WorldWideScience

Sample records for proposed transboundary park

  1. Ecological planning proposal for Kruger National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riet, W. F.; Cooks, J.

    1990-05-01

    This article discusses an application of the ecological planning model proposed by Van Riet and Cooks. The various steps outlined in this model have been applied to Kruger National Park in South Africa. The natural features of Kruger National Park, which form the basis of such an ecological planning exercise and from which the various land use categories, values, and zoning classes can be determined, are discussed in detail. The suitability of each of the various features is analyzed and a final zoning proposal for Kruger National Park is suggested. Furthermore a method for selecting a site for a new camp is illustrated by referring to the site for the new Mopane rest camp which is now under construction in the Kruger National Park. The conclusion is reached that the proposed ecological planning model can be used successfully in planning conservation areas such as Kruger National Park and for the selection of the most desirable sites for the establishment of new rest camps. Its suitability as a practical model in such planning exercises is proven by the fact that the siting proposals of two new camps based on this model have been accepted by the National Parks Board, the controlling body of Kruger National Park.

  2. Transboundary protected area proposals along the Southern Andes of Chile and Argentina: Status of current efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Keller

    2007-01-01

    An evolving network of protected areas along the southern Andes of Chile and Argentina-the heart of Patagonia-are in various stages of evaluation and potential Transboundary Protected Area designations. This paper examines three such efforts. The first proposal is the North Andean-Patagonia Regional Eco-Corridor, which was the subject of a recent bilateral meeting...

  3. Identifying and characterizing transboundary aquifers along the Mexico-US border: An initial assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Rosario; Lopez, Victoria; Eckstein, Gabriel

    2016-04-01

    The transboundary nature of water dividing Mexico and the United States (U.S.) transforms the entire border region into an instrument of cooperation, a source of conflict, a national security issue, and an environmental concern. Reasonable data collection and research analysis have been conducted for surface waters by joint governmental institutions and non-governmental bodies. However, with the exception of the U.S. Transboundary Assessment Act Program (TAAP) (focusing on the Hueco Bolson, Mesilla Bolson, San Pedro and Santa Cruz aquifers), there is no comparable research, institutional development, or assessment of transboundary groundwater issues on the frontier. Moreover, data collection and methodologies vary between the two countries, there is no broadly accepted definition of the transboundary nature of an aquifer, and available legal and policy frameworks are constrained by non-hydrological considerations. Hence, there is a conceptual and institutional void regarding transboundary groundwater resources between Mexico and the U.S. The purpose of this paper is to bridge this void and characterize transboundary aquifers on the Mexico-US border. It reviews existing international frameworks for identifying hydrological and social criteria that characterize an aquifer as transboundary. It then assesses data from both countries to propose where and which aquifers could be considered transboundary. Finally, the paper proposes an agenda for assessing Mexico-US transboundary aquifers as a means for improving groundwater management in the border region.

  4. The convention on environmental impact assessment in a transboundary context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrage, W.

    2000-01-01

    The ECE Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (EIA Convention) is the first multilateral treaty to specify the procedural rights and duties of Parties with regard to transboundary impacts of proposed activities and to provide procedures, in a transboundary context, for the consideration of environmental impacts in decision-making. The EIA Convention, elaborated under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE), was adopted at Espoo, Finland, in February 1991. Obligations stipulated, and measures and procedures provided for in this Convention are described. (author)

  5. Transboundary EIA: Iberian experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albergaria, Rita; Fidelis, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    The 1314 km border shared by Portugal and Spain is simultaneously a conflict generator, due to joint access to common resources such as water, and a motive for transboundary cooperation in terms of development projects based on common concerns. Transboundary cooperation associated with Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) has been encouraged through the enactment of the Espoo Convention (1997). The European Union has adopted a Directive (97/11/CE Directive) under which taking transboundary impacts into consideration during EIA processes has become mandatory for member states. As a consequence, Portugal and Spain have approved related provisions. This paper aims to critically analyse the legal and procedural features of bilateral cooperation through the comparison of two case studies related to water management projects (the Sela and Alqueva dams). The paper highlights procedural weaknesses and puts forward a 'Good Practice Model' for cooperation under transboundary EIA processes. The model focuses on the ways in which EIA-based bilateral cooperation should proceed through the specification of phases and procedures for collaboration between Portugal and Spain in the identification and evaluation of transboundary impacts, as well in the public participation procedures

  6. Europe’s Wild Heart - still beating' Experiences from a new transboundary wilderness area in the middle of the Old Continent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křenová, Zdeňka; Kiener, H.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2012), s. 115-124 ISSN 1805-0174 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : wilderness * transboundary cooperation * national park * biodiversity * Natura 2000 Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  7. Proposed open-pit mine threatens Jasper National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikelcic, S.

    1996-12-31

    Concerns by the Sierra Club, the Alberta Wilderness Association, and other environmental groups about the proposed Cheviot Mine are discussed. Cardinal River Coals, which is owned by Luscar Ltd. and Consolidated Coals of Pittsburgh, is proposing the mining operation, which includes 26 deep open pit mines of which 14 will not be backfilled. The mine extends to within 2 km of Jasper National Park`s border. Concerns about the mine include: disruption of an environmentally sensitive area, interference with grizzly bear movement and bighorn sheep habitat and diet, destruction of flora and fauna, and pollution of two major watersheds. Hearings for the mine commence in January 1997.

  8. Transboundary water justice: a combined reading of literature on critical transboundary water interaction and "justice", for analysis and diplomacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeitoun, M.; Warner, J.F.; Mirumachi, N.; Matthews, N.; McLaughlin, K.

    2014-01-01

    By reviewing and blending two main bodies of research (critical transboundary water interaction analysis and centuries of thought on social justice) this paper seeks to improve international transboundary water interaction analysis and diplomacy. Various implications for transboundary analysis and

  9. 78 FR 53478 - Proposed Information Collection; United States Park Police Personal History Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ...] Proposed Information Collection; United States Park Police Personal History Statement AGENCY: National Park... about this IC, contact Major Scott Fear, United States Park Police, 1100 Ohio Drive SW., Washington, DC... INFORMATION: I. Abstract The United States Park Police (USPP) is a unit of the National Park Service...

  10. Transboundary Pollution, Trade Liberalization, and Environmental Taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baksi, S.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a bilateral trade framework, we examine the impact of tariff reduction on the optimal pollution tax and social welfare when pollution is transboundary. Strategic considerations lead countries to distort their pollution tax in the non-cooperative equilibrium. Trade liberalization changes the distortion, and consequently the pollution tax and welfare, in ways that depend on the extent to which pollution is transboundary. We find that when the pollution damage parameter is sufficiently small (large), bilateral tariff reduction always decreases (increases) the pollution tax, irrespective of the value of the transboundary pollution parameter. However, when the pollution damage parameter takes intermediate values, bilateral tariff reduction decreases the pollution tax if and only if the transboundary pollution parameter is sufficiently large (or even sufficiently small, in certain cases). Moreover, with pollution being transboundary, the impact of trade liberalization on welfare is non-monotonic and concave. The greater the extent to which pollution crosses borders, the more likely is trade liberalization to reduce welfare

  11. Transboundary Pollution, Trade Liberalization, and Environmental Taxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baksi, S. [Department of Economics, University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg (Canada); Ray Chaudhuri, A. [Department of Economics, CentER, TILEC, Tilburg University, Tilburg (Netherlands)

    2008-08-15

    In a bilateral trade framework, we examine the impact of tariff reduction on the optimal pollution tax and social welfare when pollution is transboundary. Strategic considerations lead countries to distort their pollution tax in the non-cooperative equilibrium. Trade liberalization changes the distortion, and consequently the pollution tax and welfare, in ways that depend on the extent to which pollution is transboundary. We find that when the pollution damage parameter is sufficiently small (large), bilateral tariff reduction always decreases (increases) the pollution tax, irrespective of the value of the transboundary pollution parameter. However, when the pollution damage parameter takes intermediate values, bilateral tariff reduction decreases the pollution tax if and only if the transboundary pollution parameter is sufficiently large (or even sufficiently small, in certain cases). Moreover, with pollution being transboundary, the impact of trade liberalization on welfare is non-monotonic and concave. The greater the extent to which pollution crosses borders, the more likely is trade liberalization to reduce welfare.

  12. Proper zonation – an essential tool for the future conservation of the Šumava National Park

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křenová, Zdeňka; Hruška, Jakub

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2012), s. 62-72 ISSN 1805-0174 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : zonation * management of national park * transboundary protected area * Natura 2000 * Ramsar site Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  13. Europe’s Wild Heart – still beating? Experiences from a new transboundary wilderness area in the middle of the Old Continent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Křenová

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The face of Europe has been shaped by human civilization for centuries and wilderness did not only vanish from the continent’s surface but also from humans’ minds and experiences. However, there are still a few places left, which have remained more or less unmodified and have at least the potential for rewilding. Among them are the Šumava National Park and the neighbouring Bavarian Forest NP, which together create a unique forest zone in the middle of Europe susceptible to host and demonstrate natural forest dynamics and ecosystem processes. This is also a large and very important Natura 2000 area. Transboundary cooperation between both National parks has improved since 1990, when the former Iron Curtain Corridor was opened, and culminated by the project Europe’s Wild Heart. The main goal of the project Europe’s Wild Heart, which started in 2008, was to develop a transboundary wilderness area in the core zones of the two national parks – BFNP and ŠNP. The project area was 13,060 ha and a “life story” of this project is described in this paper. A common “vision 2020” was signed where both parks committed among other things “to achieve a joint core area of about 15,000 ha with harmonized management principles, information services and monitoring networks to officially become the first and largest transboundary wilderness area in Central Europe”. Unfortunately, the bark beetle outbreak which followed the Kyrill hurricane in 2008 and 2009 escalated the discussion about appropriate forest management in the ŠNP. Opponents of the national park principles, non-intervention and wilderness concept became more and more vocal. The situation escalated after the election in 2010 when the Green Party was replaced by conservatives (ODS – Civic Democratic Party at the Czech Ministry of Environment. Clear cuttings were started in some former non-intervention parts of the ŠNP and hunting was again allowed in the core zone. Since then

  14. Control of Pollutants in the Trans-Boundary Area of Taihu Basin, Yangtze Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on pollution control in the trans-boundary area of Taihu Basin. Considering the unique characteristics of the river network in the study area, a new methodology of pollution control is proposed aiming at improving the water quality in the trans-boundary area and reducing conflicts between up and downstream regions. Based on monitoring data and statistical analysis, important trans-boundary cross sections identified by the regional government were selected as important areas for consideration in developing management objectives; using a 1-D mathematicmodel and an effective weight evaluation model, the trans-boundary effective control scope (TECS of the study area was identified as the scope for pollutant control; the acceptable pollution load was then estimated using an established model targeting bi-directional flow. The results suggest that the water environmental capacity for chemical oxygen demand (COD, in order to guarantee reaching the target water quality standard in the TECS, is 160,806 t/year, and amounts to 16,098 t/year, 3493 t/year, and 39,768 t/year for ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus, respectively. Our study method and results have been incorporated into the local government management project, and have been proven to be useful in designing a pollution control strategy and management policy.

  15. What role for law in achieving transboundary drainage basin security?--the development and testing of the Legal Assessment Model (LAM) for transboundary watercourse states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, P K

    2004-01-01

    The beneficial use of the world's transboundary waters raises difficult issues for drainage basin security on most parts of the globe. International law provides that each transboundary watercourse State is entitled to, and obliged to ensure, an "equitable and reasonable use" of these shared waters. The IWLRI developed and tested a Legal Assessment Model (LAM) through the work of interdisciplinary teams working in three different transboundary situations--China (upstream), Mozambique (downstream) and Palestine (shared groundwater). The LAM provides a tool for transboundary watercourse States to use in the preparation of their national water strategy for use at the national and international levels. The model should now be tested at the basin level, with a view to assisting to accomplish the peaceful and rational use of transboundary waters in line with the governing rule of international law and thereby to facilitate the overall policy objective of drainage basin security.

  16. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, A.L.; Rutten, V.P.M.G.; Helden van, P.D.

    2013-01-01

    This supplement to Transboundary and Emerging Diseases is a compilation of selected papers presented at the International Wildlife Tuberculosis Conference, held from 9 to 12 September 2012 in Skukuza, South Africa.

  17. 78 FR 13379 - Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska; Proposed Mining Plan of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ...] Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska; Proposed Mining Plan of Operations AGENCY: National...) unpatented placer claims within Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve. Public Availability: This plan...: Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve Headquarters, Mile 106.8 Richardson Highway, Post Office Box...

  18. Parking Navigation for Alleviating Congestion in Multilevel Parking Facility

    OpenAIRE

    Kenmotsu, Masahiro; Sun, Weihua; Shibata, Naoki; Yasumoto, Keiichi; Ito, Minoru

    2012-01-01

    Finding a vacant parking space in a large crowded parking facility takes long time. In this paper, we propose a navigation method that minimizes the parking time based on collected real-time positional information of cars. In the proposed method, a central server in the parking facility collects the information and estimates the occupancy of each parking zone. Then, the server broadcasts the occupancy data to the cars in the parking facility. Each car then computes a parking route with the sh...

  19. A proposal for the geographic delineation of boundaries of the "Val d'Agri-Lagonegrese" National Park

    OpenAIRE

    Pierangeli D; Donnoli A

    2007-01-01

    In this work, different proposal are reviewed that have been moved for geographical delineation and boundaries definition of the National Park "Val d'Agri and Lagonegrese" in Basilicata (Italy) and a working methodology is proposed for a better definition of the park boundaries, taking into consideration oil extraction activities carried out in the area.

  20. A proposal for the geographic delineation of boundaries of the "Val d'Agri-Lagonegrese" National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangeli D

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, different proposal are reviewed that have been moved for geographical delineation and boundaries definition of the National Park "Val d'Agri and Lagonegrese" in Basilicata (Italy and a working methodology is proposed for a better definition of the park boundaries, taking into consideration oil extraction activities carried out in the area.

  1. Sharing water and benefits in transboundary river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjoon, Diane; Tilmant, Amaury; Herrmann, Markus

    2016-06-01

    The equitable sharing of benefits in transboundary river basins is necessary to solve disputes among riparian countries and to reach a consensus on basin-wide development and management activities. Benefit-sharing arrangements must be collaboratively developed to be perceived not only as efficient, but also as equitable in order to be considered acceptable to all riparian countries. The current literature mainly describes what is meant by the term benefit sharing in the context of transboundary river basins and discusses this from a conceptual point of view, but falls short of providing practical, institutional arrangements that ensure maximum economic welfare as well as collaboratively developed methods for encouraging the equitable sharing of benefits. In this study, we define an institutional arrangement that distributes welfare in a river basin by maximizing the economic benefits of water use and then sharing these benefits in an equitable manner using a method developed through stakeholder involvement. We describe a methodology in which (i) a hydrological model is used to allocate scarce water resources, in an economically efficient manner, to water users in a transboundary basin, (ii) water users are obliged to pay for water, and (iii) the total of these water charges is equitably redistributed as monetary compensation to users in an amount determined through the application of a sharing method developed by stakeholder input, thus based on a stakeholder vision of fairness, using an axiomatic approach. With the proposed benefit-sharing mechanism, the efficiency-equity trade-off still exists, but the extent of the imbalance is reduced because benefits are maximized and redistributed according to a key that has been collectively agreed upon by the participants. The whole system is overseen by a river basin authority. The methodology is applied to the Eastern Nile River basin as a case study. The described technique not only ensures economic efficiency, but may

  2. Transboundary Pollution, Trade Liberalization, and Environmental Taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Baksi, S.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a bilateral trade framework, we examine the impact of tari¤ reduction on the op- timal pollution tax and social welfare when pollution is transboundary. Strategic considerations lead countries to distort their pollution tax in the non-cooperative equilibrium. Trade liberalization changes the distortion, and consequently the pol- lution tax and welfare, in ways that depend on the extent to which pollution is transboundary. We find that when the pollution damage parameter is sufficiently sma...

  3. Evaluation of transboundary environmental issues in Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engi, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Corporate Planning and Strategic Business Development Div.; Kapustka, L.A.; Williams, B.A.; Meganck, R.A.; Garrison, J.G. [Ecological Planning and Toxicology, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States); Glicken, J. [Ecological Planning and Toxicology, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hostetler, C.J.; Lawrence, S. [Columbia Environmental Services, Inc., Kennewick, WA (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Central Europe has experienced environmental degradation for hundreds of years. The proximity of countries, their shared resources, and transboundary movement of environmental pollution, create the potential for regional environmental strife. The goal of this project was to identify the sources and sinks of environmental pollution in Central Europe and evaluate the possible impact of transboundary movement of pollution on the countries of Central Europe. In meeting the objectives of identifying sources of contaminants, determining transboundary movement of contaminants, and assessing socio-economic implications, large quantities of disparate data were examined. To facilitate use of the data, the authors refined mapping procedures that enable processing information from virtually any map or spreadsheet data that can be geo-referenced. Because the procedure is freed from a priori constraints of scale that confound most Geographical Information Systems, they have the capacity to generate new projections and apply sophisticated statistical analyses to the data. The analysis indicates substantial environmental problems. While transboundary pollution issues may spawn conflict among the Central European countries and their neighbors, it appears that common environmental problems facing the entire region have had the effect of bringing the countries together, even though opportunities for deteriorating relationships may still arise.

  4. Assessment of transboundary environmental effects in the Pearl River Delta Region: Is there a role for strategic environmental assessment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsden, Simon

    2011-01-01

    China's EIA Law does not require transboundary proposals to be assessed, despite recognition of this globally, for example in the Espoo Convention and Kiev Protocol, and in the European EIA and SEA Directives. In a transboundary context assessment within a state is unusual, as regulating these effects is primarily about the relationship between states. However where a state has more than one legal system such as in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) Region of southern China, transboundary effects should also be addressed. Yet despite the geographical connections between Guangdong Province in mainland China (where the EIA Law applies) and the Hong Kong and Macau Special Administrative Regions (which have their own provisions, neither of which requires transboundary assessments), EIA and SEA are carried out separately. Coordinated or joint approaches to transboundary assessment are generally absent, with the legal autonomy of Hong Kong and Macau a major constraint. As a result institutional responses at the policy level have developed. The article considers global experiences with regulating transboundary EIA and SEA, and analyses potential application to land use, transport and air and water planning in the PRD Region. If applied, benefits may include prevention or mitigation of cumulative effects, broader public participation, and improvements to environmental governance. The PRD Region experience may encourage China to conduct and coordinate EIA and SEA processes with neighbouring states, which has been non-existent or extremely limited to date.

  5. Special session: Governance of transboundary waters: roles of young professionals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Patrick, M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The effective governance of transboundary waters requires an integrated and interdisciplinary approach. In order to make sense of the complexity of systems, such as transboundary river basins, there has been a legacy of rationalising this complexity...

  6. Legal approaches to transboundary pollution - relating to nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintsteiner, G.

    2000-05-01

    This work examines the legal approaches to pollution in a transboundary context. Particular consideration is given to transboundary pollution that is related to the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Since I have chosen to approach the very topic not so much in the hope of finding a single and unequivocal answer but rather by building a circumstantial case, the present work naturally relies to a great extent on decisions of international courts and tribunals, as well as on principles and rules stemming from international law in general. The international norm that basically guides the topic is the prohibition of transboundary pollution, or, expressed as a positive duty, i.e. the obligation to prevent transboundary harm, which has found expression in Principle 21 of the Stockholm Declaration on the Human Environment. The very obligation is relevant from the perspective of prevention of environmental harm, as well as reparation when harm has actually occurred. One of the primary issues of this work accordingly relates to the obligation's preventive function, thus its extent, meaning and scope are examined, and in particular its approach to transboundary risk-creation. In the overall context of transboundary pollution the principle of the sovereign equality of states and other basic rules that directly emanate from it are of continuos importance. This work is further strongly impacted by notions of equity together with the establishment of a balancing of interests test which application merits special consideration in cases where a conflict between two states cannot be solved by mere reliance on their sovereign rights. Rules relating to the prevention of environmental harm, now increasingly guided by the Precautionary Principle, are also relevant under the law of state responsibility for wrongful acts and in the context of defining obligations erga omnes. (author)

  7. Transboundary river basin management in Europe
    Legal instruments to comply with European water management obligations in case of transboundary water pollution and floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M. Keessen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Although modern European water policy follows a river basin approach where Member States have to cooperate in order to achieve a ‘good status’ of their water bodies, the obligations arising from the European water directives are to be achieved by each Member State individually. This situation creates problems when water pollution and water quantity problems cross borders. It is still unclear whether Member States can be held responsible for not achieving objectives due to causes (partly originating abroad. This article describes some of the legal instruments that water authorities have at their disposal to comply with the European water management obligations in case of transboundary water pollution and floods and thus shape transboundary river management. The article describes instruments to create, implement and enforce transboundary cooperation, and addresses the possibility of transboundary compensation if cooperation fails. Here, the focus is on a civil lawsuit before a domestic court.

  8. Implementing the Espoo Convention in transboundary EIA between Germany and Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, Eike

    2008-01-01

    Poland and Germany have a long common border which leads to the necessity to cooperate and consult each other in the case of large-scale projects or infrastructure measures likely to cause negative transboundary effects on the environment. There are already binding provisions for transboundary EIA. In the area of the UN Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), transboundary EIA is intended to be legally binding for the Member States by the Espoo Convention which was ratified by Germany 8.8.2002 and by Poland 12.6.1997. Due to corresponding directives, the same is applicable in the context of the European Union. In German legislation, this issue is regulated by Art. 8 of the Federal EIA Act in regard to transboundary participation of administration and by Art. 9a in respect of transboundary public participation. However, these EIA regulations on transboundary participation do not surpass a certain detail level, as they have to be applied between Germany and all neighbouring states. Therefore both countries decided to agree on more detailed provisions in particular regarding procedural questions. During the 12th German-Polish Environmental Council, Germany and Poland reached an agreement on 11.4.2006 in Neuhardenberg/Brandenburg an agreement upon the implementation of the Espoo Convention, the so called Neuhardenberg Agreement. This article assesses the agreement under consideration of already existing law and discusses major improvements and problems

  9. Trade agreements, domestic environmental regulation, and transboundary pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Yu-Bong; Hu, Chia-Hsien [Department of Public Finance, National Taipei University (China)

    2008-05-15

    This paper investigates a second-best trade agreement between two countries that takes the distortion arising from their non-coordinated environmental policies into consideration. In a reciprocal-markets model with bidirectional transboundary pollution, we find that if the transboundary pollution is sufficiently strong, the second-best trade agreement requires that both countries subsidize the imported goods whose consumption gives rise to pollution. We also find that a bilateral tariff reduction is beneficial to the global environment. (author)

  10. Trade agreements, domestic environmental regulation, and transboundary pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Yu-Bong; Hu, Chia-Hsien

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates a second-best trade agreement between two countries that takes the distortion arising from their non-coordinated environmental policies into consideration. In a reciprocal-markets model with bidirectional transboundary pollution, we find that if the transboundary pollution is sufficiently strong, the second-best trade agreement requires that both countries subsidize the imported goods whose consumption gives rise to pollution. We also find that a bilateral tariff reduction is beneficial to the global environment. (author)

  11. Managing transboundary crises: Identifying building blocks of an effective response system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ansell, C; Boin, R.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/161938876; Keller, A

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, crises have become increasingly transboundary in nature. This exploratory paper investigates whether and how the transboundary dimensions of crises such as pandemics, cyber attacks and prolonged critical infrastructure failure accentuate the challenges that public and private

  12. Current policies, strategies and aspects of environmental impact assessment in a transboundary context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) has already shown its value for implementing and strengthening sustainable development, as it combines the precautionary principles with the principle of preventing environmental damage and also arranges for public participation. EIA is already used as an effective instrument for improving the quality of the environment at the national level and it is understood that the EIA Convention will lead to environmentally sound and sustainable development by providing information on the interrelationship between economic activities and their environmental consequences in particular in a transboundary context. The Convention obliges Parties to assess the environmental impacts at an early stage of planning and includes measures and procedures to prevent, control or reduce any significant adverse effect on the environment, particularly any transboundary effect, which is likely to be caused by a proposed activity or any major change to an existing activity

  13. Transboundary environmental problems in international politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerrissen, T.

    1993-01-01

    Transboundary environmental problems with their far-reaching consequences impinge on vital interests of the affected countries. As states interdepend not only ecologically but also, or even primarily, economically, environmental problems usually engender a clash between ecological and economic interests. Although economic power is central to getting one's way, economically powerful states by no means always succeed in realising their aims. This topical monograph deals with the subject of regional and global debates and conflicts about transboundary environmental problems. The author points out the prerequisites for realising ecological interests in conditions of complex interdependence, illustrating his findings with two case studies. One is about the establishment of a regime for climate protection, while the other concerns the new ruling on transalpine commercial road transport. (orig./HP) [de

  14. TRANSBOUNDARY DAMAGE IN THE LIGHT OF INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Maria HANCIU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Some activities that are useful for economic and social development of a State even if are not prohibited by national or international law can cause transboundary damages to other countries. This kind of transboundary damages have given rise to theories of State responsibility and a worldwide demand for increased environmental protection. "Under the principles of international law...no State has the right to use or permit the use of its territory in such a manner as to cause [environmental] injury ... in or to the territory of another or the properties of persons therein, when the case is of serious consequence and the injury is established by clear and convincing evidence." (Stockholm Principle 21 The paper analyses the impact of transboundary damage in the light of international environmental law and the increasing concern among States for environmental protection.

  15. Transboundary Water: Improving Methodologies and Developing Integrated Tools to Support Water Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimdavar, Raha; Wood, Danielle; Eylander, John; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Smith, Jane; Doorn, Brad; Green, David; Hummel, Corey; Moore, Thomas C.

    2018-01-01

    River basins for which transboundary coordination and governance is a factor are of concern to US national security, yet there is often a lack of sufficient data-driven information available at the needed time horizons to inform transboundary water decision-making for the intelligence, defense, and foreign policy communities. To address this need, a two-day workshop entitled Transboundary Water: Improving Methodologies and Developing Integrated Tools to Support Global Water Security was held in August 2017 in Maryland. The committee that organized and convened the workshop (the Organizing Committee) included representatives from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the US Army Corps of Engineers Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC), and the US Air Force. The primary goal of the workshop was to advance knowledge on the current US Government and partners' technical information needs and gaps to support national security interests in relation to transboundary water. The workshop also aimed to identify avenues for greater communication and collaboration among the scientific, intelligence, defense, and foreign policy communities. The discussion around transboundary water was considered in the context of the greater global water challenges facing US national security.

  16. Transboundary Groundwater Along the Canadian-American Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, A.

    2009-05-01

    Canada does not have obvious problems as a consequence of the intensive use of surface water or groundwater. Canada mostly struggles to keep the quality of its waters, in the highest standards, and to overcome the knowledge gaps of its groundwater resources. In assessing water resources, it has become obvious that both surface and groundwater resources are equally important. Because of this shift, Canada is interested in transboundary groundwater issues, both between provinces and internationally. There is no competition in Canada for groundwater resources between provinces or internationally. When an aquifer extends beneath the border of two jurisdictions, conflict may arise when one jurisdiction depletes groundwater resources that affect the quantity and quality of water available to the other jurisdiction. The most important cases of transboundary aquifers within Canada are located in the Prairie Provinces, but no competition has been reported. The equitable and "reasonable" use of shared waters is the most essential principle considered when negotiating a groundwater apportionment method. Other factors considered are: the priority use, the sustainable yield of the aquifer, and the joint apportionment of surface water and groundwater Over 20 million Canadians live in watersheds that cross the Canada-US border (over 17 million of them in the Great Lakes-St Lawrence watershed), and are therefore affected by American policies, or else affect American water quality. The International Joint Commission is one well-developed and valuable mechanism for coordinating policies between Canada and the United States. Other mechanisms include provisions under the North American Free Trade Agreement, supported by its environmental commission, which attempt to ensure that the Agreement's policies are consistent with environmental protection and conservation as well as strengthening the development and enforcement of environmental laws and regulations. Policies affecting

  17. iParking: an intelligent indoor location-based smartphone parking service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingbin; Chen, Ruizhi; Chen, Yuwei; Pei, Ling; Chen, Liang

    2012-10-31

    Indoor positioning technologies have been widely studied with a number of solutions being proposed, yet substantial applications and services are still fairly primitive. Taking advantage of the emerging concept of the connected car, the popularity of smartphones and mobile Internet, and precise indoor locations, this study presents the development of a novel intelligent parking service called iParking. With the iParking service, multiple parties such as users, parking facilities and service providers are connected through Internet in a distributed architecture. The client software is a light-weight application running on a smartphone, and it works essentially based on a precise indoor positioning solution, which fuses Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) signals and the measurements of the built-in sensors of the smartphones. The positioning accuracy, availability and reliability of the proposed positioning solution are adequate for facilitating the novel parking service. An iParking prototype has been developed and demonstrated in a real parking environment at a shopping mall. The demonstration showed how the iParking service could improve the parking experience and increase the efficiency of parking facilities. The iParking is a novel service in terms of cost- and energy-efficient solution.

  18. iParking: An Intelligent Indoor Location-Based Smartphone Parking Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Chen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Indoor positioning technologies have been widely studied with a number of solutions being proposed, yet substantial applications and services are still fairly primitive. Taking advantage of the emerging concept of the connected car, the popularity of smartphones and mobile Internet, and precise indoor locations, this study presents the development of a novel intelligent parking service called iParking. With the iParking service, multiple parties such as users, parking facilities and service providers are connected through Internet in a distributed architecture. The client software is a light-weight application running on a smartphone, and it works essentially based on a precise indoor positioning solution, which fuses Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN signals and the measurements of the built-in sensors of the smartphones. The positioning accuracy, availability and reliability of the proposed positioning solution are adequate for facilitating the novel parking service. An iParking prototype has been developed and demonstrated in a real parking environment at a shopping mall. The demonstration showed how the iParking service could improve the parking experience and increase the efficiency of parking facilities. The iParking is a novel service in terms of cost- and energy-efficient solution.

  19. iParking: An Intelligent Indoor Location-Based Smartphone Parking Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingbin; Chen, Ruizhi; Chen, Yuwei; Pei, Ling; Chen, Liang

    2012-01-01

    Indoor positioning technologies have been widely studied with a number of solutions being proposed, yet substantial applications and services are still fairly primitive. Taking advantage of the emerging concept of the connected car, the popularity of smartphones and mobile Internet, and precise indoor locations, this study presents the development of a novel intelligent parking service called iParking. With the iParking service, multiple parties such as users, parking facilities and service providers are connected through Internet in a distributed architecture. The client software is a light-weight application running on a smartphone, and it works essentially based on a precise indoor positioning solution, which fuses Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) signals and the measurements of the built-in sensors of the smartphones. The positioning accuracy, availability and reliability of the proposed positioning solution are adequate for facilitating the novel parking service. An iParking prototype has been developed and demonstrated in a real parking environment at a shopping mall. The demonstration showed how the iParking service could improve the parking experience and increase the efficiency of parking facilities. The iParking is a novel service in terms of cost- and energy-efficient solution. PMID:23202179

  20. The Role of Transnational Municipal Networks in Transboundary Water Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savitri Jetoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The transboundary nature of stressors impacting shared water bodies has been traditionally recognized in agreements between nation states. Several developments have led to new layers of cross border environmental actors, including regional and city level interactions. This proliferation of non-state actors is witnessed in two large water bodies, the Baltic Sea and the North American Great Lakes. In both regions, transboundary water governance was led by nation states in agreements to improve heavily contaminated waters, the Helsinki Convention (1974 and the North American Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (1972, respectively. Whilst there has been much research on transnational regional networks, especially in Europe, there has been less theoretical work done on transnational municipal transboundary water networks due to the delay of recognition of the legitimacy of these local government actors. This paper aims to examine the role of the transnational municipal networks in transboundary water governance by looking at the case studies of the Union of Baltic cities in the Baltic Sea region and the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Cities Initiative in the North American Great Lakes Basin. It does this by assessing the role of these transnational municipal networks in bridging water governance gaps in these regions.

  1. Assessing Management Regimes in Transboundary River Basins: Do They Support Adaptive Management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.T. (Tom Raadgever

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available River basin management is faced with complex problems that are characterized by uncertainty and change. In transboundary river basins, historical, legal, and cultural differences add to the complexity. The literature on adaptive management gives several suggestions for handling this complexity. It recognizes the importance of management regimes as enabling or limiting adaptive management, but there is no comprehensive overview of regime features that support adaptive management. This paper presents such an overview, focused on transboundary river basin management. It inventories the features that have been claimed to be central to effective transboundary river basin management and refines them using adaptive management literature. It then collates these features into a framework describing actor networks, policy processes, information management, and legal and financial aspects. Subsequently, this framework is applied to the Orange and Rhine basins. The paper concludes that the framework provides a consistent and comprehensive perspective on transboundary river basin management regimes, and can be used for assessing their capacity to support adaptive management.

  2. Advancing Regional and Transboundary Cooperation in the Conflict-Prone Hindu Kush–Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Molden

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD supports regional and transboundary cooperation to meet challenges of climate change, disaster risks, and sustainable development in the Hindu Kush–Himalaya (HKH. Action to sustain the HKH has the potential to directly improve the lives of more than one fourth of the world's population. However, facilitating cooperation and policy coherence among the countries sharing HKH resources is a persistent challenge in a region that is prone to conflict and is highly variable regarding development. At ICIMOD, we work across HKH countries to help attain common goals related to sustainable development, using our skills in bringing together different groups within programmatic transboundary approaches covering topics such as river basins or transboundary landscapes. In addition, the Hindu Kush Himalayan Monitoring and Assessment Programme and the Himalayan University Consortium have made strides in promoting regional and transboundary cooperation among HKH countries, particularly emphasizing research synthesis and the role of academia.

  3. Pathogenic landscape of transboundary zoonotic diseases in the Mexico-US border along the Rio Grande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dolores Esteve-Gasent

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus, and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems including the spatial variation of the risk and incidence of zoonotic diseases. The complexity of these challenges can be greater in areas where rivers delineate international boundaries and encompass transitions between ecozones. The Rio Grande serves as a natural border between the US State of Texas and the Mexican States of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. Not only millions of people live in this transboundary region but also a substantial movement of goods and people pass through it everyday. Moreover, it occurs over a region that functions as a corridor for animal migrations, and thus links the Neotropic and Nearctic biogeographic zones, with the latter being a known foci of zoonotic diseases. However, the pathogenic landscape of important zoonotic diseases in the south Texas-Mexico transboundary region remains to be fully understood. An international perspective on the interplay between disease systems, ecosystem processes, land use, and human behaviors is applied here to analyze landscape and spatial features of Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Hantavirus disease, Lyme Borreliosis, Leptospirosis, Bartonellosis, Chagas disease, human Babesiosis, and Leishmaniasis. Surveillance systems following the One Health approach with a regional perspective will help identifying opportunities to mitigate the health burden of those diseases on human and animal populations. It is proposed that the Mexico-US border, along the Rio Grande region be viewed as a continuum landscape where zoonotic pathogens circulate regardless of national borders.

  4. Pathogenic Landscape of Transboundary Zoonotic Diseases in the Mexico–US Border Along the Rio Grande

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Gassent, Maria Dolores; Pérez de León, Adalberto A.; Romero-Salas, Dora; Feria-Arroyo, Teresa P.; Patino, Ramiro; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Gordillo-Pérez, Guadalupe; Auclair, Allan; Goolsby, John; Rodriguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan; Estrada-Franco, Jose Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems, including the spatial variation of the risk and incidence of zoonotic diseases. The complexity of these challenges can be greater in areas where rivers delineate international boundaries and encompass transitions between ecozones. The Rio Grande serves as a natural border between the US State of Texas and the Mexican States of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. Not only do millions of people live in this transboundary region, but also a substantial amount of goods and people pass through it everyday. Moreover, it occurs over a region that functions as a corridor for animal migrations, and thus links the Neotropic and Nearctic biogeographic zones, with the latter being a known foci of zoonotic diseases. However, the pathogenic landscape of important zoonotic diseases in the south Texas–Mexico transboundary region remains to be fully understood. An international perspective on the interplay between disease systems, ecosystem processes, land use, and human behaviors is applied here to analyze landscape and spatial features of Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Hantavirus disease, Lyme Borreliosis, Leptospirosis, Bartonellosis, Chagas disease, human Babesiosis, and Leishmaniasis. Surveillance systems following the One Health approach with a regional perspective will help identifying opportunities to mitigate the health burden of those diseases on human and animal populations. It is proposed that the Mexico–US border along the Rio Grande region be viewed as a continuum landscape where zoonotic pathogens circulate regardless of national borders. PMID:25453027

  5. Protection of transboundary waters. Guidance for policy- and decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This document is a United Nations publication discussing (1) Guidelines on water-quality monitoring and assessment of transboundary rivers; (2) Recommendation to Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) to prevent, control and reduce groundwater pollution; (3) Guidelines in licensing waste-water discharge from point sources into transboundary waters. As part of protection of water against hazardous substances, radioactive isotopes (Cs-137, Sr-90, Po-210) and radioactivity are also included in this document

  6. Semi-automatic parking slot marking recognition for intelligent parking assist systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Gi Jung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a semi-automatic parking slot marking-based target position designation method for parking assist systems in cases where the parking slot markings are of a rectangular type, and its efficient implementation for real-time operation. After the driver observes a rearview image captured by a rearward camera installed at the rear of the vehicle through a touchscreen-based human machine interface, a target parking position is designated by touching the inside of a parking slot. To ensure the proposed method operates in real-time in an embedded environment, access of the bird's-eye view image is made efficient: image-wise batch transformation is replaced with pixel-wise instantaneous transformation. The proposed method showed a 95.5% recognition rate in 378 test cases with 63 test images. Additionally, experiments confirmed that the pixel-wise instantaneous transformation reduced execution time by 92%.

  7. Canada-United States Transboundary Particulate Matter Science Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 2004 document summarizes the findings of the Canada-U.S. subcommittee on Scientific Cooperation concerning the transboundary transport of particulate matter (PM) and PM precursors between the two countries.

  8. iParking: An Intelligent Indoor Location-Based Smartphone Parking Service

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jingbin; Chen, Ruizhi; Chen, Yuwei; Pei, Ling; Chen, Liang

    2012-01-01

    Indoor positioning technologies have been widely studied with a number of solutions being proposed, yet substantial applications and services are still fairly primitive. Taking advantage of the emerging concept of the connected car, the popularity of smartphones and mobile Internet, and precise indoor locations, this study presents the development of a novel intelligent parking service called iParking. With the iParking service, multiple parties such as users, parking facilities and service p...

  9. Environmental impact assessment of the proposed Information Technology Park at Perungudi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharmilaa, G

    2007-10-01

    Environmental impact assessment studies of the proposed Information Technology Park at Perungudi have been carried out. The study involved assessing the existing environmental quality of the proposed site, and predicting impacts and preparing an environmental management plan. Data on the existing quality of water, soil, land use pattern, air, noise and socio-economic details of the proposed project were assessed. The impacts due to the proposed activity were identified and evaluated using the Network Impact Methodology. The water requirement was found to be 3,63,400 L/day. The total wastewater likely to be generated was found to be 2,90,720 L/day. The wastewater will be treated in a sewage treatment plant. The generation of solid waste was assessed to about 500 kg/day. Increase in traffic level was found out by traffic survey. The socio-economic environment will have a positive impact from the proposed project. An Environmental Management Plan was prepared which includes the mitigation measures for improving the eco-profile of the study area.

  10. Transboundary Pollution, Trade Liberalization and Environmental Taxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baksi, S.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a bilateral trade framework, we examine the impact of tariff reduction on the optimal pollution tax and social welfare when pollution is transboundary. Strategic considerations lead countries to distort their pollution tax in the non-cooperative equilibrium. Trade liberalization changes the

  11. Evolution, opportunity and challenges of transboundary water and energy problems in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lidan; Zhou, Haiwei; Xia, Ziqiang; Huang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Central Asia is one of the regions that suffer the most prominent transboundary water and energy problems in the world. Effective transboundary water-energy resource management and cooperation are closely related with socioeconomic development and stability in the entire Central Asia. Similar to Central Asia, Northwest China has an arid climate and is experiencing a water shortage. It is now facing imbalanced supply-demand relations of water and energy resources. These issues in Northwest China and Central Asia pose severe challenges in the implementation of the Silk Road Economic Belt strategy. Based on the analysis of water and energy distribution characteristics in Central Asia as well as demand characteristics of different countries, the complexity of local transboundary water problems was explored by reviewing corresponding historical problems of involved countries, correlated energy issues, and the evolution of inter-country water-energy cooperation. With references to experiences and lessons of five countries, contradictions, opportunities, challenges and strategies for transboundary water-energy cooperation between China and Central Asia were discussed under the promotion of the Silk Road Economic Belt construction based on current cooperation conditions.

  12. Transboundary Pollution, Trade Liberalization, and Environmental Taxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baksi, S.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a bilateral trade framework, we examine the impact of tari¤ reduction on the op- timal pollution tax and social welfare when pollution is transboundary. Strategic considerations lead countries to distort their pollution tax in the non-cooperative equilibrium. Trade liberalization changes the

  13. Governance of transboundary waters - roles of young professionals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Patrick, MJ

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available governance of transboundary waters, this integrated and interdisciplinary approach poses some challenges. Young professionals need to develop the ability to understand the epistemologies of the natural, social, economic and political sciences in order...

  14. Parking Spoorzone Delft : Addressing expected parking challenges 2015-2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piccot, C.; Groenendijk, L.; Rot, M.; Van der Meijs, P.; Rakers, T.; Negenborn, R.R.; Annema, J.A.; Pel, A.; Vleugel, J.

    2014-01-01

    This project is carried out on request of the BVOW, the interest group of the neighbourhoods Olofsbuurt and Westerkwartier in Delft, in order to propose solutions for the parking issue of Spoorzone Delft expected between 2015 and 2017. They are worried that parking disturbances will emerge in their

  15. Response to a radioactive materials release having a transboundary impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Compared with an accidental release of radioactive material which is confined to the accident State, a transboundary release has added dimensions which were not fully anticipated in publications dealing with response to accidents at nuclear facilities. The new aspects to the problem may be summarized as follows: (1) A transboundary release of radioactive material, as distinct from a release which affects only the accident State, has international repercussions in the following ways: Potentially at least, the difficulties associated with a transboundary release may be magnified in those States that have no nuclear facilities of their own and may, therefore, have foreseen no need for resources to assess and deal with radioactive contamination of their food supplies, their water and their environment appropriately. International trade, in food commodities particularly, may be severely affected. Issues of compensation may arise for which the dispute settlement mechanisms are weak or non-existent. (2) Many Member States are in such geographic locations that they could be affected by a transboundary release occurring in any of their surrounding neighbour States. Planning for and responding to such an event is necessarily more difficult than planning for an accidental release from a single, identified nuclear facility. (3) Deposits of radioactive material from a distant source are apt to be highly unpredictable. Depending on weather conditions, they may be localized in a random fashion or widespread. Because of the international dimension of the problem and its essentially unpredictable character it is recommended here that planning for such events should be carried at the national or federal government level rather than at provincial government level. 14 refs

  16. Canada-United States Transboundary Particulate Matter Science Assessment 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 2013 document summarizes the findings of the Canada-U.S. subcommittee on Scientific Cooperation concerning the transboundary transport of particulate matter (PM) and PM precursors between the two countries.

  17. Assessing the effects of transboundary ozone pollution between Ontario, Canada and New York, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brankov, Elvira; Henry, Robert F.; Civerolo, Kevin L.; Hao, Winston; Rao, S.T.; Misra, P.K.; Bloxam, Robert; Reid, Neville

    2003-01-01

    Observations and modeling results were used to examine spatial scales and transport patterns of ozone pollution in the Ontario-New York region. - We investigated the effects of transboundary pollution between Ontario and New York using both observations and modeling results. Analysis of the spatial scales associated with ozone pollution revealed the regional and international character of this pollutant. A back-trajectory-clustering methodology was used to evaluate the potential for transboundary pollution trading and to identify potential pollution source regions for two sites: CN tower in Toronto and the World Trade Center in New York City. Transboundary pollution transport was evident at both locations. The major pollution source areas for the period examined were the Ohio River Valley and Midwest. Finally, we examined the transboundary impact of emission reductions through photochemical models. We found that emissions from both New York and Ontario were transported across the border and that reductions in predicted O 3 levels can be substantial when emissions on both sides of the border are reduced

  18. Non-transboundary pollution and the efficiency of international environmental co-operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kox, H.L.M.; Van der Tak, C.M. [Economics Department, Faculty of Economics and Econometrics, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-10-01

    The increased awareness of the transboundary pollution problems resulted in a number of international treaties, such as the Montreal protocol on ozone-depleting substances (1987), and the Basel Convention on hazardous waste (1989). Most authors writing on efficient environmental instruments make a sharp distinction between domestic and transboundary environmental problems. While the former should be abated by domestic environmental instruments, an efficient treatment of the latter requires international instruments. The underlying logic is that in case of non-transboundary pollution both the costs and benefits of environmental policies are strictly domestic, the trade-off between benefits and costs of abatement should also be a strictly domestic issue. In contrast, with transboundary pollution the trade-off between abatement costs and benefits becomes an international issue. In this paper we analyse four cases where international environmental co-ordination is required to achieve an efficient outcome, even though the environmental externality is non-transboundary in nature. Section two sketches the standard view on efficient intervention levels with regard to transborder and non-transborder pollution. In the third section we deal with cases where environmental policy is used in a trade-strategic way. The section pays attention to the motives for using domestic environmental policy as a disguise for trade policies. It will be argued that the resulting allocative efficiency can be improved upon by international co-operation. Sections 4-6 analyse three cases where international co-operation may improve the international outcome on the basis of non-coordinated domestic allocation decisions. These cases refer in particular to the situation of developing countries, when there is a high export dependency on the polluting good in combination with the existence of discrete technologies, set-up costs of environment-friendly technologies, and the existence of increasing

  19. Non-transboundary pollution and the efficiency of international environmental co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kox, H.L.M.; Van der Tak, C.M.

    1995-10-01

    The increased awareness of the transboundary pollution problems resulted in a number of international treaties, such as the Montreal protocol on ozone-depleting substances (1987), and the Basel Convention on hazardous waste (1989). Most authors writing on efficient environmental instruments make a sharp distinction between domestic and transboundary environmental problems. While the former should be abated by domestic environmental instruments, an efficient treatment of the latter requires international instruments. The underlying logic is that in case of non-transboundary pollution both the costs and benefits of environmental policies are strictly domestic, the trade-off between benefits and costs of abatement should also be a strictly domestic issue. In contrast, with transboundary pollution the trade-off between abatement costs and benefits becomes an international issue. In this paper we analyse four cases where international environmental co-ordination is required to achieve an efficient outcome, even though the environmental externality is non-transboundary in nature. Section two sketches the standard view on efficient intervention levels with regard to transborder and non-transborder pollution. In the third section we deal with cases where environmental policy is used in a trade-strategic way. The section pays attention to the motives for using domestic environmental policy as a disguise for trade policies. It will be argued that the resulting allocative efficiency can be improved upon by international co-operation. Sections 4-6 analyse three cases where international co-operation may improve the international outcome on the basis of non-coordinated domestic allocation decisions. These cases refer in particular to the situation of developing countries, when there is a high export dependency on the polluting good in combination with the existence of discrete technologies, set-up costs of environment-friendly technologies, and the existence of increasing

  20. A dynamic game of a transboundary pollutant with asymmetric players

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.E.; Patrick, R.H.; Tolwinski, B.

    1993-01-01

    Modeling transboundary pollutants in a dynamic game framework provides a foundation for analyzing the impact of various policy options. The focus of this analysis is on the results of a tax/subsidy scheme used to address the transboundary problem of global climate change. A nonzero-sum dynamic game with asymmetric players is used to evaluate the policy impact of the tax/subsidy scheme on the respective player's value functions and strategies as determined by a Nash equilibrium feedback solution. The asymmetry of the players is reflected in their respective attitudes toward global climate change with one player benefiting from the change and the other losing. 17 refs., 5 tabs

  1. Hydropolitics and Conflict Management in Transboundary River Basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mianabadi, H.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis set out to develop methodologies that promote cooperation, peace and development instead of conflict and violence in transboundary water resources management. In particular, its objectives were the following: o To examine and understand the complexity of water systems and water conflict

  2. On Cleaner Technologies in a Transboundary Pollution Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benchekroun, H.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2009-01-01

    We show that in a non-cooperative transboundary pollution game, a cleaner technology (i.e., a decrease in the emission to output ratio) induces each country to increase its emissions and ultimately can yield a higher level of pollution and reduce social welfare.

  3. Moving boundaries in transboundary air pollution co-production of science and policy under the convention on long range transboundary air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinstra, W.; Hordijk, L.; Kroeze, C.

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on the science-policy interaction in international negotiations in the context of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe's Convention for Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP). It addresses the question how participants in the assessment process divide and

  4. Transboundary Water Resources in Southern Africa: Conflict or cooperation?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Patrick, MJ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature suggests a linkage between internationally shared water resources and conflict potential. Anthony R. Turton, Marian J. Patrick and Frederic Julien examine transboundary water resource management in southern Africa, showing that empirical...

  5. Assessing the Ecological Integrity of a Major Transboundary Mediterranean River Based on Environmental Habitat Variables and Benthic Macroinvertebrates (Aoos-Vjose River, Greece-Albania)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatzinikolaou, Y.; Dakos, V.; Lazaridou-Dimitriadou, M.

    2008-01-01

    Ecological integrity has become a primary objective in monitoring programs of surface waters according to the European Water Framework Directive. For this reason we propose a scheme for assessing the ecological integrity of a major transboundary river, the Aoos-Vjose (Greece-Albania), by analysing

  6. A Regional Strategy for the Assessment and Management of Transboundary Aquifer Systems in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R. T.; Rivera, A.; Tujchneider, O.; Guillén, C.; Campos, M.; Da Franca, N.; May, Z.; Aureli, A.

    2015-12-01

    The UNESCO-IHP ISARM-Americas technical committee has developed a regional strategy for the assessment and management of transboundary aquifer systems in the Americas as part of their ongoing cooperative assistance to help neighboring countries sustain water resources and reduce potential conflict. The fourth book in the series of publications sponsored by UNESCO and OAS documents this strategy. The goal of this strategy is the collective understanding, developing, managing, and protecting of the transboundary aquifers in the Americas This strategy includes technical, social, and governance recommendations for an integrated resource management of groundwater based on flexible arrangements that not only manage but also demand social participation in solving problems, consider changes in land use and water use and promote the increase of water sustainability for all transboundary neighbors. The successful implementation of this strategy starts with sharing information of the status and use of land and water as well as intergovernmental partnerships to link science and policy with existing instruments for managing the water resources. International organizations such as UNESCO and OAS also can help facilitate the development of transboundary agreements and establish cooperation on transboundary aquifers between neighbors. The UNESCO-IHP ISARM-Americas technical committee has been successful in creating a network of partners from 24 countries and in translating existing aquifer knowledge into a meaningful strategy for the American hemisphere. The strategy aims to explain and develop the role of science and the informed-decision approach. Examples from North and South America show how the process has begun to develop for selected transboundary aquifers. These include the Milk River basin between the US and Canada, the Rio Grande and Colorado River basins between the US and Mexico, and the Guarani River basin in South America.

  7. Transboundary cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauber, D.

    2006-01-01

    The operation of nuclear power plants near national borders requires a close bilateral co-operation to cope with accidents having off-site radiological impacts. For example in 1978 such an agreement was signed by the German and Swiss government. The accident at the Chernobyl NPP changed the international co-operation in the framework of international consequence management. International conventions were agreed to insure a timely notification and international assistance in case of an accident with transboundary effects. In order to fulfill these conventions several procedures were introduced. In addition, bilateral agreements were signed also with countries which are not operating nuclear power plants near national borders. Since then no accident took place that would have required any notification. However, following the experience the expectations to these networks have changed considerably and hence sustainable development is required to cope with new challenges such as long term consequences management, new radiological threats, faster international assistance, media and public concerns, and technical evolution of communications systems. (author)

  8. Hotspots within the Transboundary Selenga River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimov, Nikolay; Lychagin, Mikhail; Chalov, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    Gathering the efficient information on water pollution of transboundary river systems remains the crucial task in international water management, environmental pollution control and prevention health problems. Countries, located in the low parts of the river basins, depend on the water strategy and water use in the adjacent countries, located upstream. Surface water pollution is considered to be the most serious problem, facing the above-mentioned countries. Large efforts in terms of field measurement campaigns and (numerical) transport modeling are then typically needed for relevant pollution prediction and prevention. Russian rivers take inflow from 8 neighboring countries. Among them there are 2 developing economies - People Republic of China and Mongolia, which are located in water-scarce areas and thus solve their water-related problems through the consumption of international water. Negative change of water runoff and water quality in the foreign part of transboundary river is appeared inside Russian territory with more or less delay. The transboundary river system of Selenga is particularly challenging, being the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. Selenga River contributes about 50 % of the total inflow into Baikal. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the water quality of the river system. Absence of the single monitoring system and predictive tools for pollutants transport in river system requires large efforts in understanding sources of water pollution and implemented data on the relevant numerical systems for the pollution prediction and prevention. Special investigations in the Selenga river basin (Mongolia and Russia) were done to assess hot spots and understand state-of-the art in sediment load, water chemistry and hydrobiology of transboundary systems

  9. Border Security Fencing and Wildlife: The End of the Transboundary Paradigm in Eurasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnell, John D. C.; Trouwborst, Arie; Boitani, Luigi; Kaczensky, Petra; Kusak, Josip; Skrbinsek, Tomaz; Buuveibaatar, Bayarbaatar; Bischof, Richard; Breitenmoser, Urs

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing refugee crisis in Europe has seen many countries rush to construct border security fencing to divert or control the flow of people. This follows a trend of border fence construction across Eurasia during the post-9/11 era. This development has gone largely unnoticed by conservation biologists during an era in which, ironically, transboundary cooperation has emerged as a conservation paradigm. These fences represent a major threat to wildlife because they can cause mortality, obstruct access to seasonally important resources, and reduce effective population size. We summarise the extent of the issue and propose concrete mitigation measures. PMID:27331878

  10. Border Security Fencing and Wildlife: The End of the Transboundary Paradigm in Eurasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnell, John D C; Trouwborst, Arie; Boitani, Luigi; Kaczensky, Petra; Huber, Djuro; Reljic, Slaven; Kusak, Josip; Majic, Aleksandra; Skrbinsek, Tomaz; Potocnik, Hubert; Hayward, Matt W; Milner-Gulland, E J; Buuveibaatar, Bayarbaatar; Olson, Kirk A; Badamjav, Lkhagvasuren; Bischof, Richard; Zuther, Steffen; Breitenmoser, Urs

    2016-06-01

    The ongoing refugee crisis in Europe has seen many countries rush to construct border security fencing to divert or control the flow of people. This follows a trend of border fence construction across Eurasia during the post-9/11 era. This development has gone largely unnoticed by conservation biologists during an era in which, ironically, transboundary cooperation has emerged as a conservation paradigm. These fences represent a major threat to wildlife because they can cause mortality, obstruct access to seasonally important resources, and reduce effective population size. We summarise the extent of the issue and propose concrete mitigation measures.

  11. Assigning a value to transboundary radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The document offers guidance on the application of the Basic Safety Standards with regard to the particular problem of using differential cost-benefit analysis in the optimization of radiation protection in the case of transboundary radioactive pollution. Examples of optimization of 14 C retention at a nuclear power plant and of 85 Kr retention at a reprocessing plant are presented

  12. Rapid forest clearing in a Myanmar proposed national park threatens two newly discovered species of geckos (Gekkonidae: Cyrtodactylus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant M Connette

    Full Text Available Myanmar's recent transition from military rule towards a more democratic government has largely ended decades of political and economic isolation. Although Myanmar remains heavily forested, increased development in recent years has been accompanied by exceptionally high rates of forest loss. In this study, we document the rapid progression of deforestation in and around the proposed Lenya National Park, which includes some of the largest remaining areas of lowland evergreen rainforest in mainland Southeast Asia. The globally unique forests in this area are rich in biodiversity and remain a critical stronghold for many threatened and endangered species, including large charismatic fauna such as tiger and Asian elephant. We also conducted a rapid assessment survey of the herpetofauna of the proposed national park, which resulted in the discovery of two new species of bent-toed geckos, genus Cyrtodactylus. We describe these new species, C. lenya sp. nov. and C. payarhtanensis sp. nov., which were found in association with karst (i.e., limestone rock formations within mature lowland wet evergreen forest. The two species were discovered less than 35 km apart and are each known from only a single locality. Because of the isolated nature of the karst formations in the proposed Lenya National Park, these geckos likely have geographical ranges restricted to the proposed protected area and are threatened by approaching deforestation. Although lowland evergreen rainforest has vanished from most of continental Southeast Asia, Myanmar can still take decisive action to preserve one of the most biodiverse places on Earth.

  13. Rapid forest clearing in a Myanmar proposed national park threatens two newly discovered species of geckos (Gekkonidae: Cyrtodactylus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connette, Grant M; Oswald, Patrick; Thura, Myint Kyaw; LaJeunesse Connette, Katherine J; Grindley, Mark E; Songer, Melissa; Zug, George R; Mulcahy, Daniel G

    2017-01-01

    Myanmar's recent transition from military rule towards a more democratic government has largely ended decades of political and economic isolation. Although Myanmar remains heavily forested, increased development in recent years has been accompanied by exceptionally high rates of forest loss. In this study, we document the rapid progression of deforestation in and around the proposed Lenya National Park, which includes some of the largest remaining areas of lowland evergreen rainforest in mainland Southeast Asia. The globally unique forests in this area are rich in biodiversity and remain a critical stronghold for many threatened and endangered species, including large charismatic fauna such as tiger and Asian elephant. We also conducted a rapid assessment survey of the herpetofauna of the proposed national park, which resulted in the discovery of two new species of bent-toed geckos, genus Cyrtodactylus. We describe these new species, C. lenya sp. nov. and C. payarhtanensis sp. nov., which were found in association with karst (i.e., limestone) rock formations within mature lowland wet evergreen forest. The two species were discovered less than 35 km apart and are each known from only a single locality. Because of the isolated nature of the karst formations in the proposed Lenya National Park, these geckos likely have geographical ranges restricted to the proposed protected area and are threatened by approaching deforestation. Although lowland evergreen rainforest has vanished from most of continental Southeast Asia, Myanmar can still take decisive action to preserve one of the most biodiverse places on Earth.

  14. Modeling and Computation of Transboundary Industrial Pollution with Emission Permits Trading by Stochastic Differential Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shuhua; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Transboundary industrial pollution requires international actions to control its formation and effects. In this paper, we present a stochastic differential game to model the transboundary industrial pollution problems with emission permits trading. More generally, the process of emission permits price is assumed to be stochastic and to follow a geometric Brownian motion (GBM). We make use of stochastic optimal control theory to derive the system of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equations satisfied by the value functions for the cooperative and the noncooperative games, respectively, and then propose a so-called fitted finite volume method to solve it. The efficiency and the usefulness of this method are illustrated by the numerical experiments. The two regions' cooperative and noncooperative optimal emission paths, which maximize the regions' discounted streams of the net revenues, together with the value functions, are obtained. Additionally, we can also obtain the threshold conditions for the two regions to decide whether they cooperate or not in different cases. The effects of parameters in the established model on the results have been also examined. All the results demonstrate that the stochastic emission permits prices can motivate the players to make more flexible strategic decisions in the games.

  15. Transboundary EIA in the Barents Region

    OpenAIRE

    Koivurova, Timo; Masloboev, Vladimir; Petrétei, Anna; Nygaard, Vigdis; Hossain, Kamrul

    2015-01-01

    The article examines how transboundary environmental impact assessment (TEIA) is organised in an area where international borders are close to each other, that is, in North Calotte/Kola Peninsula. It shows that a dense set of international legal obligations requires the region’s states to undertake TEIA. The paper examines the important question how TEIA can be done in an ideal manner in the region via the available best practise documents, such as the Guidelines fo...

  16. China's transboundary waters: new paradigms for water and ecological security through applied ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Daming; Wu, Ruidong; Feng, Yan; Li, Yungang; Ding, Chengzhi; Wang, Wenling; Yu, Douglas W

    2014-10-01

    China is Asia's most important upstream riparian country, sharing 110 rivers and lakes with 18 downstream countries. Consequently, China's management of transboundary water resources must consider both environmental and geopolitical risks.The major threats to and conflicts over international rivers in China revolve around biotic homogenisation due to the installation of transport links, water allocation, water pollution, alteration of natural flow patterns and disruption of fisheries due to the installation of hydropower dams, and droughts and floods exacerbated by climate change. Because these problems have an international component, they fall under China's Peaceful Rise strategy, mandating that transboundary conflicts be resolved amicably as part of the overarching goal of increasing regional economic growth with as little conflict as possible.Science-backed policy is more likely to result in long term, mutually agreeable solutions; the results of applied ecological research have already resulted in a number of mitigation measures, including setting operational thresholds to reduce the downstream impact of dams, designating protected areas along key river stretches where dams cannot be installed (one dam in a critical location has been cancelled), and the installation of terrestrial protected-area networks. Synthesis and applications . Applied ecology will continue to play an important role in the diagnosis and resolution of environmental threats to China's transboundary waters. More importantly, applied ecology can inform the development of a transboundary environmental compensation mechanism and regional consultative mechanisms that support informed, cooperative decision-making for China and its riparian neighbours.

  17. Trans-Boundary Haze Pollution in Southeast Asia: Sustainability through Plural Environmental Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Saidul Islam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent haze in Southeast Asian countries including Singapore is largely attributable to rampant forest fires in Indonesia due to, for example, extensive slash-and-burn (S & B culture. Drawing on the “treadmill of production” and environmental governance approach, we examine causes and consequences of this culture. We found that, despite some perceived benefits, its environmental consequences include deforestation, soil erosion and degradation, global warming, threats to biodiversity, and trans-boundary haze pollution, while the societal consequences comprise regional tension, health risks, economic and productivity losses, as well as food insecurity. We propose sustainability through a plural coexistence framework of governance for targeting S & B that incorporates strategies of incentives, education and community resource management.

  18. Multisensory Museum. A proposal for personalized virtual knowledge of the Vulci Archaeological Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Pettoello

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Everyone interacts daily with external reality, and such behavior occurs naturally and spontaneously. The mechanism established is always multisensory and there are, in fact, multiple senses involved. Physical experimentation is natural in children’s behavior and is so strong that it also persists into adulthood. If this occurs in everyday life, why should it not also be so when experiencing the cultural heritage? Starting with this idea, this paper describes a proposal for a personalized multi-sensory and immersive itinerary for the Vulci Archaeological Park

  19. Water Management for Competing Uses: Environmental Flows in the Transboundary Rio Grande/Rio Bravo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval Solis, S.; McKinney, D. C.

    2011-12-01

    Introduction Due to high water demand, the scarcity of water, and the complexity of water allocation, environmental flows have not been considered as an integral part of the water management in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo transboundary basin. The Big Bend reach is located between the cities of Presidio/Ojinaga to Amistad international reservoir, along the main stream (Fig. 1). Important environmental habitats such as the Big Bend National and State Park in the U.S., the Maderas del Carmen, Cañon de Santa Elena and Ocampo natural reserved areas in Mexico are ecologically threatened because of the lack of environmental water management policies. Several efforts have been undertaken by scientists, government agencies and NGOs to determine the environmental flows for this reach and water management policies that can provide these flows. Objective The objective of this research is to describe a water management policy that can conciliate environmental and human water uses in the Big Bend region. In other words, define a policy that can provide environmental flows without harming water supply for stakeholders or increasing flood risk, within legal and physical constraints of the system. Methodology First, the system was characterized identifying water users, hydraulic infrastructure, and water allocation according to state, federal and international regulations. Second, a hydrograph for environmental flows was proposed that mimics the hydrologic characteristics of the prior dam alteration. Third, a water planning model was constructed to evaluate alternative policies. Fourth, the water management is proposed to provide environmental restoration flows from Luis L. Leon reservoir. This policy considers mechanisms that reduce flooding and drought risks, while meting national and international water regulations. Results Three types of natural flow regimes are considered: (1) median flows aimed to provide the base flow in the region, (2) high flows to provide transversal

  20. Natural radionuclides and toxic elements in transboundary rivers of Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solodukhin, V; Poznyak, V; Kabirova, G; Stepanov, V; Ryazanova, L; Lennik, S; Liventsova, A; Bychenko, A; Zheltov, D

    2015-06-01

    The paper reports on the study of radionuclide and elemental composition of water, bottom sediment and soil samples collected at the border areas of the following transboundary rivers in Kazakhstan: Chagan, Ural, Ilek, Tobol, Ayat, Irtysh, Emel, Ili, Tekes, Shu, Karabalta, Talas and Syrdarya. The employed analyses include the following methods: instrumental gamma-ray spectrometry, radiochemical analysis, neutron activation analysis, XRF and the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Evidence of water environment contamination with radionuclides and toxic elements has been revealed in many of the studied rivers both in Kazakhstan and in adjacent countries. Transboundary transfer of the contaminants is most likely related to local industry (uranium mining and processing) and the presence of radioactive substances in the river basins. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The state of transboundary air pollution. Report prepared within the framework of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This twelfth volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies, published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains the documents reviewed and approved for publication at the thirteenth session of the Executive Body held at Geneva from 28 November to 1 December 1995. Part One is the Annual Review of Strategies and Policies for Air Pollution Abatement. Part Two is an executive summary of the 1994 Report on the Forest Condition in Europe. The main objective of this report is to give a condensed description of the condition of forests in Europe, as it has been assessed by the transnational and national annual surveys, carried out jointly by ECE under the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution and by the European Community (EC). Part Three is a summary report on the development of a library of default values for each of the input variables to the simple mass balance equation for the calculation of critical loads of nitrogen and for a range of ecosystems. Part Four presents the modelling results of European sulphur and nitrogen emissions, depositions for 1980 and 1993, and export/import budgets

  2. THE SCHOOL PARK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FISCHER, JOHN H.

    TO ASSIST IN DESEGREGATION, VARIOUS MODELS FOR THE SCHOOL PARK ARE PROPOSED--(1) ASSEMBLING ALL STUDENTS AND SCHOOLS OF A SMALL OR MEDIUM-SIZED COMMUNITY ON A SINGLE CAMPUS, (2) SERVING ONE SECTION OF A LARGE CITY, (3) CENTERING ALL SCHOOL FACILITIES FOR A SINGLE LEVEL OF EDUCATION ON A SINGLE SITE, AND (4) ESTABLISHING RINGS OF SCHOOL PARKS ABOUT…

  3. Transboundary water interaction II: the influence of 'soft' power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeitoun, M.; Mirumachi, N.; Warner, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to broaden the analysis of transboundary water interaction, by examining and interpreting the influence of ‘soft’ power therein. The ‘soft’ power of persuasion is understood to be exercised through discursive and to a lesser extent ideational means, and is interpreted in terms of

  4. Resilience in Transboundary Water Governance: the Okavango River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia O. Green

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available When the availability of a vital resource varies between times of overabundance and extreme scarcity, management regimes must manifest flexibility and authority to adapt while maintaining legitimacy. Unfortunately, the need for adaptability often conflicts with the desire for certainty in legal and regulatory regimes, and laws that fail to account for variability often result in conflict when the inevitable disturbance occurs. Additional keys to resilience are collaboration among physical scientists, political actors, local leaders, and other stakeholders, and, when the commons is shared among sovereign states, collaboration between and among institutions with authority to act at different scales or with respect to different aspects of an ecological system. At the scale of transboundary river basins, where treaties govern water utilization, particular treaty mechanisms can reduce conflict potential by fostering collaboration and accounting for change. One necessary element is a mechanism for coordination and collaboration at the scale of the basin. This could be satisfied by mechanisms ranging from informal networks to the establishment of an international commission to jointly manage water, but a mechanism for collaboration at the basin scale alone does not ensure sound water management. To better guide resource management, study of applied resilience theory has revealed a number of management practices that are integral for adaptive governance. Here, we describe key resilience principles for treaty design and adaptive governance and then apply the principles to a case study of one transboundary basin where the need and willingness to manage collaboratively and iteratively is high - the Okavango River Basin of southwest Africa. This descriptive and applied approach should be particularly instructive for treaty negotiators, transboundary resource managers, and should aid program developers.

  5. Climate change impacts on boundary and transboundary water management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, J.P.; Martin, H.; Colucci, P. [Global Change Strategies International, Ottawa, ON (Canada); McBean, G. [Institute for Catastrophic Loss Reduction, Toronto, ON (Canada); McDougall, J.; Shrubsole, D.; Whalley, J. [Western Ontario Univ., London, ON (Canada); Halliday, R. [R. Halliday and Associates, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Alden, M.; Mortsch, L.; Mills, B. [Environment Canada, Downsview, ON (Canada). Meteorological Service of Canada; Coleman, C.; Zhang, Y.; Jia, J.; Porco, M.; Henstra, S.

    2003-06-30

    Climate change will have an impact on water cycles, with increased river flows in some areas, and decreased river flows in others. This report focuses on climate change related issues of water management in boundary and transboundary areas between Canada and the United States. Water resources in these areas are governed by agreements between provinces, territories and the federal governments of Canada and the United States. The Climate Change Action Fund and Natural Resources Canada launched a project through a partnership between the Global Change Strategies International (GCSI), the Institute for Catastrophic Loss Reduction (ICLR) and the Meteorological Services of Canada (MSC). The objective was to address potential difficulties in water management resources within North America. This report presents the results of the collaboration. It includes climate scenarios and climate model outputs on future temperature and precipitation by 2050, under a range of emission scenarios. It also includes an analysis of Canada-United States transboundary water instruments for vulnerability to climate change, as well as perceptions of fairness in allocating water in the Saskatchewan River Basin. This report also includes a review of the terms of existing Treaties and Agreements of 11 river basins between Canada and the United States on boundary and transboundary waters. The report concludes that it is very likely that much of Canada will see increased intense precipitation events while the interior regions will have increased risk of drought. These two projections will have major implications for river flows and the management of water resource. Seven recommendations were presented to ensure that water is allocated fairly and responsibly. refs., tabs., figs.

  6. Dark Sky Protection and Education - Izera Dark Sky Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlicki, Arkadiusz; Kolomanski, Sylwester; Mrozek, Tomasz; Zakowicz, Grzegorz

    2015-08-01

    Darkness of the night sky is a natural component of our environment and should be protected against negative effects of human activities. The night darkness is necessary for balanced life of plants, animals and people. Unfortunately, development of human civilization and technology has led to the substantial increase of the night-sky brightness and to situation where nights are no more dark in many areas of the World. This phenomenon is called "light pollution" and it can be rank among such problems as chemical pollution of air, water and soil. Besides the environment, the light pollution can also affect e.g. the scientific activities of astronomers - many observatories built in the past began to be located within the glow of city lights making the night observations difficult, or even impossible.In order to protect the natural darkness of nights many so-called "dark sky parks" were established, where the darkness is preserved, similar to typical nature reserves. The role of these parks is not only conservation but also education, supporting to make society aware of how serious the problem of the light pollution is.History of the dark sky areas in Europe began on November 4, 2009 in Jizerka - a small village situated in the Izera Mountains, when Izera Dark Sky Park (IDSP) was established - it was the first transboundary dark sky park in the World. The idea of establishing that dark sky park in the Izera Mountains originated from a need to give to the society in Poland and Czech Republic the knowledge about the light pollution. Izera Dark Sky Park is a part of the astro-tourism project "Astro Izery" that combines tourist attraction of Izera Valley and astronomical education under the wonderful starry Izera sky. Besides the IDSP, the project Astro Izery consists of the set of simple astronomical instruments (gnomon, sundial), natural educational trail "Solar System Model", and astronomical events for the public. In addition, twice a year we organize a 3-4 days

  7. Modeling and Computation of Transboundary Industrial Pollution with Emission Permits Trading by Stochastic Differential Game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua Chang

    Full Text Available Transboundary industrial pollution requires international actions to control its formation and effects. In this paper, we present a stochastic differential game to model the transboundary industrial pollution problems with emission permits trading. More generally, the process of emission permits price is assumed to be stochastic and to follow a geometric Brownian motion (GBM. We make use of stochastic optimal control theory to derive the system of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB equations satisfied by the value functions for the cooperative and the noncooperative games, respectively, and then propose a so-called fitted finite volume method to solve it. The efficiency and the usefulness of this method are illustrated by the numerical experiments. The two regions' cooperative and noncooperative optimal emission paths, which maximize the regions' discounted streams of the net revenues, together with the value functions, are obtained. Additionally, we can also obtain the threshold conditions for the two regions to decide whether they cooperate or not in different cases. The effects of parameters in the established model on the results have been also examined. All the results demonstrate that the stochastic emission permits prices can motivate the players to make more flexible strategic decisions in the games.

  8. Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal: Final Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    The Conference on Plenipotentiaries on the Global Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes was convened by the Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) pursuant to decision 14/30, adopted by the Governing Council of UNEP on 17 June 1987. The Conference adopted the Global Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal. In the 29 articles of this Convention the definitions of hazardous wastes, the scope of the Convention, general obligations of the signatory parties, transboundary waste movement between Parties as well as through states which are not parties, illegal traffic, international control, liabilities, financial aspects, verification, accession and withdrawal of the Parties are defined in detail. There are 6 Annexes, including specifications of hazardous wastes, information requirements, notification rules, etc

  9. Denali Park wolf studies: Implications for Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Meier, Thomas J.; Burch, John W.

    1991-01-01

    The Northern Rocky Mountain Wolf Recovery Plan approved by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (1987) recommends re-establishment of wolves (Canis lupus) in Yellowstone National Park. Bills proposing wolf re-establishment in the Park have been introduced into the U.S. House and Senate. However, several questions have been raised about the possible effects of wolf re-establishment on other Yellowstone Park fauna, on human use of the Park and on human use of surrounding areas. Thus the proposed wolf re-establishment remains controversial.Information pertinent to some of the above questions is available from a current study of wolf ecology in Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska, which we began in 1986. Although Denali Park differs from Yellowstone in several ways, it is also similar enough in important respects to provide insight into questions raised about wolf re-establishment in Yellowstone.

  10. Five-year interim report of the United States-Mexico Transboundary Aquifer Assessment Program: 2007--2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, William M.

    2013-01-01

    Transboundary aquifers are an essential, and in many cases, singular source of water for United States – Mexico border communities, particularly in arid regions. Declining water levels, deteriorating water quality, and increasing use of groundwater resources by municipal, industrial, and agricultural water users on both sides of the international border have raised concerns about the long-term availability of this supply. Water quantity and quality are determining and limiting factors that ultimately control agriculture, future economic development, population growth, human health, and ecological conditions along the border. Knowledge about the extent, depletion rates, and quality of transboundary aquifers, however, is limited and, in some areas, completely absent. The U.S. – Mexico Transboundary Aquifer Assessment Act (Public Law 109-448), referred to in this report as “the Act,” was signed into law by the President of the United States on December 22, 2006, to conduct binational scientific research to systematically assess priority transboundary aquifers and to address water information needs of border communities. The Act authorizes the Secretary of the Interior, through the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), to collaborate with the States of Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas through their Water Resources Research Institutes (WRRIs) and with the International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC), stakeholders, and Mexican counterparts to provide new information and a scientific foundation for State and local officials to address pressing water-resource challenges along the U.S. – Mexico border.

  11. New Approach to Monitor Transboundary Particulate Pollution over Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M. E.; Song, C. H.; Park, R. S.; Lee, Jaehwa; Kim, J.; Lee, S.; Woo, J. H.; Carmichael, G. R.; Eck, Thomas F.; Holben, Brent N.; hide

    2014-01-01

    A new approach to more accurately monitor and evaluate transboundary particulate matter (PM) pollution is introduced based on aerosol optical products from Korea's Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI). The area studied is Northeast Asia (including eastern parts of China, the Korean peninsula and Japan), where GOCI has been monitoring since June 2010. The hourly multi-spectral aerosol optical data that were retrieved from GOCI sensor onboard geostationary satellite COMS (Communication, Ocean, and Meteorology Satellite) through the Yonsei aerosol retrieval algorithm were first presented and used in this study. The GOCI-retrieved aerosol optical data are integrated with estimated aerosol distributions from US EPA Models-3/CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality) v4.5.1 model simulations via data assimilation technique, thereby making the aerosol data spatially continuous and available even for cloud contamination cells. The assimilated aerosol optical data are utilized to provide quantitative estimates of transboundary PM pollution from China to the Korean peninsula and Japan. For the period of 1 April to 31 May, 2011 this analysis yields estimates that AOD as a proxy for PM2.5 or PM10 during long-range transport events increased by 117-265% compared to background average AOD (aerosol optical depth) at the four AERONET sites in Korea, and average AOD increases of 121% were found when averaged over the entire Korean peninsula. This paper demonstrates that the use of multi-spectral AOD retrievals from geostationary satellites can improve estimates of transboundary PM pollution. Such data will become more widely available later this decade when new sensors such as the GEMS (Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer) and GOCI-2 are scheduled to be launched.

  12. Current situation and countermeasures of port logistics park information construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Liu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Improve work efficiency of logistics park department, and drive the economy of the park and its surrounding areas. Design/methodology/approach: Analyze the information development situation and existent questions of current national logistics park, and design proper scheme to meet the demand of port logistics park. Findings: Proposed an information construction implementation plan using technology of the Internet of things which can be applied to port logistics park. Designed a scheme for the park information construction and explained the system's implementation strategy and implementation steps. Practical implications: The proposed construction program is particularly suitable for the northwest port logistics parks in China, and also has reference function to other logistics park construction. Originality/value: Group the information construction of the logistics park into four levels, three types of users, and two requirements. The scheme is innovative and comprehensive, which can ensure the development of port logistics park.

  13. Sharing water and benefits in transboundary river basins

    OpenAIRE

    D. Arjoon; A. Tilmant; M. Herrmann

    2016-01-01

    The equitable sharing of benefits in transboundary river basins is necessary to solve disputes among riparian countries and to reach a consensus on basin-wide development and management activities. Benefit-sharing arrangements must be collaboratively developed to be perceived not only as efficient, but also as equitable in order to be considered acceptable to all riparian countries. The current literature mainly describes what is meant by the term benefit sharing in the cont...

  14. The impacts of CO2 capture technologies on transboundary air pollution in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Harmelen, T.; Van Horssen, A.; Van Gijlswijk, R.; Koornneef, J.; Ramirez Ramirez, A.

    2008-05-01

    The objective of the inventory phase 1 of the project on the title subject is two-fold: (1) to assess the impacts of different CO2 capture technologies on transboundary air pollution in the Netherlands in 2020. Other possible environmental impacts such as toxic emissions and safety are considered qualitatively; and (2) to provide recommendations for further research in the in-depth phase 2 in order to address the current knowledge gaps found in this area. The inventory summarises all (public) available information that is relevant for transboundary air pollution and presents it in understandable terms for environmental experts and policymakers who are not CCS (carbon dioxide capture and storage) experts. The project surveys the present scientific literature and interviews key players in the carbon capture community in the Netherlands to present the current insights and state of capture technology, particularly with respect to transboundary air pollution. This has been done taking into account the angles of both research and policy needs. The information gathered is combined with scenario information for the year 2020 on carbon capture technology and transboundary air pollution in order to sketch ranges of possible impacts of carbon capture technologies in the Netherlands in this year. Chapter 2 explains the methodology and the research process taken in the project. Chapter 3 introduces the different capture technologies in the form a structured description. Chapter 4 describes the results of the assessment of capture technologies in terms of a comparative analysis and a what-if emission scenario analysis for the Netherlands. Chapter 5 closes the report with conclusions and recommendations for further research

  15. Using Cellular Automata for Parking Recommendations in Smart Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horng, Gwo-Jiun

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we propose an innovative adaptive recommendation mechanism for smart parking. The cognitive RF module will transmit the vehicle location information and the parking space requirements to the parking congestion computing center (PCCC) when the driver must find a parking space. Moreover, for the parking spaces, we use a cellular automata (CA) model mechanism that can adjust to full and not full parking lot situations. Here, the PCCC can compute the nearest parking lot, the parking lot status and the current or opposite driving direction with the vehicle location information. By considering the driving direction, we can determine when the vehicles must turn around and thus reduce road congestion and speed up finding a parking space. The recommendation will be sent to the drivers through a wireless communication cognitive radio (CR) model after the computation and analysis by the PCCC. The current study evaluates the performance of this approach by conducting computer simulations. The simulation results show the strengths of the proposed smart parking mechanism in terms of avoiding increased congestion and decreasing the time to find a parking space. PMID:25153671

  16. Hydro-hegemony : a framework for analysis of trans-boundary water conflicts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeitoun, M.; Warner, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    The increasing structural and physical scarcity of water across the globe calls for a deeper understanding of trans-boundary water conflicts. Conventional analysis tends to downplay the role that power asymmetry plays in creating and maintaining situations of water conflict that fall short of the

  17. Ecological Resilience of Small Urban Parks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JasmaniI, Zanariah Binti

    consists of several sub-variables or attributes. The attributes of physical characteristics include park size, land use, park shape, proximity to a road and the presence of a water element. Elements relating to vegetation diversity, such as the presence and share of native and exotic species, presence....... Birds and butterflies react differently to various park maintenance practices (e.g. mowing). Based on the overall results, findings and discussion of the key features for bird and butterfly richness and abundance, study IV proposes nine recommendations for small urban parks to improve their ecological...

  18. The Navruz Project: Transboundary Monitoring for Radionuclides and Metals in Central Asia Rivers. Sampling and Analysis Plan and Operational Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passell, Howard D.; Barber, David S.; Betsill, J. David; Littlfield, Adriane C.; Mohagheghi, Amir H.; Shanks, Sonoya T.; Yuldashev, Bekhzad; Salikhbaev, Umar; Radyuk, Raisa; Djuraev, Akram; Djuraev, Amwar; Vasilev, Ivan; Tolongutov, Bajgabyl; Valentina, Alekhina; Solodukhin, Vladimir; Pozniak, Victor

    2002-01-01

    The transboundary nature of water resources demands a transboundary approach to their monitoring and management. However, transboundary water projects raise a challenging set of problems related to communication issues, and standardization of sampling, analysis and data management methods. This manual addresses those challenges and provides the information and guidance needed to perform the Navruz Project, a cooperative, transboundary, river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the U.S. The Navruz Project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of their importance to public health and nuclear materials proliferation concerns in the region. This manual provides guidelines for participants on sample and data collection, field equipment operations and procedures, sample handling, laboratory analysis, and data management. Also included are descriptions of rivers, sampling sites and parameters on which data are collected. Data obtained in this project are shared among all participating countries and the public through an internet web site, and are available for use in further studies and in regional transboundary water resource management efforts. Overall, the project addresses three main goals: to help increase capabilities in Central Asian nations for sustainable water resources management; to provide a scientific basis for supporting nuclear transparency and non-proliferation in the region; and to help reduce the threat of conflict in Central Asia over water resources, proliferation concerns, or other factors.

  19. The Navruz Project: Transboundary Monitoring for Radionuclides and Metals in Central Asia Rivers. Sampling and Analysis Plan and Operational Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard D.; Barber, David S.; Betsill, J. David; Littlfield, Adriane C.; Mohagheghi, Amir H.; Shanks, Sonoya T.; Yuldashev, Bekhzad; Salikhbaev, Umar; Radyuk, Raisa; Djuraev, Akram; Djuraev, Amwar; Vasilev, Ivan; Tolongutov, Bajgabyl; Valentina, Alekhina; Solodukhin, Vladimir; Pozniak, Victor

    2002-04-02

    The transboundary nature of water resources demands a transboundary approach to their monitoring and management. However, transboundary water projects raise a challenging set of problems related to communication issues, and standardization of sampling, analysis and data management methods. This manual addresses those challenges and provides the information and guidance needed to perform the Navruz Project, a cooperative, transboundary, river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the U.S. The Navruz Project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of their importance to public health and nuclear materials proliferation concerns in the region. This manual provides guidelines for participants on sample and data collection, field equipment operations and procedures, sample handling, laboratory analysis, and data management. Also included are descriptions of rivers, sampling sites and parameters on which data are collected. Data obtained in this project are shared among all participating countries and the public through an internet web site, and are available for use in further studies and in regional transboundary water resource management efforts. Overall, the project addresses three main goals: to help increase capabilities in Central Asian nations for sustainable water resources management; to provide a scientific basis for supporting nuclear transparency and non-proliferation in the region; and to help reduce the threat of conflict in Central Asia over water resources, proliferation concerns, or other factors.

  20. Modelling parking behaviour considering heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Martin, G.A.; Ibeas Portilla, A.; Alonso Oreña, B.; Olio, L. del

    2016-07-01

    Most of motorized trips in cities of middle and small size are made in public transport and mainly in private vehicle, this has caused a saturation in parking systems of the cities, causing important problems to society, one of the most important problems is high occupancy of public space by parking systems. Thus, is required the estimation of models that reproduce users’ behaviour when they are choosing for parking in cities, to carry out transport policies to improve transport efficiency and parking systems in the cities. The aim of this paper is the specification and estimation of models that simulate users’ behaviour when they are choosing among alternatives of parking that there are in the city: free on street parking, paid on street parking, paid on underground parking and Park and Ride (now there isn´t). For this purpose, is proposed a multinomial logit model that consider systematic and random variations in tastes. Data of users’ behaviour from the different alternatives of parking have been obtained with a stated preference surveys campaign which have been done in May 2015 in the principal parking zones of the city of Santander. In this paper, we provide a number of improvements to previously developed methodologies because of we consider much more realism to create the scenarios stated preference survey, obtaining better adjustments. (Author)

  1. Camel as a transboundary vector for emerging exotic Salmonella serovars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Nahed H; Abdel-Moein, Khaled A; Zaher, Hala

    2017-05-01

    The current study was conducted to shed light on the role of imported camels as a transboundary vector for emerging exotic Salmonella serovars. Fecal samples were collected from 206 camels directly after slaughtering including 25 local camels and 181 imported ones as well as stool specimens were obtained from 50 slaughterhouse workers at the same abattoir. The obtained samples were cultured while Salmonella serovars were identified through Gram's stain films, biochemical tests and serotyping with antisera kit. Moreover, the obtained Salmonella serovars were examined by PCR for the presence of invA and stn genes. The overall prevalence of Salmonella serovars among the examined camels was 8.3%. Stn gene was detected in the vast majority of exotic strains (11/14) 78.6% including emerging serovars such as Salmonella Saintpaul, S. Chester, S. Typhimurium whereas only one isolate from local camels carried stn gene (1/3) 33.3%. On the other hand, none of the examined humans yielded positive result. Our findings highlight the potential role of imported camels as a transboundary vector for exotic emerging Salomenella serovars.

  2. Cellular Automata-Based Application for Driver Assistance in Indoor Parking Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cándido Caballero-Gil

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes an adaptive recommendation mechanism for smart parking that takes advantage of the popularity of smartphones and the rise of the Internet of Things. The proposal includes a centralized system to forecast available indoor parking spaces, and a low-cost mobile application to obtain data of actual and predicted parking occupancy. The described scheme uses data from both sources bidirectionally so that the centralized forecast system is fed with data obtained with the distributed system based on smartphones, and vice versa. The mobile application uses different wireless technologies to provide the forecast system with actual parking data and receive from the system useful recommendations about where to park. Thus, the proposal can be used by any driver to easily find available parking spaces in indoor facilities. The client software developed for smartphones is a lightweight Android application that supplies precise indoor positioning systems based on Quick Response codes or Near Field Communication tags, and semi-precise indoor positioning systems based on Bluetooth Low Energy beacons. The performance of the proposed approach has been evaluated by conducting computer simulations and real experimentation with a preliminary implementation. The results have shown the strengths of the proposal in the reduction of the time and energy costs to find available parking spaces.

  3. Cellular Automata-Based Application for Driver Assistance in Indoor Parking Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Gil, Cándido; Caballero-Gil, Pino; Molina-Gil, Jezabel

    2016-11-15

    This work proposes an adaptive recommendation mechanism for smart parking that takes advantage of the popularity of smartphones and the rise of the Internet of Things. The proposal includes a centralized system to forecast available indoor parking spaces, and a low-cost mobile application to obtain data of actual and predicted parking occupancy. The described scheme uses data from both sources bidirectionally so that the centralized forecast system is fed with data obtained with the distributed system based on smartphones, and vice versa. The mobile application uses different wireless technologies to provide the forecast system with actual parking data and receive from the system useful recommendations about where to park. Thus, the proposal can be used by any driver to easily find available parking spaces in indoor facilities. The client software developed for smartphones is a lightweight Android application that supplies precise indoor positioning systems based on Quick Response codes or Near Field Communication tags, and semi-precise indoor positioning systems based on Bluetooth Low Energy beacons. The performance of the proposed approach has been evaluated by conducting computer simulations and real experimentation with a preliminary implementation. The results have shown the strengths of the proposal in the reduction of the time and energy costs to find available parking spaces.

  4. More Effective Use of Urban Space by Autonomous Double Parking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Estepa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The new capabilities of autonomous cars can be used to mitigate to a large extent safety concerns and nuisance traditionally associated with double parking. In this paper double parking for autonomous cars is proposed as a new approach to temporarily increase parking capacity in locations in clear need for extra provision when best alternatives cannot be found. The basic requirements, operation, and procedures of the proposed solution are outlined. A curbside parking has been simulated implementing the suggested double parking operation and important advantages have been identified for drivers, the environment, and the city. Double parking can increase over 50% the parking capacity of a given area. Autonomous car owners would (at least double their probabilities of finding parking compared to traditional drivers, saving cruising time and emissions. However, significant work and technological advances are still needed in order to make this feasible in the near future.

  5. Trade Measures for Regulating Transboundary Movement of Electronic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Emcee Christian

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available International trade in used electrical and electronics equipment (UEEE provides an avenue for socio-economic development in the developing world and also serves as a conduit for transboundary dumping of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE also referred to as electronic waste or e-waste. The latter problem arises from the absence of a regulatory framework for differentiating between functional UEEE and junk e-waste. This has resulted in both functional UEEE and junk e-waste being concurrently shipped to developing countries under the guise of international trade in used electronics. Dealing with these problems will require effective regulation of international trade in UEEE from both exporting and importing countries. Although, the export of e-waste from the European Community to developing countries is currently prohibited, significant amount of e-waste from the region continue to flow into developing countries due to lax regulatory measures in the latter. Hence, there is need for a regulatory regime in developing countries to complement the prohibitory regime in the major e-waste source countries. This paper proposes trade measures modelled in line with WTO rules which could be adopted by developing countries in addressing these problems. The proposed measures include the development of a compulsory certification and labelling system for functional UEEE as well as trade ban on commercial importation of UEEE not complying with the said certification and labelling system. The paper then goes further to examine these proposed measures in the light of WTO rules and jurisprudence.

  6. Water Stress in Global Transboundary River Basins: Significance of Upstream Water Use on Downstream Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munia, H.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; Mirumachi, N.; Porkka,M.; Wada, Yoshihide; Kummu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing population and water demand have increased pressure on water resources in various parts of the globe, including many transboundary river basins. While the impacts of upstream water use on downstream water availability have been analyzed in many of these international river basins, this has not been systematically done at the global scale using coherent and comparable datasets. In this study, we aim to assess the change in downstream water stress due to upstream water use in the world's transboundary river basins. Water stress was first calculated considering only local water use of each sub-basin based on country-basin mesh, then compared with the situation when upstream water use was subtracted from downstream water availability. Wefound that water stress was generally already high when considering only local water use, affecting 0.95-1.44 billion people or 33%-51% of the population in transboundary river basins. After accounting for upstream water use, stress level increased by at least 1 percentage-point for 30-65 sub-basins, affecting 0.29-1.13 billion people. Altogether 288 out of 298 middle-stream and downstream sub-basin areas experienced some change in stress level. Further, we assessed whether there is a link between increased water stress due to upstream water use and the number of conflictive and cooperative events in the transboundary river basins, as captured by two prominent databases. No direct relationship was found. This supports the argument that conflicts and cooperation events originate from a combination of different drivers, among which upstream-induced water stress may play a role. Our findings contribute to better understanding of upstream-downstream dynamics in water stress to help address water allocation problems.

  7. Heterogeneous Parking Market Subject to Parking Rationing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Asadi Bagloee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different types of drivers and parking spaces delineate a heterogeneous parking market for which the literature has yet to provide a model applicable to the real world. The main obstacle is computational complexities of considering various parking restrictions along with traffic congestion on the road network. In this study, the heterogeneity aspects are considered within a Logit parking choice model. A mathematical programming problem was introduced to explicitly consider parking capacities and parking rationing constraints. The parking rationing is defined as any arrangement to reserve parking space for some specific demand such as parking permit, private parking, VIP parking, and different parking durations. Introduction of parking rationing in the presence of other constraints is a unique factor in this study which makes the model more realistic. The algorithm was tested on a central business district case study. The results prove that the algorithm is able to converge rapidly. Among the algorithm’s output are shadow prices of the parking capacity and parking rationing constraints. The shadow prices contain important information which is key to addressing a variety of parking issues, such as the location of parking shortages, identification of fair parking charges, viability of parking permits, and the size of reserved parking.

  8. A Gendered Analysis of the Brahmaputra Dialogue : A study of the relation between transboundary water management and gender norms

    OpenAIRE

    Lexén, Tove

    2017-01-01

    Transboundary water management (TWM) regards how internationally shared waters are managed. Recently, TWM processes have been researched from the perspective of gender inclusivity. In line with this trend, this thesis is investigating to what extent the Transboundary Policy Dialogue for Improved Water Governance in Brahmaputra River (the Brahmaputra Dialogue) about the Brahmaputra River is gender sensitive. The Brahmaputra River is shared by China, India, Bhutan and Bangladesh. The management...

  9. IMPLEMENTATION OF IMAGE PROCESSING IN REAL TIME CAR PARKING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    SAYANTI BANERJEE,; PALLAVI CHOUDEKAR,; M.K.MUJU

    2011-01-01

    Car parking lots are an important object class in many traffic and civilian applications. With the problems of increasing urban trafficcongestion and the ever increasing shortage of space, these car parking lots are needed to be well equipped with automatic parkingInformation and Guidance systems. Goals of intelligent parking lot management include counting the number of parked cars, and identifyingthe available location. This work proposes a new system for providing parking information and g...

  10. Cellular Automata-Based Application for Driver Assistance in Indoor Parking Areas †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Gil, Cándido; Caballero-Gil, Pino; Molina-Gil, Jezabel

    2016-01-01

    This work proposes an adaptive recommendation mechanism for smart parking that takes advantage of the popularity of smartphones and the rise of the Internet of Things. The proposal includes a centralized system to forecast available indoor parking spaces, and a low-cost mobile application to obtain data of actual and predicted parking occupancy. The described scheme uses data from both sources bidirectionally so that the centralized forecast system is fed with data obtained with the distributed system based on smartphones, and vice versa. The mobile application uses different wireless technologies to provide the forecast system with actual parking data and receive from the system useful recommendations about where to park. Thus, the proposal can be used by any driver to easily find available parking spaces in indoor facilities. The client software developed for smartphones is a lightweight Android application that supplies precise indoor positioning systems based on Quick Response codes or Near Field Communication tags, and semi-precise indoor positioning systems based on Bluetooth Low Energy beacons. The performance of the proposed approach has been evaluated by conducting computer simulations and real experimentation with a preliminary implementation. The results have shown the strengths of the proposal in the reduction of the time and energy costs to find available parking spaces. PMID:27854282

  11. Laws, Institutions and Transboundary Pasture Management in the High Pamir and Pamir-Alai Mountain Ecosystem of Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Lim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced rangeland governance is a priority for the governments of the post-Soviet Central Asian states of the Kyrgyz Republic and Tajikistan. Major transitional challenges confront the newly independent states of Central Asia. These challenges include the withdrawal of subsidies previously provided by the centralised Soviet government; moves towards privatisation and the conversion of administrative boundaries to international boundaries. In this context transboundary approaches to rangeland management are essential. This paper highlights the challenges for effective pasture management in the Pamir, Pamir-Alai ecosystem; the inadequacies of pasture-related legal instruments and the absence of institutions for the implementation of these instruments. Transboundary management is hampered by the lack of agreements between the two countries and the differences between national level laws and institutions. Meaningful transboundary agreements and the harmonization of national level laws would be a significant step towards achieving sustainable transboundary pasture management. However, on their own these legal tools are insufficient. Long-term effective pasture management in the Pamir, Pamir-Alai ecosystem necessitates that the causes of degradation are addressed. Mountain communities would also need to be convinced of economic and other benefits before current resource-use practices could be expected to change. Institutional and capacity building and adequate funding are also fundamental to ensuring the effectiveness of any legal instruments that are developed and any strategies that are employed.

  12. Educating for biodiversity conservation in urban parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerra, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to propose a procedure for learning about biodiversity in urban parks, as a contribution for educating conservation of natural resources. The procedure was named “Diagnosis of biodiversity conservation status in urban parks”. It comprises for stages describing the physic, geographic, socio-historic, and cultural study of the park as well as a taxonomic inventory of species, its distribution, presence in Cuba, and menaces they are subjected to. This facilitates to carry out educative activities. The introduction of the procedure is thought of from an ethno-biological and interdisciplinary perspective for training students in biological, geographical, historical, cultural and ethnological procedures, seeking a holistic approach to environment. The effectiveness of the proposal was appraised by accounting the experience of a class at “Casino Campestre” park in Camagüey City. Key words: biodiversity, urban parks, procedures, conservation training

  13. Research into fisheries equity and fairness—addressing conservation burden concerns in transboundary fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanich, Q.; Campbell, B.; Bailey, M.L.; Molenaar, E.

    2015-01-01

    Conservation and management of transboundary fisheries must account for diverse national interests while adopting compromises necessary to develop and implement robust conservation and management measures. The United Nations Fish Stocks Agreement requires states to ensure that conservation and

  14. Environmental evaluation of Turkey's transboundary rivers' hydropower systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkun, M.

    2010-01-01

    The hydroelectric power and potential environmental impacts of hydroelectric projects in 2 transboundary rivers in Turkey were assessed. The southeastern Anatolia project (GAP) is expected to encompass 27 dams and 19 hydroelectric power plants. The large-scale project will increase domestic electricity production and help to provide irrigation for large agricultural schemes. The Coruh project will consist of 27 dams and hydroelectric power plants, which are expected to have serious environmental impacts in both upstream Turkey and downstream Georgia. A slowing down of each river's velocity will cause changes in sediment transport, while the storage of water in large reservoirs will alter water quality and cause changes in local micro-climates. Irrigation methods may cause soil erosion and salinization. The construction of 2 GAP dams on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers has caused protest from Syria and Iraq. Economic development in the regions caused by the proposed hydroelectric projects is expected to have significant environmental impacts on woodland and grassland areas. The projects are expected to adversely affect threatened plant, mammal, and fish species. More detailed cumulative impact and environmental impact assessments are needed to evaluate the economic, environmental, and social problems that are likely to arise as a result of the projects. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  15. Local and Transboundary Sharing of Water Resources: Legal and Equity Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumma, A

    2001-01-01

    The article reviewed the law on water in local and transboundary contexts.The aim was to highlight the mechanisms for facilitating equity in the allocation and sharing of the resource. It has been demonstrated that, the relevant local and transboundary laws are in need for further urgent development in order to be able to achieve their objectives. The objective that will be of greatest importance in the 21. century is that of ensuring that, water conservation is fostered and promoted. The effort to meet the increasing demand for water, on the whole, have focused on attempts to increase supply to water users. In the era of increasing water scarcity, the management of demand and development of legal and other mechanisms to ensure efficient utilisation of the available water resources will become the central issue of the day. Equity in allocation will take, as it's central premises the conservation of the limited resource. The law will therefore need to develop increasingly in the direction of fostering a conservation ethic

  16. Trans-boundary movement of mercury in the Northeast Asian region predicted by CAMQ-Hg from anthropogenic emissions distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jin-Ho; Roy, Debananda; Oh, Joo-Sung; Back, Seung-Ki; Jang, Ha-Na; Kim, Seong-Heon; Seo, Yong-Chil; Kim, Jeong-Hun; Lee, Chong Bum; Han, Young-Ji

    2018-05-01

    The percentage contribution of trans-boundary mercury (Hg) from China at different locations in South Korea was estimated from Hg anthropogenic emission distributions using the Hg dispersion model, CMAQ-Hg. This investigation quantifies the trans-boundary Hg emissions as contribution ratios. In addition, the long-range transportation frequency is also calculated, to verify inflow cases from China. The seasonal distribution of the Hg contribution ratio was found to be highest in winter (40%), followed by fall (16%). Seasonal observations of Hg inflow frequencies were estimated as 40%, 25%, 21%, and 4% in winter, fall, summer, and spring, respectively, at the same location. Such results would be produced by the wind generally blowing from the west and north-west with a speed of 5.0 m/s and 4.5 m/s, respectively, during winter and fall, around the study area. This study made an effort to quantify the trans-boundary Hg transport and to plot Hg anthropogenic emissions distribution in the region.

  17. Transboundary data management for nuclear plants near national borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narrog, J.; Obrecht, R.

    1998-01-01

    Transboundary data management was decided in the EU in case of incidents and accidents. The information is sent by codified messages in accordance with the Convention Information Structure (CIS). Within the international collaboration regarding nuclear installations near national borders, fixed telephone and tele-copy connections are used. In addition to that an online data exchange between France and Germany is being installed. This facilitates and accelerates ascertaining the radiological situation for both partners across the national borders. (author)

  18. Transboundary brand: European and Ukrainian experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tykhomyrova Yevheniya Borysivna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a study of the concept "cross-border brand" and the analysis of the formation of cross-border branding practices in transboundary territory of Europe and Ukraine. Today the cross-border territories united by common economic, social, cultural and political life strive to be transformed into a brand. That is why the issues related to their positioning and branding are of great importance. According to the author cross-border / inter-regional brand, an intangible asset of cross-border cooperation, which provides the promotion of the interests of cross-border areas, both inside and outside the cross-border. In recent years, such brands as part of Euroregions are being formed with the participation of many European countries.

  19. Building European Union capacity to manage transboundary crises : Network or lead-agency model?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boin, Arjen; Busuioc, Madalina; Groenleer, Martijn

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the European continent has witnessed a substantial number of "transboundary crises" - crises that cross geographical borders and affect multiple policy domains. Nation states find it hard to deal with such crises by themselves. International cooperation, thus, becomes increasingly

  20. A Foundation for Mobile User Experiences in Theme Parks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Claus Møller

    2013-01-01

    Based on case studies, this paper proposes a theoretical understanding of three essential aspects, which affect mobile user experiences in theme parks. The aspect are (a) the controllability of the mobile content, (b) the balance in the hybrid space of proximate physical place and remote digital...... space, and (c) the social space. Furthermore, the social space is exceptionally important in understanding mobile user experiences in theme parks. Thus, this paper proposes to extract the social space from the physical place. This means, that mobile user experiences in theme parks can be understood...

  1. How to Mitigate Theme Park Crowding? A Prospective Coordination Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguo Yuan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Crowding is a key factor in tourists’ experience in theme parks, and mitigating crowding makes parks more competitive. This study examines how to effectively mitigate crowding in theme parks. First, a Markov-based method is developed to predict the spatial-temporal distribution of tourists in the park. Then, a prospective coordination approach based on the tourist distribution prediction is proposed. To evaluate the performance of this approach, an experiment is constructed using an agent-based simulation platform. The results indicate that the proposed method significantly outperforms existing methods. Furthermore, we conduct two experiments and, based on the results, offer several recommendations for crowd management.

  2. Transboundary radioactive and chemical pollution simulation using an atmospheric/marine predicting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telenta, B.; Antic, D.

    2001-01-01

    The atmospheric models can be used to simulate the transport of contaminants in typical accidental cases and for realistic meteorological conditions. Some numerical models for weather forecast can be used for near to real simulations of propagation of radioactive nuclides or classical chemical pollutants to the atmosphere. The various meteorological parameters are taken into account and various meteorological conditions, even complex ones, can be analyzed. The models can be used for very well assessment of the airborne pollution from energy sources and industrial installations, for comparative studies and for safety analysis. This report describes an proposal for a project of the transboundary pollution simulation, that can be used for the East Mediterranean Region. The project is based on the numerical models developed in the in simulating of the Chernobyl accident and similar hypothetical cases. The study is based on an atmospheric models developed in Euro-Mediterranean Centre on Insular Coastal Dynamics (ICoD), Foundation for International Studies, Valeta, Malta

  3. Design And Implementation Of Smart Parking System Using Peripheral Interface Controllers And Infrared Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Thaw Htet

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the increase in world population and vehicle production parking spaces and facilities are required. As the numbers of vehicles on the road are increasing day by day parking problems which are increasing at an alarming rate in every major city cause drivers frustration traffic congestion and time wasting especially during the peak business hours. Lot of researches was being done all over the world to implement better parking management system which reduces parking problems. SPARK Smart Parking is parking garage system that utilizes various technologies to implement best parking system. The proposed system is aimed to inform drivers about the number of available parking spaces without any parking difficulties. This system is designed for two- level parking slots with twenty six parking spaces and one aisle on each floor. The condition of parking slots is detected by IR sensors and is reported periodically to main controller via floor controllers and self controllers. PIC 18F4550 is chosen to be used as controllers because it is suitable for the proposed system. Each floor contains LCD display which will show available parking spaces of that floor. LCD display at the entrance gate will show overall available parking slots of two floors. In this paper a new parking system called Smart Parking system is proposed to help drivers getting the real-time parking information and to find vacant spaces in a car park in a shorter time. This kind of system minimizes not only traffic congestion problems but also staff requirements to control the traffic in the car park.

  4. An integrated model of water resources optimization allocation based on projection pursuit model - Grey wolf optimization method in a transboundary river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sen; Lu, Hongwei

    2018-04-01

    Under the effects of global change, water crisis ranks as the top global risk in the future decade, and water conflict in transboundary river basins as well as the geostrategic competition led by it is most concerned. This study presents an innovative integrated PPMGWO model of water resources optimization allocation in a transboundary river basin, which is integrated through the projection pursuit model (PPM) and Grey wolf optimization (GWO) method. This study uses the Songhua River basin and 25 control units as examples, adopting the PPMGWO model proposed in this study to allocate the water quantity. Using water consumption in all control units in the Songhua River basin in 2015 as reference to compare with optimization allocation results of firefly algorithm (FA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithms as well as the PPMGWO model, results indicate that the average difference between corresponding allocation results and reference values are 0.195 bil m3, 0.151 bil m3, and 0.085 bil m3, respectively. Obviously, the average difference of the PPMGWO model is the lowest and its optimization allocation result is closer to reality, which further confirms the reasonability, feasibility, and accuracy of the PPMGWO model. And then the PPMGWO model is adopted to simulate allocation of available water quantity in Songhua River basin in 2018, 2020, and 2030. The simulation results show water quantity which could be allocated in all controls demonstrates an overall increasing trend with reasonable and equal exploitation and utilization of water resources in the Songhua River basin in future. In addition, this study has a certain reference value and application meaning to comprehensive management and water resources allocation in other transboundary river basins.

  5. The transboundary nature of seabird ecology: Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodice, Patrick G.R.; Suryan, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    The term ‘seabird’ is generally applied to avian species that forage in the marine environment over open water. Seabirds typically nest in colonies and are long-lived species with low annual reproductive rates. Seabird breeding sites typically occur on islands or along coasts and as such are often at the boundaries of ecological or political zones. During the breeding season, seabirds cross a very distinct terrestrial/marine ecological boundary on a regular basis to forage. Even relatively ‘local’ species cross multiple jurisdictions within a day (e.g., state lands and waters, and federal waters) while pelagic species may transit through international waters on a daily, weekly, or monthly time-frame. Seabird life-histories expose individuals and populations to environmental conditions affecting both terrestrial and marine habitats. The wide-ranging and transboundary nature of seabird ecology also exposes these species to various environmental and anthropogenic forces such as contamination, commercial fisheries and climate forcing that also are transboundary in nature. Therefore, wherever conservation of seabirds or the management of their populations is the goal, consideration must be given to ecosystem dynamics on land and at sea. Because the jurisdiction of agencies does not cross the land-sea boundary in the same manner as the seabirds they are managing, these efforts are facilitated by multi-agency communication and collaboration. By their very nature and by the nature of the systems that they must function within, seabirds embody the complexity of wildlife ecology and conservation in the twenty-first century.

  6. Estimating evaporative vapor generation from automobiles based on parking activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Xinyi; Tschantz, Michael; Fu, Joshua S.

    2015-01-01

    A new approach is proposed to quantify the evaporative vapor generation based on real parking activity data. As compared to the existing methods, two improvements are applied in this new approach to reduce the uncertainties: First, evaporative vapor generation from diurnal parking events is usually calculated based on estimated average parking duration for the whole fleet, while in this study, vapor generation rate is calculated based on parking activities distribution. Second, rather than using the daily temperature gradient, this study uses hourly temperature observations to derive the hourly incremental vapor generation rates. The parking distribution and hourly incremental vapor generation rates are then adopted with Wade–Reddy's equation to estimate the weighted average evaporative generation. We find that hourly incremental rates can better describe the temporal variations of vapor generation, and the weighted vapor generation rate is 5–8% less than calculation without considering parking activity. - Highlights: • We applied real parking distribution data to estimate evaporative vapor generation. • We applied real hourly temperature data to estimate hourly incremental vapor generation rate. • Evaporative emission for Florence is estimated based on parking distribution and hourly rate. - A new approach is proposed to quantify the weighted evaporative vapor generation based on parking distribution with an hourly incremental vapor generation rate

  7. An assessment of potential hydro-political tensions in transboundary river basins using environmental, political, and economic indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefano, Lucia; Petersen-Perlman, Jacob; Sproles, Eric; Eynard, James; Wolf, Aaron T.

    2015-04-01

    Globally 286 river basins extend across international borders, covering over 61.9 million km2 of the earth's surface and hosting a total of approximately 2.7 billion people. In these basins, transboundary water resources support an interdependent web of environmental, political, and economic systems that can enhance or destabilize a region. We present an integrated global-scale assessment of transboundary watersheds to identify regions more likely to experience hydro-political tensions over the next decade and beyond based upon environmental, political, and economic indicators. We combine NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) measurements of changes in terrestrial water storage with metrics of projected climate change impacts on water variability, the institutional capacity of countries to manage shared water resources, the development of new water infrastructure, per capita gross national income, domestic and international armed conflicts, and recent history of disputes over transboundary waters. The construction of new water-related infrastructure is on-going or planned in many basins worldwide. New water infrastructure is foreseen also in areas where instruments of international cooperation are still absent or limited in scope, e.g. in Southeast Asia, South Asia, Central America, the northern part of the South American continent, and the southern Balkans as well as in different parts of Africa. Moreover, in Central and Eastern Africa, the Middle East, and Central, South and South-East Asia there is a concomitance of several political, environmental and socioeconomic factors that could exacerbate hydropolitical tensions. Our analysis integrates political, economic and environmental metrics and is part of the United Nation's Transboundary Waters Assessment Programme to provide the first global-scale assessment of its type.

  8. ParkIndex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczynski, Andrew T; Schipperijn, Jasper; Hipp, J Aaron

    2016-01-01

    using ArcGIS 9.3 and the Community Park Audit Tool. Four park summary variables - distance to nearest park, and the number of parks, amount of park space, and average park quality index within 1 mile were analyzed in relation to park use using logistic regression. Coefficients for significant park......, planners, and citizens to evaluate the potential for park use for a given area. Data used for developing ParkIndex were collected in 2010 in Kansas City, Missouri (KCMO). Adult study participants (n=891) reported whether they used a park within the past month, and all parks in KCMO were mapped and audited...

  9. Elephants of democracy : an unfolding process of resettlement in the Limpopo National Park

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milgroom, J.

    2012-01-01

    The proposed paper will focus on the process of displacement taking place in the context of the creation of the Limpopo National Park in Mozambique. This park is part of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park, which also includes the Kruger National Park (South Africa) and Gonarezhou National Park

  10. Radiation risks and monitoring of transboundary rivers of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Solodukhin, V.P.; Khazhekber, S.; Poznyak, V.L.; Chernykh, E.E.; Passell, H.D.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The condition of the water resources of the Republic of Kazakhstan is characterized with their whole deficiency as well as their high pollution and desiccation. The situation is also aggravated with much relaxation of work coordination on regulation of trans-boundary river flows and control of their water quality as a result of the USSR collapse and isolation of separate republics. The absence of objective information on water condition of rivers and their contamination sources creates a danger of high ecological risk and psychological stress for inhabitants, localities of that related to the basins of these rivers, and serves as reasoning for claims (occasionally unreasonable) to neighboring countries. Following rivers are the largest trans-boundary ones in Kazakhstan: Ile, Syrdarya, Ural and Irtysh. All these rivers are of great importance for people's life-support of the republic. At the same time presence of a number of large industrial centers, agricultural enterprises and radiation-dangerous objects in the basins of these rivers creates a potential danger of chemical and radiation contamination for their water flows. Objective information on its influence rate is required. The most acceptable form of the control of radiation and hydro-chemical situation in the basins of transboundary rivers is their monitoring based on modern nuclear-and-physical methods of analysis. Very important factor in organization of such monitoring system is participation of all the countries concerned with the basin of the river under the control. There is a work experience of many years in Central Asia on monitoring of large Syrdarya and Amudarya rivers. These works have been carried out since 2000 with the framework of the International project NAVRUZ. Participants of this project are organizations of nuclear profile from Uzbekistan, Kirghizia, Tajikistan and Kazakhstan. The collaborator of this project is the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), USA. Experience of these

  11. A market-based approach to share water and benefits in transboundary river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjoon, Diane; Tilmant, Amaury; Herrmann, Markus

    2016-04-01

    The equitable sharing of benefits in transboundary river basins is necessary to reach a consensus on basin-wide development and management activities. Benefit sharing arrangements must be collaboratively developed to be perceived as efficient, as well as equitable, in order to be considered acceptable to all riparian countries. The current literature falls short of providing practical, institutional arrangements that ensure maximum economic welfare as well as collaboratively developed methods for encouraging the equitable sharing of benefits. In this study we define an institutional arrangement that distributes welfare in a river basin by maximizing the economic benefits of water use and then sharing these benefits in an equitable manner using a method developed through stakeholder involvement. In this methodology (i) a hydro-economic model is used to efficiently allocate scarce water resources to water users in a transboundary basin, (ii) water users are obliged to pay for water, and (iii) the total of these water charges are equitably redistributed as monetary compensation to users. The amount of monetary compensation, for each water user, is determined through the application of a sharing method developed by stakeholder input, based on a stakeholder vision of fairness, using an axiomatic approach. The whole system is overseen by a river basin authority. The methodology is applied to the Eastern Nile River basin as a case study. The technique ensures economic efficiency and may lead to more equitable solutions in the sharing of benefits in transboundary river basins because the definition of the sharing rule is not in question, as would be the case if existing methods, such as game theory, were applied, with their inherent definitions of fairness.

  12. Transboundary Extraction of Groundwater in the Presence of Hydraulic Fracturing

    OpenAIRE

    Poudel, Biswo N.; Paudel, Krishna P.; Zilberman, David

    2013-01-01

    We studied transboundary ground water management problems in the presence of hydraulic fracturing (fracking). We found that the presence of risk suggests a need to exercise caution in fracking. We also found that a cooperative outcome implies the decrease in fracking and the increase in steady state survival rate of groundwater. However, water extraction rates remained the same in both cooperative and noncooperative solutions. We also argue that a Pigouvian type tax could be imposed on the na...

  13. Automatic Parking of Self-Driving CAR Based on LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B.; Wei, Y.; Guo, I. Y.

    2017-09-01

    To overcome the deficiency of ultrasonic sensor and camera, this paper proposed a method of autonomous parking based on the self-driving car, using HDL-32E LiDAR. First the 3-D point cloud data was preprocessed. Then we calculated the minimum size of parking space according to the dynamic theories of vehicle. Second the rapidly-exploring random tree algorithm (RRT) algorithm was improved in two aspects based on the moving characteristic of autonomous car. And we calculated the parking path on the basis of the vehicle's dynamics and collision constraints. Besides, we used the fuzzy logic controller to control the brake and accelerator in order to realize the stably of speed. At last the experiments were conducted in an autonomous car, and the results show that the proposed automatic parking system is feasible and effective.

  14. AUTOMATIC PARKING OF SELF-DRIVING CAR BASED ON LIDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the deficiency of ultrasonic sensor and camera, this paper proposed a method of autonomous parking based on the self-driving car, using HDL-32E LiDAR. First the 3-D point cloud data was preprocessed. Then we calculated the minimum size of parking space according to the dynamic theories of vehicle. Second the rapidly-exploring random tree algorithm (RRT algorithm was improved in two aspects based on the moving characteristic of autonomous car. And we calculated the parking path on the basis of the vehicle’s dynamics and collision constraints. Besides, we used the fuzzy logic controller to control the brake and accelerator in order to realize the stably of speed. At last the experiments were conducted in an autonomous car, and the results show that the proposed automatic parking system is feasible and effective.

  15. Proposal of an Eco-Industrial Park based on the water desalination plant located inside the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez Torres, Rodrigo

    2016-12-01

    This thesis project is a proposal of a scenario of an industrial collaboration that could become the basis for the development of an Eco-Industrial Park inside the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology using the water desalination plant as the foundation of this network. It is defined why the university is a suitable place for a development of this type; what industrial networks can be formed and what environmental, economic and social benefits could be achieved if the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia implemented this project around the country. An Eco-Industrial Park is a collaboration between industries where they share resources and create an exchange network of wastes and by-products with the objective of obtaining positive environmental, economic and social impacts. In the proposed scenario, the initial collaboration is between a PV solar plant and the water desalination located inside the university. With the use of solar energy there are savings of CO2 emissions, which turn into positive impacts on the environment. The idea is that this initial collaboration could be extended in the future to provide the entire energy consumption of the KAUST community. The project also provides an insight into how an industrial symbiosis could be formed taking as a base this industrial collaboration. However, further studies and analysis are required in order to provide more solid information regarding the development of an Eco-Industrial Park.

  16. European transboundary acidifying air pollution. Ten years calculated fields and budgets to the end of the first Sulphur Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, K.; Seland, Oe.; Foss, A.; Mylona, S.; Sandnes, H.; Styve, H.; Tarrason, L.

    1995-07-01

    The Cooperative Programme for the Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long Range Transmission and Air Pollutants in Europe, EMEP, plays an integral part in data collection and scientific cooperation for implementation of the 1979 Geneva Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution. Within EMEP, the Meteorological Synthesizing Centre - West (MSC-W) is an international technical centre. The purpose of the MSC-W, focusing in part on acidifying substances, is to estimate the concentrations of relevant sulphur and nitrogen pollutants across Europe on the basis of emission information and meteorological data, and to estimate the transboundary fluxes of these substances. Responding to these specific obligations, the report presents calculations of sulphur and nitrogen concentrations and depositions and of their transboundary fluxes. The calculations are performed by the receptor oriented one layer trajectory (Lagrangian) acid deposition model, which during 1995 has been used to estimate acidifying pollutant fluxes for the ten year period 1985-1994. This corresponds to the period between initial signing and conclusion of the first Sulphur Protocol, signed in Helsinki in 1985. 90 refs., 42 figs., 43 tabs.

  17. A Framework for Mobile User Experiences in Theme Parks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Claus Møller

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework, which contributes to a better theoretical understanding of mobile user experience in theme parks that is not limited to (a) personal smartphones, (b) a specific theme park, or (c) specific mobile content. Thus, the paper contributes to the field of mobile user...... experience in theme parks within HCI. The identified aspects constituting the mobile user experience in theme parks are the environmental context, the social context, the functional context, the mobile interface, and of course the mobile content. The framework is developed based on five diverse case studies...

  18. Water and Benefit Sharing in Transboundary River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjoon, D.; Tilmant, A.; Herrmann, M.

    2015-12-01

    Growing water scarcity underlies the importance of cooperation for the effective management of river basins, particularly in the context of international rivers in which unidirectional externalities can lead to asymmetric relationships between riparian countries. Studies have shown that significant economic benefits can be expected through basin-wide cooperation, however, the equitable partitioning of these benefits over the basin is less well studied and tends to overlook the importance of stakeholder input in the definition of equitability. In this study, an institutional arrangement to maximize welfare and then share the scarcity cost in a river basin is proposed. A river basin authority plays the role of a bulk water market operator, efficiently allocating bulk water to the users and collecting bulk water charges which are then equitably redistributed among water users. This highly regulated market restrains the behaviour of water users to control externalities and to ensure basin-wide coordination, enhanced efficiency, and the equitable redistribution of the scarcity cost. The institutional arrangement is implemented using the Eastern Nile River basin as a case study. The importance of this arrangement is that it can be adopted for application in negotiations to cooperate in trans-boundary river basins. The benefit sharing solution proposed is more likely to be perceived as equitable because water users help define the sharing rule. As a result, the definition of the sharing rule is not in question, as it would be if existing rules, such as bankruptcy rules or cooperative game theory solutions, are applied, with their inherent definitions of fairness. Results of the case study show that the sharing rule is predictable. Water users can expect to receive between 93.5% and 95% of their uncontested benefits (benefits that they expect to receive if water was not rationed), depending on the hydrologic scenario.

  19. A South African Perspective on a Possible Benefit-Sharing Approach for Transboundary Waters in the SADC Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Turton

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of benefit-sharing is emerging in the international discourse on transboundary water resource management with greater intensity than a decade ago. While it sounds simple, the concept is complex and benefits are difficult to quantify and thus the concept remains unconvincing to potentially sceptical negotiating partners. Any discourse on water resource management is based on a core logic. This paper tries to distil some elements of a proposed benefit-sharing approach, presenting an alternative core logic, showing how these differ from what can be thought of as the traditional paradigm. This work is linked to ongoing research at the South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR, into benefit-sharing and processes of policy harmonisation, within the context of developing countries.

  20. Changing Professional Demands in Sustainable Regional Development: A Curriculum Design Process to meet Transboundary Competence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansu, Angelique; Boon, Jo; Sloep, Peter; van Dam-Mieras, Rietje

    2012-01-01

    Lansu, A., Boon, J., Sloep, P. B., & Van Dam-Mieras, R. (Accepted). Changing Professional Demands in Sustainable Regional Development: A Curriculum Design Process to meet Transboundary Competence. Journal of Cleaner Production. [Special Issue: Learning for Sustainable Development in Regional

  1. A BLE-Based Pedestrian Navigation System for Car Searching in Indoor Parking Garages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Shih

    2018-05-05

    The continuous global increase in the number of cars has led to an increase in parking issues, particularly with respect to the search for available parking spaces and finding cars. In this paper, we propose a navigation system for car owners to find their cars in indoor parking garages. The proposed system comprises a car-searching mobile app and a positioning-assisting subsystem. The app guides car owners to their cars based on a “turn-by-turn” navigation strategy, and has the ability to correct the user’s heading orientation. The subsystem uses beacon technology for indoor positioning, supporting self-guidance of the car-searching mobile app. This study also designed a local coordinate system to support the identification of the locations of parking spaces and beacon devices. We used Android as the platform to implement the proposed car-searching mobile app, and used Bytereal HiBeacon devices to implement the proposed positioning-assisting subsystem. We also deployed the system in a parking lot in our campus for testing. The experimental results verified that the proposed system not only works well, but also provides the car owner with the correct route guidance information.

  2. A Holistic Framework for Deriving Equitable Apportionments and Resolving Conflicts in Transboundary Watercourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, H.; Gosain, A. K.; Khosa, R.

    2017-12-01

    Climate uncertainty & perpetually rising freshwater demands have emerged as the biggest threat to global water security. Consequently, water disputes have become more frequent & intense. If such conflicts remain unresolved for long, eventually they may cause severe socio-political damage to the riparians. The present study develops a comprehensive framework for conflict resolution & equitable allocation in transboundary Ganges watercourse with 4 stakeholder nations: China (Tibet), Nepal, India & Bangladesh. Scientific spatio-temporal information can be of great help in transboundary dispute resolution. Hence, this study employs a GIS-based semi-distributed SWAT hydrologic model for estimating water balance at different scales within the basin for present & future climate, landuse, storage & water use efficiency scenarios. The study analyses pertinent provisions of the Indian Constitution & examines the rulings of Indian water tribunals. It also critically compares various water dispute resolution mechanisms & doctrines on the barometer of equity & fairness to arrive at a procedurally & distributionally just water apportionment policy. The study makes use of Methods of Apportionments, Operations Research & Bankruptcy Rules to operationalize the chosen doctrine by devising an objective & quantifiable formulae for water allocation amongst the co-basin states for a range of flows. Furthermore, Game Theoretic and multi-optimization techniques have been used to rank the appropriateness of the above mentioned methods according to aggregate satisfaction/resentment of the stakeholders computed by equating their respective water claims with actual water shares obtained by them under different methods. Moreover, several Social Choice Theory methods have been employed to rate the performance of water allotment methods in a socio-political setting. The developed framework can thus be of great help for decision makers in effective water conflict resolution as transboundary

  3. Cooperative Multiagent System for Parking Availability Prediction Based on Time Varying Dynamic Markov Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surafel Luleseged Tilahun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is one of the main issues in the study of transportation planning and management. It creates different problems including environmental pollution and health problem and incurs a cost which is increasing through years. One-third of this congestion is created by cars searching for parking places. Drivers may be aware that parking places are fully occupied but will drive around hoping that a parking place may become vacant. Opportunistic services, involving learning, predicting, and exploiting Internet of Things scenarios, are able to adapt to dynamic unforeseen situations and have the potential to ease parking search issues. Hence, in this paper, a cooperative dynamic prediction mechanism between multiple agents for parking space availability in the neighborhood, integrating foreseen and unforeseen events and adapting for long-term changes, is proposed. An agent in each parking place will use a dynamic and time varying Markov chain to predict the parking availability and these agents will communicate to produce the parking availability prediction in the whole neighborhood. Furthermore, a learning approach is proposed where the system can adapt to different changes in the parking demand including long-term changes. Simulation results, using synthesized data based on an actual parking lot data from a shopping mall in Geneva, show that the proposed model is promising based on the learning accuracy with service adaptation and performance in different cases.

  4. Transboundary Movement of Radioactively Contaminated Scrap Metal - Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nizamska, M., E-mail: m.nimzamska@bnra.bg [Emergency Planning and Preparedness Division, Bulgarian Nuclear Regulatory Agency, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2011-07-15

    Starting in 1989, Bulgaria has undergone a comprehensive transformation of its economy and social conditions. Part of this process is related to the intensive privatization that started in 2001. This privatization included facilities, as well as sites that use radioactive material for different applications - industry, medicine, agriculture, science, etc. The rapid change of property ownership and, in some cases, the resulting bankruptcy, has caused difficulties in tracing and identifying radioactive sources and materials and a deterioration of the system of safety, physical protection, etc. of radioactive material. In some cases, radioactive sources were stolen because of the value of their protective containers and sold for scrap metal. This led to the occurrence of different types of radiation incidents, mainly related to the discovery of radioactive sources in scrap metal. The consequences of these incidents include the risk of radiation exposure of the workers at scrap metal yards or reprocessing facilities and of members of the public and, in addition, radioactive contamination of the environment. The Bulgarian Nuclear Regulatory Agency (BNRA) has been responding to these incidents and has carried out a series of measures to improve the control over materials (e.g. activated or surface contaminated materials) and radioactive sources and to strengthen the preventive, monitoring, emergency preparedness and mitigating measures at facility, national and transboundary levels. This paper presents an analysis of the lessons learned by the BNRA and of the control of the transboundary movement of radioactively contaminated scrap metal through the territory of Bulgaria. (author)

  5. 75 FR 1235 - Revisions to the Requirements for: Transboundary Shipments of Hazardous Wastes Between OECD...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ..., Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway... Requirements for: Transboundary Shipments of Hazardous Wastes Between OECD Member Countries, Export Shipments of Spent Lead- Acid Batteries, Submitting Exception Reports for Export Shipments of Hazardous Wastes...

  6. A Novel Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Parking Space Guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An evolutionary approach of parking space guidance based upon a novel Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization (CPSO algorithm is proposed. In the newly proposed CPSO algorithm, the chaotic dynamics is combined into the position updating rules of Particle Swarm Optimization to improve the diversity of solutions and to avoid being trapped in the local optima. This novel approach, that combines the strengths of Particle Swarm Optimization and chaotic dynamics, is then applied into the route optimization (RO problem of parking lots, which is an important issue in the management systems of large-scale parking lots. It is used to find out the optimized paths between any source and destination nodes in the route network. Route optimization problems based on real parking lots are introduced for analyzing and the effectiveness and practicability of this novel optimization algorithm for parking space guidance have been verified through the application results.

  7. 76 FR 39048 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ..., natural soundscapes, visitor use and experience, and visitor accessibility. Impacts associated with each... oversnow vehicles on the park's soundscapes. NPS Approved Snowmobiles and Snowcoaches The Superintendent..., air quality, natural soundscapes, and visitor and employee safety, the NPS is proposing to continue...

  8. Black Carbon Measurements From Ireland's Transboundary Network (TXB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, T. K.; Martin, D.; O'Dowd, C. D. D.

    2017-12-01

    Black Carbon (BC) is carbonaceous aerosol formed by incomplete fossil fuel combustion. Named for its light absorbing properties, it acts to trap heat in the atmosphere, thus behaving like a greenhouse gas, and is considered a strong, short-lived climate forcer by the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Carbonaceous aerosols from biomass burning (BB) such as forest fires and residential wood burning, also known as brown carbon, affect the ultra violet (UV) light absorption in the atmosphere as well. In 2016 a three node black carbon monitoring network was established in Ireland as part of a Transboundary Monitoring Network (TXB). The three sites (Mace Head, Malin Head, and Carnsore Point) are coastal locations on opposing sides of the country, and offer the opportunity to assess typical northern hemispheric background concentrations as well national and European pollution events. The instruments deployed in this network (Magee Scientific AE33) facilitate elimination of the changes in response due to `aerosol loading' effects; and a real-time calculation of the `loading compensation' parameter which offers insights into aerosol optical properties. Additionally, these instruments have an inbuilt algorithm, which estimates the difference in absorption in the ultraviolet wavelengths (mostly by brown carbon) and the near infrared wavelengths (only by black carbon).Presented here are the first results of the BC measurements from the three Irish stations, including instrument validation, seasonal variation as well as local, regional, and transboundary influences based on air mass trajectories as well as concurrent in-situ observations (meteorological parameters, particle number, and aerosol composition). A comparison of the instrumental algorithm to off-line sensitivity calculations will also be made to assess the contribution of biomass burning to BC pollution events.

  9. Survival of viral pathogens in animal feed ingredients under transboundary shipping models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermann, Fernando V.; Niederwerder, Megan C.; Singrey, Aaron; Clement, Travis; de Lima, Marcelo; Long, Craig; Patterson, Gilbert; Sheahan, Maureen A.; Stoian, Ana M. M.; Petrovan, Vlad; Jones, Cassandra K.; De Jong, Jon; Ji, Ju; Spronk, Gordon D.; Minion, Luke; Christopher-Hennings, Jane; Zimmerman, Jeff J.; Rowland, Raymond R. R.; Nelson, Eric; Sundberg, Paul; Diel, Diego G.

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate survival of important viral pathogens of livestock in animal feed ingredients imported daily into the United States under simulated transboundary conditions. Eleven viruses were selected based on global significance and impact to the livestock industry, including Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV), Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV), Influenza A Virus of Swine (IAV-S), Pseudorabies virus (PRV), Nipah Virus (NiV), Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV), Swine Vesicular Disease Virus (SVDV), Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) and Vesicular Exanthema of Swine Virus (VESV). Surrogate viruses with similar genetic and physical properties were used for 6 viruses. Surrogates belonged to the same virus families as target pathogens, and included Senecavirus A (SVA) for FMDV, Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) for CSFV, Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1 (BHV-1) for PRV, Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) for NiV, Porcine Sapelovirus (PSV) for SVDV and Feline Calicivirus (FCV) for VESV. For the remaining target viruses, actual pathogens were used. Virus survival was evaluated using Trans-Pacific or Trans-Atlantic transboundary models involving representative feed ingredients, transport times and environmental conditions, with samples tested by PCR, VI and/or swine bioassay. SVA (representing FMDV), FCV (representing VESV), BHV-1 (representing PRV), PRRSV, PSV (representing SVDV), ASFV and PCV2 maintained infectivity during transport, while BVDV (representing CSFV), VSV, CDV (representing NiV) and IAV-S did not. Notably, more viruses survived in conventional soybean meal, lysine hydrochloride, choline chloride, vitamin D and pork sausage casings. These results support published data on transboundary risk of PEDV in feed, demonstrate survival of certain viruses in specific feed ingredients (“high-risk combinations”) under conditions simulating transport between

  10. Paradigm for Distributive & Procedural Justice in Equitable Apportionment of Transboundary Ganges Waters Under Changing Climate & Landuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, H.; Gosain, A. K.; Khosa, R.; Anand, J.

    2015-12-01

    Rivers have no regard for human demarcated boundaries. Besides, ever increasing demand-supply gap & vested riparian interests, fuel transboundary water conflicts. For resolving such disputes, appropriation doctrines advocating equity & fairness have received endorsement in the Helsinki Rules-1966 & UN Convention-1997. Thus, current study proposes the principle of equitable apportionment for sharing Ganges waters as it balances the interests & deservedness of all stakeholders, namely, India & its 11 states, Bangladesh, Nepal, & China. The study endeavors to derive a reasonable share of each co-basin state by operationalizing the vague concepts of fairness & equity through an objective & quantitative framework encompassing proportionality & egalitarianism for distributive & procedural justice. Equal weightage factors reflecting hydrology, geography & water use potential are chosen for fair share computation, wherein each contender ranks these factors to maximize his entitlement. If cumulative claims exceed the water availability, each claimant puts forth next ranked factor & this process continues till the claims match availability. Due to inter-annual variability in few factors, scenarios for Rabi & Kharif seasons are considered apart from cases for maximum, upper quartile, median, lower quartile & minimum. Possibility of spatial homogeneity & heterogeneity in factors is also recognized. Sometimes lack of technical information hinders transboundary dispute resolution via legal mechanisms. Hence, the study also attempts to bridge this gap between law & technology through GIS-based SWAT hydrologic model by estimating the Ganges water yield, & consequent share of each riparian for range of flows incorporating e-flows as well, under present & future climate & landuse scenarios. 82% of India's territory lies within interstate rivers, & therefore this research is very pertinent as it can facilitate the decision makers in effective interstate water conflict resolution.

  11. Story of the Name of Restinga Jurubatiba National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Soffiati

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This text recovers the story of an Integral Protection Conservation Unit situated in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: The Jurubatiba Shoal National Park (Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park, the best preserved shoal area in the world. Responsible for proposing the park’s name, the author discourses about name options taken into consideration when the National Park was created and also briefly reports on the importance of this regional ecosystem.

  12. Data-driven automatic parking constrained control for four-wheeled mobile vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Wenxu Yan; Jing Deng; Dezhi Xu

    2016-01-01

    In this article, a novel data-driven constrained control scheme is proposed for automatic parking systems. The design of the proposed scheme only depends on the steering angle and the orientation angle of the car, and it does not involve any model information of the car. Therefore, the proposed scheme-based automatic parking system is applicable to different kinds of cars. In order to further reduce the desired trajectory coordinate tracking errors, a coordinates compensation algorithm is als...

  13. Advances in the Knowledge of Transboundary Aquifers Shared by Canada and the USA, through the UNESCO's IHP ISARM Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, A.

    2015-12-01

    Canada's involvement in the UNESCO IHP ISARM initiative prompted an accrued analysis on the knowledge and state of transboundary aquifers located along the Canada-USA border. As a result, 10 Transboundary Aquifer Systems (TAS) were identified and some have been assessed in cooperation with the United States. This study is a review of the current state of the 10 TAS. Documentation of scientifically-based knowledge on TAS is an important step in identifying potential issues in policies that might be adopted to address shared water-resource issues. The newly acquired hydrological insights for this very long international border emphasizes the need for more scientific data, widespread communication and information sharing between Canadian and American organizations, and a more clearly defined governments' role to manage groundwater at the international level. The study reviews the legal frameworks and summarises the current scientific knowledge for the TAS with respect to the hydrologic and geologic framework as well as some of the major drivers for supply and demand. It also describes the links, approach and relevance of studies on the TAS to the UN Law of Transboundary Aquifers and on how these might fit in the ISARM's regional strategy for the assessment and management of the TAS. Clear communication, shared knowledge and common objectives in the management of TAS will prepare the countries for future negotiations and cooperative binational programs. Encouraged by the ISARM approach of the International Hydrological Programme of UNESCO, Canada is now looking forward to playing a key regional role in improving water management, facilitating transboundary water sharing, and enhancing water research and data sharing in future relations between these two nations.

  14. Relationship between urbanisation and pollutant emissions in transboundary river basins under the strategy of the Belt and Road Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sen; Lu, Hongwei

    2018-07-01

    Urbanisation has increased the discharge of pollutants, altered water flow regimes, and modified the morphology of transboundary river basins. All these actions have resulted in multiple pressures on aquatic ecosystems of transboundary river basins, undermining the healthy development of their aquatic ecosystems as well as impairing the sustainable economic and social development associated therewith. Quantifying the relationship between socio-economic factors, and water environment systems, and understanding the multiple pressures in their combined impact on environmental fairness of transboundary river basins is challenging, and it is crucial to the strategic planning of the Belt and Road strategy. Here, the Songhua River basin, which is the largest branch of the China-Russia boundary river is taken as the study area. The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) model, which is coupled with the integrated model (pollutant emissions intensity, pollutant discharge efficiency, and pollutant emissions per capita), are used to reveal the spatio-temporal variations in regional pollutant emissions in the SRB. The results show that the features of the EKC are present in the pollutant emissions during economic development of the SRB. It also demonstrates that the turning point value of the EKC appeared when the GDP per capita is around ¥40,000 (CNY) in the SRB, which means that the pollutant emissions show an increasing trend, when the GDP per capita is less than ¥40,000. Our findings could contribute to a better understanding of the coupling relationship between pollutant emissions in transboundary river basins and urbanisation process in water stress to help address water allocation problems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Water stress in global transboundary river basins : Significance of upstream water use on downstream stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munia, H.; Guillaume, J. H A; Mirumachi, N.; Porkka, M.; Wada, Y.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341387819; Kummu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing population and water demand have increased pressure on water resources in various parts of the globe, including many transboundary river basins. While the impacts of upstream water use on downstream water availability have been analysed in many of these international river basins, this has

  16. Public concerns about transboundary haze: a comparison of Indonesia, Singapore, and Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tim Forsyth

    2014-01-01

    Public concerns about environmental problems create narrative structures that influence policy by allocating roles of blame, responsibility, and appropriate behavior. This paper presents an analysis of public concerns about transboundary haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia, Singapore, and Malaysia for crises experienced in 1997, 2005 and 2013. The source of the information is content analysis of 2231 articles from representative newspapers in each country. The study shows that newsp...

  17. Lucas Heights technology park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The proposed Lucas Heights Technology Park will pound together the applied research programs of Government, tertiary and industry sectors, aiming to foster technology transfer particularly to the high-technology manufacturing industry. A description of the site is given along with an outline of the envisaged development, existing facilities and expertise. ills

  18. AUTOMATIC PARKING OF SELF-DRIVING CAR BASED ON LIDAR

    OpenAIRE

    B. Lee; Y. Wei; I. Y. Guo

    2017-01-01

    To overcome the deficiency of ultrasonic sensor and camera, this paper proposed a method of autonomous parking based on the self-driving car, using HDL-32E LiDAR. First the 3-D point cloud data was preprocessed. Then we calculated the minimum size of parking space according to the dynamic theories of vehicle. Second the rapidly-exploring random tree algorithm (RRT) algorithm was improved in two aspects based on the moving characteristic of autonomous car. And we calculated the parking path on...

  19. The impacts of CO2 capture on transboundary air pollution in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, J.M.; van Harmelen, T.; van Horssen, A.; van Gijlswijk, R.; Ramirez-Ramirez, A.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Turkenburg, W.C.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this research is to develop a first assessment of the impacts of the implementation of CO2 capture technologies in the Dutch power sector on the transboundary air pollution (SO2,NOX,NH3,NMV OC,PM10 and PM2.5) levels in 2020. Results show that for the power sector SO2 emissions will be

  20. Mercury in products - a source of transboundary pollutant transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munthe, J; Kindbom, K [Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize current knowledge on product-related emissions of mercury to air on a European scale, and to estimate the contribution from mercury contained in products, to the total anthropogenic emissions of mercury to air and transboundary transport of mercury in Europe. Products included in this study are batteries, measuring and control instruments, light sources and electrical equipment, all intentionally containing mercury. The main result of this study is that product-related emission of mercury can contribute significantly to total emissions and transboundary transport of mercury in the European region and that measures to limit the use of mercury in products can contribute to an overall decrease of the environmental input of mercury in Europe. It is concluded that: -Mercury contained in products may be emitted to air during consumption, after disposal when incinerated or when volatilized from landfill. Mercury may also be emitted to air during recycling of scrap metal or when accumulated (stored) in society. -The amount of mercury consumed in batteries and in measuring and control instruments had decreased since the late 1980`s. The total use of mercury in light sources and electrical equipment has not changed significantly during the same time period. The contribution to total anthropogenic emissions of mercury to air in Europe in the mid 1990`s is estimated to be: for batteries 4%; for measuring and control instruments 3%; for lighting and electrical equipment 11%. -Mercury in products leads to significant wet deposition input in Scandinavia. The relative amount of the total deposition flux attributable to products is estimated to be 10-14% 26 refs, 4 figs, 10 tabs

  1. Smart parking barrier

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Abdulrazaq M.

    2016-05-06

    Various methods and systems are provided for smart parking barriers. In one example, among others, a smart parking barrier system includes a movable parking barrier located at one end of a parking space, a barrier drive configured to control positioning of the movable parking barrier, and a parking controller configured to initiate movement of the parking barrier, via the barrier drive. The movable parking barrier can be positioned between a first position that restricts access to the parking space and a second position that allows access to the parking space. The parking controller can initiate movement of the movable parking barrier in response to a positive identification of an individual allowed to use the parking space. The parking controller can identify the individual through, e.g., a RFID tag, a mobile device (e.g., a remote control, smartphone, tablet, etc.), an access card, biometric information, or other appropriate identifier.

  2. Data-driven automatic parking constrained control for four-wheeled mobile vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxu Yan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a novel data-driven constrained control scheme is proposed for automatic parking systems. The design of the proposed scheme only depends on the steering angle and the orientation angle of the car, and it does not involve any model information of the car. Therefore, the proposed scheme-based automatic parking system is applicable to different kinds of cars. In order to further reduce the desired trajectory coordinate tracking errors, a coordinates compensation algorithm is also proposed. In the design procedure of the controller, a novel dynamic anti-windup compensator is used to deal with the change magnitude and rate saturations of automatic parking control input. It is theoretically proven that all the signals in the closed-loop system are uniformly ultimately bounded based on Lyapunov stability analysis method. Finally, a simulation comparison among the proposed scheme with coordinates compensation and Proportion Integration Differentiation (PID control algorithm is given. It is shown that the proposed scheme with coordinates compensation has smaller tracking errors and more rapid responses than PID scheme.

  3. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: Inter-SEDE: a new tool for interrogating transboundary basins

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Turton, A

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available the potential for benefit-sharing (as opposed to the volumetric allocation of trans-boundary waters). Three case studies were included: the Jordan River; the Kagera River, extending to the Nile as a whole; and the Mekong River...

  4. Transboundary fisheries science: Meeting the challenges of inland fisheries management in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midway, Stephen R.; Wagner, Tyler; Zydlewski, Joseph D.; Irwin, Brian J.; Paukert, Craig P.

    2016-01-01

    Managing inland fisheries in the 21st century presents several obstacles, including the need to view fisheries from multiple spatial and temporal scales, which usually involves populations and resources spanning sociopolitical boundaries. Though collaboration is not new to fisheries science, inland aquatic systems have historically been managed at local scales and present different challenges than in marine or large freshwater systems like the Laurentian Great Lakes. Therefore, we outline a flexible strategy that highlights organization, cooperation, analytics, and implementation as building blocks toward effectively addressing transboundary fisheries issues. Additionally, we discuss the use of Bayesian hierarchical models (within the analytical stage), due to their flexibility in dealing with the variability present in data from multiple scales. With growing recognition of both ecological drivers that span spatial and temporal scales and the subsequent need for collaboration to effectively manage heterogeneous resources, we expect implementation of transboundary approaches to become increasingly critical for effective inland fisheries management.

  5. Transboundary Clusters in the Coastal Zones of the European Part of Russia: Inventory, Typology, Factors, and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druzhinin A. G.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an inventory and a typology of the existing and emerging economic clusters in the coastal zone of the European part of Russia. The authors hold that transboundary clustering takes priority in the Baltic coastal region — nine of the 56 clusters identified are located in the Kaliningrad region and another eight in Saint Petersburg and the Leningrad region. The authors describe major catalysts and immanent inhibitors in coastal zones. The former include a high density of coastal economies, proximity to international markets, and better logistics and communications. The inhibitors comprise geopolitical risks and institutional barriers. It is shown that the potential and prospects of transboundary clustering are affected by both global integration and disintegration patterns, coastal infrastructure, geopolitical and geoeconomic ‘neighbourhood’, cultural excellence, and business and investment environment.

  6. Dynamic optimal strategies in transboundary pollution game under learning by doing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shuhua; Qin, Weihua; Wang, Xinyu

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present a transboundary pollution game, in which emission permits trading and pollution abatement costs under learning by doing are considered. In this model, the abatement cost mainly depends on the level of pollution abatement and the experience of using pollution abatement technology. We use optimal control theory to investigate the optimal emission paths and the optimal pollution abatement strategies under cooperative and noncooperative games, respectively. Additionally, the effects of parameters on the results have been examined.

  7. Transboundary smoke haze pollution in Malaysia: Inpatient health impacts and economic valuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Jamal; Sahani, Mazrura; Mahmud, Mastura; Sheikh Ahmad, Md Khadzir

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the economic value of health impacts of transboundary smoke haze pollution in Kuala Lumpur and adjacent areas in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Daily inpatient data from 2005, 2006, 2008, and 2009 for 14 haze-related illnesses were collected from four hospitals. On average, there were 19 hazy days each year during which the air pollution levels were within the Lower Moderate to Hazardous categories. No seasonal variation in inpatient cases was observed. A smoke haze occurrence was associated with an increase in inpatient cases by 2.4 per 10,000 populations each year, representing an increase of 31 percent from normal days. The average annual economic loss due to the inpatient health impact of haze was valued at MYR273,000 ($91,000 USD). - Highlights: • Transboundary smoke haze is an annual phenomenon in Malaysia. • No evidence of seasonal factors in smoke haze related inpatient cases. • Inpatient rates during a haze event increased by 31% relative to normal days. • Annual economic loss due to inpatient health impact of haze valued at $91,000. • Present value of economic loss estimated at $1.1 million to $1.7 million. - Inpatient rates soared by 31% while economic loss valued at USD91,000 annually

  8. Cooperative and adaptive transboundary water governance in Canada's Mackenzie River Basin: status and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Morris

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Canada's Mackenzie River Basin (MRB is one of the largest relatively pristine ecosystems in North America. Home to indigenous peoples for millennia, the basin is also the site of increasing resource development, notably fossil fuels, hydroelectric power resources, minerals, and forests. Three provinces, three territories, the Canadian federal government, and Aboriginal governments (under Canada's constitution, indigenous peoples are referred to as "Aboriginal" have responsibilities for water in the basin, making the MRB a significant setting for cooperative, transboundary water governance. A framework agreement that provides broad principles and establishes a river basin organization, the MRB Board, has been in place since 1997. However, significant progress on completing bilateral agreements under the 1997 Mackenzie River Basin Transboundary Waters Master Agreement has only occurred since 2010. We considered the performance of the MRB Board relative to its coordination function, accountability, legitimacy, and overall environmental effectiveness. This allowed us to address the extent to which governance based on river basin boundaries, a bioregional approach, could contribute to adaptive governance in the MRB. Insights were based on analysis of key documents and published studies, 19 key informant interviews, and additional interactions with parties involved in basin governance. We found that the MRB Board's composition, its lack of funding and staffing, and the unwillingness of the governments to empower it to play the role envisioned in the Master Agreement mean that as constituted, the board faces challenges in implementing a basin-wide vision. This appears to be by design. The MRB governments have instead used the bilateral agreements under the Master Agreement as the primary mechanism through which transboundary governance will occur. A commitment to coordinating across the bilateral agreements is needed to enhance the prospects for

  9. Towards low carbon business park energy systems: Classification of techno-economic energy models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmerman, Jonas; Vandevelde, Lieven; Van Eetvelde, Greet

    2014-01-01

    To mitigate climate destabilisation, human-induced greenhouse gas emissions urgently need to be curbed. A major share of these emissions originates from the industry and energy sectors. Hence, a low carbon shift in industrial and business park energy systems is called for. Low carbon business parks minimise energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by maximal exploitation of local renewable energy production, enhanced energy efficiency, and inter-firm heat exchange, combined in a collective energy system. The holistic approach of techno-economic energy models facilitates the design of such systems, while yielding an optimal trade-off between energetic, economic and environmental performances. However, no models custom-tailored for industrial park energy systems are detected in literature. In this paper, existing energy model classifications are scanned for adequate model characteristics and accordingly, a confined number of models are selected and described. Subsequently, a practical typology is proposed, existing of energy system evolution, optimisation, simulation, accounting and integration models, and key model features are compared. Finally, important features for a business park energy model are identified. - Highlights: • A holistic perspective on (low carbon) business park energy systems is introduced. • A new categorisation of techno-economic energy models is proposed. • Model characteristics are described per model category. • Essential model features for business park energy system modelling are identified. • A strategy towards a techno-economic energy model for business parks is proposed

  10. Solidarity in transboundary flood risk management: A view from the Dutch North Rhine–Westphalian catchment area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eerd, M.C.J.; Wiering, M.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/181450100; Dieperink, C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074013130

    2017-01-01

    limate change is putting pressure on water systems, and its effects transcend man-made boundaries, making cooperation across territorial borders essential. The governance of transboundary flood risk management calls for solidarity among riparians, as climate change will make river basins more prone

  11. Dependence of Parking Pricing on Land Use and Time of Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Zong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A key strategy of sustainable transportation, parking pricing can directly contribute to decreased greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution. This paper describes an optimal structure of parking rates in terms of parking locations and time of day. A two-level parking model based on game theory is established using parking survey data collected in Beijing in 2014. The model was estimated based on Stackelberg game and the Nash equilibrium. Using the two-level parking model, the optimal structure of parking rates for inside/outside business zones and during peak/off-peak hours was calculated. In addition, the relationship between the government (which represents the public benefit and car users, as well as the relationships among car users in the parking system were investigated. The results indicate that equilibrium among all of the agents in the parking system can be obtained using the proposed parking rate structure. The findings provide a better understanding of parking behavior, and the two-level parking model presented in the paper can be used to determine the optimal parking rate to balance the temporal and spatial distribution of parking demand in urban areas. This research helps reduce car use and the parking-related cruising time and thus contributes to the reduction of carbon emissions and air pollution.

  12. Designing a Smart Car Parking System (PoC Prototype Utilizing CCTV Nodes: A vision of an IoT parking system via UCD process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muftah Fraifer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Using smart parking systems has become very important, and particularly so for metropolitan areas, because of the benefits for drivers in many aspects, such as time, frustration, stress, and anger, in addition to the increased consumption of fuel while searching for a vacant parking space. This paper proposes a review of recent advances in sensing and communication technology concerning smart parking systems. It includes a brief study of the selected topics and provides an implementation process of those selected systems. Moreover, this work proposes a design approach for a smart car parking system prototype based on utilizing CCTVs (nodes, it is also illustrates the algorithms used for computer vision detection through simulation and real environments, as the system has been deployed in both these environments. Furthermore, the system has been tested and evaluated by stakeholders via a user-centred design process by applying a qualitative research; the promising results demonstrate the effectiveness of our prototype. Finally, this paper discusses the benefits of engaging the stakeholders to develop the prototype.

  13. A Novel Scheme to Relieve Parking Pressure at Tourist Attractions on Holidays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Li

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Parking is a key component of urban transportation managements and has become a severe problem at many tourist attractions during holidays in China. This paper presents a novel scheme to relieve the holiday parking pressure. Based on the perspectives of the activity-based travel characteristics, we propose an effort to develop parking alternatives by utilizing existing traffic facilities. A conceptual model is employed to explore the influence of additional leisure activity of parking and various options of transportation modes. The results indicate that compared to commuters, the scenery is the major factor affecting tourists’ parking preference, besides parking time and cost. Based on the finding, a tourist-centered strategy is designed to satisfy the peak hours parking demands in order to relieve the parking pressure at tourist attractions during holidays.

  14. Nitrogen input inventory in the Nooksack-Fraser Transboundary Region: Key component of an international nitrogen management study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nooksack-Abbotsford-Sumas (NAS) Transboundary Watershed, spanning which spans a portion of the western interface of British Columbia, Washington State, and the Lummi Nation and the Nooksack Tribal lands , supports agriculture, estuarine fisheries, diverse wildlife, and urban ...

  15. parkITsmart: minimization of cruising for parking

    OpenAIRE

    Tsiaras, Christos; Hobi, Livio; Hofstetter, Fabian; Liniger, Samuel; Stiller, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    Finding a parking space in urban areas is a daily challenge for drivers across the world, due to the increasing amount of vehicles and the limited amount of parking spaces. Drivers who are looking for a parking space in peak hours are often forced to drive around city blocks until they spot a free parking space. This process is termed in literature “cruising for parking” and is proven to (a) cost a lot of time and gas for drivers, (b) generate unnecessary traffic load, and (c) affect the envi...

  16. Building joint capacity: the role of European Union agencies in the management of trans-boundary crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boin, A.; Busuioc, M.; Groenleer, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the growing role of European Union (EU) agencies in the management of trans-boundary crises. It makes this development explicit, demonstrating that the emergence of multiple agencies with specific crisis preparation or response tasks has transformed the EU’s crisis management

  17. Exploring en-route parking type and parking-search route choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Bekhor, Sholomo

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the first phase of an on-going research investigating the joint choice of parking type, parking facility and cruising-for-parking route. The importance of this issue derives from the significant share of cruising-for-parking traffic in urban areas, the relevance of parking po...

  18. National Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — National Park Service unit boundaries (NTAD). These park boundaries signify legislative boundary definitions and local park names have been consolidated according to...

  19. Peary caribou distribution within the Bathurst Island Complex relative to the boundary proposed for Qausuittuq National Park, Nunavut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim G. Poole

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available How caribou (Rangifer tarandus, including Peary caribou (R. t. pearyi, use their annual ranges varies with changes in abundance. While fidelity to some seasonal ranges is persistent, use of other areas changes. Consequently, understanding changes in seasonal distribution is useful for designing boundaries of protected areas for caribou conservation. A case in point is the proposed Qausuittuq (Northern Bathurst Island National Park for Bathurst Island and its satellite islands in the High Arctic of Canada. Since 1961, Peary caribou have been through three periods of high and low abundance. We examined caribou distribution and composition mapped during nine systematic aerial surveys (1961–2013, unsystematic helicopter surveys (1989–98, and limited radio-collaring from 1994–97 and 2003–06. While migration patterns changed and use of southern Bathurst Island decreased during lows in abundance, use of satellite islands, especially Cameron Island for winter range, persisted during both highs and lows in abundance. The northeast coast of Bathurst Island was used to a greater extent during the rut and during summer at low abundance. We suggest that Park boundaries which include Cameron Island and the northeast coast of Bathurst Island will be more effective in contributing to the persistence of Peary caribou on the Bathurst Island Complex.

  20. Articulating a trans-boundary infrastructure supply chain greenhouse gas emission footprint for cities: Mathematical relationships and policy relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, Abel; Ramaswami, Anu

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares the policy relevance and derives mathematical relationships between three approaches for GHG emissions accounting for cities. The three approaches are: (a) Purely-Geographic Inventory, (b) Trans-boundary Community-Wide Infrastructure Footprint (CIF), and (c) Consumption-Based Footprint (CBF). Mathematical derivations coupled with case study of three US communities (Denver Colorado, Routt Colorado, and Sarasota Florida), shows that no one method provides a larger or more holistic estimate of GHG emissions associated with communities. A net-producing community (Routt) demonstrates higher CIF GHG emissions relative to the CBF, while a net-consuming community (Sarasota) yields the opposite. Trade-balanced communities (Denver) demonstrate similar numerical estimates of CIF and CBF, as predicted by the mathematical equations. Knowledge of community typology is important in understanding trans-boundary GHG emission contributions

  1. Effects and control of long-range transboundary air pollution. Report prepared within the framework of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This tenth volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies, published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains the documents reviewed and approved for publication at the eleventh session of the Executive Body held at Geneva from 1 to 3 December 1993. Part One is the Annual Review of Strategies and Policies for Air Pollution Abatement. National emission data and forecasts for sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia (NH 3 ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from 1980 to 2005 are presented. Conclusions are drawn concerning the status of implementation of the sulphur and nitrogen oxides protocols on the basis of these data. Part Two is an executive summary of the 1992 Report on the Forest Condition in Europe. The main objective of this report is to give a condensed description of the condition of forests in Europe, as it has been assessed by the transnational and national annual surveys, carried out jointly by the ECE under the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution and by the European Community (EC). Part Three is a summary report that focuses on the reduction of air pollution from heat and electric energy production. It is based on discussion papers submitted to the fifth ECE Seminar on Emission Control Technology for Stationary Sources, held in Nuremberg (Germany) from 10 to 14 June 1991. This chapter presents the main control techniques to reduce emissions from fuel combustion, which is a major contribution in most ECE countries to air pollution by sulphur and nitrogen compounds, carbon oxides, organic compounds, as well as heavy metals. Three principal abatement options are reviewed: fuel cleaning and fuel conversion, low-emission combustion processes, and flue gas cleaning processes. Both technical and economic aspects of the different measures are discussed

  2. Smart parking barrier

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Abdulrazaq M.

    2016-01-01

    positioning of the movable parking barrier, and a parking controller configured to initiate movement of the parking barrier, via the barrier drive. The movable parking barrier can be positioned between a first position that restricts access to the parking

  3. Self-evaluation System for Low carbon Industrial Park--A Case Study of TEDA Industrial Park in Tianjin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenyan, W.; Fanghua, H.; Ying, C.; Ouyang, W.; Yuan, Q.

    2013-12-01

    -evaluation system, the author has scored and calculated the various indicators and found the key points and bottle-neck issues of low-carbon industrial park development. Combined with the actual situation of the existing park, self-assessment system as an aid tool can help the park to carry out low-carbon practice, also to propose scientific recommendations. By analyzing a case of comprehensive industry park, the author attempts to explain the implementation of low carbon ideas in practice, also contributes to increased understanding of the factors critical to low-carbon development in industrial park. Although the main focus of the paper is TEDA, it would be relevant to other industrial parks which would attempt to further develop their low-carbon ideas.

  4. Services for People Innovation Park – Planning Methodologies

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Angela Campelo de Melo; Lygia Magalhães Magacho

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to identify appropriate methodologies for the planning of a Services for People Innovation Park-SPIP, designed according to the model proposed by the Ibero-American Network launched by La Salle University of Madrid. Projected to form a network, these parks were conceived to provoke social change in their region, improving quality of life and social welfare, through knowledge, technology and innovation transfer and creation of companies focused on developing product and servi...

  5. Rural Latino youth park use: characteristics, park amenities, and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Cynthia K; Saelens, Brain E; Thompson, Beti

    2011-06-01

    Less than half of youth engage in sufficient physical activity to achieve health benefits. Key environmental factors of park and recreation spaces may influence youth physical activity. We sought to ascertain youth characteristics and behaviors that attract youth to parks with specific amenities and encourage physical activity while at the parks in a rural, predominantly Latino community. We examined the quality of amenities in the 13 parks and recreation spaces that middle school aged youth have access to in their community using the Environmental Assessment of Parks and Recreation Spaces (EAPRS) tool. Middle school students completed surveys in the school classroom (n = 1,102) regarding park use, physical activity, and intrapersonal characteristics (e.g., motivators). We used logistic regression to identify correlates of any park use, use of higher quality field and court parks, and active and sedentary park use. Younger age, participation in an after school activity, and identification of a team as a motivator were positively associated with any park use. Use of higher quality court and field parks was associated with participation in an after school activity and being Latino. The odds of being active in the parks were greater for boys and Latinos. Older age and alcohol use are correlated with being sedentary at the park, while odds of being sedentary at the park were lower for boys and youth who met physical activity guidelines. Organized team activities may encourage active use of higher quality fields and courts parks by Latino youth; thereby, increasing their level of physical activity.

  6. Factors affecting quality of social interaction park in Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangunsong, N. I.

    2018-01-01

    The existence of social interactions park in Jakarta is an oasis in the middle of a concrete jungle. Parks is a response to the need for open space as a place of recreation and community interaction. Often the social interaction parks built by the government does not function as expected, but other functions such as a place to sell, trash, unsafe so be rarely visited by visitors. The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors that affect the quality of social interaction parks in Jakarta by conducting descriptive analysis and correlation analysis of the variables assessment. The results of the analysis can give an idea of social interactions park based on community needs and propose the development of social interactioncity park. The object of study are 25 social interaction parks in 5 municipalities of Jakarta. The method used is descriptive analysis method, correlation analysis using SPSS 19 and using crosstab, chi-square tests. The variables are 5 aspects of Design, Plants composition: Selection type of plant (D); the beauty and harmony (Ind); Maintenance and fertility (P); Cleanliness and Environmental Health (BS); Specificity (Drainage, Multi Function garden, Means, Concern/Mutual cooperation, in dense settlements) (K). The results of analysis show that beauty is the most significant correlation with the value of the park followed by specificity, cleanliness and maintenance. Design was not the most significant variable affecting the quality of the park. The results of this study can be used by the Department of Parks and Cemeteries as input in managing park existing or to be developed and to improve the quality of social interaction park in Jakarta.

  7. Automatic Parking Based on a Bird's Eye View Vision System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiang Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at realizing an automatic parking method through a bird's eye view vision system. With this method, vehicles can make robust and real-time detection and recognition of parking spaces. During parking process, the omnidirectional information of the environment can be obtained by using four on-board fisheye cameras around the vehicle, which are the main part of the bird's eye view vision system. In order to achieve this purpose, a polynomial fisheye distortion model is firstly used for camera calibration. An image mosaicking method based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is used to combine four individual images from fisheye cameras into one omnidirectional bird's eye view image. Secondly, features of the parking spaces are extracted with a Radon transform based method. Finally, double circular trajectory planning and a preview control strategy are utilized to realize autonomous parking. Through experimental analysis, we can see that the proposed method can get effective and robust real-time results in both parking space recognition and automatic parking.

  8. COAP BASED ACUTE PARKING LOT MONITORING SYSTEM USING SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Aarthi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle parking is the act of temporarily maneuvering a vehicle in to a certain location. To deal with parking monitoring system issue such as traffic, this paper proposes a vision of improvements in monitoring the vehicles in parking lots based on sensor networks. Most of the existing paper deals with that of the automated parking which is of cluster based and each has its own overheads like high power, less energy efficiency, incompatible size of lots, space. The novel idea in this work is usage of CoAP (Constrained Application Protocol which is recently created by IETF (draft-ietf-core-coap-18, June 28, 2013, CoRE group to develop RESTful application layer protocol for communications within embedded wireless networks. This paper deals with the enhanced CoAP protocol using multi hop flat topology, which makes the acuters feel soothe towards parking vehicles. We aim to minimize the time consumed for finding free parking lot as well as increase the energy efficiency

  9. Analysis of Parking Reliability Guidance of Urban Parking Variable Message Sign System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Mei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Operators of parking guidance and information systems (PGIS often encounter difficulty in determining when and how to provide reliable car park availability information to drivers. Reliability has become a key factor to ensure the benefits of urban PGIS. The present paper is the first to define the guiding parking reliability of urban parking variable message signs (VMSs. By analyzing the parking choice under guiding and optional parking lots, a guiding parking reliability model was constructed. A mathematical program was formulated to determine the guiding parking reliability of VMS. The procedures were applied to a numerical example, and the factors that affect guiding reliability were analyzed. The quantitative changes of the parking berths and the display conditions of VMS were found to be the most important factors influencing guiding reliability. The parking guiding VMS achieved the best benefit when the parking supply was close to or was less than the demand. The combination of a guiding parking reliability model and parking choice behavior offers potential for PGIS operators to reduce traffic congestion in central city areas.

  10. Optimized combination model and algorithm of parking guidance information configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Ye

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Operators of parking guidance and information (PGI systems often have difficulty in providing the best car park availability information to drivers in periods of high demand. A new PGI configuration model based on the optimized combination method was proposed by analyzing of parking choice behavior. This article first describes a parking choice behavioral model incorporating drivers perceptions of waiting times at car parks based on PGI signs. This model was used to predict the influence of PGI signs on the overall performance of the traffic system. Then relationships were developed for estimating the arrival rates at car parks based on driver characteristics, car park attributes as well as the car park availability information displayed on PGI signs. A mathematical program was formulated to determine the optimal display PGI sign configuration to minimize total travel time. A genetic algorithm was used to identify solutions that significantly reduced queue lengths and total travel time compared with existing practices. These procedures were applied to an existing PGI system operating in Deqing Town and Xiuning City. Significant reductions in total travel time of parking vehicles with PGI being configured. This would reduce traffic congestion and lead to various environmental benefits.

  11. Video-based real-time on-street parking occupancy detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulan, Orhan; Loce, Robert P.; Wu, Wencheng; Wang, YaoRong; Bernal, Edgar A.; Fan, Zhigang

    2013-10-01

    Urban parking management is receiving significant attention due to its potential to reduce traffic congestion, fuel consumption, and emissions. Real-time parking occupancy detection is a critical component of on-street parking management systems, where occupancy information is relayed to drivers via smart phone apps, radio, Internet, on-road signs, or global positioning system auxiliary signals. Video-based parking occupancy detection systems can provide a cost-effective solution to the sensing task while providing additional functionality for traffic law enforcement and surveillance. We present a video-based on-street parking occupancy detection system that can operate in real time. Our system accounts for the inherent challenges that exist in on-street parking settings, including illumination changes, rain, shadows, occlusions, and camera motion. Our method utilizes several components from video processing and computer vision for motion detection, background subtraction, and vehicle detection. We also present three traffic law enforcement applications: parking angle violation detection, parking boundary violation detection, and exclusion zone violation detection, which can be integrated into the parking occupancy cameras as a value-added option. Our experimental results show that the proposed parking occupancy detection method performs in real-time at 5 frames/s and achieves better than 90% detection accuracy across several days of videos captured in a busy street block under various weather conditions such as sunny, cloudy, and rainy, among others.

  12. Introducing the Filtered Park's and Filtered Extended Park's Vector Approach to detect broken rotor bars in induction motors independently from the rotor slots number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyftakis, Konstantinos N.; Marques Cardoso, Antonio J.; Antonino-Daviu, Jose A.

    2017-09-01

    The Park's Vector Approach (PVA), together with its variations, has been one of the most widespread diagnostic methods for electrical machines and drives. Regarding the broken rotor bars fault diagnosis in induction motors, the common practice is to rely on the width increase of the Park's Vector (PV) ring and then apply some more sophisticated signal processing methods. It is shown in this paper that this method can be unreliable and is strongly dependent on the magnetic poles and rotor slot numbers. To overcome this constraint, the novel Filtered Park's/Extended Park's Vector Approach (FPVA/FEPVA) is introduced. The investigation is carried out with FEM simulations and experimental testing. The results prove to satisfyingly coincide, whereas the proposed advanced FPVA method is desirably reliable.

  13. Coordination of environmental policy for transboundary environmental problems?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoel, M.

    1996-01-01

    In order to reach a Pareto optimal outcome with transboundary environmental problems, there must be some kind of international agreement. One possibility would be an international agreement focusing directly on emissions in each country. Given such an agreement, an important issue is whether one should supplement the agreement with some kind of policy coordination, or if the choice of environmental policies should be left for each country to decide for itself. The present paper shows that under ``ideal`` conditions, policies need not be coordinated across countries. Such ideal conditions include, among other things, that all markets, including the labour market, are competitive. However, if one has imperfect competition in goods markets, or unemployment, it may be desirable to let an international environmental agreement not only specify emission levels, but also the policy mix between emission taxes and direct regulation. 16 refs.

  14. A new multi-criteria method for the ecological assessment of lakes: A case study from the Transboundary Biosphere Reserve ‘West Polesie’ (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Sender

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A new multi-criteria method of evaluation and assessment of the ecological status of lakes is proposed. It is based on macrophytes analysis integrated with geomorphological, landscape and catchment sources of threats. A total of 22 lakes in the Transboundary Biosphere Reserve ‘West Polesie’ (Poland were investigated along trophic (available nutrients and human pressure gradients, testing the proposed method with ESMI and TRS indices. Therefore, the present indexation included 22 criteria (i.e., catchment land use, phytolittoral area, number of plant species concerning three different assessing zones (lakeshore, littoral and surrounding area, and provided a five-class ecological classification. The proposed index, in addition to the general ecological conditions assessment of lakes, allows to point out a zonal evaluation, identifying the most critic zones in terms of ecological status. The proposed method can be universally adapted for any type of lakes, regardless of their geographical characteristics. It can be applied to system monitoring, and to support lakes biodiversity, functionality, conservation, restoration, water protection and uses, as well as water, territory and landscape management actions.

  15. Analysis of Parking Reliability Guidance of Urban Parking Variable Message Sign System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenyu Mei; Ye Tian; Dongping Li

    2012-01-01

    Operators of parking guidance and information systems (PGIS) often encounter difficulty in determining when and how to provide reliable car park availability information to drivers. Reliability has become a key factor to ensure the benefits of urban PGIS. The present paper is the first to define the guiding parking reliability of urban parking variable message signs (VMSs). By analyzing the parking choice under guiding and optional parking lots, a guiding parking reliability model was constru...

  16. Code of Practice on the International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    On 21 September 1990, the General Conference, by resolution GC(XXXIV)/RES/530, adopted a Code of Practice on the International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Waste and requested the Director General - inter alia - to take all necessary steps to ensure wide dissemination of the Code of Practice at both the national and the international level. The Code of Practice was elaborated by a Group of Experts established pursuant to resolution GC(XXXII)/RES/490 adopted by the General Conference in 1988. The text of the Code of Practice is reproduced herewith for the information of all Member States

  17. Code of Practice on the International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    On 21 September 1990, the General Conference, by resolution GC(XXXIV)/RES/530, adopted a Code of Practice on the International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Waste and requested the Director General - inter alia - to take all necessary steps to ensure wide dissemination of the Code of Practice at both the national and the international level. The Code of Practice was elaborated by a Group of Experts established pursuant to resolution GC(XXXII)/RES/490 adopted by the General Conference in 1988. The text of the Code of Practice is reproduced herewith for the information of all Member States [fr

  18. Code of Practice on the International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-11-14

    On 21 September 1990, the General Conference, by resolution GC(XXXIV)/RES/530, adopted a Code of Practice on the International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Waste and requested the Director General - inter alia - to take all necessary steps to ensure wide dissemination of the Code of Practice at both the national and the international level. The Code of Practice was elaborated by a Group of Experts established pursuant to resolution GC(XXXII)/RES/490 adopted by the General Conference in 1988. The text of the Code of Practice is reproduced herewith for the information of all Member States.

  19. Code of Practice on the International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-11-15

    On 21 September 1990, the General Conference, by resolution GC(XXXIV)/RES/530, adopted a Code of Practice on the International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Waste and requested the Director General - inter alia - to take all necessary steps to ensure wide dissemination of the Code of Practice at both the national and the international level. The Code of Practice was elaborated by a Group of Experts established pursuant to resolution GC(XXXII)/RES/490 adopted by the General Conference in 1988. The text of the Code of Practice is reproduced herewith for the information of all Member States.

  20. Code of Practice on the International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    On 21 September 1990, the General Conference, by resolution GC(XXXIV)/RES/530, adopted a Code of Practice on the International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Waste and requested the Director General - inter alia - to take all necessary steps to ensure wide dissemination of the Code of Practice at both the national and the international level. The Code of Practice was elaborated by a Group of Experts established pursuant to resolution GC(XXXII)/RES/490 adopted by the General Conference in 1988. The text of the Code of Practice is reproduced herewith for the information of all Member States

  1. The juridic control of transboundary shipments of hazardous waste in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juergensmeyer, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    An intergovernmental conflict over location of disposal of hazardous waste is discussed; the several definitions of hazardous waste in the United States are analysed; moreover the American Law Regulating the transport and disposal of hazardous waste as well is put in question; also the restrictions an disposal of waste are examined in light of the Constitution of the United States, finally, transboundary shipments of hazardous waste and international agreements on hazardous waste shipment are considered [pt

  2. A Universal Vacant Parking Slot Recognition System Using Sensors Mounted on Off-the-Shelf Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Kyu Suhr

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An automatic parking system is an essential part of autonomous driving, and it starts by recognizing vacant parking spaces. This paper proposes a method that can recognize various types of parking slot markings in a variety of lighting conditions including daytime, nighttime, and underground. The proposed method can readily be commercialized since it uses only those sensors already mounted on off-the-shelf vehicles: an around-view monitor (AVM system, ultrasonic sensors, and in-vehicle motion sensors. This method first detects separating lines by extracting parallel line pairs from AVM images. Parking slot candidates are generated by pairing separating lines based on the geometric constraints of the parking slot. These candidates are confirmed by recognizing their entrance positions using line and corner features and classifying their occupancies using ultrasonic sensors. For more reliable recognition, this method uses the separating lines and parking slots not only found in the current image but also found in previous images by tracking their positions using the in-vehicle motion-sensor-based vehicle odometry. The proposed method was quantitatively evaluated using a dataset obtained during the day, night, and underground, and it outperformed previous methods by showing a 95.24% recall and a 97.64% precision.

  3. Services for People Innovation Park – Planning Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Campelo de Melo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to identify appropriate methodologies for the planning of a Services for People Innovation Park-SPIP, designed according to the model proposed by the Ibero-American Network launched by La Salle University of Madrid. Projected to form a network, these parks were conceived to provoke social change in their region, improving quality of life and social welfare, through knowledge, technology and innovation transfer and creation of companies focused on developing product and services to reduce social inequalities. Building a conceptual framework for the identification of planning methodologies compatible with the SPIP problemátique, this article analyses the theories of complex systems and adaptive planning, considering the particularities presented by Innovation Parks. The study deepens the understanding of the problems inherent in park planning, identifies the key issues to be considered during this process, and characterizes the SPIP as active adaptive complex system, suggesting methodologies more appropriate to its planning.

  4. Mitigating trans-boundary movement of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Mentha sp. by pre-shipping treaments of biopesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a major pest of several important crops including vegetables, cereals, fruits, and ornamentals grown worldwide. One important mode of its dispersal is through the trans-boundary movement of infested plant materials. In order to prevent the sprea...

  5. EVALUATION OF EFFICIENCY OF PARKING SYSTEM FORMATION ON EXAMPLE OF KHARKIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kholodova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed to use the known dependence of the change of indicators of transport traffic functioning, namely the total travel time, depending on the nature of placing the cars parked on the road network of the city to determine the effectiveness of the system of parking. The technique tested on example of Kharkiv allowed to establish that as a result of formation of car parks in cities the total travel time of all road users of the road network is reduced.

  6. Jamming and asymptotic behavior in competitive random parking of bidisperse cars

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, M. K.; Schmidt, J.; Blasius, B.; Kurths, J.

    2002-01-01

    We propose a generalized car parking problem where either a car of size $\\sigma$ or of size $m\\sigma$ ($m>1$) is sequentially parked on a line with probability $q$ and $(1-q)$, respectively. The free parameter $q$ interpolates between the classical car parking problem at either extreme ($q=0$ and $q=1$) and the competitive random sequential adsorption of a binary mixture in between. We find that the coverage in the jamming limit for a mixture always exceeds the value obtained for the uni-size...

  7. Image Segmentation and Processing for Efficient Parking Space Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tutika, Chetan Sai; Vallapaneni, Charan; R, Karthik; KP, Bharath; Muthu, N Ruban Rajesh Kumar

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a method to detect vacant parking spaces in an environment with unclear segments and contours with the help of MATLAB image processing capabilities. Due to the anomalies present in the parking spaces, such as uneven illumination, distorted slot lines and overlapping of cars. The present-day conventional algorithms have difficulties processing the image for accurate results. The algorithm proposed uses a combination of image pre-processing and false contour detection ...

  8. Regional cost-effectiveness in transboundary water quality management for the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler, Berit; Smart, James Christopher Rudd; Fonnesbech-Wulff, Anders

    In 2007 HELCOM launched a plan for transboundary management of the Baltic Sea. This plan, called the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP), aims amongst other things, to reduce eutrophication in the different regions of the Baltic Sea by reducing incoming nutrient loads from all discharging drainage basins...... difficult to achieve, and that additional abatement measures are likely to be required to fulfil these targets. The minimised total cost of delivering the achievable load reductions across the 9 Baltic littoral countries is estimated to be 4.69 billion Euros, annually, with substantial differences...

  9. Radioecological monitoring of transboundary rivers of the Central Asian Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuldashev, B.S.; Salikhbaev, U.S.; Kist, A.A.; Radyuk, D.S.; Vdovina, E.D.; Zhuk, L.I.

    2005-01-01

    Results of radioecological investigation of Central Asian rivers are presented. Investigation was done as part of the Navruz Project, a cooperative, transboundary river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, and facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the United States. The study of waterborne radionuclides and metals concentrations in Central Asia is of particular interest because of the history of nuclear materials mining, fabrication, transport, and storage there, when it was part of the Soviet Union. This development left a legacy of radionuclides and metals contamination in some Central Asian regions, which poses a clear health hazard to populations who rely heavily upon surface water for agricultural irrigation and direct domestic consumption. (author)

  10. LAND USE CHANGES IN THE TRANS-BOUNDARY AMUR RIVER BASIN IN THE 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Ermoshin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available All distinctions in the economic and nature protection policy of the neighboring states are well reflected and shown within trans-boundary river basins. The parts of trans-boundary geosystem of one country can experience an essential negative influence from rash decisions in the field of nature use and nature protection policy of the neighboring state. The Amur River Basin covers the territories of Russia, the Peoples Republic of China, Mongolia and Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and occupies more than 2 million km2. The most intensive development of the basin territory has started since the middle of the 19th century. We compiled two maps of land use in the Amur River basin in the 1930–1940s and in the early 21st century. Results showed that, negative dynamics is marked for forest lands, meadows, wetlands and mountain tundra. The basic features in the change of land use within national parts of the basin in Russia, China and Mongolia are analyzed. The comparative analysis of land use peculiarities of the countries for the last 70 years has been done.

  11. An intelligent hybrid scheme for optimizing parking space: A Tabu metaphor and rough set based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Banerjee

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Congested roads, high traffic, and parking problems are major concerns for any modern city planning. Congestion of on-street spaces in official neighborhoods may give rise to inappropriate parking areas in office and shopping mall complex during the peak time of official transactions. This paper proposes an intelligent and optimized scheme to solve parking space problem for a small city (e.g., Mauritius using a reactive search technique (named as Tabu Search assisted by rough set. Rough set is being used for the extraction of uncertain rules that exist in the databases of parking situations. The inclusion of rough set theory depicts the accuracy and roughness, which are used to characterize uncertainty of the parking lot. Approximation accuracy is employed to depict accuracy of a rough classification [1] according to different dynamic parking scenarios. And as such, the hybrid metaphor proposed comprising of Tabu Search and rough set could provide substantial research directions for other similar hard optimization problems.

  12. A Cloud-Based Car Parking Middleware for IoT-Based Smart Cities: Design and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanlin Ji

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the generic concept of using cloud-based intelligent car parking services in smart cities as an important application of the Internet of Things (IoT paradigm. This type of services will become an integral part of a generic IoT operational platform for smart cities due to its pure business-oriented features. A high-level view of the proposed middleware is outlined and the corresponding operational platform is illustrated. To demonstrate the provision of car parking services, based on the proposed middleware, a cloud-based intelligent car parking system for use within a university campus is described along with details of its design, implementation, and operation. A number of software solutions, including Kafka/Storm/Hbase clusters, OSGi web applications with distributed NoSQL, a rule engine, and mobile applications, are proposed to provide ‘best’ car parking service experience to mobile users, following the Always Best Connected and best Served (ABC&S paradigm.

  13. A Cloud-Based Car Parking Middleware for IoT-Based Smart Cities: Design and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhanlin; Ganchev, Ivan; O'Droma, Máirtín; Zhao, Li; Zhang, Xueji

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the generic concept of using cloud-based intelligent car parking services in smart cities as an important application of the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm. This type of services will become an integral part of a generic IoT operational platform for smart cities due to its pure business-oriented features. A high-level view of the proposed middleware is outlined and the corresponding operational platform is illustrated. To demonstrate the provision of car parking services, based on the proposed middleware, a cloud-based intelligent car parking system for use within a university campus is described along with details of its design, implementation, and operation. A number of software solutions, including Kafka/Storm/Hbase clusters, OSGi web applications with distributed NoSQL, a rule engine, and mobile applications, are proposed to provide ‘best’ car parking service experience to mobile users, following the Always Best Connected and best Served (ABC&S) paradigm. PMID:25429416

  14. A cloud-based car parking middleware for IoT-based smart cities: design and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhanlin; Ganchev, Ivan; O'Droma, Máirtín; Zhao, Li; Zhang, Xueji

    2014-11-25

    This paper presents the generic concept of using cloud-based intelligent car parking services in smart cities as an important application of the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm. This type of services will become an integral part of a generic IoT operational platform for smart cities due to its pure business-oriented features. A high-level view of the proposed middleware is outlined and the corresponding operational platform is illustrated. To demonstrate the provision of car parking services, based on the proposed middleware, a cloud-based intelligent car parking system for use within a university campus is described along with details of its design, implementation, and operation. A number of software solutions, including Kafka/Storm/Hbase clusters, OSGi web applications with distributed NoSQL, a rule engine, and mobile applications, are proposed to provide 'best' car parking service experience to mobile users, following the Always Best Connected and best Served (ABC&S) paradigm.

  15. Implementation of ergonomics in the management of parking increasing the quality of living parking park in mall Robinson Denpasar city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutapa, I. K.; Sudiarsa, I. M.

    2018-01-01

    The problems that often arise in the area of Denpasar City mostly caused by parking problems at the centers of activities such as shopping centers. The problems that occur not only because of the large number of vehicles that parked but also the result of the condition of parking officers who have not received attention, there is no concern about the physical condition of parking attendants because doing night guard duty. To improve the quality of parking officer, ergonomic parking lot is improved through the application of appropriate technology with systemic, holistic, interdisciplinary and participatory approach. The general objective of the research is to know the implementation of ergonomics in parking management on the improvement of the quality of parking officer in Robinson shopping center. The indicator of the quality of the parking officer work is the decrease of musculoskeletal complaints, fatigue, workload, boredom and increasing work motivation. The study was conducted using the same subject design, involving 10 subjects as a simple random sample. Intervention is done by arrangement of ergonomic basement motorcycle parking. Measurements done before and after repair. Washing out (WO) for 14 days. The data obtained were analyzed descriptively, tested normality (shapirowilk) and homogeneity (Levene Test). For normal and homogeneous distribution data, different test with One Way Anova, different test between Period with Post Hoc. Normally distributed and non-homogeneous data, different test with Friedman Test, different test between periods using Wilcoxon test. Data were analyzed with significance level of 5%. The results showed that the implementation of ergonomic in the management of parking area of the court decreased musculoskeletal complaints by 15.10% (p management of the parking lot improves the quality of the parking officer work from: (1) decrease of musculoskeletal complaints, (2) decrease of melting rate, (3) decrease of parking workload

  16. Parks & benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Holmes, Esbern

    2011-01-01

    conservation. Increasing visitor flows and cuts in staff resources has put focus on the management of visitor carrying capacities and their relation to landscape structure and zoning. At the same time park authorities face falling public appropriations and receding focus on their conservation functions...... compared to recreation and settlement. The constant priority of the balancing of nature protection and economic utilization gives rise to various experience with land use and visitor management relevant for sustainable development also outside the parks. In European nature parks the handling of visitor...... carrying capacities related to Natura2000-sites and their included habitat type areas is a priority theme for the sustainable management of nature parks. A comparative analysis of conditions and initiatives related to visitor carrying capacities in 8 nature parks in the Baltic region has been carried out...

  17. Code of practice on the international transboundary movement of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This Code of Practice should serve as guidelines of the IAEA to the States for the development and harmonization of policies and laws on the international transboundary movement of radioactive wastes. It relies on international standards for the safe transport of radioactive material and the physical protection of nuclear material, as well as the standards for basic nuclear safety and radiation protection and radioactive waste management; it does not establish separate guidance in these areas. Furthermore, this Code, which is advisory, does not affect in any way existing and future arrangements among States which relate to matters covered by it and are compatible with its objectives

  18. Optimal Investment Timing and Size of a Logistics Park: A Real Options Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezhi Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a real options approach to address optimal timing and size of a logistics park investment with logistics demand volatility. Two important problems are examined: when should an investment be introduced, and what size should it be? A real option model is proposed to explicitly incorporate the effect of government subsidies on logistics park investment. Logistic demand that triggers the threshold for investment in a logistics park project is explored analytically. Comparative static analyses of logistics park investment are also carried out. Our analytical results show that (1 investors will select smaller sized logistics parks and prepone the investment if government subsidies are considered; (2 the real option will postpone the optimal investment timing of logistics parks compared with net present value approach; and (3 logistic demands can significantly affect the optimal investment size and timing of logistics park investment.

  19. Parks, Place and Pedagogy - Education Partnerships with the National Park Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vye, E. C.; Rose, W. I.; Nash, B.; Klawiter, M.; Huntoon, J. E.; Engelmann, C. A.; Gochis, E. E.; MiTEP

    2011-12-01

    The Michigan Teaching Excellence Program (MITEP) is a multi-year program of teacher leadership development that empowers science teachers in Grand Rapids, Kalamazoo, and Jackson to lead their schools and districts through the process of improving science teaching and learning. A component of this program is facilitated through partnership between academia, K-12 educators, and the National Park Service (NPS) that aims to develop place-based education strategies that improve diversity and Earth Science literacy. This tangible education method draws upon both the sense of place that National Parks offer and the art of interpretation employed by the park service. Combined, these deepen cognitive process and provide a more diverse reflection of what place means and the processes behind shaping what we see. Our partnerships present participants the opportunity to intern in a Midwest national park for 3-8 weeks during their third year in the program. In summer 2011, eleven teachers from the Grand Rapids school district participated in this innovative way of learning and teaching Earth Science. One goal was to develop geological interpretive materials desired and needed for the parks. Secondly, and important to place-based educational methodologies, these deliverables will be used as a way of bringing the parks to urban classrooms. Participants lived in the parks and worked directly with both national park and Michigan Tech staff to create lesson plans, podcasts, media clips, video, and photographic documentation of their experiences. These lesson plans will be hosted in the Views of the National Park website in an effort to provide innovative teaching resources nationally for teachers or free-choice learners wishing to access information on Midwest national parks. To the benefit of park staff, working with teachers from urban areas offered an opportunity for park staff to access diverse learners in urban settings unable to visit the park. The foundation has been laid for

  20. Transboundary Air-Pollution Transport in the Czech-Polish Border Region between the Cities of Ostrava and Katowice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Černikovský, Libor; Krejčí, Blanka; Blažek, Zdeněk; Volná, Vladimíra

    2016-12-01

    The Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) estimated the transboundary transport of air pollution between the Czech Republic and Poland by assessing relationships between weather conditions and air pollution in the area as part of the "Air Quality Information System in the Polish-Czech border of the Silesian and Moravian-Silesian region" project (http://www.air-silesia.eu). Estimation of cross-border transport of pollutants is important for Czech-Polish negotiations and targeted measures for improving air quality. Direct measurement of PM 10 and sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) concentrations and the direction and wind speed from measuring stations in the vicinity of the Czech-Polish state border in 2006-2012. Taking into account all the inaccuracies, simplifications and uncertainties, by which all of the measurements are affected, it is possible to state that the PM 10 transboundary transport was greater from the direction of Poland to the Czech Republic, rather than the other way around. Nevertheless, the highest share of the overall PM 10 concentration load was recorded on days with a vaguely estimated airflow direction. This usually included days with changing wind direction or days with a distinct wind change throughout the given day. A changeable wind is most common during low wind speeds. It can be assumed that during such days with an ambiguous daily airflow, the polluted air saturated with sources on both sides of the border moves from one country to the other. Therefore, we could roughly ascribe an equal level of these concentrations to both the Czech and Polish side. PM 10 transboundary transport was higher from Poland to the Czech Republic than from the opposite direction, despite the predominant air flow from the Czech Republic to Poland. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2016

  1. Influence of Parking Price on Parking Garage Users’ Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Simićević

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Parking charge is a powerful tool for solving parking and traffic congestion problems. In order to achieve the expected effects without any adverse impact it is necessary to understand well the users’ responses to this policy. This paper, based on a sample of interviewed parking garage users, has developed binary logit model for identification and quantification of characteristics of users and trips, on which the acceptance of parking price is dependent. In addition, multinomial logit model has been made in order to predict what the users will opt for when faced with an increase in parking price. For the first time the parameter “shorten duration” has been introduced which has shown to be the most significant in making behaviour-related decisions. The results show that the users with the purpose work are the most sensitive to an increase in parking charge, what can be deemed positive for policy makers. However, great sensitivity of the users with the purpose shopping should cause their concern. The results of the multinomial model show that they would not discontinue coming into the area after all.

  2. Mathematical model of parking space unit for triangular parking area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahrini, Intan; Sundari, Teti; Iskandar, Taufiq; Halfiani, Vera; Munzir, Said; Ramli, Marwan

    2018-01-01

    Parking space unit (PSU) is an effective measure for the area size of a vehicle, including the free space and the width of the door opening of the vehicle (car). This article discusses a mathematical model for parking space of vehicles in triangular shape area. An optimization model for triangular parking lot is developed. Integer Linear Programming (ILP) method is used to determine the maximum number of the PSU. The triangular parking lot is in isosceles and equilateral triangles shape and implements four possible rows and five possible angles for each field. The vehicles which are considered are cars and motorcycles. The results show that the isosceles triangular parking area has 218 units of optimal PSU, which are 84 units of PSU for cars and 134 units of PSU for motorcycles. Equilateral triangular parking area has 688 units of optimal PSU, which are 175 units of PSU for cars and 513 units of PSU for motorcycles.

  3. The state of transboundary air pollution: Effects and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This fifth volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies, published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention of Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains the documents reviewed and approved for publication at the sixth session of the Executive Body held at Sofia (Bulgaria) from 31 October to 4 November 1988. Part one is the annual review of strategies and policies for air pollution abatement. Country-by-country, recent legislative and regulatory developments are summarized, including ambient-air quality standards, fuel-quality standards, emission standards, as well as economic instruments for air pollution abatement. Part two summarizes the results of the third phase (1984-1986) of the Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP). Part three is an executive summary of the 1987 forest damage survey in Europe, carried out under the International Co-operative Programme for Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests. This survey covered more than 50 per cent of all coniferous forests and about 40 per cent of the broadleaved forests in Europe. Part four describes the current geographical extent of acidification in rivers, lakes and reservoirs in the ECE region. Part five contains guidelines for determining the cost of emission control activities. The guidelines aim at harmonizing cost estimates and cost accounts for anti-pollution measures at the level of individual plants or companies. The proposed calculation scheme includes cost items related to investment, material and energy consumption, manpower and other costs, taking into account depreciation and revenues from by-product utilization. Refs

  4. Spatiotemporal hazard mapping of a flood event "migration" in a transboundary river basin as an operational tool in flood risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrou, Theodora; Papastergios, Asterios; Parcharidis, Issaak; Chini, Marco

    2017-10-01

    Flood disaster is one of the heaviest disasters in the world. It is necessary to monitor and evaluate the flood disaster in order to mitigate the consequences. As floods do not recognize borders, transboundary flood risk management is imperative in shared river basins. Disaster management is highly dependent on early information and requires data from the whole river basin. Based on the hypothesis that the flood events over the same area with same magnitude have almost identical evolution, it is crucial to develop a repository database of historical flood events. This tool, in the case of extended transboundary river basins, could constitute an operational warning system for the downstream area. The utility of SAR images for flood mapping, was demonstrated by previous studies but the SAR systems in orbit were not characterized by high operational capacity. Copernicus system will fill this gap in operational service for risk management, especially during emergency phase. The operational capabilities have been significantly improved by newly available satellite constellation, such as the Sentinel-1A AB mission, which is able to provide systematic acquisitions with a very high temporal resolution in a wide swath coverage. The present study deals with the monitoring of a transboundary flood event in Evros basin. The objective of the study is to create the "migration story" of the flooded areas on the basis of the evolution in time for the event occurred from October 2014 till May 2015. Flood hazard maps will be created, using SAR-based semi-automatic algorithms and then through the synthesis of the related maps in a GIS-system, a spatiotemporal thematic map of the event will be produced. The thematic map combined with TanDEM-X DEM, 12m/pixel spatial resolution, will define the non- affected areas which is a very useful information for the emergency planning and emergency response phases. The Sentinels meet the main requirements to be an effective and suitable

  5. Noise from cooling towers of power parks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, J.; Moore, F.K.

    1975-01-01

    A study is presented of the noise pollution problem for large power parks proposed for the future. Such parks might have an area of about 75 sq. miles, and a generating capacity up to 48000 MW. A comparative analysis has been done for natural and mechanical-draft wet towers as the major sources of acoustic power. Noise radiation from single isolated towers as well as from a dispersed array of towers has been considered for both types of cooling systems. Major noise attenuation effects considered are due to the atmospheric absorption and A-weighting. Conditions of 60F and 70 percent relative humidity in a still atmosphere have been assumed

  6. Evaluating social-ecological aspects of buffer zones at the borders of Etosha National Park, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelani M. Mannetti; Ulrich Zeller; Karen J. Esler

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to investigate the premise that the implementation of a buffer zone around a national park provides opportunities for local communities to become active in the management of such areas. The study focuses on the Etosha National Park in Namibia, where the implementation of a buffer zone has been proposed, since the park fence is a potential barrier for...

  7. Projected effect of 2000-2050 changes in climate and emissions on aerosol levels in China and associated transboundary transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigate projected 2000–2050 changes in concentrations of aerosols in China and the associated transboundary aerosol transport by using the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem driven by the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model (GCM) 3 at 4° × ...

  8. Evaluating urban parking policies with agent-based model of driver parking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, C.J.C.M.; Benenson, I.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an explicit agent-based model of parking search in a city. In the model, “drivers” drive toward their destination, search for parking, park, remain at the parking place, and leave. The city’s infrastructure is represented by a high-resolution geographic information system (GIS)

  9. Simulation of Intra- or transboundary surface-water-rights hierarchies using the farm process for MODFLOW-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, W.; Hanson, R.T.

    2007-01-01

    Water-rights driven surface-water allocations for irrigated agriculture can be simulated using the farm process for MODFLOW-2000. This paper describes and develops a model, which simulates routed surface-water deliveries to farms limited by streamflow, equal-appropriation allotments, or a ranked prior-appropriation system. Simulated diversions account for deliveries to all farms along a canal according to their water-rights ranking and for conveyance losses and gains. Simulated minimum streamflow requirements on diversions help guarantee supplies to senior farms located on downstream diverting canals. Prior appropriation can be applied to individual farms or to groups of farms modeled as "virtual farms" representing irrigation districts, irrigated regions in transboundary settings, or natural vegetation habitats. The integrated approach of jointly simulating canal diversions, surface-water deliveries subject to water-rights constraints, and groundwater allocations is verified on numerical experiments based on a realistic, but hypothetical, system of ranked virtual farms. Results are discussed in light of transboundary water appropriation and demonstrate the approach's suitability for simulating effects of water-rights hierarchies represented by international treaties, interstate stream compacts, intrastate water rights, or ecological requirements. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  10. Analysis on Time Window of Shared Parking in Hospitals Based on Parking Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hospitals are essential components of a city; huge traffic demand is generated and attracted, causing contradiction between parking supply and demand. By sharing parking berths, limited space can serve more demand which is beneficial to alleviating parking problems. Aimed at improving the capacity of shared parking, the paper analyzes four parking groups in typical hospitals, which are medical staff, outpatients, emergency patients, and visiting groups. The parking demand of medical staff is rigid. For outpatients and visiting groups, longer walking distance is acceptable and more attention is paid to parking fee. By contrast, emergency patients can accept shorter walking distance and focus more on convenience due to urgency. Under this circumstance, parking behaviors selection models are established by means of Multinomial Logit Model. On this basis, time value is adopted to calculate the tolerance of alterative parking time. Moreover, this paper explores the variation of time window, under different parking impedance. A case study is conducted and suggests that start and end point of a certain time window can be influenced by external factors.

  11. The Navruz experiment. Cooperative monitoring for radionuclides and metals in Central Asia transboundary rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.S.; Betsill, J.D.; Mohagheghi, A.H.; Passell, H.D.; Yuldashev, B.; Salikhbaev, U.; Djuraev, A.; Vasiliev, I.; Solodukhin, V.

    2005-01-01

    In March of 2000, scientists from four nuclear physics research institutes in the Central Asia Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, and the U.S. Sandia National Laboratories embarked on a three-year cooperative transboundary river monitoring experiment. The experiment, named Navruz (meaning 'new beginning'), uses standardized methods to monitor basic water quality parameters, radionuclides, and metals in the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers. Overall, the project addresses three main goals: (1) to help increase capabilities in Central Asian nations for sustainable water resources management; (2) to provide a scientific basis for supporting nuclear transparency and non-proliferation in the region; and (3) to help reduce the threat of conflict in Central Asia over water resources. Contamination of these rivers is a result of growing population, urbanization, agricultural uses, and radioactive and metals contamination from a legacy of uranium mining, industry, and other activities of the former Soviet Union. The project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of the importance of these contaminants to public health and political stability in Central Asia. Moreover, the method of enabling scientists from bordering countries to study a transboundary problem, can lead to a greater scientific understanding, consensus on necessary mitigation steps, and ultimately the political resolution of the issue. The project scope, approach, and preliminary results are presented. (author)

  12. The Navruz Project: Transboundary Monitoring for Radionuclides and Metals in Central Asia Rivers. Data Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barber, David S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Betsill, J. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Littlefield, Adriane C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mohagheghi, Amir H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shanks, Sonoya T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yuldashev, Bekhzad [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Saalikhbaev, Umar [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Radyuk, Raisa [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Djuraev, Akram [Tajik Academy of Sciences, Dushanbe (Tajikistan); Djuraev, Anwar [Tajik Academy of Sciences, Dushanbe (Tajikistan); Vasilev, Ivan [Inst. of Physics, Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan); Tolongutov, Bajgabyl [Inst. of Physics, Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan); Valentina, Alekhina [Inst. of Physics, Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan); Solodukhin, Vladimir [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Pozniak, Victor [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2003-04-01

    The Navruz Project is a cooperative, transboundary, river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, and facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the U.S. The Navruz Project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of their importance to public health and nuclear materials proliferation concerns in the region. The Project also collects data on basic water quality parameters. Data obtained in this project are shared among all participating countries and the public through a world-wide web site (http://www.cmc.sandia.org/Central/centralasia.html), and are available for use in further studies and in regional transboundary water resource management efforts. This report includes graphs showing selected data from the Fall 2000 and Spring 2001 sampling seasons. These data include all parameters grouped into six regions, including main rivers and some tributaries in the Amu Darya and Syr Darya river systems. This report also assembles all data (in tabular form) generated by the project from Fall 2000 through Fall 2001. This report comes as the second part of a planned three-part reporting process. The first report is the Sampling and Analysis Plan and Operational Manual, SAND 2002-0484. This is the second report.

  13. 77 FR 46113 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Cape Lookout National Park Visitor and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... data about visitors that can be used to prepare resource management planning documents. Lessons learned... Information Collection; Comment Request; Cape Lookout National Park Visitor and Community Survey AGENCY...) will ask the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to approve the Information Collection (IC) described...

  14. 36 CFR 18.8 - How are lease proposals solicited and selected if the Director issues a Request for Proposals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... that meet minimum management, financial and other qualifications necessary for submission of a proposal... of the leased property with respect to preservation, protection, and visitor enjoyment of the park... basis will be most beneficial to effective management of the park area. (g) The Director will provide...

  15. Vision-Based Parking-Slot Detection: A Benchmark and A Learning-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in developing automatic parking systems in the field of intelligent vehicles. However, how to effectively and efficiently locating parking-slots using a vision-based system is still an unresolved issue. Even more seriously, there is no publicly available labeled benchmark dataset for tuning and testing parking-slot detection algorithms. In this paper, we attempt to fill the above-mentioned research gaps to some extent and our contributions are twofold. Firstly, to facilitate the study of vision-based parking-slot detection, a large-scale parking-slot image database is established. This database comprises 8600 surround-view images collected from typical indoor and outdoor parking sites. For each image in this database, the marking-points and parking-slots are carefully labeled. Such a database can serve as a benchmark to design and validate parking-slot detection algorithms. Secondly, a learning-based parking-slot detection approach, namely P S D L , is proposed. Using P S D L , given a surround-view image, the marking-points will be detected first and then the valid parking-slots can be inferred. The efficacy and efficiency of P S D L have been corroborated on our database. It is expected that P S D L can serve as a baseline when the other researchers develop more sophisticated methods.

  16. A Distributed Wireless Camera System for the Management of Parking Spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vítek, Stanislav; Melničuk, Petr

    2017-12-28

    The importance of detection of parking space availability is still growing, particularly in major cities. This paper deals with the design of a distributed wireless camera system for the management of parking spaces, which can determine occupancy of the parking space based on the information from multiple cameras. The proposed system uses small camera modules based on Raspberry Pi Zero and computationally efficient algorithm for the occupancy detection based on the histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) feature descriptor and support vector machine (SVM) classifier. We have included information about the orientation of the vehicle as a supporting feature, which has enabled us to achieve better accuracy. The described solution can deliver occupancy information at the rate of 10 parking spaces per second with more than 90% accuracy in a wide range of conditions. Reliability of the implemented algorithm is evaluated with three different test sets which altogether contain over 700,000 samples of parking spaces.

  17. A Distributed Wireless Camera System for the Management of Parking Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Vítek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of detection of parking space availability is still growing, particularly in major cities. This paper deals with the design of a distributed wireless camera system for the management of parking spaces, which can determine occupancy of the parking space based on the information from multiple cameras. The proposed system uses small camera modules based on Raspberry Pi Zero and computationally efficient algorithm for the occupancy detection based on the histogram of oriented gradients (HOG feature descriptor and support vector machine (SVM classifier. We have included information about the orientation of the vehicle as a supporting feature, which has enabled us to achieve better accuracy. The described solution can deliver occupancy information at the rate of 10 parking spaces per second with more than 90% accuracy in a wide range of conditions. Reliability of the implemented algorithm is evaluated with three different test sets which altogether contain over 700,000 samples of parking spaces.

  18. Spatial strategies for managing visitor impacts in National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Y.-F.; Marion, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Resource and social impacts caused by recreationists and tourists have become a management concern in national parks and equivalent protected areas. The need to contain visitor impacts within acceptable limits has prompted park and protected area managers to implement a wide variety of strategies and actions, many of which are spatial in nature. This paper classifies and illustrates the basic spatial strategies for managing visitor impacts in parks and protected areas. A typology of four spatial strategies was proposed based on the recreation and park management literature. Spatial segregation is a common strategy for shielding sensitive resources from visitor impacts or for separating potentially conflicting types of use. Two forms of spatial segregation are zoning and closure. A spatial containment strategy is intended to minimize the aggregate extent of visitor impacts by confining use to limited designated or established Iocations. In contrast, a spatial dispersal strategy seeks to spread visitor use, reducing the frequency of use to levels that avoid or minimize permanent resource impacts or visitor crowding and conflict. Finally, a spatial configuration strategy minimizes impacting visitor behavior though the judicious spatial arrangement of facilities. These four spatial strategics can be implemented separately or in combination at varying spatial scales within a single park. A survey of national park managers provides an empirical example of the diversity of implemented spatial strategies in managing visitor impacts. Spatial segregation is frequently applied in the form of camping restrictions or closures to protect sensitive natural or cultural resources and to separate incompatible visitor activities. Spatial containment is the most widely applied strategy for minimizing the areal extent of resource impacts. Spatial dispersal is commonly applied to reduce visitor crowding or conflicts in popular destination areas but is less frequently applied or

  19. SMART VEHICLE PARKING

    OpenAIRE

    S.Bharath Ram

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project is to count the number of empty car parking areas and to display them in a Website. This system consists of sensors attached to several parking areas. These sensors located in different parking area’s detects the presence of vehicle and sends information to Microcontroller, which calculates the number of available empty parking areas and uploads them in a website. This basically works on the principle of Internet of Things here the sensors are connected to internet.

  20. Diachronic Analysis of Parking Usage: The Case Study of Brescia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Bonotti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a methodology for the investigation of the space-time relations between public services and individual mobility, by checking the space-time efficiency of the allocation of public and private parking areas. The methodology has been applied to the case study of Brescia, in northern Italy. The spatial distribution of car parking has been assessed as well as the usage variations during the day. First of all, the location and the density of parking areas within the city has been taken into account, and represented to show the spatial coverage of car parking supply. Then, the temporal issue has been considered, since the degree of use of each parking area varies within the time of the day. Therefore, the degree of use of each parking area has been mapped at three significant instant of the day (10.00 a.m.; 01.00 p.m. and 04.00 p.m.. This kind of analysis is particularly helpful to highlight the availability of parking areas during the day. The results of the analysis, even if referred to a case study, can be extended to similar situations as the methodology of the analysis has a broaden sound meaning. The aim of the paper is to illustrate a method to develop mobility policies and plans.

  1. A Robust Method for Detecting Parking Areas in Both Indoor and Outdoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhao Zong

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Although an automatic parking system has been installed in many vehicles recently, it is still hard for the system to confirm by itself whether a vacant parking area truly exists or not. In this paper, we introduced a robust vision-based vacancy parking area detecting method for both indoor and outdoor environments. The main contribution of this paper is given as follows. First, an automatic image stitching method is proposed. Secondly, the problem of environment illuminating change and line color difference is considered and solved. Thirdly, the proposed algorithm is insensitive to the shadow and scene diversity, which means the detecting result satisfies most of the environment. Finally, a vehicle model is considered for tracking and reconfirming the detecting results to eliminate most of the false positives.

  2. Capacity Analysis Of Parking Lot And Volume Of Vehicle Toward Sustainable Parking Convenience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdiansyah, Herdis; Sugiyanto; Guntur Octavianto, Andrew; Guntur Aritonang, Edison; Nova Imaduddin, Malya; Dedi; Rilaningrum, Magfira

    2017-10-01

    The development of human's population is having effect on the increase of facilities and transportation needs. One of the primary problems is the availability of parking area. This has occurred in Universitas Indonesia (UI), mainly in Salemba Campus. The availability of land is not as equal as the number of vehicles, which are to be parked, that is why the convenience of students, lecturers and employees at UI is unsatisfactory. The purpose of this paper is to know the level of parking convenience that is affected by the capacity of parking lots and the volume of vehicles in UI Salemba Campus. The results of this research indicate Salemba campus's parking index. The motor index is still in the category of medium (index 0.945) and the car parking index has less category with a parking index 0.485. While with the location of research object being behind the UI Salemba campus, the results obtained were both the motor and the car are still in the category of “enough” with the parking index of, that is 0.657 for the motor and 0.777 for the car. So theoretically, the parking management at Salemba Campus is in an unsustainable parking degree because, if there is no long-term solution, it will increase congestion in the surrounding area and intensify the dissatisfaction of existing parking users.

  3. The transboundary EIA convention in the context of private sector operations co-financed by an International Financial Institution: two case studies from Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazari, Mehrdad M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents two case studies involving private sector, offshore, oil field developments in the Caspian Sea. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) of these operations indicated that major and unmitigated oil spills could potentially result in transboundary impacts. Both projects were co-financed by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), an International Financial Institution (IFI). Project review and financing decision by the EBRD occurred when neither country hosting the projects was a Party to the 1991 Convention on EIA in a Transboundary Context (Espoo Convention). Discussions with government agencies during project review highlighted their limited institutional capacity to pursue transboundary notification and consultation activities. However, without being formal Parties or having clearly defined roles under the Convention, the combined presence of the EBRD, the private sector developer and its project needing financing became important drivers to promote the Espoo Convention. Surveying for similar IFI-project combinations in developing and transition economies could provide a 'bottom up' input to further optimise the Convention Secretariat's awareness raising, intervention design, and alliance-building strategies. The knowledge management model and user-friendly Web site of the 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity highlight approaches that may also prove effective for the Espoo Convention

  4. Modelling as a means to promote water diplomacy in Southern Africa: the Stampriet Transboundary Aquifer System case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Giovanna; Carvalho Resende, Tales; Filali-Meknassi, Youssef; Puri, Shaminder; Kenabatho, Piet; Amakali, Maria; Majola, Kwazikwakhe; Rossetto, Rudy

    2017-04-01

    Within the framework of the "Governance of Groundwater Resources in Transboundary Aquifers" (GGRETA) project, funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), the Governments of Botswana, Namibia and South Africa, jointly with the UNESCO International Hydrological Programme (UNESCO-IHP) are undertaking an assessment of the Stampriet Transboundary Aquifer System (STAS). The importance of the STAS to the region draws from the fact that it is the only permanent and dependable water resource in the area, which covers 87000 km2 from Central Namibia into Western Botswana and South Africa's Northern Cape Province. The first phase of the project (2013-2015) focused on an assessment of the STAS which allowed establishing a shared science based understanding of the resource. The activities of the second phase of the project (2016-2018) will consolidate the technical results achieved and the tools developed in the first phase, and will strengthen capacity on groundwater governance at the national and transboundary levels to support the process of establishment of a multi-country cooperation mechanism (MCCM). The establishment of the STAS MCCM would be the first example of a mechanism for the management and governance of a transboundary aquifer in Southern Africa. The joint development of a numerical model is crucial to foster such cooperation as it provides a baseline for the formulation of sound policies for the governance of the STAS. The model is being developed through the application of the FREEWAT platform (within the H2020 FREEWAT project - FREE and open source software tools for WATer resource management; Rossetto et al., 2015), an open source and public domain GIS-integrated modelling environment for the simulation of the hydrological cycle. The FREEWAT project aims at improving water resource management by simplifying the application of water-related regulations through the use of modeling environments and GIS tools for storage, management and

  5. IMPORTANT INFORMATION - Flagstaff Car-Park and Park-and-Ride (P+R)

    CERN Document Server

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    As part of the new arrangements following the arrival of the tram-line at CERN, an Automatic Number-Plate Recognition (ANPR) system has been installed restricting access to the Flagstaff Car-park and the Park-and-Ride (P+R) zone according to the conditions set out below: Holders of a valid P+R user card may enter the car-park at all hours but may only park in the area specifically designated as the P+R zone. P+R user cards can be purchased from the Fondation des Parkings de Genève (http://www.ge.ch/parkings/abonnements.html)   Members of CERN personnel and of contractors' personnel, whatever their status, may freely access the Flagstaff Car-Park at all hours, as long as their vehicle is duly registered with CERN, but they may not use the P+R zone, which is reserved for holders of P+R user cards. Please check that your vehicle number-plates are properly registered via AdaMS (http://cern.ch/adams). If this is not the case, the following action must be taken: - for private or co...

  6. Influence of long-range transboundary transport on atmospheric water vapor mercury collected at the largest city of Tibet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jie [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Laboratory of Green Chemistry, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, Mikkeli FI 50130 (Finland); Kang, Shichang, E-mail: shichang.kang@lzb.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Sciences, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Tian, Lide [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Guo, Junming [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Qianggong; Cong, Zhiyuan [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Sillanpää, Mika [Laboratory of Green Chemistry, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, Mikkeli FI 50130 (Finland); and others

    2016-10-01

    Monsoon circulation is an important process that affects long-range transboundary transport of anthropogenic contaminants such as mercury (Hg). During the Indian monsoon season of 2013, a total of 92 and 26 atmospheric water vapor samples were collected at Lhasa, the largest city of the Tibet, for Hg and major ions analysis, respectively. The relatively low pH/high electronic conductivity values, together with the fact that NH{sub 4}{sup +} in atmospheric water vapor was even higher than that determined in precipitation of Lhasa, indicated the effects of anthropogenic perturbations through long-range transboundary atmospheric transport. Concentrations of Hg in atmospheric water vapor ranged from 2.5 to 73.7 ng L{sup −1}, with an average of 12.5 ng L{sup −1}. The elevated Hg and major ions concentrations, and electronic conductivity values were generally associated with weak acidic samples, and Hg mainly loaded with anthropogenic ions such as NH{sub 4}{sup +}. The results of principal component analysis and trajectory analysis suggested that anthropogenic emissions from the Indian subcontinent may have largely contributed to the determined Hg in atmospheric water vapor. Furthermore, our study reconfirmed that below-cloud scavenging contribution was significant for precipitation Hg in Lhasa, and evaluated that on average 74.1% of the Hg in precipitation could be accounted for by below-cloud scavenging. - Highlights: • The low pH/high electronic conductivity was found in atmospheric water vapor. • Anthropogenic NH{sub 4}{sup +} was higher than that determined in precipitation of Lhasa. • Elevated Hg and major ions levels were usually associated with weak acidic samples. • Hg in atmospheric water vapor was largely influenced by transboundary transport. • Below-cloud scavenging accounted for most Hg in precipitation.

  7. Influence of long-range transboundary transport on atmospheric water vapor mercury collected at the largest city of Tibet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Jie; Kang, Shichang; Tian, Lide; Guo, Junming; Zhang, Qianggong; Cong, Zhiyuan; Sillanpää, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Monsoon circulation is an important process that affects long-range transboundary transport of anthropogenic contaminants such as mercury (Hg). During the Indian monsoon season of 2013, a total of 92 and 26 atmospheric water vapor samples were collected at Lhasa, the largest city of the Tibet, for Hg and major ions analysis, respectively. The relatively low pH/high electronic conductivity values, together with the fact that NH_4"+ in atmospheric water vapor was even higher than that determined in precipitation of Lhasa, indicated the effects of anthropogenic perturbations through long-range transboundary atmospheric transport. Concentrations of Hg in atmospheric water vapor ranged from 2.5 to 73.7 ng L"−"1, with an average of 12.5 ng L"−"1. The elevated Hg and major ions concentrations, and electronic conductivity values were generally associated with weak acidic samples, and Hg mainly loaded with anthropogenic ions such as NH_4"+. The results of principal component analysis and trajectory analysis suggested that anthropogenic emissions from the Indian subcontinent may have largely contributed to the determined Hg in atmospheric water vapor. Furthermore, our study reconfirmed that below-cloud scavenging contribution was significant for precipitation Hg in Lhasa, and evaluated that on average 74.1% of the Hg in precipitation could be accounted for by below-cloud scavenging. - Highlights: • The low pH/high electronic conductivity was found in atmospheric water vapor. • Anthropogenic NH_4"+ was higher than that determined in precipitation of Lhasa. • Elevated Hg and major ions levels were usually associated with weak acidic samples. • Hg in atmospheric water vapor was largely influenced by transboundary transport. • Below-cloud scavenging accounted for most Hg in precipitation.

  8. Lead isotope ratios in six lake sediment cores from Japan Archipelago: Historical record of trans-boundary pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosono, Takahiro; Alvarez, Kelly; Kuwae, Michinobu

    2016-07-15

    Sediment cores from six lakes situated from north to south on the Japanese Archipelago were collected during 2009-2010 to investigate the hypothesis that deposition of lead (Pb) was coming from East Asia (including China, South Korea and eastern part of Russia). Accumulation rates and ages of the lake sediment were estimated by the (210)Pb constant rate of supply model and (137)Cs inputs to reconstruct the historical trends of Pb accumulation. Cores from four lakes located in the north and central Japan, showed clear evidence of Pb pollution with a change in the (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(207)Pb ratios in the recent sediment as compared to the deeper sediment. Among the six studied lakes, significant inputs of anthropogenic lead emissions were observed at Lake Mikazuki (north Hokkaido in north Japan), Lake Chokai (north of Honshu), and Lake Mikuriga (central part of Honshu). Pb isotopic comparison of collected core sediment and previously reported data for wet precipitation and aerosols from different Asian regions indicate that, before 1900, Pb accumulated in these three lakes was not affected by trans-boundary sources. Lake Mikazuki started to receive Pb emissions from Russia in early 1900s, and during the last two decades, this lake has been affected by trans-boundary Pb pollution from northern China. Lake Chokai has received Pb pollutant from northern China since early 1900s until 2009, whereas for the Lake Mikuriga the major Pb contaminant was transported from southern China during the past 100years. The results of our study demonstrate that Japan Archipelago has received trans-boundary Pb emissions from different parts of East Asian region depending on location, and the major source region has changed historically. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimization of Parking Public Transport Vehicles in Ostrava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Teichmann

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A typical trait of public transport is a spatially scattered demand. A route net that is operated by a carrier (or several carriers has to be adapted to the demand. Public transport vehicles that are not used during a period of a day are usually parked in defined parking lots that have a given capacity. When the vehicle goes from the place where its schedule ends (usually a terminus of the last connection served by the vehicle to the place where the vehicle should be parked, a non-productive journey occurs. The same occurs at the beginning of the vehicle schedule as well. The main goal of the paper is to present a mathematical model that enables minimization of the total length of all the non-productive journeys. Functionality of the proposed mathematical model was tested in the conditions of a real bus public transport network.

  10. Classification and description of the vegetation in the Spitskop area in the proposed Highveld National Park, North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahlomola E. Daemane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the proposed Highveld National Park (HNP is to conserve a considerable area of the poorly conserved Rocky Highveld Grassland and Dry Sandy Highveld Grassveld of the western Grassland Biome in South Africa. The park has not yet been proclaimed, but is currently under the management of the North West Parks and Tourism Board. The main aim of this study was to classify and describe the vegetation in the Spitskop area in the HNP. The areas affected by soil degradation were on the midslopes, footslopes, valley bottomland and the floodplains around the Spitskop hill. The concentrated grazing around the Spitskop area was also influenced by the existing dam in the floodplains. Floristic and soil degradation data were collected and used to classify and describe the plant communities of the Spitskop area. Vegetation sampling was performed by means of the Braun-Blanquet method and a total of twenty plots were sampled. A numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN was applied to the floristic data to derive a first approximation of the main plant communities. Further refinement was achieved by Braun-Blanquet procedures. The final results of the classification procedure were presented in the form of a phytosociological table, with three major communities and three subcommunities being described. Canonical correspondence analysis was used to determine the direct correlation between plant communities and soil degradation types. Soil compaction and sheet erosion were found to be the most significant variables determining plant community composition. Rill and gully erosion were shown to be of lesser significance in explaining the variation in plant communities. Conservation implications: Grasslands are amongst the most threatened biomes in South Africa, yet less than 1.3% are currently being conserved. The HNP has significant value for biodiversity conservation and the protection of this area will contribute to the preservation of the highly

  11. Perceived Health Benefits and Willingness to Pay for Parks by Park Users: Quantitative and Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Henderson-Wilson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Whilst a growing body of evidence demonstrates people derive a range of health and wellbeing benefits from visiting parks, only a limited number of attempts have been made to provide a complementary economic assessment of parks. The aim of this exploratory study was to directly estimate the perceived health and wellbeing benefits attained from parks and the economic value assigned to parks by park users in Victoria, Australia. The research employed a mixed methods approach (survey and interviews to collect primary data from a selection of 140 park users: 100 from two metropolitan parks in Melbourne and 40 from a park on the urban fringe of Melbourne, Victoria. Our findings suggest that park users derive a range of perceived physical, mental/spiritual, and social health benefits, but park use was predominantly associated with physical health benefits. Overall, our exploratory study findings suggest that park users are willing to pay for parks, as they highly value them as places for exercising, socialising, and relaxing. Importantly, most people would miss parks if they did not exist. The findings aim to provide park managers, public health advocates, and urban policy makers with evidence about the perceived health and wellbeing benefits of park usage and the economic value park visitors place on parks.

  12. Are TODs Over-Parked?

    OpenAIRE

    Cervero, Robert; Adkins, Arlie; Sullivan, Cathleen

    2009-01-01

    This study empirically investigates the proposition that TOD, and specifically housing near suburban rail stops, is “over-parked†in the U.S. This is done by comparing parking generation rates for 31 housing complexes near rail stops in the San Francisco Bay Area and Portland, Oregon with on-site parking supplies and with ITE parking generation rates. Factors that explain parking demand for transit-oriented housing are also investigated, both statistically and through case analyses. The re...

  13. Public comment draft : the stakeholder workgroup review of planning and response capabilities for a marine oil spill on the U.S/Canadian transboundary areas of the Pacific coast project report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    This stakeholder review discussed the planning and response capabilities for marine oil spills on the United States and Canadian transboundary areas of the Pacific coast. An overview of the transboundary area was presented, as well as details of the area's climate, demographics, and economics. Historical and cultural features of the region were discussed, and the environmental impacts of actual and potential oil spills were evaluated. Risks related to increased marine traffic and development of new harbours and inland railways were discussed along with issues related to First Nations groups in the region. This document also reviewed spill notification procedures and presented oil spill response recommendations. It also outlined transboundary coordination procedures and incident investigation procedures. Issues related to fisheries were also discussed, with particular reference to oil spill response training procedures and available oil spill response software. Response funding regimes were also discussed. refs., tabs., figs.

  14. Role of parking in the hotel supply chain management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Maršanić

    2015-12-01

    , although they mostly do not have concrete proposals to provide a sufficient number of parking spaces for hotel guests. Conclusion: The research confirmed the set hypothesis about the importance of parking in the quality of the hotel product. Hotels should persist on providing a sufficient number of parking spaces for their guests. In situations when there is no an available parking space they should opt for the construction of the underground garages, which are expensive solutions, but the investment can pay off through the increased occupancy of hotel capacities and a higher price for the better quality of  product. The cooperation with local authorities is of great importance. Solutions with remote private car parks or public car parks regularly cause guests' dissatisfaction, however its real nature and its consequences could not be shown in this research. Another problem has been pointed out in the study - coach parking, which also deserves the interest of a scientific research.

  15. An observational study of defensible space in the neighbourhood park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzukhi, M. A.; Afiq, M. A.; Zaki, S. Ahmad; Ling, O. H. L.

    2018-02-01

    The planning of neighborhood park is important to provide space for interaction, leisure, and recreation among residents in any neighbourhood area. However, on an almost daily basis, newspapers report inappropriate incidents such as snatch theft, robbery and street attack that occurred in the neighborhood park. These cases reflect the significance of physical planning and design of neighborhood park that directly affect the safety and comfort of the users. Thus, this study attempts to engage with the defensible space concept in ensuring the security elements be applied in the planning of the recreational area. This study adopts a qualitative method form of research that is retrofitted to an observational study. The observational study is significant for revealing the condition of a neighbourhood park in the ‘real-world,’ in which direct observation is conducted on Taman Tasik Puchong Perdana. The observer focused on four elements or variables of defensible space concept including the provision of facilities in the neighborhood park, territoriality, surveillance, image and milieu. The findings revealed that the planning of Taman Tasik Puchong Perdana does not deliberate the defensible space elements, which may contribute to the crime activities in the park. In these circumstances, the planning of neighbourhood park needs to include proposals for the implementation of defensible space in response to the challenges underpinned by crime problems. Besides, the awareness among the residents needs to be emphasized with the support from local authorities and other organizations to manage and sustain the safety environment in the neighborhood park.

  16. Co-adapting societal and ecological interactions following large disturbances in urban park woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret Carreiro; Wayne Zipperer

    2011-01-01

    The responses of urban park woodlands to large disturbances provide the opportunity to identify and examine linkages in social-ecological systems in urban landscapes.We propose that the Panarchy model consisting of hierarchically nested adaptive cycles provides a useful framework to evaluate those linkages.We use two case studies as examples – Cherokee Park in...

  17. Bark in the Park: A Review of Domestic Dogs in Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Michael A.; Fitzsimons, James A.; Wescott, Geoffrey; Miller, Kelly K.; Ekanayake, Kasun B.; Schneider, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    The presence of domestic dogs Canis familiaris in public open spaces is increasingly controversial. In our review of the literature, we located 133 publications of various types (papers, reports etc.) that examine some aspect of dogs in parks and open spaces (50 % focussed solely on dogs). There has been an exponential growth in the cumulative number of articles ( R 2 = 0.96; 82 % published since 1997); almost all pertain to temperate latitudes (97 %) and most to the northern hemisphere (62 %). Most articles focus on impacts on wildlife (51 %), zoonotic diseases (17 %), and people's perceptions regarding dogs (12 %). Articles mostly describe problems associated with dogs, while reports of low compliance with dog regulations are common. We outline six major findings regarding dogs in parks: (1) there is a paucity of information on dogs in parks, particularly in relation to their interactions with wildlife and regarding their management; (2) published studies are mainly restricted to a handful of locations in developed countries; (3) sectors of societies hold different views over the desirability of dogs in parks; (4) the benefits and risks of dogs to humans and park values are poorly documented and known; (5) dogs represent a notable disease risk in some but not all countries; and (6) coastal parks are over-represented in the literature in terms of potential negative impacts. Park managers globally require better information to achieve conservation outcomes from dog management in parks.

  18. The today nuclear park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, Ph.; Marignac, Y.; Tassart, J.

    2000-03-01

    This economic analysis of the nuclear industry, takes stock on the french nuclear park, the nuclear materials flux, the operating and in construction from 1970 to 1998 reactors, the storage and the wastes reprocessing. The second part proposes many scenario in function of the reactors lifetime and the industrial policy of fuel reprocessing. This analysis shows the interest of extending the power plants lifetime and evaluates the consequences of a reprocessing-recycling policy facing the stop of such a policy in 2010. (A.L.B.)

  19. The importance of national political context to the impacts of international conservation aid: evidence from the W National Parks of Benin and Niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel C.; Minn, Michael; Sinsin, Brice

    2015-11-01

    National political context is widely understood to be an important factor shaping the ecological and socio-economic impacts of protected areas (PAs) and other conservation interventions. Despite broad recognition that national political context matters, however, there is little systematic understanding about how and why it matters, particularly in the context of PAs. This article seeks to advance empirical and theoretical understanding of the influence of national political context on the impacts of conservation interventions through study of an international aid project in a large transboundary PA in West Africa. It uses multilevel regression analysis to analyze the variable effects of changes in enforcement—a central mechanism through which the Protected Ecosystems in Sudano-Sahelian Africa project sought to achieve its objectives—in the W National Parks (WNP) of Benin and Niger. We find that differences in national political context relating to governance quality and extent of democratic decentralization moderated the social-ecological effects of enforcement. Increasing enforcement levels in Benin’s WNP were associated with significant increases in mammal species abundance while having little average effect on the incomes of households around the Park. By contrast, greater levels of enforcement in Niger’s WNP were associated with sharply decreasing income levels among Park neighbors but did not have a statistically significant effect on wildlife populations. These results highlight the importance of national political context to the outcomes of aid-funded conservation efforts. They suggest that state-led PA enforcement will have more positive social-ecological impacts in better-governed, more decentralized countries and that conservation policy centered on PAs should therefore devote greater attention to engagement with higher levels of governance.

  20. Conditions for the management of carrying capacity in the parks of Parks&Benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Holmes, Esbern

    2011-01-01

    Growth in the number of visitors is an upcoming problem in nature parks. Nature parks are at the same time facing increasing demand, falling public appropriations and receding focus on their conservation functions. To ensure a balancing of nature protection and economic utilization the concept...... stakeholders, balancing use and protection preferably based on scientific and/or experiential cognition. The conditions for the management of carrying capacity for the 8 nature parks in the EC Baltic Project Parks&Benefits are analysed in the report. 1. Part focus on the methodology, concentrated...... on the comparison of the common conditions related to the international nature protection obligations in the parks, primarily expressed through the management under the EU Natura2000-program. In part 2, a comparison of the 8 parks concerning extent, land use composition, population in and around the park...

  1. Integrated model of assisted parking system and performance evaluation with entropy weight extended analytic hierarchy process and two-tuple linguistic information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiding Hua

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating comprehensive performance of assisted parking system has been a very important issue for car companies for years, because the overall performance of assisted parking system directly influences car intellectualization and customers’ degree of satisfaction. Therefore, this article proposes two-tuple linguistic analytic hierarchy process to evaluate assisted parking system so as to avoid information loss during the processes of evaluation integration. The performance evaluation attributes for assisted parking system are established initially. Subsequently, the information entropy theory is proposed to improve the evaluation attribute weight determined by analytic hierarchy process for the influencing factors of the randomness in parking test process. Furthermore, the evaluation attribute measure values of comprehensive performance are calculated and the assisted parking system evaluation results are obtained with ordered weighted averaging operator. Finally, numerical examples of vehicle types equipped with eight different assisted parking systems and computational results are presented.

  2. Counterintuitive proposals for trans-boundary ecological compensation under "No Net Loss" biodiversity policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Joseph William; Abatayo, Anna Lou; Strange, Niels

    2017-01-01

    ‘No net loss’ (NNL) policies involve quantifying biodiversity impacts associated with economic development, and implementing commensurate conservation gains to balance losses. Local stakeholders are often affected by NNL biodiversity trades. But to what extent are NNL principles intuitive...... compensation should be: close to development impacts; greater than losses; smaller, given a background trend of biodiversity decline; and, smaller when gains have co-benefits for biodiversity. However, survey participant proposals violated all four principles. Participants proposed substantial forest...

  3. Climate and transboundary water management issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjonback, D.

    1991-01-01

    The potential effects of climate change on transboundary river systems, major water uses, interjurisdictional arrangements, and water issues affecting water management in the Great Plains of Canada are discussed. Three atmospheric general circulation models (GCM) have been applied for a two times carbon dioxide concentration scenario for the Saskatchewan River system. The models were the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) model, the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) model, and the Oregon State University (OSU) model. For all models, soil moisture on the plains was reduced. The GISS model predicted slightly higher runoff for plains-originating streams, and a substantial increase in runoff (32%) in the Rockies. The GFDL model predicted lower runoffs in the plains and Rockies, with some locations near the Alberta-Saskatchewan border indicating zero runoff. The OSU model results generally bracketed the GISS and GFDL results, with total runoff approximating 1951-1980 mean. The GISS model indicated an increase in net basin supply of 28%, while the GFDL model, due to lower runoff and high soil moisture defecits, showed a decrease of 38%. For policy making, monitoring, and research, the GFDL model results can provide important guidelines. Greater attention to demand management and conservation will have short-term benefits in stretching the limited water resource base to support a larger economy, while providing flexibility to cope with future climate as it evolves. 1 ref

  4. Exploration of Science Parks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Huibing; Sun Nengli

    2005-01-01

    Science parks have developed gready in the world, whereas empirical researches have showed that science parks based on linear model cannot guarantee the creation of innovation. Hi-tech innovation is derived from flow and management of information. The commercial and social interactions between in-parks and off-park firms and research institutions act as the key determinant for innovation.Industrial clustering is the rational choice for further developing Chinese science parks and solving some problems such as the lack of dear major industries and strong innovation sense, etc.

  5. Analysis of key thresholds leading to upstream dependencies in global transboundary water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munia, Hafsa Ahmed; Guillaume, Joseph; Kummu, Matti; Mirumachi, Naho; Wada, Yoshihide

    2017-04-01

    Transboundary water bodies supply 60% of global fresh water flow and are home to about 1/3 of the world's population; creating hydrological, social and economic interdependencies between countries. Trade-offs between water users are delimited by certain thresholds, that, when crossed, result in changes in system behavior, often related to undesirable impacts. A wide variety of thresholds are potentially related to water availability and scarcity. Scarcity can occur because of the country's own water use, and that is potentially intensified by upstream water use. In general, increased water scarcity escalates the reliance on shared water resources, which increases interdependencies between riparian states. In this paper the upstream dependencies of global transboundary river basins are examined at the scale of sub-basin areas. We aim to assess how upstream water withdrawals cause changes in the scarcity categories, such that crossing thresholds is interpreted in terms of downstream dependency on upstream water availability. The thresholds are defined for different types of water availability on which a sub-basin relies: - reliable local runoff (available even in a dry year), - less reliable local water (available in the wet year), - reliable dry year inflows from possible upstream area, and - less reliable wet year inflows from upstream. Possible upstream withdrawals reduce available water downstream, influencing the latter two water availabilities. Upstream dependencies have then been categorized by comparing a sub-basin's scarcity category across different water availability types. When population (or water consumption) grows, the sub-basin satisfies its needs using less reliable water. Thus, the factors affecting the type of water availability being used are different not only for each type of dependency category, but also possibly for every sub- basin. Our results show that, in the case of stress (impacts from high use of water), in 104 (12%) sub- basins out of

  6. Parking management : strategies, evaluation and planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litman, T.A.

    2006-01-01

    Parking facilities are a major cost to society. Current planning practices are based on the assumption that parking should be abundant and provided free, with costs borne indirectly. This report examined parking management strategies related to integrated parking plans. Problems with current parking planning practices were reviewed. The costs of parking facilities were examined, as well as the savings that can accrue from improved management techniques. Strategies included shared parking; remote parking and shuttle services; walking and cycling improvements; improved enforcement and control; and increasing the capacity of existing parking facilities. Parking pricing methods, financial incentives and parking tax reforms were reviewed. Issues concerning user information and marketing were examined. Overflow parking plans were evaluated. Three illustrative examples of parking management programs were outlined, along with details of implementation, planning and evaluation procedures. It was concluded that cost-effective parking management programs can often reduce parking requirements by 20 to 40 per cent compared with conventional planning requirements, in addition to providing economic, social and environmental benefits. 32 refs., 7 tabs., 3 figs

  7. Determining service improvement priority in a zoological park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Sukwadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this research is to determine the service improvement priority based on tourist judgements and experiences on service quality in a zoological park. Design/methodology/approach: A powerful integrated model was developed to acquire accurate critical service attributes and their priority ranks that can promote tourist satisfaction and tourist loyalty. Drawing on relevant literature, a model was proposed based on tourists’ perspective by integrating structural equation model (SEM with SERVQUAL and refined Kano models. Findings and Originality/value: Based on the analysis of data through some quantitative tools, the study helped in prioritizing the critical service attributes, which, if adopted, improved, and implemented, could lead to satisfaction of tourists. This will help a zoological park to propose more efficient and value-added improvement policies of the service Research limitations/implications: The primary limitation in the scope its sample. Because the study involved only one Zoological Park in Indonesia, the results cannot be generalized across a national wide spectrum. Originality/value: The study was the first to successfully apply an integrated model in tourism sector, which has previously not been used. The study has hopefully opened up an area of research and methodology that could provide considerable further benefits for researchers interested in this topic. Moreover, the integrated model has proven to be useful in determining the priority rank of critical service quality attributes.

  8. Correspondence of perceived vs. objective proximity to parks and their relationship to park-based physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaczynski Andrew T

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parks are key environmental resources for encouraging population-level physical activity (PA. In measuring availability of parks, studies have employed both self-reported and objective indicators of proximity, with little correspondence observed between these two types of measures. However, little research has examined how the degree of correspondence between self-reported and objectively-measured distance to parks is influenced by individual, neighborhood, and park-related variables, or which type of measure is more strongly related to physical activity outcomes. Methods We used data from 574 respondents who reported the distance to their closest park and compared this with objective measurements of proximity to the closest park. Both indicators were dichotomized as having or not having a park within 750 m. Audits of all park features within this distance were also conducted and other personal characteristics and neighborhood context variables (safety, connectedness, aesthetics were gleaned from participants' survey responses. Participants also completed detailed seven-day PA log booklets from which measures of neighborhood-based and park-based PA were derived. Results Agreement was poor in that only 18% of respondents achieved a match between perceived and objective proximity to the closest park (kappa = 0.01. Agreement was higher among certain subgroups, especially those who reported engaging in at least some park-based PA. As well, respondents with a greater number of parks nearby, whose closest park had more features, and whose closest park contained a playground or wooded area were more likely to achieve a match. Having a ball diamond or soccer field in the closest park was negatively related to achieving a match between perceived and objective proximity. Finally, engaging in at least some park-based PA was not related to either perceived or objective proximity to a park, but was more likely when a match between and

  9. Parking taxes : evaluating options and impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litman, T.A.

    2006-01-01

    In addition to encouraging the use of alternative modes of transport, parking taxes can help to reduce congestion, air pollution, and urban sprawl. Various types of parking taxes were evaluated in this paper, as well as their impacts on parking supply, prices and travel patterns. Examples of various parking tax programs in major cities in Canada, Europe, the United States and Australia were presented. Parking tax programs were divided into 2 main categories: (1) per-space parking levies which distribute cost burdens and encourage property owners to manage parking supply more efficiently and (2) commercial parking taxes on parking rental transactions which discourage the pricing of parking and concentrate impacts in limited areas. Worksite parking levies were discussed, as well stormwater fees and employee parking as a taxable benefit. Typical parking facility financial costs were reviewed and best practices for structuring and implementing parking taxes to increase public acceptability were outlined. It was suggested that the tax base should be broad and well-defined. Local governments should increase parking prices to market rates before imposing special parking taxes, and taxes and fees should be structured to avoid undesirable land use. Parking tax reforms should be part of an overall parking and mobility management program. Stakeholders should be consulted to insure that regulations, administrative procedures and enforcement policies are efficient and fair. The establishment of an evaluation program to determine tax impacts on parking supply and pricing, economic activity, traffic and spillover problems was also recommended. 42 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  10. Rapid ascent: Rocky Mountain National Park in the Great Acceleration, 1945-present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxell, Mark

    After the Second World War's conclusion, Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) experienced a massive rise in visitation. Mobilized by an affluent economy and a growing, auto-centric infrastructure, Americans rushed to RMNP in droves, setting off new concerns over the need for infrastructure improvements in the park. National parks across the country experienced similar explosions in visitation, inspiring utilities- and road-building campaigns throughout the park units administered by the National Park Service. The quasi-urbanization of parks like RMNP implicated the United States' public lands in a process of global change, whereby wartime technologies, cheap fossil fuels, and a culture of techno-optimism--epitomized by the Mission 66 development program--helped foster a "Great Acceleration" of human alterations of Earth's natural systems. This transformation culminated in worldwide turns toward mass-urbanization, industrial agriculture, and globalized markets. The Great Acceleration, part of the Anthropocene--a new geologic epoch we have likely entered, which proposes that humans have become a force of geologic change--is used as a conceptual tool for understanding the connections between local and global changes which shaped the park after World War II. The Great Acceleration and its array of novel technologies and hydrocarbon-powered infrastructures produced specific cultures of tourism and management techniques within RMNP. After World War II, the park increasingly became the product and distillation of a fossil fuel-dependent society.

  11. The on-street parking premium and car drivers' choice between street and garage parking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kobus, M.B.W.; Gutierrez Puigarnau, E.; Rietveld, P.; van Ommeren, J.N.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a methodology to estimate the effect of parking prices on car drivers' choice between street and garage parking. Our key identifying assumption is that the marginal benefit of parking duration does not depend on this choice. The endogeneity of parking duration is acknowledged in the

  12. Paradigm Shift in Transboundary Water Management Policy: Linking Water Environment Energy and Food (weef) to Catchment Hydropolitics - Needs, Scope and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAI, S.; Wolf, A.; Sharma, N.; Tiwari, H.

    2015-12-01

    The incessant use of water due to rapid growth of population, enhanced agricultural and industrial activities, degraded environment and ecology will in the coming decades constrain the socioeconomic development of humans. To add on to the precarious situation, political boundaries rarely embrace hydrological boundaries of lakes, rivers, aquifers etc. Hydropolitics relate to the ability of geopolitical institutions to manage shared water resources in a politically sustainable manner, i.e., without tensions or conflict between political entities. Riparian hydropolitics caters to differing objectives, needs and requirements of states making it difficult to administer the catchment. The diverse riparian objectives can be merged to form a holistic catchment objective of sustainable water resources development and management. It can be proposed to make a paradigm shift in the present-day transboundary water policy from riparian hydropolitics (in which the focal point of water resources use is hinged on state's need) to catchment hydropolitics (in which the interest of the basin inhabitants are accorded primacy holistically over state interests) and specifically wherein the water, environment, energy and food (WEEF) demands of the catchment are a priority and not of the states in particular. The demands of the basin pertaining to water, food and energy have to be fulfilled, keeping the environment and ecology healthy in a cooperative political framework; the need for which is overwhelming. In the present scenario, the policy for water resources development of a basin is segmented into independent uncoordinated parts controlled by various riparians; whereas in catchment hydropolitics the whole basin should be considered as a unit. The riparians should compromise a part of national interest and work in collaboration on a joint objective which works on the principle of the whole as against the part. Catchment hydropolitics may find greater interest in the more than 250

  13. THE ANALYSIS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AT NATIONAL PARK MANAGEMENT CIANJUR NATIONAL PARK OF MOUNT GEDE PANGRANGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tun Susdiyanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the development of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR programs based on field observations and recommend appropriate strategies in implementing CSR in the National Park Management ( PTN Cianjur Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park. Working methods in this study include the evaluation stage uses a conceptual framework for descriptive analysis and recommendations on technical and drafting stage strategy using SWOT analysis. SWOT analysis, CSR program in Cianjur PTN is aggressive ( points 2.22; 1.74 is a strategic position. Proposed development strategy that can be implemented that increase the public's understanding, increase community participation, the optimization of the use of funds, and improve the performance extension, Polhut, PEH and operators in the implementation of CSR activities.

  14. Smart Parking Management Field Test: A Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) District Parking Demonstration

    OpenAIRE

    Shaheen, Susan

    2005-01-01

    In almost every major city in the U.S. and internationally, parking problems are ubiquitous. It is well known that the limited availability of parking contributes to roadway congestion, air pollution, and driver frustration and that the cost of expanding traditional parking capacity is frequently prohibitive. However, less research has addressed the effect of insufficient parking at transit stations on transit use. In the San Francisco Bay Area, parking has recently been at or near capacity a...

  15. A Cross-Sectional Investigation of the Importance of Park Features for Promoting Regular Physical Activity in Parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigan, Sarah A; Veitch, Jenny; Crawford, David; Carver, Alison; Timperio, Anna

    2017-11-02

    Parks in the US and Australia are generally underutilised, and park visitors typically engage in low levels of physical activity (PA). Better understanding park features that may encourage visitors to be active is important. This study examined the perceived importance of park features for encouraging park-based PA and examined differences by sex, age, parental-status and participation in PA. Cross-sectional surveys were completed by local residents ( n = 2775) living near two parks (2013/2015). Demographic variables, park visitation and leisure-time PA were self-reported, respondents rated the importance of 20 park features for encouraging park-based PA in the next fortnight. Chi-square tests of independence examined differences in importance of park features for PA among sub-groups of local residents (sex, age, parental-status, PA). Park features ranked most important for park-based PA were: well maintained (96.2%), feel safe (95.4%), relaxing atmosphere (91.2%), easy to get to (91.7%), and shady trees (90.3%). All subgroups ranked 'well maintained' as most important. Natural and built environment features of parks are important for promoting adults' park-based PA, and should be considered in park (re)design.

  16. Applying value sensitive design (VSD) to wind turbines and wind parks: an exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterlaken, Ilse

    2015-04-01

    Community acceptance still remains a challenge for wind energy projects. The most popular explanation for local opposition, the Not in My Backyard effect, has received fierce criticism in the past decade. Critics argue that opposition is not merely a matter of selfishness or ignorance, but that moral, ecological and aesthetic values play an important role. In order to better take such values into account, a more bottom-up, participatory decision process is usually proposed. Research on this topic focusses on either stakeholder motivations/attitudes, or their behavior during project implementation. This paper proposes a third research focus, namely the 'objects' which elicit certain behavioral responses and attitudes-the wind turbine and parks. More concretely, this paper explores Value Sensitive Design (VSD) as way to arrive at wind turbines and parks that better embed or reflect key values. After a critical discussion of the notion of acceptance versus acceptability and support, the paper discusses existing literature on ecology and aesthetics in relation to wind turbine/park design, which could serve as 'building blocks' of a more integral VSD approach of the topic. It also discusses the challenge of demarcating wind park projects as VSD projects. A further challenge is that VSD has been applied mainly at the level of technical artifacts, whereas wind parks can best be conceptualized as socio-technical system. This new application would therefore expand the current practice of VSD, and may as a consequence also lead to interesting new insights for the VSD community. The paper concludes that such an outcome-oriented approach of wind turbines and park is worth exploring further, as a supplement to rather than a replacement of the process-oriented approach that is promoted by the current literature on community acceptance of wind parks.

  17. Armenia-To Trans-Boundary Fault: AN Example of International Cooperation in the Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakhanyan, A.; Avagyan, A.; Avanesyan, M.; Elashvili, M.; Godoladze, T.; Javakishvili, Z.; Korzhenkov, A.; Philip, S.; Vergino, E. S.

    2012-12-01

    Studies of a trans-boundary active fault that cuts through the border of Armenia to Georgia in the area of the Javakheti volcanic highland have been conducted since 2007. The studies have been implemented based on the ISTC 1418 and NATO SfP 983284 Projects. The Javakheti Fault is oriented to the north-northwest and consists of individual segments displaying clear left-stepping trend. Fault mechanism is represented by right-lateral strike-slip with normal-fault component. The fault formed distinct scarps, deforming young volcanic and glacial sediments. The maximum-size displacements are recorded in the central part of the fault and range up to 150-200 m by normal fault and 700-900 m by right-lateral strike-slip fault. On both flanks, fault scarps have younger appearance, and displacement size there decreases to tens of meters. Fault length is 80 km, suggesting that maximum fault magnitude is estimated at 7.3 according to the Wells and Coppersmith (1994) relation. Many minor earthquakes and a few stronger events (1088, Mw=6.4, 1899 Mw=6.4, 1912, Mw=6.4 and 1925, Mw=5.6) are associated with the fault. In 2011/2012, we conducted paleoseismological and archeoseismological studies of the fault. By two paleoseismological trenches were excavated in the central part of the fault, and on its northern and southern flanks. The trenches enabled recording at least three strong ancient earthquakes. Presently, results of radiocarbon age estimations of those events are expected. The Javakheti Fault may pose considerable seismic hazard for trans-boundary areas of Armenia and Georgia as its northern flank is located at the distance of 15 km from the Baku-Ceyhan pipeline.

  18. Daily and hourly chemical impact of springtime transboundary aerosols on Japanese air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Moreno

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The regular eastward drift of transboundary aerosol intrusions from the Asian mainland into the NW Pacific region has a pervasive impact on air quality in Japan, especially during springtime. Analysis of 24-h filter samples with Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES and Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS, and hourly Streaker with Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE samples collected continuously for six weeks reveal the chemistry of successive waves of natural mineral desert dust ("Kosa" and metalliferous sulphatic pollutants arriving in western Japan during spring 2011. The main aerosol sources recognised by Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF analysis of Streaker data are mineral dust and fresh sea salt (both mostly in the coarser fraction PM2.5–10, As-bearing sulphatic aerosol (PM0.1–2.5, metalliferous sodic particulate matter (PM interpreted as aged, industrially contaminated marine aerosol, and ZnCu-bearing aerosols. Whereas mineral dust arrivals are typically highly transient, peaking over a few hours, sulphatic intrusions build up and decline more slowly, and are accompanied by notable rises in ambient concentrations of metallic trace elements such as Pb, As, Zn, Sn and Cd. The magnitude of the loss in regional air quality due to the spread and persistence of pollution from mainland Asia is especially clear when cleansing oceanic air advects westward across Japan, removing the continental influence and reducing concentrations of the undesirable metalliferous pollutants by over 90%. Our new chemical database, especially the Streaker data, demonstrates the rapidly changing complexity of ambient air inhaled during these transboundary events, and implicates Chinese coal combustion as the main source of the anthropogenic aerosol component.

  19. Impacts of national parks on tourism: a case study from a prominent alpine national park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getzner, M.

    2008-01-01

    National parks and other categories of protected areas are often assumed to enhance regional economic development due to park tourism. The current study attempts to estimate the impact of the Hohe Tauern national park (Austria) on tourism by exploring whether and to what extent the national park may have had an influence on tourism development. For most national park communities, the results suggest that the establishment of the national park had some impact by enforcing an already positive trend or by weakening or reversing a negative trend of tourism. However, breakpoint tests exhibit turning points up to several years after the establishment of the park, indicating that taking a national park as the basis for tourism development is a medium to long term development strategy. In the short term, the impact of a national park on tourism is not measurable. Tourism increased by 1 to 3% annually after the breakpoint, indicating that the establishment of a national park has to be incorporated into the tourism and development strategy of a region right from the start. The causal relationship between the establishment of the national park and tourism development may be weak, in particular in communities where the difference between the actual and the forecast numbers of overnight stays is small. Marketing national park tourism and building up a brand or distinctive label may therefore contribute to regional development particularly in the long term. [it

  20. Tigers in the Terai: Strong evidence for meta-population dynamics contributing to tiger recovery and conservation in the Terai Arc Landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchan Thapa

    Full Text Available The source populations of tigers are mostly confined to protected areas, which are now becoming isolated. A landscape scale conservation strategy should strive to facilitate dispersal and survival of dispersing tigers by managing habitat corridors that enable tigers to traverse the matrix with minimal conflict. We present evidence for tiger dispersal along transboundary protected areas complexes in the Terai Arc Landscape, a priority tiger landscape in Nepal and India, by comparing camera trap data, and through population models applied to the long term camera trap data sets. The former showed that 11 individual tigers used the corridors that connected the transboundary protected areas. The estimated population growth rates using the minimum observed population size in two protected areas in Nepal, Bardia National Park and Suklaphanta National Park showed that the increases were higher than expected from growth rates due to in situ reproduction alone. These lines of evidence suggests that tigers are recolonizing Nepal's protected areas from India, after a period of population decline, and that the tiger populations in the transboundary protected areas complexes may be maintained as meta-population. Our results demonstrate the importance of adopting a landscape-scale approach to tiger conservation, especially to improve population recovery and long term population persistence.

  1. Legal issues in the transboundary movement of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelzer, N.

    2000-01-01

    The transboundary movement of radioactive waste is a politically sensitive issue, which implies the raising of complex legal questions. Transborder transportation may be governed by various national jurisdictions on its way from the State of origin via the transit States to the State of destination. The overall goal to be achieved is safe management during all the necessary steps of transport, handling, storage and disposal. Far-reaching approximation or harmonization of national law applicable is to be aimed at in order to facilitate transboundary movement. Article 27 of the 1997 Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (Joint Convention) provides for a regime which, in principle, is appropriate. However, there are still open questions and, perhaps, lacunae remaining. Low risk materials exempt or released from regulatory control create specific problems owing to the fact that there are no agreed exemption or clearance levels which could be the base for unified legal provisions. The carrier may face different levels from State to State. The movement of radioactive waste by sea or air outside national jurisdictions is governed by the rules of Public International Law, especially by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, which in major parts is a codification of existing International Customary Law. During transport on the high seas, the ship is under the jurisdiction of the State under which flag she is sailing. If the nuclear cargo is loaded onto a ship sailing under the flag of a non-contracting party to the Joint Convention, there may be legal problems with regard to whether and to what extent the Joint Convention is applicable, even if the State of origin or the State of destination is a contracting party to the Joint Convention. If a nuclear incident occurs during the movement of the waste, complicated questions of nuclear liability law will have to be solved. As far as the

  2. Spatial analysis related to the location characteristics of park supply. Case study: Music Park and Pendawa Park, Bandung City, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, A.; Akbar, R.; Maryati, S.; Natalivan, P.

    2018-05-01

    Public space plays a role in defining the character of a city and is a valuable asset for a city and one of the indicators in assessing whether a city is considered successful or not. In the context of urban sociology, high-quality public spaces with well-maintained environments can improve the quality of the heterogeneous life of urban social communities by creating economic, social, or environmental value-added. Urban societies tend to be heterogeneous, individualistic, and characterized by high competition that often causes conflicts. Another reason for conflicts is the relatively high social differentiation because of the level of religious differences, customs, languages, and sociocultural aspects brought by immigrants from various regions. In the context of space, the city is a system that does not stand alone because internally the city is a unified system of functional activities in it. Meanwhile, externally, the city is influenced by its surrounding environment. As part of the public space, park has an important role in the environmental, aesthetic, recreational, psychological, social, educational, and economic aspects of the city. Public space can be understood as open spaces in urban areas, where everyone regardless their interests and backgrounds can be intersectional and have social contact and serve as an “urban regenerator” including educational functions through innovation and technological intervention. Moreover, park can also absorb carbon dioxide emissions, produce oxygen, improve air and water quality, regulate the microclimate, reduce noise, protect soil and water, and maintain biodiversity. However, many things cause the function of parks to decrease. One reason relates to the distribution of parks related to the characteristics of their location. Research has not seen many studies on the characteristics of locations in the planning of public space. The provision of public space should consider these location characteristics. This study

  3. Interview with Steve Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Jennifer Hitchcock interviews community activist and director of Syracuse University's Composition and Cultural Rhetoric doctoral program, Steve Parks. They discuss Parks's working-class background, career path, influences, and activism. Parks also considers the direction of the field of composition and rhetoric and expresses optimism for the…

  4. Automated Car Park Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabros, J. P.; Tabañag, D.; Espra, A.; Gerasta, O. J.

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to develop a prototype for an Automated Car Park Management System that will increase the quality of service of parking lots through the integration of a smart system that assists motorist in finding vacant parking lot. The research was based on implementing an operating system and a monitoring system for parking system without the use of manpower. This will include Parking Guidance and Information System concept which will efficiently assist motorists and ensures the safety of the vehicles and the valuables inside the vehicle. For monitoring, Optical Character Recognition was employed to monitor and put into list all the cars entering the parking area. All parking events in this system are visible via MATLAB GUI which contain time-in, time-out, time consumed information and also the lot number where the car parks. To put into reality, this system has a payment method, and it comes via a coin slot operation to control the exit gate. The Automated Car Park Management System was successfully built by utilizing microcontrollers specifically one PIC18f4550 and two PIC16F84s and one PIC16F628A.

  5. Orlice Nature Park - environmental themes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanus, L.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this abstract is to outline the main characteristics of Orlice Nature Park and of the procedure of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), and to evaluate public interest in the nature park and in nature protection in general. Orlice Nature Park was instituted in 1996. The function of the park is to protect the character of the area of landscape around the River Orlice. Orlice Natural Park covers an area of 115 sq. km. The main environmental risks to the park are: intensive agriculture, forest mono-culture, industry, transport, channel improvement, the building of holiday cottages, sport, and recreation. Among the conflicts of interest in the park are: nature protection, water management, building constrictions, business, fishery, water sports and recreation. During the process of Environmental Impact Assessment in Hradec Kralove, the public voiced its opinion against the building of a supermarket within the grounds of of the nature park. In this case the public showed its interest in the value of nature and landscape, the value of human health and the value of plant species. In general, the public and the local media show an interest in the park only in exceptional circumstances. (author)

  6. How downstream sub-basins depend on upstream inflows to avoid scarcity: typology and global analysis of transboundary rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munia, Hafsa Ahmed; Guillaume, Joseph H. A.; Mirumachi, Naho; Wada, Yoshihide; Kummu, Matti

    2018-05-01

    Countries sharing river basins are often dependent upon water originating outside their boundaries; meaning that without that upstream water, water scarcity may occur with flow-on implications for water use and management. We develop a formalisation of this concept drawing on ideas about the transition between regimes from resilience literature, using water stress and water shortage as indicators of water scarcity. In our analytical framework, dependency occurs if water from upstream is needed to avoid scarcity. This can be diagnosed by comparing different types of water availability on which a sub-basin relies, in particular local runoff and upstream inflows. At the same time, possible upstream water withdrawals reduce available water downstream, influencing the latter water availability. By developing a framework of scarcity and dependency, we contribute to the understanding of transitions between system regimes. We apply our analytical framework to global transboundary river basins at the scale of sub-basin areas (SBAs). Our results show that 1175 million people live under water stress (42 % of the total transboundary population). Surprisingly, the majority (1150 million) of these currently suffer from stress only due to their own excessive water use and possible water from upstream does not have impact on the stress status - i.e. they are not yet dependent on upstream water to avoid stress - but could still impact on the intensity of the stress. At the same time, 386 million people (14 %) live in SBAs that can avoid stress owing to available water from upstream and have thus upstream dependency. In the case of water shortage, 306 million people (11 %) live in SBAs dependent on upstream water to avoid possible shortage. The identification of transitions between system regimes sheds light on how SBAs may be affected in the future, potentially contributing to further refined analysis of inter- and intrabasin hydro-political power relations and strategic planning

  7. The São Paulo Science and Technology Park (CienTec Park)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, M. S. M.; Bernardelli Massabki, P.; Massambani, O.

    2003-04-01

    The State Park of Ipiranga Springs (PEFI), a native forest of 543 ha enclosed in one of the world largest Metropolis, represents more than 10% of the total of the green areas in the city of São Paulo. This space has been preserved through the efforts of three main institutions: the Botanic Garden, the Zoo Foundation and the University of São Paulo (USP). The districts surrounding the Park, with c.a. 2 millions of inhabitants, are mostly low-income families, with limited opportunities of leisure and cultural activity. There, violence and crime present the highest index for the whole Metropolitan Region, and recent statistics indicate a growing demographic pressure to occupy these areas. The proposal of the University of São Paulo, to promote in its property within PEFI a Science and Technology Park, represents a rare opportunity and valuable contribution to the social promotion in these districts and to the maintenance of that portion of green area: a residue of the Serra do Mar (Atlantic) Forest. This space of 141 ha of which 20 ha were occupied by the Astronomy, Geophysics and Atmosphere Science Institute of USP, encloses an exceptionally interesting inheritage for the City of São Paulo. A set of historical buildings of the fourth decade of last century, was recognized by the Council for the Preservation of Historical, Archeological, Artistic and Tourist Heritage of the State of São Paulo, and the City Council for the Preservation of Historical, Cultural and Natural Heritage of the City of São Paulo. The USP proposal resulted into an agreement with the Science and Technology Secretary of the São Paulo State Government, that supported financially the basic architectural project. This project was elaborated by seven of the most gifted Brazilian Architects, taking into account the restoration of the historical buildings and their integration with a new architectural set where the exhibits, interactive activities and cultural programs will take place. While the

  8. Park It!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2010-01-01

    Many artists visit national parks to draw, paint and take photographs of some of the most amazing scenery on earth. Raw nature is one of the greatest inspirations to an artist, and artists can be credited for helping inspire the government to create the National Park System. This article features Thomas Moran (1837-1926), one of the artists who…

  9. iPark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Bin; Fantini, Ernesto Nicolas; Jensen, Christian S.

    2013-01-01

    where the geo-spatial aspect is not just a tag on other content, but is the primary content, e.g., a city street map with up-to-date road construction data. Along these lines, the iPark system aims to turn volumes of GPS data obtained from vehicles into information about the locations of parking spaces...

  10. Supplemental Environmental Baseline Survey for Proposed Land Use Permit Modification for Expansion of the Dynamic Explosive Test Site (DETS) 9940 Main Complex Parking Lot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peek, Dennis W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The “subject property” is comprised of a parcel of land within the Kirtland Military Reservation, Bernalillo County, New Mexico, as shown on the map in Appendix B of this document. The land requirement for the parking lot addition to the 9940 Main Complex is approximately 2.7 acres. The scope of this Supplemental Environmental Baseline Survey (SEBS) is for the parking lot addition land transfer only. For details on the original 9940 Main Complex see Environmental Baseline Survey, Land Use Permit Request for the 9940 Complex PERM/0-KI-00-0001, August 21, 2003, and for details on the 9940 Complex Expansion see Environmental Baseline Survey, Proposed Land Use Permit Expansion for 9940 DETS Complex, June 24, 2009. The 2.7-acre parcel of land for the new parking lot, which is the subject of this EBS (also referred to as the “subject property”), is adjacent to the southwest boundary of the original 12.3- acre 9940 Main Complex. No testing is known to have taken place on the subject property site. The only activity known to have taken place was the burial of overhead utility lines in 2014. Adjacent to the subject property, the 9940 Main Complex was originally a 12.3-acre site used by the Department of Energy (DOE) under a land use permit from the United States Air Force (USAF). Historical use of the site, dating from 1964, included arming, fusing, and firing of explosives and testing of explosives systems components. In the late 1970s and early 1980s experiments at the 9940 Main Complex shifted toward reactor safety issues. From 1983 to 1988, fuel coolant interaction (FCI) experiments were conducted, as were experiments with conventional high explosives (HE). Today, the land is used for training of the Nuclear Emergency Response community and for research on energetic materials. In 2009, the original complex was expanded to include four additional 20-acre areas: 9940 Training South, 9940 Training East, T-Range 6, and Training West Landing Zone. The proposed use of

  11. State Park Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set is a collection of ArcView shapefiles (by park) of trails within statutory boundaries of individual MN State Parks, State Recreation Areas and State...

  12. Pulsars at Parkes

    OpenAIRE

    Manchester, R. N.

    2012-01-01

    The first pulsar observations were made at Parkes on March 8, 1968, just 13 days after the publication of the discovery paper by Hewish and Bell. Since then, Parkes has become the world's most successful pulsar search machine, discovering nearly two thirds of the known pulsars, among them many highly significant objects. It has also led the world in pulsar polarisation and timing studies. In this talk I will review the highlights of pulsar work at Parkes from those 1968 observations to about ...

  13. Parking Space Detection and Trajectory Tracking Control for Vehicle Auto-Parking

    OpenAIRE

    Shiuh-Jer Huang; Yu-Sheng Hsu

    2017-01-01

    On-board available parking space detecting system, parking trajectory planning and tracking control mechanism are the key components of vehicle backward auto-parking system. Firstly, pair of ultrasonic sensors is installed on each side of vehicle body surface to detect the relative distance between ego-car and surrounding obstacle. The dimension of a found empty space can be calculated based on vehicle speed and the time history of ultrasonic sensor detecting information. This result can be u...

  14. Design and research on the electronic parking brake system of the medium and heavy duty vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang WANG

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on auto control of parking brake system of the medium and heavy duty vehicles, the key problems are studied including the system design and control strategies. The structure and working principle of the parking brake system of the medium and heavy duty vehicles are analyzed. The functions of EPB are proposed. The important information of the vehicle are analyzed which could influence the EPB system. The overall plan of the pneumatic EPB system is designed, which adopts the two-position three-way electromagnetic valve with double coil as actuator. The system could keep the vehicle parking brake status or parking release status for a long time without power supply. The function modules of the system are planned, and the control strategies of automatic parking brake and parking release are made. The experiment is performed on a medium-sized commercial vehicle which is experimentally modified. The overall plan of the pneumatic EPB system and the automatic parking function are proved through real vehicle tests.

  15. Modified Motor Vehicles Travel Speed Models on the Basis of Curb Parking Setting under Mixed Traffic Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Mei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing controversy about in what condition should we set the curb parking has few definitive answers because comprehensive research in this area has been lacking. Our goal is to present a set of heuristic urban street speed functions under mixed traffic flow by taking into account impacts of curb parking. Two impacts have been defined to classify and quantify the phenomena of motor vehicles' speed dynamics in terms of curb parking. The first impact is called Space impact, which is caused by the curb parking types. The other one is the Time impact, which results from the driver maneuvering in or out of parking space. In this paper, based on the empirical data collected from six typical urban streets in Nanjing, China, two models have been proposed to describe these phenomena for one-way traffic and two-way traffic, respectively. An intensive experiment has been conducted in order to calibrate and validate these proposed models, by taking into account the complexity of the model parameters. We also provide guidelines in terms of how to cluster and calculate those models' parameters. Results from these models demonstrated promising performance of modeling motor vehicles' speed for mixed traffic flow under the influence of curb parking.

  16. Public parks as urban tourism in Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiati, M. P.; Lestari, N. S.; Wiastuti, R. D.

    2018-03-01

    Sustainable urban tourism development should provide better places for people to live in and for people to visit. Jakarta as the capital city has a potential for its urban tourism. Thus, urban tourism attribute such as Public Park should be in high- quality to cope with the needs of urban people and outside visitors. The purpose of this study is to investigate Public Park attributes and to analyze its compliance refer to Public Park that eventually supports sustainable urban tourism. This paper used a qualitative approach. Primary data obtain from direct field observation in seven Public Parks in Jakarta; Menteng Park, Suropati Park, Situ Lembang Park, Ayodhya Park, Cattleya Park, Kodok Park, and Langsat Park. Observation checks list use as guidance. The result provides an assessment of Public Park based on four categories; the accessibility, park activities, safety, and user. The implication of this study offers recommendations to enhance Public Park so that it complies with good public park design- attributes and with the obligations of sustainable urban tourism in Jakarta.

  17. URBAN MUNICIPAL PARKS IN DOURADOS – MS – BRAZIL: THE STATE OF THE ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristiane Fernandes da Silva Lunas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The urban environmental conditions are an increasing concern in several segments of civil society and the urban parks are part of this context. However, discussions about urban parks are less emphatic when compared to the prominence given to other environmental problems. This study sought to report the real situation of the three main urban environmental parks in the municipality of Dourados/MS, presenting their current state of conservation and maintenance and the main management actions that have been taken since the creation of each park. The main goal of this study was to identify the situation of these parks to propose measures that will help their conservation. The methodology consisted of the bibliographical survey, which reinforced the importance of green areas in urban spaces, a detailed field survey in the parks, as well as the study of documents that broached these parks. It was possible to verify that the parks have grave environmental problems and they are at risk due to poor conservation. Furthermore, the population starts to feel the social impact of abandoned urban green areas, besides the environmental effects. It was noted that the punctual projects elaborated for the parks have not had the desired effects, given the difficulty of allocating resources and the existence of political barriers. To that end, the elaboration of management plans for the parks was recommended, besides a detailed study about the management model that has been developed in these areas.

  18. "Europe's wild heart" - new transboundary wilderness in the middle of the Old Continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans Kiener; Zdenka Krenova

    2011-01-01

    The new born wilderness area "Europe's Wild Heart" is located on the border of two Central European states and is shared by two national parks - Bavarian Forest National Park and Sumava National Park. The Bavarian Forest NP with an area of more than 24,000 ha and the Sumava NP with more than 68,000 ha create the largest island of protected nature in the...

  19. Improvement of Theme Park Marketing Mode:A Case Study of Theme Parks in Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min; LI; Gaoli; XIONG

    2013-01-01

    Construction of theme park has been launched since the early 1990s in Chengdu City,but ended up as a losing proposition after its short-term prosperity because of similar scale and similarity with those in other cities.As more international well-known theme parks entering the market,theme parks in Chengdu have been faced with the transition,and novel concepts are also introduced into the operation of these parks.To adapt to the market,it is imperative to make marketing strategies and combine marketing elements.Through analyzing current development of local theme parks and introducing successful marketing modes of domestic and overseas theme parks,a favorable marketing mode for theme parks in Chengdu was defined on the basis of fully exploring Ba-Shu culture(Ba and Shu are two ancient kingdoms in the history of Sichuan).By defining a favorable theme,focusing more on visitors’experience,devoting more in developing new products,adopting flexible price strategies,and integrating advertisement marketing,internet marketing,and other marketing methods,outstanding brands will be formed,and tourism cultures with distinguished features of Chengdu will be created.

  20. Hydrological picture of Nišava trans-boundary catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristova Nelly

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on hydrographic and hydrological specific of Nišava River. It uses all hydrometric and cartographic information for the Bulgarian part of the catchment. Trans-boundary catchment of Nišava River includes four sub-basins, which are trans-borders too. There are a lot of karst areas in the river basin. The drainage density is 1.09 km/km2. Water resources of Nišava River are 170 million m3. They vary between 300.0 and 84.0 million m3. The period of high water appears in March/April and finishes in June. The frequency of monthly maximum is biggest in April or May. The monthly minimum appears most often in September or October. Floods in the catchment of the river Nišava are most often in March, May and June. Some of the rivers lose its waters in the karst areas and dries up during the summer. The average number of days with ice is between 10 and 70. The chemical and ecological status of river water is good. .

  1. Smart parking management and navigation system

    KAUST Repository

    Saadeldin, Mohamed

    2017-11-09

    Various examples are provided for smart parking management, which can include navigation. In one example, a system includes a base station controller configured to: receive a wireless signal from a parking controller located at a parking space; determine a received signal strength indicator (RSSI) from the wireless signal; and identify a presence of a vehicle located at the parking space based at least in part on the RSSI. In another example, a method includes receiving a wireless signals from a base station controller and a parking controller located at a parking space; determining RSSIs from the wireless signals; and determining a location of the mobile computing device in a parking facility based at least in part on the RSSIs. In another example, a RSSI can be received, a parking occupancy can be determined using the RSSI, and an electronic record can be updated based on the parking occupancy.

  2. The international legal position on transboundary shipments of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimston, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    The recent decision not to grant planning permission for construction of a Rock Characterisation Facility near Sellafield has reopened the question of long-term radioactive waste disposal policy in the UK. One possible solution would be the construction and operation of a small number of international radioactive waste disposal facilities, taking waste from several countries. Such an approach would allow pooling of international expertise; would allow the choice of excellent sites from geological and demographical standpoints; and may be economically attractive depending on economies of scale. However, the approach would also increase the amount of waste transport, and may reduce the pressure on producers to reduce the volumes of waste arising. This paper traces the development of international legal attitudes to transboundary transport of radioactive and other hazardous waste. It concludes that as international law now stands it would be very difficult to establish a network of international waste disposal facilities, and therefore strategies which are developed will be nationally based. (Author)

  3. A Framework for the Strategic Management of Science & Technology Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Ribeiro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Science and technology parks (STPs have been playing an increasingly influential role in the stimulation and growth of the knowledge economy. However, the spread of STPs faces relevant challenges, such as the development of robust performance management systems, able to demonstrate results and indicate improvement opportunities. Thereby, this paper proposes a theoretical model of performance management, which combines premises of the Service-Dominant Logic (S-D Logic, the Balanced Scorecard (BSC and the General Hierarchical Model (GHM. Based on a multiple-case exploratory and qualitative study, relevant information about the strategic planning and management of these projects were extracted and paved the way for the construction of a performance hierarchical model composed of five perspectives, according to the BSC. Considering the outcomes, it is expected that the proposed model provide useful insights for the consolidation of a framework for the strategic management of science and technology parks.

  4. Smart Parking Management Pilot Project: A Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) District Parking Demonstration

    OpenAIRE

    Shaheen, Susan; Rodier, Caroline; Eaken, Amanda M.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents early findings from an application of advanced parking technologies to maximize existing parking capacity at the Rockridge BART station, which was launched in December 2004 in the East San Francisco Bay Area. The smart parking system includes traffic sensors that count the number of vehicles entering and exiting the parking lots at the station. A reservation system allows travelers to reserve spaces by Internet, personal digital assistant (PDA), phone, and cell phone. The...

  5. Comment: On Science and Pseudo-Science in National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asten, Michael W.

    2004-01-01

    The article by Wilfred Elders, ``Different Views of the Grand Canyon,'' (Eos, 23 September 2003) is a valuable reminder of the continuing need for geoscientists to argue geological facts with groups who confuse belief with scientific study. However, his good work is somewhat diminished by the suggestion at the end of his article that a book published by creationists should not be sold within a National Park. There is a whiff of censorship in this proposal that could have consequences beyond what he may intend. I have noted in parks in the United States, and probably more obviously in parks in my own country of Australia, that much literature is available on the origins of the park's geology, flora, and fauna, as presented by the lore of indigenous peoples who claim historical links with the area. Any attempt to censor literature published by creationists would logically result in censorship of material from traditional custodians of the land as well, since their material is equally dubious in terms of its scientific foundation as seen by our post-Darwinian science. Such an attempt at censorship would be both unhelpful and unnecessary for the advancement of our profession in the eyes of the public.

  6. Envisioning Parking Strategies in the Framework of Sustainable Urban Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Circella

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Parking policies and regulations are important tools in planning for the governance of urban mobility. The proper design and location of parking facilities, in fact, contributes to an efficient use of the transportation system (or it may reduce its efficiency, when these infrastructures are not properly planned. This paper discusses the role of parking as part of the policy packages for strategic planning aimed at increasing the sustainability of urban and metropolitan areas. In particular, the integration of parking strategies in a comprehensive vision for the future of a city may significantly improve the allocation of resources and the reduction of the overall environmental externalities. The role of parking in the strategic planning of cities is discussed through the analysis of several recent projects in the city of Bari (Italy. The paper discusses the way these projects are linked (or eventually not linked to broader strategies for urban mobility, and how they might be coordinated into policy packages that promote more sustainable transportation. The use of an integrated land use transportation modeling approach to simulate the long-term evolution of the urban area may significantly contribute to estimate the long-term effects of the proposed policies. This approach may successfully support the process of policy evaluation and the selection of the optimal strategies to implement.

  7. Study on ecological conservation planning of Xianyue Park in Xiamen City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Naizhong; Xi, Rong; Ren, Tingyan; Zhao, Peng; Chuai, Zeyao

    2017-08-01

    The paper discusses the current situation and existing problems of ecological restoration and tourist infrastructure development of Xiamen Xianyue Park located in Xiamen Island, China. Issues of ecosystem restoration and landscape improvement, restoring habitats, and ecosystem management system are analyzed. Options of further optimization of the tourist-targeted infrastructure are proposed, which take into account the ecological system and landscape pattern optimization, promotion of ecotourism, and implementation of the ecological management system. The particular solution envisages the park zoning with three primary zones (ecological protection, ecological buffer, and general activity zones) and five secondary ones (scenic landscape, ecotourism, religious activity, buildings and structures, and entertainment zones). By integrating the ecological principles into other land use objectives, taking full advantage of the park ecological and cultural heritage, and improving its ecological management, it is expected to provide the ecological restoration of the park under study and optimize its contribution to the regional economic and social development.

  8. Inventory of Bryophytes in the “Bulgarka” Nature Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plamen S. Stoyanov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study reports data on the diversity of bryophytes in the Bulgarka Nature Park. The registered 55 species belonged to 23 families and 46 genera. Six species were with conservationstatus; 2 were assessed as Not Evaluated. The main threats were assessed and measures towardsbryophyte conservation were proposed.

  9. A Novel Location-Centric IoT-Cloud Based On-Street Car Parking Violation Management System in Smart Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Thanh; Kim, Younghan

    2016-06-02

    Nowadays, in big cities, parking management is a critical issue from both the driver's side and the city government's side. From the driver's side, how to find an available parking lot in a city is a considerable concern. As a result, smart parking systems recently have received great interest, both in academia and industry. From the city government's side, how to manage and distribute such a limited public parking resource efficiently to give every visitor a fair chance of finding an on-street parking lot is also a considerable concern. However, existing studies of smart parking management focus only on assisting the driver's side to find available parking spaces. This study aims to raise a new perspective on such smart parking management and to propose a novel location-centric IoT-cloud-based parking violation management system. The system is designed to assist authoritative officers in finding parking violations easily and recommends the least cost path for officers so that officers can achieve their highest productivity in finding parking violations and issuing parking tickets. Experimental results show that the system not only improves the productivity of officers in finding parking violations and issuing tickets, but also helps reduce the traveling cost of officers and to reduce the average violation period of violating cars considerably.

  10. Hotspot identification of trans-boundary water conflict due to anthropogenic water use and climate change in the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, A.; Yoshikawa, S.; Kanae, S.

    2014-12-01

    A significant fraction of world population is projected to experience increased water stress in response to the combined effects of population growth and climate change. Some previous studies have suggested that high water stress had significant causality for civil war, and militarized conflict and trans-boundary water conflict in international river basin. On the other hand, some previous empirical analyses have found that institutionalization (e.g., specific provisions in trans-boundary freshwater treaties) in international river basin was associated with a lower risk of water conflicts during water scarcity. The purpose of this study is to identify these water conflict "hotspots", integrating institutional and governance mechanisms of adaptations to impact of water stress. These adaptations is classified to 4 abilities and skills and then used to calculate the adaptive capacity. The adaptive capacity includes the way to manage water conflict effectively, plan to deal with uncertainty in the future, alter current situation and create institutionalization with common perspective throughout the whole activities. This study identifies water conflict "hotspots" by combining high water stress areas projected by a global water resource model and a lower degree of the adaptive capacity. This study finds that 9 water conflict "hotspots" in Africa, Asia and South America.

  11. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PARKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Milutinović

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of science and technology parks is necessarily accompanied by the establishment of a base of professional staff as the foundation of the park and the base of the potential management that will manage the park and the professional staff. Science and Technology Park is a broader term used to describe a variety of attempts directed at enhancing the entrepreneurship development by means of establishing knowledge – based, small and medium-sized enterprises. The enterprise at the top of the technology pyramid receives support in the form of capital, administration, space and access to new information technologies. The overall objective of the development of industrial enterprises in the technology park is the introduction of economically profitable production with the efficient usage of nonrenewable resources and the application of the highest environmental standards. Achieving the primary developmental objective of the Technology Park includes: creating a favorable business atmosphere in the local community, attractive to both foreign and domestic investors – providing support to the establishment of small and medium-sized enterprises using different models of joint ventures and direct foreign investment.

  12. Smart parking management system with decal electronics system

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Wicaksono, Irmandy

    2017-01-01

    Various examples are related to parking management, including identifying and reserving empty parking spaces. In one example, a smart parking space system includes a parking controller located at a parking space. The parking controller can identify a vehicle located at the parking space via an input sensor or a transceiver that initiates wireless communication with an electronic tag associated with the vehicle; and communicate a parking vacancy associated with the parking space to a remote computing device based at least in part on the identification of the vehicle. In another example, a computing device can receive parking vacancy data associated with a parking space from a parking controller; determine a parking vacancy associated with the parking space using the parking vacancy data; and encode for display on a client device a network page that includes an indication of the parking vacancy associated with the parking space.

  13. Smart parking management system with decal electronics system

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-09-21

    Various examples are related to parking management, including identifying and reserving empty parking spaces. In one example, a smart parking space system includes a parking controller located at a parking space. The parking controller can identify a vehicle located at the parking space via an input sensor or a transceiver that initiates wireless communication with an electronic tag associated with the vehicle; and communicate a parking vacancy associated with the parking space to a remote computing device based at least in part on the identification of the vehicle. In another example, a computing device can receive parking vacancy data associated with a parking space from a parking controller; determine a parking vacancy associated with the parking space using the parking vacancy data; and encode for display on a client device a network page that includes an indication of the parking vacancy associated with the parking space.

  14. Data sharing in international transboundary contexts: The Vietnamese perspective on data sharing in the Lower Mekong Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thu, Hang Ngo; Wehn, Uta

    2016-05-01

    Transboundary data sharing is widely recognised as a necessary element in the successful handling of water-related climate change issues, as it is a means towards integrated water resources management (IWRM). However, in practice it is often a challenge to achieve it. The Mekong River Commission (MRC), an inter-governmental agency established by Cambodia, Lao PDR, Thailand and Vietnam, has adopted IWRM in its water strategy plan in order to properly manage the transboundary waters of the Mekong River. In this context, data sharing procedures were institutionalised and have been officially implemented by the four member countries since 2001. This paper uses a systematic approach to identify the extent of data sharing and the factors influencing the willingness of key individuals in the Vietnam National Mekong Committee and its Primary Custodians to share data. We find that the initial objectives of the Procedures for Data and Information Exchange and Sharing (PDIES) have not been fully achieved and, further, that Vietnam has much to gain and little to lose by engaging in data sharing in the MRC context. The primary motivation for data sharing stems from the desire to protect national benefits and to prevent upstream countries from overexploiting the shared water resources. However, data sharing is hindered by a lack of national regulations in the Vietnam context concerning data sharing between state agencies and outdated information management systems.

  15. Understanding parking habits at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2016-01-01

    The SMB department is setting up a monitoring system in certain CERN car parks in order to evaluate their occupancy rates and subsequently make them easier to use.    Vehicle registration plate readers (red triangles) are now installed at the entrances and exits of the Le Cèdres car park (in orange) and of the Building 4 and 5 one (in blue). The 2 other car parks (Building 40 in violet and “high-voltage” in green) will be equipped at a later stage. Vehicle registration plate readers are now installed at the entrances and exits of the Les Cèdres car park and of the Building 4 and 5 car park, both on the Meyrin site. The information collected by these readers will allow the occupancy levels of these car parks to be analysed throughout the day, establishing periods of peak usage and the pattern of vehicle movements. “We have been experiencing parking problems at CERN for several years n...

  16. 75 FR 3488 - Notice of Public Meetings for the National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... held on Saturday, February 20, 2010, from 7 p.m. to 8:30 p.m. and Sunday, February 21, 2010, from 9 a.m... Clarence Summers, Subsistence Manager, Tel. (907) 644-3603. The proposed meeting agenda for each meeting... Agenda. 6. Status of SRC Membership. 7. SRC Member Reports. 8. Park Subsistence Manager's Report. 9. Park...

  17. The Open Space Sculptures Used in the Gençlik Park towards Visual Perception of Park Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Polat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban parks are the most important areas that allow recreational activities in our towns. Increasing the visual quality of urban parks provides positive impacts on urban quality. Besides the artistic and technical features of open space sculptures which are used for urban park designs are the visual perceptions and preferences of park users are also important. In the context of this study, six sculptures in Gençlik Park which is in the boundaries Ankara have been considered. The aim of the study, to measure the visual quality of the sculptures in the urban parks through park users and to reveal the relationship between visual landscape indicators (of being interesting, coherence, complexity, meaningfulness, and mystery and the visual quality. For this purpose, the six pieces in Ankara Youth Park of sculpture were evaluated the scope of research. According to the results of the study; it was realized that park users like sculptures visually. A statistically significant relationship was found between the visual quality of the sculptures and some landscape indicators (to be interesting, mystery and harmony. In addition to these, some suggestions were made regarding the use of sculptures in urban parks.

  18. A Survey of Intelligent Car Parking System

    OpenAIRE

    Faheem; S.A. Mahmud; G.M. Khan; M. Rahman; H. Zafar

    2013-01-01

    The industrialization of the world, increase in population, slow paced city development and mismanagement of the available parking space has resulted in parking related problems. There is a dire need for a secure, intelligent, efficient and reliable system which can be used for searching the unoccupied parking facility, guidance towards the parking facility, negotiation of the parking fee, along with the proper management of the parking facility. Intelligent Parking Service is a part of Intel...

  19. Parking Space Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg Peter Jensen, Troels; Thomsen Schmidt, Helge; Dyremose Bodin, Niels

    2018-01-01

    system, based on a Convolutional Neural Network, that is capable of determining if a parking space is occupied or not. A benchmark database consisting of images captured from different parking areas, under different weather and illumination conditions, has been used to train and test the system...

  20. Access to Parks for Youth as an Environmental Justice Issue: Access Inequalities and Possible Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Rigolon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Although repeated contact with nature helps foster mental and physical health among young people, their contact with nature has been diminishing over the last few decades. Also, low-income and ethnic minority children have even less contact with nature than white middle-income children. In this study, we compared accessibility to play in parks for young people from different income and racial backgrounds in Denver, Colorado. Park access for children and youth was measured using a geographic information system (GIS. Each neighborhood was classified according to income level, residential density, and distance from downtown; and then each park was classified based on formal and informal play, and level of intimacy. Comparisons between neighborhoods show that that low-income neighborhoods have the lowest access and high-income neighborhoods have the highest access to parks, and that differences are even higher for parks with play amenities and high levels of intimacy. To overcome this issue, the paper proposes a framework for action to improve access to parks for low-income children and youth and to help planners, decision makers and advocacy groups prioritize park investments.

  1. Transboundary aquifers along the Canada–USA border: Science, policy and social issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Rivera

    2015-09-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: This analysis emphasizes the need for more scientific data, widespread education and training, and a more clearly defined governments’ role to manage groundwater at the international level. The study reviews the current legal framework and summarises the current scientific knowledge for the TAS with respect to the hydrologic and geologic framework as well as some of the major drivers for supply and demand. It also describes the links, approach and relevance of studies on the TAS to the UN Law of Transboundary Aquifers and on how these might fit in the regional strategy for the assessment and management of the TAS. Clear communication, shared knowledge and common objectives in the management of TAS will prepare the countries for future negotiations and cooperative binational programs.

  2. Optimal Electricity Distribution Framework for Public Space: Assessing Renewable Energy Proposals for Freshkills Park, New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaan Ozgun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Integrating renewable energy into public space is becoming more common as a climate change solution. However, this approach is often guided by the environmental pillar of sustainability, with less focus on the economic and social pillars. The purpose of this paper is to examine this issue in the speculative renewable energy propositions for Freshkills Park in New York City submitted for the 2012 Land Art Generator Initiative (LAGI competition. This paper first proposes an optimal electricity distribution (OED framework in and around public spaces based on relevant ecology and energy theory (Odum’s fourth and fifth law of thermodynamics. This framework addresses social engagement related to public interaction, and economic engagement related to the estimated quantity of electricity produced, in conjunction with environmental engagement related to the embodied energy required to construct the renewable energy infrastructure. Next, the study uses the OED framework to analyse the top twenty-five projects submitted for the LAGI 2012 competition. The findings reveal an electricity distribution imbalance and suggest a lack of in-depth understanding about sustainable electricity distribution within public space design. The paper concludes with suggestions for future research.

  3. Forecasting the Depletion of Transboundary Groundwater Resources in Hyper-Arid Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, A.; Heggy, E.

    2014-12-01

    The increase in awareness about the overexploitation of transboundary groundwater resources in hyper-arid environments that occurred in the last decades has highlighted the need to better map, monitor and manage these resources. Climate change, economic and population growth are driving forces that put more pressure on these fragile but fundamental resources. The aim of our approach is to address the question of whether or not groundwater resources, especially non-renewable, could serve as "backstop" water resource during water shortage periods that would probably affect the drylands in the upcoming 100 years. The high dependence of arid regions on these resources requires prudent management to be able to preserve their fossil aquifers and exploit them in a more sustainable way. We use the NetLogo environment with the FAO Aquastat Database to evaluate if the actual trends of extraction, consumption and use of non-renewable groundwater resources would remain feasible with the future climate change impacts and the population growth scenarios. The case studies selected are three: the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System, shared between Egypt, Libya, Sudan and Chad; the North Western Sahara Aquifer System, with Algeria, Tunisia and Libya and the Umm Radhuma Dammam Aquifer, in its central part, shared between Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Bahrain. The reason these three fossil aquifers were selected are manifold. First, they represent properly transboundary non-renewable groundwater resources, with all the implications that derive from this, i.e. the necessity of scientific and socio-political cooperation among riparians, the importance of monitoring the status of shared resources and the need to elaborate a shared management policy. Furthermore, each country is characterized by hyper-arid climatic conditions, which will be exacerbated in the next century by climate change and lead to probable severe water shortage periods. Together with climate change, the rate of population

  4. Configuration study of large wind parks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, Stefan

    2003-07-01

    In this thesis, layouts of various large-scale wind parks, using both AC as well as DC, are investigated. Loss modelling of the wind park components as well as calculations of the energy capture of the turbines using various electrical systems are performed, and the energy production cost of the various park configurations is determined. The most interesting candidate for a DC transmission based wind park was investigated more in detail, the series DC wind park. Finally, the power quality impact in the PCC (point of common coupling) was studied. It was found that from an energy capture point of view, the difference in energy production between various wind turbine systems is very small. Of all the investigated wind park configurations, the wind park with the series connected DC wind turbines seems to have the best potential to give the lowest energy production cost, if the transmission distance is longer then 10-20 km. Regarding the series DC wind park it was found that it is the most difficult one to control. However, a control algorithm for the series park and its turbines was derived and successfully tested. Still, several more details regarding the control of the series wind park has to be dealt with.

  5. SmartPark Technology Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of FMCSAs SmartPark initiative is to determine the feasibility of a technology for providing truck parking space availability in real time to truckers on the road. SmartPark consists of two phases. Phase I was a field operational test ...

  6. A Real-time License Plate Detection System for Parking Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roenadi Koesdijarto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The automatic and real-time license plate detection system can be used as an access control entry of vehicles into the parking area. The problem is how to recognize the vehicles that will go into the parking lot and how to recognize various types of license plates in various light conditions quickly and accurately. In this research, the prototype was developed with a detection system to recognize the vehicles that will enter the parking area, and a license plate recognition system. In the license plate recognition system, the Fourier transform and Hidden Markov model method have proposed to detect location of license plate and as characters segmentation to recognize Indonesia license plates. The research results have shown that the developed prototype system has successfully recognized all Indonesia license plates in several of light condition and camera position. The percentage of plate recognition in the real-time experiment is 84.38%, and the average execution time for all recognition process is 5.834 second.

  7. Parking regulations on the CERN sites

    CERN Multimedia

    General Infrastructure Services Department

    2010-01-01

    The site surveillance service is also responsible for supervising compliance with the parking regulations on the CERN site. In that context, it ensures that the following rules are complied with on the CERN car park: Vehicles may not be left on a CERN car park for longer than 5 consecutive working days. However, CERN users are entitled to leave their vehicles parked at CERN for a longer period in the car park near Building 588 , subject to completing the application form "Demande d'autorisation pour un stationnement de longue durée" (application for a long-term parking permit) and sending it to the Reception and Access Control Service (access.surveillance@cern.ch) prior to departure.   Parking spaces, which are in short supply in many crowded areas of the CERN site, must not be occupied by abandoned vehicles/wrecks. The service organizes the disposal of such vehicles. Any CERN users wishing to get rid of a private vehicle parked on one of the CERN car pa...

  8. Full-Automatic Parking registration and payment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Lahrmann, Harry; Jørgensen, Brian

    2014-01-01

    As part of ITS Platform North Denmark, a full-automatic GNSS-based parking payment (PP) system was developed (PP app). On the basis of the parking position and parking time, the PP app can determine the price of parking and collect the amount from the car owner’s bank account. The driver...... is informed about any initiation of PP via SMS message. If the driver finds the payment erroneous, it can be cancelled via SMS message. Parking attendants can check if the car in question has an ongoing payment for parking. To handle the problems with GNSS-based positioning in densely built-up areas......, an advanced map matching algorithm was integrated in the PP app. 24 of the participating vehicles used the PP app, and 58 parking payments were carried out without errors. In a few cases, the wrong parking area was selected. This was due to lack of information in the map rather than errors in the map matching...

  9. Modelling the Effects of Parking Charge and Supply Policy Using System Dynamics Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Mei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reasonable parking charge and supply policy are essential for the regular operation of the traffic in city center. This paper develops an evaluation model for parking policies using system dynamics. A quantitative study is conducted to examine the effects of parking charge and supply policy on traffic speed. The model, which is composed of three interrelated subsystems, first summarizes the travel cost of each travel mode and then calibrates the travel choice model through the travel mode subsystem. Finally, the subsystem that evaluates the state of traffic forecasts future car speed based on bureau of public roads (BPR function and generates new travel cost until the entire model reaches a steady state. The accuracy of the model is verified in Hangzhou Wulin business district. The related error of predicted speed is only 2.2%. The results indicate that the regular pattern of traffic speed and parking charge can be illustrated using the proposed model based on system dynamics, and the model infers that reducing the parking supply in core area will increase its congestion level and, under certain parking supply conditions, there exists an interval of possible pricing at which the service reaches a level that is fairly stable.

  10. A Novel Location-Centric IoT-Cloud Based On-Street Car Parking Violation Management System in Smart Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Thanh; Kim, Younghan

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, in big cities, parking management is a critical issue from both the driver’s side and the city government’s side. From the driver’s side, how to find an available parking lot in a city is a considerable concern. As a result, smart parking systems recently have received great interest, both in academia and industry. From the city government’s side, how to manage and distribute such a limited public parking resource efficiently to give every visitor a fair chance of finding an on-street parking lot is also a considerable concern. However, existing studies of smart parking management focus only on assisting the driver’s side to find available parking spaces. This study aims to raise a new perspective on such smart parking management and to propose a novel location-centric IoT-cloud-based parking violation management system. The system is designed to assist authoritative officers in finding parking violations easily and recommends the least cost path for officers so that officers can achieve their highest productivity in finding parking violations and issuing parking tickets. Experimental results show that the system not only improves the productivity of officers in finding parking violations and issuing tickets, but also helps reduce the traveling cost of officers and to reduce the average violation period of violating cars considerably. PMID:27271620

  11. A Novel Location-Centric IoT-Cloud Based On-Street Car Parking Violation Management System in Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Dinh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, in big cities, parking management is a critical issue from both the driver’s side and the city government’s side. From the driver’s side, how to find an available parking lot in a city is a considerable concern. As a result, smart parking systems recently have received great interest, both in academia and industry. From the city government’s side, how to manage and distribute such a limited public parking resource efficiently to give every visitor a fair chance of finding an on-street parking lot is also a considerable concern. However, existing studies of smart parking management focus only on assisting the driver’s side to find available parking spaces. This study aims to raise a new perspective on such smart parking management and to propose a novel location-centric IoT-cloud-based parking violation management system. The system is designed to assist authoritative officers in finding parking violations easily and recommends the least cost path for officers so that officers can achieve their highest productivity in finding parking violations and issuing parking tickets. Experimental results show that the system not only improves the productivity of officers in finding parking violations and issuing tickets, but also helps reduce the traveling cost of officers and to reduce the average violation period of violating cars considerably.

  12. Draft protocol to the 1979 convention on long-range transboundary air pollution to abate acidification, eutrophication and ground-level ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-15

    The draft Protocol to be tabled as item 2 of the seventeenth session of the Executive Body for the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, (29 November - 3 December 1999) has the objective of controlling and reducing emissions of sulphur, nitrogen oxides, ammonia and volatile organic compounds caused by anthropogenic activities and likely to cause adverse effects due to acidification, eutrophication or ground-level ozone as a result of long-range transboundary atmospheric transport and to ensure that atmospheric depositions or concentrations do not exceed, for Parties within the geographical scope of EMEP (the programme for monitoring and evaluation of long-range transmission of air pollutants in Europe), and Canada, the critical loads of acidity for EMEP countries as described in Annex I of the document; the critical loads of nutrient nitrogen as described in Annex I, and, for ozone, the critical levels as described in Annex I for EMEP countries, for Canada, the Canada-wide Standard for ozone, and for the USA, the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone. It specifies limit values for boilers rated at {gt} 50 MW{sub th}. 9 apps.

  13. Lead isotope ratios in six lake sediment cores from Japan Archipelago: Historical record of trans-boundary pollution sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Takahiro; Alvarez, Kelly; Kuwae, Michinobu

    2016-01-01

    Sediment cores from six lakes situated from north to south on the Japanese Archipelago were collected during 2009–2010 to investigate the hypothesis that deposition of lead (Pb) was coming from East Asia (including China, South Korea and eastern part of Russia). Accumulation rates and ages of the lake sediment were estimated by the "2"1"0Pb constant rate of supply model and "1"3"7Cs inputs to reconstruct the historical trends of Pb accumulation. Cores from four lakes located in the north and central Japan, showed clear evidence of Pb pollution with a change in the "2"0"6Pb/"2"0"7Pb and "2"0"8Pb/"2"0"7Pb ratios in the recent sediment as compared to the deeper sediment. Among the six studied lakes, significant inputs of anthropogenic lead emissions were observed at Lake Mikazuki (north Hokkaido in north Japan), Lake Chokai (north of Honshu), and Lake Mikuriga (central part of Honshu). Pb isotopic comparison of collected core sediment and previously reported data for wet precipitation and aerosols from different Asian regions indicate that, before 1900, Pb accumulated in these three lakes was not affected by trans-boundary sources. Lake Mikazuki started to receive Pb emissions from Russia in early 1900s, and during the last two decades, this lake has been affected by trans-boundary Pb pollution from northern China. Lake Chokai has received Pb pollutant from northern China since early 1900s until 2009, whereas for the Lake Mikuriga the major Pb contaminant was transported from southern China during the past 100 years. The results of our study demonstrate that Japan Archipelago has received trans-boundary Pb emissions from different parts of East Asian region depending on location, and the major source region has changed historically. - Highlights: • Historical trend of Pb pollution was recorded in six Japanese Lakes. • Pb concentration and Pb isotope ratios were determined for sediment cores. • High [Pb] and less radiogenic Pb isotope ratios were observed since

  14. Lead isotope ratios in six lake sediment cores from Japan Archipelago: Historical record of trans-boundary pollution sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosono, Takahiro, E-mail: hosono@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Priority Organization for Innovation and Excellence, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Alvarez, Kelly [Priority Organization for Innovation and Excellence, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Kuwae, Michinobu [Senior Research Fellow Center, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)

    2016-07-15

    Sediment cores from six lakes situated from north to south on the Japanese Archipelago were collected during 2009–2010 to investigate the hypothesis that deposition of lead (Pb) was coming from East Asia (including China, South Korea and eastern part of Russia). Accumulation rates and ages of the lake sediment were estimated by the {sup 210}Pb constant rate of supply model and {sup 137}Cs inputs to reconstruct the historical trends of Pb accumulation. Cores from four lakes located in the north and central Japan, showed clear evidence of Pb pollution with a change in the {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios in the recent sediment as compared to the deeper sediment. Among the six studied lakes, significant inputs of anthropogenic lead emissions were observed at Lake Mikazuki (north Hokkaido in north Japan), Lake Chokai (north of Honshu), and Lake Mikuriga (central part of Honshu). Pb isotopic comparison of collected core sediment and previously reported data for wet precipitation and aerosols from different Asian regions indicate that, before 1900, Pb accumulated in these three lakes was not affected by trans-boundary sources. Lake Mikazuki started to receive Pb emissions from Russia in early 1900s, and during the last two decades, this lake has been affected by trans-boundary Pb pollution from northern China. Lake Chokai has received Pb pollutant from northern China since early 1900s until 2009, whereas for the Lake Mikuriga the major Pb contaminant was transported from southern China during the past 100 years. The results of our study demonstrate that Japan Archipelago has received trans-boundary Pb emissions from different parts of East Asian region depending on location, and the major source region has changed historically. - Highlights: • Historical trend of Pb pollution was recorded in six Japanese Lakes. • Pb concentration and Pb isotope ratios were determined for sediment cores. • High [Pb] and less radiogenic Pb isotope ratios

  15. Equilibrium approach towards water resource management and pollution control in coal chemical industrial park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiuping; Hou, Shuhua; Xie, Heping; Lv, Chengwei; Yao, Liming

    2018-08-01

    In this study, an integrated water and waste load allocation model is proposed to assist decision makers in better understanding the trade-offs between economic growth, resource utilization, and environmental protection of coal chemical industries which characteristically have high water consumption and pollution. In the decision framework, decision makers in a same park, each of whom have different goals and preferences, work together to seek a collective benefit. Similar to a Stackelberg-Nash game, the proposed approach illuminates the decision making interrelationships and involves in the conflict coordination between the park authority and the individual coal chemical company stockholders. In the proposed method, to response to climate change and other uncertainties, a risk assessment tool, Conditional Value-at-Risk (CVaR) and uncertainties through reflecting parameters and coefficients using probability and fuzzy set theory are integrated in the modeling process. Then a case study from Yuheng coal chemical park is presented to demonstrate the practicality and efficiency of the optimization model. To reasonable search the potential consequences of different responses to water and waste load allocation strategies, a number of scenario results considering environmental uncertainty and decision maker' attitudes are examined to explore the tradeoffs between economic development and environmental protection and decision makers' objectives. The results are helpful for decision/police makers to adjust current strategies adapting for current changes. Based on the scenario analyses and discussion, some propositions and operational policies are given and sensitive adaptation strategies are presented to support the efficient, balanced and sustainable development of coal chemical industrial parks. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Metal assessment in urban park soils in Sao Paulo 1. Ibirapuera Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Camargo, Sonia P.; Pavese, Arthur C.; Gumiero, Felipe C.; Enzweiler, Jacinta; Sigolo, Joel B.

    2007-01-01

    In the last years urban soils received increasing attention by scientists, leading to studies focused on their description and investigation all over the world, due to the increasing metal pollution derived from incinerators, industrial waste, atmospheric deposition of dust and aerosols, and other activities. Metal contamination in Sao Paulo public parks is an important environmental question and there is little information on this subject. As part of a project which aims metal assessment in urban park soils from Sao Paulo, in the present paper the concentration of the elements As, Ba, Cr, Pb, Sb and Zn were determined in surface soil samples (0-5 cm) from Ibirapuera park of Sao Paulo. Ibirapuera park is one of the biggest and most visited parks of the city of Sao Paulo, receiving during the weekends more than 400,000 visitors. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-ray Fluorescence (FRX) were used for metal analysis. Preliminary results showed concentration levels of the analyzed elements higher than the values considered as reference values for soils in Sao Paulo, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB). For As, Ba, Cr and Sb, in some samples the concentrations were even higher than the Prevention values reported by CETESB. The high concentrations of the elements As, Ba, Cr, Pb, Sb and Zn in the Ibirapuera park top soils suggest an anthropogenic source and indicate a potential damage to soil quality. (author)

  17. Changing perspectives in urban park management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Chung-shing; Marafa, Lawal M.; Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    managers in Hong Kong have encountered different challenges over time, and the quest for changing park managerial strategies. In 2004, a set of indicators for urban park management in Hong Kong was produced as part of a Master's research. Local park managers were asked about their views on the respective......Urban parks provide numerous benefits to our society. In densely populated metropolises such as Hong Kong, urban parks are in high demand. A variety of indicators can be used as tools for improving park planning and management. Facing a dynamic society and increasing user expectations, urban park...... importance and performance (I–P) of the indicators. In 2012, a follow-up questionnaire survey was conducted with the managers to study if their views regarding these indicators and their performance had changed. Results from the 2004 and 2012 surveys revealed changing perceptions regarding both I...

  18. TRANSBOUNDARY IMPACT OF THE CHERNAVODSKA NPP ON TRITIUM POLLUTION OF THE DANUBE RIVER ON THE TERRITORY OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. VIT`KO

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the influence of the Chernavodska nuclear power plant on the aquatic environment of the Danube River in the transboundary context. Data of tritium discharges, dependence of volume activity of tritium in the Danube River, and its inflows from the surrounding areas to its mouth. The average annual volume activities of tritium are provided. Assessments of the impact of the Chernavodska NPP in conditions that are different from the norm have been given.

  19. Human-biometeorological conditions and thermal perception in a Mediterranean coastal park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaroni, Hadas; Pearlmutter, David; Hatuka, Tali

    2015-10-01

    This study looks at the interrelation of human-biometeorological conditions, physiological thermal stress and subjective thermal perception in the design and use of a new waterfront park in Tel-Aviv, Israel. Our initial assumption was that the park's design would embody a comprehensive response to the area's ever-increasing heat stress and water shortage. However, almost half of it is covered by grass lawns, irrigated with fresh water, while the remaining area is mainly covered with concrete paving, with minimal shading and sparse trees. We hypothesized that stressful thermal conditions would prevail in the park in the summer season and would be expressed in a high discomfort perception of its users. Thermo-physiological stress conditions in a typical summer month were compared with the subjective comfort perceptions of pedestrians surveyed in the park. It was found that even during mid-day hours, the level of thermal stress tends to be relatively mild, owing largely to the strong sea breeze and despite the high intensity of solar radiation. Moreover, it appears that the largely favorable perception of comfort among individuals may also result from socio-cultural aspects related to their satisfaction with the park's aesthetic attractiveness and in fact its very existence. Adaptive planning is proposed for such vulnerable regions, which are expected to experience further aggravation in thermal comfort due to global as well as localized warming trends.

  20. Tools of integration of innovation-oriented machine-building enterprises in industrial park environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К.О. Boiarynova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The research is devoted to the development of the tools for the integration of innovation-oriented mechanical engineering enterprises into the environment of industrial park as functional economic systems, which are capable on the own development basis to provide the development of resident enterprises. The article analyzes the opportunities for the development of mechanical engineering enterprises. The formed structure of the mechanism of integration of mechanical engineering enterprises as functional economic systems into the industrial park environment is based on: 1 the development of participation programs in the industrial park of the mechanical engineering enterprises as an innovation-oriented partner, which foresees the development of the enterprise immediately and the development of other residents; 2 the provision of high-tech equipment of resident enterprises of industrial parks; 3 the creation of subsidiary-spin-out enterprises of large mechanical engineering enterprises for high-tech production in the industrial park. The author proposes the road map that reveals the procedures for the integration and functioning the investigated enterprises through interaction as well as in the ecosystem of the industrial park and in the general ecosystem of functioning, and the tools for providing economic functionality through economic and organizational proceedings at preventive, partner and resident phases of integration. The tools allow the innovation-oriented mechanical engineering enterprises to integrate into such territorial structures as industrial parks, this in complex will allow carrying out their purposes in the development of the real sector of the economy.

  1. Basic diagnosis of solid waste generated at Agua Blanca State Park to propose waste management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laines Canepa, José Ramón; Zequeira Larios, Carolina; Valadez Treviño, Maria Elena Macías; Garduza Sánchez, Diana Ivett

    2012-03-01

    State parks are highly sensitive areas of great natural importance and tourism value. Herein a case study involving a basic survey of solid waste which was carried out in 2006 in Agua Blanca State Park, Macuspana, Tabasco, Mexico with two sampling periods representing the high and low tourist season is presented. The survey had five objectives: to find out the number of visitors in the different seasons, to consider the daily generation of solid waste from tourist activities, to determine bulk density, to select and quantify sub-products; and to suggest a possible treatment. A daily average of 368 people visited the park: 18,862 people in 14 days during the high season holiday (in just one day, Easter Sunday, up to 4425 visitors) and 2092 visitors in 43 days during the low season. The average weight of the generated solid waste was 61.267 kg day(-1) and the generated solid waste average per person was 0.155 kg person(-1 ) day(-1). During the high season, the average increased to 0.188 kg person(-1 ) day(-1) and during the low season, the average decreased to 0.144 kg person(-1 ) day(-1). The bulk density average was 75.014 kg m(-3), the maximum value was 92.472 kg m(-3) and the minimum was 68.274 kg m(-3). The sub-products comprised 54.52% inorganic matter; 32.03% organic matter, 10.60% non-recyclable and 2.85% others. Based on these results, waste management strategies such as reuse/recycling, aerobic and anaerobic digestion, the construction of a manual landfill and the employment of a specialist firm were suggested.

  2. Exploring the Potential Impact of Serious Games on Social Learning and Stakeholder Collaborations for Transboundary Watershed Management of the St. Lawrence River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wietske Medema

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The meaningful participation of stakeholders in decision-making is now widely recognized as a crucial element of effective water resource management, particularly with regards to adapting to climate and environmental change. Social learning is increasingly being cited as an important component of engagement if meaningful participation is to be achieved. The exact definition of social learning is still a matter under debate, but is taken to be a process in which individuals experience a change in understanding that is brought about by social interaction. Social learning has been identified as particularly important in transboundary contexts, where it is necessary to reframe problems from a local to a basin-wide perspective. In this study, social learning is explored in the context of transboundary water resource management in the St. Lawrence River Basin. The overarching goal of this paper is to explore the potential role of serious games to improve social learning in the St. Lawrence River. To achieve this end, a two-pronged approach is followed: (1 Assessing whether social learning is currently occurring and identifying what the barriers to social learning are through interviews with the region’s water resource managers; (2 Undertaking a literature review to understand the mechanisms through which serious games enhance social learning to understand which barriers serious games can break down. Interview questions were designed to explore the relevance of social learning in the St. Lawrence River basin context, and to identify the practices currently employed that impact on social learning. While examples of social learning that is occurring have been identified, preliminary results suggest that these examples are exceptions rather than the rule, and that on the whole, social learning is not occurring to its full potential. The literature review of serious games offers an assessment of such collaborative mechanisms in terms of design principles

  3. Eradication of Transboundary Animal Diseases: Can the Rinderpest Success Story be Repeated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, G R; Penrith, M-L

    2017-04-01

    A matrix system was developed to aid in the evaluation of the technical amenability to eradication, through mass vaccination, of transboundary animal diseases (TADs). The system involved evaluation of three basic criteria - disease management efficiency, surveillance and epidemiological factors - each in turn comprised of a number of elements (17 in all). On that basis, 25 TADs that have occurred or do occur in southern Africa and for which vaccines are available, in addition to rinderpest (incorporated as a yardstick because it has been eradicated worldwide), were ranked. Cluster analysis was also applied using the same criteria to the 26 diseases, creating division into three groups. One cluster contained only diseases transmitted by arthropods (e.g. African horse sickness and Rift Valley fever) and considered difficult to eradicate because technologies for managing parasitic arthropods on a large scale are unavailable, while a second cluster contained diseases that have been widely considered to be eradicable [rinderpest, canine rabies, the Eurasian serotypes of foot and mouth disease virus (O, A, C & Asia 1) and peste des petits ruminants] as well classical swine fever, Newcastle disease and lumpy skin disease. The third cluster contained all the other TADs evaluated with the implication that these constitute TADs that would be more difficult to eradicate. However, it is acknowledged that the scores assigned in the course of this study may be biased. The point is that the system proposed offers an objective method for assessment of the technical eradicability of TADs; the rankings and groupings derived during this study are less important than the provision of a systematic approach for further development and evaluation. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Effects of climate change and population growth on the transboundary Santa Cruz aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Christopher A.; Megdal, Sharon; Oroz, Lucas Antonio; Callegary, James; Vandervoet, Prescott

    2012-01-01

    The USA and Mexico have initiated comprehensive assessment of 4 of the 18 aquifers underlying their 3000 km border. Binational management of groundwater is not currently proposed. University and agency researchers plus USA and Mexican federal, state, and local agency staff have collaboratively identified key challenges facing the Santa Cruz River Valley Aquifer located between the states of Arizona and Sonora. The aquifer is subject to recharge variability, which is compounded by climate change, and is experiencing growing urban demand for groundwater. In this paper, we briefly review past, current, and projected pressures on Santa Cruz groundwater. We undertake first-order approximation of the relative magnitude of climate change and human demand drivers on the Santa Cruz water balance. Global circulation model output for emissions scenarios A1B, B1, and A2 present mixed trends, with annual precipitation projected to vary by ±20% over the 21st century. Results of our analysis indicate that urban water use will experience greater percentage change than climate-induced recharge (which remains the largest single component of the water balance). In the Mexican portion of the Santa Cruz, up to half of future total water demand will need to be met from non-aquifer sources. In the absence of water importation and with agricultural water use and rights increasingly appropriated for urban demand, wastewater is increasingly seen as a resource to meet urban demand. We consider decision making on both sides of the border and conclude by identifying short- and longer-term opportunities for further binational collaboration on transboundary aquifer assessment.

  5. Parks of Chapel Hill

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Hours, location, and amenity information for Chapel Hill parks as shown on the Town of Chapel Hill's website. Includes a map with points for each park location.

  6. Park-and-Ride motivations and air quality norms in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Marc; de Haes, Jan; Montalvo, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Transport congestion and the quality of the air in cities is a persistent concern for urban planners, and in this context Park and Ride (P. +. R) facilities have been proposed as an element of urban sustainability strategies in many cities in Europe. In 2008 a European Commission directive aimed at

  7. Transboundary smoke haze pollution in Malaysia: inpatient health impacts and economic valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Jamal; Sahani, Mazrura; Mahmud, Mastura; Ahmad, Md Khadzir Sheikh

    2014-06-01

    This study assessed the economic value of health impacts of transboundary smoke haze pollution in Kuala Lumpur and adjacent areas in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Daily inpatient data from 2005, 2006, 2008, and 2009 for 14 haze-related illnesses were collected from four hospitals. On average, there were 19 hazy days each year during which the air pollution levels were within the Lower Moderate to Hazardous categories. No seasonal variation in inpatient cases was observed. A smoke haze occurrence was associated with an increase in inpatient cases by 2.4 per 10,000 populations each year, representing an increase of 31 percent from normal days. The average annual economic loss due to the inpatient health impact of haze was valued at MYR273,000 ($91,000 USD). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Modeling of Trans-boundary Transport of Air Pollutants in the California-Mexico Border Region during Cal-Mex 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, N.; Zavala, M. A.; Lei, W.; Li, G.; Molina, L. T.

    2010-12-01

    The US and Mexico share a common air basin along the ~200 km border between California and Baja California. The economical activities in this region are heavily influenced by the international trade and commerce between Mexico and the US that mainly occurs through the borders of the sister cities of San Diego-Tijuana and Calexico-Mexicali. The diversity and differences in the characteristics of emissions sources of air pollutants in the California-Mexico border region make this an important area for the study of the chemistry and trans-boundary transport of air pollutants. During May-June of 2010, the Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign included a series of measurements aimed at characterizing the emissions from major sources in the California-Mexico border region and assessing the possible impacts of these emissions on local and regional air quality. In this work we will present the results of the use of the Comprehensive Air quality model with extensions (CAMx) in a modeling domain that includes the sister cities of San Diego-Tijuana and Calexico-Mexicali for studying events of trans-boundary transport of air pollutants during Cal-Mex 2010. The measurements obtained during the Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign are used in the evaluation of the model performance and in the design of air quality improvement policies in the California-Mexico border region.

  9. Suspicious Behavior Detection System for an Open Space Parking Based on Recognition of Human Elemental Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Teppei; Kimura, Kouji; Hagiwara, Masafumi

    Studies for video surveillance applications for preventing various crimes such as stealing and violence have become a hot topic. This paper proposes a new video surveillance system that can detect suspicious behaviors such as a car break-in and vandalization in an open space parking, and that is based on image processing. The proposed system has the following features: it 1)deals time series data flow, 2)recognizes “human elemental actions” using statistic features, and 3)detects suspicious behavior using Subspace method and AdaBoost. We conducted the experiments to test the performance of the proposed system using open space parking scenes. As a result, we obtained about 10.0% for false positive rate, and about 4.6% for false negative rate.

  10. 32 CFR 634.31 - Parking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Parking. 634.31 Section 634.31 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.31 Parking. (a) The most efficient use of existing on- and off-street parking...

  11. Transboundary aquifers: the response of international law and legal voids in Central America; Acuiferos transfronterizos: respuestas desde el derecho internacional y vacios en Centroamerica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeglin, N.

    2012-11-01

    Central America is one of the regions of the world that will suffer the impact of climate change much more than others. The adoption of clear rules on the use of transboundary aquifers and on the need to preserve these groundwater reservoirs from serious pollution by the various states in the region is absolutely essential. Despite the lack of any bilateral or regional frameworks to rule on this issue, many general regulations have been adopted within the international framework of the United Nations that are applicable to shared surface and groundwater resources as well as to transboundary aquifers. The case of the Las Crucitas project in Costa Rica, halted by domestic tribunals thanks to the decisive action of its civilian society, reflects a clear lack of technical information concerning aquifers in Costa Rica, and probably in many other states in the region, despite the very valuable efforts being undertaken by the OAS and UNESCO under the aegis of the ISARM project for the Latin American region.

  12. 75 FR 11169 - Reedsport OPT Wave Park Project; Reedsport OPT Wave Park; LLC Notice of Scoping Meetings and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 12713-002] Reedsport OPT Wave Park Project; Reedsport OPT Wave Park; LLC Notice of Scoping Meetings and Environmental Site...: Reedsport OPT Wave Park, LLC. e. Name of Project: Reedsport OPT Wave Park Project. [[Page 11170

  13. Use of single large or several small policies as strategies to manage people-park interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Catrina A; Baird, Timothy D; Hartter, Joel

    2014-12-01

    Biodiversity conservation has been criticized for undermining or ignoring social well-being. Currently efforts to mutually promote social justice, rural development, and biodiversity conservation, which have been contentious and yielded mixed results, continue to spread despite a general dearth of effective management strategies. We contend that social and economic concerns should be integral to conservation planning and propose that the scale of these phenomena is also critical. To evaluate the merit of this proposal, we adopted and expanded a conservation management strategy framework developed by Joel Heinen and examined how population density, economic disparity, and ethnic heterogeneity vary spatially surrounding 2 contrasting protected areas in East Africa: Kibale National Park in Uganda and Tarangire National Park in Tanzania. Analyses of demographic, wealth, and ethnicity data from regional censuses and household surveys conducted in 2009 and 2010 indicated that choice of scale (landscape or community) changed the management strategies recommended by the model. Therefore, "several small" people-park management strategies varying around a given protected area may be more appropriate than a "single large" people-park strategy applied across an entire protected area. Correspondingly, scale adjusted Heinen recommendations offered new strategies for effective conservation management within these human landscapes not incorporated in current in situ management plans. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. 77 FR 39733 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: Appalachian Trail Management Partner Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [WASO-NRSS-10750; 2490-STC] Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: Appalachian Trail Management Partner Survey AGENCY: National Park Service (NPS), Interior. ACTION: Notice of an extension of a currently approved information collection (1024-0259...

  15. Better parks through law and policy: a legal analysis of authorities governing public parks and open spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Ana; Fry, Christine R

    2011-01-01

    Improving parks in low income and minority neighborhoods may be a key way to increase physical activity and decrease overweight and obesity prevalence among children at the greatest risk. To advocate effectively for improved recreation infrastructure, public health advocates must understand the legal and policy landscape in which public recreation decisions are made. In this descriptive legal analysis, we reviewed federal, state, and local laws to determine the authority of each level of government over parks. We then examined current practices and state laws regarding park administration in urban California and rural Texas. We identified several themes through the analysis: (1) multiple levels of governments are often involved in parks offerings in a municipality, (2) state laws governing parks vary, (3) local authority may vary substantially within a state, and (4) state law may offer greater authority than local jurisdictions use. Public health advocates who want to improve parks need to (1) think strategically about which levels of government to engage; (2) identify parks law and funding from all levels of government, including those not typically associated with local parks; and (3) partner with advocates with similar interests, including those from active living and school communities.

  16. 36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. (a...

  17. Maryon Park

    OpenAIRE

    Bertoli, Giasco

    2018-01-01

    Tiré du site Internet de Onestar Press: "Maryon Park is the place Michelangelo Antonioni chose, in 1966, to shoot the scenes that would become cult images from his film "Blow Up", and deservedly so. The park is located in Charlton, southeast of London, a place that's hardly changed since Antonioni shot there. I first went there to shoot a series of photos on March 7 and 8, 2007. I returned again on March 7, 2014. I called the series “Maryon Park”. I used a medium format, six by seven inch col...

  18. Health museums or theme parks: a new approach to intersectoral collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, H; Ashton, J; Edwards, P

    1986-01-01

    This paper is an outline of a proposed initiative on intersectoral collaboration in health promotion--collaboration between health, tourist, cultural and entertainment sectors to provide a powerful mass educational experience about the human mind and body. There has been a recent rise in interest in using the technology of museums, science centres, exploratories and theme parks for the promotion of health. This revival is shown to have a historical tradition in the health education museum started in this century in Europe 75 years ago at the Deutsches Hygiene Museum and then spreading to the USA. The proposed Body, Mind, City Museum planned for Liverpool acts as a future model for a new type of health Museum; a mixture of science exploratorium and a Walt Disney-style them park. It is intended that "hand-on" exhibits using interactive video, computers, games and experiences will be used to test people's own capacities or to describe biological functions or processes. This will be combined with park rides and simulations with their inherent appeal of fun, movement and surprise, for example the ride through the blood vessels and the "walk-through brain". This type of venture has a number of special features and advantages; it is truly intersectoral, it may be self-financing, and it can provide a mass audience with a powerful individual experience.

  19. The Water-Quality Partnership for National Parks—U.S. Geological Survey and National Park Service, 1998–2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilles, Mark A.; Penoyer, Pete E; Ludtke, Amy S.; Ellsworth, Alan C.

    2016-07-13

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Park Service (NPS) work together through the USGS–NPS Water-Quality Partnership to support a broad range of policy and management needs related to high-priority water-quality issues in national parks. The program was initiated in 1998 as part of the Clean Water Action Plan, a Presidential initiative to commemorate the 25th anniversary of the Clean Water Act. Partnership projects are developed jointly by the USGS and the NPS. Studies are conducted by the USGS and findings are used by the NPS to guide policy and management actions aimed at protecting and improving water quality.The National Park Service manages many of our Nation’s most highly valued aquatic systems across the country, including portions of the Great Lakes, ocean and coastal zones, historic canals, reservoirs, large rivers, high-elevation lakes and streams, geysers, springs, and wetlands. So far, the Water-Quality Partnership has undertaken 217 projects in 119 national parks. In each project, USGS studies and assessments (http://water.usgs.gov/nps_partnership/pubs.php) have supported science-based management by the NPS to protect and improve water quality in parks. Some of the current projects are highlighted in the NPS Call to Action Centennial initiative, Crystal Clear, which celebrates national park water-resource efforts to ensure clean water for the next century of park management (http://www.nature.nps.gov/water/crystalclear/).New projects are proposed each year by USGS scientists working in collaboration with NPS staff in specific parks. Project selection is highly competitive, with an average of only eight new projects funded each year out of approximately 75 proposals that are submitted. Since the beginning of the Partnership in 1998, 189 publications detailing project findings have been completed. The 217 studies have been conducted in 119 NPS-administered lands, extending from Denali National Park and Preserve in Alaska to Everglades

  20. Smart parking management and navigation system

    KAUST Repository

    Saadeldin, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Various examples are provided for smart parking management, which can include navigation. In one example, a system includes a base station controller configured to: receive a wireless signal from a parking controller located at a parking space

  1. IoT-Based Car's Parking Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwiputra Albertus Ega

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet-of-things-based technologies have advanced so much and helped public necessities. The use of IoT at a parking lot will help vehicle users to know the availability of a parking location through smartphones. This IoT-based parking system is created by using controllers, sensors, servers and cloud. Controllers and sensors will be placed on the ceiling of each parking slots to detect the presence of a car. Server collect the results of the sensors and store them in Cloud. System test is conducted by installing three sensor circuits and server in a parking lot. The tests consist of measuring time that required for data transmission and the rate of success of data transmission from the parking lot to the Cloud. Based on above tests, it is observed that the sensor circuit and Radio Frequency Identification are able to transmit the parking lot data without error. This system require maximum 1 min to update parking lot data. The process of obtaining data until the data being stored in Cloud takes 12 s and the process of acquiring parking condition data from Cloud to smartphone takes 30 s. The accuracy level of parking lot data transfer is 100 %.

  2. Effect of haptic assistance on learning vehicle reverse parking skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirokawa, Masakazu; Uesugi, Naohisa; Furugori, Satoru; Kitagawa, Tomoko; Suzuki, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Compared to conventional visual- and auditory-based assisted driving technologies, haptic modality promises to be more effective and less disturbing assistance to the driver. However, in most previous studies, haptic assistance systems were evaluated from safety and stability viewpoints. Moreover, the effect of haptic assistance on human driving behavior has not been sufficiently discussed. In this paper, we introduce an assisted driving method based on haptic assistance for driver training in reverse parking, which is considered as an uncertain factor in conventional assisted driving systems. The proposed system assists the driver by applying a torque on the steering wheel to guide proper and well-timed steering. To design the appropriate assistance method, we conducted a measurement experiment to determine the qualitative reverse parking driver characteristics. Based on the determined characteristics, we propose a haptic assistance calculation method that utilizes the receding horizon control algorithm. For a simulation environment to assess the proposed assistance method, we also developed a scaled car simulator comprising a 1/10 scaled robot car and an omnidirectional camera. We used the scaled car simulator to conduct comparative experiments on subjects, and observed that the driving skills of the assisted subjects were significantly better than those of the control subjects.

  3. Evaluating the Collaborative Ecosystem for an Innovation-Driven Economy: A Systems Analysis and Case Study of Science Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ren Yan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available National policies for science parks and innovation have been identified as one of the major driving forces for the innovation-driven economy, especially for publicly funded science parks. To investigate this collaborative ecosystem (government-academia-industry for growth and sustainable development, this paper proposes a nation-wide economic impact analysis of science parks and innovation policy based on historical data drawn from one of the globally recognized high-technology industrial clusters in Taiwan. Systems thinking with causal loop analysis are adopted to improve our understanding of the collaborative ecosystem with science park policies. First, from a holistic viewpoint, the role of government in a science parks and innovation ecosystem is reviewed. A systems analysis of an innovation-driven economy with a science park policy is presented as a strategy map for policy implementers. Second, the added economic value and employment of the benchmarked science parks is evaluated from a long range perspective. Third, the concepts of government-academia-industry collaboration and policies to innovation ecosystem are introduced while addressing the measures and performance of innovation and applied R&D in the science parks. We conclude with a discussion of lessons learned and the policy implications of science park development and an innovation ecosystem.

  4. Aftermath of Griffith Park Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    In mid-May 2007, wind-driven flames raced through Griffith Park in Los Angeles, forcing hasty evacuations and threatening numerous famous landmarks and tourist spots, such as the Los Angeles Zoo and the Hollywood Sign. Ultimately, no one was injured in the fire, which may have been started by a cigarette. About 800 acres burned in the urban park, which is itself a Hollywood landmark, having been the location for several movies, including Rebel Without A Cause. This image of the park was captured by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite on June 6, 2007, about a month after the fire. ASTER detects both visible and infrared wavelengths of light, and both kinds have been used to make this image. Vegetation appears in various shades of red, while the burned areas appear charcoal. Roads and dense urban areas appear purplish-gray or white. Water is dark blue. Large burned areas are evident in the northwest and southeast parts of the park, with scattered smaller patches along the southern margin. Some botanical gardens and parts of a bird sanctuary, as well as some park structures like restrooms, were destroyed. The park's unburned, natural vegetation appears brick red, while the irrigated golf courses adjacent to the park are bright red. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  5. The announcement of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Slovak Republic on acceptance of the Basel Convention on the Control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Slovak Republic (as well as the Secretary-General of the United Nations, acting in his capacity as depository, of 6 May 1998) communicates the following: at the Fourth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Basel Convention, held in Kuching, Malaysia, from 23 to 27 February 1998, the Parties proposed an amendment to Annex I and adopted two new Annexes (VIII and IX) to the Basel Convention on the Control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and their disposal. The texts of the amendment and the Annexes are transmitted herewith. The changes in the Annex I and Annexes VIII and IX for the Slovak Republic shall into effect on 6 November 1998. The thorium scrap and rare earth scrap are included into the Annex IX, List B

  6. 78 FR 52786 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Park System Resource Protection Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ... access to Defendants' property to plant, water, and monitor replacement trees, and conduct other appropriate activities. Defendants will also supply water and equipment to water the trees. The publication of....C. 19jj et seq., for destruction of, loss of, or injury to park system resources of the Saint Croix...

  7. The choice of Park & Ride Facilities: an analysis using a context-dependent hierarchical choice experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Heijden, R.E.C.M. van der; Molin, E.J.E.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Park and Ride facilities have been proposed in several countries to alleviate the accessibility problems in cities. Despite growing accessibility problems, these facilities do not seem to attract the expected number of car drivers and are under-used. In an attempt to measure consumer evaluations of the attributes of Park and Ride facilities, a stated choice experiment, based on the method of hierarchical information integration, was conducted in the city of Nijmegen, The Netherlands. This pap...

  8. Knowledge management of eco-industrial park for efficient energy utilization through ontology-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chuan; Romagnoli, Alessandro; Zhou, Li; Kraft, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •An intelligent energy management system for Eco-Industrial Park (EIP) is proposed. •An explicit domain ontology for EIP energy management is designed. •Ontology-based approach can increase knowledge interoperability within EIP. •Ontology-based approach can allow self-optimization without human intervention in EIP. •The proposed system harbours huge potential in the future scenario of Internet of Things. -- Abstract: An ontology-based approach for Eco-Industrial Park (EIP) knowledge management is proposed in this paper. The designed ontology in this study is formalized conceptualization of EIP. Based on such an ontological representation, a Knowledge-Based System (KBS) for EIP energy management named J-Park Simulator (JPS) is developed. By applying JPS to the solution of EIP waste heat utilization problem, the results of this study show that ontology is a powerful tool for knowledge management of complex systems such as EIP. The ontology-based approach can increase knowledge interoperability between different companies in EIP. The ontology-based approach can also allow intelligent decision making by using disparate data from remote databases, which implies the possibility of self-optimization without human intervention scenario of Internet of Things (IoT). It is shown through this study that KBS can bridge the communication gaps between different companies in EIP, sequentially more potential Industrial Symbiosis (IS) links can be established to improve the overall energy efficiency of the whole EIP.

  9. What's Ahead for our National Parks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jean Craighead

    1972-01-01

    To insure the future of our National Parks, sweeping changes must be made. Encroaching civilization at the expense of nature has forced National Park officials to consider alternatives to future development - limiting number of visitors, facilities outside the parks and curtailing vehicular traffic. (BL)

  10. Advanced parking management systems : a cross-cutting study : taking the stress out of parking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This study examines advanced parking management systems (APMSs) in three venues: airports, central business districts, and transit park-and-ride locations. Specifically, the systems examined in this study provide directional and space availability in...

  11. Inter-annual variability of air mass and acidified pollutants transboundary exchange in the north-eastern part of the EANET region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, Sergey A.; Trifonova-Yakovleva, Alisa; Gromov, Sergey S.

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic emissions, be it exhaust gases or aerosols, stem from multitude of sources and may survive long-range transport within the air masses they were emitted into. So they follow regional and global transport pathways varying under different climatological regimes. Transboundary transfer of pollutants occurs this way and has a significant impact on the ecological situation of the territories neighbouring those of emission sources, as found in a few earlier studies examining the environmental monitoring data [1]. In this study, we employ a relatively facile though robust technique for estimating the transboundary air and concomitant pollutant fluxes using actual or climatological meteorological and air pollution monitoring data. Practically, we assume pollutant transfer being proportional to the horizontal transport of air enclosed in the lower troposphere and to the concentration of the pollutant of interest. The horizontal transport, in turn, is estimated using the mean layer wind direction and strength, or their descriptive statistics at the individual transects of the boundary of interest. The domain of our interest is the segment of Russian continental border in East Asia spanning from 88° E (southern Middle Siberia) to 135° E (Far East at Pacific shore). The data on atmospheric pollutants concentration are available from the Russian monitoring sites of the region-wide Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET, http://www.eanet.asia/) Mondy (Baikal area) and Primorskaya (near Vladivostok). The data comprises multi-year continuous measurement of gas-phase and particulate species abundances in air with at least biweekly sampling rate starting from 2000. In the first phase of our study, we used climatological dataset on winds derived from the aerological soundings at Russian stations along the continental border for the 10-year period (1961-1970) by the Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information - World Data Centre (RIHMI-WDC) [3

  12. The perception of visitors towards the level of satisfaction on park (Case study: Singha Merjosari Park Malang)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priadaniswari, R.

    2017-06-01

    Park is one of the public spaces which is used by people to get happiness and comfort. Singha Merjosari Park is one of the parks in Malang that is functioned as a recreational and educational park for the citizen. In weekends and national holidays Singha Merjosari park get visited by so many visitors. But if we see the reality, there are still some problems regarding visitor satisfaction. Also, there are attributes that has performance levels decrease that will become another new problem. The purpose of this study is to analyze the perception of visitors about the level of visitor satisfaction and what attributes that need to be improved and developed by managers in the future. The approach method in this research is descriptive quantitative. Primary data is based on measurement and observation. The number of samples used is 100 respondents referring to the number of samples determination by Slovin formula with the sample selection used is accidental sampling technique. The analysis technique used is Importance Performance Analysis (IPA) and Costumer Satisfaction Index (CSI). Based on the results of IPA analysis, the things that should get important attention and should be improved is the aesthetics of lighting, cleanliness of parking area and toilet, shade in park area, and availability of clean water. While the result of CSI value analysis is 65,30%. This means visitors are satisfied, but visitors are still not satisfied overall. Implications or changes that should be given is the aesthetics of lighting should be more creative and become the identity of the park (for example, lamp lanterns should be suitable with the concept of the park). Also, the change of toilet look so that visitors can enjoy the look and it can be iconic (toilet concept according to local culture of Malang) and the prevalence of lighting in the park area at night.

  13. An outline of economic impacts of management options for Šumava National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Dickie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This analysis briefly compares the economic impacts of three potential future management scenarios for Šumava National Park (NP in the Czech Republic: (1 continuation of current management, (2 the adoption of draft Bills that would declassify protected areas and enable developments (e.g. ski lift development within some of the Park ’ s most valuable habitats for wildlife, and (3 the adoption of proposals to expand the wilderness area in the Park ’ s core with associated tourism opportunities. The proposals in the draft Bills have the potential to generate employment through ski lift development, but much of this activity will use imported labour and/or be short-term (e.g. associated with construction work. The financial viability of this development is uncertain for a number of reasons, including: likely requirements to compensate for damage to protected habitats, reduced future snow cover due to climate change, and competition to attract sufficient visitors to use the ski lift. The economic impacts of the adoption of the draft Bills (and, to a lesser extent, of continuing with current management would also include negative effects on current nature tourism activity and on its long-term potential to expand. Currently, and certainly if the proposed plans in the draft Bill are adopted, the value of the NP as an area of wilderness and high-quality ecosystems will be reduced. This would weaken one of its key selling points as a tourism and recreation destination. The opportunity for international branding of the national park based on these ecosystems would be diminished. This damage to ecosystems would go against the views of the 75% of the Czech population who agree that it is important to halt the loss of biodiversity because we have a moral obligation to look after nature. Pro-wilderness development offers an alternative scenario. It would allow economic opportunities to be pursued to promote nature-based tourism at new locations and

  14. Wireless based Smart Parking System using Zigbee

    OpenAIRE

    Hamzah Asyrani Bin Sulaiman; Mohd Fareez Bin Mohd Afif; Mohd Azlishah Bin Othman; Mohamad Harris Bin Misran; Maizatul Alice Binti Meor Said

    2013-01-01

    One of main issues of developing big parking space for shopping complexes, office complexes and other types of building that requires large parking space is to notify the visitors of occupied and nonoccupied parking space. Most of the visitors might spending up to 30 to 45 minutes just to find an empty parking space. In most recent technology, some parking lot system offered a system that could automatically count when the car entering the empty car space and blocking an infrared signal thus ...

  15. Performance comparison of wind park configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, Stefan

    2003-07-01

    In this report, layouts of various large-scale wind parks, both AC as well as DC, are investigated. Loss modelling of the wind park components as well as calculations of the energy capture of the turbines using various electrical systems are performed, and the energy production cost of the various park configurations is determined. It was found that from an energy capture point of view, the difference in energy production between various wind turbine systems is very small. In addition, a study of the suitability of various DC/DC-converters is made. Three DC/DC-converters, Boost, Full Bridge and Full Bridge Isolated Boost, are found to be interesting candidates as the 'transformer' component in potential DC-based wind parks. Of all the investigated wind park configurations, the wind park with the series connected DC wind turbines seems to have the best potential to give the lowest energy production cost, if the transmission distance is longer then 10-20 km.

  16. PARK-IT! Elementary School Land Laboratories in Toledo City Parks. Curriculum Activity Guide, Grades K-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuFour, Marilyn Berry; Courter, Linda Kothera; Garvin, Dennis M.

    The project PARK-IT! represents a unique partnership between a public elementary school and a city park in which students and teachers utilize a small naturalized area of the park as a Land Laboratory, and in return become its stewards. The project also includes this curriculum activity guide which can assist teachers in using the Land Lab with…

  17. PARK-IT! Elementary School Land Laboratories in Toledo City Parks. Curriculum Activity Guide, Grades 2-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuFour, Marilyn Berry; Courter, Linda Kothera; Garvin, Dennis M.

    The project PARK-IT! represents a unique partnership between a public elementary school and a city park in which students and teachers utilize a small naturalized area of the park as a Land Laboratory, and in return become its stewards. The project also includes this curriculum activity guide which can assist teachers in using the Land Lab with…

  18. PARK-IT! Elementary School Land Laboratories in Toledo City Parks. Curriculum Activity Guide, Grades 4-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuFour, Marilyn Berry; Courter, Linda Kothera; Garvin, Dennis M.

    The project PARK-IT! represents a unique partnership between a public elementary school and a city park in which students and teachers utilize a small naturalized area of the park as a Land Laboratory, and in return become its stewards. The project also includes this curriculum activity guide which can assist teachers in using the Land Lab with…

  19. Mode choice and shopping mall parking

    OpenAIRE

    Ersoy, Fulya Yüksel; Ersoy, Fulya Yuksel

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, I analyze individuals' mode choice decisions and shopping mall's parking space pricing behavior. Individuals have three choices: first they may come to the mall by car in which case they have to park, second they may come by public transportation, or they do not visit the mall and go for their outside option. The mall determines the price of the good and the parking fee after the government sets public transportation fare. I find that the equilibrium parking fees are always le...

  20. Parks and their users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Goličnik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with urban parks and their use(rs. It focuses on usage-spatial relationships from two different angles. Firstly, it discusses the actual uses mapped in places, using repeated observation on different days, times and weather conditions. Secondly, it addresses designers’ views and beliefs about usage and design of urban parks. However, the paper shows that designers’ beliefs and awareness about uses in places, in some aspects, differ from actual use. It stresses the use of empirical knowledge about usage-spatial relationships, which can be gained by using observation and behavioural mapping, in decision-making processes for parks design.

  1. Geology of National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffer, Philip W.

    2008-01-01

    This is a set of two sheets of 3D images showing geologic features of many National Parks. Red-and-cyan viewing glasses are need to see the three-dimensional effect. A search on the World Wide Web will yield many sites about anaglyphs and where to get 3D glasses. Red-blue glasses will do but red-cyan glasses are a little better. This publication features a photo quiz game: Name that park! where you can explore, interpret, and identify selected park landscapes. Can you identify landscape features in the images? Can you explain processes that may have helped form the landscape features? You can get the answers online.

  2. Park Accessibility Impacts Housing Prices in Seoul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Han Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Housing prices are determined by a variety of factors, including the features of the building and the neighborhood environment, and a potential buyer decides to buy a house after reviewing these factors and concluding that it is worth the price. We used Hedonic Price Methods to find the relationship between monetary value of house and access conditions to urban parks. Two meaningful results were discovered in this study: first, as the distance from the park increases, the value of the park inherent in the housing price decreases; second, the greater walking accessibility, to the park, the higher the park value inherent in housing prices. Despite presenting shorter distances to walk and more entrances, poorly accessible zones were deemed as such due to the necessity of crossing an arterial road. This indicates that the results can define accessibility not as the Euclidian distance but as the shortest walking distance while considering crossroads and park entrances. The results of this study have significant implications for urban park economic impact analyses in Seoul. Also, the increase in housing prices closer to parks supports the idea that access is dependent on the residents’ socioeconomic status. Lastly, the results of this study can improve walking accessibility to the park.

  3. Estimating the coordinates of pillars and posts in the parking lots for intelligent parking assist system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Hyung; Kuk, Jung Gap; Kim, Young Il; Cho, Nam Ik

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes an algorithm for the detection of pillars or posts in the video captured by a single camera implemented on the fore side of a room mirror in a car. The main purpose of this algorithm is to complement the weakness of current ultrasonic parking assist system, which does not well find the exact position of pillars or does not recognize narrow posts. The proposed algorithm is consisted of three steps: straight line detection, line tracking, and the estimation of 3D position of pillars. In the first step, the strong lines are found by the Hough transform. Second step is the combination of detection and tracking, and the third is the calculation of 3D position of the line by the analysis of trajectory of relative positions and the parameters of camera. Experiments on synthetic and real images show that the proposed method successfully locates and tracks the position of pillars, which helps the ultrasonic system to correctly locate the edges of pillars. It is believed that the proposed algorithm can also be employed as a basic element for vision based autonomous driving system.

  4. Bicycle Parking and Locking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    . This article contributes with new insights into parking and locking - ‘moorings’ - to cycling literature. It presents an ethnography of ‘design moorings’ and practices associated with parking and locking bikes. The main case study is the very pro-cycling city of Copenhagen. Yet to explore what is unique about...

  5. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting of... the admission of commercial automobiles and buses to Mesa Verde National Park, contained in § 5.4 of...

  6. Analysis of air quality at Osoyoos, British Columbia border air quality station (Nov 2004 - Sep 2006) : an analysis of trans-boundary air pollution transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyn, S.; Hay, J.; Vingarzan, R.; Farris, S.

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of the border air quality study, under the Canada-United States (US) international airshed strategy, was to assess the transboundary transport of air pollutants between the US and Canada. This report presented an analysis of pollutants in ambient air and assessed their most likely source location and transport direction. The pollutants of most interest were fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and ground-level ozone (O 3 ) due to their association with human health effects. The data analyzed in this report represent just under two years of meteorological, air quality, and traffic volume data. Data was collected at the Osoyoos Canada customs site from November 2004 to September 2006. Osoyoos is located at the southern Canadian extreme of the Okanagan Valley in British Columbia. The report provided data summaries and discussed meteorology and elevated concentration conditions of PM 2.5 ; O 3 ; nitric oxide (NO); nitrogen; and sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ). Next, the report provided a multi-pollutant analysis as well as an episode analysis consisting of 4 case studies. The report also included an analysis of transboundary pollutant transport such as a wind sector analysis of pollutant concentration and comparison with modeled transport. Last, the report provided a summary and a discussion of policy implications. It was concluded that US-Canada transboundary transport of pollutants occurs through the Okanagan Valley in which the Osoyoos Canada Customs border air quality station is located. The study recommended further investigation of air parcel trajectories and synoptic-scale conditions leading to elevated O 3 concentrations, as well as the collection of at least 3 full years worth of PM 2.5 and O 3 data to calculate and measure against Canada-wide standards/US national ambient air quality objectives. refs., tabs., figs

  7. Enhancing Visitor Experiences Using Thematic Interpretation in Park Guiding Service in Sarawak National Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Victor Luna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing visitor experiences is arguably the primary and most important goal for interpretation by many protected area managers and tourism business. However, little research has been conducted in Sarawak, Malaysia to directly quantify the effects of thematic interpretation has on tourist experiences. Drawing on the TORE-model of interpretation and through the inception of Park Guiding Training and Licensing System in Sarawak since 2007, this quantitative study examines the effectiveness of thematic interpretive guided tours delivered by park guides at Bako National Park, Sarawak, with the assumption that it will further enhance visitor experiences. A descriptive analysis and Pearson's product-moment correlation analysis of sub-indicators of the global evaluation of interpretation of site, and sub-indicators of elaboration surveyed from visitors of purposively sampled park guides revealed a strong measurement and correlation coefficients of visitors’ overall quality of thematic intepretive guided tours effecting visitor satisfaction and experiences. These findings provide empirical evidence that good thematic interpretive guided tour makes a positive impacts on visitor experiences, thus making training of tourism businesses' employees as park guides as a good investment. The suggestions for further research in influencing visitor attitude and shaping visitor behaviour are offered.

  8. Assessing the risk of foliar injury from ozone on vegetation in parks in the U.S. National Park Service's Vital Signs Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohut, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The risk of ozone injury to plants was assessed in support of the National Park Service's Vital Signs Monitoring Network program. The assessment examined bioindicator species, evaluated levels of ozone exposure, and investigated soil moisture conditions during periods of exposure for a 5-year period in each park. The assessment assigned each park a risk rating of high, moderate, or low. For the 244 parks for which assessments were conducted, the risk of foliar injury was high in 65 parks, moderate in 46 parks, and low in 131 parks. Among the well-known parks with a high risk of ozone injury are Gettysburg, Valley Forge, Delaware Water Gap, Cape Cod, Fire Island, Antietam, Harpers Ferry, Manassas, Wolf Trap Farm Park, Mammoth Cave, Shiloh, Sleeping Bear Dunes, Great Smoky Mountains, Joshua Tree, Sequoia and Kings Canyon, and Yosemite. - An assessment of the risk of foliar ozone injury on plants was conducted for 269 parks in support of the U.S. National Park Service's Vital Signs Monitoring Network Program

  9. Uranium concentrations in natural waters, South Park, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, R.R. Jr.; Aamodt, P.L.

    1976-08-01

    During the summer of 1975, 464 water samples from 149 locations in South Park, Colorado, were taken for the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory in order to test the field sampling and analytical methodologies proposed for the NURE Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance for uranium in the Rocky Mountain states and Alaska. The study showed, in the South Park area, that the analytical results do not vary significantly between samples which were untreated, filtered and acidified, filtered only, or acidified only. Furthermore, the analytical methods of fluorometry and delayed-neutron counting, as developed at the LASL for the reconnaissance work, provide fast, adequately precise, and complementary procedures for analyzing a broad range of uranium in natural waters. The data generated using this methodology does appear to identify uraniferous areas, and when applied using sound geochemical, geological, and hydrological principles, should prove a valuable tool in reconnaissance surveying to delineate new districts or areas of interest for uranium exploration

  10. The counsellor's guide to parks inner child therapy The counsellor's guide to parks inner child therapy Parks P Souvenir 266pp £10.66 0-258-63172-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-13

    The Counsellor's Guide to Parks Inner Child Therapy is the second book by Penny Parks about working with survivors of childhood abuse, the first being Rescuing the Inner Child, published in 1990, which introduced Parks Inner Child Therapy (PICT) as a specifically structured approach to inner child work.

  11. Estimation of the value of conservation of the Khabr National Park's natural resources from the perspective of villagers and tourists inside the park using willingness to pay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoja Mousapour

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Khabr National Park is the most important national park that is located in the South East of the country. It benefits from a great deal of animal and plant biodiversity and climate variability that are of great importance for rural recreation. Therefore, the National Park's valuation could explain its importance to the rural people and the tourists inside the park.as well as affect the decisions of the managers. The main aim of this study is to estimate the value of protecting the natural resources of this national park. The Logit model and a dual two-part selection method was used in order to investigate the factors affecting rural people and tourists’ willingness to pay. The data needed for this research study was collected by completing questionnaires and interviews with 228 persons from local people and tourists in 2015. This activity was carried out for three months using the Cochran general formula and random sampling was used. The results showed that factors such as gender, education, previous participation in promotional classes, participation in state institutions, being a local resident and income have a positive and significant effect while age and the proposed amount have a negative and significant effect on local people's willingness to pay (WTP. The per person’s average willingness to pay is about 180 thousand Rials and the per family’s average willingness to pay is about 800 thousand Rials per month. The results show that the rural people and the tourists inside the park and other tourists place a high value on the natural resources. Therefore, it is recommended that politicians and policy-makers pay special attention to these natural resources and invest more on maintaining and improving the quality of these resources.

  12. Some aspects of identity, meaning and park sustainability research, with special reference to Kamenički park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić Luka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main goals of urban planning by principles of sustainable development is the pursuit of diversity in structure, form and function in planning and design of urban public space. It is therefore necessary to redefine the concept and function of urban green areas and city parks, with the recommendation of identity preservation and promotion of social cohesion of this type of public space. In a theoretical sense, there is a problem of planning and designing urban parks in Serbia. This is due to failure to recognize the complexity underlying the possible role of urban public parks as an engine of urban renewal in the city or of any of his districts. Example of Kamenički park was chosen because of its complexity - in addition to being the largest green space in the city, this park also has high natural and cultural values (the park is protected as a cultural and natural heritage. The results indicate the reduced use of urban space. Based on existing theory and insights into the local planning process, general recommendations for improving its quality is the improvement of form/design of the park and it is necessary to define and promote the identity of space through the spatial analysis. The ultimate goal is to successfully respond to existing and potential customers' needs and thus define environmental, economic, cultural and social sustainability, which are key factors in managing the park.

  13. "South Park" vormistab roppused muusikalivormi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Animafilm "South Park : suurem, pikem ja lõikamata" ("South Park . Bigger, Longer & Uncut") : Stsenaristid Trey Parker, Matt Stone ja Pam Brady : režissöör Trey Parker : Ameerika Ühendriigid 1999

  14. Regional and international approaches on prevention and control of animal transboundary and emerging diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech, J; Lubroth, J; Eddi, C; Martin, V; Roger, F

    2006-10-01

    Transboundary animal diseases pose a serious risk to the world animal agriculture and food security and jeopardize international trade. The world has been facing devastating economic losses from major outbreaks of transboundary animal diseases (TADs) such as foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, rinderpest, peste des petits ruminants (PPR), and Rift Valley fever. Lately the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) due to H5N1 virus, has become an international crisis as all regions around the world can be considered at risk. In the past decades, public health authorities within industrialized countries have been faced with an increasing number of food safety issues. The situation is equally serious in developing countries. The globalization of food (and feed) trade, facilitated by the liberalization of world trade, while offering many benefits and opportunities, also represents new risks. The GF-TADs Global Secretariat has carried out several regional consultations for the identification of priority diseases and best ways for their administration, prevention and control. In the questionnaires carried out and through the consultative process, it was noted that globally, FMD was ranked as the first and foremost priority. Rift Valley fever, and today highly pathogenic avian influenza, are defined as major animal diseases which also affect human health. PPR and CBPP, a disease which is particularly serious in Africa and finally, African swine fever (ASF) and classical swine fever (CSF) are also regionally recognised as top priorities on which the Framework is determined to work. The FAO philosophy--shared by the OIE--embraces the need to prevent and control TADs and emerging diseases at their source, which is most of the time in developing countries. Regional and international approaches have to be followed, and the FAO and OIE GF-TADs initiative provides the appropriate concepts and objectives as well as an organizational framework to link international and

  15. Transboundary Collaborations to Enhance Wildfire Suppression in Protected Areas of the Black Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Zaimes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For the most effective and efficient management of certain natural resources (e.g. protected areas and disasters (e.g. wildfires transboundary approaches are needed. In addition in the management of protected areas, the role of wildfire should be incorporated, something that was ignored in the past and led to catastrophic wildfires. The Black Sea is a region that wildfires in the protected areas are expected to increase. This has to do with the abandonment of rural areas and the higher temperatures, especially during summer, due to climate change. Interesting is also the fact that some countries of the region have extensive experience while other do not have neither the experience nor the necessary infrastructures to face large wildfires. A transboundary collaboration would be very beneficial to the countries with limited experiences and capacities to suppress wildfires. The objective of this study is to be proactive by developing innovative tools to help suppress wildfires and enhancing the knowledge on wildfires and protected areas. The innovative tools included 4 different research activities and products. Firstly, an online Digital Geodatabase for the six pilot areas was developed. Next forest fire fuels and maps were developed while a forest fire behavior model was run to create the overall fire risk maps for the pilot areas. To estimate water resources and watershed streamflows the hydrologic model SWAT was validated and calibrated for the pilot areas. The final activities included a multi-criteria decision analysis to select the optimal location of the water reservoirs and the use of spatial analyst to provide the optimal routes to reach reservoirs by the fire vehicles. To enhance the responsible agency personnel along with stakeholders knowledge of the region, a Neighborhood Network with regular quarterly meetings was established. Participants for all six project countries were present in the meetings. Overall, new tool that will enhance

  16. International Direct Investment and Transboundary Pollution: An Empirical Analysis of Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuping Deng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Using complex networks and spatial econometric methods, we empirically test the extent to which a country’s influence and its position in an international investment network affect environmental quality as well as the country’s role in transboundary pollution transfer. The estimated results show that the ties connecting nodes together in an international investment network have significant impacts on global environmental pollution. Additionally, node linkages between developing countries have stronger negative effects on environmental quality than node linkages between developed countries. Moreover, greater node importance and node centrality accelerate the speed and scale of the growth of polluting industries, which allows developed countries to more easily transfer their pollution-intensive industries to developing countries that possess higher node dependency. We also find that the factor endowment effect coexists with the pollution haven effect, the effects of environmental regulation advantage in the international investment network are greater than the impact of factor endowment advantage.

  17. Domestic parking estimation using remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzi, Ahmed

    2012-10-01

    Parking is an integral part of the traffic system everywhere. Provision of parking facilities to meet peak of demands parking in cities of millions is always a real challenge for traffic and transport experts. Parking demand is a function of population and car ownership which is obtained from traffic statistics. Parking supply in an area is the number of legal parking stalls available in that area. The traditional treatment of the parking studies utilizes data collected either directly from on street counting and inquiries or indirectly from local and national traffic censuses. Both methods consume time, efforts, and funds. Alternatively, it is reasonable to make use of the eventually available data based on remotely sensed data which might be flown for other purposes. The objective of this work is to develop a new approach based on utilization of integration of remotely sensed data, field measurements, censuses and traffic records of the studied area for studying domestic parking problems in residential areas especially in informal areas. Expected outcomes from the research project establish a methodology to manage the issue and to find the reasons caused the shortage in domestics and the solutions to overcome this problems.

  18. Urban Park: an Integral Part of Welfare for Citizens — A Case Study of Shangzhi and Qinbin Parks in Harbin Metropolis, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Binzhang; Zhao, Chunli

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: As a key part of the urban green spaces, urban park plays important role in city citizens’ life. The significances of park treating as a green lung in urban area demonstrate its unique contribution to people’s life not only in physical and tangible aspects such as environment, ecology a...... management and service have been contributed by this study. Specifically, the awareness for treating the urban park as an integral part of citizens’ welfare should be arose and educated in entire society. Key words: Harbin Metropolis, urban park, activity, public life...... in their daily life, second one tries to learn what problems they meet during their visit and using, third one focuses on what problems and challenges of urban park need to be resolved by administrative officers and park managers. The research samples, Shanzhi Park and Qingbin Park, were selected in two...... spaces in both numbers and sizes as the form of park. It also showed some problems and challenges faced in park design and management had to be enhanced. Finally, some suggestions aimed to improve the situation of urban spaces included constructing new urban parks and promoting the quality of park...

  19. The Solutions to the Problem of Temporary Vehicle Parking in the City. The Analysis of Vehicle Parking Time and Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ričardas Mockus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Methods of solving the problems of temporary parking of vehicles in the city by using the automatic parking systems are considered. The investigation of vehicle parking is described and the comparison of the ramp-type and automated parking lots is presented.Article in Lithuanian

  20. Mitochondrial Alterations by PARKIN in Dopaminergic Neurons Using PARK2 Patient-Specific and PARK2 Knockout Isogenic iPSC Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atossa Shaltouki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we used patient-specific and isogenic PARK2-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs to show that mutations in PARK2 alter neuronal proliferation. The percentage of TH+ neurons was decreased in Parkinson’s disease (PD patient-derived neurons carrying various mutations in PARK2 compared with an age-matched control subject. This reduction was accompanied by alterations in mitochondrial:cell volume fraction (mitochondrial volume fraction. The same phenotype was confirmed in isogenic PARK2 null lines. The mitochondrial phenotype was also seen in non-midbrain neurons differentiated from the PARK2 null line, as was the functional phenotype of reduced proliferation in culture. Whole genome expression profiling at various stages of differentiation confirmed the mitochondrial phenotype and identified pathways altered by PARK2 dysfunction that include PD-related genes. Our results are consistent with current model of PARK2 function where damaged mitochondria are targeted for degradation via a PARK2/PINK1-mediated mechanism.

  1. A quantitative analysis of biodiversity and the recreational value of potential national parks in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Frank Wugt; Petersen, Anders Højgård; Strange, Niels

    2008-01-01

    Denmark has committed itself to the European 2010 target to halt the loss of biodiversity. Currently, Denmark is in the process of designating larger areas as national parks, and 7 areas (of a possible 32 larger nature areas) have been selected for pilot projects to test the feasibility of establ......Denmark has committed itself to the European 2010 target to halt the loss of biodiversity. Currently, Denmark is in the process of designating larger areas as national parks, and 7 areas (of a possible 32 larger nature areas) have been selected for pilot projects to test the feasibility...... of establishing national parks. In this article, we first evaluate the effectiveness of the a priori network of national parks proposed through expert and political consensus versus a network chosen specifically for biodiversity through quantitative analysis. Second, we analyze the potential synergy between...... preserving biodiversity in terms of species representation and recreational values in selecting a network of national parks. We use the actual distribution of 973 species within these 32 areas and 4 quantitative measures of recreational value. Our results show that the 7 pilot project areas...

  2. A Walk in the Park: The Influence of Urban Parks and Community Violence on Physical Activity in Chelsea, MA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Y. Ou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximity to a park does not necessarily imply access or use, and the social environment may positively or negatively influence the positive intentions of the built environment. To investigate parks, park use and physical activity, and their associations with exposure to community violence, we interviewed residents (n = 354 of a densely populated urban community. Our findings indicate that proximity to any park is not associated with physical activity. However, proximity to the preferred park reported by residents to be conducive for physical activity (with walking paths, large fields, playgrounds for children and tennis courts was associated with physical activity. Conversely, knowledge of sexual assault or rape in the neighborhood is inversely associated with every type of physical activity (park-based, outdoor, and indoor. Our findings suggest that improvements to the built environment (parks, green spaces may be hindered by adverse social environments and both are necessary for consideration in the design of public health interventions.

  3. A Brief History of Kafue National Park, Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Mwima

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first documentation of the history of Zambia's oldest and largest national park: Kafue National Park. The movement of people out of the park is systematically presented. Furthermore, access and resource use and exploitation rights granted to people who lived inside the park are summarised. The paper looks at park administration, wildlife management, tourism and briefly presents areas for future studies.

  4. Impacts of long-range transboundary air pollution. Report prepared within the framework of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This eighth volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies, published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains the documents reviewed and approved for publication at the ninth session of the Executive Body held at Geneva from 18 to 22 November 1991. Part one is the Annual Review of Strategies and Policies for Air Pollution Abatement. Part two describes the critical load concept and the role of the best available technology and other approaches in air pollution abatement strategies. The report analyses the aim, elements and examples of the use of the receptor-oriented or effect-based critical load approach. It also evaluates the role of the source-oriented or technology-based approach as a supplement, rather than an alternative, to the critical load approach. The report contains a table with examples of national target loads for acidity or sulphur as well as preliminary European maps of critical loads of actual acidity, sulphur, present load computation of sulphur and the exceedance of the critical load of sulphur. Part three is an executive summary of the 1990 Forest Damage Survey in Europe, carried out under the International Co-operative Programme for Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests. Part four is an executive summary of the interim report on cause/effect relationships in forest decline. Part five reviews recent research results on effects of acid deposition on atmospheric corrosion of materials

  5. Redesign of Denggung Park as Sleman Urban Park based on Local Wisdom in Yogyakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjaya, I.; Fatimah, IS

    2017-10-01

    Sleman Regency is one of the administrative area in Special Region of Yogyakarta Province which has increased the pace of infrastructure development activities that undertaken by the central government affects another surrounding area. The pace of infrastructure development impacts such problems in Sleman Regency such as, increasingly limited public spaces and changes in understanding the value of local wisdom. Sleman Regency has a park located in central government which is Denggung Park. This park has low visitors and less of aesthetic value which require re-design to improve the quality as public space for cultural identity space. The base concept of Urban Park adopted the philosophy that connects to four components in Javanese mythology. The four components in Javanese mythology symbolize the journey of human life in the Javanese cosmological theory, there are Mount Merapi, Keraton, Krapyak Stage, and South seas. The design concept inspired from pattern of Yogyakarta traditional clothing namely, Batik Kawung which describe of Philosophy “Four of Brotherhood and Five of Central itself” by means synergize four items creating world nature and human as life catalyzer. This study uses descriptive and spatial analysis method. The result of this research is expected to be a design recommendation for Sleman Regency governance in the urban park development.

  6. Valuing Recreational Benefits of Coral Reefs: The Case of Mombasa Marine National Park and Reserve, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Kevin P.; Mangi, Stephen C.

    2010-01-01

    A contingent valuation study was conducted with adult Kenyan citizens and foreign tourists to estimate the value of recreational benefits arising from coral reefs at Mombasa Marine National Park and Reserve (MMNPR), and to assess the implications for local reef management. Citizen and foreign visitors to MMNPR were willing to pay an extra 2.2 (median = 1.6) and 8 (median = 6.7) per visit respectively, in addition to current park entrance fees, to support reef quality improvements. By aggregating visitors’ willingness to pay bids over the number of visitors to MMNPR in 2006-2007 the value of benefits was estimated at 346,733, which was more than twice the total annual operational expenditure of 152,383 for MMNPR. The findings indicate that annual revenues from citizen and foreign visitors may be increased by 60% to 261,932 through the implementation of proposed higher park fees of 3.10 for citizens and 15 for foreign visitors. However, any fee increase would serve to intensify concerns among citizens that only relatively affluent Kenyans can afford to visit MMNPR. Park managers need to demonstrate that the extra revenue would be used to fund the proposed conservation activities. This valuation study demonstrates that visitors are prepared to pay higher user fees for access to the marine protected area revealing considerable untapped resource to finance reef quality improvements.

  7. Learning from Millennium Park, Chicago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guen, T. [American Society of Landscape Architects, Washington, DC (United States)]|[Terry Guen Design Associates, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This paper identified the value of creating green space for public use in an urban area in support of a sustainable environment. The inauguration of Chicago's Millennium Park in July 2004 marked a landmark civic achievement in greening an industrial urban centre. The Park was constructed on a 25-acre, previously vacant 100 year old rail property. In 2001, the first phase of the Park opened with the construction of the garages, train bridge, and infrastructure for future sculptural pieces. The green roof landscaping involved soil and drainage pathways, planting 11 acres of lawn and trees, and building a skating rink and restaurants. Phase 2 included new construction of donor enhancements. Among many benefits, this project stimulated investment in adjacent private development. This paper outlined the historic motivation for the park as a cultural and aesthetic benefit for the public. It reviewed the construction costs, the multiple sources of funding, and the multidisciplinary effort involving public agencies and private supporters. The landscape team included experts in soil, irrigation, planting, design and plant selection. Millennium Park has proven that current design and construction industries have the technical and physical ability to create cultural spaces of interest. 6 figs.

  8. Family structure and park use among parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yingling; French, Simone A; Das, Kirti V

    2012-11-01

    Despite the increasingly diversified family structure in the U.S., little research examines differences in park use between nontraditional and traditional family structures. This study examines family-structure differences in parent park use. It was hypothesized that working single parents and dual-worker parents have lower levels of park use than parents in two-parent, single-worker families. Data from a 2010 park-use survey in three urban neighborhoods in Minneapolis MN (N=261 parents) were analyzed in 2012. Multiple variables of park use were developed, including recalled measures over the past 3 days and over the past year. Family-structure differences in these variables were examined using multivariate regression analyses. After controlling for spatial clustering effects and confounding factors, working single parents reported 32.6% (pparents in two-parent, single-worker families. Dual-worker parents did not report fewer park visits in the past 3 days than parents in two-parent, single-worker families, yet the length of time they spent in parks during these visits was 41.5% (psingle parents and dual-worker parents is needed in descriptive and intervention research aiming to promote park use among families with children. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Using the Theory of Games to Modelling the Equipment and Prices of Car Parking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkitny, Waldemar

    2017-10-01

    center. There were assumed that from the city’s point of view it is one rival, independently on the actual ownership of private car parks on whose strategy of acting the city do not have an influence. It is consistent with the basic foundations of the game theory. Both players compete for consumers - drivers using car parks, with such parameters like: price, distance from the destination, car parks’ equipment. The built model allows to indicate the best strategy. Knowing that strategy, one can form prices and equipment of car parks. That model may be used by municipal governments and companies which administer car parks. However, one should remember about limitations, which occur in reality, e.g. law restrictions referring to maximum prices for parking. The increasing pressure of cities’ authorities in Poland for changing those regulations, and examples of such solutions received, e.g. in USA, which concern varying prices for parking according to the demand on different car parks, and different hours, permit to have hopes, that the proposed model will be possible to use practically, soon.

  10. SPATIAL COMPOSITION OF THE PARK NAMED AFTER I. D. CHERNIAKHOVSKYI IN UMAN IN CHERKASY REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YEGOROV Yu. I.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The state of welfare had been analyzed and the measures to the spatial organization of the landscape environment of I. D. Cherniakhovskyi park in Uman in Cherkasy region had been proposed.

  11. Allegheny County Park Rangers Outreach

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Launched in June 2015, the Allegheny County Park Rangers program reached over 48,000 people in its first year. Park Rangers interact with residents of all ages and...

  12. 77 FR 75079 - Safety Zone; Woldenburg Park, Mississippi River, New Orleans, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Woldenburg Park, Mississippi River, New Orleans, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Captain of the Port New Orleans, under the authority... this rule, call or email LCDR Kenneth Blair, Sector New Orleans, U.S. Coast Guard; telephone (504) 365...

  13. Bilateral and multilateral agreements and other arrangements in Europe and North America on the protection and use of transboundary waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The present document presents in a chronological order existing bilateral and multilateral legally binding agreements and other arrangements in Europe and North America on the protection and use of transboundary waters, which had been concluded by may 1992. These include agreements, treaties, conventions, protocols, orders and exchanges of notes. For each agreement the following information is given: title of the agreement, field of application, river basin, area of application, contracting parties, date of agreement and place of signature, joint body, and reference

  14. Fear of crime in urban parks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maruthaveeran, Sreetheran; Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the attributes which evoke ‘fear of crime’ and to determine the defensive behaviour among the urban park users. Findings are based on qualitative studies undertaken in the city of Kuala Lumpur among the park and non-park users (N = 19) by means of semi......-structured in-depth interviews. The interview consists of respondents from various age, gender and race. The results revealed universal similarities to other cultures on fear of crime in urban green spaces. This study has highlighted eight themes on the attributes which evoke fear among the residents of Kuala...... behaviour towards crime in urban parks but this was only observed among the women. This paper has also highlighted the implications on park planning and management from the comments given by the respondents. Though the aspect of fear towards crime in urban green spaces is not a major focus in Malaysia...

  15. How healthy are the rhinoceros populations in the Hluhluwe-iMfolosi Park?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LP Fatti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Arising from a study conducted in the Hluhluwe-iMfolosi Park by the author in the late nineties, a method is proposed for improving the estimate of the size of a wildlife population by combining data from current and past surveys. The method is based on a simple state space model which takes into account the (unknown birth rate in the population and all known losses (mortalities and relocations and gains (introductions in the population between successive surveys, as well as the errors in the survey estimates. The method is applied to the White- and Black Rhinoceros populations in the Hluhluwe-iMfolosi Park and tentative conclusions are drawn on the health of these two populations.

  16. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: The Nevada Test Site Development Corporations's Desert Rock Sky Park at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2000-03-01

    The United States Department of Energy has prepared an Environmental Assessment (DOE/EA-1300) (EA) which analyzes the potential environmental effects of developing operating and maintaining a commercial/industrial park in Area 22 of the Nevada Test Site, between Mercury Camp and U.S. Highway 95 and east of Desert Rock Airport. The EA evaluates the potential impacts of infrastructure improvements necessary to support fill build out of the 512-acre Desert Rock Sky Park. Two alternative actions were evaluated: (1) Develop, operate and maintain a commercial/industrial park in Area 22 of the Nevada Test Site, and (2) taking no action. The purpose and need for the commercial industrial park are addressed in Section 1.0 of the EA. A detailed description of the proposed action and alternatives is in section 2.0. Section 3.0 describes the affected environment. Section 4.0 the environmental consequences of the proposed action and alternative. Cumulative effects are addressed in Section 5.0. Mitigation measures are addressed in Section 6.0. The Department of Energy determined that the proposed action of developing, operating and maintaining a commercial/industrial park in Area 22 of the Nevada Test Site would best meet the needs of the agency.

  17. THE COMPETITIVENESS FACTORS OF INDUSTRIAL PARKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kóródi László

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available 2013 Romania shows the bigger economic development than in the last years and increases the GDP by 3,5%, that was the most significant growth in the EU. The biggest contributing sector to this expansion is the industry. This sector contributed the most with 2,3% to this growth. The importance of the industry in a country’s development not only the Romania`s case, but for other economies too. More and more authors emphasise the importance of Industrial parks, they act as pull factors. The effects of the industrial placements like the industrial parks are multiple regarding a region’s development and competitiveness. The most of these benefits are well known already, but the competitiveness of the industrial parks is not a frequent theme, tough this will contribute to the competitiveness of the region. What are the basic and decisive factors that influence the final decision of the companies to choose a particular industrial park? While analysing the competitiveness factors of industrial parks I intend to emphasize the reasons and factors that influences companies in their decision to appear in the industrial parks that they are resident in. The purpose of this paper is to present all the important factors in the same place that make an industrial park competitive. First I want to present the factors that were identified by now based on theoretical, and practical experiences starting from some second hand information. The caracteristics of the successful parks will br presented with the well-kown examples, and also with caese not known to everybody. Some of the reasons why industrial companies chooses a park are well kown, for example the placement, the good accesibility, for which is essential a good infrastructure. Another decisive factor is the suport of the state and the local autorities, the most important factors are tax and other costs relief. There are more things that influance companies in choosing their sites.

  18. Vesuvium national park; Il Parco Nazionale del Vesuvio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iozzolino, I. [Naples Univ. (Italy)

    1995-03-01

    The presented paper deal with the future of Vesuvium National Park. A brief history of the park institution is stated together with geo-physical, floristical, and faunistical aspects. Some considerations are reported about human activities and economic aspects in park area. Furthermore, future problems in park management are pointed out.

  19. Park-Use Behavior and Perceptions by Race, Hispanic Origin, and Immigrant Status in Minneapolis, MN: Implications on Park Strategies for Addressing Health Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kirti V; Fan, Yingling; French, Simone A

    2017-04-01

    The study examines the connections between minority status, park use behavior, and park-related perceptions using recent survey data from three low-income neighborhoods in Minneapolis, MN. Blacks and foreign-born residents are found to underutilize parks. Blacks, Asians, and American Indians perceive fewer health benefits of parks than whites, including the benefits of parks for providing exercise/relaxation opportunities and family gathering spaces. Foreign-born residents, blacks, and Hispanics perceive greater and unique barriers to park use in terms of not feeling welcome, cultural and language restrictions, program schedule and pricing concerns, and/or facility maintenance and mismatch concerns. When designing park strategies for addressing health disparities, we recommend to focus the efforts on increasing awareness of park-related health benefits and removing specific park use barriers among minority and foreign-born communities.

  20. On the Design of Smart Parking Networks in the Smart Cities: An Optimal Sensor Placement Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagula, Antoine; Castelli, Lorenzo; Zennaro, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Smart parking is a typical IoT application that can benefit from advances in sensor, actuator and RFID technologies to provide many services to its users and parking owners of a smart city. This paper considers a smart parking infrastructure where sensors are laid down on the parking spots to detect car presence and RFID readers are embedded into parking gates to identify cars and help in the billing of the smart parking. Both types of devices are endowed with wired and wireless communication capabilities for reporting to a gateway where the situation recognition is performed. The sensor devices are tasked to play one of the three roles: (1) slave sensor nodes located on the parking spot to detect car presence/absence; (2) master nodes located at one of the edges of a parking lot to detect presence and collect the sensor readings from the slave nodes; and (3) repeater sensor nodes, also called “anchor” nodes, located strategically at specific locations in the parking lot to increase the coverage and connectivity of the wireless sensor network. While slave and master nodes are placed based on geographic constraints, the optimal placement of the relay/anchor sensor nodes in smart parking is an important parameter upon which the cost and efficiency of the parking system depends. We formulate the optimal placement of sensors in smart parking as an integer linear programming multi-objective problem optimizing the sensor network engineering efficiency in terms of coverage and lifetime maximization, as well as its economic gain in terms of the number of sensors deployed for a specific coverage and lifetime. We propose an exact solution to the node placement problem using single-step and two-step solutions implemented in the Mosel language based on the Xpress-MPsuite of libraries. Experimental results reveal the relative efficiency of the single-step compared to the two-step model on different performance parameters. These results are consolidated by simulation results

  1. On the Design of Smart Parking Networks in the Smart Cities: An Optimal Sensor Placement Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Bagula

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Smart parking is a typical IoT application that can benefit from advances in sensor, actuator and RFID technologies to provide many services to its users and parking owners of a smart city. This paper considers a smart parking infrastructure where sensors are laid down on the parking spots to detect car presence and RFID readers are embedded into parking gates to identify cars and help in the billing of the smart parking. Both types of devices are endowed with wired and wireless communication capabilities for reporting to a gateway where the situation recognition is performed. The sensor devices are tasked to play one of the three roles: (1 slave sensor nodes located on the parking spot to detect car presence/absence; (2 master nodes located at one of the edges of a parking lot to detect presence and collect the sensor readings from the slave nodes; and (3 repeater sensor nodes, also called “anchor” nodes, located strategically at specific locations in the parking lot to increase the coverage and connectivity of the wireless sensor network. While slave and master nodes are placed based on geographic constraints, the optimal placement of the relay/anchor sensor nodes in smart parking is an important parameter upon which the cost and efficiency of the parking system depends. We formulate the optimal placement of sensors in smart parking as an integer linear programming multi-objective problem optimizing the sensor network engineering efficiency in terms of coverage and lifetime maximization, as well as its economic gain in terms of the number of sensors deployed for a specific coverage and lifetime. We propose an exact solution to the node placement problem using single-step and two-step solutions implemented in the Mosel language based on the Xpress-MPsuite of libraries. Experimental results reveal the relative efficiency of the single-step compared to the two-step model on different performance parameters. These results are consolidated by

  2. On the Design of Smart Parking Networks in the Smart Cities: An Optimal Sensor Placement Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagula, Antoine; Castelli, Lorenzo; Zennaro, Marco

    2015-06-30

    Smart parking is a typical IoT application that can benefit from advances in sensor, actuator and RFID technologies to provide many services to its users and parking owners of a smart city. This paper considers a smart parking infrastructure where sensors are laid down on the parking spots to detect car presence and RFID readers are embedded into parking gates to identify cars and help in the billing of the smart parking. Both types of devices are endowed with wired and wireless communication capabilities for reporting to a gateway where the situation recognition is performed. The sensor devices are tasked to play one of the three roles: (1) slave sensor nodes located on the parking spot to detect car presence/absence; (2) master nodes located at one of the edges of a parking lot to detect presence and collect the sensor readings from the slave nodes; and (3) repeater sensor nodes, also called "anchor" nodes, located strategically at specific locations in the parking lot to increase the coverage and connectivity of the wireless sensor network. While slave and master nodes are placed based on geographic constraints, the optimal placement of the relay/anchor sensor nodes in smart parking is an important parameter upon which the cost and efficiency of the parking system depends. We formulate the optimal placement of sensors in smart parking as an integer linear programming multi-objective problem optimizing the sensor network engineering efficiency in terms of coverage and lifetime maximization, as well as its economic gain in terms of the number of sensors deployed for a specific coverage and lifetime. We propose an exact solution to the node placement problem using single-step and two-step solutions implemented in the Mosel language based on the Xpress-MPsuite of libraries. Experimental results reveal the relative efficiency of the single-step compared to the two-step model on different performance parameters. These results are consolidated by simulation results

  3. 36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... point of origin of the tour, will be accorded admission to the park. (b) Colorado whitewater boat trips... conduct of a commercial or business activity in the park. (iii) An operation is commercial if any fee... will not interfere with park management or impair park resources. (i) Any permit issued will be valid...

  4. Seremban Urban Park, Malaysia: a Preference Study

    OpenAIRE

    Maulan, Suhardi

    2002-01-01

    Unlike the West, where many studies have explored how peopleâ s needs are fulfilled by urban parks, Malaysia has received very little attention from researchers. One reason for this is the fact that Malaysia has only a short public park tradition. Although folk art and stories have chronicled a long history of gardens and other parks, these spaces were only accessible to royal family members and autocrats. In Malaysia, the concept of free public parks is relatively recent, having been introd...

  5. PLC Based Automatic Multistoried Car Parking System

    OpenAIRE

    Swanand S .Vaze; Rohan S. Mithari

    2014-01-01

    This project work presents the study and design of PLC based Automatic Multistoried Car Parking System. Multistoried car parking is an arrangement which is used to park a large number of vehicles in least possible place. For making this arrangement in a real plan very high technological instruments are required. In this project a prototype of such a model is made. This prototype model is made for accommodating twelve cars at a time. Availability of the space for parking is detecte...

  6. Park Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Parks Districts layer is part of a dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes feature classes for...

  7. Assessment of the uncertainties in air mass and pollutants transboundary exchange over the continental part of the EANET region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, Sergey S.; Trifonova-Yakovleva, Alisa; Gromov, Sergey A.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we attempt to quantify the uncertainties in air mass exchange in the lower troposphere across two regions of the Russian border in Eastern Siberia and the Russian Far East in 2000-2015. We use meteorological data from long-term air sound data (ASD) on mean layer winds [1] and from the ERA INTERIM re-analysis (EIR) project [2]. Using a transboundary exchange model, we estimate the total and net amounts of air crossing the boundary segments around Irkutsk (IR) and Vladivostok (VL) aerological stations. We compare transport terms derived (i) from the long-term wind statistics based on both ASD and EIR data, and (ii) from integrating 6h meteorological winds from EIR directly over the border segments cells. We find similar wind direction statistics in both meteorological datasets, however EIR favours stronger westerly winds at VL in summer, which results in more often air export from China to Russia in the Far East. There is less agreement on the wind strengths than wind directions between the datasets, with EIR often providing slower wind speeds. The resulting climatic (ASD) and directly (from EIR 6h terms) calculated non-equilibrium (net) transport terms are comparable in orders (tens of million km3/month), however may differ substantially in temporal evolution or/and magnitude. Thus, EIR net transport over the IR segment has similar annual dynamics but is higher by a factor of ˜ 4 (maxima of 3.6 vs. 12 of 106 km3/month in December, respectively). An opposite ratio is derived for the VL segment (average ˜ 6 vs. 13 of 106 km3/month), with a distinct seasonality in the ASD but not in the EIR data. We attribute this discrepancy to the variations in wind direction with altitude, which cannot be resolved in the model fed with the ASD data. Calculated transport in the boundary layer (BL, provided by the EIR) supports this inference. Thus, the BL net transport temporal dynamics differ substantially from that within the 3 km layer, owing to the BL diurnal

  8. Data Analytics for Smart Parking Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesan, Nicola; Turi, Leo; Toigo, Enrico; Martinez, Borja; Rossi, Michele

    2016-09-23

    We consider real-life smart parking systems where parking lot occupancy data are collected from field sensor devices and sent to backend servers for further processing and usage for applications. Our objective is to make these data useful to end users, such as parking managers, and, ultimately, to citizens. To this end, we concoct and validate an automated classification algorithm having two objectives: (1) outlier detection: to detect sensors with anomalous behavioral patterns, i.e., outliers; and (2) clustering: to group the parking sensors exhibiting similar patterns into distinct clusters. We first analyze the statistics of real parking data, obtaining suitable simulation models for parking traces. We then consider a simple classification algorithm based on the empirical complementary distribution function of occupancy times and show its limitations. Hence, we design a more sophisticated algorithm exploiting unsupervised learning techniques (self-organizing maps). These are tuned following a supervised approach using our trace generator and are compared against other clustering schemes, namely expectation maximization, k-means clustering and DBSCAN, considering six months of data from a real sensor deployment. Our approach is found to be superior in terms of classification accuracy, while also being capable of identifying all of the outliers in the dataset.

  9. Data Analytics for Smart Parking Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Piovesan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider real-life smart parking systems where parking lot occupancy data are collected from field sensor devices and sent to backend servers for further processing and usage for applications. Our objective is to make these data useful to end users, such as parking managers, and, ultimately, to citizens. To this end, we concoct and validate an automated classification algorithm having two objectives: (1 outlier detection: to detect sensors with anomalous behavioral patterns, i.e., outliers; and (2 clustering: to group the parking sensors exhibiting similar patterns into distinct clusters. We first analyze the statistics of real parking data, obtaining suitable simulation models for parking traces. We then consider a simple classification algorithm based on the empirical complementary distribution function of occupancy times and show its limitations. Hence, we design a more sophisticated algorithm exploiting unsupervised learning techniques (self-organizing maps. These are tuned following a supervised approach using our trace generator and are compared against other clustering schemes, namely expectation maximization, k-means clustering and DBSCAN, considering six months of data from a real sensor deployment. Our approach is found to be superior in terms of classification accuracy, while also being capable of identifying all of the outliers in the dataset.

  10. Elgon/Kibale National Parks carbon sequestration projects

    OpenAIRE

    Face Foundation

    2007-01-01

    Metadata only record In Uganda we are collaborating with the Uganda Wildlife Authority (UWA), one of whose tasks is to manage the country's national parks. We are jointly implementing forest restoration projects in Mount Elgon National Park and Kibale National Park. PES-1 (Payments for Environmental Services Associate Award)

  11. 36 CFR 1280.12 - Is parking available?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Market Street (in Philadelphia) and the National Archives at New York City do not have onsite parking... Section 1280.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA... on Using Nara Facilities § 1280.12 Is parking available? (a) The National Archives Building. There is...

  12. 36 CFR 910.33 - Off-street parking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for parking spaces is as follows: (1) Hotel: One parking space for each four sleeping rooms or suites; (2) Places of public assemblage other than hotels: (i.e., arena, armory, theater, auditorium...; (3) Retail, trade, and service establishments: one parking space for each 750 square feet of gross...

  13. 36 CFR 7.33 - Voyageurs National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.33 Voyageurs National Park. (a) Fishing. Unless otherwise... intersection with the Black Bay to Moose Bay portage, across Locator, War Club, Quill, Loiten, and Shoepack... management, weather, and park management objectives. (4) Maps showing the designated routes are available at...

  14. IoT-Based Car's Parking Monitoring System

    OpenAIRE

    Dwiputra Albertus Ega; Khoswanto Handry; Sutjiadi Raymond; Lim Resmana

    2018-01-01

    Internet-of-things-based technologies have advanced so much and helped public necessities. The use of IoT at a parking lot will help vehicle users to know the availability of a parking location through smartphones. This IoT-based parking system is created by using controllers, sensors, servers and cloud. Controllers and sensors will be placed on the ceiling of each parking slots to detect the presence of a car. Server collect the results of the sensors and store them in Cloud. System test is ...

  15. Open Days: information on CERN parking

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The organising team for the Open Days (28-29 September) would like to inform you that some parking sites in Meyrin and Prévessin will have to be kept free as of 18 September for the installation of tents and marquees.   Next week, CERN Management will address parking concerns and give you more information on other parking possibilities. The Open Day organising team thanks you for your cooperation and apologises for any inconvenience.

  16. A dynamic parking charge optimal control model under perspective of commuters' evolutionary game behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, XuXun; Yuan, PengCheng

    2018-01-01

    In this research we consider commuters' dynamic learning effect by modeling the trip mode choice behavior from a new perspective of dynamic evolutionary game theory. We explore the behavior pattern of different types of commuters and study the evolution path and equilibrium properties under different traffic conditions. We further establish a dynamic parking charge optimal control (referred to as DPCOC) model to alter commuters' trip mode choice while minimizing the total social cost. Numerical tests show. (1) Under fixed parking fee policy, the evolutionary results are completely decided by the travel time and the only method for public transit induction is to increase the parking charge price. (2) Compared with fixed parking fee policy, DPCOC policy proposed in this research has several advantages. Firstly, it can effectively turn the evolutionary path and evolutionary stable strategy to a better situation while minimizing the total social cost. Secondly, it can reduce the sensitivity of trip mode choice behavior to traffic congestion and improve the ability to resist interferences and emergencies. Thirdly, it is able to control the private car proportion to a stable state and make the trip behavior more predictable for the transportation management department. The research results can provide theoretical basis and decision-making references for commuters' mode choice prediction, dynamic setting of urban parking charge prices and public transit induction.

  17. TOURISTY POLICIES AND THE HOTEL PARK DEVELOPEMENT OF CAMEROON (1950 - 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Lytrice AKAMBA MANI

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The hotelier component represents an important side of the touristy activity success. In countries that have an emergent economy, as Cameroon, the tourism and the hotel business have shaped activation as a lever to the whole economy, since the second half of the 20th century. The present paperwork proposes an analytic overview of the evolution of the hotelier park in two of the main cities of the country, Douala and Yaoundé. The evolutional aspects are historically staged, correlated within the political framework and emphasize the tourist phenomenon overall. The goals of our research emphasize qualitative and quantitative upheaval recorded by the urban hotelier park for the identification of the causal terms between the phenomenon type relations/context and the possible substantiation policy in the future.

  18. Welcome to the Manhattan Project National Historical Park!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    The making of the Manhattan Project National Historical Park took more than five times longer than the Manhattan Project itself. The first efforts to preserve some of the Manhattan Project properties at Los Alamos began in 1999. Fifteen years later, Congress enacted legislation to create a Manhattan Project National Historical Park in late 2014. This session will recount the how the park came into being and what to expect when you visit the park at Los Alamos, NM, Oak Ridge, TN, and Hanford, WA. Welcome to the Manhattan Project National Historical Park!

  19. Flow status of three transboundary rivers in Northern Greece as a tool for hydro-diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzigiannakis, Eyaggelos; Hatzispiroglou, Ioannis; Arampatzis, Georgios; Ilia, Andreas; Pantelakis, Dimitrios; Filintas, Agathos; Panagopoulos, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine how the river flow monitoring consists a tool for hydro-diplomacy. Management of transboundary catchments and the demand of common water resources, often comprise the cause of conflicts and tension threatening the peaceful coexistence of nations. The Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EU sets a base for water management contributing to common approaches, common goals, common principles as well as providing new definitions and measures for Europe's water resources. In northern Greece the main renewable resources are "imported" (over 25% of its water reserves) and for this reason the implementation of continuous flow measurements throughout the year is necessary, even though difficult to achieve. This paper focuses on the three largest transboundary rivers in Northern Greece. Axios and Strymonas river flow across the region of Central Macedonia in Northern Greece. Axios flows from FYROM to Greece, and Strymonas from Bulgaria to Greece. Nestos river flows from Bulgaria to Greece. The Greek part is in the region of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace in Northern Greece. Significant productive agricultural areas around these rivers are irrigated from them so they are very important for the local society. Measurements of the river flow velocity and the flow depth have been made at bridges. The frequency of the measurements is roughly monthly, because it is expected a significant change in the depth flow and discharge. A series of continuously flow measure-ments were performed during 2013 and 2014 using flowmeters (Valeport and OTT type). The cross-section characteristics, the river flow velocity of segments and the mean water flow velocity and discharge total profile were measured and calculated re-spectively. Measurements are conducted in the framework of the national water resources monitoring network, which is realised in compliance to the Water Framework Directive under the supervision and coordination of the Hellenic Ministry for the

  20. Urban parks as green walls or green magnets? Interracial relations in neighborhood boundary parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gobster

    1998-01-01

    A recent paper in this journal (Solecki and Welch, 1995) describes how urban parks that lie between racially different neighborhoods can become "green walls" or barriers to use and appreciation. Although this phenomenon is well grounded in the experience of many who plan for, manage, and live near parks in racially and ethnically segregated cities, an...

  1. Using spatial metrics and surveys for the assessment of trans-boundary deforestation in protected areas of the Maya Mountain Massif: Belize-Guatemala border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicas, S D; Omine, K; Ford, J B; Sugimura, K; Yoshida, K

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the trans-boundary deforestation history and patterns in protected areas along the Belize-Guatemala border is of regional and global importance. To assess deforestation history and patterns in our study area along a section of the Belize-Guatemala border, we incorporated multi-temporal deforestation rate analysis and spatial metrics with survey results. This multi-faceted approach provides spatial analysis with relevant insights from local stakeholders to better understand historic deforestation dynamics, spatial characteristics and human perspectives regarding the underlying causes thereof. During the study period 1991-2014, forest cover declined in Belize's protected areas: Vaca Forest Reserve 97.88%-87.62%, Chiquibul National Park 99.36%-92.12%, Caracol Archeological Reserve 99.47%-78.10% and Colombia River Forest Reserve 89.22%-78.38% respectively. A comparison of deforestation rates and spatial metrics indices indicated that between time periods 1991-1995 and 2012-2014 deforestation and fragmentation increased in protected areas. The major underlying causes, drivers, impacts, and barriers to bi-national collaboration and solutions of deforestation along the Belize-Guatemala border were identified by community leaders and stakeholders. The Mann-Whitney U test identified significant differences between leaders and stakeholders regarding the ranking of challenges faced by management organizations in the Maya Mountain Massif, except for the lack of assessment and quantification of deforestation (LD, SH: 18.67, 23.25, U = 148, p > 0.05). The survey results indicated that failure to integrate buffer communities, coordinate among managing organizations and establish strong bi-national collaboration has resulted in continued ecological and environmental degradation. The information provided by this research should aid managing organizations in their continued aim to implement effective deforestation mitigation strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  2. Assessing the risk of foliar injury from ozone on vegetation in parks in the U.S. National Park Service's Vital Signs Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohut, Robert [Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)], E-mail: rjk9@cornell.edu

    2007-10-15

    The risk of ozone injury to plants was assessed in support of the National Park Service's Vital Signs Monitoring Network program. The assessment examined bioindicator species, evaluated levels of ozone exposure, and investigated soil moisture conditions during periods of exposure for a 5-year period in each park. The assessment assigned each park a risk rating of high, moderate, or low. For the 244 parks for which assessments were conducted, the risk of foliar injury was high in 65 parks, moderate in 46 parks, and low in 131 parks. Among the well-known parks with a high risk of ozone injury are Gettysburg, Valley Forge, Delaware Water Gap, Cape Cod, Fire Island, Antietam, Harpers Ferry, Manassas, Wolf Trap Farm Park, Mammoth Cave, Shiloh, Sleeping Bear Dunes, Great Smoky Mountains, Joshua Tree, Sequoia and Kings Canyon, and Yosemite. - An assessment of the risk of foliar ozone injury on plants was conducted for 269 parks in support of the U.S. National Park Service's Vital Signs Monitoring Network Program.

  3. Tourists' motivations for visiting Kakum National Park, Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tourists' motivations for visiting Kakum National Park, Ghana. ... four main motivations of tourists who visited the park, namely adventure, education, ... Park were influenced by varied combinations of intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors.

  4. 45 CFR 3.23 - Parking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.23 Parking. (a) A person may not stand (vehicle... sign, crosswalk, or traffic control signal; (5) In a double-parked position; (6) At a curb painted...

  5. National Park Service Organic Act prohibits turning the doorstep of Canyonlands National Park into a nuclear wasteland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The protection national parks enjoy under the Organic Act of 1916 is now threatened by the enlarging and advancing needs of American society, with the most destructive threat posed by excessive or incongruent development on land adjacent to the parks. The need to store high-level nuclear waste has prompted DOE to ignore the protective mandate of the Act, and the Interior Secretary has made no move to correct DOE's error. Judicial intervention is not available until park values are immediately threatened. Federal action could violate the Act's standards and irreparably scar Canyonlands National Park. Decisions of this magnitude should be made in the open, with the federal government and public cooperating in an informed manner and acknowledging what is at stake

  6. Lessons about parks and poverty from a decade of forest loss and economic growth around Kibale National Park, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton-Treves, Lisa; Alix-Garcia, Jennifer; Chapman, Colin A

    2011-08-23

    We use field data linked to satellite image analysis to examine the relationship between biodiversity loss, deforestation, and poverty around Kibale National Park (KNP) in western Uganda, 1996-2006. Over this decade, KNP generally maintained forest cover, tree species, and primate populations, whereas neighboring communal forest patches were reduced by half and showed substantial declines in tree species and primate populations. However, a bad decade for forest outside the park proved a prosperous one for most local residents. Panel data for 252 households show substantial improvement in welfare indicators (e.g., safer water, more durable roof material), with the greatest increases found among those with highest initial assets. A combination of regression analysis and matching estimators shows that although the poor tend to be located on the park perimeter, proximity to the park has no measureable effect on growth of productive assets. The risk for land loss among the poor was inversely correlated with proximity to the park, initial farm size, and decline in adjacent communal forests. We conclude the current disproportionate presence of poor households at the edge of the park does not signal that the park is a poverty trap. Rather, Kibale appears to provide protection against desperation sales and farm loss among those most vulnerable.

  7. Composition and mixing states of brown haze particle over the Himalayas along two transboundary south-north transects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhiwen; Kang, Shichang; Guo, Junming; Zhang, Qianggong; Wang, Xuejia; Qin, Dahe

    2017-05-01

    Pollutants that are usually transported from southern Asia to the Tibetan Plateau deposit on the Plateau surface, change snow albedo and thereby surface radiative flux. This results numerous climatic implications like as erratic monsoon, perturbation in hydrological cycle, etc. However, the accurate estimation of these climatic implications is not well understood, because the atmospheric pollution is a heterogeneous mixture of various particle types. Therefore, this part of climate research requires a detailed investigation of physical and chemical properties of atmospheric pollutants. This study aimed to examine the physical and chemical properties of atmospheric pollutants across the Himalayan regions along two transboundary south-north transects. The information of individual-particles was obtained using microscopy-based techniques that comprises transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX). Study capture the signatures of various types of atmospheric species such as black carbon (BC), mineral dust, fly ash, organic matter, sulfate, nitrite, ammonium, and NaCl. Microscopy-based techniques confirm that these particles were generally in mixing state, for example salt-coated particles accounting for 25-56% of the total particles in sampled locations. Our analysis shows that urban and rural locations are characterized with atmospheric particles which sourced from anthropogenic activities, whereas remote locations with those released from natural crustal. However, the relative contributions of anthropogenic particles were higher than that of particles released from natural crustal. The presence of such particles over remote locations of Himalayan region provides an evidence of prevailing atmospheric transport processes, which further need to be well understood. It is expected that this work would be helpful in understanding the regional atmospheric conditions and the transboundary transport process of haze particles. As these

  8. Marine Spatial Planning in a Transboundary Context: Linking Baja California with California's Network of Marine Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Arafeh-Dalmau

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It is acknowledged that an effective path to globally protect marine ecosystems is through the establishment of eco-regional scale networks of MPAs spanning across national frontiers. In this work we aimed to plan for regionally feasible networks of MPAs that can be ecologically linked with an existing one in a transboundary context. We illustrate our exercise in the Ensenadian eco-region, a shared marine ecosystem between the south of California, United States of America (USA, and the north of Baja California, Mexico; where conservation actions differ across the border. In the USA, California recently established a network of MPAs through the Marine Life Protection Act (MLPA, while in Mexico: Baja California lacks a network of MPAs or a marine spatial planning effort to establish it. We generated four different scenarios with Marxan by integrating different ecological, social, and management considerations (habitat representation, opportunity costs, habitat condition, and enforcement costs. To do so, we characterized and collected biophysical and socio-economic information for Baja California and developed novel approaches to quantify and incorporate some of these considerations. We were able to design feasible networks of MPAs in Baja California that are ecologically linked with California's network (met between 78.5 and 84.4% of the MLPA guidelines and that would represent a low cost for fishers and aquaculture investors. We found that when multiple considerations are integrated more priority areas for conservation emerge. For our region, human distribution presents a strong gradient from north to south and resulted to be an important factor for the spatial arrangement of the priority areas. This work shows how, despite the constraints of a data-poor area, the available conservation principles, mapping, and planning tools can still be used to generate spatial conservation plans in a transboundary context.

  9. A framework to evaluate proposals for scientific activities in wilderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Landres

    2010-01-01

    Every year, the four Federal wilderness management agencies - U.S. DOI Bureau of Land Management, Fish and Wildlife Service, National Park Service, and the USDA Forest Service - receive hundreds of proposals to conduct scientific studies within wilderness. There is no consistent and comprehensive framework for evaluating such proposals that accounts for the unique...

  10. CAR SECURITY ENHANCEMENT IN PARKING AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    NANYONGA BERINDA; AYESIGA LINDSEY PATRA; BYEKWASO FAISAL; NATULINDA LADAN

    2017-01-01

    Over time, car thefts have been reported within Kampala parking areas. This has been majorly due to inefficient security measures of the available parking systems which focus mainly on the car and not the driver, making parking management a challenge. The focus of this survey was to explore the requirements of a new system called Car to Driver Matching Security System to enhance security of cars in Kampala, in particular, from the experience of 15 people. The data collected was then analyzed ...

  11. PALESTINE AUTOMOTIVE LICENSE IDENTITY RECOGNITION FOR INTELLIGENT PARKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANEES ABU SNEINEH

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Providing employees with protection and security is one of the key concerns of any organization. This goal can be implemented mainly by managing and protecting employees’ cars in the parking area. Therefore, a parking area must be managed and organized with smart technologies and tools that can be applied and integrated in an intelligent parking system. This paper presents the tools based on image recognition technology that can be used to effectively control various parts of a parking system. An intelligent automotive parking system is effectively implemented by integrating image processing technologies and an Arduino controller. Results show that intelligent parking is successfully implemented based on car ID image capture to meet the need for managing and organizing car parking systems.

  12. Herpetofaunal inventories of the National Parks of South Florida and the Caribbean: Volume I. Everglades National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Crockett, Marquette E.; Jeffery, Brian M.; Percival, H. Frankin

    2004-01-01

    Amphibian declines and extinctions have been documented around the world, often in protected natural areas. Concern for this alarming trend has prompted the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service to document all species of amphibians that occur within U.S. National Parks and to search for any signs that amphibians may be declining. This study, an inventory of amphibian species in Everglades National Park, was conducted during 2000 to 2003. The goals of the project were to create a georeferenced inventory of amphibian species, use new analytical techniques to estimate proportion of sites occupied by each species, look for any signs of amphibian decline (missing species, disease, die-offs, etc.), and to establish a protocol that could be used for future monitoring efforts. Several sampling methods were used to accomplish all of these goals. Visual encounter surveys and anuran vocalization surveys were conducted in all habitats throughout the park to estimate the proportion of sites or proportion of area occupied (PAO) by each amphibian species in each habitat. Opportunistic collections, as well as some drift fence and aquatic funnel trap data were used to augment the visual encounter methods for highly aquatic or cryptic species. A total of 562 visits to 118 sites were conducted for standard sampling alone, and 1788 individual amphibians and 413 reptiles were encountered. Data analysis was done in program PRESENCE to provide PAO estimates for each of the anuran species. All but one of the amphibian species thought to occur in Everglades National Park was detected during this project. That species, the Everglades dwarf siren (Pseudobranchus axanthus belli), is especially cryptic and probably geographically limited in its range in Everglades National Park. The other three species of salamanders and all of the anurans in the park were sampled adequately using standard herpetological sampling methods. PAO estimates were produced for each species of anuran

  13. Preliminary Identification of Urban Park Infrastructure Resilience in Semarang Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzdalifah, Aji Uhfatun; Maryono

    2018-02-01

    Park is one of the spot green infrastructure. There are two major characteristic of park, first Active parks and second passive park. Those of two open spaces have been significant on the fulfillment of urban environment. To maintenance the urban park, it is very importance to identify the characteristic of active and passive park. The identification also needs to fostering stakeholder effort to increase quality of urban park infrastructure. This study aims to explore and assess the characteristic of urban park infrastructure in Semarang City, Central Java. Data collection methods conduct by review formal document, field observation and interview with key government officer. The study founded that urban active parks infrastructure resilience could be defined by; Park Location, Garden Shape, Vegetation, Support Element, Park Function, and Expected Benefit from Park Existence. Moreover, the vegetation aspect and the supporting elements are the most importance urban park infrastructure in Semarang.

  14. California Community Colleges Parking Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Chuck

    In 1990, a representative sample of 25 California community colleges was contacted by telephone to determine their parking policies and practices. The colleges were sampled on the basis of location and size. Study findings included the following: (1) 17 of the colleges reported that they had insufficient numbers of on-campus parking spaces; (2)…

  15. Planning support concept to implementation of sustainable parking development projects in ancient Mediterranean cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikša Jajac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a planning support concept (PSC to implementation of sustainable parking development projects (SPDP in ancient Mediterranean cities. It is conceptualized by the logic of decision support systems and a multicriteria analysis approach. The purpose of the concept is to support setting of implementation priorities for subprojects (construction of new and/or improvement of existing parking within a SPDP. Analysing the existing and a planned state of parking within the city a goal tree is established. Subprojects are defined accordingly. Objectives from the last hierarchy level within the goal tree are used as criteria for assessment of defined subprojects. Representatives of stakeholders provided criteria weights by application of AHP and SAW methods. PROMETHEE II was used for priority ranking and PROMETHEE V ensured a definition of project’s implementation phases. The result of the presented concept is the implementation plan for such projects. The concept is tested on the city of Trogir.

  16. Preferences, benefits, and park visits: a latent class segmentation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemperman, A.D.A.M.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2006-01-01

    This study describes and predicts segments of urban park visitors to support park planning and policy making. A latent class analysis is used to identify segments of park users who differ regarding their preferences for park characteristics, benefits sought in park visits, and sociodemographics.

  17. Sensor-guided parking system for a carlike robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kaichum; Seneviratne, L. D.

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents an automated parking strategy for a car- like mobile robot. The study considers general parking manoeuvre cases for a rectangular robot, including parallel parking. The robot is constructed simulating a conventional car, which is subject to non-holonomic constraints and thus only has two degrees of freedom. The parking space is considered as rectangular, and detected by ultrasonic sensors mounted on the robot. A motion planning algorithm develops a collision-free path for parking, taking into account the non- holonomic constraints acting on the car-like robot. A research into general car maneuvers has been conducted and useful results have been achieved. The motion planning algorithm uses these results, combined with configuration space method, to produce a collision-free path for parallel parking, depending on the parking space detected. A control program in the form of a graphical user interface has been developed for users to operate the system with ease. The strategy is implemented on a modified B12 mobile robot. The strategy presented has the potential for application in automobiles.

  18. Metal assessment in urban park soils in Sao Paulo. 3. Aclimacao Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavese, Arthur C.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Camargo, Sonia P.; Gumiero, Felipe C.; Enzweiler, Jacinta

    2007-01-01

    As part of a project which aims metal assessment in urban park soils from Sao Paulo, in the present paper the concentration of the elements As, Ba, Zn, Sb, Se, Co, Cr, Cu and Pb were determined in surface soil samples (0-5 cm and 0-20 cm) from Aclimacao park of Sao Paulo. Urban soils play an important role in maintaining the environmental quality as they can act as both source and sink for pollutants that can affect human health. Parks and playgrounds are where urban children spend most of their time outdoors and are also where children most frequently come in contact with soil. Aclimacao park is located at the central region of the city, in a residential area. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) were used for metal analysis. The results obtained for Zn were higher than the values considered as reference values for soils in Sao Paulo, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), but lower than the Prevention values. For Ba, Cr, and Sb, the results obtained showed concentration levels higher than Prevention value reported by CETESB. According to CETESB, metal concentration levels above the Prevention value can cause prejudicial alterations in soil and subterranean water quality. For As, in the 0-5 cm samples, the concentration levels were near or above the Intervention value for agricultural area reported by CETESB. (author)

  19. Image-based Fuzzy Parking Control of a Car-like Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Yin Aye

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a novel automatic parking system using an image-based fuzzy controller, where in the reasoning the slope and intercept of the desired target line are used for the inputs, and the steering angle of the robot is generated for the output. The objective of this study is that a robot equipped with a camera detects a rectangular parking frame, which is drawn on the floor, based on image processing. The desired target line to be followed by the robot is generated by using Hough transform from a captured image. The fuzzy controller is designed according to experiments of skilled driver, and the fuzzy rules are tuned and the fuzzy membership functions are optimized by experimentally for output. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated through some experimental results with an actual mobile robot

  20. Climate Change in Voyageurs National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, M. W.

    2011-12-01

    Voyageurs National Park was created in 1975. This beautifully forested and lake-dominated landscape shared between Minnesota and Canada has few roads and must be seen by water. The islands and Kabetogama Peninsula are part of the Canadian Shield, some of the oldest exposed rock in the world. Voyageurs National Park boasts many unique landscape and climatic attributes, and like most mid-latitude regions of the northern hemisphere climate change is in play there. The statistical signals of change in the climate record are evident from both temperature and precipitation measurements. The history of these measurements goes back over 100 years. Additionally, studies and measurements of the lakes and general ecosystem already show some consequences of these climate changes. Mean temperature measurements are generally warmer than they once were, most notably in the winter season. Minimum temperatures have changed more than maximum temperatures. Precipitation has trended upward, but has also changed in character with greater frequency and contribution from thunderstorm rainfalls across the park. In addition variability in annual precipitation has become more amplified, as the disparity between wet and dry years has grown wider. Some changes are already in evidence in terms of bird migration patterns, earlier lake ice-out dates, warmer water temperatures with more algal blooms, decline in lake clarity, and somewhat longer frost-free seasons. Climate change will continue to have impacts on Voyageurs National Park, and likely other national parks across the nation. Furthermore scientists may find that the study, presentation, and discussion about climate impacts on our national parks is a particularly engaging way to educate citizens and improve climate literacy as we contemplate what adaptation and mitigation policies should be enacted to preserve the quality of our national parks for future generations.

  1. The transboundary non-renewable Nubian Aquifer System of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan: classical groundwater questions and parsimonious hydrogeologic analysis and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Clifford I.; Soliman, Safaa M.

    2014-03-01

    Parsimonious groundwater modeling provides insight into hydrogeologic functioning of the Nubian Aquifer System (NAS), the world's largest non-renewable groundwater system (belonging to Chad, Egypt, Libya, and Sudan). Classical groundwater-resource issues exist (magnitude and lateral extent of drawdown near pumping centers) with joint international management questions regarding transboundary drawdown. Much of NAS is thick, containing a large volume of high-quality groundwater, but receives insignificant recharge, so water-resource availability is time-limited. Informative aquifer data are lacking regarding large-scale response, providing only local-scale information near pumps. Proxy data provide primary underpinning for understanding regional response: Holocene water-table decline from the previous pluvial period, after thousands of years, results in current oasis/sabkha locations where the water table still intersects the ground. Depletion is found to be controlled by two regional parameters, hydraulic diffusivity and vertical anisotropy of permeability. Secondary data that provide insight are drawdowns near pumps and isotope-groundwater ages (million-year-old groundwaters in Egypt). The resultant strong simply structured three-dimensional model representation captures the essence of NAS regional groundwater-flow behavior. Model forecasts inform resource management that transboundary drawdown will likely be minimal—a nonissue—whereas drawdown within pumping centers may become excessive, requiring alternative extraction schemes; correspondingly, significant water-table drawdown may occur in pumping centers co-located with oases, causing oasis loss and environmental impacts.

  2. Metal concentration in urban park soils of Sao Paulo 2. Buenos AiresPark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gumiero, Felipe C.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Camargo, Sonia P.; Pavese, Arthur; Sigolo, Joel B.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a project which aims metal concentration assessment in urban park soils of Sao Paulo, in the present paper the concentration of the elements As, Ba, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn were determined in surface soil samples (0-5 cm and 0-20 cm) from Buenos Aires park of Sao Paulo. This park is located in central region of the city, and is surrounded by avenues and streets, with different traffic volumes. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-ray Fluorescence (FRX) were used for metal analysis. Preliminary results showed concentration levels of the analyzed elements higher than the values considered as reference values for soils in Sao Paulo, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB). These results suggest that these elements have anthropogenic origin and indicate a potential risk for soil quality. (author)

  3. ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARK - A TOOL FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUGNAR NICOLETA GEORGETA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Local communities embracing the concept of Eco-industrial park are looking for some additional benefits for all the interested parties – both public and private: higher economic efficiency, the increase of competitivity by applying last minute technologies, generation of additional revenues through positive regulations at the community level, the creation of jobs, solving the conflict between economy and environment, diminishing the demand on the county infrastructure, decreasing the effects of pollution, using energy from regenerating sources and replacement materials. Communities and enterprises creating Eco-industrial parks will have common grounds for industrial development, which is much more competitive, more efficient and much cleaner than traditional industrial parks. Moreover, the new business niches will be open to recruitment or new incubators. Eco-industrial parks represent a special category compared to industrial parks, a category which is different from the classical ones due to the fact that they are designed in such a way so that they promote the collaboration between companies in order to reuse recyclable materials and green energy sources. A long-term vision must reflect the focus on the creation of collaboration networks between firms and the fact that an Eco-industrial park should be a business community, not only a mathematical sum of companies located in the same geographical area. The quality, continuity and interconnection of economic flows within the firms of an Eco-industrial park are important characteristics for the success of Eco-industrial networks. The following discussion tackles the way in which an Eco-industrial park is set-up: creating and implementing an Eco-industrial park in accordance with the principles of circular economy or transforming an already existing industrial park into an Eco- industrial park. The quality, the continuity, the number of interconnected firms, the flows of resources and the

  4. Sound and noise in urban parks

    OpenAIRE

    António P. O. Carvalho; Ricardo A. F. Cleto

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this work is to study the soundscape of city gardens and urban parks using a sample of ten sites in Oporto, Portugal to analyze their soundscape through the acoustic characterization of the park's exterior and interior noise levels (LAeq, LA10, LA50 and LA90) and by a socio-acoustic survey to the visitors to check their perception of acoustic quality. The measurements showed gardens/parks with interior noise levels from 47 to 61 dB(A) (with exterior noise levels up to 67 dB(A...

  5. Active Use of Parks in Flanders (Belgium: An Exploratory Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linde Van Hecke

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Parks have the potential to increase physical activity at the community level by providing opportunities to be active. In order to inform interventions to promote physical activity in parks, insight is needed concerning park user characteristics, the activity level of park users, the types of activities performed and associations between park areas and temporal variables with observed physical activity levels. Park user characteristics (sex, age, ethnicity and activity level were recorded within pre-defined park areas in two parks in Ghent (Belgium using the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC. Most park users were male, adult, and engaged in vigorous-intensity physical activity (48%. Most popular activities were biking (38%, sitting (23% and walking (15%; accordingly, trails were used most and had the highest levels of physical activity compared to other park areas. Parks were used least frequently in the morning, during the weekend and by seniors. Therefore, active park use during morning periods, on weekend days and by seniors should be promoted and urban planners should consider that different park areas can possibly elicit varying activity levels among park users.

  6. The state of transboundary air pollution: 1989 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This sixth volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains the documents reviewed and approved for publication at the seventh session of the Executive Body held at Geneva from 21 to 24 November 1989. Part one is the annual review of strategies and policies for air pollution abatement. Country by country, recent legislative and regulatory developments are summarized, including ambient-air quality standards, fuel-quality standards, emission standards, as well as economic instruments for air pollution abatement. Part two is an executive summary of the 1988 forest damage survey in Europe, carried out under the International Co-operative Programme for Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests which was established by the Executive Body for the Convention in 1985. A total of 25 countries participated in the survey, conducted in accordance with common guidelines laid down in an ECE manual on methodologies and criteria for harmonized sampling, assessment, monitoring and analysis of the effects of air pollution on forests. Parts three and four describe the effects of mercury and some other heavy metals related to the long-range atmospheric transport of pollution. The section on mercury describes the environmental effects and the causes of mercury pollution in air and atmospheric deposition, including its sources and its transport from forest soils into fresh water and aquatic organisms. The section dealing with other heavy metals (such as asbestos, cadmium and lead) describes the process of atmospheric transport and deposition, the effects on forest ecosystems, ground water, surface water and agricultural products. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. Regulating on-street parking - evidence from Danish data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Edith; Mulalic, Ismir; Pilegaard, Ninette

    to prices for parking in the area of interest. In this paper the focus is on the demand elasticity for parking. Although the parking issues are treated in the literature the subject still deserves attention and is underresearched and there is hardly any empirical work. One exception is van Ommeren et al......) and these are increasing in the occupancy rate. Taking these two effects into account implies that the demand for parking will be more price elastic when the occupancy rate is relatively low (the search cost are low) whereas it will be less price elastic when the occupancy rate is relatively high (increasing the price...... in Copenhagen only react slightly to increases in parking fee (DKK/hour)....

  8. Analysis of Depedences between Using of Parking Places and Chosen Parameters of Weather on the Example of Underground Parking in Cracow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkitny, Waldemar

    2017-12-01

    The development of civilization is connected with the development of cities. This is particularly visible in high developed countries. Dynamic increase of the population and enlarging its grounds causes many problems. One of the problem, which is the most difficult to solve, is the problem of parking in cities as well as the problem of increasing number of cars, particularly personal cars. This problem results from several main reasons: 1. The historical form of cities, 2. Tendencies to building in city centres the main administrative centres, departments, offices, schools, universities, shopping centres etc., 3. Tendencies to transfering residences from cities to villages situated near cities. This phenomenon occurs especially in the well-off part of the society. It generates the additional traffic of personal cars and the growth of the demand on parking places. 4. Increasing price accessibility of personal cars. Observations taken by the author of the paper show that vehicles traffic in a city grows up when the weather get worse. There was submitted a proposition that this will influence on the extent of utilization of car parks and zones of paid parking in a city. The aim of the investigation was checking the dependence between the chosen weather parameters, e.g. temperature, falls, cloudiness, and the utilization of parking places. Underground car park in Cracow was chosen as the object of investigations. Cracow is one of the largest cities in Poland. About 760000 persons live there, and in Cracow Agglomeration about 1.4 million of persons. There are great parking problems in the city. Because of that the zones of paid parking have been introduced, where can be parked about 29000 personal cars. The analysed car park is the new object. It is administered by the company, which belong to the town. It may be attractive for drivers because of its position, about 1 km from Old Town Market. However, there exist another car parks, which are laid even nearer, but they

  9. Study on environmental friendly national park management plan: concentrated on the support plan for national park residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Ha; Byun, Byoung Seol; Chung, Hoe Seong; Kim, Mi Sook; Kim, Jeong Won; Joo, Yong Joon [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    National parks in Korea have been selected for preserving beautiful sceneries of nature or diversity of organisms. Today as the increase of population and industrialization has caused the increase of natural resource demand, it is difficult to preserve all ecosystems equally. Therefore the national park system has established to prevent the damage to an ecosystem or to preserve a region that can be damaged by selecting a valuable area. The objective of this study is to recommend an efficient support plan for national park residents, to induce their activities to be environmental friendly and to preserve an ecosystem in a national park. To achieve this, the similar systems, laws and cases in the advanced countries have compared and reviewed and a support plan for residents appropriate for Korean situation has discussed. 41 refs., 4 figs., 33 tabs.

  10. Evaluation of environmental risks associated with dumping of hydrocarbons into the sea: Application in Forillon National Park, Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boivin, D. J.; El-Sabh, M. I.; Quenneville, R.; Lauzier, D.; Chasse, R.

    1996-01-01

    A methodology to evaluate the environmental risk of marine oil spills was described. The method proposed provides the ability to classify homogeneous shoreline zones based on geomorphology and granulometry of the sediments in respect of the kinetic energy of the repeating waves, thus identifying shoreline zones where autocleaning by wave action is slow, and marking them for special action. By using the method proposed here, several scenarios of high risks for Forillon National Park were identified which led to the preparation of strategies to protect the Park's natural resources and biodiversity. 18 refs., 8 tabs., 5 figs

  11. A city park on top of shops and a dike

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veelen, P.C.; Voorendt, M.Z.; van der Zwet, C; Kothuis, Baukje; Kok, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    The Roof Park ('Dakpark’) is an elevated park on a former railway yard in the Delfshaven quarter in Rotterdam. The park is located on top of the roof of a new shopping centre, which includes a parking garage (hence its name, ‘dak’ means ‘roof’). The park is the

  12. Social behaviour of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) in a public off-leash dog park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howse, Melissa S; Anderson, Rita E; Walsh, Carolyn J

    2018-03-13

    This study examines the activity budgets and social behaviours initiated and received by 69 focal dogs in an off-leash dog park for 400 s after entry, a time of high activity about which little is known. Using motivationally-neutral labels for social behaviour categories, we describe the frequency of behaviours, and correlations among them. We then examine these relationships in the context of proposed functions for some behaviours in dogs, in terms of information gathering and communication, including visual and tactile signalling. Time spent with other dogs decreased rapidly over the visit, and much of this early interaction involved greeting the park newcomer. Snout-muzzle contact behaviours were ubiquitous, while other behaviours were rarely observed, including aggressive behaviours. Correlations among certain non-contact behaviours initiated and received by focal dogs are consistent with their function as visual signals that may influence the continuation and form of social interactions, and their possible role in social mimicry (i.e., play bow and pull-rear away). Age, sex, and number of dogs present in the park influenced specific aspects of dogs' activity budgets, and a few behaviours. This ethological study provides fundamental data on dog social behaviour in dog parks, about which surprisingly little has been published. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Relevance of Industrial and Science Parks to Industrial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here, we reviewed the impact of Industrial and Science Parks on industrial ... and stimulate the development of small and medium size enterprises as a base for ... In order to achieve these, emphasis should be on establishing Industrial and ... transfer, industrial park, Science Park, industrial development, innovation, ...

  14. Modelling Space Appropriation in Public Parks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostermann, F.O.; Timpf, S.; Wachowicz, Monica; Bodum, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Sustainable park management encompasses the requirement to provide equal opportunities for access and usage of the park, regardless of age, gender or nationality of the visitors. It thereby presents opportunities as well as problems for today’s heterogeneous global cities. The research presented

  15. Freshwater fishes of Tsitsikamma National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Russell

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the distribution and relative abundance of freshwater fishes in the Tsitsikamma National Park. Fish assemblages in six river systems were sampled in 2001, with a total of 323 fish from eight species recorded. Indigenous fish collected included four freshwater species (Pseudobarbus afer, Pseudobarbus tenuis, Sandelia capensis, Anguilla mossambica, three estuarine species (Monodactylus falciformis, Caffrogobius gilchristi, Myxus capensis, and one alien (Micropterus salmoides. One additional indigenous species (Galaxias zebratus and two aliens (Salmo trutta, Oncorhynchus mykiss could potentially occur within the park. The topography and locality of the park presents a unique opportunity to meaningfully conserve the endangered P. tenuis as well as other fish characteristic of the eastern reaches of the Cape Floristic Region. Management action is required to minimise opportunities for further establishment and spread of alien fish species and to conserve indigenous fish assemblages within the park.

  16. E-VPMS 1.0: Enhanced Vehicle Parking Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shian Lim Yeu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to lack of vehicle parking slot in front of Block Q, Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering (FKEE, UTHM, the enhanced vehicle parking monitoring system (E-VPMS 1.0 is developed to identify parking slots available in the parking area as well as to detect double parking problem. Once this system is implemented, time consume for searching available parking slots as well as double parking problem that may cause unwanted accident can be reduced. In the development of E-VPMS 1.0 system, whole system are designed and developed in three different phases; which are video processing phase, login and registration phase, and webview development phase. In video processing phase, video sources are processed through few video processing function. In login and registration phase, series of webpage function have been created that accessible in both smartphone and laptop. While, in webview development phase, webview function have been developed and through this function, content of E-VPMS 1.0 system can be displayed directly via web browser for both smartphone and laptop. Through E-VPMS 1.0, availability parking slots can be checked by registered user through input recorded video before entering the specific parking area. Other than that, performance analysis in terms of numbers of registered user and parking slot availability at different situations such as during peak event or normal event can be managed and controlled by admin through visualisation data method.

  17. Carbon reduction potentials of China's industrial parks: A case study of Suzhou Industry Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hongsheng; Lei, Yue; Wang, Haikun; Liu, Miaomiao; Yang, Jie; Bi, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Industrial parks are the economic engines for many China regions, but they also consume a great deal of energy and emit greenhouse gases. However, few empirical studies have examined these special communities. We selected SIP (Suzhou Industrial Park) as a case study. Carbon emissions from SIP were accounted from the consumption perspective to analyze their characteristics. Results showed total carbon emissions grew 85.2% from 2005 to 2010, and carbon intensity (carbon emissions per unit of GDP (gross domestic product)) decreased by 9%. Scenario analysis was then used to depict emissions trajectories under three different pathways. The total carbon emissions and per capita carbon emissions for SIP will undoubtedly increase in the near future under a business-as-usual scenario, improved-policy scenario, and low-carbon scenario; the carbon intensity will decrease by 38% under low-carbon scenario, but it will still be difficult to reach the national mitigation target. In addition, geographic-boundary-based accounting methodology was applied for comparison analysis, carbon emissions show a large gap of 42.4–65.1% from 2005 to 2010, due to failure to account for cross-boundary emissions from imported electricity. Therefore, comprehensive analysis from a consumption perspective is necessary to provide a fair and comprehensive tool for China's local decision-makers to evaluate carbon mitigation potentials. - Highlights: ► Carbon reduction potentials of industrial parks, which are important communities in China, were analyzed. ► Comprehensive carbon emission inventories were developed for a China's industrial park. ► Policies were recommended for industrial parks to achieve low-carbon development target. ► Consumption-based emission inventory is necessary for local government to evaluate carbon reduction potentials

  18. The Myth of "Rosa Parks the Tired." Teaching about Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Herbert

    1993-01-01

    Retells the story of Rosa Parks and the Montgomery (Alabama) bus boycott to reflect more accurately the cultural and historical background of the boycott and the conscious decision made by Mrs. Parks. Accurate examination of the story actually enhances a child's ability to identify with the issues and the protagonists. (SLD)

  19. The external cruising costs of parking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inci, E.; van Ommeren, J.N.; Kobus, Martijn

    2017-01-01

    Existing work emphasizes the importance of traffic congestion externalities, but typically ignores cruising-for-parking externalities. We estimate the marginal external cruising costs of parking—that is, the time costs that an additional parked car imposes on drivers by inducing them to cruise for

  20. Social structure of lions (Panthera leo) is affected by management in Pendjari Biosphere Reserve, Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogbohossou, Etotépé A; Bauer, Hans; Loveridge, Andrew; Funston, Paul J; De Snoo, Geert R; Sinsin, Brice; De Iongh, Hans H

    2014-01-01

    Lion populations have undergone a severe decline in West Africa. As baseline for conservation management, we assessed the group structure of lions in the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve in Benin. This reserve, composed of one National Park and two Hunting Zones, is part of the WAP transboundary complex of protected areas. Overall mean group size was 2.6±1.7 individuals (n = 296), it was significantly higher in the National Park (2.7±1.7, n = 168) than in the Hunting Zones (2.2±1.5, n = 128). Overall adult sex ratio was even, but significantly biased towards females (0.67) in the National Park and towards males (1.67) in the Hunting Zones. Our results suggest that the Pendjari lion population is affected by perturbations, such as trophy hunting.

  1. 40 CFR 52.1135 - Regulation for parking freeze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... facility. (3) The phrase commercial parking space means a space used for parking a vehicle in a commercial..., garage, building or structure, or combination or portion thereof, on or in which motor vehicles are..., the total quantity of commercial parking spaces available for use at the same amounts as were...

  2. The choice of Park & Ride Facilities: an analysis using a context-dependent hierarchical choice experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, R.E.C.M. van der; Molin, E.J.E.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Park and Ride facilities have been proposed in several countries to alleviate the accessibility problems in cities. Despite growing accessibility problems, these facilities do not seem to attract the expected number of car drivers and are under-used. In an attempt to measure consumer evaluations of

  3. The choice of park & ride facilities : an analysis using a context-dependent hierarchical choice experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, D.M.; vd Heijden, R.E.C.M.; Molin, E.J.E.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Park and Ride facilities have been proposed in several countries to alleviate the accessibility problems in cities. Despite growing accessibility problems, these facilities do not seem to attract the expected number of car drivers and are under-used. In an attempt to measure consumer evaluations of

  4. 8th Annual report 1999. UN ECE convention on long-range transboundary air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleemola, S.; Forsius, M. [eds.

    1999-07-01

    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the Effects Monitoring Strategy under the UN ECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in the external environment. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 1998/99 including: - a short summary of previous data assessments - a short status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and the present geographical coverage of the monitoring network - a documentation of the scientific strategies to carry out data assessment on two priority topics: - assessment of heavy metal pools and fluxes - assessment of cause-effect relationships for understorey vegetation - a description of the WATBAL-model for estimating monthly water balance components, including soil water fluxes. (orig.)

  5. Landslides susceptibility mapping at Gunung Ciremai National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizin; Nur, Bambang Azis

    2018-02-01

    In addition to agriculture, tourism became one of primary economic income for communities around Mount Ciremai, West, Java. Unfortunately, the landscape of West Java has many potential causes to disasters, mainly landslides. Mapping of disaster susceptibility area is needed as a consideration of tourism planning. The study was conducted in Gunung Ciremai National Park, West Java. This paper propose a methodology to map landslides susceptibilities based on spatial data. Using Geographic Information System tools, several environmental parameters such as slope, land use, elevation, and lithology are scored to build a landslide susceptibility map. Then, susceptibility map is overlaid with Utilization Zone.

  6. Private Sector Thinking Saves Park U.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckon, Donald; Gibb, John

    2000-01-01

    Recounts the restructuring and resulting survival of Park University (Missouri) over the last decade. A process of evaluating the university's competitive strategy resulted in changes in tuition pricing; development of the Park School of Distance Learning, which serves primarily military installations; minority student marketing; and development…

  7. Mammalian fauna of the Temessos National Park, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna De Marinis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The National Park of Termessos, Southern Turkey, is one of the Turkey’s biggest national park not only with its archeological richness but also with its great natural wild life. We provided a checklist of the mammalian fauna of the park on the base of direct observations, interviews and a comparative analysis of the available literature. Sixteen species have been reported in the park. Hedgehogs, hares, porcupines and Persian squirrels and, among flying mammals, Egyptian rousette and Mouse-eared bat have been recorded. Carnivores are represented by Golden jackal, Wolf, Red fox, Stone marten, Badger, Otter and Wild cat. Very recently (2005 the presence of the Caracal in the park has been confirmed, whereas no signs of the presence of the Lynx were detected. The last Anatolian leopards seems to have definitively disappeared from the region. The occurrence in the area of striped hyaenas and brown bears is documented up to a few decades ago. The Park is regarded as the only geographical range in the whole world where the European or Common fallow deer has persisted as a native form. Other ungulates too, such as Wild goat and Wild boar are dispersed within the boundary of the park. Management implications are discussed.

  8. Scale Modelling of Nocturnal Cooling in Urban Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spronken-Smith, R. A.; Oke, T. R.

    Scale modelling is used to determine the relative contribution of heat transfer processes to the nocturnal cooling of urban parks and the characteristic temporal and spatial variation of surface temperature. Validation is achieved using a hardware model-to-numerical model-to-field observation chain of comparisons. For the calm case, modelling shows that urban-park differences of sky view factor (s) and thermal admittance () are the relevant properties governing the park cool island (PCI) effect. Reduction in sky view factor by buildings and trees decreases the drain of longwave radiation from the surface to the sky. Thus park areas near the perimeter where there may be a line of buildings or trees, or even sites within a park containing tree clumps or individual trees, generally cool less than open areas. The edge effect applies within distances of about 2.2 to 3.5 times the height of the border obstruction, i.e., to have any part of the park cooling at the maximum rate a square park must be at least twice these dimensions in width. Although the central areas of parks larger than this will experience greater cooling they will accumulate a larger volume of cold air that may make it possible for them to initiate a thermal circulation and extend the influence of the park into the surrounding city. Given real world values of s and it seems likely that radiation and conduction play almost equal roles in nocturnal PCI development. Evaporation is not a significant cooling mechanism in the nocturnal calm case but by day it is probably critical in establishing a PCI by sunset. It is likely that conditions that favour PCI by day (tree shade, soil wetness) retard PCI growth at night. The present work, which only deals with PCI growth, cannot predict which type of park will be coolest at night. Complete specification of nocturnal PCI magnitude requires knowledge of the PCI at sunset, and this depends on daytime energetics.

  9. Finding the Value of Urban Parking : An Analysis of the Impacts of Smart Parking Systems on Congestion and Land Values in Downtown Houston, Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    For this report, researchers have examined smart parking, which is a parking management tool that uses various technologies to aid drivers in efficiently locating and paying for available parking. Smart parking systems allow drivers to know where the...

  10. Transboundary water pollution management
    Lessons learned from river basin management in China, Europe and the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Yu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transboundary water pollution management is a challenge for China at this moment in time. By introducing relevant legal arrangements, we mainly discuss the competent authorities, the legal instruments and dispute settlement procedures concerning this issue in China. The experiences from international, EU and Dutch water law gives us a comparative perspective. As a conclusion, we agree that China has set up a basic legal system to solve the problem, but a greater effort can still be made, for instance including more public opinion, clearly defining the competent authorities, and enacting more legislation. At the same time, the Chinese experience, such as a new model for a monitoring system and a target responsibility system, also provides the rest of the world with a new approach.

  11. Park7 expression influences myotube size and myosin expression in muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Yu

    Full Text Available Callipyge sheep exhibit postnatal muscle hypertrophy due to the up-regulation of DLK1 and/or RTL1. The up-regulation of PARK7 was identified in hypertrophied muscles by microarray analysis and further validated by quantitative PCR. The expression of PARK7 in hypertrophied muscle of callipyge lambs was confirmed to be up-regulated at the protein level. PARK7 was previously identified to positively regulate PI3K/AKT pathway by suppressing the phosphatase activity of PTEN in mouse fibroblasts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of PARK7 in muscle growth and protein accretion in response to IGF1. Primary myoblasts isolated from Park7 (+/+ and Park7 (-/- mice were used to examine the effect of differential expression of Park7. The Park7 (+/+ myotubes had significantly larger diameters and more total sarcomeric myosin expression than Park7 (-/- myotubes. IGF1 treatment increased the mRNA abundance of Myh4, Myh7 and Myh8 between 20-40% in Park7 (+/+ myotubes relative to Park7 (-/-. The level of AKT phosphorylation was increased in Park7 (+/+ myotubes at all levels of IGF1 supplementation. After removal of IGF1, the Park7 (+/+ myotubes maintained higher AKT phosphorylation through 3 hours. PARK7 positively regulates the PI3K/AKT pathway by inhibition of PTEN phosphatase activity in skeletal muscle. The increased PARK7 expression can increase protein synthesis and result in myotube hypertrophy. These results support the hypothesis that elevated expression of PARK7 in callipyge muscle would increase levels of AKT activity to cause hypertrophy in response to the normal IGF1 signaling in rapidly growing lambs. Increasing expression of PARK7 could be a novel mechanism to increase protein accretion and muscle growth in livestock or help improve muscle mass with disease or aging.

  12. Parking problems in Abu Dhabi, UAE toward an intelligent parking management system “ADIP: Abu Dhabi Intelligent Parking”

    OpenAIRE

    Alkheder, Sharaf A.; Al Rajab, Murad M.; Alzoubi, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Car parking is a serious problem in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries in general and in United Arab Emirates (UAE) in particular. This problem has been associated with the exceptional growth in the number of cars, buses, trucks, and other modes of transportation over the past few decades. In Abu Dhabi (the capital city of UAE), finding a parking at some locations is a real challenge due to the lack of available parking slots in the city. In 2009, in order to organize the randomness in ...

  13. The First National Study of Neighborhood Parks: Implications for Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Deborah A; Han, Bing; Nagel, Catherine J; Harnik, Peter; McKenzie, Thomas L; Evenson, Kelly R; Marsh, Terry; Williamson, Stephanie; Vaughan, Christine; Katta, Sweatha

    2016-10-01

    An extensive infrastructure of neighborhood parks supports leisure time physical activity in most U.S. cities; yet, most Americans do not meet national guidelines for physical activity. Neighborhood parks have never been assessed nationally to identify their role in physical activity. Using a stratified multistage sampling strategy, a representative sample of 174 neighborhood parks in 25 major cities (population >100,000) across the U.S. was selected. Park use, park-based physical activity, and park conditions were observed during a typical week using systematic direct observation during spring/summer of 2014. Park administrators were interviewed to assess policies and practices. Data were analyzed in 2014-2015 using repeated-measure negative binomial regressions to estimate weekly park use and park-based physical activity. Nationwide, the average neighborhood park of 8.8 acres averaged 20 users/hour or an estimated 1,533 person hours of weekly use. Walking loops and gymnasia each generated 221 hours/week of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Seniors represented 4% of park users, but 20% of the general population. Parks were used less in low-income than in high-income neighborhoods, largely explained by fewer supervised activities and marketing/outreach efforts. Programming and marketing were associated with 37% and 63% more hours of moderate to vigorous physical activity/week in parks, respectively. The findings establish national benchmarks for park use, which can guide future park investments and management practices to improve population health. Offering more programming, using marketing tools like banners and posters, and installing facilities like walking loops, may help currently underutilized parks increase population physical activity. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of park prescriptions with and without group visits to parks on stress reduction in low-income parents: SHINE randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razani, Nooshin; Morshed, Saam; Kohn, Michael A; Wells, Nancy M; Thompson, Doug; Alqassari, Maoya; Agodi, Amaka; Rutherford, George W

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to nature may reduce stress in low-income parents. This prospective randomized trial compares the effect of a physician's counseling about nature with or without facilitated group outings on stress and other outcomes among low-income parents. Parents of patients aged 4-18 years at a clinic serving low-income families were randomized to a supported park prescription versus independent park prescription in a 2:1 ratio. Parents in both groups received physician counseling about nature, maps of local parks, a journal, and pedometer. The supported group received additional phone and text reminders to attend three weekly family nature outings with free transportation, food, and programming. Outcomes measured in parents at baseline, one month and three months post-enrollment included: stress (using the 40-point Perceived Stress Scale [PSS10]); park visits per week (self-report and journaling); loneliness (modified UCLA-Loneliness Scale); physical activity (self-report, journaling, pedometry); physiologic stress (salivary cortisol); and nature affinity (validated scale). We enrolled 78 parents, 50 in the supported and 28 in the independent group. One-month follow-up was available for 60 (77%) participants and three-month follow up for 65 (83%). Overall stress decreased by 1.71 points (95% CI, -3.15, -0.26). The improvement in stress did not differ significantly by group assignment, although the independent group had more park visits per week (mean difference 1.75; 95% CI [0.46, 3.04], p = 0.0085). In multivariable analysis, each unit increase in park visits per week was associated with a significant and incremental decrease in stress (change in PSS10-0.53; 95% CI [-0.89, -0.16]; p = 0.005) at three months. While we were unable to demonstrate the additional benefit of group park visits, we observed an overall decrease in parental stress both overall and as a function of numbers of park visits per week. Paradoxically the park prescription without group park visits

  15. Effect of park prescriptions with and without group visits to parks on stress reduction in low-income parents: SHINE randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Razani

    Full Text Available Exposure to nature may reduce stress in low-income parents. This prospective randomized trial compares the effect of a physician's counseling about nature with or without facilitated group outings on stress and other outcomes among low-income parents.Parents of patients aged 4-18 years at a clinic serving low-income families were randomized to a supported park prescription versus independent park prescription in a 2:1 ratio. Parents in both groups received physician counseling about nature, maps of local parks, a journal, and pedometer. The supported group received additional phone and text reminders to attend three weekly family nature outings with free transportation, food, and programming. Outcomes measured in parents at baseline, one month and three months post-enrollment included: stress (using the 40-point Perceived Stress Scale [PSS10]; park visits per week (self-report and journaling; loneliness (modified UCLA-Loneliness Scale; physical activity (self-report, journaling, pedometry; physiologic stress (salivary cortisol; and nature affinity (validated scale.We enrolled 78 parents, 50 in the supported and 28 in the independent group. One-month follow-up was available for 60 (77% participants and three-month follow up for 65 (83%. Overall stress decreased by 1.71 points (95% CI, -3.15, -0.26. The improvement in stress did not differ significantly by group assignment, although the independent group had more park visits per week (mean difference 1.75; 95% CI [0.46, 3.04], p = 0.0085. In multivariable analysis, each unit increase in park visits per week was associated with a significant and incremental decrease in stress (change in PSS10-0.53; 95% CI [-0.89, -0.16]; p = 0.005 at three months.While we were unable to demonstrate the additional benefit of group park visits, we observed an overall decrease in parental stress both overall and as a function of numbers of park visits per week. Paradoxically the park prescription without group park

  16. Analysis of the Touristic Valorization of Maksimir Park in Zagreb (Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nika Dolenc

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The modern pace of life imposes new needs and demands of the tourist market as well as the need for rest and recreation in areas of preserved nature. Maksimir Park dates from the 19th century, and since 1964, it has been protected as a monument of park architecture. Today, the park is the space for recreation and relaxation with cultural monuments and natural heritage. They make a strong and attractive potential factor that has been underused in the tourist offer of the City of Zagreb. The paper examines the attractiveness of the park for visitors, whilst also making the comparison with some of the parks of London (Hyde Park, Regent’s Park, Kew Gardens. The main goal of this paper is to analyze the existing resources of the park and to identify their weaknesses in order to complement and enhance the offer of the park as a tourist attraction. The methodology is based on the analysis of material of the origin and the development of Maksimir Park, the evaluation survey conducted in 2009 and 2010 in the park area (case study and SWOT analysis of the significant resource for tourism development of the park. The results show that Maksimir Park contains many resources, but they are not recognized as a tourist attraction of Zagreb. Tourist services in the park are not harmonized with visitors’ needs and should be complemented with traditional and cultural events, better cuisine, education about resources of the park and improved range of activities throughout the year.

  17. Impact of the Syrian refugee crisis on land use and transboundary freshwater resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Marc François; Yoon, Jim; Gorelick, Steven M; Avisse, Nicolas; Tilmant, Amaury

    2016-12-27

    Since 2013, hundreds of thousands of refugees have migrated southward to Jordan to escape the Syrian civil war that began in mid-2011. Evaluating impacts of conflict and migration on land use and transboundary water resources in an active war zone remains a challenge. However, spatial and statistical analyses of satellite imagery for the recent period of Syrian refugee mass migration provide evidence of rapid changes in land use, water use, and water management in the Yarmouk-Jordan river watershed shared by Syria, Jordan, and Israel. Conflict and consequent migration caused ∼50% decreases in both irrigated agriculture in Syria and retention of winter rainfall in Syrian dams, which gave rise to unexpected additional stream flow to downstream Jordan during the refugee migration period. Comparing premigration and postmigration periods, Syrian abandonment of irrigated agriculture accounts for half of the stream flow increase, with the other half attributable to recovery from a severe drought. Despite this increase, the Yarmouk River flow into Jordan is still substantially below the volume that was expected by Jordan under the 1953, 1987, and 2001 bilateral agreements with Syria.

  18. 77 FR 56117 - Special Regulations, Areas of the National Park System; Mammoth Cave National Park, Bicycle Routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ...: Significant health benefits can be derived from bicycling and trail users at the park would benefit from..., foster mental and physical health, and promote learning and personal growth. The health benefits derived... Parks'' initiative of the NPS and the President's ``America's Great Outdoors'' initiative. White Oak...

  19. Architectural heritage or theme park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignasi Solà-Morales

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The growing parallelism between the perception and the consumer use of theme parks and architectural heritage gives rise to a reflection about the fact that the architectural object has been turned into a museum piece, stripped  of its original value and its initial cultural substance to become images exposed to multiple gazes, thus producing what the author calis the "Theme Park effect", with consequences on protected architecture.

  20. Inventory of current environmental monitoring projects in the US-Canadian transboundary region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, C.S.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Chapman, E.G.

    1986-05-01

    This document presents the results of a study commissioned to survey and summarize major environmental monitoring projects in the US-Canadian transboundary region. Projects with field sites located within 400 km (250 mi) of the border and active after 1980 were reviewed. The types of projects included: ambient air-quality monitoring, ambient water-quality monitoring, deposition monitoring, forest/vegetation monitoring and research, soil studies, and ecosystem studies. Ecosystem studies included projects involving the measurement of parameters from more than one monitoring category (e.g., studies that measured both water and soil chemistry). Individual descriptions were formulated for 184 projects meeting the spatial and temporal criteria. Descriptions included the official title for the project, its common abbreviation, program emphasis, monitoring site locations, time period conducted, parameters measured, protocols employed, frequency of sample collection, data storage information, and the principal contact for the project. A summary inventory subdivided according to the six monitoring categories was prepared using a computerized data management system. Information on major centralized data bases in the field of environmental monitoring was also obtained, and summary descriptions were prepared. The inventory and data base descriptions are presented in appendices to this document.