few products are already available on the market, but others still need further investigations and clinical proof of concept.

  10. Preparing and evaluating delivery systems for proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, L; Moeller, E H; van de Weert, M

    2006-01-01

    From a formulation perspective proteins are complex and therefore challenging molecules to develop drug delivery systems for. The success of a formulation depends on the ability of the protein to maintain the native structure and activity during preparation and delivery as well as during shipping...... and long-term storage of the formulation. Therefore, the development and evaluation of successful and promising drug delivery systems is essential. In the present review, some of the particulate drug delivery systems for parenteral delivery of protein are presented and discussed. The challenge...... for incorporation of protein in particulate delivery systems is exemplified by water-in-oil emulsions....

  11. Ultrasound-guided drug delivery in cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Sayan Mullick; Lee, Tae Hwa; Willmann, Jugen K. [Dept. of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford (United States)

    2017-07-15

    Recent advancements in ultrasound and microbubble (USMB) mediated drug delivery technology has shown that this approach can improve spatially confined delivery of drugs and genes to target tissues while reducing systemic dose and toxicity. The mechanism behind enhanced delivery of therapeutics is sonoporation, the formation of openings in the vasculature, induced by ultrasound-triggered oscillations and destruction of microbubbles. In this review, progress and challenges of USMB mediated drug delivery are summarized, with special focus on cancer therapy.

  12. Fiber coupled optical spark delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalin, Azer; Willson, Bryan; Defoort, Morgan

    2008-08-12

    A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, the spark delivery system including a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. In addition, the laser delivery assembly includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. In accordance with embodiments of the present invention, the assembly may be used to create a spark in a combustion engine. In accordance with other embodiments of the present invention, a method of using the spark delivery system is provided. In addition, a method of choosing an appropriate fiber for creating a spark using a laser beam is also presented.

  13. Resuscitation of newborn in high risk deliveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousaf, U.F.; Hayat, S.

    2015-01-01

    High risk deliveries are usually associated with increased neonatal mortality and morbidity. Neonatal resuscitation can appreciably affect the outcome in these types of deliveries. Presence of personnel trained in basic neonatal resuscitation at the time of delivery can play an important role in reducing perinatal complications in neonates at risk. The study was carried out to evaluate the effects of newborn resuscitation on neonatal outcome in high risk deliveries. Methods: This descriptive case series was carried out at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore. Ninety consecutive high risk deliveries were included and attended by paediatricians trained in newborn resuscitation. Babies delivered by elective Caesarean section, normal spontaneous vaginal deliveries and still births were excluded. Neonatal resuscitation was performed in babies who failed to initiate breathing in the first minute after birth. Data was analyzed using SPSS-16.0. Results: A total of 90 high risk deliveries were included in the study. Emergency caesarean section was the mode of delivery in 94.4% (n=85) cases and spontaneous vaginal delivery in 5.6% (n=5). Preterm pregnancy was the major high risk factor. Newborn resuscitation was required in 37.8% (n=34) of all high risk deliveries (p=0.013). All the new-borns who required resuscitation survived. Conclusion: New-born resuscitation is required in high risk pregnancies and personnel trained in newborn resuscitation should be available at the time of delivery. (author)

  14. Ceramic drug-delivery devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasserre, A; Bajpai, P K

    1998-01-01

    A variety of ceramics and delivery systems have been used to deliver chemicals, biologicals, and drugs at various rates for desired periods of time from different sites of implantation. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that ceramics can successfully be used as drug-delivery devices. Matrices, inserts, reservoirs, cements, and particles have been used to deliver a large variety of therapeutic agents such as antibiotics, anticancer drugs, anticoagulants, analgesics, growth factors, hormones, steroids, and vaccines. In this article, the advantages and disadvantages of conventional drug-delivery systems and the different approaches used to deliver chemical and biological agents by means of ceramic systems will be reviewed.

  15. Vaginal delivery versus cesarean section for term breech delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babović Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The optimal method of delivery for breech presentation at term still remains a matter of controversy. This is probably due to the fact that the skills of vaginal breech delivery are being lost. The aim of this study was to examine risk factors: mother's age, parity, labor's duration, estimated neonatal birth weight for the mode of breech presentation delivery at term as well as the influence of the delivery mode on neonatal outcome. Methods. A retrospective study of 401 terms (more than 37 week's gestation breech deliveries at the Institute of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Belgrade, from 2007 to 2008 was made. The following groups with respect to mode of delivery were included: the group I - vaginal delivery (VD in 139 patients; the group II - urgent cesarean section (UCS in 128 patients; and the group III - elective cesarean section (ECS in 134 patients. Mother's age, parity, duration of VD, neonatal birth weight (BW, the Apgar score at 5th minute, and duration of stay in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU vere determined. Neonatal mortality and major neonatal morbidity were compared according to the route of delivery. Fetuses and neonates with hemolytic disease and fetal and neonatal anomalies were excluded from the study. For statistical analyses we performed Student's t test, χ2 likelihood ratio, Kruskall-Wallis test, Mann Whitney test, and ANOVA. Results. The mean age of patients in the group I was 28.29 ± 4.97 years, in the group II 29.68 ± 5.92 years and in the group III 30.06 ± 5.41 years. Difference in mother's age between the group I and III was significant (p = 0.022. In the group III there were 73.9% nuliparous similarly to the gropu II (73.4%. We performed ECS in 54.6% of the nuliparous older than 35 years, and 54.4% multiparous younger than 35 years were delivered by VD. The use of oxytocin for stimulation of vaginal labor was not associated with its duration (p = 0.706. Lowset maneuver was performed in 88.5% of

  16. Ultrasound-guided drug delivery in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayan Mullick Chowdhury

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent advancements in ultrasound and microbubble (USMB mediated drug delivery technology has shown that this approach can improve spatially confined delivery of drugs and genes to target tissues while reducing systemic dose and toxicity. The mechanism behind enhanced delivery of therapeutics is sonoporation, the formation of openings in the vasculature, induced by ultrasound-triggered oscillations and destruction of microbubbles. In this review, progress and challenges of USMB mediated drug delivery are summarized, with special focus on cancer therapy.

  17. Health care delivery systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, F.; Zee, J. van der

    2007-01-01

    A health care delivery system is the organized response of a society to the health problems of its inhabitants. Societies choose from alternative health care delivery models and, in doing so, they organize and set goals and priorities in such a way that the actions of different actors are effective,

  18. 20 CFR 628.405 - Service delivery areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Service delivery areas. 628.405 Section 628... TITLE II OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Local Service Delivery System § 628.405 Service delivery... evaluate the degree to which a proposed service delivery area meets criteria established by the Governor...

  19. Microspheres and Nanotechnology for Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóhannesson, Gauti; Stefánsson, Einar; Loftsson, Thorsteinn

    2016-01-01

    Ocular drug delivery to the posterior segment of the eye can be accomplished by invasive drug injections into different tissues of the eye and noninvasive topical treatment. Invasive treatment involves the risks of surgical trauma and infection, and conventional topical treatments are ineffective in delivering drugs to the posterior segment of the eye. In recent years, nanotechnology has become an ever-increasing part of ocular drug delivery. In the following, we briefly review microspheres and nanotechnology for drug delivery to the eye, including different forms of nanotechnology such as nanoparticles, microparticles, liposomes, microemulsions and micromachines. The permeation barriers and anatomical considerations linked to ocular drug delivery are discussed and a theoretical overview on drug delivery through biological membranes is given. Finally, in vitro, in vivo and human studies of x03B3;-cyclodextrin nanoparticle eyedrop suspensions are discussed as an example of nanotechnology used for drug delivery to the eye. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Oral delivery of anticancer drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thanki, Kaushik; Gangwal, Rahul P; Sangamwar, Abhay T

    2013-01-01

    The present report focuses on the various aspects of oral delivery of anticancer drugs. The significance of oral delivery in cancer therapeutics has been highlighted which principally includes improvement in quality of life of patients and reduced health care costs. Subsequently, the challenges...... incurred in the oral delivery of anticancer agents have been especially emphasized. Sincere efforts have been made to compile the various physicochemical properties of anticancer drugs from either literature or predicted in silico via GastroPlus™. The later section of the paper reviews various emerging...... trends to tackle the challenges associated with oral delivery of anticancer drugs. These invariably include efflux transporter based-, functional excipient- and nanocarrier based-approaches. The role of drug nanocrystals and various others such as polymer based- and lipid based...

  1. Route of delivery following successful external cephalic version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policiano, Catarina; Costa, Ana; Valentim-Lourenço, Alexandre; Clode, Nuno; Graça, Luís M

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the delivery route and the indications for cesarean delivery after successful external cephalic version (ECV). A retrospective matched case-control study was conducted at a hospital in Lisbon, Portugal, between 2002 and 2012. Each woman who underwent successful ECV (n = 44) was compared with the previous and next women who presented for labor management and who had the same parity and a singleton vertex pregnancy at term (n = 88). The outcome measures were route of delivery, indications for cesarean delivery, and incidence of nonreassuring fetal status. Attempts at ECV were successful in 62 (46%) of 134 women, and 44 women whose fetuses remained in a cephalic presentation until delivery were included in the study. The rates of intrapartum cesarean delivery and operative vaginal delivery did not differ significantly between cases and controls (intrapartum cesarean delivery, 9 [20%] vs 16 [18%], P = 0.75; operative vaginal delivery, 14 [32%] vs 19 [22%], P = 0.20). The indications for cesarean delivery after successful ECV did not differ; in both groups, cesarean delivery was mainly performed for labor arrest disorders (cases, 6 [67%] vs controls, 13 [81%]; P = 0.63). Successful ECV was not associated with increased rates of intrapartum cesarean delivery or operative vaginal delivery. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A real-time virtual delivery system for photon radiotherapy delivery monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Shi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Treatment delivery monitoring is important for radiotherapy, which enables catching dosimetric error at the earliest possible opportunity. This project develops a virtual delivery system to monitor the dose delivery process of photon radiotherapy in real-time using GPU-based Monte Carlo (MC method.Methods: The simulation process consists of 3 parallel CPU threads. A thread T1 is responsible for communication with a linac, which acquires a set of linac status parameters, e.g. gantry angles, MLC configurations, and beam MUs every 20 ms. Since linac vendors currently do not offer interface to acquire data in real time, we mimic this process by fetching information from a linac dynalog file at the set frequency. Instantaneous beam fluence map (FM is calculated based. A FM buffer is also created in T1 and the instantaneous FM is accumulated to it. This process continues, until a ready signal is received from thread T2 on which an in-house developed MC dose engine executes on GPU. At that moment, the accumulated FM is transferred to T2 for dose calculations, and the FM buffer in T1 is cleared. Once the dose calculation finishes, the resulting 3D dose distribution is directed to thread T3, which displays it in three orthogonal planes in color wash overlaid on the CT image. This process continues to monitor the 3D dose distribution in real-time.Results: An IMRT and a VMAT cases used in our patient-specific QA are studied. Maximum dose differences between our system and treatment planning system are 0.98% and 1.58% for the IMRT and VMAT cases, respectively. The update frequency is >10Hz and the relative uncertainty level is 2%.Conclusion: By embedding a GPU-based MC code in a novel data/work flow, it is possible to achieve real-time MC dose calculations to monitor delivery process.------------------------------Cite this article as: Shi F, Gu X, Graves YJ, Jiang S, Jia X. A real-time virtual delivery system for photon radiotherapy delivery

  3. Oral delivery of peptides and proteins using lipid-based drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Müllertz, Anette

    2012-10-01

    In order to successfully develop lipid-based drug delivery systems (DDS) for oral administration of peptides and proteins, it is important to gain an understanding of the colloid structures formed by these DDS, the mode of peptide and protein incorporation as well as the mechanism by which intestinal absorption of peptides and proteins is promoted. The present paper reviews the literature on lipid-based DDS, employed for oral delivery of peptides and proteins and highlights the mechanisms by which the different lipid-based carriers are expected to overcome the two most important barriers (extensive enzymatic degradation and poor transmucosal permeability). This paper also gives a clear-cut idea about advantages and drawbacks of using different lipidic colloidal carriers ((micro)emulsions, solid lipid core particles and liposomes) for oral delivery of peptides and proteins. Lipid-based DDS are safe and suitable for oral delivery of peptides and proteins. Significant progress has been made in this area with several technologies on clinical trials. However, a better understanding of the mechanism of action in vivo is needed in order to improve the design and development of lipid-based DDS with the desired bioavailability and therapeutic profile.

  4. Cesarean deliveries and maternal weight retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapinos, Kandice A; Yakusheva, Olga; Weiss, Marianne

    2017-10-04

    Cesarean delivery accounts for nearly one-third of all births in the U.S. and contributes to an additional $38 billion in healthcare costs each year. Although Cesarean delivery has a long record of improving maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity, increased utilization over time has yielded public health concerns and calls for reductions. Observational evidence suggests Cesarean delivery is associated with increased maternal postpartum weight, which may have significant implications for the obesity epidemic. Previous literature, however, typically does not address selection biases stemming from correlations of pre-pregnancy weight and reproductive health with Cesarean delivery. We used fetal malpresentation as a natural experiment as it predicts Cesarean delivery but is uncorrelated with pre-pregnancy weight or maternal health. We used hospital administrative data (including fields used in vital birth record) from the state of Wisconsin from 2006 to 2013 to create a sample of mothers with at least two births. Using propensity score methods, we compared maternal weight prior to the second pregnancy of mothers who delivered via Cesarean due to fetal malpresentation to mothers who deliver vaginally. We found no evidence that Cesarean delivery in the first pregnancy causally leads to greater maternal weight, BMI, or movement to a higher BMI classification prior to the second pregnancy. After accounting for correlations between pre-pregnancy weight, gestational weight gain, and mode of delivery, there is no evidence of a causal link between Cesarean delivery and maternal weight retention.

  5. STRATEGIES AND PROSPECTS OF NASAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Gannu Praveen Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The recent advancement of nasal drug delivery systems has increased enormously and is gaining significant importance. Intranasal therapy has been an accepted form of treatment in the Ayurvedic system of Indian Medicine. The non-invasive delivery of nasal drug delivery systems made to exploit for the development of successful treatment. The advantages, disadvantages, mechanism of action and application of nasal drug delivery system in local delivery, systematic delivery, nasal vaccines and CNS...

  6. 48 CFR 52.211-8 - Time of Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time of Delivery. 52.211-8... Delivery. As prescribed in 11.404(a)(2), insert the following clause: Time of Delivery (JUN 1997) (a) The Government requires delivery to be made according to the following schedule: REQUIRED DELIVERY SCHEDULE...

  7. Nanoscale drug delivery for targeted chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yong; Huang, Qian; Tang, Jian-Qin; Hou, Xiao-Yang; Zhang, Pei; Zhang, Long Zhen; Jiang, Guan

    2016-08-28

    Despite significant improvements in diagnostic methods and innovations in therapies for specific cancers, effective treatments for neoplastic diseases still represent major challenges. Nanotechnology as an emerging technology has been widely used in many fields and also provides a new opportunity for the targeted delivery of cancer drugs. Nanoscale delivery of chemotherapy drugs to the tumor site is highly desirable. Recent studies have shown that nanoscale drug delivery systems not only have the ability to destroy cancer cells but may also be carriers for chemotherapy drugs. Some studies have demonstrated that delivery of chemotherapy via nanoscale carriers has greater therapeutic benefit than either treatment modality alone. In this review, novel approaches to nanoscale delivery of chemotherapy are described and recent progress in this field is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nanoparticles for intracellular-targeted drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulo, Cristiana S O; Pires das Neves, Ricardo; Ferreira, Lino S

    2011-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are very promising for the intracellular delivery of anticancer and immunomodulatory drugs, stem cell differentiation biomolecules and cell activity modulators. Although initial studies in the area of intracellular drug delivery have been performed in the delivery of DNA, there is an increasing interest in the use of other molecules to modulate cell activity. Herein, we review the latest advances in the intracellular-targeted delivery of short interference RNA, proteins and small molecules using NPs. In most cases, the drugs act at different cellular organelles and therefore the drug-containing NPs should be directed to precise locations within the cell. This will lead to the desired magnitude and duration of the drug effects. The spatial control in the intracellular delivery might open new avenues to modulate cell activity while avoiding side-effects.

  9. Drug delivery across length scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcassian, Derfogail; Patel, Asha K; Cortinas, Abel B; Langer, Robert

    2018-02-20

    Over the last century, there has been a dramatic change in the nature of therapeutic, biologically active molecules available to treat disease. Therapies have evolved from extracted natural products towards rationally designed biomolecules, including small molecules, engineered proteins and nucleic acids. The use of potent drugs which target specific organs, cells or biochemical pathways, necessitates new tools which can enable controlled delivery and dosing of these therapeutics to their biological targets. Here, we review the miniaturisation of drug delivery systems from the macro to nano-scale, focussing on controlled dosing and controlled targeting as two key parameters in drug delivery device design. We describe how the miniaturisation of these devices enables the move from repeated, systemic dosing, to on-demand, targeted delivery of therapeutic drugs and highlight areas of focus for the future.

  10. Effect of induction-delivery and uterine-delivery on apgar scoring of the newborn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamat S

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Very short or prolonged induction-delivery interval (i.e. less than 5 minutes or more than 15 minutes and uterine-delivery interval of more than 90 seconds has a definite effect on the apgar scoring of a newborn especially when general anaesthesia is administered as compared to regional anaesthesia for caesarean section.

  11. [Beneficial effect of maternity leave on delivery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qian; Séguin, Louise; Goulet, Lise

    2002-01-01

    To identify the contribution of the duration of the prenatal maternity leave on term delivery. Characteristics of the prenatal maternity leave and delivery among 363 working women who had delivered a full-term infant at 1 of 4 hospitals in Montreal during 1996 were studied. The presence of an intervention or complication during delivery was observed in 68.9% of the participants. The average duration of the prenatal maternity leave was about 8 weeks (SD = 7). The adjusted risk of a difficult delivery decreased significantly with the duration of the prenatal maternity leave (OR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.93-0.99). The duration of the maternity leave before delivery is associated with an easier term delivery for working women.

  12. Redefining continuing education delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, K H

    1997-01-01

    Just as technology is transforming the delivery of education, the Internet and advanced telecommunication applications are changing the "face" of CE and the connotation of "lifelong learning." As late as the mid-1980s, a discussion of computer applications in nursing CE focused on the "timely" transition to microcomputers as tools for the enhancement of managerial tasks for increased productivity. Even as recently as 1990, there seemed to be "time" for those providers who were "slower to adopt innovation" to "catch up." Now, the CE provider who does not integrate the microcomputer and advanced telecommunications as an integral component of their delivery modalities may be outsourced rapidly by an educational or commercial competitive unit that is able to utilize the communication medium, mergers and partnerships, enterprise, and individual lifestyle and learning patterns that will epitomize the CE unit of the 21st century. As with the "re-engineering" of nursing education, the "re-engineered" delivery modalities of evolving CE entity might now best be conceptualized on a continuum from the traditional mode that time and place dependent to a mode of synchronous and asynchronous data and advanced telecommunication. Delivery methods will need to be selected according to the target populations, content, and situation. The health-care educational provider may discover, as in other industries, that a combination of distance and residential offerings will be the most successful medium for the delivery of CE to the progressively more "information and technologically savvy" lifelong learner of the 21st century. In addressing the dramatic effects of the information technology era on the refocused multimedia/interactive delivery method for student education, educators amply quoted Bob Dylan's phrase of the 1960s, "The times, they are a-changing." And so, we see that the times are also changing at an astronomical rate for the health-care educational provider as well as the

  13. Permeation enhancer strategies in transdermal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwah, Harneet; Garg, Tarun; Goyal, Amit K; Rath, Goutam

    2016-01-01

    Today, ∼74% of drugs are taken orally and are not found to be as effective as desired. To improve such characteristics, transdermal drug delivery was brought to existence. This delivery system is capable of transporting the drug or macromolecules painlessly through skin into the blood circulation at fixed rate. Topical administration of therapeutic agents offers many advantages over conventional oral and invasive techniques of drug delivery. Several important advantages of transdermal drug delivery are prevention from hepatic first pass metabolism, enhancement of therapeutic efficiency and maintenance of steady plasma level of the drug. Human skin surface, as a site of drug application for both local and systemic effects, is the most eligible candidate available. New controlled transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) technologies (electrically-based, structure-based and velocity-based) have been developed and commercialized for the transdermal delivery of troublesome drugs. This review article covers most of the new active transport technologies involved in enhancing the transdermal permeation via effective drug delivery system.

  14. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Baljit

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nanoparticles hold tremendous potential as an effective drug delivery system. In this review we discussed recent developments in nanotechnology for drug delivery. To overcome the problems of gene and drug delivery, nanotechnology has gained interest in recent years. Nanosystems with different compositions and biological properties have been extensively investigated for drug and gene delivery applications. To achieve efficient drug delivery it is important to understand the interactions of nanomaterials with the biological environment, targeting cell-surface receptors, drug release, multiple drug administration, stability of therapeutic agents and molecular mechanisms of cell signalling involved in pathobiology of the disease under consideration. Several anti-cancer drugs including paclitaxel, doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil and dexamethasone have been successfully formulated using nanomaterials. Quantom dots, chitosan, Polylactic/glycolic acid (PLGA and PLGA-based nanoparticles have also been used for in vitro RNAi delivery. Brain cancer is one of the most difficult malignancies to detect and treat mainly because of the difficulty in getting imaging and therapeutic agents past the blood-brain barrier and into the brain. Anti-cancer drugs such as loperamide and doxorubicin bound to nanomaterials have been shown to cross the intact blood-brain barrier and released at therapeutic concentrations in the brain. The use of nanomaterials including peptide-based nanotubes to target the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF receptor and cell adhesion molecules like integrins, cadherins and selectins, is a new approach to control disease progression.

  15. Evaluation of Aerosol Delivery of Nanosuspension for Pre-clinical Pulmonary Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang Po-Chang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are pulmonary diseases that are characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration, cytokine production, and airway hyper-reactivity. Most of the effector cells responsible for these pathologies reside in the lungs. One of the most direct ways to deliver drugs to the target cells is via the trachea. In a pre-clinical setting, this can be achieved via intratracheal (IT, intranasal (IN, or aerosol delivery in the desired animal model. In this study, we pioneered the aerosol delivery of a nanosuspension formulation in a rodent model. The efficiency of different dosing techniques and formulations to target the lungs were compared, and fluticasone was used as the model compound. For the aerosol particle size determination, a ten-stage cascade impactor was used. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD was calculated based on the percent cumulative accumulation at each stage. Formulations with different particle size of fluticasone were made for evaluation. The compatibility of regular fluticasone suspension and nanosuspension for aerosol delivery was also investigated. The in vivo studies were conducted on mice with optimized setting. It was found that the aerosol delivery of fluticasone with nanosuspension was as efficient as intranasal (IN dosing, and was able to achieve dose dependent lung deposition.

  16. Oral delivery of peptides and proteins using lipid-based drug delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ping; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Müllertz, Anette

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In order to successfully develop lipid-based drug delivery systems (DDS) for oral administration of peptides and proteins, it is important to gain an understanding of the colloid structures formed by these DDS, the mode of peptide and protein incorporation as well as the mechanism...... by which intestinal absorption of peptides and proteins is promoted. AREAS COVERED: The present paper reviews the literature on lipid-based DDS, employed for oral delivery of peptides and proteins and highlights the mechanisms by which the different lipid-based carriers are expected to overcome the two...... and proteins. EXPERT OPINION: Lipid-based DDS are safe and suitable for oral delivery of peptides and proteins. Significant progress has been made in this area with several technologies on clinical trials. However, a better understanding of the mechanism of action in vivo is needed in order to improve...

  17. Mucosal delivery of liposome-chitosan nanoparticles complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Edison Samir Mascarelhas; Grenha, Ana; Remuñán-López, Carmen; Alonso, Maria José; Seijo, Begoña

    2009-01-01

    Designing adequate drug carriers has long been a major challenge for those working in drug delivery. Since drug delivery strategies have evolved for mucosal delivery as the outstanding alternative to parenteral administration, many new drug delivery systems have been developed which evidence promising properties to address specific issues. Colloidal carriers, such as nanoparticles and liposomes, have been referred to as the most valuable approaches, but still have some limitations that can...

  18. MicroRNA delivery for regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bo; Chen, Yongming; Leong, Kam W

    2015-07-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) directs post-transcriptional regulation of a network of genes by targeting mRNA. Although relatively recent in development, many miRNAs direct differentiation of various stem cells including induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), a major player in regenerative medicine. An effective and safe delivery of miRNA holds the key to translating miRNA technologies. Both viral and nonviral delivery systems have seen success in miRNA delivery, and each approach possesses advantages and disadvantages. A number of studies have demonstrated success in augmenting osteogenesis, improving cardiogenesis, and reducing fibrosis among many other tissue engineering applications. A scaffold-based approach with the possibility of local and sustained delivery of miRNA is particularly attractive since the physical cues provided by the scaffold may synergize with the biochemical cues induced by miRNA therapy. Herein, we first briefly cover the application of miRNA to direct stem cell fate via replacement and inhibition therapies, followed by the discussion of the promising viral and nonviral delivery systems. Next we present the unique advantages of a scaffold-based delivery in achieving lineage-specific differentiation and tissue development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Elective cesarean delivery for term breech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Lone; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2003-01-01

    and anemia (RR 0.91; 95% CI 0.84, 0.97), and operations for wound infection (RR 0.69; 95% CI 0.57, 0.83) than emergency cesarean delivery. There was a higher rate of puerperal fever and pelvic infection (RR 1.20; 95% CI 1.11, 1.25) than for vaginal delivery. Thromboembolic disease occurred in 0.1% of women......OBJECTIVE: To compare the maternal complications of elective cesarean delivery for breech at term with those after vaginal or emergency cesarean delivery. METHODS: We conducted a population-based, retrospective cohort study of 15441 primiparas who delivered singleton breech at term. Information...... was obtained from the Danish Medical Birth Register, the Register of Death Causes, and the Denmark Patient Register. RESULTS: Elective cesarean delivery was associated with lower rates of puerperal fever and pelvic infection (relative risk [RR] 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70, 0.92), hemorrhage...

  20. A Systems Approach to Nitrogen Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goins, Bobby [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-10-23

    A systems based approach will be used to evaluate the nitrogen delivery process. This approach involves principles found in Lean, Reliability, Systems Thinking, and Requirements. This unique combination of principles and thought process yields a very in depth look into the system to which it is applied. By applying a systems based approach to the nitrogen delivery process there should be improvements in cycle time, efficiency, and a reduction in the required number of personnel needed to sustain the delivery process. This will in turn reduce the amount of demurrage charges that the site incurs. In addition there should be less frustration associated with the delivery process.

  1. A Systems Approach to Nitrogen Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goins, Bobby [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2017-10-17

    A systems based approach will be used to evaluate the nitrogen delivery process. This approach involves principles found in Lean, Reliability, Systems Thinking, and Requirements. This unique combination of principles and thought process yields a very in depth look into the system to which it is applied. By applying a systems based approach to the nitrogen delivery process there should be improvements in cycle time, efficiency, and a reduction in the required number of personnel needed to sustain the delivery process. This will in turn reduce the amount of demurrage charges that the site incurs. In addition there should be less frustration associated with the delivery process.

  2. A Comprehensive Review on: Transdermal drug delivery systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Kharat, Rekha; Bathe, Ritesh Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery system was introduced to overcome the difficulties of drug delivery through oral route. Despite their relatively higher costs, transdermal delivery systems have proved advantageous for delivery of selected drugs, such as estrogens, testosterone, clonidine and nitro-glycerine. Transdermal delivery provides a leading edge over injectable and oral routes by increasing patient compliance and avoiding first pass metabolism respectively. Topical  administration  of  therap...

  3. Transdermal drug delivery: approaches and significance

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy, SATHYANARAYANA

    2012-01-01

    S Narasimha MurthyDepartment of Pharmaceutics, The University of Mississippi, USATransdermal drug delivery systems deliver drugs through the skin as an alternative to oral, intravascular, subcutaneous, and transmucosal routes. Potential advantages of transdermal delivery include, but are not limited to, elimination of first-pass metabolism, steady delivery/blood levels, better patient compliance, reduced systemic drug interactions, possible dose intervention, avoidance of medically assisted d...

  4. Albumin-based drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Maja Thim; Kuhlmann, Matthias; Hvam, Michael Lykke

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of a drug is dependent on accumulation at the site of action at therapeutic levels, however, challenges such as rapid renal clearance, degradation or non-specific accumulation requires drug delivery enabling technologies. Albumin is a natural transport protein with multiple ligand...... binding sites, cellular receptor engagement, and a long circulatory half-life due to interaction with the recycling neonatal Fc receptor. Exploitation of these properties promotes albumin as an attractive candidate for half-life extension and targeted intracellular delivery of drugs attached by covalent...... conjugation, genetic fusions, association or ligand-mediated association. This review will give an overview of albumin-based products with focus on the natural biological properties and molecular interactions that can be harnessed for the design of a next-generation drug delivery platform....

  5. Delivery factors for brachial plexus palsy by newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Balić

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Brachial plexus injuries represent a low percentage of delivery complications. Most newborns fully recover from the injury, very few retain a permanent neurological deficit whereas some remain unnoticed. An objective of this study was to establish delivery factors for brachial plexus palsy at the Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics and relation between the deficits with length of delivery, the length of delivery periods, induction of delivery and surgical interventions at delivery. The analysed group involved 90 newborn babies with an injury of brachial plexus made at the delivery in the period between 01.01.1996 and 31.12.2005. The controlled group included 90 newborns randomly selected. The comparison was made using an χ2 test. The incidence of injuries of plexus brachialis was 1.72 per 1,000 newborns. Analysing the length of delivery there was no difference found between the analysed and controlled group (p > 0.05. In the group of newborns with the injury of brachial plexus it was found that the second delivery period was significantly shorter (p < 0.01. In the analysed group 89 (98.8% newborn babies were delivered vaginally and one (1.2% was delivered by the cesarean section. 13 newborns (14.4% from the analysed group were delivered with application of vacuum extractor and in the controlled group it was the case with one (1.2% newborn baby (p < 0.01. The delivery of 98.8% newborns from the analysed group started spontaneously and two deliveries (1.2% were induced. Risk factors for injuries of plexus brachialis in newborns at the Clinic for Gynaecology and Obstetrics of the University Clinical Centre Tuzla include shortened second delivery period and completion of deliveries applying the vacuum extractor.

  6. Some Recent Advances in Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some Recent Advances in Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems. ... Advances in Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems. EC Ibezim, B Kabele-Toge, CO Anie, C Njoku. Abstract. Transdermal delivery systems are forms of drug delivery involving the dermis, as distinct from topical, oral or other forms of parenteral dosage forms.

  7. Fractional laser-assisted drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudorf, Elisabeth Hjardem; Lerche, C.M.; Erlendsson, A M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Ablative fractional laser (AFXL) facilitates delivery of topical methotrexate (MTX). This study investigates impact of laser-channel depth on topical MTX-delivery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MTX (1% [w/v]) diffused for 21 hours through AFXL-exposed porcine skin in in vitro F...

  8. Buccal and sublingual vaccine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraan, Heleen; Vrieling, Hilde; Czerkinsky, Cecil; Jiskoot, Wim; Kersten, Gideon; Amorij, Jean-Pierre

    2014-09-28

    Because of their large surface area and immunological competence, mucosal tissues are attractive administration and target sites for vaccination. An important characteristic of mucosal vaccination is its ability to elicit local immune responses, which act against infection at the site of pathogen entry. However, mucosal surfaces are endowed with potent and sophisticated tolerance mechanisms to prevent the immune system from overreacting to the many environmental antigens. Hence, mucosal vaccination may suppress the immune system instead of induce a protective immune response. Therefore, mucosal adjuvants and/or special antigen delivery systems as well as appropriate dosage forms are required in order to develop potent mucosal vaccines. Whereas oral, nasal and pulmonary vaccine delivery strategies have been described extensively, the sublingual and buccal routes have received considerably less attention. In this review, the characteristics of and approaches for sublingual and buccal vaccine delivery are described and compared with other mucosal vaccine delivery sites. We discuss recent progress and highlight promising developments in the search for vaccine formulations, including adjuvants and suitable dosage forms, which are likely critical for designing a successful sublingual or buccal vaccine. Finally, we outline the challenges, hurdles to overcome and formulation issues relevant for sublingual or buccal vaccine delivery. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Protein-Based Drug-Delivery Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Jao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a pressing need for long-term, controlled drug release for sustained treatment of chronic or persistent medical conditions and diseases. Guided drug delivery is difficult because therapeutic compounds need to survive numerous transport barriers and binding targets throughout the body. Nanoscale protein-based polymers are increasingly used for drug and vaccine delivery to cross these biological barriers and through blood circulation to their molecular site of action. Protein-based polymers compared to synthetic polymers have the advantages of good biocompatibility, biodegradability, environmental sustainability, cost effectiveness and availability. This review addresses the sources of protein-based polymers, compares the similarity and differences, and highlights characteristic properties and functionality of these protein materials for sustained and controlled drug release. Targeted drug delivery using highly functional multicomponent protein composites to guide active drugs to the site of interest will also be discussed. A systematical elucidation of drug-delivery efficiency in the case of molecular weight, particle size, shape, morphology, and porosity of materials will then be demonstrated to achieve increased drug absorption. Finally, several important biomedical applications of protein-based materials with drug-delivery function—including bone healing, antibiotic release, wound healing, and corneal regeneration, as well as diabetes, neuroinflammation and cancer treatments—are summarized at the end of this review.

  10. A planning and delivery study of a rotational IMRT technique with burst delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainz, Kristofer; Chen, Guang-Pei; Chang, Yu-Wen; Prah, Douglas; Sharon Qi, X.; Shukla, Himanshu P.; Stahl, Johannes; Allen Li, X.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A novel rotational IMRT (rIMRT) technique using burst delivery (continuous gantry rotation with beam off during MLC repositioning) is investigated. The authors evaluate the plan quality and delivery efficiency and accuracy of this dynamic technique with a conventional flat 6 MV photon beam. Methods: Burst-delivery rIMRT was implemented in a planning system and delivered with a 160-MLC linac. Ten rIMRT plans were generated for five anonymized patient cases encompassing head and neck, brain, prostate, and prone breast. All plans were analyzed retrospectively and not used for treatment. Among the varied plan parameters were the number of optimization points, number of arcs, gantry speed, and gantry angle range (alpha) over which the beam is turned on at each optimization point. Combined rotational/step-and-shoot rIMRT plans were also created by superimposing multiple-segment static fields at several optimization points. The rIMRT trial plans were compared with each other and with plans generated using helical tomotherapy and VMAT. Burst-mode rotational IMRT plans were delivered and verified using a diode array, ionization chambers, thermoluminescent dosimeters, and film. Results: Burst-mode rIMRT can achieve plan quality comparable to helical tomotherapy, while the former may lead to slightly better OAR sparing for certain cases and the latter generally achieves slightly lower hot spots. Few instances were found in which increasing the number of optimization points above 36, or superimposing step-and-shoot IMRT segments, led to statistically significant improvements in OAR sparing. Using an additional rIMRT partial arc yielded substantial OAR dose improvements for the brain case. Measured doses from the rIMRT plan delivery were within 4% of the plan calculation in low dose gradient regions. Delivery time range was 228-375 s for single-arc rIMRT 200-cGy prescription with a 300 MU/min dose rate, comparable to tomotherapy and VMAT. Conclusions: Rotational IMRT

  11. 27 CFR 28.230 - Consignment, shipment, and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... delivery. 28.230 Section 28.230 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Drawback Consignment, Shipment, and Delivery § 28.230 Consignment, shipment, and delivery. The consignment, shipment, and delivery of taxpaid beer removed under this subpart shall be made under the provisions of...

  12. Helical tomotherapy with dynamic running-start-stop delivery compared to conventional tomotherapy delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong, Yi; Chen, Yu; Lu, Weiguo; Shang, Lu; Zuo, Li; Chen, Quan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Despite superior target dose uniformity, helical tomotherapy ® (HT) may involve a trade-off between longitudinal dose conformity and beam-on time (BOT), due to the limitation of only three available jaw sizes with the conventional HT (1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 cm). The recently introduced dynamic running-start-stop (RSS) delivery allows smaller jaw opening at the superior and inferior ends of the target when a sharp penumbra is needed. This study compared the dosimetric performance of RSS delivery with the fixed jaw HT delivery. Methods: Twenty patient cases were selected and deidentified prior to treatment planning, including 16 common clinical cases (brain, head and neck (HN), lung, and prostate) and four special cases of whole brain with hippocampus avoidance (WBHA) that require a high degree of dose modulation. HT plans were generated for common clinical cases using the fixed 2.5 cm jaw width (HT2.5) and WBHA cases using 1.0 cm (HT1.0). The jaw widths for RSS were preset with a larger size (RSS5.0 vs HT2.5 and RSS2.5 vs HT1.0). Both delivery techniques were planned based on identical contours, prescriptions, and planning objectives. Dose indices for targets and critical organs were compared using dose-volume histograms, BOT, and monitor units. Results: The average BOT was reduced from 4.8 min with HT2.5 to 2.5 min with RSS5.0. Target dose homogeneity with RSS5.0 was shown comparable to HT2.5 for common clinical sites. Superior normal tissue sparing was observed in RSS5.0 for optic nerves and optic chiasm in brain and HN cases. RSS5.0 demonstrated improved dose sparing for cord and esophagus in lung cases, as well as penile bulb in prostate cases. The mean body dose was comparable for both techniques. For the WBHA cases, the target homogeneity was significantly degraded in RSS2.5 without distinct dose sparing for hippocampus, compared to HT1.0. Conclusions: Compared to the fixed jaw HT delivery, RSS combined with a larger jaw width provides faster treatment

  13. Helical tomotherapy with dynamic running-start-stop delivery compared to conventional tomotherapy delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rong, Yi, E-mail: yi.rong@osumc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Chen, Yu; Lu, Weiguo [21st Century Oncology, Madison, Wisconsin 53719 (United States); Shang, Lu [Guangxi Polytechnic of Construction and Technology, Nanning (China); Zuo, Li [Radiologic Sciences and Respiratory Therapy Division, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Chen, Quan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Despite superior target dose uniformity, helical tomotherapy{sup ®} (HT) may involve a trade-off between longitudinal dose conformity and beam-on time (BOT), due to the limitation of only three available jaw sizes with the conventional HT (1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 cm). The recently introduced dynamic running-start-stop (RSS) delivery allows smaller jaw opening at the superior and inferior ends of the target when a sharp penumbra is needed. This study compared the dosimetric performance of RSS delivery with the fixed jaw HT delivery. Methods: Twenty patient cases were selected and deidentified prior to treatment planning, including 16 common clinical cases (brain, head and neck (HN), lung, and prostate) and four special cases of whole brain with hippocampus avoidance (WBHA) that require a high degree of dose modulation. HT plans were generated for common clinical cases using the fixed 2.5 cm jaw width (HT2.5) and WBHA cases using 1.0 cm (HT1.0). The jaw widths for RSS were preset with a larger size (RSS5.0 vs HT2.5 and RSS2.5 vs HT1.0). Both delivery techniques were planned based on identical contours, prescriptions, and planning objectives. Dose indices for targets and critical organs were compared using dose-volume histograms, BOT, and monitor units. Results: The average BOT was reduced from 4.8 min with HT2.5 to 2.5 min with RSS5.0. Target dose homogeneity with RSS5.0 was shown comparable to HT2.5 for common clinical sites. Superior normal tissue sparing was observed in RSS5.0 for optic nerves and optic chiasm in brain and HN cases. RSS5.0 demonstrated improved dose sparing for cord and esophagus in lung cases, as well as penile bulb in prostate cases. The mean body dose was comparable for both techniques. For the WBHA cases, the target homogeneity was significantly degraded in RSS2.5 without distinct dose sparing for hippocampus, compared to HT1.0. Conclusions: Compared to the fixed jaw HT delivery, RSS combined with a larger jaw width provides faster

  14. Drug Delivery to CNS: Challenges and Opportunities with Emphasis on Biomaterials Based Drug Delivery Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khambhla, Ekta; Shah, Viral; Baviskar, Kalpesh

    2016-01-01

    The current epoch has witnessed a lifestyle impregnated with stress, which is a major cause of several neurological disorders. High morbidity and mortality rate due to neurological diseases and disorders have generated a huge social impact. Despite voluminous research, patients suffering from fatal and/or debilitating CNS diseases such as brain tumors, HIV, encephalopathy, Alzheimer's, epilepsy, Parkinson's, migraine and multiple sclerosis outnumbered those suffering from systemic cancer or heart diseases. The brain being a highly sensitive neuronal organ, has evolved with vasculature barriers, which regulates the efflux and influx of substances to CNS. Treatment of CNS diseases/disorders is challenging because of physiologic, metabolic and biochemical obstacles created by these barriers which comprise mainly of BBB and BCFB. The inability of achieving therapeutically active concentration has become the bottleneck level difficulty, hampering the therapeutic efficiency of several promising drug candidates for CNS related disorders. Parallel maturation of an effective CNS drug delivery strategy with CNS drug discovery is the need of the hour. Recently, the focus of the pharmaceutical community has aggravated in the direction of developing novel and more efficient drug delivery systems, giving the potential of more effective and safer CNS therapies. The present review outlines several hurdles in drug delivery to the CNS along with ideal physicochemical properties desired in drug substance/formulation for CNS delivery. The review also focuses on different conventional and novel strategies for drug delivery to the CNS. The article also assesses and emphasizes on possible benefits of biomaterial based formulations for drug delivery to the CNS.

  15. Bioresponsive matrices in drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye George JC

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For years, the field of drug delivery has focused on (1 controlling the release of a therapeutic and (2 targeting the therapeutic to a specific cell type. These research endeavors have concentrated mainly on the development of new degradable polymers and molecule-labeled drug delivery vehicles. Recent interest in biomaterials that respond to their environment have opened new methods to trigger the release of drugs and localize the therapeutic within a particular site. These novel biomaterials, usually termed "smart" or "intelligent", are able to deliver a therapeutic agent based on either environmental cues or a remote stimulus. Stimuli-responsive materials could potentially elicit a therapeutically effective dose without adverse side effects. Polymers responding to different stimuli, such as pH, light, temperature, ultrasound, magnetism, or biomolecules have been investigated as potential drug delivery vehicles. This review describes the most recent advances in "smart" drug delivery systems that respond to one or multiple stimuli.

  16. Photoacoustic microscopy imaging for microneedle drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moothanchery, Mohesh; Seeni, Razina Z.; Xu, Chenjie; Pramanik, Manojit

    2018-02-01

    The recent development of novel transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) using microneedle technology allows micron-sized conduits to be formed within the outermost skin layers attracting keen interest in skin as an interface for localized and systemic delivery of therapeutics. In light of this, researchers are using microneedles as tools to deliver nanoparticle formulations to targeted sites for effective therapy. However, in such studies the use of traditional histological methods are employed for characterization and do not allow for the in vivo visualization of drug delivery mechanism. Hence, this study presents a novel imaging technology to characterize microneedle based nanoparticle delivery systems using optical resolution-photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM). In this study in vivo transdermal delivery of gold nanoparticles using microneedles in mice ear and the spatial distribution of the nanoparticles in the tissue was successfully illustrated. Characterization of parameters that are relevant in drug delivery studies such as penetration depth, efficiency of delivered gold nanoparticles were monitored using the system. Photoacoustic microscopy proves an ideal tool for the characterization studies of microneedle properties and the studies shows microneedles as an ideal tool for precise and controlled drug delivery.

  17. 48 CFR 552.211-94 - Time of delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time of delivery. 552.211... of delivery. As prescribed at 511.404(d), insert the following clause: Time of Delivery (JAN 2010) An... points identified in the delivery order at its discretion in order to maintain the required stock levels...

  18. Vehicle Routing Problems for Drone Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Dorling, Kevin; Heinrichs, Jordan; Messier, Geoffrey G.; Magierowski, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles, or drones, have the potential to significantly reduce the cost and time of making last-mile deliveries and responding to emergencies. Despite this potential, little work has gone into developing vehicle routing problems (VRPs) specifically for drone delivery scenarios. Existing VRPs are insufficient for planning drone deliveries: either multiple trips to the depot are not permitted, leading to solutions with excess drones, or the effect of battery and payload weight ...

  19. Desktop war - data suppliers competing for bigger market share

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sword, M.

    1999-01-01

    The intense competition among suppliers of computerized data and computer software to the petroleum and natural gas industry in western Canada is discussed. It is estimated that the Canadian oil patch spends a large sum, about $ 400 million annually on geoscience information and related costs and industry is looking for ways to significantly reduce those costs. There is a need for integrated, desktop driven data sets. Sensing the determination of industry to reduce information acquisition costs, data providers are responding with major consolidation of data sets. The major evolution in the industry is on-line access to increase the speed of information delivery. Data vendors continue to integrate land, well, log, production and other data sets whether public or proprietary. The result is stronger foundations as platforms for interpretive software. Another development is the rise of the Internet and Intranets and the re-definition of the role of information technology departments in the industry as both of these are paving the way for electronic delivery of information and software tools to the desktop. Development of proprietary data sets, acquisition of competitors with complimentary data sets that enhances products and services are just some of the ways data vendors are using to get a bigger piece of the exploration and development pie

  20. After vaginal delivery - in the hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    After vaginal birth; Pregnancy - after vaginal delivery; Postpartum care - after vaginal delivery ... blood pressure, heart rate, and the amount of vaginal bleeding Check to make sure your uterus is ...

  1. 19 CFR 191.10 - Certificate of delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certificate of delivery. 191.10 Section 191.10... TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK General Provisions § 191.10 Certificate of delivery. (a) Purpose; when... other party a certificate of delivery, certified by the importer or other party through whose possession...

  2. Cesarean delivery on maternal request.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Meera; Visco, Anthony G; Hartmann, Katherine; Wechter, Mary Ellen; Gartlehner, Gerald; Wu, Jennifer M; Palmieri, Rachel; Funk, Michele Jonsson; Lux, Linda; Swinson, Tammeka; Lohr, Kathleen N

    2006-03-01

    The RTI International-University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Evidence-based Practice Center (RTI-UNC EPC) systematically reviewed the evidence on the trend and incidence of cesarean delivery (CD) in the United States and in other developed countries, maternal and infant outcomes of cesarean delivery on maternal request (CDMR) compared with planned vaginal delivery (PVD), factors affecting the magnitude of the benefits and harms of CDMR, and future research directions. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Collaboration resources, and Embase and identified 1,406 articles to examine against a priori inclusion criteria. We included studies published from 1990 to the present, written in English. Studies had to include comparison between the key reference group (CDMR or proxies) and PVD. A primary reviewer abstracted detailed data on key variables from included articles; a second senior reviewer confirmed accuracy. We identified 13 articles for trends and incidence of CD, 54 for maternal and infant outcomes, and 5 on modifiers of CDMR. The incidence of CDMR appears to be increasing. However, accurately assessing either its true incidence or trends over time is difficult because currently CDMR is neither a well-recognized clinical entity nor an accurately reported indication for diagnostic coding or reimbursement. Virtually no studies exist on CDMR, so the knowledge base rests chiefly on indirect evidence from proxies possessing unique and significant limitations. Furthermore, most studies compared outcomes by actual routes of delivery, resulting in great uncertainty as to their relevance to planned routes of delivery. Primary CDMR and planned vaginal delivery likely do differ with respect to individual outcomes for either mothers or infants. However, our comprehensive assessment, across many different outcomes, suggests that no major differences exist between primary CDMR and planned vaginal delivery, but the evidence is too weak to conclude definitively that differences

  3. 48 CFR 552.211-80 - Age on Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Age on Delivery. 552.211... on Delivery. As prescribed in 511.404(a)(2) insert the following clause: Age on Delivery (FEB 1996) Included in the description of each shelf-life item is a statement regarding the “age on delivery.” The age...

  4. Hydrogen Delivery Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The mission of the Hydrogen Delivery Technical Team (HDTT) is to enable the development of hydrogen delivery technologies, which will allow for fuel cell competitiveness with gasoline and hybrid technologies by achieving an as-produced, delivered, and dispensed hydrogen cost of $2-$4 per gallon of gasoline equivalent of hydrogen.

  5. 12 CFR 350.8 - Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Delivery. 350.8 Section 350.8 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY DISCLOSURE OF FINANCIAL AND OTHER INFORMATION BY FDIC-INSURED STATE NONMEMBER BANKS § 350.8 Delivery. Each bank shall, after...

  6. After Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor ... A Listen En Español After Delivery After your baby arrives, your body begins to recover from the ...

  7. MicroRNA Delivery for Regenerative Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Bo; Chen, Yongming; Leong, Kam W.

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) directs post-transcriptional regulation of a network of genes by targeting mRNA. Although relatively recent in development, many miRNAs direct differentiation of various stem cells including induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), a major player in regenerative medicine. An effective and safe delivery of miRNA holds the key to translating miRNA technologies. Both viral and nonviral delivery systems have seen success in miRNA delivery, and each approach possesses advantages an...

  8. Chrono pharmacotherapy: A pulsatile Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huma Hameed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronopharmacotherapy refers to a treatment in which controlled drug delivery is achieved according to circadian rhythms of disease by enhancing therapeutic outcomes and minimizing side effects. Colon targeting has gained great importance not only for the treatment of local diseases such as Crohn’s disease, inflammatory bowel disease and ulcerative colitis but also very important in systemic delivery of proteins/peptides, antiasthmatic drugs, antidiabetic agents and antihypertensive drugs, which mostly show their efficacy based on circadian rhythms of the body.Colon drug delivery is one of the difficult approaches to achieve the targeted and desired outcomes through pulsatile drug delivery by avoiding dose dumping.The main reasonbehind the use of pulsatile delivery is provision ofconstant drug release where a zero-order release is notpreferred. Chronopharmacotherapy in colon targeting play its role bymany systems such ascapsular systems, pulsatile system and osmotic systems, which are based on use of rupturable membranes and biodegradable polymers.The objective of this review article is to provide latest knowledge about drugs with chrono-pharmacological behavior entails night time dosing specially to the colon.

  9. Preclinical and Clinical Studies Demonstrate That the Proprietary Herbal Extract DA-5512 Effectively Stimulates Hair Growth and Promotes Hair Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Young Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The proprietary DA-5512 formulation comprises six herbal extracts from traditional oriental plants historically associated with therapeutic and other applications related to hair. Here, we investigated the effects of DA-5512 on the proliferation of human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs in vitro and on hair growth in C57BL/6 mice and conducted a clinical study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DA-5512. DA-5512 significantly enhanced the viability of hDPCs in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05, and 100 ppm of DA-5512 and 1 μM minoxidil (MXD significantly increased the number of Ki-67-positive cells, compared with the control group (p<0.05. MXD (3% and DA-5512 (1%, 5% significantly stimulated hair growth and increased the number and length of hair follicles (HFs versus the controls (each p<0.05. The groups treated with DA-5512 exhibited hair growth comparable to that induced by MXD. In clinical study, we detected a statistically significant increase in the efficacy of DA-5512 after 16 weeks compared with the groups treated with placebo or 3% MXD (p<0.05. In conclusion, DA-5512 might promote hair growth and enhance hair health and can therefore be considered an effective option for treating hair loss.

  10. 1 CFR 5.7 - Delivery and mailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Delivery and mailing. 5.7 Section 5.7 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.7 Delivery and mailing. The Government Printing Office shall distribute the Federal Register by delivery or by deposit at...

  11. 30 CFR 208.8 - Transportation and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transportation and delivery. 208.8 Section 208... MANAGEMENT SALE OF FEDERAL ROYALTY OIL General Provisions § 208.8 Transportation and delivery. (a) The lessee... delivery point at no additional cost to the purchaser or the Government. The purchaser must have physical...

  12. 12 CFR 18.8 - Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Delivery. 18.8 Section 18.8 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DISCLOSURE OF FINANCIAL AND OTHER INFORMATION BY NATIONAL BANKS § 18.8 Delivery. Each national bank shall, after receiving a request for an annual...

  13. Bribes for Faster Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Sanyal, Amal

    2000-01-01

    The paper models the practice of charging bribes for faster delivery of essential services in third world countries. It then examines the possibility of curbing corruption by supervision, and secondly, by introducing competition among delivery agents. It is argued that a supervisory solution eludes the problem because no hard evidence of the reduction of corruption can be established for this type of offenses. It is also shown that using more than one supplier cannot eliminate the practice, a...

  14. Dosimetric verification of RapidArc treatment delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine; Medin, Joakim; Kjaer-Kristoffersen, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    . METHODS AND MATERIALS: Nine treatment plans were generated in the Eclipse version 8.5 including the RapidArc optimizer for H&N and prostate cases. The plans were delivered to the Scandidos Delta4 cylindrical diode array phantom. First, the measured dose distributions were compared with the calculated......: Overall, good agreement was observed between measured and calculated doses in most cases with gamma values above 1 in >95% of measured points. The reproducibility of delivery was also very high. Gamma analysis between two consecutive runs of the same delivery plan generally showed gamma values above 1......: The delivery of RapidArc beam delivery has been verified to correspond well with calculated dose distributions for a number of different cases. The delivery was very reproducible, and was carried out with high stability of the accelerator performance....

  15. Outcomes of Operative Vaginal Delivery during Trial of Labor after Cesarean Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Clifton O; Govindappagari, Shravya; Gyamfi-Bannerman, Cynthia

    2017-07-01

    Objective  The objective of this study is to determine the maternal and neonatal morbidity associated with attempting operative vaginal delivery (OVD) compared with the alternative of a laboring repeat cesarean delivery (LRCD) in women attempting a trial of labor after cesarean delivery (TOLAC). Methods  This is a secondary analysis of a multicenter prospective study designed to assess perinatal outcomes of OVD in women with a prior uterine scar. The study includes women who attempted TOLAC and reached +2 station with a fully dilated cervix. Composites on neonatal and maternal morbidity were compared between women in whom OVD was attempted and those who underwent LRCD by fitting multivariate logistic regression models. Results  In total, 6,489 women attempting TOLAC reached 2+ station with a fully dilated cervix. Of these, 5,640 (86.9%) had a spontaneous vaginal delivery, 762 (11.7%) underwent attempted OVD, and 87 (1.3%) had an LRCD. Compared with attempting OVD, LRCD was associated with greater neonatal morbidity (odds ratio [OR]: 2.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13-5.15) and less maternal morbidity (OR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.14-0.55). Maternal morbidity of OVD is driven by perineal injury. Conclusion  In laboring women with a previous uterine scar, attempting OVD is associated with greater maternal and less neonatal morbidity than LRCD. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. 33 CFR 385.17 - Project Delivery Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Project Delivery Team. 385.17... Processes § 385.17 Project Delivery Team. (a) In accordance with the procedures of the Corps of Engineers...,” the Corps of Engineers and the non-Federal sponsor shall form a Project Delivery Team to develop the...

  17. Medications for Pain Relief during Labor and Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FAQ086 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Medications for Pain Relief During Labor and Delivery • What types of medications for pain relief are used during labor and delivery? • What are ...

  18. Advances in buccal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birudaraj, Raj; Mahalingam, Ravichandran; Li, Xiaoling; Jasti, Bhaskara R

    2005-01-01

    The buccal route offers an attractive alternative for systemic drug delivery of drugs because of better patient compliance, ease of dosage form removal in emergencies, robustness, and good accessibility. Use of buccal mucosa for drug absorption was first attempted by Sobrero in 1847, and since then much research was done to deliver drugs through this route. Today, research is more focused on the development of suitable delivery devices, permeation enhancement, and buccal delivery of drugs that undergo a first-pass effect, such as cardiovascular drugs, analgesics, and peptides. In addition, studies have been conducted on the development of controlled or slow release delivery systems for systemic and local therapy of diseases in the oral cavity. In this review, the anatomy and physiology of buccal mucosa, followed by discussion of recent literature on the buccal permeation enhancement, and pathways of enhancement for various molecules are detailed. In addition, bioadhesion theories from historic perspective and current status are discussed. The various dosage forms on the market and in different stages of development are also reviewed.

  19. Midpregnancy Cervical Length in Nulliparous Women and its Association with Postterm Delivery and Intrapartum Cesarean Delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ven, A. J.; van Os, M. A.; Kleinrouweler, C. E.; Verhoeven, C. J. M.; de Miranda, E.; Bossuyt, P. M.; de Groot, C. J. M.; Haak, M. C.; Pajkrt, E.; Mol, B. W. J.; Kazemier, B. M.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the association between midpregnancy cervical length and postterm delivery and cesarean delivery during labor. In a multicenter cohort study, cervical length was measured in low-risk singleton pregnancies between 16 and 22 weeks of gestation. From this cohort, we identified nulliparous

  20. Drug delivery from the oral cavity: a focus on mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkar, Dattatraya Manohar; Dhake, Avinash Sridhar; Setty, Chitral Mallikarjuna

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1980s the concept of mucoadhesion has gained considerable interest in pharmaceutical technology. The various advantages associated with these systems made buccal drug delivery as a novel route of drug administration. It prolongs the residence time of the dosage form at the site of application. These systems remain in close contact with the absorption tissue, the mucous membrane, and thus contribute to improved and/or better therapeutic performance of the drug and of both local and systemic effects. This review highlights the anatomy and structure of oral mucosa, mechanism and theories of mucoadhesion, factors affecting mucoadhesion, characteristics and properties of desired mucoadhesive polymers, various types of dosage forms, and general considerations in design of mucoadhesive buccal dosage forms, permeation enhancers, and evaluation methods. Over the past few decades the mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery system has received a great deal of attention to develop mucoadhesive dosage forms to enable the prolonged retention at the site of action, providing a controlled release of drug for improved therapeutic outcome. Mucoadhesive drug delivery gives facility to include a permeation enhancer/enzyme inhibitor or pHmodifier in the formulation and versatility in designing as multidirectional or unidirectional release systems for local and systemic action. Local delivery to tissues of the oral cavity has a number of applications, including treatment of local conditions such as periodontal disease, bacterial and fungal infections, and aphthous stomatitis and vesiculo bullous diseases. For the treatment of chronic diseases, the mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery system allows easily accessibility and is generally well-accepted for administeringdrugs by systemic action.

  1. Performance Analysis of Cyber Security Awareness Delivery Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abawajy, Jemal; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    In order to decrease information security threats caused by human-related vulnerabilities, an increased concentration on information security awareness and training is necessary. There are numerous information security awareness training delivery methods. The purpose of this study was to determine what delivery method is most successful in providing security awareness training. We conducted security awareness training using various delivery methods such as text based, game based and a short video presentation with the aim of determining user preference delivery methods. Our study suggests that a combined delvery methods are better than individual secrity awareness delivery method.

  2. Comparative assessment of plasmid DNA delivery by encapsulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research January 2018; 17 (1): 1-10 ... Purpose: To compare the gene delivery effectiveness of plasmid DNA (pDNA) ..... Intramuscular delivery of DNA ... copolymeric system for gene delivery in complete.

  3. Incidence of Incisional Hernia after Cesarean Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabakke, Anna J M; Krebs, Lone; Ladelund, Steen

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of incisional hernias requiring surgical repair after cesarean delivery over a 10-year period. METHODS: This population- and register-based cohort study identified all women in Denmark with no history of previous abdominal surgery who had a cesarean delivery...... the inclusion period. The cumulated incidence of a hernia repair within 10 years after a cesarean delivery was 0.197% (95% CI 0.164-0.234%). The risk of a hernia repair was higher during the first 3 years after a cesarean delivery, with an incidence after 3 years of 0.157% (95% CI 0.127-0.187%). CONCLUSIONS...

  4. [Delivery of the IUGR fetus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrotin, F; Simon, E G; Potin, J; Laffon, M

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review available data regarding the management of delivery in intra uterine growth retarded fetuses and try to get recommendations for clinical obstetrical practice. Bibliographic research performed by consulting PubMed database and recommendations from scientific societies with the following words: small for gestational age, intra-uterine growth restriction, fetal growth restriction, very low birth weight infants, as well as mode of delivery, induction of labor, cesarean section and operative delivery. The diagnosis of severe IUGR justifies the orientation of the patient to a referral centre with all necessary resources for very low birth weight or premature infants Administration of corticosteroids for fetal maturation (before 34 WG) and a possible neuroprotective treatment by with magnesium sulphate (before 32-33 WG) should be discussed. Although elective caesarean section is common, there is no current evidence supporting the use of systematic cesarean section, especially when the woman is in labor. Induction of labor, even with unfavorable cervix is possible under continuous FHR monitoring, in favorable obstetric situations and in the absence of severe fetal hemodynamic disturbances. Instrumental delivery and routine episiotomy are not recommended. For caesarean section under spinal anesthesia, an adequate anesthetic management must ensure the maintenance of basal blood pressure. Compared with appropriate for gestational age fetus, IUGR fetus is at increased risk of metabolic acidosis or perinatal asphyxia during delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Sterile Product Packaging and Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Both conventional and more advanced product container and delivery systems are the focus of this brief article. Six different product container systems will be discussed, plus advances in primary packaging for special delivery systems and needle technology.

  6. Nanocarriers in ocular drug delivery: an update review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, Sheetu; Paliwal, Rishi; Paliwal, Shivani Rai; Vyas, S P

    2009-01-01

    Controlled drug delivery to eye is one of the most challenging fields of pharmaceutical research. Low drug-contact time and poor ocular bioavailability due to drainage of solution, tear turnover and its dilution or lacrimation are the problems associated with conventional systems. In addition, anatomical barriers and physiological conditions of eye are also important parameters which control designing of drug delivery systems. Nanosized carriers like micro/nano-suspensions, liposome, niosome, dendrimer, nanoparticles, ocular inserts, implants, hydrogels and prodrug approaches have been developed for this purpose. These novel systems offer manifold advantages over conventional systems as they increase the efficiency of drug delivery by improving the release profile and also reduce drug toxicity. Conventional delivery systems get diluted with tear, washed away through the lacrimal gland and usually require administering at regular time intervals whereas nanocarriers release drug at constant rate for a prolonged period of time and thus enhance its absorption and site specific delivery. This review presents an overview of the various aspects of the ocular drug delivery, with special emphasis on nanocarrier based strategies, including structure of eye, its barriers, delivery routes and the challenges/limitations associated with development of novel nanocarriers. The recent progresses in therapy of ocular disease like gene therapy have also been included so that future options should also be considered from the delivery point of view. Recent progress in the delivery of proteins and peptides via ocular route has also been incorporated for reader benefit.

  7. Brain tumor-targeted drug delivery strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Wei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the application of aggressive surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy in clinics, brain tumors are still a difficult health challenge due to their fast development and poor prognosis. Brain tumor-targeted drug delivery systems, which increase drug accumulation in the tumor region and reduce toxicity in normal brain and peripheral tissue, are a promising new approach to brain tumor treatments. Since brain tumors exhibit many distinctive characteristics relative to tumors growing in peripheral tissues, potential targets based on continuously changing vascular characteristics and the microenvironment can be utilized to facilitate effective brain tumor-targeted drug delivery. In this review, we briefly describe the physiological characteristics of brain tumors, including blood–brain/brain tumor barriers, the tumor microenvironment, and tumor stem cells. We also review targeted delivery strategies and introduce a systematic targeted drug delivery strategy to overcome the challenges.

  8. 37 CFR 255.4 - Definition of digital phonorecord delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... phonorecord delivery. 255.4 Section 255.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF... delivery. A “digital phonorecord delivery” is each individual delivery of a phonorecord by digital... time or for a specified number of performances. A digital phonorecord delivery includes all...

  9. Exploring educational disparities in risk of preterm delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Gry; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Mortensen, Laust

    2015-01-01

    data. METHODS: The study included data from 12 European cohorts from Denmark, England, France, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. The cohorts included between 2434 and 99 655 pregnancies. The association between maternal education and preterm delivery (22-36 completed weeks...... characteristics. Nevertheless, there were similar educational differences in risk of preterm delivery in 8 of the 12 cohorts with slope index of inequality varying between 2.2 [95% CI 1.1, 3.3] and 4.0 [95% CI 1.4, 6.6] excess preterm deliveries per 100 singleton deliveries among the educationally most......BACKGROUND: An association between education and preterm delivery has been observed in populations across Europe, but differences in methodology limit comparability. We performed a direct cross-cohort comparison of educational disparities in preterm delivery based on individual-level birth cohort...

  10. Postpartum urinary tract infection by mode of delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundersen, Tina Djernis; Krebs, Lone; Loekkegaard, Ellen Christine Leth

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between postpartum urinary tract infection and intended mode of delivery as well as actual mode of delivery. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: All live births in Denmark between 2004 and 2010 (n=450 856). Births were classified...... was postpartum urinary tract infection (n=16 295) within 30 days post partum, defined as either a diagnosis of urinary tract infection in the National Patient Registry or redemption of urinary tract infection-specific antibiotics recorded in the Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. RESULTS: We found that 4.......6% of women with intended caesarean delivery and 3.5% of women with intended vaginal delivery were treated for postpartum urinary tract infection.Women with intended caesarean delivery had a significantly increased risk of postpartum urinary tract infection compared with women with intended vaginal delivery...

  11. Recent Trends of Polymer Mediated Liposomal Gene Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamal Kumar Kundu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Advancement in the gene delivery system have resulted in clinical successes in gene therapy for patients with several genetic diseases, such as immunodeficiency diseases, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD blindness, thalassemia, and many more. Among various delivery systems, liposomal mediated gene delivery route is offering great promises for gene therapy. This review is an attempt to depict a portrait about the polymer based liposomal gene delivery systems and their future applications. Herein, we have discussed in detail the characteristics of liposome, importance of polymer for liposome formulation, gene delivery, and future direction of liposome based gene delivery as a whole.

  12. Association between clean delivery kit use, clean delivery practices, and neonatal survival: pooled analysis of data from three sites in South Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Seward

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis accounts for up to 15% of an estimated 3.3 million annual neonatal deaths globally. We used data collected from the control arms of three previously conducted cluster-randomised controlled trials in rural Bangladesh, India, and Nepal to examine the association between clean delivery kit use or clean delivery practices and neonatal mortality among home births.Hierarchical, logistic regression models were used to explore the association between neonatal mortality and clean delivery kit use or clean delivery practices in 19,754 home births, controlling for confounders common to all study sites. We tested the association between kit use and neonatal mortality using a pooled dataset from all three sites and separately for each site. We then examined the association between individual clean delivery practices addressed in the contents of the kit (boiled blade and thread, plastic sheet, gloves, hand washing, and appropriate cord care and neonatal mortality. Finally, we examined the combined association between mortality and four specific clean delivery practices (boiled blade and thread, hand washing, and plastic sheet. Using the pooled dataset, we found that kit use was associated with a relative reduction in neonatal mortality (adjusted odds ratio 0.52, 95% CI 0.39-0.68. While use of a clean delivery kit was not always accompanied by clean delivery practices, using a plastic sheet during delivery, a boiled blade to cut the cord, a boiled thread to tie the cord, and antiseptic to clean the umbilicus were each significantly associated with relative reductions in mortality, independently of kit use. Each additional clean delivery practice used was associated with a 16% relative reduction in neonatal mortality (odds ratio 0.84, 95% CI 0.77-0.92.The appropriate use of a clean delivery kit or clean delivery practices is associated with relative reductions in neonatal mortality among home births in underserved, rural populations.

  13. Oral Drug Delivery Systems Comprising Altered Geometric Configurations for Controlled Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Bawa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent pharmaceutical research has focused on controlled drug delivery having an advantage over conventional methods. Adequate controlled plasma drug levels, reduced side effects as well as improved patient compliance are some of the benefits that these systems may offer. Controlled delivery systems that can provide zero-order drug delivery have the potential for maximizing efficacy while minimizing dose frequency and toxicity. Thus, zero-order drug release is ideal in a large area of drug delivery which has therefore led to the development of various technologies with such drug release patterns. Systems such as multilayered tablets and other geometrically altered devices have been created to perform this function. One of the principles of multilayered tablets involves creating a constant surface area for release. Polymeric materials play an important role in the functioning of these systems. Technologies developed to date include among others: Geomatrix® multilayered tablets, which utilizes specific polymers that may act as barriers to control drug release; Procise®, which has a core with an aperture that can be modified to achieve various types of drug release; core-in-cup tablets, where the core matrix is coated on one surface while the circumference forms a cup around it; donut-shaped devices, which possess a centrally-placed aperture hole and Dome Matrix® as well as “release modules assemblage”, which can offer alternating drug release patterns. This review discusses the novel altered geometric system technologies that have been developed to provide controlled drug release, also focusing on polymers that have been employed in such developments.

  14. Topical Nano and Microemulsions for Skin Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christofori M. R. R. Nastiti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanosystems such as microemulsions (ME and nanoemulsions (NE offer considerable opportunities for targeted drug delivery to and via the skin. ME and NE are stable colloidal systems composed of oil and water, stabilised by a mixture of surfactants and cosurfactants, that have received particular interest as topical skin delivery systems. There is considerable scope to manipulate the formulation components and characteristics to achieve optimal bioavailability and minimal skin irritancy. This includes the incorporation of established chemical penetration enhancers to fluidize the stratum corneum lipid bilayers, thus reducing the primary skin barrier and increasing permeation. This review discusses nanosystems with utility in skin delivery and focuses on the composition and characterization of ME and NE for topical and transdermal delivery. The mechanism of skin delivery across the stratum corneum and via hair follicles is reviewed with particular focus on the influence of formulation.

  15. IMRT delivery to a moving target by dynamic MLC tracking: delivery for targets moving in two dimensions in the beam's eye view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuaid, D; Webb, S

    2006-01-01

    A new modification of the dynamic multileaf collimator (dMLC) delivery technique for intensity-modulated therapy (IMRT) is outlined. This technique enables the tracking of a target moving through rigid-body translations in a 2D trajectory in the beam's eye view. The accuracy of the delivery versus that of deliveries with no tracking and of 1D tracking techniques is quantified with clinically derived intensity-modulated beams (IMBs). Leaf trajectories calculated in the target-reference frame were iteratively synchronized assuming regular target motion. This allowed the leaves defined in the lab-reference frame to simultaneously follow the target motion and to deliver the required IMB without violation of the leaf maximum-velocity constraint. The leaves are synchronized until the gradient of the leaf position at every instant is less than a calculated maximum. The delivered fluence in the target-reference frame was calculated with a simple primary-fluence model. The new 2D tracking technique was compared with the delivered fluence produced by no-tracking deliveries and by 1D tracking deliveries for 33 clinical IMBs. For the clinical IMBs normalized to a maximum fluence of 200 MUs, the rms difference between the desired and the delivered IMB was 15.6 ± 3.3 MU for the case of a no-tracking delivery, 7.9 ± 1.6 MU for the case where only the primary component of motion was corrected and 5.1 ± 1.1 MU for the 2D tracking delivery. The residual error is due to interpolation and sampling effects. The 2D tracking delivery technique requires an increase in the delivery time evaluated as between 0 and 50% of the unsynchronized delivery time for each beam with a mean increase of 13% for the IMBs tested. The 2D tracking dMLC delivery technique allows an optimized IMB to be delivered to moving targets with increased accuracy and with acceptable increases in delivery time. When combined with real-time knowledge of the target motion at delivery time, this technique facilitates

  16. Communications data delivery system analysis task 2 report : high-level options for secure communications data delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    This Communications Data Delivery System Analysis Task 2 report describes and analyzes options for Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) communications data delivery systems using various communication media (Dedicated Short Ra...

  17. Cyclic delivery scheduling to customers with different priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Zofia Gdowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this paper a cyclic delivery scheduling problem for customers with different priorities is presented. Shops, which are provided with deliveries, are occasionally located in places which are crucial for the proper flow of traffic. In such places coordination of deliveries is crucial; therefore it allows to completely eliminate the phenomenon of the simultaneous arrivals of suppliers. Methods: In this paper the cyclic delivery scheduling problem for customers with different priorities was presented. To this theoretical problem a mix integer programming model was developed. Specific approach to the cyclic delivery scheduling problem is inspired by timetabling problem for urban public transport. Results: Mixed integer programming model was employed for solving four cases of cyclic delivery scheduling problem for customers with different priorities. When the value of the synchronization priority assigned to a single customer raised then the total number of synchronizations in the whole network decreased. In order to compare solutions a synchronization rate was utilized. A simple factor was utilized - the proportion of number of synchronizations of deliveries to a given customer to the total number of synchronizations obtained for the whole network. When the value of synchronization priority raised then the value of synchronization rate of this customer improved significantly. Conclusions: The mixed integer programming model for the cyclic delivery scheduling problem for customers with different priorities presented in this paper can be utilized for generating schedules of serving customers located in places where only one delivery can be received and unloaded at one go and where there is no space for other suppliers to wait in a queue. Such a schedule can be very useful for organizing deliveries to small shops united in a franchising network, since they operate in a way that is very similar to the network presented in this paper

  18. Drug delivery with microsecond laser pulses into gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Hanqun; Casperson, Lee W.; Shearin, Alan; Gregory, Kenton W.; Prahl, Scott A.

    1996-07-01

    Photoacoustic drug delivery is a technique for localized drug delivery by laser-induced hydrodynamic pressure following cavitation bubble expansion and collapse. Photoacoustic drug delivery was investigated on gelatin-based thrombus models with planar and cylindrical geometries by use of one microsecond laser pulses. Solutions of a hydrophobic dye in mineral oil permitted monitoring of delivered colored oil into clear gelatin-based thrombus models. Cavitation bubble development and photoacoustic drug delivery were visualized with flash photography. This study demonstrated that cavitation is the governing mechanism for photoacoustic drug delivery, and the deepest penetration of colored oil in gels followed the bubble collapse. Spatial distribution measurements revealed that colored oil could be driven a few millimeters into the gels in both axial and radial directions, and the penetration was less than 500 mu m when the gelatin structure was not fractured. localized drug delivery, cavitation bubble, laser thrombolysis.

  19. Floating Microparticulate Oral Diltiazem Hydrochloride Delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate and evaluate floating microparticulate oral diltiazem delivery system for possible delivery to the heart. Method: Floating microspheres were prepared using cellulose acetate and Eudragit RS100 polymers by emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The dried floating microspheres were evaluated for ...

  20. Vacuum Delivery in Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obstetric practice continues to change, particularly assisted vaginal delivery. Vacuum delivery is a mode of delivery technique in Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) in the maternity unit. The objective of the study was to determine the rate of ventouse delivery, its indications, and maternal and fetal morbidity in our ...

  1. Polymer nanogels: a versatile nanoscopic drug delivery platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Reuben T.; Ventura, Judy; Zhuang, Jiaming; Thayumanavan, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this review we put the spotlight on crosslinked polymer nanogels, a promising platform that has the characteristics of an “ideal” drug delivery vehicle. Some of the key aspects of drug delivery vehicle design like stability, response to biologically relevant stimuli, passive targeting, active targeting, toxicity and ease of synthesis are discussed. We discuss several delivery systems in this light and highlight some examples of systems, which satisfy some or all of these design requirements. In particular, we point to the advantages that crosslinked polymeric systems bring to drug delivery. We review some of the synthetic methods of nanogel synthesis and conclude with the diverse applications in drug delivery where nanogels have been fruitfully employed. PMID:22342438

  2. Smart Drug Delivery Systems in Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsoy, Gozde; Gunduz, Ufuk

    2018-02-08

    Smart nanocarriers have been designed for tissue-specific targeted drug delivery, sustained or triggered drug release and co-delivery of synergistic drug combinations to develop safer and more efficient therapeutics. Advances in drug delivery systems provide reduced side effects, longer circulation half-life and improved pharmacokinetics. Smart drug delivery systems have been achieved successfully in the case of cancer. These nanocarriers can serve as an intelligent system by considering the differences of tumor microenvironment from healthy tissue, such as low pH, low oxygen level, or high enzymatic activity of matrix metalloproteinases. The performance of anti-cancer agents used in cancer diagnosis and therapy is improved by enhanced cellular internalization of smart nanocarriers and controlled drug release. Here, we review targeting, cellular internalization; controlled drug release and toxicity of smart drug delivery systems. We are also emphasizing the stimulus responsive controlled drug release from smart nanocarriers. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Drug Delivery Research: The Invention Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kinam

    2016-07-05

    Controlled drug delivery systems have been successful in introducing improved formulations for better use of existing drugs and novel delivery of biologicals. The initial success of producing many oral products and some injectable depot formulations, however, reached a plateau, and the progress over the past three decades has been slow. This is likely due to the difficulties of formulating hydrophilic, high molecular weight drugs, such as proteins and nucleic acids, for targeting specific cells, month-long sustained delivery, and pulsatile release. Since the approaches that have served well for delivery of small molecules are not applicable to large molecules, it is time to develop new methods for biologicals. The process of developing future drug delivery systems, termed as the invention cycle, is proposed, and it starts with clearly defining the problems for developing certain formulations. Once the problems are well-defined, creative imagination examines all potential options and selects the best answer and alternatives. Then, innovation takes over to generate unique solutions for developing new formulations that resolve the previously identified problems. Ultimately, the new delivery systems will have to go through a translational process to produce the final formulations for clinical use. The invention cycle also emphasizes examining the reasons for success of certain formulations, not just the reasons for failure of many systems. Implementation of the new invention cycle requires new mechanisms of funding the younger generation of scientists and a new way of identifying their achievements, thereby releasing them from the burden of short-termism.

  4. 19 CFR 12.114 - Release or refusal of delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Release or refusal of delivery. 12.114 Section 12... delivery. If the completed Notice of Arrival directs the port director to release the shipment of... directs the port director to refuse delivery of the shipment, the shipment shall be refused delivery and...

  5. Aerial Logistics Management for Carrier Onboard Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS AERIAL LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT FOR CARRIER ONBOARD DELIVERY by Samuel L. Chen September 2016...AND SUBTITLE AERIAL LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT FOR CARRIER ONBOARD DELIVERY 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Samuel L. Chen 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...delivery (COD) is the use of aircraft to transport people and cargo from a forward logistics site (FLS) to a carrier strike group (CSG). The goal of

  6. Recent advances in chitosan-based nanoparticulate pulmonary drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Nazrul; Ferro, Vito

    2016-07-01

    The advent of biodegradable polymer-encapsulated drug nanoparticles has made the pulmonary route of administration an exciting area of drug delivery research. Chitosan, a natural biodegradable and biocompatible polysaccharide has received enormous attention as a carrier for drug delivery. Recently, nanoparticles of chitosan (CS) and its synthetic derivatives have been investigated for the encapsulation and delivery of many drugs with improved targeting and controlled release. Herein, recent advances in the preparation and use of micro-/nanoparticles of chitosan and its derivatives for pulmonary delivery of various therapeutic agents (drugs, genes, vaccines) are reviewed. Although chitosan has wide applications in terms of formulations and routes of drug delivery, this review is focused on pulmonary delivery of drug-encapsulated nanoparticles of chitosan and its derivatives. In addition, the controversial toxicological effects of chitosan nanoparticles for lung delivery will also be discussed.

  7. Challenges and opportunities in dermal/transdermal delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Kalpana S; Milewski, Mikolaj; Swadley, Courtney L; Brogden, Nicole K; Ghosh, Priyanka; Stinchcomb, Audra L

    2010-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery is an exciting and challenging area. There are numerous transdermal delivery systems currently available on the market. However, the transdermal market still remains limited to a narrow range of drugs. Further advances in transdermal delivery depend on the ability to overcome the challenges faced regarding the permeation and skin irritation of the drug molecules. Emergence of novel techniques for skin permeation enhancement and development of methods to lessen skin irritation would widen the transdermal market for hydrophilic compounds, macromolecules and conventional drugs for new therapeutic indications. As evident from the ongoing clinical trials of a wide variety of drugs for various clinical conditions, there is a great future for transdermal delivery of drugs. PMID:21132122

  8. Stimuli-responsive nanomaterials for therapeutic protein delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yue; Sun, Wujin; Gu, Zhen

    2014-11-28

    Protein therapeutics have emerged as a significant role in treatment of a broad spectrum of diseases, including cancer, metabolic disorders and autoimmune diseases. The efficacy of protein therapeutics, however, is limited by their instability, immunogenicity and short half-life. In order to overcome these barriers, tremendous efforts have recently been made in developing controlled protein delivery systems. Stimuli-triggered release is an appealing and promising approach for protein delivery and has made protein delivery with both spatiotemporal- and dosage-controlled manners possible. This review surveys recent advances in controlled protein delivery of proteins or peptides using stimuli-responsive nanomaterials. Strategies utilizing both physiological and external stimuli are introduced and discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Research on JD e-commerce's delivery model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhiguo; Ma, Mengkun; Feng, Chaoying

    2017-03-01

    E-commerce enterprises represented by JD have made a great contribution to the economic growth and economic development of our country. Delivery, as an important part of logistics, has self-evident importance. By establishing efficient and perfect self-built logistics systems and building good cooperation models with third-party logistics enterprises, e-commerce enterprises have created their own logistics advantages. Characterized by multi-batch and small-batch, e-commerce is much more complicated than traditional transaction. It's not easy to decide which delivery model e-commerce enterprises should adopt. Having e-commerce's logistics delivery as the main research object, this essay aims to find a more suitable logistics delivery model for JD's development.

  10. Microneedles for intradermal and transdermal delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan-Mahmood, Tuan-Mazlelaa; McCrudden, Maeliosa T.C.; Torrisi, Barbara M.; McAlister, Emma; Garland, Martin J; Singh, Thakur Raghu Raj; Donnelly, Ryan F

    2014-01-01

    The formidable barrier properties of the uppermost layer of the skin, the stratum corneum impose significant limitations for successful systemic delivery of a broad range of therapeutic molecules, particularly macromolecules and genetic material. Microneedle delivery has been proposed as a strategy to breach the SC barrier function in order to facilitate effective transport of molecules across the skin. This strategy involves the use of micron sized needles fabricated from different materials and using different geometries to create transient aqueous conduits across the skin. Microneedles in isolation, or in combination with other enhancing strategies, have been shown to dramatically enhance the skin permeability of numerous therapeutic molecules including biopharmaceuticals either in vitro, ex vivo or in vivo. Progress in the areas of microneedle design, development and manufacture have proven promising in terms of the potential use of this emerging delivery method in clinical applications such as insulin delivery, transcutaneous immunisations and cutaneous gene delivery. This review article focuses on recent and potential future developments in microneedle technologies. This will include the detailing of progress made in microneedle design, an exploration of the challenges faced in this field and potential forward strategies to embrace the exploitation of microneedle methodologies, while considering the inherent safety aspects of such therapeutic tools. PMID:23680534

  11. Smart Polymers in Nasal Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonkar, Ankita; Nayak, Usha; Udupa, N

    2015-01-01

    Nasal drug delivery has now been recognized as a promising route for drug delivery due to its capability of transporting a drug to systemic circulation and central nervous system. Though nasal mucosa offers improved bioavailability and quick onset of action of the drug, main disadvantage associated with nasal drug delivery is mucocilliary clearance due to which drug particles get cleared from the nose before complete absorption through nasal mucosa. Therefore, mucoadhesive polymeric approach can be successfully used to enhance the retention of the drug on nasal mucosal surface. Here, some of the aspects of the stimuli responsive polymers have been discussed which possess liquid state at the room temperature and in response to nasal temperature, pH and ions present in mucous, can undergo in situ gelation in nasal cavity. In this review, several temperature responsive, pH responsive and ion responsive polymers used in nasal delivery, their gelling mechanisms have been discussed. Smart polymers not only able to enhance the retention of the drug in nasal cavity but also provide controlled release, ease of administration, enhanced permeation of the drug and protection of the drug from mucosal enzymes. Thus smart polymeric approach can be effectively used for nasal delivery of peptide drugs, central nervous system dugs and hormones.

  12. 48 CFR 252.237-7005 - Performance and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance and delivery... of Provisions And Clauses 252.237-7005 Performance and delivery. As prescribed in 237.7003(b), use the following clause: Performance and Delivery (DEC 1991) (a) The Contractor shall furnish the...

  13. Advances and Challenges of Liposome Assisted Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa eSercombe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of liposomes to assist drug delivery has already had a major impact on many biomedical areas. They have been shown to be beneficial for stabilizing therapeutic compounds, overcoming obstacles to cellular and tissue uptake, and improving biodistribution of compounds to target sites in vivo. This enables effective delivery of encapsulated compounds to target sites while minimizing systemic toxicity. Liposomes present as an attractive delivery system due to their flexible physicochemical and biophysical properties, which allow easy manipulation to address different delivery considerations. Despite considerable research in the last 50 years and the plethora of positive results in preclinical studies, the clinical translation of liposome assisted drug delivery platforms has progressed incrementally. In this review, we will discuss the advances in liposome assisted drug delivery, biological challenges that still remain, and current clinical and experimental use of liposomes for biomedical applications. The translational obstacles of liposomal technology will also be presented.

  14. Microneedle-mediated delivery of viral vectored vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaric, Marija; Ibarzo Yus, Bárbara; Kalcheva, Petya Petrova; Klavinskis, Linda Sylvia

    2017-10-01

    Microneedle array platforms are a promising technology for vaccine delivery, due to their ease of administration with no sharp waste generated, small size, possibility of targeted delivery to the specified skin depth and efficacious delivery of different vaccine formulations, including viral vectors. Areas covered: Attributes and challenges of the most promising viral vector candidates that have advanced to the clinic and that have been leveraged for skin delivery by microneedles; The importance of understanding the immunobiology of antigen-presenting cells in the skin, in particular dendritic cells, in order to generate further improved skin vaccination strategies; recent studies where viral vectors expressing various antigens have been coupled with microneedle technology to examine their potential for improved vaccination. Expert opinion: Simple, economic and efficacious vaccine delivery methods are needed to improve health outcomes and manage possible outbreaks of new emerging viruses. Understanding what innate/inflammatory signals are required to induce both immediate and long-term responses remains a major hurdle in the development of the effective vaccines. One approach to meet these needs is microneedle-mediated viral vector vaccination. In order for this technology to fulfil this potential the industry must invest significantly to further develop its design, production, biosafety, delivery and large-scale manufacturing.

  15. Nanocomposite thin films for triggerable drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannozzi, Lorenzo; Iacovacci, Veronica; Menciassi, Arianna; Ricotti, Leonardo

    2018-05-01

    Traditional drug release systems normally rely on a passive delivery of therapeutic compounds, which can be partially programmed, prior to injection or implantation, through variations in the material composition. With this strategy, the drug release kinetics cannot be remotely modified and thus adapted to changing therapeutic needs. To overcome this issue, drug delivery systems able to respond to external stimuli are highly desirable, as they allow a high level of temporal and spatial control over drug release kinetics, in an operator-dependent fashion. Areas covered: On-demand drug delivery systems actually represent a frontier in this field and are attracting an increasing interest at both research and industrial level. Stimuli-responsive thin films, enabled by nanofillers, hold a tremendous potential in the field of triggerable drug delivery systems. The inclusion of responsive elements in homogeneous or heterogeneous thin film-shaped polymeric matrices strengthens and/or adds intriguing properties to conventional (bare) materials in film shape. Expert opinion: This Expert Opinion review aims to discuss the approaches currently pursued to achieve an effective on-demand drug delivery, through nanocomposite thin films. Different triggering mechanisms allowing a fine control on drug delivery are described, together with current challenges and possible future applications in therapy and surgery.

  16. Factors affecting home delivery in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolam, A; Manandhar, D S; Shrestha, P; Ellis, M; Malla, K; Costello, A M

    1998-06-01

    This nested case-control study compares the characteristics of mothers having home or institutional deliveries in Kathmandu, Nepal, and explores the reasons given by mothers for a home delivery. The delivery patterns of mothers were identified in a cross-sectional survey of two communities: an urban area of central Kathmandu (Kalimati) and a peri-urban area (Kirtipur and Panga) five kilometres from the city centre. 357 pregnant women were identified from a survey of 6130 households: 183 from 3663 households in Kirtipur and Panga, 174 from 2467 households in Kalimati. Methods involved a structured baseline household questionnaire and detailed follow-up of identified pregnant women with structured and semi-structured interviews in hospital and the community. The main outcome measures were social and economic household details of pregnant women; pregnancy and obstetric details; place of delivery; delivery attendant; and reasons given for home delivery. The delivery place of 334/357 (94%) of the pregnant women identified at the survey was determined. 272 (81%) had an institutional delivery and 62 (19%) delivered at home. In univariate analysis comparing home and institutional deliverers, maternal education, parity, and poverty indicators (income, size of house, ownership of house) were associated with place of delivery. After multivariate analysis, low maternal educational level (no education, OR 5.04 [95% CI 1.61-15.8], class 1-10, OR 3.36 [1.04-10.8] compared to those with higher education) and multiparity (OR 3.1 [1.63-5.74] compared to primiparity) were significant risk factors for a home delivery. Of home deliverers, only 24% used a traditional birth attendant, and over half were unplanned due to precipitate labour or lack of transport. We conclude that poor education and multiparity rather than poverty per se increase the risk of a home delivery in Kathmandu. Training TBAs in this setting would probably not be cost-effective. Community-based midwife-run delivery

  17. Cesarean delivery rates and obstetric culture - an Italian register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plevani, Cristina; Incerti, Maddalena; Del Sorbo, Davide; Pintucci, Armando; Vergani, Patrizia; Merlino, Luca; Locatelli, Anna

    2017-03-01

    Cesarean delivery rates are rising due to multiple factors, including less use of operative vaginal delivery and vaginal birth after cesarean delivery, which often reflect local obstetric practices. Objectives of the study were to analyze the relations between cesarean delivery, these practices, and perinatal outcomes. We included all deliveries in the 72 hospitals of Lombardia, a region in northern Italy, during the year 2013. The delivery certificate was used as data source. Pearson's correlation coefficient and logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. We included 87 896 deliveries. The number of deliveries per hospital ranged from 140 to 6123. The rate of cesarean delivery was 28.3% (range 9.9-86.4%), operative vaginal delivery 4.7% (range 0.2-10.0%), and vaginal birth after cesarean 17.3% (range 0-79.2%). We found a significant inverse correlation between rates of overall cesarean delivery and operative vaginal delivery (r = -0.25, p = 0.04). The correlation between rate of overall cesarean delivery and vaginal birth after cesarean was also inverse and significant (r = -0.57, p cesarean delivery rate and the rates of Apgar score at 5 min cesarean delivery, could reduce the rising cesarean delivery rate. This will require a change in obstetric culture, continuing education of healthcare providers, and leadership. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. Tumor Penetrating Theranostic Nanoparticles for Enhancement of Targeted and Image-guided Drug Delivery into Peritoneal Tumors following Intraperitoneal Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ning; Bozeman, Erica N; Qian, Weiping; Wang, Liya; Chen, Hongyu; Lipowska, Malgorzata; Staley, Charles A; Wang, Y Andrew; Mao, Hui; Yang, Lily

    2017-01-01

    The major obstacles in intraperitoneal (i.p.) chemotherapy of peritoneal tumors are fast absorption of drugs into the blood circulation, local and systemic toxicities, inadequate drug penetration into large tumors, and drug resistance. Targeted theranostic nanoparticles offer an opportunity to enhance the efficacy of i.p. therapy by increasing intratumoral drug delivery to overcome resistance, mediating image-guided drug delivery, and reducing systemic toxicity. Herein we report that i.p. delivery of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) targeted magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) led to intratumoral accumulation of 17% of total injected nanoparticles in an orthotopic mouse pancreatic cancer model, which was three-fold higher compared with intravenous delivery. Targeted delivery of near infrared dye labeled IONPs into orthotopic tumors could be detected by non-invasive optical and magnetic resonance imaging. Histological analysis revealed that a high level of uPAR targeted, PEGylated IONPs efficiently penetrated into both the peripheral and central tumor areas in the primary tumor as well as peritoneal metastatic tumor. Improved theranostic IONP delivery into the tumor center was not mediated by nonspecific macrophage uptake and was independent from tumor blood vessel locations. Importantly, i.p. delivery of uPAR targeted theranostic IONPs carrying chemotherapeutics, cisplatin or doxorubicin, significantly inhibited the growth of pancreatic tumors without apparent systemic toxicity. The levels of proliferating tumor cells and tumor vessels in tumors treated with the above theranostic IONPs were also markedly decreased. The detection of strong optical signals in residual tumors following i.p. therapy suggested the feasibility of image-guided surgery to remove drug-resistant tumors. Therefore, our results support the translational development of i.p. delivery of uPAR-targeted theranostic IONPs for image-guided treatment of peritoneal tumors.

  19. Cosmetic applications of glucitol-core containing gallotannins from a proprietary phenolic-enriched red maple (Acer rubrum) leaves extract: inhibition of melanogenesis via down-regulation of tyrosinase and melanogenic gene expression in B16F10 melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hang; Xu, Jialin; DaSilva, Nicholas A; Wang, Ling; Wei, Zhengxi; Guo, Liangran; Johnson, Shelby L; Lu, Wei; Xu, Jun; Gu, Qiong; Seeram, Navindra P

    2017-05-01

    The red maple (Acer rubrum) is a rich source of phenolic compounds which possess galloyl groups attached to different positions of a 1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol core. While these glucitol-core containing gallotannins (GCGs) have reported anti-oxidant and anti-glycative effects, they have not yet been evaluated for their cosmetic applications. Herein, the anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanogenic effects of a proprietary phenolic-enriched red maple leaves extract [Maplifa ™ ; contains ca. 45% ginnalin A (GA) along with other GCGs] were investigated using enzyme and cellular assays. The GCGs showed anti-tyrosinase activity with IC 50 values ranging from 101.4 to 1047.3 μM and their mechanism of tyrosinase inhibition (using GA as a representative GCG) was evaluated by chelating and computational/modeling studies. GA reduced melanin content in murine melanoma B16F10 cells by 79.1 and 56.7% (at non-toxic concentrations of 25 and 50 μM, respectively), and its mechanisms of anti-melanogenic effects were evaluated by using methods including fluorescent probe (DCF-DA), real-time PCR, and western blot experiments. These data indicated that GA was able to: (1) reduce the levels of reactive oxygen species, (2) down-regulate the expression of MITF, TYR, TRP-1, and TRP-2 gene levels in a time-dependent manner, and (3) significantly reduce protein expression of the TRP-2 gene. Therefore, the anti-melanogenic effects of red maple GCGs warrant further investigation of this proprietary natural product extract for potential cosmetic applications.

  20. Future of Automated Insulin Delivery Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castle, Jessica R.; DeVries, J. Hans; Kovatchev, Boris

    2017-01-01

    Advances in continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) have brought on a paradigm shift in the management of type 1 diabetes. These advances have enabled the automation of insulin delivery, where an algorithm determines the insulin delivery rate in response to the CGM values. There are multiple automated

  1. 27 CFR 28.155 - Consignment, shipment, and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consignment, shipment, and delivery. 28.155 Section 28.155 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE..., and delivery. The consignment, shipment, and delivery of specially denatured spirits withdrawn free of...

  2. 27 CFR 28.106 - Consignment, shipment, and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... delivery. 28.106 Section 28.106 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.106 Consignment, shipment, and delivery. The consignment, shipment, and delivery of distilled spirits withdrawn without payment of tax under this subpart shall be...

  3. 27 CFR 28.196 - Consignment, shipment, and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... delivery. 28.196 Section 28.196 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Benefit of Drawback Filing of Notice and Removal § 28.196 Consignment, shipment, and delivery. The consignment, shipment, and delivery of distilled spirits removed under this subpart for export, use on vessels...

  4. 7 CFR 1488.8 - Documents required after delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Documents required after delivery. 1488.8 Section... delivery. (a) CCC will purchase an exporter's account receivable only if the Treasurer, Commodity Credit... or Assistant Treasurer, CCC, after date of delivery of commodities exported or to be exported under...

  5. An exploratory study of relative and incremental information content of two non-financial performance measures: Field study evidence on absence frequency and on-time delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, E.

    2008-01-01

    In this exploratory field study, I test the relative and incremental information content of two non-financial performance measures compared to financial performance measures for future financial performance. The proprietary database used is from the contracts of the managers of 27 responsibility

  6. Challenges and opportunities in dermal/transdermal delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, Kalpana S; Milewski, Mikolaj; Swadley, Courtney L; Brogden, Nicole K; Ghosh, Priyanka; Stinchcomb, Audra L

    2010-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery is an exciting and challenging area. There are numerous transdermal delivery systems currently available on the market. However, the transdermal market still remains limited to a narrow range of drugs. Further advances in transdermal delivery depend on the ability to overcome the challenges faced regarding the permeation and skin irritation of the drug molecules. Emergence of novel techniques for skin permeation enhancement and development of methods to lessen skin i...

  7. SMART POLYMERS: INNOVATIONS IN NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY

    OpenAIRE

    Apoorva Mahajan; Geeta Aggarwal

    2011-01-01

    Smart polymers are attracting the researchers for development of novel drug delivery systems. Importance of smart polymers is rising day by day as these polymers undergo large reversible, physical or chemical changes in response to small changes in the environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, dual- stimuli, light and phase transition. Smart polymers are representing promising means for targeted drug delivery, enhanced drug delivery, gene therapy, actuator stimuli and protein folders....

  8. Multiscale benchmarking of drug delivery vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Huw D; Ware, Matthew J; Majithia, Ravish; Meissner, Kenith E; Godin, Biana; Rees, Paul

    2016-10-01

    Cross-system comparisons of drug delivery vectors are essential to ensure optimal design. An in-vitro experimental protocol is presented that separates the role of the delivery vector from that of its cargo in determining the cell response, thus allowing quantitative comparison of different systems. The technique is validated through benchmarking of the dose-response of human fibroblast cells exposed to the cationic molecule, polyethylene imine (PEI); delivered as a free molecule and as a cargo on the surface of CdSe nanoparticles and Silica microparticles. The exposure metrics are converted to a delivered dose with the transport properties of the different scale systems characterized by a delivery time, τ. The benchmarking highlights an agglomeration of the free PEI molecules into micron sized clusters and identifies the metric determining cell death as the total number of PEI molecules presented to cells, determined by the delivery vector dose and the surface density of the cargo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Future of Automated Insulin Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Jessica R; DeVries, J Hans; Kovatchev, Boris

    2017-06-01

    Advances in continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) have brought on a paradigm shift in the management of type 1 diabetes. These advances have enabled the automation of insulin delivery, where an algorithm determines the insulin delivery rate in response to the CGM values. There are multiple automated insulin delivery (AID) systems in development. A system that automates basal insulin delivery has already received Food and Drug Administration approval, and more systems are likely to follow. As the field of AID matures, future systems may incorporate additional hormones and/or multiple inputs, such as activity level. All AID systems are impacted by CGM accuracy and future CGM devices must be shown to be sufficiently accurate to be safely incorporated into AID. In this article, we summarize recent achievements in AID development, with a special emphasis on CGM sensor performance, and discuss the future of AID systems from the point of view of their input-output characteristics, form factor, and adaptability.

  10. Newborns from deliveries with epidural anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avramović Lidija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The use of epidural anaesthesia in delivery with the purpose to reduce pain and fear in a pregnant woman has the influence on the physiological status of the woman in childbirth and the course of delivery. From the epidural space of the pregnant woman, one part of free anaesthetic comes in the foetal circulation through the mother's circulation and placenta and connects with the foetal proteins. A lower value of albumins and serum proteins in the foetal circulation give bigger free fraction of anaesthetic which is accumulated in the foetal liver, brain and heart full of blood. Objective. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of epidural anaesthesia on the newborn. Methods. Retrospective study of 6,398 documents of newborns was performed in our Clinic of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 'Narodni front' during 2006. The first group was made of 455 newborns from deliveries with epidural anaesthesia and the second was the control group of 5,943 remaining newborns. In both groups we analysed the following: sex, week of gestation, weight, Apgar score, measure of care and resuscitation, perinatal morbidity and then the obtained results were compared. Results. Most of deliveries were vaginal without obstetric intervention (86.6%. The number of deliveries finished with vacuum extractor (4.6% was statistically significantly bigger in the group with epidural anaesthesia than in the control group. Most of the newborns in the first group were born on time (96.5% in 39.0±1.0 week of gestation and with foetal weight 3448±412 grammes. There was no statistical significance in Apgar score between both groups. Epidural anaesthesia does not increase the degree of the newborn's injury. Lower pH of blood was found in the newborns from deliveries with vacuum extractor or operated on (the Ceasarean section. Conclusion. Application of epidural anaesthesia decreases duration of delivery and has no adverse effects on the newborn and hypoxic

  11. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Key Facts Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Key Facts Infographic which outlines key facts related to electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including...

  12. Impact of delivery mode on the colostrum microbiota composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Marco; De Grandi, Roberta; Peroni, Diego Giampietro; Grossi, Enzo; Facchin, Valentina; Comberiati, Pasquale; Drago, Lorenzo

    2017-09-25

    Breast milk is a rich nutrient with a temporally dynamic nature. In particular, numerous alterations in the nutritional, immunological and microbiological content occur during the transition from colostrum to mature milk. The objective of our study was to evaluate the potential impact of delivery mode on the microbiota of colostrum, at both the quantitative and qualitative levels (bacterial abundance and microbiota network). Twenty-nine Italian mothers (15 vaginal deliveries vs 14 Cesarean sections) were enrolled in the study. The microbiota of colostrum samples was analyzed by next generation sequencing (Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine). The colostrum microbiota network associated with Cesarean section and vaginal delivery was evaluated by means of the Auto Contractive Map (AutoCM), a mathematical methodology based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) architecture. Numerous differences between Cesarean section and vaginal delivery colostrum were observed. Vaginal delivery colostrum had a significant lower abundance of Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Prevotella spp. when compared to Cesarean section colostrum samples. Furthermore, the mode of delivery had a strong influence on the microbiota network, as Cesarean section colostrum showed a higher number of bacterial hubs if compared to vaginal delivery, sharing only 5 hubs. Interestingly, the colostrum of mothers who had a Cesarean section was richer in environmental bacteria than mothers who underwent vaginal delivery. Finally, both Cesarean section and vaginal delivery colostrum contained a greater number of anaerobic bacteria genera. The mode of delivery had a large impact on the microbiota composition of colostrum. Further studies are needed to better define the meaning of the differences we observed between Cesarean section and vaginal delivery colostrum microbiota.

  13. 27 CFR 28.145 - Consignment, shipment and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consignment, shipment and delivery. 28.145 Section 28.145 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE...-Trade Zone § 28.145 Consignment, shipment and delivery. The consignment, shipment and delivery of beer...

  14. 77 FR 44306 - Service Delivery Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2012-0048] Service Delivery Plan AGENCY: Social... input as we develop our Service Delivery Plan (SDP). We recently completed our Agency Strategic Plan... how we plan to provide our services over the next four years and beyond. DATES: To ensure that we...

  15. Microneedles: quick and easy delivery methods of vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Vaccination is the most efficient method for infectious disease prevention. Parenteral injections such as intramuscular, intradermal, and subcutaneous injections have several advantages in vaccine delivery, but there are many drawbacks. Thus, the development of a new vaccine delivery system has long been required. Recently, microneedles have been attracting attention as new vaccination tools. Microneedle is a highly effective transdermal vaccine delivery method due to its mechanism of action, painlessness, and ease of use. Here, we summarized the characteristics of microneedles and the possibilities as a new vaccine delivery route. PMID:28775980

  16. Influence of microemulsions on cutaneous drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreilgaard, Mads

    2002-01-01

    In attempt to increase cutaneous drug delivery, microemulsion vehicles have been more and more frequently employed over recent years. Microemulsion formulations have been shown to be superior for both transdermal and dermal delivery of particularly lipophilic compounds, but also hydrophilic...... compounds appear to benefit from application in microemulsions compared to conventional vehicles, like hydrogels, emulsions and liposomes. The favourable drug delivery properties of microemulsions appear to mainly be attributed to the excellent solubility properties. However, the vehicles may also act...... as penetration enhancers depending on the oil/surfactant constituents, which involves a risk of inducing local irritancy. The correlation between microemulsion structure/composition and drug delivery potential is not yet fully elucidated. However, a few studies have indicated that the internal structure...

  17. A BIM-Info delivery protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hooper

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Today, with many of the technological issues of integrated information management resolved (perhaps excluding the matter of interoperability, defining the content and status of BIM information deliveries remains both a practical and a theoretical problem. New BIM tools and new design processes and procedures have led to a certain confusion of what information is needed for particular BIM uses. This paper seeks to explore and enable a method of defining the content of model information deliverables through a review of 2 key primary specific BIM uses: 3d Design Coordination and Early Energy Appraisal through an analysis of practical application. The scope of this study is limited to a review of information flow within residential projects in a Swedish context and looks at two projects with a view to identify and establish a common definition of the key BIM objects and properties necessary for particular tasks. The key deliverable from this study is the BIM-Info Delivery Protocol (IDP which attempts to align consultant BIM-information delivery expectations and represents a tangible solution to assist consultants to manage BIM information. Concluding reflections consider the positioning of the IDP relative to the on-going development of IDMs / MVDs and highlight the key constituent parameters of an Information Delivery Specification (IDS.

  18. 25 CFR 135.23 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.23 Section 135.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW... District § 135.23 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to refuse the delivery of water to any...

  19. Polymer architecture and drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Li Yan; Bae, You Han

    2006-01-01

    Polymers occupy a major portion of materials used for controlled release formulations and drug-targeting systems because this class of materials presents seemingly endless diversity in topology and chemistry. This is a crucial advantage over other classes of materials to meet the ever-increasing requirements of new designs of drug delivery formulations. The polymer architecture (topology) describes the shape of a single polymer molecule. Every natural, seminatural, and synthetic polymer falls into one of categorized architectures: linear, graft, branched, cross-linked, block, star-shaped, and dendron/dendrimer topology. Although this topic spans a truly broad area in polymer science, this review introduces polymer architectures along with brief synthetic approaches for pharmaceutical scientists who are not familiar with polymer science, summarizes the characteristic properties of each architecture useful for drug delivery applications, and covers recent advances in drug delivery relevant to polymer architecture.

  20. Calcium phosphate ceramics in drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Susmita; Tarafder, Solaiman; Edgington, Joe; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2011-04-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) particulates, cements and scaffolds have attracted significant interest as drug delivery vehicles. CaP systems, including both hydroxyapaptite and tricalcium phosphates, possess variable stoichiometry, functionality and dissolution properties which make them suitable for cellular delivery. Their chemical similarity to bone and thus biocompatibility, as well as variable surface charge density contribute to their controlled release properties. Among specific research areas, nanoparticle size, morphology, surface area due to porosity, and chemistry controlled release kinetics are the most active. This article discusses CaP systems in their particulate, cements, and scaffold forms for drug, protein, and growth factor delivery toward orthopedic and dental applications.

  1. Prenatal care and socioeconomic status: effect on cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milcent, Carine; Zbiri, Saad

    2018-03-10

    Cesarean deliveries are widely used in many high- and middle-income countries. This overuse both increases costs and lowers quality of care and is thus a major concern in the healthcare industry. The study first examines the impact of prenatal care utilization on cesarean delivery rates. It then determines whether socioeconomic status affects the use of prenatal care and thereby influences the cesarean delivery decision. Using exclusive French delivery data over the 2008-2014 period, with multilevel logit models, and controlling for relevant patient and hospital characteristics, we show that women who do not participate in prenatal education have an increased probability of a cesarean delivery compared to those who do. The study further indicates that attendance at prenatal education varies according to socioeconomic status. Low socioeconomic women are more likely to have cesarean deliveries and less likely to participate in prenatal education. This result emphasizes the importance of focusing on pregnancy health education, particularly for low-income women, as a potential way to limit unnecessary cesarean deliveries. Future studies would ideally investigate the effect of interventions promoting such as care participation on cesarean delivery rates.

  2. Vaginal delivery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy - discharge after vaginal delivery ... You may have bleeding from your vagina for up to 6 weeks. Early on, you may pass some small clots when you first get up. Bleeding will slowly become ...

  3. 78 FR 15797 - Service Delivery Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2012-0048] Service Delivery Plan AGENCY: Social... input as we finalize our Service Delivery Plan (SDP). We designed our SDP as a roadmap for how we will... Plan. DATES: To ensure that we consider your comments, we must receive them no later than April 11...

  4. Sci—Thur PM: Planning and Delivery — 03: Automated delivery and quality assurance of a modulated electron radiation therapy plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connell, T; Papaconstadopoulos, P; Alexander, A; Serban, M; Devic, S; Seuntjens, J

    2014-01-01

    Modulated electron radiation therapy (MERT) offers the potential to improve healthy tissue sparing through increased dose conformity. Challenges remain, however, in accurate beamlet dose calculation, plan optimization, collimation method and delivery accuracy. In this work, we investigate the accuracy and efficiency of an end-to-end MERT plan and automated-delivery workflow for the electron boost portion of a previously treated whole breast irradiation case. Dose calculations were performed using Monte Carlo methods and beam weights were determined using a research-based treatment planning system capable of inverse optimization. The plan was delivered to radiochromic film placed in a water equivalent phantom for verification, using an automated motorized tertiary collimator. The automated delivery, which covered 4 electron energies, 196 subfields and 6183 total MU was completed in 25.8 minutes, including 6.2 minutes of beam-on time with the remainder of the delivery time spent on collimator leaf motion and the automated interfacing with the accelerator in service mode. The delivery time could be reduced by 5.3 minutes with minor electron collimator modifications and the beam-on time could be reduced by and estimated factor of 2–3 through redesign of the scattering foils. Comparison of the planned and delivered film dose gave 3%/3 mm gamma pass rates of 62.1, 99.8, 97.8, 98.3, and 98.7 percent for the 9, 12, 16, 20 MeV, and combined energy deliveries respectively. Good results were also seen in the delivery verification performed with a MapCHECK 2 device. The results showed that accurate and efficient MERT delivery is possible with current technologies

  5. Organoclays for drug delivery Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Canovas Creus, Alba

    2008-01-01

    Modified clays can be used as carriers of drugs due to their suitable properties and structure in order to achieve improvements in drug delivery. The study of this thesis starts with an introduction to mineral clays and its classification, properties and characterization, then deepens into modified clays (properties, comparison with mineral clays, applications and procedure of modification). Another chapter is focused in drug delivery: definition, its difficulties nowadays and the different w...

  6. Protein-Based Drug-Delivery Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Jao, Dave; Xue, Ye; Medina, Jethro; Hu, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    There is a pressing need for long-term, controlled drug release for sustained treatment of chronic or persistent medical conditions and diseases. Guided drug delivery is difficult because therapeutic compounds need to survive numerous transport barriers and binding targets throughout the body. Nanoscale protein-based polymers are increasingly used for drug and vaccine delivery to cross these biological barriers and through blood circulation to their molecular site of action. Protein-based pol...

  7. Graphene oxide adsorbent based dispersive solid phase extraction coupled with multi-pretreatment clean-up for analysis of trace aflatoxins in traditional proprietary Chinese medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Congcong; Chen, Dan; Ma, Haiyan; Jiang, Ye

    2017-02-15

    Graphene oxide (GO)-based dispersive solid phase extraction (D-SPE) method combined with multi-step preparation has been proposed for the evaluation of trace aflatoxins in proprietary Chinese medicines (PCM). After being extracted by methanol, the sample was purified based on multi-step preparation, including dehydration with MgSO 4 /NaCl and cleanup with neutral alumina. Then GO was used as an adsorbent in D-SPE method for further preconcentration of aflatoxins prior to high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. The selected conditions were investigated. The Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to optimize factors affecting adsorption procedure. Under the optimized conditions, good linear relationships had been achieved with the correlation coefficient (R 2 ) varying from 0.9904 to 0.9990. The LODs and LOQs were ranging from 0.020 to 0.041ng/mL and 0.061 to 0.125ng/mL, respectively. The results of the recoveries were 74.0-102.7% for the four aflatoxins, while the precisions from 1.8% to 7.2% were obtained, which indicated that the method was suitable for the analysis of aflatoxins in PCM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of a Proprietary Alpha-Amylase Inhibitor from White Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) on Weight and Fat Loss in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Jay; Tan, Ollie; Molina, Jhanna

    2018-04-20

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine the evidence for the effectiveness of a proprietary alpha-amylase inhibitor from white bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) supplementation interventions in humans on modification of body weight and fat mass. A systematic literature search was performed using three databases: PubMed, the Cochrane collaboration, and Google Scholar. In addition, the manufacturer was contacted for internal unpublished data, and finally, the reference section of relevant original research and review papers were mined for additional studies. Eleven studies were selected for the meta-analysis of weight loss (a total of 573 subjects), and three studies for the meta-analysis of body fat reduction (a total of 110 subjects), as they fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Phaseolus vulgaris supplementation showed an average effect on weight loss difference of −1.08 kg (95% CI (confidence interval), −0.42 kg to −1.16 kg, p < 0.00001), and the average effect on body fat reduction was 3.26 kg (95% CI, −2.35 kg to −4.163 kg, p = 0.02). This meta-analysis found statistically significant effects of Phaseolus vulgaris supplementation on body weight and body fat.

  9. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of a Proprietary Alpha-Amylase Inhibitor from White Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. on Weight and Fat Loss in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Udani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine the evidence for the effectiveness of a proprietary alpha-amylase inhibitor from white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. supplementation interventions in humans on modification of body weight and fat mass. A systematic literature search was performed using three databases: PubMed, the Cochrane collaboration, and Google Scholar. In addition, the manufacturer was contacted for internal unpublished data, and finally, the reference section of relevant original research and review papers were mined for additional studies. Eleven studies were selected for the meta-analysis of weight loss (a total of 573 subjects, and three studies for the meta-analysis of body fat reduction (a total of 110 subjects, as they fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Phaseolus vulgaris supplementation showed an average effect on weight loss difference of −1.08 kg (95% CI (confidence interval, −0.42 kg to −1.16 kg, p < 0.00001, and the average effect on body fat reduction was 3.26 kg (95% CI, −2.35 kg to −4.163 kg, p = 0.02. This meta-analysis found statistically significant effects of Phaseolus vulgaris supplementation on body weight and body fat.

  10. 25 CFR 135.6 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.6 Section 135.6 Indians... INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Irrigation District Lands § 135.6 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to the United States to refuse the delivery of water to each of the said...

  11. [Maternal and neonatal outcomes of unplanned deliveries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, M-L; Lefèvre, P; Dreyfus, M

    2016-01-01

    Know the impact of the unplanned deliveries in a town of medium size, the characteristics of these women and maternal and neonatal risks. This was a retrospective study conducted between January 2002 and December 2009. Unexpected delivery was defined as any delivery taking place outside of a non-elective way maternity. Each unexpected delivery was matched at nearest delivery of equivalent term, at the CHU maternity, with an onset of spontaneous labour. Ninety-four women gave birth unexpectedly for a total of 48,721 births (incidence of 0.19%). There was a significant difference between cases and controls for parity (1.8 versus 0.9), the lack of follow-up of pregnancy (21.3% versus 1.1%), tobacco (57.4% versus 25.5%), the socio-economic level, the type of feeding (artificial: 61.7% versus 30.6%), the home-hospital distance and obstetric follow-up. We found a significant increase in perinatal mortality (6.4% versus 1%) and stay in Neonatal ICU (19.1% versus 9.2%). The main neonatal morbidity was hypothermia. It is difficult to target a population at risk because the type of these women is non-specific. Prevention of unplanned deliveries and their morbidities through information of patients on the grounds of urgent consultation and support of the newborn to limit hypothermia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Stimuli-Responsive Liposomes for Controlled Drug Delivery

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Wengang

    2014-01-01

    Liposomes are promising drug delivery vesicles due to their biodegradibility, large volume and biocompatibility towards both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. They suffer, however, from poor stability which limits their use in controlled delivery

  13. Term breech delivery in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietberg, C.C.

    2006-01-01

    The management of the term breech delivery has been a subject of discussion for many years. Only a few randomized trials had been performed on outcome in relation to the mode of delivery in case of breech position. In october 2000 the results of the Term Breech Trial (TBT) were published, in which

  14. Distance Synchronous Information Systems Course Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslak, Alan R.; Lewis, Griffith R.; Aebli, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Teaching computer information systems via distance education is a challenge for both student and faculty. Much research work has been performed on methods of teaching via distance education. Today we are faced with a variety of options for course delivery. Asynchronous delivery via online or lesson instruction still remains most common. But…

  15. Biodegradable polymeric nanocarriers for pulmonary drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytting, Erik; Nguyen, Juliane; Wang, Xiaoying; Kissel, Thomas

    2008-06-01

    Pulmonary drug delivery is attractive for both local and systemic drug delivery as a non-invasive route that provides a large surface area, thin epithelial barrier, high blood flow and the avoidance of first-pass metabolism. Nanoparticles can be designed to have several advantages for controlled and targeted drug delivery, including controlled deposition, sustained release, reduced dosing frequency, as well as an appropriate size for avoiding alveolar macrophage clearance or promoting transepithelial transport. This review focuses on the development and application of biodegradable polymers to nanocarrier-based strategies for the delivery of drugs, peptides, proteins, genes, siRNA and vaccines by the pulmonary route. The selection of natural or synthetic materials is important in designing particles or nanoparticle clusters with the desired characteristics, such as biocompatibility, size, charge, drug release and polymer degradation rate.

  16. Ultrasound mediated nanoparticle drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Lee B.

    Ultrasound is not only a powerful diagnostic tool, but also a promising therapeutic technology that can be used to improve localized drug delivery. Microbubble contrast agents are micron sized encapsulated gas filled bubbles that are administered intravenously. Originally developed to enhance ultrasound images, microbubbles are highly echogenic due to the gas core that provides a detectable impedance difference from the surrounding medium. The core also allows for controlled response of the microbubbles to ultrasound pulses. Microbubbles can be pushed using acoustic radiation force and ruptured using high pressures. Destruction of microbubbles can increase permeability at the cellular and vascular level, which can be advantageous for drug delivery. Advances in drug delivery methods have been seen with the introduction of nanoparticles, nanometer sized objects often carrying a drug payload. In chemotherapy, nanoparticles can deliver drugs to tumors while limiting systemic exposure due to abnormalities in tumor vasculature such large gaps between endothelial cells that allow nanoparticles to enter into the interstitial space; this is referred to as the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. However, this effect may be overestimated in many tumors. Additionally, only a small percentage of the injected dose accumulates in the tumor, which most the nanoparticles accumulating in the liver and spleen. It is hypothesized that combining the acoustic activity of an ultrasound contrast agent with the high payload and extravasation ability of a nanoparticle, localized delivery to the tumor with reduced systemic toxicity can be achieved. This method can be accomplished by either loading nanoparticles onto the shell of the microbubble or through a coadministration method of both nanoparticles and microbubbles. The work presented in this dissertation utilizes novel and commercial nanoparticle formulations, combined with microbubbles and a variety of ultrasound systems

  17. Nanomedicine Drug Delivery across Mucous Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancina, Michael George, III

    Control over the distribution of therapeutic compounds is a complex and somewhat overlooked field of pharmaceutical research. When swallowing a pill or receiving an injection, it is commonly assumed that drug will spread throughout the body in a more or less uniform concentration and find its way to wherever it is needed. In truth, drug biodistribuition is highly non-uniform and dependent on a large number of factors. The development of advanced drug delivery systems to control biodistribution can produce significant advances in clinical treatments without the need to discover new therapeutic compounds. This work focuses on a number of nanostructured materials designed to improve drug delivery by direct and efficient transfer of drugs across one of the body's external mucous membranes. Chapter 1 outlines the central concept that unites these studies: nanomaterials and cationic particles can be used to delivery therapeutic compounds across mucous membranes. Special attention is given to dendritic nanoparticles. In chapter 2, uses for dendrimers in ocular drug delivery are presented. The studies are divided into two main groups: topical and injectable formulations. Chapter 3 does not involve dendrimers but instead another cationic particle used in transmembrane drug delivery, chitosan. Next, a dendrimer based nanofiber mat was used to deliver anti-glaucoma drugs in chapter 4. A three week in vivo efficacy trial showed dendrimer nanofiber mats outperformed traditional eye drops in terms of intra-ocular pressure decrease in a normotensive rat model. Finally, we have developed a new dendrimer based anti-glaucoma drug in chapter 5. Collectively, these studies demonstrate some of the potential applications for nanotechnology to improve transmembrane drug delivery. These particles and fibers are able to readily adhere and penetrate across epithelial cell lays. Utilizing these materials to improve drug absorption through these portals has the potential to improve the

  18. A wireless actuating drug delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Won-Jun; Baek, Seung-Ki; Park, Jung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    A wireless actuating drug delivery system was devised. The system is based on induction heating for drug delivery. In this study, thermally generated nitrogen gas produced by induction heating of azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) was utilized for pressure-driven release of the drug. The delivery device consists of an actuator chamber, a drug reservoir, and a microchannel. A semicircular copper disc (5 and 6 mm in diameter and 100 µm thick), and thermal conductive tape were integrated as the heating element in the actuator chamber. The final device was 2.7 mm thick. 28 µl of drug solution were placed in the reservoir and the device released the drug quickly at the rate of 6 µl s −1 by induction heating at 160 µT of magnetic intensity. The entire drug solution was released and dispersed after subcutaneous implantation under identical experimental condition. This study demonstrates that the device was simply prepared and drug delivery could be achieved by wireless actuation of a thin, pressure-driven actuator. (paper)

  19. Dual delivery systems based on polyamine analog BENSpm as prodrug and gene delivery vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu

    Combination drug and gene therapy shows promise in cancer treatment. However, the success of such strategy requires careful selection of the therapeutic agents, as well as development of efficient delivery vectors. BENSpm (N 1, N11-bisethylnorspermine), a polyamine analogue targeting the intracellular polyamine pathway, draws our special attention because of the following reasons: (1) polyamine pathway is frequently dysregulated in cancer; (2) BENSpm exhibits multiple functions to interfere with the polyamine pathway, such as to up-regulate polyamine metabolism enzymes and down-regulate polyamine biosynthesis enzymes. Therefore BENSpm depletes all natural polyamines and leads to apoptosis and cell growth inhibition in a wide range of cancers; (3) preclinical studies proved that BENSpm can act synergistically with various chemotherapy agents, making it a promising candidate in combination therapy; (4) multiple positive charges in BENSpm enable it as a suitable building block for cationic polymers, which can be further applied to gene delivery. In this dissertation, our goal was to design dual-function delivery vector based on BENSpm that can function as a gene delivery vector and, after intracellular degradation, as an active anticancer agent targeting dysregulated polyamine metabolism. We first demonstrated strong synergism between BENSpm and a potential therapeutic gene product TRAIL. Strong synergism was obtained in both estrogen-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cells and triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Significant dose reduction of TRAIL in combination with BENSpm in MDA-MB-231 cells, together with the fact that BENSpm rendered MCF-7 cells more sensitive to TRAIL treatment verified our rationale of designing BENSpm-based delivery platform. This was expected to be beneficial for overcoming drug resistance in chemotherapy, as well as boosting the therapeutic effect of therapeutic genes. We first designed a lipid-based BENSpm dual vector (Lipo

  20. Oral transmucosal delivery of naratriptan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, Mohammed; Lane, Majella E

    2016-11-30

    Naratriptan (NAR) is currently used as the hydrochloride salt (NAR.HCl) for the treatment of migraine and is available in tablet dosage forms for oral administration. Buccal drug delivery offers a number of advantages compared with conventional oral delivery including rapid absorption, avoidance of first pass metabolism and improved patient compliance. We have previously prepared and characterised the base form of NAR and shown that it has more favourable properties for buccal delivery compared with NAR.HCl. This study describes the design and evaluation of a range of formulations for oral transmucosal delivery of NAR base. Permeation studies were conducted using excised porcine buccal tissue mounted in Franz cells. Of the neat solvents examined, Transcutol ® P (TC) showed the greatest enhancement effects and was the vehicle in which NAR was most soluble. The mechanisms by which TC might promote permeation were further probed using binary systems containing TC with either buffer or Miglyol 812 ® (MG). Mass balance studies were also conducted for these systems. The permeation of TC as well as NAR was also monitored for TC:MG formulations. Overall, TC appears to promote enhanced membrane permeation of NAR because of its rapid uptake into the buccal tissue. Synergistic enhancement of buccal permeation was observed when TC was combined with MG and this is attributed to the increased thermodynamic activity of NAR in these formulations. Significantly enhanced permeation of NAR was achieved for TC:MG and this was also associated with less TC remaining on the tissue or in the tissue at the end of the experiment. To our knowledge this is the first report where both enhancer and active have been monitored in buccal permeation studies. The findings underline the importance of understanding the fate of vehicle components for rational formulation design of buccal delivery systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Risk of recurrence and subsequent delivery after obstetric anal sphincter injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghestan, E; Irgens, L M; Børdahl, P E; Rasmussen, S

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the recurrence risk, the likelihood of having further deliveries and mode of delivery after third to fourth degree obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS). Population-based cohort study. The Medical Birth Registry of Norway. A cohort of 828,864 mothers with singleton, vertex-presenting infants, weighing 500 g or more, during the period 1967-2004. Comparison of women with and without a history of OASIS with respect to the occurrence of OASIS, subsequent delivery rate and planned caesarean rate. OASIS in second and third deliveries, subsequent delivery rate and mode of delivery. Adjusted odds ratios of the recurrence of OASIS in women with a history of OASIS in the first, and in both the first and second deliveries, were 4.2 (95% CI 3.9-4.5; 5.6%) and 10.6 (95% CI 6.2-18.1; 9.5%), respectively, relative to women without a history of OASIS. Instrumental deliveries, in particular forceps deliveries, birthweights of 3500 g or more and large maternity units were associated with a recurrence of OASIS. Instrumental delivery did not further increase the excess recurrence risk associated with high birthweight. A man who fathered a child whose delivery was complicated by OASIS was more likely to father another child whose delivery was complicated by OASIS in another woman who gave birth in the same maternity unit (adjusted OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.2-3.7; 5.6%). However, if the deliveries took place in different maternity units, the recurrence risk was not significantly increased (OR 1.3; 95% CI 0.8-2.1; 4.4%). The subsequent delivery rate was not different in women with and without previous OASIS, whereas women with a previous OASIS were more often scheduled to caesarean delivery. Recurrence risks in second and third deliveries were high. A history of OASIS had little or no impact on the rates of subsequent deliveries. Women with previous OASIS were delivered more frequently by planned caesarean delivery. © 2011 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of

  2. Computational Amphiphilic Materials for Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh eThota

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Amphiphilic materials can assemble into a wide variety of morphologies and have emerged as a novel class of candidates for drug delivery. Along with a large number of experiments reported, computational studies have been also conducted in this field. At an atomistic/molecular level, computations can facilitate quantitative understanding of experimental observations and secure fundamental interpretation of underlying phenomena. This review summarizes the recent computational efforts on amphiphilic copolymers and peptides for drug delivery. Atom-resolution and time-resolved insights are provided from bottom-up to microscopically elucidate the mechanisms of drug loading/release, which are indispensable in the rational screening and design of new amphiphiles for high-efficacy drug delivery.

  3. MINI-SLAR delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alstein, D.

    1996-01-01

    In the Spring of 1993, a need to complete Spacer Location and Repositioning (SLAR) on the Bruce 'A', Unit 1 Reactor was identified. An alternate SLAR delivery system was required due to conversion constraints that prevented the existing Bruce SLAR System from being used in Unit 1. A Portable SLAR Delivery System called MINI-SLAR Delivery System was developed, designed and fabricated in a 14 month period, then used to successfully SLAR 109 channels. The system is a portable remotely operated Nuclear Class 1 registered fitting that is independent of the Fuelling Machine, allowing the station to continue normal Fuelling and Maintenance activities. It is designed to a Level 'D' faulted condition of HPECI Pressure thus minimizing PHT Heat Sink configuration requirements and minimizing outage set-up times. The system is based on a modular design allowing for easy fabrication, assembly and repair. It consists of a Snout Assembly, a Closure Plug Assembly, Shield Plug Assembly, SLAR Ram assembly, Work Table Assembly and Control Panel. Controls are through a Programmable Logic Controller with software tested and certified to a Software Quality Assurance of Level Ill. (author). 2 refs., 2 figs

  4. MINI-SLAR delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alstein, D [Ontario Hydro, Tiverton, ON (Canada). Bruce Nuclear Generating Station-A; Dalton, K [Spectrum Engineering, Peterborough, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    In the Spring of 1993, a need to complete Spacer Location and Repositioning (SLAR) on the Bruce `A`, Unit 1 Reactor was identified. An alternate SLAR delivery system was required due to conversion constraints that prevented the existing Bruce SLAR System from being used in Unit 1. A Portable SLAR Delivery System called MINI-SLAR Delivery System was developed, designed and fabricated in a 14 month period, then used to successfully SLAR 109 channels. The system is a portable remotely operated Nuclear Class 1 registered fitting that is independent of the Fuelling Machine, allowing the station to continue normal Fuelling and Maintenance activities. It is designed to a Level `D` faulted condition of HPECI Pressure thus minimizing PHT Heat Sink configuration requirements and minimizing outage set-up times. The system is based on a modular design allowing for easy fabrication, assembly and repair. It consists of a Snout Assembly, a Closure Plug Assembly, Shield Plug Assembly, SLAR Ram assembly, Work Table Assembly and Control Panel. Controls are through a Programmable Logic Controller with software tested and certified to a Software Quality Assurance of Level Ill. (author). 2 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Facility-based delivery and maternal and early neonatal mortality in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    One of the most important ways to address some of the key factors ... services, facility-based delivery, facility delivery, institutional delivery ..... Percent of women reporting delivering in a health facility. Quintile* ranking of facility- based delivery. Maternal. Mortality. Ration. (MMR) per. 1000 Live. Births. African. MMR quintile*.

  6. Direct Cytoplasmic Delivery and Nuclear Targeting Delivery of HPMA-MT Conjugates in a Microtubules Dependent Fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jiaju; Zhu, Xi; Luo, Kui; Li, Lian; Tang, Manlin; Liu, Yanxi; Zhou, Zhou; Huang, Yuan

    2016-09-06

    As the hearts of tumor cells, the nucleus is the ultimate target of many chemotherapeutic agents and genes. However, nuclear drug delivery is always hampered by multiple intracellular obstacles, such as low efficiency of lysosome escape and insufficient nuclear trafficking. Herein, an N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA) polymer-based drug delivery system was designed, which could achieve direct cytoplasmic delivery by a nonendocytic pathway and transport into the nucleus in a microtubules dependent fashion. A special targeting peptide (MT), derived from an endogenic parathyroid hormone-related protein, was conjugated to the polymer backbone, which could accumulate into the nucleus a by microtubule-mediated pathway. The in vitro studies found that low temperature and NaN3 could not influence the cell internalization of the conjugates. Besides, no obvious overlay of the conjugates with lysosome demonstrated that the polymer conjugates could enter the tumor cell cytoplasm by a nonendocytic pathway, thus avoiding the drug degradation in the lysosome. Furthermore, after suppression of the microtubule dynamics with microtubule stabilizing docetaxel (DTX) and destabilizing nocodazole (Noc), the nuclear accumulation of polymeric conjugates was significantly inhibited. Living cells fluorescence recovery after photobleaching study found that the nuclear import rate of conjugates was 2-fold faster compared with the DTX and Noc treated groups. These results demonstrated that the conjugates transported into the nucleus in a microtubules dependent way. Therefore, in addition to direct cytoplasmic delivery, our peptide conjugated polymeric platform could simultaneously mediate nuclear drug accumulation, which may open a new path for further intracellular genes/peptides delivery.

  7. Assuring Quality in Online Course Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuga, Julia M.; Wooldridge, Deborah G.; Poirier, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the critical issue of assuring quality online course delivery by examining four key components of online teaching and learning. The topic of course delivery is viewed as a cultural issue that permeates processes from the design of an online course to its evaluation. First, the authors examine and review key components of and…

  8. Ion-Responsive Drug Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Takayuki; Shakushiro, Kohsuke; Sako, Kazuhiro

    2018-02-08

    Some kinds of cations and anions are contained in body fluids such as blood, interstitial fluid, gastrointestinal juice, and tears at relatively high concentration. Ionresponsive drug delivery is available to design the unique dosage formulations which provide optimized drug therapy with effective, safe and convenient dosing of drugs. The objective of the present review was to collect, summarize, and categorize recent research findings on ion-responsive drug delivery systems. Ions in body fluid/formulations caused structural changes of polymers/molecules contained in the formulations, allow formulations exhibit functions. The polymers/molecules responding to ions were ion-exchange resins/fibers, anionic or cationic polymers, polymers exhibiting transition at lower critical solution temperature, self-assemble supramolecular systems, peptides, and metalorganic frameworks. The functions of ion-responsive drug delivery systems were categorized to controlled drug release, site-specific drug release, in situ gelation, prolonged retention at the target sites, and enhancement of drug permeation. Administration of the formulations via oral, ophthalmic, transdermal, and nasal routes has showed significant advantages in the recent literatures. Many kinds of drug delivery systems responding to ions have been reported recently for several administration routes. Improvement and advancement of these systems can maximize drugs potential and contribute to patients in the world. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Vector-free intracellular delivery by reversible permeabilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley O'Dea

    Full Text Available Despite advances in intracellular delivery technologies, efficient methods are still required that are vector-free, can address a wide range of cargo types and can be applied to cells that are difficult to transfect whilst maintaining cell viability. We have developed a novel vector-free method that uses reversible permeabilization to achieve rapid intracellular delivery of cargos with varying composition, properties and size. A permeabilizing delivery solution was developed that contains a low level of ethanol as the permeabilizing agent. Reversal of cell permeabilization is achieved by temporally and volumetrically controlling the contact of the target cells with this solution. Cells are seeded in conventional multi-well plates. Following removal of the supernatant, the cargo is mixed with the delivery solution and applied directly to the cells using an atomizer. After a short incubation period, permeabilization is halted by incubating the cells in a phosphate buffer saline solution that dilutes the ethanol and is non-toxic to the permeabilized cells. Normal culture medium is then added. The procedure lasts less than 5 min. With this method, proteins, mRNA, plasmid DNA and other molecules have been delivered to a variety of cell types, including primary cells, with low toxicity and cargo functionality has been confirmed in proof-of-principle studies. Co-delivery of different cargo types has also been demonstrated. Importantly, delivery occurs by diffusion directly into the cytoplasm in an endocytic-independent manner. Unlike some other vector-free methods, adherent cells are addressed in situ without the need for detachment from their substratum. The method has also been adapted to address suspension cells. This delivery method is gentle yet highly reproducible, compatible with high throughput and automated cell-based assays and has the potential to enable a broad range of research, drug discovery and clinical applications.

  10. Mucosal delivery of liposome-chitosan nanoparticle complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Edison L S; Grenha, Ana; Remuñán-López, Carmen; Alonso, Maria José; Seijo, Begoña

    2009-01-01

    Designing adequate drug carriers has long been a major challenge for those working in drug delivery. Since drug delivery strategies have evolved for mucosal delivery as the outstanding alternative to parenteral administration, many new drug delivery systems have been developed which evidence promising properties to address specific issues. Colloidal carriers, such as nanoparticles and liposomes, have been referred to as the most valuable approaches, but still have some limitations that can become more inconvenient as a function of the specific characteristics of administration routes. To overcome these limitations, we developed a new drug delivery system that results from the combination of chitosan nanoparticles and liposomes, in an approach of combining their advantages, while avoiding their individual limitations. These lipid/chitosan nanoparticle complexes are, thus, expected to protect the encapsulated drug from harsh environmental conditions, while concomitantly providing its controlled release. To prepare these assemblies, two different strategies have been applied: one focusing on the simple hydration of a previously formed dry lipid film with a suspension of chitosan nanoparticles, and the other relying on the lyophilization of both basic structures (nanoparticles and liposomes) with a subsequent step of hydration with water. The developed systems are able to provide a controlled release of the encapsulated model peptide, insulin, evidencing release profiles that are dependent on their lipid composition. Moreover, satisfactory in vivo results have been obtained, confirming the potential of these newly developed drug delivery systems as drug carriers through distinct mucosal routes.

  11. A pulsed mode electrolytic drug delivery device

    KAUST Repository

    Yi, Ying

    2015-09-14

    This paper reports the design of a proof-of-concept drug delivery device that is actuated using the bubbles formed during electrolysis. The device uses a platinum (Pt) coated nickel (Ni) metal foam and a solid drug in reservoir (SDR) approach to improve the device\\'s performance. This electrochemically-driven pump has many features that are unlike conventional drug delivery devices: it is capable of pumping periodically and being refilled automatically; it features drug release control; and it enables targeted delivery. Pt-coated metal foam is used as a catalytic reforming element, which reduces the period of each delivery cycle. Two methods were used for fabricating the Pt-coated metal: sputtering and electroplating. Of these two methods, the sputtered Pt-coated metal foam has a higher pumping rate; it also has a comparable recombination rate when compared to the electroplated Pt-coated metal foam. The only drawback of this catalytic reformer is that it consumes nickel scaffold. Considering long-term applications, the electroplated Pt metal foam was selected for drug delivery, where a controlled drug release rate of 2.2 μg ± 0.3 μg per actuation pulse was achieved using 4 mW of power.

  12. Atopic Dermatitis: Drug Delivery Approaches in Disease Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalan, Manisha; Baweja, Jitendra; Misra, Ambikanandan

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we describe the very basic of atopic dermatitis (AD), the established management strategies, and the advances in drug delivery approaches for successful therapeutic outcomes. The multifactorial pathophysiology of AD has given rise to the clinician's paradigm of topical and systemic therapy and potential combinations. However, incomplete remission of skin disorders like AD is a major challenge to be overcome. Recurrence is thought to be due to genetic and immunological etiologies and shortcomings in drug delivery. This difficulty has sparked research in nanocarrier-based delivery approaches as well as molecular biology-inspired stratagems to deal with the immunological imbalance and to address insufficiencies of delivery propositions. In this review, we assess various novel drug delivery strategies in terms of their success and utility. We present a brief compilation and assessment of management modalities to sensitize the readers to therapeutic scenario in AD.

  13. Biomimetics in drug delivery systems: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhpour, Mojgan; Barani, Leila; Kasaeian, Alibakhsh

    2017-05-10

    Today, the advanced drug delivery systems have been focused on targeted drug delivery fields. The novel drug delivery is involved with the improvement of the capacity of drug loading in drug carriers, cellular uptake of drug carriers, and the sustained release of drugs within target cells. In this review, six groups of therapeutic drug carriers including biomimetic hydrogels, biomimetic micelles, biomimetic liposomes, biomimetic dendrimers, biomimetic polymeric carriers and biomimetic nanostructures, are studied. The subject takes advantage of the biomimetic methods of productions or the biomimetic techniques for the surface modifications, similar to what accrues in natural cells. Moreover, the effects of these biomimetic approaches for promoting the drug efficiency in targeted drug delivery are visible. The study demonstrates that the fabrication of biomimetic nanocomposite drug carriers could noticeably promote the efficiency of drugs in targeted drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Home delivery and neonatal mortality in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, C A; Jones, J A; Rooks, J; Chen, C H; Tyler, C W; Miller, C A

    1980-12-19

    Neonatal mortality examined by place and circumstances of delivery in North Carolina during 1974 through 1976 with attention given to home delivery. Planned home deliveries by lay-midwives resulted in three neonatal deaths per 1,000 live births; planned home deliveries without a lay-midwife, 30 neonatal deaths per 1,000 live births; and unplanned home deliveries, 120 neonatal deaths per 1,000 live births. The women babies were delivered by lay-midwives were screened in county health departments and found to be medically at low risk of complication, despite having demographic characteristics associated with high-risk of neonatal mortality. Conversely, the women delivered at home without known prenatal screening or a trained attendant had low-risk demographic characteristics but experienced a high rate of neonatal mortality. Planning, prenatal screening, and attendant-training were important in differentiating the risk of neonatal mortality in this uncontrolled, observational study.

  15. Maternal obesity, caesarean delivery and caesarean delivery on maternal request: a cohort analysis from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yubo; Blustein, Jan; Li, Hongtian; Ye, Rongwei; Zhu, Liping; Liu, Jianmeng

    2015-05-01

    To quantify the association between maternal obesity and caesarean delivery, particularly caesarean delivery on maternal request (CDMR), a fast-growing component of caesarean delivery in many nations. We followed 1,019,576 nulliparous women registered in the Perinatal Healthcare Surveillance System during 1993-2010. Maternal body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2) ), before pregnancy or during early pregnancy, was classified as underweight (obese (≥27.5), consistent with World Health Organization guidelines for Asian people. The association between maternal obesity and overall caesarean and its subtypes was modelled using log-binomial regression. During the 18-year period, 404,971 (39.7%) caesareans and 93,927 (9.2%) CDMRs were identified. Maternal obesity was positively associated with overall caesarean and CDMR. Adjusted risk ratios for overall caesarean in the four ascending BMI categories were 0.96 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94, 0.97], 1.00 (Reference), 1.16 [95% CI 1.14, 1.18], 1.39 [95% CI 1.43, 1.54], and for CDMR were 0.95 [95% CI 0.94, 0.96], 1.00 (Reference), 1.20 [95% CI 1.18, 1.22], 1.48 [95% CI 1.433, 1.54]. Positive associations were consistently found in women residing in southern and northern provinces and in subgroups stratified by year of delivery, urban or rural residence, maternal age, education, level of delivering hospital, and birthweight. In a large Chinese cohort study, maternal obesity was associated with an increased risk of caesarean delivery and its subtypes, including CDMR. Given the rising global prevalence of obesity, and in view of the growth of CDMR, it seems likely that caesarean births will increase, unless there are changes in obstetrical practice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. siRNA delivery with lipid-based systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    A key hurdle for the further development of RNA interference (RNAi) therapeutics like small interfering RNA (siRNA) is their safe and effective delivery. Lipids are promising and versatile carriers because they are based on Nature's own building blocks and can be provided with properties which......RNA into more hydrophobic lipoplexes, which promote passage of the siRNA across cellular membrane barriers, especially when lipids are added that facilitate membrane fusion. Despite these attractive features, siRNA delivery vehicles are facing a number of challenges such as the limited delivery efficiency...

  17. Waste feed delivery test and evaluation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' TOOLE, S.M.

    1999-09-30

    This plan documents the Waste Feed Delivery Program test and evaluation planning and implementation approach. The purpose of this document is to define and communicate the Waste Feed Delivery Program Test and Evaluation scope, objectives, planning and implementation approach.

  18. Waste feed delivery test and evaluation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'TOOLE, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    This plan documents the Waste Feed Delivery Program test and evaluation planning and implementation approach. The purpose of this document is to define and communicate the Waste Feed Delivery Program Test and Evaluation scope, objectives, planning and implementation approach

  19. Elective repeat cesarean delivery compared with trial of labor after a prior cesarean delivery: a propensity score analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, N.; Ruiter, L.; Lindeboom, R.; de Groot, C.; Pajkrt, E.; Mol, B. W.; Kazemier, B. M.

    2015-01-01

    To determine neonatal and short term maternal outcomes according to intentional mode of delivery following a cesarean delivery (CD). Women pregnant after CD between January 2000 and December 2007 were categorized according to whether they had an elective repeat CD (ERCD) or a Trial of Labor (TOL).

  20. Microneedle Patches as Drug and Vaccine Delivery Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junwei; Zeng, Mingtao; Shan, Hu; Tong, Chunyi

    2017-01-01

    Transcutaneous delivery is the ideal method for delivering therapeutic reagents or vaccines into skin. With their promise of self-administration, cost-effective and high efficiency, microneedle patches have been studied intensively as therapeutic and vaccination delivery platform that replaces injection by syringe. This review aims to summarize the recent advancements of microneedle patches in application for drugs and vaccine delivery. We reviewed the most of recently published papers on microneedle patches, summarized their evolution, classification, state-of the-art capabilities and discussed promising application in drugs and vaccine delivery. With the rapid development of nanotechnology, microneedle patches have been improved by switching from undissolving to dissolving microneedles, and their safety has also improved dramatically. As a drug delivery tool, microneedle patches can deliver bioactive molecular of different physical size. Additionally, microneedle patches can be coated or encapsulate with DNA vaccine, subunit antigen, inactivated or live virus vaccine. Combining clinical results with the results of patient interview, microneedle patches are found to be feasible and are predicated to soon be acceptable for the medical service. In this review, we summarized the evolution, current and future application of microneedle patches as delivery vehicle for drugs and vaccines. Compared with traditional delivery tools, microneedle patches have many advantages, such as providing pain-free, non-invasive, convenient route for reagent administration and delivery, with no cold chain required for storage and transportation as well as decreasing sharp medical waste, needle-caused injury and transmission of blood-borne infectious disease in rural area. However, even though there are dramatic progress in preclinical investigation of microneedle patches, further testing will be required for clinical application. Further research should be implemented in multiple fields

  1. Methods and metrics challenges of delivery-system research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Jeffrey A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many delivery-system interventions are fundamentally about change in social systems (both planned and unplanned. This systems perspective raises a number of methodological challenges for studying the effects of delivery-system change--particularly for answering questions related to whether the change will work under different conditions and how the change is integrated (or not into the operating context of the delivery system. Methods The purpose of this paper is to describe the methodological and measurement challenges posed by five key issues in delivery-system research: (1 modeling intervention context; (2 measuring readiness for change; (3 assessing intervention fidelity and sustainability; (4 assessing complex, multicomponent interventions; and (5 incorporating time in delivery-system models to discuss recommendations for addressing these issues. For each issue, we provide recommendations for how research may be designed and implemented to overcome these challenges. Results and conclusions We suggest that a more refined understanding of the mechanisms underlying delivery-system interventions (treatment theory and the ways in which outcomes for different classes of individuals change over time are fundamental starting points for capturing the heterogeneity in samples of individuals exposed to delivery-system interventions. To support the research recommendations outlined in this paper and to advance understanding of the "why" and "how" questions of delivery-system change and their effects, funding agencies should consider supporting studies with larger organizational sample sizes; longer duration; and nontraditional, mixed-methods designs. A version of this paper was prepared under contract with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ, US Department of Health and Human Services for presentation and discussion at a meeting on "The Challenge and Promise of Delivery System Research," held in Sterling, VA, on

  2. Non-medical factors affecting antenatal preferences for delivery route and actual delivery mode of women in southwestern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Abdolhalim; Maharlouei, Najmeh; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Rajaeefard, Abdolreza; Keshavarzi, Sareh; Lankarani, Kamran B; Gholami, Ali

    2016-11-01

    Assessment of the contribution of non-medical factors to mode of delivery and birth preference in Iranian pregnant women in southwestern Iran. This cohort study used data from a structured questionnaire completed in early pregnancy and information about the subsequent delivery obtained through personal contact. Women were recruited by random sampling from antenatal clinics when scheduling visits over the course of 5 weeks from December 2012 to February 2013 and were followed-up 1 month after birth. Of the 2199 women recruited, 99.63% were eligible for the study. Of the 748 women who expressed a desire to deliver their babies by cesarean section (CS) in early pregnancy, 87% had an elective cesarean section. The logistic regression analyses showed that normative beliefs (odds ratio [OR] 1.792, 95% confidence interval (1) 1.073-2.993), control beliefs (OR: 0.272, 95% CI: 0.162-0.459), and evaluation of outcomes (OR: 0.431, 95% CI: 0.268-0.692) favored the preference for cesarean section. The desire for delivery by elective cesarean section was associated with normative beliefs (OR: 1.138; 95% CI: 1.001-1.294), control beliefs (OR: 0.804; 95% CI: 0.698-0.927), and expectations about maternity care (OR: 0.772; 95% CI: 0.683-0.873), medical influences (OR: 1.150; 95% CI: 1.023-1.291), evaluation of outcome (OR: 0.789; 95% CI: 0.696-0.894), age, preference for cesarean section (OR: 5.445; 95% CI: 3.928-7.546), spouse educational level, and number of live births. A woman's preference for delivery by cesarean section influenced their subsequent mode of delivery. Asking women in early pregnancy about their preferred mode of delivery provides the opportunity to extend their supports which might reduce the rate of elective cesarean section. This decision is affected by age, spouse educational level, number of live births, and preconceived maternal attitudes about delivery.

  3. [Out of hospital deliveries: incidence, obstetrical characteristics and perinatal outcome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zur, M; Hadar, A; Sheiner, E; Mazor, M

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, women used to deliver their babies at home. In 1927, in England and Wales, 85% of births took place at home. By 1970 the position was reversed. The move from home to institutional delivery has been accompanied by changes in the institutions themselves and in the type of care provider. There are two kinds of out-of-hospital deliveries: 1. Planned home deliveries--women who decide to deliver in their home with the assistance of midwives or other consultant obstetric facilities. Few cases from this group, however, end up in the hospital; 2. Unplanned home deliveries or delivery en-route to the hospital--when women enter the active phase of labor rapidly, resulting in accidental out-of-hospital deliveries. The study aims to review the available literature and to describe the incidence, obstetrical characteristics and perinatal outcome of out-of-hospital deliveries.

  4. Microencapsulation: A promising technique for controlled drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M N; Hemant, K S Y; Ram, M; Shivakumar, H G

    2010-07-01

    MICROPARTICLES OFFER VARIOUS SIGNIFICANT ADVANTAGES AS DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS, INCLUDING: (i) an effective protection of the encapsulated active agent against (e.g. enzymatic) degradation, (ii) the possibility to accurately control the release rate of the incorporated drug over periods of hours to months, (iii) an easy administration (compared to alternative parenteral controlled release dosage forms, such as macro-sized implants), and (iv) Desired, pre-programmed drug release profiles can be provided which match the therapeutic needs of the patient. This article gives an overview on the general aspects and recent advances in drug-loaded microparticles to improve the efficiency of various medical treatments. An appropriately designed controlled release drug delivery system can be a foot ahead towards solving problems concerning to the targeting of drug to a specific organ or tissue, and controlling the rate of drug delivery to the target site. The development of oral controlled release systems has been a challenge to formulation scientist due to their inability to restrain and localize the system at targeted areas of gastrointestinal tract. Microparticulate drug delivery systems are an interesting and promising option when developing an oral controlled release system. The objective of this paper is to take a closer look at microparticles as drug delivery devices for increasing efficiency of drug delivery, improving the release profile and drug targeting. In order to appreciate the application possibilities of microcapsules in drug delivery, some fundamental aspects are briefly reviewed.

  5. Improvement of different vaccine delivery systems for cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaiyan Shima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer vaccines are the promising tools in the hands of the clinical oncologist. Many tumor-associated antigens are excellent targets for immune therapy and vaccine design. Optimally designed cancer vaccines should combine the best tumor antigens with the most effective immunotherapy agents and/or delivery strategies to achieve positive clinical results. Various vaccine delivery systems such as different routes of immunization and physical/chemical delivery methods have been used in cancer therapy with the goal to induce immunity against tumor-associated antigens. Two basic delivery approaches including physical delivery to achieve higher levels of antigen production and formulation with microparticles to target antigen-presenting cells (APCs have demonstrated to be effective in animal models. New developments in vaccine delivery systems will improve the efficiency of clinical trials in the near future. Among them, nanoparticles (NPs such as dendrimers, polymeric NPs, metallic NPs, magnetic NPs and quantum dots have emerged as effective vaccine adjuvants for infectious diseases and cancer therapy. Furthermore, cell-penetrating peptides (CPP have been known as attractive carrier having applications in drug delivery, gene transfer and DNA vaccination. This review will focus on the utilization of different vaccine delivery systems for prevention or treatment of cancer. We will discuss their clinical applications and the future prospects for cancer vaccine development.

  6. Recent trends in challenges and opportunities of Transdermal drug delivery system

    OpenAIRE

    P.M.Patil; P.D.Chaudhari; Jalpa K.Patel; K.A.Kedar; P.P.Katolkar

    2012-01-01

    Drug delivery system relates to the production of a drug, its delivery medium, and the way of administration. Drug delivery systems are even used for administering nitroglycerin. Transdermal drug delivery system is the system in which the delivery of the active ingredients of the drug occurs by the means of skin. Various types of transdermal patches are used. There are various methods to enhance the transdermal drug delivery system. But using microfabricated microneedles drugs are delivered v...

  7. Quantitative evaluation of pregnant women delivery status’ records in Akure, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebowale O. Adejumo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this data article, monthly records (datasets of total delivery, normal delivery, delivery through Caesarean section and number of still births from pregnant women in Akure, the capital city of Ondo state Nigeria, for a period of ten years, between January 2007 and December 2016 were considered. Correlational and time series analyses were conducted on the monthly records of total delivery, normal delivery (delivery through woman virginal, delivery through Caesarean section, and number of still births, in order to observe the patterns each of these indicators follows and to recommend appropriate model for forecasting their future values. The data were obtained in raw form from State Specialist Hospital (SSH, Akure, Ondo state, Nigeria. A clear description and variation in each of these indicators (total delivery, normal delivery, caesarean section, and still births were considered separately using descriptive statistics and box plots. Different models were also proposed for each of these indicators using time series models. Keywords: ARIMA, Caesarean section, Normal delivery, Data, Still birth, Time series, Akure

  8. Role of Nanodiamonds in Drug Delivery and Stem Cell Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Shakeel Ahmed; Satar, Rukhsana; Jafri, Mohammad Alam; Rasool, Mahmood; Ahmad, Waseem; Kashif Zaidi, Syed

    2016-09-01

    The use of nanotechnology in medicine and more specifically drug delivery is set to spread rapidly. Currently many substances are under investigation for drug delivery and more specifically for cancer therapy. Nanodiamonds (NDs) have contributed significantly in the development of highly efficient and successful drug delivery systems, and in stem cell therapy. Drug delivery through NDs is an intricate and complex process that deserves special attention to unravel underlying molecular mechanisms in order to overcome certain bottlenecks associated with it. It has already been established that NDs based drug delivery systems have excellent biocompatibility, nontoxicity, photostability and facile surface functionalization properties. There is mounting evidence that suggests that such conjugated delivery systems well retain the properties of nanoparticles like small size, large surface area to volume ratio that provide greater biocatalytic activity to the attached drug in terms of selectivity, loading and stability. NDs based drug delivery systems may form the basis for the development of effective novel drug delivery vehicles with salient features that may facilitate their utility in fluorescence imaging, target specificity and sustainedrelease.

  9. Maternal morbidity and mortality associated with delivery after intrauterine death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ifnan, F.; Jameel, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the maternal morbidity and mortality associated with delivery after intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) and to find out the place of fetal destructive procedures and cesarean section. All women were included in the present study who presented before the onset of labour pains, after intrauterine fetal death at 26 weeks or onward with singleton pregnancy. Assessment of maternal demographic characteristics, gestational age at fetal demise, delivery-IUFD interval, mode of delivery; vaginal with or without fetal destructive procedures/cesarean section and maternal complications were the main outcome measures. There were 1834 live birth and 63 deliveries with intrauterine fetal death. Mode of delivery was vaginal in 87.4% and cesarean section in 12.6% of the cases. Twelve (21%) of the vaginal deliveries were complicated by lower urogenital tract injuries in certain cases, whereas 75% (6/8) of patients delivered by cesarean section developed major postoperative complications like postpartum haemorrhage, shock, endometritis, peritonitis and wound dehiscence. No maternal death was identified. Rate of delivery with intrauterine fetal death was 34.3/1000 live-birth deliveries. (author)

  10. Investigation of a thiolated polymer in gene delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacalocostantis, Irene

    Thiol-containing bioreducible polymers show significant potential as delivery vectors in gene therapy, a rapidly growing field which seeks to treat genetic-based disorders by delivering functional synthetic genes to diseased cells. Studies have shown that thiolated polymers exhibit improved biodegradability and prolonged in vivo circulation times over non-thiolated polymers. However, the extent to which thiol concentrations impact the carrier's delivery potential has not been well explored. The aim of this dissertation is to investigate how relative concentrations of free thiols and disulfide crosslinks impact a polymeric carriers delivery performance with respect to DNA packaging, complex stability, cargo protection, gene release, internalization efficiency and cytotoxicity. To accomplish this goal, several fluorescent polymers containing varying concentrations of thiol groups were synthesized by conjugating thiol-pendant chains onto the primary amines of cationic poly(allylamine). In vitro delivery assays and characterization techniques were employed to assess the effect of thiols in gene delivery.

  11. Exosomes: Nanoparticulate tools for RNA interference and drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabipour, Fahimeh; Barati, Nastaran; Johnston, Thomas P; Derosa, Giuseppe; Maffioli, Pamela; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2017-07-01

    Exosomes are naturally occurring extracellular vesicles released by most mammalian cells in all body fluids. Exosomes are known as key mediators in cell-cell communication and facilitate the transfer of genetic and biochemical information between distant cells. Structurally, exosomes are composed of lipids, proteins, and also several types of RNAs which enable these vesicles to serve as important disease biomarkers. Moreover, exosomes have emerged as novel drug and gene delivery tools owing to their multiple advantages over conventional delivery systems. Recently, increasing attention has been focused on exosomes for the delivery of drugs, including therapeutic recombinant proteins, to various target tissues. Exosomes are also promising vehicles for the delivery of microRNAs and small interfering RNAs, which is usually hampered by rapid degradation of these RNAs, as well as inefficient tissue specificity of currently available delivery strategies. This review highlights the most recent accomplishments and trends in the use of exosomes for the delivery of drugs and therapeutic RNA molecules. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Cesarean section and the manipulation of exact delivery time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Daniele; Monfardini, Chiara; Castaldini, Ilaria; Protonotari, Adalgisa

    2016-07-01

    Physicians are often alleged responsible for the manipulation of delivery timing. We investigate this issue in a setting that negates the influence of financial incentives on physician's behavior. Working on a sample of women admitted at the onset of labor in a big public hospital in Italy we estimate a model for the exact time of delivery as driven by individual Indication to Cesarean Section (ICS) and covariates. We find that ICS does not affect the day of delivery but leads to a circadian rhythm in the likelihood of delivery. The pattern is consistent with the postponement of high ICS deliveries in the late night\\early morning shift. Our evidence hardly supports the manipulation of timing of births as driven by medical staff's "demand for leisure". Physicians seem to manipulate the exact timing of delivery to reduce exposure to risk factors extant during off-peak periods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Electrospun polymeric nanofibers for transdermal drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahya Rahmani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS have been designed for drug delivery through the skin. These systems use the permeability property of stratum corneum, the outermost surface layer of the skin. Applying polymeric micro and nanofibers in drug delivery has recently attracted great attention and the electrospinning technique is the preferred method for polymeric micro-nanofibers fabrication with a great potential for drug delivery. More studies in the field of nanofibers containing drug are divided two categories: first, preparation and characterization of nanofibers containing drug and second, investigation of their therapeutic applications. Drugs used in electrospun nanofibers can be categorized into three main groups, including antibiotics and antimicrobial agents, anti-inflammatory agents and vitamins with therapeutic applications. In this paper, we review the application of electrospun polymeric scaffolds in TDDS and also introduce several pharmaceutical and therapeutic agents which have been used in polymer nanofibrous patches.

  14. Health Care Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starfield, Barbara

    1987-01-01

    The article reviews emerging health care delivery options for handicapped children. Cost structures, quality of care, and future prospects are considered for Health Maintenance Organizations, Preferred Provider Organizations, Tax Supported Direct Service Programs, Hospital-Based Services, and Ambulatory Care Organizations. (Author/DB)

  15. Global Delivery Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manning, Stephan; Møller Larsen, Marcus; Bharati, Pratyush M.

    2015-01-01

    antecedents and contingencies of setting up GDM structures. Based on comprehensive data we show that providers are likely to establish GDM location configurations when clients value access to globally distributed talent and speed of service delivery, in particular when services are highly commoditized...

  16. Sonographic large fetal head circumference and risk of cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipschuetz, Michal; Cohen, Sarah M; Israel, Ariel; Baron, Joel; Porat, Shay; Valsky, Dan V; Yagel, Oren; Amsalem, Hagai; Kabiri, Doron; Gilboa, Yinon; Sivan, Eyal; Unger, Ron; Schiff, Eyal; Hershkovitz, Reli; Yagel, Simcha

    2018-03-01

    Persistently high rates of cesarean deliveries are cause for concern for physicians, patients, and health systems. Prelabor assessment might be refined by identifying factors that help predict an individual patient's risk of cesarean delivery. Such factors may contribute to patient safety and satisfaction as well as health system planning and resource allocation. In an earlier study, neonatal head circumference was shown to be more strongly associated with delivery mode and other outcome measures than neonatal birthweight. In the present study we aimed to evaluate the association of sonographically measured fetal head circumference measured within 1 week of delivery with delivery mode. This was a multicenter electronic medical record-based study of birth outcomes of primiparous women with term (37-42 weeks) singleton fetuses presenting for ultrasound with fetal biometry within 1 week of delivery. Fetal head circumference and estimated fetal weight were correlated with maternal background, obstetric, and neonatal outcome parameters. Elective cesarean deliveries were excluded. Multinomial regression analysis provided adjusted odds ratios for instrumental delivery and unplanned cesarean delivery when the fetal head circumference was ≥35 cm or estimated fetal weight ≥3900 g, while controlling for possible confounders. In all, 11,500 cases were collected; 906 elective cesarean deliveries were excluded. A fetal head circumference ≥35 cm increased the risk for unplanned cesarean delivery: 174 fetuses with fetal head circumference ≥35 cm (32%) were delivered by cesarean, vs 1712 (17%) when fetal head circumference cesarean delivery by an adjusted odds ratio of 1.75 (95% confidence interval, 1.4-2.18) controlling for gestational age, fetal gender, and epidural anesthesia. The rate of prolonged second stage of labor was significantly increased when either the fetal head circumference was ≥35 cm or the estimated fetal weight ≥3900 g, from 22.7% in the total

  17. Vernix caseosa peritonitis after vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadath, Shameema A; Abo Diba, Fathiya I; Nayak, Surendra; Shamali, Iman Al; Diejomaoh, Michael F

    2013-01-01

    Vernix caseosa peritonitis (VCP) is a very unusual complication caused by inflammatory response to amniotic fluid spilled into the maternal peritoneal cavity. Twenty-seven cases have been reported, and all occurred after cesarean section. We present a case of VCP following vaginal delivery; this may be the first case reported after vaginal delivery. Mrs. A, 28 years old, gravida 3, para 2, with one previous cesarean section, was admitted at 41 weeks gestation in active labor. Vacuum extraction was performed to deliver a healthy male baby, 4.410 kg, Apgar scores 7, 8. She developed fever, acute abdominal pain, and distension about 3 hours after delivery. A diagnosis of acute abdomen was made. Laparotomy was performed and it revealed neither uterine scar rupture nor other surgical emergencies, but 500 mL of turbid fluid and some cheesy material on the serosal surface of all viscera. Biopsies were taken. She had a course of antibiotics and her recovery was complete. Histology of the peritoneal fluid and tissue biopsy resulted in a diagnosis of VCP. Clinical diagnosis of peritonitis due to vernix caseosa should be considered in patients presenting postpartum with an acute abdomen after vaginal delivery.

  18. Long-term delivery of protein therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaishya, Ravi; Khurana, Varun; Patel, Sulabh; Mitra, Ashim K

    2015-03-01

    Proteins are effective biotherapeutics with applications in diverse ailments. Despite being specific and potent, their full clinical potential has not yet been realized. This can be attributed to short half-lives, complex structures, poor in vivo stability, low permeability, frequent parenteral administrations and poor adherence to treatment in chronic diseases. A sustained release system, providing controlled release of proteins, may overcome many of these limitations. This review focuses on recent development in approaches, especially polymer-based formulations, which can provide therapeutic levels of proteins over extended periods. Advances in particulate, gel-based formulations and novel approaches for extended protein delivery are discussed. Emphasis is placed on dosage form, method of preparation, mechanism of release and stability of biotherapeutics. Substantial advancements have been made in the field of extended protein delivery via various polymer-based formulations over last decade despite the unique delivery-related challenges posed by protein biologics. A number of injectable sustained-release formulations have reached market. However, therapeutic application of proteins is still hampered by delivery-related issues. A large number of protein molecules are under clinical trials, and hence, there is an urgent need to develop new methods to deliver these highly potent biologics.

  19. Structuring polymers for delivery of DNA-based therapeutics: updated insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Madhu; Tiwari, Shailja; Vyas, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    Gene therapy offers greater opportunities for treating numerous incurable diseases from genetic disorders, infections, and cancer. However, development of appropriate delivery systems could be one of the most important factors to overcome numerous biological barriers for delivery of various therapeutic molecules. A number of nonviral polymer-mediated vectors have been developed for DNA delivery and offer the potential to surmount the associated problems of their viral counterpart. To address the concerns associated with safety issues, a wide range of polymeric vectors are available and have been utilized successfully to deliver their therapeutics in vivo. Today's research is mainly focused on the various natural or synthetic polymer-based delivery carriers that protect the DNA molecule from degradation, which offer specific targeting to the desired cells after systemic administration, have transfection efficiencies equivalent to virus-mediated gene delivery, and have long-term gene expression through sustained-release mechanisms. This review explores an updated overview of different nonviral polymeric delivery system for delivery of DNA-based therapeutics. These polymeric carriers have been evaluated in vitro and in vivo and are being utilized in various stages of clinical evaluation. Continued research and understanding of the principles of polymer-based gene delivery systems will enable us to develop new and efficient delivery systems for the delivery of DNA-based therapeutics to achieve the goal of efficacious and specific gene therapy for a vast array of clinical disorders as the therapeutic solutions of tomorrow.

  20. Aptamer-Gated Nanoparticles for Smart Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Avni Oktem

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers are functional nucleic acid sequences which can bind specific targets. An artificial combinatorial methodology can identify aptamer sequences for any target molecule, from ions to whole cells. Drug delivery systems seek to increase efficacy and reduce side-effects by concentrating the therapeutic agents at specific disease sites in the body. This is generally achieved by specific targeting of inactivated drug molecules. Aptamers which can bind to various cancer cell types selectively and with high affinity have been exploited in a variety of drug delivery systems for therapeutic purposes. Recent progress in selection of cell-specific aptamers has provided new opportunities in targeted drug delivery. Especially functionalization of nanoparticles with such aptamers has drawn major attention in the biosensor and biomedical areas. Moreover, nucleic acids are recognized as an attractive building materials in nanomachines because of their unique molecular recognition properties and structural features. A active controlled delivery of drugs once targeted to a disease site is a major research challenge. Stimuli-responsive gating is one way of achieving controlled release of nanoparticle cargoes. Recent reports incorporate the structural properties of aptamers in controlled release systems of drug delivering nanoparticles. In this review, the strategies for using functional nucleic acids in creating smart drug delivery devices will be explained. The main focus will be on aptamer-incorporated nanoparticle systems for drug delivery purposes in order to assess the future potential of aptamers in the therapeutic area. Special emphasis will be given to the very recent progress in controlled drug release based on molecular gating achieved with aptamers.

  1. Ophthalmic Drug Delivery Systems for Antibiotherapy—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubald, Marion; Bourgeois, Sandrine; Andrieu, Véronique; Fessi, Hatem

    2018-01-01

    The last fifty years, ophthalmic drug delivery research has made much progress, challenging scientists about the advantages and limitations of this drug delivery approach. Topical eye drops are the most commonly used formulation in ocular drug delivery. Despite the good tolerance for patients, this topical administration is only focus on the anterior ocular diseases and had a high precorneal loss of drugs due to the tears production and ocular barriers. Antibiotics are popularly used in solution or in ointment for the ophthalmic route. However, their local bioavailability needs to be improved in order to decrease the frequency of administrations and the side effects and to increase their therapeutic efficiency. For this purpose, sustained release forms for ophthalmic delivery of antibiotics were developed. This review briefly describes the ocular administration with the ocular barriers and the currently topical forms. It focuses on experimental results to bypass the limitations of ocular antibiotic delivery with new ocular technology as colloidal and in situ gelling systems or with the improvement of existing forms as implants and contact lenses. Nanotechnology is presently a promising drug delivery way to provide protection of antibiotics and improve pathway through ocular barriers and deliver drugs to specific target sites. PMID:29342879

  2. Ophthalmic Drug Delivery Systems for Antibiotherapy—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Dubald

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The last fifty years, ophthalmic drug delivery research has made much progress, challenging scientists about the advantages and limitations of this drug delivery approach. Topical eye drops are the most commonly used formulation in ocular drug delivery. Despite the good tolerance for patients, this topical administration is only focus on the anterior ocular diseases and had a high precorneal loss of drugs due to the tears production and ocular barriers. Antibiotics are popularly used in solution or in ointment for the ophthalmic route. However, their local bioavailability needs to be improved in order to decrease the frequency of administrations and the side effects and to increase their therapeutic efficiency. For this purpose, sustained release forms for ophthalmic delivery of antibiotics were developed. This review briefly describes the ocular administration with the ocular barriers and the currently topical forms. It focuses on experimental results to bypass the limitations of ocular antibiotic delivery with new ocular technology as colloidal and in situ gelling systems or with the improvement of existing forms as implants and contact lenses. Nanotechnology is presently a promising drug delivery way to provide protection of antibiotics and improve pathway through ocular barriers and deliver drugs to specific target sites.

  3. Fractional CO(2) laser-assisted drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, Merete; Sakamoto, Fernanda H; Farinelli, William A

    2010-01-01

    Ablative fractional resurfacing (AFR) creates vertical channels that might assist the delivery of topically applied drugs into skin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate drug delivery by CO(2) laser AFR using methyl 5-aminolevulinate (MAL), a porphyrin precursor, as a test drug....

  4. Microemulsion Drug Delivery Systems for Radiopharmacy Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Ozgenc

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Microemulsions have been used increasingly for last year’s because of ideal properties like favorable drug delivery, ease of preparation and physical stability. They have been improved the solubility and efficacy of the drug and reduce the side effects. Use of radiolabeled microemulsions plays an alternative role in drug delivery systems by investigating the formation, stability and application of microemulsions in radiopharmacy. Gama scintigraphic method is well recognized for developing and detecting the biodistribution of newly developed drugs or formulation. This review will focus on how radionuclides are able to play role with characterization studies of microemulsion drug delivery systems.

  5. Amphiphilic block copolymers for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Monica L; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh; Kwon, Glen S

    2003-07-01

    Amphiphilic block copolymers (ABCs) have been used extensively in pharmaceutical applications ranging from sustained-release technologies to gene delivery. The utility of ABCs for delivery of therapeutic agents results from their unique chemical composition, which is characterized by a hydrophilic block that is chemically tethered to a hydrophobic block. In aqueous solution, polymeric micelles are formed via the association of ABCs into nanoscopic core/shell structures at or above the critical micelle concentration. Upon micellization, the hydrophobic core regions serve as reservoirs for hydrophobic drugs, which may be loaded by chemical, physical, or electrostatic means, depending on the specific functionalities of the core-forming block and the solubilizate. Although the Pluronics, composed of poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(propylene oxide)-block-poly(ethylene oxide), are the most widely studied ABC system, copolymers containing poly(L-amino acid) and poly(ester) hydrophobic blocks have also shown great promise in delivery applications. Because each ABC has unique advantages with respect to drug delivery, it may be possible to choose appropriate block copolymers for specific purposes, such as prolonging circulation time, introduction of targeting moieties, and modification of the drug-release profile. ABCs have been used for numerous pharmaceutical applications including drug solubilization/stabilization, alteration of the pharmacokinetic profile of encapsulated substances, and suppression of multidrug resistance. The purpose of this minireview is to provide a concise, yet detailed, introduction to the use of ABCs and polymeric micelles as delivery agents as well as to highlight current and past work in this area. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  6. Biomaterials for drug delivery patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Lúcia F; Correia, Ilídio J; Silva, A Sofia; Mano, João F

    2018-06-15

    The limited efficiency of conventional drugs has been instigated the development of new and more effective drug delivery systems (DDS). Transdermal DDS, are associated with numerous advantages such its painless application and less frequent replacement and greater flexibility of dosing, features that triggered the research and development of such devices. Such systems have been produced using either biopolymer; or synthetic polymers. Although the first ones are safer, biocompatible and present a controlled degradation by human enzymes or water, the second ones are the most currently available in the market due to their greater mechanical resistance and flexibility, and non-degradation over time. This review highlights the most recent advances (mainly in the last five years) of patches aimed for transdermal drug delivery, focusing on the different materials (natural, synthetic and blends) and latest designs for the development of such devices, emphasizing also their combination with drug carriers that enable enhanced drug solubility and a more controlled release of the drug over the time. The benefits and limitations of different patches formulations are considered with reference to their appliance to transdermal drug delivery. Furthermore, a record of the currently available patches on the market is given, featuring their most relevant characteristics. Finally, a list of most recent/ongoing clinical trials regarding the use of patches for skin disorders is detailed and critical insights on the current state of patches for transdermal drug delivery are also provided. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Project management: a new service delivery paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. van der Walt

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In line with international trends in governance, the South African Government’s initial focus on the development of policy frameworks, structures and systems in order to give effect to the values and principles of the Constitution, shifted to the most critical issue, namely service delivery. The Government became increasingly aware that a significant expansion in the scope and quality of service provision was not possible with traditional delivery settings and approaches. There is growing evidence that there is a need for a significant departure from conventional approaches and that a leap into a new service delivery paradigm is necessary. Increasingly this new paradigm highlights the need to further develop the government’s project management skills and applications with a view to achieving improved delivery capability. In this article the focus will be placed on the changing service delivery paradigm – from an “old” traditional model through the transition to a “new” paradigm. This paradigm is shaped by international and national trends and events in government. The contribution and advantages of project management applications for effective governance are highlighted and the article concludes with an explanation of project management organisational arrangements necessary to support the new paradigm.

  8. A pulsed mode electrolytic drug delivery device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Ying; Foulds, Ian G; Buttner, Ulrich; Carreno, Armando A A; Conchouso, David

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the design of a proof-of-concept drug delivery device that is actuated using the bubbles formed during electrolysis. The device uses a platinum (Pt) coated nickel (Ni) metal foam and a solid drug in reservoir (SDR) approach to improve the device’s performance. This electrochemically-driven pump has many features that are unlike conventional drug delivery devices: it is capable of pumping periodically and being refilled automatically; it features drug release control; and it enables targeted delivery. Pt-coated metal foam is used as a catalytic reforming element, which reduces the period of each delivery cycle. Two methods were used for fabricating the Pt-coated metal: sputtering and electroplating. Of these two methods, the sputtered Pt-coated metal foam has a higher pumping rate; it also has a comparable recombination rate when compared to the electroplated Pt-coated metal foam. The only drawback of this catalytic reformer is that it consumes nickel scaffold. Considering long-term applications, the electroplated Pt metal foam was selected for drug delivery, where a controlled drug release rate of 2.2 μg  ±  0.3 μg per actuation pulse was achieved using 4 mW of power. (paper)

  9. 49 CFR 663.33 - Description of post-delivery audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Description of post-delivery audit. 663.33 Section 663.33 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PRE-AWARD AND POST-DELIVERY AUDITS OF ROLLING STOCK PURCHASES Post-Delivery Audits § 663.33 Description of...

  10. [Low urinary tract symptoms after Thierry's spatula delivery at first pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provansal, M; Bretelle, F; Bannier, M; Gamerre, M; Mazouni, C

    2007-11-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate prevalence of low urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) after Thierry's spatula delivery at first pregnancy. A retrospective study of 236 primiparous with instrumental delivery or spontaneous delivery who had delivered from January 2001 to December 2002. Low urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) were evaluated one year after delivery with a questionnaire. Incidence of LUTS was compared depending on mode of delivery. Of the 236 patients included, 88.1% replied to the questionnaire, 106 who delivered spontaneously and 102 who underwent Thierry's spatula delivery. The incidence of urinary incontinence was similar after instrumental deliveries and after spontaneous vaginal deliveries (34.9 versus 24.5%, p=0.10). In univariate analysis, symptoms of urinary urgency and urinary frequency were higher after instrumental delivery than after spontaneous delivery, respectively, 34.9 versus 22.5%, p=0.049 and 19.8 versus 8.8%, p=0.03. After controlling for confounding factors, no difference in LUTS was observed between the two groups; the respective adjusted odds-ratios (95% IC) were 1,5 (0.8-3) for urinary incontinence, 1.7 (0.9-3.5) for urgency and 2.5 (0.9-6.3) for urinary frequency. One year after delivery, one third of patients will present urinary incontinence and more than 50% will complain of bladder instability symptoms. Compared to spontaneous vaginal delivery, the use of Thierry's spatulas at first pregnancy does not induce higher risk of LUTS.

  11. CHANGING TRENDS IN CAESAREAN DELIVERY - A CLINICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annappa Shetty

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Today, there is a concern over the rising caesarean delivery both in the developed and developing countries across the world. It has been observed that both primary and repeat caesarean deliveries have been increasing at an alarming rate. Indications for caesarean deliveries also shows changing trends in the present scenario. The main aim of this study is to compare the caesarean delivery rates over the last one decade. The objective behind the study is to understand the contributing factors for the new trends. MATERIALS AND METHODS For this study, the data was collected in a retrospective manner from all the deliveries that occurred between July 1, 2005, to June 30, 2006, and July 2015 to June 30, 2016, in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Karwar Institute of Medical Science, Karwar. A cohort of 2752 delivered women were studied. Among the caesarean births, the indications for both the primary and repeat caesarean sections were studied. After analysing the caesarean births from total live births, the rate for both primary and repeat caesarean were calculated. RESULTS The caesarean delivery rate is increased from 167 to 263 for 1000 live births with increase in primary caesarean delivery rate from 101 (10.1% to 187 (18.7% per 1000 live births in last one decade. Foetal distress, cephalopelvic disproportion, arrest of descent, multiple gestations, breech presentation contributed to this increase. CONCLUSION There is an increase in the total caesarean rate with significant rise in the primary caesarean rate in the last one decade.

  12. Reoccurrence of retained placenta at vaginal delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolajsen, Sys; Løkkegaard, Ellen Christine Leth; Bergholt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and validate the diagnosis of retained placenta in nulliparous women and the risk of reoccurrence at subsequent vaginal delivery.......To estimate the prevalence and validate the diagnosis of retained placenta in nulliparous women and the risk of reoccurrence at subsequent vaginal delivery....

  13. 48 CFR 452.247-70 - Delivery Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delivery Location. 452.247-70 Section 452.247-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CLAUSES AND... Location. As prescribed in 447.302, insert a clause substantially as follows: Delivery Location (FEB 1988...

  14. PLGA Nanoparticles for Ultrasound-Mediated Gene Delivery to Solid Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marxa Figueiredo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on novel approaches in the field of nanotechnology-based carriers utilizing ultrasound stimuli as a means to spatially target gene delivery in vivo, using nanoparticles made with either poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA or other polymers. We specifically discuss the potential for gene delivery by particles that are echogenic (amenable to destruction by ultrasound composed either of polymers (PLGA, polystyrene or other contrast agent materials (Optison, SonoVue microbubbles. The use of ultrasound is an efficient tool to further enhance gene delivery by PLGA or other echogenic particles in vivo. Echogenic PLGA nanoparticles are an attractive strategy for ultrasound-mediated gene delivery since this polymer is currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for drug delivery and diagnostics in cancer, cardiovascular disease, and also other applications such as vaccines and tissue engineering. This paper will review recent successes and the potential of applying PLGA nanoparticles for gene delivery, which include (a echogenic PLGA used with ultrasound to enhance local gene delivery in tumors or muscle and (b PLGA nanoparticles currently under development, which could benefit in the future from ultrasound-enhanced tumor targeted gene delivery.

  15. Risk factors for unscheduled delivery in patients with placenta accreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Zachary S; Manuck, Tracy A; Eller, Alexandra G; Simons, Marilee; Silver, Robert M

    2014-03-01

    Patients with suspected placenta accreta have improved outcomes with scheduled delivery. Our objective was to identify risk factors for unscheduled delivery in patients with suspected placenta accreta. This was a cohort study of women with antenatally suspected placenta accreta. Women who delivered prior to a planned delivery date were compared with women who had a scheduled delivery. Data were analyzed using a Student t test, χ(2), logistic regression, and survival analyses. Variables included in the analyses were episodes of antenatal vaginal bleeding, preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), uterine contractions, prior cesarean deliveries, interpregnancy interval, parity, and patient demographic factors. A value of P accreta were identified. Thirty-eight (49.4%) had an unscheduled delivery. Demographics were similar between groups. Unscheduled patients delivered earlier (mean 32.3 vs 35.7 weeks, P accreta, those with antenatal vaginal bleeding were more likely to require unscheduled delivery. This risk increases further in the setting of PPROM and/or uterine contractions. These clinical factors should be considered when determining the optimal delivery gestational age for women with placental accreta. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Outcomes of vaginal delivery and cesarean in Mashhad Ghaem University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Boskabadi

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study showed in comparison with cesarean delivery, normal vaginal delivery provides better outcomes in terms of breast problems, breast feeding status, duration of labor and duration of maternal hospitalization for both mother and infant. So, adopting careful instructions in management and administration of deliveries will help the prevalence of making decisions for normal vaginal delivery and the recovery of delivery outcomes.

  17. Nonviral pulmonary delivery of siRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Olivia M; Kissel, Thomas

    2012-07-17

    RNA interference (RNAi) is an important part of the cell's defenses against viruses and other foreign genes. Moreover, the biotechnological exploitation of RNAi offers therapeutic potential for a range of diseases for which drugs are currently unavailable. Unfortunately, the small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that are central to RNAi in the cytoplasm are readily degradable by ubiquitous nucleases, are inefficiently targeted to desired organs and cell types, and are excreted quickly upon systemic injection. As a result, local administration techniques have been favored over the past few years, resulting in great success in the treatment of viral infections and other respiratory disorders. Because there are several advantages of pulmonary delivery over systemic administration, two of the four siRNA drugs currently in phase II clinical trials are delivered intranasally or by inhalation. The air-blood barrier, however, has only limited permeability toward large, hydrophilic biopharmaceuticals such as nucleic acids; in addition, the lung imposes intrinsic hurdles to efficient siRNA delivery. Thus, appropriate formulations and delivery devices are very much needed. Although many different formulations have been optimized for in vitro siRNA delivery to lung cells, only a few have been reported successful in vivo. In this Account, we discuss both obstacles to pulmonary siRNA delivery and the success stories that have been achieved thus far. The optimal pulmonary delivery vehicle should be neither cytotoxic nor immunogenic, should protect the payload from degradation by nucleases during the delivery process, and should mediate the intracellular uptake of siRNA. Further requirements include the improvement of the pharmacokinetics and lung distribution profiles of siRNA, the extension of lung retention times (through reduced recognition by macrophages), and the incorporation of reversible or stimuli-responsive binding of siRNA to allow for efficient release of the siRNAs at the

  18. 42 CFR 136a.15 - Health Service Delivery Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health Service Delivery Areas. 136a.15 Section 136a... Receive Care? § 136a.15 Health Service Delivery Areas. (a) The Indian Health Service will designate and... Federal Indian reservations and areas surrounding those reservations as Health Service Delivery Areas. (b...

  19. 27 CFR 28.217 - Consignment, shipment, and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Wine With Benefit of Drawback § 28.217 Consignment, shipment, and delivery. The consignment, shipment, and delivery of wines...

  20. Aptamer-Mediated Polymeric Vehicles for Enhanced Cell-Targeted Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kei X; Danquah, Michael K; Sidhu, Amandeep; Yon, Lau Sie; Ongkudon, Clarence M

    2018-02-08

    The search for smart delivery systems for enhanced pre-clinical and clinical pharmaceutical delivery and cell targeting continues to be a major biomedical research endeavor owing to differences in the physicochemical characteristics and physiological effects of drug molecules, and this affects the delivery mechanisms to elicit maximum therapeutic effects. Targeted drug delivery is a smart evolution essential to address major challenges associated with conventional drug delivery systems. These challenges mostly result in poor pharmacokinetics due to the inability of the active pharmaceutical ingredients to specifically act on malignant cells thus, causing poor therapeutic index and toxicity to surrounding normal cells. Aptamers are oligonucleotides with engineered affinities to bind specifically to their cognate targets. Aptamers have gained significant interests as effective targeting elements for enhanced therapeutic delivery as they can be generated to specifically bind to wide range of targets including proteins, peptides, ions, cells and tissues. Notwithstanding, effective delivery of aptamers as therapeutic vehicles is challenged by cell membrane electrostatic repulsion, endonuclease degradation, low pH cleavage, and binding conformation stability. The application of molecularly engineered biodegradable and biocompatible polymeric particles with tunable features such as surface area and chemistry, particulate size distribution and toxicity creates opportunities to develop smart aptamer-mediated delivery systems for controlled drug release. This article discusses opportunities for particulate aptamer-drug formulations to advance current drug delivery modalities by navigating active ingredients through cellular and biomolecular traffic to target sites for sustained and controlled release at effective therapeutic dosages while minimizing systemic cytotoxic effects. A proposal for a novel drug-polymer-aptamer-polymer (DPAP) design of aptamer-drug formulation with

  1. Aerosolized liposomes with dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine enhance pulmonary insulin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chono, Sumio; Fukuchi, Rie; Seki, Toshinobu; Morimoto, Kazuhiro

    2009-07-20

    The pulmonary insulin delivery characteristics of liposomes were examined. Aerosolized liposomes containing insulin were administered into rat lungs and the enhancing effect on insulin delivery was evaluated by changes of plasma glucose levels. Liposomes with dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) enhanced pulmonary insulin delivery in rats, however, liposomes with dilauroyl, dimyristoyl, distearoyl or dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine did not. Liposomes with DPPC also enhanced the in vitro permeation of FITC dextran (Mw 4400, FD-4) through the calu-3 cell monolayer by reducing the transepithelial electrical resistance and did not harm lung tissues in rats. These findings suggest that liposomes with DPPC enhance pulmonary insulin delivery by opening the epithelial cell space in the pulmonary mucosa not mucosal cell damage. Liposomes with DPPC could be useful as a pulmonary delivery system for peptide and protein drugs.

  2. A review on target drug delivery: magnetic microspheres

    OpenAIRE

    Amit Chandna; Deepa Batra; Satinder Kakar; Ramandeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Novel drug delivery system aims to deliver the drug at a rate directed by the needs of the body during the period of treatment, and target the active entity to the site of action. A number of novel drug delivery systems have emerged encompassing various routes of administration, to achieve controlled and targeted drug delivery, magnetic micro carriers being one of them. Magnetic microsphere is newer approach in pharmaceutical field. Magnetic microspheres as an alternative to traditional ra...

  3. The democratisation of meal delivery service in France

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Szu-Pu

    2017-01-01

    Master's thesis in International hotel and tourism management : Culinary leadership and innovation The purpose of this study was to explore the meal delivery service in French market and the customer’s opinion in the future meal delivery business. In addition, I first did the research basically on the evolution of history and the existing of delivery business in France. Then, I examined the dining habits and behaviours during the weekday of French citizen and their opinions in the futur...

  4. Second-stage primary Caesarean deliveries: Are maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    variables were nonsignificant. None of the women or their babies needed readmission to hospital or transfer to an intensive care unit. Table I: Demographic data of mother and neonate following Caesarean delivery in the first and second stages of labour. Demographics. Caesarean delivery 2nd stage (n = 53). Caesarean.

  5. Biology Education Delivery for Attaining Health-specific Millennium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biology Education Delivery for Attaining Health-specific Millennium ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... This study investigated the strategies for ensuring effective delivery of Biology Education at the secondary school level ...

  6. Intradermal delivery of vaccines: potential benefits and current challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickling, JK; Jones, KR; Friede, M; Chen, D; Kristensen, D

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Delivery of vaccine antigens to the dermis and/or epidermis of human skin (i.e. intradermal delivery) might be more efficient than injection into the muscle or subcutaneous tissue, thereby reducing the volumes of antigen. This is known as dose-sparing and has been demonstrated in clinical trials with some, but not all, vaccines. Dose-sparing could be beneficial to immunization programmes by potentially reducing the costs of purchase, distribution and storage of vaccines; increasing vaccine availability and effectiveness. The data obtained with intradermal delivery of some vaccines are encouraging and warrant further study and development; however significant gaps in knowledge and operational challenges such as reformulation, optimizing vaccine presentation and development of novel devices to aid intradermal vaccine delivery need to be addressed. Modelling of the costs and potential savings resulting from intradermal delivery should be done to provide realistic expectations of the potential benefits and to support cases for investment. Implementation and uptake of intradermal vaccine delivery requires further research and development, which depends upon collaboration between multiple stakeholders in the field of vaccination. PMID:21379418

  7. Nature engineered diatom biosilica as drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthappa, U T; Brahmkhatri, Varsha; Sriram, G; Jung, Ho-Young; Yu, Jingxian; Kurkuri, Nikita; Aminabhavi, Tejraj M; Altalhi, Tariq; Neelgund, Gururaj M; Kurkuri, Mahaveer D

    2018-05-14

    Diatoms, unicellular photosynthetic algae covered with siliceous cell wall, are also called frustule. These are the most potential naturally available materials for the development of cost-effective drug delivery systems because of their excellent biocompatibility, high surface area, low cost and ease of surface modification. Mesoporous silica materials such as MCM-41 and SBA-15 have been extensively used in drug delivery area. Their synthesis is challenging, time consuming, requires toxic chemicals and are energy intensive, making the entire process expensive and non-viable. Therefore, it is necessary to explore alternative materials. Surprisingly, nature has provided some exciting materials called diatoms; biosilica is one such a material that can be potentially used as a drug delivery vehicle. The present review focuses on different types of diatom species used in drug delivery with respect to their structural properties, morphology, purification process and surface functionalization. In this review, recent advances along with their limitations as well as the future scope to develop them as potential drug delivery vehicles are discussed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Analysis and Improvement of Healthcare Delivery Processes in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... delivery processes given the district's limited human and financial resources. ... Throughout this period of instability and unrest, Lacor Hospital has delivered critical ... and; strengthen the hospital's decision-making around healthcare delivery ...

  9. Cyclodextrins in delivery systems: Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Tiwari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclodextrins (CDs are a family of cyclic oligosaccharides with a hydrophilic outer surface and a lipophilic central cavity. CD molecules are relatively large with a number of hydrogen donors and acceptors and, thus in general, they do not permeate lipophilic membranes. In the pharmaceutical industry, CDs have mainly been used as complexing agents to increase aqueous solubility of poorly soluble drugs and to increase their bioavailability and stability. CDs are used in pharmaceutical applications for numerous purposes, including improving the bioavailability of drugs. Current CD-based therapeutics is described and possible future applications are discussed. CD-containing polymers are reviewed and their use in drug delivery is presented. Of specific interest is the use of CD-containing polymers to provide unique capabilities for the delivery of nucleic acids. Studies in both humans and animals have shown that CDs can be used to improve drug delivery from almost any type of drug formulation. Currently, there are approximately 30 different pharmaceutical products worldwide containing drug/CD complexes in the market.

  10. Sustained subconjunctival protein delivery using a thermosetting gel delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, Erin R; Amaral, Juan; Becerra, S Patricia; Lutz, Robert J

    2010-02-01

    An effective treatment modality for posterior eye diseases would provide prolonged delivery of therapeutic agents, including macromolecules, to eye tissues using a safe and minimally invasive method. The goal of this study was to assess the ability of a thermosetting gel to deliver a fluorescently labeled protein, Alexa 647 ovalbumin, to the choroid and retina of rats following a single subconjunctival injection of the gel. Additional experiments were performed to compare in vitro to in vivo ovalbumin release rates from the gel. The ovalbumin content of the eye tissues was monitored by spectrophotometric assays of tissue extracts of Alexa 647 ovalbumin from dissected sclera, choroid, and retina at time points ranging from 2 h to 14 days. At the same time points, fluorescence microscopy images of tissue samples were also obtained. Measurement of intact ovalbumin was verified by LDS-PAGE analysis of the tissue extract solutions. In vitro release of Alexa 488 ovalbumin into 37 degrees C PBS solutions from ovalbumin-loaded gel pellets was also monitored over time by spectrophotometric assay. In vivo ovalbumin release rates were determined by measurement of residual ovalbumin extracted from gel pellets removed from rat eyes at various time intervals. Our results indicate that ovalbumin concentrations can be maintained at measurable levels in the sclera, choroid, and retina of rats for up to 14 days using the thermosetting gel delivery system. The concentration of ovalbumin exhibited a gradient that decreased from sclera to choroid and to retina. The in vitro release rate profiles were similar to the in vivo release profiles. Our findings suggest that the thermosetting gel system may be a feasible method for safe and convenient sustained delivery of proteins to choroidal and retinal tissue in the posterior segments of the eye.

  11. Poly(amido amine) dendrimers in oral delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellepeddi, Venkata K; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers have been extensively investigated for oral delivery applications due to their ability to translocate across the gastrointestinal epithelium. In this Review, we highlight recent advances in the evaluation of PAMAM dendrimers as oral drug delivery carriers. Specifically, toxicity, mechanisms of transepithelial transport, models of the intestinal epithelial barrier including isolated human intestinal tissue model, detection of dendrimers, and surface modification are discussed. We also highlight evaluation of various PAMAM dendrimer-drug conjugates for their ability to transport across gastrointestinal epithelium for improved oral bioavailability. In addition, current challenges and future trends for clinical translation of PAMAM dendrimers as carriers for oral delivery are discussed.

  12. Development of a gastroretentive pulsatile drug delivery platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thitinan, Sumalee; McConville, Jason T

    2012-04-01

    To develop a novel gastroretentive pulsatile drug delivery platform by combining the advantages of floating dosage forms for the stomach and pulsatile drug delivery systems. A gastric fluid impermeable capsule body was used as a vessel to contain one or more drug layer(s) as well as one or more lag-time controlling layer(s). A controlled amount of air was sealed in the innermost portion of the capsule body to reduce the overall density of the drug delivery platform, enabling gastric floatation. An optimal mass fill inside the gastric fluid impermeable capsule body enabled buoyancy in a vertical orientation to provide a constant surface area for controlled erosion of the lag-time controlling layer. The lag-time controlling layer consisted of a swellable polymer, which rapidly formed a gel to seal the mouth of capsule body and act as a barrier to gastric fluid ingress. By varying the composition of the lag-time controlling layer, it was possible to selectively program the onset of the pulsatile delivery of a drug. This new delivery platform offers a new method of delivery for a variety of suitable drugs targeted in chronopharmaceutical therapy. This strategy could ultimately improve drug efficacy and patient compliance, and reduce harmful side effects by scaling back doses of drug administered. © 2012 The Authors. JPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  13. Evaluating Student Perceptions of Course Delivery Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramorski, Tom; Madan, Manu S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate effectiveness of course delivery mode on three dimensions: values, networking opportunities and learning. While students and their future employers are two important customers for the business program, we focus on the perception of students regarding the effectiveness of course delivery mode on program performance. The…

  14. Augmenting convection-enhanced delivery through simultaneous co-delivery of fluids and laser energy with a fiberoptic microneedle device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, R. Lyle; Ecker, Tobias; Andriani, Rudy; Robertson, John; Rossmeisl, John; Rylander, Christopher G.

    2013-03-01

    This paper describes a new infusion catheter, based on our fiberoptic microneedle device (FMD), designed with the objective of photothermally augmenting the volumetric dispersal of infused therapeutics. We hypothesize that concurrent delivery of laser energy, causing mild localized photothermal heating (4-5 °C), will increase the spatial dispersal of infused chemotherapy over a long infusion period. Agarose brain phantoms, which mimic the brain's mechanical and fluid conduction properties, were constructed from 0.6 wt% Agarose in aqueous solution. FMDs were fabricated by adhering a multimode fiberoptic to a silica capillary tube, such that their flat-polished tips co-terminated. Continuous wave 1064 nm light was delivered simultaneously with FD&C Blue #2 (5%) dye into phantoms. Preliminary experiments, where co-delivery was tested against fluid delivery alone (through symmetrical infusions into in vivo rodent models), were also conducted. In the Agarose phantoms, volumetric dispersal was demonstrated to increase by more than 3-fold over a four-hour infusion time frame for co-delivery relative to infusion-only controls. Both forward and backward (reflux) infusions were also observed to increase slightly. Increased volumetric dispersal was demonstrated with co-delivery in an in vivo rodent model. Photothermal augmentation of infusion was demonstrated to influence the directionality and increase the volume of dye dispersal in Agarose brain phantoms. With further development, FMDs may enable a greater distribution of chemotherapeutic agents during CED therapy of brain tumors.

  15. Elastin-Like Recombinamers As Smart Drug Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, F Javier; Santos, Mercedes; Ibanez-Fonseca, Arturo; Pina, Maria Jesus; Serrano, Sofía

    2018-02-19

    Drug delivery systems that are able to control the release of bioactive molecules and designed to carry drugs to target sites are of particular interest for tissue therapy. Moreover, systems comprising materials that can respond to environmental stimuli and promote self-assembly and higher order supramolecular organization are especially useful in the biomedical field. Objetive: This review focuses on biomaterials suitable for this purpose and that include elastin-like recombinamers (ELRs), a class of proteinaceous polymers bioinspired by natural elastin, designed using recombinant technologies. The self-assembly and thermoresponsive behaviour of these systems, along with their biodegradability, biocompatibility and well-defined composition as a result of their tailormade design, make them particularly attractive for controlled drug delivery. ELR-based delivery systems that allow targeted delivery are reviewed, especially ELR-drug recombinant fusion constructs, ELR-drug systems chemically bioconjugated in their monomeric and soluble forms, and drug encapsulation by nanoparticle-forming ELRs. Subsequently, the review focuses on those drug carriers in which smart release is triggered by pH or temperature with a particular focus on cancer treatments. Systems for controlled drug release based on depots and hydrogels that act as both a support and reservoir in which drugs can be stored will be described, and their applications in drug delivery discussed. Finally, smart drug-delivery systems not based on ELRs, including those comprising proteins, synthetic polymers and non-polymeric systems, will also be briefly discussed. Several different constructions based on ELRs are potential candidates for controlled drug delivery to be applied in advanced biomedical treatments. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Genetically engineered nanocarriers for drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi P

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pu Shi, Joshua A Gustafson, J Andrew MacKayDepartment of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: Cytotoxicity, low water solubility, rapid clearance from circulation, and off-target side-effects are common drawbacks of conventional small-molecule drugs. To overcome these shortcomings, many multifunctional nanocarriers have been proposed to enhance drug delivery. In concept, multifunctional nanoparticles might carry multiple agents, control release rate, biodegrade, and utilize target-mediated drug delivery; however, the design of these particles presents many challenges at the stage of pharmaceutical development. An emerging solution to improve control over these particles is to turn to genetic engineering. Genetically engineered nanocarriers are precisely controlled in size and structure and can provide specific control over sites for chemical attachment of drugs. Genetically engineered drug carriers that assemble nanostructures including nanoparticles and nanofibers can be polymeric or non-polymeric. This review summarizes the recent development of applications in drug and gene delivery utilizing nanostructures of polymeric genetically engineered drug carriers such as elastin-like polypeptides, silk-like polypeptides, and silk-elastin-like protein polymers, and non-polymeric genetically engineered drug carriers such as vault proteins and viral proteins.Keywords: polymeric drug carrier, non-polymeric drug carrier, gene delivery, GE drug carriers

  17. Mode of delivery after obstetric anal sphincter injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmarkar, Roopali; Bhide, Alka; Digesu, Alex; Khullar, Vik; Fernando, Ruwan

    2015-11-01

    To assess the effect of vaginal delivery and caesarean section on faecal symptoms and structure and function of anal sphincter in women who sustained obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) in their previous pregnancy and were advised about the mode of delivery based on faecal incontinence symptoms, anal manometry and endoanal ultrasound. It is a descriptive study on a cohort of women who had OASIS from 2006 to 2013. They were assessed after OASIS and during subsequent pregnancy with a questionnaire, endoanal ultrasound and anal manometry. Vaginal delivery was recommended to asymptomatic women with normal investigations. Elective caesarean section was recommended to women with faecal symptoms, anal sphincter defects of more than 30° or low resting or incremental anal pressures. All women were reassessed after subsequent delivery. Fifty women who had pregnancies after OASIS, were seen after OASIS, during subsequent pregnancy and after the second delivery. 15 women had faecal symptoms after OASIS. The external, internal and combined anal sphincter defects were seen in 13, 11 and 9 women respectively. Low resting and incremental pressure were seen in 15 and 11 women respectively. Caesarean section was done in 22 women and 28 women delivered vaginally. Worsening of faecal symptoms and reduction in anal pressures were not observed in planned vaginal delivery or elective caesarean section groups. Faecal symptoms were worse with reduced anal pressures in three women from the planned caesarean section group. One of the women had a vaginal delivery and two women had emergency caesarean section at 7cm and 10cm dilatation. There were no new sphincter defects or recurrent OASIS in any of the women in the study group. Decision about the mode of delivery of pregnancy after OASIS based on symptoms, anal manometry and endoanal ultrasound helps in preserving the anal sphincter function and avoiding unnecessary caesarean sections. Further follow-up of these patients is essential

  18. Hydraulic Hybrid Parcel Delivery Truck Deployment, Testing & Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, Jean-Baptiste [Calstart Incorporated, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2014-03-07

    Although hydraulic hybrid systems have shown promise over the last few years, commercial deployment of these systems has primarily been limited to Class 8 refuse trucks. In 2005, the Hybrid Truck Users Forum initiated the Parcel Delivery Working Group including the largest parcel delivery fleets in North America. The goal of the working group was to evaluate and accelerate commercialization of hydraulic hybrid technology for parcel delivery vehicles. FedEx Ground, Purolator and United Parcel Service (UPS) took delivery of the world’s first commercially available hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery trucks in early 2012. The vehicle chassis includes a Parker Hannifin hydraulic hybrid drive system, integrated and assembled by Freightliner Custom Chassis Corp., with a body installed by Morgan Olson. With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, CALSTART and its project partners assessed the performance, reliability, maintainability and fleet acceptance of three pre-production Class 6 hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery vehicles using information and data from in-use data collection and on-road testing. This document reports on the deployment of these vehicles operated by FedEx Ground, Purolator and UPS. The results presented provide a comprehensive overview of the performance of commercial hydraulic hybrid vehicles in parcel delivery applications. This project also informs fleets and manufacturers on the overall performance of hydraulic hybrid vehicles, provides insights on how the technology can be both improved and more effectively used. The key findings and recommendations of this project fall into four major categories: -Performance, -Fleet deployment, -Maintenance, -Business case. Hydraulic hybrid technology is relatively new to the market, as commercial vehicles have been introduced only in the past few years in refuse and parcel delivery applications. Successful demonstration could pave the way for additional purchases of hydraulic hybrid vehicles throughout the

  19. Intraperiodontal pocket: An ideal route for local antimicrobial drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeja C Nair

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal pockets act as a natural reservoir filled with gingival crevicular fluid for the controlled release delivery of antimicrobials directly. This article reflects the present status of nonsurgical controlled local intrapocket delivery of antimicrobials in the treatment of periodontitis. These sites have specialty in terms of anatomy, permeability, and their ability to retain a delivery system for a desired length of time. A number of antimicrobial products and the composition of the delivery systems, its use, clinical results, and their release are summarized. The goal in using an intrapocket device for the delivery of an antimicrobial agent is the achievement and maintenance of therapeutic drug concentration for the desired period of time. Novel controlled drug delivery system are capable of improving patient compliance as well as therapeutic efficacy with precise control of the rate by which a particular drug dosage is released from a delivery system without the need for frequent administration. These are considered superior drug delivery system because of low cost, greater stability, non-toxicity, biocompatibility, non-immunogenicity, and are biodegradable in nature. This review also focus on the importance and ideal features of periodontal pockets as a drug delivery platform for designing a suitable dosage form along with its potential advantage and limitations. The microbes in the periodontal pocket could destroy periodontal tissues, and a complete knowledge of these as well as an ideal treatment strategy could be helpful in treating this disease.

  20. Model for determining and optimizing delivery performance in industrial systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fechete Flavia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance means achieving organizational objectives regardless of their nature and variety, and even overcoming them. Improving performance is one of the major goals of any company. Achieving the global performance means not only obtaining the economic performance, it is a must to take into account other functions like: function of quality, delivery, costs and even the employees satisfaction. This paper aims to improve the delivery performance of an industrial system due to their very low results. The delivery performance took into account all categories of performance indicators, such as on time delivery, backlog efficiency or transport efficiency. The research was focused on optimizing the delivery performance of the industrial system, using linear programming. Modeling the delivery function using linear programming led to obtaining precise quantities to be produced and delivered each month by the industrial system in order to minimize their transport cost, satisfying their customers orders and to control their stock. The optimization led to a substantial improvement in all four performance indicators that concern deliveries.

  1. 2011 Rita Schaffer lecture: nanoparticles for intracellular nucleic acid delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jordan J

    2012-07-01

    Nanoparticles are a promising technology for delivery of new types of therapeutics. A polymer library approach has allowed engineering of polymeric particles that are particularly effective for the delivery of DNA and siRNA to human cells. Certain chemical structural motifs, degradable linkages, hydrophobicity, and biophysical properties are key for successful intracellular delivery. Small differences to biomaterial structure, and especially the type of degradable linkage in the polymers, can be critical for successful delivery of siRNA vs. DNA. Furthermore, subtle changes to biomaterial structure can facilitate cell-type gene delivery specificity between human brain cancer cells and healthy cells as well as between human retinal endothelial cells and epithelial cells. These polymeric nanoparticles are effective for nucleic acid delivery in a broad range of human cell types and have applications to regenerative medicine, ophthalmology, and cancer among many other biomedical research areas.

  2. Graphene as multifunctional delivery platform in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejabat, Mojgan; Charbgoo, Fahimeh; Ramezani, Mohammad

    2017-08-01

    The biomedical applications of graphene-based nanomaterials including drug and gene delivery have grown rapidly in the past few years. This is due to its high surface area that results in high cargo loading capacity. It is demonstrated that graphene can improve drug efficacy without increasing the dose of the chemotherapeutic agent in cancer treatment. Considering these valuable benefits of graphene, this review focused on the newest advancements in drug and gene delivery systems using graphene and unveiling advantages and disadvantages of different graphene-based materials in introducing an effective cargo delivery system for cancer therapy. Different approaches for reducing cytotoxic impacts of graphene oxide and production of biocompatible delivery platform were also reviewed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 2355-2367, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. User Involvement as a Configurable Integrated Product Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vibæk, Kasper Sánchez

    2009-01-01

    as a configurable integrated product delivery then the architect can – using slightly provocatively a term from the production industry – be seen a configuration manager of processes shaping our physical surroundings. Products focusing on standardisation and mass customisation of the building process rather than......Integrated product deliveries as known from the product industry are beginning to emerge in construction. These are normally considered as physical systems that can be configured and customised for a specific delivery to form part of a unique construction project and help to reduce the complexity...... relevant field for development of customisable integrated product deliveries in construction. This development and its causes challenge the traditional role of the architect as the centre point in the creation of physical wholes or entireties. If user involvement, as argued, can be considered...

  4. The Research Progress of Targeted Drug Delivery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jiayin; Ting, Xizi Liang; Zhu, Junjie

    2017-06-01

    Targeted drug delivery system (DDS) means to selectively transport drugs to targeted tissues, organs, and cells through a variety of drugs carrier. It is usually designed to improve the pharmacological and therapeutic properties of conventional drugs and to overcome problems such as limited solubility, drug aggregation, poor bio distribution and lack of selectivity, controlling drug release carrier and to reduce normal tissue damage. With the characteristics of nontoxic and biodegradable, it can increase the retention of drug in lesion site and the permeability, improve the concentration of the drug in lesion site. at present, there are some kinds of DDS using at test phase, such as slow controlled release drug delivery system, targeted drug delivery systems, transdermal drug delivery system, adhesion dosing system and so on. This paper makes a review for DDS.

  5. Liposome-based drug delivery in breast cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, John W

    2002-01-01

    Drug delivery systems can in principle provide enhanced efficacy and/or reduced toxicity for anticancer agents. Long circulating macromolecular carriers such as liposomes can exploit the 'enhanced permeability and retention' effect for preferential extravasation from tumor vessels. Liposomal anthracyclines have achieved highly efficient drug encapsulation, resulting in significant anticancer activity with reduced cardiotoxicity, and include versions with greatly prolonged circulation such as liposomal daunorubicin and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin. Pegylated liposomal doxorubucin has shown substantial efficacy in breast cancer treatment both as monotherapy and in combination with other chemotherapeutics. Additional liposome constructs are being developed for the delivery of other drugs. The next generation of delivery systems will include true molecular targeting; immunoliposomes and other ligand-directed constructs represent an integration of biological components capable of tumor recognition with delivery technologies

  6. Simulation of robotic courier deliveries in hospital distribution services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, M D; Felder, R A; Kumar, A

    2000-06-01

    Flexible automation in the form of robotic couriers holds the potential for decreasing operating costs while improving delivery performance in hospital delivery systems. This paper discusses the use of simulation modeling to analyze the costs, benefits, and performance tradeoffs related to the installation and use of a fleet of robotic couriers within hospital facilities. The results of this study enable a better understanding of the delivery and transportation requirements of hospitals. Specifically, we examine how a fleet of robotic couriers can meet the performance requirements of the system while maintaining cost efficiency. We show that for clinical laboratory and pharmaceutical deliveries a fleet of six robotic couriers can achieve significant performance gains in terms of turn-around time and delivery variability over the current system of three human couriers per shift or 13 FTEs. Specifically, the simulation results indicate that using robotic couriers to perform both clinical laboratory and pharmaceutical deliveries would result in a 34% decrease in turn-around time, and a 38% decrease in delivery variability. In addition, a break-even analysis indicated that a positive net present value occurs if nine or more FTEs are eliminated with a resulting ROI of 12%. This analysis demonstrates that simulation can be a valuable tool for examining health care distribution services and indicates that a robotic courier system may yield significant benefits over a traditional courier system in this application.

  7. Development and Evaluation of Topical Gabapentin Formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Natalie; Hiom, Sarah; Birchall, James C.

    2017-01-01

    Topical delivery of gabapentin is desirable to treat peripheral neuropathic pain conditions whilst avoiding systemic side effects. To date, reports of topical gabapentin delivery in vitro have been variable and dependent on the skin model employed, primarily involving rodent and porcine models. In this study a variety of topical gabapentin formulations were investigated, including Carbopol® hydrogels containing various permeation enhancers, and a range of proprietary bases including a compounded Lipoderm® formulation; furthermore microneedle facilitated delivery was used as a positive control. Critically, permeation of gabapentin across a human epidermal membrane in vitro was assessed using Franz-type diffusion cells. Subsequently this data was contextualised within the wider scope of the literature. Although reports of topical gabapentin delivery have been shown to vary, largely dependent upon the skin model used, this study demonstrated that 6% (w/w) gabapentin 0.75% (w/w) Carbopol® hydrogels containing 5% (w/w) DMSO or 70% (w/w) ethanol and a compounded 10% (w/w) gabapentin Lipoderm® formulation were able to facilitate permeation of the molecule across human skin. Further pre-clinical and clinical studies are required to investigate the topical delivery performance and pharmacodynamic actions of prospective formulations. PMID:28867811

  8. 41 CFR 109-45.303-3 - Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delivery. 109-45.303-3 Section 109-45.303-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations..., ABANDONMENT, OR DESTRUCTION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY 45.3-Sale of Personal Property § 109-45.303-3 Delivery. (a...

  9. Gas deliveries from Haltenbanken/North Sea; Gassleveranser Haltenbanken/Nordsjoeen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramm, H.H.

    1995-12-31

    The conference paper relates to the development and delivery of natural gas from the Haltenbanken area and the North Sea on the Norwegian continental shelf. Alternatives of field developments and pipelines together with the allocation of contracts for securing the contractual delivery of natural gas to the European continent in future and an alternative delivery to the Scandinavian countries, are discussed. 2 figs.

  10. 48 CFR 52.211-9 - Desired and Required Time of Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and rejected. (End of clause) Alternate I (APR 1984). If the delivery schedule is expressed in terms... the ordinary mails. Alternate II (APR 1984). If the delivery schedule is expressed in terms of... that propose delivery of a quantity under such terms or conditions that delivery will not clearly fall...

  11. Determinants of Home Delivery among Women attending Antenatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Abstract. Unskilled home delivery is a threat to maternal and child health. ... home delivery after attending antenatal services, this study employed a cross-sectional design and a non-probability purposive ... deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa.

  12. blood transfusion requirement during caesarean delivery: risk factors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PLWAs are getting pregnant and may require operative delivery on account of Preventing ... abnormalities such as bone marrow depression, anaemia9 and ... operative clinical status up to 48 hours post-delivery or death. Transfusion rate was.

  13. A study on nanodiamond-based drug delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jing; Zhang Xiaoyong; Zhu Ying; Li Wenxin; Huang Qing

    2010-01-01

    A multifunctional drug delivery system based on nanodiamonds (NDs) has been developed. FITC, HCPT and TF were absorbed on NDs successively to form the multifunctional complex. The NDs and ND complex samples were characterized by TEM, FR-IR and UV-V. The results indicated that this drug delivery system is a high loading system. Efficacy of the drug delivery system on Hela cell was evaluated with MTT assays and fluorescence microscopy. The results show that multifunction of the NDs complex include fluorescence, targeting and high efficacy. (authors)

  14. Focused ultrasound-facilitated brain drug delivery using optimized nanodroplets: vaporization efficiency dictates large molecular delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shih-Ying; Fix, Samantha M.; Arena, Christopher B.; Chen, Cherry C.; Zheng, Wenlan; Olumolade, Oluyemi O.; Papadopoulou, Virginie; Novell, Anthony; Dayton, Paul A.; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2018-02-01

    Focused ultrasound with nanodroplets could facilitate localized drug delivery after vaporization with potentially improved in vivo stability, drug payload, and minimal interference outside of the focal zone compared with microbubbles. While the feasibility of blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening using nanodroplets has been previously reported, characterization of the associated delivery has not been achieved. It was hypothesized that the outcome of drug delivery was associated with the droplet’s sensitivity to acoustic energy, and can be modulated with the boiling point of the liquid core. Therefore, in this study, octafluoropropane (OFP) and decafluorobutane (DFB) nanodroplets were used both in vitro for assessing their relative vaporization efficiency with high-speed microscopy, and in vivo for delivering molecules with a size relevant to proteins (40 kDa dextran) to the murine brain. It was found that at low pressures (300-450 kPa), OFP droplets vaporized into a greater number of microbubbles compared to DFB droplets at higher pressures (750-900 kPa) in the in vitro study. In the in vivo study, successful delivery was achieved with OFP droplets at 300 kPa and 450 kPa without evidence of cavitation damage using ¼ dosage, compared to DFB droplets at 900 kPa where histology indicated tissue damage due to inertial cavitation. In conclusion, the vaporization efficiency of nanodroplets positively impacted the amount of molecules delivered to the brain. The OFP droplets due to the higher vaporization efficiency served as better acoustic agents to deliver large molecules efficiently to the brain compared with the DFB droplets.

  15. Postpartum urinary tract infection by mode of delivery: a Danish nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Tina Djernis; Krebs, Lone; Loekkegaard, Ellen Christine Leth; Rasmussen, Steen Christian; Glavind, Julie; Clausen, Tine Dalsgaard

    2018-03-14

    To examine the association between postpartum urinary tract infection and intended mode of delivery as well as actual mode of delivery. Retrospective cohort study. All live births in Denmark between 2004 and 2010 (n=450 856). Births were classified by intended caesarean delivery (n=45 053) or intended vaginal delivery (n=405 803), and by actual mode of delivery: spontaneous vaginal delivery, operative vaginal delivery, emergency or planned caesarean delivery in labour or prelabour. The primary outcome measure was postpartum urinary tract infection (n=16 295) within 30 days post partum, defined as either a diagnosis of urinary tract infection in the National Patient Registry or redemption of urinary tract infection-specific antibiotics recorded in the Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. We found that 4.6% of women with intended caesarean delivery and 3.5% of women with intended vaginal delivery were treated for postpartum urinary tract infection.Women with intended caesarean delivery had a significantly increased risk of postpartum urinary tract infection compared with women with intended vaginal delivery (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.27 to 1.40), after adjustment for age at delivery, smoking, body mass index, educational level, gestational diabetes mellitus, infection during pregnancy, birth weight, preterm delivery, preterm prelabour rupture of membranes, pre-eclampsia, parity and previous caesarean delivery (adjusted OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.46).Using actual mode of delivery as exposure, all types of operative delivery had an equally increased risk of postpartum urinary tract infection compared with spontaneous vaginal delivery. Compared with intended vaginal delivery, intended caesarean delivery was significantly associated with a higher risk of postpartum urinary tract infection. Future studies should focus on reducing routine catheterisation prior to operative vaginal delivery as well as improving procedures related to catheterisation. © Article author

  16. Adulteration of proprietary Chinese medicines and health products with undeclared drugs: experience of a tertiary toxicology laboratory in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Chor Kwan; Chen, Sammy Pak Lam; Lee, Hencher Han Chih; Lam, Ying Hoo; Ng, Sau Wah; Chen, Mo Lung; Tang, Magdalene Huen Yin; Chan, Suzanne Suk San; Ng, Candy Wai Yan; Cheung, Jana Wing Lan; Chan, Tina Yee Ching; Lau, Nike Kwai Cheung; Chong, Yeow Kuan; Mak, Tony Wing Lai

    2018-01-01

    Proprietary Chinese medicines (pCMs) and health products, generally believed to be natural and safe, are gaining popularity worldwide. However, the safety of pCMs and health products has been severely compromised by the practice of adulteration. The current study aimed to examine the problem of adulteration of pCMs and health products in Hong Kong. The present study was conducted in a tertiary referral clinical toxicology laboratory in Hong Kong. All cases involving the use of pCMs or health products, which were subsequently confirmed to contain undeclared adulterants, from 2005 to 2015 were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 404 cases involving the use of 487 adulterated pCMs or health products with a total of 1234 adulterants were identified. The adulterants consisted of approved drugs, banned drugs, drug analogues and animal thyroid tissue. The six most common categories of adulterants detected were nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (17.7%), anorectics (15.3%), corticosteroids (13.8%), diuretics and laxatives (11.4%), oral antidiabetic agents (10.0%) and erectile dysfunction drugs (6.0%). Sibutramine was the most common adulterant (n = 155). The reported sources of these illicit products included over-the-counter drug stores, the internet and Chinese medicine practitioners. A significant proportion of patients (65.1%) had adverse effects attributable to these illicit products, including 14 severe and two fatal cases. Psychosis, iatrogenic Cushing syndrome and hypoglycaemia were the three most frequently encountered adverse effects. Adulteration of pCMs and health products with undeclared drugs poses severe health hazards. Public education and effective regulatory measures are essential to address the problem. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Cell and biomolecule delivery for regenerative medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ian O; Ma, Peter X

    2010-01-01

    Regenerative medicine is an exciting field that aims to create regenerative alternatives to harvest tissues for transplantation. In this approach, the delivery of cells and biological molecules plays a central role. The scaffold (synthetic temporary extracellular matrix) delivers cells to the regenerative site and provides three-dimensional environments for the cells. To fulfil these functions, we design biodegradable polymer scaffolds with structural features on multiple size scales. To enhance positive cell–material interactions, we design nano-sized structural features in the scaffolds to mimic the natural extracellular matrix. We also integrate micro-sized pore networks to facilitate mass transport and neo tissue regeneration. We also design novel polymer devices and self-assembled nanospheres for biomolecule delivery to recapitulate key events in developmental and wound healing processes. Herein, we present recent work in biomedical polymer synthesis, novel processing techniques, surface engineering and biologic delivery. Examples of enhanced cellular/tissue function and regenerative outcomes of these approaches are discussed to demonstrate the excitement of the biomimetic scaffold design and biologic delivery in regenerative medicine. PMID:27877317

  18. Force delivery of Ni-Ti coil springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhartsberger, C; Seidenbusch, W

    1996-01-01

    Sentalloy springs (GAC, Central Islip, N.Y.) of the open and closed type were investigated with a special designed device. The closed coil springs were subjected to a tensile and the open coil springs to a compression test. After a first measurement, the springs were activated for a period of 4 weeks and then reinvestigated with the same procedure. It could be shown distinctly that, with the different coil springs, the force delivery given by the producer could be achieved only within certain limits. To remain in the martensitic plateau, changed activation ranges, and for the Sentalloy coil springs white and red of the open and closed type, also changed force deliveries had to be taken into account. There was a distinct decrease in force delivery between the first and second measurement. After considering the loading curves of all the Sentalloy coil springs and choosing the right activation range respective to the force delivery, it was found that the coil springs deliver a superior clinical behavior and open new treatment possibilities.

  19. Advanced drug delivery systems: Nanotechnology of health design A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Safari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has finally and firmly entered the realm of drug delivery. Performances of intelligent drug delivery systems are continuously improved with the purpose to maximize therapeutic activity and to minimize undesirable side-effects. This review describes the advanced drug delivery systems based on micelles, polymeric nanoparticles, and dendrimers. Polymeric carbon nanotubes and many others demonstrate a broad variety of useful properties. This review emphasizes the main requirements for developing new nanotech-nology-based drug delivery systems.

  20. Recent developments in protein and peptide parenteral delivery approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ashaben; Cholkar, Kishore; Mitra, Ashim K

    2014-01-01

    Discovery of insulin in the early 1900s initiated the research and development to improve the means of therapeutic protein delivery in patients. In the past decade, great emphasis has been placed on bringing protein and peptide therapeutics to market. Despite tremendous efforts, parenteral delivery still remains the major mode of administration for protein and peptide therapeutics. Other routes such as oral, nasal, pulmonary and buccal are considered more opportunistic rather than routine application. Improving biological half-life, stability and therapeutic efficacy is central to protein and peptide delivery. Several approaches have been tried in the past to improve protein and peptide in vitro/in vivo stability and performance. Approaches may be broadly categorized as chemical modification and colloidal delivery systems. In this review we have discussed various chemical approaches such as PEGylation, hyperglycosylation, mannosylation, and colloidal carriers including microparticles, nanoparticles, liposomes, carbon nanotubes and micelles for improving protein and peptide delivery. Recent developments on in situ thermosensitive gel-based protein and peptide delivery have also been described. This review summarizes recent developments on some currently existing approaches to improve stability, bioavailability and bioactivity of peptide and protein therapeutics following parenteral administration. PMID:24592957

  1. Delivery outcomes after day and night onset of labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwar, Sandeep; Rabindran, Ranjit; Lindow, Stephen W

    2015-11-01

    To describe the outcome of night onset of labour as compared with the day onset of labour to investigate if labour that begins at night is more efficient. Retrospective review of labour and delivery data. A large United Kingdom maternity service. Over the period of 10 years, there were 30,022 deliveries, of which 19,842 were studied. A United Kingdom maternity department database was used to identify deliveries over a 10-year period, and the delivery outcomes were retrieved from these records. The 19,842 labours were divided into two categories: night onset (22.00-06.00 h) and day onset (10.00-18.00 h). Rates of operative intervention, augmentation, epidural usage and labour duration. A significant difference in delivery outcome was noted (P=0.004) with the night-onset labours having more normal deliveries (83.6% vs. 82.5%), fewer caesarean sections (8.7% vs. 10.1%), fewer labour augmentations with syntocinon (14.9% vs. 19.5%, Pnight-onset group and 2414 (30%) in the day-onset group (χ2=1.3, P=NS) Conclusions: Labours that start at night appear to be more efficient than labours that start during the day.

  2. Biodegradable polymers for targeted delivery of anti-cancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doppalapudi, Sindhu; Jain, Anjali; Domb, Abraham J; Khan, Wahid

    2016-06-01

    Biodegradable polymers have been used for more than three decades in cancer treatment and have received increased interest in recent years. A range of biodegradable polymeric drug delivery systems designed for localized and systemic administration of therapeutic agents as well as tumor-targeting macromolecules has entered into the clinical phase of development, indicating the significance of biodegradable polymers in cancer therapy. This review elaborates upon applications of biodegradable polymers in the delivery and targeting of anti-cancer agents. Design of various drug delivery systems based on biodegradable polymers has been described. Moreover, the indication of polymers in the targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs via passive, active targeting, and localized drug delivery are also covered. Biodegradable polymer-based drug delivery systems have the potential to deliver the payload to the target and can enhance drug availability at desired sites. Systemic toxicity and serious side effects observed with conventional cancer therapeutics can be significantly reduced with targeted polymeric systems. Still, there are many challenges that need to be met with respect to the degradation kinetics of the system, diffusion of drug payload within solid tumors, targeting tumoral tissue and tumor heterogeneity.

  3. Asymmetrical Polymer Vesicles for Drug delivery and Other Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientists have been attracted by polymersomes as versatile drug delivery systems since the last two decades. Polymersomes have the potential to be versatile drug delivery systems because of their tunable membrane formulations, stabilities in vivo, various physicochemical properties, controlled release mechanisms, targeting abilities, and capacities to encapsulate a wide range of drugs and other molecules. Asymmetrical polymersomes are nano- to micro-sized polymeric capsules with asymmetrical membranes, which means, they have different outer and inner coronas so that they can exhibit better endocytosis rate and endosomal escape ability than other polymeric systems with symmetrical membranes. Hence, asymmetrical polymersomes are highly promising as self-assembled nano-delivery systems in the future for in vivo therapeutics delivery and diagnostic imaging applications. In this review, we prepared a summary about recent research progresses of asymmetrical polymersomes in the following aspects: synthesis, preparation, applications in drug delivery and others.

  4. Delivery of Cargo to Lysosomes Using GNeosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, Kristina M; Wexselblatt, Ezequiel; Tong, Wenyong; Esko, Jeffrey D; Tor, Yitzhak

    2017-01-01

    Liposomes have been used to improve the intracellular delivery of a variety of cargos. Encapsulation of cargos in liposomes leads to improved plasma half-lives and minimized degradation. Here, we present a method for improving the selective delivery of liposomes to the lysosomes using a guanidinylated neomycin (GNeo) transporter. The method for synthesizing GNeo-lipids, incorporating them into liposomes, and the enhanced lysosomal delivery of encapsulated cargo are presented. GNeo-liposomes, termed GNeosomes, are capable of delivering a fluorescent dye to the lysosomes of Chinese hamster ovary cells as shown using confocal microscopy. GNeosomes can also be used to deliver therapeutic quantities of lysosomal enzymes to fibroblasts isolated from patients with a lysosomal storage disorder.

  5. A Microfluidic Ion Pump for In Vivo Drug Delivery

    KAUST Repository

    Uguz, Ilke

    2017-05-15

    Implantable devices offer an alternative to systemic delivery of drugs for the treatment of neurological disorders. A microfluidic ion pump (µFIP), capable of delivering a drug without the solvent through electrophoresis, is developed. The device is characterized in vitro by delivering γ-amino butyric acid to a target solution, and demonstrates low-voltage operation, high drug-delivery capacity, and high ON/OFF ratio. It is also demonstrated that the device is suitable for cortical delivery in vivo by manipulating the local ion concentration in an animal model and altering neural behavior. These results show that µFIPs represent a significant step forward toward the development of implantable drug-delivery systems.

  6. A proprietary alpha-amylase inhibitor from white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): a review of clinical studies on weight loss and glycemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Marilyn L; Udani, Jay K

    2011-03-17

    Obesity, and resultant health hazards which include diabetes, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, are worldwide medical problems. Control of diet and exercise are cornerstones of the management of excess weight. Foods with a low glycemic index may reduce the risk of diabetes and heart disease as well as their complications. As an alternative to a low glycemic index diet, there is a growing body of research into products that slow the absorption of carbohydrates through the inhibition of enzymes responsible for their digestion. These products include alpha-amylase and glucosidase inhibitors. The common white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) produces an alpha-amylase inhibitor, which has been characterized and tested in numerous clinical studies. A specific and proprietary product named Phase 2® Carb Controller (Pharmachem Laboratories, Kearny, NJ) has demonstrated the ability to cause weight loss with doses of 500 to 3000 mg per day, in either a single dose or in divided doses. Clinical studies also show that Phase 2 has the ability to reduce the post-prandial spike in blood glucose levels. Experiments conducted incorporating Phase 2 into food and beverage products have found that it can be integrated into various products without losing activity or altering the appearance, texture or taste of the food. There have been no serious side effects reported following consumption of Phase 2. Gastro-intestinal side effects are rare and diminish upon extended use of the product. In summary, Phase 2 has the potential to induce weight loss and reduce spikes in blood sugar caused by carbohydrates through its alpha-amylase inhibiting activity.

  7. A proprietary alpha-amylase inhibitor from white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris: A review of clinical studies on weight loss and glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett Marilyn L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity, and resultant health hazards which include diabetes, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, are worldwide medical problems. Control of diet and exercise are cornerstones of the management of excess weight. Foods with a low glycemic index may reduce the risk of diabetes and heart disease as well as their complications. As an alternative to a low glycemic index diet, there is a growing body of research into products that slow the absorption of carbohydrates through the inhibition of enzymes responsible for their digestion. These products include alpha-amylase and glucosidase inhibitors. The common white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris produces an alpha-amylase inhibitor, which has been characterized and tested in numerous clinical studies. A specific and proprietary product named Phase 2® Carb Controller (Pharmachem Laboratories, Kearny, NJ has demonstrated the ability to cause weight loss with doses of 500 to 3000 mg per day, in either a single dose or in divided doses. Clinical studies also show that Phase 2 has the ability to reduce the post-prandial spike in blood glucose levels. Experiments conducted incorporating Phase 2 into food and beverage products have found that it can be integrated into various products without losing activity or altering the appearance, texture or taste of the food. There have been no serious side effects reported following consumption of Phase 2. Gastro-intestinal side effects are rare and diminish upon extended use of the product. In summary, Phase 2 has the potential to induce weight loss and reduce spikes in blood sugar caused by carbohydrates through its alpha-amylase inhibiting activity.

  8. The relationship between occupational fatigue and preterm delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbod Ebrahimi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presense of women in workplace is an unavoiding issue in modern world. The women work in different media. Occupational activities are suspected of having an adverse impact on outcomes of pregnancy. Premature delivery is a catastrophic event in course of pregnancy. The aim of the study was to define the incidence of premature delivery in occupationally involved pregnant women. Material and Methods: A total of 287 primigravida women in an urban society with singleton pregnancies at 22 to 24 weeks gestation were enrolled in a prospective study. They worked in industrial manufactures. The patients reported the number of hours worked per week and answered specific questions designed to determine the following 5 sources of occupational fatigue including:1- posture ,2- work with industrial machines 3- physical exertion 4-mental stress and 5- environmental stress. Results: The risk of preterm delivery increased with standing more than 3 hours during activities in work place (p.value=0/019. There was not a statistically significant relationship between premature delivery and other sources of occupational fatigue. There was not a statically significant relationship between premature rupture of fetal membranes and the sources of occupational fatigue. There was not a statistically significant relationship between premature delivery and increasing number of hours worked per week. Conclusion: The relationship between premature delivery and occupational fatigue may provide guidelines according to pregnant women and their employers can be advised.

  9. Tranfusion risk: is "two-step" vaginal delivery a risk for postpartum hemorrhage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straface, Gianluca; Bassi, Emma; De Santis, Marco; Scambia, Giovanni; Zanardo, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    In the active management strategy of third stage of labor, the optimal timing for clamping the umbilical cord after birth has been a subject of controversy. We want to evaluate if "two-step" delivery is a risk factor for postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), defined as need of transfusion, comparing to operative delivery, elective caesarean delivery and emergency caesarean delivery. This is a retrospective cohort study conducted in division of Perinatal Medicine, Policlinico Abano Terme. We evaluated the need of transfusion in all cases of PPH verified in all single deliveries between January 2011 and December 2012. The main outcome measure was blood loss and red blood cell transfusion. We found 17 cases of PPH (0.88%). The distribution of PPH in relation to mode of delivery was 0.71%, 2.46% and 1.98% respectively for two-step vaginal delivery (RR = 0.81 (0.56-1.22)), emergency cesarean section (RR = 2.88 (1.27-7.77)) and operative vaginal delivery (RR = 2.88 (0.59-5.66)). In labor induction there is a stronger relative risk association between PPH and as emergency cesarean delivery (p < 0.05) as operative vaginal delivery (p < 0.05). "Two-step" delivery approach did not increase the risk of PPH with respect to operative delivery, elective caesarean section and emergency caesarean section.

  10. The immediate effect of vaginal and caesarean delivery on anal sphincter measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcaaltincaba, Deniz; Erkaya, Salim; Isik, Hatice; Haberal, Ali

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of vaginal and caesarean delivery on internal and external anal sphincter muscle thickness using translabial ultrasonography (TL-US). This prospective cohort study enrolled nulliparous women who either had vaginal or caesarean deliveries. The thickness of the hypoechoic internal anal sphincter (IAS) and hyperechoic external anal sphincter (EAS) at the 12, 3, 6, and 9 o'clock positions at the distal level were measured before delivery and within 24-48 h after delivery. A total 105 consecutive women were enrolled in the study: 60 in the vaginal delivery group and 45 in the caesarean delivery group. The IAS muscle thickness at the 12 o'clock position in the vaginal delivery group was significantly thicker before compared with after delivery (mean ± SD: 2.31 ± 0.74 mm versus 1.81 ± 0.64 mm, respectively). The EAS muscle thickness at the 12 o'clock position in the vaginal delivery group was significantly thicker before compared with after delivery (mean ± SD: 2.42 ± 0.64 mm versus 1.97 ± 0.85, respectively). There was significant muscle thinning of both the IAS and EAS at the 12 o'clock position after vaginal delivery, but not after caesarean delivery. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Current and emerging lipid-based systems for transdermal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Sumeet K; Sachdeva, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    Developing a transdermal drug delivery system is a challenging task considering the selective permeability of the skin and the physicochemical properties the drug must possess to permeate through the skin. Lipid-based drug delivery systems have contributed a great deal in this direction in the last few decades, and thereby have helped to expand the range of therapeutic molecules that can be delivered through the skin in a safe and effective manner. Additionally, vesicular delivery systems such as nanoparticles and emulsions have also played important roles in providing alternative novel approaches for drug delivery. In this article, we will discuss some of the current and future lipid-based systems for transdermal drug delivery along with the associated challenges.

  12. Biomolecule delivery to engineer the cellular microenvironment for regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Corey J; Kim, Jayoung; Green, Jordan J

    2014-07-01

    To realize the potential of regenerative medicine, controlling the delivery of biomolecules in the cellular microenvironment is important as these factors control cell fate. Controlled delivery for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine often requires bioengineered materials and cells capable of spatiotemporal modulation of biomolecule release and presentation. This review discusses biomolecule delivery from the outside of the cell inwards through the delivery of soluble and insoluble biomolecules as well as from the inside of the cell outwards through gene transfer. Ex vivo and in vivo therapeutic strategies are discussed, as well as combination delivery of biomolecules, scaffolds, and cells. Various applications in regenerative medicine are highlighted including bone tissue engineering and wound healing.

  13. The relationship between pregnancy, preterm and premature delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleymani-e- Shayesteh Y

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available During pregnancy, different froms of periodontal disease such as pregnancy gingivitis, pregnancy tumors, pregnancy stomatitis, may be encountered. But the most considerable point is the pregnant women's infection with periodontal disease and its effect on delivery and weight of newborn infants. Based on the latest researches and statistics, it is concluded that periodontal disease is an important risk factor, leading to preterm or premature delivery. On the other hand, poor hygiene, should be considered as another danger, resulting in premature delivery. Besides, the presence of a collection of oral fosobacteria in ammoniutic fluid in mothers with premature delivery, increases the probability of an oral- haematogenous connection. Moreover, prostaglandin E2, in cervicular fluid, has been considered as an index for periodontal disease activity and loss of weight at the time of birth. These findings suggest that effective steps, to prevent preterm delivery, can be taken, if women, genycologists and dentists have enough knowledge. This article focuses on the special supervision that is required to prevent the effects of hormonal changes on periodontal tissues and conversely to reduce systemic disorders resulting from periodontal disease, in pregnant woman.

  14. Supersaturating drug delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laitinen, Riikka; Löbmann, Korbinian; Grohganz, Holger

    2017-01-01

    of the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs by increasing the driving force for drug absorption. However, ASDs often require a high weight percentage of carrier (usually a hydrophilic polymer) to ensure molecular mixing of the drug in the carrier and stabilization of the supersaturated state, often leading......Amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) are probably the most common and important supersaturating drug delivery systems for the formulation of poorly water-soluble compounds. These delivery systems are able to achieve and maintain a sustained drug supersaturation which enables improvement...... strategy for poorly-soluble drugs. While the current research on co-amorphous formulations is focused on preparation and characterization of these systems, more detailed research on their supersaturation and precipitation behavior and the effect of co-formers on nucleation and crystal growth inhibition...

  15. Firewood processing and delivery logistics; Polttopuun kaesittely- ja jakelulogistiikka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevalainen, A [Tulipuu Oy, Juuka (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The aim of this research is to develop the processing and the delivery of firewood in order to improve the obtainability of firewood in the urban areas, to increase the user friendliness of the firewood, and to reduce the delivery costs of it. The project consists of development of recycled firewood processing and transportation units, organisation of the delivery and the testing of these in practice

  16. Firewood processing and delivery logistics; Polttopuun kaesittely- ja jakelulogistiikka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevalainen, A. [Tulipuu Oy, Juuka (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this research is to develop the processing and the delivery of firewood in order to improve the obtainability of firewood in the urban areas, to increase the user friendliness of the firewood, and to reduce the delivery costs of it. The project consists of development of recycled firewood processing and transportation units, organisation of the delivery and the testing of these in practice

  17. Neonatal clavicle fracture in cesarean delivery: incidence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun Ah; Lee, Yeon Kyung; Ko, Sun Young; Shin, Son Moon

    2017-07-01

    Neonatal clavicle fracture in cesarean delivery is rare and has not been extensively studied. We performed a retrospective review of cesarean deliveries with neonatal clavicle fracture during a 12-year period. Maternal and neonatal factors as well as surgical factors related to cesarean delivery for the fracture were determined and compared to the control group to analyze their significance. Among a total 89 367 deliveries during the study period, 36 286 babies were born via cesarean section. Nineteen cases of clavicle fractures in cesarean section were identified (0.05% of total live births via cesarean section). In the analysis of maternal and neonatal risk factors, birthweight, birthweight ≥ 4000  g and maternal age were significantly associated with clavicle fracture in cesarean section. However, clavicle fractures were not correlated with the selected surgical factors such as indication for cesarean section, skin incision to delivery time and incision type of skin and uterus. Logistic regression analysis showed that birthweight was the major risk factor for clavicle fracture. Clavicle fractures complicated 0.05% of cesarean deliveries. The main risk factor related to a clavicle fracture in cesarean section was the birthweight of an infant. As reported in previous studies associated with vaginal delivery, clavicle fracture is considered to be an unavoidable event and may not be eliminated, even in cesarean delivery.

  18. Efficient and gentle siRNA delivery by magnetofection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensenauer, R; Hartl, D; Vockley, J; Roscher, AA; Fuchs, U

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic force combined with magnetic nanoparticles recently has shown potential for enhancing nucleic acid delivery. Achieving effective siRNA delivery into primary cultured cells is challenging. We compared the utility of magnetofection with lipofection procedures for siRNA delivery to primary and immortalized mammalian fibroblasts. Transfection efficiency and cell viability were analyzed by flow cytometry and effects of gene knockdown were quantified by real-time PCR. Lipofectamine 2000 and magnetofection achieved high transfection efficiencies comparable to similar gene silencing effects of about 80%; the cytotoxic effect of magnetofection, however, was significantly less. Magnetofection is a reliable and gentle alternative method with low cytotoxicity for siRNA delivery into difficult to transfect cells such as mammalian fibroblasts. These features are especially advantageous for functional end point analyses of gene silencing, e.g., on the metabolite level. PMID:20297946

  19. Recent developments in oral lipid-based drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, N.; Rades, T.; Müllertz, A.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing number of poorly water-soluble drugs in development in the pharmaceutical industry has sparked interest in novel drug delivery options such as lipid-based drug delivery systems (LbDDS). Several LbDDS have been marketed successfully and have shown superior and more reliable...... bioavailability compared to conventional formulations. However, some reluctance in the broader application of LbDDS still appears, despite the growing commercial interest in lipids as a drug delivery platform. This reluctance might at least in part be related to the complexity associated with the development...... and characterization of LbDDS. In particular, the lack of standardized test protocols can be identified as the major obstacles for the broader application of LbDDS. This review seeks to summarize recent approaches in the field of lipid-based drug delivery that try to elucidate some critical steps in their development...

  20. 12 CFR 505.5 - Delivery of process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Delivery of process. 505.5 Section 505.5 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT § 505.5 Delivery of process. Service of process will be received as set forth in § 510.4 of this chapter...

  1. Optimal delivery of aerosols to infants during mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longest, P Worth; Azimi, Mandana; Hindle, Michael

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine optimal aerosol delivery conditions for a full-term (3.6 kg) infant receiving invasive mechanical ventilation by evaluating the effects of aerosol particle size, a new wye connector, and timing of aerosol delivery. In vitro experiments used a vibrating mesh nebulizer and evaluated drug deposition fraction and emitted dose through ventilation circuits containing either a commercial (CM) or new streamlined (SL) wye connector and 3-mm endotracheal tube (ETT) for aerosols with mass median aerodynamic diameters of 880 nm, 1.78 μm, and 4.9 μm. The aerosol was released into the circuit either over the full inhalation cycle (T1 delivery) or over the first half of inhalation (T2 delivery). Validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and whole-lung model predictions were used to assess lung deposition and exhaled dose during cyclic ventilation. In vitro experiments at a steady-state tracheal flow rate of 5 L/min resulted in 80-90% transmission of the 880-nm and 1.78-μm aerosols from the ETT. Based on CFD simulations with cyclic ventilation, the SL wye design reduced depositional losses in the wye by a factor of approximately 2-4 and improved lung delivery efficiencies by a factor of approximately 2 compared with the CM device. Delivery of the aerosol over the first half of the inspiratory cycle (T2) reduced exhaled dose from the ventilation circuit by a factor of 4 compared with T1 delivery. Optimal lung deposition was achieved with the SL wye connector and T2 delivery, resulting in 45% and 60% lung deposition for optimal polydisperse (∼1.78 μm) and monodisperse (∼2.5 μm) particle sizes, respectively. Optimization of selected factors and use of a new SL wye connector can substantially increase the lung delivery efficiency of medical aerosols to infants from current values of <1-10% to a range of 45-60%.

  2. Effect of delivery care user fee exemption policy on institutional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To improve access to skilled attendance at delivery and thereby reduce maternal mortality, the Government of Ghana introduced a policy exempting all women attending health facilities from paying delivery care fees. Objective: To examine the effect of the exemption policy on delivery-related maternal mortality.

  3. Contact-facilitated drug delivery with Sn2 lipase labile prodrugs optimize targeted lipid nanoparticle drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Dipanjan; Pham, Christine T N; Weilbaecher, Katherine N; Tomasson, Michael H; Wickline, Samuel A; Lanza, Gregory M

    2016-01-01

    Sn2 lipase labile phospholipid prodrugs in conjunction with contact-facilitated drug delivery offer an important advancement in Nanomedicine. Many drugs incorporated into nanosystems, targeted or not, are substantially lost during circulation to the target. However, favorably altering the pharmacokinetics and volume of distribution of systemic drug delivery can offer greater efficacy with lower toxicity, leading to new prolonged-release nanoexcipients. However, the concept of achieving Paul Erhlich's inspired vision of a 'magic bullet' to treat disease has been largely unrealized due to unstable nanomedicines, nanosystems achieving low drug delivery to target cells, poor intracellular bioavailability of endocytosed nanoparticle payloads, and the substantial biological barriers of extravascular particle penetration into pathological sites. As shown here, Sn2 phospholipid prodrugs in conjunction with contact-facilitated drug delivery prevent premature drug diffusional loss during circulation and increase target cell bioavailability. The Sn2 phospholipid prodrug approach applies equally well for vascular constrained lipid-encapsulated particles and micelles the size of proteins that penetrate through naturally fenestrated endothelium in the bone marrow or thin-walled venules of an inflamed microcirculation. At one time Nanomedicine was considered a 'Grail Quest' by its loyal opposition and even many in the field adsorbing the pains of a long-learning curve about human biology and particles. However, Nanomedicine with innovations like Sn2 phospholipid prodrugs has finally made 'made the turn' toward meaningful translational success. © 2015 The Authors. WIREs Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. 48 CFR 47.304 - Determination of delivery terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of delivery terms. 47.304 Section 47.304 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.304 Determination of delivery...

  5. Delivery practices of traditional birth attendants in Dhaka slums, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronczak, N; Arifeen, S E; Moran, A C; Caulfield, L E; Baqui, A H

    2007-12-01

    This paper describes associations among delivery-location, training of birth attendants, birthing practices, and early postpartum morbidity in women in slum areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh. During November 1993-May 1995, data on delivery-location, training of birth attendants, birthing practices, delivery-related complications, and postpartum morbidity were collected through interviews with 1,506 women, 489 home-based birth attendants, and audits in 20 facilities where the women from this study gave birth. Associations among maternal characteristics, birth practices, delivery-location, and early postpartum morbidity were specifically explored. Self-reported postpartum morbidity was associated with maternal characteristics, delivery-related complications, and some birthing practices. Dais with more experience were more likely to use potentially-harmful birthing practices which increased the risk of postpartum morbidity among women with births at home. Postpartum morbidity did not differ by birth-location. Safe motherhood programmes must develop effective strategies to discourage potentially-harmful home-based delivery practices demonstrated to contribute to morbidity.

  6. Case of pituitary stalk transection syndrome ascertained after breech delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuta, Kaori; Hidaka, Takao; Ono, Yosuke; Kochi, Keiko; Yasoshima, Kuniaki; Arai, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Pituitary stalk transection syndrome (PSTS) is a rare complication that can accompany breech delivery. Early diagnosis of this syndrome is difficult, and it may cause a serious delay in the diagnosis. We present a case of PSTS ascertained after breech delivery. A 20-year-old woman presented with primary amenorrhea. The patient was born by breech delivery and had a history of treatment for pituitary dwarfism. Her laboratory findings showed pituitary hypothyroidism, and hormone replacement therapy was initiated. At 28 years old, she became pregnant and had a normal delivery at 38 weeks' gestation. One year after delivery, her thyroid hormone level changed. Laboratory test showed adrenocortical insufficiency, and magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary gland showed transection of the pituitary stalk and development of an ectopic posterior lobe. These findings were compatible with PSTS. When a patient who has been born by breech delivery presents with symptoms of pituitary deficiency, PSTS should be considered in the differential diagnosis. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. Applications of polymeric nanocapsules in field of drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Xinyu; Xie, Yinghua; Hao, Xiaomei; Chen, Tao; Wang, Yingming; Liu, Yuanyuan

    2011-09-01

    Drug-loaded polymeric nanocapsules have exhibited potential applications in the field of drug delivery systems in recent years. This article entails the biodegradable polymers generally used for preparing nanocapsules, which include both natural polymers and synthetic polymers. Furthermore, the article presents a general review of the different preparation methods: nanoprecipitation method, emulsion-diffusion method, double emulsification method, emulsion-coacervation method, layer-by-layer assembly method. In addition, the analysis methods of nanocapsule characteristics, such as mean size, morphology, surface characteristics, shell thickness, encapsulation efficiency, active substance release, dispersion stability, are mentioned. Also, the applications of nanocapsules as carriers for use in drug delivery systems are reviewed, which primarily involve targeting drug delivery, controlled/sustained release drug delivery systems, transdermal drug delivery systems and improving stability and bioavailability of drugs. Nanocapsules, prepared with different biodegradable polymers, have received more and more attention and have been regarded as one of the most promising drug delivery systems.

  8. Design of an Implantable Device for Ocular Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hwan Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular diseases, such as, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD, diabetic retinopathy, and retinitis pigmentosa require drug management in order to prevent blindness and affecting million of adults in USA and worldwide. There is an increasing need to develop devices for drug delivery to address ocular diseases. This study focuses on the design, simulation, and development of an implantable ocular drug delivery device consisting of micro-/nanochannels embedded between top and bottom covers with a drug reservoir made from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS which is silicon-based organic and biodegradable polymer. Several simulations were carried out with six different micro-channel configurations in order to see the feasibility for ocular drug delivery applications. Based on the results obtained, channel design of osmotic I and osmotic II satisfied the diffusion rates required for ocular drug delivery. Finally, a prototype illustrating the three components of the drug delivery design is presented. In the future, the device will be tested for its functionality and diffusion characteristics.

  9. Otic drug delivery systems: formulation principles and recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Li, Mingshuang; Smyth, Hugh; Zhang, Feng

    2018-04-25

    Disorders of the ear severely impact the quality of life of millions of people, but the treatment of these disorders is an ongoing, but often overlooked challenge particularly in terms of formulation design and product development. The prevalence of ear disorders has spurred significant efforts to develop new therapeutic agents, but perhaps less innovation has been applied to new drug delivery systems to improve the efficacy of ear disease treatments. This review provides a brief overview of physiology, major diseases, and current therapies used via the otic route of administration. The primary focuses are on the various administration routes and their formulation principles. The article also presents recent advances in otic drug deliveries as well as potential limitations. Otic drug delivery technology will likely evolve in the next decade and more efficient or specific treatments for ear disease will arise from the development of less invasive drug delivery methods, safe and highly controlled drug delivery systems, and biotechnology targeting therapies.

  10. Chitosan-Based Nanoparticles for Mucosal Delivery of RNAi Therapeutics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martirosyan, Alina; Olesen, Morten Jarlstad; Howard, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    of the polysaccharide chitosan have been used to facilitate delivery of siRNA across mucosal surfaces following local administration. This chapter describes the mucosal barriers that need to be addressed in order to design an effective mucosal delivery strategy and the utilization of the mucoadhesive properties...... of chitosan. Focus is given to preparation methods and the preclinical application of chitosan nanoparticles for respiratory and oral delivery of siRNA....

  11. Development of a software of VMAT delivery using EPID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arumugam, Sankar; Xing, Aitang; Jameson, Michael; Holloway, Lois; Goozee, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) is more complex than standard IMRT, requiring new methodology to evaluate delivery accuracy. Here, we present the development of methodology and a software tool to perform control point based verification of VMAT delivery using an EPID. Individual segment dose comparison allows the verification of VMAT deli very accuracy for individual control-points. An in-house software tool was developed to predict the individual segment dose as measured by EPID for Pinnacle (Philips) generated VMAT plans. The VMAT plans were delivered using an Elekta-synergy accelerator and the segment doses were measured using EPID. A normalised dose comparison of measured and predicted doses was performed using gamma analysis with 3% dose tolerance and 3 mm DTA. The sensitivity of the proposed methodology in detecting delivery errors was studied by delivering a standard intensity pattern with a preset dose error of 4 and 5% in two of its eight control-points. Four clinical plans were also tested using this methodology. The developed software accurately predicts the EPID dose by considering all possible leaf trajectories in VMAT delivery. The mean gamma value and percentage of pixels exceeding the gamma tolerance for a segment with and without delivery errors are shown in Table. From the tabulated values it is evident that the proposed methodology is sensitive in detecting delivery errors above 3% tolerance level. The clinical plans were successfully validated showing a maximum 2.5% of pixels exceeding gamma tolerance. Methodology and a software were successfully developed to perform control-point validation of VMAT delivery using an EPID. Set error in Delivery (%) Mean gamma value% of pixels exceeding Gamma tolerance 0 0.40 1.240.5417.050.6221.8.

  12. Out-of-pocket expenditure on institutional delivery in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sanjay K; Srivastava, Akanksha

    2013-05-01

    Though promotion of institutional delivery is used as a strategy to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality, about half of the deliveries in India are conducted at home without any medical care. Among women who deliver at home, one in four cites cost as barrier to facility-based care. The relative share of deliveries in private health centres has increased over time and the associated costs are often catastrophic for poor households. Though research has identified socio-economic, demographic and geographic barriers to the utilization of maternal care, little is known on the cost differentials in delivery care in India. The objective of this paper is to understand the regional pattern and socio-economic differentials in out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditure on institutional delivery by source of provider in India. The study utilizes unit data from the District Level Household and Facility Survey (DLHS-3), conducted in India during 2007-08. Descriptive statistics, principal component analyses and a two-part model are used in the analyses. During 2004-08, the mean OOP expenditure for a delivery in a public health centre in India was US$39 compared with US$139 in a private health centre. The predicted expenditure for a caesarean delivery was six times higher than for a normal delivery. With an increase in the economic status and educational attainment of mothers, the propensity and rate of OOP expenditure increases, linking higher OOP expenditure to quality of care. The OOP expenditure in public health centres, adjusting for inflation, has declined over time, possibly due to increased spending under the National Rural Health Mission. Based on these findings, we recommend that facilities in public health centres of poorly performing states are improved and that public-private partnership models are developed to reduce the economic burden for households of maternal care in India.

  13. Drug delivery and nanoparticles: Applications and hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim H De Jong

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Wim H De Jong1, Paul JA Borm2,31Laboratory for Toxicology, Pathology and Genetics, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM, Bilthoven, The Netherlands; 2Zuyd University, Centre of Expertise in Life Sciences, Heerlen, The Netherlands; 3Magnamedics GmbH, Aachen, GermanyAbstract: The use of nanotechnology in medicine and more specifically drug delivery is set to spread rapidly. Currently many substances are under investigation for drug delivery and more specifically for cancer therapy. Interestingly pharmaceutical sciences are using nanoparticles to reduce toxicity and side effects of drugs and up to recently did not realize that carrier systems themselves may impose risks to the patient. The kind of hazards that are introduced by using nanoparticles for drug delivery are beyond that posed by conventional hazards imposed by chemicals in classical delivery matrices. For nanoparticles the knowledge on particle toxicity as obtained in inhalation toxicity shows the way how to investigate the potential hazards of nanoparticles. The toxicology of particulate matter differs from toxicology of substances as the composing chemical(s may or may not be soluble in biological matrices, thus influencing greatly the potential exposure of various internal organs. This may vary from a rather high local exposure in the lungs and a low or neglectable exposure for other organ systems after inhalation. However, absorbed species may also influence the potential toxicity of the inhaled particles. For nanoparticles the situation is different as their size opens the potential for crossing the various biological barriers within the body. From a positive viewpoint, especially the potential to cross the blood brain barrier may open new ways for drug delivery into the brain. In addition, the nanosize also allows for access into the cell and various cellular compartments including the nucleus. A multitude of substances are currently under investigation

  14. Dissolving polymeric microneedle arrays for electrically assisted transdermal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Martin J; Caffarel-Salvador, Ester; Migalska, Katarzyna; Woolfson, A David; Donnelly, Ryan F

    2012-04-10

    It has recently been proposed that the combination of skin barrier impairment using microneedles (MNs) coupled with iontophoresis (ITP) may broaden the range of drugs suitable for transdermal delivery, as well as enabling the rate of delivery to be achieved with precise electronic control. However, no reports exist on the combination of ITP with in situ drug loaded polymeric MN delivery systems. Furthermore, although a number of studies have highlighted the importance of MN design for transdermal drug delivery enhancement, to date, there has been no systematic investigation of the influence of MN geometry on the performance of polymeric MN arrays which are designed to remain in contact with the skin during the period of drug delivery. As such, for the first time, this study reports on the effect of MN heigth and MN density upon the transdermal delivery of small hydrophilic compounds (theophylline, methylene blue, and fluorescein sodium) across neonatal porcine skin in vitro, with the optimised MN array design evaluated for its potential in the electrically faciliatated delivery of peptide (bovine insulin) and protein (fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled bovine serum albumin (FTIC-BSA)) macromolecules. The results of the in vitro drug release investigations revealed that the extent of transdermal delivery was dependent upon the design of the MN array employed, whereby an increase in MN height and an increase in MN density led to an increase in the extent of transdermal drug delivery achieved 6h after MN application. Overall, the in vitro permeation studies revealed that the MN design containing 361 MNs/cm(2) of 600 μm height resulted in the greatest extent of transdermal drug delivery. As such, this design was evaluated for its potential in the MN mediated iontophoretic transdermal delivery. Whilst the combination of MN and ITP did not further enhance the extent of small molecular weight solute delivery, the extent of peptide/protein release was significantly

  15. NanoClusters Enhance Drug Delivery in Mechanical Ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornputtapitak, Warangkana

    The overall goal of this thesis was to develop a dry powder delivery system for patients on mechanical ventilation. The studies were divided into two parts: the formulation development and the device design. The pulmonary system is an attractive route for drug delivery since the lungs have a large accessible surface area for treatment or drug absorption. For ventilated patients, inhaled drugs have to successfully navigate ventilator tubing and an endotracheal tube. Agglomerates of drug nanoparticles (also known as 'NanoClusters') are fine dry powder aerosols that were hypothesized to enable drug delivery through ventilator circuits. This Thesis systematically investigated formulations of NanoClusters and their aerosol performance in a conventional inhaler and a device designed for use during mechanical ventilation. These engineered powders of budesonide (NC-Bud) were delivered via a MonodoseRTM inhaler or a novel device through commercial endotracheal tubes, and analyzed by cascade impaction. NC-Bud had a higher efficiency of aerosol delivery compared to micronized stock budesonide. The delivery efficiency was independent of ventilator parameters such as inspiration patterns, inspiration volumes, and inspiration flow rates. A novel device designed to fit directly to the ventilator and endotracheal tubing connections and the MonodoseRTM inhaler showed the same efficiency of drug delivery. The new device combined with NanoCluster formulation technology, therefore, allowed convenient and efficient drug delivery through endotracheal tubes. Furthermore, itraconazole (ITZ), a triazole antifungal agent, was formulated as a NanoCluster powder via milling (top-down process) or precipitation (bottom-up process) without using any excipients. ITZ NanoClusters prepared by wet milling showed better aerosol performance compared to micronized stock ITZ and ITZ NanoClusters prepared by precipitation. ITZ NanoClusters prepared by precipitation methods also showed an amorphous state

  16. Analysis of Market Opportunities for Chinese Private Express Delivery Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Changbing; Bai, Lijun; Tong, Xiaoqing

    China's express delivery market has become the arena in which each express enterprise struggles to chase due to the huge potential demand and high profitable prospects. So certain qualitative and quantitative forecast for the future changes of China's express delivery market will help enterprises understand various types of market conditions and social changes in demand and adjust business activities to enhance their competitiveness timely. The development of China's express delivery industry is first introduced in this chapter. Then the theoretical basis of the regression model is overviewed. We also predict the demand trends of China's express delivery market by using Pearson correlation analysis and regression analysis from qualitative and quantitative aspects, respectively. Finally, we draw some conclusions and recommendations for China's express delivery industry.

  17. Polymeric Gene Delivery for Diabetic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Wan Kim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Several polymers were used to delivery genes to diabetic animals. Polyaminobutyl glycolic acid was utilized to deliver IL-10 plasmid DNA to prevent autoimmune insulitis of non-obese diabetic (NOD mouse. Polyethylene glycol grafted polylysine was combined with antisense glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD MRNA to represent GAD autoantigene expression. GLP1 and TSTA (SP-EX4 were delivered by bioreducible polymer to stop diabetic progression. Fas siRNA delivery was carried out to treat diabetic NOD mice animal.

  18. Protein based therapeutic delivery agents: Contemporary developments and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Liming; Yuvienco, Carlo; Montclare, Jin Kim

    2017-07-01

    As unique biopolymers, proteins can be employed for therapeutic delivery. They bear important features such as bioavailability, biocompatibility, and biodegradability with low toxicity serving as a platform for delivery of various small molecule therapeutics, gene therapies, protein biologics and cells. Depending on size and characteristic of the therapeutic, a variety of natural and engineered proteins or peptides have been developed. This, coupled to recent advances in synthetic and chemical biology, has led to the creation of tailor-made protein materials for delivery. This review highlights strategies employing proteins to facilitate the delivery of therapeutic matter, addressing the challenges for small molecule, gene, protein and cell transport. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigation of Factors Affecting Microdialysis Probe Delivery and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The in vitro experiments indicate that it would be incorrect to equate delivery with recovery of puerarin in in vivo microdialysis experiments. Keywords: Microdialysis, Puerarin, Recovery, Probe delivery. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by Science Citation Index (SciSearch), Scopus,.

  20. Hamburgian weapon delivery technology: a quantitative comparative approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riede, Felix

    2010-01-01

    cran). Numerous studies have addressed the question of whether these points tipped arrows fired from bows, darts launched with the help of spear-throwers, or some other projectile delivery weapon. This paper approaches the question of Hamburgian weapon delivery technology from a quantitative...

  1. Buccal Transmucosal Delivery System of Enalapril for Improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare and characterize buccal transmucosal delivery system of enalapril maleate for overcoming its low bioavailability, and hence provide improved therapeutic efficacy and patient compliance. Methods: Transmucosal drug delivery systems of enalapril maleate were formulated as buccal films by solvent ...

  2. Hollow-core fibers for high power pulse delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michieletto, Mattia; Lyngsø, Jens K.; Jakobsen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We investigate hollow-core fibers for fiber delivery of high power ultrashort laser pulses. We use numerical techniques to design an anti-resonant hollow-core fiber having one layer of non-touching tubes to determine which structures offer the best optical properties for the delivery of high power...... picosecond pulses. A novel fiber with 7 tubes and a core of 30 mu m was fabricated and it is here described and characterized, showing remarkable low loss, low bend loss, and good mode quality. Its optical properties are compared to both a 10 mu m and a 18 mu m core diameter photonic band gap hollow......-core fiber. The three fibers are characterized experimentally for the delivery of 22 picosecond pulses at 1032nm. We demonstrate flexible, diffraction limited beam delivery with output average powers in excess of 70W. (C) 2016 Optical Society of America...

  3. Optimizing Cancer Care Delivery through Implementation Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather B Neuman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2013 Institute of Medicine report investigating cancer care concluded that the cancer care delivery system is in crisis due to an increased demand for care, increasing complexity of treatment, decreasing work force and rising costs. Engaging patients and incorporating evidence-based care into routine clinical practice are essential components of a high quality cancer delivery system. However, a gap currently exists between the identification of beneficial research findings and application in clinical practice. Implementation research strives to address this gap. In this review, we discuss key components of high quality implementation research. We then apply these concepts to a current cancer care delivery challenge in women’s health, specifically the implementation of a surgery decision aid for women newly diagnosed with breast cancer.

  4. Dose delivery study for a novel compact proton accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, Kim Melanie

    2014-01-15

    Proton therapy has played an important role in the treatment of cancer with radiation therapy for more than 60 years. Active spot scanning to deliver highly conformal dose to the tumor has been developed. However, the availability of proton therapy to the patients is still limited, partly, due to the high costs and sizes of large proton therapy centers. Therefore, a novel compact proton single room facility based on a linear accelerator mounted on a gantry has been proposed, named TULIP (TUrning LInac for Proton therapy). This accelerator allows for active energy variation on a milliseconds time scale. This work aims to assess the possibilities of dose delivery with TULIP to exploit its beneficial features with respect to dose delivery. We developed a software tool, simulating the dose delivery to the tumor. By means of this software tool, we assessed different delivery methods and found 3D spot scanning to be superior to rotational dose delivery with regard to dose and irradiation time. In a second part, we expanded the investigations to dose delivery to moving targets. Due to fast energy variation, we found TULIP to be preferably suitable for rescanning, confirmed by irradiation times of only a few minutes.

  5. Dose delivery study for a novel compact proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, Kim Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Proton therapy has played an important role in the treatment of cancer with radiation therapy for more than 60 years. Active spot scanning to deliver highly conformal dose to the tumor has been developed. However, the availability of proton therapy to the patients is still limited, partly, due to the high costs and sizes of large proton therapy centers. Therefore, a novel compact proton single room facility based on a linear accelerator mounted on a gantry has been proposed, named TULIP (TUrning LInac for Proton therapy). This accelerator allows for active energy variation on a milliseconds time scale. This work aims to assess the possibilities of dose delivery with TULIP to exploit its beneficial features with respect to dose delivery. We developed a software tool, simulating the dose delivery to the tumor. By means of this software tool, we assessed different delivery methods and found 3D spot scanning to be superior to rotational dose delivery with regard to dose and irradiation time. In a second part, we expanded the investigations to dose delivery to moving targets. Due to fast energy variation, we found TULIP to be preferably suitable for rescanning, confirmed by irradiation times of only a few minutes.

  6. Factors determining the choice of a place of delivery among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    85 (60.7%) chose to deliver in the hospital, while 55 (39.3%) opted for home delivery in the index pregnancy. Determinants of choice of delivery place include cost of hospital bill ... thus achieving the millennium development goals (MDGs) 4 and 5. Keywords: Factors, delivery, birth attendants, pregnant women, MDGs ...

  7. Nanoparticle bioconjugate for controlled cellular delivery of doxorubicin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangtani, Ajmeeta; Petryayeva, Eleonora; Wu, Miao; Susumu, Kimihiro; Oh, Eunkeu; Huston, Alan L.; Lasarte-Aragones, Guillermo; Medintz, Igor L.; Algar, W. Russ; Delehanty, James B.

    2018-02-01

    Nanoparticle (NP)-mediated drug delivery offers the potential to overcome limitations of systemic delivery, including the ability to specifically target cargo and control release of NP-associated drug cargo. Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used FDA-approved cancer therapeutic; however, multiple side effects limit its utility. Thus, there is wide interest in modulating toxicity after cell delivery. Our goal here was to realize a NP-based DOX-delivery system that can modulate drug toxicity by controlling the release kinetics of DOX from the surface of a hard NP carrier. To achieve this, we employed a quantum dot (QD) as a central scaffold which DOX was appended via three different peptidyl linkages (ester, disulfide, hydrazone) that are cleavable in response to various intracellular conditions. Attachment of a cell penetrating peptide (CPP) containing a positively charged polyarginine sequence facilitates endocytosis of the ensemble. Polyhistidine-driven metal affinity coordination was used to self-assemble both peptides to the QD surface, allowing for fine control over both the ratio of peptides attached to the QD as well as DOX dose delivered to cells. Microplate-based Förster resonance energy transfer assays confirmed the successful ratiometric assembly of the conjugates and functionality of the linkages. Cell delivery experiments and cytotoxicity assays were performed to compare the various cleavable linkages to a control peptide where DOX is attached through an amide bond. The role played by various attachment chemistries used in QD-peptide-drug assemblies and their implications for the rationale in design of NPbased constructs for drug delivery is described here.

  8. Oral heparin delivery: design and in vivo evaluation of a stomach-targeted mucoadhesive delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Thierry; Leitner, Verena M; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2005-05-01

    Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is an agent of choice in the anti-coagulant therapy and prophylaxis of thrombosis and coronary syndromes. However, the therapeutic use is partially limited due to a poor oral bioavailability. It was therefore the aim of this study to design and evaluate a highly efficient stomach-targeted oral delivery system for LMWH. In order to appraise the influence of the molecular weight on the oral bioavailability, mini-tablets comprising 3 kDa (279 IU) and 6 kDa (300 IU) LMWH, respectively, were generated and tested in vivo in rats. The potential of the test formulations based on thiolated polycarbophil, was evaluated in comparison to hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) as control carrier matrix. The plasma levels of LMWH after oral versus subcutaneous administration were determined in order to calculate the relative bioavailability. With the delivery system containing 3 kDa LMWH (279 IU) a relative bioavailability of 19.1% was achieved, offering a significantly (p thiolated polymers are a promising tool for the non-invasive stomach-targeted systemic delivery of LMWH as model for a hydrophilic macromolecular polysaccharide. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  9. Intraperitoneal delivery of monoclonal antibodies: enhanced regional delivery advantage using intravenous unlabeled anti-mouse antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, R.L.; Fisher, S.

    1987-01-01

    Radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (MAb) delivered intraperitoneally expose cells in contact with peritoneal fluid to considerably higher levels of MAb than if the MAb dose were given intravenously. This regional delivery advantage for intact MAb is present mainly due to the relatively slow exit of MAb from the peritoneal fluid to the blood. Eventually, following i.p. injection, blood levels of MAb rise resulting in exposure of the animal to high systemic MAb levels and potential toxicity. In this series of experiments, systemic exposure was minimized by the administration of unlabeled goat polyclonal anti-mouse antibody intravenously from 1 1/2 to 6 h following i.p. MAb injection. This maneuver results in the formation of immune complexes with their subsequent clearance and dehalogenation by the reticuloendothelial system, thus minimizing systemic MAb exposure. This approach, of increasing systemic clearance of MAb, did not alter intraperitoneal MAb levels and thus significantly increased the regional delivery advantage to the peritoneal cavity by 70-100%. This approach provides an immunologic rationale for the further enhancement of MAb delivery to i.p. foci of malignant disease and may have diagnostic and therapeutic utility. (author)

  10. Drug delivery systems with modified release for systemic and biophase bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leucuta, Sorin E

    2012-11-01

    This review describes the most important new generations of pharmaceutical systems: medicines with extended release, controlled release pharmaceutical systems, pharmaceutical systems for the targeted delivery of drug substances. The latest advances and approaches for delivering small molecular weight drugs and other biologically active agents such as proteins and nucleic acids require novel delivery technologies, the success of a drug being many times dependent on the delivery method. All these dosage forms are qualitatively superior to medicines with immediate release, in that they ensure optimal drug concentrations depending on specific demands of different disease particularities of the body. Drug delivery of these pharmaceutical formulations has the benefit of improving product efficacy and safety, as well as patient convenience and compliance. This paper describes the biopharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic, pharmacologic and technological principles in the design of drug delivery systems with modified release as well as the formulation criteria of prolonged and controlled release drug delivery systems. The paper presents pharmaceutical prolonged and controlled release dosage forms intended for different routes of administration: oral, ocular, transdermal, parenteral, pulmonary, mucoadhesive, but also orally fast dissolving tablets, gastroretentive drug delivery systems, colon-specific drug delivery systems, pulsatile drug delivery systems and carrier or ligand mediated transport for site specific or receptor drug targeting. Specific technologies are given on the dosage forms with modified release as well as examples of marketed products, and current research in these areas.

  11. Pyomyositis after vaginal delivery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gaughan, Eve

    2011-01-01

    Pyomyositis is a purulent infection of skeletal muscle that arises from haematogenous spread, usually with abscess formation. It can develop after a transient bacteraemia of any cause. This type of infection has never been reported before in the literature after vaginal delivery. A 34-year-old woman had progressive severe pain in the left buttock and thigh and weakness in the left lower limb day 1 post spontaneous vaginal delivery. MRI showed severe oedema of the left gluteus, iliacus, piriformis and adductor muscles of the left thigh and a small fluid collection at the left hip joint. She was diagnosed with pyomyositis. She had fever of 37.9°C immediately postpartum and her risk factors for bacteraemia were a mild IV cannula-associated cellulitis and labour itself. She required prolonged treatment with antibiotics before significant clinical improvement was noted.

  12. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder after Vaginal Delivery at Primiparous Women

    OpenAIRE

    Maja Milosavljevic; Dusica Lecic Tosevski; Ivan Soldatovic; Olivera Vukovic; Cedo Miljevic; Amir Peljto; Milutin Kostic; Miranda Olff

    2016-01-01

    Although severe gynaecological pathology during delivery and negative outcome have been shown to be related with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) little is known about traumatic experiences following regular delivery, at the expected time and with a healthy child. The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence of PTSD during postpartum period after vaginal delivery and its risk factors. The sample included 126 primiparous women. Monthly, for the next three months, the women we...

  13. Bioengineered microparticles for controlled drug delivery to the lungs

    OpenAIRE

    Sivadas, Neeraj

    2010-01-01

    Traditional formulations for pulmonary drug delivery mainly focused on two approaches: (i) Dissolving or suspending the drug in a solvent or propellant to produce liquid aerosols or (ii) Blending drug particulates with dry carrier particles typically composed of sugars. Although effective for localised delivery of small drug molecules, these methods did not meet the complex formulation and delivery challenges posed by the newer biotechnology-derived medicines. One of the many avenues being ex...

  14. Injectable In-Situ Gelling Controlled Release Drug Delivery System

    OpenAIRE

    Kulwant Singh; S. L. HariKumar

    2012-01-01

    The administration of poorly bioavailable drug through parenteral route is regarded the most efficient for drug delivery. Parenteral delivery provides rapid onset even for the drug with narrow therapeutic window, but to maintain the systemic drug level repeated installation are required which cause the patient discomfort. This can be overcome by designing the drug into a system, which control the drug release even through parenteral delivery, which improve patient compliance as well as pharma...

  15. 27 CFR 28.124 - Consignment, shipment, and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Withdrawal of Wine Without Payment of... Bonded Warehouse, or Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.124 Consignment, shipment, and delivery. The consignment, shipment, and delivery of wines withdrawn without payment of tax under...

  16. Nano-scale gene delivery systems; current technology, obstacles, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Guerra, Antonio; Dunwell, Thomas L; Trigueros, Sonia

    2018-01-07

    Within the different applications of nanomedicine currently being developed, nano-gene delivery is appearing as an exciting new technique with the possibility to overcome recognised hurdles and fulfill several biological and medical needs. The central component of all delivery systems is the requirement for the delivery of genetic material into cells, and for them to eventually reside in the nucleus where their desired function will be exposed. However, genetic material does not passively enter cells; thus, a delivery system is necessary. The emerging field of nano-gene delivery exploits the use of new materials and the properties that arise at the nanometre-scale to produce delivery vectors that can effectively deliver genetic material into a variety of different types of cells. The novel physicochemical properties of the new delivery vectors can be used to address the current challenges existing in nucleic acid delivery in vitro and in vivo. While there is a growing interest in nanostructure-based gene delivery, the field is still in its infancy, and there is yet much to discover about nanostructures and their physicochemical properties in a biological context. We carry out an organized and focused search of bibliographic databases. Our results suggest that despite new breakthroughs in nanostructure synthesis and advanced characterization techniques, we still face many barriers in producing highly efficient and non-toxic delivery systems. In this review, we overview the types of systems currently used for clinical and biomedical research applications along with their advantages and disadvantages, as well as discussing barriers that arise from nano-scale interactions with biological material. In conclusion, we hope that by bringing the far reaching multidisciplinary nature of nano-gene delivery to light, new targeted nanotechnology-bases strategies are developed to overcome the major challenges covered in this review. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For

  17. Inter-institutional Variation in Use of Caesarean Delivery for Labour Dystocia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, Corinne A; Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Strumpf, Erin C; Abenhaim, Haim A; Kaufman, Jay S

    2017-11-01

    To establish the degree of variation across hospitals in the use of Caesarean delivery for the indication of labour dystocia before and after accounting for maternal, fetal, and hospital characteristics. This study was a retrospective, population-based cohort study of nulliparous women delivering term singletons in cephalic position following labour. Delivery visits were extracted from three provincial perinatal registries in the Canadian provinces of Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia, from 2008-2012. Crude hospital-specific rates of Caesarean delivery for labour dystocia were reported, and these rates were then stabilized to account for hospitals with low delivery volumes. Rates were then adjusted for maternal, fetal, and hospital characteristics using hierarchical logistic regression. Among 403 205 women delivering at 170 hospitals, the overall Caesarean delivery rate was 21.0%, and the rate of Caesarean delivery for labour dystocia was 12.7%, indicating that 60% of all Caesarean deliveries were performed in part for this indication. The middle 95% of hospitals had Caesarean delivery rates for labour dystocia ranging from 4.5% to 24.7%. Differences in maternal case mix and hospital characteristics explained only a small proportion of this variation (95% central range 6.3%-21.7%). Considerable inter-hospital variation in rates of Caesarean delivery for labour dystocia remained after accounting for differences in maternal and hospital factors. Reporting systems that monitor variation in inter-institutional rates should incorporate stabilization and adjustment for case-mix differences and consider indication-specific rates of Caesarean delivery to more fairly compare hospital performance and better target interventions to reduce Caesarean delivery for specific indications. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Buccoadhesive drug delivery systems--extensive review on recent patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathan, Shadab A; Iqbal, Zeenat; Sahani, Jasjeet K; Talegaonkar, Sushma; Khar, Roop K; Ahmad, Farhan J

    2008-01-01

    Peroral administration of drugs, although most preferred by both clinicians and patients has several disadvantages such as hepatic first pass metabolism and enzymatic degradation within the GI tract, that prohibit oral administration of certain classes of drugs especially peptides and proteins. Consequently, other absorptive mucosae are considered as potential sites for administration of these drugs. Among the various transmucosal routes studied the buccal mucosa offers several advantages for controlled drug delivery for extended period of time. The mucosa is well supplied with both vascular and lymphatic drainage and first-pass metabolism in the liver and pre-systemic elimination in the gastrointestinal tract is avoided. The area is well suited for a retentive device and appears to be acceptable to the patient. With the right dosage form, design and formulation, the permeability and the local environment of the mucosa can be controlled and manipulated in order to accommodate drug permeation. Buccal drug delivery is thus a promising area for continued research with the aim of systemic and local delivery of orally inefficient drugs as well as feasible and attractive alternative for non-invasive delivery of potent protein and peptide drug molecules. Extensive review pertaining specifically to the patents relating to buccal drug delivery is currently available. However, many patents e.g. US patents 6, 585,997; US20030059376A1 etc. have been mentioned in few articles. It is the objective of this article to extensively review buccal drug delivery by discussing the recent patents available. Buccal dosage forms will also be reviewed with an emphasis on bioadhesive polymeric based delivery systems.

  19. Polyethylenimine-based polyplex delivery of self-replicating RNA vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Démoulins, Thomas; Milona, Panagiota; Englezou, Pavlos C; Ebensen, Thomas; Schulze, Kai; Suter, Rolf; Pichon, Chantal; Midoux, Patrick; Guzmán, Carlos A; Ruggli, Nicolas; McCullough, Kenneth C

    2016-04-01

    Self-amplifying replicon RNA (RepRNA) are large molecules (12-14 kb); their self-replication amplifies mRNA template numbers, affording several rounds of antigen production, effectively increasing vaccine antigen payloads. Their sensitivity to RNase-sensitivity and inefficient uptake by dendritic cells (DCs) - absolute requirements for vaccine design - were tackled by condensing RepRNA into synthetic, nanoparticulate, polyethylenimine (PEI)-polyplex delivery vehicles. Polyplex-delivery formulations for small RNA molecules cannot be transferred to RepRNA due to its greater size and complexity; the N:P charge ratio and impact of RepRNA folding would influence polyplex condensation, post-delivery decompaction and the cytosolic release essential for RepRNA translation. Polyplex-formulations proved successful for delivery of RepRNA encoding influenza virus hemagglutinin and nucleocapsid to DCs. Cytosolic translocation was facilitated, leading to RepRNA translation. This efficacy was confirmed in vivo, inducing both humoral and cellular immune responses. Accordingly, this paper describes the first PEI-polyplexes providing efficient delivery of the complex and large, self-amplifying RepRNA vaccines. The use of self-amplifying replicon RNA (RepRNA) to increase vaccine antigen payloads can potentially be useful in effective vaccine design. Nonetheless, its use is limited by the degradation during the uptake process. Here, the authors attempted to solve this problem by packaging RepRNA using polyethylenimine (PEI)-polyplex delivery vehicles. The efficacy was confirmed in vivo by the appropriate humoral and cellular immune responses. This novel delivery method may prove to be very useful for future vaccine design. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A cyclically actuated electrolytic drug delivery device

    KAUST Repository

    Yi, Ying

    2015-01-01

    This work, focusing on an implantable drug delivery system, presents the first prototype electrolytic pump that combines a catalytic reformer and a cyclically actuated mode. These features improve the release performance and extend the lifetime of the device. Using our platinum (Pt)-coated carbon fiber mesh that acts as a catalytic reforming element, the cyclical mode is improved because the faster recombination rate allows for a shorter cycling time for drug delivery. Another feature of our device is that it uses a solid-drug-in-reservoir (SDR) approach, which allows small amounts of a solid drug to be dissolved in human fluid, forming a reproducible drug solution for long-term therapies. We have conducted proof-of-principle drug delivery studies using such an electrolytic pump and solvent blue 38 as the drug substitute. These tests demonstrate power-controlled and pulsatile release profiles of the chemical substance, as well as the feasibility of this device. A drug delivery rate of 11.44 ± 0.56 μg min-1 was achieved by using an input power of 4 mW for multiple pulses, which indicates the stability of our system. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  1. Submicron Emulsions and Their Applications in Oral Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundada, Veenu; Patel, Mitali; Sawant, Krutika

    2016-01-01

    A "submicron emulsion" is an isotropic mixture of drug, lipids, and surfactants, usually with hydrophilic cosolvents and with droplet diameters ranging from 10 to 500 nm. Submicron emulsions are of increasing interest in medicine due to their kinetic stability, high solubilizing capacity, and tiny globule size. Because of these properties, they have been applied in various fields, such as personal care, cosmetics, health care, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. Submicron emulsions are by far the most advanced nanoparticulate systems for the systemic delivery of biologically active agents for controlled drug delivery and targeting. They are designed mainly for pharmaceutical formulations suitable for various routes of administration like parenteral, ocular, transdermal, and oral. This review article describes the marked potential of submicron emulsions for oral drug delivery owing to their numerous advantages like reduced first pass metabolism, inhibition of P-glycoprotein efflux system, and enhanced absorption via intestinal lymphatic pathway. To overcome the limitations of liquid dosage forms, submicron emulsions can be formulated into solid dosage forms such as solid self-emulsifying systems. This article covers various types of submicron emulsions like microemulsion, nanoemulsion, and self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS), and their potential pharmaceutical applications in oral delivery with emphasis on their advantages, limitations, and advancements.

  2. Out-Of-Pocket Expenditure on Institutional Delivery in Rural Lucknow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Shukla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction: Promotion of reproductive health through institutional delivery has been adopted by government as a strategy for reducing maternal mortality rate but still about half of the deliveries have been conducted at home. Cost barrier is one of the major cause for preferring home delivery instead of institutional delivery. Not only the direct costs responsible for low institutional delivery but also indirect costs too accountable for less number of institutional births in the country. Aims & Objectives: To estimate the out of pocket expenditure incurred by households during delivery and its determinants. Materials and methods: A community based cross sectional study was conducted during which a total 272 households having women who had recently delivered in government institutions were interviewed. Result: The mean out of pocket expenditure was found to be Rs. 1406.04 ± 103.27 including spending’s on drugs, travel, pathological tests and unofficial payments. Low socioeconomic class, residence outside the catchment area of delivery point, tertiary and secondary health care facilities as place of delivery and low literacy status of head of the family below high school  were found to be significantly associated with out of pocket expenditure bivariate analysis (p<0.05. On multivariate analysis low socioeconomic (OR 22.40; 95% CI 9.44-53.15; p = 0.01   and residence (OR 13.07; 95% CI (1.58-116.55; p = 0.03  outside the catchment area of delivery point were found to be independent predictors of catastrophic out of pocket expenditure during delivery. Conclusions: Although government has been running lot of schemes for availing free of cost health services but still one has to pay from their pocket as medical expenses. In order to bear these expenses, they have to borrow money, sell their assets and securities due to which households suffer a lot. In the present study, unofficial payment was found prevalent in public institutions

  3. Sociocultural determinants of home delivery in Ethiopia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaba, Mirgissa; Bulto, Tesfaye; Tafesse, Zergu; Lingerh, Wassie; Ali, Ismael

    2016-01-01

    Maternal health remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Despite the government's measures to ensure institutional delivery assisted by skilled attendants, home delivery remains high, estimated at over 80% of all pregnant women. The study aims to identify determinants that sustain home delivery in Ethiopia. A total of 48 women who delivered their most recent child at home, 56 women who delivered their most recent child in a health facility, 55 husbands of women who delivered within 1 year preceding the study, and 23 opinion leaders in selected districts of Amhara, Oromia, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region, and Tigray regions were involved in the study. Key informant interview, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions were conducted to collect data using checklists developed for this purpose. Data reduction and analysis were facilitated by Maxqda qualitative data analysis software version 11. Findings show that pregnancy and delivery is a normal and natural life event. Research participants unanimously argue that such a life event should not be linked with health problems. Home is considered a natural space for delivery and most women aspire to deliver at home where rituals during labor and after delivery are considered enjoyable. Even those who delivered in health facilities appreciate events in connection to home delivery. Efforts are underway to create home-like environments in health facilities, but health facilities are not yet recognized as a natural place of delivery. The positive tendency to deliver at home is further facilitated by poor service delivery at the facility level. Perceived poor competence of providers and limited availability of supplies and equipment were found to maintain the preference to deliver at home. The government's endeavor to improve maternal health has generated positive results with more women now attending antenatal care. Yet over 80% of women deliver at home and this was found to be the

  4. Out-Of-Pocket Expenditure on Institutional Delivery in Rural Lucknow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Shukla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: Promotion of reproductive health through institutional delivery has been adopted by government as a strategy for reducing maternal mortality rate but still about half of the deliveries have been conducted at home. Cost barrier is one of the major cause for preferring home delivery instead of institutional delivery. Not only the direct costs responsible for low institutional delivery but also indirect costs too accountable for less number of institutional births in the country. Aims & Objectives: To estimate the out of pocket expenditure incurred by households during delivery and its determinants. Materials and methods: A community based cross sectional study was conducted during which a total 272 households having women who had recently delivered in government institutions were interviewed. Result: The mean out of pocket expenditure was found to be Rs. 1406.04 ± 103.27 including spending’s on drugs, travel, pathological tests and unofficial payments. Low socioeconomic class, residence outside the catchment area of delivery point, tertiary and secondary health care facilities as place of delivery and low literacy status of head of the family below high school  were found to be significantly associated with out of pocket expenditure bivariate analysis (p<0.05. On multivariate analysis low socioeconomic (OR 22.40; 95% CI 9.44-53.15; p = 0.01   and residence (OR 13.07; 95% CI (1.58-116.55; p = 0.03  outside the catchment area of delivery point were found to be independent predictors of catastrophic out of pocket expenditure during delivery. Conclusions: Although government has been running lot of schemes for availing free of cost health services but still one has to pay from their pocket as medical expenses. In order to bear these expenses, they have to borrow money, sell their assets and securities due to which households suffer a lot. In the present study, unofficial payment was found prevalent in public institutions

  5. Novel electric power-driven hydrodynamic injection system for gene delivery: safety and efficacy of human factor IX delivery in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoo, T; Kamimura, K; Suda, T; Kanefuji, T; Oda, M; Zhang, G; Liu, D; Aoyagi, Y

    2013-08-01

    The development of a safe and reproducible gene delivery system is an essential step toward the clinical application of the hydrodynamic gene delivery (HGD) method. For this purpose, we have developed a novel electric power-driven injection system called the HydroJector-EM, which can replicate various time-pressure curves preloaded into the computer program before injection. The assessment of the reproducibility and safety of gene delivery system in vitro and in vivo demonstrated the precise replication of intravascular time-pressure curves and the reproducibility of gene delivery efficiency. The highest level of luciferase expression (272 pg luciferase per mg of proteins) was achieved safely using the time-pressure curve, which reaches 30 mm Hg in 10 s among various curves tested. Using this curve, the sustained expression of a therapeutic level of human factor IX protein (>500 ng ml(-1)) was maintained for 2 months after the HGD of the pBS-HCRHP-FIXIA plasmid. Other than a transient increase in liver enzymes that recovered in a few days, no adverse events were seen in rats. These results confirm the effectiveness of the HydroJector-EM for reproducible gene delivery and demonstrate that long-term therapeutic gene expression can be achieved by automatic computer-controlled hydrodynamic injection that can be performed by anyone.

  6. A higher-order-mode fiber delivery for Ti:Sapphire femtosecond lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Kim Giessmann; Le, Tuan; Grüner-Nielsen, Lars Erik

    2010-01-01

    We report the first higher-order-mode fiber with anomalous dispersion at 800nm and demonstrate its potential in femtosecond pulse delivery for Ti:Sapphire femtosecond lasers. We obtain 125fs pulses after propagating a distance of 3.6 meters in solid-silica fiber. The pulses could be further...... compressed in a quartz rod to nearly chirp-free 110fs pulses. Femtosecond pulse delivery is achieved by launching the laser output directly into the delivery fiber without any pre-chirping of the input pulse. The demonstrated pulse delivery scheme suggests scaling to >20meters for pulse delivery in harsh...

  7. [Formulation aspects and ex-vivo examination of buccal drug delivery systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Barnabás; Hetényi, Gergely; Majoros, Klaudia; Miszori, Veronika; Kállai, Nikolett; Zelkó, Romána

    2011-01-01

    Application of buccal dosage forms has several advantages. Buccal route can be used for systemic delivery because the mucosa has a rich blood supply and it is relatively permeable. This route of drug delivery is of special advantages, including the bypass of first pass effect and the avoidance of presystemic elimination within the GIT. Buccal delivery systems enable the systemic delivery of peptides and proteins. In our previous study the physiological background of this application and the excipients of the possible formulations were reviewed. In the present work the formulation and ex vivo examination aspects of buccal drug delivery systems are summarized.

  8. Carboxymethyl starch and lecithin complex as matrix for targeted drug delivery: I. Monolithic mesalamine forms for colon delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaela Friciu, Maria; Canh Le, Tien; Ispas-Szabo, Pompilia; Mateescu, Mircea Alexandru

    2013-11-01

    For drugs expected to act locally in the colon, and for successful treatment, a delivery device is necessary, in order to limit the systemic absorption which decreases effectiveness and causes important side effects. Various delayed release systems are currently commercialized; most of them based on pH-dependent release which is sensitive to gastrointestinal pH variation. This study proposes a novel excipient for colon delivery. This new preparation consists in the complexation between carboxymethyl starch (CMS) and Lecithin (L). As opposed to existing excipients, the new complex is pH-independent, inexpensive, and easy to manufacture and allows a high drug loading. FTIR, X-ray, and SEM structural analysis all support the hypothesis of the formation of a complex. By minor variation of the excipient content within the tablet, it is possible to modulate the release time and delivery at specific sites of the gastrointestinal tract. This study opens the door to a new pH-independent delivery system for mesalamine targeted administration. Our novel formulation fits well with the posology of mesalamine, used in the treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), which requires repeated administrations (1g orally four times a day) to maintain a good quality of life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Salivary microflora and mode of delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boustedt, Katarina; Roswall, Josefine; Dahlén, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested that the mode of delivery can influence the composition of oral microflora. The aim of this prospective study was to compare the salivary colonization in vaginally delivered children with children delivered by Caesarian section (C...... months. A saliva sample from the mothers was obtained 6 months after delivery. The parents were asked to complete a questionnaire on socioeconomic factors, lifestyle, and hygiene at baseline and throughout the study period. All samples were analyzed with 13 pre-determined bacterial probes using...

  10. Disease-responsive drug delivery: the next generation of smart delivery devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanakule, Prinda; Roy, Krishnendu

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of highly potent and cytotoxic drugs, it is increasingly critical that they be targeted and released only in cells of diseased tissues, while sparing physiologically normal neighbors. Simple ligand-based targeting of drug carriers, although promising, cannot always provide the required specificity to achieve this since often normal cells also express significant levels of the targeted receptors. Therefore, stimuli-responsive delivery systems are being explored to allow drug release from nano- and microcarriers and implantable devices, primarily in the presence of physiological or disease-specific pathophysiological signals. Designing smart biomaterials that respond to temperature or pH changes, protein and ligand binding, disease-specific degradation, e.g. enzymatic cleavage, has become an integral part of this approach. These strategies are used in combination with nano- and microparticle systems to improve delivery efficiency through several routes of administration, and with injectable or implantable systems for long term controlled release. This review focuses on recent developments in stimuli-responsive systems, their physicochemical properties, release profiles, efficacy, safety and biocompatibility, as well as future perspectives.

  11. Breech at term--mode of delivery? A register-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, L; Langhoff-Roos, J; Weber, Tom

    1995-01-01

    ) when compared to those delivered by elective cesarean section. In vaginal deliveries, parity was not correlated with outcome, but infants with a birth weight above 4000 grams had significantly higher rates of low Apgar scores. CONCLUSIONS. Register data on singleton term breech deliveries imply......BACKGROUND. The present study was designed to determine neonatal mortality and morbidity in non-malformed singleton term infants delivered in breech presentation and identify a possible correlation between outcome on the one hand and mode of delivery, parity and birth weight on the other. METHODS....... Register-based cohort study of all (n = 15718) singleton term breech deliveries of non-malformed infants in Denmark 1982-1990. Process and outcome measures: mode of delivery, gestational age, birth weight, congenital malformations, intrapartum death, Apgar scores and early neonatal death. RESULTS. A total...

  12. Advanced materials and processing for drug delivery: the past and the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Chan, Hon Fai; Leong, Kam W

    2013-01-01

    Design and synthesis of efficient drug delivery systems are of vital importance for medicine and healthcare. Materials innovation and nanotechnology have synergistically fueled the advancement of drug delivery. Innovation in material chemistry allows the generation of biodegradable, biocompatible, environment-responsive, and targeted delivery systems. Nanotechnology enables control over size, shape and multi-functionality of particulate drug delivery systems. In this review, we focus on the materials innovation and processing of drug delivery systems and how these advances have shaped the past and may influence the future of drug delivery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Modified montmorillonite as vector for gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng-Huei; Chen, Chia-Hao; Cheng, Winston T K; Kuo, Tzang-Fu

    2006-06-01

    Currently, gene delivery systems can be divided into two parts: viral or non-viral vectors. In general, viral vectors have a higher efficiency on gene delivery. However, they may sometimes provoke mutagenesis and carcinogenesis once re-activating in human body. Lots of non-viral vectors have been developed that tried to solve the problems happened on viral vectors. Unfortunately, most of non-viral vectors showed relatively lower transfection rate. The aim of this study is to develop a non-viral vector for gene delivery system. Montmorillonite (MMT) is one of clay minerals that consist of hydrated aluminum with Si-O tetrahedrons on the bottom of the layer and Al-O(OH)2 octahedrons on the top. The inter-layer space is about 12 A. The room is not enough to accommodate DNA for gene delivery. In the study, the cationic hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) will be intercalated into the interlayer of MMT as a layer expander to expand the layer space for DNA accommodation. The optimal condition for the preparation of DNA-HDTMA-MMT is as follows: 1 mg of 1.5CEC HDTMA-MMT was prepared under pH value of 10.7 and with soaking time for 2 h. The DNA molecules can be protected from nuclease degradation, which can be proven by the electrophoresis analysis. DNA was successfully transfected into the nucleus of human dermal fibroblast and expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene with green fluorescence emission. The HDTMA-MMT has a great potential as a vector for gene delivery in the future.

  14. Oncolytic virus delivery: from nano-pharmacodynamics to enhanced oncolytic effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoda R

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Raquel Yokoda,1 Bolni M Nagalo,1 Brent Vernon,2 Rahmi Oklu,3 Hassan Albadawi,3 Thomas T DeLeon,1 Yumei Zhou,1 Jan B Egan,1 Dan G Duda,4 Mitesh J Borad1 1Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, 3Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ, 4Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: With the advancement of a growing number of oncolytic viruses (OVs to clinical development, drug delivery is becoming an important barrier to overcome for optimal therapeutic benefits. Host immunity, tumor microenvironment and abnormal vascularity contribute to inefficient vector delivery. A number of novel approaches for enhanced OV delivery are under evaluation, including use of nanoparticles, immunomodulatory agents and complex viral–particle ligands along with manipulations of the tumor microenvironment. This field of OV delivery has quickly evolved to bioengineering of complex nanoparticles that could be deposited within the tumor using minimal invasive image-guided delivery. Some of the strategies include ultrasound (US-mediated cavitation-enhanced extravasation, magnetic viral complexes delivery, image-guided infusions with focused US and targeting photodynamic virotherapy. In addition, strategies that modulate tumor microenvironment to decrease extracellular matrix deposition and increase viral propagation are being used to improve tumor penetration by OVs. Some involve modification of the viral genome to enhance their tumoral penetration potential. Here, we highlight the barriers to oncolytic viral delivery, and discuss the challenges to improving it and the perspectives of establishing new modes of active delivery to achieve enhanced oncolytic effects. Keywords: oncolytic viruses, oncolytic virotherapy, drug delivery systems, tumor

  15. TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY AND METHODS TO ENHANCE IT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Kuznetsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the common methods employed in recent years for enhancing transdermal delivery of drug substances when applying transdermal therapeutic delivery systems. The chemical, physical and mechanical methods to enhance the transport of macromolecular compounds through the skin are considered in details. 

  16. Complexity in the therapeutic delivery of RNAi medicines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Stefano; Zeng, Xianghui; Ragelle, Héloïse

    2014-01-01

    of this review is to reflect on the complexity in the therapeutic delivery of RNA interference-based drugs emerging from the recent clinical experiences and report the actual technological and analytical advances introduced to solve it. EXPERT OPINION: The complexity in the therapeutic delivery of nucleic acids...

  17. Investigation of Factors Affecting Microdialysis Probe Delivery and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate in vitro the factors affecting microdialysis probe delivery and recovery of puerarin. Methods: The recovery and delivery of puerarin were tested for extraction efficiency and retro-dialysis methods. Factors such as drug concentration, stirring speed, additives and length of membrane were studied to ...

  18. 7 CFR 981.52 - Holding requirement and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Holding requirement and delivery. 981.52 Section 981.52 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... delivery. Each handler shall, at all times, hold in his possession or under his control, in proper storage...

  19. Investigation of Factors Affecting Microdialysis Probe Delivery and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate in vitro the factors affecting microdialysis probe delivery and recovery of puerarin . Methods: The recovery and delivery of puerarin were tested for extraction efficiency and retro-dialysis methods. Factors such as drug concentration, stirring speed, additives and length of membrane were studied to ...

  20. Naturapolyceutics: The Science of Utilizing Natural Polymers for Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndidi C. Ngwuluka

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Naturapolyceutics defines the emerging science and technology platform that blends natural polymers and pharmaceutics for the design and development of drug delivery systems. Natural polymers due to their biological properties, sustainability, chemical flexibility, human and eco-friendliness are promising in this field. As drug delivery advances, there will be need for more polymers. Given that polymers utilized in pharmaceuticals require regulatory approval, robust processes are undertaken to facilitate the production of pharmaceutical grade natural polymers. This review provides insight into the processes—extraction, purification, modifications and characterizations—involved in the eventual utilization of natural polymers for drug delivery. The versatility of natural polymers and particularly modified natural polymers in targeted drug delivery, micro-/nano-drug delivery, theranostics, BioMEMs and generally in research and development of highly efficient, safe and quality products is demonstrated. Natural polymers are polymers of today and tomorrow. Therefore, the shift to undertake training, extensive research and subsequent commercialization of more natural polymers—novel and underutilized—for drug delivery is now!

  1. Evaluation of Urban Freight Deliveries using Microsimulation and Surrogate Safety Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Freight deliveries on signalized urban streets are known to cause lane blockages during deliveries. When delivery vehicles block lanes of traffic near signalized intersections, the capacity of the intersection is affected. Current practice is for tra...

  2. 3D printing applications for transdermal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economidou, Sophia N; Lamprou, Dimitrios A; Douroumis, Dennis

    2018-06-15

    The role of two and three-dimensional printing as a fabrication technology for sophisticated transdermal drug delivery systems is explored in literature. 3D printing encompasses a family of distinct technologies that employ a virtual model to produce a physical object through numerically controlled apparatuses. The applicability of several printing technologies has been researched for the direct or indirect printing of microneedle arrays or for the modification of their surface through drug-containing coatings. The findings of the respective studies are presented. The range of printable materials that are currently used or potentially can be employed for 3D printing of transdermal drug delivery (TDD) systems is also reviewed. Moreover, the expected impact and challenges of the adoption of 3D printing as a manufacturing technique for transdermal drug delivery systems, are assessed. Finally, this paper outlines the current regulatory framework associated with 3D printed transdermal drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Advances in drug delivery to the posterior segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, William; Hsu, Jason; Yeh, Steven

    2015-05-01

    Emerging developments and research for drug delivery to the posterior segment offer a promising future for the treatment of vitreoretinal disease. As new technologies enter the market, clinicians should be aware of new indications and ongoing clinical trials. This review summarizes the advantages and shortcomings of the most commonly used drug delivery methods, including vitreous dynamics, physician sustainability and patient preferences. Currently available, intravitreal, corticosteroid-release devices offer surgical and in-office management of retinal vascular disease and posterior uveitis. The suprachoroidal space offers a new anatomic location for the delivery of lower dose medications directly to the target tissue. Implantable drug reservoirs would potentially allow for less frequent intravitreal injections reducing treatment burdens and associated risks. Newer innovations in encapsulated cell technology offer promising results in early clinical trials. Although pars plana intravitreal injection remains the mainstay of therapy for many vitreoretinal diseases, targeted delivery and implantable eluting devices are rapidly demonstrating safety and efficacy. These therapeutic modalities offer promising options for the vitreoretinal therapeutic landscape.

  4. Breech delivery at a University Hospital in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Högberg, Ulf; Claeson, Catrin; Krebs, Lone

    2016-01-01

    delivery (VD) (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 6.2; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 3.0-12.6) and referral (aOR 2.1; 95 % CI 1.1-3.9), but not with parity, birth weight, or delivery year. Overall perinatal mortality was 5.8 % and this did not decline, due to an increase in stillbirths among vaginal breech......Background: There is a global increase in rates of Cesarean delivery (CD). A minor factor in this increase is a shift towards CD for breech presentation. The aim of this study was to analyze breech births by mode of delivery and investigate short-term fetal and maternal outcomes in a low...... death (stillbirths + in-hospital neonatal deaths) and moderate asphyxia. Maternal outcomes, such as death, hemorrhage, and length of hospital stay, were also described. Results: The CD rate for breech presentation increased from 28 % in 1999 to 78 % in 2010. Perinatal deaths were associated with vaginal...

  5. Perinatal outcomes of unplanned out-of-hospital deliveries: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternak, Yael; Wintner, Eliana Muskin; Shechter-Maor, Gil; Pasternak, Yehonatan; Miller, Netanella; Biron-Shental, Tal

    2018-04-01

    To compare the pregnancy and perinatal outcomes of unplanned home or car births vs. in-hospital deliveries. A retrospective, case-control study of women who underwent unplanned out-of-hospital deliveries vs. in-hospital deliveries from 2004 through 2014. Matching was based on gestational age and parity in a ratio of 2:1. There were no significant differences between the groups regarding demographic criteria, prenatal care and delivery complications. Women who delivered out of hospital (n = 90) had significantly fewer cesarean deliveries (1.1 vs. 10.6%; p = 0.05) and operative deliveries (2.2 vs. 13.3%; p = 0.004) in their obstetrical history than did the control group (n = 180). Significantly more newborns delivered out of the hospital had polycythemia (25.6 vs. 1.7%; p unplanned out-of-hospital deliveries tend to have fewer complications in their previous deliveries. Higher rates of polycythemia and hypothermia require attention for neonates born out of the hospital.

  6. Strategic Design for Delivery with Linked Transportation Assets : Trucks and Drones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Home delivery by drones as an alternative or complement to traditional delivery by trucks is attracting considerable attention from major retailers and services, as well as startups. While drone delivery may offer considerable economic savings, the f...

  7. Advanced drug delivery approaches against periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Deeksha; Garg, Tarun; Goyal, Amit K; Rath, Goutam

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of gums involving the degeneration of periodontal ligaments, creation of periodontal pocket and resorption of alveolar bone, resulting in the disruption of the support structure of teeth. According to WHO, 10-15% of the global population suffers from severe periodontitis. The disease results from the growth of a diverse microflora (especially anaerobes) in the pockets and release of toxins, enzymes and stimulation of body's immune response. Various local or systemic approaches were used for an effective treatment of periodontitis. Currently, controlled local drug delivery approach is more favorable as compared to systemic approach because it mainly focuses on improving the therapeutic outcomes by achieving factors like site-specific delivery, low dose requirement, bypass of first-pass metabolism, reduction in gastrointestinal side effects and decrease in dosing frequency. Overall it provides a safe and effective mode of treatment, which enhances patient compliance. Complete eradication of the organisms from the sites was not achieved by using various surgical and mechanical treatments. So a number of polymer-based delivery systems like fibers, films, chips, strips, microparticles, nanoparticles and nanofibers made from a variety of natural and synthetic materials have been successfully tested to deliver a variety of drugs. These systems are biocompatible and biodegradable, completely fill the pockets, and have strong retention on the target site due to excellent mucoadhesion properties. The review summarizes various available and recently developing targeted delivery devices for the treatment of periodontitis.

  8. Silk constructs for delivery of muskuloskeletal therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinel, Lorenz; Kaplan, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) is a biopolymer with distinguishing features from many other bio- as well as synthetic polymers. From a biomechanical and drug delivery perspective, SF combines remarkable versatility for scaffolding (solid implants, hydrogels, threads, solutions), with advanced mechanical properties and good stabilization and controlled delivery of entrapped protein and small molecule drugs, respectively. It is this combination of mechanical and pharmaceutical features which render SF so exciting for biomedical applications. his pattern along with the versatility of this biopolymer have been translated into progress for musculoskeletal applications. We review the use and potential of silk fibroin for systemic and localized delivery of therapeutics in diseases affecting the musculoskeletal system. We also present future directions for this biopolymer as well as the necessary research and development steps for their achievement. PMID:22522139

  9. Liver cell-targeted delivery of therapeutic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeong-Hun; Toita, Riki; Murata, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    The liver is the largest internal organ in mammals and is involved in metabolism, detoxification, synthesis of proteins and lipids, secretion of cytokines and growth factors and immune/inflammatory responses. Hepatitis, alcoholic or non-alcoholic liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatic veno-occlusive disease, and liver fibrosis and cirrhosis are the most common liver diseases. Safe and efficient delivery of therapeutic molecules (drugs, genes or proteins) into the liver is very important to increase the clinical efficacy of these molecules and to reduce their side effects in other organs. Several liver cell-targeted delivery systems have been developed and tested in vivo or ex vivo/in vitro. In this review, we discuss the literature concerning liver cell-targeted delivery systems, with a particular emphasis on the results of in vivo studies.

  10. Targeted Delivery of Immunomodulators to Lymph Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Azzi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Active-targeted delivery to lymph nodes represents a major advance toward more effective treatment of immune-mediated disease. The MECA79 antibody recognizes peripheral node addressin molecules expressed by high endothelial venules of lymph nodes. By mimicking lymphocyte trafficking to the lymph nodes, we have engineered MECA79-coated microparticles containing an immunosuppressive medication, tacrolimus. Following intravenous administration, MECA79-bearing particles showed marked accumulation in the draining lymph nodes of transplanted animals. Using an allograft heart transplant model, we show that targeted lymph node delivery of microparticles containing tacrolimus can prolong heart allograft survival with negligible changes in tacrolimus serum level. Using MECA79 conjugation, we have demonstrated targeted delivery of tacrolimus to the lymph nodes following systemic administration, with the capacity for immune modulation in vivo.

  11. Drug delivery systems and materials for wound healing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghazadeh, Saghi; Rinoldi, Chiara; Schot, Maik; Kashaf, Sara Saheb; Sharifi, Fatemeh; Jalilian, Elmira; Nuutila, Kristo; Giatsidis, Giorgio; Mostafalu, Pooria; Derakhshandeh, Hossein; Yue, Kan; Swieszkowski, Wojciech; Memic, Adnan; Tamayol, Ali; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2018-04-05

    Chronic, non-healing wounds place a significant burden on patients and healthcare systems, resulting in impaired mobility, limb amputation, or even death. Chronic wounds result from a disruption in the highly orchestrated cascade of events involved in wound closure. Significant advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of chronic wounds have resulted in the development of drugs designed to target different aspects of the impaired processes. However, the hostility of the wound environment rich in degradative enzymes and its elevated pH, combined with differences in the time scales of different physiological processes involved in tissue regeneration require the use of effective drug delivery systems. In this review, we will first discuss the pathophysiology of chronic wounds and then the materials used for engineering drug delivery systems. Different passive and active drug delivery systems used in wound care will be reviewed. In addition, the architecture of the delivery platform and its ability to modulate drug delivery are discussed. Emerging technologies and the opportunities for engineering more effective wound care devices are also highlighted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Mode of Delivery Preferences in a Diverse Population of Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    YEE, Lynn M.; KAIMAL, Anjali J.; HOUSTON, Kathryn A.; WU, Erica; THIET, Mari-Paule; NAKAGAWA, Sanae; CAUGHEY, Aaron B.; FIROUZIAN, Atoosa; KUPPERMANN, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess women’s preferences for vaginal versus cesarean delivery in four contexts: prior cesarean, twins, breech presentation, and absent indication for cesarean. STUDY DESIGN Cross-sectional study of pregnant women at 24-40 weeks gestation. After assessing stated preferences for vaginal or cesarean delivery, we used the standard gamble metric to measure the strength of these preferences and the time tradeoff metric to determine how women value the potential processes and outcomes associated with these two delivery approaches. RESULTS Among the 240 participants, 90.8% had a stated preference for vaginal delivery. Across the four contexts, these women indicated that, on average, they would accept a 59-75% chance of an attempted vaginal birth ending in a cesarean before choosing a planned cesarean, indicating strong preferences for spontaneous, uncomplicated vaginal delivery. Variations in preferences for labor processes emerged. While uncomplicated labor ending in vaginal birth was assigned mean utilities of 0.993 or higher (on a 0-to-1 scale with higher scores indicating more preferred outcomes), the need for oxytocin, antibiotics, or operative vaginal delivery resulted in lower mean scores, comparable to those assigned to uncomplicated cesarean delivery. Substantially lower scores (ranging from 0.432 to 0.598) were obtained for scenarios ending in severe maternal or neonatal morbidity. CONCLUSIONS While most women expressed strong preferences for vaginal delivery, their preferences regarding interventions frequently employed to achieve that goal varied. These data underscore the importance of educating patients about the process of labor and delivery to facilitate incorporation of informed patient preferences in shared decision making regarding delivery approach. PMID:25446662

  13. MRI-Guided Focused Ultrasound as a New Method of Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Thanou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound-mediated drug delivery under the guidance of an imaging modality can improve drug disposition and achieve site-specific drug delivery. The term focal drug delivery has been introduced to describe the focal targeting of drugs in tissues with the help of imaging and focused ultrasound. Focal drug delivery aims to improve the therapeutic profile of drugs by improving their specificity and their permeation in defined areas. Focused-ultrasound- (FUS- mediated drug delivery has been applied with various molecules to improve their local distribution in tissues. FUS is applied with the aid of microbubbles to enhance the permeability of bioactive molecules across BBB and improve drug distribution in the brain. Recently, FUS has been utilised in combination with MRI-labelled liposomes that respond to temperature increase. This strategy aims to “activate” nanoparticles to release their cargo locally when triggered by hyperthermia induced by FUS. MRI-guided FUS drug delivery provides the opportunity to improve drug bioavailability locally and therefore improve the therapeutic profiles of drugs. This drug delivery strategy can be directly translated to clinic as MRg FUS is a promising clinically therapeutic approach. However, more basic research is required to understand the physiological mechanism of FUS-enhanced drug delivery.

  14. Risk of cesarean delivery among pregnant women with class III obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghesi, Yves; Labreuche, Julien; Duhamel, Alain; Pigeyre, Marie; Deruelle, Philippe

    2017-02-01

    To identify factors associated with cesarean delivery among women with class III obesity attempting vaginal delivery. In a retrospective study, medical charts were reviewed for women aged 18 years or older with a singleton pregnancy of at least 37 weeks and a body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) of 40 or higher who were eligible to attempt vaginal delivery at a maternity hospital in Lille, France, between 1999 and 2012. Among 345 eligible women, 301 (87.2%) attempted vaginal delivery; 211 (70.1%) were successful and 90 (29.9%) delivered by cesarean. The frequency of nulliparity was higher among those undergoing cesarean after a trial of labor (64 [71.1%]) than among those who delivered vaginally (57 [27.0%]; Pcesarean (61 [67.8%] vs 96 [45.5%]; Pcesarean among women attempting vaginal delivery (odds ratio [OR] 2.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.25-4.22), whereas history of vaginal delivery was protective (OR 0.08, 95% CI 0.04-0.17). Nulliparous women with class III obesity attempting a vaginal delivery should be warned of the high risk of cesarean delivery, especially if they require induction. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  15. Safe delivery practices: experience from cross-sectional data of Bangladeshi women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, M A; Goh, Kim-Leng; Khan, M M H; Al-Amin, Abul Quasem; Azam, Mohammad Nurul

    2015-03-01

    This study examines the safe delivery practices of Bangladeshi women using data on 4905 ever-married women aged 15 to 49 years from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. Variables that included age, region of origin, education level of respondent and spouse, residence, working status, religion, involvement in NGOs, mass media exposure, and wealth index were analyzed to find correlates of safe delivery practices. More than 80% of the deliveries took place at home, and only 18% were under safe and hygienic conditions. The likelihood of safe deliveries was significantly lower among younger and older mothers than middle-aged mothers and higher among educated mothers and those living in urban areas. Economically better-off mothers and those with greater exposure to mass media had a significantly higher incidence of safe delivery practices. A significant association with religion and safe delivery practices was revealed. Demographic, socioeconomic, cultural, and programmatic factors that are strongly associated with safe delivery practices should be considered in the formulation of reproductive health policy. © 2012 APJPH.

  16. 31 CFR 211.1 - Withholding delivery of checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withholding delivery of checks. 211.1 Section 211.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE DELIVERY OF CHECKS AND WARRANTS TO...

  17. Rethinking the delivery of public services to citizens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seidle, F. Leslie

    1995-01-01

    ... Sector Reform and Service Delivery in the Antipodes New Zealand: Transforming the State Australia: a Concerted Program of Management Reform Conclusion Notes 75 Chapter Four The Canadian Federal Government and Service Delivery Issues Perceptions of Service from the Federal Government The Mulroney Government and Public Service 2000 Special Operati...

  18. Contributing factors to poor service delivery by administrative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reports on a study that was conducted among non-managerial administrative employees in the public sector in Gauteng. The researchers attempted to determine the effect of specified job factors on the wellbeing and service delivery of these employees. Poor service delivery in the country triggered the research.

  19. Progress and perspectives on targeting nanoparticles for brain drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huile Gao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the ability of the blood–brain barrier (BBB to prevent the entry of drugs into the brain, it is a challenge to treat central nervous system disorders pharmacologically. The development of nanotechnology provides potential to overcome this problem. In this review, the barriers to brain-targeted drug delivery are reviewed, including the BBB, blood–brain tumor barrier (BBTB, and nose-to-brain barrier. Delivery strategies are focused on overcoming the BBB, directly targeting diseased cells in the brain, and dual-targeted delivery. The major concerns and perspectives on constructing brain-targeted delivery systems are discussed.

  20. Progress and perspectives on targeting nanoparticles for brain drug delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huile Gao

    2016-01-01

    Due to the ability of the blood–brain barrier(BBB) to prevent the entry of drugs into the brain, it is a challenge to treat central nervous system disorders pharmacologically. The development of nanotechnology provides potential to overcome this problem. In this review, the barriers to brain-targeted drug delivery are reviewed, including the BBB, blood–brain tumor barrier(BBTB), and nose-to-brain barrier. Delivery strategies are focused on overcoming the BBB, directly targeting diseased cells in the brain, and dual-targeted delivery. The major concerns and perspectives on constructing brain-targeted delivery systems are discussed.

  1. Bespoke program design for school-aged therapy disability service delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherill, Pamela; Bahn, Susanne; Cooper, Trudi

    2012-01-01

    This article uses the evaluation of a school-aged therapy service for children with disabilities in Western Australia to investigate models of service delivery. The current literature on family-centered practice, multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary approaches, and 4 models of service are reviewed. The models include the life needs model, the relational goal-orientated model of optimal service delivery to children and families, the quality of life model, and the collaborative model of service delivery. Analysis of the data is presented together with a bespoke model of service delivery for children with disabilities, arguing that local contexts benefit from custom-made service design.

  2. [French residents' training in instrumental deliveries: A national survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunier, C; Raimond, E; Dupont, A; Pelissier, A; Bonneau, S; Gabriel, R; Graesslin, O

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate French residents in Obstetrics and Gynaecology's training in instrumental deliveries in 2015. We conducted a national descriptive survey among 758 residents between December 2014 and January 2015. Respondents were invited by email to specify their University Hospital, their current university term, the number of instrumental deliveries performed by vacuum extractor, forceps or spatulas, and whether they made systematic ultrasound exams before performing the extraction. Response rate was 34.7 % (n=263). There were important differences between regions in terms of type of instruments used. Vacuum extractor was the most commonly used instrument for instrumental deliveries by French residents (56.9 %), more than forceps (25.2 %) and spatulas (17.9 %). At the end of the residency, all the residents had been trained in instrumental deliveries with at least two instruments. The training of difficult techniques as well as their perfect control is required for instrumental deliveries. Yet, we are forced to note that there are substantial differences in the French residents' training in instrumental deliveries depending on their region. So, teaching at least two techniques seems essential as well as improving the training capacities and standardizing practices. A greater systematization of the teaching of the mechanics and obstetric techniques might be a solution to be considered too. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Practical guide to content delivery networks

    CERN Document Server

    Held, Gilbert

    2005-01-01

    With a practical and organized approach to learning and implementation, A Practical Guide to Content Delivery Networks presents a step-by-step process for building a highly available and highly scalable content delivery network (CDN). CDN refers to the infrastructure behind any service that provides utility or access to data to an end user. This book offers terminology, tactics, potential problems to avoid, and individual layers of design, providing clear understanding of the framework for CDNs using a structural and visual approach. The text emphasizes a best-of-breed strategy, allowing a tec

  4. Nonviral Delivery Systems For Cancer Gene Therapy: Strategies And Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Gayong; Kim, Dongyoon; Le, Quoc-Viet; Park, Gyu Thae; Kwon, Taekhyun; Oh, Yu-Kyoung

    2018-01-19

    Gene therapy has been receiving widespread attention due to its unique advantage in regulating the expression of specific target genes. In the field of cancer gene therapy, modulation of gene expression has been shown to decrease oncogenic factors in cancer cells or increase immune responses against cancer. Due to the macromolecular size and highly negative physicochemical features of plasmid DNA, efficient delivery systems are an essential ingredient for successful gene therapy. To date, a variety of nanostructures and materials have been studied as nonviral gene delivery systems. In this review, we will cover nonviral delivery strategies for cancer gene therapy, with a focus on target cancer genes and delivery materials. Moreover, we will address current challenges and perspectives for nonviral delivery-based cancer gene therapeutics. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Resistive-wall Wake Effect in the Beam Delivery System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delayen, J.R.; Jefferson Lab; Wu, Juhao; Raubenheimer, T.O.; SLAC; Wang, Jiunn-Ming; BNL, NSLS

    2005-01-01

    General formulae for resistive-wall induced beam dilution are presented and then applied to the final beam delivery system of linear colliders. Criteria for the design of final beam delivery systems are discussed

  6. Lung delivery of aerosolized dextran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, W H; Lange, C F; King, M; Speert, D P

    2000-01-01

    The ability of nebulizers to deliver dextran (nominal molecular mass, 4,000 g/mol) to the lung as an inhaled aerosol is evaluated by in vitro experimental methods and mathematical models. Dextran in isotonic saline was aerosolized by four nebulizer types (Pari LC STAR, Hudson T-Updraft II, Acorn II, and Sonix 2000) at dextran concentrations phase Doppler anemometry, filter collection, osmometry, and gravimetry. Mathematical models were used to estimate amounts of the characterized aerosols depositing in the different regions of lung models, and mathematical models of mucous thickness were then developed to estimate initial concentrations of the depositing dextran in the mucus of each conducting airway generation. Models of three subjects (4 yr old, 8 yr old, and adult) were used. The high viscosity of the dextran solutions tested (up to seven times that of water) negatively impacts nebulization, and results in poor performance with most delivery systems tested. Our results suggest that airway mucosal dextran concentrations associated with efficacy in previous animal and in vitro models are achievable with reasonable delivery times (delivery systems/formulations tested: the Pari LC STAR nebulizer, using a 2. 5-ml volume fill and a dextran concentration of 200 mg/ml.

  7. Increasing low birth weight rates: deliveries in a tertiary hospital in istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Yasemin; Cömert, Serdar; Turan, Cem; Unal, Orhan; Piçak, Abdülkadir; Ger, Lale; Telatar, Berrin

    2010-09-01

    Prevalence of low birth weight deliveries may vary across different environments. The necessity of determination of regional data prompted this study. Information of all deliveries from January 2004 to December 2008 was obtained from delivery registry records retrospectively. Initial data including birth weight, vital status, sex, maternal age and mode of delivery were recorded using medical files. The frequency of low birth weight, very low birth weight, extremely low birth weight and stillbirth deliveries were determined. Among 19,533 total births, there were 450 (23.04 per 1000) stillbirths. Low birth weight rate was 10.61%. A significant increase in yearly distribution of low birth weight deliveries was observed (Pbirth weight and extremely low birth weight delivery rates were 3.14% and 1.58% respectively. Among 2073 low birth weight infants, 333 (16.06%) were stillbirths. The stillbirth delivery rate and the birth of a female infant among low birth weight deliveries were significantly higher than infants with birth weight ≥2500g (Pbirth weight and maternal age. The rate of cesarean section among low birth weight infants was 49.4%. High low birth weight and stillbirth rates, as well as the increase in low birth weight deliveries over the past five years in this study are striking. For reduction of increased low birth weight rates, appropriate intervention methods should be initiated.

  8. A mucoadhesive in situ gel delivery system for paclitaxel

    OpenAIRE

    Jauhari, Saurabh; Dash, Alekha K.

    2006-01-01

    MUC1 gene encodes a transmembrane mucin glycoprotein that is overexpressed in human breast cancer and colon cancer. The objective of this study was to develop an in situ gel delivery system containing paclitaxel (PTX) and mucoadhesives for sustained and targeted delivery of anticancer drugs. The delivery system consisted of chitosan and glyceryl monooleate (GMO) in 0.33M citric acid containing PTX. The in vitro release of PTX from the gel was performed in presence and absence of Tween 80 at d...

  9. Factors associated with institutional delivery service utilization in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebede A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Alemi Kebede,1 Kalkidan Hassen,2 Aderajew Nigussie Teklehaymanot1 1Department of Population and Family Health, 2College of Health Sciences, Jimma University, Ethiopia Background: Most obstetric complications occur unpredictably during the time of delivery, but they can be prevented with proper medical care in the health facilities. Despite the Ethiopian government’s efforts to expand health service facilities and promote health institution-based delivery service in the country, an estimated 85% of births still take place at home.Objective: The review was conducted with the aim of generating the best evidence on the determinants of institutional delivery service utilization in Ethiopia.Methods: The reviewed studies were accessed through electronic web-based search strategy from PubMed, HINARI, Mendeley reference manager, Cochrane Library for Systematic Reviews, and Google Scholar. Review Manager V5.3 software was used for meta-analysis. Mantel–Haenszel odds ratios (ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated. Heterogeneity of the study was assessed using I2 test.Results: People living in urban areas (OR =13.16, CI =1.24, 3.68, with primary and above educational level of the mother and husband (OR =4.95, CI =2.3, 4. 8, and OR =4.43, CI =1.14, 3.36, respectively, who encountered problems during pregnancy (OR =2.83, CI =4.54, 7.39, and living at a distance <5 km from nearby health facility (OR =2.6, CI =3.33, 6.57 showed significant association with institutional delivery service utilization. Women’s autonomy was not significantly associated with institutional delivery service utilization.Conclusion and recommendation: Distance to health facility and problems during pregnancy were factors positively and significantly associated with institutional delivery service utilization. Promoting couples education beyond primary education regarding the danger signs of pregnancy and benefits of institutional delivery through available

  10. Porous silicon advances in drug delivery and immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, David J; Liu, Xuewu; Curley, Steven A; Ferrari, Mauro; Serda, Rita E

    2013-10-01

    Biomedical applications of porous silicon include drug delivery, imaging, diagnostics and immunotherapy. This review summarizes new silicon particle fabrication techniques, dynamics of cellular transport, advances in the multistage vector approach to drug delivery, and the use of porous silicon as immune adjuvants. Recent findings support superior therapeutic efficacy of the multistage vector approach over single particle drug delivery systems in mouse models of ovarian and breast cancer. With respect to vaccine development, multivalent presentation of pathogen-associated molecular patterns on the particle surface creates powerful platforms for immunotherapy, with the porous matrix able to carry both antigens and immune modulators. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthetic Lipoproteins as Carriers for Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gangliang; Liu, Yang; Huang, Hualiang

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic lipoprotein is an effective carrier of targeted delivery for drugs. It has the very small size, good biocompatibility, suitable half-life, and specific lipoprotein receptorbinding capacity. Compared with the traditional natural lipoprotein, synthetic lipoprotein not only retains the original biological characteristics and functions, but also exhibits the excellent characteristics in drug delivery. Herein, the advantages, development, applications, and prospect of synthetic lipoproteins as drug carriers were summarized.

  12. Novel Nanostructured Solid Materials for Modulating Oral Drug Delivery from Solid-State Lipid-Based Drug Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dening, Tahnee J; Rao, Shasha; Thomas, Nicky; Prestidge, Clive A

    2016-01-01

    Lipid-based drug delivery systems (LBDDS) have gained significant attention in recent times, owing to their ability to overcome the challenges limiting the oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs. Despite the successful commercialization of several LBDDS products over the years, a large discrepancy exists between the number of poorly water-soluble drugs displaying suboptimal in vivo performances and the application of LBDDS to mitigate their various delivery challenges. Conventional LBDDS, including lipid solutions and suspensions, emulsions, and self-emulsifying formulations, suffer from various drawbacks limiting their widespread use and commercialization. Accordingly, solid-state LBDDS, fabricated by adsorbing LBDDS onto a chemically inert solid carrier material, have attracted substantial interest as a viable means of stabilizing LBDDS whilst eliminating some of the various limitations. This review describes the impact of solid carrier choice on LBDDS performance and highlights the importance of appropriate solid carrier material selection when designing hybrid solid-state LBDDS. Specifically, emphasis is placed on discussing the ability of the specific solid carrier to modulate drug release, control lipase action and lipid digestion, and enhance biopharmaceutical performance above the original liquid-state LBDDS. To encourage the interested reader to consider their solid carrier choice on a higher level, various novel materials with the potential for future use as solid carriers for LBDDS are described. This review is highly significant in guiding future research directions in the solid-state LBDDS field and fostering the translation of these delivery systems to the pharmaceutical marketplace.

  13. Assessment of Extension Service Delivery on Improved Cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extension service delivery is too often merely seen as a vehicle for spreading scientific and technical progress and technology transfer. In the real sense, however, dissemination of knowledge is not a one way affair from scientists to producers. The study was conducted to assess extension service delivery on improved ...

  14. 36 CFR 1002.17 - Aircraft and air delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft and air delivery. 1002.17 Section 1002.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.17 Aircraft and air delivery. (a) Delivering or retrieving a person or...

  15. Improving Service Delivery of the Finance and Budget Section ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    Action research was conducted in May and June 2004 aimed at improving service delivery of ... improve service delivery. (Quinby,1985). Furthermore, the intervention stage in which the development of ..... Educational leadership,. 42, 17-21.

  16. 'Wagging the dog': supply chain management and service delivery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available in the appointment of contractors, leading to delays in the delivery of services. The SCM “tail” would appear on those occasions to be “wagging the dog”, namely service delivery....

  17. Archaeosomes: an excellent carrier for drug and cell delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurmeet; Garg, Tarun; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit K

    2016-09-01

    Archaeosomes as liposomes made with one or more ether lipids that are unique to the domain of Archaeobacteria, found in Archaea constitute a novel family of liposome. Achaean-type lipids consist of archaeol (diether) and/or caldarchaeol (tetraether) core structures. Archaeosomes can be produced using standard procedures (hydrated film submitted to sonication, extrusion and detergent dialysis) at any temperature in the physiological range or lower, therefore making it possible to encapsulate thermally stable compounds. Various physiological as well as environmental factors affect its stability. Archaeosomes are widely used as drug delivery systems for cancer vaccines, Chagas disease, proteins and peptides, gene delivery, antigen delivery and delivery of natural antioxidant compounds. In this review article, our major aim was to explore the applications of this new carrier system in pharmaceutical field.

  18. Emerging Technologies of Polymeric Nanoparticles in Cancer Drug Delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, E.; Coleman, J.; Lowman, A.

    2011-01-01

    Polymeric nanomaterials have the potential to improve upon present chemotherapy delivery methods. They successfully reduce side effects while increasing dosage, increase residence time in the body, offer a sustained and tunable release, and have the ability to deliver multiple drugs in one carrier. However, traditional nanomaterial formulations have not produced highly therapeutic formulations to date due to their passive delivery methods and lack of rapid drug release at their intended site. In this paper, we have focused on a few smart technologies that further enhance the benefits of typical nanomaterials. Temperature and pH-responsive drug delivery devices were reviewed as methods for triggering release of encapsulating drugs, while aptamer and ligand conjugation were discussed as methods for targeted and intracellular delivery, with emphases on in vitro and in vivo works for each method.

  19. Current and future technological advances in transdermal gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianfeng

    2017-12-19

    Transdermal gene delivery holds significant advantages as it is able to minimize the problems of systemic administration such as enzymatic degradation, systemic toxicity, and poor delivery to target tissues. This technology has the potential to transform the treatment and prevention of a range of diseases. However, the skin poses a great barrier for gene delivery because of the "bricks-and-mortar" structure of the stratum corneum and the tight junctions between keratinocytes in the epidermis. This review systematically summarizes the typical physical and chemical approaches to overcome these barriers and facilitate gene delivery via skin for applications in vaccination, wound healing, skin cancers and skin diseases. Next, the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches are discussed and the insights for future development are provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Repeat cesarean delivery: what indications are recorded in the medical chart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydon-Rochelle, Mona T; Gardella, Carolyn; Cárdenas, Vicky; Easterling, Thomas R

    2006-03-01

    National surveillance estimates reported a troubling 63 percent decline in the rate of vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC) from 1996 (28.3%) to 2003 (10.6%), with subsequent rising rates of repeat cesarean delivery. The study objective was to examine patterns of documented indications for repeat cesarean delivery in women with and without labor. We conducted a population-based validation study of 19 nonfederal short-stay hospitals in Washington state. Of the 4,541 women who had live births in 2000, 11 percent (n = 493) had repeat cesarean without labor and 3 percent (n = 138) had repeat cesarean with labor. Incidence of medical conditions and pregnancy complications, patterns of documented indications for repeat cesarean delivery, and perioperative complications in relation to repeat cesarean delivery with and without labor were calculated. Of the 493 women who underwent a repeat cesarean delivery without labor, "elective"(36%) and "maternal request"(18%) were the most common indications. Indications for maternal medical conditions (3.0%) were uncommon. Among the 138 women with repeat cesarean delivery with labor, 60.1 percent had failure to progress, 24.6 percent a non-reassuring fetal heart rate, 8.0 percent cephalopelvic disproportion, and 7.2 percent maternal request during labor. Fetal indications were less common (5.8%). Breech, failed vacuum, abruptio placentae, maternal complications, and failed forceps were all indicated less than 5.0 percent. Women's perioperative complications did not vary significantly between women without and with labor. Regardless of a woman's labor status, nearly 10 percent of women with repeat cesarean delivery had no documented indication as to why a cesarean delivery was performed. "Elective" and "maternal request" were common indications among women undergoing repeat cesarean delivery without labor, and nearly 10 percent of women had undocumented indications for repeat cesarean delivery in their medical record